WorldWideScience

Sample records for active zones electron

  1. Synaptic vesicle proteins and active zone plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Kittel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Neurotransmitter is released from synaptic vesicles at the highly specialized presynaptic active zone. The complex molecular architecture of active zones mediates the speed, precision and plasticity of synaptic transmission. Importantly, structural and functional properties of active zones vary significantly, even for a given connection. Thus, there appear to be distinct active zone states, which fundamentally influence neuronal communication by controlling the positioning and release of synaptic vesicles. Vice versa, recent evidence has revealed that synaptic vesicle components also modulate organizational states of the active zone.The protein-rich cytomatrix at the active zone (CAZ provides a structural platform for molecular interactions guiding vesicle exocytosis. Studies in Drosophila have now demonstrated that the vesicle proteins Synaptotagmin-1 (Syt1 and Rab3 also regulate glutamate release by shaping differentiation of the CAZ ultrastructure. We review these unexpected findings and discuss mechanistic interpretations of the reciprocal relationship between synaptic vesicles and active zone states, which has heretofore received little attention.

  2. 78 FR 28801 - Foreign-Trade Zone 22-Chicago, Illinois; Authorization of Production Activity Panasonic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 22--Chicago, Illinois; Authorization of Production Activity Panasonic Corporation of North America (Kitting of Consumer Electronics) Aurora, Illinois On January 11... production activity to the Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board on behalf of Panasonic Corporation of...

  3. 78 FR 33808 - Foreign-Trade Zone 50-Long Beach, California; Authorization of Production Activity; Panasonic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ... No: 2013-13314] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [B-13-2013] Foreign-Trade Zone 50... (Kitting of Consumer Electronics); Anaheim, California On January 29, 2013, the Board of Harbor... activity to the Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board on behalf of Panasonic Corporation of North America,...

  4. Reductive dechlorination of trichloroethene DNAPL source zones: source zone architecture versus electron donor availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krol, M.; Kokkinaki, A.; Sleep, B.

    2014-12-01

    The persistence of dense-non-aqueous-phase liquids (DNAPLs) in the subsurface has led practitioners and regulatory agencies to turn towards low-maintenance, low-cost remediation methods. Biological degradation has been suggested as a possible solution, based on the well-proven ability of certain microbial species to break down dissolved chlorinated ethenes under favorable conditions. However, the biodegradation of pure phase chlorinated ethenes is subject to additional constraints: the continuous release of electron acceptor at a rate governed by mass transfer kinetics, and the temporal and spatial heterogeneity of DNAPL source zones which leads to spatially and temporally variable availability of the reactants for reductive dechlorination. In this work, we investigate the relationship between various DNAPL source zone characteristics and reaction kinetics using COMPSIM, a multiphase groundwater model that considers non-equilibrium mass transfer and Monod-type kinetics for reductive dechlorination. Numerical simulations are performed for simple, homogeneous trichloroethene DNAPL source zones to demonstrate the effect of single source zone characteristics, as well as for larger, more realistic heterogeneous source zones. It is shown that source zone size, and mass transfer kinetics may have a decisive effect on the predicted bio-enhancement. Finally, we evaluate the performance of DNAPL bioremediation for realistic, thermodynamically constrained, concentrations of electron donor. Our results indicate that the latter may be the most important limitation for the success of DNAPL bioremediation, leading to reduced bio-enhancement and, in many cases, comparable performance with water flooding.

  5. 78 FR 5773 - Foreign-Trade Zone 22-Chicago, IL, Notification of Proposed Production Activity, Panasonic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 22--Chicago, IL, Notification of Proposed Production Activity, Panasonic Corporation of North America, (Kitting of Consumer Electronics), Aurora, IL The Illinois... consumer electronics parts into retail packages. Pursuant to 15 CFR 400.14(b)4 of the regulations,...

  6. 78 FR 9667 - Foreign-Trade Zone 50-Long Beach, California; Notification of Proposed Production Activity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 50--Long Beach, California; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Panasonic Corporation of North America (Kitting of Consumer Electronics); Anaheim, CA... FTZ 50. The facility is used for the kitting of consumer electronics parts into retail...

  7. Synaptic Vesicle Proteins and Active Zone Plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittel, Robert J; Heckmann, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    Neurotransmitter is released from synaptic vesicles at the highly specialized presynaptic active zone (AZ). The complex molecular architecture of AZs mediates the speed, precision and plasticity of synaptic transmission. Importantly, structural and functional properties of AZs vary significantly, even for a given connection. Thus, there appear to be distinct AZ states, which fundamentally influence neuronal communication by controlling the positioning and release of synaptic vesicles. Vice versa, recent evidence has revealed that synaptic vesicle components also modulate organizational states of the AZ. The protein-rich cytomatrix at the active zone (CAZ) provides a structural platform for molecular interactions guiding vesicle exocytosis. Studies in Drosophila have now demonstrated that the vesicle proteins Synaptotagmin-1 (Syt1) and Rab3 also regulate glutamate release by shaping differentiation of the CAZ ultrastructure. We review these unexpected findings and discuss mechanistic interpretations of the reciprocal relationship between synaptic vesicles and AZ states, which has heretofore received little attention.

  8. The Interfacial Transition Zone in Alkali-Activated Slag Mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rackel eSan Nicolas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The interfacial transition zone (ITZ is known to strongly influence the mechanical and transport properties of mortars and concretes. This paper studies the ITZ between siliceous (quartz aggregates and alkali activated slag binders in the context of mortar specimens. Backscattered electron images (BSE generated in an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM are used to identify unreacted binder components, reaction products and porosity in the zone surrounding aggregate particles, by composition and density contrast. X-ray mapping is used to exclude the regions corresponding to the aggregates from the BSE image of the ITZ, thus enabling analysis of only the binder phases, which are segmented into binary images by grey level discrimination. A distinct yet dense ITZ region is present in the alkali-activated slag mortars, containing a reduced content of unreacted slag particles compared to the bulk binder. The elemental analysis of this region shows that it contains a (C,N-A-S-H gel which seems to have a higher content of Na (potentially deposited through desiccation of the pore solution and a lower content of Ca than the bulk inner and outer products forming in the main binding region. These differences are potentially important in terms of long-term concrete performance, as the absence of a highly porous interfacial transition zone region is expected to provide a positive influence on the mechanical and transport properties of alkali-activated slag concretes.

  9. Active zone stability: insights from fly neuromuscular junction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Tian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The presynaptic active zone is a dynamic structure that orchestrates regulated release of neurotransmitters. Developmental and aging processes, and changes in neuronal network activity can all modulate the number, size and composition of active zone and thereby synaptic efficacy. However, very little is known about the mechanism that controls the structural stability of active zone. By studying a model synapse, the Drosophila neuromuscular junction, our recent work shed light on how two scaffolding proteins at the active zone regulate active zone stability by promoting a localized dephosphorylation event at the nerve terminal. Here we discuss the major insights from our findings and their implications for future research.

  10. Presynaptic active zone density during development and synaptic plasticity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwenaëlle L Clarke

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Neural circuits transmit information through synapses, and the efficiency of synaptic transmission is closely related to the density of presynaptic active zones, where synaptic vesicles are released. The goal of this review is to highlight recent insights into the molecular mechanisms that control the number of active zones per presynaptic terminal (active zone density during developmental and stimulus-dependent changes in synaptic efficacy. At the neuromuscular junctions (NMJs, the active zone density is preserved across species, remains constant during development, and is the same between synapses with different activities. However, the NMJ active zones are not always stable, as exemplified by the change in active zone density during acute experimental manipulation or as a result of aging. Therefore, a mechanism must exist to maintain its density. In the central nervous system (CNS, active zones have restricted maximal size, exist in multiple numbers in larger presynaptic terminals, and maintain a constant density during development. These findings suggest that active zone density in the CNS is also controlled. However, in contrast to the NMJ, active zone density in the CNS can also be increased, as observed in hippocampal synapses in response to synaptic plasticity. Although the numbers of known active zone proteins and protein interactions have increased, less is known about the mechanism that controls the number or spacing of active zones. The following molecules are known to control active zone density and will be discussed herein: extracellular matrix laminins and voltage-dependent calcium channels, amyloid precursor proteins, the small GTPase Rab3, an endocytosis mechanism including synaptojanin, cytoskeleton protein spectrins and β-adducin, and a presynaptic web including spectrins. The molecular mechanisms that organize the active zone density are just beginning to be elucidated.

  11. Active devices for electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Sowa, Walter A

    1971-01-01

    An introduction to semiconductors ; the p-n junction ; the junction transistor ; electrical characteristics and ratings ; basic transistor amplifiers ; the field-effect transistor ; the unijunction transistor (UJT) ; the silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) ; the DIAC and TRIAC ; light operated devices ; integrated circuits (ICs) ; other solid-state devices of interest ; electron tubes.

  12. 75 FR 64248 - Approval for Manufacturing Authority Foreign-Trade Zone 196 ATC Logistics & Electronics (Cell...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ... & Electronics (Cell Phone Kitting) Fort Worth, TX Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of... following Order: Whereas, ATC Logistics & Electronics (ATCLE), an operator of Foreign-Trade Zone 196, has... procedures within FTZ 196 on behalf of ATC Logistics & Electronics, as described in the application...

  13. 75 FR 15413 - Approval for Processing Authority, Foreign-Trade Zone 196, ATC Logistics & Electronics (Personal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    ... & Electronics (Personal Navigation Devices), Fort Worth, Texas Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade...) adopts the following Order: Whereas, ATC Logistics & Electronics, an operator of Foreign-Trade Zone...

  14. Active zone stability:insights from fly neuromuscular junction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaolin Tian; Chunlai Wu

    2015-01-01

    The presynaptic active zone is a dynamic structure that orchestrates regulated release of neurotrans-mitters. Developmental and aging processes, and changes in neuronal network activity can all modulate the number, size and composition of active zone and thereby synaptic efifcacy. However, very little is known about the mechanism that controls the structural stability of active zone. By study-ing a model synapse, theDrosophila neuromuscular junction, our recent work shed light on how two scaffolding proteins at the active zone regulate active zone stability by promoting a localized dephos-phorylation event at the nerve terminal. Here we discuss the major insights from our ifndings and their implications for future research.

  15. Release probability of hippocampal glutamatergic terminals scales with the size of the active zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holderith, Noemi; Lorincz, Andrea; Katona, Gergely; Rózsa, Balázs; Kulik, Akos; Watanabe, Masahiko; Nusser, Zoltan

    2012-06-10

    Cortical synapses have structural, molecular and functional heterogeneity; our knowledge regarding the relationship between their ultrastructural and functional parameters is still fragmented. Here we asked how the neurotransmitter release probability and presynaptic [Ca(2+)] transients relate to the ultrastructure of rat hippocampal glutamatergic axon terminals. Two-photon Ca(2+) imaging-derived optical quantal analysis and correlated electron microscopic reconstructions revealed a tight correlation between the release probability and the active-zone area. Peak amplitude of [Ca(2+)] transients in single boutons also positively correlated with the active-zone area. Freeze-fracture immunogold labeling revealed that the voltage-gated calcium channel subunit Cav2.1 and the presynaptic protein Rim1/2 are confined to the active zone and their numbers scale linearly with the active-zone area. Gold particles labeling Cav2.1 were nonrandomly distributed in the active zones. Our results demonstrate that the numbers of several active-zone proteins, including presynaptic calcium channels, as well as the number of docked vesicles and the release probability, scale linearly with the active-zone area.

  16. Facilitating The Medical Response Into An Active Shooter Hot Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    diagram from Figure 5 from Snowden, this time (see Figure 18) in a more relaxed format. The response to an active shooter incident falls into the left...THE MEDICAL RESPONSE INTO AN ACTIVE SHOOTER HOT ZONE by Martin T. Tierney June 2016 Thesis Co-Advisors: Nadav Morag Patrick Miller...Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE FACILITATING THE MEDICAL RESPONSE INTO AN ACTIVE SHOOTER HOT ZONE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Martin

  17. Evidence for acceleration of outer zone electrons to relativistic energies by whistler mode chorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P. Meredith

    Full Text Available We use plasma wave and electron data from the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES to investigate the viability of a local stochastic electron acceleration mechanism to relativistic energies driven by gyroresonant interactions with whistler mode chorus. In particular, we examine the temporal evolution of the spectral response of the electrons and the waves during the 9 October 1990 geomagnetic storm. The observed hardening of the electron energy spectra over about 3 days in the recovery phase is coincident with prolonged substorm activity, as monitored by the AE index and enhanced levels of whistler mode chorus waves. The observed spectral hardening is observed to take place over a range of energies appropriate to the resonant energies associated with Doppler-shifted cyclotron resonance, as supported by the construction of realistic resonance curves and resonant diffusion surfaces. Furthermore, we show that the observed spectral hardening is not consistent with energy-independent radial diffusion models. These results provide strong circumstantial evidence for a local stochastic acceleration mechanism, involving the energisation of a seed population of electrons with energies of the order of a few hundred keV to relativistic energies, driven by wave-particle interactions involving whistler mode chorus. The results suggest that this mechanism contributes to the reformation of the relativistic outer zone population during geomagnetic storms, and is most effective when the recovery phase is characterised by prolonged substorm activity. An additional significant result of this paper is that we demonstrate that the lower energy part of the storm-time electron distribution is in steady-state balance, in accordance with the Kennel and Petschek (1966 theory of limited stably-trapped particle fluxes.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (storms and substorms, energetic particles, trapped – Space plasma physics (wave

  18. A Comet Active Beyond the Crystallization Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewitt, David; Hui, Man-To; Mutchler, Max; Weaver, Harold; Li, Jing; Agarwal, Jessica

    2017-10-01

    We present observations showing inbound long-period comet C/2017 K2 (PANSTARRS) to be active at a record heliocentric distance. Nucleus temperatures are too low (60–70 K) either for water ice to sublimate or for amorphous ice to crystallize, requiring another source for the observed activity. Using the Hubble Space Telescope we find a sharply bounded, circularly symmetric dust coma 105 km in radius, with a total scattering cross-section of ∼105 km2. The coma has a logarithmic surface brightness gradient ‑1 over much of its surface, indicating sustained, steady-state dust production. A lack of clear evidence for the action of solar radiation pressure suggests that the dust particles are large, with a mean size ≳0.1 mm. Using a coma convolution model, we find a limit to the apparent magnitude of the nucleus V> 25.2 (absolute magnitude H> 12.9). With assumed geometric albedo p V = 0.04, the limit to the nucleus circular equivalent radius is nucleus surface is likely a result of the comet’s recent arrival from the frigid Oort Cloud.

  19. Electron dispersion events in the morningside auroral zone and their relationship with VLF emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, David A.; Burke, William J.; Villalon, Elena

    1990-05-01

    This paper reports on observations of electron precipitation bursts observed in the morningside auroral zone with the J sensor, an electron detector aboard the Hilat satellite. The characteristics of these precipitation events are documented, and a theoretical explanation that could account for the observed properties is presented. According to this model, the dispersion events result from impulsive interactions of the electrons with intense asymmetric packets of VLF waves via the nonlinear ponderomotive force.

  20. The Proteome of the Murine Presynaptic Active Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Laßek

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The proteome of the presynaptic active zone controls neurotransmitter release and the short- and long-term structural and functional dynamics of the nerve terminal. The proteinaceous inventory of the presynaptic active zone has recently been reported. This review will evaluate the subcellular fractionation protocols and the proteomic approaches employed. A breakthrough for the identification of the proteome of the presynaptic active zone was the successful employment of antibodies directed against a cytosolic epitope of membrane integral synaptic vesicle proteins for the immunopurification of synaptic vesicles docked to the presynaptic plasma membrane. Combining immunopurification and subsequent analytical mass spectrometry, hundreds of proteins, including synaptic vesicle proteins, components of the presynaptic fusion and retrieval machinery, proteins involved in intracellular and extracellular signaling and a large variety of adhesion molecules, were identified. Numerous proteins regulating the rearrangement of the cytoskeleton are indicative of the functional and structural dynamics of the presynapse. This review will critically discuss both the experimental approaches and prominent protein candidates identified. Many proteins have not previously been assigned to the presynaptic release sites and may be directly involved in the short- and long-term structural modulation of the presynaptic compartment. The identification of proteinaceous constituents of the presynaptic active zone provides the basis for further analyzing the interaction of presynaptic proteins with their targets and opens novel insights into the functional role of these proteins in neuronal communication.

  1. Recent activity of Chihe segment of Tanlu fault zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚大全; 刘加灿

    2004-01-01

    By means of differentiation of remote sensing image, field seismo-geological survey, analysis on drilling exploration materials, sampling and dating of rock samples, combined with seismicity and microscopic tectonic analysis, this paper studies the recent activity of Chihe segment of the Tanlu fault zone. The result indicates that the Chihe fault segment undergoes the deformation alternately in the mode of stick slip and creep during Late Quaternary, and its recent activity is mainly creep.

  2. The energy balance and pressure in the solar transition zone for network and active region features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, K. R.; Bartoe, J.-D. F.; Brueckner, G. E.; Vanhoosier, M. E.

    1979-01-01

    The electron pressure and energy balance in the solar transition zone are determined for about 125 network and active region features on the basis of high spectral and spatial resolution extreme ultraviolet spectra. Si III line intensity ratios obtained from the Naval Research Laboratory high-resolution telescope and spectrograph during a rocket flight are used as diagnostics of electron density and pressure for solar features near 3.5 x 10 to the 4th K. Observed ratios are compared with the calculated dependence of the 1301 A/1312 A and 1301 A/1296 A line intensity ratios on electron density, temperature and pressure. Electron densities ranging from 2 x 10 to the 10th/cu cm to 10 to the 12th/cu cm and active region pressures from 3 x 10 to the 15th to 10 to the 16th/cu cm K are obtained. Energy balance calculations reveal the balance of the divergence of the conductive flux and turbulent energy dissipation by radiative energy losses in a plane-parallel homogeneous transition zone (fill factor of 1), and an energy source requirement for a cylindrical zone geometry (fill factor less than 0.04).

  3. Occurrence characteristics of outer zone relativistic electron butterfly distribution: A survey of Van Allen Probes REPT measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Binbin; Zou, Zhengyang; Li, Xinlin; Bortnik, Jacob; Xie, Lun; Gu, Xudong

    2016-06-01

    Using Van Allen Probes Relativistic Electron Proton Telescope (REPT) pitch angle resolved electron flux data from September 2012 to March 2015, we investigate in detail the global occurrence pattern of equatorial (|λ| ≤ 3°) butterfly distribution of outer zone relativistic electrons and its potential correlation with the solar wind dynamic pressure. The statistical results demonstrate that these butterfly distributions occur with the highest occurrence rate ~ 80% at ~ 20-04 magnetic local time (MLT) and L > ~ 5.5 and with the second peak (> ~ 50%) at ~ 11-15 MLT of lower L shells ~ 4.0. They can also extend to L = 3.5 and to other MLT intervals but with the occurrence rates predominantly butterfly distributions are likely to peak between 58° and 79° for L = 4.0 and 5.0 and between 37° and 58° for L = 6.0, regardless of the level of solar wind dynamic pressure. Relativistic electron butterfly distributions at L = 4.0 also exhibit a pronounced day-night asymmetry in response to the Pdyn variations. Compared to the significant L shell and MLT dependence of the global occurrence pattern, outer zone relativistic electron butterfly distributions show much less but still discernable sensitivity to Pdyn, geomagnetic activity level, and electron energy, the full understanding of which requires future attempts of detailed simulations that combine and differentiate underlying physical mechanisms of the geomagnetic field asymmetry and scattering by various magnetospheric waves.

  4. Active learners in sustainable electronics and it

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Ole

    This poster-presentation is about active learning in a course sustainable wireless electronics and it. Active learning understood as practical lab-exercises and a team chosen project.......This poster-presentation is about active learning in a course sustainable wireless electronics and it. Active learning understood as practical lab-exercises and a team chosen project....

  5. Comments on the energy selective precipitation of inner zone electrons by Imhof et al

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vampola, A. L.; Kuck, G. A.

    1981-12-01

    This note addresses the interpretation of data from the 1971-89A satellite as published by Imhof et al, in 'The Energy Selective Precipitation of Inner Zone Electrons' in the Journal of Geophysical Research. It discusses the limitations of the data set and demonstrates that the data set is in agreement with the thesis that a source of electron precipitation is colocated with the Soviet VLF transmitter UMS.

  6. Electron spin resonance dating of fault gouge from Desamangalam, Kerala: Evidence for Quaternary movement in Palghat gap shear zone

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T K Gundu Rao; C P Rajendran; George Mathew; Biju John

    2002-06-01

    The field investigations in the epicentral area of the 1994 Wadakkancheri (Desamangalam), Kerala, earthquake (M 4.3) indicate subtle, but clearly recognizable expressions of geologically recent fault zone, consisting of fracture sets showing brittle displacement and a gouge zone. The fracture zone confines to the crystalline basement, and is spatially coincident with the elongation of the isoseismals of the 1994 mainshock and a 10-km-long WNW-ESE trending topographic lineament. The preliminary results from the electron spin resonance (ESR) dating on the quartz grains from the fault gouge indicate that the last major faulting in this site occurred 430 ± 43 ka ago. The experiments on different grain sizes of quartz from the gouge showed consistent decrease in age to a plateau of low values, indicating that ESR signals in finer grains were completely zeroed at the time of faulting due to frictional heat. The results show a relatively young age for displacement on the fault that occurs within a Precambrian shear zone. Discrete reactivated faults in such areas may be characterized by low degree of activity, but considering the ESR age of the last significant faulting event, the structure at Desamangalam may be categorized as a potentially active fault capable of generating moderate earthquakes, separated by very long periods of quiescence.

  7. 75 FR 13484 - Foreign-Trade Zone 22; Temporary/Interim Manufacturing Authority; LG Electronics Mobilecomm USA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 22; Temporary/Interim Manufacturing Authority; LG Electronics... Electronics Mobilecomm USA, Inc. (LGEMU), to process cell phone kits under FTZ procedures within FTZ...

  8. Experiment in New Madrid Zone to employ active source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langston, Charles A.; Mooney, Walter; Bodin, Paul; Powell, Christine; Withers, Mitch

    An active source seismic experiment is scheduled for the end of October in the central United States' New Madrid Seismic Zone (NMSZ). Researchers from the center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) of the University of Memphis and the U.S. Geological Survey are planning 2600-lb and 5000-lb explosions at the southern and northern ends of the NMSZ, respectively. Broadband seismic instruments, other temporary broadband seismic stations, and an array of accelerographs near each source will record the large surface waves generated by the explosions in the unconsolidated sediments of the Mississippi embayment.

  9. The possibility of a fuzzy zone of semiotic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morioka, Masayoshi

    2007-12-01

    In this commentary I tried to further develop the idea of Madureira (Integr Psych Behav Sci, 42(2), 2007), who challenges to clarify the complex sexuality problem of homophobia from the viewpoint of the cultural semiotic activity. Two remarking points were proposed in this commentary article. First, I took notice of the boundary phenomenon constructed between the homophobia and the other. It has a cultural meaning. Concerning with this process, I introduced and examined the concept of tonus that is sensed a subtle changing process of tension in self-other relationship. The second, I discussed about the fuzzy zone of semiotic activity. If one can feel in oneself fuzzy awareness into the source of discomfort affect, it is able to be a creative moment in the tension of fuzzy field (A and non-A) where generates dialogical activity in both vertical and horizontal. Through this discussion, I proposed some remarks for the dissolution on the culturally constructed prejudice of sexuality.

  10. Migration and Extension of Solar Active Longitudinal Zones

    CERN Document Server

    Gyenge, N; Ludmány, A

    2014-01-01

    Solar active longitudes show a characteristic migration pattern in the Carrington coordinate system when they can be identified at all. By following this migration, the longitudinal activity distribution around the center of the band can be determined. The halfwidth of the distribution is found to be varying in Cycles 21 - 23, and in some time intervals it was as narrow as 20 - 30 degrees. It was more extended around maximum but it was also narrow when the activity jumped to the opposite longitude. Flux emergence exhibited a quasi-periodic variation within the active zone with a period of about 1.3 years. The path of the active longitude migration does not support the view that it might be associated with the 11-year solar cycle. These results were obtained for a limited time interval of a few solar cycles and, bearing in mind uncertainties of the migration path definition, are only indicative. For the major fraction of dataset no systematic active longitudes were found. Sporadic migration of active longitude...

  11. Migration and Extension of Solar Active Longitudinal Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyenge, N.; Baranyi, T.; Ludmány, A.

    2014-02-01

    Solar active longitudes show a characteristic migration pattern in the Carrington coordinate system if they can be identified at all. By following this migration, the longitudinal activity distribution around the center of the band can be determined. The half-width of the distribution is found to be varying in Cycles 21 - 23, and in some time intervals it was as narrow as 20 - 30 degrees. It was more extended around a maximum but it was also narrow when the activity jumped to the opposite longitude. Flux emergence exhibited a quasi-periodic variation within the active zone with a period of about 1.3 years. The path of the active-longitude migration does not support the view that it might be associated with the 11-year solar cycle. These results were obtained for a limited time interval of a few solar cycles and, bearing in mind uncertainties of the migration-path definition, are only indicative. For the major fraction of the dataset no systematic active longitudes were found. Sporadic migration of active longitudes was identified only for Cycles 21 - 22 in the northern hemisphere and Cycle 23 in the southern hemisphere.

  12. 75 FR 53638 - Approval for Manufacturing Authority; Foreign-Trade Zone 22; LG Electronics Mobilecomm USA, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... Manufacturing Authority; Foreign-Trade Zone 22; LG Electronics Mobilecomm USA, Inc. (Cell Phone Kitting and... manufacturing authority on behalf of LG Electronics Mobilecomm USA, Inc. (LGEMU), within FTZ 22 in Bolingbrook... Electronics Mobilecomm USA, Inc., as described in the application and Federal Register notice, is...

  13. 78 FR 48647 - Foreign-Trade Zone 225-Springfield, Missouri; Authorization of Production Activity; General...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 225--Springfield, Missouri; Authorization of Production Activity; General Dynamics Ordnance and Tactical Systems Munitions Services (Demilitarization of...

  14. Regulation of synaptic vesicle docking by different classes of macromolecules in active zone material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szule, Joseph A; Harlow, Mark L; Jung, Jae Hoon; De-Miguel, Francisco F; Marshall, Robert M; McMahan, Uel J

    2012-01-01

    The docking of synaptic vesicles at active zones on the presynaptic plasma membrane of axon terminals is essential for their fusion with the membrane and exocytosis of their neurotransmitter to mediate synaptic impulse transmission. Dense networks of macromolecules, called active zone material, (AZM) are attached to the presynaptic membrane next to docked vesicles. Electron tomography has shown that some AZM macromolecules are connected to docked vesicles, leading to the suggestion that AZM is somehow involved in the docking process. We used electron tomography on the simply arranged active zones at frog neuromuscular junctions to characterize the connections of AZM to docked synaptic vesicles and to search for the establishment of such connections during vesicle docking. We show that each docked vesicle is connected to 10-15 AZM macromolecules, which fall into four classes based on several criteria including their position relative to the presynaptic membrane. In activated axon terminals fixed during replacement of docked vesicles by previously undocked vesicles, undocked vesicles near vacated docking sites on the presynaptic membrane have connections to the same classes of AZM macromolecules that are connected to docked vesicles in resting terminals. The number of classes and the total number of macromolecules to which the undocked vesicles are connected are inversely proportional to the vesicles' distance from the presynaptic membrane. We conclude that vesicle movement toward and maintenance at docking sites on the presynaptic membrane are directed by an orderly succession of stable interactions between the vesicles and distinct classes of AZM macromolecules positioned at different distances from the membrane. Establishing the number, arrangement and sequence of association of AZM macromolecules involved in vesicle docking provides an anatomical basis for testing and extending concepts of docking mechanisms provided by biochemistry.

  15. Super-resolution microscopy of the synaptic active zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehmann, Nadine; Sauer, Markus; Kittel, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Brain function relies on accurate information transfer at chemical synapses. At the presynaptic active zone (AZ) a variety of specialized proteins are assembled to complex architectures, which set the basis for speed, precision and plasticity of synaptic transmission. Calcium channels are pivotal for the initiation of excitation-secretion coupling and, correspondingly, capture a central position at the AZ. Combining quantitative functional studies with modeling approaches has provided predictions of channel properties, numbers and even positions on the nanometer scale. However, elucidating the nanoscopic organization of the surrounding protein network requires direct ultrastructural access. Without this information, knowledge of molecular synaptic structure-function relationships remains incomplete. Recently, super-resolution microscopy (SRM) techniques have begun to enter the neurosciences. These approaches combine high spatial resolution with the molecular specificity of fluorescence microscopy. Here, we discuss how SRM can be used to obtain information on the organization of AZ proteins.

  16. Super-resolution microscopy of the synaptic active zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine eEhmann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain function relies on accurate information transfer at chemical synapses. At the presynaptic active zone (AZ a variety of specialised proteins are assembled to complex architectures, which set the basis for speed, precision and plasticity of synaptic transmission.Calcium (Ca2+ channels are pivotal for the initiation of excitation-secretion coupling and, correspondingly, capture a central position at the AZ. Combining quantitative functional studies with modelling approaches has provided predictions of channel properties, numbers and even positions on the nanometre scale. However, elucidating the nanoscopic organisation of the surrounding protein network requires direct ultrastructural access. Without this information, knowledge of molecular synaptic structure-function relationships remains incomplete. Recently, super-resolution microscopy techniques have begun to enter the neurosciences. These approaches combine high spatial resolution with the molecular specificity of fluorescence microscopy. Here, we discuss how super-resolution microscopy can be used to obtain information on the organisation of AZ proteins.

  17. Electron distribution function behavior during localized transverse ion acceleration events in the topside auroral zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, K.A.; Arnoldy, R.L. [Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States); Kintner, P.M. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Vago, J.L. [European Space Agency, Noordwijk (Netherlands)

    1994-02-01

    The Topaz3 auroral sounding rocket made the following observations concerning the transfer of precipitating auroral electron energy to transverse ion acceleration in the topside auroral zone. During the course of the flight, the precipitating electron beam was modified to varying degrees by interaction with VLF hiss, at times changing the beam into a field-aligned plateau. The electron distribution functions throughout the flight are classified according to the extent of this modification, and correspondences with ion acceleration events are sought. The hiss power during most of this rocket flight apparently exceeded the threshold for collapse into solitary structures. At the times of plateaued electron distributions, the collapse of these structures was limited by Landau damping through the ambient ions, resulting in a velocity-dependent acceleration of both protons and oxygen. This initial acceleration is sufficient to supply the number flux of upflowing ions observed at satellite altitudes. The bursty ion acceleration was anticorrelated, on 1-s or smaller timescales, with dispersive bursts of precipitating field-aligned electrons, although on longer timescales the bursty ions and the bursty electrons are correlated. 45 refs., 9 figs.

  18. Study of macro- and micro-segregation of iridium in molybdenum single crystals after electron beam zone melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drapala, Jaromir; Skotnicova, Katerina [VSB-Technical University of Ostrava (Czech Republic). Dept. of Non-ferrous Metals, Refining and Recycling

    2013-01-15

    The aim of the work was to study the creation of micro- and macro-segregation of iridium in low-alloyed molybdenum single crystals after electron beam zone melting (floating zone technique) depending on various conditions of crystallization. In order to evaluate relations between the chemical inhomogeneity and structural defects and their influence on properties of single crystals, the dependence of concentration and character of distribution of admixtures under various crystallization conditions on the origin of concentration undercooling and dislocation substructure of molybdenum single crystals prepared by electron beam floating zone melting was experimentally investigated.

  19. Energy‐dependent dynamics of keV to MeV electrons in the inner zone, outer zone, and slot regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, Reiner H. W.; Larsen, Brian A.; Skoug, Ruth M.; Funsten, Herbert O.; Claudepierre, Seth G.; Fennell, Joseph F.; Turner, Drew L.; Denton, Mick H.; Spence, Harlan E.; Blake, J. Bernard; Baker, Daniel N.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We present observations of the radiation belts from the Helium Oxygen Proton Electron and Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer particle detectors on the Van Allen Probes satellites that illustrate the energy dependence and L shell dependence of radiation belt enhancements and decays. We survey events in 2013 and analyze an event on 1 March in more detail. The observations show the following: (a) at all L shells, lower energy electrons are enhanced more often than higher energies; (b) events that fill the slot region are more common at lower energies; (c) enhancements of electrons in the inner zone are more common at lower energies; and (d) even when events do not fully fill the slot region, enhancements at lower energies tend to extend to lower L shells than higher energies. During enhancement events the outer zone extends to lower L shells at lower energies while being confined to higher L shells at higher energies. The inner zone shows the opposite with an outer boundary at higher L shells for lower energies. Both boundaries are nearly straight in log(energy) versus L shell space. At energies below a few 100 keV, radiation belt electron penetration through the slot region into the inner zone is commonplace, but the number and frequency of “slot filling” events decreases with increasing energy. The inner zone is enhanced only at energies that penetrate through the slot. Energy‐ and L shell‐dependent losses (that are consistent with whistler hiss interactions) return the belts to more quiescent conditions.

  20. Analysis of natural neutron flux in a seismically active zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Ostapenko

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In a seismically active zone in the near Almaty area (Kazakhstan since 1996 observations of variations of a natural neutron flux have been conducted. Sometimes the neutron flux rises sharply within the one-hour interval in comparison with the background. It occurs on the eve of activation of seismic processes. Increase of the neutron flux level had taken place from 1 h to 10 days prior to earthquakes. It is also indicated a tendency of growth of the anomaly level in accordance with the growth of energetic class of the subsequent earthquake. A character of connection between the neutron flux and earthquakes is still not clear. It is proposed that the neutron flux anomalies caused by variations of cosmic radiation intensity under action of fluxes of solar material, which is burst into interplanetary space (solar wind during solar flares. Energy of the solar wind transferred to Earth puts into action a trigger mechanism of the process of initiation of earthquakes at those places where conditions have already been prepared for them. The neutron flux anomalies can be used as substantial additional information for classical geophysical methods of short-term earthquake prediction.

  1. Localized heating of electrons in ionization zones: Going beyond the Penning-Thornton paradigm in magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, Andre

    2014-12-07

    The fundamental question of how energy is supplied to a magnetron discharge is commonly answered by the Penning-Thornton paradigm invoking secondary electrons. Huo et al. (Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 22, 045005, (2013)) used a global discharge model to show that electron heating in the electric field of the magnetic presheath is dominant. In this contribution, this concept is applied locally taking into account the electric potential structure of ionization zones. Images of ionization zones can and should be interpreted as diagrams of the localization of electric potential and related electron energy, where certain collisions promote or dampen their formation.

  2. Quantum-chemical studies of quasi-one-dimensional electron systems. Part 2. Cumulenes and origin of the forbidden zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy Kruglyak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This review is devoted to the basic problem in quantum theory of quasi-one-dimensional electron systems like polyenes (Part 1 and cumulenes (Part 2 – physical origin of the forbidden zone in these and analogous 1D electron systems due to two possible effects – Peierls instability (bond alternation and Mott instability (electron correlation. Both possible contradiction and coexistence of the Mott and Peierls instabilities are summerized on the basis of the Kiev quantum chemistry team research projects.

  3. INVERSE ELECTRON TRANSFER IN PEROXYOXALATE CHEMIEXCITATION USING EASILY REDUCIBLE ACTIVATORS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartoloni, Fernando Heering; Monteiro Leite Ciscato, Luiz Francisco; Augusto, Felipe Alberto; Baader, Wilhelm Josef

    2010-01-01

    INVERSE ELECTRON TRANSFER IN PEROXYOXALATE CHEMIEXCITATION USING EASILY REDUCIBLE ACTIVATORS. Chemiluminescence properties of the peroxyoxalate reaction in the presence of activators bearing electron withdrawing substituents were studied, to evaluate the possible occurrence of an inverse electron tr

  4. INVERSE ELECTRON TRANSFER IN PEROXYOXALATE CHEMIEXCITATION USING EASILY REDUCIBLE ACTIVATORS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartoloni, Fernando Heering; Monteiro Leite Ciscato, Luiz Francisco; Augusto, Felipe Alberto; Baader, Wilhelm Josef

    2010-01-01

    INVERSE ELECTRON TRANSFER IN PEROXYOXALATE CHEMIEXCITATION USING EASILY REDUCIBLE ACTIVATORS. Chemiluminescence properties of the peroxyoxalate reaction in the presence of activators bearing electron withdrawing substituents were studied, to evaluate the possible occurrence of an inverse electron tr

  5. INVERSE ELECTRON TRANSFER IN PEROXYOXALATE CHEMIEXCITATION USING EASILY REDUCIBLE ACTIVATORS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartoloni, Fernando Heering; Monteiro Leite Ciscato, Luiz Francisco; Augusto, Felipe Alberto; Baader, Wilhelm Josef

    2010-01-01

    INVERSE ELECTRON TRANSFER IN PEROXYOXALATE CHEMIEXCITATION USING EASILY REDUCIBLE ACTIVATORS. Chemiluminescence properties of the peroxyoxalate reaction in the presence of activators bearing electron withdrawing substituents were studied, to evaluate the possible occurrence of an inverse electron

  6. Active zone impact on deformation state of non-rigid pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandula, Ján

    2014-06-01

    The paper deals with the design of non-rigid pavement, with emphasis on the effect of active zone on its deformation state. The concepts of determination of active zone are described. The results of numerical modelling of pavement laying on elastic subgrade are presented in the paper

  7. Active zone impact on deformation state of non-rigid pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandula Ján

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the design of non-rigid pavement, with emphasis on the effect of active zone on its deformation state. The concepts of determination of active zone are described. The results of numerical modelling of pavement laying on elastic subgrade are presented in the paper

  8. Characteristics of Relocated Quiet Zones Using Virtual Microphone Algorithm in an Active Headrest System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seokhoon Ryu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study displays theoretical and experimental investigation on the characteristics of the relocated zone of quiet by a virtual microphone (VM based filtered-x LMS (FxLMS algorithm which can be embedded in a real-time digital controller for an active headrest system. The attenuation changes at the relocated zones of quiet by the variation of the distance between the ear and the error microphone are mainly examined. An active headrest system was implemented for the control experiment at a chair and consists of two (left and right secondary loudspeakers, two error microphones, two observer microphones at ear positions in a HATS, and other electronics including a dSPACE 1401 controller. The VM based FxLMS algorithm achieved an attenuation of about 22 dB in the control experiment against a narrowband primary noise by the variation of the distance between the ear and the error microphone. The important factors for the algorithm are discussed as well.

  9. In situ bioremediation of nitrate and perchlorate in vadose zone soil for groundwater protection using gaseous electron donor injection technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Patrick J; Trute, Mary M

    2006-12-01

    When present in the vadose zone, potentially toxic nitrate and perchlorate anions can be persistent sources of groundwater contamination. Gaseous electron donor injection technology (GEDIT), an anaerobic variation of petroleum hydrocarbon bioventing, involves injecting electron donor gases, such as hydrogen or ethyl acetate, into the vadose zone, to stimulate biodegradation of nitrate and perchlorate. Laboratory microcosm studies demonstrated that hydrogen and ethanol promoted nitrate and perchlorate reduction in vadose zone soil and that moisture content was an important factor. Column studies demonstrated that transport of particular electron donors varied significantly; ethyl acetate and butyraldehyde were transported more rapidly than butyl acetate and ethanol. Nitrate removal in the column studies, up to 100%, was best promoted by ethyl acetate. Up to 39% perchlorate removal was achieved with ethanol and was limited by insufficient incubation time. The results demonstrate that GEDIT is a promising remediation technology warranting further validation.

  10. 78 FR 22843 - Foreign-Trade Zone 33-Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Authorization of Export Production Activity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-17

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 33--Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Authorization of Export... December 4, 2012, Tsudis Chocolate Company, submitted a notification of proposed export production activity... liquid chocolate admitted to FTZ 33 must be re-exported. Dated: April 11, 2013. Andrew...

  11. 77 FR 55455 - Foreign-Trade Zone 235-Lakewood, NJ, Authorization of Production Activity, Cosmetic Essence...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 235--Lakewood, NJ, Authorization of Production Activity, Cosmetic Essence Innovations, LLC, (Fragrance Bottling), Holmdel, NJ Cosmetic Essence Innovations, LLC...

  12. 77 FR 70139 - Foreign-Trade Zone 8-Toledo, OH; Authorization of Production Activity; Whirlpool Corporation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 8--Toledo, OH; Authorization of Production Activity; Whirlpool Corporation (Washing Machines); Clyde and Green Springs, OH On July 20, 2012 the...

  13. 77 FR 46024 - Foreign-Trade Zone 8-Toledo, OH; Notification of Proposed Production Activity, Whirlpool...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 8--Toledo, OH; Notification of Proposed Production Activity, Whirlpool Corporation (Washing Machines), Clyde and Green Springs, OH The Toledo-Lucas County Port...

  14. Root Zone Microbial Populations, Urease Activities, and Purification Efficiency for a Constructed Wetland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Wei; WU Zhen-Bin; ZHAN Fa-Cui; DENG Jia-Qi

    2004-01-01

    In order to investigate the effects of microorganisms and their urease activities in macrophytic root zones on pollutant removal, four small-scale plots (SSPs) of vertical/reverse-vertical flow wetlands were set up to determine: a) the relationship between the abundance of microorganisms in the root zones and water purification efficiency; and b) the relationship between urease activities in the root zones and pollutant removal in a constructed wetland system. Total numbers of the microbial population (bacteria, fungi, and actinomyces) along with urease activities in the macrophytic root zones were determined. In addition, the relationships between microbial populations and urease activities as well as the wastewater purification efficiencies of total phosphorus (TP), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), biochemical oxygen demand in 5 days (BOD5), and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were also analyzed. The results showed that there was a highly significant positive correlation (r = 0.9772, P < 0.01) between the number of bacteria in the root zones and BOD5 removal efficiency and a significant negative correlation (r = -0.9092, P < 0.05) between the number of fungi and the removal efficiency of TKN. Meanwhile, there was a significant positive correlation (r -- 0.8830, P < 0.05) between urease activities in the root zones and the removal efficiency of TKN. Thus, during wastewater treatment in a constructed wetland system,microorganism and urease activities in the root zones were very important factors.

  15. Alignment of synaptic vesicle macromolecules with the macromolecules in active zone material that direct vesicle docking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, Mark L; Szule, Joseph A; Xu, Jing; Jung, Jae Hoon; Marshall, Robert M; McMahan, Uel J

    2013-01-01

    Synaptic vesicles dock at active zones on the presynaptic plasma membrane of a neuron's axon terminals as a precondition for fusing with the membrane and releasing their neurotransmitter to mediate synaptic impulse transmission. Typically, docked vesicles are next to aggregates of plasma membrane-bound macromolecules called active zone material (AZM). Electron tomography on tissue sections from fixed and stained axon terminals of active and resting frog neuromuscular junctions has led to the conclusion that undocked vesicles are directed to and held at the docking sites by the successive formation of stable connections between vesicle membrane proteins and proteins in different classes of AZM macromolecules. Using the same nanometer scale 3D imaging technology on appropriately stained frog neuromuscular junctions, we found that ∼10% of a vesicle's luminal volume is occupied by a radial assembly of elongate macromolecules attached by narrow projections, nubs, to the vesicle membrane at ∼25 sites. The assembly's chiral, bilateral shape is nearly the same vesicle to vesicle, and nubs, at their sites of connection to the vesicle membrane, are linked to macromolecules that span the membrane. For docked vesicles, the orientation of the assembly's shape relative to the AZM and the presynaptic membrane is the same vesicle to vesicle, whereas for undocked vesicles it is not. The connection sites of most nubs on the membrane of docked vesicles are paired with the connection sites of the different classes of AZM macromolecules that regulate docking, and the membrane spanning macromolecules linked to these nubs are also attached to the AZM macromolecules. We conclude that the luminal assembly of macromolecules anchors in a particular arrangement vesicle membrane macromolecules, which contain the proteins that connect the vesicles to AZM macromolecules during docking. Undocked vesicles must move in a way that aligns this arrangement with the AZM macromolecules for docking

  16. Associations between active living-oriented zoning and no adult leisure-time physical activity in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leider, Julien; Chriqui, Jamie F; Thrun, Emily

    2017-02-01

    Nearly one-third of adults report no leisure-time physical activity (LTPA). Governmental and authoritative bodies recognize the role that community design through zoning code changes can play in enabling LTPA. This study examined the association between zoning and no adult LTPA in the U.S. This study was conducted between 2012 and 2016, with analyses occurring in 2015-2016. Zoning codes effective as of 2010 were compiled for jurisdictions located in the 495 most populous U.S. counties and were evaluated for pedestrian-oriented code reform zoning, 11 active living-oriented provisions (e.g., sidewalks, bike-pedestrian connectivity, mixed use, bike lanes) and a summated zoning scale (max=12). Individual-level LTPA data were obtained from the 2012 CDC Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). County-aggregated, population-weighted zoning variables were constructed for linking to BRFSS. Log-log multivariate regressions (N=147,517 adults), controlling for individual and county characteristics and with robust standard errors clustered on county, were conducted to examine associations between zoning and no LTPA. Relative risks (RR) compared predicted lack of LTPA at 0% and 100% county-level population exposure to each zoning predictor. Zoning code reforms were associated with a 13% lower probability of no LTPA (RR: 0.87, 95% CI: 0.82-0.92). Except for crosswalks, all zoning provisions were associated with an 11-16% lower probability of no LTPA. Having all 12 zoning provisions was associated with a 22% lower probability of no LTPA (RR: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.72-0.83). The results suggest that active living-oriented zoning is a policy lever available to communities seeking to reduce rates of no LTPA.

  17. Exploring the Linkage between Activity-Friendly Zoning, Inactivity, and Cancer Incidence in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Lisa M; Leider, Julien; Chriqui, Jamie F

    2017-03-07

    Background: Physical activity (PA) protects against cancer and enhances cancer survivorship. Given high inactivity rates nationwide, population-level physical activity facilitators are needed. Several authoritative bodies have recognized that zoning and planning helps create activity-friendly environments. This study examined the association between activity-friendly zoning, inactivity, and cancer in 478 of the most populous U.S. counties.Methods: County geocodes linked county-level data: cancer incidence and smoking (State Cancer Profiles), inactivity (Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System), 11 zoning measures (compiled by the study team), and covariates (from the American Community Survey and NAVTEQ). For each zoning measure, single mediation regression models and Sobel tests examined whether activity-friendly zoning was associated with reduced cancer incidence, and whether inactivity mediated those associations. All models were clustered on state with robust SEs and significance at the P Zoning for crosswalks, bike-pedestrian connectivity, and bike-pedestrian trails/paths were associated with reduced cancer incidence (β between -0.71 and -1.27, P zoning. Except for crosswalks, each association was mediated by inactivity. However, county smoking attenuated these results, with only crosswalks remaining significant. Results were similar for males (with zoning for bike-pedestrian connectivity, street connectivity, and bike-pedestrian trails/paths), but not females, alone.Conclusions: Zoning can help to create activity-friendly environments that support decreased inactivity, and possibly reduced cancer incidence.Impact: Given low physical activity levels nationwide, cross-sectoral collaborations with urban planning can inform cancer prevention and public health efforts to decrease inactivity and cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 1-9. ©2017 AACR.See all the articles in this CEBP Focus section, "Geospatial Approaches to Cancer Control and Population

  18. Quantitative determination of the mineral distribution in different collagen zones of calcifying tendon using high voltage electron microscopic tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, B. F.; Song, M. J.; Landis, W. J.

    1991-01-01

    High voltage electron microscopic tomography was used to make the first quantitative determination of the distribution of mineral between different regions of collagen fibrils undergoing early calcification in normal leg tendons of the domestic turkey, Meleagris gallopavo. The tomographic 3-D reconstruction was computed from a tilt series of 61 different views spanning an angular range of +/- 60 degrees in 2 degrees intervals. Successive applications of an interactive computer operation were used to mask the collagen banding pattern of either hole or overlap zones into separate versions of the reconstruction. In such 3-D volumes, regions specified by the mask retained their original image density while the remaining volume was set to background levels. This approach was also applied to the mineral crystals present in the same volumes to yield versions of the 3-D reconstructions that were masked for both the crystal mass and the respective collagen zones. Density profiles from these volumes contained a distinct peak corresponding only to the crystal mass. A comparison of the integrated density of this peak from each profile established that 64% of the crystals observed were located in the collagen hole zones and 36% were found in the overlap zones. If no changes in crystal stability occur once crystals are formed, this result suggests the possibilities that nucleation of mineral is preferentially and initially associated with the hole zones, nucleation occurs more frequently in the hole zones, the rate of crystal growth is more rapid in the hole zones, or a combination of these alternatives. All lead to the conclusion that the overall accumulation of mineral mass is predominant in the collagen hole zones compared to overlap zones during early collagen fibril calcification.

  19. Mediated Electron Transfer at Redox Active Monolayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E.G. Lyons

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical model describing the transport and kinetic processes involved in heterogeneous redox catalysis of solution phase reactants at electrode surfaces coated with redox active monolayers is presented. Although the analysis presented has quite general applicability, a specific focus of the paper is concerned with the idea that redox active monolayers can be used to model an ensemble of individual molecular nanoelectrodes. Three possible rate determining steps are considered: heterogeneous electron transfer between immobilized mediator and support electrode ; bimolecular chemical reaction between redox mediator and reactant species in the solution phase, and diffusional mass transport of reactant in solution. A general expression for the steady state reaction flux is derived which is valid for any degree of reversibility of both the heterogeneous electron transfer reaction involving immobilized mediator species and of the bimolecular cross exchange reaction between immobilized mediator and solution phase reactant. The influence of reactant transport in solution is also specifically considered. Simplified analytical expressions for the net reaction flux are derived for experimentally reasonable situations and a kinetic case diagram is constructed outlining the relationships between the various approximate solutions. The theory enables simple diagnostic plots to be constructed which can be used to analyse experimental data.

  20. [Differences of activations in visual and associative zones during figurative and verbal activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagornova, Zh V; Shemiakina, N V

    2014-04-01

    The study considers correlates of figurative and verbal tasks performance during attention paid to visual stimuli. There are 34 subjects (20 female, mean age 21, 2.5 [SD]) took parts in the study. During subjects performance of the task, there was carried out EEG registration from 19 sites according to 10-20%. Performance of the figurative creative task in comparison with control non-creative task of the same modality was accompanied by activation of occipital and parietal zones of the cerebral cortex (decrease of EEG spectral power in alpha 1 (7.5-9.5 Hz) and alpha2 (10-12.5 Hz) frequency bands was observed) whereas performance of a verbal creative task in the similar test-control comparison was accompanied by decrease of activation in occipital zones (revealed through increase of EEG spectral in alphal and alpha2 frequency bands). As visual stimuli were shown during the whole time of the creative and control tasks fulfilment was made an assumption observed distinction can be connected with redistribution of attention focus at various types of creative activity (figurative or verbal).

  1. Nonuniform sampling schemes of the Brillouin zone for many-electron perturbation-theory calculations in reduced dimensionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Jornada, Felipe H.; Qiu, Diana Y.; Louie, Steven G.

    2017-01-01

    First-principles calculations based on many-electron perturbation theory methods, such as the ab initio G W and G W plus Bethe-Salpeter equation (G W -BSE) approach, are reliable ways to predict quasiparticle and optical properties of materials, respectively. However, these methods involve more care in treating the electron-electron interaction and are considerably more computationally demanding when applied to systems with reduced dimensionality, since the electronic confinement leads to a slower convergence of sums over the Brillouin zone due to a much more complicated screening environment that manifests in the "head" and "neck" elements of the dielectric matrix. Here we present two schemes to sample the Brillouin zone for G W and G W -BSE calculations: the nonuniform neck subsampling method and the clustered sampling interpolation method, which can respectively be used for a family of single-particle problems, such as G W calculations, and for problems involving the scattering of two-particle states, such as when solving the BSE. We tested these methods on several few-layer semiconductors and graphene and show that they perform a much more efficient sampling of the Brillouin zone and yield two to three orders of magnitude reduction in the computer time. These two methods can be readily incorporated into several ab initio packages that compute electronic and optical properties through the G W and G W -BSE approaches.

  2. Presynaptic spinophilin tunes neurexin signalling to control active zone architecture and function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Karzan; Reddy-Alla, Suneel; Driller, Jan H; Schreiner, Dietmar; Rey, Ulises; Böhme, Mathias A.; Hollmann, Christina; Ramesh, Niraja; Depner, Harald; Lützkendorf, Janine; Matkovic, Tanja; Götz, Torsten; Bergeron, Dominique D.; Schmoranzer, Jan; Goettfert, Fabian; Holt, Mathew; Wahl, Markus C.; Hell, Stefan W.; Scheiffele, Peter; Walter, Alexander M.; Loll, Bernhard; Sigrist, Stephan J.

    2015-01-01

    Assembly and maturation of synapses at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ) depend on trans-synaptic neurexin/neuroligin signalling, which is promoted by the scaffolding protein Syd-1 binding to neurexin. Here we report that the scaffold protein spinophilin binds to the C-terminal portion of neurexin and is needed to limit neurexin/neuroligin signalling by acting antagonistic to Syd-1. Loss of presynaptic spinophilin results in the formation of excess, but atypically small active zones. Neuroligin-1/neurexin-1/Syd-1 levels are increased at spinophilin mutant NMJs, and removal of single copies of the neurexin-1, Syd-1 or neuroligin-1 genes suppresses the spinophilin-active zone phenotype. Evoked transmission is strongly reduced at spinophilin terminals, owing to a severely reduced release probability at individual active zones. We conclude that presynaptic spinophilin fine-tunes neurexin/neuroligin signalling to control active zone number and functionality, thereby optimizing them for action potential-induced exocytosis. PMID:26471740

  3. Auroral Electrojet Index Designed to Provide a Global Measure, Hourly Intervals, of Auroral Zone Magnetic Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Auroral Electrojet (AE) index is designed to provide a global quantitative measure of auroral zone magnetic activity produced by enhanced ionospheric currents...

  4. Active fault survey on the Tanlu fault zone in Laizhou Bay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhi-cai; YANG Xi-ha; LI Chang-chuan; DENG Qi-dong; DU Xian-song; CHAO Hong-tai; WU Zi-quan; XIAO Lan-xi; SUN Zhao-ming; MIN Wei; LING Hong

    2006-01-01

    Shallow-depth acoustic reflection profiling survey has been conducted on the Tanlu fault zone in Laizhou Bay. It is found that the Tanlu fault zone is obviously active during the late Quaternary and it is still the dominating structure in this region. The Tanlu fault zone consists of two branches. The KL3 fault of the western branch is composed of several high angle normal faults which had been active during the period from the latest Pleistocene to early Holocene, dissected by a series of northeast or approximate east-west trending fault which leaped sediment of the late Pleistocene. The Longkou fault of the eastern branch consists of two right-laterally stepped segments. Late Quaternary offsets and growth strata developed along the Tanlu fault zone verify that the fault zone retained active in the latest Pleistocene to the early Holocene. The Anqiu-Juxian fault that passes through the middle of Shandong and corresponds to the Longkou fault is composed of a series of right-laterally stepped segments. The active faults along the eastern branch of the Tanlu fault zone from the Laizhou bay to the north of Anqiu make up a dextral simple shear deformation zone which is characterized by right-lateral strike-slip movement with dip-slip component during the late Quaternary.

  5. Group Problem Solving as a Zone of Proximal Development activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewe, Eric

    2006-12-01

    Vygotsky described learning as a process, intertwined with development, which is strongly influenced by social interactions with others that are at differing developmental stages.i These interactions create a Zone of Proximal Development for each member of the interaction. Vygotsky’s notion of social constructivism is not only a theory of learning, but also of development. While teaching introductory physics in an interactive format, I have found manifestations of Vygotsky’s theory in my classroom. The source of evidence is a paired problem solution. A standard mechanics problem was solved by students in two classes as a homework assignment. Students handed in the homework and then solved the same problem in small groups. The solutions to both the group and individual problem were assessed by multiple reviewers. In many cases the group score was the same as the highest individual score in the group, but in some cases, the group score was higher than any individual score. For this poster, I will analyze the individual and group scores and focus on three groups solutions and video that provide evidence of learning through membership in a Zone of Proximal Development. Endnotes i L. Vygotsky -Mind and society: The development of higher mental processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. (1978).

  6. Fusion zone microstructure and porosity in electron beam welds of an α+β titanium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohandas, T.; Banerjee, D.; Kutumba Rao, V. V.

    1999-03-01

    The effect of electron beam welding parameters on fusion zone (FZ) microstructure and porosity in a Ti -6.8 Al -3.42 Mo -1.9 Zr -0.21 Si alloy (Russian designation VT 9) has been investigated. It has been observed that the FZ grain width increased continuously with increase in heat input when the base metal was in the β heat-treated condition, while in the α+β heat-treated base metal welds, the FZ grain width increased only after a threshold energy input. The difference is attributed to both the weld thermal cycle and the pinning effect of equiaxed primary alpha on grain growth in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of α+β heat-treated base metal. Postweld heat treatment (PWHT) in the subtransus and supertransus regions did not alter the columnar grain morphology in the FZ, possibly due to the lack of enough driving force for the formation of new grains by the breaking up of the columnar grains and grain boundary movement for grain growth. As the PWHTs were conducted in a furnace, the role of thermal gradients can be ruled out. Intragranular microstructure in the aswelded condition consisted of hexagonal martensite. The scale of the martensite laths depended on welding speed. The highest porosity was observed at intermediate welding speeds. At low speeds, a majority of pores formed at the fusion boundary, while at high speeds, occurrence of porosity was maximum at the weld center. The trends on porosity can be explained on the basis of solubility of hydrogen in titanium as a function of temperature and the influence of weld thermal cycle on nucleation, growth, and escape of hydrogen gas bubbles. The porosity at slow welding speeds is low because sufficient time exists for the nucleation, growth, and escape of hydrogen gas bubbles, while insufficient time exists for the nucleation of gas bubbles at high welding speeds. The effect of pickling of joint surface, vacuum annealing of the base metal, and successive remelting of the weld metal has also been investigated.

  7. 78 FR 43141 - Foreign-Trade Zone 93-Raleigh-Durham, North Carolina, Authorization of Production Activity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 93--Raleigh-Durham, North Carolina, Authorization of Production Activity, Southern Lithoplate, Inc. (Aluminum Printing Plates), Youngsville, North Carolina On... proposed production activity to the Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board on behalf of Southern Lithoplate, Inc...

  8. 34 CFR 299.3 - What priority may the Secretary establish for activities in an Empowerment Zone or Enterprise...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... activities in an Empowerment Zone or Enterprise Community? 299.3 Section 299.3 Education Regulations of the... activities in an Empowerment Zone or Enterprise Community? For any ESEA discretionary grant program, the... significant portion of the program funds to address substantial problems in an Empowerment Zone, including...

  9. Brazing zone structure at active brazing of alumina ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Nowadays one of the most effective methods of joining of oxide ceramics with other elements of construction is active brazing based on using of active metals (Ti, Zr), which increase reactivity of brazing alloy relative to ceramic element of a joining.

  10. Brazing zone structure at active brazing of alumina ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Demchuk; V.; A.; Kalinichenko; B.; B.

    2005-01-01

    Nowadays one of the most effective methods of joining of oxide ceramics with other elements of construction is active brazing based on using of active metals (Ti, Zr), which increase reactivity of brazing alloy relative to ceramic element of a joining.……

  11. Active faulting on the Wallula fault zone within the Olympic-Wallowa lineament, Washington State, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrod, Brian; Blakely, Richard J.; Lasher, John P.; Lamb, Andrew P.; Mahan, Shannon; Foit, Franklin F.; Barnett, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The Wallula fault zone is an integral feature of the Olympic-Wallowa lineament, an ∼500-km-long topographic lineament oblique to the Cascadia plate boundary, extending from Vancouver Island, British Columbia, to Walla Walla, Washington. The structure and past earthquake activity of the Wallula fault zone are important because of nearby infrastructure, and also because the fault zone defines part of the Olympic-Wallowa lineament in south-central Washington and suggests that the Olympic-Wallowa lineament may have a structural origin. We used aeromagnetic and ground magnetic data to locate the trace of the Wallula fault zone in the subsurface and map a quarry exposure of the Wallula fault zone near Finley, Washington, to investigate past earthquakes along the fault. We mapped three main packages of rocks and unconsolidated sediments in an ∼10-m-high quarry exposure. Our mapping suggests at least three late Pleistocene earthquakes with surface rupture, and an episode of liquefaction in the Holocene along the Wallula fault zone. Faint striae on the master fault surface are subhorizontal and suggest reverse dextral oblique motion for these earthquakes, consistent with dextral offset on the Wallula fault zone inferred from offset aeromagnetic anomalies associated with ca. 8.5 Ma basalt dikes. Magnetic surveys show that the Wallula fault actually lies 350 m to the southwest of the trace shown on published maps, passes directly through deformed late Pleistocene or younger deposits exposed at Finley quarry, and extends uninterrupted over 120 km.

  12. Structures of Syn-deformational Granites in the Longquanguan Shear Zone and Their Monazite Electronic Microprobe Dating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jinjiang; ZHAO Lan; LIU Shuwen

    2006-01-01

    The Longquanguan shear zone is an important structural belt in the North China Craton,separating the underlying Fuping complex from the overlying Wutai complex. This shear zone has experienced three episodes of deformation: the first and main episode is a ductile top-to-ESE shear along the gently northwest-west dipping foliations, while the other two episodes are later collapse sliding. Prolonged granites parallel to the shear foliations make one of the main compositions of the Longquanguan shear zone. These granites experienced deformation to form mylonitic rocks when they emplaced during the first episode of deformation. Structural characters of the granites and their contacts to the country rocks indicate that these granites possibly resulted from in-situ partial remelting by shearing, i.e., they are syn-deformational granites. Monazites in these mylonitic granites are magmatic minerals and their crystallization ages may represent ages of the magmatic events, and also the ages for the main deformation of the Longquanguan shear zone. Monazite electronic microprobe dating were carried on two samples of granite, which gives multiple peak ages, among which 1,846 Ma and 1,877 Ma are the main peak ages for the two samples. These ages represent the main deformation of the Longquanguan shear zone, which is consistent with the main regional geological event at about 1,850 Ma caused by the collision between the Eastern and Western Blocks in North China. The good match between the monazite ages and the corresponding regional tectono-thermal events shows the feasibility and reliability of monazite electronic microprobe dating.

  13. Satellite geodetic monitoring of the Vladikavkaz active fault zone: First results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milyukov, V. K.; Mironov, A. P.; Steblov, G. M.; Ovsyuchenko, A. N.; Rogozhin, E. A.; Drobyshev, V. N.; Kusraev, A. G.; Khubaev, Kh. M.; Torchinov, Kh.-M. Z.

    2017-07-01

    A geodetic network of Global Satellite Navigation System (GNSS) observation sites was organized in 2014-2015 for studying the contemporary crustal motions in the zone of the Vladikavkaz deep fault (Milyukov et al., 2014; 2015). The measurements were conducted and the first velocity estimates obtained testifying to the consistency of crustal motions in the Vladikavkaz fault zone and the Ossetian region overall in the ITRG2008 system. The first results show that the velocities and directions of horizontal motions do not change upon the transition of the fault zone. In correspondence with the northeastern orientation of the site displacement vectors and sublatitudinal trend of the disjunctive zone, the presence of left-lateral strike-slip displacements along the branches of an active fault should be expected. However, the signs pointing to the activation of motion in the fault zone are absent. Besides, even the manifestation of weak seismicity has not been observed within the high-magnitude seismogenic Vladikavkaz zone associated with this fault for more than 25 years. This suggests the passive present state of this structure, one of the largest disjunctive structures of the Northern Caucasus. In order to verify this conclusion and revealing the kinematic pattern of the displacements associated with the fault structure it is reasonable to continue the measurements.

  14. Heavy metals contamination characteristics in soil of different mining activity zones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Guo-li; LIAO Da-xue; LI Quan-ming

    2008-01-01

    Depending upon the polluted features of various mining activities in a typical nonferrous metal mine, the contaminated soil area was divided into four zones which were polluted by tailings, mine drainage, dust deposition in wind and spreading minerals during vehicle transportation, respectively. In each zone, soil samples were collected. Total 28 soil samples were dug and analyzed by ICP-AES and other relevant methods. The results indicate that the average contents of Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu and As in soils are 508.6, 384.8, 7.53, 356 and 44.6 mg/kg, respectively. But the contents of heavy metals in different zone have distinct differences. The proportion of oxidizing association with organic substance is small. Difference of the association of heavy metals is small in different polluted zones.

  15. Characterization of fluo-3 labelling of dense bodies at the hair cell's presynaptic active zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, N P; Hudspeth, A J

    1996-04-01

    The presynaptic active zone is the critical region of a chemical synapse at which Ca2+ entry provokes neurotransmitter release by exocytotic fusion of synaptic vesicles. To facilitate investigations of synaptic function, we have identified a group of fluorescent substances that label individual active zones in living hair cells. The Ca2+ indicator fluo-3, the compound studied in most detail, binds to the presynaptic dense bodies that are characteristic of active zones in hair cells and other cells that tonically release transmitter. The indicator's binding is reversible, with a dissociation constant of approximately 350 microM. Because fluo-3 that is bound to a presynaptic dense body continues to detect Ca2+ with an unaltered dissociation constant, the binding of this substance provides a valuable tool for exploration of the Ca2+ concentration at the site of vesicle fusion.

  16. The Ms7.0 Lushan earthquake and the activity of the Longmenshan fault zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Xiangang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Ms7.0 Lushan earthquake is directly related to the activity of Longmenshan fault zone. In this article, deformation monitoring data in Longmenshan and its surrounding areas were analyzed and the result shows that the activity trend of Longmenshan fault zone depends on the relative motion between Bayan Har Block and Sichuan Basin, and the main power of the movement comes from the Tibetan Plateau and the upper Yangtze craton massif of push. In recent years, the Longmenshan and its surrounding areas is one of the main seismogenic area in mainland China. In this paper, combination with seismogenic area of geological structure and crustal deformation observation data analysis results, the relationship between the earthquake and Longmenshan fault zone activity was discussed, and the key monitoring areas in the next five years were proposed.

  17. Alternative interpretation for the active zones of Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Mario Octavio Cotilla

    2014-11-01

    An alternative explanation to the seismoactivity of Cuban faults is presented. The model is a consequence of the interaction between Caribbean and North American plates. It is made with 12 geodynamic cells form by a set of 13 active faults and their 14 areas of intersection. These cells are recognized morpho-structural blocks. The area between Eastern Matanzas and Western Cauto-Nipe is excluded because of the low level of seismic information. Cuba has two types of seismogenetic structures: faults and intersection of faults.

  18. Postsynaptic actin regulates active zone spacing and glutamate receptor apposition at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blunk, Aline D; Akbergenova, Yulia; Cho, Richard W; Lee, Jihye; Walldorf, Uwe; Xu, Ke; Zhong, Guisheng; Zhuang, Xiaowei; Littleton, J Troy

    2014-07-01

    Synaptic communication requires precise alignment of presynaptic active zones with postsynaptic receptors to enable rapid and efficient neurotransmitter release. How transsynaptic signaling between connected partners organizes this synaptic apparatus is poorly understood. To further define the mechanisms that mediate synapse assembly, we carried out a chemical mutagenesis screen in Drosophila to identify mutants defective in the alignment of active zones with postsynaptic glutamate receptor fields at the larval neuromuscular junction. From this screen we identified a mutation in Actin 57B that disrupted synaptic morphology and presynaptic active zone organization. Actin 57B, one of six actin genes in Drosophila, is expressed within the postsynaptic bodywall musculature. The isolated allele, act(E84K), harbors a point mutation in a highly conserved glutamate residue in subdomain 1 that binds members of the Calponin Homology protein family, including spectrin. Homozygous act(E84K) mutants show impaired alignment and spacing of presynaptic active zones, as well as defects in apposition of active zones to postsynaptic glutamate receptor fields. act(E84K) mutants have disrupted postsynaptic actin networks surrounding presynaptic boutons, with the formation of aberrant actin swirls previously observed following disruption of postsynaptic spectrin. Consistent with a disruption of the postsynaptic actin cytoskeleton, spectrin, adducin and the PSD-95 homolog Discs-Large are all mislocalized in act(E84K) mutants. Genetic interactions between act(E84K) and neurexin mutants suggest that the postsynaptic actin cytoskeleton may function together with the Neurexin-Neuroligin transsynaptic signaling complex to mediate normal synapse development and presynaptic active zone organization.

  19. 75 FR 30372 - Foreign-Trade Zone 196 Temporary/Interim Manufacturing Authority ATC Logistics & Electronics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... & Electronics (Cell Phone Kitting and Distribution); Notice of Approval On March 30, 2010, the Executive... & Electronics, operator of Site 2, FTZ 196, requesting temporary/interim manufacturing (T/IM) authority...

  20. 75 FR 4343 - Foreign-Trade Zone 22-Chicago, IL; Application for Manufacturing Authority; LG Electronics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ... Electronics MobileComm USA, Inc. (Cell Phone Kitting and Distribution); Bolingbrook, IL An application has..., grantee of FTZ 22, requesting manufacturing authority on behalf of LG Electronics MobileComm USA,...

  1. [Characteristics of soil organic carbon and enzyme activities in soil aggregates under different vegetation zones on the Loess Plateau].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Ma, Rui-ping; An, Shao-shan; Zeng, Quan-chao; Li, Ya-yun

    2015-08-01

    In order to explore the distribution characteristics of organic carbon of different forms and the active enzymes in soil aggregates with different particle sizes, soil samples were chosen from forest zone, forest-grass zone and grass zone in the Yanhe watershed of Loess Plateau to study the content of organic carbon, easily oxidized carbon, and humus carbon, and the activities of cellulase, β-D-glucosidase, sucrose, urease and peroxidase, as well as the relations between the soil aggregates carbon and its components with the active soil enzymes were also analyzed. It was showed that the content of organic carbon and its components were in order of forest zone > grass zone > forest-grass zone, and the contents of three forms of organic carbon were the highest in the diameter group of 0.25-2 mm. The content of organic carbon and its components, as well as the activities of soil enzymes were higher in the soil layer of 0-10 cm than those in the 10-20 cm soil layer of different vegetation zones. The activities of cellulase, β-D-glucosidase, sucrose and urease were in order of forest zone > grass zone > forest-grass zone. The peroxidase activity was in order of forest zone > forest-grass zone > grass zone. The activities of various soil enzymes increased with the decreasing soil particle diameter in the three vegetation zones. The activities of cellulose, peroxidase, sucrose and urease had significant positive correlations with the contents of various forms of organic carbon in the soil aggregates.

  2. Negative regulation of active zone assembly by a newly identified SR protein kinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ervin L Johnson

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Presynaptic, electron-dense, cytoplasmic protrusions such as the T-bar (Drosophila or ribbon (vertebrates are believed to facilitate vesicle movement to the active zone (AZ of synapses throughout the nervous system. The molecular composition of these structures including the T-bar and ribbon are largely unknown, as are the mechanisms that specify their synapse-specific assembly and distribution. In a large-scale, forward genetic screen, we have identified a mutation termed air traffic controller (atc that causes T-bar-like protein aggregates to form abnormally in motoneuron axons. This mutation disrupts a gene that encodes for a serine-arginine protein kinase (SRPK79D. This mutant phenotype is specific to SRPK79D and is not secondary to impaired kinesin-dependent axonal transport. The srpk79D gene is neuronally expressed, and transgenic rescue experiments are consistent with SRPK79D kinase activity being necessary in neurons. The SRPK79D protein colocalizes with the T-bar-associated protein Bruchpilot (Brp in both the axon and synapse. We propose that SRPK79D is a novel T-bar-associated protein kinase that represses T-bar assembly in peripheral axons, and that SRPK79D-dependent repression must be relieved to facilitate site-specific AZ assembly. Consistent with this model, overexpression of SRPK79D disrupts AZ-specific Brp organization and significantly impairs presynaptic neurotransmitter release. These data identify a novel AZ-associated protein kinase and reveal a new mechanism of negative regulation involved in AZ assembly. This mechanism could contribute to the speed and specificity with which AZs are assembled throughout the nervous system.

  3. Tsunamigenic potential of Mediterranean fault systems and active subduction zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petricca, Patrizio; Babeyko, Andrey

    2016-04-01

    Since the North East Atlantic and Mediterranean Tsunami Warning System (NEAMTWS) is under development by the European scientific community, it becomes necessary to define guidelines for the characterization of the numerous parameters must be taken into account in a fair assessment of the risk. Definition of possible tectonic sources and evaluation of their potential is one of the principal issues. In this study we systematically evaluate tsunamigenic potential of up-to-now known real fault systems and active subduction interfaces in the NEAMTWS region. The task is accomplished by means of numerical modeling of tsunami generation and propagation. We have simulated all possible uniform-slip ruptures populating fault and subduction interfaces with magnitudes ranging from 6.5 up to expected Mmax. A total of 15810 individual ruptures were processed. For each rupture, a tsunami propagation scenario was computed in linear shallow-water approximation on 1-arc minute bathymetric grid (Gebco_08) implying normal reflection boundary conditions. Maximum wave heights at coastal positions (totally - 23236 points of interest) were recorded for four hours of simulation and then classified according to currently adopted warning level thresholds. The resulting dataset allowed us to classify the sources in terms of their tsunamigenic potential as well as to estimate their minimum tsunamigenic magnitude. Our analysis shows that almost every source in the Mediterranean Sea is capable to produce local tsunami at the advisory level (i.e., wave height > 20 cm) starting from magnitude values of Mw=6.6. In respect to the watch level (wave height > 50 cm), the picture is less homogeneous: crustal sources in south-west Mediterranean as well as East-Hellenic arc need larger magnitudes (around Mw=7.0) to trigger watch levels even at the nearby coasts. In the context of the regional warning (i.e., source-to-coast distance > 100 km) faults also behave more heterogeneously in respect to the minimum

  4. Strength Evaluation of Heat Affected Zone in Electron Beam Welded ARAA for HCCR TBM in ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, J. S.; Kim, S. K.; Jin, H. G.; Lee, E. H.; Lee, D. W. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, S. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The Korean helium cooled ceramic reflector (HCCR) test blanket module (TBM) has been developed for ITER, and Korean reduced activation ferritic martensitic (RAFM) steel, called advanced reduced activation alloy (ARAA), has also been developed for a structural material of the HCCR TBM. One case of limited optimized electron beam (EB) welding conditions was selected based on previous work, and the weldability of an EB weld was evaluated for TBM fabrication. The micro-hardness was measured from the base to the weld region, and the microstructures were also observed. A small punch (SP) test considering the HAZ was carried out at room and high (550 .deg. C) temperatures. The empirical mechanical properties of HAZ in the EB weld were evaluated, and the fracture behavior was investigated after the SP test. The SP results show that the estimated yield and tensile strength of the HAZ were higher than the base metal at both temperatures. Korean RAFM steel, ARAA, was developed as a TBM structural material. Using one of the program alloys in ARAA (F206), one case of a limited optimized EB welding condition was selected based on previous works, and the weldability of an EB weld using the SP test was evaluated for TBM fabrication at room and high (550 .deg. C) temperatures. From a micro-Vickers hardness evaluation, the HAZ gave the highest values compared with the other regions. The irregular grain boundaries in the HAZ were observed, but its width was narrower than the TIG weld from the previous results. The optimized welding methods such as the TIG, EB, and laser weld, and the welding procedure considering the PWHT are being established, and the weldability evaluation is also progressing according to the development of the ARAA for the fusion material application in Korea.

  5. A New Perspective on the Radio Active Zone at The Galactic Center - Feedback from Nuclear Activities

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Jun-Hui; Goss, W M

    2013-01-01

    Based on our deep image of Sgr A using broadband data observed with the Jansky VLA at 6 cm, we present a new perspective of the radio bright zone at the Galactic center. We further show the radio detection of the X-ray Cannonball, a candidate neutron star associated with the Galactic center SNR Sgr A East. The radio image is compared with the Chandra X-ray image to show the detailed structure of the radio counterparts of the bipolar X-ray lobes. The bipolar lobes are likely produced by the winds from the activities within Sgr A West, which could be collimated by the inertia of gas in the CND, or by the momentum driving of Sgr A*; and the poloidal magnetic fields likely play an important role in the collimation. The less-collimated SE lobe, in comparison to the NW one, is perhaps due to the fact that the Sgr A East SN might have locally reconfigured the magnetic field toward negative galactic latitudes. In agreement with the X-ray observations, the time-scale of ~ $1\\times10^4$ yr estimated for the outermost r...

  6. Microbial respiration and extracellular enzyme activity in sediments from the Gulf of Mexico hypoxic zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study explores the relationship between sediment chemistry (TC, TN, TP) and microbial respiration (DHA) and extracellular enzyme activity (EEA) across the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) hypoxic zone. TC, TN, and TP were all positively correlated with each other (r=0.19-0.68). DHA was ...

  7. The Legality of Foreign Military Activities in the Exclusive Economic Zone under UNCLOS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geng, Jing

    2012-01-01

    During negotiations for the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), military activities in another state's Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) were a point of contention. Currently, the issue remains controversial in state practice. UNCLOS attempts to balance the differing interests of c

  8. Microbial respiration and extracellular enzyme activity in sediments from the Gulf of Mexico hypoxic zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study explores the relationship between sediment chemistry (TC, TN, TP) and microbial respiration (DHA) and extracellular enzyme activity (EEA) across the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) hypoxic zone. TC, TN, and TP were all positively correlated with each other (r=0.19-0.68). DHA was ...

  9. Electron Correlation Models for Optical Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höhn, E. G.; O. E. Weigang, Jr.

    1968-01-01

    A two-system no-overlap model for rotatory strength is developed for electric-dipole forbidden as well as allowed transitions. General equations which allow for full utilization of symmetry in the chromophore and in the environment are obtained. The electron correlation terms are developed in full...

  10. Method to map one-dimensional electronic wave function by using multiple Brillouin zone angle resolved photoemission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Wook Lee

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES is a powerful tool to investigate electronic structures in solids and has been widely used in studying various materials. The electronic structure information by ARPES is obtained in the momentum space. However, in the case of one-dimensional system, we here show that we extract the real space information from ARPES data taken over multiple Brillouin zones (BZs. Intensities in the multiple BZs are proportional to the photoemission matrix element which contains information on the coefficient of the Bloch wave function. It is shown that the Bloch wave function coefficients can be extracted from ARPES data, which allows us to construct the real space wave function. As a test, we use ARPES data from proto-typical one-dimensional system SrCuO2 and construct the real space wave function.

  11. Resonant Scattering of Relativistic Outer Zone Electrons by Plasmaspheric Plume Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Zhen-Peng; ZHENG Hui-Nan

    2009-01-01

    The bounce-averaged Fokker-Planck equation is solved to study the relativistic electron phase space density(PSD)evolution in the outer radiation belt due to resonant interactions with plasmaspheric plume electromagnetic ion cyclotron(EMIC)waves.It is found that the PSDs of relativistic electrons can be depleted by 1-3 orders of magnitude in 5h,supporting the previous finding that resonant interactions with EMIC waves may account for the frequently observed relativistic electron flux dropouts in the outer radiation belt during the main phase of a storm.The significant precipitation Joss of ~Me V electrons is primarily induced by the EMIC waves in H~+ and He~+ bands.The rapid remove of highly relativistic electrons(>5 MeV)is mainly driven by the EMIC waves in O~+ band at lower pitch-angles,as well as the EMIC waves in H~+ and He~+ bands at larger pitch-angles.Moreover,a stronger depletion of relativistic electrons is found to occur over a wider pitch angle range when EMIC waves are centering relatively higher in the band.

  12. Structural complexities in the active layers of organic electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stephanie S; Loo, Yueh-Lin

    2010-01-01

    The field of organic electronics has progressed rapidly in recent years. However, understanding the direct structure-function relationships between the morphology in electrically active layers and the performance of devices composed of these materials has proven difficult. The morphology of active layers in organic electronics is inherently complex, with heterogeneities existing across multiple length scales, from subnanometer to micron and millimeter range. A major challenge still facing the organic electronics community is understanding how the morphology across all of the length scales in active layers collectively determines the device performance of organic electronics. In this review we highlight experiments that have contributed to the elucidation of structure-function relationships in organic electronics and also point to areas in which knowledge of such relationships is still lacking. Such knowledge will lead to the ability to select active materials on the basis of their inherent properties for the fabrication of devices with prespecified characteristics.

  13. Stellar Activity Masquerading as Planets in the Habitable Zone of the M dwarf Gliese 581

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, Paul; Endl, Michael; Roy, Arpita

    2014-01-01

    The M dwarf Gliese 581 is believed to host four planets, including one (GJ 581d) near the habitable zone that could possibly support liquid water on its surface if it is a rocky planet. The detection of another habitable-zone planet--GJ 581g--is disputed, as its significance depends on the eccentricity assumed for d. Analyzing stellar activity using the H-alpha line, we measure a stellar rotation period of 130+/-2 days and a correlation for H-alpha modulation with radial velocity. Correcting for activity greatly diminishes the signal of GJ 581d (to 1.5 sigma), while significantly boosting the signals of the other known super-Earth planets. GJ 581d does not exist, but is an artifact of stellar activity which, when incompletely corrected, causes the false detection of planet g.

  14. Electron dispersion events in the morningside auroral zone and their relationship with VLF emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, D.A.; Burke, W.J. (Hanscom Air Force Base, MA (United States)); Villalon, E. (Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States))

    1990-05-01

    Energy/time dispersion events have been observed in the precipitating electron data in the energy range from 630 eV to 20 keV recorded by the J sensor on the low-altitude, polar-orbiting HILAT satellite. The dispersions are such that the higher-energy electrons are observed earlier in time than the lower-energy electrons The time interval for single dispersion event is from 1 to 2 s. Within an auroral pass in which such energy/time dispersion events are observed, there are typically several such events, and they can be spaced within the pass in either a periodic or aperiodic manner. The events are typically observed within and toward the equatorward edge of the region of diffuse auroral electron precipitation. During a given pass the events can be observed over a wide range of L shells. The occurrence of these events maximizes in the interval 0600-1,200 hours MLT. The energy/time dispersion is generally consistent with the electrons originating from a common source. The events are seen at L shells from 3.7 to greater than 15. The source distance for the electrons is inferred to be generally beyond the equator for events at L shells less than approximately 8 and before the equator for events at higher L shells. Because of the low energies at which the dispersions are observed, it is unlikely that their occurrence can be explained by resonant interaction with VLF waves. Based on circumstantial evidence from other reported observations common to the morning sector, and alternative theoretical explanation is presented. According to this model the dispersion events result from impulsive interactions of the electrons with intense, asymmetric packets of VLF waves via the nonlinear, ponderomotive force.

  15. Functional inactivation of a fraction of excitatory synapses in mice deficient for the active zone protein bassoon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altrock, Wilko D; tom Dieck, Susanne; Sokolov, Maxim;

    2003-01-01

    Mutant mice lacking the central region of the presynaptic active zone protein Bassoon were generated to establish the role of this protein in the assembly and function of active zones as sites of synaptic vesicle docking and fusion. Our data show that the loss of Bassoon causes a reduction in nor...

  16. Formation of neutral disk-like zone around the active hot stars in symbiotic binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Carikova, Zuzana

    2011-01-01

    In this contribution we present the ionization structure in the enhanced wind from the hot star in symbiotic binaries during active phases. Rotation of the hot star leads to the compression of the outflowing material towards its equatorial plane. As a result a neutral disk-like zone around the active hot star near the orbital plane is created. We modelled the compression of the wind using the wind compression model. Further, we calculated the neutral disk-like zone in the enhanced wind from the hot star using the equation of the photoionization equilibrium. The presence of such neutral disk-like zones was also suggested on the basis of the modelling the spectral energy distribution of symbiotic binaries. We confront the calculated ionization structures in the enhanced wind from the hot star with the observations. We found that the calculated column density of the neutral hydrogen atoms in the neutral disk-like zone and the emission measure of the ionized part of the wind from the hot star are in a good agreem...

  17. Activation of Electron-Deficient Quinones through Hydrogen-Bond-Donor-Coupled Electron Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turek, Amanda K; Hardee, David J; Ullman, Andrew M; Nocera, Daniel G; Jacobsen, Eric N

    2016-01-11

    Quinones are important organic oxidants in a variety of synthetic and biological contexts, and they are susceptible to activation towards electron transfer through hydrogen bonding. Whereas this effect of hydrogen bond donors (HBDs) has been observed for Lewis basic, weakly oxidizing quinones, comparable activation is not readily achieved when more reactive and synthetically useful electron-deficient quinones are used. We have successfully employed HBD-coupled electron transfer as a strategy to activate electron-deficient quinones. A systematic investigation of HBDs has led to the discovery that certain dicationic HBDs have an exceptionally large effect on the rate and thermodynamics of electron transfer. We further demonstrate that these HBDs can be used as catalysts in a quinone-mediated model synthetic transformation. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. 78 FR 16465 - Foreign-Trade Zone 7-Mayaguez, Puerto Rico, Authorization of Production Activity, Pepsi Cola...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    ... Activity, Pepsi Cola Puerto Rico Distributing, LLC (Soft Drink and Fruit Drink Beverages), Toa Baja, Puerto... notification of proposed production activity to the Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board on behalf of Pepsi...

  19. Electron-microscopic examination of the transition zone of aluminum-tantalum bimetallic joints (explosion welding)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkova, A. Yu.; Greenberg, B. A.; Ivanov, M. A.; Elkina, O. A.; Inozemtsev, A. V.; Plotnikov, A. V.; Patselov, A. M.; Kozhevnikov, V. E.

    2014-04-01

    A study of the structure of an aluminum-tantalum joint and a comparison of this structure with the structures of iron-silver and copper-tantalum joints have revealed the following processes of the interpenetration of the materials that occur during explosion welding: the formation of protrusions, the injection of particles of one material into the other, and the formation of zones of local melting. Regardless of the mutual solubility of the metals being welded, two types of fragmentation occur, i.e., (1) a granulating fragmentation (GF), which includes the formation, explosion-governed (EG) dispersion, and partial consolidation of particles, and (2) the fragmentation that is usually observed during severe plastic deformation. It is important that this traditional fragmentation is not accompanied by the formation and EG dispersion of particles. This feature allows one to easily distinguish these types of fragmentation (traditional and GF fragmentation).

  20. Earthquake swarm activity in the Oaxaca segment of Middle American Subduction Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brudzinski, M. R.; Cabral, E.; Arciniega-Ceballos, A.

    2013-05-01

    An outstanding question in geophysics is the degree to which the newly discovered family of slow fault slip behaviors is related to more traditional earthquakes, especially since theoretical predictions indicate slip in the deeper transitional zone promotes failure in the shallower seismogenic zone. The Oaxacan segment of the Middle American Subduction zone is a natural region to pursue detailed studies of the spectrum of fault slip due to the unusually shallow subduction angle and short trench-to-coast distances that bring broad portions of the seismogenic and transitional zones of the plate interface inland. A deployment of broadband seismometers in this region has improved the network coverage to ~70 km station spacing since 2006, providing new opportunities to investigate smaller seismic phenomena. While characterization of tectonic tremor has been a prominent focus of this deployment, the improved network has also revealed productive earthquake swarms, whose sustained periods of similar magnitude earthquakes are also thought to be driven by slow slip. We identify a particularly productive earthquake swarm in July 2006 (~600 similar earthquakes detected), which occurred during a week-long episode of tectonic tremor and geodetically detected slow slip. Using a multi-station "template matching" waveform cross correlation technique, we have been able to detect and locate swarm earthquakes several orders of magnitude smaller than that of traditional processing, particularly during periods of increased background activity, because the detector is finely tuned to events with similar hypocentral location and focal mechanism. When we scan for repeats of the event families detected in the July 2006 sequence throughout the 6+ years since, we find these families were also activated during several other slow slip episodes, which indicates a link between slow slip in the transition zone and earthquakes at the downdip end of the seismogenic portion of the megathrust.

  1. ABOUT THE WAVE MECHANISM OF ACTIVATION OF FAULTS IN SEISMIC ZONES OF THE LITHOSPHERE IN MONGOLIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Mel’nikov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The study is focused on earthquake migrations along active faults in seismic zones of Mongolia. The earthquake migrations are interpreted as a result of the influence of deformational waves. Vector velocities and other parameters of the deformational waves are studied. Based on data from largescale maps, local faults are compared, and differences and similarities of parameters of waves related to faults of different ranks are described.

  2. A model of ischemia-induced neuroblast activation in the adult subventricular zone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Vergni

    Full Text Available We have developed a rat brain organotypic culture model, in which tissue slices contain cortex-subventricular zone-striatum regions, to model neuroblast activity in response to in vitro ischemia. Neuroblast activation has been described in terms of two main parameters, proliferation and migration from the subventricular zone into the injured cortex. We observed distinct phases of neuroblast activation as is known to occur after in vivo ischemia. Thus, immediately after oxygen/glucose deprivation (6-24 hours, neuroblasts reduce their proliferative and migratory activity, whereas, at longer time points after the insult (2 to 5 days, they start to proliferate and migrate into the damaged cortex. Antagonism of ionotropic receptors for extracellular ATP during and after the insult unmasks an early activation of neuroblasts in the subventricular zone, which responded with a rapid and intense migration of neuroblasts into the damaged cortex (within 24 hours. The process is further enhanced by elevating the production of the chemoattractant SDf-1alpha and may also be boosted by blocking the activation of microglia. This organotypic model which we have developed is an excellent in vitro system to study neurogenesis after ischemia and other neurodegenerative diseases. Its application has revealed a SOS response to oxygen/glucose deprivation, which is inhibited by unfavorable conditions due to the ischemic environment. Finally, experimental quantifications have allowed us to elaborate a mathematical model to describe neuroblast activation and to develop a computer simulation which should have promising applications for the screening of drug candidates for novel therapies of ischemia-related pathologies.

  3. A Model of Ischemia-Induced Neuroblast Activation in the Adult Subventricular Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergni, Davide; Castiglione, Filippo; Briani, Maya; Middei, Silvia; Alberdi, Elena; Reymann, Klaus G.; Natalini, Roberto; Volonté, Cinzia; Matute, Carlos; Cavaliere, Fabio

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a rat brain organotypic culture model, in which tissue slices contain cortex-subventricular zone-striatum regions, to model neuroblast activity in response to in vitro ischemia. Neuroblast activation has been described in terms of two main parameters, proliferation and migration from the subventricular zone into the injured cortex. We observed distinct phases of neuroblast activation as is known to occur after in vivo ischemia. Thus, immediately after oxygen/glucose deprivation (6–24 hours), neuroblasts reduce their proliferative and migratory activity, whereas, at longer time points after the insult (2 to 5 days), they start to proliferate and migrate into the damaged cortex. Antagonism of ionotropic receptors for extracellular ATP during and after the insult unmasks an early activation of neuroblasts in the subventricular zone, which responded with a rapid and intense migration of neuroblasts into the damaged cortex (within 24 hours). The process is further enhanced by elevating the production of the chemoattractant SDf-1α and may also be boosted by blocking the activation of microglia. This organotypic model which we have developed is an excellent in vitro system to study neurogenesis after ischemia and other neurodegenerative diseases. Its application has revealed a SOS response to oxygen/glucose deprivation, which is inhibited by unfavorable conditions due to the ischemic environment. Finally, experimental quantifications have allowed us to elaborate a mathematical model to describe neuroblast activation and to develop a computer simulation which should have promising applications for the screening of drug candidates for novel therapies of ischemia-related pathologies. PMID:19390597

  4. ACTIVITY AND Vp/Vs RATIO OF VOLCANO-TECTONIC SEISMIC SWARM ZONES AT NEVADO DEL RUIZ VOLCANO, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Londoño B. John Makario

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the seismic activity for volcano-tectonic earthquake (VT swarms zones at Nevado del Ruiz Volcano (NRV was carried out for the interval 1985- 2002, which is the most seismic active period at NRV until now (2010. The swarm-like seismicity of NRV was frequently concentrated in very well defined clusters around the volcano. The seismic swarm zone located at the active crater was the most active during the entire time. The seismic swarm zone located to the west of the volcano suggested some relationship with the volcanic crises. It was active before and after the two eruptions occurred in November 1985 and September 1989. It is believed that this seismic activity may be used as a monitoring tool of volcanic activity. For each seismic swarm zone the Vp/Vs ratio was also calculated by grouping of earthquakes and stations. It was found that each seismic swarm zone had a distinct Vp/Vs ratio with respect to the others, except for the crater and west swarm zones, which had the same value. The average Vp/Vs ratios for the seismic swarm zones located at the active crater and to the west of the volcano are about 6-7% lower than that for the north swarm zone, and about 3% lower than that for the south swarm zone. We suggest that the reduction of the Vp/Vs ratio is due to degassing phenomena inside the central and western earthquake swarm zones, or due to the presence of microcracks inside the volcano. This supposition is in agreement with other studies of geophysics, geochemistry and drilling surveys carried out at NRV.

  5. Micro 3D ERT tomography for data assimilation modelling of active root zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanella, Daniela; Busato, Laura; Boaga, Jacopo; Cassiani, Giorgio; Binley, Andrew; Putti, Mario; Consoli, Simona

    2016-04-01

    Within the soil-plant-atmosphere system, root activity plays a fundamental role, as it connects different domains and allows a large part of the water and nutrient exchanges necessary for plant sustenance. The understanding of these processes is not only useful from an environmental point of view, making a fundamental contribution to the understanding of the critical zone dynamics, but also plays a pivotal role in precision agriculture, where the optimisation of water resources exploitation is mandatory and often carried out through deficit irrigation techniques. In this work, we present the results of non-invasive monitoring of the active root zone of two orange trees (Citrus sinensis, cv Tarocco Ippolito) located in an orange orchard in eastern Sicily (Italy) and drip irrigated with two different techniques: partial root drying and 100% crop evapotranspiration. The main goal of the monitoring activity is to assess possible differences between the developed root systems and the root water uptake between the two irrigation strategies. The monitoring is conducted using 3D micro-electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) based on an apparatus composed of a number of micro-boreholes (about 1.2 m deep) housing 12 electrodes each, plus a number of surface electrodes. Time-lapse measurements conducted both with long-term periodicity and short-term repetition before and after irrigation clearly highlight the presence and distribution of root water uptake zone both at shallow and larger depth, likely to correspond to zones utilized during the irrigation period (shallow) and during the time when the crop is not irrigated (deep). Subsidiary information is available in terms of precipitation, sap flow measurements and micrometeorological evapotranspiration estimates. This data ensemble lends itself to the assimilation into a variably saturated flow model, where both soil hydraulic parameters and root distribution shall be identified. Preliminary results in this directions show

  6. Resonant enhancement of relativistic electron fluxes during geomagnetically active periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Roth

    Full Text Available The strong increase in the flux of relativistic electrons during the recovery phase of magnetic storms and during other active periods is investigated with the help of Hamiltonian formalism and simulations of test electrons which interact with whistler waves. The intensity of the whistler waves is enhanced significantly due to injection of 10-100 keV electrons during the substorm. Electrons which drift in the gradient and curvature of the magnetic field generate the rising tones of VLF whistler chorus. The seed population of relativistic electrons which bounce along the inhomogeneous magnetic field, interacts resonantly with the whistler waves. Whistler wave propagating obliquely to the magnetic field can interact with energetic electrons through Landau, cyclotron, and higher harmonic resonant interactions when the Doppler-shifted wave frequency equals any (positive or negative integer multiple of the local relativistic gyrofrequency. Because the gyroradius of a relativistic electron may be the order of or greater than the perpendicular wavelength, numerous cyclotron, harmonics can contribute to the resonant interaction which breaks down the adiabatic invariant. A similar process diffuses the pitch angle leading to electron precipitation. The irreversible changes in the adiabatic invariant depend on the relative phase between the wave and the electron, and successive resonant interactions result in electrons undergoing a random walk in energy and pitch angle. This resonant process may contribute to the 10-100 fold increase of the relativistic electron flux in the outer radiation belt, and constitute an interesting relation between substorm-generated waves and enhancements in fluxes of relativistic electrons during geomagnetic storms and other active periods.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (energetic particles · trapped; plasma waves and instabilities; storms and substorms

  7. Periodic activity of secretory glands of stomach in ulcer erosion of gastro-duodenal zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Rudenko

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available It was fixed, that development of atophanum-carbacholimun ulcer of the gastroduodenal zone invoked various changes of secretory activity of the stomach. The changes directly depend on a progress of pathological process. As this takes place the reaction of stomach secretory glands varies under the stimulation with histamine: the decrease of stomach secretory glands’ work capacity till 10th day and its increase after 10–15th day were observed. Disorders of the glands’ ultradian rhythms at initial stages of modeling of gastrointestinal nervous regulation disturbances testify to dependence of periodic activity of gastrointestinal tract on resistance of regulatory mechanisms correlation.

  8. Quality control of the documentation process in electronic economic activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krutova A.S.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It is proved that the main tool that will provide adequate information resources e economic activities of social and economic relations are documenting quality control processes as the basis of global information space. Directions problems as formation evaluation information resources in the process of documentation, namely development tools assess the efficiency of the system components – qualitative assessment; development of mathematical modeling tools – quantitative evaluation. A qualitative assessment of electronic documentation of economic activity through exercise performance, efficiency of communication; document management efficiency; effectiveness of flow control operations; relationship management effectiveness. The concept of quality control process documents electronically economic activity to components which include: the level of workflow; forms adequacy of information; consumer quality documents; quality attributes; type of income data; condition monitoring systems; organizational level process documentation; attributes of quality, performance quality consumer; type of management system; type of income data; condition monitoring systems. Grounded components of the control system electronic document subjects of economic activity. Detected components IT-audit management system economic activity: compliance audit; audit of internal control; detailed multilevel analysis; corporate risk assessment methodology. The stages and methods of processing electronic transactions economic activity during condition monitoring of electronic economic activity.

  9. Particle Acceleration Zones Above Pulsar Polar Caps Electron and Positron Pair Formation Fronts

    CERN Document Server

    Harding, A K; Harding, Alice K.; Muslimov, Alexander G.

    1998-01-01

    We investigate self-consistent particle acceleration near a pulsar polar cap (PC) by the electrostatic field due to the effect of inertial frame dragging. Test particles gain energy from the electric field parallel to the open magnetic field lines and lose energy by both curvature radiation (CR) and resonant and non-resonant inverse Compton scattering (ICS) with soft thermal X-rays from the neutron star (NS) surface. Gamma-rays radiated by electrons accelerated from the stellar surface produce pairs in the strong magnetic field, which screen the electric field beyond a pair formation front (PFF). Some of the created positrons can be accelerated back toward the surface and produce gamma-rays and pairs that create another PFF above the surface. We find that ICS photons control PFF formation near the surface, but due to the different angles at which the electron and positron scatter the soft photons, positron initiated cascades develop above the surface and screen the accelerating electric field. Stable accelera...

  10. 78 FR 54234 - Foreign-Trade Zone 26-Atlanta, Georgia, Authorization of Production Activity PBR, Inc. d/b/a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 26--Atlanta, Georgia, Authorization of Production Activity PBR, Inc. d/b/a SKAPS Industries (Polypropylene Geotextiles), Athens, Georgia On April 8,...

  11. 78 FR 7394 - Foreign-Trade Zone 41-Milwaukee, WI; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; CNH America...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 41--Milwaukee, WI; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; CNH America, LLC, Subzone 41I (Tractors and Tractor/Combine Components), Racine, WI The Port...

  12. 77 FR 46377 - Foreign-Trade Zone 37-Orange County, NY, Notification of Proposed Production Activity, Takasago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ..., mixtures of odiferous substances and essential oils (duty rate ranges from duty free to 7%). Public comment... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 37--Orange County, NY, Notification of Proposed Production... (Takasago) submitted a notification of proposed production activity for their facility located in...

  13. Stellar activity mimics a habitable-zone planet around Kapteyn's star

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, Paul; Mahadevan, Suvrath

    2015-01-01

    Kapteyn's star is an old M subdwarf believed to be a member of the Galactic halo population of stars. A recent study has claimed the existence of two super-Earth planets around the star based on radial velocity (RV) observations. The innermost of these candidate planets--Kapteyn b (P = 48 days)--resides within the circumstellar habitable zone. Given recent progress in understanding the impact of stellar activity in detecting planetary signals, we have analyzed the observed HARPS data for signatures of stellar activity. We find that while Kapteyn's star is photometrically very stable, a suite of spectral activity indices reveals a large-amplitude rotation signal, and we determine the stellar rotation period to be 143 days. The spectral activity tracers are strongly correlated with the purported RV signal of "planet b," and the 48-day period is an integer fraction (1/3) of the stellar rotation period. We conclude that Kapteyn b is not a planet in the Habitable Zone, but an artifact of stellar activity.

  14. Ionospheric Electron Density during Magnetically Active Times over Istanbul

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naz Erbaş, Bute; Kaymaz, Zerefsan; Ceren Moral, Aysegul; Emine Ceren Kalafatoglu Eyiguler, R. A..

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we analyze electron density variations over Istanbul using Dynasonde observations during the magnetically active times. In order to perform statistical analyses, we first determined magnetic storms and magnetospheric substorm intervals from October 2012 to October 2015 using Kyoto's magnetic index data. Corresponding ionospheric parameters, such as critical frequency of F2 region (foF2), maximum electron density height (hmF2), total electron density (TEC) etc. were retrieved from Dynasonde data base at Istanbul Technical University's Space Weather Laboratory. To understand the behavior of electron density during the magnetically active times, we remove the background quiet time variations first and then quantify the anomalies. In this presentation, we will report results from our preliminary analyses from the selected cases corresponding to the strong magnetic storms. Initial results show lower electron densities at noon times and higher electron densities in the late afternoon toward sunset times when compared to the electron densities of magnetically quiet times. We also compare the results with IRI and TIEGCM ionospheric models in order to understand the physical and dynamical causes of these variations. During the presentation we will also discuss the role of these changes during the magnetically active times on the GPS communications through ionosphere.

  15. More Active Living-oriented County and Municipal Zoning is Associated with Increased Adult Leisure Time Physical Activity-United States, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chriqui, Jamie F; Nicholson, Lisa M; Thrun, Emily; Leider, Julien; Slater, Sandy J

    2016-01-01

    Although zoning is recognized for its role in facilitating healthy communities, no study has examined whether active living-oriented zoning codes are associated with adult leisure time physical activity (PA). This study sought to fill this gap and hypothesized that adult leisure time PA would be greater in communities with more progressive zoning code reforms and more active living-oriented zoning. Zoning codes for 1,617 county and municipal jurisdictions located in 30 states (covering ~40% of the U.S. population) were evaluated for code reform zoning and 11 active living markers. County-aggregated zoning measures were created for linking with five adult PA behaviors obtained from the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System controlling for individual and county sociodemographics. Zoning elements most associated with adult PA included requirements for mixed use, active and passive recreation, bike parking/street furniture, and bike-pedestrian trails/paths. This study provides new insights as to the role that zoning can play in facilitating adult PA.

  16. Comparison study between coherent echoes at VHF range and electron density estimated by Ionosphere Model for Auroral Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Takanori; Nakamura, Takuji; Tsutsumi, Masaki; Tanaka, Yoshi; Nishimura, Koji; Sato, Kaoru; Tomikawa, Yoshihiro; Kohma, Masashi

    2016-07-01

    Polar Mesosphere Winter Echo (PMWE) is known as back scatter echo from 55 to 85 km in the mesosphere, and it has been observed by MST and IS radar in polar region during non-summer period. Since density of free electrons as scatterer is low in the dark mesosphere during winter, it is suggested that PMWE requires strong ionization of neutral atmosphere associated with Energetic Particles Precipitations (EPPs) during Solar Proton Events [Kirkwood et al., 2002] or during geomagnetically disturbed periods [Nishiyama et al., 2015]. However, studies on relationship between occurrence of PMWE and background electron density has been limited yet [Lübken et al., 2006], partly because the PMWE occurrence rate is known to be quite low (2.9%) [Zeller et al., 2006]. The PANSY (Program of the Antarctic Syowa MST/IS) radar, which is the largest MST radar in Antarctica, observed many PMWE events since it has started mesosphere observations in June 2012. We established an application method of the PANSY radar as riometer, which makes it possible to estimate Cosmic Noise Absorptions (CNA) as proxy of relative variations on background electron density. In addition, electron density profiles from 60 to 150 km altitude are calculated by Ionospheric Model for the Auroral Zone (IMAZ) [McKinnell and Friedrich, 2007] and CNA estimated by the PANSY radar. In this presentation, we would like to focus on strong PMWE during two big geomagnetic storm events, St. Patrick's Day and the Summer Solstice 2015 Event, in order to compare observed PMWE characteristics to model background electron density. On March 19 and 22, recovery phase of St. Patrick's Day Storm, sudden PMWE intensification was detected near 60 km by the PANSY radar. At the same time, strong Cosmic Noise Absorptions (CNA) of 0.8 dB and 1.0 dB were measured, respectively. However, calculated electron density profiles did not show high electron density at the altitude where the PMWE intensification were observed. On June 22, the

  17. Research on modeling of heat source for electron beam welding fusion-solidification zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yajun; Fu Pengfei; Guan Yongjun; Lu Zhijun; Wei Yintao

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,the common heat source model of point and linear heat source in the numerical simulation of electron beam welding (EBW) were summarized and introduced.The combined point-linear heat source model was brought forward and to simulate the welding temperature fields of EBW and predicting the weld shape.The model parameters were put forward and regulated in the combined model,which included the ratio of point heat source to linear heat source Qpr and the distribution of linear heat source Lr.Based on the combined model,the welding temperature fields of EBW were investigated.The results show that the predicted weld shapes are conformable to those of the actual,the temperature fields are reasonable and correct by simulating with combined point-linear heat source model and the typical weld shapes are gained.

  18. Large enhancements in low latitude total electron content during 15 May 2005 geomagnetic storm in Indian zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Dashora

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Results pertaining to the response of the equatorial and low latitude ionosphere to a major geomagnetic storm that occurred on 15 May 2005 are presented. These results are also the first from the Indian zone in terms of (i GPS derived total electron content (TEC variations following the storm (ii Local low latitude electrodynamics response to penetration of high latitude convection electric field (iii effect of storm induced traveling atmospheric disturbances (TAD's on GPS-TEC in equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA zone.

    Data set comprising of ionospheric TEC obtained from GPS measurements, ionograms from an EIA zone station, New Delhi (Geog. Lat. 28.42° N, Geog. Long. 77.21° E, ground based magnetometers in equatorial and low latitude stations and solar wind data obtained from Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE has been used in the present study. GPS receivers located at Udaipur (Geog. Lat. 24.73° N, Geog. Long. 73.73° E and Hyderabad (Geog. Lat. 17.33° N, Geog. Long. 78.47° E have been used for wider spatial coverage in the Indian zone. Storm induced features in vertical TEC (VTEC have been obtained comparing them with the mean VTEC of quiet days. Variations in solar wind parameters, as obtained from ACE and in the SYM-H index, indicate that the storm commenced on 15 May 2005 at 02:39 UT. The main phase of the storm commenced at 06:00 UT on 15 May with a sudden southward turning of the Z-component of interplanetary magnetic field (IMF-Bz and subsequent decrease in SYM-H index. The dawn-to-dusk convection electric field of high latitude origin penetrated to low and equatorial latitudes simultaneously as corroborated by the magnetometer data from the Indian zone. Subsequent northward turning of the IMF-Bz, and the penetration of the dusk-to-dawn electric field over the dip equator is also discernible. Response of the low latitude ionosphere to this storm may be characterized in terms of (i

  19. Flexible electronic-paper active-matrix displays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huitema, H.E.A.; Gelinck, G.H.; Lieshout, P.J.G.; Veenendaal, E. van; Touwslager, F.J.

    2006-01-01

    A 100-um-thick 320 x 240-pixel active-matrix display integrated into a functional-device prototype is presented. The active matrix is composed of alternating layers of organic materials and gold. A six-mask photolithographic process is used. An electrophoretic electronic imaging film is laminated on

  20. Landform development in a zone of active Gedi Fault, Eastern Kachchh rift basin, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothyari, Girish Ch.; Rastogi, B. K.; Morthekai, P.; Dumka, Rakesh K.

    2016-02-01

    An earthquake of 2006 Mw 5.7 occurred along east-west trending Gedi Fault (GF) to the north of the Kachchh rift basin in western India which had the epicenter in the Wagad upland, which is approximately 60 km northeast of the 2001 Mw 7.7 earthquake site (or epicenter). Development of an active fault scarp, shifting of a river channel, offsetting of streams and uplift of the ground indicate that the terrain is undergoing active deformation. Based on detailed field investigations, three major faults that control uplifts have been identified in the GF zone. These uplifts were developed in a step-over zone of the GF, and formed due to compressive force generated by left-lateral motion within the segmented blocks. In the present research, a terrace sequence along the north flowing Karaswali river in a tectonically active GF zone has been investigated. Reconstructions based on geomorphology and terrace stratigraphy supported by optical chronology suggest that the fluvial aggradation in the Wagad area was initiated during the strengthening (at ~ 8 ka) and declining (~ 4 ka) of the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM). The presence of younger valley fill sediments which are dated ~ 1 ka is ascribed to a short lived phase of renewed strengthening of ISM before present day aridity. Based on terrace morphology two major phases of enhanced uplift have been estimated. The older uplift event dated to 8 ka is represented by the Tertiary bedrock surfaces which accommodated the onset of valley-fill aggradation. The younger event of enhanced uplift dated to 4 ka was responsible for the incision of the older valley fill sediments and the Tertiary bedrock. These ages suggest that the average rate of uplift ranges from 0.3 to 1.1 mm/yr during the last 9 ka implying active nature of the area.

  1. A Preliminary Study on the New Activity Features of the Lajishan Mountain Fault Zone in Qinghai Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Daoyang; Zhang Peizhen; Lei Zhongsheng; Liu Baichi; Liu Xiaolong

    2005-01-01

    The Lajishan Mountain fault zone consists of two NE-protruding arcuate faults, i.e. the northern and southern margin fault of Lajishan Mountain with the fault length of 230km and 220km respectively. The fault zone is located in the large-scale compressional structure zone and tectonic gradient zone in-between the NNW-trending right-lateral strike-slip ReshuiRiyueshan fault zone and the NWW-trending left-lateral strike-slip northern margin of west Qinling Ranges fault zone is also an important boundary fault zone, separating the XiningMinhe basin and the Xunhua-Hualong basin at the southern and northern sides of the Lajishan Mountain respectively. Geologic geomorphic evidences of new activity revealed by field investigations indicate that the latest movement of the Lajishan fault zone was in late Epipleistocene (only a few segments were active in early Holocene ) and is mainly of compressive thrusting with slightly left-lateral strike-slip component. The above movement has possibly resulted in the occurrence of about 20 moderate earthquakes of magnitude around 5.0.The Lajishan region can therefore be regarded as a seismotectonic window to reflect tectonic movement and earthquake activity.

  2. The Legality of Foreign Military Activities in the Exclusive Economic Zone under UNCLOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Geng

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available During negotiations for the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS, military activities in another state's Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ were a point of contention. Currently, the issue remains controversial in state practice. UNCLOS attempts to balance the differing interests of coastal and maritime states, but is silent or ambiguous on the legality of military operations in foreign EEZs. Coastal states seek to assert increasing control over their maritime zones while maritime states prioritize the freedom of navigation. This article examines the competing views on these issues in the context of the 2009 Impeccable incident between China and the United States that occurred in the South China Sea. The issue of military activities in the EEZ will continue to be a complex subject, without clear definitions in the nature and scope of permissible activity. As state practice evolves, the potential for hostilities is high, particularly in semi-enclosed sea areas such as the South China Sea. This article concludes that states should create dialogues and form agreements to help clarify the contours of military activity in the EEZ, focusing on mutual interests, interdependence, and coexistence rather than perceiving the ocean as a zero-sum resource. 

  3. DEFORMATION WAVES AS A TRIGGER MECHANISM OF SEISMIC ACTIVITY IN SEISMIC ZONES OF THE CONTINENTAL LITHOSPHERE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Sherman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Deformation waves as a trigger mechanism of seismic activity and migration of earthquake foci have been under discussion by researchers in seismology and geodynamics for over 50 years. Four sections of this article present available principal data on impacts of wave processes on seismicity and new data. The first section reviews analytical and experimental studies aimed at identification of relationships between wave processes in the lithosphere and seismic activity manifested as space-and-time migration of individual earthquake foci or clusters of earthquakes. It is concluded that with a systematic approach, instead of using a variety of terms to denote waves that trigger seismic process in the lithosphere, it is reasonable to apply the concise definition of ‘deformation waves’, which is most often used in fact.The second section contains a description of deformation waves considered as the trigger mechanism of seismic activity. It is concluded that a variety of methods are applied to identify deformation waves, and such methods are based on various research methods and concepts that naturally differ in sensitivity concerning detection of waves and/or impact of the waves on seismic process. Epicenters of strong earthquakes are grouped into specific linear or arc-shaped systems, which common criterion is the same time interval of the occurrence of events under analysis. On site the systems compose zones with similar time sequences, which correspond to the physical notion of moving waves (Fig. 9. Periods of manifestation of such waves are estimated as millions of years, and a direct consideration of the presence of waves and wave parameters is highly challenging. In the current state-of-the-art, geodynamics and seismology cannot provide any other solution yet.The third section presents a solution considering record of deformation waves in the lithosphere. With account of the fact that all the earthquakes with М≥3.0 are associated with

  4. Active Crustal Faults in the Forearc Region, Guerrero Sector of the Mexican Subduction Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaidzik, Krzysztof; Ramírez-Herrera, Maria Teresa; Kostoglodov, Vladimir

    2016-10-01

    This work explores the characteristics and the seismogenic potential of crustal faults on the overriding plate in an area of high seismic hazard associated with the occurrence of subduction earthquakes and shallow earthquakes of the overriding plate. We present the results of geomorphic, structural, and fault kinematic analyses conducted on the convergent margin between the Cocos plate and the forearc region of the overriding North American plate, within the Guerrero sector of the Mexican subduction zone. We aim to determine the active tectonic processes in the forearc region of the subduction zone, using the river network pattern, topography, and structural data. We suggest that in the studied forearc region, both strike-slip and normal crustal faults sub-parallel to the subduction zone show evidence of activity. The left-lateral offsets of the main stream courses of the largest river basins, GPS measurements, and obliquity of plate convergence along the Cocos subduction zone in the Guerrero sector suggest the activity of sub-latitudinal left-lateral strike-slip faults. Notably, the regional left-lateral strike-slip fault that offsets the Papagayo River near the town of La Venta named "La Venta Fault" shows evidence of recent activity, corroborated also by GPS measurements (4-5 mm/year of sinistral motion). Assuming that during a probable earthquake the whole mapped length of this fault would rupture, it would produce an event of maximum moment magnitude Mw = 7.7. Even though only a few focal mechanism solutions indicate a stress regime relevant for reactivation of these strike-slip structures, we hypothesize that these faults are active and suggest two probable explanations: (1) these faults are characterized by long recurrence period, i.e., beyond the instrumental record, or (2) they experience slow slip events and/or associated fault creep. The analysis of focal mechanism solutions of small magnitude earthquakes in the upper plate, for the period between 1995

  5. Soft electron beams in solar active and flare region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korneev, V.V.; Mandelshtam, S.L.; Oparin, S.N.; Urnov, A.M.; Zhitnik, I.A.

    1982-01-01

    On the basis of the experimental data obtained from the high resolution X-ray spectra for solar flares and active regions the suprathermal electron model (SEM) was proposed. This model suggests the existance of the multi-temperature structure of the solar plasma emitting Fe and Ca X-rays and the presence of additional electrons with low energies (no more than 10 keV) and small densities of about 1-5 percent relative to the thermal component.

  6. 78 FR 13857 - Foreign-Trade Zone 93-Raleigh-Durham, NC; Authorization of Production Activity; Revlon Consumer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ...; Revlon Consumer Products Corporation (Hair Coloring Products); Oxford, NC On October 10, 2012, Revlon... activity to the Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board on behalf of Revlon Consumer Products Corporation, within...

  7. Auroral Electrojet Index Designed to Provide a Global Measure, l-minute Intervals, of Auroral Zone Magnetic Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Auroral Electrojet index (AE) is designed to provide a global quantitative measure of auroral zone magnetic activity produced by enhanced ionospheric currents...

  8. Auroral Electrojet Indices Designed to Provide a Global Measure, 2.5-Minute Intervals, of Auroral Zone Magnetic Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Auroral Electrojet index (AE) is designed to provide a global quantitative measure of auroral zone magnetic activity produced by enhanced ionospheric currents...

  9. Studies of Active Ingredients in Cough Syrup by Capillary Zone Electrophoresis with Amperometric Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Tian-shu; WANG Ai-fang; WU Fang; SHI Guo-yue; FANG Yu-zhi

    2003-01-01

    The present paper covers a simple, reliable and reproducible method, based on capillary zone electrophoresis(CZE) with amperometric detection(AD), for the separation and the determination of ephedrine hydrochloride, promethazine hydrochloride and codeine phosphate. Under the optimal conditions, the three analytes were base-line separated completely within 16 min. Good linear relationships between the peak heights and the concentrations of the three analytes were obtained with the correlation coefficients better than 0.9993. The method was directly applied to the determination of the active ingredients in pharmaceutical preparations and the assay results were satisfactory.

  10. 77 FR 63320 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Petroleum Refineries in Foreign Trade Sub-zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-16

    ... in Foreign Trade Sub-zones AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland... Sub-zones. This is a proposed extension of an information collection that was previously approved. CBP... Trade Sub-zones. OMB Number: 1651-0063. Form Number: None. Abstract: The Foreign Trade Zones Act, 19...

  11. Common catabolic enzyme patterns in a microplankton community of the Humboldt Current System off northern and central-south Chile: Malate dehydrogenase activity as an index of water-column metabolism in an oxygen minimum zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, R. R.; Quiñones, R. A.

    2009-07-01

    An extensive subsurface oxygen minimum zone off northern and central-south Chile, associated with the Peru-Chile undercurrent, has important effects on the metabolism of the organisms inhabiting therein. Planktonic species deal with the hypoxic and anoxic environments by relying on biochemical as well as physiological processes related to their anaerobic metabolisms. Here we characterize, for the first time, the potential enzymatic activities involved in the aerobic and anaerobic energy production pathways of microplanktonic organisms (catabolic pathways in the oxygen minimum zone. Malate dehydrogenase had the highest oxidizing activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (reduced form) in the batch of catabolic enzymatic activities assayed, including potential pyruvate oxidoreductases activity, the electron transport system, and dissimilatory nitrate reductase. Malate dehydrogenase correlated significantly with almost all the enzymes analyzed within and above the oxygen minimum zone, and also with the oxygen concentration and microplankton biomass in the water column of the Humboldt Current System, especially in the oxygen minimum zone off Iquique. These results suggest a possible specific pattern for the catabolic activity of the microplanktonic realm associated with the oxygen minimum zone spread along the Humboldt Current System off Chile. We hypothesize that malate dehydrogenase activity could be an appropriate indicator of microplankton catabolism in the oxygen minimum zone and adjacent areas.

  12. Impacts of stellar evolution and dynamics on the habitable zone: The role of rotation and magnetic activity

    CERN Document Server

    Florian, Gallet; Louis, Amard; Sacha, Brun; Ana, Palacios; Stephane, Mathis

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we aim to provide the community with the dependence of the habitable zone upon the stellar mass, metallicity, rotation, and for various prescriptions of the limits of the habitable zone. We use the STAREVOL code to study the evolution of the habitable zone and of the continuously habitable zone limits. Mass and metallicity are the stellar parameters that have the most dramatic effects on the habitable zone limits. Conversely, for a given stellar mass and metallicity, stellar rotation has only a marginal effect on these limits and does not modify the width of the habitable zone. The evolution of the habitable zone limits is also correlated to the evolution of the stellar activity (through the Rossby number) that depends on the stellar mass considered. While the magnetic activity has negligible consequence in the case of more massive stars, these effects may have a strong impact on the habitability of a planet around M dwarf stars. Thus, stellar activity cannot be neglected and may have strong ...

  13. Electron beam induced surface activation of oxide surfaces for nanofabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollnhals, Florian; Seiler, Steffen; Walz, Marie-Madeleine; Steinrueck, Hans-Peter; Marbach, Hubertus [Lehrstuhl fuer Physikalische Chemie II and Interdisciplinary Center for Molecular Materials (ICMM), Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen (Germany); Woolcot, Tom; Thornton, Geoff [London Centre for Nanotechnology and Department of Chemistry, University College London (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    The controlled fabrication of structures on the nanoscale is a major challenge in science and engineering. Direct-write techniques like Electron Beam Induced Deposition (EBID) were shown to be suitable tools in this context. Recently, Electron Beam Induced Surface Activation (EBISA) has been introduced as a new focused electron beam technique. In EBISA, a surface, e.g. SiO{sub 2}, is irradiated by a focused electron beam, resulting in an activation of the exposed area. The activated area can then react and decompose precursor gases like iron pentacarbonyl, Fe(CO){sub 5}. This leads to a primary deposit, which continues to grow autocatalytically as long as Fe(CO){sub 5} is supplied, resulting in pure (> 90 % at.), crystalline iron nanostructures. We expand the use of this concept by exploring EBISA to produce metallic nanostructures on TiO{sub 2}(110) in UHV; atomistic insight into the process is obtained via Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) and chemical insight via Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES).

  14. Study on Integrated Recurrence Behaviors of Strong Earthquakes Along Entire Active Fault Zones in the Sichuan-Yunnan Region, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Guixi; Wen Xueze; Xu Xiwei

    2003-01-01

    Based on historical earthquake data, we use statistical methods to study integrated recurrencebehaviors of strong earthquakes along 7 selected active fault zones in the Sichuan-Yunnanregion. The results show that recurrences of strong earthquakes in the 7 fault zones displaynear-random, random and clustering behaviors. The recurrence processes are never quasi-periodic, and are neither strength-time nor time-strength dependent. The more independentsegments for strong earthquake rupturing a fault zone has, the more complicated thecorresponding recurrence process is. And relatively active periods and quiescent periods forearthquake activity occur alternatively. Within the active periods, the distribution ofrecurrence time intervals between earthquakes has relatively large discretion, and can bemodelled well by a Weibull distribution. The time distribution of the quiescent periods hasrelatively small discretion, and can be approximately described by some distributions as thenormal. Both the durations of the active periods and the numbers of strong earthquakes withinthe active periods vary obviously cycle by cycle, leading to the relatively active periods havingnever repeated quasi-periodically. Therefore, the prohabilistic assessment for middle- and long-term seismic hazard for entireties of active fault zones based on data of historical strongearthquakes on the fault zones still faces difficulty.

  15. Deficiencies of active electronic radiation protection dosimeters in pulsed fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankerhold, U; Hupe, O; Ambrosi, P

    2009-07-01

    Nowadays nearly all radiation fields used for X-ray diagnostics are pulsed. These fields are characterised by a high dose rate during the pulse and a short pulse duration in the range of a few milliseconds. The use of active electronic dosimeters has increased in the past few years, but these types of dosimeters might possibly not measure reliably in pulsed radiation fields. Not only personal dosimeters but also area dosimeters that are used mainly for dose rate measurements are concerned. These cannot be substituted by using passive dosimeter types. The characteristics of active electronic dosimeters determined in a continuous radiation field cannot be transferred to those in pulsed fields. Some provisional measurements with typical electronic dosimeters in pulsed radiation fields are presented to reveal this basic problem.

  16. Electron beam injection during active experiments. I - Electromagnetic wave emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winglee, R. M.; Kellogg, P. J.

    1990-01-01

    The wave emissions produced in Echo 7 experiment by active injections of electron beams were investigated to determine the properties of the electromagnetic and electrostatic fields for both the field-aligned and cross-field injection in such experiments and to evaluate the sources of free energy and relative efficiencies for the generation of the VLF and HF emissions. It is shown that, for typical beam energies in active experiments, electromagnetic effects do not substantially change the bulk properties of the beam, spacecraft charging, and plasma particle acceleration. Through simulations, beam-generated whistlers; fundamental z-mode and harmonic x-mode radiation; and electrostatic electron-cyclotron, upper-hybrid, Langmuir, and lower-hybrid waves were identified. The characteristics of the observed wave spectra were found to be sensitive to both the ratio of the electron plasma frequency to the cyclotron frequency and the angle of injection relative to the magnetic field.

  17. Earthworm activities in cassava and egusi melon fields in the transitional zone of Benin: linking farmers' perceptions with field studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saïdou, A.; Kossou, D.; Brussaard, L.; Richards, P.; Kuyper, T.W.

    2008-01-01

    Farmers' perceptions of earthworm activities were studied in the transitional zone of Benin and linked to scientific explanations of earthworm casting activities. Earthworm activity was assessed in farmers' fields with three different cassava cultivars and in a field experiment with three different

  18. Earthworm activities in cassava and egusi melon fields in the transitional zone of Benin: linking farmers' perceptions with field studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saïdou, A.; Kossou, D.; Brussaard, L.; Richards, P.; Kuyper, T.W.

    2008-01-01

    Farmers' perceptions of earthworm activities were studied in the transitional zone of Benin and linked to scientific explanations of earthworm casting activities. Earthworm activity was assessed in farmers' fields with three different cassava cultivars and in a field experiment with three different

  19. How Large Scale Flows in the Solar Convection Zone may Influence Solar Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, D. H.

    2004-01-01

    Large scale flows within the solar convection zone are the primary drivers of the Sun s magnetic activity cycle. Differential rotation can amplify the magnetic field and convert poloidal fields into toroidal fields. Poleward meridional flow near the surface can carry magnetic flux that reverses the magnetic poles and can convert toroidal fields into poloidal fields. The deeper, equatorward meridional flow can carry magnetic flux toward the equator where it can reconnect with oppositely directed fields in the other hemisphere. These axisymmetric flows are themselves driven by large scale convective motions. The effects of the Sun s rotation on convection produce velocity correlations that can maintain the differential rotation and meridional circulation. These convective motions can influence solar activity themselves by shaping the large-scale magnetic field pattern. While considerable theoretical advances have been made toward understanding these large scale flows, outstanding problems in matching theory to observations still remain.

  20. Optimization of companies’ activity on development of electronic product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.V. Nalivaychenko

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The article considers modern processes of informatization of activity for business companies. There are generalized the makes of world companies, which create information technologies in global information environment: the electronic information product containing an universal development algorithm for it, is most effective. It is found that companies prefer opened program codes.

  1. Active faults in the deformation zone off Noto Peninsula, Japan, revealed by high- resolution seismic profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, T.; Okamura, Y.; Murakami, F.; Kimura, H.; Ikehara, K.

    2008-12-01

    Recently, a lot of earthquakes occur in Japan. The deformation zone which many faults and folds have concentrated exists on the Japan Sea side of Japan. The 2007 Noto Hanto Earthquake (MJMA 6.9) and 2007 Chuetsu-oki Earthquake (MJMA 6.8) were caused by activity of parts of faults in this deformation zone. The Noto Hanto Earthquake occurred on 25 March, 2007 under the northwestern coast of Noto Peninsula, Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan. This earthquake is located in Quaternary deformation zone that is continued from northern margin of Noto Peninsula to southeast direction (Okamura, 2007a). National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) carried out high-resolution seismic survey using Boomer and 12 channels short streamer cable in the northern part off Noto Peninsula, in order to clarify distribution and activities of active faults in the deformation zone. A twelve channels short streamer cable with 2.5 meter channel spacing developed by AIST and private corporation is designed to get high resolution seismic profiles in shallow sea area. The multi-channel system is possible to equip on a small fishing boat, because the data acquisition system is based on PC and the length of the cable is short and easy to handle. Moreover, because the channel spacing is short, this cable is very effective for a high- resolution seismic profiling survey in the shallow sea, and seismic data obtained by multi-channel cable can be improved by velocity analysis and CDP stack. In the northern part off Noto Peninsula, seismic profiles depicting geologic structure up to 100 meters deep under sea floor were obtained. The most remarkable reflection surface recognized in the seismic profiles is erosion surface at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). In the western part, sediments about 30 meters (40 msec) thick cover the erosional surface that is distributed under the shelf shallower than 100m in depth and the sediments thin toward offshore and east. Flexures like deformation in

  2. Analysis of Schwalbe′s Line (Limbal Smooth Zone by Scanning Electron Microscopy and Optical Coherence Tomography in Human Eye Bank Eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark P Breazzano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Implantation of intraocular devices may become critical as they decrease in size in the future. Therefore, it is desirable to evaluate the relationship between radial location and Schwalbe′s line (smooth zone by examining its width with scanning electron microscopy (SEM and to correlate this with observations by optical coherence tomography (OCT. Methods: Full corneoscleral rings were obtained from twenty-six formalin-fixed human phakic donor eyes. SEM of each eye yielded a complete montage of the smooth zone, from which the area was measured, and width was determined in each quadrant. In three different eyes, time domain anterior segment OCT (Visante, Carl Zeiss Meditec Inc., Dublin, CA, USA and spectral domain OCT (Cirrus 4.0, Carl Zeiss Meditec Inc., Dublin, CA, USA were used to further characterize Schwalbe′s line. Results: The overall smooth zone width was 79±22 μm, (n=15 ranging from 43 to 115 μm. The superior quadrant (103±8 μm, n=19, demonstrated significantly wider smooth zone than both the nasal (71±5 μm, n=19, P0.05. SEM findings of the smooth zone were correlated with visualization of Schwalbe′s line by Cirrus and Visante OCT imaging. Conclusion: The smooth zone appears widest superiorly and thinnest inferonasally, suggesting that as glaucoma surgical devices become smaller, their placement could be targeted clinically by using OCT with preference to the superior quadrant, to minimize damage to the corneal endothelium.

  3. Hedgehog Controls Quiescence and Activation of Neural Stem Cells in the Adult Ventricular-Subventricular Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Daynac

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Identifying the mechanisms controlling quiescence and activation of neural stem cells (NSCs is crucial for understanding brain repair. Here, we demonstrate that Hedgehog (Hh signaling actively regulates different pools of quiescent and proliferative NSCs in the adult ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ, one of the main brain neurogenic niches. Specific deletion of the Hh receptor Patched in NSCs during adulthood upregulated Hh signaling in quiescent NSCs, progressively leading to a large accumulation of these cells in the V-SVZ. The pool of non-neurogenic astrocytes was not modified, whereas the activated NSC pool increased after a short period, before progressively becoming exhausted. We also showed that Sonic Hedgehog regulates proliferation of activated NSCs in vivo and shortens both their G1 and S-G2/M phases in culture. These data demonstrate that Hh orchestrates the balance between quiescent and activated NSCs, with important implications for understanding adult neurogenesis under normal homeostatic conditions or during injury.

  4. Detection of recurrent activation patterns across focal seizures: Application to seizure onset zone identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila-Vidal, Manel; Principe, Alessandro; Ley, Miguel; Deco, Gustavo; Tauste Campo, Adrià; Rocamora, Rodrigo

    2017-06-01

    We introduce a method that quantifies the consistent involvement of intracranially monitored regions in recurrent focal seizures. We evaluated the consistency of two ictal spectral activation patterns (mean power change and power change onset time) in intracranial recordings across focal seizures from seven patients with clinically marked seizure onset zone (SOZ). We examined SOZ discrimination using both patterns in different frequency bands and periods of interest. Activation patterns were proved to be consistent across more than 80% of recurrent ictal epochs. In all patients, whole-seizure mean activations were significantly higher for SOZ than non-SOZ regions (Pseizure period while gamma band (20-70Hz) achieved the highest discrimination values between SOZ and non-SOZ sites near seizure onset (0-5s). Consistent spectral activation patterns in focal epilepsies discriminate the SOZ with high effect sizes upon appropriate selection of frequency bands and activation periods. The present method may be used to improve epileptogenic identification as well as pinpoint additional regions that are functionally altered during ictal events. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. NMDA modulates oligodendrocyte differentiation of subventricular zone cells through PKC activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio eCavaliere

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Multipotent cells from the juvenile subventricular zone (SVZ possess the ability to differentiate into new neural cells. Depending on local signals, SVZ can generate new neurons, astrocytes or oligodendrocytes. We previously demonstrated that activation of NMDA receptors in SVZ progenitors increases the rate of oligodendrocyte differentiation. Here we investigated the mechanisms involved in NMDA receptor-dependent differentiation. Using functional studies performed with the reporter gene luciferase we found that activation of NMDA receptor stimulates PKC. In turn, stimulation of PKC precedes the activation of NADPH oxidase (NOX as demonstrated by translocation of the p67phox subunit to the cellular membrane. We propose that NOX2 is involved in the transduction of the signal from NMDA receptors through PKC activation as the inhibitor gp91 reduced their pro-differentiation effect. In addition, our data and that from other groups suggest that signaling through the NMDA receptor/PKC/NOX2 cascade generates ROS that activate the PI3/mTOR pathway and finally leads to the generation of new oligodendrocytes.

  6. Location of high seismic activity zones and seismic hazard assessment in Zabrze Bielszowice coal mine using passive tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LURKA A

    2008-01-01

    In the paper results of passive tomography calculations have been presented to assess rockburst hazard and locate high seismic activity zones in the vicinity of longwall 306 in Zabrze Bielszowice coal mine. The area of study was 1000 m in X direction by 900 m in Y direction. The zones of high values of P-wave propagation velocity have been found to correlate with the distribution of large seismic tremors.

  7. Transcriptome analysis of tomato flower pedicel tissues reveals abscission zone-specific modulation of key meristem activity genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Wang

    Full Text Available Tomato flower abscises at the anatomically distinct abscission zone that separates the pedicel into basal and apical portions. During abscission, cell separation occurs only at the abscission zone indicating distinctive molecular regulation in its cells. We conducted a transcriptome analysis of tomato pedicel tissues during ethylene promoted abscission. We found that the abscission zone was the most active site with the largest set of differentially expressed genes when compared with basal and apical portions. Gene Ontology analyses revealed enriched transcription regulation and hydrolase activities in the abscission zone. We also demonstrate coordinated responses of hormone and cell wall related genes. Besides, a number of ESTs representing homologs of key Arabidopsis shoot apical meristem activity genes were found to be preferentially expressed in the abscission zone, including WUSCHEL (WUS, KNAT6, LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES DOMAIN PROTEIN 1(LBD1, and BELL-like homeodomain protein 1 (BLH1, as well as tomato axillary meristem genes BLIND (Bl and LATERAL SUPPRESSOR (Ls. More interestingly, the homologs of WUS and the potential functional partner OVATE FAMILIY PROTEIN (OFP were subsequently down regulated during abscission while Bl and AGL12 were continuously and specifically induced in the abscission zone. The expression patterns of meristem activity genes corroborate the idea that cells of the abscission zone confer meristem-like nature and coincide with the course of abscission and post-abscission cell differentiation. Our data therefore propose a possible regulatory scheme in tomato involving meristem genes that may be required not only for the abscission zone development, but also for abscission.

  8. Transcriptome analysis of tomato flower pedicel tissues reveals abscission zone-specific modulation of key meristem activity genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiang; Liu, Danmei; Li, Aili; Sun, Xiuli; Zhang, Rongzhi; Wu, Liang; Liang, Yanchun; Mao, Long

    2013-01-01

    Tomato flower abscises at the anatomically distinct abscission zone that separates the pedicel into basal and apical portions. During abscission, cell separation occurs only at the abscission zone indicating distinctive molecular regulation in its cells. We conducted a transcriptome analysis of tomato pedicel tissues during ethylene promoted abscission. We found that the abscission zone was the most active site with the largest set of differentially expressed genes when compared with basal and apical portions. Gene Ontology analyses revealed enriched transcription regulation and hydrolase activities in the abscission zone. We also demonstrate coordinated responses of hormone and cell wall related genes. Besides, a number of ESTs representing homologs of key Arabidopsis shoot apical meristem activity genes were found to be preferentially expressed in the abscission zone, including WUSCHEL (WUS), KNAT6, LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES DOMAIN PROTEIN 1(LBD1), and BELL-like homeodomain protein 1 (BLH1), as well as tomato axillary meristem genes BLIND (Bl) and LATERAL SUPPRESSOR (Ls). More interestingly, the homologs of WUS and the potential functional partner OVATE FAMILIY PROTEIN (OFP) were subsequently down regulated during abscission while Bl and AGL12 were continuously and specifically induced in the abscission zone. The expression patterns of meristem activity genes corroborate the idea that cells of the abscission zone confer meristem-like nature and coincide with the course of abscission and post-abscission cell differentiation. Our data therefore propose a possible regulatory scheme in tomato involving meristem genes that may be required not only for the abscission zone development, but also for abscission.

  9. Tsunamigenic potential of a newly discovered active fault zone in the outer Messina Strait, Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Lili; Heidarzadeh, Mohammad; Cukur, Deniz; Chiocci, Francesco L.; Ridente, Domenico; Gross, Felix; Bialas, Jörg; Krastel, Sebastian

    2017-03-01

    The 1908 Messina tsunami was the most catastrophic tsunami hitting the coastline of Southern Italy in the younger past. The source of this tsunami, however, is still heavily debated, and both rupture along a fault and a slope failure have been postulated as potential origin of the tsunami. Here we report a newly discovered active Fiumefreddo-Melito di Porto Salvo Fault Zone (F-MPS_FZ), which is located in the outer Messina Strait in a proposed landslide source area of the 1908 Messina tsunami. Tsunami modeling showed that this fault zone would produce devastating tsunamis by assuming slip amounts of ≥5 m. An assumed slip of up to 17 m could even generate a tsunami comparable to the 1908 Messina tsunami, but we do not consider the F-MPS_FZ as a source for the 1908 Messina tsunami because its E-W strike contradicts seismological observations of the 1908 Messina earthquake. Future researches on the F-MPS_FZ, however, may contribute to the tsunami risk assessment in the Messina Strait.

  10. 77 FR 47429 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Petroleum Refineries in Foreign Trade Sub-zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    ... in Foreign Trade Sub-zones AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of Homeland... concerning the Petroleum Refineries in Foreign Trade Sub-zones. This request for comment is being made... Refineries in Foreign Trade Sub-zones. OMB Number: 1651-0063. Form Number: None. Abstract: The Foreign...

  11. Pedestrian-oriented zoning is associated with reduced income and poverty disparities in adult active travel to work, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chriqui, Jamie F; Leider, Julien; Thrun, Emily; Nicholson, Lisa M; Slater, Sandy J

    2017-02-01

    Active travel to work can provide additional minutes of daily physical activity. While the literature points to the relationship between zoning, equity and socioeconomic status, and physical activity, no study has quantitatively explored these connections. This study examined whether zoning may help to moderate any income and poverty inequities in active travel and taking public transit to work. Research was conducted between May 2012 and June 2015. Zoning data were compiled for 3914 jurisdictions covering 45.45% of the U.S. population located in 471 of the most populous U.S. counties and 2 consolidated cities located in 48 states and the District of Columbia. (Sensitivity analyses also captured unincorporated areas which, with the municipalities, collectively covered ~72% of the U.S.

  12. EEG reactions of the human brain in the gradient magnetic field zone of the active geological fault (pilot study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pobachenko, S. V.; Shitov, A. V.; Grigorjev, P. E.; Sokolov, M. V.; Zubrilkin, A. I.; Vypiraylo, D. N.; Solovjev, A. V.

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents the results of experimental studies of the dynamics of the functional state of a person within the zone of an active geological fault characterized by abnormal spatial distribution of the magnetic- field vector values. It is shown that these geophysical modifications have a pronounced effect on the fluctuations of the electrical activity of the human brain. When the person gets into a zone with abnormal levels of gradient magnetic field in the absence of any subjective sensations, a nonspecific orientation activation reaction is observed, which is characterized by a significant increase in the levels of peak performance in key functional EEG frequency bands.

  13. Hydrothermal quartz formation during fluctuations of brittle shear-zone activity and fluid flow: grain growth and deformation structures of the Pfahl shear zone (Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, T.; Prosser, G.; Liotta, D.; Kruhl, J. H.

    2012-12-01

    The Bavarian Pfahl shear zone is a WNW-ESE trending dextral strike-slip shear zone at the SW margin of the Bohemian Massif (Central Europe). It was discontinuously active during decreasing PT-conditions, i.e. from ductile to brittle, from the late-Carboniferous to the late-Cretaceous - Paleocene times. Triassic hydrothermal activity produced a 150 km long and 30-100 m wide quartz dyke along the main fault, surrounded by sheared basement rocks. Within a zone of >10 m metasomatism transformed the wall rocks to mostly kaolinite, chlorite and phyllosilicates. The quartz dyke exhibits a layered to lenticular and partly symmetric structure with different types of quartz masses, transected by a complex quartz vein network. This already indicates pulses of fluid flux and fragmentation during the lifetime of the shear zone. Analyses by optical microscopy, cathodoluminescence (CL) and SEM-EDX reveal at least four subsequent stages of quartz crystallization and fragmentation. (i) The oldest generation of quartz is represented by a homogeneous dark grey to reddish quartz mass made up by ~10-20 μm-sized crystals. It contains mm- to cm-sized angular wall-rock fragments, completely altered to kaolinite, indicating intense wall-rock alteration prior to the earliest event of silica precipitation. This rules out the possibility that the quartz mass developed from silicification of the wall rocks. This first type of quartz occurs as cm- to dm-large angular fragments in (ii) a light grey to pink quartz mass formed by ~10-50 μm-sized crystals. The different colours result from variable types and amounts of inclusions. Quartz of both generations shows random crystallographic orientations and complex inclusion structures. It probably developed during two fragmentation events and possibly from a silica gel precursor that crystallized after precipitation. (iii) The third quartz generation formed as a set of mm- to dm-wide veins roughly parallel to the trend of the Pfahl zone

  14. Diabatic heating profiles over the continental convergence zone during the monsoon active spells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Rajib; Sur, Sharmila; Joseph, Susmitha; Sahai, A. K.

    2013-07-01

    The present paper aims to bring out the robust common aspects of spatio-temporal evolution of diabatic heating during the monsoon intraseasonal active phases over the continental tropical convergence zone (CTCZ). The robustness of spatio-temporal features is determined by comparing the two state-of-the art reanalyses: NCEP Climate Forecast System reanalysis and Modern ERA Retrospective Analysis. The inter-comparison is based on a study period of 26 years (1984-2009). The study confirms the development of deep heating over the CTCZ region during the active phase and is consistent between the two datasets. However, the detailed temporal evolution of the vertical structure (e.g., vertical tilts) of heating differs at times. The most important common feature from both the datasets is the significant vertical redistribution of heating with the development of shallow (low level) heating and circulation over the CTCZ region 3-7 days after the peak active phase. The shallow circulation is found to be associated with increased vertical shear and relative vorticity over certain regions in the subcontinent. This increased vertical shear and relative vorticity in the lower levels could be crucial in the sustenance of rainfall after the peak active phase. Model experiments with linear dynamics affirm the role of shallow convection in increasing the lower level circulation as observed.

  15. SAD-B Phosphorylation of CAST Controls Active Zone Vesicle Recycling for Synaptic Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumiko Mochida

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Short-term synaptic depression (STD is a common form of activity-dependent plasticity observed widely in the nervous system. Few molecular pathways that control STD have been described, but the active zone (AZ release apparatus provides a possible link between neuronal activity and plasticity. Here, we show that an AZ cytomatrix protein CAST and an AZ-associated protein kinase SAD-B coordinately regulate STD by controlling reloading of the AZ with release-ready synaptic vesicles. SAD-B phosphorylates the N-terminal serine (S45 of CAST, and S45 phosphorylation increases with higher firing rate. A phosphomimetic CAST (S45D mimics CAST deletion, which enhances STD by delaying reloading of the readily releasable pool (RRP, resulting in a pool size decrease. A phosphonegative CAST (S45A inhibits STD and accelerates RRP reloading. Our results suggest that the CAST/SAD-B reaction serves as a brake on synaptic transmission by temporal calibration of activity and synaptic depression via RRP size regulation.

  16. Quantitative super-resolution imaging of Bruchpilot distinguishes active zone states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehmann, Nadine; van de Linde, Sebastian; Alon, Amit; Ljaschenko, Dmitrij; Keung, Xi Zhen; Holm, Thorge; Rings, Annika; DiAntonio, Aaron; Hallermann, Stefan; Ashery, Uri; Heckmann, Manfred; Sauer, Markus; Kittel, Robert J

    2014-08-18

    The precise molecular architecture of synaptic active zones (AZs) gives rise to different structural and functional AZ states that fundamentally shape chemical neurotransmission. However, elucidating the nanoscopic protein arrangement at AZs is impeded by the diffraction-limited resolution of conventional light microscopy. Here we introduce new approaches to quantify endogenous protein organization at single-molecule resolution in situ with super-resolution imaging by direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (dSTORM). Focusing on the Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ), we find that the AZ cytomatrix (CAZ) is composed of units containing ~137 Bruchpilot (Brp) proteins, three quarters of which are organized into about 15 heptameric clusters. We test for a quantitative relationship between CAZ ultrastructure and neurotransmitter release properties by engaging Drosophila mutants and electrophysiology. Our results indicate that the precise nanoscopic organization of Brp distinguishes different physiological AZ states and link functional diversification to a heretofore unrecognized neuronal gradient of the CAZ ultrastructure.

  17. Emission of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons from the Exhalation Zones of Thermally Active Mine Waste Dumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrycja Kuna-Gwoździewicz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of research carried out on the occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH in gases of exhalation zones, created on the surface of a thermally active coal mine waste dump. The oxidation and self-heating of mine waste are accompanied with the intensive emission of flue gases, including PAH group compounds. Taking into consideration the fact the hydrocarbons show strong genotoxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic properties, research was conducted to establish their content in the examined gases. The research object was a gangue dump located in Rybnik. The research was performed in 2012. In total, 24 samples of gas were collected with PUF (polyurethane foam sampling cartridges with a quartz fibre filter and an aspirator. The collected samples were analysed with the use of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and a fluorescence detector (FLD to evaluate the amount of PAH present.

  18. APP Is a Context-Sensitive Regulator of the Hippocampal Presynaptic Active Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laßek, Melanie; Weingarten, Jens; Wegner, Martin; Mueller, Benjamin F; Rohmer, Marion; Baeumlisberger, Dominic; Arrey, Tabiwang N; Hick, Meike; Ackermann, Jörg; Acker-Palmer, Amparo; Koch, Ina; Müller, Ulrike; Karas, Michael; Volknandt, Walter

    2016-04-01

    The hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are characterized by cognitive decline and behavioral changes. The most prominent brain region affected by the progression of AD is the hippocampal formation. The pathogenesis involves a successive loss of hippocampal neurons accompanied by a decline in learning and memory consolidation mainly attributed to an accumulation of senile plaques. The amyloid precursor protein (APP) has been identified as precursor of Aβ-peptides, the main constituents of senile plaques. Until now, little is known about the physiological function of APP within the central nervous system. The allocation of APP to the proteome of the highly dynamic presynaptic active zone (PAZ) highlights APP as a yet unknown player in neuronal communication and signaling. In this study, we analyze the impact of APP deletion on the hippocampal PAZ proteome. The native hippocampal PAZ derived from APP mouse mutants (APP-KOs and NexCreAPP/APLP2-cDKOs) was isolated by subcellular fractionation and immunopurification. Subsequently, an isobaric labeling was performed using TMT6 for protein identification and quantification by high-resolution mass spectrometry. We combine bioinformatics tools and biochemical approaches to address the proteomics dataset and to understand the role of individual proteins. The impact of APP deletion on the hippocampal PAZ proteome was visualized by creating protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks that incorporated APP into the synaptic vesicle cycle, cytoskeletal organization, and calcium-homeostasis. The combination of subcellular fractionation, immunopurification, proteomic analysis, and bioinformatics allowed us to identify APP as structural and functional regulator in a context-sensitive manner within the hippocampal active zone network.

  19. Quaternary grabens in southernmost Illinois: Deformation near an active intraplate seismic zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, W.J.; Denny, F.B.; Follmer, L.R.; Masters, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    Narrow grabens displace Quaternary sediments near the northern edge of the Mississippi Embayment in extreme southern Illinois, east-central United States. Grabens are part of the Fluorspar Area Fault Complex (FAFC), which has been recurrently active throughout Phanerozoic time. The FAFC strikes directly toward the New Madrid Seismic Zone (NMSZ), scene of some of the largest intra-plate earthquakes in history. The NMSZ and FAFC share origin in a failed Cambrian rift (Reelfoot Rift). Every major fault zone of the FAFC in Illinois exhibits Quaternary displacement. The structures appear to be strike-slip pull-apart grabens, but the magnitude and direction of horizontal slip and their relationship to the current stress field are unknown. Upper Tertiary strata are vertically displaced more than 100 m, Illinoian and older Pleistocene strata 10 to 30 m, and Wisconsinan deposits 1 m or less. No Holocene deformation has been observed. Average vertical slip rates are estimated at 0.01 to 0.03 mm/year, and recurrence intervals for earthquakes of magnitude 6 to 7 are on the order of 10,000s of years for any given fault. Previous authors remarked that the small amount of surface deformation in the New Madrid area implies that the NMSZ is a young feature. Our findings show that tectonic activity has shifted around throughout the Quaternary in the central Mississippi Valley. In addition to the NMSZ and southern Illinois, the Wabash Valley (Illinois-Indiana), Benton Hills (Missouri), Crowley's Ridge (Arkansas-Missouri), and possibly other sites have experienced Quaternary tectonism. The NMSZ may be only the latest manifestation of seismicity in an intensely fractured intra-plate region.

  20. APP Is a Context-Sensitive Regulator of the Hippocampal Presynaptic Active Zone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Laßek

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD are characterized by cognitive decline and behavioral changes. The most prominent brain region affected by the progression of AD is the hippocampal formation. The pathogenesis involves a successive loss of hippocampal neurons accompanied by a decline in learning and memory consolidation mainly attributed to an accumulation of senile plaques. The amyloid precursor protein (APP has been identified as precursor of Aβ-peptides, the main constituents of senile plaques. Until now, little is known about the physiological function of APP within the central nervous system. The allocation of APP to the proteome of the highly dynamic presynaptic active zone (PAZ highlights APP as a yet unknown player in neuronal communication and signaling. In this study, we analyze the impact of APP deletion on the hippocampal PAZ proteome. The native hippocampal PAZ derived from APP mouse mutants (APP-KOs and NexCreAPP/APLP2-cDKOs was isolated by subcellular fractionation and immunopurification. Subsequently, an isobaric labeling was performed using TMT6 for protein identification and quantification by high-resolution mass spectrometry. We combine bioinformatics tools and biochemical approaches to address the proteomics dataset and to understand the role of individual proteins. The impact of APP deletion on the hippocampal PAZ proteome was visualized by creating protein-protein interaction (PPI networks that incorporated APP into the synaptic vesicle cycle, cytoskeletal organization, and calcium-homeostasis. The combination of subcellular fractionation, immunopurification, proteomic analysis, and bioinformatics allowed us to identify APP as structural and functional regulator in a context-sensitive manner within the hippocampal active zone network.

  1. The property of fault zone and fault activity of Shionohira Fault, Fukushima, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshimo, K.; Aoki, K.; Tanaka, Y.; Niwa, M.; Kametaka, M.; Sakai, T.; Tanaka, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The April 11, 2011 Fukushima-ken Hamadori Earthquake (hereafter the 4.11 earthquake) formed co-seismic surface ruptures trending in the NNW-SSE direction in Iwaki City, Fukushima Prefecture, which were newly named as the Shionohira Fault by Ishiyama et al. (2011). This earthquake was characterized by a westward dipping normal slip faulting, with a maximum displacement of about 2 m (e.g., Kurosawa et al., 2012). To the south of the area, the same trending lineaments were recognized to exist even though no surface ruptures occurred by the earthquake. In an attempt to elucidate the differences of active and non-active segments of the fault, this report discusses the results of observation of fault outcrops along the Shionohira Fault as well as the Coulomb stress calculations. Only a few outcrops have basement rocks of both the hanging-wall and foot-wall of the fault plane. Three of these outcrops (Kyodo-gawa, Shionohira and Betto) were selected for investigation. In addition, a fault outcrop (Nameishi-minami) located about 300 m south of the southern tip of the surface ruptures was investigated. The authors carried out observations of outcrops, polished slabs and thin sections, and performed X-ray diffraction (XRD) to fault materials. As a result, the fault zones originating from schists were investigated at Kyodo-gawa and Betto. A thick fault gouge was cut by a fault plane of the 4.11 earthquake in each outcrop. The fault materials originating from schists were fault bounded with (possibly Neogene) weakly deformed sandstone at Shionohira. A thin fault gouge was found along the fault plane of 4.11 earthquake. A small-scale fault zone with thin fault gouge was observed in Nameishi-minami. According to XRD analysis, smectite was detected in the gouges from Kyodo-gawa, Shionohira and Betto, while not in the gouge from Nameishi-minami.

  2. Positron annihilation lifetime in float-zone n-type silicon irradiated by fast electrons: a thermally stable vacancy defect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arutyunov, Nikolay [Martin Luther University Halle, Department of Physics, von-Danckelmann-Platz 3, 06120 Halle (Germany); Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Institute of Ion-Plasma and Laser Technologies (Institute of Electronics), 700170 Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Emtsev, Vadim; Oganesyan, Gagik [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Krause-Rehberg, Reinhard [Martin Luther University Halle, Department of Physics, von-Danckelmann-Platz 3, 06120 Halle (Germany); Elsayed, Mohamed [Martin Luther University Halle, Department of Physics, von-Danckelmann-Platz 3, 06120 Halle (Germany); Minia University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department, 61519 Minia (Egypt); Kozlovskii, Vitalii [St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University, 195251 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    Temperature dependency of the average positron lifetime has been investigated for n-type float-zone silicon, n-FZ-Si(P), subjected to irradiation with 0.9 MeV electrons at RT. In the course of the isochronal annealing a new defect-related temperature-dependent pattern of the positron lifetime spectra has been revealed. Beyond the well known intervals of isochronal annealing of acceptor-like defects such as E-centers, divacancies and A-centers, the positron annihilation at the vacancy defects has been observed in the course of the isochronal annealing from ∝ 320 C up to the limit of reliable detecting of the defect-related positron annihilation lifetime at ≥ 500 C. These data correlate with the ones of recovery of the concentration of the charge carriers and their mobility which is found to continue in the course of annealing to ∝ 570 C; the annealing is accomplished at ∝650 C. A thermally stable complex consisting of the open vacancy volume and the phosphorus impurity atom, V{sub op}-P, is suggested as a possible candidate for interpreting the data obtained by the positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy. An extended couple of semi-vacancies, 2V{sub s-ext}, as well as a relaxed inwards a couple of vacancies, 2V{sub inw}, are suggested as the open vacancy volume V{sub op} to be probed with the positron. It is argued that a high thermal stability of the V{sub s-ext} PV{sub s-ext} (or V{sub inw}PV{sub inw.}) configuration is contributed by the efficiency of PSi{sub 5} bonding. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. The River Network, Active Tectonics and the Mexican Subduction Zone, Southwest Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaidzik, K.; Ramirez-Herrera, M. T.; Kostoglodov, V.; Basili, R.

    2014-12-01

    Rivers, their profiles and network reflect the integration of multiple processes and forces that are part of the fundamental controls on the relief structure of mountain belts. The motivation of this study is to understand active tectonic processes in the forearc region of subduction zones, by distinguishing evidence of active deformation using the river network and topography. To this end, morphotectonic and structural studies have been conducted on fifteen drainage basins on the mountain front, parallel to the Mexican subduction zone, where the Cocos plate underthrusts the North American plate. The southwest - northeast Cocos plate subduction stress regime initiated ca. 20 MA. NE-SW to NNE-SSW normal faults as well as sub-latitudinal to NW-SE strike-slip faults (both dextral and sinistral) constitute the majority of mesofaults recorded in the field within the studied drainage basins. Occasionally dextral N-S strike-slip faults also occur. The stress tensor reconstruction suggests two main evolution stages of these faults: 1) the older is dominated by a NW-SE to WNW-ESE extensional regime and 2) the younger is a transcurrent regime, with NNE-SSW σ1 axis. The drainage pattern is strongly controlled by tectonic features, whereas lithology is only a subordinate factor, with only one exception (Petatlán river). Generally, major rivers flow from north to south mainly through NE-SW and NNE-SSW normal faults, and/or sub-longitudinal dextral (also locally sinistral) strike-slip faults. In the central and eastern part of the studied area, rivers also follow NW-SE structures, which are generally normal or sinistral strike-slip faults (rarely reverse). In most cases, local deflections of the river main courses are related to sub-latitudinal strike-slip faults, both dextral and sinistral. Within the current stress field related to the active Cocos subduction, both normal and strike-slip fault sets could be reactivated. Our analysis suggests that strike-slip faults, mainly

  4. Impacts of stellar evolution and dynamics on the habitable zone: The role of rotation and magnetic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallet, F.; Charbonnel, C.; Amard, L.; Brun, S.; Palacios, A.; Mathis, S.

    2017-01-01

    Context. With the ever growing number of detected and confirmed exoplanets, the probability of finding a planet that looks like the Earth increases continuously. While it is clear that the presence of a planet in the habitable zone does not imply the planet is habitable, a systematic study of the evolution of the habitable zone is required to account for its dependence on stellar parameters. Aims: In this article, we aim to provide the community with the dependence of the habitable zone upon the stellar mass, metallicity, rotation, and for various prescriptions of the limits of the habitable zone. Methods: We use stellar evolution models computed with the code STAREVOL, which includes the most current physical mechanisms of internal transport of angular momentum and external wind braking, to study the evolution of the habitable zone and the continuously habitable zone limits. Results: The stellar parameters mass and metallicity affect the habitable zone limits most dramatically. Conversely, for a given stellar mass and metallicity, stellar rotation has only a marginal effect on these limits and does not modify the width of the habitable zone. Moreover, and as expected in the main-sequence phase and for a given stellar mass and metallicity, the habitable zone limits remain almost constant, and this confirms the usual assumptions of a relative constancy of these limits during that phase. The evolution of the habitable zone limits is also correlated to the evolution of the stellar activity (through the Rossby number), which depends on the stellar mass considered. While the magnetic activity has negligible consequence in the case of more massive stars, these effects may have a strong impact on the habitability of a planet around M-dwarf stars. Thus, stellar activity cannot be neglected and may have a strong impact on the development of life during the early stage of the continuously habitable zone phase of low-mass stars. Using observed trends of stellar magnetic field

  5. Artemisinin inhibits chloroplast electron transport activity: mode of action.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adyasha Bharati

    Full Text Available Artemisinin, a secondary metabolite produced in Artemisia plant species, besides having antimalarial properties is also phytotoxic. Although, the phytotoxic activity of the compound has been long recognized, no information is available on the mechanism of action of the compound on photosynthetic activity of the plant. In this report, we have evaluated the effect of artemisinin on photoelectron transport activity of chloroplast thylakoid membrane. The inhibitory effect of the compound, under in vitro condition, was pronounced in loosely and fully coupled thylakoids; being strong in the former. The extent of inhibition was drastically reduced in the presence of uncouplers like ammonium chloride or gramicidin; a characteristic feature described for energy transfer inhibitors. The compound, on the other hand, when applied to plants (in vivo, behaved as a potent inhibitor of photosynthetic electron transport. The major site of its action was identified to be the Q(B; the secondary quinone moiety of photosystemII complex. Analysis of photoreduction kinetics of para-benzoquinone and duroquinone suggest that the inhibition leads to formation of low pool of plastoquinol, which becomes limiting for electron flow through photosystemI. Further it was ascertained that the in vivo inhibitory effect appeared as a consequence of the formation of an unidentified artemisinin-metabolite rather than by the interaction of the compound per se. The putative metabolite of artemisinin is highly reactive in instituting the inhibition of photosynthetic electron flow eventually reducing the plant growth.

  6. Nanoscale Structural Plasticity of the Active Zone Matrix Modulates Presynaptic Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glebov, Oleg O; Jackson, Rachel E; Winterflood, Christian M; Owen, Dylan M; Barker, Ellen A; Doherty, Patrick; Ewers, Helge; Burrone, Juan

    2017-03-14

    The active zone (AZ) matrix of presynaptic terminals coordinates the recruitment of voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) and synaptic vesicles to orchestrate neurotransmitter release. However, the spatial organization of the AZ and how it controls vesicle fusion remain poorly understood. Here, we employ super-resolution microscopy and ratiometric imaging to visualize the AZ structure on the nanoscale, revealing segregation between the AZ matrix, VGCCs, and putative release sites. Long-term blockade of neuronal activity leads to reversible AZ matrix unclustering and presynaptic actin depolymerization, allowing for enrichment of AZ machinery. Conversely, patterned optogenetic stimulation of postsynaptic neurons retrogradely enhanced AZ clustering. In individual synapses, AZ clustering was inversely correlated with local VGCC recruitment and vesicle cycling. Acute actin depolymerization led to rapid (5 min) nanoscale AZ matrix unclustering. We propose a model whereby neuronal activity modulates presynaptic function in a homeostatic manner by altering the clustering state of the AZ matrix. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Calculations of Induced Activity in the ATLAS Experiment for Nuclear Waste Zoning.

    CERN Document Server

    Morev, M N

    2007-01-01

    Extensive calculations were performed with the general activation formula using the fluxes of high-energy hadrons and low-energy neutrons previously obtained from simulations with the GCALOR code of the ATLAS detector. Three sets of proton cross-sections were used for hadrons energy above 20 MeV: (a) one set calculated with the YIELDX code (i.e., the Silberberg-Tsao formula of partial proton spallation cross-sections), (b) one set calculated with the Rudstam formula, and (c) the ‘best-estimate' dataset which was a compilation of the available experimental and calculated data. In the energy region below 20 MeV, neutron activation cross-sections were taken from evaluated nuclear data files. The activity of each nuclide for a predefined operation scenario (i.e., number and duration of irradiation and shutdown cycles) was normalized to reference values taken from the European or Swiss legislations, to obtain an aggregate estimate of the radiological hazard comparable with a nuclear waste zoning definition cr...

  8. Mechanisms of short-term plasticity at neuromuscular active zones of Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallermann, Stefan; Heckmann, Manfred; Kittel, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    During short bursts of neuronal activity, changes in the efficacy of neurotransmitter release are governed primarily by two counteracting processes: (1) Ca2+-dependent elevations of vesicle release probability and (2) depletion of synaptic vesicles. The dynamic interplay of both processes contributes to the expression of activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. Here, we exploited various facets of short-term plasticity at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction to dissect these two processes. This enabled us to rigorously analyze different models of synaptic vesicle pools in terms of their size and mobilization properties. Independent of the specific model, we estimate ∼300 readily releasable vesicles with an average release probability of ∼50% in 1 mM extracellular calcium (∼5% in 0.4 mM extracellular calcium) under resting conditions. The models also helped interpreting the altered short-term plasticity of the previously reported mutant of the active zone component Bruchpilot (BRP). Finally, our results were independently confirmed through fluctuation analysis. Our data reveal that the altered short-term plasticity observed in BRP mutants cannot be accounted for by delocalized Ca2+ channels alone and thus suggest an additional role of BRP in short-term plasticity. PMID:20811513

  9. Underground Corrosion of Activated Metals in an Arid Vadose Zone Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler Flitton, Mariana Kay; Mizia, Ronald Eugene; Bishop, Carolyn Wagoner

    2002-04-01

    The subsurface radioactive disposal site located at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory contains neutron-activated metals from nonfuel nuclear-reactor- core components. A long-term corrosion test is being conducted to obtain site-specific corrosion rates to support efforts to more accurately estimate the transfer of activated elements in an arid vadose zone environment. The tests use nonradioactive metal coupons representing the prominent neutron-activated material buried at the disposal location, namely, Type 304L stainless steel, Type 315L stainless steel, nickel-chromium alloy (UNS NO7718), beryllium, aluminum 6061-T6, and a zirconium alloy, (UNS R60804). In addition, carbon steel (the material presently used in the cask disposal liners and other disposal containers) and a duplex stainless steel (UNS S32550) (the proposed material for the high- integrity disposal containers) are also included in the test program. This paper briefly describes the test program and presents the early corrosion rate results after 1 year and 3 years of underground exposure.

  10. Underground Corrosion of Activated Metals in an Arid Vadose Zone Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler Flitton, M.K; Mizia, R.E.; Bishop, C.W.

    2001-10-24

    The subsurface radioactive disposal site located at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory contains neutron-activated metals from nonfuel nuclear-reactor- core components. A long-term corrosion test is being conducted to obtain site-specific corrosion rates to support efforts to more accurately estimate the transfer of activated elements in an arid vadose zone environment. The tests use nonradioactive metal coupons representing the prominent neutron-activated material buried at the disposal location, namely, Type 304L stainless steel, Type 315L stainless steel, nickel-chromium alloy (UNS NO7718), beryllium, aluminum 6061-T6, and a zirconium alloy, (UNS R60804). In addition, carbon steel (the material presently used in the cask disposal liners and other disposal containers) and a duplex stainless steel (UNS S32550) (the proposed material for the high- integrity disposal containers) are also included in the test program. This paper briefly describes the test program and presents the early corrosion rate results after 1 year and 3 years of underground exposure.

  11. Probing Microbial Activity in a Perched Water Body Located in a Deep Vadose Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Y.; Taylor, J. L.; Henriksen, J. R.; Delwiche, M.; Gebrehiwet, T.; Hubbard, S. S.; Spycher, N.; Weathers, T. S.; Ginn, T. R.; Pfiffner, S. M.; Smith, R. W.

    2011-12-01

    Waste releases to the vadose zone are a legacy of past activities at a number of Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. At the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), 90Sr has been detected in perched water bodies underlying the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) facility. Microbially induced calcite precipitation (MICP) using urea-hydrolyzing microbes is one proposed approach for immobilization of 90Sr in the subsurface. The sequestration mechanism is co-precipitation in calcite, promoted by the production of carbonate alkalinity from ureolysis. In order to assess the potential efficacy of MICP at INTEC a field study was conducted at the INL Vadose Zone Research Park (VZRP). The VZRP is located approximately 3 km from INTEC and shares many of the same hydrologic and lithologic features but in a non-contaminated setting. We conducted experiments over two field seasons in a perched water body located approximately 15 meters below land surface, using a 5-spot wellfield design. During the first season amendments (molasses and urea) were injected into the central well and water was extracted from two wells on either side, located along a diagonal. Water samples were characterized for microbial abundance, ureolytic activity and ureC gene numbers, along with solution composition. Before, during and after the injections cross-borehole geophysical imaging was performed, using various combinations of the available wells. During the second field season in situ static experiments were conducted to specifically characterize attached and unattached microbial communities, using surrogate substrates colonized during a 12 week incubation. Based on the field data a first order in situ urea hydrolysis rate constant of 0.034 d-1 was estimated. This was more than an order of magnitude higher than rate constants estimated above-ground using water samples, suggesting that attached microorganisms were responsible for >90% of the observed urea hydrolysis activity. The

  12. Electron microscopic observations of the anterior pituitary gland. Part I. The neurons in the "transitional zone" of the anterior pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabuchi, Yoshio; Shirasawa, Nobuyuki; Sakuma, Eisuke; Wada, Ikuo; Horiuchi, Osamu; Kikuchi, Motoshi; Sakamoto, Atsushi; Herbert, Damon C; Soji, Tsuyoshi

    2008-06-01

    Since [Westlud, K.N., Chils, G.V., 1982. Localization of serotonin fibers in the rat adenohypophysis. Endocrinology 111, 1761-1763] initially identified the serotonin nerve fibers in the anterior pituitary gland, attention has been paid to the rostral zone of the anterior lobe into which nerve fibers enter and subsequently spread to deeper regions of the lobe. The rostral zone is the trifurcated junction of the partes tuberalis, intermedia and distalis, and has the important role(s) for hormone secretion via the "transitional zone" [Sato, G, Shirasawa, N, Sakuma, E, Sato, Y, Asai, Y, Wada, I, Horiuchi, O, Sakamoto, A, Herbert, DC, Soji, T, 2005a. Intercellular communications within the rat anterior pituitary. XI: An immunohistochemical study of distributions of S-100 positive cells in the anterior pituitary of the rat. Tissue and Cell 37, 269-280.]. The objective of this study was to focus on the ultrastructure of this "zone." All of the animals studied were fixed by perfusion with glutaraldehyde via the left ventricle of the heart and examined by electron microscopy. In the "transitional zone," a cluster of neuronal elements was observed between the folliculo-stellate cell-rich area and the anterior lobe. This cluster consisted of myelinated fibers, unmyelinated fibers, neuroendocrine fibers, large cells, and supporting cells. The large cells were perikarya of neurons which made a "ganglion-like" structure with associated satellite cells. Agranular, folliculo-stellate cells were intermingled among the elements. This is the first report that neuronal elements form clusters in the "transitional zone." A relationship of the unmyelinated and neuroendocrine fibers in the basal layer and in the "transitional zone" is discussed.

  13. Severe local strain and the plastic deformation of Guinier-Preston zones in the Al-Ag system revealed by three-dimensional electron tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoke, Koji [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, Room 650, West 4 Building, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); FEI Company Japan Ltd., 13-34, Kohnan 2, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-0075 (Japan); Kaneko, Kenji [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, Room 650, West 4 Building, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)]. E-mail: kaneko@zaiko.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Weyland, Matthew [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom); Midgley, Paul A. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom); Higashida, Kenji [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, Room 650, West 4 Building, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Horita, Zenji [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, Room 650, West 4 Building, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2006-06-15

    A severe bulk strain, {gamma} {approx} 1, intentionally introduced into an Al-Ag specimen by the equal-channel angular pressing process caused nearly spherical Guinier-Preston (GP) zones and {l_brace}1 1 1{r_brace} planar {gamma}' phases to be sheared by dislocation motion. Although distortion of GP zones in the Al-Ag system was observed by Nicholson and Nutting in 1961, the three-dimensional morphology or the amount of strain of the deformed GP zones has not been studied to date. The presence of fine-scale distorted (ellipsoidal) GP zones parallel to the {l_brace}1 1 1{r_brace} slip planes is revealed using three-dimensional atomic number, Z-contrast electron tomography. The GP zones lie within localized shear bands, which result from the introduction of the severe strain. The local shear strain, measured at the nanoscale, within the shear band was determined to be 1.83 {+-} 0.272, a value considerably more than previously expected.

  14. The impact of the semiconductor emitting diode brightness distribution on the energy sensitivity of the opto-electronic system with the optical equisignal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekrylov, Ivan S.; Timofeev, Alexander N.; Kleshchenok, Maksim A.

    2016-04-01

    The research of the influence of the LED radiation brightness distribution on the energy sensitivity of optical-electronic systems with optical equal zone is provided. Mathematical modeling of the radiation field on a matrix receiver, considering lens spherical aberration, is provided. The possibility of forming a uniform illumination on the photo-detector matrix, changing the shape of the distribution of the brightness of the LED at a predetermined invariable spherical aberration of the lens is provided.

  15. Abnormal interictal gamma activity may manifest a seizure onset zone in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedev, Andrei V; Murro, Anthony M; Meador, Kimford J

    2011-04-01

    Even though recent studies have suggested that seizures do not occur suddenly and that before a seizure there is a period with an increased probability of seizure occurrence, neurophysiological mechanisms of interictal and pre-seizure states are unknown. The ability of mathematical methods to provide much more sensitive tools for the detection of subtle changes in the electrical activity of the brain gives promise that electrophysiological markers of enhanced seizure susceptibility can be found even during interictal periods when EEG of epilepsy patients often looks 'normal'. Previously, we demonstrated in animals that hippocampal and neocortical gamma-band rhythms (30-100 Hz) intensify long before seizures caused by systemic infusion of kainic acid. Other studies in recent years have also drawn attention to the fast activity (>30 Hz) as a possible marker of epileptogenic tissue. The current study quantified gamma-band activity during interictal periods and seizures in intracranial EEG (iEEG) in 5 patients implanted with subdural grids/intracranial electrodes during their pre-surgical evaluation. In all our patients, we found distinctive (abnormal) bursts of gamma activity with a 3 to 100 fold increase in power at gamma frequencies with respect to selected by clinicians, quiescent, artifact-free, 7-20 min "normal" background (interictal) iEEG epochs 1 to 14 hours prior to seizures. Increases in gamma activity were largest in those channels which later displayed the most intensive electrographic seizure discharges. Moreover, location of gamma-band bursts correlated (with high specificity, 96.4% and sensitivity, 83.8%) with seizure onset zone (SOZ) determined by clinicians. Spatial localization of interictal gamma rhythms within SOZ suggests that the persistent presence of abnormally intensified gamma rhythms in the EEG may be an important tool for focus localization and possibly a determinant of epileptogenesis.

  16. Phosphodiesterase7 Inhibition Activates Adult Neurogenesis in Hippocampus and Subventricular Zone In Vitro and In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Garcia, Jose A; Echeverry-Alzate, Victor; Alonso-Gil, Sandra; Sanz-SanCristobal, Marina; Lopez-Moreno, Jose A; Gil, Carmen; Martinez, Ana; Santos, Angel; Perez-Castillo, Ana

    2017-02-01

    The phosphodiesterase 7 (PDE7) enzyme is one of the enzymes responsible for controlling intracellular levels of cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate in the immune and central nervous system. We have previously shown that inhibitors of this enzyme are potent neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory agents. In addition, we also demonstrated that PDE7 inhibition induces endogenous neuroregenerative processes toward a dopaminergic phenotype. Here, we show that PDE7 inhibition controls stem cell expansion in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus (SGZ) and the subventricular zone (SVZ) in the adult rat brain. Neurospheres cultures obtained from SGZ and SVZ of adult rats treated with PDE7 inhibitors presented an increased proliferation and neuronal differentiation compared to control cultures. PDE7 inhibitors treatment of neurospheres cultures also resulted in an increase of the levels of phosphorylated cAMP response element binding protein, suggesting that their effects were indeed mediated through the activation of the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway. In addition, adult rats orally treated with S14, a specific inhibitor of PDE7, presented elevated numbers of proliferating progenitor cells, and migrating precursors in the SGZ and the SVZ. Moreover, long-term treatment with this PDE7 inhibitor shows a significant increase in newly generated neurons in the olfactory bulb and the hippocampus. Also a better performance in memory tests was observed in S14 treated rats, suggesting a functional relevance for the S14-induced increase in SGZ neurogenesis. Taken together, our results indicate for the first time that inhibition of PDE7 directly regulates proliferation, migration and differentiation of neural stem cells, improving spatial learning and memory tasks. Stem Cells 2017;35:458-472.

  17. An automatic continuous monitoring station for groundwater geochemistry at an active fault zone in SW Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chun-Wei; Yang, Tsanyao F.; Fu, Ching-Chou; Hilton, David R.; Liu, Tsung-Kwei; Walia, Vivek; Lai, Tzu-Hua

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies have revealed that gas compositions of fluid samples collected from southwestern Taiwan where many hot springs and mud volcanoes are distributed along tectonic sutures show significant variation prior to and after some disaster seismic events. Such variations, including radon activity, CH4/CO2, CO2/3He and 3He/4He ratios of gas compositions, are considered to be precursors of earthquakes in this area. To validate the relationship between fluid compositions and local earthquakes, a continuous monitoring station has been established at Yun-Shui, which is an artesian well located at an active fault zone in SW Taiwan. It is equipped with a radon detector and a quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) for in-situ measurement of the dissolved gas composition. Data is telemetered to Taipei so we are able to monitor variations of gas composition in real time. Furthermore, we also installed a syringe pump apparatus for the retrieval and temporal analysis of helium (SPARTAH) at this station. From the SPARTAH samples, we can obtain detailed time series records of H-O isotopic compositions, DIC concentration and δ13C isotopic ratios, and anion concentration of the water samples at this station. After continuous monitoring for about one year, some anomalies occurred prior to some local earthquakes. It demonstrates that this automated system is feasible for long-term continuous seismo-geochemical research in this area. Keywords: monitoring; geochemistry; isotope; dissolved gases; pre-seismic signal.

  18. Molecular machines regulating the release probability of synaptic vesicles at the active zone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph eKoerber

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The fusion of synaptic vesicles (SVs with the plasma membrane of the active zone (AZ upon arrival of an action potential (AP at the presynaptic compartment is a tightly regulated probabil-istic process crucial for information transfer. The probability of a SV to release its transmitter content in response to an AP, termed release probability (Pr, is highly diverse both at the level of entire synapses and individual SVs at a given synapse. Differences in Pr exist between different types of synapses, between synapses of the same type, synapses originating from the same axon and even between different SV subpopulations within the same presynaptic terminal. The Pr of SVs at the AZ is set by a complex interplay of different presynaptic properties including the availability of release-ready SVs, the location of the SVs relative to the voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs at the AZ, the magnitude of calcium influx upon arrival of the AP, the buffer-ing of calcium ions as well as the identity and sensitivity of the calcium sensor. These properties are not only interconnected, but can also be regulated dynamically to match the requirements of activity patterns mediated by the synapse. Here, we review recent advances in identifying mole-cules and molecular machines taking part in the determination of vesicular Pr at the AZ.

  19. [Correlation analysis between meteorological factors, biomass, and active components of Salvia miltiorrhiza in different climatic zones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen-lu; Liang, Zong-suo; Guo, Hong-bo; Liu, Jing-ling; Liu, Yan; Liu, Feng-hua; Wei, Lang-zhu

    2015-02-01

    In this study, the growth and accumulation of active components of Salvia miltiorrhiza in twenty two experimental sites which crossing through three typical climate zones. The S. miltiorrhiza seedlings with the same genotype were planted in each site in spring, which were cultivated in fields with uniform management during their growing seasons till to harvest. The diterpene ketones (dihydrotanshinone, cryptotanshinone, tanshinone I and tanshinone II(A)) in S. miltiorrhiza root samples were determined by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. The biomass of root (root length, number of root branches, root width and dry weight) was also measured. The results showed that tanshinone II(A) in all samples of each site were higher than the standards required by China Pharmacopoeia. It has been found there is a relationship between root shape and climate change. The correlation analysis between active components and meteorological factors showed that the accumulation of tanshinones were effected by such meteorological factors as average relative humidity from April to October > average vapor pressure from April to October > average temperature difference day and night from April to October > annual average temperature and so on. The correlation analysis between root biomass and meteorological factors exhibited that root shape and accumulation of dry matter were affected by those factors, such as average annual aboveground (0-20 cm) temperature from April to October > annual average temperature > average vapor pressure from April to October > annual active accumulated temperature > annual average temperature > average vapor pressure from April to October. The accumulation of tanshinones and biomass was increased with the decrease of latitude. At the same time, the dry matter and diameter of root decreased if altitude rises. In addition, S. miltiorrhiza required sunlight is not sophisticated, when compared with humid and temperature. To sum up, S

  20. Comparison between rad-hard standard float zone (FZ) and magnetic Czochralski (MCZ) silicon diodes in radiotherapy electron beam dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, T.C. dos; Goncalves, J.A.C.; Vasques, M.M.; Tobias, C.C.B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes; Neves-Junior, W.F.P.; Haddad, C.M.K. [Hospital Sirio Libanes, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Sociedade Beneficente de Senhoras; Harkonen, J. [Helsinki University of Technology (Denmark). Helsinki Inst. of Physics

    2010-07-01

    Full text. The use of semiconductor detectors has increased in radiotherapy practice since 1980s due to mainly their fast processing time, small sensitive volume and high relative sensitivity to ionizing radiation. Other major advantages of Si devices are excellent repeatability, good mechanical stability, high spatial resolution and the energy independence of mass collision stopping powers ratios (between silicon and water for electron beams with energy from 4 up to 20 MeV). However, ordinary silicon devices are very prone to radiation damage effects. In the last years, the development of radiation tolerant silicon detectors for High Energy Physics experiments has overcome this drawback. In this work we present the preliminary results obtained with a rad-hard epitaxial silicon diode as on-line clinical electron beam dosimeter. The diodes with 25 mm{sup 2} active area, were housed in a PMMA probe and connected, in a photovoltaic mode, to a Keithley 6517B electrometer. During all measurements, the diodes were held between PMMA plates, placed at Zref and centered in a radiation field of 10 cm x 10 cm, with the SSD kept at 100 cm. The devices dosimetric response was evaluated for 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 e 21 MeV electron beams from a Siemens KD 2 Radiotherapy Linear Accelerator, located at Sirio-Libanes Hospital. The radiation induced current in the diodes was registered as a function of the exposure time during 60 s for a fixed 300 MU. To study the short term repeatability, current signals were registered for the same radiation dose, for all energies. The dose-response of the diodes was achieved through the integration of the current signals as a function of the exposure time. The results obtained in the energy range of 6 up to 21 MeV evidenced that, for the same average dose rate of 5.0 cGy/s, the current signals are very stable and repeatable in both cases. For all energies, data shows good instantaneous repeatability with a percentage variation coefficient better than 2

  1. Parapapillary beta zone in primary school children in Beijing: associations with outdoor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yin; Liu, Li Juan; Xu, Liang; Lv, Yan Yun; Tang, Ping; Feng, Yi; Zhou, Jin Qiong; Meng, Meng; Jonas, Jost B

    2014-02-14

    To investigate prevalence and size of parapapillary alpha zone and beta zone and associations with myopia-related factors in primary school children in Beijing. The school-based study included 382 grade-1 children and 299 grade-4 children. The children underwent a comprehensive eye examination and the parents, an interview. The examination was repeated after 1 year. Beta zone (prevalence: 44.5% ± 2.1%; mean area: 0.17 ± 0.29 mm(2)) was significantly associated with more time spent indoors with studying (P = 0.004; standardized correlation coefficient β: 0.14; regression coefficient B: 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.02, 0.09) after adjusting for longer axial length (P beta zone (P = 0.01; β: 0.11; B: 0.30; 95% CI: 0.07, 0.54) after adjusting for higher axial length/corneal curvature radius ratio (AL/CC; P = 0.006; β: 0.12; B: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.27, 1.62) and urban region of habitation (P beta zone area (P beta zone area was associated with more indoors studying time after adjustment for axial length, refractive error, and region of habitation, and reversely, more indoors studying time was associated with larger beta zone in multivariate analysis. The results could indicate that parapapillary beta zone is associated with external factors-dependent development of myopia.

  2. An Active Area Model of Rapid Infiltration Response at Substantial Depth in the Unsaturated Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, L.; Nimmo, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    In a porous medium subject to preferential flow, response to surface water infiltration can occur rapidly even at substantial depth in the unsaturated zone. In a ponding experiment at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) the profile of undisturbed natural soil, seasonally dry at the start, was observed to approach field saturation throughout a 2 meter depth within 6 hours (Nimmo and Perkins, 2007). Traditional use of Richards' equation would require an unrealistically large unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of 40 m/day to capture the observed non-classic wetting behavior. Here we present a model for rapid flow using an active area concept similar to the active fracture model (Liu and others, 1998, WRR 34:2633-2646). The active area concept is incorporated within the preferential flow domain (which allows rapid downward movement) of a dual-domain model that also contains a diffuse-flow domain in which flow can be described by Richards' equation. Development of the active area model is motivated by observation of rapid wetting at substantial depth, as well as a phenomenon in which deep flow is observed before shallow flow. In this model water movement in the preferential domain can be physically conceptualized as laminar flow in free-surface films of constant average thickness. For a given medium, the preferential domain is characterized by an effective areal density (area per unit bulk volume) that describes the free-surface film capacity of the domain as a function of depth. The active area is defined as a portion of the effective areal density that dictates the depth and temporal distribution of domain-exchange and new infiltration within the preferential domain. With the addition of the active area concept, the model is capable of simulating non-diffusive vertical transport patterns. Advantages of the model include simulating rapid response for a variety of infiltration types, including ponding and rain events, as well as modeling relatively rapid aquifer

  3. Guidance on a better integration of aquaculture, fisheries, and other activities in the coastal zone: from tools to practical examples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stelzenmüller, V.; Schulze, T.; Gimpel, A.; Bartelings, H.; Bello, E.; Bergh, O.; Bolman, B.; Caetano, M.; Davaasuren, N.; Fabi, G.; Ferreira, J.G.; Gault, J.; Gramolini, R.; Grati, F.; Hamon, K.G.; Jak, R.G.; Kopke, K.; Laurans, M.; Mäkinen, T.; O’Donnell, V.; O’Hagan, A.M.; O’Mahony, C.; Oostenbrugge, van H.; Ramos, J.; Saurel, C.; Sell, A.L.; Silvo, K.; Sinschek, K.; Soma, K.; Stenberg, C.; Taylor, N.; Vale, C.; Vasquez, F.; Verner-Jeffreys, D.W.

    2013-01-01

    This guidance document provides a comprehensive assessment of the conflicts and synergies between fisheries, aquaculture and other activities in the coastal zone in six COEXIST case study areas. It forms deliverable D5.2 of the COEXIST project and synthesises deliverable D5.1, which provides a more

  4. Guidance on a better integration of aquaculture, fisheries, and other activities in the coastal zone: from tools to practical examples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stelzenmüller, V.; Schulze, T.; Gimpel, A.; Bartelings, H.; Bello, E.; Bergh, O.; Bolman, B.; Caetano, M.; Davaasuren, N.; Fabi, G.; Ferreira, J.G.; Gault, J.; Gramolini, R.; Grati, F.; Hamon, K.G.; Jak, R.G.; Kopke, K.; Laurans, M.; Mäkinen, T.; O’Donnell, V.; O’Hagan, A.M.; O’Mahony, C.; Oostenbrugge, van H.; Ramos, J.; Saurel, C.; Sell, A.L.; Silvo, K.; Sinschek, K.; Soma, K.; Stenberg, C.; Taylor, N.; Vale, C.; Vasquez, F.; Verner-Jeffreys, D.W.

    2013-01-01

    This guidance document provides a comprehensive assessment of the conflicts and synergies between fisheries, aquaculture and other activities in the coastal zone in six COEXIST case study areas. It forms deliverable D5.2 of the COEXIST project and synthesises deliverable D5.1, which provides a more

  5. The Status of Secondary School Science Laboratory Activities for Quality Education in Case of Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zengele, Ashebir Gogile; Alemayehu, Bereket

    2016-01-01

    A high quality science education in primary and secondary schools contributes to developing scientific literacy and would be expected to predispose students to study the enabling sciences at university. The major purpose of this study was to assess the practice and problems in science laboratory activities in the secondary school of Wolaita Zone,…

  6. Trio, a Rho Family GEF, Interacts with the Presynaptic Active Zone Proteins Piccolo and Bassoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry-Lorenzo, Ryan T.; Torres, Viviana I.; Wagh, Dhananjay; Galaz, Jose; Swanson, Selene K.; Florens, Laurence; Washburn, Michael P.; Waites, Clarissa L.; Gundelfinger, Eckart D.; Reimer, Richard J.; Garner, Craig C.

    2016-01-01

    Synaptic vesicles (SVs) fuse with the plasma membrane at a precise location called the presynaptic active zone (AZ). This fusion is coordinated by proteins embedded within a cytoskeletal matrix assembled at the AZ (CAZ). In the present study, we have identified a novel binding partner for the CAZ proteins Piccolo and Bassoon. This interacting protein, Trio, is a member of the Dbl family of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) known to regulate the dynamic assembly of actin and growth factor dependent axon guidance and synaptic growth. Trio was found to interact with the C-terminal PBH 9/10 domains of Piccolo and Bassoon via its own N-terminal Spectrin repeats, a domain that is also critical for its localization to the CAZ. Moreover, our data suggest that regions within the C-terminus of Trio negatively regulate its interactions with Piccolo/Bassoon. These findings provide a mechanism for the presynaptic targeting of Trio and support a model in which Piccolo and Bassoon play a role in regulating neurotransmission through interactions with proteins, including Trio, that modulate the dynamic assembly of F-actin during cycles of synaptic vesicle exo- and endocytosis. PMID:27907191

  7. APP-A Novel Player within the Presynaptic Active Zone Proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingarten, Jens; Weingarten, Melanie; Wegner, Martin; Volknandt, Walter

    2017-01-01

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP) was discovered in the 1980s as the precursor protein of the amyloid A4 peptide. The amyloid A4 peptide, also known as A-beta (Aβ), is the main constituent of senile plaques implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In association with the amyloid deposits, increasing impairments in learning and memory as well as the degeneration of neurons especially in the hippocampus formation are hallmarks of the pathogenesis of AD. Within the last decades much effort has been expended into understanding the pathogenesis of AD. However, little is known about the physiological role of APP within the central nervous system (CNS). Allocating APP to the proteome of the highly dynamic presynaptic active zone (PAZ) identified APP as a novel player within this neuronal communication and signaling network. The analysis of the hippocampal PAZ proteome derived from APP-mutant mice demonstrates that APP is tightly embedded in the underlying protein network. Strikingly, APP deletion accounts for major dysregulation within the PAZ proteome network. Ca(2+)-homeostasis, neurotransmitter release and mitochondrial function are affected and resemble the outcome during the pathogenesis of AD. The observed changes in protein abundance that occur in the absence of APP as well as in AD suggest that APP is a structural and functional regulator within the hippocampal PAZ proteome. Within this review article, we intend to introduce APP as an important player within the hippocampal PAZ proteome and to outline the impact of APP deletion on individual PAZ proteome subcommunities.

  8. Active zone scaffolds differentially accumulate Unc13 isoforms to tune Ca(2+) channel-vesicle coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhme, Mathias A; Beis, Christina; Reddy-Alla, Suneel; Reynolds, Eric; Mampell, Malou M; Grasskamp, Andreas T; Lützkendorf, Janine; Bergeron, Dominique Dufour; Driller, Jan H; Babikir, Husam; Göttfert, Fabian; Robinson, Iain M; O'Kane, Cahir J; Hell, Stefan W; Wahl, Markus C; Stelzl, Ulrich; Loll, Bernhard; Walter, Alexander M; Sigrist, Stephan J

    2016-10-01

    Brain function relies on fast and precisely timed synaptic vesicle (SV) release at active zones (AZs). Efficacy of SV release depends on distance from SV to Ca(2+) channel, but molecular mechanisms controlling this are unknown. Here we found that distances can be defined by targeting two unc-13 (Unc13) isoforms to presynaptic AZ subdomains. Super-resolution and intravital imaging of developing Drosophila melanogaster glutamatergic synapses revealed that the Unc13B isoform was recruited to nascent AZs by the scaffolding proteins Syd-1 and Liprin-α, and Unc13A was positioned by Bruchpilot and Rim-binding protein complexes at maturing AZs. Unc13B localized 120 nm away from Ca(2+) channels, whereas Unc13A localized only 70 nm away and was responsible for docking SVs at this distance. Unc13A(null) mutants suffered from inefficient, delayed and EGTA-supersensitive release. Mathematical modeling suggested that synapses normally operate via two independent release pathways differentially positioned by either isoform. We identified isoform-specific Unc13-AZ scaffold interactions regulating SV-Ca(2+)-channel topology whose developmental tightening optimizes synaptic transmission.

  9. Synaptophysin 1 Clears Synaptobrevin 2 from the Presynaptic Active Zone to Prevent Short-Term Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajit Rajappa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Release site clearance is an important process during synaptic vesicle (SV recycling. However, little is known about its molecular mechanism. Here we identify self-assembly of exocytosed Synaptobrevin 2 (Syb2 and Synaptophysin 1 (Syp1 by homo- and hetero-oligomerization into clusters as key mechanisms mediating release site clearance for preventing cis-SNARE complex formation at the active zone (AZ. In hippocampal neurons from Syp1 knockout mice, neurons expressing a monomeric Syb2 mutant, or after acute block of the ATPase N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF, responsible for cis-SNARE complex disassembly, we found strong frequency-dependent short-term depression (STD, whereas retrieval of Syb2 by compensatory endocytosis was only affected weakly. Defects in Syb2 endocytosis were stimulus- and frequency-dependent, indicating that Syp1 is not essential for Syb2 retrieval, but for its efficient clearance upstream of endocytosis. Our findings identify an SV protein as a release site clearance factor.

  10. Determination of Four Active Ingredients in Vc Yinqiao Tablets by Capillary Zone Electrophoresis with Amperometric Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U),Jin; WANG,Qing-Jiang; CHENG,Xi; LIU,Hai-Yan; HE,Pin-Gang; FANG,Yu-Zhi

    2006-01-01

    A simple, reliable and reproducible method, based on capillary zone electrophoresis with amperometric detection (CZE-AD), has been developed for simultaneous determination of four active ingredients in Vc Yinqiao tablets including paracetamol, vitamin C, caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid. A carbon-disk electrode was used as working electrode and 0.95 V (versus SCE) was selected as detection potential. The optimal conditions of CZE experiment were 30 mmol·L-1 borate solution (pH 9.5) as running buffer, 14 kV as separation voltage and 8 s (14 kV) as electro-kinetic sampling time. Under the selected optimum conditions, paracetamol, vitamin C, caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid could be perfectly separated within 22 min, and their detection limits (S/N=3) ranged from 5 × 10-7 to 1×10-6 mol·L-1. This proposed method demonstrated good reproducibility with relative standard deviations of less than 3% for both migration time and peak current (n=7). The utility of this method was demonstrated by monitoring a kind of compound medicine named Vc Yinqiao tablets and the assay results were satisfactory.

  11. Drift Loss-Cone Distributions Electrons in the Jovian Synchrotron Zone from 06 and VIP4 Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K.; Bolton, S. J.; Gulkis, S.; Levin, S. M.

    2000-01-01

    Relativistic electrons (10-50 MeV) play an important role to account for the observed synchrotron decimetric radiation in Jupiter's inner radiation belt (L loss cone for relativistic electrons using both the O6 and VIP4 magnetic field models. Model maps of the synchrotron emission for specific electron distributions are shown for comparison.

  12. Drift Loss-Cone Distributions Electrons in the Jovian Synchrotron Zone from 06 and VIP4 Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K.; Bolton, S. J.; Gulkis, S.; Levin, S. M.

    2000-01-01

    Relativistic electrons (10-50 MeV) play an important role to account for the observed synchrotron decimetric radiation in Jupiter's inner radiation belt (L loss cone for relativistic electrons using both the O6 and VIP4 magnetic field models. Model maps of the synchrotron emission for specific electron distributions are shown for comparison.

  13. Influence of array photodetectors characteristics on the accuracy of the optical-electronic system with optical equisignal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusarov, Vadim F.; Maraev, Anton A.; Timofeev, Aleksandr N.; Klimov, Aleksandr A.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we attempt to assess the possibility of applying the array of photodetectors and digital information processing in positioning systems based on optical equisignal zone. The basic theoretical information about working principles of the system with equisignal zone and the formation of the base direction are listed. The influence on the accuracy of the positioning system some parameters such as the number and size of the array elements of the receiver, capacity analog-digital converter, aberrations of optical elements are researched. The possibility of registering the angular displacements (reversals) of the controlled object by using the developed system is shown.

  14. Promoting direct interspecies electron transfer with activated carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Fanghua; Rotaru, Amelia-Elena; Shrestha, Pravin M.

    2012-01-01

    Granular activated carbon (GAC) is added to methanogenic digesters to enhance conversion of wastes to methane, but the mechanism(s) for GAC’s stimulatory effect are poorly understood. GAC has high electrical conductivity and thus it was hypothesized that one mechanism for GAC stimulation of metha......Granular activated carbon (GAC) is added to methanogenic digesters to enhance conversion of wastes to methane, but the mechanism(s) for GAC’s stimulatory effect are poorly understood. GAC has high electrical conductivity and thus it was hypothesized that one mechanism for GAC stimulation...... of methanogenesis might be to facilitate direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) between bacteria and methanogens. Metabolism was substantially accelerated when GAC was added to co-cultures of Geobacter metallireducens and Geobacter sulfurreducens grown under conditions previously shown to require DIET. Cells...... were attached to GAC, but did not aggregate as they do when making biological electrical connections between cells. Studies with a series of gene deletion mutants eliminated the possibility that GAC promoted electron exchange via interspecies hydrogen or formate transfer and demonstrated that DIET...

  15. 78 FR 49255 - Foreign-Trade Zone 158-Vicksburg/Jackson, Mississippi; Authorization of Production Activity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ... Furniture); Belden, Saltillo, and Verona, Mississippi On February 28, 2013, the Greater Mississippi Foreign... Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board on behalf of Lane Furniture Industries, Inc., in Belden, Saltillo, and...

  16. 78 FR 48413 - Foreign-Trade Zone 75-Phoenix, Arizona, Authorization of Production Activity, Orbital Sciences...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ..., Orbital Sciences Corporation, (Satellites and Spacecraft Launch Vehicles); Gilbert, Arizona On April 2... to the Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board on behalf of Orbital Sciences Corporation, within Site 10, in... Secretary. BILLING CODE 3510-DS-P...

  17. Auroral Electrojet (AE, AL, AO, AU) - A Global Measure of Auroral Zone Magnetic Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The AE index is derived from geomagnetic variations in the horizontal component observed at selected (10-13) observatories along the auroral zone in the northern...

  18. Exoplanet detection. Stellar activity masquerading as planets in the habitable zone of the M dwarf Gliese 581.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Paul; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Endl, Michael; Roy, Arpita

    2014-07-25

    The M dwarf star Gliese 581 is believed to host four planets, including one (GJ 581d) near the habitable zone that could possibly support liquid water on its surface if it is a rocky planet. The detection of another habitable-zone planet--GJ 581g--is disputed, as its significance depends on the eccentricity assumed for d. Analyzing stellar activity using the Hα line, we measure a stellar rotation period of 130 ± 2 days and a correlation for Hα modulation with radial velocity. Correcting for activity greatly diminishes the signal of GJ 581d (to 1.5 standard deviations) while significantly boosting the signals of the other known super-Earth planets. GJ 581d does not exist, but is an artifact of stellar activity which, when incompletely corrected, causes the false detection of planet g.

  19. Modelling of electron transport and of sawtooth activity in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angioni, C

    2001-10-01

    Transport phenomena in tokamak plasmas strongly limit the particle and energy confinement and represent a crucial obstacle to controlled thermonuclear fusion. Within the vast framework of transport studies, three topics have been tackled in the present thesis: first, the computation of neoclassical transport coefficients for general axisymmetric equilibria and arbitrary collisionality regime; second, the analysis of the electron temperature behaviour and transport modelling of plasma discharges in the Tokamak a configuration Variable (TCV); third, the modelling and simulation of the sawtooth activity with different plasma heating conditions. The work dedicated to neoclassical theory has been undertaken in order to first analytically identify a set of equations suited for implementation in existing Fokker-Planck codes. Modifications of these codes enabled us to compute the neoclassical transport coefficients considering different realistic magnetic equilibrium configurations and covering a large range of variation of three key parameters: aspect ratio, collisionality, and effective charge number. A comparison of the numerical results with an analytical limit has permitted the identification of two expressions for the trapped particle fraction, capable of encapsulating the geometrical effects and thus enabling each transport coefficient to be fitted with a single analytical function. This has allowed us to provide simple analytical formulae for all the neoclassical transport coefficients valid for arbitrary aspect ratio and collisionality in general realistic geometry. This work is particularly useful for a correct evaluation of the neoclassical contribution in tokamak scenarios with large bootstrap cur- rent fraction, or improved confinement regimes with low anomalous transport and for the determination of the plasma current density profile, since the plasma conductivity is usually assumed neoclassical. These results have been included in the plasma transport code

  20. Communities on the move: Pedestrian-oriented zoning as a facilitator of adult active travel to work in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Friedman Chriqui

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Communities across the United States have been reforming their zoning codes to create pedestrian-friendly neighborhoods with increased street connectivity, mixed-use and higher density, open space, transportation infrastructure, and a traditional neighborhood structure. Zoning code reforms include new urbanist zoning such as the SmartCode, form-based codes, transects, transportation and pedestrian-oriented developments, and traditional neighborhood developments.Purpose: To examine the relationship of zoning code reforms and more active living-oriented zoning provisions with adult active travel to work via walking, biking, or by using public transit.Methods: Zoning codes effective as of 2010 were compiled for 3,914 municipal-level jurisdictions located in 471 counties and 2 consolidated cities in 48 states and the District of Columbia, and that collectively covered 72.9% of the U.S. population. Zoning codes were evaluated for the presence of code reform zoning and nine pedestrian-oriented zoning provisions (1=yes: sidewalks, crosswalks, bike-pedestrian connectivity, street connectivity, bike lanes, bike parking, bike-pedestrian trails/paths, mixed use development, and other walkability/pedestrian-orientation. A zoning scale reflected the number of provisions addressed (out of 10. Five continuous outcome measures were constructed using 2010-2014 American Community Survey municipal-level 5-year estimates to assess the percentage of workers: walking, biking, walking or biking, or taking public transit to work OR engaged in any active travel to work. Regression models controlled for municipal-level socioeconomic characteristics and a GIS-constructed walkability scale and were clustered on county with robust standard errors. Results: Adjusted models indicated that several pedestrian-oriented zoning provisions were statistically associated (p<.05 or lower with increased rates of walking, biking, or engaging in any active travel (walking

  1. Circadian expression of the presynaptic active zone protein Bruchpilot in the lamina of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górska-Andrzejak, Jolanta; Makuch, Renata; Stefan, Joanna; Görlich, Alicja; Semik, Danuta; Pyza, Elzbieta

    2013-01-01

    In the fly's visual system, the morphology of cells and the number of synapses change during the day. In the present study we show that in the first optic neuropil (lamina) of Drosophila melanogaster, a presynaptic active zone protein Bruchpilot (BRP) exhibits a circadian rhythm in abundance. In day/night (or light/dark, LD) conditions the level of BRP increases two times, in the morning and in the evening. The same pattern of changes in the BRP level was detected in whole brain homogenates, thus indicating that the majority of synapses in the brain peaks twice during the day. However, these two peaks in BRP abundance, measured as the fluorescence intensity of immunolabeling, seem to be regulated differently. The peak in the morning is predominantly regulated by light and involves the transduction pathway in the retina photoreceptors. This peak is present neither in wild-type Canton-S flies in constant darkness (DD), nor in norpA(7) phototransduction mutant in LD. However, it also depends on the clock gene per, because it is abolished in the per(0) arrhythmic mutant. In turn, the peak of BRP in the evening is endogenously regulated by an input from the pacemaker located in the brain. This peak is present in Canton-S flies in DD, as well as in the norpA(7) mutant in LD, but is absent in per(01), tim,(01) and cry(01) mutants in LD. In addition both peaks seem to depend on clock gene-expressing photoreceptors and glial cells of the visual system.

  2. Void denuded zone formation for Fe–15Cr–15Ni steel and PNC316 stainless steel under neutron and electron irradiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekio, Yoshihiro, E-mail: sekio.yoshihiro@jaea.go.jp [Oarai Research and Development Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan); Yamashita, Shinichiro [Oarai Research and Development Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan); Sakaguchi, Norihito [Center for Advanced Research of Energy Technology, Hokkaido University, Hokkaido 060-0808 (Japan); Takahashi, Heishichiro [Oarai Research and Development Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan); Center for Advanced Research of Energy Technology, Hokkaido University, Hokkaido 060-0808 (Japan)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Austenitic stainless steel developed to improve void swelling was used. • Void denuded zone formed near grain boundary can be affected by vacancy mobility. • Vacancy migration energy was estimated from void denuded zone width in the steel. - Abstract: Irradiation-induced void denuded zone (VDZ) formation near grain boundaries was studied to clarify the effects of minor alloying elements on vacancy diffusivity during irradiation in practical PNC316 stainless steel developed for nuclear reactor core materials. The test materials were Fe–15Cr–15Ni steel without additives and PNC316 stainless steel; the latter contains minor alloying elements to improve the void swelling resistance. These steels were neutron-irradiated in the experimental fast reactor JOYO at temperatures from 749 K to 775 K and fast neutron doses of 18–103 dpa, and electron irradiation was also carried out using 1 MeV high voltage electron microscopy at temperatures of 723 K and 773 K and doses up to 14.4 dpa. VDZ formation was analyzed by TEM microstructural observation after irradiation by considering radiation-induced segregation near the grain boundaries. VDZs were formed near random grain boundaries with higher misfit angles in both Fe–15Cr–15Ni and PNC316 steels. The VDZ widths in the PNC316 stainless steel were narrower than those for the Fe–15Cr–15Ni steel for all neutron and electron irradiations. The VDZ width analysis implied that the vacancy diffusivity was reduced in PNC316 stainless steel as a result of interaction of vacancies with minor alloying elements.

  3. Aftershocks illuminate the 2011 Mineral, Virginia, earthquake causative fault zone and nearby active faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Jr., J. Wright; Shah, Anjana K.; McNamara, Daniel E.; Snyder, Stephen L.; Carter, Aina M

    2015-01-01

    Deployment of temporary seismic stations after the 2011 Mineral, Virginia (USA), earthquake produced a well-recorded aftershock sequence. The majority of aftershocks are in a tabular cluster that delineates the previously unknown Quail fault zone. Quail fault zone aftershocks range from ~3 to 8 km in depth and are in a 1-km-thick zone striking ~036° and dipping ~50°SE, consistent with a 028°, 50°SE main-shock nodal plane having mostly reverse slip. This cluster extends ~10 km along strike. The Quail fault zone projects to the surface in gneiss of the Ordovician Chopawamsic Formation just southeast of the Ordovician–Silurian Ellisville Granodiorite pluton tail. The following three clusters of shallow (illuminate other faults. (1) An elongate cluster of early aftershocks, ~10 km east of the Quail fault zone, extends 8 km from Fredericks Hall, strikes ~035°–039°, and appears to be roughly vertical. The Fredericks Hall fault may be a strand or splay of the older Lakeside fault zone, which to the south spans a width of several kilometers. (2) A cluster of later aftershocks ~3 km northeast of Cuckoo delineates a fault near the eastern contact of the Ordovician Quantico Formation. (3) An elongate cluster of late aftershocks ~1 km northwest of the Quail fault zone aftershock cluster delineates the northwest fault (described herein), which is temporally distinct, dips more steeply, and has a more northeastward strike. Some aftershock-illuminated faults coincide with preexisting units or structures evident from radiometric anomalies, suggesting tectonic inheritance or reactivation.

  4. Two-Dimensional Halide Perovskites: Tuning Electronic Activities of Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuanyue; Xiao, Hai; Goddard, William A

    2016-05-11

    Two-dimensional (2D) halide perovskites are emerging as promising candidates for nanoelectronics and optoelectronics. To realize their full potential, it is important to understand the role of those defects that can strongly impact material properties. In contrast to other popular 2D semiconductors (e.g., transition metal dichalcogenides MX2) for which defects typically induce harmful traps, we show that the electronic activities of defects in 2D perovskites are significantly tunable. For example, even with a fixed lattice orientation one can change the synthesis conditions to convert a line defect (edge or grain boundary) from electron acceptor to inactive site without deep gap states. We show that this difference originates from the enhanced ionic bonding in these perovskites compared with MX2. The donors tend to have high formation energies and the harmful defects are difficult to form at a low halide chemical potential. Thus, we unveil unique properties of defects in 2D perovskites and suggest practical routes to improve them.

  5. An active electron polarized scintillating GSO target for neutrino physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baiboussinov, B. [INFN, Sez. di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Braggio, C., E-mail: braggio@pd.infn.it [INFN, Sez. di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Cardini, A. [INFN, Sez. di Cagliari, S.P. per Sestu Km 0.700, 09042 Monserrato (Cagliari) (Italy); Carugno, G. [INFN, Sez. di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Congiu, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Cagliari, S.P. per Sestu Km 0.700, 09042 Monserrato (Cagliari) (Italy); Gain, S. [St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University, 195251 St. Petersburg, Polytekhnicheskaya 29 (Russian Federation); Galeazzi, G. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Viale dell Universita, 2 35020 Legnaro (PD) (Italy); Lai, A. [INFN, Sez. di Cagliari, S.P. per Sestu Km 0.700, 09042 Monserrato (Cagliari) (Italy); Lehman, A.; Mocci, P.; Mura, A.; Quochi, F.; Saba, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Cagliari, S.P. per Sestu Km 0.700, 09042 Monserrato (Cagliari) (Italy); Saitta, B. [INFN, Sez. di Cagliari, S.P. per Sestu Km 0.700, 09042 Monserrato (Cagliari) (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Cagliari, S.P. per Sestu Km 0.700, 09042 Monserrato (Cagliari) (Italy); Sartori, G. [INFN, Sez. di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2012-12-01

    The feasibility of an electron-polarized, active target to be used as detector in neutrino scattering experiments, suggested by several theoretical papers, has been investigated. We report on the properties of the paramagnetic crystal Gd{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} (GSO), in which 7.7% of the total number of electrons present can be polarized by lowering the temperature and applying an intense external magnetic field. The material magnetic susceptibility has been measured down to cryogenic temperatures showing that for H=5 T and T=4 K about 80% of the maximum allowed magnetization can be attained. Also the spectral and time response of the crystal have been characterized and the scintillation process has been studied using a photomultiplier to measure the response to gamma rays irradiation and cosmic rays operating the GSO crystal at 13.5 K. An avalanche photodiode (APD) readout of the scintillation signal from the GSO crystal has also been performed, since the magnetic field-independent response of this device allows it to be placed close to the crystal in the cryogenic environment.

  6. Active Interrogation Using Electronic Neutron Generators for Nuclear Safeguards Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David L. Chichester; Edward H. Seabury

    2008-08-01

    Active interrogation, a measurement technique which uses a radiation source to probe materials and generate unique signatures useful for characterizing those materials, is a powerful tool for assaying special nuclear material. The most commonly used technique for performing active interrogation is to use an electronic neutron generator as the probe radiation source. Exploiting the unique operating characteristics of these devices, including their monoenergetic neutron emissions and their ability to operate in pulsed modes, presents a number of options for performing prompt and delayed signature analyses using both photon and neutron sensors. A review of literature in this area shows multiple applications of the active neutron interrogation technique for performing nuclear nonproliferation measurements. Some examples include measuring the plutonium content of spent fuel, assaying plutonium residue in spent fuel hull claddings, assaying plutonium in aqueous fuel reprocessing process streams, and assaying nuclear fuel reprocessing facility waste streams to detect and quantify fissile material. This paper discusses the historical use of this technique and examines its context within the scope and challenges of next-generation nuclear fuel cycles and advanced concept nuclear fuel cycle facilities.

  7. Electronic Activation of a DNA Nanodevice Using a Multilayer Nanofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hyejoong; Ranallo, Simona; Rossetti, Marianna; Heo, Jiwoong; Shin, Jooseok; Park, Kwangyong; Ricci, Francesco; Hong, Jinkee

    2016-10-01

    A method to control activation of a DNA nanodevice by supplying a complementary DNA (cDNA) strand from an electro-responsive nanoplatform is reported. To develop functional nanoplatform, hexalayer nanofilm is precisely designed by layer-by-layer assembly technique based on electrostatic interaction with four kinds of materials: Hydrolyzed poly(β-amino ester) can help cDNA release from the film. A cDNA is used as a key building block to activate DNA nanodevice. Reduced graphene oxides (rGOs) and the conductive polymer provide conductivity. In particular, rGOs efficiently incorporate a cDNA in the film via several interactions and act as a barrier. Depending on the types of applied electronic stimuli (reductive and oxidative potentials), a cDNA released from the electrode can quantitatively control the activation of DNA nanodevice. From this report, a new system is successfully demonstrated to precisely control DNA release on demand. By applying more advanced form of DNA-based nanodevices into multilayer system, the electro-responsive nanoplatform will expand the availability of DNA nanotechnology allowing its improved application in areas such as diagnosis, biosensing, bioimaging, and drug delivery.

  8. Neural progenitor cells isolated from the subventricular zone present hemichannel activity and form functional gap junctions with glial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío eTalaverón

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The postnatal subventricular zone lining the walls of the lateral ventricles contains neural progenitor cells (NPCs that generate new olfactory bulb interneurons. Communication via gap junctions between cells in the subventricular zone is involved in NPC proliferation and in neuroblast migration towards the olfactory bulb. Subventricular zone NPCs can be expanded in vitro in the form of neurospheres that can be used for transplantation purposes after brain injury. We have previously reported that neurosphere-derived NPCs form heterocellular gap junctions with host glial cells when they are implanted after mechanical injury. To analyze functionality of NPC-glial cell gap junctions we performed dye coupling experiments in co-cultures of subventricular zone NPCs with astrocytes or microglia. Neurosphere-derived cells expressed mRNA for at least the hemichannel/gap junction channel proteins connexin 26 (Cx26, Cx43, Cx45 and pannexin 1. Dye coupling experiments revealed that gap junctional communication occurred among neurosphere cells (incidence of coupling: 100%. Moreover, hemichannel activity was also detected in neurosphere cells as evaluated in time-lapse measurements of ethidium bromide uptake. Heterocellular coupling between NPCs and glial cells was evidenced in co-cultures of neurospheres with astrocytes (incidence of coupling: 91.0 ± 4.7% or with microglia (incidence of coupling: 71.9 ± 6.7%. Dye coupling in neurospheres and in co-cultures was inhibited by octanol, a gap junction blocker. Altogether, these results suggest the existence of functional hemichannels and gap junction channels in postnatal subventricular zone neurospheres. In addition, they demonstrate that subventricular zone-derived NPCs can establish functional gap junctions with astrocytes or microglia. Therefore, cell-cell communication via gap junctions and hemichannels with host glial cells might subserve a role in the functional integration of NPCs after implantation in

  9. [Impacts of root-zone hypoxia stress on muskmelon growth, its root respiratory metabolism, and antioxidative enzyme activities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi-Ling; Li, Tian-Lai; Sun, Zhou-Ping; Chen, Ya-Dong

    2010-06-01

    By using aeroponics culture system, this paper studied the impacts of root-zone hypoxia (10% O2 and 5% O2) stress on the plant growth, root respiratory metabolism, and antioxidative enzyme activities of muskmelon at its fruit development stage. Root-zone hypoxia stress inhibited the plant growth of muskmelon, resulting in the decrease of plant height, root length, and fresh and dry biomass. Comparing with the control (21% O2), hypoxia stress reduced the root respiration rate and malate dehydrogenase (MDH) activity significantly, and the impact of 5% O2 stress was more serious than that of 10% O2 stress. Under hypoxic conditions, the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) activities and the malondialdehyde (MDA) content were significantly higher than the control. The increment of antioxidative enzyme activities under 10% O2 stress was significantly higher than that under 5% O2 stress, while the MDA content was higher under 5% O2 stress than under 10% O2 stress, suggesting that when the root-zone oxygen concentration was below 10%, the aerobic respiration of muskmelon at its fruit development stage was obviously inhibited while the anaerobic respiration was accelerated, and the root antioxidative enzymes induced defense reaction. With the increasing duration of hypoxic stress, the lipid peroxidation would be aggravated, resulting in the damages on muskmelon roots, inhibition of plant growth, and decrease of fruit yield and quality.

  10. Microstructural investigations on carbonate fault core rocks in active extensional fault zones from the central Apennines (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortinovis, Silvia; Balsamo, Fabrizio; Storti, Fabrizio

    2017-04-01

    The study of the microstructural and petrophysical evolution of cataclasites and gouges has a fundamental impact on both hydraulic and frictional properties of fault zones. In the last decades, growing attention has been payed to the characterization of carbonate fault core rocks due to the nucleation and propagation of coseismic ruptures in carbonate successions (e.g., Umbria-Marche 1997, L'Aquila 2009, Amatrice 2016 earthquakes in Central Apennines, Italy). Among several physical parameters, grain size and shape in fault core rocks are expected to control the way of sliding along the slip surfaces in active fault zones, thus influencing the propagation of coseismic ruptures during earthquakes. Nevertheless, the role of grain size and shape distribution evolution in controlling the weakening or strengthening behavior in seismogenic fault zones is still not fully understood also because a comprehensive database from natural fault cores is still missing. In this contribution, we present a preliminary study of seismogenic extensional fault zones in Central Apennines by combining detailed filed mapping with grain size and microstructural analysis of fault core rocks. Field mapping was aimed to describe the structural architecture of fault systems and the along-strike fault rock distribution and fracturing variations. In the laboratory we used a Malvern Mastersizer 3000 granulometer to obtain a precise grain size characterization of loose fault rocks combined with sieving for coarser size classes. In addition, we employed image analysis on thin sections to quantify the grain shape and size in cemented fault core rocks. The studied fault zones consist of an up to 5-10 m-thick fault core where most of slip is accommodated, surrounded by a tens-of-meters wide fractured damage zone. Fault core rocks consist of (1) loose to partially cemented breccias characterized by different grain size (from several cm up to mm) and variable grain shape (from very angular to sub

  11. X-ray holographic microscopy with zone plates applied to biological samples in the water window using 3rd harmonic radiation from the free-electron laser FLASH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorniak, T; Heine, R; Mancuso, A P; Staier, F; Christophis, C; Pettitt, M E; Sakdinawat, A; Treusch, R; Guerassimova, N; Feldhaus, J; Gutt, C; Grübel, G; Eisebitt, S; Beyer, A; Gölzhäuser, A; Weckert, E; Grunze, M; Vartanyants, I A; Rosenhahn, A

    2011-06-06

    The imaging of hydrated biological samples - especially in the energy window of 284-540 eV, where water does not obscure the signal of soft organic matter and biologically relevant elements - is of tremendous interest for life sciences. Free-electron lasers can provide highly intense and coherent pulses, which allow single pulse imaging to overcome resolution limits set by radiation damage. One current challenge is to match both the desired energy and the intensity of the light source. We present the first images of dehydrated biological material acquired with 3rd harmonic radiation from FLASH by digital in-line zone plate holography as one step towards the vision of imaging hydrated biological material with photons in the water window. We also demonstrate the first application of ultrathin molecular sheets as suitable substrates for future free-electron laser experiments with biological samples in the form of a rat fibroblast cell and marine biofouling bacteria Cobetia marina.

  12. The range of excursion of flexor tendons in Zone V: a comparison of active vs passive flexion mobilisation regimes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Panchal, J

    1997-10-01

    A number of early postoperative mobilisation regimes have been developed in an attempt to increase tendon excursion and gliding and thereby reduce formation of adhesions following repair of flexor tendons. Early active flexion mobilisation regimes are becoming more popular, and have replaced early passive flexion regimes in many centres. The aim of the present study was: (a) to determine the range of excursion of flexor tendons in Zone V, and (b) to compare the excursion ranges between active (Belfast) and passive (modified Duran) flexion mobilisation regimes postoperatively. This was done (a) in two cadavers, and (b) in two patients intraoperatively, and postoperatively at 10 days, 3 weeks and 6 weeks. With passive flexion, the mean tendon excursion in Zone V in cadavers was 1 mm for flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS), flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) and flexor pollicis longus (FPL) tendons respectively. With simulated active flexion, the mean tendon excursion was 14 mm, 10 mm and 11 mm respectively. The mean tendon excursion in clinical cases intraoperatively following passive flexion was 2 mm for FDS, FDP and FPL respectively; following simulated active flexion it was 10 mm, 11 mm and 11 mm for FDS, FDP and FPL respectively. On the tenth day following repair, the mean excursions of FDS, FDP and FPL were 1 mm, 4 mm and 4 mm on passive flexion as compared to 3 mm, 10 mm and 12 mm on active flexion respectively. Three weeks postoperatively, the mean excursions of FDS, FDP and FPL tendons were 1 mm, 2 mm and 1 mm on passive flexion as compared to 5 mm, 15 mm on active flexion respectively. Six weeks postoperatively, the mean excursions of FDS, FDP and FPL tendons were 9 mm, 7 mm and 4 mm on passive flexion as compared to 12 mm, 33 mm and 20 mm on active flexion respectively. These results demonstrate an increased excursion of repaired flexor tendons in Zone V following an active flexion mobilisation regime as compared to a passive flexion mobilisation regime.

  13. The Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP): Active Rift Processes in the Brawley Seismic Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, L.; Hole, J. A.; Stock, J. M.; Fuis, G. S.; Rymer, M. J.; Driscoll, N. W.; Kent, G.; Harding, A. J.; Gonzalez-Fernandez, A.; Lazaro-Mancilla, O.

    2011-12-01

    The Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP), funded by NSF and USGS, acquired seismic data in and across the Salton Trough in southern California and northern Mexico in March 2011. The project addresses both rifting processes at the northern end of the Gulf of California extensional province and earthquake hazards at the southern end of the San Andreas Fault system. Seven lines of onshore refraction and low-fold reflection data were acquired in the Coachella, Imperial, and Mexicali Valleys, two lines and a grid of airgun and OBS data were acquired in the Salton Sea, and onshore-offshore data were recorded. Almost 2800 land seismometers and 50 OBS's were used in almost 5000 deployments at almost 4300 sites, in spacing as dense as 100 m. These instruments received seismic signals from 126 explosive shots up to 1400 kg and over 2300 airgun shots. In the central Salton Trough, North American lithosphere appears to have been rifted completely apart. Based primarily on a 1979 seismic refraction project, the 20-22 km thick crust is apparently composed entirely of new crust added by magmatism from below and sedimentation from above. Active rifting of this new crust is manifested by shallow (geothermal energy production. This presentation is focused on an onshore-offshore line of densely sampled refraction and low-fold reflection data that crosses the Brawley Seismic Zone and Salton Buttes in the direction of plate motion. At the time of abstract submission, data analysis was very preliminary, consisting of first-arrival tomography of the onshore half of the line for upper crustal seismic velocity. Crystalline basement (>5 km/s), comprised of late-Pliocene to Quaternary sediment metamorphosed by the high heat flow, occurs at ~2 km depth beneath the Salton Buttes and geothermal field and ~4 km depth south of the BSZ. Preliminary result suggests that the velocity of basement is lower in the BSZ than to the south, which may result from fracturing. Basement velocity appears to be

  14. Bruchpilot and Synaptotagmin collaborate to drive rapid glutamate release and active zone differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mila M Paul

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The active zone (AZ protein Bruchpilot (Brp is essential for rapid glutamate release at Drosophila melanogaster neuromuscular junctions (NMJs. Quantal time course and measurements of action potential-waveform suggest that presynaptic fusion mechanisms are altered in brp null mutants (brp69. This could account for their increased evoked excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSC delay and rise time (by about one millisecond. To test the mechanism of release protraction at brp69 AZs, we performed knock-down of Synaptotagmin-1 (Syt via RNAi (sytKD in wildtype (wt, brp69 and rab3 null mutants (rab3rup, where Brp is concentrated at a small number of AZs. At wt and rab3rup synapses, sytKD lowered EPSC amplitude while increasing rise time and delay, consistent with the role of Syt as a release sensor. In contrast, sytKD did not alter EPSC amplitude at brp69 synapses, but shortened delay and rise time. In fact, following sytKD, these kinetic properties were strikingly similar in wt and brp69, which supports the notion that Syt protracts release at brp69 synapses. To gain insight into this surprising role of Syt at brp69 AZs, we analyzed the structural and functional differentiation of synaptic boutons at the NMJ. At ’tonic’ type Ib motor neurons, distal boutons contain more AZs, more Brp proteins per AZ and show elevated and accelerated glutamate release compared to proximal boutons. The functional differentiation between proximal and distal boutons is Brp-dependent and reduced after sytKD. Notably, sytKD boutons are smaller, contain fewer Brp positive AZs and these are of similar number in proximal and distal boutons. In addition, super-resolution imaging via dSTORM revealed that sytKD increases the number and alters the spatial distribution of Brp molecules at AZs, while the gradient of Brp proteins per AZ is diminished. In summary, these data demonstrate that normal structural and functional differentiation of Drosophila AZs requires concerted action

  15. [Mechanical stimulation of soles' support zones: non-invasive method of activation of generators of stepping movements in man].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomilovskaia, E S; Moshonkina, T R; Gorodnichev, R M; Shigueva, T A; Zakirova, A Z; Pivovarova, E A; Savokhin, A A; Selionov, V A; Semenov, Iu S; Brevnov, V V; Kitov, V V; Gerasimenko, Iu P; Kozlovskaia, I B

    2013-01-01

    The effects of mechanical stimulation of the soles' support zones in regimens of slow and fastwalking (75 and 120 steps per minute) were studied using the model of supportlessness (legs suspension). 20 healthy subjects participated in the study. EMG activity of hip and shin muscles was recorded. Kinematic of leg movements was assessed with the use of videoanalysis system. Support stimulation was followed by leg movements in 80% of cases, in 53% it was a locomotion-like movement. EMG bursts accompanied the movements. Involvement order and alteration of bursts in muscles were similar to voluntary walking. EMG activity occurred with a delay of 5.17 ± 1.08 seconds for hip muscles and 14.01 ± 2.82 seconds for shin muscles, frequency of bursts differed from stimulation frequency. Support stimulation was followed by leg movements in 80% of cases, in 53% of which they had characteristics of locomotions being accompanied by the burst-like electromyographic activities. Involvement order of the leg muscles and organization of antagonistic muscles activities were analogous to that of voluntary walking. The latencies of electromyographic activity in hip muscles composed 5.17 ± 1.083 s and 14.01 ± 2.82 s - for shin muscles, frequency of bursts differed significantly from stimulation frequency. In 31% of cases the electromyographical activity following the stimulation of the soles' support zones was not burst-like. Its amplitude rose smoothly reaching a certain level that was subsequently maintained. Results of the study showed that soles' support zones stimulation in regimen of locomotion can activate a locomotor generator and that effect evoked by this stimulation includes not only rhythmical but also non-rhythmical (probably postural) components of walking.

  16. Rock strength measurements on Archaean basement granitoids recovered from scientific drilling in the active Koyna seismogenic zone, western India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Deepjyoti; Akkiraju, Vyasulu V.; Misra, Surajit; Roy, Sukanta; Singh, Santosh K.; Sinha, Amalendu; Gupta, Harsh; Bansal, B. K.; Nayak, Shailesh

    2017-08-01

    Reservoir triggered earthquakes have been occurring in the Koyna area, western India for the past five decades. Triaxial tests carried out on 181 core samples of Archaean granitoids underlying the Deccan Traps provide valuable constraints on rock strength properties in the Koyna seismogenic zone for the first time. The data include measurements on granite gneiss, granite, migmatitic gneiss and mylonitised granite gneiss obtained from boreholes KBH-3, KBH-4A, KBH-5 and KBH-7 located in the western and eastern margins of the seismic zone. Salient results are as follows. (i) Increase of rock strength with increasing confining pressure allow determination of the linearized failure envelopes from which the cohesive strength and angle of internal friction are calculated. (ii) Variable differential stresses at different depths are the manifestations of deformation partitioning in close association of fault zone(s) or localized fracture zones. (iii) Fractures controlled by naturally developed weak planes such as cleavage and fabric directly affect the rock strength properties, but the majority of failure planes developed during triaxial tests is not consistent with the orientations of pre-existing weak planes. The failure planes may, therefore, represent other planes of weakness induced by ongoing seismic activity. (iv) Stress-strain curves confirm that axial deformation is controlled by the varying intensity of pre-existing shear in the granitoids, viz., mylonite, granite gneiss and migmatitic gneiss. (v) Frequent occurrences of low magnitude earthquakes may be attributed to low and variable rock strength of the granitoids, which, in turn, is modified by successive seismic events.

  17. Evaluation of approximate measurements of activation-free-energy spectra of shear transformation zones in metallic glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, JongDoo [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Atzmon, Michael, E-mail: atzmon@umich.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • We simulate measured activation energy spectra for anelastic relaxation in metallic glasses. • Simulated spectra exhibit the same shape as earlier data obtained by temperature stepping. • The drop previously observed at high activation free energy is an artifact of the measurements. - Abstract: For many years, the only experimental activation free energy spectrum for shear transformations in metallic glasses had been obtained by quenching from high temperature during creep, followed by temperature stepping (Argon and Kuo, 1980). We show that the approximation associated with attributing a single activation energy to each temperature leads to an artificial drop in the spectrum at high activation energies. The detailed spectra of potential shear transformation zones we have recently obtained, which exhibit an atomically quantized hierarchy and are monotonic, lead to the same spectrum shape as obtained by Argon and Kuo when the approximation inherent to the temperature stepping method is applied.

  18. Active source monitoring at the Wenchuan fault zone: coseismic velocity change associated with aftershock event and its implication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Ge, Hongkui; Wang, Baoshan; Hu, Jiupeng; Yuan, Songyong; Qiao, Sen

    2014-12-01

    With the improvement of seismic observation system, more and more observations indicate that earthquakes may cause seismic velocity change. However, the amplitude and spatial distribution of the velocity variation remains a controversial issue. Recent active source monitoring carried out adjacent to Wenchuan Fault Scientific Drilling (WFSD) revealed unambiguous coseismic velocity change associated with a local M s5.5 earthquake. Here, we carry out forward modeling using two-dimensional spectral element method to further investigate the amplitude and spatial distribution of observed velocity change. The model is well constrained by results from seismic reflection and WFSD coring. Our model strongly suggests that the observed coseismic velocity change is localized within the fault zone with width of ~120 m rather than dynamic strong ground shaking. And a velocity decrease of ~2.0 % within the fault zone is required to fit the observed travel time delay distribution, which coincides with rock mechanical experiment and theoretical modeling.

  19. Holocene activities of the Taigu fault zone,Shanxi Province, and their relations with the 1303 Hongdong M=8 earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢新生; 江娃利; 王焕贞; 冯西英

    2004-01-01

    The Taigu fault zone is one of the major 12 active boundary faults of the Shanxi fault-depression system, locatedon the eastern boundary of the Jinzhong basin. As the latest investigation indicated, the fault zone had dislocatedgully terrace of the f1rst order, forming fault-scarp in front of the loess mesa. It has been discovered in many placesin ground surface and trenches that Holocene deposits were dislocated. The latest activity was the 1303 Hongdongearthquake M=8, the fault appeared as right-lateral strike-slip with normal faulting. During that earthquake, theTaigu fault together with the Mianshan western-side fault on the Lingshi upheaval and the Huoshan pediment faulton the eastern boundary of the Linfen basin was being active, forming a surface rupture belt of 160 km in length.Moreover, the Taigu fault were active in the mid-stage of Holocene and near 7 700 aB.P. From these we learnt that,in Shanxi fault-depression system, the run-through activity of two boundary faults of depression-basins mightgenerate great earthquake with M=8.

  20. Dynamic fracturing by successive coseismic loadings leads to pulverization in active fault zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aben, F. M.; Doan, M.-L.; Mitchell, T. M.; Toussaint, R.; Reuschlé, T.; Fondriest, M.; Gratier, J.-P.; Renard, F.

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies show that pulverized rocks observed along large faults can be created by single high-strain rate loadings in the laboratory, provided that the strain rate is higher than a certain pulverization threshold. Such loadings are analogous to large seismic events. In reality, pulverized rocks have been subject to numerous seismic events rather than one single event. Therefore, the effect of successive "milder" high-strain rate loadings on the pulverization threshold is investigated by applying loading conditions below the initial pulverization threshold. Single and successive loading experiments were performed on quartz-monzonite using a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar apparatus. Damage-dependent petrophysical properties and elastic moduli were monitored by applying incremental strains. Furthermore, it is shown that the pulverization threshold can be reduced by successive "milder" dynamic loadings from strain rates of ~180 s-1 to ~90 s-1. To do so, it is imperative that the rock experiences dynamic fracturing during the successive loadings prior to pulverization. Combined with loading conditions during an earthquake rupture event, the following generalized fault damage zone structure perpendicular to the fault will develop: furthest from the fault plane, there is a stationary outer boundary that bounds a zone of dynamically fractured rocks. Closer to the fault, a pulverization boundary delimits a band of pulverized rock. Consecutive seismic events will cause progressive broadening of the band of pulverized rocks, eventually creating a wider damage zone observed in mature faults.

  1. TOPONYMS AS REFLECTION OF THE PECULIARITIES OF CRAFT ACTIVITY (ON THE MATERIAL OF SMOLENSK-VITEBSK BORDER-ZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evseeva Olga Sergeevna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The geographical names are important units, representing the connection with the cultural and historical traditions and national-specific context of a specific time period; due to the inherent cumulative functions they fix and retain the essential features of a variety of information: linguistic, cultural, social, historical, psychological, ethnographic. The article deals with the toponyms, spread on the territory of the Smolensk-Vitebsk borderzone and recorded in modern lexicographical sources (toponymic and dialect dictionaries. The card index of geographical names collected by the author includes 1196 units, 604 of which are registered in the Smolensk border-zone and 592 in the Vitebsk border-zone. The conducted analysis allowed us to identify nine groups of the studied units, depending on the semantics of motivating word. Special attention is paid to the toponyms formed from appellatives associated with industrial activity, which was widely spread on the territory of Smolensk region in different historical periods. These units reflect the linguistic, historical, cultural and economic specifics of Smolensk-Vitebsk border-zone. The toponyms which present the development of mining, brick production, the manufacture of household utensils (glass and clay are the most frequent. The author reveals that the dialectal units and borrowed words confirming the close language contact among the frontier inhabitants, as well as Slavic vocabulary, were used as appellatives that served as the basis for toponyms. The results of the linguistic and culturological analysis allowed to conclude that the fragment of toponymic system, based on the craft activity of Smolensk-Vitebsk border-zone residents, testified to the community and the interaction between cultures and languages of closely related peoples – Russians and Belarusians.

  2. CONTEMPORARY ISSUES USING OF ELECTRONIC CLASSBOOKS IN LEARNING ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Kuzmin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to contemporary issues of informatization of educational process in higher education through the use of electronic classbooks. The article deals with the concept and content of the electronic textbook examples of foreign experience in the use of such training facilities. Also, there is question of didactic features of the use of electronic classbooks in the framework of students‟ personal work. Support for the full cycle of didactic electronic textbook means having built into it a pedagogical goal - to achieve acceptable results all students mastering topics - and the means to achieve this by laying individual trajectory of each student based on interactivity. Additionally, the article says that the work of the electronic textbook has all the features of distance learning, the learning process using the electronic textbook should be organized as a process of blended learning. At the same time the student himself determines the duration, tempo, and time of the work. The article also highlighted the benefits that electronic textbook gives the participants of the educational process that leads to the conclusion that the electronic textbook, being modern means of education significantly improves the quality and effectiveness of training, the motivation of students and optimizes the work of the teacher.

  3. Effectiveness of Electronic Textbooks with Embedded Activities on Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Paula L.

    2010-01-01

    Current versions of electronic textbooks mimic the format and structure of printed textbooks; however, the electronic capabilities of these new versions of textbooks offer the potential of embedding interactive features of web-based learning within the context of a textbook. This dissertation research study was conducted to determine if student…

  4. Diversity and dynamics of active microbial eukaryotes in the anoxic zone of a freshwater meromictic lake (Pavin, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CECILE eLEPERE

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Microbial eukaryotes play a crucial role in ecosystem functioning and oxygen is considered to be one of the strongest barriers against their local dispersal. However, diversity of microbial eukaryotes in freshwater habitats with oxygen gradients has previously received very little attention. We applied high-throughput sequencing (V4 region of the 18S rRNA gene in conjunction with quantitative PCR (DNA and RNA and fluorescent in situ hybridization analyses, to provide an unique spatio-temporal analysis of microbial eukaryotes diversity and potential activity in a meromictic freshwater lake (lake Pavin. This study revealed a high genetic diversity of unicellular eukaryotes in the permanent anoxic zone of lake Pavin and allowed the discrimination of active vs. inactive components. 42 % of the OTUs (Operational taxonomic Units are exclusively present in the monimolimnion, where Alveolata (Ciliophora and Dinophyceae and Fungi (Dikarya and Chytrids are the most active phyla and are probably represented by species capable of anaerobic metabolism. Pigmented eukaryotes (Haptophyceae and Chlorophyceae are also present and active in this zone, which opens up questions regarding their metabolism.

  5. Electron-impact excitation of the singlet states of N2. I - The Birge-Hopfield system /b 1 pi u - X 1 Sigma g +/. [in auroral zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipf, E. C.; Gorman, M. R.

    1980-01-01

    Results of a study of the electron-impact excitation of the b 1 pi u state of N2, one of the singlet states thought to be excited by precipitating electrons in the auroral zones, and of its predissociation and radiative relaxation through the emission of the Birge-Hopfield band system (b 1 pi u - X 1 Sigma g +) are presented. A collimated electron beam was passed through N2 gas producing a variety of atomic states through dissociative excitation, and the radiation resulting from relaxation of these states was observed by VUV and visible-IR monochromators. Absolute emission cross sections for 11 Birge-Hopfield bands are obtained for energies from threshold to 500 eV, and used to calculate the absolute transition probabilities for BH(1, v-prime) bands and the variation of the electric dipole moment with internuclear distance. With the exception of the v-prime equals 1, 5 and 6 vibrational levels, all b 1 pi u levels are found to predissociate with a specific predissociation branching ratio greater than 0.99, representing a major source of nitrogen atoms.

  6. Improving the Mechanical Properties of the Fusion Zone in Electron-Beam Welded Ti-5Al-5Mo-5V-3Cr Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvel, Christopher J.; Sabol, Joseph C.; Pasang, Timotius; Watanabe, Masashi; Misiolek, Wojciech Z.

    2017-01-01

    It is well-known that ω-phase precipitates embrittle Ti-5553 alloys and that ω-phase embrittlement can be overcome with appropriate heat treatments. However, the microstructural evolution of electron-beam welded Ti-5553 is not as understood as compared to the cast or wrought material. This study compared the microstructures of as-welded and post-weld heat-treated specimens by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and similarly compared the localized mechanical behavior of the fusion zones with microhardness testing and digital image correlation coupled tensile testing. The primary observations were that the embrittling ω-phase precipitates formed upon cooling, and could not be fully solutionized in a single-step treatment of 1077 K (804 °C) for 1 hour. It was also discovered that nanoscale α-phase precipitates nucleated after the single-step treatment, although they were small in number and sparsely distributed. However, a two-step heat treatment of 1077 K (804 °C) for 1 hour and 873 K (600 °C) for 4 hours completely solutionized the ω-phase and produced a dense network of 2-μm-wide α-phase plates, which significantly improved the mechanical properties. Overall, this study has shown that post-weld heat treatments improve the strength and ductility of electron-beam welded Ti-5553 alloys by controlling ω- and α-phase evolution.

  7. Improving the Mechanical Properties of the Fusion Zone in Electron-Beam Welded Ti-5Al-5Mo-5V-3Cr Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvel, Christopher J.; Sabol, Joseph C.; Pasang, Timotius; Watanabe, Masashi; Misiolek, Wojciech Z.

    2017-04-01

    It is well-known that ω-phase precipitates embrittle Ti-5553 alloys and that ω-phase embrittlement can be overcome with appropriate heat treatments. However, the microstructural evolution of electron-beam welded Ti-5553 is not as understood as compared to the cast or wrought material. This study compared the microstructures of as-welded and post-weld heat-treated specimens by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and similarly compared the localized mechanical behavior of the fusion zones with microhardness testing and digital image correlation coupled tensile testing. The primary observations were that the embrittling ω-phase precipitates formed upon cooling, and could not be fully solutionized in a single-step treatment of 1077 K (804 °C) for 1 hour. It was also discovered that nanoscale α-phase precipitates nucleated after the single-step treatment, although they were small in number and sparsely distributed. However, a two-step heat treatment of 1077 K (804 °C) for 1 hour and 873 K (600 °C) for 4 hours completely solutionized the ω-phase and produced a dense network of 2- μm-wide α-phase plates, which significantly improved the mechanical properties. Overall, this study has shown that post-weld heat treatments improve the strength and ductility of electron-beam welded Ti-5553 alloys by controlling ω- and α-phase evolution.

  8. Electronic structure in a one-Fe Brillouin zone of the iron pnictide superconductors CsFe2As2 and RbFe2As2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, S.; Liu, D. Y.; Cui, S. T.; Ju, S. L.; Wang, A. F.; Luo, X. G.; Zou, L. J.; Chen, X. H.; Zhang, G. B.; Sun, Z.

    2015-11-01

    Using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we studied the electronic structures of CsFe2As2 and RbFe2As2 . Contrary to other iron-based superconductors where the band structures are usually depicted in the two-Fe Brillouin zone (BZ), we found that the distribution of electronic spectral weight in CsFe2As2 and RbFe2As2 follows the one-Fe BZ, and that the emerging band structure is qualitatively consistent with theoretical band calculations of the one-Fe BZ except for some shadow band effect. Our data suggest that the interlayer separation is an important tuning factor for the physics of FeAs layers, the increase of which can reduce the coupling between Fe and As and lead to the emergence of the electronic structure in accord with the one-Fe symmetry of the Fe square lattice. Our finding puts strong constraints on the theoretical models constructed on the basis of the one-Fe BZ.

  9. Simulation of Thermopower Influence on Fuel Core of Power Rod in Nuclear Power Plant (NPP Active Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Kulikov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers problems of modern methods for  calculation of designs and materials of nuclear power. A model of numerical analysis for stress-strain state of fuel pins in the NPP active zone is proposed in the paper. The paper contains simulation concerning a fuel core section of a nuclear reactor heat-generating element with subsequent solution of a temperature and thermoelastic problem in computer program complex FEA ANSYS Workbench 11.0. All the obtained results have passed through checking procedure.

  10. Late Quaternary Activity and Seismogenic Potential of the Gonave Microplate: Plantain Garden Strike-Slip Fault Zone of Eastern Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, P.; Prentice, C.; King, W.; Demets, C.; Wiggins-Grandison, M.; Benford, B.

    2008-12-01

    At the longitude of Jamaica, Caribbean (Carib)-North America (Noam) plate motion of 19 ± 2 mm/a is carried by two parallel, left-lateral strike-slip faults, the Oriente fault zone, immediately south of Cuba, and the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault zone (EPGFZ), which lies 100-150 km further south. It has been postulated that the lithosphere between these faults constitutes an independent Gonave microplate that has formed in response to the ongoing collision between the leading edge of Carib in Hispaniola and the Bahama carbonate platform. GPS measurements in Jamaica and Hispanola is supportive of the microplate hypothesis and indicates that roughly half of Carib-Noam plate motion (8-14 mm/a) is carried by the EPGFZ of southern Hispaniola and eastern Jamaica. This study applies geomorphic and paleoseismic methods as a direct test of the activity and amount of microplate motion carried on the Plantain Garden fault segment of eastern Hispaniola and how this motion is distributed across a large restraining bend that has formed the island of Jamaica since the late Miocene. The EPFZ curves gently to the northeast and forming a steep mountain front to the Blue Mountains restraining bend with elevations up to 2200 m. Geomorphic fault-related features along the mountain front fault zone include left-laterally deflected rivers and streams, but no small scale features indicative of Holocene activity. River and stream deflections range from 0.1 to 0.5 km. We identified and trenched the most active trace of the mountain front fault at the Morant River where the fault is characterized by a 1.5-m-wide sub-vertical fault zone juxtaposing sheared alluvium and fault Cretaceous basement rocks This section is overlain by a 6-m-thick fluvial terrace. Trenching in the unfaulted terrace immediately overlying the fault trace revealed radiocarbon and OSL ages ranging from 20 to 21 ka that are consistent with a prominent unfaulted alluvial fan along the projection of this fault 1.5 km to

  11. Activating Knowledge Through Electronic Collaboration: Vanquishing The Knowledge Paradox

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Qureshi (Sadja); P. Keen (Peter)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractElectronic collaboration has become a driver for productivity as organizations develop linkages for the planning, sourcing and execution of goods and services. These organizations require mechanisms to harness the diverse and personalized intellectual resources that are distributed acr

  12. Integrating hydraulic conductivity with biogeochemical gradients and microbial activity along river-groundwater exchange zones in a subtropical stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claret, Cécile; Boulton, Andrew J.

    2009-02-01

    The pervious lateral bars (parafluvial zone) and beds (hyporheic zone), where stream water and groundwater exchange, are dynamic sites of hydrological and biological retention. The significance of these biogeochemical ‘hotspots’ to stream and groundwater metabolism is largely controlled by filtration capacity, defined as the extent to which subsurface flowpaths and matrix hydraulic conductivity modify water characteristics. Where hydraulic conductivity is high, gradients in biogeochemistry and microbial activity along subsurface flowpaths were hypothesized to be less marked than where hydraulic conductivity is low. This hypothesis was tested in two riffles and gravel bars in an Australian subtropical stream. At one site, gradients in chemical and microbial variables along flowpaths were associated with reduced hydraulic conductivity, longer water residence time and reduced filtration capacity compared with the second site where filtration capacity was greater and longitudinal biogeochemical trends were dampened. These results imply that factors affecting the sediment matrix in this subtropical stream can alter filtration capacity, interstitial microbial activity and biogeochemical gradients along subsurface flowpaths. This hydroecological approach also indicates potential for a simple field technique to estimate filtration capacity and predict the prevailing hyporheic gradients in microbial activity and biogeochemical processing efficiency, with significant implications for stream ecosystem function.

  13. High-resolution water column survey to identify active sublacustrine hydrothermal discharge zones within Lake Rotomahana, North Island, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Sharon L.; de Ronde, Cornel E. J.; Fornari, Daniel; Tivey, Maurice A.; Stucker, Valerie K.

    2016-03-01

    Autonomous underwater vehicles were used to conduct a high-resolution water column survey of Lake Rotomahana using temperature, pH, turbidity, and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) to identify active hydrothermal discharge zones within the lake. Five areas with active sublacustrine venting were identified: (1) the area of the historic Pink Terraces; (2) adjacent to the western shoreline subaerial "Steaming Cliffs," boiling springs and geyser; (3) along the northern shoreline to the east of the Pink Terrace site; (4) the newly discovered Patiti hydrothermal system along the south margin of the 1886 Tarawera eruption rift zone; and (5) a location in the east basin (northeast of Patiti Island). The Pink Terrace hydrothermal system was active prior to the 1886 eruption of Mount Tarawera, but venting along the western shoreline, in the east basin, and the Patiti hydrothermal system appear to have been initiated in the aftermath of the eruption, similar to Waimangu Valley to the southwest. Different combinations of turbidity, pH anomalies (both positive and negative), and ORP responses suggest vent fluid compositions vary over short distances within the lake. The seasonal period of stratification limits vertical transport of heat to the surface layer and the hypolimnion temperature of Lake Rotomahana consequently increases with an average warming rate of ~ 0.010 °C/day due to both convective hydrothermal discharge and conductive geothermal heating. A sudden temperature increase occurred during our 2011 survey and was likely the response to an earthquake swarm just 11 days prior.

  14. 76 FR 56503 - Agency Information Collection Activity (VSO Access to VHA Electronic Health Records) Under OMB...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection Activity (VSO Access to VHA Electronic Health Records) Under OMB... INFORMATION: Title: VSO Access to VHA Electronic Health Records, VA Form 10- 0400. OMB Control Number: 2900... recorded in VHA electronic health records system. An agency may not conduct or sponsor, and a person is not...

  15. 76 FR 40454 - Proposed Information Collection (VSO Access to VHA Electronic Health Records) Activity; Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (VSO Access to VHA Electronic Health Records) Activity; Comment... attorney by veterans who have medical information recorded in VHA electronic health records system... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title: VSO Access to VHA Electronic Health...

  16. Activating Knowledge Through Electronic Collaboration: Vanquishing The Knowledge Paradox

    OpenAIRE

    Qureshi, Sadja; Keen, Peter

    2004-01-01

    textabstractElectronic collaboration has become a driver for productivity as organizations develop linkages for the planning, sourcing and execution of goods and services. These organizations require mechanisms to harness the diverse and personalized intellectual resources that are distributed across the world. While electronic collaboration technologies have made it possible to harness intellectual resources across space and time, knowledge management is locked in a paradox of perception – t...

  17. Photogrammetry surveys and mosaic: a useful tool to monitor active zones. Applications to the Indonesian Lusi eruption site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Giovanni; Di Stefano, Giuseppe; Mazzini, Adriano; Iarocci, Alessandro; Caramelli, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Unmanned and remotely operated aircraft showed to be an efficient and cost effective way to explore remote or extreme environments. Comparative photogrammetry studies are an efficient way to study and monitor he evolution of geologically active areas and ongoing events and are able to highlight details that are typically lost during traditional field campaigns. The Lusi mud eruption in eastern Java (Indonesia) represents one of the most spectacular geological phenomena that is ongoing since May 2006. In the framework of the Lusi Lab project (ERC grant n° 308126) we designed and constructed a multipurpose drone to survey the eruption site. Among the numerous other payloads, the Lusi drone is equipped with Olympus EPM-2 and Go-Pro Hero3 cameras that allow the operator to collect video stills, high quality pictures and to complete photogrammetry surveys. Targeted areas have been selected for detailed studies in the 7 km2 region inside the embankment that was prevent the mud burial of the settlements in the Sidoarjo Regency. The region is characterized by the presence of the Watukosek fault zone. This strike slip system originates from the Arjuno-Welirang volcanic complex and extends to the north east of the Java Island intersecting the Lusi crater. Therefore of particular interest are the faulted surveyed areas present around the Lusi crater inside the embankment. Results reveal a surprising accuracy for the collected mosaic. Multiple surveys are able to reveal the changes and the evolution of the fault through time and to indicate more active zones. In particular this type of survey can highlight the weakness zones and is thus useful to prevent potential geohazards in the area. The poster shows the aerial survey results, including a 3d-printed slice of LuSi, obtained combining 2500 16 Mp photographs. A 3d zoomed detail is also shown, evidencing the resolution that this technique can offer.

  18. Ground motion parameters of Shillong plateau: One of the most seismically active zones of northeastern India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saurabh Baruah; Santanu Baruah; Naba Kumar Gogoi; Olga Erteleva; Felix Aptikaev; J.R.Kayal

    2009-01-01

    Strong ground motion parameters for Shillong plateau of northeastern India are examined. Empirical relations are obtained for main parameters of ground motions as a function of earthquake magnitude, fault type, source depth, velocity characterization of medium and distance. Correlation between ground motion parameters and characteristics of seismogenic zones are established. A new attenuation relation for peak ground acceleration is developed, which predicts higher expected PGA in the region. Parameters of strong motions, particularly the predominant periods and duration of vibrations, depend on the morphology of the studied area. The study measures low estimates of logarithmic width in Shillong plateau. The attenuation relation estimated for pulse width critically indicates increased pulse width dependence on the logarithmic distance which accounts for geometrical spreading and anelastic attenuation.

  19. Studies of Total Electron Content variations at low-latitude stations within the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilian, Olatunbosun

    2016-07-01

    The total electron content (TEC) is an important parameter to monitor for possible space weather impacts. The radio waves that pass through the earth's ionosphere travel more slowly than their free space velocity due to group path delay of the ionosphere. This group path delay is directly proportional to the TEC of the ionosphere. Using dual frequency GPS receiver at low latitude stations of Ile-Ife (7.52oN, 4.28oE), Addis Ababa (9.04oN, 38.77oE) and Bangalore (13.03oE, 77.57oE), all located within 0 - 15oN of the equatorial anomaly region, the measurement of ionospheric TEC for 2012 has been carried out. The data from the three stations were used to study the diurnal, monthly and seasonal variations of TEC. The diurnal variations maximize between 10:00 - 16:00UT, 08:00 - 14:00UT and 06:00 - 12:00UT for Ile-Ife, Addis Ababa and Bangalore stations respectively. The diurnal variations showed wave-like pertubation during disturbed and quiet periods at Bangalore and Addis Ababa stations. The monthly average TEC variations showed that the month of March recorded the highest TEC value of ~59TECu at about 16:00UT in Ile-Ife station, while TEC at Addis Ababa and Bangalore maximize in October with ~72TECu and 65TECu at about 11:00UT and 09:00UT respectively. Seasonal variations showed that TEC maximizes during the equinoctial months and least in summer, over the three stations. Keywords: Total Electron Content, Equatorial Ionization Anomaly, Global Positioning System co-author:E.A. Ariyibi(Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria)

  20. The Activity of Major Faults and the Hydrothermal Alteration Zone at Tianchi Volcano of Changbaishan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Mingjun; Gu Menglin; Sun Zhenguo; Wei Haiquan; Jin Bolu

    2004-01-01

    It is found by field investigation that the near horizontal top surface of the brown or brick-red hydrothermal alteration zone varies obviously in elevation at different sections of the same layer on the caldera's inner wall of Tianchi, with that at the north section near the Tianwen Peak about 110 m higher than that at the south near the Jiangjun Peak in Korea. The top surface of the hydrothermal alteration zone can be taken as key horizon to tectonic movement. The difference indicates that the total uplift height of the NW wall of the Liudaogou-TianchiJingfengshan fault, the principal fault trending NE at Tianchi, is bigger than that of the SE wall ever since the occurrence of hydrothermal alteration. This also explains why the topography in the northwest side of Tianchi is steeper and with more developed river system than in the southeast. The uplifting of the northeastern wall is bigger than that of the southwest along the principal NW-trend fault, namely, the Baishanzhen-Tianchi-Jince fault. It is observed from characters of hydrothermal alteration and the palaeoresiduum, that the recent vertical movement rate along the principal NE-trend fault is larger than that of the principal NW-trend fault. The two faults intersect at Tianchi, dividing the volcano into 4 blocks, with the uplift magnitudes decreasing successively in the order of the north, the west, the east and the south block. The biggest uplift of the north block corresponds well to the shallow magma batch in the north of Tianchi observed by DSS and telluric electromagnetic sounding, and etc.and they may be related with the causes.

  1. Mapping bathymetry in an active surf zone with the WorldView2 multispectral satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, S. M.; Houser, C.; Brander, R.; Chirico, P.

    2015-12-01

    Rip currents are strong, narrow seaward flows of water that originate in the surf zones of many global beaches. They are related to hundreds of international drownings each year, but exact numbers are difficult to calculate due to logistical difficulties in obtaining accurate incident reports. Annual average rip current fatalities are estimated to be ~100, 53 and 21 in the United States (US), Costa Rica, and Australia respectively. Current warning systems (e.g. National Weather Service) do not account for fine resolution nearshore bathymetry because it is difficult to capture. The method shown here could provide frequent, high resolution maps of nearshore bathymetry at a scale required for improved rip prediction and warning. This study demonstrates a method for mapping bathymetry in the surf zone (20m deep and less), specifically within rip channels, because rips form at topographically low spots in the bathymetry as a result of feedback amongst waves, substrate, and antecedent bathymetry. The methods employ the Digital Globe WorldView2 (WV2) multispectral satellite and field measurements of depth to generate maps of the changing bathymetry at two embayed, rip-prone beaches: Playa Cocles, Puerto Viejo de Talamanca, Costa Rica, and Bondi Beach, Sydney, Australia. WV2 has a 1.1 day pass-over rate with 1.84m ground pixel resolution of 8 bands, including 'yellow' (585-625 nm) and 'coastal blue' (400-450 nm). The data is used to classify bottom type and to map depth to the return in multiple bands. The methodology is tested at each site for algorithm consistency between dates, and again for applicability between sites.

  2. Local zone wise elastic and plastic properties of electron beam welded Ti-6Al-4V alloy using digital image correlation technique: A comparative study between uniform stress and virtual fields method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saranath, K. M.; Ramji, M.

    2015-05-01

    Joining of materials using welding results in the formation of material zones with varying microstructure across the weld. Extraction of the mechanical properties of those individual heterogeneous zones are important in designing components and structures comprised of welds. In this study, the zone wise local extraction of the elastic and plastic properties of an electron beam welded Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy has been carried out using both the uniform stress method (USM) and the virtual fields method (VFM) involving digital image correlation (DIC) technique. The surface strain field obtained using DIC technique from a transverse weld specimen tensile testing is used for extracting the zone wise strain evolution. Initially, using uniform stress assumption, zone wise full range stress-strain curves are extracted. In USM methodology, the elastic and plastic material models are fitted to the zone wise stress-strain curves and required parameters are extracted from it. But inherent disadvantage is lot of images need to be processed for the parameter extraction. Recently, VFM is gaining lot of popularity in characterization domain as it is robust, accurate and faster. VFM is based on the principle of virtual work where, the weak form of local equilibrium equations and kinematically admissible virtual displacement fields are utilized for parameter extraction. Hollomon's power law is used here as the hardening rule. Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, yield stress, strength coefficient and strain hardening exponent are the parameters extracted zone wise using both USM and VFM. A Vicker's microhardness measurement is also conducted across the weld zone towards mapping the strength behavior. Fusion zone has reported higher yield strength, strength coefficient and Poisson's ratio. Young's modulus value is found decreasing from base metal towards the fusion zone. The trend observed in parameter variation across the weld zone obtained by both USM and VFM compares very well. Due

  3. Electron self-exchange activation parameters of diethyl sulfide and tetrahydrothiophene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Goez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Electron transfer between the title compounds and their radical cations, which were generated by photoinduced electron transfer from the sulfides to excited 2,4,6-triphenylpyrylium cations, was investigated by time-resolved measurements of chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization (CIDNP in acetonitrile. The strongly negative activation entropies provide evidence for an associative–dissociative electron exchange involving dimeric radical cations. Despite this mechanistic complication, the free energies of activation were found to be well reproduced by the Marcus theory of electron transfer, with the activation barrier still dominated by solvent reorganization.

  4. Identifying active interplate and intraplate fault zones in the western Caribbean plate from seismic reflection data and the significance of the Pedro Bank fault zone in the tectonic history of the Nicaraguan Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, B.; Mann, P.

    2015-12-01

    The offshore Nicaraguan Rise in the western Caribbean Sea is an approximately 500,000 km2 area of Precambrian to Late Cretaceous tectonic terranes that have been assembled during the Late Cretaceous formation of the Caribbean plate and include: 1) the Chortis block, a continental fragment; 2) the Great Arc of the Caribbean, a deformed Cretaceous arc, and 3) the Caribbean large igneous province formed in late Cretaceous time. Middle Eocene to Recent eastward motion of the Caribbean plate has been largely controlled by strike-slip faulting along the northern Caribbean plate boundary zone that bounds the northern margin of the Nicaraguan Rise. These faults reactivate older rift structures near the island of Jamaica and form the transtensional basins of the Honduran Borderlands near Honduras. Recent GPS studies suggest that small amount of intraplate motion within the current margin of error of GPS measurements (1-3 mm/yr) may occur within the center of the western Caribbean plate at the Pedro Bank fault zone and Hess Escarpment. This study uses a database of over 54,000 km of modern and vintage 2D seismic data, combined with earthquake data and results from previous GPS studies to define the active areas of inter- and intraplate fault zones in the western Caribbean. Intraplate deformation occurs along the 700-km-long Pedro Bank fault zone that traverses the center of the Nicaraguan Rise and reactivates the paleo suture zone between the Great Arc of the Caribbean and the Caribbean large igneous province. The Pedro Bank fault zone also drives active extension at the 200-km-long San Andres rift along the southwest margin of the Nicaraguan Rise. Influence of the Cocos Ridge indentor may be contributing to reactivation of faulting along the southwesternmost, active segment of the Hess Escarpment.

  5. Presynaptic calcium channels and α3-integrins are complexed with synaptic cleft laminins, cytoskeletal elements and active zone components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Steven S; Valdez, Gregorio; Sanes, Joshua R

    2010-11-01

    At chemical synapses, synaptic cleft components interact with elements of the nerve terminal membrane to promote differentiation and regulate function. Laminins containing the β2 subunit are key cleft components, and they act in part by binding the pore-forming subunit of a pre-synaptic voltage-gated calcium channel (Ca(v)α) (Nishimune et al. 2004). In this study, we identify Ca(v)α-associated intracellular proteins that may couple channel-anchoring to assembly or stabilization of neurotransmitter release sites called active zones. Using Ca(v)α-antibodies, we isolated a protein complex from Torpedo electric organ synapses, which resemble neuromuscular junctions but are easier to isolate in bulk. We identified 10 components of the complex: six cytoskeletal proteins (α2/β2 spectrins, plectin 1, AHNAK/desmoyokin, dystrophin, and myosin 1), two active zone components (bassoon and piccolo), synaptic laminin, and a calcium channel β subunit. Immunocytochemistry confirmed these proteins in electric organ synapses, and PCR analysis revealed their expression by developing mammalian motor neurons. Finally, we show that synaptic laminins also interact with pre-synaptic integrins containing the α3 subunit. Together with our previous finding that a distinct synaptic laminin interacts with SV2 on nerve terminals (Son et al. 2000), our results identify three paths by which synaptic cleft laminins can send developmentally important signals to nerve terminals.

  6. Promoting direct interspecies electron transfer with activated carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Fanghua; Rotaru, Amelia-Elena; Shrestha, Pravin M.

    2012-01-01

    of methanogenesis might be to facilitate direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) between bacteria and methanogens. Metabolism was substantially accelerated when GAC was added to co-cultures of Geobacter metallireducens and Geobacter sulfurreducens grown under conditions previously shown to require DIET. Cells...... were attached to GAC, but did not aggregate as they do when making biological electrical connections between cells. Studies with a series of gene deletion mutants eliminated the possibility that GAC promoted electron exchange via interspecies hydrogen or formate transfer and demonstrated that DIET...

  7. Site directed spin labelling and pulsed dipolar electron paramagnetic resonance (double electron-electron resonance) of force activation in muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fajer, Piotr G [Institute of Molecular Biophysics, Department of Biological Science, National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States)

    2005-05-11

    The recent development of site specific spin labelling and advances in pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance(EPR) have established spin labelling as a viable structural biology technique. Specific protein sites or whole domains can be selectively targeted for spin labelling by cysteine mutagenesis. The secondary structure of the proteins is determined from the trends in EPR signals of labels attached to consecutive residues. Solvent accessibility or label mobility display periodicities along the labelled polypeptide chain that are characteristic of {beta}-strands (periodicity of 2 residues) or {alpha}-helices (3.6 residues). Low-resolution 3D structure of proteins is determined from the distance restraints. Two spin labels placed within 60-70 A of each other create a local dipolar field experienced by the other spin labels. The strength of this field is related to the interspin distance, {proportional_to} r{sup -3}. The dipolar field can be measured by the broadening of the EPR lines for the short distances (8-20 A) or for the longer distances (17-70 A) by the pulsed EPR methods, double electron-electron resonance(DEER) and double quantum coherence (DQC). A brief review of the methodology and its applications to the multisubunit muscle protein troponin is presented below.

  8. The Restraining Stepovers And Releasing Bends Along The Active East Anatolian Fault Zone, Turkey: Celikhan Region As A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isik, V.; Seyitoglu, G.; Herece, E.; Saber, R.; Caglayan, A.

    2013-12-01

    The Arabia-Eurasia convergence involves intracontinental shortening in SW Turkey. Two active fault zones in Turkey, the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) and the East Anatolian Fault Zone (EAFZ), divide the area into the Anatolian micro-plate accommodating SSW-directed movement. The EAFZ is a crustal-scale strike-slip fault, represents a sinistral NE-striking zone, characterized by numerous, complex faults and segmented surface ruptures. The Celikhan region, selected for this study, is located approximately 30 kilometers north of the city of Adiyaman. Although two segments representing the latest seismic activity of the EAFZ have been mapped, named Siro and Erkenek segments, the region contains many segments that become more complex fault pattern. The Celikhan region form part of geology of SE Turkey and is hosted by metamorphic rocks (Poturge metamorphites and Malatya metamorphites), ophiolitic and volcanic units (Kocali complex and Maden complex), limestone with fossils (Midyat formation) and Plio-Quaternary deposits. These rocks are transected by series of steeply dipping to subvertical the EAFZ preserving good indications to sinistral displacement with or/and without normal and reverse component associated with fault rock development. In the northern portion of the study area, the EAFZ is defined by relatively straight, polished recrystallized limestone of the Malatya metamorphites slip surface, which strike N50°-55°E and dip 80°-88° NW. Well-develeoped slickenlines with rakes between 10°-15°, corrugations and some brittle kinematic indicators marks on the slip-surface, indicating strike-slip displacement with minor dip-slip component. This fault create a restraining stepover with the fault near to Celikhan and Akdag can be interpreted as push up structure. At the southwest of Celikhan, the EAFZ create a releasing bend and several strike-slip fault strands with normal component striking N40°-60°E. These subsidiary faults containing centimeter

  9. Investigation of Chemical Reactivity, Mass Recovery and Biological Activity During Thermal Treatment of DNAPL Source Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    electronic circuitry. In Environmental Issues and Waste Management Technologies in the Ceramic and Nuclear Industries IV, J.C. Marra and G.T. Chandler (Eds...COCl2 phosgene COH3COO- glycolate COOHCOO- oxalate CROW Contained Recovery of Oily Wastes ™ CT carbon tetrachloride Cu copper cis-DCE cis...in parallel, with compatible treatment technologies including bioremediation and oxidation- reduction processes. E.2.1. Rates of Abiotic TCE

  10. Characterization of calcium and zinc spatial distributions at the fibrocartilage zone of bone–tendon junction by synchrotron radiation-based micro X-ray fluorescence analysis combined with backscattered electron imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Hongbin; Chen, Can; Wang, Zhanwen; Qu, Jin; Xu, Daqi [Department of Sports Medicine, Research Center of Sports Medicine, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008 (China); Wu, Tianding; Cao, Yong [Department of Spine Surgery, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008 (China); Zhou, Jingyong; Zheng, Cheng [Department of Sports Medicine, Research Center of Sports Medicine, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008 (China); Hu, Jianzhong, E-mail: jianzhonghu@hotmail.com [Department of Sports Medicine, Research Center of Sports Medicine, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008 (China); Department of Spine Surgery, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008 (China)

    2015-09-01

    Tendon attaches to bone through a functionally graded fibrocartilage zone, including uncalcified fibrocartilage (UF), tidemark (TM) and calcified fibrocartilage (CF). This transition zone plays a pivotal role in relaxing load transfer between tendon and bone, and serves as a boundary between otherwise structurally and functionally distinct tissue types. Calcium and zinc are believed to play important roles in the normal growth, mineralization, and repair of the fibrocartilage zone of bone–tendon junction (BTJ). However, spatial distributions of calcium and zinc at the fibrocartilage zone of BTJ and their distribution–function relationship are not totally understood. Thus, synchrotron radiation-based micro X-ray fluorescence analysis (SR-μXRF) in combination with backscattered electron imaging (BEI) was employed to characterize the distributions of calcium and zinc at the fibrocartilage zone of rabbit patella–patellar tendon complex (PPTC). For the first time, the unique distributions of calcium and zinc at the fibrocartilage zone of the PPTC were clearly mapped by this method. The distributions of calcium and zinc at the fibrocartilage zone of the PPTC were inhomogeneous. A significant accumulation of zinc was exhibited in the transition region between UF and CF. The highest zinc content (3.17 times of that of patellar tendon) was found in the TM of fibrocartilage zone. The calcium content began to increase near the TM and increased exponentially across the calcified fibrocartilage region towards the patella. The highest calcium content (43.14 times of that of patellar tendon) was in the transitional zone of calcified fibrocartilage region and the patella, approximately 69 μm from the location with the highest zinc content. This study indicated, for the first time, that there is a differential distribution of calcium and zinc at the fibrocartilage zone of PPTC. These observations reveal new insights into region-dependent changes across the fibrocartilage

  11. Probing the critical zone using passive- and active-source estimates of subsurface shear-wave velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, R. P.; Taylor, N. J.; Pasquet, S.; Dueker, K. G.; Riebe, C. S.; Holbrook, W. S.

    2016-12-01

    Geophysical imaging is rapidly becoming popular for quantifying subsurface critical zone (CZ) architecture. However, a diverse array of measurements and measurement techniques are available, raising the question of which are appropriate for specific study goals. Here we compare two techniques for measuring S-wave velocities (Vs) in the near surface. The first approach quantifies Vs in three dimensions using a passive source and an iterative residual least-squares tomographic inversion. The second approach uses a more traditional active-source seismic survey to quantify Vs in two dimensions via a Monte Carlo surface-wave dispersion inversion. Our analysis focuses on three 0.01 km2 study plots on weathered granitic bedrock in the Southern Sierra Critical Zone Observatory. Preliminary results indicate that depth-averaged velocities from the two methods agree over the scales of resolution of the techniques. While the passive- and active-source techniques both quantify Vs, each method has distinct advantages and disadvantages during data acquisition and analysis. The passive-source method has the advantage of generating a three dimensional distribution of subsurface Vs structure across a broad area. Because this method relies on the ambient seismic field as a source, which varies unpredictably across space and time, data quality and depth of investigation are outside the control of the user. Meanwhile, traditional active-source surveys can be designed around a desired depth of investigation. However, they only generate a two dimensional image of Vs structure. Whereas traditional active-source surveys can be inverted quickly on a personal computer in the field, passive source surveys require significantly more computations, and are best conducted in a high-performance computing environment. We use data from our study sites to compare these methods across different scales and to explore how these methods can be used to better understand subsurface CZ architecture.

  12. Detection and characterization of estrus in dairy cattle with an electronic heatmount detector and an electronic activity tag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    At-Taras, E E; Spahr, S L

    2001-04-01

    The length and onset of estrus was studied in 71 lactating dairy cows using an electronic heatmount sensor (HeatWatch; DDx Inc., Boulder, CO, DeForest, WI) and an electronic activity tag (Heat Seeker, Boumatic, Madison, WI). Three methods were used to determine estrus: 1) the electronic heatmount system, 2) an increased activity ratio algorithm determined by the Heat Seeker, and 3) an increased activity count algorithm calculated for each estrous period. Mounting and physical activity variables were characterized, and the effects of synchrony, parity, and weather on these variables were determined with data from two different trials. Cows in trial 1 were not synchronized, while cows in trial 2 were synchronized. The results of the study were consistent as follows: mean numbers of mounts were 6.70 +/- 0.7 and 5.42 +/- 0.80 for trials 1 and 2, respectively; each mount lasted 3.20 +/- 0.19 s (trial 1) and 3.36 +/- 0.42 s (trial 2). Total mounting activity averaged 5.83 +/- 0.78 h per estrous period in trial 1 and 5.57 +/- 1.02 h in trial 2. Estrus identified by the increased activity count algorithm corresponded more closely to standing mount activity (determined by the HeatWatch System) than did the increased activity ratio algorithm. Synchrony, parity, and weather did not have a direct effect on physical activity. Hot weather decreased the duration of standing mount activity significantly, but did not affect the number or duration of individual mounts. All three methods of estrus detection employed improved the efficiency of detection over visual observation.

  13. 78 FR 49254 - Foreign-Trade Zone 158-Vicksburg/Jackson, Mississippi; Authorization of Production Activity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ... Production Activity; Extension of Production Authority; Bauhaus USA, Inc. (Upholstered Furniture); Saltillo... Bauhaus USA, Inc., in Saltillo, Mississippi. The notification was processed in accordance with the...

  14. Beyond usage: understanding the use of electronic journals on the basis of information activity analysis. Electronic journals, Use studies, Information activity, Scientific communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annaïg Mahé

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, which reports the second part of a two-part study of the use of electronic journals by researchers in two French research institutions, we attempt to explain the integration of the use of electronic journals in the scientists' information habits, going beyond usage analysis. First, we describe how the development of electronic journals use follows a three-phase innovation process - research-development, first uses, and technical acculturation. Then, we attempt to find more significant explanatory factors, and emphasis is placed on the wider context of information activity. Three main information activity types are outlined - marginal, parallel, and integrated. Each of these types corresponds to a particular attitude towards scientific information and to different levels of electronic journal use.

  15. 78 FR 22512 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 225-Springfield, Missouri; Notification of Proposed Production Activity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ... Production Activity; General Dynamics Ordnance and Tactical Systems Munitions Services (Demilitarization of... under Section 400.38 of the Board's regulations. The facility is used for the demilitarization of... could allow GDOTS to conduct demilitarization activity on imported articles at the facility....

  16. Aloe vera in active and passive regions of electronic devices towards a sustainable development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Zhe Xi; Sreenivasan, Sasidharan; Wong, Yew Hoong; Cheong, Kuan Yew

    2017-07-01

    The increasing awareness towards sustainable development of electronics has driven the search for natural bio-organic materials in place of conventional electronic materials. The concept of using natural bio-organic materials in electronics provides not only an effective solution to address global electronic waste crisis, but also a compelling template for sustainable electronics manufacturing. This paper attempts to provide an overview of using Aloe vera gel as a natural bio-organic material for various electronic applications. Important concepts such as responses of living Aloe vera plant towards electrical stimuli and demonstrations of Aloe vera films as passive and active regions of electronic devices are highlighted in chronological order. The biodegradability and biocompatibility of Aloe vera can bring the world a step closer towards the ultimate goal of sustainable development of electronic devices from "all-natural" materials.

  17. Positive effects of electronic patient records on three clinical activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Simonsen, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    in mental workload. The physician in charge also experienced increased clarity about the importance of and responsibilities for work tasks, and reduced mental workload during ward rounds. During nursing handovers the nurses experienced fewer missing pieces of information and fewer messages to pass on after...... Purpose: To investigate the effects of a fully functional electronic patient record (EPR) system on clinicians' work during team conferences, ward rounds, and nursing handovers. Method: In collaboration with clinicians an EPR system was configured for a stroke unit and in trial use for five days...... are not to be expected to be in operational use in Denmark until at least two years from now. The EPR system was evaluated with respect to its effects on clinicians' mental workload, overview, and need for exchanging information. Effects were measured by comparing the use of electronic records with the use of paper...

  18. UV exposed electronically activated damage and photoreactivation repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohr, Henrik; Malik, Bary

    2007-03-01

    An investigation of the possible physics underlying the damage caused to DNA by UV radiation and its subsequent repair via a photoreactivation mechanism is presented in this study. An electronic pathway starting from the initial damage to the final repair process is proposed. UV radiation is absorbed to create a hole-excited thymine or other pyrimidine that subsequently is responsible for the formation of the thymine dimer. The negative-ion of the cofactor riboflavin, FADH-, formed by the exposure of the photolyase protein to visible light interacts with the hole-excited electronic orbital of the thymine dimer inducing a photon-less Auger transition, which restores the two thymines to the ground state, thereby detaching the lesion and repairing the DNA. Due to energy balance, the process has to involve an electronic excited state (s). The mechanism involves the least amount of energy dissipation and is charge neutral. It also avoids radiation damage in the repair process, that is, is a radiationless process.

  19. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, No Stack, More than 8 Hours

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  20. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Horizontal Stacks, 8 Hours or Less

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  1. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, No Stack, 8 Hours or Less

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  2. Optogenetic stimulation of glutamatergic neuronal activity in the striatum enhances neurogenesis in the subventricular zone of normal and stroke mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mingke; Yu, Shan Ping; Mohamad, Osama; Cao, Wenyuan; Wei, Zheng Zachory; Gu, Xiaohuan; Jiang, Michael Qize; Wei, Ling

    2017-02-01

    Neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the adult brain may contribute to tissue repair after brain injuries. Whether SVZ neurogenesis can be upregulated by specific neuronal activity in vivo and promote functional recovery after stroke is largely unknown. Using the spatial and cell type specific optogenetic technique combined with multiple approaches of in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo examinations, we tested the hypothesis that glutamatergic activation in the striatum could upregulate SVZ neurogenesis in the normal and ischemic brain. In transgenic mice expressing the light-gated channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) channel in glutamatergic neurons, optogenetic stimulation of the glutamatergic activity in the striatum triggered glutamate release into SVZ region, evoked membrane currents, Ca(2+) influx and increased proliferation of SVZ neuroblasts, mediated by AMPA receptor activation. In ChR2 transgenic mice subjected to focal ischemic stroke, optogenetic stimuli to the striatum started 5days after stroke for 8days not only promoted cell proliferation but also the migration of SVZ neuroblasts into the peri-infarct cortex with increased neuronal differentiation and improved long-term functional recovery. These data provide the first morphological and functional evidence showing a unique striatum-SVZ neuronal regulation via a semi-phasic synaptic mechanism that can boost neurogenic cascades and stroke recovery. The benefits from stimulating endogenous glutamatergic activity suggest a novel regenerative strategy after ischemic stroke and other brain injuries.

  3. Indomethacin treatment reduces microglia activation and increases numbers of neuroblasts in the subventricular zone and ischaemic striatum after focal ischaemia

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ROSANA S LOPES; MARCELO M CARDOSO; ARTHUR O SAMPAIO; MARIO SANTOS BARBOSA Jr; CELICE C SOUZA; MICHELLE C DA SILVA; ELANE MAGNO N FERREIRA; MARCO AURELIOM FREIRE; RAFAEL RODRIGUES LIMA; WALACE GOMES-LEAL

    2016-09-01

    Neuroblasts from the subventricular zone (SVZ) migrate to striatum following stroke, but most of them die inthe ischaemic milieu and this can be related to exacerbated microglial activation. Here, we explored theeffects of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory indomethacin on microglial activation, neuronal preservation andneuroblast migration following experimental striatal stroke in adult rats. Animals were submitted toendothelin-1 (ET-1)-induced focal striatal ischaemia and were treated with indomethacin or sterile saline(i.p.) for 7 days, being perfused after 8 or 14 days. Immunohistochemistry was performed to assess neuronalloss (anti-NeuN), microglial activation (anti-Iba1, ED1) and migrating neuroblasts (anti-DCX) by countingNeuN, ED1 and DCX-positive cells in the ischaemic striatum or SVZ. Indomethacin treatment reducedmicroglia activation and the number of ED1^{+} cells in both 8 and 14 days post injury as compared withcontrols. There was an increase in the number of DCX^{+} cells in both SVZ and striatum at the same survivaltimes. Moreover, there was a decrease in the number of NeuN^{+} cells in indomethacin-treated animals ascompared with the control group at 8 days but not after 14 days post injury. Our results suggest thatindomethacin treatment modulates microglia activation, contributing to increased neuroblast proliferation inthe SVZ and migration to the ischaemic striatum following stroke.

  4. Active crustal deformation of the El Salvador Fault Zone (ESFZ) using GPS data: Implications in seismic hazard assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staller, Alejandra; Benito, Belen; Jesús Martínez-Díaz, José; Hernández, Douglas; Hernández-Rey, Román; Alonso-Henar, Jorge

    2014-05-01

    El Salvador, Central America, is part of the Chortis block in the northwestern boundary of the Caribbean plate. This block is interacting with a diffuse triple junction point with the Cocos and North American plates. Among the structures that cut the Miocene to Pleistocene volcanic deposits stands out the El Salvador Fault Zone (ESFZ): It is oriented in N90º-100ºE direction, and it is composed of several structural segments that deform Quaternary deposits with right-lateral and oblique slip motions. The ESFZ is seismically active and capable of producing earthquakes such as the February 13, 2001 with Mw 6.6 (Martínez-Díaz et al., 2004), that seriously affected the population, leaving many casualties. This structure plays an important role in the tectonics of the Chortis block, since its motion is directly related to the drift of the Caribbean plate to the east and not with the partitioning of the deformation of the Cocos subduction (here not coupled) (Álvarez-Gómez et al., 2008). Together with the volcanic arc of El Salvador, this zone constitutes a weakness area that allows the motion of forearc block toward the NW. The geometry and the degree of activity of the ESFZ are not studied enough. However their knowledge is essential to understand the seismic hazard associated to this important seismogenic structure. For this reason, since 2007 a GPS dense network was established along the ESFZ (ZFESNet) in order to obtain GPS velocity measurements which are later used to explain the nature of strain accumulation on major faults along the ESFZ. The current work aims at understanding active crustal deformation of the ESFZ through kinematic model. The results provide significant information to be included in a new estimation of seismic hazard taking into account the major structures in ESFZ.

  5. 77 FR 61381 - Foreign-Trade Zone 7-Mayaguez, Puerto Rico, Authorization of Production Activity, Baxter...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-09

    ... Activity, Baxter Healthcare of Puerto Rico, (Pharmaceutical and Nutritional Intravenous Bags and... on behalf of Baxter Healthcare of Puerto Rico, at two sites within FTZ 7, located in Aibonito and...

  6. A Series-LC-Filtered Active Damper for AC Power Electronics Based Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes an active damper with a series LC-filter for suppressing resonances in an ac power electronics based power system. The added filter capacitor helps to lower the voltage stress of the converter to be used for implementing the damper. Unlike active filters for the compensation...... is built, where the damper is integrated into a grid-connected converter. The results obtained from the experiments demonstrate the stability enhancement of ac power electronics based power systems by the active damper....

  7. A new active solder for joining electronic components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SMITH,RONALD W.; VIANCO,PAUL T.; HERNANDEZ,CYNTHIA L.; LUGSCHEIDER,E.; RASS,I.; HILLEN,F.

    2000-05-11

    Electronic components and micro-sensors utilize ceramic substrates, copper and aluminum interconnect and silicon. The joining of these combinations require pre-metallization such that solders with fluxes can wet such combinations of metals and ceramics. The paper will present a new solder alloy that can bond metals, ceramics and composites. The alloy directly wets and bonds in air without the use flux or premetallized layers. The paper will present typical processing steps and joint microstructures in copper, aluminum, aluminum oxide, aluminum nitride, and silicon joints.

  8. Exploring the Cross-sectional Association between Transit-Oriented Development Zoning and Active Travel and Transit Usage in the United States, 2010-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily eThrun

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In response to traditional zoning codes that contribute to car-dependent, sprawling, and disconnected neighborhoods, communities are reforming their land use laws to create pedestrian-friendly areas that promote physical activity. One such reform is the adoption of transit-oriented developments or districts (TODs. TODs are higher-density, compact, mixed use areas located around transit stops that are designed to encourage walking.Purpose: To identify the characteristics of communities that have adopted TODs in their land use laws and examine if communities that have included TODs in their zoning codes are more likely to have adults that commute by any form of active transportation (i.e., walking, biking, or public transportation or by using public transportation specifically.Methods: Zoning codes effective as of 2010 were obtained for a purposeful sample of the largest 3,914 municipal jurisdictions located in 473 of the most populous US counties and consolidated cities within 48 states and the District of Columbia. They were evaluated to determine whether they included TOD districts or regulations using a coding tool developed by the study team. Descriptive statistics together with t-tests and Pearson’s chi-squared independence test were used to compare characteristics of jurisdictions with and without TOD zoning. Multivariate linear regressions were used to compute the adjusted association between TOD zoning and taking public or active transportation to work.Results: Jurisdictions with TOD zoning were located more in the South and West than non-TOD jurisdictions and were more populous, higher income, more racially diverse, and younger. Jurisdictions with TOD zoning had significantly higher percentages of occupied housing with no vehicle than those without TOD zoning. TOD zoning was associated with significantly higher rates of public transportation to work (β=2.10, 95% CI=0.88, 3.32 and active transportation to work (β=2.48, 95

  9. Strontium-90 activity concentration in soil samples from the exclusion zone of the Fukushima daiichi nuclear power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Sarata Kumar; Kavasi, Norbert; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Arae, Hideki; Tokonami, Shinji; Mietelski, Jerzy Wojciech; Łokas, Edyta; Yoshida, Satoshi

    2016-04-01

    The radioactive fission product 90Sr has a long biological half-life (˜18 y) in the human body. Due to its chemical similarity to calcium it accumulates in bones and irradiates the bone marrow, causing its high radio-toxicity. Assessing 90Sr is therefore extremely important in case of a nuclear disaster. In this work 16 soil samples were collected from the exclusion zone (Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, to measure 90Sr activity concentration using liquid scintillation counting. 137Cs activity concentration was also measured with gamma-spectroscopy in order to investigate correlation with 90Sr. The 90Sr activity concentrations ranged from 3.0 ± 0.3 to 23.3 ± 1.5 Bq kg-1 while the 137Cs from 0.7 ± 0.1 to 110.8 ± 0.3 kBq kg-1. The fact that radioactive contamination originated from the Fukushima nuclear accident was obvious due to the presence of 134Cs. However, 90Sr contamination was not confirmed in all samples although detectable amounts of 90Sr can be expected in Japanese soils, as a background, stemming from global fallout due to the atmospheric nuclear weapon tests. Correlation analysis between 90Sr and 137Cs activity concentrations provides a potentially powerful tool to discriminate background 90Sr level from its Fukushima contribution.

  10. Characterization Activities to Determine the Extent of DNAPL in the Vadose Zone at the A-014 Outfall of A/M Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, D.G.

    2000-09-05

    The purpose of this investigation was to perform characterization activities necessary to confirm the presence and extent of DNAPL in the shallow vadose zone near the headwaters of the A-014 Outfall. Following the characterization, additional soil vapor extraction wells and vadose monitoring probes were installed to promote and monitor remediation activities in regions of identified DNAPL.

  11. 77 FR 36997 - Foreign-Trade Zone 7-Mayaguez, PR; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Baxter...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    ...--Mayaguez, PR; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Baxter Healthcare of Puerto Rico... behalf of Baxter Healthcare of Puerto Rico (Baxter), at two sites within FTZ 7, located in Aibonito and... exempt Baxter from customs duty payments on the foreign status components used in export production. On...

  12. 78 FR 72861 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 20-Suffolk, Virginia, Notification of Proposed Production Activity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ... portable light towers and diesel-powered generator sets for residential, commercial, and industrial applications. Pursuant to 15 CFR 400.14(b), FTZ activity would be limited to the specific foreign-status... assemblies; guide pulleys; winches; axles; tire-rim assemblies; clips; pins; brackets; bolts; junction...

  13. 78 FR 24158 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 75-Phoenix, Arizona; Notification of Proposed Production Activity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... Production Activity; Orbital Sciences Corporation (Satellites and Spacecraft Launch Vehicles); Gilbert... on behalf of Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC), located in Gilbert, Arizona. The notification... (202) 482-1378. Dated: April 17, 2013. Andrew McGilvray, Executive Secretary. BILLING CODE P...

  14. Electron Sources for Future Lightsources, Summary and Conclusions for the Activities during FLS 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Kamps, Thorsten; Boulware, Chase; Corlett, John; Harkay, Katherine; Hannon, Fay; Krasilnikov, Mikhail; Militsyn, Boris; Quast, Torsten; Sannibale, Fernando; Teichert, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    This paper summarizes the discussions, presentations, and activity of the (Future Light Sources Workshop 2012) FLS 2012 working group dedicated to Electron Sources. The focus of the working group was to discuss concepts and technologies that might enable much higher peak and average brightness from electron beam sources. Furthermore the working group was asked to consider methods to greatly improve the robustness of operation and lower the costs of providing electrons.

  15. Experimental study on the activation process of GaAs spin—polarized electron source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RuanCun-Jun

    2003-01-01

    GaAs spin-polarized electron source is a new kind of electron source, where the GaAs semiconductor crystal is used as a photocathode under the irradiation of helicity light. In this paper the activation process of the GaAs spin-polarized electron source is unvestigated experimentally in detail, during which the negative electron affinity of the photo cathode should be achieved more carefully by absorbing the caesium and oxygen on the surface of the GaAs crystal under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. Besides the different activation processes, the important physical parameters are studied to achieve the optimum activation results. At the same time the stability and lifetime of the polarized electron beam are explored for future experiments. Some important experimental data have been acquired.

  16. Experimental study on the activation process of GaAs spin-polarized electron source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮存军

    2003-01-01

    GaAs spin-polarized electron source is a new kind of electron source, where the GaAs semiconductor crystal is used as a photocathode under the irradiation of helicity light. In this paper the activation process of the GaAs spin-polarized electron source is investigated experimentally in detail, during which the negative electron affinity of the photo cathode should be achieved more carefully by absorbing the caesium and oxygen on the surface of the GaAs crystal under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. Besides the different activation processes, the important physical parameters are studied to achieve the optimum activation results. At the same time the stability and lifetime of the polarized electron beam are explored for future experiments. Some important experimental data have been acquired.

  17. Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of Weld Metal and Heat-Affected Zone of Electron Beam-Welded Joints of HG785D Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Han, Jianmin; Tan, Caiwang; Yang, Zhiyong; Wang, Junqiang

    2016-12-01

    Vacuum electron beam welding (EBW) process was employed to butt weld 10-mm-thick HG785D high-strength steels. The penetration into the steel was adjusted by beam current. Microstructures at weld metal and heat-affected zone (HAZ) regions were comparatively observed. Mechanical properties of the EBWed joints including Vickers hardness, tensile and Charpy impact tests were evaluated. The results indicated that microstructures at the weld metal consisted of coarse lath martensite and a small amount of acicular martensite, while that in the HAZ was tempered sorbite and martensite. The grain size in the weld metal was found to be larger than that in the HAZ, and its proportion in weld metal was higher. The hardness in the weld metal was higher than the HAZ and base metal. The tensile strength and impact toughness in the HAZ was higher than that in the weld metal. All the behaviors were related to microstructure evolution caused by higher cooling rates and state of base metal. The fracture surfaces of tensile and impact tests on the optimized joint were characterized by uniform and ductile dimples. The results differed significantly from that obtained using arc welding process.

  18. A NEW PERSPECTIVE OF THE RADIO BRIGHT ZONE AT THE GALACTIC CENTER: FEEDBACK FROM NUCLEAR ACTIVITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Jun-Hui [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Morris, Mark R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Goss, W. M., E-mail: jzhao@cfa.harvard.edu [NRAO, P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States)

    2016-02-01

    New observations of Sgr A have been carried out with the Jansky VLA in the B and C arrays using the broadband (2 GHz) continuum mode at 5.5 GHz. The field of view covers the central 13′ (30 pc) region of the radio-bright zone at the Galactic center. Using the multi-scale and multi-frequency-synthesis (MS-MFS) algorithms in CASA, we have imaged Sgr A with a resolution of 1″, achieving an rms noise of 8 μJy beam{sup −1}, and a dynamic range of 100,000:1. Both previously known and newly identified radio features in this region are revealed, including numerous filamentary sources. The radio continuum image is compared with Chandra X-ray images, with a CN emission-line image obtained with the Submillimeter Array and with detailed Paschen-α images obtained with Hubble Space Telescope/NICMOS. We discuss several prominent features in the radio image. The “Sgr A west Wings” extend 2′ (5 pc) from the NW and SE tips of the Sgr A west H ii region (the “Mini-spiral”) to positions located 2.9 and 2.4 arcmin to the northwest and southeast of Sgr A*, respectively. The NW wing, along with several other prominent features, including the previously identified “NW Streamers,” form an elongated radio lobe (NW lobe), oriented nearly perpendicular to the Galactic plane. This radio lobe, with a size of 6.′3 × 3.′2 (14.4 pc × 7.3 pc), has a known X-ray counterpart. In the outer region of the NW lobe, a row of three thermally emitting rings is observed. A field containing numerous amorphous radio blobs extends for a distance of ∼2 arcmin beyond the tip of the SE wing; these newly recognized features coincide with the SE X-ray lobe. Most of the amorphous radio blobs in the NW and SE lobes have Paschen-α counterparts. We propose that they have been produced by shock interaction of ambient gas concentrations with a collimated nuclear wind or an outflow that originated from within the circumnuclear disk (CND). We also discuss the possibility that the ionized

  19. A New Perspective of the Radio Bright Zone at The Galactic Center: Feedback from Nuclear Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jun-Hui; Morris, Mark R.; Goss, W. M.

    2016-02-01

    New observations of Sgr A have been carried out with the Jansky VLA in the B and C arrays using the broadband (2 GHz) continuum mode at 5.5 GHz. The field of view covers the central 13‧ (30 pc) region of the radio-bright zone at the Galactic center. Using the multi-scale and multi-frequency-synthesis (MS-MFS) algorithms in CASA, we have imaged Sgr A with a resolution of 1″, achieving an rms noise of 8 μJy beam-1, and a dynamic range of 100,000:1. Both previously known and newly identified radio features in this region are revealed, including numerous filamentary sources. The radio continuum image is compared with Chandra X-ray images, with a CN emission-line image obtained with the Submillimeter Array and with detailed Paschen-α images obtained with Hubble Space Telescope/NICMOS. We discuss several prominent features in the radio image. The “Sgr A west Wings” extend 2‧ (5 pc) from the NW and SE tips of the Sgr A west H ii region (the “Mini-spiral”) to positions located 2.9 and 2.4 arcmin to the northwest and southeast of Sgr A*, respectively. The NW wing, along with several other prominent features, including the previously identified “NW Streamers,” form an elongated radio lobe (NW lobe), oriented nearly perpendicular to the Galactic plane. This radio lobe, with a size of 6.‧3 × 3.‧2 (14.4 pc × 7.3 pc), has a known X-ray counterpart. In the outer region of the NW lobe, a row of three thermally emitting rings is observed. A field containing numerous amorphous radio blobs extends for a distance of ˜2 arcmin beyond the tip of the SE wing; these newly recognized features coincide with the SE X-ray lobe. Most of the amorphous radio blobs in the NW and SE lobes have Paschen-α counterparts. We propose that they have been produced by shock interaction of ambient gas concentrations with a collimated nuclear wind or an outflow that originated from within the circumnuclear disk (CND). We also discuss the possibility that the ionized wind or

  20. Design of a handheld electronic pain, treatment and activity diary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckmann, Roger; Vidal, Amin

    2010-10-01

    Effective tools for recording and analyzing data on patients' pain experience, use of pain treatments, and physical function are needed to improve communication between providers and patients with noncancer chronic pain. A handheld electronic diary (HED) that can be used throughout the day may provide more useful and accurate information about pain, treatments, and function than available paper and on-line diaries that are designed to be used once daily, weekly or less often. Based on user-specified requirements we designed and built a prototype HED with 7 modules. Diary queries are followed by multiple choice responses customized to the patients' expected responses. Usability testing confirmed user comprehension and acceptability of the queries, response sets, and interface. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Cd pollution and ecological risk assessment for mining activity zone in Karst Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, B.; He, J. L.; Wen, X. M.; Tan, H.

    2017-08-01

    The monitored soil samples were collected from farmland in the area with mining activity in Karst area in Liupanshui. In this article, moss bag technology and TSP were used simultaneously for Cd transportation and deposition in the study area. Geostatistics and GIS were then used for the spatial distribution of Cd in the soil. Afterwards, Cd pollution to the soil environment and human health was studied by using the geo-accumulation index and potential ecological risk index methods. The results indicated that atmospheric deposition is the major route of Cd pollution. A moderate to strong pollution of Cd in the area and the degree of potential ecological risk was in a high level in the study area. Furthermore, Cd pollution in Liupanshui may originate from mining activity and atmospheric deposition.

  2. Military Activities in the Exclusive Economic Zone: Preventing Uncertainty and Defusing Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-03-01

    freedom of navigation." Id. (citing Edmund V. Carreno, America Latina y los Problems Contemporaneos del Derecho del Mar 27-28 (Santiago, 1973)). But see... fiscal , customs, immigration, and health laws.薯 As discussed above, however, despite this diplomatic and operational activity, while some States have...the coastal State may exercise the control necessary to.. prevent infringement of its customs, fiscal , inmnigration or sanitary laws and regulations

  3. Metal-Organic Frameworks as Active Materials in Electronic Sensor Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Michael G; Dincă, Mircea

    2017-05-12

    In the past decade, advances in electrically conductive metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and MOF-based electronic devices have created new opportunities for the development of next-generation sensors. Here we review this rapidly-growing field, with a focus on the different types of device configurations that have allowed for the use of MOFs as active components of electronic sensor devices.

  4. 12 CFR 7.5008 - Location of a national bank conducting electronic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Location of a national bank conducting electronic activities. 7.5008 Section 7.5008 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE... because the bank's products or services are accessed through electronic means by customers located in the...

  5. A kinetic model of the electron-beam-pumped XeCl laser active medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boichenko, A.M.; Derzhiev, V.I.; Zhidkov, A.G.; Iakovlenko, S.I. (Institut Obshchei Fiziki, Moscow (USSR))

    1989-02-01

    Kinetic models are developed for XeCl laser active media in different buffer gases (helium, neon, and argon) pumped by an electron beam. In the calculations of the generation characteristics, allowance is made for the effect of the cavity field on the photoinduced transitions. The numerical results on the efficiency are in good agreement with experiments on electron beams. 17 refs.

  6. Multilayer stress from gravity and its tectonic implications in urban active fault zone: A case study in Shenzhen, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chuang; Wang, Hai-hong; Luo, Zhi-cai; Ning, Jin-sheng; Liu, Hua-liang

    2015-03-01

    It is significant to identify urban active faults for human life and social sustainable development. The ordinary methods to detect active faults, such as geological survey, artificial seismic exploration, and electromagnetic exploration, are not convenient to be carried out in urban area with dense buildings. It is also difficult to supply information about vertical extension of the deeper faults by these methods. Gravity, reflecting the mass distribution of the Earth's interior, provides an alternative way to detect faults, which is more efficient and convenient for urban active fault detection than the aforementioned techniques. Based on the multi-scale decomposition of gravity anomalies, a novel method to invert multilayer horizontal tectonic stresses is proposed. The inverted multilayer stress fields are further used to infer the distribution and stability of the main faults. In order to validate our method, the multilayer stress fields in the Shenzhen fault zone are calculated as a case study. The calculated stress fields show that their distribution is controlled significantly by the strike of the main faults and can be used to derive depths of the faults. The main faults in Shenzhen may range from 4 km to 20 km in the depth. Each layer of the crust is nearly equipressure since the horizontal tectonic stress has small amplitude. It indicates that the main faults in Shenzhen are relatively stable and have no serious impact on planning and construction of the city.

  7. Preliminary Assessment of the Nuclide Migration from the Activation Zone Around the Proposed Spallation Neutron Source Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dole, L.R.

    1998-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential impacts of migrating radionuclides from the activation zone around the proposed Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). Using conservatively high estimates of the potential inventory of radioactive activation products that could form in the proposed compacted-soil shield berm around an SNS facility on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a conservative, simplified transport model was used to estimate the potential worst-case concentrations of the 12 long-lived isotopes in the groundwater under a site with the hydrologic characteristics of the ORR. Of the 12, only 3 isotopes showed any potential to exceed the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 20 Drinking Water Limits (DWLs). These isotopes were 14C, 22Na, and 54Mn. The latter two activation products have very short half-lives of 2.6 years and 0.854 year, respectively. Therefore, these will decay before reaching an off-site receptor, and they cannot pose off-site hazards. However, for this extremely conservative model, which overestimates the mobility of the contaminant, 14C, which has a 5,730-year half-life, was shown to represent a potential concern in the context of this study's conservative assumptions. This study examines alternative modifications to the SNS shield berm and makes recommendations.

  8. Magma ascent and emplacement in a continental rift setting: lessons from alkaline complexes in active and ancient rift zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, William; Lloyd, Ryan; Birhanu, Yelebe; Biggs, Juliet; Mather, Tamsin; Pyle, David; Lewi, Elias; Yirgu, Gezahgen; Finch, Adrian

    2017-04-01

    A key feature of continental rift evolution is the development of large chemically-evolved alkaline magmatic systems in the shallow crust. At active alkaline systems, for example in the East African Rift, the volcanic complexes pose significant hazards to local populations but can also sustain major geothermal resources. In ancient rifts, for example the Gardar province in Southern Greenland, these alkaline magma bodies can host some of the world's largest rare element deposits in resources such as rare earths, niobium and tantalum. Despite their significance, there are major uncertainties about how such magmas are emplaced, the mechanisms that trigger eruptions and the magmatic and hydrothermal processes that generate geothermal and mineral resources. Here we compare observations from active caldera volcanoes in the Ethiopian Rift with compositionally equivalent ancient (1300-1100 Ma) plutonic systems in the Gardar Rift province (Greenland). In the Ethiopian Rift Valley we use InSAR and GPS data to evaluate the temporal and spatial evolution of ground deformation at Aluto and Corbetti calderas. We show that unrest at Aluto is characterized by short (3-6 month) accelerating uplift pulses likely caused by magmatic fluid intrusion at 5 km. At Corbetti, uplift is steady ( 6.6 cm/yr) and sustained over many years with analytical source models suggesting deformation is linked to sill intrusion at depths of 7 km. To evaluate the validity of these contrasting deformation mechanisms (i.e. magmatic fluid intrusion and sill emplacement) we carried out extensive field, structural and geochemical analysis in the roof zones of two alkaline plutons (Ilímaussaq and Motzfeldt) in Greenland. Our results show that the volatile contents (F, Cl, OH and S) of these magmas were exceptionally high and that there is evidence for ponding of magmatic fluids in the roof zone of the magma reservoir. We also identified extensive sill networks at the contact between the magma reservoir and the

  9. Electronic metal-support interaction enhanced oxygen reduction activity and stability of boron carbide supported platinum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Colleen; Smith, Graham T.; Inwood, David W.; Leach, Andrew S.; Whalley, Penny S.; Callisti, Mauro; Polcar, Tomas; Russell, Andrea E.; Levecque, Pieter; Kramer, Denis

    2017-06-01

    Catalysing the reduction of oxygen in acidic media is a standing challenge. Although activity of platinum, the most active metal, can be substantially improved by alloying, alloy stability remains a concern. Here we report that platinum nanoparticles supported on graphite-rich boron carbide show a 50-100% increase in activity in acidic media and improved cycle stability compared to commercial carbon supported platinum nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy and x-ray absorption fine structure analysis confirm similar platinum nanoparticle shapes, sizes, lattice parameters, and cluster packing on both supports, while x-ray photoelectron and absorption spectroscopy demonstrate a change in electronic structure. This shows that purely electronic metal-support interactions can significantly improve oxygen reduction activity without inducing shape, alloying or strain effects and without compromising stability. Optimizing the electronic interaction between the catalyst and support is, therefore, a promising approach for advanced electrocatalysts where optimizing the catalytic nanoparticles themselves is constrained by other concerns.

  10. Shh and ZRS enhancer colocalisation is specific to the zone of polarising activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Iain; Lettice, Laura A; Hill, Robert E; Bickmore, Wendy A

    2016-08-15

    Limb-specific Shh expression is regulated by the (∼1 Mb distant) ZRS enhancer. In the mouse, limb bud-restricted spatiotemporal Shh expression occurs from ∼E10 to E11.5 at the distal posterior margin and is essential for correct autopod formation. Here, we have analysed the higher-order chromatin conformation of Shh in expressing and non-expressing tissues, both by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) and by chromosome conformation capture (5C). Conventional and super-resolution light microscopy identified significantly elevated frequencies of Shh/ZRS colocalisation only in the Shh-expressing regions of the limb bud, in a conformation consistent with enhancer-promoter loop formation. However, in all tissues and at all developmental stages analysed, Shh-ZRS spatial distances were still consistently shorter than those to a neural enhancer located between Shh and ZRS in the genome. 5C identified a topologically associating domain (TAD) over the Shh/ZRS genomic region and enriched interactions between Shh and ZRS throughout E11.5 embryos. Shh/ZRS colocalisation, therefore, correlates with the spatiotemporal domain of limb bud-specific Shh expression, but close Shh and ZRS proximity in the nucleus occurs regardless of whether the gene or enhancer is active. We suggest that this constrained chromatin configuration optimises the opportunity for the active enhancer to locate and instigate the expression of Shh.

  11. Active flexural-slip faulting: A study from the Pamir-Tian Shan convergent zone, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Chen, Jie; Thompson, Jessica A.; Burbank, Douglas W.; Yang, Xiaodong

    2015-06-01

    The flexural-slip fault (FSF), a type of secondary fault generated by bed-parallel slip, occurs commonly and plays an important role in accommodating fold growth. Although the kinematics and mechanics of FSFs are well studied, relatively few field observations or geometric models explore its geomorphic expression. In the Pamir-Tian Shan convergent zone, NW China, suites of well-preserved FSF scarps displace fluvial terraces in the Mingyaole and Wulagen folds. Integrating interpretations of Google Earth images, detailed geologic and geomorphic mapping, and differential GPS measurements of terrace surfaces, we summarize geomorphic features that typify these faults and create kinematic models of active flexural-slip faulting. Our study indicates the following: (i) FSF scarps commonly occur near synclinal hinges, irrespective of whether (a) the dip direction of beds on either side of the hinge is unidirectional or in opposite directions, (b) the hinge is migrating or fixed, or (c) the hinge shape is narrow and angular or wide and curved. (ii) Active FSFs are likely to produce higher scarps on steeper beds, whereas lower or no topographic scarps typify gentler beds. (iii) Tilt angles of the terrace surface displaced above FSFs progressively decrease farther away from the hinge, with abrupt changes in slope coinciding with FSF scarps; the changes in tilt angle and scarp height have a predictable geometric relationship. (iv) Active FSFs can accommodate a significant fraction of total slip and play a significant role in folding deformation. (v) Active FSFs may be used to assess seismic hazards associated with active folds and associated blind thrusts.

  12. In vitro antibacterial activity of ceftobiprole against clinical isolates from French teaching hospitals: proposition of zone diameter breakpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lascols, C; Legrand, P; Mérens, A; Leclercq, R; Muller-Serieys, C; Drugeon, H B; Kitzis, M D; Reverdy, M E; Roussel-Delvallez, M; Moubareck, C; Brémont, S; Miara, A; Gjoklaj, M; Soussy, C-J

    2011-03-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the in vitro activity profile of ceftobiprole, a pyrrolidinone cephalosporin, against a large number of bacterial pathogens and to propose zone diameter breakpoints for clinical categorisation according to the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) breakpoints. MICs of ceftobiprole were determined by broth microdilution against 1548 clinical isolates collected in eight French hospitals. Disk diffusion testing was performed using 30 μg disks according to the method of the Comité de l'Antibiogramme de la Société Française de Microbiologie (CA-SFM). The in vitro activity of ceftobiprole, expressed by MIC(50/90) (MICs for 50% and 90% of the organisms, respectively) (mg/L), was as follows: meticillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, 0.25/0.5; meticillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), 1/2; meticillin-susceptible coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), 0.12/0.5; meticillin-resistant CoNS, 1/2; penicillin-susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae, ≤ 0.008/0.03; penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae, 0.12/0.5; viridans group streptococci, 0.03/0.12; β-haemolytic streptococci, ≤ 0.008/0.016; Enterococcus faecalis, 0.25/1; Enterococcus faecium, 64/128; Enterobacteriaceae, 0.06/32; Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 4/16; Acinetobacter baumannii, 0.5/64; Haemophilus influenzae, 0.03/0.12; and Moraxella catarrhalis, 0.25/0.5. According to the regression curve, zone diameter breakpoints could be 28, 26, 24 and 22 mm for MICs of 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 mg/L respectively. In conclusion, this study confirms the potent in vitro activity of ceftobiprole against many Gram-positive bacteria, including MRSA but not E. faecium, whilst maintaining a Gram-negative spectrum similar to the advanced-generation cephalosporins such as cefepime. Thus ceftobiprole appears to be well suited for the empirical treatment of a variety of healthcare-associated infections.

  13. Relationship between electronic properties and drug activity of seven quinoxaline compounds: A DFT study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzadi, Hadi; Roonasi, Payman; Assle taghipour, Khatoon; van der Spoel, David; Manzetti, Sergio

    2015-07-01

    The quantum chemical calculations at the DFT/B3LYP level of theory were carried out on seven quinoxaline compounds, which have been synthesized as anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis agents. Three conformers were optimized for each compound and the lowest energy structure was found and used in further calculations. The electronic properties including EHOMO, ELUMO and related parameters as well as electron density around oxygen and nitrogen atoms were calculated for each compound. The relationship between the calculated electronic parameters and biological activity of the studied compounds were investigated. Six similar quinoxaline derivatives with possible more drug activity were suggested based on the calculated electronic descriptors. A mechanism was proposed and discussed based on the calculated electronic parameters and bond dissociation energies.

  14. Dynamical core polarization of two-active-electron systems in strong laser fields

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Zengxiu

    2013-01-01

    The ionization of two-active-electron systems by intense laser fields is investigated theoretically. In comparison with time-dependent Hartree-Fock and exact two electron simulation, we show that the ionization rate is overestimated in SAE approximation. A modified single-active-electron model is formulated by taking into account of the dynamical core polarization. Applying the new approach to Ca atoms, it is found that the polarization of the core can be considered instantaneous and the large polarizability of the cation suppresses the ionization by 50% while the photoelectron cut-off energy increases slightly. The existed tunneling ionization formulation can be corrected analytically by considering core polarization.

  15. Smart interactive electronic system for monitoring the electromagnetic activities of biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Sorin G.; Shahinpoor, Mohsen

    2001-08-01

    A novel electronic device capable of sensing and monitoring the myoelectric, polarization wave and electromagnetic activities of the biological systems and in particular the human body is presented. It is known that all the physical and chemical processes within biological systems are associated with polarization, depolarization waves from the brain, neural signals and myoelectric processes that manifest themselves in ionic and dipole motion. The technology developed in our laboratory is based on certain charge motion sensitive electronics. The electronic system developed is capable of sensing the electromagnetic activities of biological systems. The information obtained is then processed by specialized software in order to interpret it from physical and chemical point of view.

  16. An automated continuous system for seismo-geochemical research in an active fault zone in SW Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, T. F.; Hilton, D. R.; Fu, C. C.; Lai, C. W.; Liu, T. K.; Walia, V.; Lai, T. H.

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies have revealed that gas compositions of fluid samples collected from southwestern Taiwan where many hot springs and mud volcanoes are distributed along tectonic sutures show significant variation prior to and after some disaster seismic events [1]. Such variations, including radon activity, CH4/CO2, CO2/3He and 3He/4He ratios of gas compositions, are considered to be precursors of earthquakes in this area. To validate the relationship between fluid compositions and local earthquakes, a continuous monitoring station has been established at Yun-Shuei, which is an artesian well located at an active fault zone in SW Taiwan. It is equipped with a radon detector and a quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) for in-situ measurement of the dissolved gas composition. Data is telemetered to Taipei so we are able to monitor variations of gas composition in real time. Furthermore, we also installed a syringe pump apparatus for the retrieval and temporal analysis of helium (SPARTAH) at this station [2]. From the SPARTAH samples, we can obtain detailed time series records of He and anion concentration of the water samples at this station. After continuous measurement for a few months, this automated system has been demonstrated to be feasible for long-term continuous seismo-geochemical research in this area. [1] Yang et al. (2006) PAGEOPH, 163(4), 693-709. [2] Barry et al. (2009) G3, 10(5), DOI: 10.1029/2009GC002422.

  17. Neural Stem Cells in the Adult Subventricular Zone Oxidize Fatty Acids to Produce Energy and Support Neurogenic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Elizabeth A; Makin, Rebecca; Sweet, Ian R; Trevelyan, Andrew J; Miwa, Satomi; Horner, Philip J; Turnbull, Douglass M

    2015-07-01

    Neural activity is tightly coupled to energy consumption, particularly sugars such as glucose. However, we find that, unlike mature neurons and astrocytes, neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) do not require glucose to sustain aerobic respiration. NSPCs within the adult subventricular zone (SVZ) express enzymes required for fatty acid oxidation and show sustained increases in oxygen consumption upon treatment with a polyunsaturated fatty acid. NSPCs also demonstrate sustained decreases in oxygen consumption upon treatment with etomoxir, an inhibitor of fatty acid oxidation. In addition, etomoxir decreases the proliferation of SVZ NSPCs without affecting cellular survival. Finally, higher levels of neurogenesis can be achieved in aged mice by ectopically expressing proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC1α), a factor that increases cellular aerobic capacity by promoting mitochondrial biogenesis and metabolic gene transcription. Regulation of metabolic fuel availability could prove a powerful tool in promoting or limiting cellular proliferation in the central nervous system. Stem Cells 2015;33:2306-2319. © 2015 AlphaMed Press.

  18. Activation of rape (Brassica napus L. embryo during seed germination. V. The first zones of ultrastructural changes and their expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieczysław Karaś

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the germinating rape embryo the columella and basal part of hypocotyl undergo earliest activation. Its first ultrastructural symptom is the appearance of numerous ER vesicles after 3-6 h of seed swelling. Their number is the highest in the external layers of the columella and decreases in basipetal direction. Dermatogen cells in the basal zone of the hypocotyl contain the greatest amount of ER structures, whereas decreasing amounts are found in both directions along the embryo axis and centripetally. Further changes in the ER spread in a similar order. The vesicles merge and form a tubular and plate-like ER. Then, they disappear and are replaced by tubular and vesicular forms. The changes in the ER are gradually followed by ultrastructural symptoms of activation of mitochondria, plastids and dictyosomes. The highest number of ER structures and other organelles accumulate in root cells shortly before piercing of the seed coat. After germination their amount decreases and remains almost stable.

  19. Activation of type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1R promotes neurogenesis in murine subventricular zone cell cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Xapelli

    Full Text Available The endocannabinoid system has been implicated in the modulation of adult neurogenesis. Here, we describe the effect of type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1R activation on self-renewal, proliferation and neuronal differentiation in mouse neonatal subventricular zone (SVZ stem/progenitor cell cultures. Expression of CB1R was detected in SVZ-derived immature cells (Nestin-positive, neurons and astrocytes. Stimulation of the CB1R by (R-(+-Methanandamide (R-m-AEA increased self-renewal of SVZ cells, as assessed by counting the number of secondary neurospheres and the number of Sox2+/+ cell pairs, an effect blocked by Notch pathway inhibition. Moreover, R-m-AEA treatment for 48 h, increased proliferation as assessed by BrdU incorporation assay, an effect mediated by activation of MAPK-ERK and AKT pathways. Surprisingly, stimulation of CB1R by R-m-AEA also promoted neuronal differentiation (without affecting glial differentiation, at 7 days, as shown by counting the number of NeuN-positive neurons in the cultures. Moreover, by monitoring intracellular calcium concentrations ([Ca(2+]i in single cells following KCl and histamine stimuli, a method that allows the functional evaluation of neuronal differentiation, we observed an increase in neuronal-like cells. This proneurogenic effect was blocked when SVZ cells were co-incubated with R-m-AEA and the CB1R antagonist AM 251, for 7 days, thus indicating that this effect involves CB1R activation. In accordance with an effect on neuronal differentiation and maturation, R-m-AEA also increased neurite growth, as evaluated by quantifying and measuring the number of MAP2-positive processes. Taken together, these results demonstrate that CB1R activation induces proliferation, self-renewal and neuronal differentiation from mouse neonatal SVZ cell cultures.

  20. Electronically Active Impurities in Colloidal Quantum Dot Solids

    KAUST Repository

    Carey, Graham H.

    2014-11-25

    © 2014 American Chemical Society. Colloidal quantum dot films have seen rapid progress as active materials in photodetection, light emission, and photovoltaics. Their processing from the solution phase makes them an attractive option for these applications due to the expected cost reductions associated with liquid-phase material deposition. Colloidally stable nanoparticles capped using long, insulating aliphatic ligands are used to form semiconducting, insoluble films via a solid-state ligand exchange in which the original ligands are replaced with short bifunctional ligands. Here we show that this ligand exchange can have unintended and undesired side effects: a high molecular weight complex can form, containing both lead oleate and the shorter conductive ligand, and this poorly soluble complex can end up embedded within the colloidal quantum dot (CQD) active layer. We further show that, by adding an acidic treatment during film processing, we can break up and wash away these complexes, producing a higher quality CQD solid. The improved material leads to photovoltaic devices with reduced series resistance and enhanced fill factor relative to controls employing previously reported CQD solids. (Figure Presented).

  1. Treatment of industrial effluents using electron beam accelerator and adsorption with activated carbon: a comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira Sampa, M.H. de E-mail: mhosampa@ipen.br; Rela, Paulo Roberto; Las Casas, Alexandre; Nunes Mori, Manoel; Lopes Duarte, Celina

    2004-10-01

    This paper presents preliminary results of a study that compares the use of electron beam processing and activated carbon adsorption to clean up a standardized organic aqueous solution and a real industrial effluent. The electron beam treatment was performed in a batch system using the IPEN's Electron Beam Accelerators from Radiation Dynamics Inc., Dynamitron 37.5 kW. The granular activated carbon removal treatment was performed using charcoal made from wood 'pinus'. If the adequate irradiation dose is delivered to the organic pollutant, it is possible to conclude for the studied compounds that the Electron Beam Process is similar to the activated carbon process in organic removal efficiency.

  2. Pollution from organic contaminants in Greek marine areas, receiving anthropogenic pressures from intense activities in the coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzianestis, Ioannis

    2014-05-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread pollutants in marine sediments, receiving the pressures from various anthropogenic activities in the coastal zone. Due to their mutagenic and carcinogenic behaviour, PAHs are classified as priority contaminants to be monitored in environmental quality control schemes. The purpose of this study was to determine the levels of PAHs in coastal areas of Greece directly influenced from the operation of major industrial units in the coastal zone, investigate their sources and evaluate their potential toxicity by comparison against effect - based sediment quality guidelines. Thirty two surface sediment samples were collected from three areas of the Hellenic coastline: a) Antikyra bay in Korinthiakos gulf, influenced from the operation of an alumina and aluminium production plant b) Larymna bay in Noth Evoikos gulf, influenced from the operation of a nickel production plant and c) Aliveri bay in South Evoikos Gulf, influenced from a cement production plant. In all the areas studied, aquaculture and fishing activities have been also developed in the coastal zone. PAH concentrations were determined by GC-MS, after soxhlet extraction and fractionation by silica column chromatography. PAH sources and origin were investigated by applying several isomeric ratio diagnostic criteria. The mean quotient Effect- Range Median (m-ERM) was used to evaluate the potential of adverse effects posed to benthic organisms. Three m-ERM-q values were used to differentiate the probability of observing toxicity and classify sites into four categories: sediments with m-ERM1.5 have the highest probability (76%) of toxicity. Extremely high PAH concentrations more than 100,000 ng/g were found in the close vicinity of the alumina production plant in Antikyra bay. High levels of PAHs up to 22,000 ng/g were also found in Aliveri bay, whereas lowest values, but still indicating significant pollution, were measured close to the nickel production plant

  3. Electron microscopy studies of activation mechanisms in hydrotreating catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl-Petersen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work is to remedy the limited fundamental insight that exists in terms of the activation and formation of hydrotreating catalysts utilized in industrial oil refining of crude oil. This is done through numerous studies of the conversion of industrially relevant molybdenum oxide...... it is an excellent choice for studies of the formation of hydrotreating catalysts. Through in situ TEM sulfidation of molybdenum dioxide nanoparticles, it is shown that the particle surface is converted into MoS2 by exposure to H2S and H2O at low temperature. Increasing the temperature leads to an increasingly...... sites are easily accessible for the reaction species. It is found that a crystallographic relationship is present between the MoO2 and MoS2 and that a topotactic conversion from the oxidic to the sulfuric phase enables orientational control. In addition, density functional theory studies shows...

  4. Timing of Deformation in the Central Metasedimentary Belt Boundary Thrust Zone (CMBbtz), southern Ontario, Canada, from Electron Microprobe Dating of Monazite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markley, M. J.; Dunn, S. R.; Peck, W. H.; Jercinovic, M. J.; Williams, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    In the Grenville Province of Southern Ontario, the Central Metasedimentary Belt boundary thrust zone (CMBbtz) is a crustal-scale tectonic boundary between the older, granulite-facies Central Gneiss Belt to the NW and the younger, amphibolite-facies Central Metasedimentary Belt to the SE. Although there are a range of tectonic models for the CMBbtz, most workers agree it is a major tectonic boundary that accommodated ductile thrusting and crustal shortening during the Ottawan phase of the Grenville Orogeny (~1080-1020 Ma). Some studies suggest that ductile thrusting in the CMBbtz was roughly synchronous with synorogenic extensional collapse below an orogenic lid. Previous geochronological studies also provide evidence of earlier deformation and/or metamorphic events in the CMBbtz, although the relation between deformation in the CMBbtz to the Elzeviran (~1230 Ma) and Shawinigan (~1180 Ma) orogenies is unclear. Our study is the first to report in situ electron microprobe monazite (mnz) dates from amphibolite-grade ortho- and para-gneisses of the CMBbtz. Our results are broadly consistent with other chronometers. We present dates from 132 age-domains within 83 mnz grains in 14 samples. Although our data provide strong evidence for deformation and metamorphism along the length of the CMBbtz during the Ottawan (1080-1020 Ma), we also report two other clusters of ages: 1140-1110 Ma and 1230-1170 Ma. The latter cluster falls between the widely accepted ranges for the Elzeviran and Shawinigan orogenies. In addition, some individual outcrops, particularly those in Killaloe and Minden, show mnz ages spanning over 200 m.y., and the setting and compositions of individual monazite domains allow us to link mnz growth to episodes of garnet growth during multiple events. Together these data indicate an unexpectedly continuous and long-lived period of deformation and metamorphism in the CMBbtz.

  5. Ventilation rates and activity levels of juvenile jumbo squid under metabolic suppression in the oxygen minimum zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trübenbach, Katja; Pegado, Maria R; Seibel, Brad A; Rosa, Rui

    2013-02-01

    The Humboldt (jumbo) squid, Dosidicus gigas, is a part-time resident of the permanent oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) in the Eastern Tropical Pacific and, thereby, it encounters oxygen levels below its critical oxygen partial pressure. To better understand the ventilatory mechanisms that accompany the process of metabolic suppression in these top oceanic predators, we exposed juvenile D. gigas to the oxygen levels found in the OMZ (1% O(2), 1 kPa, 10 °C) and measured metabolic rate, activity cycling patterns, swimming mode, escape jet (burst) frequency, mantle contraction frequency and strength, stroke volume and oxygen extraction efficiency. In normoxia, metabolic rate varied between 14 and 29 μmol O(2) g(-1) wet mass h(-1), depending on the level of activity. The mantle contraction frequency and strength were linearly correlated and increased significantly with activity level. Additionally, an increase in stroke volume and ventilatory volume per minute was observed, followed by a mantle hyperinflation process during high activity periods. Squid metabolic rate dropped more than 75% during exposure to hypoxia. Maximum metabolic rate was not achieved under such conditions and the metabolic scope was significantly decreased. Hypoxia changed the relationship between mantle contraction strength and frequency from linear to polynomial with increasing activity, indicating that, under hypoxic conditions, the jumbo squid primarily increases the strength of mantle contraction and does not regulate its frequency. Under hypoxia, jumbo squid also showed a larger inflation period (reduced contraction frequency) and decreased relaxed mantle diameter (shortened diffusion pathway), which optimize oxygen extraction efficiency (up to 82%/34%, without/with consideration of 60% potential skin respiration). Additionally, they breathe 'deeply', with more powerful contractions and enhanced stroke volume. This deep-breathing behavior allows them to display a stable ventilatory volume per

  6. Development of self-assembling nanowires containing electronically active oligothiophenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wei-Wen

    This dissertation discusses the development of conductive one-dimensional nanowires from self-assembling oligothiophene molecules. Self-assembly has been demonstrated to be a promising alternative approach towards high performance, solution processable, and low-cost organic electronics. One of the many challenges in this field is the control of supramolecular morphologies of ordered structures containing pi-conjugated moieties. This research demonstrated several successful strategies to achieve self assembly of conductive nanowires using synergistic interactions combining pi stacking and hydrogen bonding. The first approach used was to develop a hairpin-shaped sexithiophene molecule, which features two arms of the conjugated structure. The diamidocyclohexyl headgroup of this molecule successfully directs the self-assembly from hydrogen bonding among the amides, forming high-aspect-ratio one-dimensional nanowires with well-defined diameters of 3.0 +/- 0.3 nm. The molecular orientation in the nanostructures promotes formation of sexithiophene H and J aggregates that facilitate efficient charge transport. Organic field-effect transistors were fabricated to reveal improved intrinsic hole mobility from films of the nanostructures, 3.46 x 10-6 cm2V-1s-1, which is one order of magnitude higher than films cast from unassembled molecules. Bulk heterojunction solar cells were developed from this molecule and fullerenes utilizing solution-phase fabrication methods. Intimate mix of the molecule and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester creates structured interfaces for efficient exciton splitting. The charge carrier mobilities of each material are improved by self-assembly in solution and thermal-energy assisted phase separation.The photovoltaic devices achieved the highest open-circuit voltage of 0.62 V, short-circuit current of 1.79 mA/cm2, fill factor of 35%, and power conversion efficiency of 0.48%. Another strategy to one-dimensional nanowires studied here involved the

  7. Photocatalytic activity of 6.5 MeV electron-irradiated ZnO nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapnar, K. B.; Ghule, L. A.; Bhoraskar, S. V.; Garadkar, K. M.; Dhole, S. D.; Bhoraskar, V. N.

    2012-04-01

    The microwave-synthesized zinc-oxide (ZnO) nanonorods of average length of ∼ 1500 nm and diameter ∼ 100 nm were irradiated with 6.5 meV electrons. From sample to sample, the electron fluence was varied over the range 5×1014 to 2.5×1015 e-cm-2. The pre- and post-electron-irradiated ZnO nanorods were characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV-VIS, EDAX, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and BET methods. The results show that after electron irradiation, the ZnO nanorods could retain the hexagonal phase with the wurtzite structure; however, the average length of the ZnO nanorods reduced to ∼ 800 nm. Moreover, the oxygen atoms from a fraction of ZnO molecules were dislodged, and the process contributed to the formation of Zn-ZnO mixed phase, with increased zinc to oxygen ratio. In the photo-degradation of Rhodamine-B, a significant enhancement in the photocatalytic activity of the electron-irradiated ZnO nanorods was observed. This could be attributed to the induced defects, reduced dimensions, and increased surface area of the ZnO nanorods, in addition to the formation of the Zn-ZnO phase. All these could collectively contribute to the effective separation of the photogenerated electrons from the holes on the ZnO nanorods, and therefore enhance the photocatalytic activity under UV exposure.

  8. Activated carbon is an electron-conducting amphoteric ion adsorbent

    CERN Document Server

    Biesheuvel, P M

    2015-01-01

    Electrodes composed of activated carbon (AC) particles can desalinate water by ion electrosorption. To describe ion electrosorption mathematically, accurate models are required for the structure of the electrical double layers (EDLs) that form within electrically charged AC micropores. To account for salt adsorption also in uncharged ACs, an "attraction term" was introduced in modified Donnan models for the EDL structure in ACs. Here it will be shown how instead of using an attraction term, chemical information of the surface structure of the carbon-water interface in ACs can be used to construct an alternative EDL model for ACs. This EDL model assumes that ACs contain both acidic groups, for instance due to carboxylic functionalities, and basic groups, due to the adsorption of protons to the carbon basal planes. As will be shown, this "amphoteric Donnan" model accurately describes various data sets for ion electrosorption in ACs, for solutions of NaCl, of CaCl2, and mixtures thereof, as function of the exter...

  9. Impact of accelerated electrons on activating process and foaming potential of sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuba, V.; Pospisil, M. E-mail: mpospisil@br.fjfi.cvut.cz; Mucka, V.; Jenicek, P.; Silber, R.; Dohanyos, M.; Zabranska, J

    2003-06-01

    The process of activation is an important part of wastewater treatment technology. It can be affected in many ways, not least by using radiation. The paper describes effects of pre-irradiation of small part of biomass on activated sludge process. It has been shown, that relatively low dose of accelerated electrons can positively affect many parameters of the system.

  10. Assessing Physical Activity in Children with Asthma: Convergent Validity between Accelerometer and Electronic Diary Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floro, Josh N.; Dunton, Genevieve F.; Delfino, Ralph J.

    2009-01-01

    Convergent validity of accelerometer and electronic diary physical activity data was assessed in children with asthma. Sixty-two participants, ages 9-18 years, wore an accelerometer and reported their physical activity level in quarter-hour segments every 2 hr using the Ambulatory Diary Assessment (ADA). Moderate validity was found between…

  11. Electronic Textiles as Disruptive Designs: Supporting and Challenging Maker Activities in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafai, Yasmin B.; Fields, Deborah A.; Searle, Kristin A.

    2014-01-01

    Electronic textiles are a part of the increasingly popular maker movement that champions existing do-it-yourself activities. As making activities broaden from Maker Faires and fabrication spaces in children's museums, science centers, and community organizations to school classrooms, they provide new opportunities for learning while…

  12. Electronic Textiles as Disruptive Designs: Supporting and Challenging Maker Activities in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafai, Yasmin B.; Fields, Deborah A.; Searle, Kristin A.

    2014-01-01

    Electronic textiles are a part of the increasingly popular maker movement that champions existing do-it-yourself activities. As making activities broaden from Maker Faires and fabrication spaces in children's museums, science centers, and community organizations to school classrooms, they provide new opportunities for learning while challenging…

  13. A high affinity RIM-binding protein/Aplip1 interaction prevents the formation of ectopic axonal active zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, Matthias; Böhme, Mathias A; Driller, Jan H; Babikir, Husam; Mampell, Malou M; Rey, Ulises; Ramesh, Niraja; Matkovic, Tanja; Holton, Nicole; Reddy-Alla, Suneel; Göttfert, Fabian; Kamin, Dirk; Quentin, Christine; Klinedinst, Susan; Andlauer, Till FM; Hell, Stefan W; Collins, Catherine A; Wahl, Markus C; Loll, Bernhard; Sigrist, Stephan J

    2015-01-01

    Synaptic vesicles (SVs) fuse at active zones (AZs) covered by a protein scaffold, at Drosophila synapses comprised of ELKS family member Bruchpilot (BRP) and RIM-binding protein (RBP). We here demonstrate axonal co-transport of BRP and RBP using intravital live imaging, with both proteins co-accumulating in axonal aggregates of several transport mutants. RBP, via its C-terminal Src-homology 3 (SH3) domains, binds Aplip1/JIP1, a transport adaptor involved in kinesin-dependent SV transport. We show in atomic detail that RBP C-terminal SH3 domains bind a proline-rich (PxxP) motif of Aplip1/JIP1 with submicromolar affinity. Pointmutating this PxxP motif provoked formation of ectopic AZ-like structures at axonal membranes. Direct interactions between AZ proteins and transport adaptors seem to provide complex avidity and shield synaptic interaction surfaces of pre-assembled scaffold protein transport complexes, thus, favouring physiological synaptic AZ assembly over premature assembly at axonal membranes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06935.001 PMID:26274777

  14. The locations and amounts of endogenous ions and elements in the cap and elongating zone of horizontally oriented roots of Zea mays L.: an electron-probe EDS study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R.; Cameron, I. L.; Hunter, K. E.; Olmos, D.; Smith, N. K.

    1987-01-01

    We used quantitative electron-probe energy-dispersive x-ray microanalysis to localize endogenous Na, Cl, K, P, S, Mg and Ca in cryofixed and freeze-dried cryosections of the cap (i.e. the putative site of graviperception) and elongating zone (i.e. site of gravicurvature) of horizontally oriented roots of Zea mays. Ca, Na, Cl, K and Mg accumulate along the lower side of caps of horizontally oriented roots. The most dramatic asymmetries of these ions occur in the apoplast, especially the mucilage. We could not detect any significant differences in the concentrations of these ions in the central cytoplasm of columella cells along the upper and lower sides of caps of horizontally-oriented roots. However, the increased amounts of Na, Cl, K and Mg in the longitudinal walls of columella cells along the lower side of the cap suggest that these ions may move down through the columella tissue of horizontally-oriented roots. Ca also accumulates (largely in the mucilage) along the lower side of the elongating zone of horizontally-oriented roots, while Na, P, Cl and K tend to accumulate along the upper side of the elongating zone. Of these ions, only K increases in concentration in the cytoplasm and longitudinal walls of cortical cells in the upper vs lower sides of the elongating zone. These results indicate that (1) gravity-induced asymmetries of ions differ significantly in the cap and elongating zone of graviresponding roots, (2) Ca accumulates along the lower side of the cap and elongating zone of graviresponding roots, (3) increased growth of the upper side of the elongating zone of horizontally-oriented roots correlates positively with increased amounts of K in the cytoplasm and longitudinal walls of cortical cells, and (4) the apoplast (especially the mucilage) may be an important component of the pathway via which ions move in graviresponding rots of Zea mays. These results are discussed relative to mechanisms for graviperception and gravicurvature of roots.

  15. Electronic temperatures of terahertz quantum cascade active regions with phonon scattering assisted injection and extraction scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patimisco, Pietro; Scamarcio, Gaetano; Santacroce, Maria Vittoria; Spagnolo, Vincenzo; Vitiello, Miriam Serena; Dupont, Emmanuel; Laframboise, Sylvain R; Fathololoumi, Saeed; Razavipour, Ghasem S; Wasilewski, Zbigniew

    2013-04-22

    We measured the lattice and subband electronic temperatures of terahertz quantum cascade devices based on the optical phonon-scattering assisted active region scheme. While the electronic temperature of the injector state (j = 4) significantly increases by ΔT = T(e)(4) - T(L) ~40 K, in analogy with the reported values in resonant phonon scheme (ΔT ~70-110 K), both the laser levels (j = 2,3) remain much colder with respect to the latter (by a factor of 3-5) and share the same electronic temperature of the ground level (j = 1). The electronic population ratio n(2)/n(1) shows that the optical phonon scattering efficiently depopulates the lower laser level (j = 2) up to an electronic temperature T(e) ~180 K.

  16. Dynamic defect correlations dominate activated electronic transport in SrTiO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snijders, Paul C.; Şen, Cengiz; McConnell, Michael P.; Ma, Ying-Zhong; May, Andrew F.; Herklotz, Andreas; Wong, Anthony T.; Ward, T. Zac

    2016-07-01

    Strontium titanate (SrTiO3, STO) is a critically important material for the study of emergent electronic phases in complex oxides, as well as for the development of applications based on their heterostructures. Despite the large body of knowledge on STO, there are still many uncertainties regarding the role of defects in the properties of STO, including their influence on ferroelectricity in bulk STO and ferromagnetism in STO-based heterostructures. We present a detailed analysis of the decay of persistent photoconductivity in STO single crystals with defect concentrations that are relatively low but significantly affect their electronic properties. The results show that photo-activated electron transport cannot be described by a superposition of the properties due to independent point defects as current models suggest but is, instead, governed by defect complexes that interact through dynamic correlations. These results emphasize the importance of defect correlations for activated electronic transport properties of semiconducting and insulating perovskite oxides.

  17. Crustal Structure Across the Okavango Rift Zone, Botswana: Initial Results From the PRIDE-SEISORZ Active-Source Seismic Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canales, J. P.; Moffat, L.; Lizarralde, D.; Laletsang, K.; Harder, S. H.; Kaip, G.; Modisi, M.

    2015-12-01

    The PRIDE project aims to understand the processes of continental rift initiation and evolution by analyzing along-axis trends in the southern portion of the East Africa Rift System, from Botswana through Zambia and Malawi. The SEISORZ active-source seismic component of PRIDE focused on the Okavango Rift Zone (ORZ) in northwestern Botswana, with the main goal of imaging the crustal structure across the ORZ. This will allow us to estimate total crustal extension, determine the pattern and amount of thinning, assess the possible presence of melt within the rift zone, and assess the contrasts in crustal blocks across the rift, which closely follows the trend of a fold belt. In November 2014 we conducted a crustal-scale, 450-km-long seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection profile consisting of 19 sources (shots in 30-m-deep boreholes) spaced ~25 km apart from each other, and 900 receivers (IRIS/PASSCAL "Texan" dataloggers and 4.5Hz geophones) with ~500 m spacing. From NW to SE, the profile crosses several tectonic domains: the Congo craton, the Damara metamorphic belt and the Ghanzi-Chobe fold belt where the axis of the ORZ is located, and continues into the Kalahari craton. The record sections display clear crustal refraction (Pg) and wide-angle Moho reflection (PmP) phases for all 17 of the good-quality shots, and a mantle refraction arrival (Pn), with the Pg-PmP-Pn triplication appearing at 175 km offset. There are distinct changes in the traveltime and amplitude of these phases along the transect, and on either side of the axis, that seem to correlate with sharp transitions across tectonic terrains. Initial modeling suggests: (1) the presence of a sedimentary half-graben structure at the rift axis beneath the Okavango delta, bounded to the SE by the Kunyere-Thamalakane fault system; (2) faster crustal Vp in the domains to the NW of the ORZ; and (3) thicker crust (45-50 km) at both ends of the profile within the Congo and Kalahari craton domains than at the ORZ and

  18. Stimulation of KatG catalase activity by peroxidatic electron donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndontsa, Elizabeth N; Moore, Robert L; Goodwin, Douglas C

    2012-09-15

    Catalase-peroxidases (KatGs) use a peroxidase scaffold to support robust catalase activity, an ability no other member of its superfamily possesses. Because catalase turnover requires H(2)O(2) oxidation, whereas peroxidase turnover requires oxidation of an exogenous electron donor, it has been anticipated that the latter should inhibit catalase activity. To the contrary, we report peroxidatic electron donors stimulated catalase activity up to 14-fold, particularly under conditions favorable to peroxidase activity (i.e., acidic pH and low H(2)O(2) concentrations). We observed a "low-" and "high-K(M)" component for catalase activity at pH 5.0. Electron donors increased the apparent k(cat) for the "low-K(M)" component. During stimulated catalase activity, less than 0.008 equivalents of oxidized donor accumulated for every H(2)O(2) consumed. Several classical peroxidatic electron donors were effective stimulators of catalase activity, but pyrogallol and ascorbate showed little effect. Stopped-flow evaluation showed that a Fe(III)-O(2)(·-)-like intermediate dominated during donor-stimulated catalatic turnover, and this intermediate converted directly to the ferric state upon depletion of H(2)O(2). In this respect, the Fe(III)-O(2)(·-) -like species was more prominent and persistent than in the absence of the donor. These results point toward a much more central role for peroxidase substrates in the unusual catalase mechanism of KatG.

  19. Seasonal and solar activity changes of electron temperature in the F-region and topside ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, N. K.; Pandey, V. K.; Mahajan, K. K.

    Incoherent scatter radar data from Arecibo, for high solar activity (HSA) (1989-1990) as well as for low solar activity (LSA) (1974-1977) periods, are used to study the seasonal and solar activity variations in electron temperature (Te) for noontime conditions. Inspite of large day-to-day variations, clear seasonal variations in average Te can be identified for both solar activity periods, with winter temperatures significantly higher in the topside (400-700 km) ionosphere. Further, comparison of average Te profiles for each season reveals distinct solar activity variations - a large increase in the F-region (200-350 km) Te, during summer and equinox as compared to winter, occurs as one moves from low to HSA. In the topside, however, electron temperature changes little with solar activity. Comparisons with IRI-95 and refid="bib10">Truhlik et al. (2000) models show a reasonable agreement within one standard deviation of the measured values.

  20. Activity-dependent endogenous taurine release facilitates excitatory neurotransmission in the neocortical marginal zone of neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Taizhe; Chen, Rongqing; Nakamura, Masato; Furukawa, Tomonori; Kumada, Tatsuro; Akita, Tenpei; Kilb, Werner; Luhmann, Heiko J; Nakahara, Daiichiro; Fukuda, Atsuo

    2014-01-01

    In the developing cerebral cortex, the marginal zone (MZ), consisting of early-generated neurons such as Cajal-Retzius cells, plays an important role in cell migration and lamination. There is accumulating evidence of widespread excitatory neurotransmission mediated by γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the MZ. Cajal-Retzius cells express not only GABAA receptors but also α2/β subunits of glycine receptors, and exhibit glycine receptor-mediated depolarization due to high [Cl(-)]i. However, the physiological roles of glycine receptors and their endogenous agonists during neurotransmission in the MZ are yet to be elucidated. To address this question, we performed optical imaging from the MZ using the voltage-sensitive dye JPW1114 on tangential neocortical slices of neonatal rats. A single electrical stimulus evoked an action-potential-dependent optical signal that spread radially over the MZ. The amplitude of the signal was not affected by glutamate receptor blockers, but was suppressed by either GABAA or glycine receptor antagonists. Combined application of both antagonists nearly abolished the signal. Inhibition of Na(+), K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter by 20 µM bumetanide reduced the signal, indicating that this transporter contributes to excitation. Analysis of the interstitial fluid obtained by microdialysis from tangential neocortical slices with high-performance liquid chromatography revealed that GABA and taurine, but not glycine or glutamate, were released in the MZ in response to the electrical stimulation. The ambient release of taurine was reduced by the addition of a voltage-sensitive Na(+) channel blocker. Immunohistochemistry and immunoelectron microscopy indicated that taurine was stored both in Cajal-Retzius and non-Cajal-Retzius cells in the MZ, but was not localized in presynaptic structures. Our results suggest that activity-dependent non-synaptic release of endogenous taurine facilitates excitatory neurotransmission through activation of glycine

  1. Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission Level 4 Surface and Root Zone Soil Moisture (L4_SM) Product Specification Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichle, Rolf H.; Ardizzone, Joseph V.; Kim, Gi-Kong; Lucchesi, Robert A.; Smith, Edmond B.; Weiss, Barry H.

    2015-01-01

    This is the Product Specification Document (PSD) for Level 4 Surface and Root Zone Soil Moisture (L4_SM) data for the Science Data System (SDS) of the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) project. The L4_SM data product provides estimates of land surface conditions based on the assimilation of SMAP observations into a customized version of the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System, Version 5 (GEOS-5) land data assimilation system (LDAS). This document applies to any standard L4_SM data product generated by the SMAP Project. The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission will enhance the accuracy and the resolution of space-based measurements of terrestrial soil moisture and freeze-thaw state. SMAP data products will have a noteworthy impact on multiple relevant and current Earth Science endeavors. These include: Understanding of the processes that link the terrestrial water, the energy and the carbon cycles, Estimations of global water and energy fluxes over the land surfaces, Quantification of the net carbon flux in boreal landscapes Forecast skill of both weather and climate, Predictions and monitoring of natural disasters including floods, landslides and droughts, and Predictions of agricultural productivity. To provide these data, the SMAP mission will deploy a satellite observatory in a near polar, sun synchronous orbit. The observatory will house an L-band radiometer that operates at 1.40 GHz and an L-band radar that operates at 1.26 GHz. The instruments will share a rotating reflector antenna with a 6 meter aperture that scans over a 1000 km swath.

  2. Altered active zones, vesicle pools, nerve terminal conductivity, and morphology during experimental MuSK myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vishwendra; Oh, Anne; Voit, Antanina; Sultatos, Lester G; Babu, Gopal J; Wilson, Brenda A; Ho, Mengfei; McArdle, Joseph J

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrate reduced motor-nerve function during autoimmune muscle-specific tyrosine kinase (MuSK) myasthenia gravis (MG). To further understand the basis of motor-nerve dysfunction during MuSK-MG, we immunized female C57/B6 mice with purified rat MuSK ectodomain. Nerve-muscle preparations were dissected and neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) studied electrophysiologically, morphologically, and biochemically. While all mice produced antibodies to MuSK, only 40% developed respiratory muscle weakness. In vitro study of respiratory nerve-muscle preparations isolated from these affected mice revealed that 78% of NMJs produced endplate currents (EPCs) with significantly reduced quantal content, although potentiation and depression at 50 Hz remained qualitatively normal. EPC and mEPC amplitude variability indicated significantly reduced number of vesicle-release sites (active zones) and reduced probability of vesicle release. The readily releasable vesicle pool size and the frequency of large amplitude mEPCs also declined. The remaining NMJs had intermittent (4%) or complete (18%) failure of neurotransmitter release in response to 50 Hz nerve stimulation, presumably due to blocked action potential entry into the nerve terminal, which may arise from nerve terminal swelling and thinning. Since MuSK-MG-affected muscles do not express the AChR γ subunit, the observed prolongation of EPC decay time was not due to inactivity-induced expression of embryonic acetylcholine receptor, but rather to reduced catalytic activity of acetylcholinesterase. Muscle protein levels of MuSK did not change. These findings provide novel insight into the pathophysiology of autoimmune MuSK-MG.

  3. Altered active zones, vesicle pools, nerve terminal conductivity, and morphology during experimental MuSK myasthenia gravis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishwendra Patel

    Full Text Available Recent studies demonstrate reduced motor-nerve function during autoimmune muscle-specific tyrosine kinase (MuSK myasthenia gravis (MG. To further understand the basis of motor-nerve dysfunction during MuSK-MG, we immunized female C57/B6 mice with purified rat MuSK ectodomain. Nerve-muscle preparations were dissected and neuromuscular junctions (NMJs studied electrophysiologically, morphologically, and biochemically. While all mice produced antibodies to MuSK, only 40% developed respiratory muscle weakness. In vitro study of respiratory nerve-muscle preparations isolated from these affected mice revealed that 78% of NMJs produced endplate currents (EPCs with significantly reduced quantal content, although potentiation and depression at 50 Hz remained qualitatively normal. EPC and mEPC amplitude variability indicated significantly reduced number of vesicle-release sites (active zones and reduced probability of vesicle release. The readily releasable vesicle pool size and the frequency of large amplitude mEPCs also declined. The remaining NMJs had intermittent (4% or complete (18% failure of neurotransmitter release in response to 50 Hz nerve stimulation, presumably due to blocked action potential entry into the nerve terminal, which may arise from nerve terminal swelling and thinning. Since MuSK-MG-affected muscles do not express the AChR γ subunit, the observed prolongation of EPC decay time was not due to inactivity-induced expression of embryonic acetylcholine receptor, but rather to reduced catalytic activity of acetylcholinesterase. Muscle protein levels of MuSK did not change. These findings provide novel insight into the pathophysiology of autoimmune MuSK-MG.

  4. Activity-dependent endogenous taurine release facilitates excitatory neurotransmission in the neocortical marginal zone of neonatal rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taizhe eQian

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the developing cerebral cortex, the marginal zone (MZ, consisting of early-generated neurons such as Cajal-Retzius cells, plays an important role in cell migration and lamination. There is accumulating evidence of widespread excitatory neurotransmission mediated by γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA in the MZ. Cajal-Retzius cells express not only GABAA receptors but also α2/β subunits of glycine receptors, and exhibit glycine receptor-mediated depolarization due to high [Cl−]i. However, the physiological roles of glycine receptors and their endogenous agonists during neurotransmission in the MZ are yet to be elucidated. To address this question, we performed optical imaging from the MZ using the voltage-sensitive dye JPW1114 on tangential neocortical slices of neonatal rats. A single electrical stimulus evoked an action-potential-dependent optical signal that spread radially over the MZ. The amplitude of the signal was not affected by glutamate receptor blockers, but was suppressed by either GABAA or glycine receptor antagonists. Combined application of both antagonists nearly abolished the signal. Inhibition of Na+, K+-2Cl− cotransporter by 20 µM bumetanide reduced the signal, indicating that this transporter contributes to excitation. Analysis of the interstitial fluid obtained by microdialysis from tangential neocortical slices with high-performance liquid chromatography revealed that GABA and taurine, but not glycine or glutamate, were released in the MZ in response to the electrical stimulation. The ambient release of taurine was reduced by the addition of a voltage-sensitive Na+ channel blocker. Immunohistochemistry and immunoelectron microscopy indicated that taurine was stored both in Cajal-Retzius and non-Cajal-Retzius cells in the MZ, but was not localized in presynaptic structures. Our results suggest that activity-dependent non-synaptic release of endogenous taurine facilitates excitatory neurotransmission through activation of

  5. Generalization of an Active Electronic Notebook for Teaching Multiple Programming Languages

    OpenAIRE

    Torabzadeh-Tari, Mohsen; Fritzson, Peter; Pop, Adrian; Sjölund, Martin

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a generalization of the active electronic notebook, OMNotebook, for handling multiple programming languages for educational purposes. OMNotebook can be an alternative or complementary tool to the traditional teaching method with lecturing and reading textbooks. Experience shows that using such an electronic book will lead to more engagement from the students. OMNotebook can contain technical computations and text, as well as graphics. Hence it is a suitable tool for t...

  6. Photo-catalytic activities of plant hormones on semiconductor nanoparticles by laser-activated electron tunneling and emitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xuemei; Huang, Lulu; Zhang, Wenyang; Jiang, Ruowei; Zhong, Hongying

    2015-01-01

    Understanding of the dynamic process of laser-induced ultrafast electron tunneling is still very limited. It has been thought that the photo-catalytic reaction of adsorbents on the surface is either dependent on the number of resultant electron-hole pairs where excess energy is lost to the lattice through coupling with phonon modes, or dependent on irradiation photon wavelength. We used UV (355 nm) laser pulses to excite electrons from the valence band to the conduction band of titanium dioxide (TiO₂), zinc oxide (ZnO) and bismuth cobalt zinc oxide (Bi₂O₃)₀.₀₇(CoO)₀.₀₃(ZnO)₀.₉ semiconductor nanoparticles with different photo catalytic properties. Photoelectrons are extracted, accelerated in a static electric field and eventually captured by charge deficient atoms of adsorbed organic molecules. A time-of-flight mass spectrometer was used to detect negative molecules and fragment ions generated by un-paired electron directed bond cleavages. We show that the probability of electron tunneling is determined by the strength of the static electric field and intrinsic electron mobility of semiconductors. Photo-catalytic dissociation or polymerization reactions of adsorbents are highly dependent on the kinetic energy of tunneling electrons as well as the strength of laser influx. By using this approach, photo-activities of phytohormones have been investigated.

  7. Photo-catalytic Activities of Plant Hormones on Semiconductor Nanoparticles by Laser-Activated Electron Tunneling and Emitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xuemei; Huang, Lulu; Zhang, Wenyang; Jiang, Ruowei; Zhong, Hongying

    2015-03-01

    Understanding of the dynamic process of laser-induced ultrafast electron tunneling is still very limited. It has been thought that the photo-catalytic reaction of adsorbents on the surface is either dependent on the number of resultant electron-hole pairs where excess energy is lost to the lattice through coupling with phonon modes, or dependent on irradiation photon wavelength. We used UV (355 nm) laser pulses to excite electrons from the valence band to the conduction band of titanium dioxide (TiO2), zinc oxide (ZnO) and bismuth cobalt zinc oxide (Bi2O3)0.07(CoO)0.03(ZnO)0.9 semiconductor nanoparticles with different photo catalytic properties. Photoelectrons are extracted, accelerated in a static electric field and eventually captured by charge deficient atoms of adsorbed organic molecules. A time-of-flight mass spectrometer was used to detect negative molecules and fragment ions generated by un-paired electron directed bond cleavages. We show that the probability of electron tunneling is determined by the strength of the static electric field and intrinsic electron mobility of semiconductors. Photo-catalytic dissociation or polymerization reactions of adsorbents are highly dependent on the kinetic energy of tunneling electrons as well as the strength of laser influx. By using this approach, photo-activities of phytohormones have been investigated.

  8. Antimicrobial activities of endophytic fungi obtained from the arid zone invasive plant Opuntia dillenii and the isolation of equisetin, from endophytic Fusarium sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Ratnaweera, Pamoda B.; de Silva, E. Dilip; Williams, David E.; Andersen, Raymond J

    2015-01-01

    Background Opuntia dillenii is an invasive plant well established in the harsh South-Eastern arid zone of Sri Lanka. Evidence suggests it is likely that the endophytic fungal populations of O. dillenii assist the host in overcoming biotic and abiotic stress by producing biologically active metabolites. With this in mind there is potential to discover novel natural products with useful biological activities from this hitherto poorly investigated source. Consequently, an investigation of the an...

  9. Micro-Stirling Active Cooling Module (MS/ACM) for DoD Electronics Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Micro- Stirling Active Cooling Module (MS/ACM) for DoD Electronics Systems Douglas S. Beck Beck Engineering, Inc. 1490 Lumsden Road, Port Orchard...refrigerator. We are developing for DARPA a cm-scale Micro- Stirling Active Cooling Module (MS/ACM) micro- refrigerator to benefit the DoD systems. Under...a DARPA contract, we are designing, building, and demonstrating a breadboard MS/ACM. Keywords: Stirling ; cooler; active cooling module; micro

  10. Final Report - Montana State University - Microbial Activity and Precipitation at Solution-Solution Mixing Zones in Porous Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerlach, Robin [Montana State University

    2014-10-31

    Background. The use of biological and chemical processes that degrade or immobilize contaminants in subsurface environments is a cornerstone of remediation technology. The enhancement of biological and chemical processes in situ, involves the transport, displacement, distribution and mixing of one or more reactive agents. Biological and chemical reactions all require diffusive transport of solutes to reaction sites at the molecular scale and accordingly, the success of processes at the meter-scale and larger is dictated by the success of phenomena that occur at the micron-scale. However, current understanding of scaling effects on the mixing and delivery of nutrients in biogeochemically dynamic porous media systems is limited, despite the limitations this imposes on the efficiency and effectiveness of the remediation challenges at hand. Objectives. We therefore proposed to experimentally characterize and computationally describe the growth, evolution, and distribution of microbial activity and mineral formation as well as changes in transport processes in porous media that receive two or more reactive amendments. The model system chosen for this project was based on a method for immobilizing 90Sr, which involves stimulating microbial urea hydrolysis with ensuing mineral precipitation (CaCO3), and co-precipitation of Sr. Studies at different laboratory scales were used to visualize and quantitatively describe the spatial relationships between amendment transport and consumption that stimulate the production of biomass and mineral phases that subsequently modify the permeability and heterogeneity of porous media. Biomass growth, activity, and mass deposition in mixing zones was investigated using two-dimensional micro-model flow cells as well as flow cells that could be analyzed using synchrotron-based x-ray tomography. Larger-scale flow-cell experiments were conducted where the spatial distribution of media properties, flow, segregation of biological activity and

  11. Time-dependent restricted active space Configuration Interaction for the photoionization of many-electron atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Hochstuhl, David

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the time-dependent restricted active space Configuration Interaction method to solve the time-dependent Schr\\"odinger equation for many-electron atoms, and particularly apply it to the treatment of photoionization processes in atoms. The method is presented in a very general formulation and incorporates a wide range of commonly used approximation schemes, like the single-active electron approximation, time-dependent Configuration Interaction with single-excitations, or the time-dependent R-matrix method. We proof the applicability of the method by calculating the photoionization cross sections of Helium and Beryllium.

  12. Are associations between electronic media use and BMI different across levels of physical activity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melkevik, Ole; Haug, Ellen; Rasmussen, Mette;

    2015-01-01

    and electronic media use are additive or interactive in predicting BMI and risk for overweight among adolescents. METHODS: The data used in this study stem from the 2009/2010 survey of "Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study: A WHO Cross-National Survey. The sample consisted of 107184 13 and 15......BACKGROUND: The use of electronic media has been found to be a risk factor for higher BMI and for being overweight. Physical activity has been found to be associated with lower BMI and lower risk for being overweight. Little is known about whether the associations between physical activity...

  13. Medium effect (transfer activity coefficient) of methanol and acetonitrile on beta-cyclodextrin/benzoate complexation in capillary zone electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porras, Simo P; Sarmini, Karim; Fanali, Salvatore; Kenndler, Ernst

    2003-04-01

    Association constants, Kc, were derived from the electrophoretic mobilities of the anionic solutes (seven benzoates with hydroxy or chloro substituents) by capillary zone electrophoresis in different solvent systems, consisting of binary mixtures of water with up to 20% (v/v) methanol or acetonitrile, respectively. The association constants expectedly are found to decrease with increasing organic solvent concentration. The effect of organic solvents on the Kc of the benzoates with beta-cyclodextrin was analyzed applying the concept of the transfer activity coefficient (or the medium effect). This concept enables the evaluation of the significance of the contributions of the individual species involved in the complexation equilibrium in the different solvents: the benzoate ion, beta-cyclodextrin, and the anionic benzoate-beta-cyclodextrin complex. The medium effect on benzoate was calculated from the change in acidity constant of benzoic acid in the different mixed solvents and the corresponding transfer activity coefficients of the proton and the molecular acid. The transfer activity coefficients for beta-cyclodextrin results from its solubility at saturation in the different solvents. In this way, an estimation of the standard free energy of transfer, deltaG(t)0, of each species involved in the complexation equilibrium was possible for the transfer from water into the respective mixed solvent. It was found that the organic solvents do not significantly affect deltaG(t)0 for the benzoate anion. However, the organic solvents play a different role concerning the stabilization of beta-cyclodextrin and the complex anion: whereas the addition of acetonitrile has nearly no influence on deltaG(t)0 of the anionic complex, the reduction in Kc is caused by the enhanced stabilization of beta-cyclodextrin (reflected by its better solubility). Addition of methanol, on the other hand, lowers the solubility of beta-cyclodextrin, thus giving positive values for deltaG(t)0. Thus

  14. Age, tectonic evolution and origin of the Aswa Shear Zone in Uganda: Activation of an oblique ramp during convergence in the East African Orogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saalmann, K.; Mänttäri, I.; Nyakecho, C.; Isabirye, E.

    2016-05-01

    The Aswa Shear Zone (ASZ) is a major NW-SE trending structure of over 1000 km length in East Africa. In Uganda, the ASZ is a steeply NE-dipping, up to 11 km wide mylonitic shear zone that shows multiple stage brittle reactivation. On outcrop-scale, the fabric in the ASZ is characterized by a well-developed NW-SE striking and subvertical or steeply NE or SW dipping mylonitic foliation and a subhorizontal to moderately NW- or SE-plunging stretching lineation. Sinistral kinematics and fabric are very consistent along strike. The strain is heterogeneously distributed and partitioned into lens-shaped lower strain zones dominated by folding and characterized by pure shear, which are surrounded by high strain zones, some of them thick ultramylonites, with intense simple shear combined with flattening and strong transposition of pre-existing fabrics. Ductile shearing occurred during bulk E-W shortening, commenced at amphibolite facies conditions and continued with similar kinematics at greenschist and even lower grade conditions. A number of (sub-)parallel shear zones occur to the NE and SW of the main zone at a distance of up to 20-45 km. They show similar fabrics and kinematics and are thus related to activity along ASZ reflecting strain partitioning into simple shear and pure shear domains on a regional scale. Samples of mylonitic gneisses from the shear zone have been analyzed with U-Pb LA-MC-ICPMS and show Neoarchaean crystallisation ages between 2.66 and 2.61 Ga. Timing of ductile sinistral shearing is poorly constrained by lower intercept ages of 686 ± 62 and 640 ± 44 Ma. The fabric and structural relationship of the ca. 660 Ma Adjumani Granite exposed in the northern segment of ASZ suggest that the age of shear activity can be further limited to ca. 685 and 655 Ma. The Aswa Shear Zone is interpreted as an intra-cratonic, crustal-scale structure close to the northeastern margin of the Congo Craton, possibly inherited from previous continental extension. Early Aswa

  15. Shallow structure and its formation process of an active flexure in the forearc basin of the central Nankai subduction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashi, J.; Ikehara, K.; Omura, A.; Ojima, T.; Murayama, M.

    2013-12-01

    ENE-WSW trending active faults, named Enshu fault system, are developed in the forearc basins of the eastern and central Nankai subduction zone. Three parallel faults developed in the Enshu forearc basin of the eastern Nankai have right lateral slip on the basis of dextral displacement of the canyon axis. Moreover, bathymetry data and side-scan sonar imageries indicate relative uplift of the northern region and the multichannel seismic (MCS) reflection profiles show northward dipping fault planes. In the central Nankai subuduction zone, an ENE-WSW trending step is distributed at the northern part of the Kumano forearc basin and is regarded as the western extension of the Enshu fault system. Although MCS records show deformations including an anticlinal fold beneath the bathymetric step, they have less resolution to identify deformation of basin sequence just below the seafloor. In contrast, deformation seems to reach to the seafloor on a profile by SBP mounted on a mother ship. Investigation of shallow deformation structures is significant for understanding of recent tectonic activity. We carried out deep towed SBP survey by ROV NSS (Navigable Sampling System) during Hakuho-maru KH-11-9 cruise. High resolution mapping of shallow structures was successfully conducted by a chirp SBP system of EdgeTech DW-106. ROV NSS also has capability to take a long core with a pinpoint accuracy around complex topographic region. The Kumano forearc basin is topographically divided into the northern part at a water depth of 2038 m and the other major region at a depth of 2042 m by the ENE-WSW linear step. Three deep towed SBP lines intersected this topographical step and revealed the following structures. This step is composed of 100 m wide gentle slope with an inclination of about 8 degrees. An anticlinal axis is located beneath the upper edge of this slope. Sedimentary layers continue at this slope region without any abut/termination and rapidly increase their thickness toward the

  16. Holocene activity and paleoseismicity of the Selaha Fault, southeastern segment of the strike-slip Xianshuihe Fault Zone, Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Bing; Lin, Aiming

    2017-01-01

    In this study we examine the Holocene activity, including slip rate and paleoseismicity, of the Selaha Fault, a branch of the left-lateral strike-slip Xianshuihe Fault Zone located along the southeastern segment of the Ganzhi-Yushu-Xianshuihe Fault System (GYXFS) of the Tibetan Plateau. Interpretation of high-resolution images and field investigations reveal that the Selaha Fault is characterized by left-lateral strike-slip faulting with an average horizontal slip-rate of 9.0 mm/year during the Holocene. Trench excavations and 14C dating results show that at least three morphogenic earthquakes occurred during the past millennium; the most recent event occurred in the past 450 years and corresponds to the 1786 M 7.75 earthquake. The penultimate seismic event (E2) occurred in the period between 560 and 820 year BP (i.e., 1166-1428 CE) and is probably associated with the 1327 M 7.5 earthquake. The antepenultimate event (E3) is inferred to have occurred in the period between 820 ± 30 and 950 ± 30 year BP. Our results confirm that the Selaha Fault, as a portion of the GYXFS, plays an important role as a tectonic boundary in releasing the strain energy accumulated during the northeastward motion of the Tibetan Plateau in response to the ongoing northward penetration of the Indian Plate into the Eurasian Plate. The strain energy is released in the form of repeated large earthquakes that are recorded by strike-slip displacements of stream channels and alluvial fans.

  17. Neural progenitor cells isolated from the subventricular zone present hemichannel activity and form functional gap junctions with glial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaverón, Rocío; Fernández, Paola; Escamilla, Rosalba; Pastor, Angel M; Matarredona, Esperanza R; Sáez, Juan C

    2015-01-01

    The postnatal subventricular zone (SVZ) lining the walls of the lateral ventricles contains neural progenitor cells (NPCs) that generate new olfactory bulb interneurons. Communication via gap junctions between cells in the SVZ is involved in NPC proliferation and in neuroblast migration towards the olfactory bulb. SVZ NPCs can be expanded in vitro in the form of neurospheres that can be used for transplantation purposes after brain injury. We have previously reported that neurosphere-derived NPCs form heterocellular gap junctions with host glial cells when they are implanted after mechanical injury. To analyze functionality of NPC-glial cell gap junctions we performed dye coupling experiments in co-cultures of SVZ NPCs with astrocytes or microglia. Neurosphere-derived cells expressed mRNA for at least the hemichannel/gap junction channel proteins connexin 26 (Cx26), Cx43, Cx45 and pannexin 1 (Panx1). Dye coupling experiments revealed that gap junctional communication occurred among neurosphere cells (incidence of coupling: 100%). Moreover, hemichannel activity was also detected in neurosphere cells as evaluated in time-lapse measurements of ethidium bromide uptake. Heterocellular coupling between NPCs and glial cells was evidenced in co-cultures of neurospheres with astrocytes (incidence of coupling: 91.0 ± 4.7%) or with microglia (incidence of coupling: 71.9 ± 6.7%). Dye coupling in neurospheres and in co-cultures was inhibited by octanol, a gap junction blocker. Altogether, these results suggest the existence of functional hemichannels and gap junction channels in postnatal SVZ neurospheres. In addition, they demonstrate that SVZ-derived NPCs can establish functional gap junctions with astrocytes or microglia. Therefore, cell-cell communication via gap junctions and hemichannels with host glial cells might subserve a role in the functional integration of NPCs after implantation in the damaged brain.

  18. Neural progenitor cells isolated from the subventricular zone present hemichannel activity and form functional gap junctions with glial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaverón, Rocío; Fernández, Paola; Escamilla, Rosalba; Pastor, Angel M.; Matarredona, Esperanza R.; Sáez, Juan C.

    2015-01-01

    The postnatal subventricular zone (SVZ) lining the walls of the lateral ventricles contains neural progenitor cells (NPCs) that generate new olfactory bulb interneurons. Communication via gap junctions between cells in the SVZ is involved in NPC proliferation and in neuroblast migration towards the olfactory bulb. SVZ NPCs can be expanded in vitro in the form of neurospheres that can be used for transplantation purposes after brain injury. We have previously reported that neurosphere-derived NPCs form heterocellular gap junctions with host glial cells when they are implanted after mechanical injury. To analyze functionality of NPC-glial cell gap junctions we performed dye coupling experiments in co-cultures of SVZ NPCs with astrocytes or microglia. Neurosphere-derived cells expressed mRNA for at least the hemichannel/gap junction channel proteins connexin 26 (Cx26), Cx43, Cx45 and pannexin 1 (Panx1). Dye coupling experiments revealed that gap junctional communication occurred among neurosphere cells (incidence of coupling: 100%). Moreover, hemichannel activity was also detected in neurosphere cells as evaluated in time-lapse measurements of ethidium bromide uptake. Heterocellular coupling between NPCs and glial cells was evidenced in co-cultures of neurospheres with astrocytes (incidence of coupling: 91.0 ± 4.7%) or with microglia (incidence of coupling: 71.9 ± 6.7%). Dye coupling in neurospheres and in co-cultures was inhibited by octanol, a gap junction blocker. Altogether, these results suggest the existence of functional hemichannels and gap junction channels in postnatal SVZ neurospheres. In addition, they demonstrate that SVZ-derived NPCs can establish functional gap junctions with astrocytes or microglia. Therefore, cell-cell communication via gap junctions and hemichannels with host glial cells might subserve a role in the functional integration of NPCs after implantation in the damaged brain. PMID:26528139

  19. Abnormal Activation of RhoA/ROCK-I Signaling in Junctional Zone Smooth Muscle Cells of Patients With Adenomyosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S; Duan, H; Zhang, Y; Sun, F Q

    2016-03-01

    Adenomyosis (ADS) is a common estrogen-dependent gynecological disease with unknown etiology. The RhoA/Rho-kinase (ROCK) signaling pathway is involved in various cellular functions, including migration, proliferation, and smooth muscle contraction. Here we examined the potential role of this pathway in junctional zone (JZ) contraction in women with and without ADS. We demonstrated that in the normal JZ, RhoA and ROCK-I messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression was significantly higher in the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle than in the secretory phase. Expression of RhoA and ROCK-I in the JZ from women with ADS was significantly higher than in the control women and showed no significant differences across the menstrual cycle. Treatment of JZ smooth muscle cells (JZSMCs) with estrogen at 0, 1, 10, or 100 nmol/L for 24 hours resulted in increased expression of RhoA, ROCK-I, and myosin light-chain (MLC) phosphorylation (p-MLC) in a dose-dependent manner. In parallel to its effects on p-MLC, estrogen-mediated, dose-dependent contraction responses in JZSMCs. Estrogen-mediated contraction in the ADS group was significantly higher than in the controls and also showed no significant differences across the menstrual cycle. These effects were suppressed in the presence of ICI 182780 or Y27632, supporting an estrogen receptor-dependent and RhoA activation-dependent mechanism. Our results indicate that the level of RhoA and ROCK-I increases in patients with ADS and the cyclic change is lost. Estrogen may affect uterine JZ contraction of ADS by enhancing RhoA/ ROCK-I signaling.

  20. Upper plate deformation and seismic barrier in front of Nazca subduction zone: The Chololo Fault System and active tectonics along the Coastal Cordillera, southern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audin, Laurence; Lacan, Pierre; Tavera, Hernando; Bondoux, Francis

    2008-11-01

    The South America plate boundary is one of the most active subduction zone. The recent Mw = 8.4 Arequipa 2001 earthquake ruptured the subduction plane toward the south over 400 km and stopped abruptly on the Ilo Peninsula. In this exact region, the subduction seismic crisis induced the reactivation of continental fault systems in the coastal area. We studied the main reactivated fault system that trends perpendicular to the trench by detailed mapping of fault related-geomorphic features. Also, at a longer time scale, a recurrent Quaternary transtensive tectonic activity of the CFS is expressed by offset river gullies and alluvial fans. The presence of such extensional fault systems trending orthogonal to the trench along the Coastal Cordillera in southern Peru is interpreted to reflect a strong coupling between the two plates. In this particular case, stress transfer to the upper plate, at least along the coastal fringe, appears to have induced crustal seismic events that were initiated mainly during and after the 2001 earthquake. The seafloor roughness of the subducting plate is usually thought to be a cause of segmentation along subduction zones. However, after comparing and discussing the role of inherited structures within the upper plate to the subduction zone segmentation in southern Peru, we suggest that the continental structure itself may exert some feedback control on the segmentation of the subduction zone and thus participate to define the rupture pattern of major subduction earthquakes along the southern Peru continental margin.

  1. Fluid flow and water-rock interaction across the active Nankai Trough subduction zone forearc revealed by boron isotope geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüpers, Andre; Kasemann, Simone A.; Kopf, Achim J.; Meixner, Anette; Toki, Tomohiro; Shinjo, Ryuichi; Wheat, C. Geoffrey; You, Chen-Feng

    2016-11-01

    Compositional changes, dehydration reactions and fluid flow in subducted sediments influence seismogenesis and arc magmatism in subduction zones. To identify fluid flow and water-rock interaction processes in the western Nankai Trough subduction zone (SW Japan) we analyzed boron concentration and boron isotope composition (δ11B) of pore fluids sampled across the subduction zone forearc from depths of up to ∼922 m below seafloor during four Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expeditions. The major structural regimes that were sampled by coring include: (1) sedimentary inputs, (2) the frontal thrust zone, (3) the megasplay fault zone, and (4) the forearc basin. From mass balance consideration we find that consumption of boron (B) by ash alteration and desorption of B from the solid phase, mediated by organic matter degradation, produces a net decrease in B concentrations with depth down to ∼120 μM and variable δ11B values in the range of ∼+20‰ and +49‰. Interstitial water in sediments on the incoming oceanic plate are influenced by more efficient mobilization of exchangeable B from the solid phase due to higher temperatures and alteration of the oceanic crust that acts as a sink for 10B. At the tip of the megasplay fault zone, elevated B concentration and B isotopic composition suggest that underthrust coarse-grained slope sediments provide a pathway for fluids out of the upper (balance considerations suggest a shallower fluid source depth compared to pore fluids sampled previously near the décollement zone along the central portion of the Nankai margin.

  2. Electron-phonon interaction in three-barrier nanosystems as active elements of quantum cascade detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tkach, N. V., E-mail: ktf@chnu.edu.ua; Seti, Ju. A.; Grynyshyn, Yu. B. [Chernivtsy National University (Ukraine)

    2015-04-15

    The theory of electron tunneling through an open nanostructure as an active element of a quantum cascade detector is developed, which takes into account the interaction of electrons with confined and interface phonons. Using the method of finite-temperature Green’s functions and the electron-phonon Hamiltonian in the representation of second quantization over all system variables, the temperature shifts and electron-level widths are calculated and the contributions of different electron-phonon-interaction mechanisms to renormalization of the spectral parameters are analyzed depending on the geometrical configuration of the nanosystem. Due to weak electron-phonon coupling in a GaAs/Al{sub 0.34}Ga{sub 0.66}As-based resonant tunneling nanostructure, the temperature shift and rf field absorption peak width are not very sensitive to the electron-phonon interaction and result from a decrease in potential barrier heights caused by a difference in the temperature dependences of the well and barrier band gaps.

  3. Charge transfer dynamics from adsorbates to surfaces with single active electron and configuration interaction based approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramakrishnan, Raghunathan, E-mail: r.ramakrishnan@unibas.ch [Institute of Physical Chemistry, National Center for Computational Design and Discovery of Novel Materials (MARVEL), Department of Chemistry, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 80, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Nest, Mathias [Theoretische Chemie, Technische Universität München, Lichtenbergstr. 4, 85747 Garching (Germany)

    2015-01-13

    Highlights: • We model electron dynamics across cyano alkanethiolates attached to gold cluster. • We present electron transfer time scales from TD-DFT and TD-CI based simulations. • Both DFT and CI methods qualitatively predict the trend in time scales. • TD-CI predicts the experimental relative time scale very accurately. - Abstract: We employ wavepacket simulations based on many-body time-dependent configuration interaction (TD-CI), and single active electron theories, to predict the ultrafast molecule/metal electron transfer time scales, in cyano alkanethiolates bonded to model gold clusters. The initial states represent two excited states where a valence electron is promoted to one of the two virtual π{sup ∗} molecular orbitals localized on the cyanide fragment. The ratio of the two time scales indicate the efficiency of one charge transfer channel over the other. In both our one-and many-electron simulations, this ratio agree qualitatively with each other as well as with the previously reported experimental time scales (Blobner et al., 2012), measured for a macroscopic metal surface. We study the effect of cluster size and the description of electron correlation on the charge transfer process.

  4. A case study of the relation between energetic electrons and magnetic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Hing-Lan

    The case study is based on the event of Telesat Canada's Anik E-1 and E-2 satellite failures on two consecutive days of January 20 and 21 in 1994. The malfunction of the two satellites wreaked havoc with television and computer data transmissions across Canada, as well as telephone services to remote northern communities. The fluxes of ∼2 MeV energetic electrons were high prior to the occurrences of the two Anik E satellite upsets. In this study, energetic electron fluxes were checked against magnetic activity. Strong Pc5 magnetic pulsations in the ground magnetic fluctuations were found to be present during periods of high electron fluxes, lending support to the contention of Pc5 ULF waves as a mechanism for energetic electron flux enhancement.

  5. Direct electron transfer from electrode to electrochemically active bacteria in a bioelectrochemical dechlorination system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ding; Lei, Lecheng; Yang, Bin; Yu, Qingni; Li, Zhongjian

    2013-11-01

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP) was dechlorinated by electrochemically active bacteria using an electrode as the direct electron donor. Dechlorination efficiency and coulombic efficiency (CE) were investigated. When hydrogen evolution reaction was eliminated by controlling the potential, both dechlorination efficiency and CE increase as the potential decreases, which implied the dechlorination was stimulated by electric current rather than hydrogen gas. Further investigation of the cyclic voltammetry characterization of the medium revealed nearly no redox mediator secreted by the bacteria. Moreover, the comparison of dechlorination experiments carried out with filtered and unfiltered medium provided convincible evidence that the dominating electron transfer mechanism for the dechlorination is direct electron transfer. Additionally, 454 pyrosequencing technique was employed to gain a comprehensive understanding of the biocathodic microbial community. The results showed Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes were the three predominant groups. This paper demonstrated the direct electron transfer mechanism could be involved in PCP dechlorination with a biocathode. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cytotoxic activity of substituted chalcones in terms of molecular electronic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupcewicz, Bogumiła; Jarzęcki, Andrzej A; Małecka, Magdalena; Krajewska, Urszula; Rozalski, Marek

    2014-09-01

    Global chemical reactivity descriptors and lipophilicity (logP) were evaluated via density functional theory in order to clarify the structure-cytotoxic activity relationships of substituted chalcones. Stepwise multiple regression was employed to establish correlation between descriptors and cytotoxic activity against three cancer cell lines (HL-60, NALM-6 and WM-115) for 11 compounds. Regression analysis revealed that electrophilicity index and chemical potential significantly contributed in explaining of chalcones cytotoxic potential. Moreover, the established structure-activity relationships based on electronic structure properties allow indicating the substructures responsible for their cytotoxic activity. The study has also been supported by crystallographic data of 2-chloro-2'-hydroxychalcone.

  7. Presence and patterns of alkaline phosphatase activity and phosphorus cycling in natural riparian zones under changing nutrient conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peifang Wang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P is an important limiting nutrient in aquatic ecosystems and knowledge of P cycling is fundamental for reducing harmful algae blooms and other negative effects in water. Despite their importance, the characteristics of P cycling under changing nutrient conditions in shallow lakes were poorly investigated. In this study, in situ incubation experiments were conducted in a natural riparian zone in the main diversion channel used for water transfer into Lake Taihu (Wangyu River. Variations in microbial biomass, dissolved P fractions (organic and inorganic, and alkaline phosphatase activity (bulk APA and specific APA were determined after incubation with and without the addition of P and nitrogen (N (4 total water treatments: +P, +N, +NP, and control. Experiments were conducted during two seasons (late spring and early fall to account for natural differences in nutrient levels that may occur in situ. Our results demonstrated that low levels of DRP may not necessarily indicate P limitation. Phytoplankton exhibited “serial N limitation with P stress” in May, such that chlorophyll a (Chl a increased significantly with N addition, while the limiting nutrient shifted to P in October and phytoplankton biomass increased with P addition. Phytoplankton contributed greatly to APA production and was significantly influenced by P bioavailability, yet high levels of bulk APA were also not necessarily indicative of P limitation. In contrast to phytoplankton, bacteria were less P stressed. As a consequence of enhanced utilization of dissolved reactive P (DRP and dissolved organic P (DOP, +N treatment elevated APA significantly. By contrast, APA could be repressed to low values and phytoplankton converted a large portion of DRP to DOP with P addition. But this was not consistent with bacteria APA (bact-APA in the absence or presence of abundant phytoplankton biomass. The correlation between bulk APA and DRP was good at separate sites and discrepant

  8. Site selection of active damper for stabilizing power electronics based power distribution system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoon, Changwoo; Wang, Xiongfei; Bak, Claus Leth

    2015-01-01

    Stability in the nowadays distribution power system is endangered by interaction problems that may arise from newly added power-electronics based power devices. Recently, a new concept to deal with this higher frequency instability, the active damper, has been proposed. The active damper is a power...... electronics based power device, which provides an adjustable damping capability to the power system where the voltage harmonic instability is measured. It can stabilize by adjusting the equivalent node impedance with its plug and play feature. This feature gives many degrees of freedom of its installation...... point when the system has many nodes. Therefore, this paper addresses the proper placement of an active damper in an unstable small-scale power distribution system. A time-domain model of the Cigre benchmark low-vltage network is used as a test field. The result shows the active damper location...

  9. Active Cooling and Thermal Management of a Downhole Tool Electronics Section

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soprani, Stefano; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Just Nørgaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    High Temperature (HT) wellbores represent one of today’s biggest challenges for the oil and gas industry. The majority of well intervention wireline tools contain temperature sensitive electronics that are not able to withstand the high temperatures of HT wellbores (> 150 °C), for an extended...... period of time. This work presents the design and construction of an actively cooled laboratory prototype, which is able to operate at temperatures which are higher than the temperature limit of the electronics. A different concept of heat management, compared to prior works, is presented: the design...... combines active and passive cooling techniques, aiming at an efficient thermal management, preserving the tool compactness and avoiding the use of moving parts. Thermoelectric coolers were used to transfer the dissipated heat from the temperature-sensitive electronics to the external environment. Thermal...

  10. Activated regulatory T cell regulates neural stem cell proliferation in the subventricular zone of normal and ischemic mouse brain through interleukin 10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jixian eWang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have demonstrated that the depletion of Regulatory T cells (Tregs inhibits neural progenitor cell migration after brain ischemia. However, whether Tregs affect neural stem/progenitor cell proliferation is unclear. We explored the effect of Tregs on neurogenesis in the subventricular zone after ischemia. Tregs were isolated and activated in vitro. Adult male C57BL/6 mice underwent 60 minutes transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO. Then Tregs (1x105 were injected into the left lateral ventricle of normal and ischemic mouse brain. Neurogenesis was determined by immunostaining. The mechanism was examined by inhibiting interleukin 10 (IL-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF- signaling. We found that the number of BrdU+ cells in the subventricular zone was significantly increased in the activated Tregs-treated mice. Double immunostaining showed that these BrdU+ cells expressed Mash1. Blocking IL-10 reduced the number of Mash1+/BrdU+ cells, but increased the amount of GFAP+/BrdU+ cells. Here we conclude that activated Tregs enhanced neural stem cell proliferation in the subventricular zone of normal and ischemic mice; blockage of IL-10 abolished Tregs-mediated neural stem cell proliferation in vivo and in vitro. Our results suggest that activated Tregs promoted neural stem cell proliferation via IL-10, which provides a new therapeutic approach for ischemic stroke.

  11. Radiant zone heated particulate filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-12-27

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter including an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A radiant zoned heater includes N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones includes M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than or equal to one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones, restricts exhaust gas flow in a portion of the PM filter that corresponds to the selected one of the N zones, and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

  12. 78 FR 17646 - Agency Information Collection Activities; eZ-Audit: Electronic Submission of Financial Statements...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... Agency Information Collection Activities; eZ-Audit: Electronic Submission of Financial Statements and... Financial Statements and Compliance Audits. OMB Control Number: 1845-0072. Type of Review: an extension of a... compliance and financial statement audits, expedite the review of those audits by the Department, and...

  13. Exploring the Use of Active Electronic Support Tools by Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Lindy; Higgins, Kristina N.; Freeman, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Computer-based instruction (CBI) programs have been implemented in classrooms for almost three decades. One advantage of CBI includes allowing the user to tailor instruction to their particular style of learning (Slavin & Lake, 2009). An essential part of individualizing CBI involves the students use of active electronic support tools, which may…

  14. Single-active-electron potentials for molecules in intense laser fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abu-Samha, Mahmoud; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2010-01-01

    Single-active-electron potentials are computed for selected molecules, and molecular wave functions with the correct asymptotic behavior are produced. Asymptotic expansion coefficients are extracted from the wave functions and used to compute alignment-dependent ionization yields from molecular...

  15. An Electronic Library-Based Learning Environment for Supporting Web-Based Problem-Solving Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Pei-Shan; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Hung, Chun-Ming; Huang, Iwen

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to develop an electronic library-based learning environment to support teachers in developing web-based problem-solving activities and analyzing the online problem-solving behaviors of students. Two experiments were performed in this study. In study 1, an experiment on 103 elementary and high school teachers (the learning activity…

  16. An active damper for stabilizing power-electronics-based AC systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede; Liserre, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The interactions among the parallel grid-connected converters coupled through the grid impedance tend to result in stability and power quality problems. To address them, this paper proposes an active damper based on a high bandwidth power electronics converter. The general idea behind this propos...

  17. Effects of Some Management Practices on Electron Transport System (ETS) Activity in Paddy Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Electron transport system (ETS)/dehydrogenase activity in a paddy field soil was measured under a variety of incubation conditions using the reduction of 2-(p-iodophenyl-3-(p-nitrophenyl)-5-phenyl tetrazolium chloride (INT) to iodonitrotetrazolium formazan (INTF). The results exhibited a high positive correlation between the ETS activity and the incubation temperature and soil moisture. Dehydrogenase/ETS activity displayed a negative correlation with insecticide concentrations, and the activity affected adversely as the concentration of the insecticide increased. The higher doses, 5 and 10 field rates (1 field rate = 1500 mL ha-1), of insecticide significantly inhibited ETS activity, while lower rates failed to produce any significant reducing effect. Inorganic N (as urea) of concentrations from 0 to 100 μg N g-1 soil showed a positive response to ETS activity. However, at concentrations of 200 and 400μg N g-1, the activity was reduced significantly.

  18. The 5'-flanking region of the RP58 coding sequence shows prominent promoter activity in multipolar cells in the subventricular zone during corticogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtaka-Maruyama, C; Hirai, S; Miwa, A; Takahashi, A; Okado, H

    2012-01-10

    Pyramidal neurons of the neocortex are produced from progenitor cells located in the neocortical ventricular zone (VZ) and subventricular zone (SVZ) during embryogenesis. RP58 is a transcriptional repressor that is strongly expressed in the developing brain and plays an essential role in corticogenesis. The expression of RP58 is strictly regulated in a time-dependent and spatially restricted manner. It is maximally expressed in E15-16 embryonic cerebral cortex, localized specifically to the cortical plate and SVZ of the neocortex, hippocampus, and parts of amygdala during brain development, and found in glutamatergic but not GABAergic neurons. Identification of the promoter activity underlying specific expression patterns provides important clues to their mechanisms of action. Here, we show that the RP58 gene promoter is activated prominently in multipolar migrating cells, the first in vivo analysis of RP58 promoter activity in the brain. The 5.3 kb 5'-flanking genomic DNA of the RP58 coding region demonstrates promoter activity in neurons both in vitro and in vivo. This promoter is highly responsive to the transcription factor neurogenin2 (Ngn2), which is a direct upstream activator of RP58 expression. Using in utero electroporation, we demonstrate that RP58 gene promoter activity is first detected in a subpopulation of pin-like VZ cells, then prominently activated in migrating multipolar cells in the multipolar cell accumulation zone (MAZ) located just above the VZ. In dissociated primary cultured cortical neurons, RP58 promoter activity mimics in vivo expression patterns from a molecular standpoint that RP58 is expressed in a fraction of Sox2-positive progenitor cells, Ngn2-positive neuronal committed cells, and Tuj1-positive young neurons, but not in Dlx2-positive GABAergic neurons. Finally, we show that Cre recombinase expression under the control of the RP58 gene promoter is a feasible tool for conditional gene switching in post-mitotic multipolar migrating

  19. Upper plate deformation and seismic barrier in front of Nazca subduction zone : the Chololo Fault System and active tectonics along the Coastal Cordillera, southern Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Audin, Laurence; Lacan, P.; Tavera, H.; Bondoux, Francis

    2008-01-01

    The South America plate boundary is one of the most active subduction zone. The recent Mw=8.4 Arequipa 2001 earthquake ruptured the subduction plane toward the south over 400 km and stopped abruptly on the Ilo Peninsula. In this exact region, the subduction seismic crisis induced the reactivation of continental fault systems in the coastal area. We studied the main reactivated fault system that trends perpendicular to the trench by detailed mapping of fault related-geomorphic features. Also, ...

  20. De-repression of the RAC activator ELMO1 in cancer stem cells drives progression of TGFβ-deficient squamous cell carcinoma from transition zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Heather A; Chevrier, Véronique; Birnbaum, Daniel; Guasch, Géraldine

    2017-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinomas occurring at transition zones are highly malignant tumors with poor prognosis. The identity of the cell population and the signaling pathways involved in the progression of transition zone squamous cell carcinoma are poorly understood, hence representing limited options for targeted therapies. Here, we identify a highly tumorigenic cancer stem cell population in a mouse model of transitional epithelial carcinoma and uncover a novel mechanism by which loss of TGFβ receptor II (Tgfbr2) mediates invasion and metastasis through de-repression of ELMO1, a RAC-activating guanine exchange factor, specifically in cancer stem cells of transition zone tumors. We identify ELMO1 as a novel target of TGFβ signaling and show that restoration of Tgfbr2 results in a complete block of ELMO1 in vivo. Knocking down Elmo1 impairs metastasis of carcinoma cells to the lung, thereby providing insights into the mechanisms of progression of Tgfbr2-deficient invasive transition zone squamous cell carcinoma. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22914.001 PMID:28219480

  1. [Autoradiographic investigations on postnatal proliferative activity of the telencephalic and diencephalic matrix-zones in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum), with special references to the olfactory organ (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, W; Kranz, D

    1981-01-01

    The localization and proliferative activity of the matrix-zones has been investigated in the telencephalon and in the diencephalon of 21 axolotls (Ambystoma mexicanum) by means of autoradiographs, after injection of tritiated thymidine at different stages of the postnatal life. There are no previous detailed autoradiographical reports on postnatal brain development in the axolotl. Matrix-zones (i.e. ventricular and subventricular zone) exist in the dorsal part and in the ventral part of the telencephalon, we have found these also in the diencephalon in the wall of the preoptic recessus and ventrally of the habenula. The quantitative part of this study indicates high values of the labeling-index in the early postnatal stages. Then, the labeling-index decreases, but also in 3 years old specimens labeled cells were observed in the matrix-zones of the telencephalon; therefore a few of proliferative capacity remains in the central nervous system of adult axolotls. Labeled cells were also found in the olfactory organ of early postnatal and adult axolotls; these are neuroblasts which have relevance for the regeneration of the forebrain.

  2. Immobilizing photogenerated electrons from graphitic carbon nitride for an improved visible-light photocatalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Han; Cao, Yue; Feng, Leiyu; Chen, Yinguang

    2016-03-07

    Reducing the recombination probability of photogenerated electrons and holes is pivotal in enhancing the photocatalytic ability of graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4). Speeding the departure of photogenerated electrons is the most commonly used method of achieving this. To the best of our knowledge, there is no report on suppressing the recombination of photogenerated electron-hole pairs by immobilizing the electrons with ester functional groups. Here, for the first time the mesoporous g-C3N4 (mpg-C3N4) was integrated with polymethyl methacrylate, a polymer abundant in ester groups, which showed a photocatalytic activity unexpectedly higher than that of the original mpg-C3N4 under visible-light irradiation. Experimental observations, along with theoretical calculations, clarified that the impressive photocatalytic ability of the as-modified mpg-C3N4 was mainly derived from the immobilization of photogenerated electrons via an electron-gripping effect imposed by the ester groups in the polymethyl methacrylate. This novel strategy might also be applied in improving the photocatalytic performance of other semiconductors.

  3. The Mediation of Learning in the Zone of Proximal Development through a Co-Constructed Writing Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ian

    2013-01-01

    This article develops a theoretical understanding of the processes involved in the co-construction of a written text by a teacher and student from a Vygotskian perspective. Drawing on cultural-historical and sociocultural theories of writing and Vygotsky's concept of the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD), this case study of a student and teacher…

  4. 77 FR 36997 - Foreign-Trade Zone 61-San Juan, PR; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Pfizer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    ... pharmaceutical products in bulk mixture or dosage form under FTZ procedures at the Guayama site. Production under... (Subzone 61A); (Ibuprofen Pharmaceutical Products); Guayama, PR The Puerto Rico Trade and Export Company... various pharmaceutical products under zone procedures (Board Order 617, 12/11/ 1992, 57 FR 61046,...

  5. Interference of cardiac pacemaker and implantable cardioverter-defibrillator activity during electronic dental device use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roedig, Jason J; Shah, Jignesh; Elayi, Claude Samy; Miller, Craig S

    2010-05-01

    The authors conducted a study to determine if electromagnetic interference of cardiac pacemaker and implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) activity occurs during the operation of electronic dental devices. The authors tested nine electronic dental devices in vitro to assess their ability to interfere with the function of two pacemakers and two ICDs as determined by electrocardiographic telemetry. The pacing activity of both pacemakers and the dual-chamber ICD were inhibited during operation of the battery-operated composite curing light at between 2 and 10 centimeters from the generator or leads. The use of the ultrasonic scaler interfered with the pacing activity of the dual-chamber pacemaker at between 17 and 23 cm from the generator or leads, the single-chamber pacemaker at 15 cm from the generator or leads and both ICDs at 7 cm from the leads. The operation of the ultrasonic cleaning system interfered with the activity of the dual-chamber pacemaker at between 15 and 23 cm from the generator or leads, and of the single-chamber pacemaker at 12 cm. Operation of the electric toothbrush, electrosurgical unit, electric pulp tester, high- and low-speed handpieces, and an amalgamator did not alter pacing function. Select electronic dental devices interfere with pacemakers' and ICDs' sensing and pacing activity in vitro. Use of the ultrasonic scaler, ultrasonic cleaning system and battery-operated composite curing light may produce deleterious effects in patients who have pacemakers or ICDs.

  6. Research on Proximity Magnetic Field Influence in Measuring Error of Active Electronic Current Transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Weijiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The principles of the active electronic current transformer (ECT are introduced, and the mechanism of how a proximity magnetic field can influence the measuring of errors is analyzed from the perspective of the sensor section of the ECT. The impacts on active ECTs created by three-phase proximity magnetic field with invariable distance and variable distance are simulated and analyzed. The theory and simulated analysis indicate that the active ECTs are sensitive to proximity magnetic field under certain conditions. According to simulated analysis, a product structural design and the location of transformers at substation sites are suggested for manufacturers and administration of power supply, respectively.

  7. 12 CFR 7.5001 - Electronic activities that are part of, or incidental to, the business of banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... incidental to customer use of electronic banking services; and (iv) Sale of equipment that is convenient or useful to customer's use of related electronic banking services, such as specialized terminals for... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Electronic activities that are part of, or...

  8. Behavior Change Techniques Implemented in Electronic Lifestyle Activity Monitors: A Systematic Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Zakkoyya H; Mayrsohn, Brian G; Rowland, Jennifer L

    2014-01-01

    Background Electronic activity monitors (such as those manufactured by Fitbit, Jawbone, and Nike) improve on standard pedometers by providing automated feedback and interactive behavior change tools via mobile device or personal computer. These monitors are commercially popular and show promise for use in public health interventions. However, little is known about the content of their feedback applications and how individual monitors may differ from one another. Objective The purpose of this study was to describe the behavior change techniques implemented in commercially available electronic activity monitors. Methods Electronic activity monitors (N=13) were systematically identified and tested by 3 trained coders for at least 1 week each. All monitors measured lifestyle physical activity and provided feedback via an app (computer or mobile). Coding was based on a hierarchical list of 93 behavior change techniques. Further coding of potentially effective techniques and adherence to theory-based recommendations were based on findings from meta-analyses and meta-regressions in the research literature. Results All monitors provided tools for self-monitoring, feedback, and environmental change by definition. The next most prevalent techniques (13 out of 13 monitors) were goal-setting and emphasizing discrepancy between current and goal behavior. Review of behavioral goals, social support, social comparison, prompts/cues, rewards, and a focus on past success were found in more than half of the systems. The monitors included a range of 5-10 of 14 total techniques identified from the research literature as potentially effective. Most of the monitors included goal-setting, self-monitoring, and feedback content that closely matched recommendations from social cognitive theory. Conclusions Electronic activity monitors contain a wide range of behavior change techniques typically used in clinical behavioral interventions. Thus, the monitors may represent a medium by which

  9. The Problems of the Non-Tariff Regulation of Foreign Trade Activities in the Conditions of Free Trade Zone between Ukraine and the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Рanaseyko Irina M.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at generalizing the results of establishing the free trade zone between Ukraine and the EU in 2016, and developing measures to improve the system of non-tariff regulation of foreign trade activities. The substance, objectives, and tools of the non-tariff regulation of foreign trade activity, as used in the EU and in Ukraine, were considered. The major attention was paid to the tariff quotas for Ukraine in the terms of the free-trade zone with the European Union. The tariff quotas for different goods were analyzed from the view of their adequacy and uniformity of use. Reasons for partial use or non-use of the tariff quotas were identified. Issues of effectiveness of implementation of the restrictive function of tariff quotas, as well as their influence on Ukrainian exporters, were considered. A comparative characterization of the tariff quotas, which were applied within the terms of the free trade zone for Ukraine and for the EU, was carried out. The article specifies the necessity for compliance by Ukraine with technical reglaments, environmental regulations, sanitary and phyto-sanitary measures, marketing standards. The major obstacles to the Ukrainian products’ entering the European markets were identified.

  10. Sequential activation of p75 and TrkB is involved in dendritic development of subventricular zone-derived neuronal progenitors in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascon, E; Vutskits, L; Zhang, H; Barral-Moran, M J; Kiss, P J; Mas, C; Kiss, J Z

    2005-01-01

    Dendritic arbor development of subventricular zone-derived interneurons is a critical step in their integration into functional circuits of the postnatal olfactory bulb. However, the mechanism and molecular control of this process remain unknown. In this study, we have developed a culture model where dendritic development of purified subventricular zone cells proceeds under serum-free conditions in the absence of added growth factors and non-neural cells. We demonstrate that the large majority of these cells in culture express GABA and elaborate dendritic arbors with spine-like protrusions but they do not possess axons. These neurons expressed receptors for neurotrophins including p75, TrkB and TrkC but not TrkA. Application of exogenous neurotrophins, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT3) and nerve growth factor (NGF), to cultures stimulated dendritic growth and led to more complex dendritic arbors during the initial 3 days in culture. Our results suggest that these effects are independent of Trk receptors and mediated by the p75/ceramide signaling pathway. We also show that brain-derived neurotrophic factor is the only neurotrophin that is able to influence late-phase dendritic development via TrkB receptor activation. These results suggest that dendritic arbor development of subventricular zone-derived cells may be regulated by neurotrophins through the activation of p75 and the TrkB receptor signaling pathways in a sequentially defined temporal pattern.

  11. Top-down Fabrication and Enhanced Active Area Electronic Characteristics of Amorphous Oxide Nanoribbons for Flexible Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyun-June; Joong Lee, Ki; Jo, Kwang-Won; Katz, Howard E; Cho, Won-Ju; Shin, Yong-Beom

    2017-07-18

    Inorganic amorphous oxide semiconductor (AOS) materials such as amorphous InGaZnO (a-IGZO) possess mechanical flexibility and outstanding electrical properties, and have generated great interest for use in flexible and transparent electronic devices. In the past, however, AOS devices required higher activation energies, and hence higher processing temperatures, than organic ones to neutralize defects. It is well known that one-dimensional nanowires tend to have better carrier mobility and mechanical strength along with fewer defects than the corresponding two-dimensional films, but until now it has been difficult, costly, and impractical to fabricate such nanowires in proper alignments by either "bottom-up" growth techniques or by "top-down" e-beam lithography. Here we show a top-down, cost-effective, and scalable approach for the fabrication of parallel, laterally oriented AOS nanoribbons based on lift-off and nano-imprinting. High mobility (132 cm(2)/Vs), electrical stability, and transparency are obtained in a-IGZO nanoribbons, compared to the planar films of the same a-IGZO semiconductor.

  12. Laser Activated Streak Camera for Measurement of Electron Pulses with Femtosecond Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandi, Omid; Desimone, Alice; Wilkin, Kyle; Yang, Jie; Centurion, Martin

    2015-05-01

    The duration of femtosecond electron pulses used in time-resolved diffraction and microscopy experiments is challenging to measure in-situ. To overcome this problem, we have fabricated a streak camera that uses the time-varying electric field of a discharging parallel plate capacitor. The capacitor is discharged using a laser-activated GaAs photoswitch, resulting in a damped oscillation of the electric field. The delay time between the laser pulse and electron pulse is set so that the front and back halves of the bunch encounter opposite electric fields of the capacitor and are deflected in opposite directions. Thus, the electron bunch appears streaked on the detector with a length proportional to its duration. The temporal resolution of the streak camera is proportional to the maximum value of the electric field and the frequency of the discharge oscillation. The capacitor is charged by high voltage short pulses to achieve a high electric field and prevent breakdown. We have achieved an oscillation frequency in the GHz range by reducing the circuit size and hence its inductance. The camera was used to measure 100 keV electron pulses with up to a million electrons that are compressed transversely by magnetic lenses and longitudinally by an RF cavity. This work was supported mainly by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Ultrashort Pulse Laser Matter Interaction program, under grant # FA9550-12-1-0149.

  13. CHEMICAL ACTIVATION OF MOLECULES BY METALS: EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES OF ELECTRON DISTRIBUTIONS AND BONDING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LICHTENBERGER, DENNIS L.

    2002-03-26

    This research program is directed at obtaining detailed experimental information on the electronic interactions between metals and organic molecules. These interactions provide low energy pathways for many important chemical and catalytic processes. A major feature of the program is the continued development and application of our special high-resolution valence photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), and high-precision X-ray core photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) instrumentation for study of organometallic molecules in the gas phase. The study involves a systematic approach towards understanding the interactions and activation of bound carbonyls, C-H bonds, methylenes, vinylidenes, acetylides, alkenes, alkynes, carbenes, carbynes, alkylidenes, alkylidynes, and others with various monometal, dimetal, and cluster metal species. Supporting ligands include -aryls, alkoxides, oxides, and phosphines. We are expanding our studies of both early and late transition metal species and electron-rich and electron-poor environments in order to more completely understand the electronic factors that serve to stabilize particular organic fragments and intermediates on metals. Additional new directions for this program are being taken in ultra-high vacuum surface UPS, XPS, scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments on both physisorbed and chemisorbed organometallic thin films. The combination of these methods provides additional electronic structure information on surface-molecule and molecule-molecule interactions. A very important general result emerging from this program is the identification of a close relationship between the ionization energies of the species and the thermodynamics of the chemical and catalytic reactions of these systems.

  14. C-H-Activated Direct Arylation of Strong Benzothiadiazole and Quinoxaline-Based Electron Acceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junxiang; Parker, Timothy C; Chen, Wayne; Williams, LaRita; Khrustalev, Victor N; Jucov, Evgheni V; Barlow, Stephen; Timofeeva, Tatiana V; Marder, Seth R

    2016-01-15

    Electron acceptors are important components of π-conjugated materials, but the strong electron-withdrawing properties of the required synthetic intermediates often make them poor substrates in synthetic schemes designed around conventional organometallic cross-coupling. Here, strong benzodiimine-based acceptors, including 5,6-difluoro[2,1,3]benzothiadiazole, 5,6-dicyano[2,1,3]benzothiadiazole, 5,6-dicyanobenzo[d][1,2,3]triazole, 6,7-dicyanoquinoxaline, and 6,7-dinitroquinoxaline, are shown to undergo facile palladium-catalyzed C-H direct arylation with a variety of bromoarenes in moderate to high yields. The electrochemical characteristics of di-2-thienyl derivatives synthesized using this methodology are compared and suggest that, in an electron-transfer sense, 5,6-dicyano[2,1,3]benzothiadiazole is a comparably strong acceptor to benzo[1,2-c:4,5-c']bis[1,2,5]thiadiazole. The synthetic results suggest that high electron-withdrawing ability, which has traditionally limited reaction yields and structural variety in organic electronic materials, may be advantageous when employing C-H activated direct arylation in certain circumstances.

  15. Activating the Zone of Proximal Development of Japanese Language Learners: Language-Exchange Partnerships (LEPs) at an Australian University

    OpenAIRE

    Hiromi Nishioka

    2014-01-01

    This study examines how social interactions in language-exchange partnership sessions can create opportunities for Japanese language learners to use and learn Japanese. The participants in this study were two pairs, consisting of a Japanese native speaker and an Australian studying Japanese at an Australian university. This study, employing Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development and assistance to novices by experts, examined what factors enable participants in language-exchange partnerships ...

  16. Using high-frequency sensors to identify hydroclimatological controls on storm-event variability in catchment nutrient fluxes and source zone activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaen, Phillip; Khamis, Kieran; Lloyd, Charlotte; Krause, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    At the river catchment scale, storm events can drive highly variable behaviour in nutrient and water fluxes, yet short-term dynamics are frequently missed by low resolution sampling regimes. In addition, nutrient source contributions can vary significantly within and between storm events. Our inability to identify and characterise time dynamic source zone contributions severely hampers the adequate design of land use management practices in order to control nutrient exports from agricultural landscapes. Here, we utilise an 8-month high-frequency (hourly) time series of streamflow, nitrate concentration (NO3) and fluorescent dissolved organic matter concentration (FDOM) derived from optical in-situ sensors located in a headwater agricultural catchment. We characterised variability in flow and nutrient dynamics across 29 storm events. Storm events represented 31% of the time series and contributed disproportionately to nutrient loads (43% of NO3 and 36% of CDOM) relative to their duration. Principal components analysis of potential hydroclimatological controls on nutrient fluxes demonstrated that a small number of components, representing >90% of variance in the dataset, were highly significant model predictors of inter-event variability in catchment nutrient export. Hysteresis analysis of nutrient concentration-discharge relationships suggested spatially discrete source zones existed for NO3 and FDOM, and that activation of these zones varied on an event-specific basis. Our results highlight the benefits of high-frequency in-situ monitoring for characterising complex short-term nutrient dynamics and unravelling connections between hydroclimatological variability and river nutrient export and source zone activation under extreme flow conditions. These new process-based insights are fundamental to underpinning the development of targeted management measures to reduce nutrient loading of surface waters.

  17. Diurnal blood pressure variability and physical activity measured electronically and by diary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gretler, D D; Carlson, G F; Montano, A V; Murphy, M B

    1993-02-01

    In order for 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) to be useful in clinical decision making, it is necessary to quantify ambient physical activity and to develop appropriate norms of ambulatory pressure for different levels of activity. The present study has compared the predictive value of physical activity determined by an electronic activity monitor or a written diary, for concomitantly recorded blood pressure during ABPM in healthy normotensive subjects. Each subject wore four activity monitors, on the right and left wrists, on the left ankle and at the waist, respectively. Linear regression analysis was performed for each subject to determine the correlation between ABPM data (systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate) and activity data (obtained from diaries and the four monitors). Significant differences in the degree of correlation were found for both the location of the activity monitor and the time (1/2, 2, 5, 10, 15, and 30 min preceding blood pressure measurement) over which activity was averaged (P accounting for 18 to 69% (mean 36 +/- 5%) of systolic blood pressure variation. Diaries performed similarly in these well-motivated subjects. It is concluded that because of the significant interaction between activity and blood pressure, ABPM data should be interpreted only in the light of concomitant activity data.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. A Palladium-Binding Deltarhodopsin for Light-Activated Conversion of Protonic to Electronic Currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Rodríguez, Jessica; Hemmatian, Zahra; Josberger, Erik E; Rolandi, Marco; Baneyx, François

    2016-08-01

    Fusion of a palladium-binding peptide to an archaeal rhodopsin promotes intimate integration of the lipid-embedded membrane protein with a palladium hydride protonic contact. Devices fabricated with the palladium-binding deltarhodopsin enable light-activated conversion of protonic currents to electronic currents with on/off responses complete in seconds and a nearly tenfold increase in electrical signal relative to those made with the wild-type protein.

  19. Pollution Status of Trace Metals in Groundwater Due to Industrail Activities in and Around Dhaka Export Processing Zone, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GOLAM AHMED

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Effluents from multiindustrail activities influence inland water system directly, which subsiquently affect groundwater quality and human health. Some previous reports indicated that inadequate treatment process of discharged effluent of Dhaka Export Processing Zone (DEPZ increased the concentrations of pollutants in surface water system and deteriorated total fishing and agricultural system around DEPZ and its connected area. Therefore, the present study was conducted to investigate wether the concentration of selective metals viz. Li, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Ag, Cd, Cs, Ba, Pb and U in two types of groundwater sources were either with in the permissible guidlines or influenced by DEPZ multi industrail on their levels of contamination. The concentrations of metals were determined using inductively Couples Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS. The mean concentrations of the elements in both types of groundwater were in the levels of their permissible guidlines, except for Ni (12.91 µg/L, Ga (0.48µg/L, Sr (90.26 µg/L and Cs (0.07µg//Lin groundwater inside DEPZ, which were 1.30, 5.00, 1.50 and 1.40 times higher than the maximum permissible limit (MPL of 10 µg/L, 0.09 µg/L, 60 µg/L, and 0.05µg/L, respectively. The mean concentrations of Li (6.85 µg/L, Zn(268 µg/L, Ga (0.12 µg/L, Sr (131 µg/L and Cs (0.07 µg/L were 3.43, 1.34, 1.33, 2.18, 1.40 times higher then the MPL of 2 µg/L, 200 µg/L, 0.09 µg/L, 60 µg/L and 0.05 µg/L, respectively, in groundwater around DEPZ. Comparatively Zn and Sr possessed higher concentrations, and Cs and U possessed lower concentration in both types of groundwater sources. The elements were distributed in homogeneous and hetrogeneous manner among the source points for deep-tubewell (DTWS and shallow tubewell (STWs, respectively. The significant positive correlations were found between the elements viz., Co-V (0.85, Ni-Sr ((0.70, Co-Cd (0.86, As-Se (0.99, Cs-Zn (0.95, Li-U (0.,71, Zn-U (0

  20. Activity-stability relationships revisited in blue oxidases catalyzing electron transfer at extreme temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roulling, Frédéric; Godin, Amandine; Cipolla, Alexandre; Collins, Tony; Miyazaki, Kentaro; Feller, Georges

    2016-09-01

    Cuproxidases are a subset of the blue multicopper oxidases that catalyze the oxidation of toxic Cu(I) ions into less harmful Cu(II) in the bacterial periplasm. Cuproxidases from psychrophilic, mesophilic, and thermophilic bacteria display the canonical features of temperature adaptation, such as increases in structural stability and apparent optimal temperature for activity with environmental temperature as well as increases in the binding affinity for catalytic and substrate copper ions. In contrast, the oxidative activities at 25 °C for both the psychrophilic and thermophilic enzymes are similar, suggesting that the nearly temperature-independent electron transfer rate does not require peculiar adjustments. Furthermore, the structural flexibilities of both the psychrophilic and thermophilic enzymes are also similar, indicating that the firm and precise bindings of the four catalytic copper ions are essential for the oxidase function. These results show that the requirements for enzymatic electron transfer, in the absence of the selective pressure of temperature on electron transfer rates, produce a specific adaptive pattern, which is distinct from that observed in enzymes possessing a well-defined active site and relying on conformational changes such as for the induced fit mechanism.

  1. Enzymatic activities and arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization of Plantago lanceolata and Plantago major in a soil root zone under heavy metal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gucwa-Przepióra, Ewa; Nadgórska-Socha, Aleksandra; Fojcik, Barbara; Chmura, Damian

    2016-03-01

    The objectives of the present field study were to examine the soil enzyme activities in the soil root zones of Plantago lanceolata and Plantago major in different heavy metal contaminated stands. Moreover, the investigations concerned the intensity of root endophytic colonization and metal bioaccumulation in roots and shoots. The investigated Plantago species exhibited an excluder strategy, accumulating higher metal content in the roots than in the shoots. The heavy metal accumulation levels found in the two plantain species in this study were comparable to other plants suggested as phytostabilizers; therefore, the selected Plantago species may be applied in the phytostabilization of heavy metal contaminated areas. The lower level of soil enzymes (dehydrogenase, urease, acid, and alkaline phosphatase) as well as the higher bioavailability of metals in the root zone soil of the two plantain species were found in an area affected by smelting activity, where organic matter content in the soil was also the smallest. Mycorrhizal colonization on both species in the contaminated area was similar to colonization in non-contaminated stands. However, the lowest arbuscule occurrence and an absence of dark septate endophytes were found in the area affected by the smelting activity. It corresponded with the lowest plant cover observed in this stand. The assessment of enzyme activity, mycorrhizal colonization, and the chemical and physical properties of soils proved to be sensitive to differences between sites and between Plantago species.

  2. Free radical scavenging activity of erdosteine metabolite I investigated by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Pier Carlo; Culici, Maria; Dal Sasso, Monica; Falchi, Mario; Spallino, Alessandra

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the antiradical activity of Met I (an active metabolite of erdosteine) containing a pharmacologically active sulphydryl group, by means of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy which has not previously been used to characterize the antiradical activity of Met I. The effects of concentrations of 20, 10, 5, 2.5, 1.25 and 0.625 microg/ml of Met I were tested against: (a) the Fenton reaction model system with EPR detection of HO.; (b) the KO2-crown ether system with EPR detection of O2-.; (c) the EPR assay based on the reduction of the Tempol radical, and (d) the EPR assay based on the reduction of Fremy's salt radical. Our findings show that the intensity of 4 different free radicals was significantly reduced in the presence of Met I, thus indicating the presence of a termination reaction between the free radicals and Met I.

  3. Deciphering igneous and metamorphic events in high-grade rocks of the Wilmington complex, Delaware: Morphology, cathodoluminescence and backscattered electron zoning, and SHRIMP U-Pb geochronology of zircon and monazite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleinikoff, J.N.; Schenck, W.S.; Plank, M.O.; Srogi, L.A.; Fanning, C.M.; Kamo, S.L.; Bosbyshell, H.

    2006-01-01

    High-grade rocks of the Wilmington Complex, northern Delaware and adjacent Maryland and Pennsylvania, contain morphologically complex zircons that formed through both igneous and metamorphic processes during the development of an island-arc complex and suturing of the arc to Laurentia. The arc complex has been divided into several members, the protoliths of which include both intrusive and extrusive rocks. Metasedimentary rocks are interlayered with the complex and are believed to be the infrastructure upon which the arc was built. In the Wilmingto n Complex rocks, both igneous and metamorphic zircons occur as elongate and equant forms. Chemical zoning, shown by cathodoluminescence (CL), includes both concentric, oscillatory patterns, indicative of igneous origin, and patchwork and sector patterns, suggestive of metamorphic growth. Metamorphic monazites are chemically homogeneous, or show oscillatory or spotted chemical zoning in backscattered electron images. U-Pb geochronology by sensitive high resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) was used to date complexly zoned zircon and monazite. All but one member of the Wilmington Complex crystallized in the Ordovician between ca. 475 and 485 Ma; these rocks were intruded by a suite of gabbro-to-granite plutonic rocks at 434 ?? Ma. Detrital zircons in metavolcanic and metasedimentary units were derived predominantly from 0.9 to 1.4 Ga (Grenvillian) basement, presumably of Laurentian origin. Amphibolite to granulite facies metamorphism of the Wilmington Complex, recorded by ages of metamorphic zircon (428 ?? 4 and 432 ?? 6 Ma) and monazite (429 ?? 2 and 426 ?? 3 Ma), occurred contemporaneously with emplacement of the younger plutonic rocks. On the basis of varying CL zoning patterns and external morphologies, metamorphic zircons formed by different processes (presumably controlled by rock chemistry) at slightly different times and temperatures during prograde metamorphism. In addition, at least three other thermal episodes are

  4. The northwest trending north Boquerón Bay-Punta Montalva Fault Zone; A through going active fault system in southwestern Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig‐Silva, Coral Marie; Asencio, Eugenio; Joyce, James

    2013-01-01

    The North Boquerón Bay–Punta Montalva fault zone has been mapped crossing the Lajas Valley in southwest Puerto Rico. Identification of the fault was based upon detailed analysis of geophysical data, satellite images, and field mapping. The fault zone consists of a series of Cretaceous bedrock faults that reactivated and deformed Miocene limestone and Quaternary alluvial fan sediments. The fault zone is seismically active (local magnitude greater than 5.0) with numerous locally felt earthquakes. Focal mechanism solutions suggest strain partitioning with predominantly east–west left-lateral displacements with small normal faults striking mostly toward the northeast. Northeast-trending fractures and normal faults can be found in intermittent streams that cut through the Quaternary alluvial fan deposits along the southern margin of the Lajas Valley, an east–west-trending 30-km-long fault-controlled depression. Areas of preferred erosion within the alluvial fan trend toward the west-northwest parallel to the onland projection of the North Boquerón Bay fault. The North Boquerón Bay fault aligns with the Punta Montalva fault southeast of the Lajas Valley. Both faults show strong southward tilting of Miocene strata. On the western end, the Northern Boquerón Bay fault is covered with flat-lying Holocene sediments, whereas at the southern end the Punta Montalva fault shows left-lateral displacement of stream drainage on the order of a few hundred meters.

  5. A single Jahn-Teller active electron as a multi-throw multipolar conductance switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Laura; Lee, Joonhee; Tallarida, Nicholas; Apkarian, V. Ara

    2014-03-01

    The final limit in miniaturization of molecular electronics may be regarded as functionality attained through the manipulation of a single electron and no other moving parts. We demonstrate this limit, in the form of a three-throw, bipolar, bistable conductance switch realized by manipulating a Jahn-Teller (JT) active electron on a single zinc etioporphyrin radical anion (ZnEtio-) molecule at the double barrier junction of a cryogenic scanning tunneling microscope (STM). The vibronic JT potential determines the anisotropy of the topography. At resonance, the topography undergoes bistable switching and electroluminescence. Their difference map yields the wiring diagram of the conductance switch; and the spatially-resolved switching kinetics within the molecule yields functional maps for controlling the frequency/amplitude of the switch. Through detailed balance of spontaneous on/off rates, the energy difference between the states leading to the observed bistability is determined as ~ 1 meV. We obtain a consistent interpretation of all observations by assigning the two states to Kramer's pair, with degeneracy broken due to pseudo-rotation on the JT vector potential, where the switching is understood as spin-flipping driven by scattering of tunneling electrons at resonance. Funding by NSF CCI Chemistry at the Space-Time Limit, CHE-082913.

  6. Influence of Humic Acid Complexation with Metal Ions on Extracellular Electron Transfer Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shungui; Chen, Shanshan; Yuan, Yong; Lu, Qin

    2015-11-23

    Humic acids (HAs) can act as electron shuttles and mediate biogeochemical cycles, thereby influencing the transformation of nutrients and environmental pollutants. HAs commonly complex with metals in the environment, but few studies have focused on how these metals affect the roles of HAs in extracellular electron transfer (EET). In this study, HA-metal (HA-M) complexes (HA-Fe, HA-Cu, and HA-Al) were prepared and characterized. The electron shuttle capacities of HA-M complexes were experimentally evaluated through microbial Fe(III) reduction, biocurrent generation, and microbial azoreduction. The results show that the electron shuttle capacities of HAs were enhanced after complexation with Fe but were weakened when using Cu or Al. Density functional theory calculations were performed to explore the structural geometry of the HA-M complexes and revealed the best binding sites of the HAs to metals and the varied charge transfer rate constants (k). The EET activity of the HA-M complexes were in the order HA-Fe > HA-Cu > HA-Al. These findings have important implications for biogeochemical redox processes given the ubiquitous nature of both HAs and various metals in the environment.

  7. Rapidly Alternating Transmission Mode Electron Transfer Dissociation and Collisional Activation for the Characterization of Polypeptide Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hongling; Xia, Yu; Yang, Min; McLuckey, Scott A.

    2009-01-01

    Cation transmission/electron transfer reagent anion storage mode electron transfer ion/ion reactions and beam-type collisional activation of the polypeptide ions are performed in rapid succession in the high pressure collision cell (Q2) of a quadrupole/time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometer (QqTOF), where the electron transfer reagent anions are accumulated. Duty cycles for both electron transfer dissociation (ETD) and collision-induced dissociation (CID) experiments are improved relative to ion trapping approaches since there are no discrete ion storage and reaction steps for ETD experiments and no discrete ion storage step and frequency tuning for CID experiments. For this technique, moderately high resolution and mass accuracy are also obtained due to mass analysis via the TOF analyzer. This relatively simple approach has been demonstrated with a triply charged tryptic peptide, a triply charged tryptic phosphopeptide, and a triply charged tryptic N-linked glycopeptide. For the tryptic peptide, the sequence is identified with more certainty than would be available from a single method alone due to the complementary information provided by these two dissociation methods. Because of the complementary information derived from both ETD and CID dissociation methods, peptide sequence and post-translational modification (PTM) sites for the phosphopeptide are identified. This combined ETD and CID approach is particularly useful for characterizing glycopeptides because ETD generates information about both peptide sequence and locations of the glycosylation sites while CID provides information about the glycan structure. PMID:18396915

  8. Pharmacological activation of CB2 receptors counteracts the deleterious effect of ethanol on cell proliferation in the main neurogenic zones of the adult rat brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Patricia; Blanco, Eduardo; Bindila, Laura; Alen, Francisco; Vargas, Antonio; Rubio, Leticia; Pavón, Francisco J.; Serrano, Antonia; Lutz, Beat; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Suárez, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Chronic alcohol exposure reduces endocannabinoid activity and disrupts adult neurogenesis in rodents, which results in structural and functional alterations. Cannabinoid receptor agonists promote adult neural progenitor cell (NPC) proliferation. We evaluated the protective effects of the selective CB1 receptor agonist ACEA, the selective CB2 receptor agonist JWH133 and the fatty-acid amide-hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor URB597, which enhances endocannabinoid receptor activity, on NPC proliferation in rats with forced consumption of ethanol (10%) or sucrose liquid diets for 2 weeks. We performed immunohistochemical and stereological analyses of cells expressing the mitotic phosphorylation of histone-3 (phospho-H3+) and the replicating cell DNA marker 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU+) in the main neurogenic zones of adult brain: subgranular zone of dentate gyrus (SGZ), subventricular zone of lateral ventricles (SVZ) and hypothalamus. Animals were allowed ad libitum ethanol intake (7.3 ± 1.1 g/kg/day) after a controlled isocaloric pair-feeding period of sucrose and alcoholic diets. Alcohol intake reduced the number of BrdU+ cells in SGZ, SVZ, and hypothalamus. The treatments (URB597, ACEA, JWH133) exerted a differential increase in alcohol consumption over time, but JWH133 specifically counteracted the deleterious effect of ethanol on NPC proliferation in the SVZ and SGZ, and ACEA reversed this effect in the SGZ only. JWH133 also induced an increased number of BrdU+ cells expressing neuron-specific β3-tubulin in the SVZ and SGZ. These results indicated that the specific activation of CB2 receptors rescued alcohol-induced impaired NPC proliferation, which is a potential clinical interest for the risk of neural damage in alcohol dependence. PMID:26483633

  9. Pharmacological activation of CB2 receptors counteracts the deleterious effect of ethanol on cell proliferation in the main neurogenic zones of the adult rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia eRivera

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic alcohol exposure reduces endocannabinoid activity and disrupts adult neurogenesis in rodents, which results in structural and functional alterations. Cannabinoid receptor agonists promote adult neural progenitor cell (NPC proliferation. We evaluated the protective effects of the selective CB1 receptor agonist ACEA, the selective CB2 receptor agonist JWH133 and the fatty-acid amide-hydrolase (FAAH inhibitor URB597, which enhances endocannabinoid receptor activity, on NPC proliferation in rats with forced consumption of ethanol (10% or sucrose liquid diets for two weeks. We performed immunohistochemical and stereological analyses of cells expressing the mitotic phosphorylation of histone-3 (phospho-H3+ and the replicating cell DNA marker 5-bromo-2’-deoxyuridine (BrdU+ in the main neurogenic zones of adult brain: subgranular zone of dentate gyrus (SGZ, subventricular zone of lateral ventricles (SVZ and hypothalamus. Animals were allowed ad libitum ethanol intake (7.3±1.1 g/kg/day after a controlled isocaloric pair-feeding period of sucrose and alcoholic diets. Alcohol intake reduced the number of BrdU+ cells in SGZ, SVZ and hypothalamus. The treatments (URB597, ACEA, JWH133 exerted a differential increase in alcohol consumption over time, but JWH133 specifically counteracted the deleterious effect of ethanol on NPC proliferation in the SVZ and SGZ, and ACEA reversed this effect in the SGZ only. JWH133 also induced an increased number of BrdU+ cells expressing neuron-specific β3-tubulin in the SVZ and SGZ. These results indicated that the specific activation of CB2 receptors rescued alcohol-induced impaired NPC proliferation, which is a potential clinical interest for the risk of neural damage in alcohol dependence.

  10. Conductance and activation energy for electron transport in series and parallel intramolecular circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Liang-Yan; Wu, Ning; Rabitz, Herschel

    2016-11-30

    We investigate electron transport through series and parallel intramolecular circuits in the framework of the multi-level Redfield theory. Based on the assumption of weak monomer-bath couplings, the simulations depict the length and temperature dependence in six types of intramolecular circuits. In the tunneling regime, we find that the intramolecular circuit rule is only valid in the weak monomer coupling limit. In the thermally activated hopping regime, for circuits based on two different molecular units Ma and Mb with distinct activation energies Eact,a > Eact,b, the activation energies of Ma and Mb in series are nearly the same as Eact,a while those in parallel are nearly the same as Eact,b. This study gives a comprehensive description of electron transport through intramolecular circuits from tunneling to thermally activated hopping. We hope that this work can motivate additional studies to design intramolecular circuits based on different types of building blocks, and to explore the corresponding circuit laws and the length and temperature dependence of conductance.

  11. Misfit Strain in Superlattices Controlling the Electron-Lattice Interaction via Microstrain in Active Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Poccia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available High-temperature superconductivity (HTS emerges in quite different electronic materials: cuprates, diborides, and iron-pnictide superconductors. Looking for unity in the diversity we find in all these materials a common lattice architecture: they are practical realizations of heterostructures at atomic limit made of superlattices of metallic active layers intercalated by spacers as predicted in 1993 by one of us. The multilayer architecture is the key feature for the presence of electronic topological transitions where the Fermi surface of one of the subbands changes dimensionality. The superlattice misfit strain between the active and spacer layers is shown to be a key variable to drive the system to the highest critical temperature that occurs at a particular point of the 3D phase diagram (, where is the charge transfer or doping. The plots of as a function of misfit strain at constant charge transfer in cuprates show a first-order quantum critical phase transition where an itinerant striped magnetic phase competes with superconductivity in the proximity of a structural phase transition, that is, associated with an electronic topological transition. The shape resonances in these multigap superconductors is associated with the maximum .

  12. Correlative Aspects of the Solar Electron Neutrino Flux and Solar Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    2000-01-01

    Between 1970 and 1994, the Homestake Solar Neutrino Detector obtained 108 observations of the solar electron neutrino flux (less than 0.814 MeV). The "best fit" values derived from these observations suggest an average daily production rate of about 0.485 Ar-37 atom per day, a rate equivalent to about 2.6 SNU (solar neutrino units) or about a factor of 3 below the expected rate from the standard solar model. In order to explain, at least, a portion of this discrepancy, some researchers have speculated that the flux of solar neutrinos is variable, possibly being correlated with various markers of the solar cycle (e.g., sunspot number, the Ap index, etc.). In this paper, using the larger "standard data set," the issue of correlative behavior between solar electron neutrino flux and solar activity is re-examined. The results presented here clearly indicate that no statistically significant association exists between any of the usual markers of solar activity and the solar electron neutrino flux.

  13. Linking mantle dynamics, plate tectonics and surface processes in the active plate boundary zones of eastern New Guinea (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, S.; Moucha, R.; Fitzgerald, P. G.; Hoke, G. D.; Bermudez, M. A.; Webb, L. E.; Braun, J.; Rowley, D. B.; Insel, N.; Abers, G. A.; Wallace, L. M.; Vervoort, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    Eastern New Guinea lies within the rapidly obliquely converging Australian (AUS)- Pacific (PAC) plate boundary zone and is characterized by transient plate boundaries, rapidly rotating microplates and a globally significant geoid high. As the AUS plate moved northward in the Cenozoic, its leading edge has been a zone of subduction and arc accretion. The variety of tectonic settings in this region permits assessment of the complex interplay among mantle dynamics, plate tectonics, and surface processes. Importantly, the timescale of tectonic events (e.g., subduction, (U)HP exhumation, seafloor spreading) are within the valid bounds of mantle convection models. A record of changes in bathymetry and topography are preserved in high standing mountain belts, exhumed extensional gneiss domes and core complexes, uplifted coral terraces, and marine sedimentary basins. Global seismic tomography models indicate accumulation of subducted slabs beneath eastern New Guinea at the bottom of the upper mantle (i.e., 250-300 km). Preliminary global-scale backward advected mantle convection models, driven by density inferred from joint seismic-geodynamic tomography models, exhibit large-scale flow associated with these subducted slab remnants and predict the timing and magnitude (up to 1500 m) of dynamic topography change (both subsidence and uplift) since the Oligocene. In this talk we will explore the effects of large-scale background mantle flow and plate tectonics on the evolution of topography and bathymetry in eastern New Guinea, and discuss possible mechanisms to explain basin subsidence and surface uplift in the region.

  14. Teleconnection between the South Atlantic convergence zone and the southern Indian Ocean: Implications for tropical cyclone activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBlander, Evan; Shaman, Jeffrey

    2017-01-01

    A link between anomalous austral summer convection over the South Atlantic convergence zone (SACZ) and atmospheric conditions over the South Indian Ocean is investigated. Interannual north-south shifts in the SACZ produce a dipole of anomalous convection and precipitation over South America. The South Atlantic convergence zone index (SACZI) capturing this variability is presented and associated with a midlatitude Rossby wave train that propagates from South America eastward and south of Africa before curving north into the tropical Indian Ocean. This wave train is reproduced using Rossby wave ray tracing and simulations with a linearized barotropic vorticity equation model forced with divergence and convergence consistent with the observed dipole of anomalous convection. The wave train acts to excite anomalies in wind shear and relative humidity over the tropical south Indian Ocean, which in turn impact tropical cyclone (TC) genesis and distribution over this region. We find that changes in the wind shear and relative humidity associated with the SACZI effect changes in TC genesis, which result in a change in observed TC days over portions of the South Indian Ocean.

  15. The Influence of Vegetation Canopy Structure on Active Layer Thaw Within the Sub-Arctic Discontinuous Permafrost Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasmer, L.; Quinton, W.; Hopkinson, C.; Petrone, R.; Whittington, P.

    2009-05-01

    Much of the sub-arctic discontinuous permafrost zone is dominated by a range in peatland ecosystems, each with their own characteristic soil frost dynamics. Soil thaw within the discontinuous permafrost zones of the Canadian sub-arctic is driven by the surface energy balance. The following study examines the influence of canopy structure on frost table (FT) depth and rates of thaw by: 1. relating measurements of FT depth to canopy structure using airborne scanning light detection and ranging (lidar) and hemispherical photographs taken below vegetated canopies; and 2. quantifying the spatial influences of canopy structural characteristics on the radiation balance (direct and diffuse incident radiation) within raised peat plateaus, connected bogs, fens, and isolated bogs. The results of this study indicate that peat plateaus, being characterised by greater vegetation fractional cover, typically have shallower FT depths (r2 = 0.5, p = 0.03) than locations with lower biomass. Further, average ground surface elevation and canopy height are related to rates of FT thaw (r2 = 0.73, p indicates that rates of thaw at the edges of peat plateaus and areas surrounding isolated bogs will be exacerbated by increased incident radiation and less shadowing by the canopy, leading to the conversion of peat plateaus to fens or bogs. This hypothesis is tested by comparing the change in peat plateau area coverage in 2000 and 2008 using classified IKONOS imagery (2000) and airborne lidar (2008).

  16. Displacement of large-scale open solar magnetic fields from the zone of active longitudes and the heliospheric storm of November 3-10, 2004: 2. "Explosion" of singularity and dynamics of sunspot formation and energy release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, K. G.

    2010-12-01

    A more detailed scenario of one stage (August-November 2004) of the quasibiennial MHD process "Origination ... and dissipation of the four-sector structure of the solar magnetic field" during the decline phase of cycle 23 has been constructed. It has been indicated that the following working hypothesis on the propagation of an MHD disturbance westward (in the direction of solar rotation) and eastward (toward the zone of active longitudes) with the displacement of the large-scale open solar magnetic field (LOSMF) from this zone can be constructed based on LOSMF model representations and data on sunspot formation, flares, active filaments, and coronal ejections as well as on the estimated contribution of sporadic energy release to the flare luminosity and kinetic energy of ejections: (1) The "explosion" of the LOSMF singularity and the formation in the explosion zone of an anemone active region (AR), which produced the satellite sunspot formation that continued west and east of the "anemone," represented a powerful and energy-intensive source of MHD processes at this stage. (2) This resulted in the origination of two "governing" large-scale MHD processes, which regulated various usual manifestations of solar activity: the fast LOSMF along the neutral line in the solar atmosphere, strongly affecting the zone of active longitudes, and the slow LOSMF in the outer layers of the convection zone. The fronts of these processes were identified by powerful (about 1031 erg) coronal ejections. (3) The collision of a wave reflected from the zone of active longitudes with the eastern front of the hydromagnetic impulse of the convection zone resulted in an increase in LOSMF magnetic fluxes, origination of an active sector boundary in the zone of active longitudes, shear-convergent motions, and generation and destabilization of the flare-productive AR 10696 responsible for the heliospheric storm of November 3-10, 2004.

  17. Automatic prediction of rheumatoid arthritis disease activity from the electronic medical records.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Lin

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We aimed to mine the data in the Electronic Medical Record to automatically discover patients' Rheumatoid Arthritis disease activity at discrete rheumatology clinic visits. We cast the problem as a document classification task where the feature space includes concepts from the clinical narrative and lab values as stored in the Electronic Medical Record. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Training Set consisted of 2792 clinical notes and associated lab values. Test Set 1 included 1749 clinical notes and associated lab values. Test Set 2 included 344 clinical notes for which there were no associated lab values. The Apache clinical Text Analysis and Knowledge Extraction System was used to analyze the text and transform it into informative features to be combined with relevant lab values. RESULTS: Experiments over a range of machine learning algorithms and features were conducted. The best performing combination was linear kernel Support Vector Machines with Unified Medical Language System Concept Unique Identifier features with feature selection and lab values. The Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve (AUC is 0.831 (σ = 0.0317, statistically significant as compared to two baselines (AUC = 0.758, σ = 0.0291. Algorithms demonstrated superior performance on cases clinically defined as extreme categories of disease activity (Remission and High compared to those defined as intermediate categories (Moderate and Low and included laboratory data on inflammatory markers. CONCLUSION: Automatic Rheumatoid Arthritis disease activity discovery from Electronic Medical Record data is a learnable task approximating human performance. As a result, this approach might have several research applications, such as the identification of patients for genome-wide pharmacogenetic studies that require large sample sizes with precise definitions of disease activity and response to therapies.

  18. Evaluation of antioxidant activity and electronic structure of aspirin and paracetamol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motozaki, W.; Nagatani, Y.; Kimura, Y.; Endo, K.; Takemura, T.; Kurmaev, E. Z.; Moewes, A.

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of electronic structure, chemical bonding, and antioxidant activity of phenolic antioxidants (aspirin and paracetamol). X-ray photoelectron and emission spectra of the antioxidants have been simulated by deMon density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the molecules. The chemical bonding of aspirin is characterized by the formation of oxygen 'lone-pair' π-orbitals which can neutralize free radicals and thus be related to antioxidant properties of the drug. In the case of paracetamol the additional nitrogen 'lone pair' is formed which can explain toxicity of the drug. We propose an evaluation method of antioxidant activity based on the relationship between experimental half-wave oxidation potential ( Ep/2 ) and calculated ionization potentials ( IP) by the DFT calculations, and can conclude that paracetamol has the higher antioxidant activity than aspirin.

  19. Development of microalgae biomaterials with enhanced antioxidant activity using electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Younghwa; Park, Hyunjin; Choi, Soojeong; Lee, Jaehwa [Silla Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    By increasing the antioxidant products (e. g. antioxidant enzyme, carotenoid, phycobiliproteins, chlorophyll, lipid phenolic compounds, etc.) in microalgae, it could be useful for industry. In this study, mutants of fresh water microalgae Arthrospira platensis (A. platensis) by high energy electron beam were isolated and characterized. Those selected mutants showed higher growth rate than parental strain. The antioxidant enzyme activity (SOD and POD), flavonoid, phenolic compound and phycocyanin of mutants were increased about 2 times compared to wild type. Moreover, DPPH radical scavenging activity was increased about 20%. Microalgae species with improved growth rate and enhanced active compounds make the commercial process more feasible in industry. Using microalgae mutants with increased antioxidant products, it is useful to develop microalgae biomaterials for neutraceuticals.

  20. Magnetized Accretion and Dead Zones in Protostellar Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Dzyurkevich, Natalia; Henning, Thomas; Kley, Wilhelm

    2013-01-01

    The edges of magnetically-dead zones in protostellar disks have been proposed as locations where density bumps may arise, trapping planetesimals and helping form planets. Magneto-rotational turbulence in magnetically-active zones provides both accretion of gas on the star and transport of mass to the dead zone. We investigate the location of the magnetically-active regions in a protostellar disk around a solar-type star, varying the disk temperature, surface density profile, and dust-to-gas ratio. We also consider stellar masses between 0.4 and 2 $M_\\odot$, with corresponding adjustments in the disk mass and temperature. The dead zone's size and shape are found using the Elsasser number criterion with conductivities including the contributions from ions, electrons, and charged fractal dust aggregates. The charged species' abundances are found using the approach proposed by S. Okuzumi. The dead zone is in most cases defined by the ambipolar diffusion. In our maps, the dead zone takes a variety of shapes, inclu...

  1. Establishing the soundness of administrative spatial units for operationalising the active living potential of residential environments: an exemplar for designing optimal zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riva Mylène

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In health and place research, definitions of areas, area characteristics, and health outcomes should ideally be coherent with one another. Yet current approaches for delimiting areas mostly rely on spatial units "of convenience" such as census tracts. These areas may be homogeneous along socioeconomic conditions but heterogeneous along other environmental characteristics. This heterogeneity can lead to biased measurement of environment characteristics and misestimation of area effects on health. The objective of this study was to assess the soundness of census tracts as units of analysis for measuring the active living potential of environments, hypothesised to be associated with walking. Results Starting with data at the smallest census area level available, zones homogeneous along three indicators of active living potential, i.e. population density, land use mix, and accessibility to services were designed. Delimitation of zones ensued from statistical clustering of the smallest areas into seven clusters or "types of environment". Mapping of clusters into a GIS led to the delineation of 898 zones characterised by one of seven types of environment, corresponding to different levels of active living potential. Homogeneity of census tracts along indicators of active living potential varied. A greater proportion (83% of variation in accessibility to services was attributable to differences between census tracts suggesting within-tract homogeneity along this variable. However, census tracts were heterogeneous with respect to population density and land use mix where a greater proportion of the variation was attributable to within-tract differences. About 55% of tracts were characterised by a combination of three or more "types of environment" suggesting substantial within-tract heterogeneity in the active living potential of environments. Conclusion Soundness of census tracts for measuring active living potential may be limited

  2. Production of electron cyclotron resonance plasma by using multifrequencies microwaves and active beam profile control on a large bore electron cyclotron resonance ion source with permanent magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yushi; Watanabe, Takeyoshi; Matsui, Yuuki; Hirai, Yoshiaki; Kutsumi, Osamu; Sakamoto, Naoki; Sato, Fuminobu; Iida, Toshiyuki

    2010-02-01

    A new concept on magnetic field with all magnets on plasma production and confinement has been proposed to enhance efficiency of an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma for broad and dense ion beam source under the low pressure. The magnetic field configuration is constructed by a pair of magnets assembly, i.e., comb-shaped magnet which cylindrically surrounds the plasma chamber. The resonance zones corresponding to the fundamental ECR for 2.45 GHz and 11-13 GHz frequencies are constructed at different positions. The profiles of the plasma parameters in the ECR ion source are different from each frequency of microwave. Large bore extractor is set at the opposite side against the microwave feeds. It is found that differences of their profiles also appear at those of ion beam profiles. We conducted to launch simultaneously multiplex frequencies microwaves controlled individually, and tried to control the profiles of the plasma parameters and then those of extracted ion beam.

  3. A cytochrome c mutant with high electron transfer and antioxidant activities but devoid of apoptogenic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullaev, Ziedulla Kh; Bodrova, Marina E; Chernyak, Boris V; Dolgikh, Dmitry A; Kluck, Ruth M; Pereverzev, Mikhail O; Arseniev, Alexander S; Efremov, Roman G; Kirpichnikov, Mikhail P; Mokhova, Elena N; Newmeyer, Donald D; Roder, Heinrich; Skulachev, Vladimir P

    2002-01-01

    A cytochrome c mutant lacking apoptogenic function but competent in electron transfer and antioxidant activities has been constructed. To this end, mutant species of horse and yeast cytochromes c with substitutions in the N-terminal alpha-helix or position 72 were obtained. It was found that yeast cytochrome c was much less effective than the horse protein in activating respiration of rat liver mitoplasts deficient in endogenous cytochrome c as well as in inhibition of H(2)O(2) production by the initial segment of the respiratory chain of intact rat heart mitochondria. The major role in the difference between the horse and yeast proteins was shown to be played by the amino acid residue in position 4 (glutamate in horse, and lysine in yeast; horse protein numbering). A mutant of the yeast cytochrome c containing K4E and some other "horse" modifications in the N-terminal alpha-helix, proved to be (i) much more active in electron transfer and antioxidant activity than the wild-type yeast cytochrome c and (ii), like the yeast cytochrome c, inactive in caspase stimulation, even if added in 400-fold excess compared with the horse protein. Thus this mutant seems to be a good candidate for knock-in studies of the role of cytochrome c-mediated apoptosis, in contrast with the horse K72R, K72G, K72L and K72A mutant cytochromes that at low concentrations were less active in apoptosis than the wild-type, but were quite active when the concentrations were increased by a factor of 2-12. PMID:11879204

  4. Electronic structure and photocatalytic activity of wurtzite Cu–Ga–S nanocrystals and their Zn substitution

    KAUST Repository

    Kandiel, Tarek

    2015-03-23

    Stoichiometric and gallium-rich wurtzite Cu-Ga-S ternary nanocrystals were synthesized via a facile solution-based hot injection method using 1-dodecanethiol as a sulfur source. The use of 1-dodecanethiol was found to be essential not only as a sulfur source but also as a structure-directing reagent to form a metastable wurtzite structure. In addition, the substitution of zinc in the wurtzite gallium-rich Cu-Ga-S nanocrystals was also investigated. The obtained nanocrystals were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), photoluminescence (PL), and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Electronic structures of pristine and the Zn-substituted Cu-Ga-S system were investigated using density functional theory (DFT) with HSE06 exchange-correlation functional. The calculated bandgaps accurately reflect the measured ones. The allowed electronic transitions occur upon the photon absorption from the (Cu + S) band towards the (Ga + S) one. The Zn substitution was found not to contribute to the band edge structure and hence altered the bandgaps only slightly, the direct transition nature remaining unchanged with the Zn substitution. The photocatalytic activities of H2 evolution from an aqueous Na2S/Na2SO3 solution under visible-light illumination on the synthesized nanocrystals were investigated. While the stoichiometric CuGaS2 exhibited negligible activity, the gallium-rich Cu-Ga-S ternary nanocrystals displayed reasonable activity. The optimum Zn substitution in the gallium-rich Cu-Ga-S ternary nanocrystals enhanced the H2 evolution rate, achieving an apparent quantum efficiency of >6% at 400 nm. © 2015 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  5. Electron transport chain inhibitors induce microglia activation through enhancing mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Junli; Jiang, Zhongxin; Chen, Xuehong; Liu, Mengyang; Li, Jing; Liu, Na

    2016-01-15

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are believed to be mediators of excessive microglial activation, yet the resources and mechanism are not fully understood. Here we stimulated murine microglial BV-2 cells and primary microglial cells with different inhibitors of electron transport chain (ETC), rotenone, thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTFA), antimycin A, and NaN3 to induce mitochondrial ROS production and we observed the role of mitochondrial ROS in microglial activation. Our results showed that ETC inhibitors resulted in significant changes in cell viability, microglial morphology, cell cycle arrest and mitochondrial ROS production in a dose-dependent manner in both primary cultural microglia and BV-2 cell lines. Moreover, ETC inhibitors, especially rotenone and antimycin A stimulated secretion of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 12 (IL-12) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) by microglia with marked activation of mitogen-activated proteinkinases (MAPKs) and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), which could be blocked by specific inhibitors of MAPK and NF-κB and mitochondrial antioxidants, Mito-TEMPO. Taken together, our results demonstrated that inhibition of mitochondrial respiratory chain in microglia led to production of mitochondrial ROS and therefore may activate MAPK/NF-кB dependent inflammatory cytokines release in microglia, which indicated that mitochondrial-derived ROS were contributed to microglial activation.

  6. Cannabinoid-Induced Changes in the Activity of Electron Transport Chain Complexes of Brain Mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Namrata; Hroudová, Jana; Fišar, Zdeněk

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the activity of individual mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes (I, II/III, IV) and citrate synthase induced by pharmacologically different cannabinoids. In vitro effects of selected cannabinoids on mitochondrial enzymes were measured in crude mitochondrial fraction isolated from pig brain. Both cannabinoid receptor agonists, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, anandamide, and R-(+)-WIN55,212-2, and antagonist/inverse agonists of cannabinoid receptors, AM251, and cannabidiol were examined in pig brain mitochondria. Different effects of these cannabinoids on mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes and citrate synthase were found. Citrate synthase activity was decreased only by Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol and AM251. Significant increase in the complex I activity was induced by anandamide. At micromolar concentration, all the tested cannabinoids inhibited the activity of electron transport chain complexes II/III and IV. Stimulatory effect of anandamide on activity of complex I may participate on distinct physiological effects of endocannabinoids compared to phytocannabinoids or synthetic cannabinoids. Common inhibitory effect of cannabinoids on activity of complex II/III and IV confirmed a non-receptor-mediated mechanism of cannabinoid action on individual components of system of oxidative phosphorylation.

  7. QUANTITATIVE ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE - ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS ANALYSIS ANTIMUTAGENIC BENZALACETONE DERIVATIVES BY PRINCIPAL COMPONENT REGRESSION APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliana Yuliana

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative Electronic Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR analysis of a series of benzalacetones has been investigated based on semi empirical PM3 calculation data using Principal Components Regression (PCR. Investigation has been done based on antimutagen activity from benzalacetone compounds (presented by log 1/IC50 and was studied as linear correlation with latent variables (Tx resulted from transformation of atomic net charges using Principal Component Analysis (PCA. QSAR equation was determinated based on distribution of selected components and then was analysed with PCR. The result was described by the following QSAR equation : log 1/IC50 = 6.555 + (2.177.T1 + (2.284.T2 + (1.933.T3 The equation was significant on the 95% level with statistical parameters : n = 28 r = 0.766  SE  = 0.245  Fcalculation/Ftable = 3.780 and gave the PRESS result 0.002. It means that there were only a relatively few deviations between the experimental and theoretical data of antimutagenic activity.          New types of benzalacetone derivative compounds were designed  and their theoretical activity were predicted based on the best QSAR equation. It was found that compounds number 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 35, 36, 37, 38, 40, 41, 42, 44, 47, 48, 49 and 50  have  a relatively high antimutagenic activity.   Keywords: QSAR; antimutagenic activity; benzalaceton; atomic net charge

  8. A single-electron probe for buried optically active quantum dot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Nakaoka

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a simple method that enables both single electron transport through a self-assembled quantum dot and photon emission from the dot. The quantum dot buried in a semiconductor matrix is electrically connected with nanogap electrodes through tunneling junctions formed by a localized diffusion of the nanogap electrode metals. Coulomb blockade stability diagrams for the optically-active dot are clearly resolved at 4.2 K. The position of the quantum dot energy levels with respect to the contact Fermi level is controlled by the kind of metal atoms diffused from the nanogap electrodes.

  9. Electronic assessment of disease activity and functioning in patients with axial spondyloarthritis: challenges and unmet needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiltz, Uta; Boonen, Annelies; Braun, Juergen; Richter, Jutta G

    2016-01-01

    The dynamic clinical course of rheumatic conditions indicates a need for regular collection of information on health status to monitor disease activity and functional status. Patient-reported outcomes measures (PROMs) are playing a key role in the evaluation of symptoms and functioning and health, and are crucial in the initiation of treatment in those patients. In recent years, electronic assessments of PROMs (so called ePROMs) have been introduced. This report summarises some of the rationale, opportunities, and results using ePROMs in patients with spondyloarthritis (SpA).

  10. Geological and hydrogeological conditions of the Aigion seismic active fault zone (Deep Geodynamic Laboratory Corinth) based on borehole data and hydraulic tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettenmaier, D.; Giurgea, V.; Pizzino, L.; Unkel, I.; Hoetzl, H.; Foerster, A.; Quattrocchi, F.; Nikas, K.

    2003-04-01

    The Gulf of Corinth and the northern part of the Peloponnesus/Greece, an area of asymmetric graben structure, step faults and tilted blocks, is one of the most active seismic zones in the world. Six major faults are known to be most responsible for the historic and present seismic activities in the area of Aigion. Our study focuses preliminarily on the area around the Aigion fault, whose trace runs E-W through the harbour of Aigion. Investigations of the stratigraphic sequence, tectonic structure and hydrogeologic conditions of the southern Corinth graben shoulder and first drilling activities there, have started in summer 2001. From July until September 2002 the International Continental Deep Drilling Project (ICDP) and the EU Project DGLab-Gulf of Corinth drilled the AIG10 borehole in the harbour of Aigion to a total depth of 1001 m. Our investigations in this ICDP/EU framework are aimed at studying the thermal-hydraulic conditions on the southern graben shoulder. Here we report the first results on sampling and hydraulic testing. The deep AIG10 borehole has successfully cored in approx. 760 m depth the fault plane, which separates fractured radiolarite in the hanging wall from highly fractured and karstified platy, micritic limestone (Olonos-Pindos Unit) in the footwall. A complete lithologic section is now available through the monitoring of cuttings and cores, which built a major cornerstone for defining an integrated regional tectonic and geologic model. Several pumping tests and hydrochemical investigations made in the region of Aigion and especially in the AIG10 borehole deliver together with geophysical borehole logging the database for a thermo-hydraulic heat flow model. The pumping test AIG10C in the conglomerates of the graben sediments show a hydraulic conductivity of about 2 x 10E-5 m/s - 3 x 10E-4 m/s at a depth of approximately 211 m. The result was a residual drawdown, which indicates a closed hydraulic system between the semi-permeable Aigion

  11. The role of sexual vs. asexual recruitment of Artemisia wudanica in transition zone habitats between inter-dune lowlands and active dunes in Inner Mongolia, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongcui; Alberto, Busso Carlos; Jiang, Deming; Ala, Musa; Li, Xuehua; Zhou, Quanlai; Lin, Jixiang; Ren, Guohua; Jia, Lian

    2016-04-01

    Artemisia wudanica is an endemic, perennial, pioneering psammophyte species in the sand dune ecosystems of western Horqin Sand Land in northern China. However, no studies have addressed how sexual and asexual reproduction modes of A. wudanica perform at the transitional zones between active dune inter-dune lowlands and active dunes. In early spring, quadrats were randomly set up in the study area to monitor surviving seedling and/or ramet density and frequency coming from sexual/asexual reproduction of A. wudanica. Iron sticks were inserted near each quadrat to determine wind erosion intensity (WE). Additionally, soil samples were collected nearby each quadrat to test for soil moisture (SM), organic matter (OM) and pH. Surviving seedlings of A. wudanica showed an inverse response in comparison with ramets to SM, OM and WE. Soil moisture showed the most positive effect, and WE the negative effect, on surviving, sexual reproduction seedlings. Contrarily, WE had the most positive effect, and SM the negative effect, on asexual reproduction ramets. This suggests that increases in SM and decreases in WE should benefit recruitment of A. wudanica seedlings. On the contrary, ramets coming from asexual reproduction showed a different response to environmental factors in transition zone habitats. While SM was not a key constraint for the survival of seedlings, they showed a better, positive response to wind erosion environments. Overall, various study environmental parameters could be improved to foster A. wudanica invasion and settlement in the plant community through different reproductive modes, thereby promoting vegetation restoration and rehabilitation.

  12. Using "Electronic Portfolios" to Challenge Current Orthodoxies in the Presentation of an Initial Teacher Training Design and Technology Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spendlove, David

    2006-01-01

    The paper examines the extent to which a University undergraduate curriculum initiative provided initial teacher trainees with opportunities to challenge orthodox design methodologies through the production of an electronic portfolio within and extended design and technology activity. It was found that the "electronic portfolio" served primarily…

  13. Efficiency of Pumping of the Active Medium of Metal Vapor Lasers: Gas-Discharge Tubes with Electrodes in the Hot Zone of the Discharge Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudin, N. A.; Yudin, N. N.

    2016-10-01

    The electrophysical approach is used to estimate conditions for effective pumping of the active medium of lasers on self-terminating metal atom transitions in gas-discharge tubes (GDT) with electrodes located in the hot zone of the discharge channel. It is demonstrated that in the laser discharge contour there are processes limiting the frequency and energy characteristics (FEC) of radiation. The mechanism of influence of these processes on the FEC of radiation, and technical methods of their neutralization are considered. It is demonstrated that the practical efficiency of a copper vapor laser can reach 10% under conditions of neutralization of these processes. Conditions for forming the distributed GDT impedance when the active medium is pumped on the front of the fast ionization wave are determined.

  14. D- and E-region effects in the auroral zone during a moderately active 24-h period in July 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Hargreaves

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of energetic electron precipitation into the auroral region at a time of enhanced solar wind have been investigated during a continuous period of 24 h, using the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT radar, an imaging riometer, and particle measurements on an orbiting satellite. The relative effects in the E region (120 km and D region (90 km are found to vary during the day, consistent with a gradual hardening of the incoming electron spectrum from pre-midnight to morning. Whereas the night spectra are single peaked, the daytime spectra are found to be double peaked, suggesting the presence of two distinct populations.

    A comparison between the radiowave absorption observed with the riometer and values estimated from the radar data shows generally good agreement, but with some discrepancies suggesting the occurrence of some small-scale features. The height and thickness of the absorbing region are estimated. Two periods of enhanced precipitation and the related radio absorption, one near magnetic midnight and one in the early morning, are studied in detail, including their horizontal structure and movement of the absorption patches.

    A sharp reduction of electron flux recorded on a POES satellite is related to the edge of an absorption region delineated by the imaging riometer. The observed particle flux is compared with a value deduced from the radar data during the overpass, and found to be in general agreement.

  15. Electron Transport Controls Glutamine Synthetase Activity in the Facultative Heterotrophic Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, J. C.; Crespo, J. L.; Garcia-Dominguez, M.; Florencio, F. J.

    1995-11-01

    Glutamine synthetase (GS) from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 was inactivated in vivo by transferring cells from light to darkness or by incubation with the photosynthetic inhibitor 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea but not with 2,5-dibromo-3-methyl-6-isopropyl-p-benzoquinone. Addition of glucose prevented both dark and 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea GS inactivation. In a Synechocystis psbE-psbF mutant (T1297) lacking photosystem II, glucose was required to maintain active GS, even in the light. However, in nitrogen-starved T1297 cells the removal of glucose did not affect GS activity. The fact that dark-inactivated GS was reactivated in vitro by the same treatments that reactivate the ammonium-inactivated GS points out that both nitrogen metabolism and redox state of the cells lead to the same molecular regulatory mechanism in the control of GS activity. Using GS antibodies we detected that dark-inactivated GS displayed a different electrophoretic migration with respect to the active form in nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis but not in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The possible pathway to modulate GS activity by the electron transport flow in Synechocystis cells is discussed.

  16. Structure-Activity Relationship Investigation of Some New Tetracyclines by Electronic Index Methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Sato, Fernando; Santos, Helio F dos; Galvao, Douglas S

    2007-01-01

    Tetracyclines are an old class of molecules that constitute a broad-spectrum antibiotics. Since the first member of tetracycline family were isolated, the clinical importance of these compounds as therapeutic and prophylactic agents against a wide range of infections has stimulated efforts to define their mode of action as inhibitors of bacterial reproduction. We used three SAR methodologies for the analysis of biological activity of a set of 104 tetracycline compounds. Our calculation were carried out using the semi-empirical Austin Method One (AM1) and Parametric Method 3 (PM3). Electronic Indices Methodology (EIM), Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) were applied to the classification of 14 old and 90 new proposed derivatives of tetracyclines. Our results make evident the importance of EIM descriptors in pattern recognition and also show that the EIM can be effectively used to predict the biological activity of Tetracyclines.

  17. Smartphone data as an electronic biomarker of illness activity in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria; Vinberg, Maj; Frost, Mads

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Objective methods are lacking for continuous monitoring of illness activity in bipolar disorder. Smartphones offer unique opportunities for continuous monitoring and automatic collection of real-time data. The objectives of the paper were to test the hypotheses that (i) daily electronic...... self-monitored data and (ii) automatically generated objective data collected using smartphones correlate with clinical ratings of depressive and manic symptoms in patients with bipolar disorder. METHODS: Software for smartphones (the MONARCA I system) that collects automatically generated objective......-monitored data (i.e., mood and activity) and scores on the YMRS. Finally, the automatically generated objective data were able to discriminate between affective states. CONCLUSIONS: Automatically generated objective data and self-monitored data collected using smartphones correlate with clinically rated...

  18. Smartphone data as an electronic biomarker of illness activity in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria; Vinberg, Maj; Frost, Mads

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Objective methods are lacking for continuous monitoring of illness activity in bipolar disorder. Smartphones offer unique opportunities for continuous monitoring and automatic collection of real-time data. The objectives of the paper were to test the hypotheses that (i) daily electronic...... self-monitored data and (ii) automatically generated objective data collected using smartphones correlate with clinical ratings of depressive and manic symptoms in patients with bipolar disorder. Methods Software for smartphones (the MONARCA I system) that collects automatically generated objective......-monitored data (i.e., mood and activity) and scores on the YMRS. Finally, the automatically generated objective data were able to discriminate between affective states. Conclusions Automatically generated objective data and self-monitored data collected using smartphones correlate with clinically rated...

  19. Activity of the respiratory electron transport system and respiration rates within the oxygen minimum layer of the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.; Shailaja, M.S.

    Measurements of the activity of the respirtory electron transport system (ETS) at 15 stations in the Arabian Sea during the northeast monsoon (December 1988) yield high respiration rates that do not correlate with the trends in primary productivity...

  20. Evaluation of the Isolated Bacteria from Activated Sludge of Asalouyeh Special Zone Municipal Wastewater Treatment for Bioaugmentation of Kerosene-Contaminated Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Kafilzadeh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Bioaugmentation is a superior technique in bioremediation of contaminated soils with petroleum hydrocarbons. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of isolated bacteria from activated sludge of Asalouyeh special zone municipal wastewater treatment for bioaugmentation of kerosene-contaminated soils and to study the growth of isolated bacteria in the presence of different concentrations of this product. Materials and Methods: Sampling of activated sludge was carried out from two treatment plants in Asalouyeh zone. Isolation of degrading bacteria was performed by culturing the samples on basal mineral medium. Emulsification test and evaluating the kinetic growth of bacteria were carried out in different concentrations of kerosene. Isolated bacteria were inoculated to polluted soils with kerosene oil compound for bioaugmentation and measuring their bioremediation potentials and the rate of biodegradation were measured by InfraRed (IR spectroscopy. Results: In this study, three bacterias: Pseudomonas putida, Serratia marcescens, and Proteus mirabilis were isolated and identified as kerosene degrading bacterias from activated sludge. P. putida was recognized as the most powerful degrading bacterium of this oil product according to the emulsification tests, measuring the growth of bacteria in various concentrations of kerosene, the results of bioaugmentation of contaminated column of soil with kerosene, and reducing the level of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPHs. This bacterium with emulsification rate of 3.8 could reduce 71.03% of TPHs within 30 days.    Conclusion: According to the adaption of Pseudomonas putida, Serratia marcescens, and Proteus mirabilis in activated sludge with variety of pollutants in sewage, they can be used as non-indigenous bacteria for bioaugmentation and cleaning up the soil contaminated petroleum hydrocarbons.

  1. The sequence of moderate-size earthquakes at the junction of the Ligurian basin and the Corsica margin (western Mediterranean): The initiation of an active deformation zone revealed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larroque, Christophe; Delouis, Bertrand; Sage, Françoise; Régnier, Marc; Béthoux, Nicole; Courboulex, Françoise; Deschamps, Anne

    2016-04-01

    A new seismically active zone is found in the southern part of the Ligurian basin, 80-km west of Corsica (western Mediterranean). The activity began in February 2011 with a foreshock (ML 4) and a mainshock (ML 5.3) 5 days later, followed by numerous aftershocks. We first analyze the fore- and mainshock in detail. We compare the results obtained using classical methods (linear location in a 1D medium and focal mechanisms from P and S polarities) and new approaches (non-linear location in a 3D medium and waveform modeling for determining the seismic moment and the focal mechanism). Both methods provided similar results for location, depth (in the range of 6-13 km) and focal mechanisms, which reveal reverse faulting with nodal planes oriented N-S and NE-SW. We then locate 27 of the aftershocks in the 3D model and find a 10-km-long NE-SW alignment with a depth between 7 and 16 km. In 2012 and 2013, three other moderate-size events (ML 3.8, 4 and 4.5) occurred and confirm that this zone is still active. The epicentral area is located in the oceanic domain of the Ligurian Basin. From analysis of the bathymetry and high-resolution multi-channel seismic profiles, no morphologic anomaly at surface and no inherited fault in the shallow ~ 4 km depth were imaged, which suggest that no significant deformation occurred in the area since 5 Ma. Thus, the structure(s) activated during the 2011-2013 sequence remain unknown. In light of these results, we point out a notable difference on both sides of the Ligurian Basin: the northern margin, close to the alpine chain, suffered strong earthquakes and large cumulated deformation since 5 Ma, while the southern margin, close to the Corsica-Sardinia continental block, is poorly deformed since 5 Ma.

  2. From Hearing to Listening: Design and Properties of an Actively Tunable Electronic Hearing Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Martignoli

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available An important step towards understanding the working principles of the mammalian hearing sensor is the concept of an active cochlear amplifier. Theoretical arguments and physiological measurements suggest that the active cochlear amplifiers originate from systems close to a Hopf bifurcation. Efforts to model the mammalian hearing sensor on these grounds have, however, either had problems in reproducing sufficiently close essential aspects of the biological example (Magnasco, M.O. Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 058101 (2003; Duke, T. & Jülicher, F. Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 158101 (2003, or required complicated spatially coupled differential equation systems that are unfeasible for transient signals (Kern, A. & Stoop, R. Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 128101 (2003. Here, we demonstrate a simple system of electronically coupled Hopf amplifiers that not only leads to the desired biological response behavior, but also has real-time capacity. The obtained electronic Hopf cochlea shares all salient signal processing features exhibited by the mammalian cochlea and thus provides a simple and efficient design of an artificial mammalian hearing sensor.

  3. Herbicides affect fluorescence and electron transfer activity of spinach chloroplasts, thylakoid membranes and isolated Photosystem II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventrella, Andrea; Catucci, Lucia; Agostiano, Angela

    2010-08-01

    In this work, studies on the effects produced by atrazine, terbutryn or diuron onto spinach photosynthetic materials were performed by observing changes in fluorescence emission and in electron transfer activities of the bio-samples in the presence of such herbicides; chloroplasts, thylakoids, Photosystem II-enriched thylakoids (BBYs) and isolated Photosystem II (PSII) were employed. This approach evidenced differences in the herbicide-photosynthetic material interactions going up-down from chloroplasts to proteins. Rapid emission increments were detected for chloroplasts and thylakoids, in particular in the presence of terbutryn; no remarkable emission increment was recorded when BBYs or PSII were used for this assay. The dependences of the chloroplast and thylakoid emission intensities upon herbicide concentration were investigated with responses even at concentrations below 10(-7)M. The influence of lowering the temperature was also tested, and the stabilizing effects on the resistances of the bio-samples against herbicides were recorded. Furthermore, Hill Reaction-based colorimetric assays were performed to monitor the electron transfer activities of the bio-samples in the presence of herbicides, after brief incubations. As a result, chloroplasts and thylakoids resulted to be sensitive tools in responding to concentrations even lower than 10(-7)M of most herbicides; nevertheless, an interesting sensitivity to herbicides was also observed for PSII. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Tuning the Electronic Structure of Titanium Oxide Support to Enhance the Electrochemical Activity of Platinum Nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Feifei

    2013-09-11

    Two times higher activity and three times higher stability in methanol oxidation reaction, a 0.12 V negative shift of the CO oxidation peak potential, and a 0.07 V positive shift of the oxygen reaction potential compared to Pt nanoparticles on pristine TiO2 support were achieved by tuning the electronic structure of the titanium oxide support of Pt nanoparticle catalysts. This was accomplished by adding oxygen vacancies or doping with fluorine. Experimental trends are interpreted in the context of an electronic structure model, showing an improvement in electrochemical activity when the Fermi level of the support material in Pt/TiOx systems is close to the Pt Fermi level and the redox potential of the reaction. The present approach provides guidance for the selection of the support material of Pt/TiOx systems and may be applied to other metal-oxide support materials, thus having direct implications in the design and optimization of fuel cell catalyst supports. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  5. 78 FR 40427 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 183-Austin, Texas; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Samsung...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-05

    ... Activity; Samsung Austin Semiconductor, LLC (Semiconductors); Austin, Texas Samsung Austin Semiconductor... authority to produce semiconductor memory devices for export within Subzone 183B. The current request...

  6. Particle size analyses of porous silica and hybrid silica chromatographic support particles. Comparison of flow/hyperlayer field-flow fractionation with scanning electron microscopy, electrical sensing zone, and static light scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuehong

    2008-05-16

    Porous silica and hybrid silica chromatographic support particles having particle diameters ranging approximately from 1 microm to 15 microm have been characterized by flow/hyperlayer field-flow fractionation (FFF). The particle size accuracy has been improved significantly in this work by a second-order polynomial calibration. Very good agreement between the FFF data and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) results has been achieved. The effects of particle porosity, pore sizes, and particle sizes on the particle size accuracy in electrical sensing zone (ESZ) analyses have been discussed. It has been demonstrated by computer simulation and experimental measurements that false peaks can be generated in certain particle size regions when the static light scattering (SLS) technique is applied to tightly distributed spherical chromatographic support particles.

  7. The potential for the exploration of activity patterns in the urban landscape with GPS-positioning and electronic activity diaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovgesen, Henrik Harder; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick; Lassen, Claus

    2005-01-01

    rythms affects the different parts of the city. GPS-based tracking has previously mainly been used to track vehicle movements, fx. in transportation surveys. The use of personal devices makes it foremost possible to place the individual respondents use of urban space in its context of transport routes......, other locations visited and the individuals total time budget. In the cross-disciplinary research project Space – Time – Flows currently being started at Aalborg University, the GPS/electronic diary technology is intended as a means to disclosure the imprint of information and communication technologies...... on the use of urban space. The core of the work will be an equal treatment of activities in the virtual as well as the physical world. Substitution effects between the virtual and the physical world will be in focus, together with differences between the spatio-temporal patterns of groups with different...

  8. Cockade-textured cataclasite and silica gel from damage zone in carbonated ultramafics: markers of cycles of seismic activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarsi, Marco; Crispini, Laura; Garofalo, Paolo; Capponi, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    Shallow crustal processes occurring during seismic slips and generating fracture networks are of great interest due to their complex interplay with a spectrum of other geological processes . Our study focuses on faults with peculiar core textures, similar to those of "cockade breccia" (Genna et al., 1996) and "clast cortex grains" (Rempe et al., 2014), and on their relation with syntectonic hydrothermal alteration linked with Au bearing-quartz and chalcedony veins. Our work aims to study the enviromental conditions for the formation of such peculiar texture, their relation with the hydrothermal vein system and their potential as shallow seismic indicators. We present field, microstructural and petrochemical data of a peculiar damage zone of fault rocks located in carbonated peridotites and serpentinites of the Ligurian Alps (Voltri Massif, Italy). These are mainly reverse faults, which are coeval with syntectonic Au-bearing quartz veins and chalcedony veins (Giorza et al., 2010), in which lherzolites occupy the hangingwall of the faults and serpentinites the footwall. The fault rocks show evidence for carbonation, as olivine and serpentine are clearly transformed into an assemblage made of magnesite, dolomite and minor ankerite. The damage zones of the faults are serpentinite-rich and about 10 m in thickness, while the cataclasite cores are carbonate-rich and ca. 1 m thick. The top of the fault core shows the occurrence of a chalcedony shear veins with chatter marks and slikenlines on the surface. The "cockade breccia" is made of spherical aggregates of Fe-Mg carbonates and are 1 mm to 3 cm in size. These aggregates show cores of microcrystalline Fe-Mg carbonates, and concentric outer layers of relatively coarser Fe-Mg carbonates with radial or laminated texture. In some cases, these aggregates show evidence for rotation along secondary slip zones. We interpret all these features as the products of chemical interaction between the olivine and serpentine initially

  9. 78 FR 8493 - Foreign-Trade Zone 45-Portland, OR; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; SoloPower Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... Activity; SoloPower Inc. (Thin Film Photovoltaic Solar Panels); Portland, OR SoloPower Inc. (SoloPower) has... production of thin film photovoltaic solar panels. Pursuant to 15 CFR 400.14(b), FTZ activity would be... sourced from abroad include: Polymer film; diodes; conductive paste; junction boxes; sealant;...

  10. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Open Area Vertical Stacks, More than 8 Hours, 5 Foot Stack Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  11. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Open Area Vertical Stacks, More than 8 Hours, 10 Foot Stack Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  12. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Open Area Vertical Stacks , 8 Hours or Less, 5 Foot Stack Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  13. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Attached Vertical Stacks, 8 Hours or Less, 50 Foot Stack Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  14. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Open Area Vertical Stacks, More than 8 Hours, 50 Foot Stack Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  15. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Attached Vertical Stacks, More than 8 hours, 10 Foot Stack Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  16. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Attached Vertical Stacks , 8 Hours or Less, 25 Foot Stack Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  17. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Open Area Vertical Stacks, 8 Hours or Less, 25 Foot Stack Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  18. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Open Area Vertical Stacks, More than 8 Hours, 25 Foot Stack Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  19. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Attached Vertical Stacks, More than 8 hours, 25 Foot Stack Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  20. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Attached Vertical Stacks, More than 8 hours, 50 Foot Stack Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  1. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Attached Vertical Stacks , 8 Hours or Less, 10 Foot Stack Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  2. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Open Area Vertical Stacks, 8 Hours or Less, 50 Foot Stack Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  3. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Open Area Vertical Stacks, 8 Hours or Less, 10 Foot Stack Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  4. The neural elements in the lining of the ventricular-subventricular zone: making an old story new by high-resolution scanning electron microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alexandre Dos Santos Haemmerle

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The classical description of the neural elements that compose the lining of brain ventricles introduces us to the single layer of ependymal cells. However, new findings, especially in the lateral ventricle - the major niche for the generation of new neurons in the adult brain - have provided information about additional cell elements that influence the organization of this part of the ventricular system and produce important contributions to neurogenesis. To complement the cell neurochemistry findings, we present a three-dimensional in situ description that demonstrates the anatomical details of the different types of ciliated cells and the innervation of these elements. After processing adult rat brains for ultrastructural analysis by high-resolution scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, we observed a heterogeneous pattern of cilia distribution at the different poles of the lateral ventricle surface. Furthermore, we describe the particular three-dimensional aspects of the ciliated cells of the lateral ventricle, in addition the fiber bundles and varicose axons surrounding these cells. Therefore, we provide a unique ultrastructural description of the three-dimensional in situ organization of the lateral ventricle surface, highlighting its innervation, to corroborate the available neurochemical and functional findings regarding the factors that regulate this neurogenic niche.

  5. The neural elements in the lining of the ventricular-subventricular zone: making an old story new by high-resolution scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haemmerle, Carlos Alexandre Dos Santos; Nogueira, Maria Inês; Watanabe, Ii-Sei

    2015-01-01

    The classical description of the neural elements that compose the lining of brain ventricles introduces us to the single layer of ependymal cells. However, new findings, especially in the lateral ventricle (LV)-the major niche for the generation of new neurons in the adult brain-have provided information about additional cell elements that influence the organization of this part of the ventricular system and produce important contributions to neurogenesis. To complement the cell neurochemistry findings, we present a three-dimensional in situ description that demonstrates the anatomical details of the different types of ciliated cells and the innervation of these elements. After processing adult rat brains for ultrastructural analysis by high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM) and transmission electron microscopy, we observed a heterogeneous pattern of cilia distribution at the different poles of the LV surface. Furthermore, we describe the particular three-dimensional aspects of the ciliated cells of the LV, in addition the fiber bundles and varicose axons surrounding these cells. Therefore, we provide a unique ultrastructural description of the three-dimensional in situ organization of the LV surface, highlighting its innervation, to corroborate the available neurochemical and functional findings regarding the factors that regulate this neurogenic niche.

  6. Hourly activity of Lutzomyia neivai in the endemic zone of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Tucumán, Argentina: preliminary results

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Denise Fuenzalida; María Gabriela Quintana; Oscar Daniel Salomón; Mercedes Sara Lizarralde de Grosso

    2011-01-01

    In the present work, the hourly activity of Lutzomyia neivai was studied in the southern part of the province of Tucumán, Argentina, in an area of transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis during two months of higher activity. In addition, the variables that influenced the abundance of Lu. neivai were evaluated. A total of 1,146 individuals belonging to Lu. neivai (97%) and Lutzomyia migonei (3%) were captured. The hourly activity of Lu. neivai was mainly nocturnal, with a bimodal pattern in bo...

  7. Definition and Paleoseismology of the Active, Left-Lateral Enriquillo-Plantain Garden Fault Zone Based on High-Resolution Chirp Profiles: Lakes Azuey and Mirogoane, Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Mann, P.; von Lignau, A. V.

    2014-12-01

    In July 2014, we obtained a total of 94 km of high-resolution Chirp profiles from the 129 km2, brackish Lake Azuey and 37 km of profiles from the 14 km2, fresh water Lake Mirogoane that both straddle the active trace of the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault zone (EPGFZ) of Haiti. 80% of the grid on Azuey and 85% on Mirogoane was dedicated to north-south profiles of the EPGFZ. In Azuey we defined the linear and east-west-striking fault trace in deformed Holocene sediments along with its landfalls west of Lake Azuey in Haiti and east of Lake Azuey in the Dominican Republic. All profiles showed the fault to be a sub-vertical flower structure whose active traces could be traced on Chirp data to a depth of 30 m below the lake floor. Previous workers have suggested that this fault ruptured during a large November, 1751, earthquake with a parallel and elongate felt zone. We hypothesize the most recent break of the fault several meters below the lake floor to have formed during the 1751 event but plan a coring program to precisely constrain the timing of historical and prehistorical events based on syn-faulting colluvial wedges observed on Chirp profiles. Our survey of Mirogoane confirmed its rhomboidal pull-apart structure with the basin center at a depth of 42-8 m making this basin the deepest lake in the Caribbean region. Deformational features include active folds at the lake bottom, large oblique-slip normal faults at an angle to the bounding east-west faults, and 30 m of recognizable stratigraphy. The 7 m of Holocene cored in the basin center in 1988 is observed to be highly deformed and locally folded and overlies with angular unconformity a well stratified and more folded lower basinal unit. Historical events are proposed to have ruptured on or near this segment of the EPGFZ in 1701 and 1770.

  8. Active crustal deformation of the El Salvador Fault Zone by integrating geodetic, seismological and geological data: application in seismic hazard assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staller, A.; Benito, B.; Martínez-Díaz, J.; Hernández, D.; Hernández-Rey, R.

    2013-05-01

    El Salvador, Central America, is part of the Chortis block in the northwestern boundary of the Caribbean plate. This block is interacting with a diffuse triple junction point with the Cocos and North American plates. Among the structures that cut the Miocene to Pleistocene volcanic deposits stands out the El Salvador Fault Zone (ESFZ): It is oriented in N90-100E direction, and it is composed of several structural segments that deform Quaternary deposits with right-lateral and oblique slip motions. The ESFZ is seismically active and capable of producing earthquakes such as the February 13, 2001 with Mw 6.6 (Martínez-Díaz et al., 2004), that seriously affected the population, leaving many casualties. This structure plays an important role in the tectonics of the Chortis block, since its motion is directly related to the drift of the Caribbean plate to the east and not with the partitioning of the deformation of the Cocos subduction (here not coupled) (Álvarez-Gómez et al., 2008). Together with the volcanic arc of El Salvador, this zone constitutes a weakness area that allows the motion of forearc block toward the NW. The geometry and the degree of activity of the ESFZ are not studied enough. However their knowledge is essential to understand the seismic hazard associated to this important seismogenic structure. For this reason, since 2007 a GPS dense network was established along the ESFZ (ZFESNet) in order to obtain GPS velocity measurements which are later used to explain the nature of strain accumulation on major faults along the ESFZ. The current work aims at understanding active crustal deformation of the ESFZ through kinematic model. The results provide significant information to be included in a new estimation of seismic hazard taking into account the major structures in ESFZ.

  9. Identifying active structures in the Kayak Island and Pamplona Zones: Implications for offshore tectonics of the Yakutat Microplate, Gulf of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Lindsay L.; Gulick, Sean P. S.; Pavlis, Terry L.

    Within the northern Gulf of Alaska, the Yakutat (YAK) microplate obliquely collides with and subducts beneath the North American (NA) continent at near-Pacific plate velocities. We investigate the extent that thin-skinned deformation on offshore structures located within the western portion of the unsubducted YAK block accommodates YAK-NA convergence. We compare faulting and folding observed on high-resolution and basin-scale multichannel seismic (MCS) reflection data with earthquake locations and surface ruptures observed on high-resolution bathymetric data. Holocene sediments overlying the Kayak Island fault zone (KIZ), previously interpreted as a region of active contraction, are relatively flat-lying, suggesting that active convergence within the KIZ is waning. Seismic reflection profiles east of KIZ show up to ˜200 m of undisturbed sediments overlying older folds in the Bering Trough, indicating that this area has been tectonically inactive since at least the last ˜1.3 Ma. Farther east, MCS profiles image active deformation in surface sediments along the eastern edge of the Pamplona zone (PZ) fold-and-thrust belt, that are collocated with a concentration of earthquake events that continues southwest to Khitrov Ridge and onshore through Icy Bay. These observations suggest that during the late Quaternary offshore shallow deformation style changed from distributed across the western Yakutat block to localized at the eastern edge of the PZ with extrusion of sediments southwest through the Khitrov Ridge area to the Aleutian Trench. This shallow deformation is interpreted as deformation of an accretionary complex above a shallow decollement.

  10. Current genetic differentiation of Coffea canephora Pierre ex A. Froehn in the Guineo-Congolian African zone: cumulative impact of ancient climatic changes and recent human activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kochko Alexandre de

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among Coffea species, C. canephora has the widest natural distribution area in tropical African forests. It represents a good model for analyzing the geographical distribution of diversity in relation to locations proposed as part of the "refuge theory". In this study, we used both microsatellite (simple sequence repeat, SSR and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP markers to investigate the genetic variation pattern of C. canephora in the Guineo-Congolean distribution zone. Results Both markers were first compared in terms of their informativeness and efficiency in a study of genetic diversity and relationships among wild C. canephora genotypes. As expected, SSR markers were found to have a higher genetic distance detection capacity than RFLP. Nevertheless, similarity matrices showed significant correlations when Mantel's test was carried out (r = 0.66, p Conclusion Our data suggested that the Dahomey Gap, a biogeographical barrier, played a role in wild C. canephora differentiation. Climatic variations during the Pleistocene and/or Holocene probably caused the subgroup differentiation in the Congolese zone through the presence of a mosaic of putative refugia. Recent hybridization between C. canephora diversity groups, both for spontaneous individuals and cultivars, was further characterised according to their geographic dissemination or breeding history as a consequence of human activities.

  11. Centrifugal partition extraction in the pH-zone-refining displacement mode: an efficient strategy for the screening and isolation of biologically active phenolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzaoui, Mahmoud; Renault, Jean-Hugues; Reynaud, Romain; Hubert, Jane

    2013-10-15

    Centrifugal partition extraction (CPE) was developed for the first time in the pH-zone-refining mode to fractionate a crude bark extract of the African tree Anogeissus leiocarpus Guill. & Perr. (Combretaceae). The fractionation process was performed at a flow rate of 20mL/min using a biphasic solvent system composed of methyl tert-butyl ether/acetonitrile/water (4:1:5, v/v/v) in the ascending mode. Sodium hydroxide (40mM) and trifluoroacetic acid (30mM) were used as retainer and displacer agents, respectively. In a single run of 67min, 3g of the initial crude extract were successfully separated into fractions selectively enriched in ionizable triterpenes, ellagic acid derivatives and flavonoids. The antioxidant potential of the initial crude extract, isolated compounds and fraction pools was also evaluated by using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) stable free radical scavenging assay, providing an interesting view about the effect of the degree of substitution of ellagic acid derivatives on their radical scavenging activity. This study will demonstrate that centrifugal partition extraction used in the pH-zone-refining mode can be proposed as an efficient strategy for the rapid screening of natural phenolic compounds.

  12. Identification of the epileptogenic zone in patients with tuberous sclerosis : Concordance of interictal and ictal epileptiform activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heide, Astrid; van Huffelen, Alexander C.; Spetgens, Willy P. J.; Ferrier, Cyrille H.; van Nieuwenhuizen, Onno; Jansen, Floor E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: In the majority of patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) multifocal epileptiform activity is present interictally. Therefore, its value in identifying epilepsy surgery candidates has been doubted. We hypothesize that dominant interictal epileptiform foci are concordant with the i

  13. 78 FR 79390 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 265-Conroe, Texas, Notification of Proposed Production Activity, Bauer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-30

    ... Activity, Bauer Manufacturing Inc., (Pile Drivers, Boring Machinery, and Foundation Construction Equipment..., boring machinery, foundation construction equipment, foundation casings, related parts and sub-assemblies... construction equipment, foundation casings, and tools and accessories for pile drivers and boring...

  14. Response to Comment on "Stellar activity masquerading as planets in the habitable zone of the M dwarf Gliese 581"

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, Paul; Endl, Michael; Roy, Arpita

    2015-01-01

    Anglada-Escud\\'e and Tuomi question the statistical rigor of our analysis while ignoring the stellar activity aspects that we present. Although we agree that improvements in multiparametric radial velocity (RV) modeling are necessary for the detection of Earth-mass planets, the key physical points we raised were not challenged. We maintain that activity on Gliese 581 induces RV shifts that were interpreted as exoplanets.

  15. Lighting-induced Electron Precipitation (LEP) Events versus Geomagnetic Activity: A Probe Tool to Re-Evaluate the Electron Radiation Belt Loss Mechanisms (P16)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, J. H.; Raulin, J.-P.; Correia, E.; Brum, C. G. M.

    2006-11-01

    We present the first results of an incipient attempt to re-model the Van Allen electron radiation belts equilibrium mechanisms. During the 23rd cycle solar minimum period (1995-1997) the Lightning- induced Electron Precipitation (LEP) events (electron precipitation from the geo-space to the upper Earth atmosphere) occurrence at the Antarctica Peninsula region was collected and studied. With statistical techniques we have reproduced the pattern of the events incidence during that period. The year 1998 was also analyzed and two well-defined geomagnetic storms (01-07 May and 26-31 Aug) were studied in association with the Trimpi events data. We have confirmed the narrow relationship between events occurrence rate and geomagnetic activity. The next step, in order to carry on the model, will be the modeling of the solar maximum LEP occurrence and to compute these results in the present radiation belts population models.

  16. Highly n-Type Titanium Oxide as an Electronically Active Support for Platinum in the Catalytic Oxidation of Carbon Monoxide

    KAUST Repository

    Baker, L. Robert

    2011-08-18

    The role of the oxide-metal interface in determining the activity and selectivity of chemical reactions catalyzed by metal particles on an oxide support is an important topic in science and industry. A proposed mechanism for this strong metal-support interaction is electronic activation of surface adsorbates by charge carriers. Motivated by the goal of using electronic activation to drive nonthermal chemistry, we investigated the ability of the oxide support to mediate charge transfer. We report an approximately 2-fold increase in the turnover rate of catalytic carbon monoxide oxidation on platinum nanoparticles supported on stoichiometric titanium dioxide (TiO2) when the TiO2 is made highly n-type by fluorine (F) doping. However, for nonstoichiometric titanium oxide (TiOX<2) the effect of F on the turnover rate is negligible. Studies of the titanium oxide electronic structure show that the energy of free electrons in the oxide determines the rate of reaction. These results suggest that highly n-type TiO2 electronically activates adsorbed oxygen (O) by electron spillover to form an active O- intermediate. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  17. A novel position and time sensing active pixel sensor with field-assisted electron collection for charged particle tracking and electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Geronimo, G. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Instrumentation Division, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Deptuch, G. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Instrumentation Division, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Dragone, A. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Instrumentation Division, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Radeka, V. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Instrumentation Division, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Rehak, P. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Instrumentation Division, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States)]. E-mail: rehak@bnl.gov; Castoldi, A. [Politecnico di Milano, Dip. Ingegneria Nucleare, 20133 Milan (Italy); INFN Sez. Milano, 20133 Milan (Italy); Fazzi, A. [Politecnico di Milano, Dip. Ingegneria Nucleare, 20133 Milan (Italy); INFN Sez. Milano, 20133 Milan (Italy); Gatti, E. [Politecnico di Milano, Dip. Elettronica e Informazione, 20133 Milan (Italy); INFN Sez. Milano, 20133 Milan (Italy); Guazzoni, C. [Politecnico di Milano, Dip. Elettronica e Informazione, 20133 Milan (Italy); INFN Sez. Milano, 20133 Milan (Italy); Rijssenbeek, M. [Physics Department of State University of New York at Stony Brook, NY 11790 (United States); Dulinski, W. [Institut de Recherches Subatomiques, 23 rue du Loess BP 28, 67037 Strasbourg cedex (France); Besson, A. [Institut de Recherches Subatomiques, 23 rue du Loess BP 28, 67037 Strasbourg cedex (France); Deveaux, M. [Institut de Recherches Subatomiques, 23 rue du Loess BP 28, 67037 Strasbourg cedex (France); Winter, M. [Institut de Recherches Subatomiques, 23 rue du Loess BP 28, 67037 Strasbourg cedex (France)

    2006-11-30

    A new type of active pixel sensors (APSs) to track charged particles for particle physics experiments or to count number of electrons that cross any pixel at the focal plane of electron microscopes is described. The electric field of desirable shape is created inside the active volume of the pixel introducing the drift component in the movement of the signal electrons towards charge collecting electrodes. The electric field results from the flow of {approx}100 mA/cm{sup 2} hole currents within individual pixels of the sensor. The proposed sensor is produced using a standard industrially available complementary metal oxide silicon (CMOS) process. There are two main advantages of the proposed detectors when compared to the present (February 2005) state-of-the-art, i.e. field-free APS sensors. The first advantage of a field-assisted transport mechanism is the reduction of the charge collection time and of the sharing of the signal electrons between adjacent pixels by diffusion. The second advantage is the freedom to use both kinds of MOS transistors within each pixel of the sensor. Thus, the full functional power of CMOS circuits can be embedded in situ. As an example, 16-bit scalers will be implemented in each pixel of the sensor for electron microscopy. The reduced collection time combined with the state-of-the-art electronics within each pixel provides the most complete information about the position and the timing of incident charged particles for particle physics experiments. Position resolution of new sensors was computationally simulated to be a few microns, that is, the same as the resolution of standard APSs. Moreover, the active depth of the sensor and the associate electronics is less than about 20 {mu}m and a thinned down sensor together with its beryllium backing can have a total thickness of less than 0.1% of one radiation length. The reduction of the thickness of the detector reduces the amount of multiple scattering within the detector. The

  18. Electronics drivers for high voltage dielectric electro active polymer (DEAP) applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhe; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2015-04-01

    Dielectric electro active polymer (DEAP) can be used in actuation, sensing and energy harvesting applications, but driving the DEAP based actuators and generators has three main challenges from a power electronics standpoint, i.e. high voltage (around 2.5 kV), nonlinearity, and capacitive behavior. In this paper, electronics divers for heating valves, loud speakers, incremental motors, and energy harvesting are reviewed, studied and developed in accordance with their corresponding specifications. Due to the simplicity and low power capacity (below 10W), the reversible Fly-back converters with both magnetic and piezoelectric transformers are employed for the heating valve and incremental motor application, where only ON/OFF regulation is adopted for energy saving; as for DEAP based energy harvesting, the noisolated Buck/Boost converter is used, due to the system high power capacity (above 100W), but the voltage balancing across the series-connected high voltage IGBTs is a critical issue and accordingly a novel gate driver circuitry is proposed and equipped; due to the requirements of the audio products, such as low distortion and noise, the multi-level Buck converter based Class-D amplifier, because of its high control linearity, is implemented for the loud speaker applications. A synthesis among those converter topologies and control techniques is given; therefore, for those DEAP based applications, their diversity and similarity of electronics drivers, as well as the key technologies employed are analyzed. Therefore a whole picture of how to choose the proper topologies can be revealed. Finally, the design guidelines in order to achieve high efficiency and reliability are discussed.

  19. ISOLDE target zone control room

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Operating the ISOLDE target handling robots from the dedicated control room in building 197. Monitors showing the movements of the robots (GPS in this case) in the target zone. The footage shows the actual operation by the operator as well as the different equipment such as camera electronics, camera motor controls, camera monitors and Kuka robot controls touch panel.

  20. Nanoscale Structure of Self-Assembling Hybrid Materials of Inorganic and Electronically Active Organic Phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sofos, M.; Goswami, D.A. Stone D.K.; Okasinski, J.S.; Jin, H.; Bedzyk, M.J.; Stupp, S.I. (NWU)

    2008-10-06

    Hybrid materials with nanoscale structure that incorporates inorganic and organic phases with electronic properties offer potential in an extensive functional space that includes photovoltaics, light emission, and sensing. This work describes the nanoscale structure of model hybrid materials with phases of silica and electronically active bola-amphiphile assemblies containing either oligo(p-phenylene vinylene) or oligo(thiophene) segments. The hybrid materials studied here were synthesized by evaporation-induced self-assembly and characterized by X-ray scattering techniques. Grazing-incidence X-ray scattering studies of these materials revealed the formation of two-dimensional hexagonally packed cylindrical micelles of the organic molecules with diameters between 3.1 and 3.6 nm and cylindrical axes parallel to the surface. During the self-assembly process at low pH, the cylindrical aggregates of conjugated molecules become surrounded by silica giving rise to a hybrid structure with long-range order. Specular X-ray reflectivity confirmed the long-range periodicity of the hybrid films within a specific range of molar ratios of tetraethyl orthosilicate to cationic amphiphile. We did not observe any long-range ordering in fully organic analogues unless quaternary ammonium groups were replaced by tertiary amines. These observations suggest that charge screening in these biscationic conjugated molecules by the mineral phase is a key factor in the evolution of long range order in the self-assembling hybrids.

  1. Major electron events and coronal magnetic configurations of the related solar active regions

    CERN Document Server

    Li, C; Matthews, S A; Dai, Y; Tang, Y H

    2013-01-01

    A statistical survey of 26 major electron events during the period 2002 February through the end of solar cycle 23 is presented. We have obtained electron solar onset times and the peak flux spectra for each event by fitting to a powerlaw spectrum truncated by an exponential high-energy tail. We also derived the coronal magnetic configurations of the related solar active regions (ARs) from the potential-field source-surface model. It is found that (1) 10 of the 11 well-connected open field-line events are prompt events whose solar onset times coincide with the maxima of flare emission and 13 of the 14 closed field-line events are delayed events. (2) A not-wellconnected open field-line event and one of the closed field-line events are prompt events, they are both associated with large-scale coronal disturbances or dimming. (3)An averaged harder spectrum is found in open field-line events compared with the closed ones. Specifically, the averaged spectral index is of 1.6 +/- 0.3 in open field-line events and of ...

  2. Using Electronic Neutron Generators in Active Interrogation to Detect Shielded Fissionable Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. L. Chichester; E. H. Seabury

    2008-10-01

    Experiments have been performed at Idaho National Laboratory to study methodology and instrumentation for performing neutron active interrogation die-away analyses for the purpose of detecting shielded fissionable material. Here we report initial work using a portable DT electronic neutron generator with a He-3 fast neutron detector to detect shielded fissionable material including >2 kg quantities of enriched uranium and plutonium. Measurements have been taken of bare material as well as of material hidden within a large plywood cube. Results from this work have demonstrated the efficacy of the die-away neutron measurement technique for quickly detecting the presence of special nuclear material hidden within plywood shields by analyzing the time dependent neutron signals in-between neutron generator pulses. Using a DT electronic neutron generator operating at 300 Hz with a yield of approximately 0.36 x 10**8 neutrons per second, 2.2 kg of enriched uranium hidden within a 0.60 m x 0.60 m x 0.70 m volume of plywood was positively detected with a measurement signal 2-sigma above the passive background within 1 second. Similarly, for a 500 second measurement period a lower detection limit of approaching the gram level could be expected with the same simple set-up.

  3. Metabolic transistor strategy for controlling electron transfer chain activity in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hui; Tuli, Leepika; Bennett, George N; San, Ka-Yiu

    2015-03-01

    A novel strategy to finely control a large metabolic flux by using a "metabolic transistor" approach was established. In this approach a small change in the level or availability of an essential component for the process is controlled by adding a competitive reaction that affects a precursor or an intermediate in its biosynthetic pathway. The change of the basal level of the essential component, considered as a base current in a transistor, has a large effect on the flux through the major pathway. In this way, the fine-tuning of a large flux can be accomplished. The "metabolic transistor" strategy was applied to control electron transfer chain function by manipulation of the quinone synthesis pathway in Escherichia coli. The achievement of a theoretical yield of lactate production under aerobic conditions via this strategy upon manipulation of the biosynthetic pathway of the key participant, ubiquinone-8 (Q8), in an E. coli strain provides an in vivo, genetically tunable means to control the activity of the electron transfer chain and manipulate the production of reduced products while limiting consumption of oxygen to a defined amount.

  4. Active vacuum brazing of CNT films to metal substrates for superior electron field emission performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longtin, Rémi; Sanchez-Valencia, Juan Ramon; Shorubalko, Ivan; Furrer, Roman; Hack, Erwin; Elsener, Hansrudolf; Gröning, Oliver; Greenwood, Paul; Rupesinghe, Nalin; Teo, Kenneth; Leinenbach, Christian; Gröning, Pierangelo

    2015-02-01

    The joining of macroscopic films of vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to titanium substrates is demonstrated by active vacuum brazing at 820 °C with a Ag-Cu-Ti alloy and at 880 °C with a Cu-Sn-Ti-Zr alloy. The brazing methodology was elaborated in order to enable the production of highly electrically and thermally conductive CNT/metal substrate contacts. The interfacial electrical resistances of the joints were measured to be as low as 0.35 Ω. The improved interfacial transport properties in the brazed films lead to superior electron field-emission properties when compared to the as-grown films. An emission current of 150 μA was drawn from the brazed nanotubes at an applied electric field of 0.6 V μm-1. The improvement in electron field-emission is mainly attributed to the reduction of the contact resistance between the nanotubes and the substrate. The joints have high re-melting temperatures up to the solidus temperatures of the alloys; far greater than what is achievable with standard solders, thus expanding the application potential of CNT films to high-current and high-power applications where substantial frictional or resistive heating is expected.

  5. Activated regulatory T cell regulates neural stem cell proliferation in the subventricular zone of normal and ischemic mouse brain through interleukin 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jixian; Xie, Luokun; Yang, Chenqi; Ren, Changhong; Zhou, Kaijing; Wang, Brian; Zhang, Zhijun; Wang, Yongting; Jin, Kunlin; Yang, Guo-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that the depletion of Regulatory T cells (Tregs) inhibits neural progenitor cell migration after brain ischemia. However, whether Tregs affect neural stem/progenitor cell proliferation is unclear. We explored the effect of Tregs on neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) after ischemia. Tregs were isolated and activated in vitro. Adult male C57BL/6 mice underwent 60 min transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO). Then Tregs (1 × 105) were injected into the left lateral ventricle (LV) of normal and ischemic mouse brain. Neurogenesis was determined by immunostaining. The mechanism was examined by inhibiting interleukin 10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor (TGF-β) signaling. We found that the number of BrdU+ cells in the SVZ was significantly increased in the activated Tregs-treated mice. Double immunostaining showed that these BrdU+ cells expressed Mash1. Blocking IL-10 reduced the number of Mash1+/BrdU+ cells, but increased the amount of GFAP+/BrdU+ cells. Here, we conclude that activated Tregs enhanced neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation in the SVZ of normal and ischemic mice; blockage of IL-10 abolished Tregs-mediated NSC proliferation in vivo and in vitro. Our results suggest that activated Tregs promoted NSC proliferation via IL-10, which provides a new therapeutic approach for ischemic stroke. PMID:26441532

  6. Hourly activity of Lutzomyia neivai in the endemic zone of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Tucumán, Argentina: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuenzalida, Ana Denise; Quintana, María Gabriela; Salomón, Oscar Daniel; de Grosso, Mercedes Sara Lizarralde

    2011-08-01

    In the present work, the hourly activity of Lutzomyia neivai was studied in the southern part of the province of Tucumán, Argentina, in an area of transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis during two months of higher activity. In addition, the variables that influenced the abundance of Lu. neivai were evaluated. A total of 1,146 individuals belonging to Lu. neivai (97%) and Lutzomyia migonei (3%) were captured. The hourly activity of Lu. neivai was mainly nocturnal, with a bimodal pattern in both months. In January, the variable that most influenced the abundance of Lu. neivai was the temperature, whereas in April, that variable was humidity. These results may contribute to the design of anti-vectorial control measures at a micro-focal scale.

  7. Hourly activity of Lutzomyia neivai in the endemic zone of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Tucumán, Argentina: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Denise Fuenzalida

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the hourly activity of Lutzomyia neivai was studied in the southern part of the province of Tucumán, Argentina, in an area of transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis during two months of higher activity. In addition, the variables that influenced the abundance of Lu. neivai were evaluated. A total of 1,146 individuals belonging to Lu. neivai (97% and Lutzomyia migonei (3% were captured. The hourly activity of Lu. neivai was mainly nocturnal, with a bimodal pattern in both months. In January, the variable that most influenced the abundance of Lu. neivai was the temperature, whereas in April, that variable was humidity. These results may contribute to the design of anti-vectorial control measures at a micro-focal scale.

  8. The vasomotor component of the orienting response in man related to spontaneous fluctuation of vasomotor activity in the acral skin zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellerová, E; Ruttkay-Nedecký, I

    1978-10-01

    A plethymographic study of the effect of a weak indifferent light or sound stimulus and of a physically identical light stimulus with signal meaning on vasomotor activity in the acral skin zone of man has shown that during stimulus presentation there was a significant rise in the percent of occurrence of vasmotor waves corresponding to the criteria for the vasomotor orienting response (VOR). VOR is elicited significantly more often by stimuli with signal meaning than by physically identical indifferent stimuli. After the acute extinction or VOR disinhibition followed in all cases, and after 40--60 repeated stimuli the occurrence of VOR was still significant. Repeated stimuli had a significant effect on the course of the plethysmographic curve, especially on the component of waves of third order, changing the frequency spectrum and time contingency of waves.

  9. Impact of active geomagnetic conditions on stimulated radiation during ionospheric second electron gyroharmonic heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordikar, M. R.; Scales, W. A.; Mahmoudian, A.; Kim, H.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Redmon, R.; Samimi, A. R.; Brizcinski, S.; McCarrick, M. J.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, narrowband emissions ordered near the H+ (proton) gyrofrequency (fcH) were reported in the stimulated electromagnetic emission (SEE) spectrum during active geomagnetic conditions. This work presents new observations and theoretical analysis of these recently discovered emissions. These emission lines are observed in the stimulated electromagnetic emission (SEE) spectrum when the transmitter is tuned near the second electron gyroharmonic frequency (2fce) during recent ionospheric modification experiments at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research (HAARP) facility near Gakona, Alaska. The spectral lines are typically shifted below and above the pump wave frequency by harmonics of a frequency roughly 10% less than fcH (≈ 800 Hz) with a narrow emission bandwidth less than the O+ gyrofrequency (≈ 50 Hz). However, new observations and analysis of emission lines ordered by a frequency approximately 10% greater than fcH are presented here for the first time as well. The interaction altitude for the heating for all the observations is in the range of 160 km up to 200 km. As described previously, proton precipitation due to active geomagnetic conditions is considered as the reason for the presence of H+ ions known to be a minor background constituent in this altitude region. DMSP satellite observations over HAARP during the heating experiments and ground-based magnetometer and riometer data validate active geomagnetic conditions. The theory of parametric decay instability in multi-ion component plasma including H+ ions as a minority species described in previous work is expanded in light of simultaneously observed preexisting SEE features to interpret the newly reported observations. Impact of active geomagnetic conditions on the SEE spectrum as a diagnostic tool for proton precipitation event characterization is discussed.

  10. Concepts and techniques: Active electronics and computers in safety-critical accelerator operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankel, R.S.

    1995-12-31

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory, requires an extensive Access Control System to protect personnel from Radiation, Oxygen Deficiency and Electrical hazards. In addition, the complicated nature of operation of the Collider as part of a complex of other Accelerators necessitates the use of active electronic measurement circuitry to ensure compliance with established Operational Safety Limits. Solutions were devised which permit the use of modern computer and interconnections technology for Safety-Critical applications, while preserving and enhancing, tried and proven protection methods. In addition a set of Guidelines, regarding required performance for Accelerator Safety Systems and a Handbook of design criteria and rules were developed to assist future system designers and to provide a framework for internal review and regulation.

  11. Protection of active implant electronics with organosilicon open air plasma coating for plastic overmolding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeppenfeld Matthias

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To overcome challenges for manufacturing of modern smart medical plastic parts by injection molding, e.g. for active implants, the optimization of the interface between electronics and the polymer component concerning adhesion and diffusion behavior is crucial. Our results indicate that a nano-sized SiOxCyHz layer formed by plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PE-CVD via open air atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ and by use of a hexamthyldisiloxane (HMDSO precursor can form a non-corrosive, anti-permeable and biocompatible coating. Due to the open air character of the APPJ process an inline coating before overmolding could be an easy applicable method and a promising advancement.

  12. Modular electron-transport chains from eukaryotic organelles function to support nitrogenase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianguo; Xie, Xiaqing; Yang, Mingxuan; Dixon, Ray; Wang, Yi-Ping

    2017-03-21

    A large number of genes are necessary for the biosynthesis and activity of the enzyme nitrogenase to carry out the process of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), which requires large amounts of ATP and reducing power. The multiplicity of the genes involved, the oxygen sensitivity of nitrogenase, plus the demand for energy and reducing power, are thought to be major obstacles to engineering BNF into cereal crops. Genes required for nitrogen fixation can be considered as three functional modules encoding electron-transport components (ETCs), proteins required for metal cluster biosynthesis, and the "core" nitrogenase apoenzyme, respectively. Among these modules, the ETC is important for the supply of reducing power. In this work, we have used Escherichia coli as a chassis to study the compatibility between molybdenum and the iron-only nitrogenases with ETC modules from target plant organelles, including chloroplasts, root plastids, and mitochondria. We have replaced an ETC module present in diazotrophic bacteria with genes encoding ferredoxin-NADPH oxidoreductases (FNRs) and their cognate ferredoxin counterparts from plant organelles. We observe that the FNR-ferredoxin module from chloroplasts and root plastids can support the activities of both types of nitrogenase. In contrast, an analogous ETC module from mitochondria could not function in electron transfer to nitrogenase. However, this incompatibility could be overcome with hybrid modules comprising mitochondrial NADPH-dependent adrenodoxin oxidoreductase and the Anabaena ferredoxins FdxH or FdxB. We pinpoint endogenous ETCs from plant organelles as power supplies to support nitrogenase for future engineering of diazotrophy in cereal crops.

  13. Active safety monitoring of new medical products using electronic healthcare data: Selecting alerting rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagne, Joshua J.; Rassen, Jeremy A.; Walker, Alexander M.; Glynn, Robert J.; Schneeweiss, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Active medical-product-safety surveillance systems are being developed to monitor many products and outcomes simultaneously in routinely collected longitudinal electronic healthcare data. These systems will rely on algorithms to generate alerts about potential safety concerns. METHODS We compared the performance of five classes of algorithms in simulated data using a sequential matched-cohort framework, and applied the results to two electronic healthcare databases to replicate monitoring of cerivastatin-induced rhabdomyolysis. We generated 600,000 simulated scenarios with varying expected event frequency in the unexposed, alerting threshold, and outcome risk in the exposed, and compared the alerting algorithms in each scenario type using an event-based performance metric. RESULTS We observed substantial variation in algorithm performance across the groups of scenarios. Relative performance varied by the event frequency and by user-defined preferences for sensitivity versus specificity. Type I error-based statistical testing procedures achieved higher event-based performance than other approaches in scenarios with few events, whereas statistical process control and disproportionality measures performed relatively better with frequent events. In the empirical data, we observed 6 cases of rhabdomyolysis among 4,294 person-years of follow-up, with all events occurring among cerivastatin-treated patients. All selected algorithms generated alerts before the drug was withdrawn from the market. CONCLUSION For active medical-product-safety monitoring in a sequential matched cohort framework, no single algorithm performed best in all scenarios. Alerting algorithm selection should be tailored to particular features of a product-outcome pair, including the expected event frequencies and trade-offs between false-positive and false-negative alerting. PMID:22266893

  14. 78 FR 37785 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 196-Fort Worth, Texas; Notification of Proposed Production Activity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... Production Activity; Flextronics International USA, Inc. (Mobile Phone Assembly and Kitting); Fort Worth..., testing, packaging, warehousing and distribution of mobile phones. Pursuant to 15 CFR 400.14(b), FTZ... FTZ Board. Production under FTZ procedures could exempt Flextronics from customs duty payments on...

  15. 78 FR 40427 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 32-Miami, Florida; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Almod...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-05

    ... Activity; Almod Diamonds, Ltd. (Jewelry and Precious Stones); Miami, Florida The Greater Miami Foreign... (restoration and repair) of jewelry comprised of precious metals and gemstones. Pursuant to 15 CFR 400.14(b... able to choose the duty rates during customs entry procedures that apply to jewelry, precious...

  16. Zoning of mucosal phenotype, dysplasia, and telomerase activity measured by telomerase repeat assay protocol in Barrett's esophagus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Going, JJ; Fletcher-Monaghan, AJ; Neilson, L; Wisman, BA; van der Zee, A; Stuart, RC; Keith, WN

    2004-01-01

    Glandular dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus may regress spontaneously but can also progress to cancer. The human telomerase RNA template and the human telomerase reverse transcriptase enzyme which do not, of themselves, correlate strongly with telomerase activity, are too often overexpressed in Barre

  17. Fluctuations of cambial activity in relation to precipitation result in annual rings and intra-annual growth zones of xylem and phloem in teak (Tectona grandis) in Ivory Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dié, Agathe; Kitin, Peter; Kouamé, François N'Guessan; Van den Bulcke, Jan; Van Acker, Joris; Beeckman, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Teak forms xylem rings that potentially carry records of carbon sequestration and climate in the tropics. These records are only useful when the structural variations of tree rings and their periodicity of formation are known. Methods The seasonality of ring formation in mature teak trees was examined via correlative analysis of cambial activity, xylem and phloem formation, and climate throughout 1·5 years. Xylem and phloem differentiation were visualized by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Key Results A 3 month dry season resulted in semi-deciduousness, cambial dormancy and formation of annual xylem growth rings (AXGRs). Intra-annual xylem and phloem growth was characterized by variable intensity. Morphometric features of cambium such as cambium thickness and differentiating xylem layers were positively correlated. Cambium thickness was strongly correlated with monthly rainfall (R2 = 0·7535). In all sampled trees, xylem growth zones (XGZs) were formed within the AXGRs during the seasonal development of new foliage. When trees achieved full leaf, the xylem in the new XGZs appeared completely differentiated and functional for water transport. Two phloem growth rings were formed in one growing season. Conclusions The seasonal formation pattern and microstructure of teak xylem suggest that AXGRs and XGZs can be used as proxies for analyses of the tree history and climate at annual and intra-annual resolution. PMID:22805529

  18. Fluctuations of cambial activity in relation to precipitation result in annual rings and intra-annual growth zones of xylem and phloem in teak (Tectona grandis) in Ivory Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dié, Agathe; Kitin, Peter; Kouamé, François N'guessan; Van den Bulcke, Jan; Van Acker, Joris; Beeckman, Hans

    2012-09-01

    Teak forms xylem rings that potentially carry records of carbon sequestration and climate in the tropics. These records are only useful when the structural variations of tree rings and their periodicity of formation are known. The seasonality of ring formation in mature teak trees was examined via correlative analysis of cambial activity, xylem and phloem formation, and climate throughout 1·5 years. Xylem and phloem differentiation were visualized by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. A 3 month dry season resulted in semi-deciduousness, cambial dormancy and formation of annual xylem growth rings (AXGRs). Intra-annual xylem and phloem growth was characterized by variable intensity. Morphometric features of cambium such as cambium thickness and differentiating xylem layers were positively correlated. Cambium thickness was strongly correlated with monthly rainfall (R(2) = 0·7535). In all sampled trees, xylem growth zones (XGZs) were formed within the AXGRs during the seasonal development of new foliage. When trees achieved full leaf, the xylem in the new XGZs appeared completely differentiated and functional for water transport. Two phloem growth rings were formed in one growing season. The seasonal formation pattern and microstructure of teak xylem suggest that AXGRs and XGZs can be used as proxies for analyses of the tree history and climate at annual and intra-annual resolution.

  19. C [bond] H activation by cationic platinum(II) complexes: ligand electronic and steric effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, H Annita; Labinger, Jay A; Bercaw, John E

    2002-02-20

    A series of bis(aryl)diimine-ligated methyl complexes of Pt(II) with various substituted aryl groups has been prepared. The cationic complexes [(ArN=CR [bond] CR=NAr)PtMe(L)](+)[BF(4)](-) (Ar = aryl; R = H, CH(3); L = water, trifluoroethanol) react smoothly with benzene at approximately room temperature in trifluoroethanol solvent to yield methane and the corresponding phenyl Pt(II) cations, via Pt(IV)-methyl-phenyl-hydrido intermediates. The reaction products of methyl-substituted benzenes suggest an inherent reactivity preference for aromatic over benzylic C [bond] H activation, which can however be overridden by steric effects. For the reaction of benzene with cationic Pt(II) complexes bearing 3,5-disubstituted aryl diimine ligands, the rate-determining step is C [bond] H activation, whereas for the more sterically crowded analogues with 2,6-dimethyl-substituted aryl groups, benzene coordination becomes rate-determining. This switch is manifested in distinctly different isotope scrambling and kinetic deuterium isotope effect patterns. The more electron-rich the ligand is, as assayed by the CO stretching frequency of the corresponding carbonyl cationic complex, the faster the rate of C [bond] H activation. Although at first sight this trend appears to be at odds with the common description of this class of reaction as electrophilic, the fact that the same trend is observed for the two different series of complexes, which have different rate-determining steps, suggests that this finding does not reflect the actual C [bond] H activation process, but rather reflects only the relative ease of benzene displacing a ligand to initiate the reaction; that is, the change in rates is mostly due to a ground-state effect. The stability of the aquo complex ground state in equilibrium with the solvento complex increases as the diimine ligand is made more electron-withdrawing. Several lines of evidence, including the mechanism of degenerate acetonitrile exchange for the methyl

  20. High level of mGluR7 in the presynaptic active zones of select populations of GABAergic terminals innervating interneurons in the rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, Peter; Dalezios, Yannis; Luján, Rafael; Roberts, J David B; Watanabe, Masahiko; Shigemoto, Ryuichi

    2003-06-01

    The release of neurotransmitters is modulated by presynaptic metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs), which show a highly selective expression and subcellular location in glutamatergic terminals in the hippocampus. Using immunocytochemistry, we investigated whether one of the receptors, mGluR7, whose level of expression is governed by the postsynaptic target, was present in GABAergic terminals and whether such terminals targeted particular cells. A total of 165 interneuron dendritic profiles receiving 466 synapses (82% mGluR7a-positive) were analysed. The presynaptic active zones of most GAD-(77%) or GABA-positive (94%) synaptic boutons on interneurons innervated by mGluR7a-enriched glutamatergic terminals (mGluR7a-decorated) were immunopositive for mGluR7a. GABAergic terminals on pyramidal cells and most other interneurons in str. oriens were mGluR7a-immunonegative. The mGluR7a-decorated cells were mostly somatostatin- and mGluR1alpha-immunopositive neurons in str. oriens and the alveus. Their GABAergic input mainly originated from VIP-positive terminals, 90% of which expressed high levels of mGluR7a in the presynaptic active zone. Parvalbumin-positive synaptic terminals were rare on mGluR7a-decorated cells, but on these neurons 73% of them were mGluR7a-immunopositive. Some type II synapses innervating interneurons were immunopositive for mGluR7b, as were some type I synapses. Because not all target cells of VIP-positive neurons are known it has not been possible to determine whether mGluR7 is expressed in a target-cell-specific manner in the terminals of single GABAergic cells. The activation of mGluR7 may decrease GABA release to mGluR7-decorated cells at times of high pyramidal cell activity, which elevates extracellular glutamate levels. Alternatively, the presynaptic receptor may be activated by as yet unidentified endogenous ligands released by the GABAergic terminals or the postsynaptic dendrites.

  1. Impact of fire, landscape position, aspect, and soil depth on microbial extracellular enzyme activities in the Jemez River Basin Critical Zone Observatory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbanks, D.; Murphy, M. A.; Frost, G.; Chorover, J.; Gallery, R. E.; Rich, V. I.

    2014-12-01

    Fire frequency and severity are increasing across the western US, and post-fire recovery and effects on critical zone structure are not fully understood. Resident microbiota (bacteria and fungi) transform the majority of carbon in ecosystems, and the structure of these communities influence seedling establishment and the trajectory of vegetative recovery as well as biogeochemical cycling. We surveyed changes in microbial composition and activity after wildfire to better understand soil microbial resilience and fire ecology. Specifically, we assessed potential extracellular enzyme activities in response to fire severity across landscape position and aspect. We sampled 18 days after containment of the June 2013 Thompson Ridge Fire in the Jemez River Basin Critical Zone Observatory, across a gradient of burn severities in a mixed-conifer zero order basin. We subsampled six depths through the surface soil profile and measured potential activities of seven hydrolytic enzymes using established fluorometric techniques. Four of these enzymes hydrolyze C-rich substrates (β-glucosidase [BG], β-D-cellubiosidase [CB], xylosidase [XYL], and α-glucosidase [AG], two hydrolyze N-rich substrates N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase [NAG] and leucine aminopeptidase [LAP]), and one hydrolyzes a P-rich substrate (acid phosphatase [PHOS]). Results showed decreased activities with depth for BG, CB, and LAP. Significantly higher potential enzyme activity was observed for convergent sites relative to planar or divergent sites across all depths sampled. Additionally, we looked at shifts in enzyme nutrient acquisition ratios that correspond with resource limitations relative to microbial stoichiometric demands. Higher acquisition potential is interpreted as greater resource allocation towards nutrient acquisition. Results showed a variance in resource acquisition potential with depth for C relative to N, with greater resources being allocated towards acquiring C at shallower depth. Conversely

  2. Modulation of Active Site Electronic Structure by the Protein Matrix to Control [NiFe] Hydrogenase Reactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Dayle MA; Raugei, Simone; Squier, Thomas C.

    2014-09-30

    Control of the reactivity of the nickel center of the [NiFe] hydrogenase and other metalloproteins commonly involves outer coordination sphere ligands that act to modify the geometry and physical properties of the active site metal centers. We carried out a combined set of classical molecular dynamics and quantum/classical mechanics calculations to provide quantitative estimates of how dynamic fluctuations of the active site within the protein matrix modulate the electronic structure at the catalytic center. Specifically we focused on the dynamics of the inner and outer coordination spheres of the cysteinate-bound Ni–Fe cluster in the catalytically active Ni-C state. There are correlated movements of the cysteinate ligands and the surrounding hydrogen-bonding network, which modulate the electron affinity at the active site and the proton affinity of a terminal cysteinate. On the basis of these findings, we hypothesize a coupling between protein dynamics and electron and proton transfer reactions critical to dihydrogen production.

  3. Nutraceutical potential, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Terfezia boudieri Chatin, a wild edible desert truffle from Tunisia arid zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina Hamza

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional composition, antioxidant and antibacterial properties of Terfezia boudieri Chatin, a desert truffle largely distributed in Southern Tunisia were evaluated. Carbohydrates were the most abundant macronutrients (62.03 g/100 g followed by proteins (26.12 g/100 g in T. boudieri truffle (dry mass. The ash content was 4.49 g/100 g dry mass and potassium, phosphorus, iron, and calcium were found to be particularly abundant in T. boudieri. The fat content of the truffle was 8 g/100 g dry mass, characterized by its higher content of the essential linoleic acid (n-6 (54.18%. Eight volatile compounds were identified by GC and GC/MS and they were dominated by fatty acids. The results of ascorbic acid, total carotenoids and total anthocyanins expressed on a truffle dry mass were 12.20 mg/100 g, 1.43 mg/100 g and 35.40 mg/100 g, respectively. The methanolic extract, containing the highest amounts of phenolics and flavonoids, displayed the highest DPPH radical-scavenging activity (IC50 = 0.20 mg/ml and the lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity (IC50 = 0.36 mg/ml. Furthermore, the truffle extracts were tested for their antibacterial activity against seven species of bacteria. The methanolic extract also exhibited remarkable inhibitory activity on the tested strains, which minimum inhibitory concentration values ranged from 0.25 to 1.3 mg/ml.

  4. Exoplanet detection. Comment on "Stellar activity masquerading as planets in the habitable zone of the M dwarf Gliese 581".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglada-Escudé, Guillem; Tuomi, Mikko

    2015-03-01

    Robertson et al. (Reports, 25 July 2014, p. 440) claimed that activity-induced variability is responsible for the Doppler signal of the proposed planet candidate GJ 581d. We point out that their analysis using periodograms of residual data is inappropriate and promotes inadequate tools. Because the claim challenges the viability of the method to detect exo-Earths, we encourage reanalysis and a deliberation on what the field-standard methods should be.

  5. Comment on "Stellar activity masquerading as planets in the habitable zone of the M dwarf Gliese 581"

    CERN Document Server

    Anglada-Escudé, Guillem

    2015-01-01

    Robertson et al.(Reports, July 25 2014, p440-444)(1) claimed that activity-induced variability is responsible for the Doppler signal of the proposed planet candidate GJ 581d. We point out that their analysis using periodograms of residual data is incorrect, further promoting inadequate tools. Since the claim challenges the viability of the method to detect exo-Earths, we urge for more appropriate analyses (see appendix).

  6. Obstetric care providers' knowledge, practice and associated factors towards active management of third stage of labor in Sidama Zone, South Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenaw, Zelalem; Yohannes, Zemenu; Amano, Abdela

    2017-09-07

    Active management of third stage of labor played a great role to prevent child birth related hemorrhage. However, maternal morbidity and mortality related to hemorrhage is high due to lack of knowledge and skill of obstetric care providers 'on active management of third stage of labor. Our study was aimed to assess knowledge, practice and associated factors of obstetric care providers (Midwives, Nurses and Health officers) on active management of third stage of labor in Sidama Zone, South Ethiopia. An institution based cross sectional study design was conducted from December 1-30 /2015 among midwives, nurses and health officers. Simple random sampling technique was used to get the total of 528 participants. Data entry was done using EPI Info 3.5.1 and exported to SPSS version 20.0 software package for analysis. The presence of association between independent and dependent variables was assessed using odds ratio with 97% confidence interval by applying logistic regression model. Of the 528 obstetric care providers 37.7% and 32.8% were knowledgeable and skilled to manage third stage of labor respectively. After controlling for possible confounding factors, the result showed that pre/in service training, being midwife and graduation year were found to be the major predictors of proper active management of third stage of labor. The knowledge and practice of obstetric care providers towards active management of third stage of labor can be improved with appropriate interventions like in-service trainings. This study also clearly showed that the level of knowledge and practice of obstetric care providers to wards active management of third stage of labor needs immediate attention of Universities and health science colleges better to revise their obstetrics course contents, health institutions and zonal health bureau should arrange trainings for their obstetrics care providers to enhance skill.

  7. The contribution of travel-related urban zones, cycling and pedestrian networks and green space to commuting physical activity among adults - a cross-sectional population-based study using geographical information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäki-Opas, Tomi E; Borodulin, Katja; Valkeinen, Heli; Stenholm, Sari; Kunst, Anton E; Abel, Thomas; Härkänen, Tommi; Kopperoinen, Leena; Itkonen, Pekka; Prättälä, Ritva; Karvonen, Sakari; Koskinen, Seppo

    2016-08-11

    The current political agenda aims to promote active environments and physical activity while commuting to work, but research on it has provided mixed results. This study examines whether the proximity of green space and people's residence in different travel-related urban zones contributes to commuting physical activity. Population-based cross-sectional health examination survey, Health 2011 study, and geographical information system (GIS) data were utilized. The GIS data on green space and travel-related urban zones were linked to the individuals of the Health 2011 study, based on their home geocoordinates. Commuting physical activity was self-reported. Logistic regression models were applied, and age, gender, education, leisure-time and occupational physical activity were adjusted. Analyses were limited to those of working age, living in the core-urban areas of Finland and having completed information on commuting physical activity (n = 2 098). Home location in a pedestrian zone of a main centre (odds ratio = 1.63; 95 % confidence interval = 1.06-2.51) or a pedestrian zone of a sub-centre (2.03; 1.09-3.80) and higher proportion of cycling and pedestrian networks (3.28; 1.71-6.31) contributed to higher levels of commuting physical activity. The contribution remained after adjusting for all the environmental attributes and individuals. Based on interaction analyses, women living in a public transport zone were almost two times more likely to be physically active while commuting compared to men. A high proportion of recreational green space contributed negatively to the levels of commuting physical activity (0.73; 0.57-0.94) after adjusting for several background factors. Based on interaction analyses, individuals aged from 44 to 54 years and living in sub-centres, men living in pedestrian zones of sub-centres, and those individuals who are physically inactive during leisure-time were less likely to be physically active while commuting. Good pedestrian

  8. APP Deletion Accounts for Age-Dependent Changes in the Bioenergetic Metabolism and in Hyperphosphorylated CaMKII at Stimulated Hippocampal Presynaptic Active Zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laßek, Melanie; Weingarten, Jens; Wegner, Martin; Neupärtl, Moritz; Array, Tabiwang N; Harde, Eva; Beckert, Benedikt; Golghalyani, Vahid; Ackermann, Jörg; Koch, Ina; Müller, Ulrike C; Karas, Michael; Acker-Palmer, Amparo; Volknandt, Walter

    2017-01-01

    Synaptic release sites are characterized by exocytosis-competent synaptic vesicles tightly anchored to the presynaptic active zone (PAZ) whose proteome orchestrates the fast signaling events involved in synaptic vesicle cycle and plasticity. Allocation of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) to the PAZ proteome implicated a functional impact of APP in neuronal communication. In this study, we combined state-of-the-art proteomics, electrophysiology and bioinformatics to address protein abundance and functional changes at the native hippocampal PAZ in young and old APP-KO mice. We evaluated if APP deletion has an impact on the metabolic activity of presynaptic mitochondria. Furthermore, we quantified differences in the phosphorylation status after long-term-potentiation (LTP) induction at the purified native PAZ. We observed an increase in the phosphorylation of the signaling enzyme calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) only in old APP-KO mice. During aging APP deletion is accompanied by a severe decrease in metabolic activity and hyperphosphorylation of CaMKII. This attributes an essential functional role to APP at hippocampal PAZ and putative molecular mechanisms underlying the age-dependent impairments in learning and memory in APP-KO mice.

  9. APP Deletion Accounts for Age-Dependent Changes in the Bioenergetic Metabolism and in Hyperphosphorylated CaMKII at Stimulated Hippocampal Presynaptic Active Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laßek, Melanie; Weingarten, Jens; Wegner, Martin; Neupärtl, Moritz; Array, Tabiwang N.; Harde, Eva; Beckert, Benedikt; Golghalyani, Vahid; Ackermann, Jörg; Koch, Ina; Müller, Ulrike C.; Karas, Michael; Acker-Palmer, Amparo; Volknandt, Walter

    2017-01-01

    Synaptic release sites are characterized by exocytosis-competent synaptic vesicles tightly anchored to the presynaptic active zone (PAZ) whose proteome orchestrates the fast signaling events involved in synaptic vesicle cycle and plasticity. Allocation of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) to the PAZ proteome implicated a functional impact of APP in neuronal communication. In this study, we combined state-of-the-art proteomics, electrophysiology and bioinformatics to address protein abundance and functional changes at the native hippocampal PAZ in young and old APP-KO mice. We evaluated if APP deletion has an impact on the metabolic activity of presynaptic mitochondria. Furthermore, we quantified differences in the phosphorylation status after long-term-potentiation (LTP) induction at the purified native PAZ. We observed an increase in the phosphorylation of the signaling enzyme calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) only in old APP-KO mice. During aging APP deletion is accompanied by a severe decrease in metabolic activity and hyperphosphorylation of CaMKII. This attributes an essential functional role to APP at hippocampal PAZ and putative molecular mechanisms underlying the age-dependent impairments in learning and memory in APP-KO mice. PMID:28163681

  10. Practical steady-state temperature prediction of active embedded chips into high density electronic board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monier-Vinard, Eric; Rogie, Brice; Nguyen, Nhat-Minh; Laraqi, Najib; Bissuel, Valentin; Daniel, Olivier

    2016-09-01

    Printed Wiring Board die embedding technology is an innovative packaging alternative to address a very high degree of integration by stacking multiple core layers housing active chips. Nevertheless this increases the thermal management challenges by concentrating heat dissipation at the heart of the substrate and exacerbates the need of adequate cooling. In order to allow the electronic designers to early analyse the limits of the in-layer power dissipation, depending on the chip location inside the board, various analytical thermal modelling approaches were investigated. Therefore the buried active chips can be represented using surface or volumetric heating sources according with the expected accuracy. Moreover the current work describes the comparison of the volumetric heating source analytical model with the state-of-art numerical detailed models of several embedded chips configurations, and debates about the need or not to simulate in full details the embedded chips as well as the surrounding layers and micro-via structures of the substrate. The results highlight that the thermal behaviour predictions of the analytical model are found to be within ±5% of relative error and so demonstrate their relevance to model an embedded chip and its neighbouring heating chips or components. Further this predictive model proves to be in good agreement with an experimental characterization performed on a thermal test vehicle. To summarize, the developed analytical approach promotes several practical solutions to achieve a more efficient design and to early identify the potential issues of board cooling.

  11. Evaluation of the antimicrobial activities of ultrasonicated spinach leaf extracts using RAPD markers and electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altemimi, Ammar; Lakhssassi, Naoufal; Abu-Ghazaleh, Amer; Lightfoot, David A

    2017-08-01

    Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) leaves represent an important dietary source of nutrients, antioxidants and antimicrobials. As such, spinach leaves play an important role in health and have been used in the treatment of human diseases since ancient times. Here, the aims were to optimize the extraction methods for recovering antimicrobial substances of spinach leaves, determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the antimicrobial substances against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus and, finally, evaluate the effects of spinach leaves' antimicrobials on bacterial DNA using central composite face-centered methods. The effect of the extracts on both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial models was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and random amplification of polymorphic (bacterial) DNA (RAPD). The optimal extraction conditions were at 45 °C, ultrasound power of 44% and an extraction time of 23 min. The spinach extracts exhibited antimicrobial activities against both bacteria with MICs in the 60-100 mg/ml range. Interestingly, SEM showed that the treated bacterial cells appear damaged with a reduction in cell number. RAPD analysis of genomic DNA showed that the number and sizes of amplicons were decreased by treatments. Based on these results, it was inferred that spinach leaf extracts exert bactericidal activities by both inducing mutations in DNA and causing cell wall disruptions.

  12. Scanning electron microscopic description of cellular activity and mineral changes in feline odontoclastic resorptive lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, O; Boudigues, S; Pilet, P; Aguado, E; Heymann, D; Daculsi, G

    2001-12-01

    The cellular activity and changes in mineral composition of dental tissues involved in feline odontoclastic resorptive lesions were investigated. Teeth with at least 1 lesion (n = 10) were extracted from 10 different cats that were presented primarily for chronic gingivostomatitis and/or severe periodontal disease. Scanning electron microscopic methods were used to determine the presence of resorptive cells in 8 teeth while 2 teeth were evaluated for pathologic changes in dental mineral composition. Observations were complicated by the presence of organic wear on the dental surfaces, however resorptive cells could be clearly identified in feline odontoclastic resorptive lesions. Resorptive cells had morphologic features indicative of "osteoclast-like" cells or odontoclasts. Resorptive cell activity created a resorption area of darker dentin continuous with physiologic dentin. The darker dentin area seemed poorly mineralized and showed a significantly lower calcium/phosphorous ratio compared with adjacent physiologic denting in 1 tooth. A significantly higher level of magnesium combined with available carbonate ions may have increased the solubility in areas of darker dentin.

  13. Education and Criminal Justice Faculty Value Electronic Serials over Print to Support Professional Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue F. Phelps

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A Review of: Jones, G. F., Cassidy, E. D., McMain, L., Strickland, S. D., Thompson, M., & Valdes, Z. (2015. Are serials worth their weight in knowledge? A value study. The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 41(5, 578-582. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.acalib.2015.07.004 Objective – To determine the faculty assessed value of print and electronic serials. Design – Qualitative survey. Setting – Doctoral research institution in the southern United States of America. Subjects – 122 tenured or tenure-track faculty from the School of Criminal Justice and the School of Education. Methods – A survey was designed to measure the value of online and print serials for key faculty activities: research, publishing, course preparation and development, service, and personal interests. Measures included: recentness of use, the extent to which library journals supported work in the key activities (minor, moderate, or major, requirement of students to use online or print journals in their courses, cancellations of personal journal subscriptions in favor of library subscriptions, and travel to other libraries to use library journals.

  14. Quantification of ionic transport within thermally-activated batteries using electron probe micro-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humplik, Thomas; Stirrup, Emily K.; Grillet, Anne M.; Grant, Richard P.; Allen, Ashley N.; Wesolowski, Daniel E.; Roberts, Christine C.

    2016-07-01

    The transient transport of electrolytes in thermally-activated batteries is studied using electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA), demonstrating the robust capability of EPMA as a useful tool for studying and quantifying mass transport within porous materials, particularly in difficult environments where classical flow measurements are challenging. By tracking the mobility of bromine and potassium ions from the electrolyte stored within the separator into the lithium silicon anode and iron disulfide cathode, we are able to quantify the transport mechanisms and physical properties of the electrodes including permeability and tortuosity. Due to the micron to submicron scale porous structure of the initially dry anode, a fast capillary pressure driven flow is observed into the anode from which we are able to set a lower bound on the permeability of 10-1 mDarcy. The transport into the cathode is diffusion-limited because the cathode originally contained some electrolyte before activation. Using a transient one-dimensional diffusion model, we estimate the tortuosity of the cathode electrode to be 2.8 ± 0.8.

  15. THE ACTIVITY OF RUSSIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH IN THE ELECTRONIC SPACE (FOR EXAMPLE, THE INTERNET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semenova Darya Mikhailovna

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is about the increasingly important role of the Russian Orthodox Church in Russian society. As in real space as in the virtual Russian Orthodox Church is actively communicate with other actors, spreading their own beliefs and values. The subject of the study – is activity of the Russian Orthodox Church in the various segments of the Internet space. The purpose of the research – is the analysis of methods of the Russian Orthodox Church using in the Internet space and determining their effectiveness. The work used the method of content analysis. The study identified the forms of participation of representatives of the Russian Orthodox Church in the electronic space: groups and pages on social networks, blogs, online services - for example, the project "Priest online", Orthodox forums. The discussions in the Internet space dedicated not only to the realizing of cults or religious issues, but also social and political issues, including what should be the ideal state, the future of Russia, the political enemies of Russia.

  16. Electronic properties of environmental pollutants and their mutagenic activity: Nitro derivatives of azaphenanthrenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostojić, Bojana D; Đorđević, Dragana S

    2015-09-01

    The physico-chemical properties of nitroazaphenanthrene isomers: 4-nitro-9-azaphenanthrene (4-N-9-Aph), 5-nitro-9-azaphenanthrene (5-N-9-Aph), 6-nitro-4-azaphenanthrene (6-N-4-Aph), 8-nitro-1-azaphenanthrene (8-N-1-Aph), and 8-nitro-4-azaphenanthrene (8-N-4-Aph) have been investigated theoretically using Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations. Equilibrium geometries, relative stability, ionization potentials, electron affinities, molecular electrostatic potentials, dipole moments, electric polarizabilities, and vibrational properties of these isomers are presented. Averaged O-N-C-C dihedral angle, dipole moment, polarizability, the summation of IR intensities (∑IIR) and the summation of Raman activities (∑ARaman) over all 3N-6 vibrational degrees of freedom are sensitive to the structure of isomers. A very good linear relationship between ∑ARaman values (R=1.00) and the Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98(-S9) mutagenic activity of the investigated nitroazaphenanthrene isomers (Tokiwa et al., 2003) reveals a very important role of inductive and dispersive forces on the mutagenic pathways of the investigated isomers.

  17. The genomes of the non-clearing-zone-forming and natural-rubber- degrading species Gordonia polyisoprenivorans and Gordonia westfalica harbor genes expressing Lcp activity in Streptomyces strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bröker, Daniel; Dietz, David; Arenskötter, Matthias; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2008-04-01

    The latex-clearing protein (Lcp(K30)) from the rubber-degrading bacterium Streptomyces sp. strain K30 is involved in the cleavage of poly(cis-1,4-isoprene), yielding isoprenoid aldehydes and ketones. Lcp homologues have so far been detected in all investigated clearing-zone-forming rubber-degrading bacteria. Internal degenerated oligonucleotides derived from lcp genes of Streptomyces sp. strain K30 (lcp(K30)), Streptomyces coelicolor strain A3(2), and Nocardia farcinica strains IFM10152 and E1 were applied in PCR to investigate whether lcp homologues occur also in the non-clearing-zone-forming rubber-utilizing bacteria Gordonia polyisoprenivorans strains VH2 and Y2K, Gordonia alkanivorans strain 44187, and Gordonia westfalica strain Kb1, which grow adhesively on rubber. The 1,230- and 1,224-bp lcp-homologous genes from G. polyisoprenivorans strain VH2 (lcp(VH2)) and G. westfalica strain Kb1 (lcp(Kb1)) were obtained after screening genomic libraries by degenerated PCR amplification, and their translational products exhibited 50 and 52% amino acid identity, respectively, to Lcp(K30). Recombinant lcp(VH2) and lcp(Kb1) harboring cells of the non-rubber-degrading Streptomyces lividans strain TK23 were able to form clearing zones and aldehydes on latex overlay-agar plates, thus indicating that lcp(VH2) and lcp(Kb1) encode functionally active proteins. Analysis by gel permeation chromatography demonstrated lower polymer concentrations and molecular weights of the remaining polyisoprenoid molecules after incubation with these recombinant S. lividans strains. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis demonstrated that lcp(VH2) was transcribed in cells of G. polyisoprenivorans strain VH2 cultivated in the presence of poly(cis-1,4-isoprene) but not in the presence of sodium acetate. Anti-Lcp(K30) immunoglobulin Gs, which were raised in this study, were rather specific for Lcp(K30) and did not cross-react with Lcp(VH2) and Lcp(Kb1). A lcp(VH2) disruption mutant was still able to grow

  18. Association between electronic equipment in the bedroom and sedentary lifestyle, physical activity, and body mass index of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Gerson Luis de Moraes; Araújo, Timóteo Leandro; Oliveira, Luis Carlos; Matsudo, Victor; Fisberg, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    To describe the association between electronic devices in the bedroom with sedentary time and physical activity, both assessed by accelerometry, in addition to body mass index in children from São Caetano do Sul. The sample consisted of 441 children. The presence of electronic equipment (television, personal computer, and videogames) in the bedroom was assessed by a questionnaire. For seven consecutive days, children used an accelerometer to objectively monitor the sedentary time and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Body mass index was categorized as suggested by the World Health Organization. Overall, 73.9%, 54.2% and 42.8% of children had TV, computer, and videogames in the bedroom, respectively, and spent an average of 500.7 and 59.1 min/day of sedentary time and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Of the children, 45.3% were overweight/obese. Girls with a computer in the bedroom (45 min/day) performed less moderate-to-vigorous physical activity than those without it (51.4 min/day). Similar results were observed for body mass index in boys. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was higher and body mass index was lower in children that had no electronic equipment in the bedroom. Presence of a computer (β=-4.798) and the combination TV+computer (β=-3.233) were negatively associated with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Videogames and the combinations with two or three electronic devices were positively associated with body mass index. Sedentary time was not associated with electronic equipment. Electronic equipment in the children's bedroom can negatively affect moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and body mass index regardless of gender, school, and annual family income, which can contribute to physical inactivity and childhood obesity. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. Active seismic monitoring of changes of the reflection response of a crystalline shear zone due to fluid injection in the crust at the Continental Deep Drilling Site, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beilecke, T.; Kurt, B.; Stefan, B.

    2005-12-01

    In theory and in the laboratory variations of the hydraulic pressure can be detected with seismic methods: A lowering of the hydraulic pressure leads to the closure of micro-cracks within the rock (increase of the differential or effective pressure). Subsequently, the seismic velocities increase. An increase of the hydraulic pressure leads to reverse seismic effects. Consequently, seismic impedance contrasts and associated reflection amplitudes vary in the case of a propagating fluid pressure front in a rock matrix with inhomogeneous permeability - as is the case at shear zones. The largest amplitude changes can be expected with vertical ray inclination on the impedance contrast. Generally, the expected effects are small however (Kaselow, 2004). The practical utilization of active seismics for the detection of pressure changes at large scale in hard rock is currently being studied at the Continental Deep Drilling Site (KTB). The injection of water (200 l/min) in a depth of about 4000 m into the so-called SE2 shear zone in the KTB pilot hole was monitored with active seismics between May 2004 and April 2005. The core of the experiment layout is a fixed 5-arm geophone array consisting of 24 3-component geophones, buried at about 70 cm depth. The source signal is a vertical vibrator sweep of 30 s length with the spectrum 30-120 Hz. The signal is sent into the ground 32 times during each cycle, detected with the array and recorded separately for each geophone channel, without prior correlation with the source signal. This allows maximum post-processing with seismic processing and analysis tools and especially permits the use of array properties to increase the signal-to-noise ratio. Critical parameters of the experiment are the repeatability of the source signal as well as the stability of the receiver properties. Another pivot is the hydraulic pressure and its distribution built up within the rock matrix. Estimations based on model calculations show that a change of

  20. Zoning Districts, Zoning, Published in 2002, Freelance.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Zoning Districts dataset, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2002. It is described as 'Zoning'. Data by this publisher are often...