WorldWideScience

Sample records for actively evaluating effectiveness

  1. Evaluating the effectiveness of active vehicle safety systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Eunbi; Oh, Cheol

    2017-03-01

    Advanced vehicle safety systems have been widely introduced in transportation systems and are expected to enhance traffic safety. However, these technologies mainly focus on assisting individual vehicles that are equipped with them, and less effort has been made to identify the effect of vehicular technologies on the traffic stream. This study proposed a methodology to assess the effectiveness of active vehicle safety systems (AVSSs), which represent a promising technology to prevent traffic crashes and mitigate injury severity. The proposed AVSS consists of longitudinal and lateral vehicle control systems, which corresponds to the Level 2 vehicle automation presented by the National Highway Safety Administration (NHTSA). The effectiveness evaluation for the proposed technology was conducted in terms of crash potential reduction and congestion mitigation. A microscopic traffic simulator, VISSIM, was used to simulate freeway traffic stream and collect vehicle-maneuvering data. In addition, an external application program interface, VISSIM's COM-interface, was used to implement the AVSS. A surrogate safety assessment model (SSAM) was used to derive indirect safety measures to evaluate the effectiveness of the AVSS. A 16.7-km freeway stretch between the Nakdong and Seonsan interchanges on Korean freeway 45 was selected for the simulation experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of AVSS. A total of five simulation runs for each evaluation scenario were conducted. For the non-incident conditions, the rear-end and lane-change conflicts were reduced by 78.8% and 17.3%, respectively, under the level of service (LOS) D traffic conditions. In addition, the average delay was reduced by 55.5%. However, the system's effectiveness was weakened in the LOS A-C categories. Under incident traffic conditions, the number of rear-end conflicts was reduced by approximately 9.7%. Vehicle delays were reduced by approximately 43.9% with 100% of market penetration rate (MPR). These results

  2. Study on how to evaluate the effectiveness of maintenance activities for giant complex plant system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Takayuki

    2010-01-01

    If we try to check the effectiveness of maintenance activities in nuclear power plant, it is necessary to evaluate plant performance from the viewpoint of nuclear safety and economy. So, in this paper, after the relation among maintenance optimization, maintenance performance targets, maintenance effectiveness indicator and maintenance key parameters important to nuclear safety and economy was made clear, a method to evaluate the effectiveness of maintenance activities was discussed. As a result of consideration, it was concluded that the maintenance effectiveness indicator proposed in this paper can evaluate maintenance effectiveness and can show the direction of improving existing maintenance program because the relation with maintenance performance target and maintenance key parameters is clear. (author)

  3. Flow cytometry protocol to evaluate ionizing radiation effects on P-glycoprotein activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Neyliane Goncalves dos; Amaral, Ademir; Cavalcanti, Mariana Brayner . E-mail; Neves, Maria Amelia Batista; Machado, Cintia Gonsalves de Faria

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work was to establish a protocol to evaluate ionizing radiation effects on P-glycoprotein (P-gp) activity. For this, human peripheral blood samples were irradiated in vitro with different doses and P-gp activity was analyzed for CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes through rhodamine123-efflux assay by flow cytometry. By simultaneous employment of percentage and mean fluorescence index parameters, subject-by-subject analysis pointed out changes in P-gp activity for some individuals and irradiated samples. Based on this work, the proposed protocol was considered adequate for evaluating P-gp activity on cells after radioactive stress. Besides, this research suggests that P-gp activity could be an important factor to define patient-specific protocols in combined chemo- and radiotherapy, particularly when radiation exposure precedes chemical treatment. (author)

  4. Flow cytometry protocol to evaluate ionizing radiation effects on P-glycoprotein activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Neyliane Goncalves dos; Amaral, Ademir; Cavalcanti, Mariana Brayner [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear]. E-mail; neylisantos@yahoo.com.br; Neves, Maria Amelia Batista; Machado, Cintia Gonsalves de Faria [Fundacao de Hematologia e Hemoterapia de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil). Unidade de Laboratorios Especializados. Lab. de Imunofenotipagem

    2008-12-15

    The aim of this work was to establish a protocol to evaluate ionizing radiation effects on P-glycoprotein (P-gp) activity. For this, human peripheral blood samples were irradiated in vitro with different doses and P-gp activity was analyzed for CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes through rhodamine123-efflux assay by flow cytometry. By simultaneous employment of percentage and mean fluorescence index parameters, subject-by-subject analysis pointed out changes in P-gp activity for some individuals and irradiated samples. Based on this work, the proposed protocol was considered adequate for evaluating P-gp activity on cells after radioactive stress. Besides, this research suggests that P-gp activity could be an important factor to define patient-specific protocols in combined chemo- and radiotherapy, particularly when radiation exposure precedes chemical treatment. (author)

  5. Aging evaluation of active components by using performance evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, S. K.; Jin, T. E.; Kim, J. S.; Jung, I. S.; Kim, T. R.

    2003-01-01

    Risk analysis and performance evaluation methodology were applied to the aging evaluation of active components in the periodic safety review of Wolsung unit 1. We conclude that evaluation of performance is more effective to discriminate the aging degradation of active component than the evaluation of aging mechanism. It is essential to analyze the common cause failures of low performance components to evaluate the properness of present maintenance system. Past 10 years failure history is used for establishing the performance criteria. Past 2 years failure history is used for the evaluating the recent performance condition. We analyze the failure mode of the components to improve the maintenance system. Performance evaluation methodology is useful for the quantitative evaluation of aging degradation of active components. Analysis on the repeated failures can be useful for the feedback to maintenance plan and interval

  6. Evaluating the effect of stressors on thiaminase activity in alewife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepak, J.M.; Kraft, C.E.; Honeyfield, D.C.; Brown, S.B.

    2008-01-01

    No consistent explanation has been found for the variability in the thiaminase activity of alewives Alosa pseudoharengus despite the role of alewife thiaminase in large-scale salmonine mortality in the Laurentian Great Lakes. We conducted experiments to evaluate the effect of two stressors, reduced salt content in the water and food limitation, on alewife thiaminase activity. Alewives were subjected to treatments in replicated tanks in which conductivity was lowered (blood cells, plasma cortisol, plasma glucose, and whole-body thiaminase were measured in individual alewives to assess their response to these experimental treatments. Alewives from the controls had significantly larger numbers of circulating white blood cells than those in the salt-reduced and food-limited treatments (24,000 and 19,000 cells/??L and 11,000 and 9,000 cells/??L for alewives from the two control and salt-reduced treatment tanks, respectively, and 34,000 and 30,000 cells/??L and 21,000 and 16,000 cells/??L for alewives from the two control and food-limited treatment tanks). No significant differences in alewife thiaminase activity were found between treatment fish and their controls. The mean thiaminase activity in the alewives studied increased from 6,900 to 16,000 pmol??g -1??min-1 from the time of their collection in Cayuga Lake to the start of laboratory experiments 1.5-2.5 years later; the latter value was more than twice that of previously reported levels of thiaminase activity from alewives collected in the wild. These data suggest that the variability in alewife thiaminase is not related to stress from salt reduction or food limitation, but laboratory holding conditions significantly increased thiaminase through a mechanism not evaluated by our experimental treatments. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  7. Using Movement Test to Evaluate Effectiveness of Health and Fitness Activities of Students in Higher Education Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pashkevich

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The study objective is to evaluate the possibility of using screening methods for determining the effectiveness of health and fitness activities of students in higher education institutions. Materials and methods. The participants in the experiment were 37 first-year students (17 boys and 20 girls of the School of History of H. S. Skovoroda Kharkiv National Pedagogical University. The experiment lasted during the fall semester. Using the Framingham method for analyzing weekly timing, the study conducted a survey among the students on their level of motor activity and performed a functional movement screen testing. To tentatively evaluate the cause and effect relationship between the level of motor activity and the occurrence of a pathological movement pattern, the study used the Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient. The characteristics between the groups were analyzed by using the Mann-Whitney test for comparing the distribution of ordinal variables. Results. The correlation analysis showed that the first-year students’ motor activity was positively related to the results of functional movement screening (R=+0.69, p< 0.05. At the same time, the students (EG1 who mainly had a high level of physical activity at physical education classes showed low values of functional movement evaluation, compared to the students (EG2 participating in extra-curricular physical activity. In EG1, the overall screening score was 10.3±0.7, in EG2 — 14.2±0.9 (p<0.05. Conclusions. The students with insufficient weekly motor activity had risk values of the test (10.3±0.7, which requires further analysis of the causes of a pathological movement pattern. The study results have confirmed the existence of the relationship between motor activity indicators and functional movement evaluation (R=+0.69, p<0.05. This provides a way to use the screening method of determining motor competence for the effectiveness evaluation of health and fitness programs, but further

  8. A FINANCIAL AND ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES EFFECTIVENESS EVALUATION AS A CONDITION OF CORPORATE MANAGEMENT DECISIONS MAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliia Bieliaieva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to substantiate, on the real figures, the need for enterprise’s financial and economic activities analysis as a condition of management decisions making to achieve the success of the company. Methodology. The research is based on a comparison and analysis of data from the organization top management. So using matrix analysis in the paper, the financial and economic activities effectiveness is evaluated. Based on these calculations, it is possible to make conclusions about the necessity of an identified management decisions regarding the future activity of the company. Results. Daily managers of various function levels accept hundreds and thousands of decisions regarding seemingly slight problems of the organization in general. At the same time, every such a decision, especially relating to the activity of the whole structure, should be clearly justified. Such a need stems from the fact that every decision leads to certain consequences. If there is a need to make a decision relating to the future of the enterprise (e.g., embodiment, reorganization, etc., it should be based on the data of the entire structure. And that is generally very difficult to do. Many factors complicate the possibility of comprehensive evaluation of the company’s activity. At the same time, analysis of basic indicators will provide the specialist with some directions according to which the priority of the analysis can be indicated and appropriate management decision can be made. Practical implications. It is built an effectiveness matrix of financial and economic activities of the enterprise. Analysis of financial and economic activities makes it possible to design necessary strategic and tactical plan for the enterprise development, revealing its reserves of production efficiency increasing. So the aim of the paper is the assessment of the effectiveness of financial and economic activities of the company on the base of matrix analysis as a

  9. Evaluation of comprehensive environmental effect about coastal zone development activities in Liaoning Province and management advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Wei; Cai, Yue-Yin; Sun, Yong-Guang; Ma, Hong-Wei

    2015-07-01

    Using spatial analysis function of Arcgis software, the present study investigated the building environment impact evaluation index system of coastal development in Liaoning Province. The factors of it included of current state of environmental quality, environmental impact of marine development and marine environmental disaster. Weighted factor analysis and comprehensive index method were utilized. At the end, comprehensive environment effect of coastal development in Liaoning Province were evaluated successfully. The result showed that the environmental effect of development activity were most serious, along the Zhao Jiatun coast in north of Zhimao bay and coast of Mianhua island in Dalian bay.

  10. Evaluation Of Analgesic And Anti-Inflammatory Activity Of Diospyros ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation Of Analgesic And Anti-Inflammatory Activity Of Diospyros Cordifolia Extract. S Das, PK Haldar, G Pramanik, SP Panda, S Bera. Abstract. In this study we evaluated the analgesic and anti- inflammatory activities of the methanol extract of stem bark of Diospyros cordifolia (MEDC) Roxb. The analgesic effects of the ...

  11. In vivo evaluation on the effects of HemoHIM in promoting anticancer activities and reducing the side-effects of anticancer drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Sung Kee; Jung, U Hee; Park, Hae Ran; Ju, Eun Jin; Cho, Eun Hee

    2009-07-01

    In this project, we aimed to obtain the preclinical in vivo evaluation data for the development of the herbal composition (HemoHIM) as the auxiliary agent for the anticancer treatment that can reduce the side-effects of anticancer drugs and enhance their anticancer activities. Firstly, in vitro studies showed that HemoHIM did not show any effects on the tumor cell growth inhibition by 2 anticancer drugs (cisplatin, 5-FU), which indicated that at least HemoHIM does not exert any adverse effects on the activities of anticancer drugs. Next, the in vivo studies with mice implanted with tumor cells(B16F0, LLC1) showed that HemoHIM partially enhanced the anticancer activities of drugs (cisplatin, 5-FU), and improved endogenous anticancer immune activities. Furthermore, in the same animal models, HemoHIM effectively reduced the side-effects of anticancer drugs (liver and renal toxicities by cisplatin, immune and hematopoietic disorders by 5-FU). These results collectively showed that HemoHIM can enhance the activities of anticancer drugs and reduce their side-effects in vitro and in vivo and HemoHIM does not exert any adverse effects on the efficacy of anticancer drugs. The results of this project can be utilized as the basic preclinical data for the development and approval of HemoHIM as the auxiliary agent for the anticancer treatment

  12. In vivo evaluation on the effects of HemoHIM in promoting anticancer activities and reducing the side-effects of anticancer drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Sung Kee; Jung, U Hee; Park, Hae Ran; Ju, Eun Jin; Cho, Eun Hee

    2009-07-15

    In this project, we aimed to obtain the preclinical in vivo evaluation data for the development of the herbal composition (HemoHIM) as the auxiliary agent for the anticancer treatment that can reduce the side-effects of anticancer drugs and enhance their anticancer activities. Firstly, in vitro studies showed that HemoHIM did not show any effects on the tumor cell growth inhibition by 2 anticancer drugs (cisplatin, 5-FU), which indicated that at least HemoHIM does not exert any adverse effects on the activities of anticancer drugs. Next, the in vivo studies with mice implanted with tumor cells(B16F0, LLC1) showed that HemoHIM partially enhanced the anticancer activities of drugs (cisplatin, 5-FU), and improved endogenous anticancer immune activities. Furthermore, in the same animal models, HemoHIM effectively reduced the side-effects of anticancer drugs (liver and renal toxicities by cisplatin, immune and hematopoietic disorders by 5-FU). These results collectively showed that HemoHIM can enhance the activities of anticancer drugs and reduce their side-effects in vitro and in vivo and HemoHIM does not exert any adverse effects on the efficacy of anticancer drugs. The results of this project can be utilized as the basic preclinical data for the development and approval of HemoHIM as the auxiliary agent for the anticancer treatment

  13. Neighborhood-based physical activity differences: Evaluation of the effect of health promotion program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Cristina de Souza Andrade

    Full Text Available The practice of physical activity is an important factor in the prevention of health problems. However, a small portion of the population is physically active. Recent reviews show that physical activity classes in community settings have the potential to increase population levels of physical activity and reduce health inequalities.To evaluate the effect of the Academias da Cidade Program in Belo Horizonte on the practice of physical activity in leisure time (PALT by non-users living near the program centers.We conducted a home-based health survey in Belo Horizonte (2008-2009 with 1,581 adults who were non-users of the program and who lived within a 1,500-meter radius of one active program center (exposed group and two nonoperational centers with sites reserved for their construction (unexposed group. We collected data on PALT levels (≥150 minutes/week, which was measured with the Physical Activity International Questionnaire and analyzed with binary logistic regression using the Generalized Estimating Equations method. The propensity score was used as an adjustment variable to control the potential confusion in the measures of effect of exposure studied.The overall prevalence of the PALT was 26.5% in the exposed group and 22.7% in the unexposed group. The exposed group was more likely to be active in leisure time (OR = 1.05; CI 95%: 1.01-1.10. When considering the interaction between exposed group and distance, individuals in the exposed group who lived less than 500 meters from the program center were more likely to be active in leisure time (OR = 1.18, CI 95%: 1.03-1.35 compared to their counterparts.Promoting physical activity in the community can favorably affect PALT levels among residents, especially those living closest to intervention centers. We believe the Academias da Cidade Program is a promising strategy to facilitate the access to appropriate spaces for the practice of physical activity and contribute to increase the levels

  14. Automated evaluation of the effect of ionic liquids on catalase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Paula C A G; Costa, Andreia D F; Lima, José L F C; Saraiva, M Lúcia M F S

    2011-03-01

    An automated assay for the evaluation of the influence of ionic liquids on the activity of catalase was developed. The activity and inhibition assays were implemented in a sequential injection analysis (SIA) system and intended to contribute for the estimation of the toxicity of the tested compounds. The fast developed methodology was based on the oxidation of the non-fluorescent probe amplex red, in the presence of H₂O₂, to produce resorufin, a strong fluorescent compound. Catalase activity was monitored by the decreased of the fluorescence intensity due to the consumption of H₂O₂ by the enzyme. The activity assays were performed in strictly aqueous media and in the presence of increasing concentrations of seven commercially available ionic liquids and sodium azide, a strong inhibitor of catalase. IC₅₀ values between 0.15 and 2.77 M were obtained for the tested compounds, revealing distinct inhibitory effects. This allowed us to perform some considerations about the toxicity of the tested cations and anions. The developed SIA methodology showed to be robust and exhibited good repeatability in all the assay conditions. On the other hand, it proved to be in good agreement with the actual concerns of "Green Chemistry" since it involved the consumption of less than 200 μL of reagents and the production of only 1.7 mL of effluent (per cycle) and at the same time reduced the operator exposure resulting in increased environmental and human safety. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Deodorant effects of a sage extract stick: Antibacterial activity and sensory evaluation of axillary deodorancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahtalebi, Mohammad Ali; Ghanadian, Mustafa; Farzan, Ali; Shiri, Niloufar; Shokri, Dariush; Fatemi, Syed Ali

    2013-10-01

    Deodorant products prevent the growth and activity of the degrading apocrine gland bacteria living in the armpit. Common antibacterial agents in the market like triclosan and aluminum salts, in spite of their suitable antibacterial effects, increase the risk of Alzheimer's disease, breast and prostate cancers or induce contact dermatitis. Therefore, plant extracts possessing antibacterial effects are of interest. The aim of the present study was to verify the in vitro antimicrobial effects of different sage extracts against two major bacteria responsible for axillary odor, and to evaluate the deodorant effect of a silicon-based stick containing sage extracts in different densities in humans. Different fractions of methanolic extract of Salvia officinalis (sage) were evaluated on a culture of armpit skin surface of volunteers through agar microdilution antimicrobial assay. Then, randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial with the best antibacterial fraction was conducted on 45 female healthy volunteers. Participants were treated with a single dose in four groups, each containing 15 individuals: Group 1 (200 μg/mL), 2 (400 μg/mL), 3 (600 μg/mL) of dichloromethane sage extract, and placebo (without extract). A standard sensory evaluation method for the evaluation of deodorant efficacy was used before, and two hours, four hours, and eight hours after single application of a deodorant or placebo (ASTM method E 1207-87 Standard Practice for the Sensory Evaluation of Axillary Deodorancy). The data were analyzed with two factors relating to densities and time. In 45 participants with a mean [± standard deviation (SD)] age of 61.5±11.8 years, statistically significant within-group differences were observed before and two, four, and eight hours after deodorant treatment for groups 1, 2, and 3. Groups 1, 2, and 3 had a significantly smaller odor score than placebo after two, four, and eight hours (P sage extract sticks (P sage extract of 200, 400, or 600

  16. A Second Year Evaluation Study of Promethean ActivClassroom. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzano Research Laboratory, 2010

    2010-01-01

    During the 2009-2010 school year, Marzano Research Laboratory (MRL) was commissioned by Promethean Ltd. to conduct a second year evaluation study of the effects of Promethean ActivClassroom on student academic achievement. This executive summary highlights the key findings. [For "A Second Year Evaluation Study of Promethean ActivClassroom. Final…

  17. Evaluation methods for physical activity-promoting mobile technologies: an interdisciplinary scoping review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire McCallum

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available There are many thousands of mobile apps, wearables and other technologies available to support and promote physical activity. However, the rapidly evolving nature of these technologies means that the methodologies traditionally used to evaluate the effectiveness of behaviour change interventions (such as the randomised controlled trial may not be appropriate to evaluate their effectiveness. A scoping review was conducted to identify the methods currently being used to evaluate physical activity-promoting mobile technologies across health and computing science disciplines. In addition to the range of methods used, the review explored their strengths and weaknesses. The results improve understandings of when and why to use existing methods from health and computing science. Opportunities for combining and hybridising methods across the two disciplines are also identified. The review will be used to inform the development and piloting of novel, ‘fit-for-purpose’ research designs that will allow rigorous evaluation of the effectiveness of rapidly-evolving physical activity-promoting mobile technologies and their ‘active ingredients’ to build an evidence base of what works, why and for whom.

  18. Evaluation of the antiulcerogenic and analgesic activities of Cordia verbenacea DC. (Boraginaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldão, Erika de Freitas; Witaicenis, Aline; Seito, Leonardo Noboru; Hiruma-Lima, Clélia Akiko; Di Stasi, Luiz Claudio

    2008-09-02

    Cordia verbenacea is a medicinal plant popularly used in Brazil as anti-inflammatory, antiulcer and anti-rheumatic agent without detailed pharmacological and toxicological studies. The study was aimed to investigate the effects of Cordia verbenacea in antiulcer, analgesic and antioxidant assays, as well as to evaluate its toxic effects and phytochemical profile. Antiulcer activity of plant extract was evaluated using ethanol/HCl, ethanol and piroxican-induced gastric lesions methods. The pH, volume and total acid of gastric juice were determined by pylorus-ligated assay. Analgesic activity was evaluated by writhing, tail-flick and hot-plate tests. Antioxidant activity was determined by in vitro lipoperoxidation assay. Acute toxicity and number of deaths were evaluated by Hippocratic screening. The ethanol leaf extract shows a potent antiulcer activity in the ethanol/HCl and absolute ethanol-induced gastric lesions. The IC(50) value of plant extract on the lipid peroxidation was 76.11mug/ml. Preliminary phytochemical tests were positive for flavonoids, steroids, saponins, fixed acids, alkaloids and phenols. In the analgesic models the extract did not present any activity. Cordial verbenaceae showed a potent antiulcer activity at the dose of 125mg/kg and this effect may be associated with an improvement in stomach antioxidant mechanisms.

  19. An Evaluation Method for Activation Analysis using Pre-evaluated Contribution of Nuclides with Impurity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Myeong Hyeon; Kim, Song Hyun; Kim, Do Hyun; Shin, Chang Ho [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Gee Suck [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Nuclides in radiation facilities become unstable from nuclear reaction. It emits residual radiation to be stable. Some unstable nuclides remain after operation in the material. It continuously emits the radiation, which has a harmful effect to worker when they try maintenance and plant decommissioning. It is known that residual radiation from impurity occupies a large portion of the radiation dose. If impurity concentration is higher than expectation, the effects of residual radiation could be underestimated. Therefore, estimation of residual radiation is repeatedly calculated according to impurity concentration. In this study, an approach estimating the activation was proposed using pre-evaluated nuclide's contribution to reduce the calculation time and effort of worker. In this study, in order to reduce the calculation time and effort of worker, activation analysis method based on pre-evaluated nuclide contribution was proposed. This method was verified using concreate activation problem, which is located in nuclear power plant. The results show that our proposed method has good agreement with Bateman equation.

  20. The effect of the decay data on activation cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xiaolong

    2002-01-01

    The effect of the decay data on evaluation of activation cross section is investigated. Present work shows that these effects must be considered carefully when activation cross section is evaluated. Sometime they are main reason for causing the discrepancies among the experimental data

  1. Self-Evaluation of the Scientific Activity of a Higher Educational Institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayevnyeva Olena V.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the problem of self-evaluation of the scientific activity of a higher educational institution (HEI as a component of its overall ranking evaluation. On the basis of a potentially effective approach to studying this problem, there proposed a system of indicators for evaluating the scientific activity of a HEI, which makes it possible to determine the potential of its scientific activity in terms of staff and resource provision, and the efficiency — in terms of quality of the training of scientific staff (students, graduate students, young scientists, etc., financial results of scientific activity and publication activity. To obtain an integral ranking score of the scientific activity of a HEI, the use of the taxonomic method is justified, the necessity of applying weight coefficients of the significance of primary indicators is determined. The approbation of the approach was carried out on the basis of the data of S. Kuznets KhNEU for the period of 2013-2016, which made it possible to obtain not only point estimates of the integral indicator of the scientific activity of an HEI but also determine the trends in its changes and identify their reasons. The proposed approach to the self-evaluation of the scientific activity of a HEI allows its administration to develop effective management solutions to increase the level of scientific activity of its scientific and pedagogical, and scientific staff, which will provide additional competitive advantages in the national and world educational space.

  2. Evaluating Maximum Wind Energy Exploitation in Active Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siano, Pierluigi; Chen, Peiyuan; Chen, Zhe

    2010-01-01

    The increased spreading of distributed and renewable generation requires moving towards active management of distribution networks. In this paper, in order to evaluate maximum wind energy exploitation in active distribution networks, a method based on a multi-period optimal power flow (OPF......) analysis is proposed. Active network management schemes such as coordinated voltage control, energy curtailment and power factor control are integrated in the method in order to investigate their impacts on the maximization of wind energy exploitation. Some case studies, using real data from a Danish...... distribution system, confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed method in evaluating the optimal applications of active management schemes to increase wind energy harvesting without costly network reinforcement for the connection of wind generation....

  3. Quantitative evaluation of in vitro effects and interactions of active fractions in a Chinese medicinal formula (Yaotongning Capsule) on rat chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Guo; Ouyang, Xiao-Wen; Wu, Ting-Ting; Ni, Li-Jun; Shi, Wan-Zhong

    2014-09-29

    Yaotongning Capsule (YTNC) is a Traditional Chinese Medicinal (TCM) formula that has been demonstrated to be effective for osteoarthritis (OA) treatment in clinical use. Many compounds and 10 component medicinal materials (CMMs for short, i.e., the fundamental elements used in TCM formulas) in YTNC are challenging to study the pharmacological effects and interactions of the CMMs. Besides, it is difficult to know whether the YTNC formula is reasonable, and if YTNC formula could be improved without comparing YTNC with other TCM formulas of treating OA. Based on different combinations of the active fractions from the 10 CMMs of YTNC and eight additional herbs frequently used in the TCM formulas of treating OA, the present study evaluated systematically the in vitro effects of these active fractions and the interactions among the active fractions from YTNC on rat chondrocytes to find possible solutions of the above questions. Based on the formulation of YTNC and the concept of combinatorial chemistry, the active fractions were applied to form the whole YTNC prescription (i.e., the combination of all YTNC active fractions and the extract of YTNC׳s vehicle), five disassembled formulas of YTNC (i.e., the combinations of some active fractions in YTNC) and 21 TCM samples consisted of different kinds of active fractions. The degenerated chondrocytes were induced with interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and then the half-effective concentration (EC50) value of the proliferation activity was analyzed to evaluate the 27 TCM samples. Nine samples were screened for the following evaluation on glycosaminoglycan (GAG) synthesis. Rat articular cartilage was obtained from six Sprague-Dawley rats (seven days of age), and then chondrocytes were isolated through enzymatic digestion with 0.2% Collagenase II. Proliferations of chondrocytes were examined through Cell Counting Kit-8 assay, when the intracellular levels of GAG were detected by 1,9-Dimethylmethylene blue staining. The interactions

  4. Physical activity across the curriculum: year one process evaluation results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sullivan Debra K

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical Activity Across the Curriculum (PAAC is a 3-year elementary school-based intervention to determine if increased amounts of moderate intensity physical activity performed in the classroom will diminish gains in body mass index (BMI. It is a cluster-randomized, controlled trial, involving 4905 children (2505 intervention, 2400 control. Methods We collected both qualitative and quantitative process evaluation data from 24 schools (14 intervention and 10 control, which included tracking teacher training issues, challenges and barriers to effective implementation of PAAC lessons, initial and continual use of program specified activities, and potential competing factors, which might contaminate or lessen program effects. Results Overall teacher attendance at training sessions showed exceptional reach. Teachers incorporated active lessons on most days, resulting in significantly greater student physical activity levels compared to controls (p Conclusion In the first year of the PAAC intervention, process evaluation results were instrumental in identifying successes and challenges faced by teachers when trying to modify existing academic lessons to incorporate physical activity.

  5. Physical education resources, class management, and student physical activity levels: a structure-process-outcome approach to evaluating physical education effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevans, Katherine B; Fitzpatrick, Leslie-Anne; Sanchez, Betty M; Riley, Anne W; Forrest, Christopher

    2010-12-01

    This study was conducted to empirically evaluate specific human, curricular, and material resources that maximize student opportunities for physical activity during physical education (PE) class time. A structure-process-outcome model was proposed to identify the resources that influence the frequency of PE and intensity of physical activity during PE. The proportion of class time devoted to management was evaluated as a potential mediator of the relations between resource availability and student activity levels. Data for this cross-sectional study were collected from interviews conducted with 46 physical educators and the systematic observation of 184 PE sessions in 34 schools. Regression analyses were conducted to test for the main effects of resource availability and the mediating role of class management. Students who attended schools with a low student-to-physical educator ratio had more PE time and engaged in higher levels of physical activity during class time. Access to adequate PE equipment and facilities was positively associated with student activity levels. The availability of a greater number of physical educators per student was found to impact student activity levels by reducing the amount of session time devoted to class management. The identification of structure and process predictors of student activity levels in PE will support the allocation of resources and encourage instructional practices that best support increased student activity levels in the most cost-effective way possible. Implications for PE policies and programs are discussed. © 2010, American School Health Association.

  6. Evaluation on activation activity of reactor in JRR-2 applied 3 dimensional model to neutron flux calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishimoto, Katsumi; Arigane, Kenji

    2005-03-01

    Revaluation to activation activity of reactor evaluated at the notification of dismantling submitted in 1997 was carried out in JRR-2 where decommissioning was advanced now. In the revaluation, estimation accuracy on neutron streaming at various horizontal experimental tubes was improved by applying 3 dimensional model to neutron transport calculation that had been carried out by 2 dimensional model, and calculating with TORT. As the result, excessive overestimations on horizontal experimental tubes and biological shield that had greatly contributed to total activation activity in evaluation at the notification of dismantling was revised, sum of their activation activities in the revaluation decreased to 1/18 (case after 1 year from the permanent shutdown of reactor) of evaluation at the notification of dismantling, and the structural materials that had large activation activity were changed. By the above, it was shown that introducing 3 dimensional model was effective in evaluation on activation activity of the research reactor that had a lot of various experimental tubes. Total activation activity of reactor by the revaluation depended on control rods, thermal shield plates and horizontal experimental tubes, and the value after 1 year from the permanent shutdown of reactor was 1.9x10 14 Bq. (author)

  7. Active Radiation Level Measurement on New Laboratory Instrument for Evaluating the Antibacterial Activity of Radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joh, Eunha; Park, Jang Guen

    2014-01-01

    A disc method has been widely used to measure the antibacterial effect of chemical agents. However, it is difficult to measure the antibacterial effect of radioisotopes using a disc method. A disc method is a method for diffusing a drug by placing the drug containing disc on the medium. In this method, radioisotopes are diffused on the medium and it is difficult to measure the exact effect by radiation. Thus, new laboratory equipment needs to evaluate the antibacterial activity by the radioisotopes. In this study, we measured the radiation level of radioisotopes on a new laboratory instrument using a MCNP. A disc method has been widely used to measure the antibacterial effect of chemical agents. This method uses a drug diffusion system for the measurement of anti-bacterial antibiotics. To measure the antimicrobial activity of a radioisotope, a new type of laboratory instrument is necessary to prevent the drug from spreading. The radioisotopes are used to diagnose and treat cancer. However, studies for anti-biotical use have not progressed. The radiation of radioisotopes has the effect of killing bacteria. Before this study proceeds further, it is necessary to be able to measure the antimicrobial activity of the radioisotope easily in the laboratory. However, in this study, it was possible to measure the antimicrobial activity of the radioisotope in the laboratory using a new laboratory instrument. We intend to start evaluation studies of the antibacterial activity of specific radioisotopes. In addition, it will be possible to develop research to overcome diseases caused by bacteria in the future

  8. Active Radiation Level Measurement on New Laboratory Instrument for Evaluating the Antibacterial Activity of Radioisotope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joh, Eunha; Park, Jang Guen [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    A disc method has been widely used to measure the antibacterial effect of chemical agents. However, it is difficult to measure the antibacterial effect of radioisotopes using a disc method. A disc method is a method for diffusing a drug by placing the drug containing disc on the medium. In this method, radioisotopes are diffused on the medium and it is difficult to measure the exact effect by radiation. Thus, new laboratory equipment needs to evaluate the antibacterial activity by the radioisotopes. In this study, we measured the radiation level of radioisotopes on a new laboratory instrument using a MCNP. A disc method has been widely used to measure the antibacterial effect of chemical agents. This method uses a drug diffusion system for the measurement of anti-bacterial antibiotics. To measure the antimicrobial activity of a radioisotope, a new type of laboratory instrument is necessary to prevent the drug from spreading. The radioisotopes are used to diagnose and treat cancer. However, studies for anti-biotical use have not progressed. The radiation of radioisotopes has the effect of killing bacteria. Before this study proceeds further, it is necessary to be able to measure the antimicrobial activity of the radioisotope easily in the laboratory. However, in this study, it was possible to measure the antimicrobial activity of the radioisotope in the laboratory using a new laboratory instrument. We intend to start evaluation studies of the antibacterial activity of specific radioisotopes. In addition, it will be possible to develop research to overcome diseases caused by bacteria in the future.

  9. Deodorant effects of a sage extract stick: Antibacterial activity and sensory evaluation of axillary deodorancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Shahtalebi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Deodorant products prevent the growth and activity of the degrading apocrine gland bacteria living in the armpit. Common antibacterial agents in the market like triclosan and aluminum salts, in spite of their suitable antibacterial effects, increase the risk of Alzheimer′s disease, breast and prostate cancers or induce contact dermatitis. Therefore, plant extracts possessing antibacterial effects are of interest. The aim of the present study was to verify the in vitro antimicrobial effects of different sage extracts against two major bacteria responsible for axillary odor, and to evaluate the deodorant effect of a silicon-based stick containing sage extracts in different densities in humans. Materials and Methods: Different fractions of methanolic extract of Salvia officinalis (sage were evaluated on a culture of armpit skin surface of volunteers through agar microdilution antimicrobial assay. Then, randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial with the best antibacterial fraction was conducted on 45 female healthy volunteers. Participants were treated with a single dose in four groups, each containing 15 individuals: Group 1 (200 μg/mL, 2 (400 μg/mL, 3 (600 μg/mL of dichloromethane sage extract, and placebo (without extract. A standard sensory evaluation method for the evaluation of deodorant efficacy was used before, and two hours, four hours, and eight hours after single application of a deodorant or placebo (ASTM method E 1207-87 Standard Practice for the Sensory Evaluation of Axillary Deodorancy. Results: The data were analyzed with two factors relating to densities and time. In 45 participants with a mean [± standard deviation (SD] age of 61.5±11.8 years, statistically significant within-group differences were observed before and two, four, and eight hours after deodorant treatment for groups 1, 2, and 3. Groups 1, 2, and 3 had a significantly smaller odor score than placebo after two, four, and eight hours

  10. Preregistered Replication of "Affective Flexibility: Evaluative Processing Goals Shape Amygdala Activity".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumian, Daniel S; McRae, Kateri

    2017-09-01

    The human amygdala is sensitive to stimulus characteristics, and growing evidence suggests that it is also responsive to cognitive framing in the form of evaluative goals. To examine whether different evaluations of stimulus characteristics shape amygdala activation, we conducted a preregistered replication of Cunningham, Van Bavel, and Johnsen's (2008) study demonstrating flexible mapping of amygdala activation to stimulus characteristics, depending on evaluative goals. Participants underwent functional MRI scanning while viewing famous names under three conditions: They were asked to report their overall attitude toward each name, their positive associations only, or their negative associations only. We observed an interaction between condition and rating type, identified as the effect of interest in Cunningham et al. (2008). Specifically, postscan positivity, but not negativity, ratings predicted left amygdala activation when participants were asked to evaluate positive, but not negative, associations with the names. These results provide convergent evidence that cognitive framing, in the form of evaluative goals, can significantly alter whether amygdala activation indexes positivity or negativity.

  11. Determination of the Antiproliferative Activity of New Theobromine Derivatives and Evaluation of Their In Vitro Hepatotoxic Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgieva, Maya; Kondeva-Burdina, Magdalena; Mitkov, Javor; Tzankova, Virginia; Momekov, Georgi; Zlatkov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    A new series of N-substituted 1-benzyltheobromine-8-thioacetamides were designed and synthesized. Their anti-proliferative activity against human chronic myelocytic leukemia cell K562, human T-cell leukemia cell SKW-3 and human acute myeloid leukemia HL-60 was evaluated. For the tested compounds a concentrationdependent cytotoxic activity was observed, with 7g outlined as the most active compound within the series. The targed compounds were obtained in yields of 56 to 85% and their structures were elucidated by FTIR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and microanalyses. The compounds purity was proven by elemental analysis and spectral data. In general, the compounds showed low hepatotoxicity on sub-cellular and cellular level. On isolated rat microsomes only 7d showed toxic effect while theobromine, 1-benzyl-theobromine-thioacetic acid (BTTA) and the other new theobromine derivatives were devoid of toxicity. In isolated rat hepatocytes, when compared to theobromine and BTTA, 7f showed lower cytotoxic effects, and 7d exerted higher cytotoxicity. The results indicate 7g as a promising structure for the design of future compounds with low hepatotoxicity and good antiproliferative activity.

  12. PASS assisted prediction and pharmacological evaluation of novel nicotinic analogs for nootropic activity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Navneet; Ishar, Mohan Pal Singh; Gajbhiye, Asmita; Goel, Rajesh Kumar

    2011-07-15

    The aim of present study is to predict the probable nootropic activity of novel nicotine analogues with the help of computer program, PASS (prediction of activity spectra for substances) and evaluate the same. Two compounds from differently substituted pyridines were selected for synthesis and evaluation of nootropic activity based on their high probable activity (Pa) value predicted by PASS computer program. Evaluation of nootropic activity of compounds after acute and chronic treatment was done with transfer latency (TL) and step down latency (SDL) methods which showed significant nootropic activity. The effect on scopolamine induced amnesia was also observed along with their acetylcholine esterase inhibitory activity which also showed positive results which strengthened their efficacy as nootropic agents through involvement of cholinergic system. This nootropic effect was similar to the effect of nicotine and donepezil used as standard drugs. Muscle coordination and locomotor activity along with their addiction liability, safety and tolerability studies were also evaluated. These studies showed that these compounds are well tolerable and safe over a wide range of doses tested along with the absence of withdrawal effect which is present in nicotine due to its addiction liability. The study showed that these compounds are true nicotine analogs with desirable efficacy and safety profile for their use as effective nootropic agents. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Study on the improved evaluation of radioactivity of activated control rods in PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waki, Toshikazu; Yamada, Motoyuki; Horikawa, Yoshihiko; Miyake, Yusuke; Sakashita, Akira

    2009-01-01

    The evaluation method of radioactivity of activated materials has been developed as ORIGEN code. However, it is difficult to precisely evaluate the radioactivity of neutron absorption materials such as control rods. A control rod in PWR is made of Ag-In-Cd alloy that absorbs neutron greatly and the thermal neutron flux decreases rapidly in and around it. This phenomenon is called depression effect. The consideration of depression effect is necessary to evaluate radioactivity of the control rod. In this study we improved the reliability of the cross-section value of Ag-107(n,γ) Ag-108m by the irradiation examination in JRR3. In addition, we calculated (1) the neutron spectrum and neutron flux with depression effect by MCNP of Monte Carlo method and (2) the radioactivity of the activated control rod. The pieces of control rod were irradiated at JMTR of JAERI. As a result of the accuracy of the measurement data calculation results, we developed the method of evaluation for the radioactivity of activated control rod. The radioactivity of activated control rod in PWR was evaluated and compared with the measurement data, resulting in positive accuracy. Of special significance was confirmation of the value of Ag-108m, as an essential nuclide for long term dose estimation of disposal facility. The cross-section value of Ag-107(n,γ) Ag-108m was about one forty of existent library. This method was accurately confirmed and developed for evaluating activated control rods reasonably. (author)

  14. The effectiveness of game and recreational activity to motivate high achievers and low achievers: Evaluation using fuzzy conjoint analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofian, Siti Siryani; Rambely, Azmin Sham

    2018-04-01

    Students' evaluation is important in order to determine the effectiveness of a learning program. A game and recreational activity (GaRA) is a problem-based learning (PBL) method that engages students in a learning process through games and activity. The effectiveness of GaRA can be determined from an application of fuzzy conjoint analysis (FCA) to diminish fuzziness in determining individual perceptions. This study involves a survey collected from 68 students participating in a Mathematics Discovery Camp organized by a UKM research group, named PRISMatik, from two different schools. The aim of this research was to determine the effectiveness of modules delivered to motivate students towards mathematics subject in the form of GaRA through different factors. There were six games conducted for the participants and their perceptions based on the evaluation of six criterias were measured. A seven-point Likert scale, which indicates seven linguistic terms, was used to collect students' preferences and perceptions on each module of GaRAs. Scores of perceptions were transformed into degrees of similarity using fuzzy set conjoint analysis. Results found that interest, effort and team work was the strongest values obtained from GaRA modules in this camp as participants indicated their strong agreement that these criteria fulfilled their preferences in most module. Participants also stated that almost all attributes fulfilled their preference in each module regardless their individual academic achievement. Thus the method demonstrated that modules delivered through PBL approach has effectively motivated students through six attributes introduced. The evaluation using FCA implicated the successfulness of a fuzzy approach to evaluate fuzziness obtained in the Likert-scale and has shown its ability in ranking the attributes from most preferred to least preferred.

  15. Contextual influences on implicit evaluation: a test of additive versus contrastive effects of evaluative context stimuli in affective priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawronski, Bertram; Deutsch, Roland; Seidel, Oliver

    2005-09-01

    Drawing on two alternative accounts of the affective priming effect (spreading activation vs. response interference), the present research investigated the underlying processes of how evaluative context stimuli influence implicit evaluations in the affective priming task. Employing two sequentially presented prime stimuli (rather than a single prime), two experiments showed that affective priming effects elicited by a given prime stimulus were more pronounced when this stimulus was preceded by a context prime of the opposite valence than when it was preceded by a context prime of the same valence. This effect consistently emerged for pictures (Experiment 1) and words (Experiment 2) as prime stimuli. These results suggest that the impact of evaluative context stimuli on implicit evaluations is mediated by contrast effects in the attention to evaluative information rather than by additive effects in the activation of evaluative information in associative memory.

  16. Evaluation of the Effect of Fingolimod Treatment on Microglial Activation Using Serial PET Imaging in Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucksdorff, Marcus; Rissanen, Eero; Tuisku, Jouni; Nuutinen, Salla; Paavilainen, Teemu; Rokka, Johanna; Rinne, Juha; Airas, Laura

    2017-10-01

    Traditionally, multiple sclerosis (MS) has been considered a white matter disease with focal inflammatory lesions. It is, however, becoming clear that significant pathology, such as microglial activation, also takes place outside the plaque areas, that is, in areas of normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) and gray matter (GM). Microglial activation can be detected in vivo using 18-kDa translocator protein (TSPO)-binding radioligands and PET. It is unknown whether fingolimod affects microglial activation in MS. The aim of this study was to investigate whether serial PET can be used to evaluate the effect of fingolimod treatment on microglial activation. Methods: Ten relapsing-remitting MS patients were studied using the TSPO radioligand 11 C-( R )-PK11195. Imaging was performed at baseline and after 8 and 24 wk of fingolimod treatment. Eight healthy individuals were imaged for comparison. Microglial activation was evaluated as distribution volume ratio of 11 C-( R )-PK11195. Results: The patients had MS for an average of 7.9 ± 4.3 y (mean ± SD), their total relapses averaged 4 ± 2.4, and their Expanded Disability Status Scale was 2.7 ± 0.5. The patients were switched to fingolimod because of safety reasons or therapy escalation. The mean washout period before the initiation of fingolimod was 2.3 ± 1.1 mo. The patients were clinically stable on fingolimod. At baseline, microglial activation was significantly higher in the combined NAWM and GM areas of MS patients than in healthy controls ( P = 0.021). 11 C-( R )-PK11195 binding was reduced (-12.31%) within the combined T2 lesion area after 6 mo of fingolimod treatment ( P = 0.040) but not in the areas of NAWM or GM. Conclusion: Fingolimod treatment reduced microglial/macrophage activation at the site of focal inflammatory lesions, presumably by preventing leukocyte trafficking from the periphery. It did not affect the widespread, diffuse microglial activation in the NAWM and GM. The study opens new vistas for

  17. Evaluation of the cytotoxic effect and antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral activities of Hypericum triquetrifolium Turra essential oils from Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background A number of bio-active secondary metabolites have been identified and reported for several Hypericum species. Many studies have reported the potential use of the plant extracts against several pathogens. However, Hypericum triquetrifolium is one of the least studied species for its antimicrobial activity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of the essential oils of Hypericum triquetrifolium as well as their antimicrobial potential against coxsakievirus B3 and a range of bacterial and fungal strains. Methods The essential oils of Hypericum triquetrifolium harvested from five different Tunisian localities (Fondouk DJedid, Bou Arada, Bahra, Fernana and Dhrea Ben Jouder) were evaluated for their antimicrobial activities by micro-broth dilution methods against bacterial and fungal strains. In addition, the cytotoxic effect and the antiviral activity of these oils were carried out using Vero cell lines and coxsakievirus B3. Results The results showed a good antibacterial activities against a wide range of bacterial strains, MIC values ranging between 0.39-12.50 mg/ml and MBC values between 1.56-25.0 mg/ml. In addition, the essential oils showed promising antifungal activity with MIC values ranging between 0.39 μg/mL and 12.50 μg/mL; MFC values ranged between 3.12 μg/mL and 25.00 μg/mL; a significant anticandidal activity was noted (MIC values comprised between 0.39 μg/mL and 12.50 μg/mL). Although their low cytotoxic effect (CC50 ranged between 0.58 mg/mL and 12.00 mg/mL), the essential oils did not show antiviral activity against coxsakievirus B3. Conclusion The essential oils obtained from Hypericum triquetrifolium can be used as antimicrobial agents and could be safe at non cytotoxic doses. As shown for the tested essential oils, comparative analysis need to be undertaken to better characterize also the antimicrobial activities of Hypericum triquetrifolium extracts with different solvents as well as their

  18. Selected indicators for evaluating the effectiveness of marketing communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Olejniczak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The issue of the evaluation of marketing activity in each institution most often refers to marketing communications and therefore promotional activities of the company. Whereas measuring the effectiveness of marketing communications results, we can use many tools-indicators, the use of which will track the progress and assess the effectiveness of our institution run by marketing communications. With a view to implementing effective marketing strategy we must be able to measure our success. In this article, has been made a review of selected indicators to evaluate the effectiveness of marketing communications. Cited indicators are commonly used. According to the authors, each institution should create its own set of indicators by which the effects of its operations will be best measured.

  19. Effective Practices for Evaluating Education and Public Outreach Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, S.

    2013-12-01

    Stephanie Baird Wilkerson, PhD Carol Haden EdD Magnolia Consulting,LLC Education and public outreach (EPO) program developers and providers seeking insights regarding effective practices for evaluating EPO activities programs benefit from understanding why evaluation is critical to the success of EPO activities and programs, what data collection methods are appropriate, and how to effectively communicate and report findings. Based on our extensive experience evaluating EPO programs, we will share lessons learned and examples of how these practices play out in actual evaluation studies. EPO program developers, providers, and evaluators must consider several factors that influence which evaluation designs and data collection methods will be most appropriate, given the nature of EPO programs. Effective evaluation practices of EPO programs take into account a program's phase of development, duration, and budget as well as a program's intended outcomes. EPO programs that are just beginning development will have different evaluation needs and priorities than will well-established programs. Effective evaluation practices consider the 'life' of a program with an evaluation design that supports a program's growth through various phases including development, revision and refinement, and completion. It would be premature and inappropriate to expect the attainment of longer-term outcomes of activities during program development phases or early stages of implementation. During program development, EPO providers should clearly define program outcomes that are feasible and appropriate given a program's scope and expected reach. In many respects, this directly relates to the amount of time, or duration, intended audiences participate in EPO programs. As program duration increases so does the likelihood that the program can achieve longer-term outcomes. When choosing which outcomes are reasonable to impact and measure, program duration should be considered. Effective evaluation

  20. Assessment of tolerance to the effects of methamphetamine on daytime and nighttime activity evaluated with actigraphy in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berro, Laís F; Andersen, Monica L; Howell, Leonard L

    2017-08-01

    Methamphetamine is one of the most largely consumed illicit drugs, and its use is associated with abuse liability and several adverse health effects, such as sleep impairment. Importantly, sleep quality can influence addiction treatment outcomes. Evidence suggests that tolerance can develop to the sleep-disrupting effects of stimulant drugs. The aim of the present study was to investigate the development of tolerance to the actigraphy-based sleep-disrupting and stimulant effects of methamphetamine self-administration in rhesus monkeys. Methamphetamine (0.03 mg/kg/inf, i.v.) self-administration was carried out following three different protocols: 14 consecutive days of self-administration, 5 days/week for 3 weeks, with a 2-day interval between 5-day blocks of self-administration, and 3 days/week for 3 weeks, with a 4-day interval between 3-day blocks of self-administration. Daytime activity and activity-based sleep measures were evaluated with Actiwatch monitors a week before (baseline parameters) and throughout each protocol. Methamphetamine self-administration markedly disrupted sleep-like measures and increased daytime activity. Tolerance developed to those effects with repeated methamphetamine intake exceeding five consecutive days. Inclusion of washout periods (2 or 4 days) between blocks of methamphetamine self-administration attenuated the development of tolerance, with longer breaks from methamphetamine intake being more effective in maintaining the sleep-disrupting and stimulant effects of methamphetamine. Tolerance can develop to the stimulant and sleep-disrupting effects of methamphetamine self-administration. Interruption of drug intake extends the effects of methamphetamine on sleep-like measures and daytime activity.

  1. Effectiveness of School-Initiated Physical Activity Program on Secondary School Students' Physical Activity Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gråstén, Arto; Yli-Piipari, Sami; Watt, Anthony; Jaakkola, Timo; Liukkonen, Jarmo

    2015-01-01

    Background: The promotion of physical activity and health has become a universal challenge. The Sotkamo Physical Activity as Civil Skill Program was implemented to increase students' physical activity by promoting supportive psychological and physical school environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the…

  2. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity, effect on blood pressure & gastric tolerability of antidepressants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeta Kaur Chugh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Antidepressants are being used as analgesics for various pain related disorders like neuropathic and non neuropathic pain. Although their analgesic activity is well recognized but anti-inflammatory potential of antidepressants is still inconclusive. Since the antidepressants are used for longer duration, it becomes important to elucidate effect of anti-depressants on blood pressure and gastric mucosa. This study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-inflammatory potential of various antidepressant drugs as well as their effect on blood pressure and gastric tolerability on chronic administration in rats. Methods: Rat paw oedema model was used for studying anti-inflammatory activity, single dose of test drug (venlafaxine 20 and 40 mg/kg, amitryptline 25 mg/kg, fluoxetine 20 mg/kg was administered intraperitoneally 45 min prior to administration of 0.1 ml of 1 per cent carrageenan in sub-planter region. Oedema induced in test group was compared with normal saline treated control group. For studying effect on blood pressure and gastric tolerability, test drugs were administered for 14 days. Blood pressure was recorded on days 0, 7 and 14 using tail cuff method. On day 14, 4 h after drug administration, rats were sacrificed and stomach mucosa was examined for ulcerations. Results: Pretreatment of rats with venlafaxine (40 mg/kg resulted in a significant decrease in paw oedema as compared to control (2.4 ± 0.15 to 1.1 ± 0.16 ml, P<0.01. Similarly, in the group pretreated with fluoxetine, significant decrease in paw oedema was observed in comparison to control (P<0.05. Significant change in mean blood pressure was seen in rats pretreated with venlafaxine 40 mg/kg (126.7 ± 4.2 to 155.2 ± 9.7, P<0.05 and fluoxetine (143.5 ± 2.6 to 158.3 ± 1.2, P<0.05 on day 7. No significant difference with regard to gastric tolerability was observed among groups. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings showed significant anti

  3. Evaluation of the effects of a plasma activated medium on cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohades, S.; Laroussi, M., E-mail: mlarouss@odu.edu; Sears, J.; Barekzi, N.; Razavi, H. [Plasma Engineering and Medicine Institute, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia 23529 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    The interaction of low temperature plasma with liquids is a relevant topic of study to the field of plasma medicine. This is because cells and tissues are normally surrounded or covered by biological fluids. Therefore, the chemistry induced by the plasma in the aqueous state becomes crucial and usually dictates the biological outcomes. This process became even more important after the discovery that plasma activated media can be useful in killing various cancer cell lines. Here, we report on the measurements of concentrations of hydrogen peroxide, a species known to have strong biological effects, produced by application of plasma to a minimum essential culture medium. The activated medium is then used to treat SCaBER cancer cells. Results indicate that the plasma activated medium can kill the cancer cells in a dose dependent manner, retain its killing effect for several hours, and is as effective as apoptosis inducing drugs.

  4. Methods of marketing and advertising activity evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.I. Yakovlev

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The result of the business entities’ activities is associated with the development of instruments of the economic processes efficiency determination, including marketing activities. It has determined the purpose of the article. The methodological principles in this area are developed. It is proved that the increase in sales of the profit margin is only partly dependent on the implementation of advertising measures. The methodical approaches for estimation of exhibition and advertising activity and promotion of its employees are specified. The results of work involve evaluation of the advertising effect value on the basis of share of the advertising impact on the increase of sales and revenue from the sale of products. The corresponding proportion of such impact is determined based on the consumer inquiry. The index of trade fair works, its calculation based on two components: how many times a specific company participated in such events; and how well the company was presented at relevant trade fairs. The indices of the cost on advertising and promotion of certain products manufacturer are provided. The scientific innovation of the research is as follows. It is proved that the sales increase effect should not be assigned to advertising only. The compositions that influence the consumer preferences and their share in the total value effect are determined. The new is the proposed index of influence of the trade fair work results depending on the selected factors. The practical importance of the research results involve more accurate calculation of the effect of the activities made and, consequently, increase efficiency of the business entities.

  5. [Smoked sausages and food additives: evaluation of total mutagenic activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, A M; Tkacheva, D L

    2011-01-01

    The paper deals with the evaluation of the total mutagenic activity of samples of the inorganic and organic fractions of three technology smoked sausages (boiled-smoked, semi-smoked, and raw-smoked) and some food additives used to manufacture the above sausages. Their mild and moderate mutagenic effects were recorded in a Salmonella typhimurium bacterial test system with a metabolic activation system. Physicochemical analysis of the fractions of the smoked sausages has shown that their study samples are substantially contaminated with heavy metals and representatives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, partially causing the mutagenic effects observed.

  6. Facilitating participation in formative evaluation supported by effect map

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granlien, Maren Sander

    2009-01-01

    It has been suggested that formative evaluation should be an integrated part of system implementation in order to improve the outcome of system use. In a design project an approach combining participatory design (PD) and formative evaluation has shown a great potential for improving the design of...... map is applied in an action research study in the Danish health care sector aiming at improving the medication process and the use of the electronic medication record supporting the medication process. ...... designed effect map. The purpose of the effect map is twofold: a) To encourage user participation in the early activities of formative evaluation b) The effects specified can be used as formative evaluation measures and guidance in the process of improving the system. The evaluation approach and the effect...

  7. New approach to evaluate late arm impairment and effects of dragon boat activity in breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchiorri, Giovanni; Viero, Valerio; Triossi, Tamara; Sorge, Roberto; Tancredi, Virginia; Cafaro, Domenico; Andreis, Caterina; Vulpiani, Maria Chiara; Saraceni, Vincenzo Maria

    2017-11-01

    To verify the applicability of a new approach based on the strength curves (SCs) methodology in late arm impairment in breast cancer (BC) survivors and to evaluate the effects of dragon boat (DB) activity on the late regaining of the muscle strength, upper limb impairment, and quality of life in patients undergoing surgery for BC.Retrospective observational study on 64 subjects (54.5 ± 9.7 years), 47 of them had undergone unilateral mastectomy surgery and were evaluated for late arm impairment. A clinical evaluation of the shoulder and compilation of functional assessment (DASH, Rowe, Constant-Murley) and quality of life (SF-36) scales were carried out. Assessment of muscle strength with SC obtained with isometric assessments and serratus anterior muscle test were performed.Differences between the SC are evident between healthy and operated subjects. Among the 3 groups of operated subjects the difference in strength is maximum at 0°. Statistically significant difference was found between operated and nonoperated only in SF-36 scale. No significant difference was found between groups for shoulder instability and winged scapula.The SC can be used in the study of upper limb impairment after surgery for BC: measurements carried out at 1st degrees of the range of motion are more useful for clinicians. DB activity is useful to reduce the late arm impairment.

  8. Investigation of the effect of kaolin and tissue factor-activated citrated whole blood, on clot forming variables, as evaluated by thromboelastograph

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Per Ingemar; Bochsen, L.; Andersen, S.

    2008-01-01

    ), and maximum clot strength (amplitude [MA]) were evaluated, together with day-to-day variation, the coefficient of variance (CV%), and the effect of citrate storage time. RESULTS: Clot formation variables were equally affected by TF 1:17,000 and kaolin activation, whereas R was significantly longer when TF 1......:42,500 was used. The CV for the different variables varied from 3 to 13 percent with no significant differences between assays. Storage of citrated WB significantly affected the TEG variables in a hypercoagulable direction. Only the R, however, was significantly affected (12%) when samples rested for 0 and 30...... minutes were evaluated with kaolin as the activator. CONCLUSION: The TEG assays evaluated were reproducible and present with an acceptable CV% for routine clinical practice. Kaolin and TF 1:17,000 equally affected the clot formation variables. Storage of WB for up to 30 minutes in citrate did not, except...

  9. Development of methods for evaluating active faults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    The report for long-term evaluation of active faults was published by the Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion on Nov. 2010. After occurrence of the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake, the safety review guide with regard to geology and ground of site was revised by the Nuclear Safety Commission on Mar. 2012 with scientific knowledges of the earthquake. The Nuclear Regulation Authority established on Sep. 2012 is newly planning the New Safety Design Standard related to Earthquakes and Tsunamis of Light Water Nuclear Power Reactor Facilities. With respect to those guides and standards, our investigations for developing the methods of evaluating active faults are as follows; (1) For better evaluation on activities of offshore fault, we proposed a work flow to date marine terrace (indicator for offshore fault activity) during the last 400,000 years. We also developed the analysis of fault-related fold for evaluating of blind fault. (2) To clarify the activities of active faults without superstratum, we carried out the color analysis of fault gouge and divided the activities into thousand of years and tens of thousands. (3) To reduce uncertainties of fault activities and frequency of earthquakes, we compiled the survey data and possible errors. (4) For improving seismic hazard analysis, we compiled the fault activities of the Yunotake and Itozawa faults, induced by the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake. (author)

  10. Evaluation of a community-based participatory physical activity promotion project: effect on cardiovascular disease risk profiles of school employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobza Cee E

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The efficacy of physical activity in improving cardiovascular disease (CVD risk profiles has been well established. However, the effectiveness of health promotion programs implemented at the community level remains controversial. This study evaluated a school-based work-site physical activity program. Methods Using a community-based participatory research model, a work-site wellness intervention was implemented in a rural public school system in Southwestern Oklahoma. During the 2005-2006 school year, 187 participants (mean age 45 years completed a pre intervention screening for CVD risk factors followed by a physical activity promotion program. Post intervention screening was conducted after a 6 month period. During both screening sessions, body composition, blood pressure, lipids, glucose and self-reported physical activity levels were assessed. The focus of the intervention was on promoting physical activity. Opportunities for in school physical activity were created by marking hallways, adding a treadmill in each school, and allowing teachers to use planning periods for physical activity. Results During the post intervention screening, compared to pre intervention levels, participants had lower total, low, and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (t = 5.9, p Conclusions A successful participatory program was associated with improvements in several CVD risk factors among school employees. Limitations of this study such as seasonal variation in the outcome variables and lack of a control group limit our ability to draw solid conclusions about the effectiveness of the intervention.

  11. Ecotoxicological evaluation of areas polluted by mining activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Lorenzo, M. L.; Martínez-Sánchez, M. J.; Pérez-Sirvent, C.; Molina, J.

    2009-04-01

    Determination of the contaminant content is not enough to evaluate the toxic effects or to characterise contaminated sites, because such a measure does not reflect the ecotoxicological danger in the environment and does not provide information on the effects of the chemical compounds. To estimate the risk of contaminants, chemical methods need to be complemented with biological methods. Therefore, ecotoxicological testing may be a useful approach for assessing the toxicity as a complement to chemical analysis. The aim of this study was to develop a battery of bioassays for the ecotoxicological screening of areas polluted by mining activities. Particularly, the toxicity of water samples, sediments and their pore-water extracts was evaluated by using three assays: bacteria, plants and ostracods. Moreover, the possible relationship between observed toxicity and results of chemical analysis was studied. The studied area, Sierra Minera, is close to the mining region of La Uni

  12. Readiness evaluation report -- High-exposure rate hardware removal resumption of activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkman, C.L.

    1996-11-01

    In August 1996, N Basin Project Management proactively ceased activities in the N Basin after noting several radiological control anomalies occurring during the performance of the high exposure rate hardware removal activity. The HERH is one of several activities that will be accomplished to complete deactivation of N Basin. Three project critiques were performed to identify causes and several corrective actions were identified. To ensure the true causes of the events were identified the N Basin Project Manager requested that a root cause analysis be performed for the events covered by the three critiques. The intent was to identify recurring events and evaluate the effectiveness of corrective action implementation. These three review elements were used by the project to develop a corrective action plan (CAP) which consisted of both project unique and programmatic items. The N Basin Project is using this BHI Readiness Evaluation (RE) process as a mechanism to independently verify that corrective actions identified from the CAP have been completed and that no changes have been made during the stand down that affect the resumption of the HERH activities. A readiness evaluation (RE) plan (Attachment 3) was prepared. The completed Readiness Evaluation Records which documents the results of the team member evaluations are in attachment 1. The independent readiness evaluation team identified 5 deficiencies of which two are post startup and three are pre startup. All deficiencies are in the area of training. These findings are explained in detail in Attachment 2

  13. Evaluation of antidiabetic, antioxidant and antiglycating activities of the Eysenhardtia polystachya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Rosa Martha Perez; Baez, Efren Garcia

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many diseases are associated with oxidative stress caused by free radicals. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antidiabetic, antioxidant and antiglycation properties of Eysenhardtia polystachya (EP) bark methanol-water extract. Materials and Methods : The antioxidant capacities were evaluated by studying in vitro the scavenging of DPPH and ABTS free radical, reactive oxygen species such as RO2, O2·-, H2O2, OH., H2O2, ONOO-, NO, HOCl,1 O2, chelating ability, ORAC, β-carotene-bleaching and lipid peroxidation. The antiglycation activities of EP were evaluated by haemoglobin, bovine serum albumin (BSA)-glucose, BSA-methylglyoxal and BSA-glucose assays. Oral administration of EP at the doses of 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/g was studied in normal, glucose-loaded and antidiabetic effects on streptozotocin-induced mildly diabetic (MD) and severely diabetic (SD) mice. Results: EP showed Hdonor activity, free radical scavenging activity, metal chelating ability and lipid peroxidation Antioxidant activity may be attributed to the presence of phenolic and flavonoid compounds. EP is an inhibitor of fluorescent AGE, methylglyoxal and the glycation of haemoglobin. In STZ-induced diabetic mice, EP reduced the blood glucose, increased serum insulin, body weight, marker enzymes of hepatic function, glycogen, HDL, GK and HK while there was reduction in the levels of triglyceride, cholesterol, TBARS, LDL and G6Pase. Conclusions: Eysenhardtia polystachya possesses considerable antioxidant activity with reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activity and demonstrated an anti-AGEs and hepatoprotective role, inhibits hyperglycemic, hyperlipidemic and oxidative stress indicating that these effects may be mediated by interacting with multiple targets operating in diabetes mellitus. PMID:24991120

  14. A Study on the Maintenance Effectiveness Assessment for Active Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Woo Sang; Oh, Seung Jong

    2006-01-01

    One of the key tasks in the periodic safety review (PSR) of nuclear power plant is to assess the aging management of structures, systems and components (SSC). The evaluation can be categorized by two parts, passive and active components. Unlike the passive components, active components are periodically maintained and replaced with new components, so the evaluation of aging mechanism of the passive components such as erosion, corrosion is not applicable to the evaluation of active components of nuclear power plant. For active components, they will maintain capability to fulfill its design function if preventive maintenance effectiveness is proper. In this paper, the assessment based on the reliability and availability of the active components of the domestic nuclear power plants is examined

  15. Investigation of evaluation methods for human factors education effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, Seiichi; Fujimoto, Junzo; Sasou Kunihide; Hasegawa, Naoko

    2004-01-01

    Education effectiveness in accordance with investment is required in the steam of electric power regulation alleviation. Therefore, evaluation methods for human factors education effectiveness which can observe human factors culture pervading process were investigated through research activities on education effectiveness in universities and actual in house education in industry companies. As a result, the contents of evaluation were found to be the change of feeling for human factors and some improving proposals in work places when considering the purpose of human factors education. And, questionnaire is found to be suitable for the style of evaluation. In addition, the timing of evaluation is desirable for both just after education and after some period in work places. Hereafter, data will be collected using these two kinds of questionnaires in human factors education courses in CRIEPI and some education courses in utilities. Thus, education effectiveness evaluation method which is suitable for human factors will be established. (author)

  16. Evaluation of computer-based NDE techniques and regional support of inspection activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, T.T.; Kurtz, R.J.; Heasler, P.G.; Doctor, S.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the technical progress during fiscal year 1990 for the program entitled 'Evaluation of Computer-Based nondestructive evaluation (NDE) Techniques and Regional Support of Inspection Activities.' Highlights of the technical progress include: development of a seminar to provide basic knowledge required to review and evaluate computer-based systems; review of a typical computer-based field procedure to determine compliance with applicable codes, ambiguities in procedure guidance, and overall effectiveness and utility; design and fabrication of a series of three test blocks for NRC staff use for training or audit of UT systems; technical assistance in reviewing (1) San Onofre ten year reactor pressure vessel inservice inspection activities and (2) the capability of a proposed phased array inspection of the feedwater nozzle at Oyster Creek; completion of design calculations to determine the feasibility and significance of various sizes of mockup assemblies that could be used to evaluate the effectiveness of eddy current examinations performed on steam generators; and discussion of initial mockup design features and methods for fabricating flaws in steam generator tubes

  17. Impacts of Socially Responsible Corporate Activities on Korean Consumers’ Corporate Evaluations in the Agrifood Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongmin Lee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The variety of socially responsible corporate activities employed in the agrifood industry has been broadening. An increasing number of agrifood companies have been employing strategic approaches to socially responsible activities, reinforced by Porter and Kramer’s concept of creating shared value (CSV. This study compares the effects on corporate evaluations of two socially responsible corporate activities: philanthropic giving and CSV. Because prior studies concerning the effects of corporate prosocial behaviors on consumer responses have yielded mixed results, the present study examines the effects of a priori perceptions of companies by using corporate stereotypes as moderators. The results show that the type of socially responsible corporate activity (CSV vs. philanthropic giving does not influence corporate evaluations. However, in cases of CSV (vs. philanthropic giving, consumers evaluate an unwarm but competent company more attractively and place higher value on an incompetent but warm company. This research is important not only for enriching existing literature, but also for providing guidelines to practitioners with respect to selecting appropriate corporate initiatives based on perceived consumer stereotypes.

  18. Evaluation of In Vitro Anti-inflammatory Activity of Azomethines of Aryl Oxazoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Niraimathi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ability to inhibit erythrocyte hemolysis is often used as a characteristic of the membrane stabilising action of chemical compounds. Azomethines of aryl oxazoles were evaluated for anti-inflammatory by in vitro hemolytic membrane stabilising study. The effect of inflammation condition was studied on erythrocyte exposed to hypotonic solution. In this in vitro method the membrane stabilising action leads to anti-inflammatory activity and was compared with that produced by diclofenac sodium as the reference standard. Results of the evaluation indicate that the synthesised compounds found to exhibit membrane stabilising activity.

  19. Effective dose to radon considering people's activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimo, M.; Seki, K.; Kikuchi, I.

    1992-01-01

    The tidal volume was estimated for evaluating the effective dose due to radon concentration in the atmosphere. In this study regional population was separated to vocation and non-vocation. The occupancy time and the breathing rate for both vocation and non-vocation groups were estimated, and the annual tidal volume for both groups were calculated. Human actions were separated to 18 activities in the process for estimating the breathing rate. It was clear that the breathing rate depended on human activity and that the human activity changed with its age, so the breathing rate varied with age. Finally the effective doses due to radon and radon progeny indoors and outdoors were evaluated. The maximum annual effective dose was estimated to be 1.2 mSv, minimum 0.2 mSv, and mean 0.51 mSv for vocation. For non-vocation, the male maximum value 0.43 mSv was obtained at the 16 age and the minimum 0.12 mSv at the 70 age, whereas female maximum 0.26 mSv was obtained at the 12 age and the minimum 0.11 mSv at the 70 age. In addition in this study objective areas are Aichi, Gifu, and Mie prefectures for vocation and only Aichi prefecture for non-vocation. (author)

  20. Evaluation of Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Activities of the Root ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Activities of the Root Extracts of Indigofera spicata F. in Mice. ... The results clearly demonstrate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of the aqueous and 80% methanolic root extracts of the plant, providing evidence in part for the folkloric use of the plant. Keywords: ...

  1. Study on the evaluation index of active power reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaorui; Liu, Jiantao; Wang, Ke; Min, Lu

    2018-01-01

    Based on the role of active reserve at different time scales, divides the evaluation dimension of active reserve. Analysis the calculation principle of traditional reliability index such as probability of system safety, lack of power shortage and electricity shortage expectancy, and studies the applicability of these indicators to evaluate the reserve capacity on different dimensions. Resolves the evaluation index of active reserve capacity from the dimensions of time dimension, spatial dimension, system state, risk degree and economy, then construct evaluation index of active reserve capacity.

  2. In vitro Screening and Evaluation of 37 Traditional Chinese Medicines for Their Potential to Activate Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors-γ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Die; Zhang, Yonglan; Yang, Fengqing; Lin, Yexin; Zhang, Qihui; Xia, Zhining

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR)-γ is widely used as an attractive target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Thiazolidinediones, the agonists of PPARγ, has been popularly utilized as insulin sensitizers in the therapy of type 2 diabetes whereas numerous severe side-effects may also occur concomitantly. The PPARγ activation activity of different polar extracts, including petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, residual of ethanol, the precipitate part of water and the supernatant of water extracts, from 37 traditional Chinese medicines were systematically evaluated. HeLa cells were transiently co-transfected with the re-constructed plasmids of GAL4-PPARγ-ligand binding domain and pGL4.35. The activation of PPARγ by different polarity extracts were evaluated based on the PPARγ transactivation assay and rosiglitazone was used as positive control. Seven medicines (root bark of Lycium barbarum, Anoectochilus sroxburghii, the rhizome of Phragmites australis, Pterocephalus hookeri, Polygonatum sibiricum, fruit of Gleditsia sinensis, and Epimedium brevicornu) were able to significantly activate PPARγ. As seven medicines were able to activate PPARγ, the anti-diabetic activity of them is likely to be mediated by this nuclear receptor. Lots of the tested medicinal products had activation effects on activating PPARγEthyl acetate extracts of root bark of L.barbarum, rhizome of P.saustralis and fruit of G.siasinensis showed good PPARγ activation effect similar or higher than that of positive control, 0.5 μg/mL rosiglitazonePetroleum ether extracts of A.roxburghii, P. hookeri, P. sibiricum, E.brevicornu also can significantly activate PPARγ, the effects of them were higher than t0.5 μg/mL rosiglitazoneSchisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill., the fruit Cornus officinalis Siebold and Zucc., Alisma plantago-aquatica L. and the root of Trichosanthes Kirilowii Maxim., traditional anti-diabetic mediciness in China, had no effects on the

  3. Endophytic fungi isolated from wheat (Triticum durum Desf.): evaluation of their antimicrobial activity, antioxidant activity and host growth promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harzallah, Daoud; Sadrati, Nouari; Zerroug, Amina; Dahamna, Saliha; Bouharati, Saddek

    2012-01-01

    The emergence of antibiotic-resistant micro-organisms calls for inventive research and development strategies. The screening for antimicrobial compounds from endophytes is a promising way to meet the increasing threat of drug-resistant strains of human and plant pathogens. Endophytes may be defined as "microbes that colonize living, internal tissues of plants without causing any immediate, overt negative effects". Endophytes are relatively unstudied as potential sources of novel natural products for exploitation in medicine, agriculture, and industry. The purpose of this study was to evaluate several isolated fungi from wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) Mohamed Ben Bachir variety and to select endophytic fungi for further evaluation of its antimicrobial, antioxidant activities and host growth promotion. A total of 20 endophytic fungi have been isolated. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated for crude ethyl acetate extracts using an agar diffusion assay. All extracts showed inhibitory activity on at least one or more pathogenic microorganism, with an average zone of inhibition varied between 7 mm to 25 mm, a large zone of 23 and 25mm against candida albicans and Escherichia coli respectively. The antioxidant capacity of the extracts was evaluated by beta-carotene/linoleic acid assay. Results showed that 70% of these extracts have antioxidant activity, exhibiting 50, 57% to 78, 96% inhibitions. While 30% from them, their inhibitory activity for oxidation of linoleic acid Were less than 50%. Growth promotion ability of these endophytes was tested on seed germination among ten isolates tested, two isolates showed significant growth promotion effects on wheat seeds. From the present work we can conclude that these microorganisms could be promising source of bioactive compounds, growth promotion and warrant further study.

  4. Effects of a perfusion bioreactor activated novel bone substitute in spine fusion in sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Roed; Koroma, Kariatta Ester; Ding, Ming

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of a large perfusion-bioreactor cell-activated bone substitute, on a two-level large posterolateral spine fusion sheep model.......To evaluate the effect of a large perfusion-bioreactor cell-activated bone substitute, on a two-level large posterolateral spine fusion sheep model....

  5. Active spectral imaging nondestructive evaluation (SINDE) camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simova, E.; Rochefort, P.A., E-mail: eli.simova@cnl.ca [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    A proof-of-concept video camera for active spectral imaging nondestructive evaluation has been demonstrated. An active multispectral imaging technique has been implemented in the visible and near infrared by using light emitting diodes with wavelengths spanning from 400 to 970 nm. This shows how the camera can be used in nondestructive evaluation to inspect surfaces and spectrally identify materials and corrosion. (author)

  6. A RE-AIM evaluation of theory-based physical activity interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antikainen, Iina; Ellis, Rebecca

    2011-04-01

    Although physical activity interventions have been shown to effectively modify behavior, little research has examined the potential of these interventions for adoption in real-world settings. The purpose of this literature review was to evaluate the external validity of 57 theory-based physical activity interventions using the RE-AIM framework. The physical activity interventions included were more likely to report on issues of internal, rather than external validity and on individual, rather than organizational components of the RE-AIM framework, making the translation of many interventions into practice difficult. Furthermore, most studies included motivated, healthy participants, thus reducing the generalizability of the interventions to real-world settings that provide services to more diverse populations. To determine if a given intervention is feasible and effective in translational research, more information should be reported about the factors that affect external validity.

  7. In vitro effects of recombinant activated factor VII on thrombin generation and coagulation following inhibition of platelet procoagulant activity by prasugrel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzeffi, Michael; Szlam, Fania; Jakubowski, Joseph A; Tanaka, Kenichi A; Sugidachi, Atsuhiro; Levy, Jerrold H

    2013-07-01

    Prasugrel is a thienopyridyl P2Y12 antagonist with potent antiplatelet effects. At present, little is known about its effects on thrombin generation or what strategies may emergently reverse its anticoagulant effects. In the current study we evaluated whether recombinant activated factor VII may reverse prasugrel induced effects and increase thrombin generation in an in vitro model. The effect of prasugrel active metabolite, PAM (R-138727), was evaluated on platelet aggregation, thrombin generation, and rotational thromboelastometry parameters using blood from 20 healthy volunteers. Additionally, we evaluated the effects of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and recombinant activated factor VII on restoring these parameters towards baseline values. PAM reduced maximum platelet aggregation and led to platelet disaggregation. It also decreased peak thrombin, increased lag time, and increased time to peak thrombin. Treatment with recombinant activated factor VII restored all three parameters of thrombin generation towards baseline. ADP decreased lag time and time to peak thrombin, but had no effect on peak thrombin. When recombinant activated factor VII and ADP were combined they had a greater effect on thrombin parameters than either drug alone. PAM also increased thromboelastometric clotting time and clot formation time, but had no effect on maximum clot firmness. Treatment with either recombinant activated factor VII or ADP restored these values towards baseline. Recombinant activated factor VII restores thrombin generation in the presence of PAM. In patients taking prasugrel with life-threatening refractory bleeding it has the potential to be a useful therapeutic approach. Additional clinical studies are needed to validate our findings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Raman spectroscopy for the evaluation of the effects of different concentrations of Copper on the chemical composition and biological activity of basil essential oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Haq; Hanif, Muhammad Asif; Ayub, Muhammad Adnan; Ishtiaq, Faiqa; Kanwal, Nazish; Rashid, Nosheen; Saleem, Muhammad; Ahmad, Mushtaq

    2017-10-01

    The present study is performed to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of Cu as fertilizer on the chemical composition of basil essential oil and its biological activity including antioxidant and antifungal activities by employing Raman spectroscopy. Moreover, the effect of Cu is also determined on the vegetative growth and essential oil yield. Both, antifungal and antioxidant activities were found to be maximum with essential oils obtained at 0.04 mg/l concentration of Cu fertilizer. The results of the GC-MS and Raman spectroscopy have revealed that the linalool and estragole are found to be as a major chemical compound in basil essential oil. The Raman spectral changes associated with these biological components lead to the conclusion that estragole seems to have dominating effect in the biological activities of the basil essential oil as compared to linalool although the latter is observed in greater concentration.

  9. Development of methods for evaluating active faults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-08-15

    The HERP report for long-term evaluation of active faults and the NSC safety review guide with regard to geology and ground of site were published on Nov. 2010 and on Dec. 2010, respectively. With respect to those reports, our investigation is as follows; (1) For assessment of seismic hazard, we estimated seismic sources around NPPs based on information of tectonic geomorphology, earthquake distribution and subsurface geology. (2) For evaluation on the activity of blind fault, we calculated the slip rate on the 2008 Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku Earthquake fault, using information on late Quaternary fluvial terraces. (3) To evaluate the magnitude of earthquakes whose sources are difficult to identify, we proposed a new method for calculation of the seismogenic layer thickness. (4) To clarify the activities of active faults without superstratum, we carried out the color analysis of fault gouge and divided the activities into thousand of years and tens of thousands. (5) For improving chronology of sediments, we detected new widespread cryptotephras using mineral chemistry and developed late Quaternary cryptotephrostratigraphy around NPPs. (author)

  10. Evaluation of the antioxidant activity of Betula pendula leaves extract and its effects on model foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azman, Nurul Aini Mohd; Skowyra, Monika; Muhammad, Kwestan; Gallego, María Gabriela; Almajano, Maria Pilar

    2017-12-01

    Betula pendula Roth (Betulaceae) exhibits many pharmacological activities in humans including anticancer, antibacterial, and antiviral effects. However, the antioxidant activity of BP towards lipid degradation has not been fully determined. The BP ethanol and methanol extracts were evaluated to determine antioxidant activity by an in vitro method and lyophilized extract of BP was added to beef patties to study oxidative stability. Antioxidant activities of extracts of BP were determined by measuring scavenging radical activity against methoxy radical generated by Fenton reaction 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (TEAC) radical cation, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. The lipid deterioration in beef patties containing 0.1% and 0.3% (w/w) of lyophilized extract of BP stored in 80:20 (v/v) O 2 :CO 2 modified atmosphere (MAP) at 4 °C for 10 days was determined using thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS), % metmyoglobin and colour value. The BP methanol extract revealed the presence of catechin, myricetin, quercetin, naringenin, and p-coumaric acid. The BP ethanol (50% w/w) extract showed scavenging activity in TEAC, ORAC and FRAP assays with values of 1.45, 2.81, 1.52 mmol Trolox equivalents (TE)/g DW, respectively. Reductions in lipid oxidation were found in samples treated with lyophilized BP extract (0.1% and 0.3% w/w) as manifested by the changes of colour and metmyoglobin concentration. A preliminary study film with BP showed retard degradation of lipid in muscle food. The present results indicated that the BP extracts can be used as natural food antioxidants.

  11. Evaluation of nuclear reactor based activation analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obrusnik, I.; Kucera, J.

    1977-09-01

    A survey is presented of the basic types of activation analysis applied in environmental control. Reactor neutron activation analysis is described (including the reactor as a neutron source, sample activation in the reactor, methodology of neutron activation analysis, sample transport into the reactor and sample packaging after irradiation, instrumental activation analysis with radiochemical separation, data measurement and evaluation, sampling and sample preparation). Sources of environmental contamination with trace elements, sampling and sample analysis by neutron activation are described. The analysis is described of soils, waters and biological materials. Methods are shown of evaluating neutron activation analysis results and of their interpretation for purposes of environmental control. (J.B.)

  12. Methodology For Evaluation Of Regulatory Effectiveness In Physical Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izmaylov, Alexander; Valente, John; Griggs, James R.; Rexroth, Paul; Piskarev, Alexander; Babkin, Vladimir; Sokolov, Egor; Melton, Ronald B.; Cunningham, Mitchel E.; Baker, Kathryn A.; Brothers, Alan J.

    2005-01-01

    Material protection, control, and accounting (MPC and A) regulatory documents play an important role in securing and protecting nuclear material by regulating a variety of activities at different hierarchical levels. The development, implementation, and practical application of these regulatory documents requires a significant investment of financial and material resources. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the effectiveness of the regulatory development process and the extent to which regulations improve the effectiveness of MPC and A at nuclear sites. The joint Russian and U.S. Regulatory Development Project has a goal of evaluating the effectiveness of regulatory documents developed for MPC and A. As part of this joint Project, a methodology for evaluating effectiveness has been developed. This methodology was developed around physical protection objectives. The developed methodology specifies physical protection objectives to be accomplished through the implementation of a regulatory system based on the physical protection goals at the nuclear sites. It includes approaches to assessing regulatory effectiveness, the hierarchical structure of physical protection objectives to be accomplished through implementing regulations, a 'mapping' of the physical protection objectives to the regulatory framework, a list of criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of physical protection regulations and effectiveness indicators, as well as means and methods for gathering information and implementation of this evaluation.

  13. A framework for evaluating community-based physical activity promotion programmes in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Thomas L; Librett, John; Neiman, Andrea; Pratt, Michael; Salmon, Art

    2006-01-01

    A growing interest in promoting physical activity through multi-sectoral community-based programmes has highlighted the need for effective programme evaluation. Meeting in Rio de Janeiro, an international workgroup of behavioural, medical, public health and other scientists and practitioners endorsed the principle of careful evaluation of all programmes and in a consensus process developed the Rio de Janeiro Recommendations for Evaluation of Physical Activity Interventions". Among these recommendations and principles were that when possible, evaluation should 'built into' the programme from the beginning. The workgroup also called for adequate funding for evaluation, setting a goal of about 10% of programme resources for evaluation. The group also determined that evaluations should be developed in conjunction with and the results shared with all appropriate stakeholders in the programme; evaluations should be guided by ethical standards such as those proposed by the American Evaluation Association and should assess programme processes as well as outcomes; evaluation outcomes should be used to revise and refine ongoing programmes and guide decisions about programme continuation or expansion. It was also recognised that additional training in programme evaluation is needed and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Physical Activity Evaluation Handbook could be easily adapted for use in culturally diverse communities, especially in Latin America. This paper describes a 6-step evaluation process and provides the full set of recommendations from the Rio de Janeiro Workgroup. The handbook has been translated and additional case studies from Colombia and Brazil have been added. Spanish and Portuguese language editions of the Evaluation Handbook are available from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Physical Activity and Health Branch.

  14. 45 CFR 2516.820 - What types of internal evaluation activities are required of programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... required to: (a) Continuously assess management effectiveness, the quality of services provided, and the satisfaction of both participants and service recipients. Internal evaluations should seek frequent feedback... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What types of internal evaluation activities are...

  15. Workforce development and effective evaluation of projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Claire; Green, Tess; Blass, Eddie

    The success of a project or programme is typically determined in relation to outputs. However, there is a commitment among UK public services to spending public funds efficiently and on activities that provide the greatest benefit to society. Skills for Health recognised the need for a tool to manage the complex process of evaluating project benefits. An integrated evaluation framework was developed to help practitioners identify, describe, measure and evaluate the benefits of workforce development projects. Practitioners tested the framework on projects within three NHS trusts and provided valuable feedback to support its development. The prospective approach taken to identify benefits and collect baseline data to support evaluation was positively received and the clarity and completeness of the framework, as well as the relevance of the questions, were commended. Users reported that the framework was difficult to complete; an online version could be developed, which might help to improve usability. Effective implementation of this approach will depend on the quality and usability of the framework, the willingness of organisations to implement it, and the presence or establishment of an effective change management culture.

  16. Evaluation of Biological Activities of Chemically Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostafa, A. A.; Solkamy, E.N.; Sayed, Sh. R. M.; Khan, M.; Shaik, M.R.; Al-Warthan, A.; Adil, S.F.

    2015-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles were synthesized by the earlier reported methods. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry (UV/Vis), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The synthesized materials were also evaluated for their antibacterial activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial strains. TEM micrograph showed the spherical morphology of AgNPs with size range of 40-60 nm. The synthesized nanoparticles showed a strong antimicrobial activity and their effect depends upon bacterial strain as AgNPs exhibited greater inhibition zone for Pseudomonas aeruginosa (19.1 mm) followed by Staphylococcus aureus (14.8?mm) and S. pyogenes (13.6 mm) while the least activity was observed for Salmonella typhi (12.5 mm) at concentration of 5 μg/disc. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of AgNPs against S. aureus was 2.5 μg/disc and less than 2.5 μg/disc for P. aeruginosa. These results suggested that AgNPs can be used as an effective antiseptic agent for infectious control in medical field.

  17. Evaluation of antibacterial effect of Myrtus communis against Acinetobacter baumannii clinical strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venous Akhavan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Because of inappropriate use of antibiotics and prevalence of resistant bacteria, there is urgent need for antibacterial drugs that have fewer side effects than antibiotics. Myrtus communis is a medicinal plant which had many uses in traditional medicine. In this study, ethanol leave extract of this plant is tested on Acinetobacter baumannii. In the case of antimicrobial evaluation of plants, one of the effecting factors on effectiveness of the microbial inhibition is extraction techniques. In the presents study, the antibacterial activity of the Ethanol, Methanol, and Ethyl acetate extracts of M. communis plant was evaluated at seven different concentrations by broth microdilution method. The results of this study showed that the antimicrobial effect of M. communis extract is concentration dependent. Different extracts were obtained by the maceration method. Extracts of the plant exhibited antibacterial activity at varied levels against A. baumannii. Obtained results from our antibacterial experiments showed that all extracts have anti-bacterial activity against tested bacterial isolates According to the results, the ethyl acetate extracted fraction showed the highest level of activity at a MIC 400 mg/ml for A. baumannii. The results of this study indicate that, different extracts had growth inhibitory effect on A. baumannii. Therefore this plant has the potential to be evaluated as an alternative or adjunct to antibiotics to treat Acinetobacter infections.

  18. Preparation, Optimization and Activity Evaluation of PLGA/Streptokinase Nanoparticles Using Electrospray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Yaghoobi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: PLGA nanoparticles (NPs have been extensively investigated as carriers of different drug molecules to enhance their therapeutic effects or preserve them from the aqueous environment. Streptokinase (SK is an important medicine for thrombotic diseases. Methods: In this study, we used electrospray to encapsulate SK in PLGA NPs and evaluate its activity. This is the first paper which investigates activity of an electrosprayed enzyme. Effect of three input parameters, namely, voltage, internal diameter of needle (nozzle and concentration ratio of polymer to protein on size and size distribution (SD of NPs was evaluated using artificial neural networks (ANNs. Optimizing the SD has been rarely reported so far in electrospray. Results: From the results, to obtain lowest size of nanoparticles, ratio of polymer/enzyme and needle internal diameter (ID should be low. Also, minimum SD was obtainable at high values of voltage. The optimum preparation had mean (SD size, encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity of 37 (12 nm, 90% and 8.2%, respectively. Nearly, 20% of SK was released in the first 30 minutes, followed by cumulative release of 41% during 72 h. Activity of the enzyme was also checked 30 min after preparation and 19.2% activity was shown. Conclusion: Our study showed that electrospraying could be an interesting approach to encapsulate proteins/enzymes in polymeric nanoparticles. However, further works are required to assure maintaining the activity of the enzyme/protein after electrospray.

  19. The effect of before school physical activity on child development: A study protocol to evaluate the Build Our Kids Success (BOKS) Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pojednic, Rachele; Peabody, Stephanie; Carson, Shelley; Kennedy, Mary; Bevans, Katherine; Phillips, Edward M

    2016-07-01

    Most childhood physical activity interventions focus on reducing childhood obesity with varying success, indicating that body mass index (BMI) may be a limited marker of health in children. To better understand overall childhood health and wellbeing, this study is investigating BOKS (Build Our Kids Success), an established ongoing before-school physical activity program, to evaluate students' physical health, mental health, cognitive capacity, and academic performance. The study is a non-randomized controlled trial with 26 elementary and middle schools in 3 Massachusetts communities, including first through eighth grade (aged 5-14) students, their parents, and teachers. Data collection is occurring during the 2015-2016 school year. Physical fitness is being assessed via 400m run and anthropometrics via height and weight measures (BMI). Psychosocial outcomes are being assessed via student, parent, and teacher survey and include nutrition, daily activities, emotional and relationship scales, bullying and victimization, vitality and energy, student engagement, stress, positive affect, self-efficacy and life satisfaction. Academic performance is reported by grades. Statistical methods include a psychometric evaluation of study measures, Pearson correlations, Student's t-tests, ANOVA/ANCOVA and multivariate linear regression including multilevel modeling analyses to account for the hierarchical organization of the data. This study is investigating a before school physical activity program on parameters of physical health, mental health, cognitive capacity, and academic performance by employing a novel triad approach, correlating the input of the child, parent, and teacher. Outcomes will evaluate the effectiveness of a before school physical activity program in elementary and middle schools and potentially provide valuable information for schools looking to institute innovative physical activity programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Quantitative genetic activity graphical profiles for use in chemical evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waters, M.D. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States); Stack, H.F.; Garrett, N.E.; Jackson, M.A. [Environmental Health Research and Testing, Inc., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    A graphic approach, terms a Genetic Activity Profile (GAP), was developed to display a matrix of data on the genetic and related effects of selected chemical agents. The profiles provide a visual overview of the quantitative (doses) and qualitative (test results) data for each chemical. Either the lowest effective dose or highest ineffective dose is recorded for each agent and bioassay. Up to 200 different test systems are represented across the GAP. Bioassay systems are organized according to the phylogeny of the test organisms and the end points of genetic activity. The methodology for producing and evaluating genetic activity profile was developed in collaboration with the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Data on individual chemicals were compiles by IARC and by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Data are available on 343 compounds selected from volumes 1-53 of the IARC Monographs and on 115 compounds identified as Superfund Priority Substances. Software to display the GAPs on an IBM-compatible personal computer is available from the authors. Structurally similar compounds frequently display qualitatively and quantitatively similar profiles of genetic activity. Through examination of the patterns of GAPs of pairs and groups of chemicals, it is possible to make more informed decisions regarding the selection of test batteries to be used in evaluation of chemical analogs. GAPs provided useful data for development of weight-of-evidence hazard ranking schemes. Also, some knowledge of the potential genetic activity of complex environmental mixtures may be gained from an assessment of the genetic activity profiles of component chemicals. The fundamental techniques and computer programs devised for the GAP database may be used to develop similar databases in other disciplines. 36 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Degradation of lindane by microorganisms. Evaluation of inhibitory effect on microbial activity using radiorespirometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farghaly, M.; Zayed, S.M.A.D.; Soliman, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    The degradation of U- 14 C-lindane in two type of Egyptian soil was studied under laboratory conditions. The rate of mineralization of lindane was slow. Evolution of 14 CO 2 increased with time and amounted to 3.5-5.5% of the initial concentration within 90 days. At this period both soil types contained about 88% of the applied radiocarbon; 33-37% of the initial dose being bound to the soil. The methanol 14 C-extractables showed by TLC and HPLC analysis the presence of lindane as main product together with traces of minor metabolites. In addition, the effect of different rates of application of lindane on the respiratory activity of soil microorganisms was evaluated using U- 14 C-glucose as substrate. Concentrations up to 5 mgkg -1 caused a short term suppression of 14 CO 2 evolution. A dose of 10 mgkg -1 significantly inhibited soil respiration as determined by 14 Co 2 evolution for the 11 day period of the experiment. (author). 8 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs

  2. OGSA Globus Toolkits evaluation activity at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, D; Foster, D; Kalyaev, V; Kryukov, A; Lamanna, M; Pose, V; Rocha, R; Wang, C

    2004-01-01

    An Open Grid Service Architecture (OGSA) Globus Toolkit 3 (GT3) evaluation group is active at CERN since GT3 was available in early beta version (Spring 2003). This activity focuses on the evaluation of the technology as promised by the OGSA/OGSI paradigm and on GT3 in particular. The goal is to study this new technology and its implications with the goal to provide useful input for the large grid initiatives active in the LHC Computing Grid (LCG) project. A particular effort has been devoted to investigate performance and deployment issues, having in mind the LCG requirements, in particular scalability and robustness.

  3. International intercomparison of neutron spectra evaluating methods using activation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, A.

    1975-06-01

    The international intercomparison of neutron spectrum evaluation methods using activation detectors was organized by the IAEA in 1971 - 1972. All of the contributions and the results of a critical evaluation are presented here. The spectra of different contributors are compared to a reference spectrum by means of different integrals and weighting functions. Different cross section sets, foil numbers, energy point systems, guess spectra used by the contributors cause differences in the resulting spectra. The possible ways of separating these effects are also investigated. Suggestions are made for the organization of a new intercomparison on the basis of more uniform input data. (orig.) [de

  4. Clinical and Spectrophotometric Evaluation of LED and Laser Activated Teeth Bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Giudice, R; Pantaleo, G; Lizio, A; Romeo, U; Castiello, G; Spagnuolo, G; Giudice, G Lo

    2016-01-01

    Auxiliary power sources (LED and laser) are used in in-office teeth bleaching techniques to accelerate the redox reaction of the whitening gel to increase ease of use, to improve comfort and safety, and to decrease the procedure time. The aim this study is to evaluate the efficiency of the teeth whitening procedures performed with hydrogen peroxide and carbamide peroxide, LED or Laser activated. 18 patients, affected by exogenous dyschromia, were treated with a bleaching agent composed by 35% hydrogen peroxide and 10% carbamide peroxide. They were divided into two groups: in the first group the bleaching agent was activated by a LED lamp; in the second group it was activated by a Laser diode lamp. Both groups were subjected to 3 bleaching cycle of 15' each. The chromatic evaluations were performed before and after one week from the treatment, using a chromatic scale and a spectrophotometer. The mean value of pre, post bleaching and follow-up were analyzed using a T-test, with results statistically significant for Pbleaching effectiveness. All patients treated with laser activation complained an increase in dental sensitivity. The use of laser-activating systems did not improve the efficacy of bleaching.

  5. A database model for evaluating material accountability safeguards effectiveness against protracted theft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sicherman, A.; Fortney, D.S.; Patenaude, C.J.

    1993-07-01

    DOE Material Control and Accountability Order 5633.3A requires that facilities handling special nuclear material evaluate their effectiveness against protracted theft (repeated thefts of small quantities of material, typically occurring over an extended time frame, to accumulate a goal quantity). Because a protracted theft attempt can extend over time, material accountability-like (MA) safeguards may help detect a protracted theft attempt in progress. Inventory anomalies, and material not in its authorized location when requested for processing are examples of MA detection mechanisms. Crediting such detection in evaluations, however, requires taking into account potential insider subversion of MA safeguards. In this paper, the authors describe a database model for evaluating MA safeguards effectiveness against protracted theft that addresses potential subversion. The model includes a detailed yet practical structure for characterizing various types of MA activities, lists of potential insider MA defeat methods and access/authority related to MA activities, and an initial implementation of built-in MA detection probabilities. This database model, implemented in the new Protracted Insider module of ASSESS (Analytic System and Software for Evaluating Safeguards and Security), helps facilitate the systematic collection of relevant information about MA activity steps, and ''standardize'' MA safeguards evaluations

  6. Evaluation of Cynodon dactylon for wound healing activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Tuhin Kanti; Pandit, Srikanta; Chakrabarti, Shrabana; Banerjee, Saheli; Poyra, Nandini; Seal, Tapan

    2017-02-02

    Research in the field of wound healing is very recent. The concept of wound healing is changing from day to day. Ayurveda is the richest source of plant drugs for management of wounds and Cynodon dactylon L. is one such. The plant is used as hemostatic and wound healing agent from ethnopharmacological point of view. Aim of the present study is scientific validation of the plant for wound healing activity in detail. Aqueous extract of the plant was prepared and phytochemical constituents were detected by HPLC analysis. Acute and dermatological toxicity study of the extract was performed. Pharmacological testing of 15% ointment (w/w) of the extract with respect to placebo control and standard comparator framycetin were done on full thickness punch wound in Wister rats and effects were evaluated based on parameters like wound contraction size (mm 2 ), tensile strength (g); tissue DNA, RNA, protein, hydroxyproline and histological examination. The ointment was applied on selected clinical cases of chronic and complicated wounds and efficacy was evaluated on basis of scoring on granulation, epithelialization, vascularity as well as routine hematological investigations. Significant results (pCynodon dactylon explores its potential wound healing activity in animal model and subsequent feasibility in human subjects. Phenolic acids and flavonoids present in c. dactylon supports its wound healing property for its anti-oxidative activity that are responsible for collagenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Preliminary phytochemical screening and evaluation of antibacterial activity of Dichrocepala integrifolia (L.f O. kuntze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesfaye Mohammed

    2012-02-01

    Conclusion and Recommendation: In general the antimicrobial activity of the plant observed here support the tradition therapeutic claim of the society. Further study should be conducted in further evaluating its antimicrobial effectiveness and also purification of the active chemical constituents that could be responsible for its biological activity. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2012; 1(1.000: 30-34

  8. Effectiveness of marketing in management marketing activity agricultural companies

    OpenAIRE

    KUCHER O.

    2012-01-01

    Modern approaches to evaluating the effectiveness of marketing activity are investigated. The influence of marketing expenses on actualization volume of output is analyzed. A methodical approach of defining economic efficiency in marketing sales in management business is offered.

  9. Combining users' activity survey and simulators to evaluate human activity recognition systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azkune, Gorka; Almeida, Aitor; López-de-Ipiña, Diego; Chen, Liming

    2015-04-08

    Evaluating human activity recognition systems usually implies following expensive and time-consuming methodologies, where experiments with humans are run with the consequent ethical and legal issues. We propose a novel evaluation methodology to overcome the enumerated problems, which is based on surveys for users and a synthetic dataset generator tool. Surveys allow capturing how different users perform activities of daily living, while the synthetic dataset generator is used to create properly labelled activity datasets modelled with the information extracted from surveys. Important aspects, such as sensor noise, varying time lapses and user erratic behaviour, can also be simulated using the tool. The proposed methodology is shown to have very important advantages that allow researchers to carry out their work more efficiently. To evaluate the approach, a synthetic dataset generated following the proposed methodology is compared to a real dataset computing the similarity between sensor occurrence frequencies. It is concluded that the similarity between both datasets is more than significant.

  10. Combining Users’ Activity Survey and Simulators to Evaluate Human Activity Recognition Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorka Azkune

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating human activity recognition systems usually implies following expensive and time-consuming methodologies, where experiments with humans are run with the consequent ethical and legal issues. We propose a novel evaluation methodology to overcome the enumerated problems, which is based on surveys for users and a synthetic dataset generator tool. Surveys allow capturing how different users perform activities of daily living, while the synthetic dataset generator is used to create properly labelled activity datasets modelled with the information extracted from surveys. Important aspects, such as sensor noise, varying time lapses and user erratic behaviour, can also be simulated using the tool. The proposed methodology is shown to have very important advantages that allow researchers to carry out their work more efficiently. To evaluate the approach, a synthetic dataset generated following the proposed methodology is compared to a real dataset computing the similarity between sensor occurrence frequencies. It is concluded that the similarity between both datasets is more than significant.

  11. Combining Users' Activity Survey and Simulators to Evaluate Human Activity Recognition Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azkune, Gorka; Almeida, Aitor; López-de-Ipiña, Diego; Chen, Liming

    2015-01-01

    Evaluating human activity recognition systems usually implies following expensive and time-consuming methodologies, where experiments with humans are run with the consequent ethical and legal issues. We propose a novel evaluation methodology to overcome the enumerated problems, which is based on surveys for users and a synthetic dataset generator tool. Surveys allow capturing how different users perform activities of daily living, while the synthetic dataset generator is used to create properly labelled activity datasets modelled with the information extracted from surveys. Important aspects, such as sensor noise, varying time lapses and user erratic behaviour, can also be simulated using the tool. The proposed methodology is shown to have very important advantages that allow researchers to carry out their work more efficiently. To evaluate the approach, a synthetic dataset generated following the proposed methodology is compared to a real dataset computing the similarity between sensor occurrence frequencies. It is concluded that the similarity between both datasets is more than significant. PMID:25856329

  12. Evaluation of Results from Sales Promotion Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpia Ban

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available An essential element of the sales promotion strategy and not only is the evaluation of the results obtained from the activities performed. Due to their nature and applicability, the evaluation of the sales promotion is much easier to be achieved, but it raises some problems. Using a hypothetical example, we have tried to develop a "classic" evaluation model of the specialty literature.

  13. Synthesis and biological evaluation of arctigenin ester and ether derivatives as activators of AMPK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Sida; Zhuang, Jingjing; Chen, Yijia; Lei, Min; Chen, Jing; Shen, Xu; Hu, Lihong

    2013-07-01

    A series of new arctigenin and 9-deoxy-arctigenin derivatives bearing different ester and ether side chains at the phenolic hydroxyl positions are designed, synthesized, and evaluated for activating AMPK potency in L6 myoblasts. Initial biological evaluation indicates that some alkyl ester and phenethyl ether arctigenin derivatives display potential activities in AMPK phosphorylation improvement. Further structure-activity relationship analysis shows that arctigenin ester derivatives 3a, 3h and 9-deoxy-arctigenin phenethyl ether derivatives 6a, 6c, 6d activate AMPK more potently than arctigenin. Moreover, the 2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethyl ether moiety of 6c has been demonstrated as a potential functional group to improve the effect of AMPK phosphorylation. The structural optimization of arctigenin leads to the identification of 6c as a promising lead compound that exhibits excellent activity in AMPK activation. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of photocatalytic activities of supported catalysts on NaX zeolite or activated charcoal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brites-Nóbrega, Fernanda F. de [Chemical Engineering Department, Universidade Estadual de Maringá (UEM), Av. Colombo, 5790, CEP 87020-900 Maringá, PR (Brazil); Sanitary and Environmental Engineering Department, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Av. Antônio Carlos, 6627, Campus Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Polo, Aldino N.B.; Benedetti, Angélica M. [Chemical Engineering Department, Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná (UNIOESTE), Rua da Faculdade, 645, CEP 85903-000 Toledo, PR (Brazil); Leão, Mônica M.D. [Sanitary and Environmental Engineering Department, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Av. Antônio Carlos, 6627, Campus Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Slusarski-Santana, Veronice, E-mail: veronice.santana@unioeste.br [Chemical Engineering Department, Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná (UNIOESTE), Rua da Faculdade, 645, CEP 85903-000 Toledo, PR (Brazil); Fernandes-Machado, Nádia R.C. [Chemical Engineering Department, Universidade Estadual de Maringá (UEM), Av. Colombo, 5790, CEP 87020-900 Maringá, PR (Brazil)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • The synergic effect between ZnO and NaX was positive, which increased its activity. • The best results were obtained at pH 3 and 9 with ZnO/NaX and at pH 3 with Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/AC. • High degradation and considerable mineralization were attained with 10% ZnO/NaX. • ZnO and Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} supported on NaX and AC are promising alternatives as photocatalysts. -- Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the photocatalytic activity of ZnO and Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} catalysts, both supported on NaX zeolite and activated charcoal (AC). The synergistic effect between oxide and support and the influence of solution pH (3, 7 and 9) on photocatalytic degradation of reactive blue 5G (C.I. 222) were analyzed. The catalysts Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/NaX, Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/AC and ZnO/NaX, ZnO/AC with 5 and 10% (wt%) were prepared by wet impregnation. The results showed that the catalysts exhibit quite different structural and textural properties. The synergic effect between ZnO and NaX support was higher than that with the activated charcoal, showing that these catalysts were more efficient. The most photoactive catalyst was 10% ZnO/NaX which showed 100% discoloration of the dye solution at pH 3, 7 and 9 after 0.5, 5 and 2 h of irradiation, respectively. The hydrolytic nature of zeolite favored the formation of surface hydroxyl radicals, which increased the activity of the photocatalyst. Thus, catalysts supported on NaX zeolite are promising for use in photocatalysis.

  15. Evaluation of the effects of the Arm Light Exoskeleton on movement execution and muscle activities: a pilot study on healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirondini, Elvira; Coscia, Martina; Marcheschi, Simone; Roas, Gianluca; Salsedo, Fabio; Frisoli, Antonio; Bergamasco, Massimo; Micera, Silvestro

    2016-01-23

    Exoskeletons for lower and upper extremities have been introduced in neurorehabilitation because they can guide the patient's limb following its anatomy, covering many degrees of freedom and most of its natural workspace, and allowing the control of the articular joints. The aims of this study were to evaluate the possible use of a novel exoskeleton, the Arm Light Exoskeleton (ALEx), for robot-aided neurorehabilitation and to investigate the effects of some rehabilitative strategies adopted in robot-assisted training. We studied movement execution and muscle activities of 16 upper limb muscles in six healthy subjects, focusing on end-effector and joint kinematics, muscle synergies, and spinal maps. The subjects performed three dimensional point-to-point reaching movements, without and with the exoskeleton in different assistive modalities and control strategies. The results showed that ALEx supported the upper limb in all modalities and control strategies: it reduced the muscular activity of the shoulder's abductors and it increased the activity of the elbow flexors. The different assistive modalities favored kinematics and muscle coordination similar to natural movements, but the muscle activity during the movements assisted by the exoskeleton was reduced with respect to the movements actively performed by the subjects. Moreover, natural trajectories recorded from the movements actively performed by the subjects seemed to promote an activity of muscles and spinal circuitries more similar to the natural one. The preliminary analysis on healthy subjects supported the use of ALEx for post-stroke upper limb robotic assisted rehabilitation, and it provided clues on the effects of different rehabilitative strategies on movement and muscle coordination.

  16. EVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF SOME IMINES DERIVATIVES OF L-ARGININE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacob, Andreea-Teodora; Drăgan, Maria; Constantin, Sandra; Lupaşcu, Florentina; Confederat, Luminiţa; Buron, F; Routier, S; Profire, Lenuţa

    2016-01-01

    L-Arginine is an a-amino acid which plays important roles in different diseases or processes, such as Alzheimer disease, inflammatory process, healing and tissue regeneration and it also could be useful as an anti-atherosclerotic agent. Considering the large amount of studies on the beneficial effects of different antioxidants, this paper is focused on the evaluation of the antioxidant potential of some imine derivatives, synthesized by the authors and described in a previous article. The evaluation of the antioxidant power was performed using phosphomolydenum-reducing antioxidant power (PRAP) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays, tests described in the literature and which are used with some minor modifications. It was found that most of the imine derivatives are more active than the L-Arginine in the PPAP and FRAP assays. The most active derivative was the compound obtained by condensation of L-arginine with 2,3-dihydroxybenzaldehyde (2k) and 2-nitrobenzaldehyde (2g). Following the described protocol, some imine derivatives of L-arginine were evaluated in terms of antioxidant potential using in vitro methods. The most favorable influence was obtained by the aromatic substitution with nitro and hydroxyl, the corresponding derivatives being the most active derivatives compared to L-arginine.

  17. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the possible anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic effects of ethanolic extract of Pedalium murex Linn. fruits in selected experimental animal models. Anti-inflammatory activity of Pedalium murex Linn., with doses of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg, p.o., was evaluated by Lambda-carrageenan ...

  18. Pharmacologic Evaluation of Antidepressant Activity and Synthesis of 2-Morpholino-5-phenyl-6H-1,3,4-thiadiazine Hydrobromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey P. Sarapultsev

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Substituted thiadiazines exert a reliable therapeutic effect in treating stress, and a schematic description of their ability to influence all aspects of a stress response has been depicted. This study was conducted to pharmacologically evaluate compound L-17, a substituted thiadiazine, (2-morpholino-5-phenyl-6H-1,3,4-thiadiazine, hydrobromide for possible anti-psychotic/antidepressant activity. Compound L-17 was synthesized by cyclocondensation of α-bromoacetophenone with the original morpholine-4-carbothionic acid hydrazide. Pharmacologic evaluations were conducted using methods described by E.F. Lavretskaya (1985, and in accordance with published guidelines for studying drugs for neuroleptic activity. Compound L-17 was evaluated for various possible mechanisms of action, including its effects on cholinergic system agonists/antagonists, dopaminergic neurotransmission, the adrenergic system, and 5-HT3 serotonin receptors. One or more of these mechanisms may be responsible for the beneficial effects shown by thiadiazine compounds in experiments conducted to evaluate their activity in models of acute stress and acute myocardial infarction.

  19. Tyrosinase inhibitory effects and antioxidative activities of saponins from Xanthoceras Sorbifolia nutshell.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmei Zhang

    Full Text Available Certain saponins are bioactive compounds with anticancer, antivirus and antioxidant activities. This paper discussed inhibitory effects of saponins from Xanthoceras Sorbifolia on tyrosinase, through the research of the rate of tyrosinase catalyzed L-DOPA oxidation. The inhibition rate of tyrosinase activity presented non-linear changes with the saponins concentration. The rate reached 52.0% when the saponins concentration was 0.96 mg/ml. Antioxidant activities of saponins from Xanthoceras Sorbifolia were evaluated by using hydroxyl and superoxide radical scavenging assays. The hydroxyl radical scavenging effects of the saponins were 15.5-68.7%, respectively at the concentration of 0.18-2.52 mg/ml. The superoxide radical scavenging activity reduced from 96.6% to 7.05% with the time increasing at the concentration of 1.44 mg/ml. All the above antioxidant evaluation indicated that saponins from Xanthoceras Sorbifolia exhibited good antioxidant activity in a concentration- dependent manner.

  20. Research into the evaluation of PR activities in companies from Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Nikolic

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a research into the volume, type and quality of the evaluation of public relations activities in companies in Serbia. The survey was conducted via a web survey. The responses were collected from 50 PR service managers from 50 companies in Serbia. The results are presented through descriptive statistics and correlation analysis where some of the observed sizes of the connection were analyzed. The main conclusions can be summarized as follows: PR functions are often not assigned sufficient importance in companies in Serbia; the evaluation of PR activity is slightly neglected compared to other PR activities; intensive and continuous evaluation of the performances of PR activities increases the likelihood of the complete PR function of the company being successful; companies that are not so successful use evaluation less than successful companies; the evaluation of PR activities is mostly done through a method for measuring quantity; the main problems in the evaluation of PR activities are lack of time and money. The evaluation of PR activities in companies in Serbia can be improved through a greater understanding on the part of top managers, and also by hiring additional PR practitioners.

  1. Consumers' evaluations of socially responsible activities in retailing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herpen, van E.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Meulenberg, M.T.G.

    2003-01-01

    The authors approached Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) as a process in which particular CSR activities impact on consumers’ store evaluation and trust. They hypothesized that consumers classify CSR activities along two dimensions: (1) the beneficiary of the activity and (2) the intrinsic

  2. Evaluation of a new computerized psychometric test battery: Effects of zolpidem and caffeine

    OpenAIRE

    Raveendranadh Pilli; MUR Naidu; Usharani Pingali; J C Shobha

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of centrally active drugs using a new indigenously developed automated psychometric test system and compare the results with that obtained using pencil- and paper-based techniques. Materials and Methods: The tests were standardized in 24 healthy participants. Reproducibility of the test procedure was evaluated by performing the tests by a single experimenter on two occasions (interday reproducibility). To evaluate the sensitivity of the tests, the effects of...

  3. Evaluation of Potential Impacts of Microbial Activity on Drift Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. Wang

    2004-11-18

    ''Evaluation of Potential Impacts of Microbial Activity on Drift Chemistry'' focuses on the potential for microbial communities that could be active in repository emplacement drifts to influence the in-drift bulk chemical environment. This report feeds analyses to support the inclusion or exclusion of features, events, and processes (FEPs) in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA), but this work is not expected to generate direct feeds to the TSPA-LA. The purpose was specified by, and the evaluation was performed and is documented in accordance with, ''Technical Work Plan For: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Analyses'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 172402], Section 2.1). This report addresses all of the FEPs assigned by the technical work plan (TWP), including the development of exclusion arguments for FEPs that are not carried forward to the TSPA-LA. Except for an editorial correction noted in Section 6.2, there were no other deviations from the TWP. This report documents the completion of all assigned tasks, as follows (BSC 2004 DIRS 172402, Section 1.2.1): (1) Perform analyses to evaluate the potential for microbial activity in the waste emplacement drift under the constraints of anticipated physical and chemical conditions. (2) Evaluate uncertainties associated with these analyses. (3) Determine whether the potential for microbes warrants a feed to TSPA-LA to account for predicted effects on repository performance. (4) Provide information to address the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan, Final Report'' (NUREG-1804) (NRC 2003 [DIRS 163274]) and Key Technical Issues and agreements, as appropriate. (5) Develop information for inclusion or exclusion of FEPs.

  4. Evaluation of Potential Impacts of Microbial Activity on Drift Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Y. Wang

    2004-01-01

    ''Evaluation of Potential Impacts of Microbial Activity on Drift Chemistry'' focuses on the potential for microbial communities that could be active in repository emplacement drifts to influence the in-drift bulk chemical environment. This report feeds analyses to support the inclusion or exclusion of features, events, and processes (FEPs) in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA), but this work is not expected to generate direct feeds to the TSPA-LA. The purpose was specified by, and the evaluation was performed and is documented in accordance with, ''Technical Work Plan For: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Analyses'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 172402], Section 2.1). This report addresses all of the FEPs assigned by the technical work plan (TWP), including the development of exclusion arguments for FEPs that are not carried forward to the TSPA-LA. Except for an editorial correction noted in Section 6.2, there were no other deviations from the TWP. This report documents the completion of all assigned tasks, as follows (BSC 2004 DIRS 172402, Section 1.2.1): (1) Perform analyses to evaluate the potential for microbial activity in the waste emplacement drift under the constraints of anticipated physical and chemical conditions. (2) Evaluate uncertainties associated with these analyses. (3) Determine whether the potential for microbes warrants a feed to TSPA-LA to account for predicted effects on repository performance. (4) Provide information to address the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan, Final Report'' (NUREG-1804) (NRC 2003 [DIRS 163274]) and Key Technical Issues and agreements, as appropriate. (5) Develop information for inclusion or exclusion of FEPs

  5. Evaluation of active living every day in adults with arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Leigh F; Cleveland, Rebecca J; Shreffler, Jack; Hootman, Jennifer M; Mielenz, Thelma J; Schoster, Britta; Brady, Teresa; Schwartz, Todd

    2014-02-01

    Adults with arthritis can benefit from participation in physical activity and may be assisted by organized programs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a 20-week behavioral lifestyle intervention, Active Living Every Day (ALED), for improvements in primary outcomes (physical activity levels, aerobic endurance, function, symptoms). A 20-week randomized controlled community trial was conducted in 354 adults. Outcomes were assessed at baseline and 20 weeks in the intervention and wait-list control groups. The intervention group was also assessed at 6 and 12 months. Mean outcomes were determined by multilevel regression models in the intervention and control groups at follow-up points. At 20 weeks, the intervention group significantly increased participation in physical activity, and improved aerobic endurance, and select measures of function while pain, fatigue and stiffness remained status quo. In the intervention group, significant improvements in physical activity at 20 weeks were maintained at 6 and 12 months, and stiffness decreased. ALED appears to improve participation in physical activity, aerobic endurance, and function without exacerbating disease symptoms in adults with arthritis.

  6. Evaluation of a Didactic Method for the Active Learning of Greedy Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban-Sánchez, Natalia; Pizarro, Celeste; Velázquez-Iturbide, J. Ángel

    2014-01-01

    An evaluation of the educational effectiveness of a didactic method for the active learning of greedy algorithms is presented. The didactic method sets students structured-inquiry challenges to be addressed with a specific experimental method, supported by the interactive system GreedEx. This didactic method has been refined over several years of…

  7. Evaluation of active ingredients and larvicidal activity of clove and cinnamon essential oils against Anopheles gambiae (sensu lato).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Adelina; Mazigo, Humphrey D; Manjurano, Alphaxard; Morona, Domenica; Kweka, Eliningaya J

    2017-09-06

    Mosquitoes are well-known vectors of many diseases including malaria and lymphatic filariasis. Uses of synthetic insecticides are associated with high toxicity, resistance, environmental pollution and limited alternative, effective synthetic insecticides. This study was undertaken to evaluate the larvicidal efficacy of clove and cinnamon essential oils against laboratory Anopheles gambiae (sensu stricto) and wild An. arabiensis larvae. The standard WHO guideline for larvicides evaluation was used, and the GC-MS machine was used for active compounds percentage composition analysis and structures identification. Probit regression analysis was used for LC 50 and LC 95 calculations while a t-test was used to test for significant differences between laboratory-reared and wild larvae populations in each concentration of plant extract. Mortality effect of clove and cinnamon essential oils against wild and laboratory-reared larvae had variations indicated by their LC 50 and LC 95 values. The mortality at different concentrations of cinnamon and clove post-exposure for wild and laboratory-reared larvae were dosage-dependent and were higher for cinnamon than for clove essential oils. The mortality effect following exposure to a blend of the two essential oils was higher for blends containing a greater proportion of cinnamon oil. In the chemical analysis of the active ingredients of cinnamon essential oil, the main chemical content was Eugenol, and the rarest was β-Linalool while for clove essential oil, the main chemical content was Eugenol and the rarest was Bicyclo. The essential oils showed a larvicidal effect which was concentration-dependent for both laboratory and wild collected larvae. The active ingredient compositions triggered different responses in mortality. Further research in small-scale should be conducted with concentrated extracted compounds.

  8. Effects of bagging on sugar metabolism and the activity of sugar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To investigate the effects of bagging on sugar metabolism and the activity of sugar metabolism related enzymes in Qingzhong loquat fruit development, the contents of sucrose, glucose and soluble solids as well as the activities of sugar metabolism related enzymes were evaluated. The content of sucrose, glucose and ...

  9. Proactively evaluating training effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetterman, Harry E.

    2003-01-01

    A common model of the five phase Systematic Approach to Training (SAT) displays the fifth phase, evaluation, feeding back into the previous four phases: analysis, design, development, and implementation. Evaluating training effectiveness in PP and L's Nuclear Department is not simply the fifth phase of the SAT. PP and L has demonstrated a more effective methodology is realized when evaluation is built into each of the other four phases. At PP and L, evaluation is conducted formatively throughout the first four phases of the SAT process and summatively after implementation. (author)

  10. Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Oscillatoria Extract and Evaluation the Anticancer and Antibacterial Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Ghasemipour

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and aim: The emergence of nanotechnology is one of the most promising areas for medical research. Today, biological methods of synthesizing nanoparticles have been considered in the fight against many diseases. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anti-cancer and anti-bacterial activity of silver nanoparticles, biosynthesized with cyanobacteria acetate extract. Methods: In the present experimental study, the silver nanoparticles biosynthesis was performed using silver ions regeneration with cyanobacteria acetate extracts. Techniques such as X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transient evaluation of silver nanoparticles were evaluated. In order to investigate the antibacterial activity of synthesized nanosilver, serial dilution method was used for broth microdilution test to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. The effects of silver nanoparticle toxicity on T47D breast cancer cell line were evaluated using MTT colorimetric method. Also, the proximal anxine 0.5 propidoid yodide kit and flow cytometry system were evaluated to evaluate the percentage of apoptosis and necrosis in cancer cells treated with silver nanoparticles. Results: Characterization of biosynthetic silver nanoparticles indicated that these nanoparticles had a mean size of 30 nm with dominant spherical morphology. The evaluation of the antibacterial properties of biosynthetic nanoparticles showed that the minimum inhibitory concentration for Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter Bumanni and Staphylococcus aureus was 25, 50 and 12.5 μg / ml, respectively. The results of cell proliferation of nanoparticles showed that its effect depends on the concentration and time of treatment of silver nanoparticles on cancerous cells. In addition, flow cytometric results showed an apoptotic cell death rate of 35% in the T47D cell line. Conclusion: Biosynthesis nanoparticles have anticancer and antibacterial activity and can be studied further

  11. Evaluation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of ethanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken to investigate the leaf part of the plant for analgesic and anti-inflammatory. The ethanol extract of Ficus iteophylla leaves (100, 200, and 400mgkg-1, i.p) was evaluated for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. The analgesic effect was studied using acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction ...

  12. Strategic Evaluation of University Knowledge and Technology Transfer Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thien Anh

    2013-01-01

    Academic knowledge and technology transfer has been growing in importance both in academic research and practice. A critical question in managing this activity is how to evaluate its effectiveness. The literature shows an increasing number of studies done to address this question; however, it also reveals important gaps that need more research.…

  13. Click-Evoked Auditory Efferent Activity: Rate and Level Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boothalingam, Sriram; Kurke, Julianne; Dhar, Sumitrajit

    2018-05-07

    There currently are no standardized protocols to evaluate auditory efferent function in humans. Typical tests use broadband noise to activate the efferents, but only test the contralateral efferent pathway, risk activating the middle ear muscle reflex (MEMR), and are laborious for clinical use. In an attempt to develop a clinical test of bilateral auditory efferent function, we have designed a method that uses clicks to evoke efferent activity, obtain click-evoked otoacoustic emissions (CEOAEs), and monitor MEMR. This allows for near-simultaneous estimation of cochlear and efferent function. In the present study, we manipulated click level (60, 70, and 80 dB peak-equivalent sound pressure level [peSPL]) and rate (40, 50, and 62.5 Hz) to identify an optimal rate-level combination that evokes measurable efferent modulation of CEOAEs. Our findings (n = 58) demonstrate that almost all click levels and rates used caused significant inhibition of CEOAEs, with a significant interaction between level and rate effects. Predictably, bilateral activation produced greater inhibition compared to stimulating the efferents only in the ipsilateral or contralateral ear. In examining the click rate-level effects during bilateral activation in greater detail, we observed a 1-dB inhibition of CEOAE level for each 10-dB increase in click level, with rate held constant at 62.5 Hz. Similarly, a 10-Hz increase in rate produced a 0.74-dB reduction in CEOAE level, with click level held constant at 80 dB peSPL. The effect size (Cohen's d) was small for either monaural condition and medium for bilateral, faster-rate, and higher-level conditions. We were also able to reliably extract CEOAEs from efferent eliciting clicks. We conclude that clicks can indeed be profitably employed to simultaneously evaluate cochlear health using CEOAEs as well as their efferent modulation. Furthermore, using bilateral clicks allows the evaluation of both the crossed and uncrossed elements of the auditory

  14. 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility closure activities evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, J.G.

    1996-01-01

    This report evaluates the closure activities at the 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility. The closure activities discussed include: the closure activities for the structures, equipment, soil, and gravel scrubber; decontamination methods; materials made available for recycling or reuse; and waste management. The evaluation compares these activities to the regulatory requirements and closure plan requirements. The report concludes that the areas identified in the closure plan can be clean closed

  15. Evaluation of wound healing activity of Ammannia baccifera and Blepharis maderaspatensis leaf extracts on rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiyalu Rajasekaran

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Wound healing activity of the leaf extracts of Ammannia baccifera L., Lythraceae, and Blepharis maderaspatensis (L. B.Heyne ex Roth., Acanthaceae, was investigated by excision and incision wound healing models in rats. A phytochemical screening was done to determine the major constituents of the chloroform, ethyl acetate and ethanolic fractions of ethanolic leaf extracts. The excision and incision models were used to assess the effect of the plant extracts on wound healing in rats. Phytochemical screening reveals the presence of tannins, saponins, steroids, terpenoids, and flavonoids in the extract. The wound healing effect was comparatively evaluated with a standard drug Framycetin cream. Significant wound healing activity was observed for the creams prepared with 5% ethanol fraction of B. maderaspatensis and 5% chloroform fraction of A. baccifera ethanolic leaf extracts. The results of histopathological evaluation supported the outcome of both incision and excision wound models. Ethanolic fraction of B. maderaspatensis and chloroform fraction of A. baccifera exhibited marked wound healing activity. B. maderaspatensis extract displayed a remarkable wound healing activity compared to A. baccifera.

  16. Evaluation of environmental impact produced by different economic activities with the global pollution index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharia, Carmen

    2012-07-01

    The paper analyses the environment pollution state in different case studies of economic activities (i.e. co-generation electric and thermal power production, iron profile manufacturing, cement processing, waste landfilling, and wood furniture manufacturing), evaluating mainly the environmental cumulative impacts (e.g. cumulative impact against the health of the environment and different life forms). The status of the environment (air, water resources, soil, and noise) is analysed with respect to discharges such as gaseous discharges in the air, final effluents discharged in natural receiving basins or sewerage system, and discharges onto the soil together with the principal pollutants expressed by different environmental indicators corresponding to each specific productive activity. The alternative methodology of global pollution index (I (GP)*) for quantification of environmental impacts is applied. Environmental data analysis permits the identification of potential impact, prediction of significant impact, and evaluation of cumulative impact on a commensurate scale by evaluation scores (ES(i)) for discharge quality, and global effect to the environment pollution state by calculation of the global pollution index (I (GP)*). The I (GP)* values for each productive unit (i.e. 1.664-2.414) correspond to an 'environment modified by industrial/economic activity within admissible limits, having potential of generating discomfort effects'. The evaluation results are significant in view of future development of each productive unit and sustain the economic production in terms of environment protection with respect to a preventive environment protection scheme and continuous measures of pollution control.

  17. Evaluation of Na+, K+-ATPase activity in the brain of young rats after acute administration of fenproporex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezin, Gislaine T; Scaini, Giselli; Gonçalves, Cinara L; Ferreira, Gabriela K; Cardoso, Mariane R; Ferreira, Andréa G K; Cunha, Maira J; Schmitz, Felipe; Varela, Roger B; Quevedo, João; Wyse, Angela T S; Streck, Emilio L

    2014-01-01

    Fenproporex is an amphetamine-based anorectic which is rapidly converted into amphetamine in vivo. Na+, K+-ATPase is a membrane-bound enzyme necessary to maintain neuronal excitability. Considering that the effects of fenproporex on brain metabolism are poorly known and that Na+, K+-ATPase is essential for normal brain function, this study sought to evaluate the effect of this drug on Na+, K+-ATPase activity in the hippocampus, hypothalamus, prefrontal cortex, and striatum of young rats. Young male Wistar rats received a single injection of fenproporex (6.25, 12.5, or 25 mg/kg intraperitoneally) or polysorbate 80 (control group). Two hours after the last injection, the rats were killed by decapitation and the brain was removed for evaluation of Na+, K+-ATPase activity. Fenproporex decreased Na+, K+-ATPase activity in the striatum of young rats at doses of 6.25, 12.5, and 25 mg/kg and increased enzyme activity in the hypothalamus at the same doses. Na+, K+-ATPase activity was not affected in the hippocampus or prefrontal cortex. Fenproporex administration decreased Na+, K+-ATPase activity in the striatum even in low doses. However, in the hypothalamus, Na+, K+-ATPase activity was increased. Changes in this enzyme might be the result of the effects of fenproporex on neuronal excitability.

  18. Evaluation of risk prioritization and budget allocation methods for pollution prevention activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, J.; Jones, E.; Lmont, A.; Ladmn, T.; Watz, J.

    1997-01-01

    This study reviews the structure of two main risk prioritization budget allocation methods developed by the DOE Risk-Based Priority Mode (RPM) and Management Evaluation Matrix (MEM). It identifies potential augmentations to the process that will address both risk reduction and cost-effective investments of finite resources for future Environmental Management activities. The evaluation was performed in accordance with the EM ten-year vision and principles for site cleanup. The evaluation and recommendations in this report strive to reflect four key principles, namely to eliminate the most urgent risks, reduce mortgage and support costs to make funds available for further risk reduction, protect worker health and safety, and reduce the generation of wastes

  19. Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Activity of Nanostructured Materials of Titanium Dioxide Doped with Silver and/or Copper and Their Effects on Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Garcidueñas-Piña

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured materials (NSMs of silver (Ag@TiO2 and copper (TiO2-Cu2+ doped titanium dioxide were synthesized, fully characterized, and evaluated for their antimicrobial efficiency and effects on Arabidopsis thaliana. The NSMs were prepared using an environmentally benign route. The physicochemical properties of the materials were determined with analytical techniques. These materials are active under visible light, exhibit a small size (10–12 nm, are crystalline (anatase, and liberate metal ions (Ag+ and Cu2+ in solution. Microbicide activity was observed in E. coli C600 and S. cerevisiae W303 strains treated with several concentrations of Ag@TiO2 and TiO2-Cu2+, radiated and nonradiated, and after different times. Higher inactivation was achieved with Ag@TiO2 in E. coli, with value of log inactivation of 2.2 with 0.5 mg/mL after 4 h, than in S. cerevisiae, with a log inactivation of 2.6 with 10 mg/mL after 24 h. The impact of these NSMs in plants was evaluated in Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0 strain exposed to such materials at different conditions and concentrations, and physical and biochemical effects were analyzed. Seeds exposed to NSMs did not show effects on germination and growth. However, seedlings treated with these materials modified their growth and their total chlorophyll content.

  20. Cost-effectiveness of interventions to promote physical activity: a modelling study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda J Cobiac

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity is a key risk factor for chronic disease, but a growing number of people are not achieving the recommended levels of physical activity necessary for good health. Australians are no exception; despite Australia's image as a sporting nation, with success at the elite level, the majority of Australians do not get enough physical activity. There are many options for intervention, from individually tailored advice, such as counselling from a general practitioner, to population-wide approaches, such as mass media campaigns, but the most cost-effective mix of interventions is unknown. In this study we evaluate the cost-effectiveness of interventions to promote physical activity. METHODS AND FINDINGS: From evidence of intervention efficacy in the physical activity literature and evaluation of the health sector costs of intervention and disease treatment, we model the cost impacts and health outcomes of six physical activity interventions, over the lifetime of the Australian population. We then determine cost-effectiveness of each intervention against current practice for physical activity intervention in Australia and derive the optimal pathway for implementation. Based on current evidence of intervention effectiveness, the intervention programs that encourage use of pedometers (Dominant and mass media-based community campaigns (Dominant are the most cost-effective strategies to implement and are very likely to be cost-saving. The internet-based intervention program (AUS$3,000/DALY, the GP physical activity prescription program (AUS$12,000/DALY, and the program to encourage more active transport (AUS$20,000/DALY, although less likely to be cost-saving, have a high probability of being under a AUS$50,000 per DALY threshold. GP referral to an exercise physiologist (AUS$79,000/DALY is the least cost-effective option if high time and travel costs for patients in screening and consulting an exercise physiologist are considered

  1. Evaluation of the effects of active fractions of chinese medicine formulas on IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α release from ANA-1 murine macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Li-Jun; Wang, Nan-Nan; Zhang, Li-Guo; Guo, Yan-Zi; Shi, Wan-Zhong

    2016-02-17

    Yaotongning (YTN) is a traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) that contains ten component medicinal materials (CMMs) and uses Chinese rice wine as a vehicle to enhance its efficacy. YTN has been used for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treatment in China for decades and has been reported to have anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects, as well as to strengthen the immune system. The present work quantitatively evaluated the in vitro effects of active fractions from the ten CMMs that make up YTN and eight additional herbs commonly used in TCM formulas for RA treatment, as well as different combinations of these active fractions, on cellular immune response; the findings were used to determine which active fractions are responsible for promoting an immune response, and to assess whether YTN is superior to other similar formulas and whether YTN can be improved by simplifying its formula from the point of its cellular immunomodulatory activity. Using the YTN formulation principles and some concepts in combinatorial chemistry, 27 TCM samples were designed by combining some or all of the active fractions of YTN and other eight herbs used for RA treatment. Release of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) from ANA-1 murine macrophages was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The immunoregulatory effects of the TCM samples were evaluated by comparing their half-effective concentrations (EC50) for stimulating the release of these cytokines. Among the investigated active fractions, the flavonoids from Carthamus tinctorius (Fct), Davallia mariesii (Fdm), and Cinnamomum cassia Twig volatile oils (Vca) from the eight selected herbs effectively promoted IL-1β and IL-6 release from ANA-1 cells. Saponins from the YTN CMM Glycyrrhiza uralensis (Sgu) were the most potent promoters of IL-1β and TNF-α release. The aqueous extract of YTN CMM Eupolyphaga sinensis (Ves) strongly enhanced the release of IL-1β, IL-6, and

  2. Training effectiveness evaluation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penrose, J.B.

    1993-01-01

    NAESCO's Training Effectiveness Evaluation Model (TEEM) integrates existing evaluation procedures with new procedures. The new procedures are designed to measure training impact on organizational productivity. TEEM seeks to enhance organizational productivity through proactive training focused on operation results. These results can be identified and measured by establishing and tracking performance indicators. Relating training to organizational productivity is not easy. TEEM is a team process. It offers strategies to assess more effectively organizational costs and benefits of training. TEEM is one organization's attempt to refine, manage and extend its training evaluation program

  3. Effects of the belt electrode skeletal muscle electrical stimulation system on lower extremity skeletal muscle activity: Evaluation using positron emission tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numata, Hitoaki; Nakase, Junsuke; Inaki, Anri; Mochizuki, Takafumi; Oshima, Takeshi; Takata, Yasushi; Kinuya, Seigo; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Lower-extremity muscle weakness in athletes after lower limb trauma or surgery can hinder their return to sports, and the associated muscle atrophy may lead to deterioration in performance after returning to sports. Recently, belt electrode skeletal muscle electrical stimulation (B-SES) which can contract all the lower limb skeletal muscles simultaneously was developed. However, no study has evaluated skeletal muscle activity with B-SES. Since only superficial muscles as well as a limited number of muscles can be investigated using electromyography, we investigated whether positron emission tomography (PET) can evaluate the activity of all the skeletal muscles in the body simultaneously. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the B-SES system using PET. Twelve healthy males (mean age, 24.3 years) were divided into two groups. The subjects in the control group remained in a sitting position for 10 min, and [(18)F] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) was intravenously injected. In the exercise group, subjects exercised using the B-SES system for 20 min daily for three consecutive days as a pre-test exercise. On the measurement day, they exercised for 10 min, received an injection of FDG, and exercised for another 10 min. PET-computed tomography images were obtained in each group 60 min after the FDG injection. Regions of interest were drawn in each lower-extremity muscle. We compared each skeletal muscle metabolism using the standardized uptake value. In the exercise group, FDG accumulation in the gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, quadriceps femoris, sartorius, and hamstrings was significantly higher than the muscles in the control (P skeletal muscle activity of the gluteal muscles as well as the most lower-extremity muscles simultaneously. Copyright © 2015 The Japanese Orthopaedic Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Relationships between thermic effect of food, insulin resistance and autonomic nervous activity

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, Tomonori; Nomura, Masahiro; Nakayasu, Kimiko; Kawano, Tomohito; Ito, Susumu; Nakaya, Yutaka

    2006-01-01

    Background: The thermic effect of food (TEF) is higher in lean than in obese human subjects. Objective: Relationships between TEF and insulin resistance during meals, from the point of view of autonomic nervous activity, were evaluated. Methods : Autonomic nervous activity was evaluated in 20 young adults using the spectral analysis of heart rate variability from one hour before to two hours after a meal. Heart rate data were analyzed based on low frequency components (LF power, 0.04 - 0.15Hz...

  5. Phytochemicals Boost Anti-inflammatory Effect Against Gamma Radiation: Activities of Ginger and Coriander Extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Salam, H.S.; Hassan, A.A.

    2017-01-01

    Phytochemicals are known to modulate immune function, and possess antitumor and antimicrobial properties. The present study is conducted to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of ginger and coriander extracts against tumor cells (MTT), anti-fungal and antioxidant activities of Ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale) and Coriander ( Coriandrum sativum) seed were evaluated. Essential oil of both plants showed 100% inhibition against Alternaria Alternata pathogen. The antioxidant activity showed the highest activities for ginger ( methanol extract), where as the lowest activity was for Coriander (water extract). To study the antioxidant and radio-protective effect of Ginger and Coriander, Swiss albino mice were exposed to shot dose 4 Gy γ radiation after 14 days oral administration of ginger (100 mg/Kg b.wt) and coriander extracts ( 600 mg/kg b.wt). After irradiation, anti-inflammatory mediators and phospholipase A2 were examined. In conclusion, Ginger and Coriander showed significant antioxidant and radio-protective effects

  6. Further evaluation of the CSNI separate effect test activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D`Auria, F.; Aksan, S.N.; Glaeser, H. [and others

    1995-09-01

    An internationally agreed Separate Effect Test (SET) Validation Matrix for the thermalhydraulic system codes has been established by a subgroup of the Task Group on Thermalhydraulic System Behaviour as requested by OECD/NEA Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) Principal Working Group No. 2 on Coolant System Behavior. The construction of such matrix constituted an attempt to collect together in a systematic way the best sets of openly available test data to select for code validation. As a final result, 67 phenomena have been identified and characterized, roughly 200 facilities have been considered and more than 1000 experiments have been selected as useful for the validation of the codes. The objective of the present paper is to provide additional evaluation of the obtained data base and to supply an a-posteriori judgement in relation to (a) the data base adequacy, (b) the phenomenon, and (c) the need for additional experiments. This has been provided independently by each of the authors. The main conclusions are that large amount of data are available for certain popular phenomena e.g. heat transfer, but data are severely lacking in more esoteric areas e.g. for characterizing phenomena such as parallel channel instability and boron mixing and transport.

  7. The positive effect on determinants of physical activity of a tailored, general practice-based physical activity intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sluijs, E.M.F.; van Poppel-Bruinvels, M.N.M.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Brug, J.; van Mechelen, W.

    2005-01-01

    PACE (Physician-based Assessment and Counseling for Exercise) is an individualized theory-based minimal intervention strategy aimed at the enhancement of regular physical activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a PACE intervention applied by general practitioners (GPs)

  8. Performance in physiology evaluation: possible improvement by active learning strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montrezor, Luís H

    2016-12-01

    The evaluation process is complex and extremely important in the teaching/learning process. Evaluations are constantly employed in the classroom to assist students in the learning process and to help teachers improve the teaching process. The use of active methodologies encourages students to participate in the learning process, encourages interaction with their peers, and stimulates thinking about physiological mechanisms. This study examined the performance of medical students on physiology over four semesters with and without active engagement methodologies. Four activities were used: a puzzle, a board game, a debate, and a video. The results show that engaging in activities with active methodologies before a physiology cognitive monitoring test significantly improved student performance compared with not performing the activities. We integrate the use of these methodologies with classic lectures, and this integration appears to improve the teaching/learning process in the discipline of physiology and improves the integration of physiology with cardiology and neurology. In addition, students enjoy the activities and perform better on their evaluations when they use them. Copyright © 2016 The American Physiological Society.

  9. Effect of co-free valve on activity reduction in PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahn, C.B.; Han, B.C.; Bum, J.S.; Hwang, I.S.; Lee, C.B.

    2002-01-01

    Radioactive nuclei, such as 68 Co and 60 Co, deposited on out-of-core surfaces in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) primary coolant system, are major sources of occupational radiation exposure to plant maintenance personnel and act as costly impediment to prompt and effective repairs. Valve hardfacing alloys exposed to primary coolant are considered as one of the main Co sources. To evaluate the Co-free valve, such as NOREM 02 and Deloro 50, the candidates for the alternative to Stellite 6, in a simulated PWR primary condition, SNU corrosion test loop (SCOTL) was constructed. For gate valves hard-faced with made of NOREM 02 and Deloro 50 hot cycling tests were conducted for up to 2,000 on-off cycles with cold leak tests at 1,000 cycle interval. It was observed that the leak rate of NOREM 02 (Fe-base) did not satisfy the nuclear grade valve leak criteria. After 1000 cycles test, while there was no leakage in case of Deloro 50 (Ni-base). Also, Deloro 50 showed no leakage after 2000 cycles. To estimate the activity reduction effect, we modified CRUDSIM-MIT which modeled the effects of coolant chemistry on the crud transport and activity buildup in the primary system of PWR. In the new code, crud evaluation and assessment (CREAT), 60 Co activity buildup prediction includes 1) Co-base valve replacement effect, 2) Co-base valve maintenance effect, and 3) control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) and main coolant pump (MCP) shaft contribution. CREAT predicted that the main contributor of Co activity buildup was the corrosion-induced release of Co from the steam generator (SG) tubing. With new SG's tubed with alloy 690, Korean Next Generation Reactor (APR-1400) is expected to have about 64% lower Co activity on SG surface. The use of all Co-free valves is expected to cut additional 8% of activity which is only marginal. (authors)

  10. Factors affecting members' evaluation of agri-business ventures' effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Seyyed Mahmoud; Hedjazi, Yousef

    2011-02-01

    This paper presents work to identify factors affecting effectiveness of agri-business ventures (A-BVs) on the side of providers as perceived by their members. A survey was conducted among 95 members of A-BVs in Zanjan province, Iran. To collect data, a questionnaire was designed. Two distinct groups of A-BVs with low (group 1) and high (group 2) perceived (evaluated) levels of effectiveness were revealed. The study showed that there were significant differences between the two groups on important characteristics of A-BVs and their members. The study also found that there were statistically significant relationships between A-BVs' governance structure and capacity, management and organization characteristics and the perceived effectiveness, whereas there were no statistically significant relationships between A-BVs' advisory methods characteristic applied by members and the perceived effectiveness. Logistic regression results also showed that level of application of rules encouraging members' active participation in important decision makings, clear terms of reference to guide contracting procedures, roles, and responsibilities of parties involved, type of people served and geographical area of program coverage, and members' ability to use Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) were predictors of the perceived (evaluated) effectiveness of A-BVs. The study showed that evaluation of members of effectiveness of A-BVs would not be the same. It is suggested that Iranian public agricultural extension organization, as responsible organization for monitoring and evaluating services conducted by A-BVs, considered these differences between members with different levels of some important variables. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Bioprotective properties of Dragon's blood resin: In vitro evaluation of antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Rajinder K

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food preservation is basically done to preserve the natural characteristics and appearance of the food and to increase the shelf life of food. Food preservatives in use are natural, chemical and artificial. Keeping in mind the adverse effects of synthetic food preservatives, there is a need to identify natural food preservatives. The aims of this study were to evaluate in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Dragon's blood resin obtained from Dracaena cinnabari Balf f., with a view to develop safer food preservatives. Methods In this study, three solvents of varying polarity were used to extract and separate the medium and high polarity compounds from the non-polar compounds of the Dragon's blood resin. The extracts were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against the food borne pathogens. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were assessed using DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging, FRAP, metal chelating and reducing power assays. Total phenolics, flavonoids and flavonols of extracts were also estimated using the standard methods. Results Phytochemical analysis of extracts revealed high phenolic content in CH2Cl2 extract of resin. Free radical scavenging of CH2Cl2 extract was found to be highest which is in good correlation with its total phenolic content. All test microorganisms were also inhibited by CH2Cl2 extract. Conclusions Our result provide evidence that CH2Cl2 extract is a potential source of natural antioxidant compounds and exhibited good inhibitory activity against various food borne pathogens. Thus, CH2Cl2 extract of Dragon's blood resin could be considered as possible source of food preservative.

  12. Embodied simulation as part of affective evaluation processes: task dependence of valence concordant EMG activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinreich, André; Funcke, Jakob Maria

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on recent findings, this study examines whether valence concordant electromyography (EMG) responses can be explained as an unconditional effect of mere stimulus processing or as somatosensory simulation driven by task-dependent processing strategies. While facial EMG over the Corrugator supercilii and the Zygomaticus major was measured, each participant performed two tasks with pictures of album covers. One task was an affective evaluation task and the other was to attribute the album covers to one of five decades. The Embodied Emotion Account predicts that valence concordant EMG is more likely to occur if the task necessitates a somatosensory simulation of the evaluative meaning of stimuli. Results support this prediction with regard to Corrugator supercilii in that valence concordant EMG activity was only present in the affective evaluation task but not in the non-evaluative task. Results for the Zygomaticus major were ambiguous. Our findings are in line with the view that EMG activity is an embodied part of the evaluation process and not a mere physical outcome.

  13. Evaluation of the activity of rheumatoid arthritis in clinical practice. Agreement between self-rated clinimetric evaluation and clinical evaluation with activity indexes: DAS28, CDAI and SDAI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horta-Baas, Gabriel; Pérez Bolde-Hernández, Arturo; Hernández-Cabrera, María Fernanda; Vergara-Sánchez, Imelda; Romero-Figueroa, María Del Socorro

    2017-10-11

    To achieve control of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) it is necessary to be able to evaluate its activity. The American College of Rheumatology (ACR) recommends for this purpose indexes of activity that can be performed by the patient (PAS-II and RAPID-3) and IA including medical evaluation with laboratory studies (DAS28 and SDAI) or without them (CDAI). The objective was to analyze the concordance between self-rated clinimetric evaluation and clinimetric evaluation performed by the physician. Analytical cross-sectional study in 126 patients with RA. The agreement was evaluated through the weighted κ coefficient and the Krippendorff's α coefficient. The PAS-II and RAPID-3 significantly correlated with all variables included in the core set of measures recommended by the ACR/EULAR. The agreement between PAS-II and CDAI-SDAI was good (κ: 0.6, α: 0.61-0.62), and moderate with DAS28-ESR (κ: 0.53, α: 0.56). The concordance between RAPID-3 and CDAI-SDAI was moderate (κ: 0.55-0.57, α: 0.50-0.51), and moderate with DAS28-ESR (κ: 0.55, α: 0.53). When categorizing the activity in remission/low activity vs. moderate/severe activity, the agreement was greater with the PAS-II (0.59 vs. 0.34; P=.012). The good concordance between PAS-II and SDAI supports their use in clinical practice, especially if biomarkers of inflammation or the possibility of joint count are not available. However, in order to recommend its routine application in clinical practice, it is necessary to perform longitudinal studies that assess its responsiveness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of Na+, K+-ATPase activity in the brain of young rats after acute administration of fenproporex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislaine T. Rezin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Fenproporex is an amphetamine-based anorectic which is rapidly converted into amphetamine in vivo. Na+, K+-ATPase is a membrane-bound enzyme necessary to maintain neuronal excitability. Considering that the effects of fenproporex on brain metabolism are poorly known and that Na+, K+-ATPase is essential for normal brain function, this study sought to evaluate the effect of this drug on Na+, K+-ATPase activity in the hippocampus, hypothalamus, prefrontal cortex, and striatum of young rats. Methods: Young male Wistar rats received a single injection of fenproporex (6.25, 12.5, or 25 mg/kg intraperitoneally or polysorbate 80 (control group. Two hours after the last injection, the rats were killed by decapitation and the brain was removed for evaluation of Na+, K+-ATPase activity. Results: Fenproporex decreased Na+, K+-ATPase activity in the striatum of young rats at doses of 6.25, 12.5, and 25 mg/kg and increased enzyme activity in the hypothalamus at the same doses. Na+, K+-ATPase activity was not affected in the hippocampus or prefrontal cortex. Conclusion: Fenproporex administration decreased Na+, K+-ATPase activity in the striatum even in low doses. However, in the hypothalamus, Na+, K+-ATPase activity was increased. Changes in this enzyme might be the result of the effects of fenproporex on neuronal excitability.

  15. Mixed method evaluation of the Virtual Traveller physically active lesson intervention: An analysis using the RE-AIM framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, E; Dunsmuir, S; Duke-Williams, O; Stamatakis, E; Shelton, N

    2018-02-02

    Physically active lessons integrating movement into academic content are a way to increase children's physical activity levels. Virtual Traveller was a physically active lesson intervention set in Year 4 (aged 8-9) primary school classes in Greater London, UK. Implemented by classroom teachers, it was a six-week intervention providing 10-min physically active Virtual Field Trips three times a week. The aim of this paper is to report the process evaluation of the Virtual Traveller randomized controlled trial according to RE-AIM framework criteria (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance). A mixed methods approach to evaluation was conducted with five intervention group classes. Six sources of data were collected via informed consent logs, teacher session logs, teacher and pupil questionnaires, teacher interviews and pupil focus groups. High participation and low attrition rates were identified (Reach) alongside positive evaluations of Virtual Traveller sessions from pupil and teachers (Effectiveness). Participants were from more deprived and ethnic backgrounds than local and national averages, with Virtual Traveller having the potential to be a free intervention (Adoption). 70% of sessions were delivered overall (Implementation) but no maintenance of the programme was evident at three month follow-up (Maintenance). Mixed method evaluation of Virtual Traveller showed potential for it to be implemented as a low-cost physically active lesson intervention in UK primary schools. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of the spermicidal and contraceptive activity of Platycodin D, a Saponin from Platycodon grandiflorum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongliang Lu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The extract of Platycodon grandiflorum has been reported to have effective spermicidal activity. This study was designed to evaluate the spermicidal and contraceptive activity, as well as the safety, of Platycodin D (PD, a major saponin in Platycodon grandiflorum. METHODS: Using the computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA test criteria, the sperm-immobilizing activity of PD was studied using highly motile human sperm. The sperm viability was assessed by fluorescent staining using SYBR-14 (living sperm and propidium iodide (dead sperm. The sperm membrane integrity was assessed by evaluating the hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS and examinations by transmission electron microscopy (TEM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The in vivo contraceptive efficacy was evaluated in rats using post-intrauterine PD application. The comet assay was employed to determine whether PD caused DNA damage in the sperm. Vaginal biopsies were also performed to determine whether the PD gel induced vaginal inflammation. RESULTS: A dose-dependent effect of PD on the sperm motility and viability was observed. The maximum spermicidal effect was observed with a 0.25 mM concentration of PD. More than 70% of the PD-treated sperm lost their HOS responsiveness at a concentration of 0.20 mM PD, indicating that PD caused injury to the sperm plasma membrane. TEM and SEM revealed significant damage to both the head and tail membranes of the sperm. PD decreased the fertility to zero in rats, was non-DNA damaging and was not harmful to the vaginal tissue in the rats. CONCLUSION: PD has significant spermicidal activity that should be explored in further studies.

  17. Couch potatoes to jumping beans: a pilot study of the effect of active video games on physical activity in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Maddison, Ralph; Jiang, Yannan; Jull, Andrew; Prapavessis, Harry; Rodgers, Anthony

    2008-02-07

    The primary objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the effect of active video games on children's physical activity levels.Twenty children (mean +/- SD age = 12 +/- 1.5 years; 40% female) were randomised to receive either an active video game upgrade package or to a control group (no intervention). Effects on physical activity over the 12-week intervention period were measured using objective (Actigraph accelerometer) and subjective (Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children [PAQ-C]) measures. An activity log was used to estimate time spent playing active and non-active video games.Children in the intervention group spent less mean time over the total 12-week intervention period playing all video games compared to those in the control group (54 versus 98 minutes/day [difference = -44 minutes/day, 95% CI [-92, 2

  18. Effects of individually tailored physical and daily activities in nursing home residents on activities of daily living, physical performance and physical activity level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Mette; Frändin, Kerstin; Bergland, Astrid

    2012-01-01

    , evidence for the benefit of rehabilitation in nursing home residents is conflicting and inconclusive. Objective: To evaluate the effect of an individually tailored intervention program of 3 months, for nursing home residents, on ADL, balance, physical activity level, mobility and muscle strength. Methods...

  19. Evaluation of Emotional Literacy Activities: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksuz, Yucel

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to evaluate impact of the emotional literacy activities through participant student's experiences. Emotional literacy activities, including social-emotional skills Goleman's emotional intelligence and Fapuel's emotional literacy model designed and conducted for 2 months on primary school students, who study in 4th grade. The…

  20. In vitro evaluation of antioxidant activity of Cordia dichotoma (Forst f.) bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nariya, Pankaj B; Bhalodia, Nayan R; Shukla, Vinay J; Acharya, Rabinarayan; Nariya, Mukesh B

    2013-01-01

    Cordia dichotoma Forst. f. bark, identified as botanical source of Shleshmataka in Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia. Present investigation was undertaken to evaluate possible antioxidant potential of methanolic and butanol extract of C. dichotoma bark. In vitro antioxidant activity of methanolic and butanol extract was determined by 1,1, diphenyl-2, picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. The extracts were also evaluated for their phenolic contents and antioxidant activity. Phenolic content was measured using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and was calculated as Gallic acid equivalents. Antiradical activity of methanolic extract was measured by DPPH assay and was compared to ascorbic acid and ferric reducing power of the extract was evaluated by Oyaizu method. In the present study three in vitro models were used to evaluate antioxidant activity. The first two methods were for direct measurement of radical scavenging activity and remaining one method evaluated the reducing power. The present study revealed that the C. dichotoma bark has significant radical scavenging activity.

  1. A road to more and cheaper energy conservation. Evaluation of all the Danish energy saving activities; En vej til flere og billigere energibesparelser. Evaluering af samtlige danske energispareaktiviteter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Togeby, M.; Dyhr-Mikkelsen, K.; Damgaard, C.K. (and others)

    2008-12-15

    effects. The evaluation contributes to more knowledge about the cost of the energy conservation activities and incentives. The socio-economic costs are cost-effective apart from energy labelling of buildings. (ln)

  2. Evaluation of the in vitro activity of ceragenins against Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Zubeyde Akin; Cetin, Ali; Savage, Poul B

    2016-03-01

    Trichomonosis, caused by the protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis, is a curable sexually transmitted disease that is most commonly encountered worldwide. Increasing importance of trichomoniasis and emerging of resistance against metronidazole lead to search for alternative drugs with different mode of activity. The purpose of this study was to determine in vitro activity of ceragenins (CSA-13, CSA-44, CSA-13, and CSA-138) against the metronidazole-susceptible (ATCC 30001) and metronidazole-resistant (ATCC 50138) strains of T. vaginalis. The effective concentrations were evaluated using two strains of T. vaginalis with different metronidazole susceptibilities (ATCC 30001 and ATCC 50138) in the presence of dilution series of ceragenins in 24-well microtitre assays. Overall, all the ceragenins killed the metronidazole-susceptible (ATCC 30001) and metronidazole-resistant (ATCC 50138) strains of T. vaginalis (p>0.05). With regard to the their effects against the studied strains of T. vaginalis, in order of effectiveness, overall, the ceragenins ordered as CSA-13 (the most effective), CSA-131 and CSA-138 (effective similarly), and CSA-44 (the least effective) (pvaginalis with a time- and dose- dependent manner (pvaginalis. CSA-13 is the leading ceragenin as the most effective anti-trichomonas compound, followed by CSA-131 and CSA-138. They have a potential to have a place in the armemantarium of gynecologic and urologic practice for the management of sexually transmitted diseases.

  3. Evaluation of training effectiveness- overview of principles, problems and practices in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Haakan

    2003-01-01

    Evaluation of training is a complex concept that involves many interrelated activities. Successful evaluation studies require a basic understanding of this complexity. Evaluation of training and training effects is therefore a part of the basic instructor-training program at KSU, The Swedish nuclear training and safety centre. Complex evaluation studies require, however, preconditions that far from always can be met. It is therefore also important to learn from successful evaluation studies and try to extrapolate the conclusions to other similar situations. A short overview of one such study at a Swedish nuclear power plant is presented. (author)

  4. THE CONTROL AND EVALUATION OF PROMOTIONAL ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia Sabou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focused on importance and benefits of control and evaluation of marketing activities. The control of efficiency review the assessment of the resources for marketing activity, checking also the efficiency of the human resources, advertising, promotion activities and distribution activities. In the analyse of human resources the most important ratio are: the average of costumers visits on a day, the number of custom order received from 100 visits, the number of new customers from a period, the number of lost customers from a period, the marketing human expenditures from all the sales.The strategic control is made to check if the objectives and the company strategy are adapted to the marketing environment.

  5. [Evaluation of Dose Reduction of the Active Collimator in Multi Detector Row CT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Hiroyuki; Matsubara, Kosuke

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of active collimator by changing acquisition parameters and obtaining dose profiles in z-axis direction. Dose profiles along z-axis were obtained using XRQA2 Gafchromic film. As a result, the active collimator reduced overranging about 55% compared to that without the active collimator. In addition, by changing the combination of X-ray beam width (32 mm, 40 mm), pitch factor (1.4, 0.6), and the X-ray tube rotation time (0.5 s/rot, 1.0 s/rot), the overranging changed from 19.4 to 34.9 mm. Although the active collimator is effective for reducing overranging, it is necessary to adjust acquisition parameters by taking the properties of the active collimator for acquisition parameters, especially setting beam width, into consideration.

  6. 20 CFR 404.1584 - Evaluation of work activity of blind people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evaluation of work activity of blind people... Evaluation of work activity of blind people. (a) General. If you are blind (as explained in § 404.1581), we... gainful activity are the same for blind people as for others. See § 404.1574(b)(2) for the earnings...

  7. Trichoderma koningii assisted biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles and evaluation of their antibacterial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, R. M.; Gupta, Rohit Kumar; Shrivastav, Archana; Singh, M. P.; Shrivastav, B. R.; Singh, Priti

    2013-09-01

    The present study demonstrates the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Trichoderma koningii and evaluation of their antibacterial activity. Trichoderma koningii secretes proteins and enzymes that act as reducing and capping agent. The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). UV-Vis spectra showed absorbance peak at 413 nm corresponding to the surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles. DLS was used to find out the size distribution profile. The size and morphology of the AgNPs was determined by TEM, which shows the formation of spherical nanoparticles in the size range of 8-24 nm. X-ray diffraction showed intense peaks corresponding to the crystalline silver. The antibacterial activity of biosynthesized AgNPs was evaluated by growth curve and inhibition zone and it was found that the AgNPs show potential effective antibacterial activity.

  8. Couch potatoes to jumping beans: A pilot study of the effect of active video games on physical activity in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jull Andrew

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The primary objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the effect of active video games on children's physical activity levels. Twenty children (mean ± SD age = 12 ± 1.5 years; 40% female were randomised to receive either an active video game upgrade package or to a control group (no intervention. Effects on physical activity over the 12-week intervention period were measured using objective (Actigraph accelerometer and subjective (Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children [PAQ-C] measures. An activity log was used to estimate time spent playing active and non-active video games. Children in the intervention group spent less mean time over the total 12-week intervention period playing all video games compared to those in the control group (54 versus 98 minutes/day [difference = -44 minutes/day, 95% CI [-92, 2

  9. Emergy Evaluations of the Global Biogeochemical Cycles of Six Biologically Active Elements and Two Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estimates of the emergy carried by the flows of biologically active elements (BAE) and compounds are needed to accurately evaluate the near and far field effects of anthropogenic wastes. The transformities and specific emergies of these elements and of their different chemical sp...

  10. Evaluating the Effects of Maintenance Resource Management (MRM) Interventions in Airline Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-02-01

    The present paper seeks to describe and validate the effectiveness of five change programs (generically termed Maintenance Resource Management, or "MRM"). The activities evaluated here are in the middle stages of an ongoing MRM training program, or t...

  11. Effects of remote feedback in home-based physical activity interventions for older adults : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geraedts, Hilde; Zijlstra, Agnes; Bulstra, Sjoerd K.; Stevens, Martin; Zijlstra, Wiebren

    Objective: To evaluate the literature on effectiveness of remote feedback on physical activity and capacity in home-based physical activity interventions for older adults with or without medical conditions. In addition, the effect of remote feedback on adherence was inventoried. Methods: A

  12. Active film of poly(vinyl chloride)/silver: synthesis, characterization and evaluation as antimicrobial active packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braga, Lilian R.; Rangel, Ellen T.; Machado, Fabricio

    2015-01-01

    The antimicrobial films based on poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) mediated silver (1, 2, 4 and 8 wt%) were evaluated as antimicrobial active packaging using the casting method. The structure of the active films was characterized by SEM, EDX-XRF, XRD, FTIR and TG. FTIR spectra confirmed the PVC-Ag interaction due to the presence of new bands at 1745 cm"-"1 and 1165 cm"-"1 bands, which are absent in the PVC control. The FRX-EDX spectrum confirmed the presence of silver ions in all the films. TG and SEM results showed that the increased concentration of silver provided an improved thermal stability and presence of pores in the active films, respectively. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated by disk diffusion method for Bacillus subtilis, Fusarium solani and Apergillus niger, which proved the efficiency of the films active. (author)

  13. Evaluation of Activity Recognition Algorithms for Employee Performance Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Mehreen Mumtaz; Hafiz Adnan Habib

    2012-01-01

    Successful Human Resource Management plays a key role in success of any organization. Traditionally, human resource managers rely on various information technology solutions such as Payroll and Work Time Systems incorporating RFID and biometric technologies. This research evaluates activity recognition algorithms for employee performance monitoring. An activity recognition algorithm has been implemented that categorized the activity of employee into following in to classes: job activities and...

  14. Using Ecological Momentary Assessment to Evaluate Current Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Marszalek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to assess the value of ecological momentary assessment in evaluating physical activity among children, adolescents, and adults. It also determines whether ecological momentary assessment fulfills the criteria of validity, reliability, objectivity, norms, and standardization applied to the tools used for the evaluation of physical activity. Methods. The EBSCO-CINHAL, Medline, PsycINFO, PubMed, and SPORTDiscuss databases were reviewed in December 2012 for articles associated with EMA. Results. Of the 20 articles examined, half (10 used electronic methods for data collection, although various methods were used, ranging from pen and paper to smartphone applications. Ten studies used objective monitoring equipment. Nineteen studies were performed over 4 days. While the validity of the EMA method was discussed in 18 studies, only four found it to be objective. In all cases, the EMA procedures were precisely documented and confirmed to be feasible. Conclusions. Ecological momentary assessment is a valid, reliable, and feasible approach to evaluate activity and sedentary behavior. Researchers should be aware that while ecological momentary assessment offers many benefits, it simultaneously imposes many limitations which should be considered when studying physical activity.

  15. Evaluation of hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of Ichnocarpus frutescens (Linn.) R.Br. on paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. D K Dash, V C Yeligar, S S Nayak, T Ghosh, R Rajalingam, P Sengupta, B C Maiti, T K Maity ...

  16. Polanyi Evaluation of Adsorptive Capacities of Commercial Activated Carbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monje, Oscar; Surma, Jan M.

    2017-01-01

    Commercial activated carbons from Calgon (207C and OVC) and Cabot Norit (RB2 and GCA 48) were evaluated for use in spacecraft trace contaminant control filters. The Polanyi potential plots of the activated carbons were compared using to those of Barnebey-Cheney Type BD, an untreated activated carbon with similar properties as the acid-treated Barnebey-Sutcliffe Type 3032 utilized in the TCCS. Their adsorptive capacities under dry conditions were measured in a closed loop system and the sorbents were ranked for their ability to remove common VOCs found in spacecraft cabin air. This comparison suggests that these sorbents can be ranked as GCA 48 207C, OVC RB2 for the compounds evaluated.

  17. Learning Activity Predictors from Sensor Data: Algorithms, Evaluation, and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Bryan; Doppa, Janardhan Rao; Cook, Diane J

    2017-12-01

    Recent progress in Internet of Things (IoT) platforms has allowed us to collect large amounts of sensing data. However, there are significant challenges in converting this large-scale sensing data into decisions for real-world applications. Motivated by applications like health monitoring and intervention and home automation we consider a novel problem called Activity Prediction , where the goal is to predict future activity occurrence times from sensor data. In this paper, we make three main contributions. First, we formulate and solve the activity prediction problem in the framework of imitation learning and reduce it to a simple regression learning problem. This approach allows us to leverage powerful regression learners that can reason about the relational structure of the problem with negligible computational overhead. Second, we present several metrics to evaluate activity predictors in the context of real-world applications. Third, we evaluate our approach using real sensor data collected from 24 smart home testbeds. We also embed the learned predictor into a mobile-device-based activity prompter and evaluate the app for 9 participants living in smart homes. Our results indicate that our activity predictor performs better than the baseline methods, and offers a simple approach for predicting activities from sensor data.

  18. An Evaluation of Classroom Activities and Exercises in ELT Classroom for General Purposes Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohrabi, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    It is through effective implementation of activities and exercises which students can be motivated and consequently lead to language learning. However, as an insider, the experience of teaching English for General Purposes (EGP) course indicates that it has some problems which need to be modified. In order to evaluate the EGP course,…

  19. Evaluation of cardiac function in active and hibernating grizzly bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, O Lynne; McEwen, Margaret-Mary; Robbins, Charles T; Felicetti, Laura; Christensen, William F

    2003-10-15

    To evaluate cardiac function parameters in a group of active and hibernating grizzly bears. Prospective study. 6 subadult grizzly bears. Indirect blood pressure, a 12-lead ECG, and a routine echocardiogram were obtained in each bear during the summer active phase and during hibernation. All measurements of myocardial contractility were significantly lower in all bears during hibernation, compared with the active period. Mean rate of circumferential left ventricular shortening, percentage fractional shortening, and percentage left ventricular ejection fraction were significantly lower in bears during hibernation, compared with the active period. Certain indices of diastolic function appeared to indicate enhanced ventricular compliance during the hibernation period. Mean mitral inflow ratio and isovolumic relaxation time were greater during hibernation. Heart rate was significantly lower for hibernating bears, and mean cardiac index was lower but not significantly different from cardiac index during the active phase. Contrary to results obtained in hibernating rodent species, cardiac index was not significantly correlated with heart rate. Cardiac function parameters in hibernating bears are opposite to the chronic bradycardic effects detected in nonhibernating species, likely because of intrinsic cardiac muscle adaptations during hibernation. Understanding mechanisms and responses of the myocardium during hibernation could yield insight into mechanisms of cardiac function regulation in various disease states in nonhibernating species.

  20. Effects of resource activities upon repository siting and waste containment with reference to bedded salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, J.; Rowe, J.

    1980-02-01

    The primary consideration for the suitability of a nuclear waste repository site is the overall ability of the repository to safely contain radioactive waste. This report is a discussion of the past, present, and future effects of resource activities on waste containment. Past and present resource activities which provide release pathways (i.e., leaky boreholes, adjacent mines) will receive initial evaluation during the early stages of any repository site study. However, other resource activities which may have subtle effects on containment (e.g., long-term pumping causing increased groundwater gradients, invasion of saline water causing lower retardation) and all potential future resource activities must also be considered during the site evaluation process. Resource activities will affect both the siting and the designing of repositories. Ideally, sites should be located in areas of low resource activity and low potential for future activity, and repository design should seek to eliminate or minimize the adverse effects of any resource activity. Buffer zones should be created to provide areas in which resource activities that might adversely affect containment can be restricted or curtailed. This could mean removing large areas of land from resource development. The impact of these frozen assets should be assessed in terms of their economic value and of their effect upon resource reserves. This step could require a major effort in data acquisition and analysis followed by extensive numerical modeling of regional fluid flow and mass transport. Numerical models should be used to assess the effects of resource activity upon containment and should include the cumulative effects of different resource activities. Analysis by other methods is probably not possible except for relatively simple cases

  1. The HEART mobile phone trial: The partial mediating effects of self-efficacy on physical activity among cardiac patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph eMaddison

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ubiquitous use of mobile phones provides an ideal opportunity to deliver interventions to increase physical activity levels. Understanding potential mediators of such interventions is needed to increase their effectiveness. A recent randomized controlled trial of a mobile phone and Internet (mHealth intervention was conducted in New Zealand to determine the effectiveness on exercise capacity and physical activity levels in addition to current cardiac rehabilitation (CR services for people (n=171 with ischaemic heart disease (IHD. Significant intervention effect was observed for self-reported leisure time physical activity and walking, but not peak oxygen uptake (PVO2 at 24 weeks. There was also significant improvement in self-efficacy.Objective: To evaluate the mediating effect of self-efficacy on physical activity levels in an mHealth delivered exercise CR programme. Methods: Treatment evaluations were performed on the principle of intention to treat (ITT. Adjusted regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the main treatment effect on leisure time physical activity and walking at 24 weeks, with and without change in self-efficacy as the mediator of interest. Results: Change in self-efficacy at 24 weeks significantly mediated the treatment effect on leisure time physical activity by 13%, but only partially mediated the effect on walking by 4% at 24 weeks. Conclusion: An mHealth intervention involving text messaging and Internet support had a positive treatment effect on leisure time physical activity and walking at 24 weeks, and this effect was likely mediated through changes in self-efficacy. Future trials should examine other potential mediators related to this type of intervention.

  2. Effect of thiamethoxam on cockroach locomotor activity is associated with its metabolite clothianidin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzidane, Yassine; Touinsi, Sarra; Motte, Emilie; Jadas-Hécart, Alain; Communal, Pierre-Yves; Leduc, Lionel; Thany, Steeve H

    2010-12-01

    In the present study, the effect of thiamethoxam and clothianidin on the locomotor activity of American cockroach, Periplaneta americana (L.), was evaluated. Because it has been proposed that thiamethoxam is metabolised to clothianidin, high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry was used to evaluate the amount of clothianidin on thiamethoxam-treated cockroaches. One hour after neonicotinoid treatment, the time spent in the open-field-like apparatus significantly increased, suggesting a decrease in locomotor activity. The percentage of cockroaches displaying locomotor activity was significantly reduced 1 h after haemolymph application of 1 nmol g(-1) neonicotinoid, while no significant effect was found after topical and oral administration. However, at 24 and 48 h, all neonicotinoids were able to reduce locomotor activity, depending on their concentrations and the way they were applied. Interestingly, it was found that thiamethoxam was converted to clothianidin 1 h after application, but the amount of clothianidin did not rise proportionately to thiamethoxam, especially after oral administration. The data suggest that the effect of thiamethoxam on cockroach locomotor activity is due in part to clothianidin action because (1) thiamethoxam levels remained persistent 48 h after application and (2) the amount of clothianidin in cockroach tissues was consistent with the toxicity of thiamethoxam. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Teacher Evaluation: Archiving Teaching Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Lance D.

    2014-01-01

    Teacher evaluation is a current hot topic within music education. This article offers strategies for K-12 music educators on how to promote their effectiveness as teachers through archival documentation in a teacher portfolio. Using the Danielson evaluation model (based on four domains of effective teaching practices), examples of music teaching…

  4. An Evaluation of Gas Law Webquest Based on Active Learning Style in a Secondary School in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alias, Norlidah; DeWitt, Dorothy; Siraj, Saedah

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the PTEchLS WebQuest on Gas Laws was evaluated. It was designed for Form Four students with active learning styles. The focus of the evaluation was on the usability and effectiveness of the PTechLS WebQuest. Data were collected from interviews and students' achievement scores. Two teachers and eight students volunteered to…

  5. Trichoderma koningii assisted biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles and evaluation of their antibacterial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, R M; Shrivastav, Archana; Gupta, Rohit Kumar; Singh, M P; Shrivastav, B R; Singh, Priti

    2013-01-01

    The present study demonstrates the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Trichoderma koningii and evaluation of their antibacterial activity. Trichoderma koningii secretes proteins and enzymes that act as reducing and capping agent. The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were characterized by UV–Vis spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). UV–Vis spectra showed absorbance peak at 413 nm corresponding to the surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles. DLS was used to find out the size distribution profile. The size and morphology of the AgNPs was determined by TEM, which shows the formation of spherical nanoparticles in the size range of 8–24 nm. X-ray diffraction showed intense peaks corresponding to the crystalline silver. The antibacterial activity of biosynthesized AgNPs was evaluated by growth curve and inhibition zone and it was found that the AgNPs show potential effective antibacterial activity. (paper)

  6. Phytochemical Evaluation, Antioxidant Activity and Toxicity of Paeonia daurica ssp. macrophylla Root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyde Nargess Sadati Lamardi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Paeonia daurica ssp. macrophylla, is an herbaceous and perennial plant which belongs to Paeoniaceae family. Two species of this plant grow in northern parts of Iran. The roots in powder form have been used in Persian traditional medicine for treatment of epilepsy, nightmares and gynecological diseases. Several biological activities such as antioxidant and anti-tumor effects of Paeonia species have been reported. Methods: methanol-water (80-20 extract (total extract was fractionated using n-hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate. Antioxidant activity of the total extract and fractions were evaluated using DPPH and FRAP assays. Total phenolics content of the extracts was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method. In addition, cytotoxic activity of the fractions was determined against brine shrimp larvae. Column chromatography with normal phase silica gel and preparative TLC were also used for the isolation and purification of compounds. Results: Evaluation of the results indicated that the ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions with IC50 values of 16.55, 23.9 µg/mL, respectively showed potent radical scavenging activity. As well, the ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions indicated the highest antioxidant power by FRAP assay. Due to the potent antioxidant activity, the chloroform fraction was chosen for further investigations. Three compounds were identified as benzoic acid, veratric acid and oleanolic acid by different spectroscopic methods. Conclusion: According to our findings in this study, the root of Paeonia daurica ssp. macrophyla has beneficial antioxidant activity without toxicity and the therapeutic use of this plant in traditional medicine can be somewhat justifiable.

  7. Phytopharmacological evaluation of Byesukar for hypoglycaemic activity and its effect on lipid profile and hepatic enzymes of glucose metabolism in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guruvayoorappan, C; Sudha, G

    2008-01-01

    Many anti-diabetic herbal preparations have been recommended in alternative systems of medicine for the treatment of diabetes. No systematic study has been done on the anti-diabetic efficacy of Byesukar, a polyherbal formulation to treat diabetes. The anti-diabetic efficacy of byesukar ethanol extract was evaluated in an animal model of diabetes induced by alloxan. Male Wistar rats were divided in to four groups. Group 1 was normal control group; group 2 and 3 received alloxan. After inducing experimental diabetes group 2 served as diabetic control; group 3 received byesukar (500 mg/kg body weight) orally for 30 consecutive days. Group 4 were normal rats which received byesukar extract alone. The effect of byesukar on glucose level in diabetic rats was studied and the level of glucose metabolizing enzymes (Hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose 1, 6-bisphosphatase) in the liver and kidney were estimated. The effect of byesukar on the serum and tissue lipid profile (Cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids and free fatty acids) were also estimated in diabetic rats. Our results indicate that treatment with byesukar resulted in significant reduction of blood glucose, tissue glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose 1, 6- bisphosphatase activity. The decreased tissue hexokinase activity in diabetes state was found to be significantly increased by byesukar treatment. Also the byesukar treated diabetic rats showed a significant decrease in the tissue lipid profile compared to the diabetic rats. In conclusion the decreased blood glucose accompanied with decreased lipid profile and changes in the activities of the glucose metabolizing enzymes shows the antidiabetic effect of byesukar.

  8. Determination of Importance Evaluation for Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Subsurface Testing Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodin, S.

    2002-01-01

    This Determination of Importance Evaluation (DIE) applies to the Subsurface Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), encompassing the Topopah Spring (TS) Loop from Station 0+00 meters (m) at the North Portal to breakthrough at the South Portal (approximately 78+77 m), and ancillary test and operation support areas including the Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block (ECRB) Cross Drift. This evaluation applies specifically to site characterization testing activities ongoing and planned in the Subsurface ESF. ESF site characterization activities are being performed to obtain the information necessary to determine whether the Yucca Mountain Site is suitable as a geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. A more detailed description of these testing activities is provided in Section 6 of this DIE. Generally, the construction and operation of excavations associated with these testing activities are evaluated in the DIE for the Subsurface ESF (CRWMS M andO 1999a) and the DIE for the ESF ECRB Cross Drift (CRWMS M andO 2000a). The scope of this DIE also entails the proposed Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Transport Test at Busted Butte. Although, not a part of the TS Loop or ECRB Cross Drift, the associated testing activities are Subsurface testing activities. Busted Butte is located to the south south-east of the TS Loop and is outside the Conceptual Controlled Area Boundary (CCAB). These activities provide access to the Calico Hills (CH) geologic structure. In the case of Busted Butte, construction and operation of excavations are evaluated herein (since this activity was not previously evaluated in CRWMS M andO 1999a). The objectives of this DIE are to determine whether Subsurface ESF testing, and associated activities, could potentially impact site characterization testing and/or the waste isolation capabilities of the site. Controls needed to limit any potential impacts are identified in Section 13. The validity and veracity of the

  9. Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Lactoferrin against P.Aeruginosa and E.Coli Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Sharbafi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Lactoferrin(LF is an iron-binding glycoprotein that involves a diverse range of biological activities. Lactoferrin is a major component of milk and is present in exocrine secretions such  as tears, salvia, bile, and neutrophil granules. Lactoferrin has more potent antimicrobial activities against a wide range of gram negative and positive bacteria as well as antivirus activities. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of this protein on P.aeruginosa growth in patients with burns that show drug resistance. METHODS: In this study, antibacterial activity of Lactoferrin has been scrutinized after isolation and purification of bovine colostrum against pseudomonas aeroginosa. Bacteria samples were isolated from scald patients (Shahid Zare Hospital; then microbial activity was confirmed with biochemical tests like oxidase, catalase and growth on TSI medium. Four concentrations 400,500,600 and 700 µg/ml of lactoferrin were assayed. Pseudomonas colonies counted and compared with negative control (without lactoferrin as well as E.coli (DH5α as positive control was considered. FINDINGS: Our results showed that 400µg/ml concentration of lactoferrin has the least inhibitory effect with 35% and 29% growth inhibitory and 700µg/ml concentration of lactoferrin has the highest inhibitory effect with 86% and 66% on Pseudomonas and E.coli, respectively. CONCLUSION: Our result showed that all of lactoferrin concentrations have inhibitory activity which in 700µg/ml has the highest inhibition against Pseudomonas aeroginosa and also E.coli.

  10. Effects of mid-term student evaluations of teaching as measured by end-of-term evaluations: An emperical study of course evaluations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder; Sliusarenko, Tamara; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2013-01-01

    Universities have varying policies on how and when to perform student evaluations of courses and teachers. More empirical evidence of the consequences of such policies on quality enhancement of teaching and learning is needed. A study (35 courses at the Technical University of Denmark....... The evaluations generally showed positive improvements over the semester for courses with access, and negative improvements for those without access. Improvements related to: Student learning, student satisfaction, teaching activities, and communication showed statistically significant average differences of 0.......1-0.2 points between the two groups. These differences are relatively large compared to the standard deviation of the scores when student effect is removed (approximately 0.7). We conclude that university policies on course evaluations seem to have an impact on the development of the teaching and learning...

  11. Assessment report of research and development activities in FY2014. Activity: 'Quantum beam science research' (Result evaluation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-09-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (hereafter referred to as 'JAEA') consulted an assessment committee, 'Evaluation Committee of Research Activities for Quantum Beam Science' (hereafter referred to as 'Committee') for result evaluation of 'Quantum Beam Science', in accordance with 'General Guideline for the Evaluation of Government Research and Development (R and D) Activities' by Cabinet Office, Government of Japan, 'Guideline for Evaluation of R and D in Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology' and 'Regulation on Conduct for Evaluation of R and D Activities' by JAEA. In response to the JAEA's request, the Committee assessed the research program of the Quantum Beam Science Center (hereafter referred to as 'QuBS') during the period from April 2010 to September 2014. The Committee evaluated the management and research activities of QuBS based on the explanatory documents and oral presentations. (author)

  12. Particle Size Effects on Fenton Regeneration of MTBE-spent Activated Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton-driven regeneration of spent granular activated carbon (GAC) is a developing technology that may reduce water treatment costs. In this study, the effect of GAC particle size on Fenton-driven oxidation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)-spent GAC was evaluated. The GAC was...

  13. IMPROVED METHODS FOR EVALUATING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF INNOVATION DEVELOPMENT IN RUSSIAN CORPORATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Dorzhieva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Innovative activity is a key factor in the effective development and growth of competitiveness in the Russian economy. An important role in this process is played by industrial corporations. Against this background, there is an increased need for improving the effectiveness of methods for evaluating the innovation development of Russian corporations. Methods. Formal logic as well as system analysis methods were used in the research, allowing us to consider the corporation as a system that includes a variety of innovational directions (elements. Results. The article discusses various approaches to the determination of the basic definitions of innovation; a classification of innovation is proposed. The attributes of innovative activity of industrial corporations are distinguished together with an outline of the possible causes of various innovative corporate activities; components of the system of indicators of innovation activity are isolated: financial; consumer; process; development and training; risk management. The need for the indices of the innovation activity of the risk component to be included in the composition of the system is substantiated. It is shown how the objectives for each area of innovation may be achieved in tandem with a methodological approach that allows continuous monitoring of the implementation of innovative development strategies. An algorithm for evaluating the implementation of innovative strategies contributing to the development of industrial corporations is presented. Conclusion. Theoretical and methodological development can be used not only to navigate the variety of innovations but also to determine and establish the relationship and interdependence between the various innovations as well as carry out analysis, assessment and forecasting for the effective development of innovative activity of Russian corporations. 

  14. Evaluation of Hypoglycemic and Genotoxic Effect of Polyphenolic Bark Extract from Quercus sideroxyla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-García, Marcela; Rosales-Castro, Martha; Escalona-Cardoso, Gerardo N.

    2016-01-01

    Quercus sideroxyla is a wood species whose bark has phenolic compound and should be considered to be bioactive; the hypoglycemic and genotoxic properties of Q. sideroxyla bark were evaluated in this study. Total phenolic compound was determined in crude extract (CE) and organic extract (OE). The OE has the highest amount of phenols (724.1 ± 12.0 GAE/g). Besides, both CE and OE demonstrated effect over the inhibition of α-amylase in vitro. Hypoglycemic activity was assessed by glucose tolerance curve and the area under curve (UAC); OE showed the highest hypoglycemic activity. In addition, diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (65 mg/kg) and the extracts (50 mg/kg) were administered for 10 days; OE showed hypoglycemic effect compared with diabetic control and decreased hepatic lipid peroxidation. Acute toxicity and genotoxicity were evaluated in CE; results of acute toxicity did not show any mortality. Besides, the comet assay showed that CE at a dose of 100 mg/kg did not show any genotoxic effect when evaluated at 24 h, whereas it induced slight damage at 200 mg/kg, with the formation of type 1 comets. PMID:27867402

  15. Evaluation of Hypoglycemic and Genotoxic Effect of Polyphenolic Bark Extract from Quercus sideroxyla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Soto-García

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Quercus sideroxyla is a wood species whose bark has phenolic compound and should be considered to be bioactive; the hypoglycemic and genotoxic properties of Q. sideroxyla bark were evaluated in this study. Total phenolic compound was determined in crude extract (CE and organic extract (OE. The OE has the highest amount of phenols (724.1±12.0 GAE/g. Besides, both CE and OE demonstrated effect over the inhibition of α-amylase in vitro. Hypoglycemic activity was assessed by glucose tolerance curve and the area under curve (UAC; OE showed the highest hypoglycemic activity. In addition, diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (65 mg/kg and the extracts (50 mg/kg were administered for 10 days; OE showed hypoglycemic effect compared with diabetic control and decreased hepatic lipid peroxidation. Acute toxicity and genotoxicity were evaluated in CE; results of acute toxicity did not show any mortality. Besides, the comet assay showed that CE at a dose of 100 mg/kg did not show any genotoxic effect when evaluated at 24 h, whereas it induced slight damage at 200 mg/kg, with the formation of type 1 comets.

  16. Evaluating the antimicrobial activity of Nisin, Lysozyme and Ethylenediaminetetraacetate incorporated in starch based active food packaging film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Sugandha; Bharti, Anoop

    2015-06-01

    The pleothera of micro organisms obtained from contaminated food cultured in a starch broth was effectively tested against antibacterial agents, i.e. nisin, lysozyme and chelating agent EDTA. A variety of combination treatments of these antimicrobial agents and their incorporation in Starch based active packaging film according to their permissibility standards was done. 4 variables of Nisin concentration (ranging from 0 to 750 IU/ml), 3 variables of lysozyme concentration (ranging from 0 to 500 IU/ml) and 3 variables of EDTA concentration from (0 to 20 μM) were chosen. Bacterial inhibition by combination of different levels of different factors without antimicrobial films was evaluated using a liquid incubation method. The samples were assayed for turbidity at interval of 2, 4 and 24 h to check effectiveness of combined effects of antimicrobial agents which proved a transitory bactericidal effect for short incubation times. Zone of Inhibition was observed in the antimicrobial films prepared by agar diffusion method. Statistical analysis of experimental data for their antimicrobial spectrum was carried out by multi regression analysis and ANOVA using Design-Expert software to plot the final equation in terms of coded factors as antimicrobial agents. The experimental data indicated that the model was highly significant. Results were also evaluated graphically using response surface showing interactions between two factors, keeping other factor fixed at values at the center of domain. Synergy was also determined among antibacterial agents using the fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) index which was observed to be 0.56 supporting the hypothesis that nisin and EDTA function as partial synergistically. The presented work aimed to screen in quick fashion the combinatorial effect of three antimicrobial agents and evaluating their efficacy in anti microbial film development.

  17. Evaluation of sonication treatment and buffer composition on rumen bacteria protein extraction and carboxymethylcellulase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prauchner, Carlos A; Kozloski, Gilberto V; Farenzena, Roberta

    2013-05-01

    The methodological procedures for studying the fibrolytic activity of rumen bacteria are not clearly established. In this study the efficiency of sonication treatment and buffer composition (i.e. buffer varying in tonicity or pH) on the level of protein extraction from the residue of forage samples incubated in the rumen of a grazing steer and the effect of buffer composition or CaCl₂ concentration on the carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase) activity of the released protein were evaluated. The amount of protein released from the residue of incubation was higher (P buffer pH (P buffer. Both linear and quadratic effects (P buffer pH on CMCase activity were significant, with CMCase activity being maximal at pH 5.4-6.1. CMCase activity was higher (P buffer solution that includes a calcium source. When pH is not a treatment factor, the buffer pH should be between 5.5 and 6. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Determination of Importance Evaluation for Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Subsurface Testing Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C.J. Byrne

    2001-01-01

    This Determination of Importance Evaluation (DIE) applies to the Subsurface Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), encompassing the Topopah Spring (TS) Loop from Station 0+00 meters (m) at the North Portal to breakthrough at the South Portal (approximately 78+77 m), and ancillary test and operation support areas including the Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block (ECRB) Cross Drift. This evaluation applies specifically to site characterization testing activities ongoing and planned in the Subsurface ESF. ESF site characterization activities are being performed to obtain the information necessary to determine whether the Yucca Mountain Site is suitable as a geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. A more detailed description of these testing activities is provided in Section 6 of this DIE. Generally, the construction and operation of excavations associated with these testing activities are evaluated in the DIE for the Subsurface ESF (CRWMS M and O 1999a) and the DIE for the ESF ECRB Cross Drift (CRWMS M and O 2000a). The scope of this DIE also entails the proposed Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Transport Test at Busted Butte. Although, not a part of the TS Loop or ECRB Cross Drift, the associated testing activities are Subsurface testing activities. Busted Butte is located to the south south-east of the TS Loop and is outside the Conceptual Controlled Area Boundary (CCAB). These activities provide access to the Calico Hills (CH) geologic structure. In the case of Busted Butte, construction and operation of excavations are evaluated herein (since this activity was not previously evaluated in CRWMS M and O 1999a). The objectives of this DIE are to determine whether Subsurface ESF testing, and associated activities, could potentially impact site characterization testing and/or the waste isolation capabilities of the site. Controls needed to limit any potential impacts are identified in Section 13. The validity and veracity of the

  19. Determination of Importance Evaluation for Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Subsurface Testing Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.J. Byrne

    2001-02-20

    This Determination of Importance Evaluation (DIE) applies to the Subsurface Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), encompassing the Topopah Spring (TS) Loop from Station 0+00 meters (m) at the North Portal to breakthrough at the South Portal (approximately 78+77 m), and ancillary test and operation support areas including the Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block (ECRB) Cross Drift. This evaluation applies specifically to site characterization testing activities ongoing and planned in the Subsurface ESF. ESF site characterization activities are being performed to obtain the information necessary to determine whether the Yucca Mountain Site is suitable as a geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. A more detailed description of these testing activities is provided in Section 6 of this DIE. Generally, the construction and operation of excavations associated with these testing activities are evaluated in the DIE for the Subsurface ESF (CRWMS M&O 1999a) and the DIE for the ESF ECRB Cross Drift (CRWMS M&O 2000a). The scope of this DIE also entails the proposed Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Transport Test at Busted Butte. Although, not a part of the TS Loop or ECRB Cross Drift, the associated testing activities are Subsurface testing activities. Busted Butte is located to the south south-east of the TS Loop and is outside the Conceptual Controlled Area Boundary (CCAB). These activities provide access to the Calico Hills (CH) geologic structure. In the case of Busted Butte, construction and operation of excavations are evaluated herein (since this activity was not previously evaluated in CRWMS M&O 1999a). The objectives of this DIE are to determine whether Subsurface ESF testing, and associated activities, could potentially impact site characterization testing and/or the waste isolation capabilities of the site. Controls needed to limit any potential impacts are identified in Section 13. The validity and veracity of the individual

  20. Evaluation of Anticaries Activity of Selected Mouthwash Marketed in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anticaries evaluation revealed that 0.047 % thymol in ethanol displayed the highest degree of anticaries activity against all the Streptococcal species tested. Incorporation of preservatives in mouthwashes may adversely affect their anticaries activity as indicated by the fact that the preserved mouthwash exhibited lower ...

  1. Active video games: the mediating effect of aerobic fitness on body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddison, Ralph; Mhurchu, Cliona Ni; Jull, Andrew; Prapavessis, Harry; Foley, Louise S; Jiang, Yannan

    2012-05-03

    Increased understanding of why and how physical activity impacts on health outcomes is needed to increase the effectiveness of physical activity interventions. A recent randomized controlled trial of an active video game (PlayStation EyeToy™) intervention showed a statistically significant treatment effect on the primary outcome, change from baseline in body mass index (BMI), which favored the intervention group at 24 weeks. In this short paper we evaluate the mediating effects of the secondary outcomes. To identify mediators of the effect of an active video games intervention on body composition. Data from a two-arm parallel randomized controlled trial of an active video game intervention (n = 322) were analyzed. The primary outcome was change from baseline in BMI. A priori secondary outcomes were considered as potential mediators of the intervention on BMI, including aerobic fitness (VO2Max), time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and food snacking at 24 weeks. Only aerobic fitness at 24 weeks met the conditions for mediation, and was a significant mediator of BMI. Playing active video games can have a positive effect on body composition in overweight or obese children and this effect is most likely mediated through improved aerobic fitness. Future trials should examine other potential mediators related to this type of intervention. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry Website: http://www.anzctr.org.au. Study ID number: ACTRN12607000632493.

  2. Effects of gemfibrozil and ciprofibrate on plasma levels of tissue-type plasminogen activator, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and fibrinogen in hyperlipidaemic patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kockx, M.; de Maat, M. P.; Knipscheer, H. C.; Kastelein, J. J.; Kluft, C.; Princen, H. M.; Kooistra, T.

    1997-01-01

    Evaluation of fibrate treatment in humans has focused primarily on its anti-lipidaemic effects. A potentially favourable haemostasis-modulating activity of fibrates has also been recognized but the data are not consistent. We sought to learn more about this variability by examining the effects of

  3. Pharmacological and Structure-Activity Relationship Evaluation of 4-aryl-1-Diphenylacetyl(thiosemicarbazides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Wujec

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the synthesis of six 4-aryl-(thiosemicarbazides (series a and b linked with diphenylacetyl moiety along with their pharmacological evaluation on the central nervous system in mice and computational studies, including conformational analysis and electrostatic properties. All thiosemicarbazides (series b were found to exhibit strong antinociceptive activity in the behavioural model. Among them, compound 1-diphenylacetyl-4-(4-methylphenylthiosemicarbazide 1b was found to be the most potent analgesic agent, whose activity is connected with the opioid system. For compounds from series a significant anti-serotonergic effect, especially for compound 1-diphenylacetyl-4-(4-methoxyphenylsemicarbazide 2b was observed. The computational studies strongly support the obtained results.

  4. Methods for the evaluation of hospital cooperation activities (Systematic review protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotter Thomas

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hospital partnerships, mergers and cooperatives are arrangements frequently seen as a means of improving health service delivery. Many of the assumptions used in planning hospital cooperatives are not stated clearly and are often based on limited or poor scientific evidence. Methods This is a protocol for a systematic review, following the Cochrane EPOC methodology. The review aims to document, catalogue and synthesize the existing literature on the reported methods for the evaluation of hospital cooperation activities as well as methods of hospital cooperation. We will search the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness, the Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and bibliographic databases including PubMed (via NLM, Web of Science, NHS EED, Business Source Premier (via EBSCO and Global Health for publications that report on methods for evaluating hospital cooperatives, strategic partnerships, mergers, alliances, networks and related activities and methods used for such partnerships. The method proposed by the Cochrane EPOC group regarding randomized study designs, controlled clinical trials, controlled before and after studies, and interrupted time series will be followed. In addition, we will also include cohort, case-control studies, and relevant non-comparative publications such as case reports. We will categorize and analyze the review findings according to the study design employed, the study quality (low versus high quality studies and the method reported in the primary studies. We will present the results of studies in tabular form. Discussion Overall, the systematic review aims to identify, assess and synthesize the evidence to underpin hospital cooperation activities as defined in this protocol. As a result, the review will provide an evidence base for partnerships, alliances or other fields of cooperation in a hospital setting. PROSPERO

  5. The Strathclyde Evaluation of Children's Active Travel (SE-CAT: study rationale and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McMinn David

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The school commute is a prime opportunity to increase children's physical activity levels. However, active commuting has decreased over the past 40 years. Strategies that increase walking to school are therefore needed. Travelling Green (TG is a school-based active travel resource aimed at increasing children's walking to school. The resource consists of a curriculum-based program of lessons and goal setting activities. A previous study found that children who received the TG intervention increased self-reported distance travelled to school by active modes and reduced the distance travelled by inactive modes. This study was limited by self-reported outcome measures, a small sample, and no follow-up measures. A more robust evaluation of TG is required to address these limitations. This paper describes the rationale and methods for such an evaluation of Travelling Green, and describes the piloting of various active commuting measures in primary school children. Methods/Design Measures of active commuting were piloted in a sample of 26 children (aged 8-9 years over one school week. These measures were subsequently used in an 18-month quasi-experimental design to evaluate the effect of TG on commuting behaviour. Participants were 166 children (60% male aged 8-9 years from 5 primary schools. Two schools (n = 79 children received TG in September/October 2009. Three schools (n = 87 children acted as a comparison group, and subsequently received TG at a later date. Physical activity was measured using Actigraph GT1M accelerometers. Personal and environmental determinants of active commuting were measured via parent and child questionnaires, as were factors related to the Theory of Planned Behaviour and the construct of habit. Measures were taken pre- and post-intervention and at 5 and 12 months follow-up. Discussion The piloted protocol was practical and feasible and piloted measures were reliable and valid. All study data, including

  6. Synthesis, Leishmanicidal Activity and Theoretical Evaluations of a Series of Substituted bis-2-Hydroxy-1,4-Naphthoquinones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgana V. de Araújo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A series of eight substituted bis-2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives was synthesized through lawsone condensation with various aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes under mild acidic conditions. The title compounds were evaluated for antileishmanial activity in vitro against Leishmania amazonensis and Leishmania braziliensis promastigotes; six compounds showed good activity without significant toxic effects. The compound with the highest activity was used for an in vivo assay with Leishmania amazonensis.

  7. Evaluation of local anesthetic and antipyretic activities of Cinchona ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the local anesthetic and antipyretic activities of an aqueous extract of Cinchona officinalis (C. officinalis) in experimental animal models. Methods: Various doses of the aqueous extract was tested for its local anesthetic activity in guinea pigs and frogs using intracutaneous and plexus anesthesia, ...

  8. Effectiveness of bank credit activity evaluation with application of economic and mathematic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeeva, G. M.; Zagladina, E. N.; Kadeeva, E. N.

    2018-05-01

    The paper presents data on the influence of the most significant factors having impact on the credit portfolio volume, as well as conducts correlation and regression analysis with the subsequent construction of the trend for a short period. Credit activity is understood as the bank activity in the formation of a credit portfolio. Considering the structure of the bank credit portfolio, it can be observed that it consists of credits granted by the bank particularly for legal entities, individuals and other banks. Herewith, it is necessary to understand that any decrease in the credit portfolio will adversely affect the financial stability and effectiveness of any commercial bank. Moreover, during crisis periods, the policy and practice of banks have been determined as quite aggressive and conducted as such with regard to interest rates. The dynamics of credit portfolio volume has been selected as an independent factor due to the reason that it can fully explain the current development situation and the effectiveness of the bank credit policy. Considering the dependent factors, their influence will be assessed by the credit portfolio volume indicator. The authors have distinguished the following ones among them: the volume of credits granted to individuals; the volume of credits granted to legal entities; the amount of overdue credits in the credit portfolio; bank investments in the securities; inflation; key rate.

  9. Evaluation in vitro of the fungistatic activity of the mandarin essential oil on the growth of Penicillium sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María A. Velásquez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The fungi Penicillium digitatum and P. italicumrepresent the main global economic loss to the citrus industry during postharvest stage. Nowadays, the use of fungicides is increasingly restricted due to their carcinogenic, teratogenic, high residuality, long degradation period, environmental contamination, increased pathogen resistance, among others. Natural antimicrobial compounds could be a safe and viable option to minimize disease losses facing the industry. In this study, we evaluated in vitro the activity of tymol, carvacrol and commercial mandarin oil (Italian Mandarin at concentrations of 40 and 50 ppm using the agar diffusion method and microbiological testing. All the essential oils evaluated for both fungi, showed an inhibition rate between 50% and 100%, and the effect was higher at doses of 50 ppm. This effect was followed by inhibition of sporulation and germination. Carvacrol showed the higher antifungal activity for both fungi studied. P. digitatum showed a greater sensitivity to the effect of the essential oils evaluated compared to P. italicum. Commercial mandarin essential oil can be an alternative to the control of postharvest diseases caused by Penicillium sp. in plant products.

  10. The Evaluation and Utilization of Marine-derived Bioactive Compounds with Anti-obesity Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Qiu; Yu, Huahua; Li, Pengcheng

    2018-01-01

    Obesity is a global epidemic throughout the world. There is thus increasing interest in searching for natural bioactive compounds with anti-obesity effect. A number of marine compounds have been regarded as potential sources of bioactive compounds and are associated with an anti-obesity effect. Marine-derived compounds with anti-obesity effect and their current applications, methods and indicators for the evaluation of anti-obesity activity are summarized in this review. in order to make contributions to the development of marine-derived functional food against obesity. In this review, an overview of marine-derived compounds with anti-obesity effect, including marine polysaccharides, marine lipid, marine peptides, marine carotenoids is intensively made with an emphasis on their efficacy and mechanism of action. Meanwhile, methods and indicators for the evaluation of anti-obesity activity are discussed. We summarize these methods into three categories: in vitro assay (including adsorption experiments and enzyme inhibitory assay), cell line study, animal experiments and clinical experiments. In addition, a brief introduction of the current applications of marine bioactive compounds with anti-obesity activity is discussed. Marine environment is a rich source of both biological and chemical diversity. In the past decades, numerous novel compounds with anti-obesity activity have been obtained from marine organisms, and many of them have been applied to industrial production such as functional foods and pharmaceuticals. Further studies are needed to explore the above-mentioned facts. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  11. Evaluation of behavioral states among morning and evening active healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. Hidalgo

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The Horne-Östberg questionnaire partly covers some factors that may be important determinants of peak time and characterize patterns of behavior. We conducted a study for the evaluation of self-reported behavioral states (hunger sensation, availability for study, physical exercise, solving daily problems, and time preferences as expressions of underlying cyclic activity. Three hundred and eighteen community subjects without history of medical, psychiatric, or sleep disorders were evaluated in a cross-sectional design. A self-report about daily highest level of activity was used to categorize individuals into morning, evening, and indifferently active. Time-related behavioral states were evaluated with 23 visual analog questions. The responses to most analogic questions were significantly different between morning and evening active subjects. Logistic regression analysis identified a group of behaviors more strongly associated with the self-reported activity pattern (common wake up time, highest subjective fatigue, as well as wake up, bedtime, exercise and study preferences. These findings suggested that the patterns of activity presented by normal adults were related to specific common behavioral characteristics that may contribute to peak time.

  12. Effect of potassium sources on the antioxidant activity of eggplant¹

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas José Marques

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Potassium participates in the essential processes in plant physiology, however, the effects of K sources on plant metabolism have been little studied. Also, in certain cases, K sources and concentrations may cause undesirable effects, e.g., soil salinization. The objective was to evaluate the effect of K sources and levels on the enzyme activity of the antioxidant system and protein content in eggplant (Solanum melongena L. leaves and to determine the most suitable K sources for these physiological characteristics. The experiment was conducted in randomized blocks, in a 2 × 4 factorial design, consisting of two K sources (KCl and K2SO4 and rates (250, 500, 750, and 1000 kg ha-1 K2O, with four replications. The following variables were evaluated: plant height, number of leaves per plant, superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and leaf protein content. There was an increase in CAT activity with increasing K levels until 30 days after transplanting (DAT, when K2SO4 was applied and until 60 DAT, when KCl was used; after this period, the enzyme activity decreased under both sources. The activity of SOD increased in the presence of KCl, but was reduced with the application of K2SO4. For both K sources, increasing rates reduced the protein content and number of leaves per plant, and this reduction was greater under KCl application. Thus it was concluded that KCl tends more strongly to salinize the soil than K2SO4. Both for KCl and for K2SO4, the increasing rates adversely affected the activities of CAT and SOD and the levels of leaf protein in eggplant. The potential of KCl to reduce the enzyme activity of SOD and CAT, leaf protein content and plant growth of eggplant was stronger than that of K2SO4.

  13. Evaluation of the effect of an audit and feedback reporting tool on screening participation: The Primary Care Screening Activity Report (PCSAR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonah, Leigh; Pefoyo, Anna Kone; Lee, Alex; Hader, Joanne; Strasberg, Suzanne; Kupets, Rachel; Chiarelli, Anna M; Tinmouth, Jill

    2017-03-01

    Participation in cancer screening is critical to its effectiveness in reducing the burden of cancer. The Primary Care Screening Activity Report (PCSAR), an electronic report, was developed as an innovative audit and feedback tool to increase screening participation in Ontario's cancer screening programs. This study aims to assess its impact on patient screening participation. This study used a retrospective cohort design to evaluate the effectiveness of the 2014 PCSAR on screening participation in Ontario's three screening programs (breast, cervix and colorectal). The 3 cohorts comprised all participants eligible for each of the programs enrolled with a primary care physician in Ontario. Two exposures were evaluated for each cohort: enrollment with a physician who was registered to receive the PCSAR and enrollment with a registered physician who also logged into the PCSAR. Logistic regression modelling was used to assess the magnitude of the effect of PCSAR on participation, adjusting for participant and physician characteristics. Across all three screening programs, 63% of eligible physicians registered to receive the PCSAR and 38% of those registered logged-in to view it. Patients of physicians who registered were significantly more likely to participate in screening, with odds ratios ranging from 1.06 [1.04;1.09] to 1.15 [1.12;1.19]. The adjusted odds ratios associated with PCSAR log-in were 1.07 [1.03;1.12] to 1.18 [1.14;1.22] across all screening programs. Implementation of the PCSAR was associated with a small increase in screening participation. The PCSAR appears to be modestly effective in assisting primary care physicians in optimizing cancer screening participation among their patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antifungal Activities of Polyphenol-rich ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the antioxidant and antifungal activities of polyphenol-rich extracts of the dried fruit pulp of Garcinia pedunculata (GP) and Garcinia morella (GM) to determine their traditional claims of therapeutic activity against certain diseases. Methods: Analysis of total phenolic (TP) and flavonoid (TF) contents of the ...

  15. Evaluation of in vitro antioxidant potential anti-inflammatory activity and melanogenesis inhibition of Artocarpus hirsutus Lam. extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahadeva Nayak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Artocarpus hirsutus Lam. belongs to Moraceae family and is endemic to Western Ghats and Kerala in India. This species is found to be effective in traditional medicine for the treatment of ulcer diarrhea and pimples. However extensive biological evaluation on each component of this specific species rarely appears in the literature which restricts its applicability as medicinal herb. The leaf bark and wood of Artocarpus hirsutus Lam. were separately extracted with hot ethanol. The wood extract was further fractionated to isolate major active molecule whose structure was determined from its NMR spectra and LCMS analysis. All the extracts of A. hirsutus Lam. were then studied in vitro to evaluate their potential on tyrosinase inhibition free radical scavenging activity by 11-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl DPPH method and oxygen radical absorbance capacity ORAC. Furthermore their effects on melanogenesis inhibition were also evaluated by using murine melanoma cells. Activity guided fractionation of wood extract yielded a pure molecule that was characterized as oxyresveratrol. It was observed that antioxidant activity was higher in wood extract compared to the leaf and bark extracts. Isolated pure oxyresveratrol exhibited a significant antioxidant potential with ORAC value of 366532570 mol Trolox equivalentg and having an IC50 of 4.3 gmL for DPPH free radical scavenging activity. This molecule was found to be effective for the tyrosinase inhibition with an IC50 of 0.1 gmL and melanogenesis inhibition in cultured melanoma cells by 44.62 at 0.2 gmL. Oxyresveratrol also exhibited significant inhibition of lipopolysaccharide LPS induced tumour necrosis factor alpha TNF-amp945 secretion from J774A1 murine macrophage cell lines. This study provides substantial evidence for the presence of oxyresveratrol in the wood of A. hirsutus Lam. with promising anti-inflammatory antioxidant and skin lightening property.

  16. Human reliability-based MC and A methods for evaluating the effectiveness of protecting nuclear material - 59379

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, Felicia A.; Wyss, Gregory D.

    2012-01-01

    Material control and accountability (MC and A) operations that track and account for critical assets at nuclear facilities provide a key protection approach for defeating insider adversaries. MC and A activities, from monitoring to inventory measurements, provide critical information about target materials and define security elements that are useful against insider threats. However, these activities have been difficult to characterize in ways that are compatible with the path analysis methods that are used to systematically evaluate the effectiveness of a site's protection system. The path analysis methodology focuses on a systematic, quantitative evaluation of the physical protection component of the system for potential external threats, and often calculates the probability that the physical protection system (PPS) is effective (PE) in defeating an adversary who uses that attack pathway. In previous work, Dawson and Hester observed that many MC and A activities can be considered a type of sensor system with alarm and assessment capabilities that provide recurring opportunities for 'detecting' the status of critical items. This work has extended that characterization of MC and A activities as probabilistic sensors that are interwoven within each protection layer of the PPS. In addition, MC and A activities have similar characteristics to operator tasks performed in a nuclear power plant (NPP) in that the reliability of these activities depends significantly on human performance. Many of the procedures involve human performance in checking for anomalous conditions. Further characterization of MC and A activities as operational procedures that check the status of critical assets provides a basis for applying human reliability analysis (HRA) models and methods to determine probabilities of detection for MC and A protection elements. This paper will discuss the application of HRA methods used in nuclear power plant probabilistic risk assessments to define detection

  17. [Chemical and biological evaluation of the effect of plant extracts against Plasmodium berghei].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, O; Barrios, M; Chinchilla, M; Guerrero, O

    1996-08-01

    Extracts from thirteen species of plants were evaluated by "in vivo" antimalarial test against plasmodium berghei effects. Significant activities were observed in the ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts, elaborated of Cedrela tonduzii leaves, Trichilia havanensis and Trichilia americana barks, Neurolaena lobata and Gliricidia sepium leaves and Duranta repens fruits. Compounds identified include flavanoids, coumarins, mellilotic acid and iridoids which some kind of biodynamic activity has previously been reported. The flavone quercetin 1 purified from C. tonduzii gave strong antimalarial activity, however, its respective glucosides (quercetin 3-glucoside 2 y robinine 7) showed little significant activity.

  18. Antiplasmodial activities and cytotoxic effects of aqueous extracts and sesquiterpene lactones from Neurolaena lobata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, G; Passreiter, C M; Woerdenbag, H J; Van Looveren, M

    1996-04-01

    Aqueous and lipophilic extracts of Neurolaena lobata (Asteraceae), obtained from Guatemala, were tested against Plasmodium falciparum in vitro. Moreover, sesquiterpene lactones, of the germacranolide and furanoheliangolide type, isolated from N. lobata, were shown to be active against P. falciparum in vitro. In addition to their antiplasmodial activity, their cytotoxic effects on human carcinoma cell lines were evaluated. Structure-activity relationships are discussed.

  19. Evaluating the effects of activated carbon on methane generation and the fate of antibiotic resistant genes and class I integrons during anaerobic digestion of solid organic wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingxin; Mao, Feijian; Loh, Kai-Chee; Gin, Karina Yew-Hoong; Dai, Yanjun; Tong, Yen Wah

    2018-02-01

    The effects of activated carbon (AC) on methane production and the fate of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) were evaluated through comparing the anaerobic digestion performance and transformation of ARGs among anaerobic mono-digestion of food waste, co-digestion of food waste and chicken manure, and co-digestion of food waste and waste activated sludge. Results showed that adding AC in anaerobic digesters improved methane yield by at least double through the enrichment of bacteria and archaea. Conventional digestion process showed ability in removing certain types of ARGs, such as tetA, tetX, sul1, sul2, cmlA, floR, and intl1. Supplementing AC in anaerobic digester enhanced the removal of most of the ARGs in mono-digestion of food waste. The effects tended to be minimal in co-digestion of co-substrates such as chicken manure and waste activated sludge, both of which contain a certain amount of antibiotics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Redistribution Principle Approach for Evaluation of Seismic Active Earth Pressure Behind Retaining Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskar, A. D.; Madhekar, S. N.; Phatak, D. R.

    2017-11-01

    The knowledge of seismic active earth pressure behind the rigid retaining wall is very essential in the design of retaining wall in earthquake prone regions. Commonly used Mononobe-Okabe (MO) method considers pseudo-static approach. Recently there are many pseudo-dynamic methods used to evaluate the seismic earth pressure. However, available pseudo-static and pseudo-dynamic methods do not incorporate the effect of wall movement on the earth pressure distribution. Dubrova (Interaction between soils and structures, Rechnoi Transport, Moscow, 1963) was the first, who considered such effect and till date, it is used for cohesionless soil, without considering the effect of seismicity. In this paper, Dubrova's model based on redistribution principle, considering the seismic effect has been developed. It is further used to compute the distribution of seismic active earth pressure, in a more realistic manner, by considering the effect of wall movement on the earth pressure, as it is displacement based method. The effects of a wide range of parameters like soil friction angle (ϕ), wall friction angle (δ), horizontal and vertical seismic acceleration coefficients (kh and kv); on seismic active earth pressure (Kae) have been studied. Results are presented for comparison of pseudo-static and pseudo-dynamic methods, to highlight the realistic, non-linearity of seismic active earth pressure distribution. The current study results in the variation of Kae with kh in the same manner as that of MO method and Choudhury and Nimbalkar (Geotech Geol Eng 24(5):1103-1113, 2006) study. To increase in ϕ, there is a reduction in static as well as seismic earth pressure. Also, by keeping constant ϕ value, as kh increases from 0 to 0.3, earth pressure increases; whereas as δ increases, active earth pressure decreases. The seismic active earth pressure coefficient (Kae) obtained from the present study is approximately same as that obtained by previous researchers. Though seismic earth

  1. Evaluation of the activated carbon prepared from the algae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of the activated carbon prepared from the algae Gracilaria for the biosorption of Cu(II) from aqueous solutions. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... This study shows the benefit of using activated carbon from marine red algae as a low cost sorbent for the removal of copper from aqueous solution wastewater.

  2. The hypolipidemic effect and antithrombotic activity of Mucuna pruriens protein hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera Chalé, Francisco; Ruiz Ruiz, Jorge Carlos; Betancur Ancona, David; Acevedo Fernández, Juan José; Segura Campos, Maira Rubi

    2016-01-01

    Hydrolysates and peptide fractions (PF) obtained from M. pruriens protein concentrates with commercial and digestive enzymatic systems were studied for their hypolipidemic and antithrombotic activities. Hydrolysates obtained with Pepsin-Pancreatin (PP) and their peptide fractions inhibited cholesterol micellar solubility with a maximum value of 1.83% in PP. Wistar rats were used to evaluate the hypolipidemic effect of hydrolysates and PF. The higher reductions of cholesterol and triglyceride levels were exhibited by PP and both peptide fractions 10 kDa from both hydrolysates showed the maximum antithrombotic activity with values of 33.33% for PF > 10 kDa from AF and 31.72% for PF > 10 kDa from PP. The results suggest that M. pruriens bioactive peptides with the hypolipidemic effect and antithrombotic activity might be utilized as nutraceuticals.

  3. Evaluating a Physical Activity App in the Classroom: A Mixed Methodological Approach among University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, Bridget; Bland, Helen; Harris, Brandonn; Kelly, Destiny; Chandler, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of using an exercise-based app in increasing student motivation, social support, self-efficacy, and enjoyment in a university physical activity class. A convenience sample of 48 college-aged students (28 males, 20 females) from one university located in the Southeastern United States…

  4. Different cellular effects of four anti-inflammatory eye drops on human corneal epithelial cells: independent in active components

    OpenAIRE

    Qu, Mingli; Wang, Yao; Yang, Lingling; Zhou, Qingjun

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate and compare the cellular effects of four commercially available anti-inflammatory eye drops and their active components on human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) in vitro. Methods The cellular effects of four eye drops (Bromfenac Sodium Hydrate Eye Drops, Pranoprofen Eye Drops, Diclofenac Sodium Eye Drops, and Tobramycin & Dex Eye Drops) and their corresponding active components were evaluated in an HCEC line with five in vitro assays. Cell proliferation and migration were...

  5. Evaluation of the effect of supplementing fermented milk with quinoa flour on probiotic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casarotti, Sabrina N; Carneiro, Bruno M; Penna, Ana Lúcia B

    2014-10-01

    In this work, we investigated the effect of supplementing fermented milk with quinoa flour as an option to increase probiotic activity during fermented milk production and storage. Fermented milk products were produced with increasing concentrations of quinoa flour (0, 1, 2, or 3g/100g) and submitted to the following analyses at 1, 14, and 28 d of refrigerated storage: postacidification, bacterial viability, resistance of probiotics to simulated gastrointestinal (GI) conditions, and adhesion of probiotics to Caco-2 cells in vitro. The kinetics of acidification were measured during the fermentation process. The time to reach maximum acidification rate, time to reach pH 5.0, and time to reach pH 4.6 (end of fermentation) were similar for all treatments. Adding quinoa flour had no effect on fermentation time; however, it did contribute to postacidification of the fermented milk during storage. Quinoa flour did not affect counts of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BB-12 or Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 during storage, it did not protect the probiotic strains during simulated GI transit, and it did not have a positive effect on the adhesion of probiotic bacteria to Caco-2 cells in vitro. Additionally, the adhesion of strains to Caco-2 cells decreased during refrigerated storage of fermented milk. Although the addition of up to 3% quinoa flour had a neutral effect on probiotic activity, its incorporation to fermented milk can be recommended because it is an ingredient with high nutritive value, which may increase the appeal of the product to consumers. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of physical activity measures used in middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettee Gabriel, Kelley; McClain, James J; Lee, Chong D; Swan, Pamela D; Alvar, Brent A; Mitros, Melanie R; Ainsworth, Barbara E

    2009-07-01

    To evaluate the reliability and validity of five commonly used physical activity questionnaires (PAQ) in women aged 45-65 yr with varying physical activity (PA) levels. Data were obtained from the Evaluation of Physical Activity Measures in Middle-aged Women (PAW) Study and included 66 women (aged 52.6 +/- 5.4 yr). PAQ evaluated include Modifiable Activity Questionnaire (past week and past month version), Nurses' Health Study PAQ, Active Australia Survey, and Women's Health Initiative PAQ. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) between administrations of the PAQ were used to assess test-retest reliability. Spearman rank-order correlation coefficients were used to examine the associations of PA and physical fitness data with PAQ summary estimates. Accelerometer-determined median (25th, 75th percentiles) times (min.d) spent in moderate-lifestyle [760-1951 counts (ct)], moderate-walk (1952-5724 ct), vigorous (> or =5725 ct), and combined moderate and vigorous PA (MVPA > or = 1952 ct) during the 35 d of observation were 66.0 (51.2, 81.3), 23.1 (14.1, 34.6), 0.4 (0.0, 2.3), and 24.3 (15.9, 41.6) min, respectively. The PAQ were shown to be reproducible and relatively stable over time (ICC = 0.32 to 0.91) and were associated with total counts per day (ct.d, 0.46 to 0.60, all P PAQ evaluated in this study were shown to be reliable and associated with PA and physical fitness measures. Current findings support the utility of these PAQ for PA assessment in research studies of middle-aged women.

  7. Assessment report of research and development activities in FY2014. Activity: 'Quantum beam science research' (In-advance evaluation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-09-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (hereafter referred to as 'JAEA') consulted an assessment committee, 'Evaluation Committee of Research Activities for Quantum Beam Science' (hereafter referred to as 'Committee') for result evaluation of 'Quantum Beam Science', in accordance with 'General Guideline for the Evaluation of Government Research and Development (R and D) Activities' by Cabinet Office, Government of Japan, 'Guideline for Evaluation of R and D in Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology' and 'Regulation on Conduct for Evaluation of R and D Activities' by JAEA. In response to the JAEA's request, the Committee assessed the research program of the Quantum Beam Science Center (hereafter referred to as 'QuBS') during the period from April 2015 to March 2022. The Committee evaluated the management and research activities of QuBS based on the explanatory documents and oral presentations. (author)

  8. Field Measurement and Evaluation of the Passive and Active Solar Heating Systems for Residential Building Based on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijian Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Passive and active solar heating systems have drawn much attention and are widely used in residence buildings in the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau due to its high radiation intensity. In fact, there is still lack of quantitative evaluation of the passive and active heating effect, especially for residential building in the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau areas. In this study, three kinds of heating strategies, including reference condition, passive solar heating condition and active solar heating condition, were tested in one demonstration residential building. The hourly air temperatures of each room under different conditions were obtained and analyzed. The results show the indoor air temperature in the living room and bedrooms (core zones was much higher than that of other rooms under both passive and active solar heating conditions. In addition, the heating effect with different strategies for core zones of the building was evaluated by the ratio of indoor and outdoor degree hour, which indicates that solar heating could effectively reduce the traditional energy consumption and improve the indoor thermal environment. The passive solar heating could undertake 49.8% degree hours for heating under an evaluation criterion of 14 °C and the active solar heating could undertake 75% degree hours for heating under evaluation criterion of 18 °C, which indicated that solar heating could effectively reduce the traditional energy consumption and improve the indoor thermal environment in this area. These findings could provide reference for the design and application of solar heating in similar climate areas.

  9. Evaluation of an Internet, Stage-Based Physical Activity Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Ronald L.; Hardy, Aaron; Aldana, Steven G.; George, James D.

    2002-01-01

    Evaluated the impact of online, stage-based materials on exercise behavior and stage of readiness to change. College faculty participated in stage-based, action-message, or control groups. Occupational and leisure activity, 7-day physical activity, exercise self-efficacy, and stage of readiness to change were assessed at baseline and 6 weeks.…

  10. EVALUATION OF HUMAN RELIABILITY IN SELECTED ACTIVITIES IN THE RAILWAY INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika SUJOVÁ

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on evaluation of human reliability in the human – machine system in the railway industry. Based on a survey of a train dispatcher and of selected activities, we have identified risk factors affecting the dispatcher‘s work and the evaluated risk level of their influence on the reliability and safety of preformed activities. The research took place at the authors‘ work place between 2012-2013. A survey method was used. With its help, authors were able to identify selected work activities of train dispatcher’s risk factors that affect his/her work and the evaluated seriousness of its in-fluence on the reliability and safety of performed activities. Amongst the most important finding fall expressions of un-clear and complicated internal regulations and work processes, a feeling of being overworked, fear for one’s safety at small, insufficiently protected stations.

  11. Active video games: the mediating effect of aerobic fitness on body composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maddison Ralph

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased understanding of why and how physical activity impacts on health outcomes is needed to increase the effectiveness of physical activity interventions. A recent randomized controlled trial of an active video game (PlayStation EyeToy™ intervention showed a statistically significant treatment effect on the primary outcome, change from baseline in body mass index (BMI, which favored the intervention group at 24 weeks. In this short paper we evaluate the mediating effects of the secondary outcomes. Objective To identify mediators of the effect of an active video games intervention on body composition. Methods Data from a two-arm parallel randomized controlled trial of an active video game intervention (n = 322 were analyzed. The primary outcome was change from baseline in BMI. A priori secondary outcomes were considered as potential mediators of the intervention on BMI, including aerobic fitness (VO2Max, time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA, and food snacking at 24 weeks. Results Only aerobic fitness at 24 weeks met the conditions for mediation, and was a significant mediator of BMI. Conclusion Playing active video games can have a positive effect on body composition in overweight or obese children and this effect is most likely mediated through improved aerobic fitness. Future trials should examine other potential mediators related to this type of intervention. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry Website: http://www.anzctr.org.au Study ID number: ACTRN12607000632493

  12. Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity and Total Phenol Compounds of Punica granatum Hydro-Alcoholic Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elahe Ahmadi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Punica granatum is a non-productive form of a plant and is used for the treatment of diseases in traditional medicine. In this study, we evaluate the antibacterial activity and the total phenol compounds of Punica granatum. Materials & Methods: Disk and well diffusion methods and MIC were used to evaluate the antibacterial activity of hydro-alcoholic extract on S. aureus and E. coli compared to standard commercial antibiotic disks. Measurement of phenol compounds were performed by Seevers and Daly colorimetric methods (Folin-ciocalteu indicator. Results: 35 and 29 mm inhibition zones in S. aureus and 22 and 17 mm inhibition zones in E. coli were shown by disk and well diffusion method, respectively. Also, 7.8 mg/ml concentration of extract showed the MIC points for two bacteria. Phenol compound of extract was 233.15±5.1 mg/g of extraction. Conclusion: Antibacterial effect of Punica granatum compared to antibiotics indicates the strong activity against examined bacteria. Extensive antibacterial study of Punica granatum is suggested.

  13. Missed opportunities in the evaluation of public health interventions: a case study of physical activity programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Hanson

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence-based approaches are requisite in evaluating public health programmes. Nowhere are they more necessary than physical activity interventions where evidence of effectiveness is often poor, especially within hard to reach groups. Our study reports on the quality of the evaluation of a government funded walking programme in five ‘Walking Cities’ in England. Cities were required to undertake a simple but robust evaluation using the Standard Evaluation Framework (SEF for physical activity interventions to enable high quality, consistent evaluation. Our aim was not to evaluate the outcomes of this programme but to evaluate whether the evaluation process had been effective in generating new and reliable evidence on intervention design and what had worked in ‘real world’ circumstances. Methods Funding applications and final reports produced by the funder and the five walking cities were obtained. These totalled 16 documents which were systematically analysed against the 52 criteria in the SEF. Data were cross checked between the documents at the bid and reporting stage with reference to the SEF guidance notes. Results Generally, the SEF reporting requirements were not followed well. The rationale for the interventions was badly described, the target population was not precisely specified, and neither was the method of recruitment. Demographics of individual participants, including socio-economic status were reported poorly, despite being a key criterion for funding. Conclusions Our study of the evaluations demonstrated a missed opportunity to confidently establish what worked and what did not work in walking programmes with particular populations. This limited the potential for evidence synthesis and to highlight innovative practice warranting further investigation. Our findings suggest a mandate for evaluability assessment. Used at the planning stage this may have ensured the development of realistic objectives and

  14. Synthesis and biological evaluation of isomeric methoxy substitutions on anti-cancer indolyl-pyridinyl-propenones: Effects on potency and mode of activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabbic, Christopher J; George, Sage M; Alexander, Evan M; Du, Shengnan; Offenbacher, Jennifer M; Crissman, Emily J; Overmeyer, Jean H; Maltese, William A; Erhardt, Paul W

    2016-10-21

    Certain indolyl-pyridinyl-propenone analogues kill glioblastoma cells that have become resistant to conventional therapeutic drugs. Some of these analogues induce a novel form of non-apoptotic cell death called methuosis, while others primarily cause microtubule disruption. Ready access to 5-indole substitution has allowed characterization of this position to be important for both types of mechanisms when a simple methoxy group is present. We now report the syntheses and biological effects of isomeric methoxy substitutions on the indole ring. Additionally, analogues containing a trimethoxyphenyl group in place of the pyridinyl moiety were evaluated for anticancer activity. The results demonstrate that the location of the methoxy group can alter both the potency and the mechanism of cell death. Remarkably, changing the methoxy from the 5-position to the 6-position switched the biological activity from induction of methuosis to disruption of microtubules. The latter may represent a prototype for a new class of mitotic inhibitors with potential therapeutic utility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Investigation and evaluation of some prospected fault activities in Western Damascus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul-Wahed, M. Kh.; Al-Hilal, M.; Al-Ali, A.; Al-Najjar, H.

    2010-08-01

    The Atomic Energy Commission of Syria is interested in conducting researches about the possibility of mitigating seismic hazards especially in certain areas close to the Dead Sea Fault System (DSFS) in western Damascus. Recent data obtained from drilled wells in Dobaya and Sojja sites have shown preliminary indications of existing probable subsurface faults in the concerned area. Radon measurements in soil gas and water accompanied with seismic data are recognized as effective methods for providing valuable information about determining the locations of some seismogenic faults and evaluating their activities. This research aims at the mitigation of natural hazards such as earthquakes which may occur along some active branches of the Dead Sea Fault System in the area, by using radon monitoring technique and seismic data, in order to face such disasters which affect not only humans but also national economies (Author)

  16. The Health and Sport Engagement (HASE) Intervention and Evaluation Project: protocol for the design, outcome, process and economic evaluation of a complex community sport intervention to increase levels of physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Louise; Anokye, Nana; Fox-Rushby, Julia; Kay, Tess

    2015-10-26

    Sport is being promoted to raise population levels of physical activity for health. National sport participation policy focuses on complex community provision tailored to diverse local users. Few quality research studies exist that examine the role of community sport interventions in raising physical activity levels and no research to date has examined the costs and cost-effectiveness of such provision. This study is a protocol for the design, outcome, process and economic evaluation of a complex community sport intervention to increase levels of physical activity, the Health and Sport Engagement (HASE) project part of the national Get Healthy Get Active programme led by Sport England. The HASE study is a collaborative partnership between local community sport deliverers and sport and public health researchers. It involves designing, delivering and evaluating community sport interventions. The aim is to engage previously inactive people in sustained sporting activity for 1×30 min a week and to examine associated health and well-being outcomes. The study uses mixed methods. Outcomes (physical activity, health, well-being costs to individuals) will be measured by a series of self-report questionnaires and attendance data and evaluated using interrupted time series analysis controlling for a range of sociodemographic factors. Resource use will be identified and measured using diaries, interviews and records and presented alongside effectiveness data as incremental cost-effectiveness ratios and cost-effectiveness acceptability curves. A longitudinal process evaluation (focus groups, structured observations, in-depth interview methods) will examine the efficacy of the project for achieving its aim using the principles of thematic analysis. The results of this study will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications, academic conference presentations, Sport England and national public health organisation policy conferences, and practice-based case studies

  17. Hematopoiesis-activating effects of androgen (fluoxymesterone)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirakura, Takuo; Inoue, Tatsu; Maekawa, Tadashi.

    1978-01-01

    Hematopoiesis-activating effect of fluoxymesterone (FMT) (androgen preparation) on hematopoietic hematoblast was evaluated. The results were as follows. (1) To C 3 H/He strain male mice, 2 mg/day of FMT was injected into each femoral muscle alternatively. On the 5th day of the first injection, radioactive iron was injected intraperitoneally; after 48 hrs, blood was collected for examining the incorporation rate of 59 Fe. The results showed significant increase. (2) After 4 mg of FMT was injected once into the femoral muscle, spleen colony-forming cells (CFU-S) of the mouse femur were examined. Calculation of either of surface colonies and microscopic colonies showed absolute increase of the number of CFU-S in the femoral marrow. The microscopic colonies were classified into three colony types of erythrocytes, granulocytes, and megakaryocytes on the basis of histology of the cellular component; and changes were evaluated in each type of the colonies. This evaluation clarified that an increase in colonies which appeared 24 hrs after the injection of the hormon was due to an increase in the erythrocyte and megakaryocyte colonies and that which appeared 48 hrs after the injection was due to an increase in granulocyte colonies. (Ueda, J.)

  18. Time-dependent effects of ultraviolet and nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasma on the biological activity of titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung-Hwan; Jeong, Won-Seok; Cha, Jung-Yul; Lee, Jae-Hoon; Yu, Hyung-Seog; Choi, Eun-Ha; Kim, Kwang-Mahn; Hwang, Chung-Ju

    2016-09-01

    Here, we evaluated time-dependent changes in the effects of ultraviolet (UV) and nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasma (NTAPPJ) on the biological activity of titanium compared with that of untreated titanium. Grade IV machined surface titanium discs (12-mm diameter) were used immediately and stored up to 28 days after 15-min UV or 10-min NTAPPJ treatment. Changes of surface characteristics over time were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy, surface profiling, contact angle analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and surface zeta-potential. Changes in biological activity over time were as determined by analysing bovine serum albumin adsorption, MC3T3-E1 early adhesion and morphometry, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity between groups. We found no differences in the effects of treatment on titanium between UV or NTAPPJ over time; both treatments resulted in changes from negatively charged hydrophobic (bioinert) to positively charged hydrophilic (bioactive) surfaces, allowing enhancement of albumin adsorption, osteoblastic cell attachment, and cytoskeleton development. Although this effect may not be prolonged for promotion of cell adhesion until 4 weeks, the effects were sufficient to maintain ALP activity after 7 days of incubation. This positive effect of UV and NTAPPJ treatment can enhance the biological activity of titanium over time.

  19. Radiolabeling of intact dosage forms by neutron activation: effects on in vitro performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parr, A.; Jay, M.

    1987-01-01

    Compressed tablets containing various quantities of stable isotopes of Ba, Er, and Sm for use in neutron activation studies were evaluated for the effect of stable isotope incorporation on tablet hardness and disintegration times. At concentrations likely to be used in scintigraphic studies employing neutron activation as a radiolabeling method, no significant effect on in vitro parameters were observed. While the incorporation of stable isotopes influenced tablet hardness to a greater degree than disintegration time, irradiation of tablets in a neutron flux of 4.4 x 10(13) n/cm2 sec had a direct effect on tablet disintegration time. Thus, future neutron activation studies should focus on minimizing the amount of stable isotope to be incorporated with the formulation while using the shortest feasible irradiation time

  20. Evaluation of immunomodulatory activity of " Shirishavaleha"-An Ayurvedic compound formulation in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamlal Singh Yadav

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The immunomodulatory activity of Shirishavaleha prepared from two different parts of Shirisha (Albizia lebbeck Benth, i.e., Twak (Bark and Sara (Heartwood as main ingredients was evaluated for humoral antibody formation and cell-mediated immunity in established experimental models. The study used Wistar rats of either sex weighing 200 ± 40 g, while the test drug was administered orally at a dose of 1.8 g/kg. Hemagglutination titer and body weight were recorded to assess effects on humoral immunity; immunological paw edema was assessed for cell-mediated immunity. Shirishavaleha prepared from heartwood shows significant enhancement in antibody formation, attenuation of body weight changes, and suppression of immunological paw edema, while Shirishavaleha prepared from bark shows weak immunomodulatory activity. The study therefore concludes that Shirishavaleha prepared from heartwood has significant immunomodulatory activity.

  1. Evaluation of immunomodulatory activity of "Shirishavaleha"-An Ayurvedic compound formulation in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Shyamlal Singh; Galib; Prajapati, P K; Ashok, B K; Ravishankar, B

    2011-10-01

    The immunomodulatory activity of Shirishavaleha prepared from two different parts of Shirisha (Albizia lebbeck Benth), i.e., Twak (Bark) and Sara (Heartwood) as main ingredients was evaluated for humoral antibody formation and cell-mediated immunity in established experimental models. The study used Wistar rats of either sex weighing 200 ± 40 g, while the test drug was administered orally at a dose of 1.8 g/kg. Hemagglutination titer and body weight were recorded to assess effects on humoral immunity; immunological paw edema was assessed for cell-mediated immunity. Shirishavaleha prepared from heartwood shows significant enhancement in antibody formation, attenuation of body weight changes, and suppression of immunological paw edema, while Shirishavaleha prepared from bark shows weak immunomodulatory activity. The study therefore concludes that Shirishavaleha prepared from heartwood has significant immunomodulatory activity.

  2. Antiglaucomatous effects of the activation of intrinsic Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foureaux, Giselle; Nogueira, José C; Nogueira, Bárbara S; Fulgêncio, Gustavo O; Menezes, Gustavo B; Fernandes, Simone O A; Cardoso, Valbert N; Fernandes, Renata S; Oliveira, Gabriel P; Franca, Juçara R; Faraco, André A G; Raizada, Mohan K; Ferreira, Anderson J

    2013-06-21

    To evaluate the effects of the activation of endogenous angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) using the compound diminazene aceturate (DIZE) in an experimental model of glaucoma in Wistar rats. DIZE (1 mg/kg) was administered daily, either systemically or topically, and the IOP was measured weekly. To examine the role of the Mas receptor in the effects of DIZE, the Ang-(1-7) antagonist A-779 was co-administered. Drainage of the aqueous humor was evaluated by using scintigraphy. The analysis of ACE2 expression by immunohistochemistry and the counting of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) were performed in histologic sections. Additionally, the nerve fiber structure was evaluated by transmission electron microscopy. The systemic administration and topical administration (in the form of eye drops) of DIZE increased the ACE2 expression in the eyes and significantly decreased the IOP of glaucomatous rats without changing the blood pressure. Importantly, this IOP-lowering action of DIZE was similar to the effects of dorzolamide. The antiglaucomatous effects of DIZE were blocked by A-779. Histologic analysis revealed that the reduction in the number of RGCs and the increase in the expression of caspase-3 in the RGC layer in glaucomatous animals were prevented by DIZE. This compound also prevented alterations in the cytoplasm of axons in glaucomatous rats. In addition to these neuroprotective effects, DIZE facilitated the drainage of the aqueous humor. Our results evidence the pathophysiologic relevance of the ocular ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis of the renin-angiotensin system and, importantly, indicate that the activation of intrinsic ACE2 is a potential therapeutic strategy to treat glaucoma.

  3. Evaluation of single-step steam pyrolysis-activated carbons

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    Activated carbon has been widely used worldwide as an effective filtration or adsorption ... of producing activated carbon (AC) from local agroforestry residues by ..... impurities from waste water. .... Production of granular activated carbon.

  4. A new extract of the plant calendula officinalis produces a dual in vitro effect: cytotoxic anti-tumor activity and lymphocyte activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collado Antonia

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phytopharmacological studies of different Calendula extracts have shown anti-inflamatory, anti-viral and anti-genotoxic properties of therapeutic interest. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro cytotoxic anti-tumor and immunomodulatory activities and in vivo anti-tumor effect of Laser Activated Calendula Extract (LACE, a novel extract of the plant Calendula Officinalis (Asteraceae. Methods An aqueous extract of Calendula Officinalis was obtained by a novel extraction method in order to measure its anti-tumor and immunomodulatory activities in vitro. Tumor cell lines derived from leukemias, melanomas, fibrosarcomas and cancers of breast, prostate, cervix, lung, pancreas and colorectal were used and tumor cell proliferation in vitro was measured by BrdU incorporation and viable cell count. Effect of LACE on human peripheral blood lymphocyte (PBL proliferation in vitro was also analyzed. Studies of cell cycle and apoptosis were performed in LACE-treated cells. In vivo anti-tumor activity was evaluated in nude mice bearing subcutaneously human Ando-2 melanoma cells. Results The LACE extract showed a potent in vitro inhibition of tumor cell proliferation when tested on a wide variety of human and murine tumor cell lines. The inhibition ranged from 70 to 100%. Mechanisms of inhibition were identified as cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase and Caspase-3-induced apoptosis. Interestingly, the same extract showed an opposite effect when tested on PBLs and NKL cell line, in which in vitro induction of proliferation and activation of these cells was observed. The intraperitoneal injection or oral administration of LACE extract in nude mice inhibits in vivo tumor growth of Ando-2 melanoma cells and prolongs the survival day of the mice. Conclusion These results indicate that LACE aqueous extract has two complementary activities in vitro with potential anti-tumor therapeutic effect: cytotoxic tumor cell activity and lymphocyte activation

  5. A new extract of the plant calendula officinalis produces a dual in vitro effect: cytotoxic anti-tumor activity and lymphocyte activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiménez-Medina, Eva; Garcia-Lora, Angel; Paco, Laura; Algarra, Ignacio; Collado, Antonia; Garrido, Federico

    2006-01-01

    Phytopharmacological studies of different Calendula extracts have shown anti-inflamatory, anti-viral and anti-genotoxic properties of therapeutic interest. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro cytotoxic anti-tumor and immunomodulatory activities and in vivo anti-tumor effect of Laser Activated Calendula Extract (LACE), a novel extract of the plant Calendula Officinalis (Asteraceae). An aqueous extract of Calendula Officinalis was obtained by a novel extraction method in order to measure its anti-tumor and immunomodulatory activities in vitro. Tumor cell lines derived from leukemias, melanomas, fibrosarcomas and cancers of breast, prostate, cervix, lung, pancreas and colorectal were used and tumor cell proliferation in vitro was measured by BrdU incorporation and viable cell count. Effect of LACE on human peripheral blood lymphocyte (PBL) proliferation in vitro was also analyzed. Studies of cell cycle and apoptosis were performed in LACE-treated cells. In vivo anti-tumor activity was evaluated in nude mice bearing subcutaneously human Ando-2 melanoma cells. The LACE extract showed a potent in vitro inhibition of tumor cell proliferation when tested on a wide variety of human and murine tumor cell lines. The inhibition ranged from 70 to 100%. Mechanisms of inhibition were identified as cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase and Caspase-3-induced apoptosis. Interestingly, the same extract showed an opposite effect when tested on PBLs and NKL cell line, in which in vitro induction of proliferation and activation of these cells was observed. The intraperitoneal injection or oral administration of LACE extract in nude mice inhibits in vivo tumor growth of Ando-2 melanoma cells and prolongs the survival day of the mice. These results indicate that LACE aqueous extract has two complementary activities in vitro with potential anti-tumor therapeutic effect: cytotoxic tumor cell activity and lymphocyte activation. The LACE extract presented in vivo anti-tumoral activity in nude

  6. THE EVALUATION OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN PATIENTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladan Jovanović

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available It is already known that physical activity is very important measure in treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, but in spite of that, in our country, there is neither its adequate use in therapy, nor the evaluation of its level in type 2 diabetics.The aim of this study is to evaluate the level of physical activity in patients with type 2 diabetes, by using the questionnaire for evaluation of physical activity, based on the International Physical Activity Questionnaire used in the Framingham Heart Study.The level of physical activity is evaluated by the Physical Activity Index (PAI, which is calculated by summing the number of hours spent in each activity intensity level (vigorous, moderate, light physical activity, sedentary behavior and sleep and multiplying by a respective weight factor, derived from the estimated oxygen consumption requirement for each intensity level (Metabolic Equivalent, MET. The results were compared to the results of healthy control subjects.The estimated value of PAI in patients with type 2 diabetes was 34.1 ± 6.4 and in controls 37.6 ± 6.4. The energy expenditure in the subgroup of patients with type 2 diabetes with predominantly sedentary behavior was 852 kcal minor than in the control group.The results of this investigation show very low level of physical activity in patients with type 2 diabetes and its correlation with coronary risk factors

  7. Proteolytic activity and cooperative hemolytic effect of dermatophytes with different species of bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakshir, K; Mohamadi, T; Khodadadi, H; Motamedifar, M; Zomorodian, K; Alipour, S; Motamedi, M

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Globally, dermatophytes are the most common filamentous group of fungi causing cutaneous mycoses. Dermatophytes were shown to secrete a multitude of enzymes that play a role in their pathogenesis. There is limited data on co-hemolytic (CAMP-like) effect of different bacterial species on dermatophyte species. In this study, we sought to the evaluate exoenzyme activity and co-hemolytic effect of four bacteria on clinical dermatophytes isolated from patients in Shiraz, Iran. Materials and Methods: A total of 84 clinical dermatophyte species were isolated from patients suffering dermatophytosis and identified by conventional methods. Hemolytic activity was evaluated with Columbia 5% sheep blood agar. Proteolytic activity was determined by plate clearance assay method, using gelatin 8% agar. CAMP-like factor was evaluated with four bacteria, namely, S. areus, S. saprophyticus, S. pyogenes, and S. agalactiae. Fisher's exact test was run for statistical analysis. Results: T. mentagrophytes was the most predominant agent (27 [32.1%]) followed by T. verrucosum(20 [23.8%]), T. tonsurans (10 [11.9%]), Microsporum canis (7 [8.3%]), T. rubrum (6 [7.1%]), E. floccosum (6 [7.1%]), M. gypseum (5 [6%]), and T. violaceum (3[3.6%]). The most common clinical area of dermatophytosis was the skin. All the isolates expressed the zone of incomplete alpha hemolysis. All the isolates had CAMP- positive reaction with S. aureus and the other bacteria were CAMP-negative. All the isolates expressed proteolytic activity and no significant differences were noted among diverse genera of dermatophytes and severities of proteolytic activity. Conclusion: This study indicated that hemolysin and proteolytic enzymes potentially play a role in dermatophyte pathogenesis and S. aureus could be considered as a main bacterium for creation of co-hemolytic effect in association with dermatophyte species. PMID:28959790

  8. Member Company Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Food Valley as a Cluster Organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fortuin, F.T.J.M.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to analyze the effectiveness of the different cluster organization functions (services, activities and information sources) of Food Valley Organization in the Dutch agifood innovation system, as evaluated by its member companies. It is concluded that, in accordance with cluster

  9. Evaluative threat and ambulatory blood pressure: cardiovascular effects of social stress in daily experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy W; Birmingham, Wendy; Uchino, Bert N

    2012-11-01

    Physiological effects of social evaluation are central in models of psychosocial influences on physical health. Experimental manipulations of evaluative threat evoke substantial cardiovascular and neuroendocrine responses in laboratory studies, but only preliminary evidence is available regarding naturally occurring evaluative threats in daily life. In such nonexperimental ambulatory studies, it is essential to distinguish effects of evaluative threat from related constructs known to alter stress, such as ability perceptions and concerns about appearance. 94 married, working couples (mean age 29.2 years) completed a 1-day (8 a.m. to 10 p.m.) ambulatory blood pressure protocol with random interval-contingent measurements using a Suntech monitor and Palm Pilot-based measures of control variables and momentary experiences of social-evaluative threat, concerns about appearance, and perceived ability. In hierarchical analyses for couples and multiple measurement occasions (Proc Mixed; SAS) and controlling individual differences (BMI, age, income) and potential confounds (e.g., posture, activity), higher reports of social-evaluative threat were associated with higher concurrent systolic (estimate = .87, SE = .34) and diastolic blood pressure (estimate = 1.06; SE = .26), both p social-evaluative threat remained significant when perceived ability and appearance concerns were controlled. Naturally occurring social-evaluative threat during daily activity is associated with increased systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Given associations between ambulatory blood pressure and risk of cardiovascular disease, the findings support conceptual models of threats to the social self as a potentially important influence on physical health.

  10. Isolating weather effects from seasonal activity patterns of a temperate North American Colubrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew D. George; Frank R. III Thompson; John. Faaborg

    2015-01-01

    Forecasting the effects of climate change on threatened ecosystems and species will require an understanding of how weather influences processes that drive population dynamics. We have evaluated weather effects on activity patterns of western ratsnakes, a widespread predator of birds and small mammals in eastern North America. From 2010-2013 we radio-tracked 53...

  11. Automatic evaluation stimuli – The most frequently used words to describe physical activity and the pleasantness of physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Lea Rebar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity is partially regulated by non-conscious processes including automatic evaluations – the spontaneous affective reactions we have to physical activity that lead us to approach or avoid physical activity opportunities. A sound understanding of which words best represent the concepts of physical activity and pleasantness (as associated with physical activity is needed to improve the measurement of automatic evaluations and related constructs (e.g., automatic self-schemas, attentional biases. The first aim of this study was to establish population-level evidence of the most common word stimuli for physical activity and pleasantness. Given that response latency measures have been applied to assess automatic evaluations of physical activity and exercise, the second aim was to determine whether people use the same behavior and pleasant descriptors for physical activity and exercise. Australian adults (N = 1,318; 54.3% women; 48.9% aged 55 years or older were randomly assigned to one of two groups, through a computer-generated 1:1 ratio allocation, to be asked to list either five behaviors and pleasant descriptors of physical activity (n = 686 or of exercise (n = 632. The words were independently coded twice as to whether they were novel words or the same as another (i.e., same stem or same meaning. Intercoder reliability varied between moderate and strong (agreement = 50.1% to 97.8%; κ = 0.48 to 0.82. A list of the 20 most common behavior and pleasantness words were established based on how many people reported them, weighted by the ranking (1-5 people gave them. The words people described as physical activity were mostly the same as those people used to describe exercise. The most common behavior words were ‘walking,’ ‘running,’ ‘swimming,’ ‘bike riding,’ and ‘gardening’; and the most common pleasant descriptor words were ‘relaxing,’ ‘happiness,’ ‘enjoyment,’ ‘exhilarating,’ ‘exhausting,’ and

  12. Conducting evaluations to determine training effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, J. Doug; Yoder, John A. Yoder

    2003-01-01

    Training organizations must answer the question: Is the training program adding value in terms of workforce productivity and safety? To answer this question, one needs to know what circumstances led to the development of training to determine how to measure the result of Gaining. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (ENEEL), under contract with the United States Department Of Energy (U.S. DOE), has conducted extensive research hi the area of training effectiveness. A comprehensive Training Performance Indicator Model has been developed, which has become the basis for a DRAFT document entitled Guidance for Conducting Evaluations to Determine Training Effectiveness'. The indicator Model includes the performance indicators, strategies, and methods for measuring training effectiveness. A common nomenclature is used throughout the DRAFT document to aid in using and understanding training effectiveness evaluations. The model incorporates elements of Dr. Donald L. Kirkpatrick's evaluation model, other models from industry leaders, and the findings of a benchmarking study involving both nuclear and non-nuclear industry professionals. This presentation communicates recent Department of Energy efforts in evaluating effectiveness of training, including valuable lessons learned. (author)

  13. Reinforcing value of smoking relative to physical activity and the effects of physical activity on smoking abstinence symptoms among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audrain-McGovern, Janet; Strasser, Andrew A; Ashare, Rebecca; Wileyto, E Paul

    2015-12-01

    This study sought to evaluate whether individual differences in the reinforcing value of smoking relative to physical activity (RRVS) moderated the effects of physical activity on smoking abstinence symptoms in young adult smokers. The repeated-measures within-subjects design included daily smokers (N = 79) 18-26 years old. RRVS was measured with a validated behavioral choice task. On 2 subsequent visits, participants completed self-report measures of craving, withdrawal, mood, and affective valence before and after they engaged in passive sitting or a bout of physical activity. RRVS did not moderate any effects of physical activity (ps > .05). Physical activity compared with passive sitting predicted decreased withdrawal symptoms, β = -5.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) [-6.93, -3.52] (p physical activity compared with passive sitting predicted increased positive affect, β = 3.08, 95% CI [1.87, 4.28] (p physical activity produced effects that may aid smoking cessation in young adult smokers. However, young adult smokers who have a higher RRVS will be less likely to choose to engage physical activity, especially when smoking is an alternative. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Evaluation of Creatine Kinase Activity and Inorganic Phosphate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Biochemical parameters vary in subjects with different hemoglobin phenotypes, compared with normal controls. Aim: The aim was to evaluate serum creatine kinase (CK) activity and inorganic phosphate concentrations in Nigerian adults with homozygous and heterozygous hemoglobin phenotypes. Subjects ...

  15. Evaluation Influence: The Evaluation Event and Capital Flow in International Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David A

    2017-12-01

    Assessing program effectiveness in human development is central to informing foreign aid policy-making and organizational learning. Foreign aid effectiveness discussions have increasingly given attention to the devaluing effects of aid flow volatility. This study reveals that the external evaluation event influences actor behavior, serving as a volatility-constraining tool. A case study of a multidonor aid development mechanism served examining the influence of an evaluation event when considering anticipatory effects. The qualitative component used text and focus group data combined with individual interview data (organizations n = 10, including 26 individuals). Quantitative data included financial information on all 75 capital investments. The integrated theory of influence and model of alternative mechanisms used these components to identify the linkage between the evaluation event and capital flow volatility. Aid approved in the year of the midterm evaluation was disbursed by the mechanism with low capital volatility. Anticipating the evaluation event influenced behavior resulting in an empirical record that program outcomes were enhanced and the mechanism was an improved organization. Formative evaluations in a development program can trigger activity as an interim process. That activity provides for a more robust assessment of ultimate consequence of interest. Anticipating an evaluation can stimulate donor reality testing. The findings inform and strengthen future research on the influence of anticipating an evaluation. Closely examining activities before, during, and shortly after the evaluation event can aid development of other systematic methods to improve understanding this phenomenon, as well as improve donor effectiveness strategies.

  16. Evaluation of effects of program for improving skills and motivation for employment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Zorica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary programs that have been implemented in order to help unemployed reduce time for finding a job are based on clear theoretical background and empirical evidence. In addition to providing opportunities to learn necessary skills, these programs also incorporate important psychological components which will be addressed in this paper. The goal of these interventions is to reduce time for finding a job, prevent long-term unemployment and negative effects of unemployment on individuals“ mental health. The paper presents evaluation of the effects of these psychological interventions. The program was based on Ajzen’s theory of planned behavior (2005, Bandura’s social-cognitive theory (1997 and cognitive-behavior theory of behavioral change (Meichenbaum, 1993. The goal of this program was to help unemployed individuals take an active role in finding a job, reduce time for finding a job and prevent negative effects of unemployment on their mental health. The target group of the program were young unemployed individuals ages 19 - 30, with at least high school level of education. Evaluation study was conducted on a sample of 92 male and female individuals who attended 3-day psychological program. Participants filled out five short scales specifically designed to assess variables that were targeted for change, such as, active approach to finding a job, attitudes toward process of employment, self-efficacy and resilience to frustrations and obstacles. Scales were administered before and after the training. Evaluation results, based on these pre and post measures, showed significant positive effects of this program on all five variables.

  17. Physico-chemical studies and evaluation of diuretic activity of Cucurbita maxima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkattapuram Sampath Saravanan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study physico-chemical nature and diuretic activity was evaluated to establish the purity and diuretic activity by comparing with the standard acetazolamide. Pulp of Cucurbita maxima is a common cost effective Indian dish, rich in nutrients. Physico-chemical parameters like ash values, extractive values and loss on drying were performed to find the purity. The hydro-alcoholic extract was prepared by extracting the powder in soxhlet apparatus for 36 hrs. The laboratory qualitative analysis was done and constituents like carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, flavonoids, alkaloids and vitamin C were found. The two doses of extract (150 and 300 mg/kg were given to the rats. Group I served as control, Group II served as standard and Group III and IV served as test. Electrolytes and urine volume was measured after 5 hrs of treatment and the same was compared with the control and the standard drug acetazolamide. Physico-chemical parameters were in the limit and the extract shows significant (p<0.01 diuretic activity at the dose of 300 mg/kg when compared with control.

  18. The Evaluator Effect in Usability Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Niels Ebbe; Hertzum, Morten; John, Bonnie E.

    1998-01-01

    Usability tests are applied in industry to evaluate systems and in research as a yardstick for other usability evaluation methods. However, one potential threat to the reliability of usability tests has been left unaddressed: the evaluator effect. In this study, four evaluators analyzed four vide...

  19. Development and oversight of ethical health promotion quality assurance and evaluation activities involving human participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainsbury, Peter

    2015-12-01

    This paper considers the role of ethics and ethics review processes in the development of health promotion quality assurance and evaluation activities involving human participants. The Australian National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Human Research and associated documents provide the framework for the ethical conduct and independent review of research (including quality assurance and evaluation) involving humans in Australia. Identifying the level of risk to which participants may be exposed by participation in quality assurance and evaluation activities is essential for health promotion workers undertaking such activities. Organisations can establish processes other than review by a Human Research Ethics Committee for negligible and low risk research activities. Health promotion quality assurance and evaluation activities often involve negligible and low risk to participants. Seven triggers that indicate the need for ethics review of quality assurance and evaluation activities and a procedural checklist for developing ethical quality assurance and evaluation activities are provided. Health promotion workers should be familiar with the NHMRC's National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Human Research. When ethical considerations underpin the planning and conduct of all quality assurance and evaluation from the very beginning, the activity is the better for it, independent 'ethics approval' can mostly be secured without much trouble and workers' frustration levels are reduced. So what? Health promotion quality assurance and evaluation activities must be ethically justified. Health promotion workers should be familiar with the NHMRC's National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Human Research and should use it when developing health promotion quality assurance and evaluation activities.

  20. Programme Evaluation Toolbox: Effective Evaluation Principles and Considerations in Career Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar-McMillan, Sylvia; Conley, Abigail Holland

    2011-01-01

    In our ever-present age of accountability, career development professionals are increasingly called upon to document evidence-based outcomes and other metrics of programme effectiveness. In this article, we will review the key components of effective programme evaluation, including purposes and types of evaluation. Our review will span empirical…

  1. Physio-chemical evaluation and biological activity of Ajuga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physio-chemical evaluation and biological activity of Ajuga bracteosa wall and Viola odoroto Linn. Anwar Ali Shad, M. Zeeshan, Hina Fazal, Hamid Ullah Shah, Shabir Ahmed, Hasem Abeer, E. F. Abd_Allah, Riaz Ullah, Hamid Afridi, Akash tariq, Muhammad Adnan Asma ...

  2. Actively Secure Two-Party Evaluation of Any Quantum Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupuis, Frédéric; Nielsen, Jesper Buus; Salvail, Louis

    2012-01-01

    We provide the first two-party protocol allowing Alice and Bob to evaluate privately even against active adversaries any completely positive, trace-preserving map , given as a quantum circuit, upon their joint quantum input state . Our protocol leaks no more to any active adversary than an ideal ...... functionality for provided Alice and Bob have the cryptographic resources for active secure two-party classical computation. Our protocol is constructed from the protocol for the same task secure against specious adversaries presented in [4]....

  3. Evaluation of the anthelmintic activity and toxicity of an aqueous extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Dias da Silva

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. da Silva G.D., Botura M.B., de Lima H.G., de Oliveira J.V.A., Moreira E.L.T., Santos F.O., de Souza T.S., de Almeida M.A.O. & Batatinha M.J.M. Evaluation of the anthelmintic activity and toxicity of an aqueous extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides in goats. [Avaliação da atividade anti-helmíntica e toxicidade do extrato aquoso de Chenopodium ambrosioides em caprinos.] Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 38(Supl.1:156-162, 2016. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ci- ência Animal nos Trópicos, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Av. Ademar de Barros, 500, Ondina, Salvador, BA 40170-110, Brasil. E-mail: mjmb@ufba.br The objective of this study was to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of an aqueous extract (AE from Chenopodium ambrosioides on goat gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs and its toxic effects. The anthelmintic activity in vitro was investigated using the inhibition of egg hatching assay (EHA, while cytotoxicity on Vero cells was evaluated using the MTT test. In vivo, thirty goats that were naturally infected with GINs were divided into three groups: group I, treated with a daily dose of AE C. ambrosioides (700mg/kg for eight days; group II (positive control, treated with a single dose of levamisole phosphate (6.3mg/kg; and Group III, untreated (negative control. Treatment efficacy was assessed on the basis of egg counts (FEC, faecal cultures and post-mortem worm burden counts. Clinical and laboratory evaluations were performed to detect toxic effects associated with treatment. In the EHA, the EC50 and EC90 corresponded to 1.6 and 1.9mg/mL, respectively. The AE promoted a slight reduction in cell viability in the cytotoxicity test. The AE reduced (p <0.05 the number of infective larvae of the genera Haemonchus and Oesophagostomum. The anthelmintic treatment of goats with AE C.ambrosioides resulted in moderate efficacy against infective larvae, but revealed neither ovicidal nor toxic activity towards adult nematodes. No toxic

  4. Effectiveness of Nigerian Bamboo Activated with Different Activating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effectiveness of Nigerian Bamboo activated with different activating agents on the adsorption of BTX was investigated. A series of activated carbons was prepared from Nigerian bamboo, carbonized at 400oC – 500oC and impregnated with different concentrations of four acids at 800oC in a muffle furnace for 2 hours.

  5. In vitro evaluation of antioxidant and neuroprotective effects of curcumin loaded in Pluronic micelles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetelina Gorinova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin is a polyphenolic substance with attractive pharmacological activities (e.g. antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer. Incorporation of curcumin in polymeric micelles could overcome the problems associated with its instability and low aqueous solubility. The aim of this study was to load curcumin in polymeric micelles based on Pluronic® P 123 or Pluronic® F 127 triblock copolymers and evaluate the antioxidant and neuroprotective effects after micellization. The micelles were prepared and loaded with curcumin by applying the dissolution method. Higher encapsulation efficiency was observed in the micelles formulated with Pluronic® P 123. These micelles were characterized with small size and narrow size distribution. The effects of micellar curcumin were investigated in two in vitro models. First, the capacity of micellar curcumin to inhibit iron/ascorbic acid-induced lipid peroxidation in rat liver microsomes was evaluated. Micellar curcumin and free drug showed similar inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Second, micellar curcumin and free curcumin showed protective potential in a model of 6-hydroxydopamine induced neurotoxicity in rat brain synaptosomes. The results from both methods indicated preservation of antioxidant and neuroprotective activity of curcumin in micelles. The small micellar size, high loading capacity and preservation of antioxidant activity of curcumin into Pluronic micelles, suggested their further evaluation as a curcumin delivery system.

  6. Effect of different cooking methods on total phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of four Boletus mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liping; Bai, Xue; Zhuang, Yongliang

    2014-11-01

    The influences of cooking methods (steaming, pressure-cooking, microwaving, frying and boiling) on total phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of fruit body of Boletus mushrooms (B. aereus, B. badius, B. pinophilus and B. edulis) have been evaluated. The results showed that microwaving was better in retention of total phenolics than other cooking methods, while boiling significantly decreased the contents of total phenolics in samples under study. Effects of different cooking methods on phenolic acids profiles of Boletus mushrooms showed varieties with both the species of mushroom and the cooking method. Effects of cooking treatments on antioxidant activities of Boletus mushrooms were evaluated by in vitro assays of hydroxyl radical (OH·) -scavenging activity, reducing power and 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH·) -scavenging activity. Results indicated the changes of antioxidant activities of four Boletus mushrooms were different in five cooking methods. This study could provide some information to encourage food industry to recommend particular cooking methods.

  7. Evaluation of fruit extracts of six Turkish Juniperus species for their antioxidant, anticholinesterase and antimicrobial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztürk, Mehmet; Tümen, İbrahim; Uğur, Aysel; Aydoğmuş-Öztürk, Fatma; Topçu, Gülaçtı

    2011-03-30

    Juniperus L. (Cupressaceae) species are mostly spread out in the Northern Hemisphere of the world, and some of them are used as folkloric medicines. The fruits of some species are eaten. Since oxidative stress is one of the reasons for neurodegeneration and is associated with the Alzheimer's disease (AD), the extracts prepared from the fruits of six Juniperus species were screened for their antioxidant activity. Therefore, the extracts were also evaluated against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), which are chief enzymes in the pathogenesis of AD. In addition, antimicrobial activity was also evaluated. In the β-carotene-linoleic acid assay, acetone extracts of J. oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus, J. sabina and J. excelsa, and methanol extracts of J. phoenicea and J. sabina, effectively inhibited oxidation of linoleic acid. The hexane extracts of J. oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus, J. foetidissima and J. phoenicea showed remarkable inhibitory effect against AChE and BChE. Because of their high antioxidant activity, J. excelsa, J. oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus, J. sabina and J. phoenicia might be used in the food industry as preservative agents or extension of the shelf-life of raw and processed foods. Since the hexane extracts of J. oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus and J. foetidissima demonstrated significant anticholinesterase activity they should be considered as a potential source for anticholinesterase agents. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Evaluation of Specific Activity in the Primary Coolant of PWRs by using SAEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ha Yong; Song, Jae Seung; Kim, Keung Ku; Kim, Kyo Youn

    2008-07-01

    SAEP(Specific Activity Evaluation Program) to evaluate specific activities in the primary coolant of reactors due to fission products has been developed, which can be applied to the new concept nuclear reactor such as SMART as well as commercial PWRs in existence. Specific activities in the primary coolant were evaluated by using SAEP against reactor plants which are being operated currently in South Korea, respectively. We study the possibility of being applied to the developing commercial PWRs and the new concept reactors through the comparison the results by using SAEP with the results mentioned in the FSARs. We also verify SAEP itself through this evaluation. From the evaluation results, we know that the general trend is agreed with each other from the viewpoint of order of magnitude and that SAEP correctly executes the evaluation of specific activities in the primary coolant of reactor due to fission products for several reactor types, regardless of a reactor type. Therefore, SAEP can widely be applied to the new concept nuclear reactor development phase as well as already developed PWRs

  9. Evaluating an intervention to reduce fear of falling and associated activity restriction in elderly persons: design of a randomised controlled trial [ISRCTN43792817

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Eijk JThM

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fear of falling and associated activity restriction is common in older persons living in the community. Adverse consequences of fear of falling and associated activity restriction, like functional decline and falls, may have a major impact on physical, mental and social functioning of these persons. This paper presents the design of a trial evaluating a cognitive behavioural group intervention to reduce fear of falling and associated activity restriction in older persons living in the community. Methods/design A two-group randomised controlled trial was developed to evaluate the intervention. Persons 70 years of age or over and still living in the community were eligible for study if they experienced at least some fear of falling and associated activity restriction. A random community sample of elderly people was screened for eligibility; those eligible for study were measured at baseline and were subsequently allocated to the intervention or control group. Follow-up measurements were carried out directly after the intervention period, and then at six months and 12 months after the intervention. People allocated to the intervention group were invited to participate in eight weekly sessions of two hours each and a booster session. This booster session was conducted before the follow-up measurement at six months after the intervention. People allocated to the control group received no intervention as a result of this trial. Both an effect evaluation and a process evaluation were performed. The primary outcome measures of the effect evaluation are fear of falling, avoidance of activity due to fear of falling, and daily activity. The secondary outcome measures are perceived general health, self-rated life satisfaction, activities of daily life, feelings of anxiety, symptoms of depression, social support interactions, feelings of loneliness, falls, perceived consequences of falling, and perceived risk of falling. The outcomes of

  10. The effect of active video gaming on children's physical activity, behavior preferences and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Lee E F; Ridgers, Nicola D; Atkinson, Greg; Stratton, Gareth

    2010-11-01

    Active video game interventions typically provide children a single game that may become unappealing. A peripheral device (jOG) encourages step-powered gaming on multiple games. This trial evaluated the effect of jOG on children's objectively measured PA, body fat and self-reported behaviors. 42 of 58 eligible children (8-10 y) randomly assigned to an intervention (jOG) or control (CON) completed the trial. Intervention children received two jOG devices for home use. Analyses of covariance compared the intervention effect at 6 and 12 weeks from baseline. No differences were found between groups for counts per minute (CPM; primary outcome) at 6 and 12 weeks (p > .05). Active video gaming increased (adjusted change 0.95 (95% CI 0.25, 1.65) h·d⁻¹, p video gaming decreased (-0.34 (-1.24, 0.56) h·d⁻¹, p > .05) at 6 weeks relative to CON. No body fat changes were observed between groups. Targeted changes in video game use did not positively affect PA. Larger trials are needed to verify the impact of active video games on children's PA and health.

  11. Comprehensive Evaluation of Anti-hyperglycemic Activity of Fractionated Momordica charantia Seed Extract in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailesh Kumar Choudhary

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates anti-hyperglycemic activity of fractionated Momordica charantia (bitter gourd seed extracts. Fasting blood glucose levels were evaluated before and after administration of different fractions of the seed extract. Among the three fractions tested, fraction Mc-3 (15 mg/kg b.wt. showed the maximum anti-hyperglycemic activity and reduced blood glucose levels in experimental diabetic rats significantly. The activities of the key regulatory enzymes of glucose metabolism (hexokinase, pyruvate kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were determined in Mc-3-treated diabetic animals. Once-daily administration of the fraction Mc-3 for prolonged period of 18 days to the experimental diabetic animals did not result in any nephrotoxicity or hepatotoxicity as evident from insignificant changes in biochemical parameters indicative of liver and kidney functions. Further fractionation of the fraction Mc-3 by size exclusion chromatography resulted in a fraction, designated Mc-3.2, possessing anti-hyperglycemic activity. The fraction Mc-3.2 showed the presence of a predominant protein band of ~11 kDa on SDS-PAGE. Loss in anti-hyperglycemic activity of the Mc-3.2 upon protease treatment indicates the proteinaceous nature of the anti-hyperglycemic principles. Overall, the results suggest that Momordica charantia seeds contain an effective anti-hyperglycemic protein(s which may find application in treatment of diabetes without evident toxic effects.

  12. Comprehensive Evaluation of Anti-hyperglycemic Activity of Fractionated Momordica charantia Seed Extract in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Shailesh Kumar; Chhabra, Gagan; Sharma, Dipali; Vashishta, Aruna; Ohri, Sujata; Dixit, Aparna

    2012-01-01

    The present study evaluates anti-hyperglycemic activity of fractionated Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) seed extracts. Fasting blood glucose levels were evaluated before and after administration of different fractions of the seed extract. Among the three fractions tested, fraction Mc-3 (15 mg/kg b.wt.) showed the maximum anti-hyperglycemic activity and reduced blood glucose levels in experimental diabetic rats significantly. The activities of the key regulatory enzymes of glucose metabolism (hexokinase, pyruvate kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) were determined in Mc-3-treated diabetic animals. Once-daily administration of the fraction Mc-3 for prolonged period of 18 days to the experimental diabetic animals did not result in any nephrotoxicity or hepatotoxicity as evident from insignificant changes in biochemical parameters indicative of liver and kidney functions. Further fractionation of the fraction Mc-3 by size exclusion chromatography resulted in a fraction, designated Mc-3.2, possessing anti-hyperglycemic activity. The fraction Mc-3.2 showed the presence of a predominant protein band of ~11 kDa on SDS-PAGE. Loss in anti-hyperglycemic activity of the Mc-3.2 upon protease treatment indicates the proteinaceous nature of the anti-hyperglycemic principles. Overall, the results suggest that Momordica charantia seeds contain an effective anti-hyperglycemic protein(s) which may find application in treatment of diabetes without evident toxic effects. PMID:23320026

  13. Presentation of the decay data group activities at LPRI. (Links with international evaluation works)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Be, M.M.

    1999-01-01

    The activities of the Primary Ionizing Radiation Laboratory (LPRI) which is affiliated with the French National Bureau of Metrology (BNM), include evaluation of decay data, absolute activity measurements, X- and gamma-ray spectrometry, development of new measuring techniques, etc. The following three activities in the field of decay data evaluation are briefly presented: NUCLEIDE software, internal conversion coefficients, and nuclide evaluations

  14. In vivo hypotensive effect and in vitro inhibitory activity of some Cyperaceae species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Lacerda Lopes Martins

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1820, French naturalist August Saint Hillaire, during a visit in Espírito Santo (ES, a state in southeastern Brazil, reported a popular use of Cyperaceae species as antidote to snake bites. The plant may even have a hypotensive effect, though it was never properly researched. The in vitro inhibitory of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE activity of eigth ethanolic extracts of Cyperaceae was evaluated by colorimetric assay. Total phenolic and flavonoids were determined using colorimetric assay. The hypotensive effect of the active specie (Rhychonospora exaltata, ERE and the in vivo ACE assay was measured in vivo using male Wistar Kyoto (ERE, 0.01-100mg/kg, with acetylcholine (ACh as positive control (5 µg/kg, i.v.. The evaluation of ACE in vivo inhibitory effect was performed comparing the mean arterial pressure before and after ERE (10 mg/kg in animals which received injection of angiotensin I (ANG I; 0,03, 03 and 300 µg/kg, i.v.. Captopril (30 mg/kg was used as positive control. Bulbostylis capillaris (86.89 ± 15.20% and ERE (74.89 ± 11.95%, ERE were considered active in the in vitro ACE inhibition assay, at 100 µg/mL concentration. ACh lead to a hypotensive effect before and after ERE's curve (-40±5% and -41±3%. ERE showed a dose-dependent hypotensive effect and a in vivo ACE inhibitory effect. Cyperaceae species showed an inhibitory activity of ACE, in vitro, as well as high content of total phenolic and flavonoids. ERE exhibited an inhibitory effect on both in vitro and in vivo ACE. The selection of species used in popular medicine as antidotes, along with the in vitro assay of ACE inhibition, might be a biomonitoring method for the screening of new medicinal plants with hypotensive properties.

  15. Preliminary in vitro evaluation of the anti-proliferative activity of guanylhydrazone derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, Paulo H B; Da Silva-Júnior, Edeildo F; Aquino, Pedro G V; Santana, Antônio E G; Ferro, Jamylle N S; De Oliveira Barreto, Emiliano; Do Ó Pessoa, Cláudia; Meira, Assuero Silva; De Aquino, Thiago M; Alexandre-Moreira, Magna S; Schmitt, Martine; De Araújo-Júnior, João X

    2016-03-01

    Guanylhydrazones have shown promising antitumor activity in preclinical tumor models in several studies. In this study, we aimed at evaluating the cytotoxic effect of a series of synthetic guanylhydrazones. Different human tumor cell lines, by including HCT-8 (colon carcinoma), MDA-MB-435 (melanoma) and SF-295 (glioblastoma) were continuous exposed to guanylhydrazone derivatives for 72 hours and growth inhibition of tumor cell lines and macrophages J774 was measured using tetrazolium salt (MTT) assay. Compounds 7, 11, 16 and 17 showed strong cytotoxic activity with IC50 values lower than 10 μmol L(-1) against four tumor cell lines. Among them, 7 was less toxic to non-tumor cells. Finally, obtained data suggest that guanylhydrazones may be regarded as potential lead compounds for the design of novel anticancer agents.

  16. Preliminary in vitro evaluation of the anti-proliferative activity of guanylhydrazone derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    França Paulo H. B.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Guanylhydrazones have shown promising antitumor activity in preclinical tumor models in several studies. In this study, we aimed at evaluating the cytotoxic effect of a series of synthetic guanylhydrazones. Different human tumor cell lines, by including HCT-8 (colon carcinoma, MDA-MB-435 (melanoma and SF-295 (glioblastoma were continuous exposed to guanylhydrazone derivatives for 72 hours and growth inhibition of tumor cell lines and macrophages J774 was measured using tetrazolium salt (MTT assay. Compounds 7, 11, 16 and 17 showed strong cytotoxic activity with IC50 values lower than 10 μmol L−1 against four tumor cell lines. Among them, 7 was less toxic to non-tumor cells. Finally, obtained data suggest that guanylhydrazones may be regarded as potential lead compounds for the design of novel anticancer agents.

  17. Effect of ionizing radiation on antioxidants and antibacterial activities of Inula Viscasa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhimi, W.; Issam, B; Saidi, M; Abdennacer, B; Maroua, J

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the irradiation processing of Tunisian Inula Viscosa samples was carried out at dose of 5 kGy. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging activity, the azinobis ethylbenzothiazoline 6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay and the antibacterial activities of both control and irradiated samples extracted in methanol and ethanol were evaluated. The results showed that the irr Tunisian Inula Viscosa extracts had strong antioxidant ability. The scavenger DPPH, ABTS and FRAP values of all extracts decreased significantly after irradiation. In addition, all extracts were effective against all the gram positive and gram negative pathogens. Gamma irradiation preserved the antibacterial activities of extracts and enhanced significantly (p≺0.05) the activity of extracts against E.coli. These data indicated the potential use of gamma-irradiation as a safe technique for preservation of Inula Viscosa as a medicinal plant with effective antioxidant and antibacterial activities

  18. The Effect of Active Creation on Psychological Health: A Feasibility Study on (Therapeutic) Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Gudrun; Leonhart, Rainer; Gruber, Harald; Koch, Sabine C

    2018-02-12

    Creation is an important part of many interventions in creative arts therapies (art, music, dance, and drama therapy). This active part of art-making in arts therapies has not yet been closely investigated. The present study commits to this field of research using a mixed-methods design to investigate the effects of active creation on health-related psychological outcomes. In an artistic inquiry within an experimental design, N = 44 participants engaged in active art-making for eight minutes in the presence of the researcher (first author) with a choice of artistic materials: paper and colors for drawing and writing, musical instruments, space for moving or performing. Before and after the creation, participants completed a well-being, a self-efficacy and an experience of creation scale, and in addition found their own words to express the experiences during the activity. We hypothesized that the experience of empowerment, freedom, impact, and creativity (Experience of Creation Scale) mediates the positive effect of active creation on the outcomes of self-efficacy and well-being, and evaluated this assumption with a mediation analysis. Results suggest that the effect of active creation on both self-efficacy and well-being is significantly mediated by the Experience of Creation Scale. This article focuses on the quantitative side of the investigation. During the process, qualitative and quantitative results were triangulated for a more valid evaluation and jointly contribute to the emerging theory frame of embodied aesthetics.

  19. The Effect of Active Creation on Psychological Health: A Feasibility Study on (Therapeutic Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudrun Lange

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Creation is an important part of many interventions in creative arts therapies (art, music, dance, and drama therapy. This active part of art-making in arts therapies has not yet been closely investigated. The present study commits to this field of research using a mixed-methods design to investigate the effects of active creation on health-related psychological outcomes. In an artistic inquiry within an experimental design, N = 44 participants engaged in active art-making for eight minutes in the presence of the researcher (first author with a choice of artistic materials: paper and colors for drawing and writing, musical instruments, space for moving or performing. Before and after the creation, participants completed a well-being, a self-efficacy and an experience of creation scale, and in addition found their own words to express the experiences during the activity. We hypothesized that the experience of empowerment, freedom, impact, and creativity (Experience of Creation Scale mediates the positive effect of active creation on the outcomes of self-efficacy and well-being, and evaluated this assumption with a mediation analysis. Results suggest that the effect of active creation on both self-efficacy and well-being is significantly mediated by the Experience of Creation Scale. This article focuses on the quantitative side of the investigation. During the process, qualitative and quantitative results were triangulated for a more valid evaluation and jointly contribute to the emerging theory frame of embodied aesthetics.

  20. [Effectiveness of mental health training including active listening for managers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, Kazunori; Tagawa, Yoshimasa; Mafune, Kosuke; Hiro, Hisanori; Nagata, Shoji

    2008-07-01

    We carried out mental health training with Active Listening for managers of A company, which was the electronics manufacturing company with 1,900 employees. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect on managers and employees in the workplace on the training. The subjects were all persons who managed regular employees directly in A company. We performed the investigation from May 2006 to February 2007 and carried out the training from September to November in 2006. The contents of the training were from the chapter on "The education and training of managers" in the "The guideline for maintenance and promotion of mental health for workers" issued by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare in Japan in 2006. We divided the contents and implemented them in two sessions. "Responding to worker consultation" was one of the contents of Active Listening. In the first session, we explained about Active Listening, and in the second session we ran a practical involving Inventive Experiential Listening. One month later, we distributed material summarizing the training to all the participants. To evaluate the effect of the training, we conducted surveys of the participants using the Active Listening Attitude Scale (ALAS), prior to and after the training, and distributed questionnaires, post-training about the contents of the training and changes of consciousness and action. Furthermore, we performed surveys pre- and post-training using the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire (BJSQ) 12 items version, distributed to all employees. We evaluated the effect of the training on 124 managers and 908 workers by the investigation. The score of each subscale was analyzed by repeated measures analysis of variance. There were no significant differences in the scores of both the "Listening attitude" and "Listening skill" subscales of ALAS between pre-training and post-training, but the mean scores post-training were higher than those pre-training on both subscales. There were

  1. Effect of hesperetin on chaperone activity in selenite-induced cataract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakazawa Yosuke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Chaperone activity of α-crystallin in the lens works to prevent protein aggregation and is important to maintain the lens transparency. This study evaluated the effect of hesperetin on lens chaperone activity in selenite-induced cataracts. Methodology. Thirteen-day-old rats were divided into four groups. Animals were given hesperetin (groups G2 and G4 or vehicle (G1 and G3 on Days 0, 1, and 2. Rats in G3 and G4 were administered selenite subcutaneously 4 hours after the first hesperetin injection. On Days 2, 4, and 6, cataract grades were evaluated using slit-lamp biomicroscopy. The amount of a-crystallin and chaperone activity in water-soluble fraction were measured after animals sacrificed. Results. G3 on day 4 had developed significant cataract, as an average cataract grading of 4.6 ± 0.2. In contrast, G4 had less severe central opacities and lower stage cataracts than G3, as an average cataract grading of 2.4 ± 0.4. The a-crystallin levels in G3 lenses were lower than in G1, but the same as G4. Additionally, chaperone activity was weaker in G3 lenses than G1, but the same as in G4. Conclusions. Our results suggest that hesperetin can prevent the decreasing lens chaperone activity and a-crystallin water solubility by administered of selenite.

  2. Synthesis and evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To synthesize and evaluate Schiff base Tin (II) complexes for antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Methods: The complexes of Tin (II) chloride with various Schiff base derivative of 2-Hydroxy-1- naphthaldehyde (HN) were synthesized and characterized by various physiochemical techniques, including elemental ...

  3. An Evaluation of Web- and Print-Based Methods to Attract People to a Physical Activity Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Alley, Stephanie; Jennings, Cally; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Vandelanotte, Corneel

    2016-01-01

    Background Cost-effective and efficient methods to attract people to Web-based health behavior interventions need to be identified. Traditional print methods including leaflets, posters, and newspaper advertisements remain popular despite the expanding range of Web-based advertising options that have the potential to reach larger numbers at lower cost. Objective This study evaluated the effectiveness of multiple Web-based and print-based methods to attract people to a Web-based physical activ...

  4. Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity of Cell Extracts from Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Xavier Malcata

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A growing market for novel antioxidants obtained from non-expensive sources justifies educated screening of microalgae for their potential antioxidant features. Characterization of the antioxidant profile of 18 species of cyanobacteria (prokaryotic microalgae and 23 species of (eukaryotic microalgae is accordingly reported in this paper. The total antioxidant capacity, accounted for by both water- and lipid-soluble antioxidants, was evaluated by the (radical cation ABTS method. For complementary characterization of cell extracts, a deoxyribose assay was carried out, as well as a bacteriophage P22/Salmonella-mediated approach. The microalga Scenedesmus obliquus strain M2-1 exhibited the highest (p > 0.05 total antioxidant capacity (149 ± 47 AAU of intracellular extracts. Its scavenger activity correlated well with its protective effects against DNA oxidative damage induced by copper(II-ascorbic acid; and against decay in bacteriophage infection capacity induced by H2O2. Finally, performance of an Ames test revealed no mutagenic effects of the said extract.

  5. Inhibitory Effects of Viscum coloratum Extract on IgE/Antigen-Activated Mast Cells and Mast Cell-Derived Inflammatory Mediator-Activated Chondrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Myung Yoo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The accumulation and infiltration of mast cells are found in osteoarthritic lesions in humans and rodents. Nonetheless, the roles of mast cells in osteoarthritis are almost unknown. Although Viscum coloratum has various beneficial actions, its effect on allergic and osteoarthritic responses is unknown. In this study, we established an in vitro model of mast cell-mediated osteoarthritis and investigated the effect of the ethanol extract of Viscum coloratum (VEE on IgE/antigen (IgE/Ag-activated mast cells and mast cell-derived inflammatory mediator (MDIM-stimulated chondrocytes. The anti-allergic effect of VEE was evaluated by degranulation, inflammatory mediators, and the FcεRI signaling cascade in IgE/Ag-activated RBL-2H3 cells. The anti-osteoarthritic action of VEE was evaluated by cell migration, and the expression, secretion, and activity of MMPs in MDIM-stimulated SW1353 cells. VEE significantly inhibited degranulation (IC50: 93.04 μg/mL, the production of IL-4 (IC50: 73.28 μg/mL, TNF-α (IC50: 50.59 μg/mL, PGD2 and LTC4, and activation of the FcεRI signaling cascade in IgE/Ag-activated RBL-2H3 cells. Moreover, VEE not only reduced cell migration but also inhibited the expression, secretion, and/or activity of MMP-1, MMP-3, or MMP-13 in MDIM-stimulated SW1353 cells. In conclusion, VEE possesses both anti-allergic and anti-osteoarthritic properties. Therefore, VEE could possibly be considered a new herbal drug for anti-allergic and anti-osteoarthritic therapy. Moreover, the in vitro model may be useful for the development of anti-osteoarthritic drugs.

  6. Evaluation of Prompted Annotation of Activity Data Recorded from a Smart Phone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Cleland

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss the design and evaluation of a mobile based tool to collect activity data on a large scale. The current approach, based on an existing activity recognition module, recognizes class transitions from a set of specific activities (for example walking and running to the standing still activity. Once this transition is detected the system prompts the user to provide a label for their previous activity. This label, along with the raw sensor data, is then stored locally prior to being uploaded to cloud storage. The system was evaluated by ten users. Three evaluation protocols were used, including a structured, semi-structured and free living protocol. Results indicate that the mobile application could be used to allow the user to provide accurate ground truth labels for their activity data. Similarities of up to 100% where observed when comparing the user prompted labels and those from an observer during structured lab based experiments. Further work will examine data segmentation and personalization issues in order to refine the system.

  7. Active Living: development and quasi-experimental evaluation of a school-centered physical activity intervention for primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kann, Dave H H; Jansen, M W J; de Vries, S I; de Vries, N K; Kremers, S P J

    2015-12-29

    The worldwide increase in the rates of childhood overweight and physical inactivity requires successful prevention and intervention programs for children. The aim of the Active Living project is to increase physical activity and decrease sedentary behavior of Dutch primary school children by developing and implementing tailored, multicomponent interventions at and around schools. In this project, school-centered interventions have been developed at 10 schools in the south of the Netherlands, using a combined top-down and bottom-up approach in which a research unit and a practice unit continuously interact. The interventions consist of a combination of physical and social interventions tailored to local needs of intervention schools. The process and short- and long-term effectiveness of the interventions will be evaluated using a quasi-experimental study design in which 10 intervention schools are matched with 10 control schools. Baseline and follow-up measurements (after 12 and 24 months) have been conducted in grades 6 and 7 and included accelerometry, GPS, and questionnaires. Primary outcome of the Active Living study is the change in physical activity levels, i.e. sedentary behavior (SB), light physical activity (LPA), moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and counts-per-minute (CPM). Multilevel regression analyses will be used to assess the effectiveness of isolated and combined physical and social interventions on children's PA levels. The current intervention study is unique in its combined approach of physical and social environmental PA interventions both at school(yard)s as well as in the local neighborhood around the schools. The strength of the study lies in the quasi-experimental design including objective measurement techniques, i.e. accelerometry and GPS, combined with more subjective techniques, i.e. questionnaires, implementation logbooks, and neighborhood observations. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN25497687 (registration date 21

  8. Evaluation of the in vitro Anti-inflammatory Activity of Nerium oleander L. Flower Extracts and Activity-Guided Isolation of the Active Constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İrem Atay Balkan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro anti-inflammatory activity profile of the Nerium oleander flower EtOH extract/its subextracts (n-hexane, CH 2Cl 2, EtOAc, remaining H 2O were evaluated on LPS induced Raw 264.7 macrophages. The effects of the crude EtOH extract and its subextracts on nitric oxide (NO production and cell viability were determined. The most active subextract was determined to be the EtOAc subextract without exerting any toxicity towards Raw 264.7 macrophages. This subextract significantly inhibited NO production of Raw 264.7 macrophages after LPS induction (62.56±1.91% at 200 µg/mL concentration. The levels of iNOS were reduced up to 67.50%. Moreover, this subextract slightly reduced the phosphorylation levels of MAP kinases (p-ERK, p-JNK, p-38. The highest inhibition was observed for ERK phosphorylation, which was inhibited by 20.53% at 200 µg/mL concentration. Through activity-guided fractionation procedures, kaempferol, kaempferol 3-O-β-glucopyranoside and chlorogenic acid were isolated as the main active components. The structures of the active compounds were determined by 2D-NMR techniques and HRMS analysis. All compounds significantly inhibited NO productions. Results of the present study supported the traditional use of N. oleander flowers to treat inflammatory complaints.

  9. Preliminary evaluation of the activity concentration limits for consumer goods containing NORM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Mee; Chung, Kun Ho; Ji, Young Yong; Lim, Jong Myung; Kang, Mun Ja; Choi, Guen Sik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    To protect the public from natural radioactive materials, the 'Act on safety control of radioactive rays around living environment' was established in Korea. There is an annual effective dose limit of 1 mSv for products, but the activity concentration limit for products is not established yet. To suggest the activity concentration limits for consumer goods containing NORM, in this research, we assumed the 'small room model' surrounding the ICRP reference phantom to simulate the consumer goods in contact with the human bodies. Using the Monte Carlo code MCNPX, we evaluate the effective dose rate for the ICRP reference phantom in a small room with dimension of phantom size and derived the activity concentration limit for consumer goods. The consumer goods have about 1600, 1200 and 19000 Bq·kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K, and the activity concentration limits are about six times comparing with the values of building materials. We applied the index to real samples, though we did not consider radioactivity of {sup 40}K, indexes of the some samples are more than 6. However, this index concept using small room model is very conservative, for the consumer goods over than index 6, it is necessary to reevaluate the absorbed dose considering real usage scenario and material characteristics. In this research, we derived activity concentration limits for consumer goods in contact with bodies and the results can be used as preliminary screening tool for consumer goods as index concept.

  10. Preliminary evaluation of the activity concentration limits for consumer goods containing NORM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Mee; Chung, Kun Ho; Ji, Young Yong; Lim, Jong Myung; Kang, Mun Ja; Choi, Guen Sik

    2016-01-01

    To protect the public from natural radioactive materials, the 'Act on safety control of radioactive rays around living environment' was established in Korea. There is an annual effective dose limit of 1 mSv for products, but the activity concentration limit for products is not established yet. To suggest the activity concentration limits for consumer goods containing NORM, in this research, we assumed the 'small room model' surrounding the ICRP reference phantom to simulate the consumer goods in contact with the human bodies. Using the Monte Carlo code MCNPX, we evaluate the effective dose rate for the ICRP reference phantom in a small room with dimension of phantom size and derived the activity concentration limit for consumer goods. The consumer goods have about 1600, 1200 and 19000 Bq·kg -1 for 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K, and the activity concentration limits are about six times comparing with the values of building materials. We applied the index to real samples, though we did not consider radioactivity of 40 K, indexes of the some samples are more than 6. However, this index concept using small room model is very conservative, for the consumer goods over than index 6, it is necessary to reevaluate the absorbed dose considering real usage scenario and material characteristics. In this research, we derived activity concentration limits for consumer goods in contact with bodies and the results can be used as preliminary screening tool for consumer goods as index concept

  11. Performance in Physiology Evaluation: Possible Improvement by Active Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montrezor, Luís H.

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation process is complex and extremely important in the teaching/learning process. Evaluations are constantly employed in the classroom to assist students in the learning process and to help teachers improve the teaching process. The use of active methodologies encourages students to participate in the learning process, encourages…

  12. Evaluation of multistage filtration to reduce sand filter exhaust activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zippler, D.B.

    1975-01-01

    Air from the Savannah River Plant Fuel Reprocessing facilities is filtered through deep bed sand filters consisting of 8 1 / 2 feet of gravel and sand. These filters have performed satisfactorily for the past 18 years in maintaining radioactive release levels to a minimum. The apparent filter efficiency has been determined for many years by measurements of the quantity of radioactivity in the air stream before and after the filter. Such tests have indicated efficiencies of 99.9 percent or better. Even with sand filter efficiency approaching a single stage HEPA filter, new emphasis on further reduction in release of plutonium activity to the environment prompted a study to determine what value backup HEPA filtration could provide. To evaluate the specific effect additional HEPA filtration would have on the removal of Pu from the existing sand filter exhaust stream, a test was conducted by passing a sidestream of sand-filtered air through a standard 24 x 24 x 11 1 / 2 in. HEPA filter. Isokinetic air samples were withdrawn upstream and downstream of the HEPA filter and counted for alpha activity. Efficiency calculations indicated that backup HEPA filtration could be expected to provide an additional 99 percent removal of the Pu activity from the present sand-filter exhaust. (U.S.)

  13. Relationships between thermic effect of food, insulin resistance and autonomic nervous activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Tomonori; Nomura, Masahiro; Nakayasu, Kimiko; Kawano, Tomohito; Ito, Susumu; Nakaya, Yutaka

    2006-02-01

    The thermic effect of food (TEF) is higher in lean than in obese human subjects. Relationships between TEF and insulin resistance during meals, from the point of view of autonomic nervous activity, were evaluated. Autonomic nervous activity was evaluated in 20 young adults using the spectral analysis of heart rate variability from one hour before to two hours after a meal. Heart rate data were analyzed based on low frequency components (LF power, 0.04-0.15 Hz), high frequency components (HF power, 0.15-0.40 Hz), and LF/HF ratios. Energy expenditure and the TEF were measured 30 min after a meal. Homeostasis model of insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) was also measured. The LF/HF ratio was significantly increased 30 min after a meal (pinsulin sensitivity induces a poor response of sympathetic nervous activity in the postprandial phase and a reduction in postprandial energy expenditure.

  14. Neutron transport calculation for Activation Evaluation for Decommissioning of PET cyclotron Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobuhara, Fumiyoshi; Kuroyanagi, Makoto; Masumoto, Kazuyoshi; Nakamura, Hajime; Toyoda, Akihiro; Takahashi, Katsuhiko

    2017-09-01

    In order to evaluate the state of activation in a cyclotron facility used for the radioisotope production of PET diagnostics, we measured the neutron flux by using gold foils and TLDs. Then, the spatial distribution of neutrons and induced activity inside the cyclotron vault were simulated with the Monte Calro calculation code for neutron transport and DCHAIN-SP for activation calculation. The calculated results are in good agreement with measured values within factor 3. Therefore, the adaption of the advanced evaluation procedure for activation level is proved to be important for the planning of decommissioning of these facilities.

  15. Effect of rubber flooring on dairy cattle stepping behavior and muscle activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajapaksha, Eranda; Winkler, Christoph; Tucker, Cassandra B

    2015-04-01

    Use of compressible flooring, such as rubber, has increased on dairy farms. Rubber improves locomotion and is well used by cattle in preference experiments that combine walking and standing. Previous work has found that rubber is particularly beneficial for lame animals, perhaps because a softer material is particularly useful when a single hoof is compromised. The goal of this work was to evaluate the effect of flooring while standing, because cattle in freestall housing spend 40 to 50% of their time engaged in this behavior. In a 2 × 2 design, cows (n = 16) were evaluated on 4 standing surfaces that varied in terms of both floor type (concrete or rubber) and presentation [same floor under all 4 legs (all 4 legs on either concrete or rubber) or a rough surface under only one hind leg and the other 3 legs on concrete or rubber] in a crossover design. Surface electromyograms were used to evaluate muscle fatigue, total activity, and movement of muscle activity between legs during 1 h of standing. Muscle fatigue was evaluated in 2 contexts: (1) static contractions when cows continuously transferred weight to each hind leg, before and after 1 h of standing, and (2) dynamic contractions associated with steps during 1 h on treatment surfaces. In addition, stepping rate, time between each consecutive step, and the latency to lie down after testing were measured. No interaction between floor type and presentation was found. Presentation had a significant effect; when one hind leg was on a rough surface, cattle took 1.7 times more steps with this leg and the non-rough hind leg had 1.2 times more muscle activity, compared with when all 4 legs were on the same surface. These changes are consistent with movement away from concrete with protrusions. When standing on rubber, muscle-activity movements among legs remained stable (0.6-0.7 movements per min) over 1 h but increased on concrete (0.6-0.9 movements per min), indicating that, like humans, cattle may sway to counteract

  16. The effects of an active live yeast product on the growth performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a rumen-specific, active live yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae; SC CNCM I-1077), alone or in combination with an ionophore (lasalocid-Na) in standard feedlot diets, on production performance and carcass quality of lambs. Sixty South African (S.A.) Mutton Merino lambs, ...

  17. Evaluation of a novel canine activity monitor for at-home physical activity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashari, Jonathan M; Duncan, Colleen G; Duerr, Felix M

    2015-07-04

    Accelerometers are motion-sensing devices that have been used to assess physical activity in dogs. However, the lack of a user-friendly, inexpensive accelerometer has hindered the widespread use of this objective outcome measure in veterinary research. Recently, a smartphone-based, affordable activity monitor (Whistle) has become available for measurement of at-home physical activity in dogs. The aim of this research was to evaluate this novel accelerometer. Eleven large breed, privately owned dogs wore a collar fitted with both the Whistle device and a previously validated accelerometer-based activity monitor (Actical) for a 24-h time period. Owners were asked to have their dogs resume normal daily activities. Total activity time obtained from the Whistle device in minutes was compared to the total activity count from the Actical device. Activity intensity from the Whistle device was calculated manually from screenshots of the activity bars displayed in the smartphone-application and compared to the activity count recorded by the Actical in the same 3-min time period. A total of 3740 time points were compared. There was a strong correlation between activity intensity of both devices for individual time points (Pearson's correlation coefficient 0.81, p battery life, the need for manual derivation of activity intensity data and data transfer, and the requirement of Wi-Fi and Bluetooth availability for data transmission.

  18. Evaluation of the Higher Education Active Community Fund Project in Bournemouth

    OpenAIRE

    Apostolakis, Christos

    2005-01-01

    This report evaluates the Higher Education Active Community Fund (HEACF) Project from its first year in September 2002 to May 2005.The principle objective of the study was to evaluate the implementation of the HEACF project, its impact and its capacity to achieve the aims during this time. Based on research evidence the HEACF project introduced a holistic and systematic way of organising and developing volunteer activity at Bournemouth University. In addition to this, the project provided an ...

  19. Evaluation of Brain Activity Related to Speech and Handwriting Using NIRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Hirotoshi; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Ide, Hideto

    The difference by the brain activity when writing it down speech the use of the near-infrared spectroscopy is examined in the present study. It is thought that it becomes a help of the communications between the nurse and people requiring long-term care if the identification of the information transmission means can be evaluated and be detected from the brain activity. Because the possibility of the evaluation of result, “Speech”, and “Writing” was shown, it reports.

  20. Evaluation of the differential energy distribution of systems of non-thermally activated molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, E.B.

    1986-01-01

    A non-thermally activated molecule may undergo pressure dependent deactivation or energy dependent decomposition. It should be possible to use the pressure dependent stabilization/decomposition yields to determine the energy distribution in non-thermal systems. The numerical technique of regularization has been applied to this chemical problem to evaluate this distribution. The resulting method has been tested with a number of simulated distributions and kinetic models. Application was then made to several real chemical systems to determine the energy distribution resulting from the primary excitation process. Testing showed the method to be quite effective in reproducing input distributions from simulated data in all test cases. The effect of experimental error proved to be negligible when the error-filled data were first smoothed with a parabolic spline. This method has been applied to three different hot atom activated systems. Application to 18 F-for-F substituted CH 3 CF 3 generated a broad distribution extending from 62 to 318 kcal/mol, with a median energy of 138 kcal/mol. The shape of this distribution (and those from the other applications) indicated the involvement of two mechanisms in the excitation process. Analysis of the T-for-H substituted CH 3 CH 2 F system showed a more narrow distribution (56-218 kcal/mol) with a median energy of 79.8 kcal/mol. The distribution of the T-for-H substituted CH 3 CH 2 Cl system, extending from 54.5 to 199 kcal/mol was seen to be quite similar. It was concluded that this method is a valid approach to evaluating differential energy distributions in non-thermal systems, specifically those activated by hot atom substitution

  1. Physiological and psychological effects of gardening activity in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Ahmad; Qibing, Chen; Tao, Jiang

    2018-04-06

    Gardening has long been one of most enjoyable pastimes among older adults. Whether gardening activities contribute to the well-being of older adults is a major question. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to clarify the psychophysiological relaxing effects of gardening activities on older adults living in modern institutional care. The study participants were 40 older women aged 79.5 ± 8.09 years (mean ± SD). A cross-over study design was used to investigate the physiological and psychological responses to environments with and without plants. Physiological evaluation was carried out using blood pressure and electroencephalography, and psychological evaluation was carried out using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Semantic Differential method. Blood pressure was significantly lower, and changes in brainwaves were observed. Psychological responses showed that participants were more "comfortable and relaxed" after the plant task than after the control task. In addition, total anxiety levels were significantly lower after carrying out the plant task than after the control task. Our research suggests that gardening activities might enhance physiological and psychological relaxation in older adults. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018; ••: ••-••. © 2018 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  2. Effect of the long-term care prevention project on the motor functions and daily life activities of the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Yoshihiro; Sakuraba, Keisyoku; Kubota, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to verify the effects of the long-term care prevention project and develop an effective program. [Subjects] A total of 81 elderly people (age, 79 ± 5.1 years; height, 149.2 ± 9.2 cm; weight, 54.2 ± 11.4 kg). [Methods] Grip, knee extension muscular strength, 10 m walking speed, and Timed Up and Go time were measured for evaluation of motor functions, and the "Locomo 25", a 25-question risk assessment questionnaire, was used as the judgment criterion for evaluation of daily life activities, with measurements being taken at the beginning of the project and after three months. [Results] In the motor functions evaluation, significant differences were observed in 10 m walking speed, Timed Up and Go time, and knee extension strength. In the daily life activities evaluation, scores for pain, rising movement, standing movement, indoor walking, outdoor walking, and fear of falling were significantly reduced. In addition, a significant correlation was also observed between motor functions and daily life activities. [Conclusion] The result of this study indicated that the long-term care prevention project is effective in maintaining or improving muscular strength and mitigating pain in the elderly and that it is an effective program for maintaining daily life activities. We were also able to show that it would be effective to develop programs with a low exercise intensity that can be performed on a continuing by the elderly.

  3. Effect of evaluation threat on procrastination behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Ngoc H

    2007-06-01

    The author evaluated the effects of evaluation apprehension and trait procrastination on behaviors. The author examined private university students from southern California (N = 72) on two independent variables: evaluation threat (manipulated) and trait procrastination (nonmanipulated). The author found a significant interaction effect between type of evaluation threat and level of trait procrastination on the number of days to complete an assigned essay. Post hoc analyses showed high trait procrastinators in the high evaluation threat group significantly delayed returning essays compared with those in the low evaluation threat group. Also, in the low evaluation threat group, low trait procrastinators delayed more than did high trait procrastinators. These results suggest that educators can reduce behavioral delays by increasing evaluation threat, depending on a student's level of trait procrastination.

  4. CRITERIA FOR EVALUATING INNOVATION ACTIVITY AND CHALLENGES IN DEFINING IT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Volkov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents polemically the peculiarities of using the indicators of innovation activity for evaluating the state and outcomes of the organization’s operation, including Higher Learning Institutions in the areas of development and learning new types of techniques and technology. There is considered a possible structure of a system of balanced innovation activity indicators. There is substantiated a necessity to change statistical reporting on the innovation activity.

  5. Effectiveness of group-mediated lifestyle physical activity (glpa) program for health benefit in physical activity among elderly people at rural thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ethisan, P.; Chapman, R.

    2015-01-01

    Elderly population is considered as a vulnerable group and prone to develop multiple medical problems. This aging population is rapidly increasing in developing countries especially in Thailand. Methods: This study was a quasi-experimental study to evaluate the effectiveness of Group-Mediated Lifestyle Physical Activity program on change health benefit in physical activity among elderly people by using validated and reliable Global Physical Activity Questionnaire-GPAQv2. The study was conducted in Phranakhonsiayutthaya district, Ayutthaya province due to its population being the second highest elderly in the Central Region of Thailand. A total of 102 persons of age 60 and over who could read and write Thai language were selected purposively. However, 52 elderly were enrolled in the intervention group and 50 were enrolled for the control group. General Linear Model repeated-measures ANOVA was used to evaluate the effects of Group-Mediated Lifestyle Physical Activity (GLPA) program on change health benefit in physical activity among elderly. Results: Overall health benefit at baseline were similar between intervention and control group and found statistically non-significant with p-value 0.638 (>0.05). However, the mean score of health benefit was 23.21 ± 29.23 in intervention group and 20.74 ± 23.18 in control group. One third of participants of intervention group had not found health benefit due to physical activity while in control group this number was more than half. After elderly received Group-Mediated Lifestyle Physical Activity program intervention for 6 month found significant statistical differences as compared with mean score at baseline (health benefit 6 month, intervention group =40.7 ± 34.28 and control group =4.56 ± 8.79). Conclusion: The effect of Group-Mediated Lifestyle Physical Activity program change intervention was statistically significant in health benefit after intervention program between intervention and control group. Our study

  6. Evaluating Antimutagenic Activity of Probiotic Bacteria Isolated from Probiotic Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Kazemi Darsanki

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: Probiotic bacteria are microbial nutrition supplements which have useful effects on human health by maintaining of bowel microbial balance. There are many studies that have been suggested the use of probiotic products as cancer risk reducer. The aim of this study, is isolation and detection of probiotic agents from yoghurt and probiotical tablet and evaluation of their abilities to decrease some effects of mutagenic and carcinogenic agents.

     

    Methods: In this study, probiotic bacteria were isolated from yogurt and probiotic tablet by using MRS in anaerobic condition (5% Co2 and gas peck and temperature of 37°c. Then, they were detected by using biochemical tests. Their anti mutagenic effects of supernatant culture were evaluated against mutagenic agents of azid Sodium and Potassium Permanganate by ames test (Salmonella typhimurium TA100 in presence and absence of S9.

     

    Results: Six probiotic bacteria were isolated from yogurt and probiotic tablet. Their anti mutagenic activity results based on ames test showed they can inhibit mutagenic agents more than 40% in some species, which is considered as a good result.

     

    Conclusion: The results of this study show that the use of probiotic bacteria found in different products such as yogurt and probiotic tablets, have proper anti mutagenic and anti carcinogenic effects. They change the micro flora of bowel and, as a result, reduce absorption of mutagenic and carcinogenic agents and help to maintain human health.

     

  7. Evaluation of Control Parameters for the Activated Sludge Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stall, T. Ray; Sherrard, Josephy H.

    1978-01-01

    An evaluation of the use of the parameters currently being used to design and operate the activated sludge process is presented. The advantages and disadvantages for the use of each parameter are discussed. (MR)

  8. Costs, benefits and effectiveness of worksite physical activity counseling from the employer's perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Proper, K.I.; Bruyne, M.C. de; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Beek, A.J. van der; Meerding, W.J.; Mechelen, W. van

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. This study evaluated the impact of worksite physical activity counseling using cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analyses. Methods. Civil servants (N=299) were randomly assigned to an intervention (N=131) or control (N=168) group for 9 months. The intervention costs were compared with

  9. The GLAMA (Girls! Lead! Achieve! Mentor! Activate!) physical activity and peer leadership intervention pilot project: A process evaluation using the RE-AIM framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Implementing new initiatives and physical activity interventions in schools represents a myriad of challenges that if overcome can potentially facilitate a range of behavioural changes. The aim of this paper is to describe the process evaluation of specific design constructs used in the GLAMA (Girls! Lead! Achieve! Mentor! Activate!) peer leadership and physical activity pilot project. Conducted in a state secondary school in Australia, the intervention was designed to provide students with opportunities to develop leadership skills, school and social connectedness in addition to a range of physical activity experiences. Methods This process evaluation used the RE-AIM (Reach, Efficacy, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance) health promotion evaluation framework to assess three design constructs of the intervention: the effectiveness of leadership training and leader preparedness, activity suitability and participation, and the barriers to implementation of the intervention and potential solutions to overcome these barriers. As it was not the specific aim of this pilot, no behavioural change data were collected from students. Data were collected using a mixed methods approach including student questionnaires, teachers and researchers reporting on their own observations and feedback from students. Results There were three main considerations evident across more than one RE-AIM dimension that need to be addressed to assist with future GLAMA dissemination. Firstly, the development of teacher, school and student participation. This needs to be through a variety of professional development opportunities for teachers, integration of the program within timetabled classes within the school and promoting the program to students as an opportunity to develop a range of skills to apply to future learning and workplace environments. Secondly, the successful translation of leadership training to practice is necessary to ensure that leaders are effectively able to

  10. Evaluation of effects of dichloromethane fraction from Platonia insignis on pilocarpine-induced seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim S. da Costa Júnior

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of present study was to evaluate the antioxidant and anticonvulsant activities of dichloromethane fraction (DMF from Platonia insignis Mart., Clusiaceae. The DMF from P. insignis (2 mg/kg was tested by intraperitoneal (i.p. to evaluate effects on lipid peroxidation level, nitrite formation, as well as on locomotor and anticonvulsant activities. Wistar rats were treated with, (saline/Tween 80 0.5%, i.p., control group, DMF (2 mg/kg, i.p., DMF group, pilocarpine (400 mg/kg, i.p., P400 group, or the combination of DMF (2 mg/kg, i.p. and pilocarpine (400 mg/kg, i.p., DMF plus P400. After the treatments all groups were observed for 24 h. In P400 group rats there was a decrease in the motor activity when compared with control group. In DMF plus P400 co-administered rats was observed an increase in motor activity when compared with P400 group. In P400 group rats there was a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and nitrite levels. In DMF plus P400 co-administered rats, antioxidant treatment significantly reduced the lipid peroxidation level and nitrite content after seizures. Previous findings strongly support the hypothesis that oxidative stress occurs in rat striatum during pilocarpine-induced seizures, and our results imply that strong neuprotective effect on this brain region could be achieved using DMF from P. insignis.

  11. Effects of Active Mastication on Chronic Stress-Induced Bone Loss in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Kagaku; Furuzawa, Manabu; Fujiwara, Shu; Yamada, Kumiko; Kubo, Kin-ya

    2015-01-01

    Chronic psychologic stress increases corticosterone levels, which decreases bone density. Active mastication or chewing attenuates stress-induced increases in corticosterone. We evaluated whether active mastication attenuates chronic stress-induced bone loss in mice. Male C57BL/6 (B6) mice were randomly divided into control, stress, and stress/chewing groups. Stress was induced by placing mice in a ventilated restraint tube (60 min, 2x/day, 4 weeks). The stress/chewing group was given a wooden stick to chew during the experimental period. Quantitative micro-computed tomography, histologic analysis, and biochemical markers were used to evaluate the bone response. The stress/chewing group exhibited significantly attenuated stress-induced increases in serum corticosterone levels, suppressed bone formation, enhanced bone resorption, and decreased trabecular bone mass in the vertebrae and distal femurs, compared with mice in the stress group. Active mastication during exposure to chronic stress alleviated chronic stress-induced bone density loss in B6 mice. Active mastication during chronic psychologic stress may thus be an effective strategy to prevent and/or treat chronic stress-related osteopenia.

  12. Exploring risk communication - results of a research project focussed on effectiveness evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrière, Marie; Bogaard, Thom; Junier, Sandra; Mostert, Erik

    2016-04-01

    The need for effective science communication and outreach efforts is widely acknowledged in the academic community. In the field of Disaster Risk Reduction, the importance of communication is clearly stressed, e.g. in the newly adopted Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 (under the 1st priority of action: understanding disaster risk). Consequently, we see increasing risk communication activities. However, the effectiveness of these activities is rarely evaluated. To address this gap, several research activities were conducted in the context of the Marie Curie Initial Training Network "Changes", the results of which we will present and discuss. First, results of a literature review show, among others, that research on effectiveness is mainly focussed on the assessment of users' needs and their ability to understand the content, rather than on the final impact of the risk communication efforts. Moreover, lab-environment research is more often undertaken than assessment of real communication efforts. Second, a comparison between perceptions of risk managers and the general public of risk communication in a French Alps Valley highlighted a gap between the two groups in terms of amount of information needed (who wants more), the important topics to address (what) and the media to use (how). Third, interviews with developers of smartphone applications for disseminating avalanche risk information showed a variety of current practices and the absence of measurements of real their effectiveness. However, our analysis allowed identifying good practices that can be an inspiration for risk communication related to other hazards. Fourth, an exhibition has been set up following a collaborative approached based on stakeholder engagement. Using a pre/post-test design, the immediate impact of the exhibition, which aimed at increasing the risk awareness of the population (Ubaye Valley, France), was measured. The data obtained suggests that visiting the exhibition

  13. Evaluation and comparison of antinociceptive activity of aspartame with sucrose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Seema; Gupta, Mahesh C

    2012-01-01

    Artificial sweeteners are low-calorie substances used to sweeten a wide variety of foods. At present they are used increasingly not only by diabetics, but also by the general public as a mean of controlling the weight. This study was carried out to evaluate and compare antinociceptive activity of the artificial sweeteners, aspartame and sucrose and to study the mechanisms involved in this analgesic activity. Forty eight white albino Wistar rats were divided into two groups of 24 rats each. Group 1 received sucrose and group 2 received aspartame solution ad libitum for 14 days as their only source of liquid. On 14(th) day, both groups of rats were divided into 3 subgroups having 8 rats each. Group Ia and IIa served as control. Group Ib and IIb were given naloxone and Ic and IIc received ketanserin, the opioid and serotonergic receptor antagonists, respectively. Tail withdrawal latencies (tail flick analgesiometer) and paw licking/jumping latencies (Eddy's hot plate method) were increased significantly in both aspartame and sucrose group. The analgesia produced by aspartame was comparable with sucrose. The opioid receptor antagonist naloxone and the 5-HT(2A/2C) serotonergic receptor antagonist ketanserin partly reversed the antinociceptive effect of these sweeteners. Thus, the artificial sweetening agent aspartame showed antinociceptive activity like sucrose in rats. Reduction in antinociceptive activity of aspartame and sucrose by opioid and serotoninergic antagonists demonstrate the involvement of both opioid and serotonergic system.

  14. A method for evaluating the effectiveness of site characterization measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ditmars, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    A quantitative approach for evaluating the effectiveness of site characterization measurement activities is developed and illustrated with an example application to hypothetical measurement schemes at a potential geologic repository site for radioactive waste. The method is a general one and could also be applied at sites for underground disposal of hazardous chemicals. The approach presumes that measurements will be undertaken to support predictions of the performance of some aspect of a constructed facility or natural system. It requires a quantitative performance objective, such as groundwater travel time or contaminant concentration, against which to compare predictions of performance. The approach recognizes that such predictions are uncertain because the measurements upon which they are based are uncertain. The effectiveness of measurement activities is quantified by a confidence index, β, that reflects the number of standard deviations separating the best estimate of performance from the predetermined performance objective. Measurements that reduce the uncertainty in predictions lead to increased values of β. 5 refs., 4 figs

  15. The Positive Impact of Creative Activity: Effects of Creative Task Engagement and Motivational Focus on College Students' Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Regina; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Assessed effectiveness of engaging students in a creative activity on a topic as a means of encouraging an active cognitive set toward learning that topic area. Creative task engagement was found to be an effective means of enhancing creativity (in the absence of evaluation expectation), intrinsic motivation, and long-term retention. (JBJ)

  16. Evaluation of anti-leishmanial and antibacterial activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the anti-leishmanial and antibacterial activities of a relatively unexplored whole plant of Waldheimia tomentosa (Asteraceae) and the chemical profiling of its most bioactive fraction. Methods: The whole plant material was extracted with methanol - water (9 : 1) and fractionated into nhexane (C6H14 or ...

  17. Evaluation of activated sludge treatment and settleability in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wastewater discharged from the edible oil industry contains a very concentrated amalgamation of organic and inorganic materials making it a problematic effluent to treat. The aim of this study was to evaluate the activated sludge treatment of edible oil effluent from a sunflower oil processing company in KwaZulu-Natal.

  18. Antimutagenic and antigenotoxic effects of vegetable matrices on the activity of pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isidori, M; Caterino, E; Criscuolo, E; Fatigati, V; Liguori, G; Parrella, A

    2009-07-01

    Two in vitro tests, one to detect bacterial mutagenicity (Ames test) on Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA100, and TA1535 and the other the primary DNA damage (SOS Chromotest) on Escherichia coli PQ37, were applied to determine the overall genotoxic activity of 12 pesticides (azinphos methyl, chlorothalonil, chlorphyriphos ethyl, chlorphyriphos methyl, lambda-cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, cyprodinil, fenazaquin, fludioxonil, indoxacarb, iprodione and penconazol). These were detected by gas chromatography (GC) analysis with electron capture (ECD) and nitrogen phosphorus detection (NPD) in 18 samples of vegetables. Some extracts of vegetables, found positive for pesticides with GC, were subjected to the Ames test and SOS Chromotest to evaluate the possible antimutagenic and/or antigenotoxic effects of vegetable matrices. The same bioassays were also performed on the mixtures of pesticides found in these samples to evaluate whether interactions could occur between pesticides and be responsible for the possible antimutagenic and/or antigenotoxic effects of the contaminated matrices. Experiments were also carried out to compare the results found for contaminated vegetables with their content of antioxidant components. Significant differences in mutagenicity and genotoxicity were found among the pesticides selected for this study. Of the 12 pesticides tested, only azinphos methyl, cyprodinil, fludioxonil and iprodione were found to be positive for both S. typhimurium and E. coli. No mutagenic/genotoxic activity was found in the extracts of vegetables contaminated by pesticides. S. typhimurium TA1535 showed a strong positive mutagenic effect for the mixtures of pesticides while they were not able to induce the SOS system. The data concerning the content of polyphenols and the total reducing activity of the contaminated vegetables indicated high amounts of antioxidants that could explain the inhibitory effect on the activity of pesticides shown by vegetables.

  19. [Effect of Kaixinsan on monoamine oxidase activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shi; Dong, Xian-Zhe; Tan, Xiao; Wang, Yu-Ning; Liu, Ping

    2016-05-01

    To observe the effect of antidepressant medicine prescription, Kaixinsan (KXS) on monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity, and explore the mechanism of KXS in elevating the levels of monoamine neurotransmitter from the perspective of metabolism, in vitro enzyme reaction system and C6 neuroglial cells, the effect of KXS at different concentrations on MAO-A and MAO-B activity was observed. In animal studies, the effect of KXS at different concentrations on MAO-A and MAO-B activities of brain mitochondrialin normal rats and solitary chronic unpredictable moderate stress (CMS) model rats after intragastric administration for 1, 2, 3 weeks. Results showed that 10 g•L⁻¹ KXS could significantly reduce the activity of MAO-A and MAO-B in enzyme reaction system; and in C6 cells, KXS within 0.625-10 g•L⁻¹ concentration range had no significant effect on the activity of MAO-A, but had obvious inhibitory effect on the activity of MAO-B in a dose dependent manner. KXS had no significant effect on the activity of MAO-A and MAO-B in brains of normal rats after action for 1, 2, 3 weeks. After 2 and 3 weeks treatment with 338 mg•kg⁻¹ dose KXS, MAO-A activity in the brain of CMS rats was decreased as compared with the model group (PMAO-B activity after 1, 2, 3 weeks of treatment. The results indicated that KXS had certain effect on in vitro MAO-A and MAO-B activity, had no effect on brain MAO-A and MAO-B activity in vivo in normal rats, and had certain inhibitory effect on MAO-A activity in brains of CMS rats. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  20. Biochemical evaluation of antioxidant activity and polysaccharides fractions in seaweeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tariq

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study ethanol and water extracts of 15 seaweeds, Dictyota dichotoma var. velutricata, Dictyota indica, Iyengaria stellata, Padina pavonia, Sargassum swartzii, Sargassum variegatum, Stoechospermum marginatum, Stokeyia indica, Jolyna laminarioides, Caulerpa taxifolia, Halimeda tuna, Ulva fasciata, Ulva lactuca, Solieria robusta, and Melanothamnus afaqhusainii, were evaluated for their antioxidant potential by ABTS or 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid, superoxide and total antioxidant capacity (TAC assays.  The activity was concentration dependent and the variation in antioxidant potential was also observed by different assays in both extracts.  Ethanol extract of D. dichotoma var. velutricata, D. indica and S. marginatum demonstrated highest activity by TAC assay.  The antioxidant potential in organic solvent fractions of seaweeds namely P. pavonia, S. swartzii, S. marginatum and M. afaqhusainii was also determined and chloroform fraction of all the four seaweeds showed highest activity by superoxide assay.  Antioxidant activity of extracted fractions of polysaccharides from S. indica, C. taxifolia and D. dichotoma var. velutricata was also evaluated by superoxide method.  Polysaccharide fractions of S. indica obtained from HCl (at 700C and room temperature and water extract demonstrated highest activity respectively.  All the polysaccharide fractions of C. taxifolia showed excellent activity except CaClF70°C. Polysaccharide fractions of D. dichotoma var. velutricata also exhibited very good activity.

  1. Fungal evaluation on green tea irradiated with different water activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanaro, Gustavo B.; Duarte, Renato C.; Rodrigues, Flavio T.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H.; Correa, Benedito

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was evaluate the fungal contamination in green tea irradiated with different radiation doses and water activities. Samples were irradiated in 60 Co irradiator at doses of 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0kGy with three different water activities. In the sample with decreased water activity, the count of fungi was lower than others samples followed by original Aw and the samples with the higher water activity, however there is no difference between the increased and decreased water activities samples after the irradiation on fungi contamination at dose of 2.5 kGy. (author)

  2. Effects of Evaluation Expectation on Artistic Creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amabile, Teresa M.

    Conditions are examined under which the imposition of an extrinsic constraint upon performance of an activity can lead to decrements in creativity. Female college students worked on an art activity either with or without the expectation of external evaluation. In addition, subjects were asked to focus upon either the creative or the technical…

  3. Antimycotic Activity and Genotoxic Evaluation of Citrus sinensis and Citrus latifolia Essential Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Pérez, Nancy J; González-Ávila, Marisela; Sánchez-Navarrete, Jaime; Toscano-Garibay, Julia D; Moreno-Eutimio, Mario A; Sandoval-Hernández, Teresa; Arriaga-Alba, Myriam

    2016-05-03

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of essential oils (EOs) of Citrus sinensis (C. sinensis) and Citrus latifolia (C. latifolia) against five Candida species: Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, Candida lusitaniae and Candida guilliermondii; and perform its genotoxic evaluation. The EOs of C. sinensis and C. latifolia were obtained from the peel by hydro-distillation. The major components determined by GC-MS were in C. sinensis, d-limonene (96%) and α-myrcene (2.79%); and in C. latifolia, d-limonene (51.64%), β-thujene (14.85%), β-pinene (12.79%) and γ-terpinene (12.8%). Antifungal properties were studied by agar diffusion method, where C. sinensis presented low activity and C. latifolia essential oil was effective to inhibit growing of C. lusitaniae and C. guilliermondii with IC50 of 6.90 and 2.92 μg respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for C. sinensis were in a range of 0.42-3.71 μg and for C. latifolia of 0.22-1.30 μg. Genotoxic evaluation was done by Ames test where none of the oils induced point mutations. Flow cytometry was used to measure toxicity in human oral epithelial cells, C. sinensis was not cytotoxic and C. latifolia was toxic at 21.8 μg. These properties might bestow different odontological applications to each essential oil.

  4. Development, Implementation, and Evaluation of Active Lions: A Campaign to Promote Active Travel to a University Campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bopp, Melissa; Sims, Dangaia; Matthews, Stephen A; Rovniak, Liza S; Poole, Erika; Colgan, Joanna

    2018-03-01

    To outline the development, implementation, and evaluation of a multistrategy intervention to promote active transportation, on a large university campus. Single group pilot study. A large university in the Northeastern United States. University students (n = 563), faculty and staff (employees, n = 999) were included in the study. The Active Lions campaign aimed to increase active transportation to campus for all students and employees. The campaign targeted active transport participation through the development of a smartphone application and the implementation of supporting social marketing and social media components. Component-specific measures included app user statistics, social media engagement, and reach of social marketing strategies. Overall evaluation included cross-sectional online surveys preintervention and postintervention of student and employee travel patterns and campaign awareness. Number of active trips to campus were summed, and the percentage of trips as active was calculated. T tests compared the differences in outcomes from preintervention to postintervention. Students had a higher percentage of active trips postintervention (64.2%) than preintervention (49.2%; t = 3.32, P = .001), although there were no differences for employees (7.9% and 8.91%). Greater awareness of Active Lions was associated with greater active travel. This multistrategy approach to increase active transportation on a college campus provided insight on the process of developing and implementing a campaign with the potential for impacting health behaviors among campus members.

  5. Image Cytometric Analysis of Algal Spores for Evaluation of Antifouling Activities of Biocidal Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Il Koo, Bon; Lee, Yun-Soo; Seo, Mintae; Seok Choi, Hyung; Leng Seah, Geok; Nam, Taegu; Nam, Yoon Sung

    2017-07-31

    Chemical biocides have been widely used as marine antifouling agents, but their environmental toxicity impose regulatory restriction on their use. Although various surrogate antifouling biocides have been introduced, their comparative effectiveness has not been well investigated partly due to the difficulty of quantitative evaluation of their antifouling activity. Here we report an image cytometric method to quantitatively analyze the antifouling activities of seven commercial biocides using Ulva prolifera as a target organism, which is known to be a dominant marine species causing soft fouling. The number of spores settled on a substrate is determined through image analysis using the intrinsic fluorescence of chlorophylls in the spores. Pre-determined sets of size and shape of spores allow for the precise determination of the number of settled spores. The effects of biocide concentration and combination of different biocides on the spore settlement are examined. No significant morphological changes of Ulva spores are observed, but the amount of adhesive pad materials is appreciably decreased in the presence of biocides. It is revealed that the growth rate of Ulva is not directly correlated with the antifouling activities against the settlement of Ulva spores. This work suggests that image cytometric analysis is a very convenient, fast-processable method to directly analyze the antifouling effects of biocides and coating materials.

  6. Evaluating the antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of three Centaurea species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hajimehdipoor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Factors such as oxidative stress and reduced acetylcholine level have been implicated in Alzheimer’s disease (AD pathology and recently there has been a trend towards natural product research to find potential sources of antioxidants and acetylcholinesterase inhibitors in the plants kingdom. Centaurea is a genus with about 500 species world wild, many of them have shown to possess biologic activity; Centaurea albonites, C. aucheri and C. pseudoscabiosa are three species which little investigation has been carried out about their biological properties. In the present study, the antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of the above mentioned species have been evaluated. The ability of the total extract and methanol fraction of the plants to scavenge free radicals has been assessed through DPPH radical scavenging assay, and the acetylcholinesterase inhibitory property has been evaluated by Ellman method. The total extract of all species exhibited moderate antioxidant activity whereas the extracts of C. pseudoscabiosa showed the strongest antioxidant property; its total extract also demonstrated the highest acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity among the evaluated samples (19.2% inhibition. The results suggest the species as potential sources of natural antioxidants which could be focused in future studies of Alzheimer’s disease.

  7. A Low Power, Parallel Wearable Multi-Sensor System for Human Activity Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuecheng; Jia, Wenyan; Yu, Tianjian; Luan, Bo; Mao, Zhi-Hong; Zhang, Hong; Sun, Mingui

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, the design of a low power heterogeneous wearable multi-sensor system, built with Zynq System-on-Chip (SoC), for human activity evaluation is presented. The powerful data processing capability and flexibility of this SoC represent significant improvements over our previous ARM based system designs. The new system captures and compresses multiple color images and sensor data simultaneously. Several strategies are adopted to minimize power consumption. Our wearable system provides a new tool for the evaluation of human activity, including diet, physical activity and lifestyle.

  8. [Evaluate drug interaction of multi-components in Morus alba leaves based on α-glucosidase inhibitory activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Tao; Su, Shu-Lan; Guo, Sheng; Qian, Da-Wei; Ouyang, Zhen; Duan, Jin-Ao

    2016-06-01

    Column chromatography was used for enrichment and separation of flavonoids, alkaloids and polysaccharides from the extracts of Morus alba leaves; glucose oxidase method was used with sucrose as the substrate to evaluate the multi-components of M. alba leaves in α-glucosidase inhibitory models; isobole method, Chou-Talalay combination index analysis and isobolographic analysis were used to evaluate the interaction effects and dose-effect characteristics of two components, providing scientific basis for revealing the hpyerglycemic mechanism of M. alba leaves. The components analysis showed that flavonoid content was 5.3%; organic phenolic acids content was 10.8%; DNJ content was 39.4%; and polysaccharide content was 18.9%. Activity evaluation results demonstrated that flavonoids, alkaloids and polysaccharides of M. alba leaves had significant inhibitory effects on α-glucosidase, and the inhibitory rate was increased with the increasing concentration. Alkaloids showed most significant inhibitory effects among these three components. Both compatibility of alkaloids and flavonoids, and the compatibility of alkaloids and polysaccharides demonstrated synergistic effects, but the compatibility of flavonoids and polysaccharides showed no obvious synergistic effects. The results have confirmed the interaction of multi-components from M. alba leaves to regulate blood sugar, and provided scientific basis for revealing hpyerglycemic effectiveness and mechanism of the multi-components from M. alba leaves. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  9. Evaluation of An Activities of Daily Living Scale for Adolescents and Adults with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maenner, Matthew J; Smith, Leann E; Hong, Jinkuk; Makuch, Renee; Greenberg, Jan S; Mailick, Marsha R

    2012-01-01

    Background Activity limitations are an important and useful dimension of disability, but there are few validated measures of activity limitations for adolescents and adults with developmental disabilities. Objective/Hypothesis To describe the development of the Waisman Activities of Daily Living (W-ADL) Scale for adolescents and adults with developmental disabilities, and systematically evaluate its measurement properties according to an established set of criteria. Methods The W-ADL was administered among four longitudinally-studied groups of adolescents and adults with developmental disabilities: 406 with autism; 147 with fragile-X syndrome; 169 with Down syndrome, and 292 with intellectual disability of other or unknown origin. The W-ADL contains 17 activities and each is rated on a 3-point scale (0=“does not do at all”, 1=“does with help”, 2=“independent”), and a standard set of criteria were used to evaluate its measurement properties. Results Across the disability groups, Cronbach’s alphas ranged from 0.88 to 0.94, and a single-factor structure was most parsimonious. The W-ADL was reliable over time, with weighted kappas between 0.92 and 0.93. Criterion and construct validity were supported through substantial associations with the Vineland Screener, need for respite services, caregiving burden, and competitive employment. No floor or ceiling effects were present. There were significant group differences in W-ADL scores by maternally-reported level of intellectual disability (mild, moderate, severe, profound). Conclusions The W-ADL exceeded the recommended threshold for each quality criterion the authors evaluated. This freely-available tool is an efficient measure of activities of daily living for surveys and epidemiological research concerning adolescents and adults with developmental disabilities. PMID:23260606

  10. Evaluation of partial beta-adrenoceptor agonist activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipworth, B J; Grove, A

    1997-01-01

    A partial beta-adrenoceptor (beta-AR) agonist will exhibit opposite agonist and antagonist activity depending on the prevailing degree of adrenergic tone or the presence of a beta-AR agonist with higher intrinsic activity. In vivo partial beta-AR agonist activity will be evident at rest with low endogenous adrenergic tone, as for example with chronotropicity (beta 1/beta 2), inotropicity (beta 1) or peripheral vasodilatation and finger tremor (beta 2). beta-AR blocking drugs which have partial agonist activity may exhibit a better therapeutic profile when used for hypertension because of maintained cardiac output without increased systemic vascular resistance, along with an improved lipid profile. In the presence of raised endogenous adrenergic tone such as exercise or an exogenous full agonist, beta-AR subtype antagonist activity will become evident in terms of effects on exercise induced heart rate (beta 1) and potassium (beta 2) responses. Reduction of exercise heart rate will occur to a lesser degree in the case of a beta-adrenoceptor blocker with partial beta 1-AR agonist activity compared with a beta-adrenoceptor blocker devoid of partial agonist activity. This may result in reduced therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of angina on effort when using beta-AR blocking drugs with partial beta 1-AR agonist activity. Effects on exercise hyperkalaemia are determined by the balance between beta 2-AR partial agonist activity and endogenous adrenergic activity. For predominantly beta 2-AR agonist such as salmeterol and salbutamol, potentiation of exercise hyperkalaemia occurs. For predominantly beta 2-AR antagonists such as carteolol, either potentiation or attenuation of exercise hyperkalaemia occurs at low and high doses respectively. beta 2-AR partial agonist activity may also be expressed as antagonism in the presence of an exogenous full agonist, as for example attenuation of fenoterol induced responses by salmeterol. Studies are required to investigate whether

  11. Effectiveness of a Lifestyle Intervention on Social Support, Self-Efficacy, and Physical Activity among Older Adults: Evaluation of Texercise Select

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia G. Ory

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the well-recognized benefits of physical activity across the life course, older adults are more inactive than other age groups. The current study examines the effects of Texercise Select participation on self-reported sedentary, light, moderate, and vigorous physical activity. Secondarily, this study examined intervention effects on two potential facilitators of physical activity: (1 self-efficacy for being more physically active and (2 social support received for physical activity. This study used a non-equivalent group design with self-reported surveys administered at baseline, three-month (immediate post for cases and six-month follow-ups for the intervention (n = 163 and a comparison group (n = 267. Multivariable mixed model analyses were conducted controlling for age, sex, race, ethnicity, education, comorbid conditions, and site. Among the intervention group, the program had significant immediate effects on most primary outcomes (p < 0.05 at three months. Furthermore, significant improvements were observed for all physical activity intensity levels at six months (p < 0.05. The reduction in sedentary behavior and increases in all physical activity intensity levels were significantly greater from baseline to three-month and baseline to six-month follow-ups among intervention group participants relative to those in the comparison group. This study confirms the effectiveness of Texercise Select to reduce sedentary behavior and improve physicality, supporting the intervention’s robustness as a scalable and sustainable evidence-based program. It also counters negative stereotypes that older adults are not interested in attending multi-modal lifestyle intervention programs nor able to make health behavior changes that can improve health and overall functioning.

  12. Novel synthesis of nanosilver particles using plant active principle aloin and evaluation of their cytotoxic effect against Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thota Venkata Chaitanya Kumar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To develop a reliable, eco-friendly and easy process for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using aloin, the active principle of medicinal plant ‘Aloe vera ’ and to evaluate antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus, a causative organism of most of the diseases in livestock and to standardize the level of safety of synthesized silver nanoparticles. Methods: Characterization using UV-vis spectrophotometry, DLS technique, FT-IR and SEM. Tube dilution method was carried out to evaluate the MIC of the compound against S. aureus. MTT assay was performed to evaluate the level of safety of nanoparticles. Results: UV-vis absorption spectrum showed a maximum absorption around 200 nm for aloin mediated silver nanoparticles (ANS. The size of the particles as measured by DLS technique was 67.8 nm. The results of FT-IR analysis indicated the involvement of hydroxyl, carboxyl, amine and nitrile groups in the synthesis and stabilization of aloin mediated silver nanoparticles. SEM images showed that ANS with cubical, rectangular, triangular and spherical morphology and measured sizes of the agglomerated nanoparticles are in a range of 287.5 to 293.2 nm, however the average size of an individual particle is estimated to be approximately 70 nm. The compound (ANS showed a MIC of 21.8 ng/mL against S. aureus and showed an in vitro spleenocyte viability of more than 80% at the highest concentration of 87.5 mg/L per well. Conclusions: Aloin consists of functional groups which reduced Ag+ ions to Ago ions and helped in synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The synthesis process has further enhanced the antimicrobial activity of nanosilver. The compound is also proved to be safe at the level many times higher than the MIC.

  13. Effects of 60Co gamma radiation on toxicity and hemorrhagic, myonecrotic, and edema-forming activities of Cerastes cerastes venom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abib, H.; Laraba-Djebari, F.

    2003-01-01

    Antisera are used as effective antidotes against the local effects of snake bites. To improve antisera production and extend the life of surrogates used to produce antibodies, the chronic effects of venom toxicity must be reduced. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of gamma irradiation to reduce the local effects associated with viperid snake bites by evaluating in NMRI mice the toxicity and edematic, hemorrhagic, and myonecrotic activities of native and irradiated Cerastes cerastes venoms. These results indicated that the toxicity of irradiated venoms (1 and 2 kGy) decreased as compared with that of native venom. The edematic and hemorrhagic activities were also reduced in the detoxified samples, particularly with the 2-kGy radiation dose. Furthermore, the creatine phosphokinase (CPK) activity was significantly increased in the serum and decreased in the myocardium after envenomation with native venom, but no significant enzymatic changes were observed in mice envenomated with irradiated venom. Histopathologic evaluation showed that native venom caused severe degenerative changes in the myocardium. In the case of 2-kGy-irradiated venom, no tissue alterations were observed. These results indicate that irradiation of venom with a 2-kGy dose may offer an effective method for reducing the chronic toxic effects of venom in immunized animals. (author)

  14. Design, Synthesis and Evaluation of Antiproliferative Activity of New Benzimidazolehydrazones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Onnis

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis and antiproliferative activity of new benzimidazole derivatives bearing an hydrazone mojety at the 2-position is described. The new N′-(4-arylidene-1H-benzo[d]imidazole-2-carbohydrazides were evaluated for their cytostatic activity toward the murine leukemia (L1210, human T-cell leukemia (CEM, human cervix carcinoma (HeLa and human pancreas carcinoma cells (Mia Paca-2. A preliminary structure-activity relationship could be defined. Some of the compounds possess encouraging and consistent antiproliferative activity, having IC50 values in the low micromolar range.

  15. Evaluation of Anti-Oxidant Activity of Lavandula angustifolia using DPPH Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Soheili

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Stress oxidative factors are known to causes diseases resulting from metabolic disorders. Therefore, preventing, or at least decreasing the amount of these factors may have a positive impact on prevention or improvement of the metabolic problems. Recently, the herbal medicines are more considered due to more effectiveness. We designed the present study to evaluate anti-oxidant effect of aqueous extract of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia. Materials and Methods: For extract preparation, the dry aerial part of lavender mixed with boiling water for 4 hours and then the container was filtered and condensed in a bain marie. Finally, the extract was powdered by freeze dryer. The anti-oxidant activities of the herbal medicine samples in 5, 10, 20 and 40 ppm concentrations were determined via DPPH method. This method is based on free radical scavenging of 2, 2- dipheny L-1-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH reflected in the color and absorbance changes in spectrophotometery method in 520 nm. Finally the IC50 was calculated and compared with that of for vitamin C as a standard. Results: All doses of the aqueous extract of the lavender showed dose- dependent potent anti-oxidant activity, So that, their differences were significant compared to control sample. The IC50 of the herbal medicine was 24.66 ppm that was less than the vitamin C of 2.3 ppm. Conclusion: As a potent anti-oxidant, the lavender aqueous extract can be effective in treatment of metabolic diseases.

  16. Fuel performance evaluation through iodine activity monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anantharaman, K.; Chandra, R.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of the failed fuel detection system is to keep a watch on fuel behaviour during operation. This paper describes the evaluation of fuel behaviour by monitoring the activities of various isotopes of iodine both during steady state and during a reactor shutdown. The limitations of this approach also has been explained. The monitoring of tramp uranium for different types of release, namely fixed contamination and continuous release from fuel, is also presented. (author)

  17. Effects of wearing bio-active material coated fabric against γ-irradiation-induced cellular damaged in Sprague-Dawley rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Jung Ae; Kim, Hye Rim; Yoon, Sun Hye; Nam, Sang Hyun; Park, Sang Hyun; Jang, Beom Su; Go, Kyung Chan; Yang, Gwang Wung; Rho, Young Hwan; Park, Hyo Suk

    2016-01-01

    Ionizing radiation causes cellular damage and death through the direct damage and/or indirectly the production of ROS, which induces oxidative stress. This study was designed to evaluate the in vivo radioprotective effects of a bio-active material coated fabric (BMCF) against γ-irradiation-induced cellular damage in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Healthy male SD rats wore bio-active material coated (concentrations in 10% and 30%) fabric for 7 days after 3 Gy of γ-irradiation. Radioprotective effects were evaluated by performing various biochemical assays including spleen and thymus index, WBC count, hepatic damage marker enzymes [aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT)] in plasma, liver antioxidant enzymes, and mitochondrial activity in muscle. Exposure to γ-irradiation resulted in hepatocellular and immune systemic damage. Gamma-irradiation induced decreases in antioxidant enzymes. However, wearing the BMCF-30% decreased significantly AST and ALT activities in plasma. Furthermore, wearing the BMCF-30% increased SOD (superoxide dismutase) and mitochondrial activity. These results suggest that wearing BMCF offers effective radioprotection against γ-irradiation-induced cellular damage in SD rats

  18. Effects of wearing bio-active material coated fabric against γ-irradiation-induced cellular damaged in Sprague-Dawley rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Jung Ae; Kim, Hye Rim; Yoon, Sun Hye; Nam, Sang Hyun; Park, Sang Hyun; Jang, Beom Su [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Go, Kyung Chan; Yang, Gwang Wung; Rho, Young Hwan; Park, Hyo Suk [Research and Development Center, VENTEX Co. Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    Ionizing radiation causes cellular damage and death through the direct damage and/or indirectly the production of ROS, which induces oxidative stress. This study was designed to evaluate the in vivo radioprotective effects of a bio-active material coated fabric (BMCF) against γ-irradiation-induced cellular damage in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Healthy male SD rats wore bio-active material coated (concentrations in 10% and 30%) fabric for 7 days after 3 Gy of γ-irradiation. Radioprotective effects were evaluated by performing various biochemical assays including spleen and thymus index, WBC count, hepatic damage marker enzymes [aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT)] in plasma, liver antioxidant enzymes, and mitochondrial activity in muscle. Exposure to γ-irradiation resulted in hepatocellular and immune systemic damage. Gamma-irradiation induced decreases in antioxidant enzymes. However, wearing the BMCF-30% decreased significantly AST and ALT activities in plasma. Furthermore, wearing the BMCF-30% increased SOD (superoxide dismutase) and mitochondrial activity. These results suggest that wearing BMCF offers effective radioprotection against γ-irradiation-induced cellular damage in SD rats.

  19. The effect of lipophilicity on the antibacterial activity of some 1-benzylbenzimidazole derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. BARNA

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, the antibacterial activity of some 1-benzylbenzimidazole derivatives were evaluated against the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli. The minimum inhibitory concentration was determined for all the compounds. Quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR was employed to study the effect of the lipophilicity parameters (log P on the inhibitory activity. Log P values for the target compounds were experimentally determined by the “shake-flask” method and calculated by using eight different software products. Multiple linear regression was used to correlate the log P values and antibacterial activity of the studied benzimidazole derivatives. The results are discussed based on statistical data. The most acceptable QSAR models for the prediction of the antibacterial activity of the investigated series of benzimidazoles were developed. High agreement between the experimental and predicted inhibitory values was obtained. The results of this study indicate that the lipophilicity parameter has a significant effect on the antibacterial activity of this class of compounds, which simplifies the design of new biologically active molecules.

  20. Evaluation of antiemetic activities of alcoholic extract of grewia asiatica in experimental model dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaqeen, Z.; Shail, T.; Rahman, A.U.; Saleem, M.

    2008-01-01

    The fruits of Grewia asiatica were evaluated for the antiemetic activity in the experimental model dogs, whereas, acute oral toxicity test was carried out in mice and rats. Maximum oral dose of 200 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg of crude alcoholic extract was found non toxic in mice and rats. Oral dose of crude alcoholic extract (120 mg/kg body weight) caused antiemetic effect in dogs in 3 h and controlled emesis centrally induced by Apomorphine (0.044 mg/kg body weight). This activity of G asiatica was comparable with standard commercial anti-emctic drugs like Maxolon (Metoclopramide) and Largactil tablets 10 mg (Chlorpromazine) of M/s. Aventis Pharma., Pakistan. (author)

  1. Report of the summative evaluation by the advisory committee on research support and collaborative activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-03-01

    The Research Evaluation Committee of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) set up an Advisory Committee on Research Support and Collaborative Activities in accordance with the 'Fundamental Guideline for the Evaluation of Research and Development (R and D) at JAERI' and its subsidiary regulations. The Advisory Committee on Research Support and Collaborative Activities evaluated the adequacy of the plans of research support and collaborative activities to be succeeded from JAERI to a new research institute which will be established by integration of JAERI and the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC). The Advisory Committee consisted of nine specialists from outside the JAERI conducted its activities from June 2004 to August 2004. The evaluation was performed on the basis of the materials submitted in advance and of the oral presentations made at the Advisory Committee meeting which was held on July 21, 2004, in line with the items, viewpoints, and criteria for the evaluation specified by the Research Evaluation Committee. The result of the evaluation by the Advisory Committee was submitted to the Research Evaluation Committee, and was judged to be appropriate at its meeting held on December 1, 2004. This report describes the result of the evaluation by the Advisory Committee on Research Support and Collaborative Activities. (author)

  2. Evaluation of the Physical Activity and Public Health Course for Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenson, Kelly R.; Brown, David R.; Pearce, Emily; Camplain, Ricky; Jernigan, Jan; Epping, Jacqueline; Shepard, Dennis M.; Dorn, Joan M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: From 1996 to 2013, a 6-day Physical Activity and Public Health Course for Practitioners has been offered yearly in the United States. An evaluation was conducted to assess the impact of the course on building public health capacity for physical activity and on shaping the physical activity and public health careers of fellows since taking…

  3. Evaluation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Bovine mastitis is one of the most relevant and problematic diseases to treat and control in practice. Puxing Yinyang San (PYS) is a compound of herbs to treat bovine mastitis in China. This study was performed to evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of PYS in mice and rats. Materials and ...

  4. Evaluation of estrogen receptor alpha activation by glyphosate-based herbicide constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesnage, Robin; Phedonos, Alexia; Biserni, Martina; Arno, Matthew; Balu, Sucharitha; Corton, J Christopher; Ugarte, Ricardo; Antoniou, Michael N

    2017-10-01

    The safety, including the endocrine disruptive capability, of glyphosate-based herbicides (GBHs) is a matter of intense debate. We evaluated the estrogenic potential of glyphosate, commercial GBHs and polyethoxylated tallowamine adjuvants present as co-formulants in GBHs. Glyphosate (≥10,000 μg/L or 59 μM) promoted proliferation of estrogen-dependent MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Glyphosate also increased the expression of an estrogen response element-luciferase reporter gene (ERE-luc) in T47D-KBluc cells, which was blocked by the estrogen antagonist ICI 182,780. Commercial GBH formulations or their adjuvants alone did not exhibit estrogenic effects in either assay. Transcriptomics analysis of MCF-7 cells treated with glyphosate revealed changes in gene expression reflective of hormone-induced cell proliferation but did not overlap with an ERα gene expression biomarker. Calculation of glyphosate binding energy to ERα predicts a weak and unstable interaction (-4.10 kcal mol -1 ) compared to estradiol (-25.79 kcal mol -1 ), which suggests that activation of this receptor by glyphosate is via a ligand-independent mechanism. Induction of ERE-luc expression by the PKA signalling activator IBMX shows that ERE-luc is responsive to ligand-independent activation, suggesting a possible mechanism of glyphosate-mediated activation. Our study reveals that glyphosate, but not other components present in GBHs, can activate ERα in vitro, albeit at relatively high concentrations. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of in vivo and in vitro biological activities of different extracts of Cuscuta arvensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koca, Ufuk; Küpeli-Akkol, Esra; Sekeroglu, Nazim

    2011-10-01

    In the present study, the potential effects of extracts from the whole plant of Cuscuta arvensis were studied in mice using the carrageenan-induced hind paw edema model for antiinflammatory activity and the p-benzoquinone-induced writhing reflex for the assessment of antinociceptive activity. In order to obtain the extracts, the whole plant of C. arvensis was extracted with different solvents such as n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol and distilled water. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. The methanolic and water extracts inhibited the carrageenan-induced paw edema and p-benzoquinone-induced writhing reflex, whereas the other extracts showed only mild inhibitory antinociceptive and antiinflammatory activities in these in vivo models. Additionally, the methanol and ethyl acetate extracts had higher scavenging ability then the non polar extracts.

  6. Evaluation of Outcomes Associated with a Leisure-time Activity Program for Disadvantaged Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanita Bester

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The SLEAK (Skills, Learning and Educational Activities for Kids program was established in 2008 as a joint partnership between a community leader and the Division of Occupational Therapy Stellenbosch University. The vision of the SLEAK program is to create a sustainable, non-profit, leisure-time activity program for the youth (10-13 years of age of the community in order to curb drug and gangster-related activities and to foster healthy work-related skills in the youth to make them responsible and productive members of their community. The SLEAK program was evaluated in its entirety and this article will focus on the results for the outcomes set for the children in the SLEAK program. The results indicated that although it is still a rather small project, it seems as if the project is effective in what it set out to achieve and that it could serve as a pilot for starting projects in similar communities.

  7. Longitudinal evaluation of jaw muscle activity and mandibular kinematics in young patients with Class II malocclusion treated with the Teuscher activator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Maria-José; Cacho, Alberto; Alarcón, Jose-Antonio; Martín, Conchita

    2013-05-01

    A longitudinal study was performed to evaluate the jaw muscle activity and mandibular kinematics after Teuscher activator treatment and at 2 years after orthodontic treatment completion. Twenty-seven children with Class II division 1 malocclusion were evaluated before treatment (T0; mean: 11.6 years), after functional treatment (T1; mean: 12.8 years), and 2 years after orthodontic treatment (T2; mean: 18 years). Bilateral surface electromyographic activities of the anterior temporalis, posterior temporalis, masseter, and suprahyoid muscle areas were analyzed at rest and during clenching, swallowing, and mastication. Kinematic recordings of the mandibular maximum opening, lateral shift, right and left lateral excursions, and protrusion were evaluated. Compared to T0, the left masseter activity during clenching was decreased at T1 but increased at T2, similar to the other evaluated muscles. The suprahyoid activity during swallowing was increased at T1 but decreased at T2. The masseter activity during mastication was increased at T1 and further increased at T2. The left and right lateral excursions and protrusion did not show significant changes throughout the experiment. Teuscher activator and subsequent fixed orthodontic treatment improved jaw muscle function; however, a long period was needed to attain complete neuromuscular adaptation.

  8. Strategic orientation in evaluation of supply chain activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad sofiyabadi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Employment of supply chain management could impact the entire functional and practical aspects of industry and services positively and change the manager’s attitude toward the implementation of supply chain management systems from a cost-oriented attitude to an enabling attitude towards better activities with other chain members. Yet still many organizations do not have the required vision within the identification of strategic appropriate measure in implementation, evaluation and usage of proper benchmarks to attain an integrated chain. Constantly supply chain management activity can be introduced as a tied up with strategic level of organization. Hence, it is a necessary with an overall strategic approach to identify the criteria, which enable us to include the whole process level of chain, financial matter of chain activities, visible and invisible properties, human activity and turn all these activities into an integrated approach to resolve supply chain difficulties. In this paper, we present an integrated balanced score card combined with DEMATEL technique to prioritize different alternatives for supply chain implementation.

  9. The Effect of Person Centered Planning Activities on the IEP/Transition Planning Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Craig A.; Bates, Paul E.

    1997-01-01

    A study of 22 students with mental retardation and their families evaluated the impact of person-centered planning activities on several variables related to a student's individual education program/transition planning meeting. Person-centered planning had a significant effect on parent participation in meetings, but not on discussion of…

  10. Evaluation of the biological activity of sunflower hull extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taha, F. S.; Wagdy, S. M.; Hassanein, M. M. M.; Hamed, S. F.

    2012-11-01

    This work was planned with the aim of adding value to sunflower seed hulls, a waste product of the oil industry by preparing a sunflower hull phenolic extract rich in chlorogenic acid (CGA). In order to fulfill this goal, the optimization for the extraction of a phenolic extract from the hulls was investigated. The parameters studied were: type of solvent, solvent to water ratio and hull to solvent ratio. In addition, the solvent mixtures were also studied. The resulting phenolic extracts were evaluated for their biological activities. This included phenolic content determination, evaluation of the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Chlorogenic acid was determined in two chosen hull extracts using the UV spectrophotometric method and HPLC analysis. The anti carcinogenic activity of the two chosen extracts was tested on seven different cell line carcinomas. The results revealed that all the phenolic extracts of sunflower hull studied contain between 190-312.5 mg phenolics/ 100 g hulls. The highest phenolic extraction was achieved with 80% methanol (1:30, hull to solvent, w/v ratio) and methanol to ethanol to water (7:7:6 v/v/v) mixture with values of 312.5 and 306.5 mg phenolics/100 g hulls, respectively. The free radical scavenging activity and antioxidant activity of all the samples ranged from 33.6-72.6%. The highest antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging activity were achieved by the same extracts that possessed the highest phenolic content, namely methanol to ethanol to water extract and 80% methanol with values 71.8 and 72.6%, 68.2 and 70.9% respectively, compared to 77.9 and 76.9% respectively for TBHQ. All the phenolic extracts possessed antimicrobial activity but to different levels against different pathogenic bacteria. The two chosen extracts also possessed anti carcinogenic activity, which differed among varying cell line carcinomas. The HPLC analysis indicated that chlorogenic acid was the main phenolic acid in the extract. Thus it can

  11. Fungal evaluation on green tea irradiated with different water activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanaro, Gustavo B.; Duarte, Renato C.; Rodrigues, Flavio T.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H., E-mail: gbfanaro@ipen.b, E-mail: villavic@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (CTR/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes; Correa, Benedito, E-mail: correabe@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biologicas. Dept. de Micologia

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was evaluate the fungal contamination in green tea irradiated with different radiation doses and water activities. Samples were irradiated in {sup 60}Co irradiator at doses of 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0kGy with three different water activities. In the sample with decreased water activity, the count of fungi was lower than others samples followed by original Aw and the samples with the higher water activity, however there is no difference between the increased and decreased water activities samples after the irradiation on fungi contamination at dose of 2.5 kGy. (author)

  12. Cost-effectiveness of population-level physical activity interventions: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, Johanna; Kuvaja-Köllner, Virpi; Pietilä, Eija; Koivuneva, Mikko; Valtonen, Hannu; Kankaanpää, Eila

    2014-01-01

    This systematic review synthesizes the evidence on the cost-effectiveness of population-level interventions to promote physical activity. A systematic literature search was conducted between May and August 2013 in four databases: PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and SPORTDiscus. Only primary and preventive interventions aimed at promoting and maintaining physical activity in wide population groups were included. An economic evaluation of both effectiveness and cost was required. Secondary interventions and interventions targeting selected population groups or focusing on single individuals were excluded. Interventions were searched for in six different categories: (1) environment, (2) built environment, (3) sports clubs and enhanced access, (4) schools, (5) mass media and community-based, and (6) workplace. The systematic search yielded 2058 articles, of which 10 articles met the selection criteria. The costs of interventions were converted to costs per person per day in 2012 U.S. dollars. The physical activity results were calculated as metabolic equivalent of task hours (MET-hours, or MET-h) gained per person per day. Cost-effectiveness ratios were presented as dollars per MET-hours gained. The intervention scale and the budget impact of interventions were taken into account. The most efficient interventions to increase physical activity were community rail-trails ($.006/MET-h), pedometers ($.014/MET-h), and school health education programs ($.056/MET-h). Improving opportunities for walking and biking seems to increase physical activity cost-effectively. However, it is necessary to be careful in generalizing the results because of the small number of studies. This review provides important information for decision makers.

  13. Phenolic content, antioxidant effect and cytotoxic activity of Leea indica leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reddy Nidyaletchmy

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The leaves of Leea indica (Vitaceae, commonly known as ‘Huo Tong Shu’ in Malaysia, have been traditionally used as natural remedy in folk medicine by the locals. The current study reports the outcome of antioxidant and cytotoxic investigation of L. indica leaves. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of L. indica leaf crude ethanol and its fractionated extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate and water for evaluation of total phenolic content, antioxidant effect and cytotoxic activity against colon cancer cell lines. Methods In the present study, L. indica leaf crude ethanol and its fractionated extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate and water were firstly prepared prior to phenolic content, antioxidant effect and cytotoxic activity assessment. Folin-Ciocalteau’s method was used for the measurement of total phenolic content of the extracts. The antioxidant activity was measured by employing three different established testing systems, such as scavenging activity on DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals, reducing power assay and SOD (superoxide dismutase activity assay. The cytotoxic activity of the extracts were evaluated against three colon cancer cell lines with varying molecular characteristics (HT-29, HCT-15 and HCT-116 by MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay. Results The total phenolic content and antioxidant capabilities differed significantly among the L. indica leaf extracts. A strong correlation between total phenolic content and antioxidant properties was found, indicating that phenolic compounds are the major contributor to the antioxidant properties of these extracts. Among the crude ethanol and its fractionated extracts, fractionated water extract showed significantly the highest total phenolic content and strongest antioxidant effect in all the antioxidant testing systems employed in this study. All the four extracts exert no damage to the selected colon cancer

  14. The effect of stress tolerance on dynamics of activity-travel behavior : numerical simulation results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Psarra, I.; Arentze, T.A.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2014-01-01

    The primary and secondary effects of various spatial and transportation policies can be evaluated with models of activity–travel behavior. Whereas existing activity-based models of travel demand simulate a typical day, dynamic models simulate behavioral response to endogenous or exogenous change,

  15. Effects of oxytetracycline, tylosin, and amoxicillin antibiotics on specific methanogenic activity of anaerobic biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Mehdi Amin; Hassan Hashemi; Afshin Ebrahimi; Asghar Ebrahimi

    2012-01-01

    Aims: The purpose of this study was to survey the antibiotics effects of oxytetracycline, tylosin, and amoxicillin on anerobic wastewater treatment process. Materials and Methods: To evaluate the inhibitory antibiotics amoxicillin, tetracycline, and tylosin on biomass activity, specific methanogenic activity (SMA) using anerobic biomass batch; into 120 ml vials: 30 ml biomass and 70 ml substrate including volatile fatty acids, mainly acetic acid and various concentrations of antibiotics we...

  16. Dissociating action-effect activation and effect-based response selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Katharina A; Pfister, Roland; Wirth, Robert; Kunde, Wilfried

    2018-05-25

    Anticipated action effects have been shown to govern action selection and initiation, as described in ideomotor theory, and they have also been demonstrated to determine crosstalk between different tasks in multitasking studies. Such effect-based crosstalk was observed not only in a forward manner (with a first task influencing performance in a following second task) but also in a backward manner (the second task influencing the preceding first task), suggesting that action effect codes can become activated prior to a capacity-limited processing stage often denoted as response selection. The process of effect-based response production, by contrast, has been proposed to be capacity-limited. These observations jointly suggest that effect code activation can occur independently of effect-based response production, though this theoretical implication has not been tested directly at present. We tested this hypothesis by employing a dual-task set-up in which we manipulated the ease of effect-based response production (via response-effect compatibility) in an experimental design that allows for observing forward and backward crosstalk. We observed robust crosstalk effects and response-effect compatibility effects alike, but no interaction between both effects. These results indicate that effect activation can occur in parallel for several tasks, independently of effect-based response production, which is confined to one task at a time. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Electrically and hybrid-induced muscle activations: effects of muscle size and fiber type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Stratton

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of three electrical stimulation (ES frequencies (10, 35, and 50 Hz on two muscle groups with different proportions of fast and slow twitch fibers (abductor pollicis brevis (APB and vastus lateralis (VL was explored. We evaluated the acute muscles’ responses individually and during hybrid activations (ES superimposed by voluntary activations. Surface electromyography (sEMG and force measurements were evaluated as outcomes. Ten healthy adults (mean age: 24.4 ± 2.5 years participated after signing an informed consent form approved by the university Institutional Review Board. Protocols were developed to: 1 compare EMG activities during each frequency for each muscle when generating 25% Maximum Voluntary Contraction (MVC force, and 2 compare EMG activities during each frequency when additional voluntary activation was superimposed over ES-induced 25% MVC to reach 50% and 75% MVC. Empirical mode decomposition (EMD was utilized to separate ES artifacts from voluntary muscle activation. For both muscles, higher stimulation frequency (35 and 50Hz induced higher electrical output detected at 25% of MVC, suggesting more recruitment with higher frequencies. Hybrid activation generated proportionally less electrical activity than ES alone. ES and voluntary activations appear to generate two different modes of muscle recruitment. ES may provoke muscle strength by activating more fatiguing fast acting fibers, but voluntary activation elicits more muscle coordination. Therefore, during the hybrid activation, less electrical activity may be detected due to recruitment of more fatigue-resistant deeper muscle fibers, not reachable by surface EMG.

  18. Evaluation of the Effect of Physical Activity Programs on Self-Esteem and Body Mass Index of Overweight Adolescent Girls, based on Health Belief Model with School-Centered Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Leili Rabiei; Akbar Babaei Heydarabadi; Elahe Tavassoli; Mohammad Abbasi; Fereydoon Khayeri; Reza Masoudi

    2018-01-01

    Background: Obesity in adolescents leads to physical and mental complications. Exercise is one of the main components of weight control programs. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of physical activity programs on self-esteem and Body Mass Index of overweight adolescent girls. Materials and Methods: This study was a semi experimental study.The subjects were 140 second grade student girls from two high schools in 5th district of Isfahan. Data collection scales included: tape measure, carr...

  19. [Spectrum-effect Relationship Between Total Antioxidant Activity and HPLC Fingerprint of Arctium lappa Root].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-juan; Jiang, Lin

    2014-12-01

    To explore the spectrum-effect relationship between the HPLC fingerprint of Arctium lappa root methanol extract and the total antioxidant activity. The experiment was carried out with Gemini C18 110A (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 µm) column using methanol-0.04% phosphoric acid as gradient mobile phase at the flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, detection wavelength of 320 nm. The total antioxidant activity was determined by measuring the absorbance of each sample after being reacted with ammonium molybdate reagent. The spectrum-effect relationship was investigated using canonical correlation analysis (CCA). The spectrum-effect relationship between the HPLC fingerprint of Arctium lappa root methanol extract and the total antioxidant activity were established, the similarity of fingerprint of all samples was above 0.9. Peaks 1, 6, 9, 12 and 14 were principle components of Arctium lappa root for the total antioxidant activity. This method contributes to the fast comprehensive evaluation of quality of Arctium lappa root.

  20. Korean Children's Evaluation of Parental Restrictions Regarding Gender-Stereotypic Peer Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yoonjung; Lee-Kim, Jennie; Killen, Melanie; Park, Kyoungja; Kim, Jihyun

    2012-01-01

    Korean children's evaluations of parental restrictions of children's activities based on gender stereotypic expectations were investigated. Third and sixth grade Korean (N = 128) children evaluated scenarios in which a boy or girl desired to play ballet or soccer. Participants used stereotypes to support children's desires to play…

  1. [EFFECT OF A HEALTHY EATING AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY INTERVENTION PROGRAM ON CHILHOOD OBESITY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Martínez, Ximena; Mena Bastías, Carmen; Celis-Moralesl, Carlos; Salas, Carlos; Valdivia Moral, Pedro

    2015-07-01

    interventions aiming to develop healthy lifestyle behaviours at early age could be an effective way of reducing childhood obesity. to evaluate the effect of a dietary and physical activity intervention on reducing childhood obesity. 312 students took part on this 5 month intervention study. The intervention included dietary talk delivered to children and their parents in addition to 45 minutes of daily physical activity modules. Nutritional status was assessed using the Obesity Task Force criteria. Changes in dietary behaviours and physical activity were assessed using questionnaires administrated to the parents. body mass index decreased significantly post intervention (-0.2 kg.m-2), however, this reduction was driven by boys (-0.3 kg.m-2). Similarly, waist circumference shows a significant reduction in boys (-0.4 cm) but not girls. Children with overweight or obesity shows greater reductions in obesity-related traits, which were related to changes in dietary and physical activity post interventions. multidisciplinary interventions applied to children between 5 and 7 years old are effective on reducing body mass index and improving dietary and physical activity behaviours in overweight and obese children. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  2. An Evaluation Of The Effects Of Petroleum Exploration And Production Activities On The Social Environment In Ogoni Land Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibama Brown

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The exploration and production of petroleum and its subsequent transportation and distribution in the Niger Delta have led to pollution of aquatic habitats with serious threats to associated flora and fauna. Consequently most studies have concentrated on the effects of crude oil and its products on aquatic flora and fauna with little emphasis on the socio-economic environment. Evaluation of the effects of petroleum exploration and production activities on the social environment in Ogoni land of Rivers State is the main focus of this study. Therefore in order to fill this gap there is the need to investigate the effects of crude oil spills on the socio-economic environment including the livelihoods of people. This is done by examining the impact of intensive resource exploitation on the social environment of the oil producing communities in Ogoni land which has further degraded the environment to the peril of the inhabitants. Also to examine how the Oil and Gas Multinational Companies have contributed to the management of the environment in these selected communities. The target population comprised 478 respondents across 4 major Oil fields of Ogoni land which is a 5 probability sample. The study employed two sampling techniques Multi-stage Sampling technique and simple random sampling technique. The study revealed that the hazards and effects associated with crude oil spill are enormous and conspicuous. It was also found out that there is no proper mechanism for the dissemination of information about the environmental hazards associated with spills on the environment. The study proffered recommendations appropriate workable Environmental Management Programme EMP which will help mitigate and enhance the environmental quality of the Ogoni land through baseline studies of the environment and carrying out full Environmental Impact Assessments EIAs to understand the ecology of coastal environment for sustainable development to be achieved.

  3. Tailoring acyclovir prodrugs with enhanced antiviral activity: rational design, synthesis, human plasma stability and in vitro evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chayrov, Radoslav L; Stylos, Evgenios K; Chatziathanasiadou, Maria V; Chuchkov, Kiril N; Tencheva, Aleksandra I; Kostagianni, Androniki D; Milkova, Tsenka S; Angelova, Assia L; Galabov, Angel S; Shishkov, Stoyan A; Todorov, Daniel G; Tzakos, Andreas G; Stankova, Ivanka G

    2018-05-19

    Bile acid prodrugs have served as a viable strategy for refining the pharmaceutical profile of parent drugs through utilizing bile acid transporters. A series of three ester prodrugs of the antiherpetic drug acyclovir (ACV) with the bile acids cholic, chenodeoxycholic and deoxycholic were synthesized and evaluated along with valacyclovir for their in vitro antiviral activity against herpes simplex viruses type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1, HSV-2). The in vitro antiviral activity of the three bile acid prodrugs was also evaluated against Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Plasma stability assays, utilizing ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry, in vitro cytotoxicity and inhibitory experiments were conducted in order to establish the biological profile of ACV prodrugs. The antiviral assays demonstrated that ACV-cholate had slightly better antiviral activity than ACV against HSV-1, while it presented an eight-fold higher activity with respect to ACV against HSV-2. ACV-chenodeoxycholate presented a six-fold higher antiviral activity against HSV-2 with respect to ACV. Concerning EBV, the highest antiviral effect was demonstrated by ACV-chenodeoxycholate. Human plasma stability assays revealed that ACV-deoxycholate was more stable than the other two prodrugs. These results suggest that decorating the core structure of ACV with bile acids could deliver prodrugs with amplified antiviral activity.

  4. Synthesis, biological evaluation, and structure-activity relationship of clonazepam, meclonazepam, and 1,4-benzodiazepine compounds with schistosomicidal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Carla M S; Rivera, Gildardo; Alves, Marina A; do Amaral, Daniel N; Thibaut, Jean Pierre B; Noël, François; Barreiro, Eliezer J; Lima, Lídia M

    2012-06-01

    The inherent morbidity and mortality caused by schistosomiasis is a serious public health problem in developing countries. Praziquantel is the only drug in therapeutic use, leading to a permanent risk of parasite resistance. In search for new schistosomicidal drugs, meclonazepam, the 3-methyl-derivative of clonazepam, is still considered an interesting lead-candidate because it has a proven schistosomicidal effect in humans but adverse effects on the central nervous system did not allow its clinical use. Herein, the synthesis, in vitro biological evaluation, and molecular modeling of clonazepam, meclonazepam, and analogues are reported to establish the first structure-activity relationship for schistosomicidal benzodiazepines. Our findings indicate that the amide moiety [N(1) H-C(2) (=O)] is the principal pharmacophoric unit of 1,4-benzodiazepine schistosomicidal compounds and that substitution on the amide nitrogen atom (N(1) position) is not tolerated. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. Effects of scallop shell extract on scopolamine-induced memory impairment and MK801-induced locomotor activity

    OpenAIRE

    HASEGAWA, Yasushi; INOUE, Tatsuro; KAWAMINAMI, Satoshi; FUJITA, Miho

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveTo evaluate the neuroprotective effects of the organic components of scallop shells (scallop shell extract) on memory impairment and locomotor activity induced by scopolamine or 5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo (a,d) cyclohepten-5,10-imine (MK801).MethodsEffect of the scallop shell extract on memory impairment and locomotor activity was investigated using the Y-maze test, the Morris water maze test, and the open field test.ResultsScallop shell extract significantly reduced scopolami...

  6. Effect of Sulfites on Antioxidant Activity, Total Polyphenols, and Flavonoid Measurements in White Wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardini, Mirella; Garaguso, Ivana

    2018-03-09

    Polyphenols content and antioxidant activity are directly related to the quality of wine. Wine also contains sulfites, which are added during the winemaking process. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of sulfites on the assays commonly used to measure the antioxidant activity and polyphenols and flavonoids content of white wines. The effects of sulfites were explored both in the standard assays and in white wine. The addition of sulfites (at 1-10 μg) in the standard assays resulted in a significant, positive interference in the Folin-Ciocalteu's assay used for polyphenols measurements and in both the Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power and 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt radical cation decolorization assays, which were used for antioxidant activity evaluation. A negative interference of sulfites (at 1-20 μg) was observed for the colorimetric aluminium-chloride flavonoids assay. The addition of sulfites to organic white wines (at 25-200 mg/L wine) clearly resulted in a significant overestimation of antioxidant activity and polyphenols content, and in an underestimation of flavonoids concentration. To overcome sulfite interferences, white wines were treated with cross-linked polyvinylpyrrolidone. The total polyphenols content and antioxidant activity measurements obtained after polyvinylpyrrolidone treatment were significantly lower than those obtained in the untreated wines. Flavonoids were expected to be higher after polyvinylpyrrolidone treatment, but were instead found to be lower than for untreated wines, suggesting that in addition to sulfites, other non-phenolic reducing compounds were present in white wine and interfered with the flavonoid assay. In view of our results, we advise that a purification procedure should be applied in order to evaluate the quality of white wine.

  7. Evaluation of Na+, K+-ATPase activity in the brain of young rats after acute administration of fenproporex

    OpenAIRE

    Rezin, Gislaine T.; Scaini, Giselli; Gonçalves, Cinara L.; Ferreira, Gabriela K.; Cardoso, Mariane R.; Ferreira, Andréa G.K.; Cunha, Maira J.; Schmitz, Felipe; Varela, Roger B.; Quevedo, João; Wyse, Angela T.S.; Streck, Emilio L.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Fenproporex is an amphetamine-based anorectic which is rapidly converted into amphetamine in vivo. Na+, K+-ATPase is a membrane-bound enzyme necessary to maintain neuronal excitability. Considering that the effects of fenproporex on brain metabolism are poorly known and that Na+, K+-ATPase is essential for normal brain function, this study sought to evaluate the effect of this drug on Na+, K+-ATPase activity in the hippocampus, hypothalamus, prefrontal cortex, and striatum of youn...

  8. Evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of extract of Crataegus monogyna (hawthorn)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouzid, W.; Yahia, M.; Abdeddaim, M.; Aberkane, M.C.; Ayachi, A.

    2011-01-01

    Various biological activities are attributed to a great variety of compounds isolated from natural plants. This study presents an attempt to evaluate the antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of organic and aqueous extract prepared from the edible part of Crataegus monogyna Jacq. Gualitative analysis of extracts by high performance liquid chromatography revealed the probable presence of quercetin in the EDm. The quantitative estimation of polyphenols (by the Folin-Ciocalteu method),total flavonoids (by the method of aluminium trichloride) and condensed tannins (by the method of iron trichloride) showed that the EDm and EMe extracts are richer in these compounds. The inhibition of couple oxidation of linoleic acid β-carotene was evaluated by the bleaching test of β-carotene, which showed a significant antioxidant activity for the EDm (48.46% inhibition) and EMe (36.40% inhibition). The evaluation of the antimicrobial potency of the extracts by the agar diffusion method showed that the extracts EEp EDm and EMe have an antibacterial activity on staphylococcus aureus strain at high concentration, whereas all extracts tested were inactive on Candida albicans. (author).

  9. Evaluation of a screening system for obesogenic compounds: screening of endocrine disrupting compounds and evaluation of the PPAR dependency of the effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pereira-Fernandes

    Full Text Available Recently the environmental obesogen hypothesis has been formulated, proposing a role for endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs in the development of obesity. To evaluate this hypothesis, a screening system for obesogenic compounds is urgently needed. In this study, we suggest a standardised protocol for obesogen screening based on the 3T3-L1 cell line, a well-characterised adipogenesis model, and direct fluorescent measurement using Nile red lipid staining technique. In a first phase, we characterised the assay using the acknowledged obesogens rosiglitazone and tributyltin. Based on the obtained dose-response curves for these model compounds, a lipid accumulation threshold value was calculated to ensure the biological relevance and reliability of statistically significant effects. This threshold based method was combined with the well described strictly standardized mean difference (SSMD method for classification of non-, weak- or strong obesogenic compounds. In the next step, a range of EDCs, used in personal and household care products (parabens, musks, phthalates and alkylphenol compounds, were tested to further evaluate the obesogenicity screening assay for its discriminative power and sensitivity. Additionally, the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ dependency of the positive compounds was evaluated using PPARγ activation and antagonist experiments. Our results showed the adipogenic potential of all tested parabens, several musks and phthalate compounds and bisphenol A (BPA. PPARγ activation was associated with adipogenesis for parabens, phthalates and BPA, however not required for obesogenic effects induced by Tonalide, indicating the role of other obesogenic mechanisms for this compound.

  10. Evaluations of the Overjustification Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Kerri P.; Vollmer, Timothy R.

    2014-01-01

    The utility of reinforcement-based procedures has been well established in the behavior analysis literature and is commonly used in educational settings. However, the overjustification effect is one commonly cited criticism of programs that use tangible items as reinforcers. In the current studies, we evaluated the effects of tangible rewards…

  11. Evaluation of basophil activation test in suspected food hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignatti, Patrizia; Yacoub, Mona-Rita; Testoni, Claudia; Pala, Gianni; Corsetti, Maura; Colombo, Giselda; Meriggi, Antonio; Moscato, Gianna

    2017-07-01

    Food hypersensitivity is characterized by a wide range of symptoms. The relationship between symptoms and food is more frequently suspected than objectively proven. Basophil activation test (BAT) is based on the evaluation of activation markers on blood basophils in vitro stimulated with drugs or allergens. The aim of the study was to evaluate the usefulness of BAT when introduced in the routine work-up of suspected food hypersensitivity. BAT was requested in subjects with food adverse reactions when a discrepancy existed among history and skin prick test (SPT) and/or specific IgE. Data from 150 subjects were analysed using CD63 as basophil activation marker. Thirty controls were evaluated for cut-offs. Immunoblots was performed with the sera of representative subjects positive for BAT and negative for SPT and sIgE. 1,024 BAT were carried out, the agreement (positive/positive and negative/negative) was 78.5% for BAT vs. SPT and 78.3% for BAT vs. IgE. Atopic patients, but not atopic controls, more frequently had a positive BAT than non-atopic patients (P tested food) and both negative sIgE and SPT. Immunoblots revealed the presence of sIgE for the tested foods in representative patients with positive BAT, negative SPT and sIgE. Introduction of BAT in routine of food hypersensitivity, limited to subjects with a discrepancy between history and traditional tests, might be useful particularly when total IgE are low. © 2015 International Clinical Cytometry Society. © 2015 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  12. Evaluating the effectiveness of personal response system technology on millennial student learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurry, Mary K; Hunter Revell, Susan M

    2011-08-01

    As nurse educators, we must explore new technologies that capitalize on the characteristics of millennial learners. One such technology, the personal response system (PRS), is an effective way to promote active learning and increase comprehension. Few nursing studies have examined the benefits of PRS technology on student outcomes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of PRS technology on learning outcomes in two sections of an undergraduate nursing research course. A crossover design compared class quiz averages between and within groups. Findings related to between and within class quiz scores were mixed, whereas the effectiveness of in-class PRS questions on paper-and-pencil quiz scores and PRS-targeted quiz items was significant. Knowledge gained from this study can be used to enhance our ability to actively engage our technologically savvy undergraduate students. By threading technology into the undergraduate curriculum, learning outcomes may be improved. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. Effect of wine inhibitors on free pineapple stem bromelain activity in a model wine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esti, Marco; Benucci, Ilaria; Liburdi, Katia; Garzillo, Anna Maria Vittoria

    2011-04-13

    The influence of potential inhibitors, naturally present in wine, on the activity of stem bromelain was investigated in order to evaluate the applicability of this enzyme for protein stabilization in white wine. Bromelain proteolytic activity was tested against a synthetic substrate (Bz-Phe-Val-Arg-pNA) in a model wine system after adding ethanol, sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), skin, seed, and gallic and ellagic tannins at the average range of their concentration in wine. All the inhibitors of stem bromelain activity tested turned out to be reversible. Ethanol was a competitive inhibitor with a rather limited effect. Gallic and ellagic tannins have no inhibitory effect on stem bromelain activity, while both seed and skin tannins were uncompetitive inhibitors. The strongest inhibition effect was revealed for sulfur dioxide, which was a mixed-type inhibitor for the enzyme activity. This study provides useful information relative to a future biotechnological application of stem bromelain in winemaking.

  14. Pragmatic evaluation of the Go2Play Active Play intervention on physical activity and fundamental movement skills in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Avril; Hughes, Adrienne R; Janssen, Xanne; Reilly, John J

    2017-09-01

    Active play is a novel approach to addressing low physical activity levels and fundamental movement skills (FMS) in children. This study aimed to determine if a new school-based, 'Go2Play Active Play' intervention improved school day physical activity and FMS. This was a pragmatic evaluation conducted in Scotland during 2015-16. Participants ( n  = 172; mean age = 7 years) were recruited from seven primary schools taking part in the 5-month intervention, plus 24 participants not receiving the intervention were recruited to act as a comparison group.189 participants had physical activity measured using an Actigraph GT3X accelerometer at baseline and again at follow-up 5 months later. A sub-sample of participants from the intervention ( n  = 102) and comparison ( n  = 21) groups had their FMS assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2) at baseline and follow-up. Changes in school day physical activity and FMS variables were examined using repeated measures ANOVA. The main effect was 'group' on 'time' from baseline to follow-up. Results indicated there was a significant interaction for mean counts per minute and percent time in sedentary behavior, light intensity physical activity and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (all p  skills score and percentile (both p  = 0.02), but no significant interaction for object control skills score ( p  = 0.1) and percentile ( p  = 0.3). The Go2Play Active Play intervention may be a promising way of improving physical activity and FMS but this needs to be confirmed in an RCT.

  15. An evaluation of the production effects of video self-modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Handley, Roderick D; Allen, Keith D

    2017-12-01

    A multiple baseline across tasks design was used to evaluate the production effects of video self-modeling on three activities of daily living tasks of an adult male with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Intellectual Disability. Results indicated large increases in task accuracy after the production of a self-modeling video for each task, but before the video was viewed by the participant. Results also indicated small increases when the participant was directed to view the same video self-models before being prompted to complete each task. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Challenges to Evaluating Physical Activity Programs in American Indian/Alaska Native Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Erica Blue; Butler, James; Green, Kerry M.

    2018-01-01

    Despite the importance of evaluation to successful programming, a lack of physical activity program (PAP) evaluation for American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) programs exists, which is significant given the high rates of obesity and diabetes in this population. While evaluation barriers have been identified broadly among AI/AN programs, challenges…

  17. Evaluation of immunomodulatory activity of “Shirishavaleha”–An Ayurvedic compound formulation in albino rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Shyamlal Singh; Galib; Prajapati, P. K.; Ashok, B. K.; Ravishankar, B.

    2011-01-01

    The immunomodulatory activity of Shirishavaleha prepared from two different parts of Shirisha (Albizia lebbeck Benth), i.e., Twak (Bark) and Sara (Heartwood) as main ingredients was evaluated for humoral antibody formation and cell-mediated immunity in established experimental models. The study used Wistar rats of either sex weighing 200 ± 40 g, while the test drug was administered orally at a dose of 1.8 g/kg. Hemagglutination titer and body weight were recorded to assess effects on humoral immunity; immunological paw edema was assessed for cell-mediated immunity. Shirishavaleha prepared from heartwood shows significant enhancement in antibody formation, attenuation of body weight changes, and suppression of immunological paw edema, while Shirishavaleha prepared from bark shows weak immunomodulatory activity. The study therefore concludes that Shirishavaleha prepared from heartwood has significant immunomodulatory activity. PMID:22253509

  18. Story immersion may be effective in promoting diet and physical activity in Chinese children

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluated the effect of playing a health video game embedded with story immersion, Escape from Diab (Diab), on children's diet and physical activity (PA), and also explored whether children immersed in Diab had greater positive outcomes. The study design employed two groups, nonrandomized...

  19. Evaluation of Antibacterial Activities of Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata, and Citrus grandis Against Pathogenic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sholeh Saeb

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Microorganisms resistant to most antibiotics are rapidly spreading, and there is an urgent and continuous need for novel antimicrobial compounds. The genus Citrus belongs to the family Rutaceae has many biologically active secondary metabolites. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate antimicrobial activity of essential oil and extract of Lemon (Citrus limon, Mandarin (Citrus reticulata and Pummelo (Citrus grandis against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella typhi. Materials and Methods: The fresh Citrus leaves were shade-dried and powdered. Antimicrobial metabolites were extracted from them by 80% methanol for extract and using a Clevenger-type apparatus for essential oil. Eight different concentrations of the each leaf extract and essential oil were prepared. The antimicrobial susceptibility assay of Citrus leaves metabolites were subjected against four bacterial strains by agar disc diffusion and E-test method. Results: In this study, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC of different Citrus leaf extracts were determined against all four food-borne pathogens. The C. grandis leaf essential oil had potent antimicrobial activity against all four pathogens, and the C. limon leaf essential oil was effective on Gram-positive bacteria. S. typhi was resistant against two leaves essential oils. Conclusions: The results showed that there was no antimicrobial activity effect in all extracts on tested bacteria. In this study, the antibacterial effect of essential oil of Citrus leaves on four strains of pathogenic microorganisms was confirmed. The C. grandis leaf essential oil had the most powerful antimicrobial properties, suggesting its potential application as natural preservative in foods or an effective medicine against different pathogenic microbes. Key words: Antibacterial activity, E-test, Citr

  20. Evaluation of multiplier effect of housing investments in the city economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovsiannikova, T.; Rabtsevich, O.; Yugova, I.

    2017-01-01

    The given study presents evaluation of the role and significance of housing investments providing stable social and economic development of a city. It also justifies multiplier impact of investments in housing construction on all the sectors of urban economy. Growth of housing investments generates multiplier effect triggering the development of other different interrelated sectors. The paper suggests approach developed by the authors to evaluate the level of city development. It involves defining gross city product on the basis of integral criterion of gross value added of types of economic activities in the city economy. The algorithm of gross value added generation in urban economy is presented as a result of multiplier effect of housing investments. The evaluation of the mentioned effect was shown on the case of the city of Tomsk (Russia). The study has revealed that multiplier effect allows obtaining four rubles of added value out of one ruble of housing investments in the city economy. Methods used in the present study include the ones of the System of National Accounts, as well as methods of statistical and structural analysis. It has been proved that priority investment in housing construction is considered to be the key factor for stable social and economic development of the city. Developed approach is intended for justification of priority directions in municipal and regional investment policy. City and regional governing bodies and potential investors are the ones to apply the given approach.

  1. Elimination of seaweed odour and its effect on antioxidant activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyimu, Xiren Guli; Abdullah, Aminah

    2014-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the most effective method to remove odour from Sargassum muticum seaweeds and studied their antioxidant properties. Ten grams of wet seaweeds (10 grams dried seaweeds soaked in 100 ml water for 2 hours) were soaked in 100 mL of 1%, 3% and 5% of gum Arabic, rice flour, lemon juice, respectively, and 1% of vinegar. There effect of each treatment on antioxidant level were determined by using the total phenolic content (TPC), free radical scavenging ability expressed as a DPPH value, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and compared to control seaweeds sample (soaked in water only). For sensory attribute, seven trained panellists were asked to evaluate the fishy odour of 11 treated seaweed samples. The fishy odour characteristics and antioxidant activity of treated seaweeds were compared against the control sample (soaked seaweeds), and subjected to statistical analysis. Results showed that 3% and 5% lemon juice and 5% rice flour were able to eliminate the fishy odour of seaweed. However, the antioxidant activity was significantly higher (Plemon juice compared to other treatments. Therefore, 5% of lemon juice-treated seaweeds contained the least fishy odour and retained the highest antioxidant activity.

  2. Effects of ionic radius of redox-inactive bio-related metal ions on the radical-scavenging activity of flavonoids evaluated using photometric titration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waki, Tsukasa; Kobayashi, Shigeki; Matsumoto, Ken-ichiro; Ozawa, Toshihiko; Kamada, Tadashi; Nakanishi, Ikuo

    2013-10-28

    Mg(2+) enhanced the scavenging activity of (+)-catechin and quercetin against the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH˙), while Al(3+) decreased their activity. Such effects of Mg(2+) and Al(3+) were not observed for kaempferol. Na(+) and Ca(2+) with large ionic radii showed little effect on the DPPH˙-scavenging activity of these three flavonoids.

  3. Varic acid analogues from fungus as PTP1B inhibitors: Biological evaluation and structure-activity relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenlong; Zhuang, Chunlin; Li, Xia; Zhang, Bowei; Lu, Xinhua; Zheng, Zhihui; Dong, Yuesheng

    2017-08-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) inhibitors as potential therapies for diabetes and obesity have attracted much attention in recent years. Six varic acid analogues were isolated from two strains of fungi and evaluated for PTP1B inhibition activities. The structure-activity relationships were also characterized and predicted by molecular modeling. Further kinetic studies indicated the reversible and competitive inhibition manner of varic acid analogues. Trivaric acid showed insulin-sensitizing effect not only in vitro but also in vivo, representing a promising lead compound for further optimization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Active children through incentive vouchers – evaluation (ACTIVE: a mixed-method feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Christian

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescents face many barriers to physical activity, demonstrated by the decline in physical activity levels in teenage populations. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of overcoming such barriers via the implementation of an activity-promoting voucher scheme to teenagers in deprived areas. Methods All Year 9 pupils (n = 115; 13.3 ± 0.48 years; 51 % boys from one secondary school in Wales (UK participated. Participants received £25 of activity vouchers every month for six months for physical activity or sporting equipment. Focus groups (n = 7, with 43 pupils, and qualitative interviews with teachers (n = 2 were conducted to assess feasibility, in addition to a process evaluation utilising the RE-AIM framework. Quantitative outcomes at baseline, five months (during intervention and twelve months (follow-up included: physical activity (accelerometer, aerobic fitness (12 min Cooper run and self-reported activity (PAQ-A. Motivation to exercise (BREQ-2 was measured three months post-baseline and at follow-up. Results Qualitative findings showed that vouchers encouraged friends to socialise through activity, provided opportunities to access local activities that pupils normally could not afford, and engaged both those interested and disinterested in physical education. Improvements in weekend moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and reductions in sedentary behaviour were observed in both sexes. Boys’ fitness significantly improved during the voucher scheme. ‘Non-active’ pupils (those not meeting recommended guidelines of 60 mins∙day−1 and those with higher motivation to exercise had higher voucher use. Conclusions Adolescents, teachers and activity providers supported the voucher scheme and felt the vouchers enabled deprived adolescents to access more physical activity opportunities. Voucher usage was associated with improved attitudes to physical activity, increased socialisation with

  5. Effect of musical activity on participation of Tehran’s 6-12 years old Autistic children in formal & informal activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrzad Soltanzadeh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Autism is a developmental disorder that is characterized by delays in communication skills, social interaction, participation, accountability and behavioral symptoms such as repetitive and stereotyped behavior. The most common purposes of occupational therapy in these children is improving verbal and non verbal communication and social skills which lead to increase their participation and they will be more independent in their daily life. One of the most effective interactions in autism is music therapy. The objective of the present study is to investigate the effectiveness of musical activities on participation and preference of autism children.Materials and Methods: This investigation was a randomized controlled trial. 20 autistic boys with no other differential diagnosis, the age of 6-12 and IQ of 50-70 were selected from autism schools in Tehran and randomly assigned in two groups of intervention and control. Then they were participated in musical activities for 24 sessions. Participation of these children was evaluated with children’s assessment of participation and enjoyment and preference for activities of children. The data was analyzed with the independent T-TEST using SPSS 17.Results: The findings show that the mean score of participation and preference at formal and informal activities of autistic children, before and after musical activities were not significant except for preference of informal activities.Conclusion: Participation of autistic children at formal and informal activities before and after musical activities sessions was not significant except for preference of informal activities.

  6. Yucca Mountain project container fabrication, closure and non-destructive evaluation development activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, E.W.; Nelson, T.A.

    1989-06-01

    In this presentation, container fabrication, closure, and non-destructive evaluation (NDE) process development activities are described. All of these activities are interrelated, and will contribute to the metal barrier selection activity. The plan is to use a corrosion-resistant material in the form of a cylinder with a wall thickness of ∼1cm (2cm for pure copper.) The materials under consideration include the three austenitic alloys: stainless steel-304L, stainless steel-316L and alloy 825, as well as the three copper alloys: CDA 102, CDA 613, and CDA 715. This document reviews the recommended procedures and processes for fabricating, closing and evaluating each of the candidate materials

  7. Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of three irrigating solutions in teeth with pulpal necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, C M; Bonifácio, K C; Fröner, I C; Ito, I Y

    1999-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of 0.4% papaine gel (FCF-USP), an antibacterial product derived from 3.3% castor oil (IQSC-USP), and 0.5% sodium hypochlorite (FORP-USP) was evaluated in teeth with radiographically visible pulpal necrosis and periapical lesion in vivo. After cavity access, under aseptic conditions, a first harvesting was performed. The 3 irrigating solutions were used for biomechanical preparation. After 72 hours, a second harvesting was performed, also under aseptic conditions. The number of colony forming units (cfu) was counted with a stereomicroscope under reflected light. Castor oil and 0.5% sodium hypochlorite presented similar antimicrobial activities for the reduction of the anaerobe number, S. mutans and streptococci; however, the papaine gel showed lower activity. We conclude that both castor oil and sodium hypochlorite are effective as antimicrobial agents and can be used in the treatment of root canals with pulpal necrosis.

  8. Novel approach for the voltammetric evaluation of antioxidant activity using DPPH·-modified electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziyatdinova, Guzel; Snegureva, Yulia; Budnikov, Herman

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Voltammetric characteristics of DPPH· immobilized on the electrode surface is studied. •DPPH·/CeO 2 -CPB/GCE gives reversible one electron highly sensitive radical reduction. •DPV on DPPH·/CeO 2 -CPB/GCE is developed for the antioxidants activity evaluation. •Natural phenolic antioxidants and medicinal herbs extracts are investigated. •Good agreement of DPV and standard method data is obtained. -- Abstract: The electrochemical behavior of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·) immobilized on the electrode surface has been studied. Bare glassy carbon electrode (GCE) and modified with dispersions of CeO 2 nanoparticles in water (CeO 2 -H 2 O/GCE) and cationic surfactant cetylpyridinium bromide medium (CeO 2 -CPB/GCE) has been investigated as a platform for the DPPH· immobilization. The best voltammetric characteristics (peak potential separation of 70 mV, system reversibility with currents ratio of 0.98 and the highest peaks currents) have been observed on CeO 2 -CPB/GCE. The effect of CeO 2 nanoparticles concentration has been evaluated. Scanning electron microscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy have been applied for the electrode characterization. DPPH·/CeO 2 -CPB/GCE has been used for the estimation of the antioxidants activity of natural phenolic antioxidants (quercetin, tannin, catechin and ferulic acid) expressed as the EC 50 parameter according to differential pulse voltammetric (DPV) data. The EC 50 decreased in the following order: quercetin (29 ± 1 μM), tannin (29 ± 4 μM), catechin (117 ± 4 μM) and ferulic acid (731 ± 17 μM). These data are in a good agreement with the results of standard spectrophotometric determination. The developed approach has been successfully applied for the antioxidant activity evaluation of medicinal herbs tinctures, infusions and decoctions.

  9. Evaluation of the effects of a VEGFR-2 inhibitor compound on alanine aminotransferase gene expression and enzymatic activity in the rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentealba, Carmen; Bera, Monali; Jessen, Bart; Sace, Fred; Stevens, Greg J; Trajkovic, Dusko; Yang, Amy H; Evering, Winston

    2011-08-17

    Traditional assessment of drug-induced hepatotoxicity includes morphological examination of the liver and evaluation of liver enzyme activity in serum. The objective of the study was to determine the origin of drug-related elevation in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity in the absence of morphologic changes in the liver by utilizing molecular and immunohistochemical techniques. Sixteen female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 2 groups (control and treated, n = 4 per group) and treated rats were dosed orally twice daily (400 mg/kg/day) for 7 days with a VEGFR-2 compound (AG28262), which in a previous study caused ALT elevation without morphological changes. Serum of both treated and control animals were evaluated on day 3 of treatment and at day 8. Three separate liver lobes (caudate, right medial, and left lateral) were examined for determination of ALT tissue activity, ALT gene expression and morphological changes. ALT activity was significantly (p < 0.01) elevated on day 3 and further increased on day 8. Histologic changes or increase in TUNEL and caspase3 positive cells were not observed in the liver lobes examined. ALT gene expression in the caudate lobe was significantly up-regulated by 63%. ALT expression in the left lateral lobe was not significantly affected. Statistically significant increased liver ALT enzymatic activity occurred in the caudate (96%) and right medial (41%) lobes but not in the left lateral lobe. AG28262, a VEFG-r2 inhibitor, causes an increase in serum ALT, due in part to both gene up-regulation. Differences between liver lobes may be attributable to differential distribution of blood from portal circulation. Incorporation of molecular data, such as gene and protein expression, and sampling multiple liver lobes may shed mechanistic insight to the evaluation of hepatotoxicity.

  10. Effectiveness of worksite physical activity counseling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Proper, K.I.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to describe the effectiveness of a particular worksite physical activity intervention involving individual counseling of workers. First, a summary of the existing literature is given as to the effectiveness of worksite physical activity programs. A strong evidence was

  11. Evaluation of Sedative and Hypnotic Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Scoparia dulcis Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moniruzzaman, Md; Atikur Rahman, Md; Ferdous, Afia

    2015-01-01

    Scoparia dulcis Linn. (SD) is a perennial herb that has been well studied for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, and hepatoprotective effects. However, scientific information on SD regarding the neuropharmacological effect is limited. This study evaluated the sedative and hypnotic effect of the ethanolic extract of whole plants of Scoparia dulcis (EESD). For this purpose, the whole plants of S. dulcis were extracted with ethanol following maceration process and tested for the presence of phytochemical constituents. The sedative and hypnotic activity were then investigated using hole cross, open field, hole-board, rota-rod, and thiopental sodium-induced sleeping time determination tests in mice at the doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of EESD. Diazepam at the dose of 1 mg/kg was used as a reference drug in all the experiments. We found that EESD produced a significant dose-dependent inhibition of locomotor activity of mice both in hole cross and open field tests (P < 0.05). Besides, it also decreased rota-rod performances and the number of head dips in hole-board test. Furthermore, EESD significantly decreased the induction time to sleep and prolonged the duration of sleeping, induced by thiopental sodium. Taken together, our study suggests that EESD may possess sedative principles with potent hypnotic properties.

  12. Evaluation of Sedative and Hypnotic Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Scoparia dulcis Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Moniruzzaman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Scoparia dulcis Linn. (SD is a perennial herb that has been well studied for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, and hepatoprotective effects. However, scientific information on SD regarding the neuropharmacological effect is limited. This study evaluated the sedative and hypnotic effect of the ethanolic extract of whole plants of Scoparia dulcis (EESD. For this purpose, the whole plants of S. dulcis were extracted with ethanol following maceration process and tested for the presence of phytochemical constituents. The sedative and hypnotic activity were then investigated using hole cross, open field, hole-board, rota-rod, and thiopental sodium-induced sleeping time determination tests in mice at the doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of EESD. Diazepam at the dose of 1 mg/kg was used as a reference drug in all the experiments. We found that EESD produced a significant dose-dependent inhibition of locomotor activity of mice both in hole cross and open field tests (P<0.05. Besides, it also decreased rota-rod performances and the number of head dips in hole-board test. Furthermore, EESD significantly decreased the induction time to sleep and prolonged the duration of sleeping, induced by thiopental sodium. Taken together, our study suggests that EESD may possess sedative principles with potent hypnotic properties.

  13. Synthesis and Evaluation of Some New Isoquine Analogues for Antimalarial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Nath Saha

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Amodiaquine is a 4-aminoquinoline antimalarial that can cause adverse side effects including hepatic and haematological toxicity. The drug toxicity involves the formation of an electrophilic metabolite, amodiaquine quinoneimine (AQQI, which binds to cellular macromolecules leading to hepatotoxicity and agranulocytosis. Interchange of the 3ʼ hydroxyl and the 4ʼ Mannich side-chain function of amodiaquine provides an amodiaquine regioisomer (isoquine that cannot form toxic quinoneimine metabolites. By a simple two-step procedure, four isoquine analogues were synthesized and subsequently evaluated against the chloroquine sensitive RKL-2 strain of Plasmodium falciparum in vitro. All synthesized analogues demonstrated differential level of antimalarial activity against the test strain. However, no compound was found to exhibit better antimalarial property as compared to chloroquine.

  14. [Evaluation study on integration effect of taohong siwu tang in treating primary dysmenorrhea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Duan, Jin-Ao; Hua, Yong-Qing; Liu, Pei; Shang, Er-Xin; Tang, Yu-Ping; Su, Shu-Lan

    2012-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of Taohong Siwu Tang and its fractions on hotplate-induced pain in mice, acetic acid-induced writhing response, dysmenorrheal model and isolated uterine contraction in vitro in mice, and discuss material basis of effect sites. The samples of fractions were prepared by macroporous adsorptive resins (TH-1-TH-15). In the whole animal experiment, the hotplate-induced pain mice model was established to observe the effect of the samples on pain threshold in mice; the acetic acid-induced writhing response mice model was built to observe the effect of the samples on the writhing response in mice; the mice dysmenorrheal model was established to observe the effect of the samples on the writhing response, and calcium ion (Ca2+) and nitric oxide (NO) levels in uterine tissue of mice. In the isolated uterus contraction experiment, the oxytocin-induced isolated uterus contraction mice model was established to observe the effect of the samples on the isolated uterus contraction index. HPLC-DAD method was adopted for the content determination of effect sites. According to the evaluation of the integration geological effect, beside TH-2 and TH-4, other three active fractions (TH-9, TH-10 and TH-11) extracted from Taohong Siwu Tang are the main effect sites. Their chemical components were analyzed and identified as monoterpene glycosides, phthalides, organic acids, etc. The effect sites of Taohong Siwu Tang on dysmenorrhea are TH-9, TH-10 and TH-11, which are 30% - 50% active fractions obtained from water-soluble small-molecular fractions by gradient elution using ethanol through macroporous absorption resin. Compared with TH-10 and TH-11, TH-9 shows stronger effect, which may be related to the type and content of chemical components it contains.

  15. Research on elaboration of the evaluation guidelines for activities implemented jointly; Kyodo jisshi katsudo hyoka guide line sakutei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Elaboration of the evaluation guidelines for activities implemented jointly (AIJ) was researched to prevent the earth from warming. AIJ is the means to globally promote countermeasures against global warming cost-effectively by optimally combining every country`s technology, know-how and fund. AIJ was established in the 1st Conference of the Parties (COPI) of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in March, 1995. The pilot phase of AIJ is first carried out by voluntary workers jointly with developing countries under the agreement of the parties. The current situation of activities is reported in COPI as materials for evaluation of AIJ. To promote AIJ, elaboration of the evaluation guidelines for AIJ Japan program is also necessary for Japan. This research arranged the contents of the evaluation guidelines and the method of classifying projects for AIJ Japan program, and carried out some case studies of promising projects to reduce greenhouse gas emission for future proposal. 3 figs., 31 tabs.

  16. Beer elicits vasculoprotective effects through Akt/eNOS activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilahur, Gemma; Casani, Laura; Mendieta, Guiomar; Lamuela-Raventos, Rosa M; Estruch, Ramon; Badimon, Lina

    2014-12-01

    There is controversy regarding the effect of alcohol beverage intake in vascular vasodilatory function in peripheral arteries. The effects of beer intake in coronary vasodilation remain unknown. We investigated whether regular beer intake (alcohol and alcohol-free) protects against hypercholesterolaemia-induced coronary endothelial dysfunction and the mechanisms behind this effect. Pigs were fed 10 days: (i) a Western-type hypercholesterolaemic diet (WD); (ii) WD+low-dose beer (12·5 g alcohol/day); (iii) WD+moderate-dose beer (25 g alcohol/day); or (iv) WD+moderate-dose alcohol-free-beer (0·0 g alcohol/day). Coronary responses to endothelium-dependent vasoactive drugs (acetylcholine: receptor mediated; calcium ionophore-A23189: nonreceptor mediated), endothelium-independent vasoactive drug (SNP) and L-NMMA (NOS-antagonist) were evaluated in the LAD coronary artery by flow Doppler. Coronary Akt/eNOS activation, MCP-1 expression, oxidative DNA damage and superoxide production were assessed. Lipid profile, lipoproteins resistance to oxidation and urinary isoxanthohumol concentration were evaluated. Alcoholic and nonalcoholic beer intake prevented WD-induced impairment of receptor- and non-receptor-operated endothelial-dependent coronary vasodilation. All animals displayed a similar vasodilatory response to SNP and L-NMMA blunted all endothelial-dependent vasorelaxation responses. Haemodynamic parameters remained unchanged. Coronary arteries showed lower DNA damage and increased Akt/eNOS axis activation in beer-fed animals. Animals taking beer showed HDL with higher antioxidant capacity, higher LDL resistance to oxidation and increased isoxanthohumol levels. Weight, lipids levels, liver enzymes and MCP-1 expression were not affected by beer intake. Non-alcoholic-related beer components protect against hyperlipemia-induced coronary endothelial dysfunction by counteracting vascular oxidative damage and preserving the Akt/eNOS pathway. Light-to-moderate beer

  17. Microelectrode Array-evaluation of Neurotoxic Effects of Magnesium as an Implantable Biomaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ting; Wang, Zhonghai; Wei, Lina; Kindy, Mark; Zheng, Yufeng; Xi, Tingfei; Gao, Bruce Z

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg)-based biomaterials have shown great potential in clinical applications. However, the cytotoxic effects of excessive Mg 2+ and the corrosion products from Mg-based biomaterials, particularly their effects on neurons, have been little studied. Although viability tests are most commonly used, a functional evaluation is critically needed. Here, both methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays were used to test the effect of Mg 2+ and Mg-extract solution on neuronal viability. Microelectrode arrays (MEAs), which provide long-term, real-time recording of extracellular electrophysiological signals of in vitro neuronal networks, were used to test for toxic effects. The minimum effective concentrations (EC min ) of Mg 2+ from the MTT and LDH assays were 3 mmol/L and 100 mmol/L, respectively, while the EC min obtained from the MEA assay was 0.1 mmol/L. MEA data revealed significant loss of neuronal network activity when the culture was exposed to 25% Mg-extract solution, a concentration that did not affect neuronal viability. For evaluating the biocompatibility of Mg-based biomaterials with neurons, MEA electrophysiological testing is a more precise method than basic cell-viability testing.

  18. Effects of Behavioral Contingencies on Adolescent Active Videogame Play and Overall Activity: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Gregory J; Adams, Marc A; Ramirez, Ernesto R; Carlson, Jordan A; Kerr, Jacqueline; Godbole, Suneeta; Dillon, Lindsay; Marshall, Simon J

    2013-06-01

    This study evaluated the effect of four active videogames (AVGs) varying in behavioral contingencies (behavior-consequence relations) on adolescent AVG play and overall activity levels over 4 weeks. Each AVG, manufactured by SSD/Xavix(®) (Shiseido Co. of Japan, Tokyo, Japan), was coded and scored for the number of positive and aversive behavioral contingencies within the games. "Bowling" and "Tennis" were classified as having "higher contingency scores," and "Boxing" and aerobic fitness training were classified as having "lower contingency scores." Adolescents (n=63; 11-15 years old; 62% male; 38% Hispanic; 44% overweight or obese) were randomized to play one of the four AVGs at home and recorded game play sessions in a paper log. Baseline and week 4 assessments were completed at home; week 1, 2, and 3 assessments were completed by telephone. Accelerometers were worn during baseline and weeks 1 and 4. Accelerometer-measured sedentary and light activity hours/day were stable over time, whereas moderate-vigorous physical activity minutes/day increased in the higher contingency group and decreased in the lower contingency group (interaction effect, 6.43, P=0.024). Reported game play minutes decreased in both groups from week 1 to week 4 (-29.42 minutes, P=0.001). There was some support for the hypothesis that AVGs with more behavioral contingencies, compared with AVGs with fewer behavioral contingencies, result in more physical activity. However, overall AVG play decreased substantially after the first week. Further study is needed to better understand how behavioral contingencies can be used in AVGs to enhance their potential to provide health benefits to game players.

  19. Study on index system of GPS interference effect evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun; Zeng, Fangling; Zhao, Yuan; Zeng, Ruiqi

    2018-05-01

    Satellite navigation interference effect evaluation is the key technology to break through the research of Navigation countermeasure. To evaluate accurately the interference degree and Anti-jamming ability of GPS receiver, this text based on the existing research results of Navigation interference effect evaluation, build the index system of GPS receiver effectiveness evaluation from four levels of signal acquisition, tracking, demodulation and positioning/timing and establish the model for each index. These indexes can accurately and quantitatively describe the interference effect at all levels.

  20. Evaluation of high-density, multi-contact nerve cuffs for activation of grasp muscles in monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, N. A.; Naufel, S. N.; Polasek, K.; Ethier, C.; Cheesborough, J.; Agnew, S.; Miller, L. E.; Tyler, D. J.

    2018-06-01

    Objective. The objective of this work was to evaluate whether nerve cuffs can selectively activate hand muscles for functional electrical stimulation (FES). FES typically involves identifying and implanting electrodes in many individual muscles, but nerve cuffs only require implantation at a single site around the nerve. This method is surgically more attractive. Nerve cuffs may also more effectively stimulate intrinsic hand muscles, which are difficult to implant and stimulate without spillover to adjacent muscles. Approach. To evaluate its ability to selectively activate muscles, we implanted and tested the flat interface nerve electrode (FINE), which is designed to selectively stimulate peripheral nerves that innervate multiple muscles (Tyler and Durand 2002 IEEE Trans. Neural Syst. Rehabil. Eng. 10 294-303). We implanted FINEs on the nerves and bipolar intramuscular wires for recording compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) from up to 20 muscles in each arm of six monkeys. We then collected recruitment curves while the animals were anesthetized. Main result. A single FINE implanted on an upper extremity nerve in the monkey can selectively activate muscles or small groups of muscles to produce multiple, independent hand functions. Significance. FINE cuffs can serve as a viable supplement to intramuscular electrodes in FES systems, where they can better activate intrinsic and extrinsic muscles with lower currents and less extensive surgery.

  1. Risk effectiveness evaluation of surveillance testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, I.S.; Samanta, P.K.; Martorell, S.; Vesely, W.E.

    1991-01-01

    To address the concerns about nuclear power plant surveillance tests, i.e., their adverse safety impact due to negative effects and too burdensome requirements, it is necessary to evaluate the safety significance or risk effectiveness of such tests explicitly considering both negative and positive effects. This paper defines the negative effects of surveillance testing from a risk perspective, and then presents a methodology to quantify the negative risk impact, i.e., the risk penalty or risk increase caused by the test. The method focuses on two important kinds of negative effects, namely, test-caused transients and test-caused equipment degradations. The concepts and quantitative methods for the risk evaluation can be used in the decision-making process to establish the safety significance of the tests and to screen the plant-specific surveillance test requirements. 6 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Activity of Some Medicinal Plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the anti-enterobacterial potential of nine ethnobotanically selected plants traditionally used in different parts of India for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders such as cholera, diarrhea or dysentery. Methods: The methanol extracts of these plants were screened for antibacterial activity against 11 ...

  3. Evaluation of the gastroprotective activity of 3-carbomethoxypyridine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the possible gastroprotective effects of 3-CMP. Various models of ulcer such as pylorus ligation ethanol-, ethanol/HCl- and indomethacin-induced ulcer in rats were employed. Anti-ulcer effect was assessed on the basis of the number of reduction in gastric mucosal lesions, ...

  4. A thermal extrapolation method for the effective temperatures and internal energies of activated ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meot-Ner (Mautner), Michael; Somogyi, Árpád

    2007-11-01

    The internal energies of dissociating ions, activated chemically or collisionally, can be estimated using the kinetics of thermal dissociation. The thermal Arrhenius parameters can be combined with the observed dissociation rate of the activated ions using kdiss = Athermalexp(-Ea,thermal/RTeff). This Arrhenius-type relation yields the effective temperature, Teff, at which the ions would dissociate thermally at the same rate, or yield the same product distributions, as the activated ions. In turn, Teff is used to calculate the internal energy of the ions and the energy deposited by the activation process. The method yields an energy deposition efficiency of 10% for a chemical ionization proton transfer reaction and 8-26% for the surface collisions of various peptide ions. Internal energies of ions activated by chemical ionization or by gas phase collisions, and of ions produced by desorption methods such as fast atom bombardment, can be also evaluated. Thermal extrapolation is especially useful for ion-molecule reaction products and for biological ions, where other methods to evaluate internal energies are laborious or unavailable.

  5. Effect of compression stockings on cutaneous microcirculation: Evaluation based on measurements of the skin thermal conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, E; Gehin, C; McAdams, E; Lun, B; Gobin, J-P; Uhl, J-F

    2016-03-01

    To study of the microcirculatory effects of elastic compression stockings. In phlebology, laser Doppler techniques (flux or imaging) are widely used to investigate cutaneous microcirculation. It is a method used to explore microcirculation by detecting blood flow in skin capillaries. Flux and imaging instruments evaluate, non-invasively in real-time, the perfusion of cutaneous micro vessels. Such tools, well known by the vascular community, are not really suitable to our protocol which requires evaluation through the elastic compression stockings fabric. Therefore, we involve another instrument, called the Hematron (developed by Insa-Lyon, Biomedical Sensor Group, Nanotechnologies Institute of Lyon), to investigate the relationship between skin microcirculatory activities and external compression provided by elastic compression stockings. The Hematron measurement principle is based on the monitoring of the skin's thermal conductivity. This clinical study examined a group of 30 female subjects, aged 42 years ±2 years, who suffer from minor symptoms of chronic venous disease, classified as C0s, and C1s (CEAP). The resulting figures show, subsequent to the pressure exerted by elastic compression stockings, an improvement of microcirculatory activities observed in 83% of the subjects, and a decreased effect was detected in the remaining 17%. Among the total population, the global average increase of the skin's microcirculatory activities is evaluated at 7.63% ± 1.80% (p compression stockings has a direct influence on the skin's microcirculation within this female sample group having minor chronic venous insufficiency signs. Further investigations are required for a deeper understanding of the elastic compression stockings effects on the microcirculatory activity in venous diseases at other stages of pathology. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. An evaluation of Lincolnshire Sports’ ‘Workplace Challenge’ physical activity programme

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, Alice; Bishop, Daniel; Middleton, Geoff; Evans, Adam

    2014-01-01

    This report presents an evaluation of the Workplace Challenge, a County Sport Partnership led physical activity programme which utilises a website designed to engage people from workplaces in physical activity. The Workplace Challenge operated within the geographical boundary of Lincolnshire and thus targeted workplaces within this region. The overarching aim of the Workplace Challenge was to enact culture change within organisations in terms of employees’ physical activity habits. Metho...

  7. ACUTE CARDIOVASCULAR EFFECTS OF FIREFIGHTING AND ACTIVE COOLING DURING REHABILITATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Jefferey L.; Duncan, Michael D.; Hu, Chengcheng; Littau, Sally R.; Caseman, Delayne; Kurzius-Spencer, Margaret; Davis-Gorman, Grace; McDonagh, Paul F.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To determine the cardiovascular and hemostatic effects of fire suppression and post-exposure active cooling. Methods Forty-four firefighters were evaluated prior to and after a 12 minute live-fire drill. Next, 50 firefighters undergoing the same drill were randomized to post-fire forearm immersion in 10°C water or standard rehabilitation. Results In the first study, heart rate and core body temperature increased and serum C-reactive protein decreased but there were no significant changes in fibrinogen, sE-selectin or sL-selectin. The second study demonstrated an increase in blood coagulability, leukocyte count, factors VIII and X, cortisol and glucose, and a decrease in plasminogen and sP-selectin. Active cooling reduced mean core temperature, heart rate and leukocyte count. Conclusions Live-fire exposure increased core temperature, heart rate, coagulability and leukocyte count; all except coagulability were reduced by active cooling. PMID:23090161

  8. Protective Effect of Cactus Cladode Extracts on Peroxisomal Functions in Microglial BV-2 Cells Activated by Different Lipopolysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saih, Fatima-Ezzahra; Andreoletti, Pierre; Mandard, Stéphane; Latruffe, Norbert; El Kebbaj, M'Hammed Saïd; Lizard, Gérard; Nasser, Boubker; Cherkaoui-Malki, Mustapha

    2017-01-07

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of Opuntia ficus-indica cactus cladode extracts in microglia BV-2 cells. Inflammation associated with microglia activation in neuronal injury can be achieved by LPS exposure. Using four different structurally and biologically well-characterized LPS serotypes, we revealed a structure-related differential effect of LPS on fatty acid β-oxidation and antioxidant enzymes in peroxisomes: Escherichia coli -LPS decreased ACOX1 activity while Salmonella minnesota -LPS reduced only catalase activity. Different cactus cladode extracts showed an antioxidant effect through microglial catalase activity activation and an anti-inflammatory effect by reducing nitric oxide (NO) LPS-dependent production. These results suggest that cactus extracts may possess a neuroprotective activity through the induction of peroxisomal antioxidant activity and the inhibition of NO production by activated microglial cells.

  9. Protective Effect of Cactus Cladode Extracts on Peroxisomal Functions in Microglial BV-2 Cells Activated by Different Lipopolysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima-Ezzahra Saih

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of Opuntia ficus-indica cactus cladode extracts in microglia BV-2 cells. Inflammation associated with microglia activation in neuronal injury can be achieved by LPS exposure. Using four different structurally and biologically well-characterized LPS serotypes, we revealed a structure-related differential effect of LPS on fatty acid β-oxidation and antioxidant enzymes in peroxisomes: Escherichia coli-LPS decreased ACOX1 activity while Salmonella minnesota-LPS reduced only catalase activity. Different cactus cladode extracts showed an antioxidant effect through microglial catalase activity activation and an anti-inflammatory effect by reducing nitric oxide (NO LPS-dependent production. These results suggest that cactus extracts may possess a neuroprotective activity through the induction of peroxisomal antioxidant activity and the inhibition of NO production by activated microglial cells.

  10. Pragmatic evaluation of the Go2Play Active Play intervention on physical activity and fundamental movement skills in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avril Johnstone

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Active play is a novel approach to addressing low physical activity levels and fundamental movement skills (FMS in children. This study aimed to determine if a new school-based, ‘Go2Play Active Play’ intervention improved school day physical activity and FMS. This was a pragmatic evaluation conducted in Scotland during 2015–16. Participants (n = 172; mean age = 7 years were recruited from seven primary schools taking part in the 5-month intervention, plus 24 participants not receiving the intervention were recruited to act as a comparison group.189 participants had physical activity measured using an Actigraph GT3X accelerometer at baseline and again at follow-up 5 months later. A sub-sample of participants from the intervention (n = 102 and comparison (n = 21 groups had their FMS assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2 at baseline and follow-up. Changes in school day physical activity and FMS variables were examined using repeated measures ANOVA. The main effect was ‘group’ on ‘time’ from baseline to follow-up. Results indicated there was a significant interaction for mean counts per minute and percent time in sedentary behavior, light intensity physical activity and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA (all p < 0.01 for school day physical activity. There was a significant interaction for gross motor quotient (GMQ score (p = 0.02 and percentile (p = 0.04, locomotor skills score and percentile (both p = 0.02, but no significant interaction for object control skills score (p = 0.1 and percentile (p = 0.3. The Go2Play Active Play intervention may be a promising way of improving physical activity and FMS but this needs to be confirmed in an RCT.

  11. Synthesis and evaluation of fatty acid amides on the N-oleoylethanolamide-like activation of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takao, Koichi; Noguchi, Kaori; Hashimoto, Yosuke; Shirahata, Akira; Sugita, Yoshiaki

    2015-01-01

    A series of fatty acid amides were synthesized and their peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR-α) agonistic activities were evaluated in a normal rat liver cell line, clone 9. The mRNAs of the PPAR-α downstream genes, carnitine-palmitoyltransferase-1 and mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase, were determined by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) as PPAR-α agonistic activities. We prepared nine oleic acid amides. Their PPAR-α agonistic activities were, in decreasing order, N-oleoylhistamine (OLHA), N-oleoylglycine, Oleamide, N-oleoyltyramine, N-oleoylsertonin, and Olvanil. The highest activity was found with OLHA. We prepared and evaluated nine N-acylhistamines (N-acyl-HAs). Of these, OLHA, C16:0-HA, and C18:1Δ(9)-trans-HA showed similar activity. Activity due to the different chain length of the saturated fatty acid peaked at C16:0-HA. The PPAR-α antagonist, GW6471, inhibited the induction of the PPAR-α downstream genes by OLHA and N-oleoylethanolamide (OEA). These data suggest that N-acyl-HAs could be considered new PPAR-α agonists.

  12. Brief Report: The Effects of Equine-Assisted Activities on the Social Functioning in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Sophie; Meints, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    Equine-assisted activities and therapies are increasing in popularity for treatment of ASD symptoms. This research evaluated effects of a 5-week programme of therapeutic riding on social functioning of children/adolescents (N = 15) with ASD. The effectiveness of the programme was evaluated using the autism spectrum quotient, the Vineland Adaptive…

  13. [Are Interventions Promoting Physical Activity Cost-Effective? A Systematic Review of Reviews].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rütten, Alfred; Abu-Omar, Karim; Burlacu, Ionut; Schätzlein, Valentin; Suhrcke, Marc

    2017-03-01

    On the basis of international published reviews, this systematic review aims to determine the health economic benefits of interventions promoting physical activity.This review of reviews is based on a systematic literature research in 10 databases (e. g. PubMed, Scopus, SPORTDiscus) supplemented by hand searches from January 2000 to October 2015. Publications were considered in the English or German language only. Results of identified reviews were derived.In total, 18 reviews were identified that could be attributed to interventions promoting physical activity (2 reviews focusing on population-based physical activity interventions, 10 reviews on individual-based and 6 reviews on both population-based and individual-based physical activity interventions). Results showed that population-based physical activity interventions are of great health economic potential if reaching a wider population at comparably low costs. Outstanding are political and environmental strategies, as well as interventions supporting behavioural change through information. The most comprehensive documentation for interventions promoting physical activity could be found for individual-based strategies (i. e. exercise advice or exercise programs). However, such programs are comparatively less cost-effective due to limited reach and higher utilization of resources.The present study provides an extensive review and analysis of the current international state of research regarding the health economic evaluation of interventions promoting physical activity. Results show favourable cost-effectiveness for interventions promoting physical activity, though significant differences in the effectiveness between various interventions were noticed. The greatest potential for cost-effectiveness can be seen in population-based interventions. At the same time, there is a need to acknowledge the limitations of the economic evidence in this field which are attributable to methodological challenges and

  14. Effects of education outside the classroom on objectively measured physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneller, Mikkel Bo

    days without EOtC and physical education (PE), but lower than on PE days. EOtC days were associated with more light physical activity (LPA) than school days without EOtC and PE, and PE days. Boys spent a higher proportion of time in MVPA and girls in LPA in the EOtC domain compared to the classroom...... the potential to transform part of children’s time from inactive to active. Curriculum-based classroom activities constitute a large proportion of school time, in which more teaching and learning activities involving PA could be implemented. Education outside the classroom (EOtC) is an example of an educational...... approach that could increase PA, as case studies have shown positive effects of EOtC on PA, academic learning motivation, well-being and social relations. National surveys in Denmark have shown substantial and increasing proportions of schools and teachers regularly practicing EOtC. When evaluating...

  15. On the 'hysteresis' effect in the biological nitrogen removal :theory and full scale experimental evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatano, F.

    1996-01-01

    The wastewater treatments plants localized in the Ruhr River (Germany), generally present a typical wastewater temperature variation curve during the winter period. These temperature changes produce specific effects on the nitrogen removal efficiencies in the activated sludge systems. The so called 'hysteresis' phenomenon is responsible for these effects. The paper deals with some simplified theoretical considerations and with a full scale experimental evaluations of the effects caused by the hysteresis phenomenon in the biological nitrogen removal

  16. EFFECTS OF STATINS AND OTHER BIOLOGICAL PREPARATIONS UPON ACTIVATION OF MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES IN PATIENTS WITH RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Shirinsky

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. In this study, we evaluated effects of statins and other biological preparations upon spontaneous and stimulated activation of МАРК p38 and ERK1/2 in monocytes from the patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. We used peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC from RA patients and healthy donors. PBMC were cultured in presence of 0, 0.1, 1 or 10 мM mevastatin, 10 мg/ml IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra, 5 мg/ml infliximab, and 5 мg/ml soluble pegylated p55 TNF-receptor (r-met-Hu-sTNF-RI. To study the mechanisms of mevastatin effects upon МАРК p38 and ERK1/2 activities, L-mevalonate was added to the cultures. The cells were stained with anti-phospho-MAPK p38, or anti-phospho-ERK1/2, and analyzed with flow cytometry. We have shown that IL-1Ra and r-met-Hu-sTNF-RI inhibited spontaneous MAPK р38 activation. Mevastatin reduced spontaneous MAPK p38 and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Mevastatininduced suppression of MAPK p38 and ERK1/2 activation was not dose-dependent. L-mevalonate completely prevented mevastatin-induced reduction of MAPK р38 phosphorylation and partially reversed inhibition of МАРК ERK1/2. In conclusion, decrease in MAPK activation represents a common mechanism of anti-inflammatory effects exerted by statins and some other biologicals.

  17. Evaluation of the antibacterial activity of Syzygium cordatum fruit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed at evaluating the antibacterial activity of S. cordatum fruits and seeds against bacteria causing GIT infections. The harvested fruits were separated into fruit-pulp and seeds, dried and extracted with methanol using Soxhlet extraction. The extracts were phytochemically screened and micro dilution assay was ...

  18. Evaluation of some pharmacological activities of Eugenia uniflora L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schapoval, E E; Silveira, S M; Miranda, M L; Alice, C B; Henriques, A T

    1994-12-01

    In view of the extensive use of Eugenia uniflora in folk medicine, different extracts of dried and fresh leaves of the plant were assayed to test its possible pharmacological activities. The infusion of fresh leaves had a highly significant anti-inflammatory effect when administered p.o. to rats 1 h before subplantar injection of carrageenin. The infusion increased the pentobarbital sleeping time and also had an effect on intestinal transit, and had no acute toxic effect. No analgesic or antimicrobial activities were observed with any of the extracts used.

  19. Evaluation of the effectiveness of peracetic acid in the sterilization of dental equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceretta, R; Paula, M M S; Angioletto, Ev; Méier, M M; Mitellstädt, F G; Pich, C T; Junior, S A; Angioletto, E

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of peracetic acid in the microbiological sterilisation of dental materials. Peracetic acid solution was evaluated at concentrations of 800, 1500 and 2500 ppm. At these concentrations, it was determined whether peracetic acid caused corrosion to dental instruments and induced cellular mutagenicity and cytotoxicity. In addition, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), agar diffusion and diffusion by well method, were also verified. The corrosion rate, calculated from potentiodynamic assays was 10(-6) cm/year, indicating that the product does not damage equipment. The sterilisation capacity of peracetic acid at 2500 ppm was the best. The comet assay indicated genotoxic activity at 2500 ppm. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of peracetic acid for sterilizing dental equipment, providing another alternative for the prevention of infections in clinics.

  20. The delay effect on outcome evaluation: results from an Event-related Potential study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen eQu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral studies demonstrate that the timing of receiving gains or losses affects decision-making, a phenomenon known as temporal discounting, as participants are inclined to prefer immediate rewards over delayed ones and vice versa for losses. The present study used the event-related potential (ERP technique with a simple gambling task to investigate how delayed rewards and losses affected the brain activity in outcome evaluations made by 20 young adults. Statistical analysis revealed a larger feedback related negativity (FRN effect between loss and gain following immediate outcomes than following future outcomes. In addition, delay impacted FRN only in gain conditions, with delayed winning eliciting a more negative FRN than immediatewinning. These results suggest that temporal discounting and sign effect could be encoded in the FRN in the early stage of outcome evaluation.

  1. Physical Activity in Ankylosing Spondylitis: evaluation and analysis of an eHealth tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jess Shelagh Tyrrell

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Ankylosing spondylitis (AS is a chronic inflammatory condition characterised by spinal arthritis and exercise is often recommended to reduce the symptoms and improve mobility. However, very little evidence exists for the value of exercise in AS. Objectives Firstly, this pilot study aimed to evaluate an eHealth tool, the AS Observer, specifically designed to monitor symptoms, quality of life and physical activity in AS, in terms of patient experience and suitability in generating data for epidemiological studies. Secondly, it also investigated the collected data to determine if physical activity benefited individuals with AS. Methods The AS Observer was designed to enable weekly monitoring of AS symptoms and exercise using a web based platform. Participants with AS (n = 223 were recruited to use the AS observer. They provided baseline data and completed online weekly data entry for 12 weeks (e.g. Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Activity Index (BASDAI, howRu, International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ. Panel data analysis with fixed effects models investigated associations between variables. Activity type data and exit questionnaires were subjected to qualitative thematic analysis. Results In general, the AS Observer was well received and considered useful by participants, with 66% providing a positive response. The collected data suggested that IPAQ is inversely associated with total BASDAI, stiffness, tenderness and pain, but not fatigue. Stratified analysis demonstrated differential associations between BASDAI, IPAQ and howRU based on sex, HLA-B27 status and disease duration. Approximately half of the participants frequently did therapy and three-quarters undertook at least some vigorous activity ranging from formal exercise to recreation and (house work. Despite some technical challenges, tool evaluation suggested that the AS Observer was a useful self-monitoring tool for participants. Conclusions This pilot study demonstrated

  2. The effects of cognitive activity combined with active extremity exercise on balance, walking activity, memory level and quality of life of an older adult sample with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jung Eun; Lee, Suk Min; Lim, Hee Sung; Kim, Tae Hoon; Jeon, Ji Kyeng; Mun, Mee Hyang

    2013-12-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of cognitive activity combined with active physical exercise for a sample of older adults with dementia. [Subjects] A convenience sample of 30 patients with dementia (Mini-Mental State Examination score between 16 and 23) was used. Participants were randomly allocated to one of two groups: cognitive activity combined with physical exercise CAE, n=11), and only cognitive activity CA, n=9). [Methods] Both groups participated in a therapeutic exercise program for 30 minutes, three days a week for 12 weeks. The CAE group performed an additional exercise for 30 minutes a day, three days a week for 12 weeks. A Wii Balance Board (WBB, Nintendo, Japan) was used to evaluate postural sway as an assessment of balance. The Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and Modified Falls Efficacy Scale (MFES) were used to assess dynamic balance abilities. The Timed Up-and-Go test (TUG) was used to assess gait, and the Digit Span Test (DST) and 7 Minute Screening Test (7MST) were used to measure memory performance. The Mini-Mental Status Exam-Korean version (MMSE-K), Kenny Self-Care Evaluation (KSCE), and Short Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) were used to assess quality of life (QOL). [Results] There were significant beneficial effects of the therapeutic program on balance (velocity in EOWB, path length in ECNB, BBS, and MMFE), QOL (MMSE-KC, GDS, KSCE), and memory performance (DSB) in the CAE group compared to CA group, and between pre-test and post-test. [Conclusion] A 12-week CAE program resulted in improvements in balance, memory and QOL. Therefore, some older adults with dementia have the ability to acquire effective skills relevant to daily living.

  3. Effect of graphite reflector on activation of fusion breeding blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Cheol Woo; Lee, Young-Ouk; Lee, Dong Won; Cho, Seungyon; Ahn, Mu-Young

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The graphite reflector concept has been applied in the design of the Korea HCCR TBM for ITER and this concept is also a candidate design option for Korea Demo. • In the graphite reflector, C-14, B-11 and Be-10 are produced after an irradiation. Impurities in both case of beryllium and graphite is dominant in the shutdown dose after an irradiation. • Based on the evaluation, the graphite reflector is a good alternative of the beryllium multiplier in the view of induced activity and shutdown dose. But C-14 produced in the graphite reflector should be considered carefully in the view of radwaste management. - Abstract: Korea has proposed a Helium-Cooled Ceramic Reflector (HCCR) breeding blanket concept relevant to fusion power plants. Here, graphite is used as a reflector material by reducing the amount of beryllium multiplier. In this paper, activity analysis was performed and the effect of graphite reflector in the view of activation was compared to the beryllium multiplier. As a result, it is expected that using the graphite reflector instead of the beryllium multiplier decreases total activity very effectively. But the graphite reflector produces C-14 about 17.2 times than the beryllium multiplier. Therefore, C-14 produced in the graphite reflector is expected as a significant nuclide in the view of radwaste management.

  4. Flow cytometry for the evaluation of anti-plasmodial activity of drugs on Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pipy Bernard

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The activity of promising anti-malarial drugs against Plasmodium gametocytes is hard to evaluate even in vitro. This is because visual examination of stained smears, which is commonly used, is not totally convenient. In the current study, flow cytometry has been used to study the effect of established anti-malarial drugs against sexual stages obtained from W2 strain of Plasmodium falciparum. Gametocytes were treated for 48 h with different drug concentrations and the gametocytaemia was then determined by flow cytometry and compared with visual estimation by microscopy. Results and conclusions Initially gametocytaemia was evaluated either using light microscopy or flow cytometry. A direct correlation (r2 = 0.9986 was obtained. Two distinct peaks were observed on cytometry histograms and were attributed to gametocyte populations. The activities of established anti-malarial compounds were then measured by flow cytometry and the results were equivalent to those obtained using light microscopy. Primaquine and artemisinin had IC50 of 17.6 μM and 1.0 μM, respectively. Gametocyte sex was apparently distinguishable by flow cytometry as evaluated after induction of exflagellation by xanthurenic acid. These data form the basis of further studies for developing new methods in drug discovery to decrease malaria transmission.

  5. Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Glucose Oxidase from Aspergillus niger EBL-A and Penicillium notatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Anjum Zia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to study the production and purification of glucose oxidase by Aspergillus niger and Penicillium notatum using corn steep liquor as the substrate and evaluate its antimicrobial activity for use in pharmaceutical and food industries. The enzyme was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation (60-85%, DEAE-cellulose ion exchange and Sephadex G-200 size exclusion chromatography. The crude enzyme extracts of A. niger and P. notatum showed 2.32 and 5.53 U mg-1 specific activities, respectively, which after desalting was 15.52 and 12.05 U mg-1, and after ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography was 29.09 - 62 and 25.72 - 59.37 U mg-1 for A. niger and P. notatum, respectively. The antimicrobial activity was determined by disc diffusion method against selected microbial strains where glucose oxidase from A. niger showed anti-bacterial activity, while no fungicidal effects were shown by both A. niger and P. notatum glucose oxidases.

  6. Evaluation of CAMP-Like Effect, Biofilm Formation, and Discrimination of Candida africana from Vaginal Candida albicans Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyvan Pakshir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Candida africana as a species recovered from female genital specimens is highly close to C. albicans. The present study was conducted to discriminate C. africana from presumptive vaginal C. albicans strains by molecular assay and evaluate their hemolysin activity, biofilm formation, and cohemolytic effect (CAMP with vaginal bacterial flora. A total of 110 stock vaginal C. albicans isolates were examined by HWP1 gene amplification. Hemolysin activity and the ability of biofilm formation were evaluated by blood plate assay and visual detection methods, respectively. Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Streptococcus agalactiae were used to evaluate the CAMP-like effects in Sabouraud blood agar media. Based on the size of the amplicons (941 bp, all isolates were identified as C. albicans. All samples were able to produce beta-hemolysin. Moreover, 69 out of 110 of the isolates (62.7% were biofilm-positive, 54 out of 110 Candida isolates (49% demonstrated cohemolytic effects with S. agalactiae, and 48 out of 110 showed this effect with S. aureus (43.6%. All isolates were CAMP-negative with S. epidermidis. We detected all isolates as Candida albicans and almost half of the isolates were CAMP-positive with S. aureus and S. agalactiae, suggesting that these bacteria increase the pathogenicity of Candida in vaginal candidiasis.

  7. Evaluation of CAMP-Like Effect, Biofilm Formation, and Discrimination of Candida africana from Vaginal Candida albicans Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordbar, Mahboubeh; Nouraei, Hasti; Khodadadi, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Candida africana as a species recovered from female genital specimens is highly close to C. albicans. The present study was conducted to discriminate C. africana from presumptive vaginal C. albicans strains by molecular assay and evaluate their hemolysin activity, biofilm formation, and cohemolytic effect (CAMP) with vaginal bacterial flora. A total of 110 stock vaginal C. albicans isolates were examined by HWP1 gene amplification. Hemolysin activity and the ability of biofilm formation were evaluated by blood plate assay and visual detection methods, respectively. Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Streptococcus agalactiae were used to evaluate the CAMP-like effects in Sabouraud blood agar media. Based on the size of the amplicons (941 bp), all isolates were identified as C. albicans. All samples were able to produce beta-hemolysin. Moreover, 69 out of 110 of the isolates (62.7%) were biofilm-positive, 54 out of 110 Candida isolates (49%) demonstrated cohemolytic effects with S. agalactiae, and 48 out of 110 showed this effect with S. aureus (43.6%). All isolates were CAMP-negative with S. epidermidis. We detected all isolates as Candida albicans and almost half of the isolates were CAMP-positive with S. aureus and S. agalactiae, suggesting that these bacteria increase the pathogenicity of Candida in vaginal candidiasis. PMID:29318048

  8. New Benzimidazole-1,2,4-Triazole Hybrid Compounds: Synthesis, Anticandidal Activity and Cytotoxicity Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hülya Karaca Gençer

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the growing need for antifungal agents, we synthesized a new series 2-((5-(4-(5-substituted-1H-benzimidazol-2-ylphenyl-4-substituted-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-ylthio-1-(substitutedphenylethan-1-one derivatives, which were tested against Candida species. The synthesized compounds were characterized and elucidated by FT-IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and HR-MS spectroscopies. The synthesized compounds were screened in vitro anticandidal activity against Candida species by broth microdiluation methods. In vitro cytotoxic effects of the final compounds were determined by MTT assay. Microbiological studies revealed that compounds 5m, 5o, 5r, 5t, 5y, 5ab, and 5ad possess a good antifungal profile. Compounds 5w was the most active derivative and showed comparable antifungal activity to those of reference drugs ketoconazole and fluconazole. Cytotoxicity evaluation of compounds 5m, 5o, 5r, 5w, 5y, 5ab and 5ad showed that compounds 5w and 5ad were the least cytotoxic agents. Effects of these two compounds against ergosterol biosynthesis were observed by LC-MS-MS method, which is based on quantification of ergosterol level in C. albicans. Compounds 5w and 5d inhibited ergosterol biosynthesis concentration dependently. A fluorescence microscopy study was performed to visualize effect of compound 5w against C. albicans at cellular level. It was determined that compound 5w has a membrane damaging effect, which may be related with inhibition of biosynthesis of ergosterol.

  9. Evaluation on the Toxic Effects of NanoAg to Catalase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Zhai, Wenxin; Liu, Rutao; Yu, Zehua; Shen, Hengmei; Hu, Xinxin

    2015-02-01

    Protein is the functional actor of life. Research on protein damage induced by nanomaterials may give insight into the toxicity mechanisms of nanoparticles. Studying nano silver over the impact of the structure and function of catalase (CAT) at the molecular level, is of great significance for a comprehensive evaluation of their toxic effects. The toxic effects of nanoAg on catalase were thoroughly investigated using steady state and time resolved fluorescence quenching measurements, ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, resonance light scattering spectroscopy (RLS), circular dichroism spectroscopy (CD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). NanoAg could decrease the amount of alpha-helix and increase the beta sheet structure, leading to loose the skeleton structure of catalase. The characteristic fluorescence of catalase was obviously quenched, which showed the exposal of internal hydrophobic amino acids enhanced, and its quenching type is dynamic quenching. The result of RLS and TEM showed that the distribution and size of nanoAg become more uniform and smaller after their interaction, resulting in a decrease of RLS intensity. NanoAg could make the activity of catalase rise. By changing the structure of catalase, nanoAg increases its enzymatic activity to a certain extent, breaking down its balance in vivo, thereby affecting the normal physiological activities. NanoAg has obvious toxic effects on catalase. This paper provided a new perspective and method for the toxic effects of nanoAg to biological macromolecules; provided basic data and reference gist for the hygienics and toxicology studies of nanoAg. It is conducive to the toxicity prevention and control work of nanoAg, promoting nano-technology applied to human production and living better.

  10. Differentiated Effects of Sensory Activities as Abolishing Operations via Non-Contingent Reinforcement on Academic and Aberrant Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancil, G. Richmond; Haydon, Todd; Boman, Marty

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of sensory activities used as antecedent interventions on the percentage correct on academic tasks and rate of aberrant behavior in three elementary aged children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Study activities were conducted in an after school program for children with ASD where…

  11. A Sit-to-Stand Training Robot and Its Performance Evaluation: Dynamic Analysis in Lower Limb Rehabilitation Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Enguo; Inoue, Yoshio; Liu, Tao; Shibata, Kyoko

    In many countries in which the phenomenon of population aging is being experienced, motor function recovery activities have aroused much interest. In this paper, a sit-to-stand rehabilitation robot utilizing a double-rope system was developed, and the performance of the robot was evaluated by analyzing the dynamic parameters of human lower limbs. For the robot control program, an impedance control method with a training game was developed to increase the effectiveness and frequency of rehabilitation activities, and a calculation method was developed for evaluating the joint moments of hip, knee, and ankle. Test experiments were designed, and four subjects were requested to stand up from a chair with assistance from the rehabilitation robot. In the experiments, body segment rotational angles, trunk movement trajectories, rope tensile forces, ground reaction forces (GRF) and centers of pressure (COP) were measured by sensors, and the moments of ankle, knee and hip joint were real-time calculated using the sensor-measured data. The experiment results showed that the sit-to-stand rehabilitation robot with impedance control method could maintain the comfortable training postures of users, decrease the moments of limb joints, and enhance training effectiveness. Furthermore, the game control method could encourage collaboration between the brain and limbs, and allow for an increase in the frequency and intensity of rehabilitation activities.

  12. Bioassay-guided evaluation of anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of pistachio, Pistacia vera L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, I; Küpeli, E; Aslan, M; Kartal, M; Yesilada, E

    2006-04-21

    The ethanolic and aqueous extracts prepared from different parts of Pistacia vera L. (Anacardiaceae) as well as its oleoresin were evaluated for their in vivo anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities. Among the extracts screened, only the oleoresin was shown to possess a marked anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan-induced hind paw edema model in mice without inducing any gastric damage at both 250 and 500 mg/kg doses whereas the rest of the extracts were totally inactive. While the oleoresin was found to display significant antinociceptive activity at 500 mg/kg dose, the ethanolic and aqueous extracts belonging to fruit, leaf, branch and peduncle of Pistacia vera did not exhibit any noticeable antinociception in p-benzoquinone-induced abdominal contractions in mice. Fractionation of the oleoresin indicated the n-hexane fraction to be active, which further led to recognition of some monoterpenes, mainly alpha-pinene (77.5%) by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) as well as the oleoresin itself. alpha-Pinene was also assessed for its antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities in the same manner and exerted a moderate anti-inflammatory effect at 500 mg/kg dose.

  13. Effect of Gamma Radiation on Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Fennel and Geranium Volatile Oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abo-Seoud, M. A.; Helal, I. M. M.; Sarhan, M. M.; Galal, A. M. M.

    2004-01-01

    Essential oils of fennel and geranium were gamma irradiated with doses of 0,10,20,30 and 40 kGy. The studied oils were tested for their antimicrobial activities against some pathogenic microorganisms (Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, Fusarium oxysporium, Trichoderma viride and Pseudomonas citri). Both oils were used in four concentrations of 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 ppm. The investigated oils showed different inhibition effects against the tested microorganisms. Gamma irradiated oils increased the antimicrobial activity with different magnitudes. Generally, increasing oil concentration increased antimicrobial activity of the used oils and that of 4000 ppm was the most effective one. The essential oils were analyzed by G.C. to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation on the oil components. (authors)

  14. A computer program to evaluate the experimental data in instrumental multielement neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greim, L.; Motamedi, K.; Niedergesaess, R.

    1976-01-01

    A computer code evaluating experimental data of neutron activation analysis (NAA) for determination of atomic abundancies is described. The experimental data are, beside a probe designation, the probe weight, irradiation parameters and a Ge(Li)-pulse-height-spectrum from the activity measurement. The organisation of the necessary nuclear data, comprising all methods of activation in reactor-irradiations, is given. Furthermore the automatic evaluation of spectra, the designation of the resulting peaks to nuclei and the calculation of atomic abundancies are described. The complete evaluation of a spectrum with many lines, e.g. 100 lines of 20 nuclei, takes less than 1 minute machine-time on the TR 440 computer. (orig.) [de

  15. MEG time-frequency analyses for pre- and post-surgical evaluation of patients with epileptic rhythmic fast activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueda, Keitaro; Takeuchi, Fumiya; Shiraishi, Hideaki; Nakane, Shingo; Asahina, Naoko; Kohsaka, Shinobu; Nakama, Hideyuki; Otsuki, Taisuke; Sawamura, Yutaka; Saitoh, Shinji

    2010-02-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of surgery for epilepsy, we analyzed rhythmic fast activity by magnetoencephalography (MEG) before and after surgery using time-frequency analysis. To assess reliability, the results obtained by pre-surgical MEG and intraoperative electrocorticography were compared. Four children with symptomatic localization-related epilepsy caused by circumscribed cortical lesion were examined in the present study using 204-channel helmet-shaped MEG with a sampling rate of 600Hz. One patient had dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNT) and three patients had focal cortical dysplasia (FCD). Aberrant areas were superimposed, to reconstruct 3D MRI images, and illustrated as moving images. In three patients, short-time Fourier transform (STFT) analyses of MEG showed rhythmic activities just above the lesion with FCD and in the vicinity of DNT. In one patient with FCD in the medial temporal lobe, rhythmic activity appeared in the ipsilateral frontal lobe and temporal lateral aspect. These findings correlate well with the results obtained by intraoperative electrocorticography. After the surgery, three patients were relieved of their seizures, and the area of rhythmic MEG activity disappeared or become smaller. One patient had residual rhythmic MEG activity, and she suffered from seizure relapse. Time-frequency analyses using STFT successfully depicted MEG rhythmic fast activity, and would provide valuable information for pre- and post-surgical evaluations to define surgical strategies for patients with epilepsy.

  16. Evaluating Transcription Factor Activity Changes by Scoring Unexplained Target Genes in Expression Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evi Berchtold

    Full Text Available Several methods predict activity changes of transcription factors (TFs from a given regulatory network and measured expression data. But available gene regulatory networks are incomplete and contain many condition-dependent regulations that are not relevant for the specific expression measurement. It is not known which combination of active TFs is needed to cause a change in the expression of a target gene. A method to systematically evaluate the inferred activity changes is missing. We present such an evaluation strategy that indicates for how many target genes the observed expression changes can be explained by a given set of active TFs. To overcome the problem that the exact combination of active TFs needed to activate a gene is typically not known, we assume a gene to be explained if there exists any combination for which the predicted active TFs can possibly explain the observed change of the gene. We introduce the i-score (inconsistency score, which quantifies how many genes could not be explained by the set of activity changes of TFs. We observe that, even for these minimal requirements, published methods yield many unexplained target genes, i.e. large i-scores. This holds for all methods and all expression datasets we evaluated. We provide new optimization methods to calculate the best possible (minimal i-score given the network and measured expression data. The evaluation of this optimized i-score on a large data compendium yields many unexplained target genes for almost every case. This indicates that currently available regulatory networks are still far from being complete. Both the presented Act-SAT and Act-A* methods produce optimal sets of TF activity changes, which can be used to investigate the difficult interplay of expression and network data. A web server and a command line tool to calculate our i-score and to find the active TFs associated with the minimal i-score is available from https://services.bio.ifi.lmu.de/i-score.

  17. Monitoring population disability: Evaluation of a new Global Activity Limitation Indicator (GALI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oyen, H. van; Heyden, J.; Perenboom, R.; Jagger, C.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate a single item instrument, the Global Activity Limitation Indicator (GALI), to measure long-standing health related activity limitations, against several health indicators: a composite morbidity indicator, instruments measuring mental health (SCL-90R, GHQ-12), physical

  18. Scaling-up an efficacious school-based physical activity intervention: Study protocol for the ‘Internet-based Professional Learning to help teachers support Activity in Youth’ (iPLAY cluster randomized controlled trial and scale-up implementation evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Lonsdale

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the health benefits of regular physical activity, most children are insufficiently active. Schools are ideally placed to promote physical activity; however, many do not provide children with sufficient in-school activity or ensure they have the skills and motivation to be active beyond the school setting. The aim of this project is to modify, scale up and evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention previously shown to be efficacious in improving children’s physical activity, fundamental movement skills and cardiorespiratory fitness. The ‘Internet-based Professional Learning to help teachers support Activity in Youth’ (iPLAY study will focus largely on online delivery to enhance translational capacity. Methods/Design The intervention will be implemented at school and teacher levels, and will include six components: (i quality physical education and school sport, (ii classroom movement breaks, (iii physically active homework, (iv active playgrounds, (v community physical activity links and (vi parent/caregiver engagement. Experienced physical education teachers will deliver professional learning workshops and follow-up, individualized mentoring to primary teachers (i.e., Kindergarten – Year 6. These activities will be supported by online learning and resources. Teachers will then deliver the iPLAY intervention components in their schools. We will evaluate iPLAY in two complementary studies in primary schools across New South Wales (NSW, Australia. A cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT, involving a representative sample of 20 schools within NSW (1:1 allocation at the school level to intervention and attention control conditions, will assess effectiveness and cost-effectiveness at 12 and 24 months. Students’ cardiorespiratory fitness will be the primary outcome in this trial. Key secondary outcomes will include students’ moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (via accelerometers, fundamental movement

  19. NICOTINE EFFECTS ON THE ACTIVITY OF MICE EXPOSED PRENATALLY TO THE NICOTINIC AGONIST ANATOXIN-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considerable research has shown long-lasting effects of early exposure in experimental animals to nicotine. Anatoxin-a is produced by cyanobacteria and has been shown to be a potent nicotinic agonist. This experiment evaluated the motor activity of adult mice, and their respons...

  20. A road to more and cheaper energy conservation. Evaluation of all the Danish energy saving activities. Appendix; En vej til flere og billigere energibesparelser. En evaluering af samtlige danske energispareaktiviteter. Billagsrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-12-15

    The appendix together with the main report constitutes the result of the evaluation carried out in 2008 of all Danish energy conservation activities and incentives. A brief introduction is given to the social context of the effort to promote energy conservation and the use of incentives. The main part of the appendix is a presentation of each of the present nine main incentives and activities, their effects and cost. The nine energy saving activities and incentives are: Taxes and CO{sub 2} quotas, the electric utilities' activities, energy labelling of buildings, the Electric Power Saving Trust, building codes, labelling of appliances, energy conservation requirements for public workplaces, agreement with the energy intensive industry, and the Energy Conservation Fund. Finally, the achieved effects of the present Danish energy saving efforts are presented. (ln)

  1. A Landscape Model (LEEMATH) to Evaluate Effects of Management Impacts on Timber and Wildlife Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbin Li; David L. Gartner; Pu Mou; Carl C. Trettin

    2000-01-01

    Managing forest resources for sustainability requires the successful integration of economic and ecological goals. To attain such integration, land managers need decision support tools that incorporate science, land-use strategies, and policy options to assess resources sustainability at large scales. Landscape Evaluation of Effects of Management Activities on Timber...

  2. Effects of early activator treatment in patients with class II malocclusion evaluated by thin-plate spline analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lux, C J; Rübel, J; Starke, J; Conradt, C; Stellzig, P A; Komposch, P G

    2001-04-01

    The aim of the present longitudinal cephalometric study was to evaluate the dentofacial shape changes induced by activator treatment between 9.5 and 11.5 years in male Class II patients. For a rigorous morphometric analysis, a thin-plate spline analysis was performed to assess and visualize dental and skeletal craniofacial changes. Twenty male patients with a skeletal Class II malrelationship and increased overjet who had been treated at the University of Heidelberg with a modified Andresen-Häupl-type activator were compared with a control group of 15 untreated male subjects of the Belfast Growth Study. The shape changes for each group were visualized on thin-plate splines with one spline comprising all 13 landmarks to show all the craniofacial shape changes, including skeletal and dento-alveolar reactions, and a second spline based on 7 landmarks to visualize only the skeletal changes. In the activator group, the grid deformation of the total spline pointed to a strong activator-induced reduction of the overjet that was caused both by a tipping of the incisors and by a moderation of sagittal discrepancies, particularly a slight advancement of the mandible. In contrast with this, in the control group, only slight localized shape changes could be detected. Both in the 7- and 13-landmark configurations, the shape changes between the groups differed significantly at P thin-plate spline analysis turned out to be a useful morphometric supplement to conventional cephalometrics because the complex patterns of shape change could be suggestively visualized.

  3. Effect of glyphosate on the microbial activity of two Romanian soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumalan, R M; Alexa, E; Negrea, M; Sumalan, R L; Doncean, A; Pop, G

    2010-01-01

    Glyphosate applied to soils potentially affect microbial activity. A series of field and laboratory experiments assessed the effect of this herbicide on soil microorganisms. The aim of experiments was to evaluate the effect of glyphosate application on the soil microbial community structure, function and their activity. We studied "in vitro", changes in the microbial activity of typical Chernozem and Gleysol soils, with and without applied glyphosate. The herbicide was applied at a rate of 2, respectively 4 mg kg(-1) of soil and microbial activity were measured by fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis. We found an increase of 9 to 13% in FDA hydrolyses in the presence of glyphosate in rate of 2 mg kg (-1) compared with the same type of soil which had never received herbicide. The double quantity of glyphosate decrease soil microbial activity; the amount of hydrolyzed fluorescein is lower than the addition of 2 ppm. The greater decrease was observed in the Gleysol type where the fluorescein hydrolyzed is with 4, 85% lower than version control without glyphosate. Chemical characters of soil, influence soil biological activity when herbicide is added. In Chemozem case, rich in humus, whose predominant micro flora is represented by actinomycetes through glyphosate treatment these organisms growths of as major producers of antibiotics actinomycetes determine an inhibitory effect on eubacteria and micromycetes growth, which is highlighted by estimating a relatively small number of them. After 10 days, once with decreasing of glyphosate content in soil, decreases the number of active actinomycetes, therefore we are witnessing to a numerical growth of bacterial population. In Gleysol type the indigenous micro flora is represented by eubacteria, so when the glyphosate is added it was registered a high growth of these organisms fraction.

  4. Evaluation of antinociceptive activity of aqueous extract of bark of psidium guajava in albino rats and albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhar, N Chandra; Jayasree, T; Ubedulla, Shaikh; Dixit, Rohit; V S, Manohar; J, Shankar

    2014-09-01

    Psidium guajava is commonly known as guava. Psidium guajava is a medium sized tree belonging to the family Myrtaceae found throughout the tropics. All the parts of the plant, the leaves, followed by the fruits, bark and the roots are used in traditional medicine. The traditional uses of the plant are Antidiarrheal, Antimicrobial Activity, Antimalarial/Antiparasitic Activity, Antitussive and antihyperglycaemic. Leaves are used as Anti-inflammatory, Analgesic and Antinociceptive effects. To evaluate the antinociceptive activity of aqueous extract of bark of Psidium guajava in albino rats with that of control and standard analgesic drugs aspirin and tramadol. Mechanical (Tail clip method) and thermal (Tail flick method using Analgesiometer), 0.6% solution of acetic acid writhing models of nociception were used to evaluate the extract antinociceptive activity. Six groups of animals, each consists of 10 animals, first one as control, second and third as standard drugs, Aspirin and Tramadol, fourth, fifth and sixth groups as text received the extract (100, 200, and 400 mg/ kg) orally 60 min prior to subjection to the respective test. The results obtained demonstrated that aqueous extract of bark of Psidium guajava produced significant antinociceptive response in all the mechanical and thermal-induced nociception models. AEPG antinociceptive activity involves activation of the peripheral and central mechanisms.

  5. Dentine bond strength and antimicrobial activity evaluation of adhesive systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Carolina Bosso; Gomes, Brenda Paula Figueiredo Almeida; Duque, Thais Mageste; Stipp, Rafael Nobrega; Chan, Daniel Chi Ngai; Ambrosano, Glaucia Maria Bovi; Giannini, Marcelo

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluated the dentine bond strength (BS) and the antibacterial activity (AA) of six adhesives against strict anaerobic and facultative bacteria. Three adhesives containing antibacterial components (Gluma 2Bond (glutaraldehyde)/G2B, Clearfil SE Protect (MDPB)/CSP and Peak Universal Bond (PUB)/chlorhexidine) and the same adhesive versions without antibacterial agents (Gluma Comfort Bond/GCB, Clearfil SE Bond/CSB and Peak LC Bond/PLB) were tested. The AA of adhesives and control groups was evaluated by direct contact method against four strict anaerobic and four facultative bacteria. After incubation, according to the appropriate periods of time for each microorganism, the time to kill microorganisms was measured. For BS, the adhesives were applied according to manufacturers' recommendations and teeth restored with composite. Teeth (n=10) were sectioned to obtain bonded beams specimens, which were tested after artificial saliva storage for one week and one year. BS data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey test. Saliva storage for one year reduces the BS only for GCB. In general G2B and GCB required at least 24h for killing microorganisms. PUB and PLB killed only strict anaerobic microorganisms after 24h. For CSP the average time to eliminate the Streptococcus mutans and strict anaerobic oral pathogens was 30 min. CSB showed no AA against facultative bacteria, but had AA against some strict anaerobic microorganisms. Storage time had no effect on the BS for most of the adhesives. The time required to kill bacteria depended on the type of adhesive and never was less than 10 min. Most of the adhesives showed stable bond strength after one year and the Clearfil SE Protect may be a good alternative in restorative procedures performed on dentine, considering its adequate bond strength and better antibacterial activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of the specificity and effectiveness of selected oral hygiene actives in salivary biofilm microcosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledder, Ruth G; Sreenivasan, Prem K; DeVizio, William; McBain, Andrew J

    2010-12-01

    The microbiological effects of biocidal products used for the enhancement of oral hygiene relate to the active compound(s) as well as other formulation components. Here, we test the specificities of selected actives in the absence of multiple excipients. Salivary ecosystems were maintained in tissue culture plate-based hydroxyapatite disc models (HDMs) and modified drip-flow biofilm reactors (MDFRs). Test compounds stannous fluoride (SF), SDS, triclosan (TCS), zinc lactate (ZL) and ZL with SF in combination (ZLSF) were delivered to the HDMs once and four times daily for 6 days to MDFRs. Plaques were characterized by differential viable counting and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). TCS and SDS were the most effective compounds against HDM plaques, significantly reducing total viable counts (P<0.05), whilst SF, ZL and ZLSF were comparatively ineffective. TCS exhibited specificity for streptococci (P<0.01) and Gram-negative anaerobes (P<0.01) following a single dosing and also on repeated dosing in MDFRs. In contrast to single exposures, multiple dosing with ZLSF also significantly reduced all bacterial groups, whilst SF and ZL caused significant but transient reductions. According to PCR-DGGE analyses, significant (P<0.05) reductions in eubacterial diversity occurred following 6 day dosing with both TCS and ZLSF. Concordance of MDFR eubacterial profiles with salivary inocula ranged between 58 and 97%. TCS and ZL(SF) exhibited similar specificities to those reported for formulations. TCS was the most potent antibacterial, after single and multiple dosage regimens.

  7. Protective effect of Heliotropium foertherianum (Boraginaceae) folk remedy and its active compound, rosmarinic acid, against a Pacific ciguatoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Fanny; Jullian, Valérie; Pawlowiez, Ralph; Kumar-Roiné, Shilpa; Haddad, Mohamed; Darius, H Taiana; Gaertner-Mazouni, Nabila; Chinain, Mireille; Laurent, Dominique

    2012-08-30

    Senescent leaves of Heliotropium foertherianum Diane & Hilger (Boraginaceae) are traditionally used in the Pacific region to treat Ciguatera Fish Poisoning. This plant contains rosmarinic acid that is known for its multiple biological activities. In the present study, H. foertherianum aqueous extract, rosmarinic acid and its derivatives were evaluated for their capacity to reduce the effect of ciguatoxins. Aqueous extract of H. foertherianum leaves was prepared and studied for its effects against a Pacific ciguatoxin (P-CTX-1B) in the neuroblastoma cell assay and the receptor binding assay. Rosmarinic acid and six derivatives were also evaluated by means of these bioassays. For this purpose, we have developed an improved synthetic route for caffeic acid 3,4-dihydroxy-phenethyl ester (CADPE). Both the aqueous extract of H. foertherianum leaves and rosmarinic acid showed inhibitory activities against a Pacific ciguatoxin in the above bioassays. Among all the molecules that were evaluated, rosmarinic acid was the most active compound. These results confirm further the potential of H. foertherianum in the treatment of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Identification and evaluation of the neuroleptic activity of phenotropil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhapkina, V I; Akhapkin, R V

    2013-01-01

    The neuroleptic (antipsychotic) activity of phenotropil was studied in an experimental animal model. Phenotropil had a marked neuroleptic activity in models of positive (apomorphine-induced verticalization test) and negative (5-HTP-induced hyperkinesis test) symptoms of psychoses as well as in the m-cholinergic pathway hyperactivation (arecoline-induced tremor test). The compound markedly antagonized haloperidol catalepsy. Used in a single dose or as a course treatment, phenotropil did not provoke aggression nor intensify it. In contrast to typical and atypical antipsychotics, phenotropil had no sedative action and other adverse effects. It exhibited a positive effect on exploratory behavior and motor activity, had anxiolytic and antidepressant action.

  9. An application of the game theory to evaluate the deterrence effect of an unannounced inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Masahiro

    2008-01-01

    An unannounced inspection is expected to have not only detection capability of diversions but also a deterrence effect to such activity since it is naturally recognized that such inspection scheme calls for the unpredictability toward facility operators who could not notice the inspection date. However, the method to evaluate effectiveness of unpredictability as a deterrence effect is not established. Previously, the game theory was applied as a missionary to introduce the random sampling method at the equilibrium point under the zero-sum game between inspectors and facility operators. In the case of unannounced inspection, the unpredictability plays an advantageous condition of inspector for setting of new equilibrium point. A scale of difference between the two points can be assigned as an index of effectiveness for the deterrence. This paper reports the result of an application of the game theory to evaluate the deterrence effects of an unannounced inspection. (author)

  10. Seeing by touch: evaluation of a soft biologically-inspired artificial fingertip in real-time active touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaf, Tareq; Roke, Calum; Rossiter, Jonathan; Pipe, Tony; Melhuish, Chris

    2014-02-07

    Effective tactile sensing for artificial platforms remains an open issue in robotics. This study investigates the performance of a soft biologically-inspired artificial fingertip in active exploration tasks. The fingertip sensor replicates the mechanisms within human skin and offers a robust solution that can be used both for tactile sensing and gripping/manipulating objects. The softness of the optical sensor's contact surface also allows safer interactions with objects. High-level tactile features such as edges are extrapolated from the sensor's output and the information is used to generate a tactile image. The work presented in this paper aims to investigate and evaluate this artificial fingertip for 2D shape reconstruction. The sensor was mounted on a robot arm to allow autonomous exploration of different objects. The sensor and a number of human participants were then tested for their abilities to track the raised perimeters of different planar objects and compared. By observing the technique and accuracy of the human subjects, simple but effective parameters were determined in order to evaluate the artificial system's performance. The results prove the capability of the sensor in such active exploration tasks, with a comparable performance to the human subjects despite it using tactile data alone whereas the human participants were also able to use proprioceptive cues.

  11. Automatically-Activated Attitudes as Mechanisms for Message Effects: The Case of Alcohol Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodall, Catherine E; Slater, Michael D

    2010-10-01

    Alcohol advertisements may influence impulsive, risky behaviors indirectly, via automatically-activated attitudes toward alcohol. Results from an experiment in which participants were exposed to either four alcohol advertisements, four control advertisements, or four drunk driving public service advertisements, suggested that alcohol advertisements had more measurable effects on implicit, than on explicit attitude measures. Moreover, there were significant indirect paths from alcohol advertisement exposure through automatically-activated alcohol attitudes on willingness to engage in risky alcohol-related behaviors, notably drinking and driving. A mechanism that may explain how these advertisements activate automatic, non-deliberative alcohol attitudes was investigated. Associative evidence was found supportive of an evaluative conditioning mechanism, in which positive responses to an alcohol advertisement may lead to more positive automatically-activated attitudes toward alcohol itself.

  12. Over-activation in bilateral superior temporal gyrus correlated with subsequent forgetting effect of Chinese words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tzu-Ching; Kuo, Wen-Jui; Chiang, Ming-Chang; Tseng, Yi-Jhan; Lin, Yung-Yang

    2013-08-01

    We evaluated the subsequent memory and forgotten effects for Chinese using event-related fMRI. Sixteen normal subjects were recruited and performing incidental memory tasks where semantic decision was required during memory encoding. Consistent with previous studies, our results showed bilateral frontal regions as the main locus for the subsequent memory effect. However, contrast between miss and hit responses revealed larger activation in bilateral superior temporal gyrus. We proposed that larger activation in the superior temporal gyrus may reflect alteration of self-monitoring process which resulted in unsuccessful memory encoding for the miss items. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of gamma irradiation on the physiological activity of Korean soybean fermented foods, Chungkookjang and Doenjang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, M.-W.; Son, J.-H.; Yook, H.-S.; Jo, Cheorun; Kim, D.-H.

    2002-01-01

    Effects of gamma irradiation on the physiological activity of Korean soybean fermented foods were investigated. Chungkookjang, the whole cooked soybean product and Doenjang, soybean paste were purchased and irradiated at 5, 10 and 20 kGy of absorbed doses. The physiological activity was evaluated by angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition, xanthine oxidase inhibition, tyrosinase inhibition and radical scavenging ability and results indicated that at 10 kGy or below did not show any significant change on physiological activities by irradiation

  14. Quick evaluation of the neutron dose following a criticality accident by measurement of sodium 24 activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabardel, R.; Ricourt, A.; Parmentier, N.

    1984-07-01

    In order to quickly sort out the irradiated individuals following a criticality accident, the neutron dose can be evaluated quickly by measuring the sodium-24 activity induced in the human body. The report supplies the information necessary for this evaluation from the response of various detectors of current use in radiation protection. The first part describes the method of evaluation of sodium-24 activity (A) given by the reading (M) of each instrument. The second part describes the method of kerma evaluation from the measured sodium-24 activity. The third part is an experimental application of the method of kerma evaluation from the sodium-24 activity measured in a phantom irradiated in the SILENE reactor flux. The results given by radiation protection instruments are in good agreement with the calculated values for a front exposure and demonstrate the usefulness of measuring the induced sodium-24 activity by radiation protection instruments of current use [fr

  15. Cost effectiveness of preventive home visits to the elderly: economic evaluation alongside randomized controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg, Christian; Vass, Mikkel; Lauridsen, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the cost effectiveness of preventive home visits to elderly persons in Denmark alongside a 3-year randomized controlled study. The main outcome measure was incremental costs per active life-year gained. The number of active life-years was defined as those during which the person...... is able independently to transfer, walk indoors, go outdoors, walk outdoors in both pleasant and poor weather, and climb stairs. In 17 of 34 municipalities health visitors and general practitioners were offered geriatric training, which focused on early signs of disability, physical activity......,455 to 744) in 75-year-olds and 694 euro (-2,684 to 4,071) in 80-year-olds. The discounted difference in mean active life-years was 0.034 (-0.058 to 0.125) and 0.197 (0.013 to 0.380), respectively. The study did not provide conclusive evidence on the cost effectiveness of the programs under consideration....

  16. Evaluation of the antinociceptive activities of enaminone compounds on the formalin and hot plate tests in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masocha, Willias; Kombian, Samuel B.; Edafiogho, Ivan O.

    2016-02-01

    Recently, we found that methyl 4-(4‧-bromophenyl)aminocyclohex-3-en-6-methyl-2-oxo-1-oate (E139), an anticonvulsant enaminone, has antinociceptive activity in the hot plate test. In this study we evaluated the antinociceptive activity of five anilino enaminones E139, ethyl 4-(4‧-chlorophenyl)amino-6-methyl-2-oxocyclohex-3-en-1-oate (E121), ethyl 4-(4‧-bromophenyl)amino-6-methyl-2-oxocyclohex-3-en-1-oate (E122), methyl 4-(4‧-chlorophenyl)amino-6-methyl-2-oxocyclohex-3-en-1-oate (E138) and ethyl 4-(4‧-fluorophenyl)amino-6-methyl-2-oxocyclohex-3-en-1-oate (BRG 19) using the formalin and hot plate tests. E139 has been reported to exert its effects via enhancement of extracellular GABA levels, thus tiagabine, a GABA transporter inhibitor, was evaluated as a control together with indomethacin. Tiagabine had antinociceptive activity in both phase 1 (neurogenic pain) and phase 2 (inflammatory pain) of the formalin test, whereas indomethacin had activity only in phase 2. E139 and E138 had antinociceptive activity in both phases of the formalin test, whereas E121 had activity only in phase 1 and BRG 19 had activity only in phase 2. E122 had no significant activity in either phase. In the hot plate test only E139 had antinociceptive activity. Administration of either bicuculline, a GABAA receptor antagonist, or CGP 35348, a GABAB receptor antagonist, blocked the antinociceptive activity of E139. In conclusion our results indicate that E139 has antinociceptive activity in the formalin and hot plate tests that are dependent on GABA receptors.

  17. Effect of aflatoxin B1 on growth and enzymatic activity of a native strain of Bacillus sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Sáez Vega

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different aflatoxin B1 (AFAB1 concentrations on alkaline protease growth and enzymatic activity was evaluated; a native strain of alkalophilic Bacillus sp cultivated in CSL (Corn Steep Liquor was used. It was found that the effect of AFAB1 on the strain inhibited its growth and enzymatic activity to 1 ppm, showing that the strain is highly sensible to AFAB1, meaning that medium obtained f rom Colombian corn contaminated with this mycotoxin cannot be easily used. Concentrations less than 0.1 ppm did not affect growth and enzymatic activity. Key words: Bacillus, aflatoxin, alkaline proteases.

  18. Pharmacological Evaluation of the Antidiarrhoeal Activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study presents the pharmacological evaluation of the effects of intraperitoneal injection of aqueous seed extract of Aframomum melegueta (AM) on diarrhoea, intestinal fluid secretion and gastrointestinal transit time, induced by castor oil in rodents. The results of the study revealed that AM (50-200 mg/kg) produced a ...

  19. Scaling-up an efficacious school-based physical activity intervention: Study protocol for the ?Internet-based Professional Learning to help teachers support Activity in Youth? (iPLAY) cluster randomized controlled trial and scale-up implementation evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Lonsdale, Chris; Sanders, Taren; Cohen, Kristen E.; Parker, Philip; Noetel, Michael; Hartwig, Tim; Vasoncellos, Diego; Kirwan, Morwenna; Morgan, Philip; Salmon, Jo; Moodie, Marj; McKay, Heather; Bennie, Andrew; Plotnikoff, Ron; Cinelli, Renata L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Despite the health benefits of regular physical activity, most children are insufficiently active. Schools are ideally placed to promote physical activity; however, many do not provide children with sufficient in-school activity or ensure they have the skills and motivation to be active beyond the school setting. The aim of this project is to modify, scale up and evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention previously shown to be efficacious in improving children’s physic...

  20. Evaluating health effects of transport interventions methodologic case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie, David; Mitchell, Richard; Mutrie, Nanette; Petticrew, Mark; Platt, Stephen

    2006-08-01

    There is little evidence about the effects of environmental interventions on population levels of physical activity. Major transport projects may promote or discourage physical activity in the form of walking and cycling, but researching the health effects of such "natural experiments" in transport policy or infrastructure is challenging. Case study of attempts in 2004-2005 to evaluate the effects of two major transport projects in Scotland: an urban congestion charging scheme in Edinburgh, and a new urban motorway (freeway) in Glasgow. These interventions are typical of many major transport projects. They are unique to their context. They cannot easily be separated from the other components of the wider policies within which they occur. When, where, and how they are implemented are political decisions over which researchers have no control. Baseline data collection required for longitudinal studies may need to be planned before the intervention is certain to take place. There is no simple way of defining a population or area exposed to the intervention or of defining control groups. Changes in quantitative measures of health-related behavior may be difficult to detect. Major transport projects have clear potential to influence population health, but it is difficult to define the interventions, categorize exposure, or measure outcomes in ways that are likely to be seen as credible in the field of public health intervention research. A final study design is proposed in which multiple methods and spatial levels of analysis are combined in a longitudinal quasi-experimental study.

  1. Synthesis and Analgesic Activity Evaluation of Some Agmatine Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Li

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A series of N,N’-disubstituted-2-nitroethene-1,1-diamine and N,N’-disubstituted- N’’-cyanoguanidine derivatives were prepared and evaluated for in vivo analgesic activity. The blood brain barrier (BBB VolSurf model was used to predict the BBB permeation profiles of our synthesized compounds. Some compounds show both remarkable analgesic activity and good BBB permeation profiles, and these compounds might be developed for treatment of opioid tolerance and dependence.

  2. [Activities using websites and social networks: tools and indicators for evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, María José; Continente, Xavier; Sánchez, Esther; Bartroli, Montse

    In the field of health, information and communication technology (ICT) can create a space that, regardless of place or time, enables information to be shared and disseminated quickly. In addition to the usual challenges of evaluating public health activities, other difficulties are present when evaluating activities using ICT, such as lack of previous standards, unknown individual exposure or lack of information on the characteristics of those exposed. The aim of this paper is to describe some tools and indicators that may help to assess the scope, use and parameters related to website positioning on search engines as well as the connected social networks. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Stereotype validation: the effects of activating negative stereotypes after intellectual performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jason K; Thiem, Kelsey C; Barden, Jamie; Stuart, Jillian O'Rourke; Evans, Abigail T

    2015-04-01

    With regard to intellectual performance, a large body of research has shown that stigmatized group members may perform more poorly when negative, self-relevant stereotypes become activated prior to a task. However, no research to date has identified the potential ramifications of stereotype activation that happens after-rather than before-a person has finished performing. Six studies examined how postperformance stereotype salience may increase the certainty individuals have in evaluations of their own performance. In the current research, the accessibility of gender or racial stereotypes was manipulated after participants completed either a difficult math test (Studies 1-5) or a test of child-care knowledge (Study 6). Consistent with predictions, stereotype activation was found to increase the certainty that women (Studies 1, 2, 4, and 5), African Americans (Study 3), and men (Study 6) had toward negative evaluations of their own test performance. These effects emerged when performance-related perceptions were stereotype consistent rather than inconsistent (Studies 1-6) and were found to be most pronounced among those who were highly identified with the stereotyped group (Study 5). Furthermore, greater certainty-triggered by negative stereotypes-predicted lowered domain-relevant beliefs (Studies 1, 2, 3, and 6) and differential exposure to domain-relevant stimuli (Studies 4 and 5). (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Alleloppathic effects and insecticidal activity of the aqueous extract of Satureja montana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šućur Jovana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Extensive use of synthetic insecticides, herbicides and other pesticides has negative effects on the environment and on human and animal health. Therefore scientists are turning towards natural pesticides such as active components of plant extracts. Effect of two concentrations (0.1% and 0.2% of Satureja montana L. aqueous extract on lipid peroxidation process, as well as the activity of the antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GPX, PPX and CAT in leaves and roots of pepper and black nightshade seedlings were examined 24, 72 and 120h after the treatment. Our results showed that higher concentration of S. montana aqueous extract induced lipid peroxidation in black nightshade roots. Furthermore, significant increases of pyrogallol and guaiacol peroxidase were detected in black nightshade leaves treated with 0.2% S. montana aqueous extract. The second aim was to evaluate effectiveness of aqueous extract as contact toxicant against whitefly. It was observed that aqueous extract with concentration of 0.2% showed toxic effect with 68.33% mortality after 96h.

  5. Evaluation of antibacterial, antioxidant and nootropic activities of Tiliacora racemosa Colebr. leaves: In vitro and in vivo approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    T, Vivek Kumar; M, Vishalakshi; M, Gangaraju; Das, Parijat; Roy, Pratiti; Banerjee, Anindita; Dutta Gupta, Sayan

    2017-02-01

    The antibacterial and antioxidant potential of Tiliacora racemosa leaf extracts in various solvents (methanolic, hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate) was determined. Additionally, the presence of bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids in the plant prompted us to evaluate the nootropic activity of the methanolic extract in mice. Further, we seek to verify the nootropic effect by examining the anticholinesterase inhibition potential of the methanolic extract. The leaf extracts in various solvents were evaluated for their antibacterial and antioxidant activity by agar diffusion technique and α, α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging method, respectively. The ex vivo acetylcholine esterase inhibitory activity of the methanolic extract was carried out by Ellman's method in male Wistar rats. The nootropic capacity of the methanolic extract was examined in Swiss albino mice by utilizing the diazepam induced acute amnesic model. The chloroform/n-hexane and ethyl acetate fraction showed promising antioxidant and antibacterial (Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria) property, respectively. The methanolic extract was able to diminish the amnesic effect induced by diazepam (1mg/kg i.p.) in mice. The extract also showed significant acetyl cholinesterase inhibition in rats. The findings prove that the memory enhancing capability is due to increased acetyl choline level at the nerve endings. The strong antioxidant nature and potential nootropic activity shown by the extract suggests its future usage in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders such as dementia and Alzheimer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity from Different Plant Parts of Senduduk Herb: Extraction Conditions Optimization of Selected Plant Part

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamaludin Nor Helya Iman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work reports a study on evaluation of antioxidant properties from flower of Senduduk herb. Natural occurring antioxidant was mostly preferred due to their little or no toxicity compared to the synthetic antioxidants which posses carcinogenic effects. Extraction was done on selected plant parts of Sendududk herb including leaves, stem, flower and berry parts to evaluate their antioxidant potentiality. Flower part of Sendudk herb extracted using acetonic solvent promotes highest antioxidant activity which is 93.97 ± 1.38 % as compared to leaves (92.20 ± 0.20 %, stem (47.94 ± 1.42% and berry (92.88 ± 0.63% using the same extracting solvent. Thus, Senduduk flower was chosen to be continued with screening and optimization process. Single factor experiment using the one factor at a time (OFAT method was done to study the effect of each extraction parameter that was solid to solvent ratio, temperature and solvent concentration. The extraction condition in each parametric study which results in highest antioxidant activity was used as the middle level of optimization process using Response Surface Methodology (RSM coupled with Central Composite Design (CCD. The optimum condition was at 1:20 solid to solvent ratio, 64.61°C temperature and 80.24% acetone concentration which result in antioxidant activity of 96.53%. The verification of RSM showed that the model used to predict the antioxidant activity was valid and adequate with the experimental parameters.

  7. Synthesis, characterization and evaluation of 1,3,5-triazine aminobenzoic acid derivatives for their antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zaydi, Khadijah M; Khalil, Hosam H; El-Faham, Ayman; Khattab, Sherine N

    2017-05-10

    Replacement of chloride ions in cyanuric chloride give several variants of 1,3,5-triazine derivatives which were investigated as biologically active small molecules. These compounds exhibit antimalarial, antimicrobial, anti-cancer and anti-viral activities, among other beneficial properties. On the other hand, treatment of bacterial infections remains a challenging therapeutic problem because of the emerging infectious diseases and the increasing number of multidrug-resistant microbial pathogens. As multidrug-resistant bacterial strains proliferate, the necessity for effective therapy has stimulated research into the design and synthesis of novel antimicrobial molecules. 1,3,5-Triazine 4-aminobenzoic acid derivatives were prepared by conventional method or by using microwave irradiation. Using microwave irradiation gave the desired products in less time, good yield and higher purity. Esterification of the 4-aminobenzoic acid moiety afforded methyl ester analogues. The s-triazine derivatives and their methyl ester analogues were fully characterized by FT-IR, NMR ( 1 H-NMR and 13 C-NMR), mass spectra and elemental analysis. All the synthesized compounds were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity. Some tested compounds showed promising activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Three series of mono-, di- and trisubstituted s-triazine derivatives and their methyl ester analogues were synthesized and fully characterized. All the synthesized compounds were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity. Compounds (10), (16), (25) and (30) have antimicrobial activity against S. aureus comparable to that of ampicillin, while the activity of compound (13) is about 50% of that of ampicillin. Compounds (13) and (14) have antimicrobial activity against E. coli comparable to that of ampicillin, while the activity of compounds (9-12) and (15) is about 50% of that of ampicillin. Furthermore, minimum inhibitory concentrations values for clinical isolates of

  8. Microwave-assisted extraction of Nigella sativa L. essential oil and evaluation of its antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi, Abdol-Samad; Rismanchi, Marjan; Shahdoostkhany, Mehrnoush; Mohammadi, Abdorreza; Mortazavian, Amir Mohammad

    2017-11-01

    It has been previously reported that the essential oil of Nigella sativa L. seeds and its major active component, thymoquinone (TQ), possess a broad variety of biological activities and therapeutic properties. In this work, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of the essential oil from Nigella sativa L. seeds and its antioxidant activity were studied. Response surface methodology based on central composite design was used to evaluate the effects of extraction time, irradiation power and moisture content on extraction yield and TQ content. Optimal parameters obtained by CCD and RSM were extraction time 30 min, irradiation power 450 W, and moisture content 50%. The extraction yield and TQ content of the essential oil were 0.33 and 20% under the optimum conditions, respectively. In contrast, extraction yield and TQ amount of oil obtained by hydrodistillation (HD) were 0.23 and 3.71%, respectively. The main constituents of the essential oil extracted by MAE and HD were p -cymene, TQ, α-thujene and longifolene, comprising more than 60% of total peak area. The antioxidant capacity of essential oils extracted by different methods were evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and Ferric reducing antioxidant power assays, and compared with traditional antioxidants. The results showed that MAE method was a viable alternative to HD for the essential oil extraction from N. sativa seeds due to the excellent extraction efficiency, higher thymoquinone content, and stronger antioxidant activity.

  9. An open randomized active-controlled clinical trial with low-dose SKA cytokines versus DMARDs evaluating low disease activity maintenance in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin-Martin LS

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available LS Martin-Martin,1 F Giovannangeli,2 E Bizzi,2 U Massafra,2 E Ballanti,2 M Cassol,3 A Migliore2 1Department of Internal Medicine, Regina Apostolorum Hospital, 2Operative Unit of Rheumatology, 3Department of Internal Medicine, San Pietro Fatebenefratelli Hospital, Rome, Italy Background: Biologic agents are currently the strongest immunosuppressive drugs able to induce remission in rheumatoid arthritis (RA. One of the objectives of the medical scientific community now is how to maintain remission or low disease activity (LDA. The aim of this trial is to evaluate the contribution of low-dose sequential kinetic activation (SKA IL-4, IL-10, and anti-IL-1 antibodies (10 fg/mL in patients affected by RA in maintaining LDA or remission obtained after biological therapy. Method: This is a randomized, open, active-controlled, prospective, Phase IV trial. Disease activity score (DAS28, clinical disease activity index, simplified disease activity index, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein levels, global health assessment, and pain visual analog scale were evaluated at baseline visit and then every 3 months together with an assessment of side effects till 12 months. Thirty-nine RA patients were enrolled and randomized to continue disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs therapy or to receive a combination of SKA low-dose cytokines formulated in concentration of 10 fg/mL orally administered at a dose of 20 drops/d for 12 consecutive months. Results: The rate of maintenance of LDA at 12 months was superior in the group treated with low-dose cytokines compared with patients treated with DMARDs, 66.7% and 42.1%, respectively; however, the difference between the groups was not statistically significant. No side effects were reported in both groups. Conclusion: This is the first study using a combination of three low-dose cytokines in RA, after data published on psoriasis. These data suggest that the use of a combination of low-dose SKA

  10. Evaluation of Effective Diaphragm Area for Pneumatic Actuator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Hogeun; Han, Bongsub; Seon, Juhyoung

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a methodology to calculate the exact effective diaphragm area using the results of diagnostic test to be performed in the evaluation of air operated valve performance. By using this developed methodology in pneumatic actuator performance evaluation, it can be reduce the possible errors arising from effective diaphragm area in the evaluation of performance of air operated valves. The performance assessment for the operability and structural integrity of air operated valves for the domestic nuclear power plant is in progress. One of the important parameters that determine the performance of the air operated valves is the effective diaphragm area of diaphragm type actuator. The effective diaphragm area is the actual area which the air pressure acting on the diaphragm. In general, the effective diaphragm area used for the performance evaluation of pneumatic actuator is provided by the manufacture or the actuator drawing. Flat type diaphragm was showed the difference between the measured value of EDA and the manufacture’s value, in the case of convoluted type diaphragm has showed that the measured value of EDA and manufacture’s value is almost the same. When evaluate a performance of a diaphragm actuator, accurate EDA is to be used because it is an important variable affecting the actuator performance. Particularly in the case of flat type diaphragm which EDA is changed in accordance with the stroke position, by using the EDA evaluation methodology developed in this study to minimize a possible error due to EDA when evaluating the performance of the air actuator

  11. Evaluation of Effective Diaphragm Area for Pneumatic Actuator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Hogeun; Han, Bongsub; Seon, Juhyoung [SOOSAN INDUSTRIES, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The purpose of this study is to develop a methodology to calculate the exact effective diaphragm area using the results of diagnostic test to be performed in the evaluation of air operated valve performance. By using this developed methodology in pneumatic actuator performance evaluation, it can be reduce the possible errors arising from effective diaphragm area in the evaluation of performance of air operated valves. The performance assessment for the operability and structural integrity of air operated valves for the domestic nuclear power plant is in progress. One of the important parameters that determine the performance of the air operated valves is the effective diaphragm area of diaphragm type actuator. The effective diaphragm area is the actual area which the air pressure acting on the diaphragm. In general, the effective diaphragm area used for the performance evaluation of pneumatic actuator is provided by the manufacture or the actuator drawing. Flat type diaphragm was showed the difference between the measured value of EDA and the manufacture’s value, in the case of convoluted type diaphragm has showed that the measured value of EDA and manufacture’s value is almost the same. When evaluate a performance of a diaphragm actuator, accurate EDA is to be used because it is an important variable affecting the actuator performance. Particularly in the case of flat type diaphragm which EDA is changed in accordance with the stroke position, by using the EDA evaluation methodology developed in this study to minimize a possible error due to EDA when evaluating the performance of the air actuator.

  12. Effect of montelukast on platelet activating factor- and tachykinin induced mucus secretion in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Groneberg David A

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Platelet activating factor and tachykinins (substance P, neurokinin A, neurokinin B are important mediators contributing to increased airway secretion in the context of different types of respiratory diseases including acute and chronic asthma. Leukotriene receptor antagonists are recommended as add-on therapy for this disease. The cys-leukotriene-1 receptor antagonist montelukast has been used in clinical asthma therapy during the last years. Besides its inhibitory action on bronchoconstriction, only little is known about its effects on airway secretions. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of montelukast on platelet activating factor- and tachykinin induced tracheal secretory activity. Methods The effects of montelukast on platelet activating factor- and tachykinin induced tracheal secretory activity in the rat were assessed by quantification of secreted 35SO4 labelled mucus macromolecules using the modified Ussing chamber technique. Results Platelet activating factor potently stimulated airway secretion, which was completely inhibited by the platelet activating factor receptor antagonist WEB 2086 and montelukast. In contrast, montelukast had no effect on tachykinin induced tracheal secretory activity. Conclusion Cys-leukotriene-1 receptor antagonism by montelukast reverses the secretagogue properties of platelet activating factor to the same degree as the specific platelet activating factor antagonist WEB 2086 but has no influence on treacheal secretion elicited by tachykinins. These results suggest a role of montelukast in the signal transduction pathway of platelet activating factor induced secretory activity of the airways and may further explain the beneficial properties of cys-leukotriene-1 receptor antagonists.

  13. Three-axial evaluation of whole-body vibration in agricultural telehandlers: The effects of an active cab-suspension system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffaro, Federica; Preti, Christian; Micheletti Cremasco, Margherita; Cavallo, Eugenio

    2017-10-01

    Agricultural and earth-moving machinery operators are particularly exposed to whole-body vibration (WBV), which has severe effects on health and affects comfort and performance. Few studies have investigated vibrational safety and comfort issues in telescopic handlers. These vehicles are widespread in many off-road applications-such as construction, agriculture, and mining-used to handle loads and to lift persons and equipment. This study investigated the effects of an active hydro-pneumatic cab-suspension system fitted to a telehandler on a driver's vibration exposure along the x-, y-, and z-axes, through both objective and subjective assessments. Sixteen healthy professional telehandler drivers took part in the study. Objective measurements were acquired at the operator's seat, and subjective ratings were taken while participants drove the telehandler with either a deactivated or activated suspension system at 12 kph on an ISO 5008 smooth track. The results showed that the activation of the cab-suspension system reduced the root-mean-square acceleration along the x- and z-axes (p =.038 and p =.000, respectively). Moreover, the frequency analysis showed a reduction in the acceleration along the z-axis in the range of 2-25 Hz (p suspension systems are discussed.

  14. Effectiveness of classroom response systems within an active learning environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Susan

    2013-11-01

    In nursing education, the inclusion of pedagogical tools is necessary to transform Millennial classrooms. One such pedagogical tool currently offered is classroom response systems (CRS). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of CRS as a pedagogical tool in improving nursing students' examination performance within an active learning environment. A pretest-posttest design was used to determine whether there was a relationship between the use of CRS (independent variable) and nursing students' examination performance in a first-year Professional Practice course (dependent variable). Paired t tests revealed no greater improvement in posttest scores. Therefore, the use of CRS technology was not effective in increasing nursing students' examination scores in the Professional Practice course. Additional research is needed to provide adequate understanding of the effectiveness of CRS within the nursing education classroom. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. Effects of triazole fungicides on androgenic disruption and CYP3A4 enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xuan; Pan, Liumeng; Wang, Jiaying; Lu, Liping; Yan, Weilin; Zhu, Yanye; Xu, Yiwen; Guo, Ming; Zhuang, Shulin

    2017-03-01

    Triazole fungicides are widely used as broad-spectrum fungicides, non-steroidal antiestrogens and for various industrial applications. Their residues have been frequently detected in multiple environmental and human matrices. The increasingly reported toxicity incidents have led triazole fungicides as emerging contaminants of environmental and public health concern. However, whether triazole fungicides behave as endocrine disruptors by directly mimicking environmental androgens/antiandrogens or exerting potential androgenic disruption indirectly through the inhibition of cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzyme activity is yet an unresolved question. We herein evaluated five commonly used triazole fungicides including bitertanol, hexaconazole, penconazole, tebuconazole and uniconazole for the androgenic and anti-androgenic activity using two-hybrid recombinant human androgen receptor (AR) yeast bioassay and comparatively evaluated their effects on enzymatic activity of CYP3A4 by P450-Glo™ CYP3A4 bioassay. All five fungicides showed moderate anti-androgenic activity toward human AR with the IC 50 ranging from 9.34 μM to 79.85 μM. The anti-androgenic activity remained no significant change after the metabolism mediated by human liver microsomes. These fungicides significantly inhibited the activity of CYP3A4 at the environmental relevant concentrations and the potency ranks as tebuconazole > uniconazole > hexaconazole > penconazole > bitertanol with the corresponding IC 50 of 0.81 μM, 0.93 μM, 1.27 μM, 2.22 μM, and 2.74 μM, respectively. We found that their anti-androgenic activity and the inhibition potency toward CYP3A4 inhibition was significantly correlated (R 2 between 0.83 and 0.97, p pesticides and structurally similar chemicals should fully consider potential androgenic disrupting effects and the influences on the activity of CYP450s. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Silver nanoparticles with antimicrobial activities against Streptococcus mutans and their cytotoxic effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez-Díaz, Mario Alberto [Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, UASLP, Álvaro Obregón 64, San Luis Potosí (Mexico); Boegli, Laura; James, Garth [Center for Biofilm Engineering, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT (United States); Velasquillo, Cristina; Sánchez-Sánchez, Roberto [Laboratorio de Biotecnología, Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitación (Mexico); Martínez-Martínez, Rita-Elizabeth; Martínez-Castañón, Gabriel Alejandro [Facultad de Estomatología, Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí (Mexico); Martinez-Gutierrez, Fidel, E-mail: fidel@uaslp.mx [Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, UASLP, Álvaro Obregón 64, San Luis Potosí (Mexico)

    2015-10-01

    Microbial resistance represents a challenge for the scientific community to develop new bioactive compounds. The goal of this research was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) against a clinical isolate of Streptococcus mutans, antibiofilm activity against mature S. mutans biofilms and the compatibility with human fibroblasts. The antimicrobial activity of AgNPs against the planktonic clinical isolate was size and concentration dependent, with smaller AgNPs having a lower minimum inhibitory concentration. A reduction of 2.3 log in the number of colony-forming units of S. mutans was observed when biofilms grown in a CDC reactor were exposed to 100 ppm of AgNPs of 9.5 ± 1.1 nm. However, AgNPs at high concentrations (> 10 ppm) showed a cytotoxic effect upon human dermal fibroblasts. AgNPs effectively inhibited the growth of a planktonic S. mutans clinical isolate and killed established S. mutans biofilms, which suggests that AgNPs could be used for prevention and treatment of dental caries. Further research and development are necessary to translate this technology into therapeutic and preventive strategies. - Highlights: • Biological activities of silver nanoparticles for dental caries purposes • Antimicrobial activity of AgNPs on planktonic cell was size and concentration dependent. • Reduction in the S. mutans biofilm formation was statistically significant. • AgNPs at high concentrations showed a cytotoxic effect upon human dermal fibroblasts. • AgNPs could be used for prevention and treatment of dental caries.

  17. Silver nanoparticles with antimicrobial activities against Streptococcus mutans and their cytotoxic effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez-Díaz, Mario Alberto; Boegli, Laura; James, Garth; Velasquillo, Cristina; Sánchez-Sánchez, Roberto; Martínez-Martínez, Rita-Elizabeth; Martínez-Castañón, Gabriel Alejandro; Martinez-Gutierrez, Fidel

    2015-01-01

    Microbial resistance represents a challenge for the scientific community to develop new bioactive compounds. The goal of this research was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) against a clinical isolate of Streptococcus mutans, antibiofilm activity against mature S. mutans biofilms and the compatibility with human fibroblasts. The antimicrobial activity of AgNPs against the planktonic clinical isolate was size and concentration dependent, with smaller AgNPs having a lower minimum inhibitory concentration. A reduction of 2.3 log in the number of colony-forming units of S. mutans was observed when biofilms grown in a CDC reactor were exposed to 100 ppm of AgNPs of 9.5 ± 1.1 nm. However, AgNPs at high concentrations (> 10 ppm) showed a cytotoxic effect upon human dermal fibroblasts. AgNPs effectively inhibited the growth of a planktonic S. mutans clinical isolate and killed established S. mutans biofilms, which suggests that AgNPs could be used for prevention and treatment of dental caries. Further research and development are necessary to translate this technology into therapeutic and preventive strategies. - Highlights: • Biological activities of silver nanoparticles for dental caries purposes • Antimicrobial activity of AgNPs on planktonic cell was size and concentration dependent. • Reduction in the S. mutans biofilm formation was statistically significant. • AgNPs at high concentrations showed a cytotoxic effect upon human dermal fibroblasts. • AgNPs could be used for prevention and treatment of dental caries

  18. Evaluation of the aphrodisiac activity of Tribulus terrestris Linn. in sexually sluggish male albino rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Surender; Nair, Vinod; Gupta, Yogendra K.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To study the effect of acute and repeated dose administration of lyophilized aqueous extract of the dried fruits of Tribulus terrestris (LAET) on sexual function in sexually sluggish male albino rats. Materials and Methods: Aphrodisiac activity of the test drug was evaluated in terms of exhibited sexual behavior. In order to assess the effect of chronic T. terrestris exposure on the hypothalamus--pituitary--gonadal axis, testosterone level estimation and sperm count were carried out. Twenty-eight-day oral toxicity studies were carried out to evaluate the long-term effects of the LAET administration on different body systems. Results: A dose-dependent improvement in sexual behavior was observed with the LAET treatment as characterized by an increase in mount frequency, intromission frequency, and penile erection index, as well as a decrease in mount latency, intromission latency, and ejaculatory latency. The enhancement of sexual behavior was more prominent on chronic administration of LAET. Chronic administration of LAET produced a significant increase in serum testosterone levels with no significant effect on the sperm count. No overt body system dysfunctions were observed in 28-day oral toxicity study. Conclusions: Findings of the present study validate the traditional use of T. terrestris as a sexual enhancer in the management of sexual dysfunction in males. PMID:22368416

  19. Radioprotective effects of flavonoids against to chromosomal damage: relation between the structure and activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcaraz, M.; Acevedo, C.; Benavente-Garcia, O.; Castillo, J.; Vicente, V.; Canteras, M.

    2004-01-01

    Protective effects of grape (Vitis vinifera) seed (GSE), Citrus spp. fruits (CE) and olive Olea europaea L) leaf (OL) extracts, the flavonoids diosmin and rutin, widely used as pharmaceuticals, and diemthyl sulphoxide (DMSO) against chromosomal damage induced by X-rays and g radiation were determined by using two different micronucleus test for anti genotoxic activity. The quantitative distribution of several flavones-3-ols was determined using HPLC in a grape (Vitis vinifera), seed extract (GSE) and Olea european (OL) of four cultivars grown in the region of Murcia. Polymer>C4 units made up the largest group of procyanidins in the GSE (90,92%, expressed as HPLC% area). The antioxidant activity of GSE and other reference compounds was investigated by measuring theirs ability to scavenge the ABTS+ radical cation (TEAC). The most effective compounds were in order: GSE >rutin>(+)-catechin>OL>diosmina>ascorbic acid. The radioprotective effects of GSE and other reference compounds were determined by using the micronucleus test for anticlastogenic activity, any reduction of the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (mnOCEs) being evaluated in the bone marrow of mouse exposed to X rays; and evaluating the reduction in the frequency of micronuclei in citokinesis-blocked cells of human lymphocytes exposed to g-rays. The most effective compounds were, in order: GSE>rutin>dimetylsufoxide (DMSO)>ascorbic acid>OL>6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil-6c (PTU)>disomin. The higher ABTS scavenging capacity and antigenotoxic activity of GSE can be explained, structurally, by the high number of conjugated structures between the catechol groups in the B-rings ant the 3-OH free groups of the polymeric polyphenolic skeleton and, in addition, by the stability of the aroxyl flavonoide radical generated in the above processes. (Author)

  20. Radioprotective effects of flavonoids against to chromosomal damage: relation between the structure and activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcaraz, M.; Acevedo, C.; Benavente-Garcia, O.; Castillo, J.; Vicente, V.; Canteras, M.

    2004-07-01

    Protective effects of grape (Vitis vinifera) seed (GSE), Citrus spp. fruits (CE) and olive Olea europaea L) leaf (OL) extracts, the flavonoids diosmin and rutin, widely used as pharmaceuticals, and diemthyl sulphoxide (DMSO) against chromosomal damage induced by X-rays and g radiation were determined by using two different micronucleus test for anti genotoxic activity. The quantitative distribution of several flavones-3-ols was determined using HPLC in a grape (Vitis vinifera), seed extract (GSE) and Olea european (OL) of four cultivars grown in the region of Murcia. Polymer>C4 units made up the largest group of procyanidins in the GSE (90,92%, expressed as HPLC% area). The antioxidant activity of GSE and other reference compounds was investigated by measuring theirs ability to scavenge the ABTS+ radical cation (TEAC). The most effective compounds were in order: GSE >rutin>(+)-catechin>OL>diosmina>ascorbic acid. The radioprotective effects of GSE and other reference compounds were determined by using the micronucleus test for anticlastogenic activity, any reduction of the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (mnOCEs) being evaluated in the bone marrow of mouse exposed to X rays; and evaluating the reduction in the frequency of micronuclei in citokinesis-blocked cells of human lymphocytes exposed to g-rays. The most effective compounds were, in order: GSE>rutin>dimetylsufoxide (DMSO)>ascorbic acid>OL>6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil-6c (PTU)>disomin. The higher ABTS scavenging capacity and antigenotoxic activity of GSE can be explained, structurally, by the high number of conjugated structures between the catechol groups in the B-rings ant the 3-OH free groups of the polymeric polyphenolic skeleton and, in addition, by the stability of the aroxyl flavonoide radical generated in the above processes. (Author)

  1. Antitubercular activity and inhibitory effect on Epstein-Barr virus activation of sterols and polyisoprenepolyols from an edible mushroom, Hypsizigus marmoreus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akihisa, Toshihiro; Franzblau, Scott Gary; Tokuda, Harukuni; Tagata, Masaaki; Ukiya, Motohiko; Matsuzawa, Tsunetomo; Metori, Koichi; Kimura, Yumiko; Suzuki, Takashi; Yasukawa, Ken

    2005-06-01

    Seven sterols (1-7) and eight polyisoprenepolyols (8-15), isolated from the non-saponifiable lipid fraction of the dichloromethane extract of an edible mushroom, Hypsizigus marmoreus (Buna-shimeji), were tested for their antitubercular activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain H37Rv using the Microplate Alamar Blue Assay (MABA). Six sterols (2-7) and two polyisoprenepolyols (8, 12) showed a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) in the range of 1-51 microg/ml, while the others (1, 9-11, 13-15) were inactive (MIC>128 microg/ml). The seven sterols (1-7) and three polyisoprenepolyols (8, 10, 12) were further evaluated for their inhibitory effects on Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation induced by the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in Raji cells. Sterols 6 and 7 showed potent inhibitory effects while preserving the high viability of Raji cells.

  2. EFFECT OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY ON CARDIOMETABOLIC MARKERS IN ADOLESCENTS: SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter Paulo Neves Miranda

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The accumulation of body fat is a major risk factor for cardiometabolic diseases. Obesity can be considered a chronic systemic inflammatory disease in adults and younger people. The control of subclinical inflammation process through the practice of physical activity (PA can mitigate the effects of risk factors that trigger atherosclerosis that worsens with advancing age. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the influence of physical activity and/or exercise on cardiometabolic markers and othrer risk factors of cardiovascular disease in adolescents. A systematic review was conducted in electronic databases Scopus, Pubmed, Conchrane Collection and SciELO. The terms used in the search were "cardiovascular diseases AND inflammation AND adolescents AND physical activity OR exercise". A total of 24 original articles were evaluated, being 14 longitudinal and 10 cross-sectional studies. Overall, 16 articles (66.66% showed that PA, exercise and/or sedentary behavior may have influenced or have been related to the concentration of cardiometabolic markers. All studies that examined lifestyle changes showed reduction of cardiometabolic markers. Some limitations were observed: reduced samples, lack of dietary prescription, evaluation and control of volume and intensity of exercise. Most of the studies analyzed showed that the physical activity could influence and decrease the concentrations of cardiometabolic markers in adolescents. However, studies with representative sample size and precise control in assessing the level of physical activity and/or exercise are required to determine accurately the changes that the more active lifestyle can bring on inflammatory process, as well as other risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases in adolescents.

  3. Effect of activation cross-section uncertainties on the radiological assessment of the MFE/DEMO first wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabellos, O. [Instituto de Fusion Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: cabellos@din.upm.es; Reyes, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Sanz, J. [Instituto de Fusion Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); University Nacional Educacion a Distancia, Dep. Ingenieria Energetica, Juan del Rosal 12, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Rodriguez, A. [University Nacional Educacion a Distancia, Dep. Ingenieria Energetica, Juan del Rosal 12, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Youssef, M. [University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Sawan, M. [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2006-02-15

    A Monte Carlo procedure has been applied in this work in order to address the impact of activation cross-sections (XS) uncertainties on contact dose rate and decay heat calculations for the outboard first wall (FW) of a magnetic fusion energy (MFE) demonstration (DEMO) reactor. The XSs inducing the major uncertainty in the prediction of activation related quantities have been identified. Results have shown that for times corresponding to maintenance activities the uncertainties effect is insignificant since the dominant XSs involved in these calculations are based on accurate experimental data evaluations. However, for times corresponding to waste management/recycling activities, the errors induced by the XSs uncertainties, which in this case are evaluated using systematic models, must be considered. It has been found that two particular isotopes, {sup 6}Co and {sup 94}Nb, are key contributors to the global DEMO FW activation uncertainty results. In these cases, the benefit from further improvements in the accuracy of the critical reaction XSs is discussed.

  4. Effect of activation cross-section uncertainties on the radiological assessment of the MFE/DEMO first wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabellos, O.; Reyes, S.; Sanz, J.; Rodriguez, A.; Youssef, M.; Sawan, M.

    2006-01-01

    A Monte Carlo procedure has been applied in this work in order to address the impact of activation cross-sections (XS) uncertainties on contact dose rate and decay heat calculations for the outboard first wall (FW) of a magnetic fusion energy (MFE) demonstration (DEMO) reactor. The XSs inducing the major uncertainty in the prediction of activation related quantities have been identified. Results have shown that for times corresponding to maintenance activities the uncertainties effect is insignificant since the dominant XSs involved in these calculations are based on accurate experimental data evaluations. However, for times corresponding to waste management/recycling activities, the errors induced by the XSs uncertainties, which in this case are evaluated using systematic models, must be considered. It has been found that two particular isotopes, 6 Co and 94 Nb, are key contributors to the global DEMO FW activation uncertainty results. In these cases, the benefit from further improvements in the accuracy of the critical reaction XSs is discussed

  5. Evaluation of thermal effects on the beam quality of disk laser with unstable resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shayganmanesh, Mahdi; Beirami, Reza

    2017-01-01

    In this paper thermal effects of the disk active medium and associated effects on the beam quality of laser are investigated. Using Collins integral and iterative method, transverse mode of an unstable resonator including a Yb:YAG active medium in disk geometry is calculated. After that the beam quality of the laser is calculated based on the generalized beam characterization method. Thermal lensing of the disk is calculated based on the OPD (Optical Path Difference) concept. Five factors influencing the OPD including temperature gradient, disk thermal expansion, photo-elastic effect, electronic lens and disk deformation are considered in our calculations. The calculations show that the effect of disk deformation factor on the quality of laser beam in the resonator is strong. However the total effect of all the thermal factors on the internal beam quality is fewer. Also it is shown that thermal effects degrade the output power, beam profile and beam quality of the output laser beam severely. As well the magnitude of each of affecting factors is evaluated distinctly.

  6. [Study on influence between activated carbon property and immobilized biological activated carbon purification effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guang-zhi; Li, Wei-guang; He, Wen-jie; Han, Hong-da; Ding, Chi; Ma, Xiao-na; Qu, Yan-ming

    2006-10-01

    By means of immobilizing five kinds of activated carbon, we studied the influence between the chief activated carbon property items and immobilized bioactivated carbon (IBAC) purification effect with the correlation analysis. The result shows that the activated carbon property items which the correlation coefficient is up 0.7 include molasses, abrasion number, hardness, tannin, uniform coefficient, mean particle diameter and effective particle diameter; the activated carbon property items which the correlation coefficient is up 0.5 include pH, iodine, butane and tetrachloride. In succession, the partial correlation analysis shows that activated carbon property items mostly influencing on IBAC purification effect include molasses, hardness, abrasion number, uniform coefficient, mean particle diameter and effective particle diameter. The causation of these property items bringing influence on IBAC purification is that the activated carbon holes distribution (representative activated carbon property item is molasses) provides inhabitable location and adjust food for the dominance bacteria; the mechanical resist-crash property of activated carbon (representative activated carbon property items: abrasion number and hardness) have influence on the stability of biofilm; and the particle diameter size and distribution of activated carbon (representative activated carbon property items: uniform coefficient, mean particle diameter and effective particle diameter) can directly affect the force of water in IBAC filter bed, which brings influence on the dominance bacteria immobilizing on activated carbon.

  7. Validation of a physical activity questionnaire to measure the effect of mechanical strain on bone mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Han C G; Bakker, I; Twisk, J W R; van Mechelen, W

    2002-05-01

    Most of the questionnaires available to estimate the daily physical activity levels of humans are based on measuring the intensity of these activities as multiples of resting metabolic rate (METs). Metabolic intensity of physical activities is the most important component for evaluating effects on cardiopulmonary fitness. However, animal studies have indicated that for effects on bone mass the intensity in terms of energy expenditure (metabolic component) of physical activities is less important than the intensity of mechanical strain in terms of the forces by the skeletal muscles and/or the ground reaction forces. The physical activity questionnaire (PAQ) used in the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study (AGAHLS) was applied to investigate the long-term effects of habitual physical activity patterns during youth on health and fitness in later adulthood. The PAQ estimates both the metabolic components of physical activities (METPA) and the mechanical components of physical activities (MECHPA). Longitudinal measurements of METPA and MECHPA were made in a young population of males and females ranging in age from 13 to 32 years. This enabled evaluation of the differential effects of physical activities during adolescence (13-16 years), young adulthood (21-28 years), and the total period of 15 years (age 13-28 years) on bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine, as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in males (n = 139) and females (n = 163) at a mean age of 32 years. The PAQ used in the AGAHLS during adolescence (13-16 years) and young adulthood (21-28 years) has the ability to measure the physical activity patterns of both genders, which are important for the development of bone mass at the adult age. MECHPA is more important than METPA. The highest coefficient of 0.33 (p PAQ was established by comparing PAQ scores during four annual measurements in 200 boys and girls with two other objective measures of physical activity: movement

  8. Evaluation of in vitro antioxidant and anti-inflmmatory activities of Ximenia americana extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kashivishwanath Shettar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate in vitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of Ximenia americana extracts. Methods: Herbal extraction was done by Soxhlet extraction method with increasing polarity of solvents viz., chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol, ethanol and water. Phytochemical analysis was done using different biochemical tests. Antioxidant potential of plant extracts were analyzed by ferric ion reducing antioxidant power, phosphomolybdenum and 2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl, and anti-inflammatory activity by using protein denaturation in vitro bioassay. Total phenolic content of each extract was also determined to assess their corresponding effect on antioxidant capacity of plant. Results: Phytochemical analysis showed that each solvent extract contained broad spectrum of secondary metabolites, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, tannins and glycosides, whereas compared to other solvent extracts, chloroform extract showed negative result for phenolic compounds whereas aqueous extract exhibited the highest phenolic content and the significant antioxidant capacity based on the test performed. Out of all extracts, methanol extract showed high anti-inflammatory activity. Conclusions: The present study revealed that different solvent extracts of Ximenia americana leaves contain broad spectrum of bioactive compounds. Results confirm that aqueous extract exhibited high antioxidant activity and methanol extract exhibited high antiinflammatory activity. Further study requires purification, characterization and structural elucidation of phenolic compounds in both extracts that may help in the development of new phytopharmaceuticals.

  9. Memory and Evaluation Effects in Competitive Advertising Environments.

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, Kevin Lane

    1991-01-01

    A laboratory experiment replicates and extends prior research on how competitive advertising and retrieval cues affect consumer memory and evaluations of brands. The number and valence of competing ads, presence of ad retrieval cues, and valence of target ads were manipulated. A high level of competitive advertising varying in valence produced interference effects for recall and evaluations. Ad retrieval cues offset these effects and enhanced recall and evaluations even when there were no com...

  10. Debate preparation/participation: an active, effective learning tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koklanaris, Nikki; MacKenzie, Andrew P; Fino, M Elizabeth; Arslan, Alan A; Seubert, David E

    2008-01-01

    Passive educational techniques (such as lectures) are thought to be less productive than active learning. We examined whether preparing for and participating in a debate would be an effective, active way to learn about a controversial topic. We compared quiz performance in residents who attended a lecture to residents who prepared for/participated in a debate. Twelve residents each participated in one lecture session and one debate session. Learning was evaluated via a quiz. Quizzes were given twice: before the debate/lecture and 1 week after the debate/lecture. Quiz scores were compared using repeated measures analysis of variance, with a p value of debating was given to all participants. There was a statistically significant difference in the pretest mean quiz score between the debate and lecture groups: 78.3% and 52.5%, respectively (p = .02). Similarly, on posttest quizzes, the average debater scored 85.8%, versus 61.7% for the lecture group (p = .003). Although no one in the debate group scored lower on a follow-up quiz, 3 residents in the lecture group did worse on follow-up. When learning about a controversial topic, residents who prepared for/participated in a debate achieved higher quiz scores and were better at retaining information than those who attended a lecture. When faced with teaching a controversial topic, organizing a debate may be more effective than giving a lecture.

  11. Measurement and evaluation of the effects of pH gradients on the antimicrobial and antivirulence activities of chitosan nanoparticles in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadilah Sfouq Aleanizy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to study the antimicrobial activity of chitosan nanoparticles (CSNPs on Pseudomonas aeruginosa with special emphasis on their sensitivity to pH and the effect of pH on their activity. Methodology: Antimicrobial activity of CSNPs against Pseudomonas aeruginosa at different pH was tested using broth dilution method. Further assessment of antivirulence activity and sensitization of CSNPs on Pseudomonas aeruginosa were examined. Results: Significant antimicrobial effects of CSNPs against Pseudomonas aeruginosa were detected at slightly acidic pH 5, whereas the activity was abolished at a pH of greater than 7. The antivirulence activity of CSNPs was then investigated and treatment with CSNPs (1000 ppm resulted in a significant reduction or even complete inhibition of pyocyanin production by P. aeruginosa compared with untreated P. aeruginosa indicating the antivirulence activity of CSNPs. CSNPs also sensitized P. aeruginosa to the lytic effects of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS; such sensitization was not blocked by washing chitosan-treated cells prior to SDS exposure revealing that CSNPs disturb the outer membrane leading to irreversible sensitivity to detergent even at low concentration (100 ppm. Conclusions: These findings highlight CSNPs as potentially useful as indirect antimicrobial agents for a variety of applications. Keywords: Chitosan nanoparticles, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, pH, Antimicrobial, Virulence

  12. Behavioral and