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Sample records for active young females

  1. Heart rate and activity profile for young female soccer players

    OpenAIRE

    Barbero Álvarez, José Carlos; Gómez López, Maite; Barbero Álvarez, Verónica; Granda Vera, Juan; Castagna, Carlo

    2008-01-01

    The physical and physiological demands of high-level male soccer have been studied extensively, while few studies have investigated the demands placed on females during match-play, however, there is no information available about the heart rate and activity profile of young female soccer players during match play. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine cardiovascular (heart-rates HR) and physical demands of young female soccer players during a match. Players were observed during a fr...

  2. Peculiarities of brain electric activity in young males and females of different creativity levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermakov, Pavel N.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article shows that the peculiarities of divergent and convergent thinking in young males and females of various creativity levels are stipulated by a definite EEG frequency-and-spatial arrangement. Young males and females of mixed and left lateral arrangement profiles demonstrate an expressed activity of occipital, central, and temporal areas of both cerebral hemispheres. In young males and females of right LAP (lateral arrangement profile, connections are clearly localized in case of solution of both convergent and divergent tasks. Solution of divergent and convergent tasks may condition certain frequency-and-spatial arrangement of EEG in young males and females with different levels of academic progress and a different lateral arrangement profile (LAP.

  3. Muscle Activation During ACL Injury Risk Movements in Young Female Athletes: A Narrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Bencke

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Young, adolescent female athletes are at particular high risk of sustaining a non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injury during sport. Through the last decades much attention has been directed toward various anatomical and biomechanical risk factors for non-contact ACL injury, and important information have been retrieved about the influence of external loading factors on ACL injury risk during given sports-specific movements. However, much less attention has been given to the aspect of neuromuscular control during such movements and only sparse knowledge exists on the specific muscle activation patterns involved during specific risk conditions. Therefore, the aim of this narrative review was (1 to describe anatomical aspects, strength aspects and biomechanical aspects relevant for the understanding of ACL non-contact injury mechanisms in young female athletes, and (2 to review the existing literature on lower limb muscle activation in relation to risk of non-contact ACL-injury and prevention of ACL injury in young female athletes. Studies investigating muscle activity patterns associated with sports-specific risk situations were identified, comprising cohort studies, intervention studies and prospective studies. Based on the retrieved studies, clear gender-specific differences in muscle activation and coordination were identified demonstrating elevated quadriceps activity and reduced hamstring activity in young female athletes compared to their male counterparts, and suggesting young female athletes to be at elevated risk of non-contact ACL injury. Only few studies (n = 6 examined the effect of preventive exercise-based intervention protocols on lower limb muscle activation during sports-specific movements. A general trend toward enhanced hamstring activation was observed during selected injury risk situations (e.g., sidecutting and drop landings. Only a single study examined the association between muscle activation deficits and ACL

  4. Muscle Activation During ACL Injury Risk Movements in Young Female Athletes: A Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencke, Jesper; Aagaard, Per; Zebis, Mette K

    2018-01-01

    Young, adolescent female athletes are at particular high risk of sustaining a non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury during sport. Through the last decades much attention has been directed toward various anatomical and biomechanical risk factors for non-contact ACL injury, and important information have been retrieved about the influence of external loading factors on ACL injury risk during given sports-specific movements. However, much less attention has been given to the aspect of neuromuscular control during such movements and only sparse knowledge exists on the specific muscle activation patterns involved during specific risk conditions. Therefore, the aim of this narrative review was (1) to describe anatomical aspects, strength aspects and biomechanical aspects relevant for the understanding of ACL non-contact injury mechanisms in young female athletes, and (2) to review the existing literature on lower limb muscle activation in relation to risk of non-contact ACL-injury and prevention of ACL injury in young female athletes. Studies investigating muscle activity patterns associated with sports-specific risk situations were identified, comprising cohort studies, intervention studies and prospective studies. Based on the retrieved studies, clear gender-specific differences in muscle activation and coordination were identified demonstrating elevated quadriceps activity and reduced hamstring activity in young female athletes compared to their male counterparts, and suggesting young female athletes to be at elevated risk of non-contact ACL injury. Only few studies ( n = 6) examined the effect of preventive exercise-based intervention protocols on lower limb muscle activation during sports-specific movements. A general trend toward enhanced hamstring activation was observed during selected injury risk situations (e.g., sidecutting and drop landings). Only a single study examined the association between muscle activation deficits and ACL injury risk

  5. Muscle Activation During ACL Injury Risk Movements in Young Female Athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bencke, Jesper; Aagaard, Per; Zebis, Mette K

    2018-01-01

    , and important information have been retrieved about the influence of external loading factors on ACL injury risk during given sports-specific movements. However, much less attention has been given to the aspect of neuromuscular control during such movements and only sparse knowledge exists on the specific......, intervention studies and prospective studies. Based on the retrieved studies, clear gender-specific differences in muscle activation and coordination were identified demonstrating elevated quadriceps activity and reduced hamstring activity in young female athletes compared to their male counterparts......Young, adolescent female athletes are at particular high risk of sustaining a non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury during sport. Through the last decades much attention has been directed toward various anatomical and biomechanical risk factors for non-contact ACL injury...

  6. High levels of physical activity are associated with poorer asthma control in young females but not in males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lövström, Ludvig; Emtner, Margareta; Alving, Kjell; Nordvall, Lennart; Borres, Magnus P; Janson, Christer; Malinovschi, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    Earlier studies on the levels of physical activity in asthma patients compared with controls have yielded varying results. We have previously reported that high versus moderate levels of physical activity were associated with higher prevalence of wheezing, especially in females. Here we studied the levels of physical activity in young patients with asthma and healthy subjects and their effect on asthma control. Four hundred eight physician-diagnosed patients with asthma and 118 controls (10-34 years) answered questions concerning frequency and/or duration of physical activity and undertook the Asthma Control Test (ACT), spirometry, methacholine challenges and exhaled nitric oxide measurements. Asthma patients were more frequently physically active (P = 0.01) and for longer durations (P = 0.002) than controls. Highly versus moderately physically active patients with asthma had a higher prevalence of not well-controlled asthma (ACT < 20) when physical activity was assessed by frequency (40.6% vs 24.1%, P = 0.001) or duration (39.0% vs 21.7%, P < 0.001). This was only seen in females who had reduced ACT items (P < 0.05). Frequently versus moderately active females had an odds ratio of 4.81 (2.43, 9.51) to have ACT < 20, while no such effect was found in males (OR 1.18 (0.61, 2.30)) and this interaction was statistically significantly associated with gender (P = 0.003). No differences in fraction of exhaled nitric oxide or methacholine reactivity were found between moderately and highly physically active females with asthma. Young asthma patients were more active than controls. High levels of physical activity were associated with poor asthma control as judged by the ACT in females, but not in males, and this appears unrelated to airway inflammation or responsiveness. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  7. Feeding frequency, but not dietary water content, affects voluntary physical activity in young lean adult female cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Godoy, M R C; Ochi, K; de Oliveira Mateus, L F; de Justino, A C C; Swanson, K S

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether increased dietary water content and feeding frequency increased voluntary physical activity of young, lean adult female cats. A replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial treatment arrangement (feeding frequency and water content) was used. The 4 treatments consisted of 1 meal daily dry pet food without added water (1D; 12% moisture as is), 1 meal daily dry pet food with added water (1W; 70% total water content), 4 meals daily dry pet food without added water (4D; 12% moisture as is), and 4 meals daily dry pet food with added water (4W; 70% total water content). Eight healthy adult, lean, intact, young, female domestic shorthair cats were used in this experiment. Voluntary physical activity was evaluated using Actical activity monitors placed on collars and worn around the cats' necks for the last 7 d of each experimental period of 14 d. Food anticipatory activity (FAA) was calculated based on 2 h prior to feeding periods and expressed as a percentage of total daily voluntary physical activity. Increased feeding frequency (4 vs. 1 meal daily) resulted in greater average daily activity (P = 0.0147), activity during the light period (P = 0.0023), and light:dark activity ratio (P = 0.0002). In contrast, physical activity during the dark period was not altered by feeding frequency (P > 0.05). Cats fed 4 meals daily had increased afternoon FAA (P= 0.0029) compared with cats fed once daily. Dietary water content did not affect any measure of voluntary physical activity. Increased feeding frequency is an effective strategy to increase the voluntary physical activity of cats. Thus, it may assist in the prevention and management of obesity.

  8. The Relationship between Physical Activity and Plasma Glucose Level amongst Ellisras Rural Young Adult Males and Females: Ellisras Longitudinal Study

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    Moloko Matshipi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Unhealthy lifestyle characteristics such as low physical activity (PA and high plasma glucose levels (PGLs may lead to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in adulthood. The aim of this study was to investigate (i the level of physical activity; (ii the prevalence of pre-diabetes and (iii the relationship between PA and plasma glucose level in a rural Ellisras adult population aged 18 to 28 years. A total of 713 young adults (349 males and 364 females who took part in the Ellisras Longitudinal Study participated in the study. Fasting plasma glucose levels were analysed using Accutrend glucose meters. Physical activity data was collected using a validated questionnaire. Linear regression was used to assess the relationship between PA and pre-diabetes. The prevalence of pre-diabetes was between 45.7% and 50.2% and that of physical inactivity was 67.3% and 71.0% for males and females, respectively. There was no significant (p > 0.05 relationship between PA and pre-diabetes (beta = 1.016; 95% Confidence Interval from 0.352 to 2.777. The health benefits of PA increased with the increasing frequency, duration and intensity of exercise. The prevalence of pre-diabetes was found to be very high in this population. Our results suggest that greater physical activity is associated with low plasma glucose levels.

  9. Young females in the athletic arena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, A L

    1998-10-01

    There are factors that uniquely affect young females in sports. The sociologic aspects of female youth sports can be understood from a historical perspective. Athletics have an influence on the development of young girls, from gender identity and sexual orientation to the foundations of self-esteem and moral development. There is a relationship between certain psychopathologic conditions common in girls and athletics, including eating disorders, depression, and anxiety disorders. Although involvement in sports may engender some of these problems, others may be successfully treated through physical exercise.

  10. Comparison of variations between percentage of body fat, body mass index and daily physical activity among young Japanese and Thai female students

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    Morinaka Tomoko

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In our series of investigations concerning the causes of seasonal change in fat accumulation in young university students, we could not find any contribution of seasonal variation in the ratio of carbohydrate and fat metabolism to that of body fat percentage in Japanese and Thai participants. After our previous study, we examined the effect of daily physical activity on body fat percentage to look for the major causes of seasonal change in fat accumulation in young university students. Findings In this study, we measured participants’ (young Japanese and Thai university students daily physical activity by a uniaxial accelerometer in addition to the measurements of body fat percentage and body mass index by a bioelectrical impedance meter. We found that there was significant and moderate negative correlation between body fat percentage and daily step counts among Japanese but not Thai participants. We observed significant, moderate and positive correlations between the percentage of body fat and body mass index among Japanese and Thai participants. Conclusions Daily physical activity plays an important role in the seasonal variation of body fat percentage of Japanese female students. Our present study also confirmed the importance of daily physical activity for controlling body mass index and for the prevention of obesity.

  11. Stigmatisation of a Formerly Obese Young Female

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucci, Sonia A.; Boyland, Emma J.; Halford, Jason C.G.; Harrold, Joanne A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Weight loss does not necessarily decrease the negative appraisal of a formerly overweight individual. Since past weight history tends to be disclosed in several contexts, this study aims to investigate whether negative appraisals are gender-specific and if they are modulated by the evaluators’ own BMI. Methods 202 young adults (106 male and 96 female) viewed a picture of a young attractive female (target) accompanied by one of two statements about her past weight (overweight (OW) or always kept a normal weight (NW)), and then rated her using the Fat Phobia Scale (FPS). Results Female evaluators rated the target with the OW statement more negatively than the target with the NW statement. In contrast, males exposed to the OW statement rated the target as having fewer emotional/psychological problems and being less stupid/uncreative. BMI only influenced ratings in males, where those with higher BMI ascribed more negative attributes to the target with the NW statement than the OW statement. Conclusion Information on weight history impacts upon the appraisal of peers. These effects are dependent on gender and BMI. Knowing that a young female was overweight triggered negative evaluations from females but did not appear to impact the judgment of males. PMID:24107842

  12. Stigmatisation of a Formerly Obese Young Female

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    Sonia A. Tucci

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Weight loss does not necessarily decrease the negative appraisal of a formerly overweight individual. Since past weight history tends to be disclosed in several contexts, this study aims to investigate whether negative appraisals are gender-specific and if they are modulated by the evaluators' own BMI. Methods: 202 young adults (106 male and 96 female viewed a picture of a young attractive female (target accompanied by one of two statements about her past weight (overweight (OW or always kept a normal weight (NW, and then rated her using the Fat Phobia Scale (FPS. Results: Female evaluators rated the target with the OW statement more negatively than the target with the NW statement. In contrast, males exposed to the OW statement rated the target as having fewer emotional/psychological problems and being less stupid/uncreative. BMI only influenced ratings in males, where those with higher BMI ascribed more negative attributes to the target with the NW statement than the OW statement. Conclusion: Information on weight history impacts upon the appraisal of peers. These effects are dependent on gender and BMI. Knowing that a young female was overweight triggered negative evaluations from females but did not appear to impact the judgment of males.

  13. Multiple stress fractures in a young female runner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusek, T; Pećina, M; Loncar-Dusek, M; Bojanic, I

    2004-01-01

    The effect of exercise on female's bone metabolism has received much attention in recent years. We report on unusual case of a female runner with low body mass and amenorrhea, who suffered 4 stress fractures. Three of the stress fractures occurred during her sports career, and the fourth occurred 7 years after the cessation of sports activities. It seems that exercise-induced amenorrhea together with food restriction in the young age may cause long-term consequences on bone metabolism.

  14. Nutrition Status of Young Elite Female German Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Hans; von Andrian-Werburg, Judith; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2018-02-01

    To investigate energy intake, energy expenditure, and the nutritional status of young female elite football players using 7-day food and activity records and blood parameters. A total of 56 female elite football players [14.8 (0.7) y] completed the requested food and activity protocols. Misreporting was assessed by the ratio of energy intake to energy expenditure. The food records were analyzed concerning energy and macronutrient and micronutrient intakes, and energy expenditure was calculated using predictive equations. Hematological data and 25-hydroxyvitamin D serum concentrations were determined. Mean energy intake was 2262 (368) kcal/d [40.5 (7.0) kcal/kg/d] and estimated EE averaged 2403 (195) kcal/d. Fifty-three percent of the players exhibited an energy availability nutrition status of some young female football players. As a consequence, strategies have to be developed for a better information and application of sport nutrition practice among young female football players.

  15. Risk Factors for Transactional Sex among Young Females in Post ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to examine the risk factors for engaging in transactional sex among young females in Montserrado County, Liberia. Data from an HIV behavioral survey conducted among young people aged 14 – 25 years were used. The analytical sample included 493 sexually-experienced females. Bivariate and ...

  16. Muscle injury and oxidative stress following the use of selenium supplements and exhaustive aerobic exercise in young physically-active females

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    Vahideh Dolati Amirdizaj

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The use of antioxidants before high-intensity training, which leads to the release of free radicals and muscle injuries, can result in reduced damage during exercise. Accordingly, in this study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of selenium supplement intake on oxidative stress, following exhaustive aerobic exercise among young physically-active females. Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 20 healthy girls (age: 23.6±1.5 years, height: 1.61±0.0126 m, and weight: 60.2±7.13 kg were randomly divided into exercise (n=10 and supplement + exercise (n=10 groups. The participants were asked to consume selenium supplements (200 µg/day for a period of 14 days. The Bruce protocol stress test was conducted 24 h after the final intake of supplements and primary blood collection (in a fasting state. Also, immediately after performing the Bruce test, the second blood samples were drawn from the subjects. Oxidative stress markers (i.e., creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and malondialdehyde levels were measured at each stage of blood sampling and were compared between the groups using paired t-test. Data analysis was performed by SPSS (version 18. P-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The results indicated that exhaustive aerobic exercise could cause a significant increase in creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and malondialdehyde levels. The comparison between the control and intervention groups suggested the significant effect of selenium supplementation on declining of lactate dehydrogenase level (P<0.05. Conclusion: The results of the present study demonstrated that selenium supplements could reduce oxidative stress, induced by exhaustive physical exercise.

  17. Spanish Young Generation (JJNN) Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millan, Miguel

    2008-01-01

    Spanish Young Generation has been very active during 2006-2008. JJNN have mainly focused on communication activities, as conferences at universities, schools and nuclear companies. Lately, becoming in referent of the young politics, journalist and the young people in Nuclear Subjects is the new and most challenging target of the Spanish Young Generation. In order to accomplish with their objects and commitments with their members, JJNN are developing all kinds of activities focused in the young people and the JJNN members. (authors)

  18. Spanish Young Generation (JJNN) Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millan, Miguel [INITEC Nuclear- Westinghouse, Padilla 17, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-07-01

    Spanish Young Generation has been very active during 2006-2008. JJNN have mainly focused on communication activities, as conferences at universities, schools and nuclear companies. Lately, becoming in referent of the young politics, journalist and the young people in Nuclear Subjects is the new and most challenging target of the Spanish Young Generation. In order to accomplish with their objects and commitments with their members, JJNN are developing all kinds of activities focused in the young people and the JJNN members. (authors)

  19. Training strategy of explosive strength in young female volleyball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The 8-week combined jump and ball throwing training can significantly improve muscular performance in young female volleyball players. These findings may be useful for all physical education teachers and volleyball coaches.

  20. Hypokalemic paralysis in a young obese female.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Wen-Fang; Hsu, Yu-Juei; Chang, Chin-Chun; Lin, Shih-Hua

    2012-08-16

    Profound hypokalemia with paralysis usually poses a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. We report on a 28-y-old obese Chinese female presenting with sudden onset of flaccid quadriparesis upon awaking in the morning. There is no family history of hyperthyroidism. She experienced body weight loss of 7 kg in 2 months. The most conspicuous blood biochemistry is marked hypokalemia (1.8 mmol/l) and hypophosphatemia (0.5 mmol/l) associated with low urine K(+) and phosphate excretion. Surreptitious laxatives and/or diuretics abuse-related hypokalemic paralysis were tentatively made. However, her relatively normal blood acid-base status and the absence of low urine Na(+) and/or Cl(-) excretion made these diagnoses unlikely. Furthermore, she developed rebound hyperkalemia (5.7 mmol/l) after only 80 mmol K(+) supplementation. Thyroid function test confirmed hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease. Control of the hyperthyroidism completely abolished her periodic paralysis. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP) should be kept in mind as a cause of paralysis in female, even with obesity, despite its predominance in adult males. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The influence of outdoor thermal environment on young Japanese females

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakoi, Tomonori; Ishii, Jin; Kondo, Emi

    2014-01-01

    The influence of short wave solar radiation appears to be strong outdoors in summer, and the influence of airflow appears to be strong outdoors in winter. The purpose of this paper was to clarify the influence of the outdoor environment on young Japanese females. This research shows the relations......The influence of short wave solar radiation appears to be strong outdoors in summer, and the influence of airflow appears to be strong outdoors in winter. The purpose of this paper was to clarify the influence of the outdoor environment on young Japanese females. This research shows...

  2. Examining the relationships between body image, eating attitudes, BMI, and physical activity in rural and urban South African young adult females using structural equation modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Prioreschi

    Full Text Available The persistence of food insecurity, malnutrition, increasing adiposity, and decreasing physical activity, heightens the need to understand relationships between body image satisfaction, eating attitudes, BMI and physical activity levels in South Africa. Females aged 18-23 years were recruited from rural (n = 509 and urban (n = 510 settings. Body image satisfaction was measured using Stunkard's silhouettes, and the 26-item Eating Attitudes questionnaire (EAT-26 was used to evaluate participants' risk of disordered eating. Minutes per week of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA was assessed using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ. Significant linear correlates were included in a series of regressions run separately for urban and rural participants. Structural equation modeling (SEM was used to test the relationships between variables. Urban females were more likely to be overweight and obese than rural females (p = 0.02, and had a greater desire to be thinner (p = 0.02. In both groups, being overweight or obese was positively associated with a desire to be thinner (p<0.01, and negatively associated with a desire to be fatter (p<0.01. Having a disordered eating attitude was associated with body image dissatisfaction in the urban group (β = 1.27, p<0.01, CI: 0.38; 2.16, but only with a desire to be fatter in the rural group (β = 0.63, p = 0.04, CI: 0.03; 1.23. In the SEM model, body image dissatisfaction was associated with disordered eating (β = 0.63, as well as higher MVPA participation (p<0.01. These factors were directly associated with a decreased risk of disordered eating attitude, and with a decreased desire to be thinner. Findings indicate a shift in both settings towards more Westernised ideals. Physical activity may provide a means to promote a healthy body image, while reducing the risk of disordered eating. Given the high prevalence of overweight and obesity in both rural and urban women, this study provides

  3. Comparison between young males and females with acute myocardial infarction

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    Ricardo Augusto Slaibi Conti

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the differences between young males and females after acute myocardial infarction. METHODS: We retrospectively studied 236 patients (54 females and 182 males after acute myocardial infarction and during hospital stay assessed the following parameters: risk factors; the treatment used; the pattern of coronary artery obstruction; left ventricular ejection fraction; complications; and, using a logistic regression model, the factors related to the occurrence of reinfarction and death. RESULTS: No significant difference was observed between the sexes in risk factors, pattern of coronary artery obstruction, and left ventricular function. The time interval between symptom onset and treatment was longer in females (p=0.03, who underwent thrombolysis (p=0.01 and angioplasty (p=0.03 less frequently than males did, but not myocardial revascularization. Female sex (OR = 5.98 and diabetes (OR = 14.52 were independent factors related to the occurrence of reinfarction and death. CONCLUSION: Young males and females after acute myocardial infarction did not differ in coronary risk factors, and clinical and hemodynamic characteristics. Females had their treatment started later, and they underwent chemical thrombolysis and angioplasty less frequently than males did. Female sex and diabetes were related to the occurrence of reinfarction and death.

  4. Roentgenographic evaluation of the profiles for young male and female

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Tae Won [Department of Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1975-11-15

    The author has studied on the profiles on Korean young male and female by the cephalometric roentgenograms, and the subjects consisted of 104 persons with normal occlusion, and the measurements were done on the soft and hard structures. The mean and standard deviations in the subjects were calculated and compared between male and female. The author has obtained the following results: 1. In the linear measurement, male was longer than female in most measuring points. 2. Compared with the angulation of soft tissue, there were no differences between both sexes. 3. In the skeletal patterns, there were some differences between male and female, but there was a similarity to the facial profile. 4. The individual variations on the cephalometric profiles on the subjects were recognized, especially, in the lower facial part.

  5. Performance or appearance? Young female sport participants' body negotiations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunde, Carolina; Gattario, Kristina Holmqvist

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to examine young female sport participants' experiences and thoughts in terms of sport, their bodies, and social appearance norms. Six focus groups with female sport participants (N=25) from Sweden were conducted. Participants raised many positive experiences in relation to their sport participation, but they also witnessed a conflict in the intersection between the culture within their sport (emphasizing physical performance) and the culture outside their sport (emphasizing physical appearance). Through thematic analysis, four themes illustrating the balancing act between these two cultures were formed: (a) the performing body versus the objectified body, (b) food as fuel versus source of shame, (c) appreciation of body type diversity versus appearance prejudice, and (d) empowerment and agency versus disempowerment and restraints. The findings of this study indicate that young women who engage in sport have to face complex, ambiguous, and restricting norms and notions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Physical performance and positional differences among young female volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Gabriel A; Gabbett, Tim J; Maia, Marianna F; Santana, Haroldo; Miranda, Humberto; Lima, Vicente

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association among anthropometric, physical performance parameters, and dynamic postural control attributes of young female volleyball athletes, and to determine if differences exist in these attributes according to playing position. Forty-three young female volleyball players participated in this study. Players were divided by position into hitters (N.=17), middle blockers (N.=8), setters (N.=10), and liberos (N.=8). Stature, body mass, vertical jump (VJ), peak power, horizontal jump (HJ), sit-and-reach (SRT), star excursion balance (SEBT), and agility (e.g. shuttle run and Illinois agility test) tests were assessed on non-consecutive days in randomized order. No difference was found between groups for SRT, peak power, VJ, and HJ (P≤0.05). Middle blockers and hitters were taller than setters (P≤0.05). Middle blockers were also taller than liberos (P=0.017). Significant differences were observed among groups for agility tests, with hitters significantly faster than setters (P=0.023) and middle blockers (P=0.037). In addition, liberos were significantly faster than setters (P=0.032) and middle blockers (P=0.046), during the Illinois agility test. No difference was observed between groups for reach distance scores in the SEBT. These results demonstrate important positional differences in agility measures of young female volleyball players. Coaches can use this information to determine the type of physical profile that is needed for specific positions and to design training programs to maximize strength, power, and neuromuscular development of young female volleyball athletes.

  7. Asthma management in pregnancy: young female doctors knowledge and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younis, M.; Anwar, S.; Aneela, I.; Saeed, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Optimal asthma control in pregnant women is very much essential for the good health of both mother and the fetus. Maternal and fetal complications occur due to poor control of asthma. There are concerns that management of bronchial asthma in pregnant women should be optimal by the health professionals. Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the knowledge and practices of young female doctors about the bronchial asthma management in pregnancy. Study Design: Randomized evidence based. Study Setting: Punjab Public Service Commission (PPSC) interviews for women medical officers and female doctors working in different medical units and chest unit of Mayo Hospital a tertiary care hospital affiliated with King Edward Medical University, Lahore. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire based survey of knowledge and practices of one hundred and one female doctors in the management of bronchial asthma was made. Amongst these, 32 doctors were FCPS 1 in medicine and gynecology. Remaining 69 doctors were in the pipeline and they have completed one year house job in different specialties. The case scenario was Asthma management approach during pregnancy in a stable patient of moderate severity. Inclusion Criteria 1. All those female doctors who have completed one year house job. 2. Female doctors working in gynecology, medicine, surgery and allied specialties. Results: Overall 14 (13.6%) doctors (5 (35.7%) PGs and 9 (64.3%) Non PGs) have the standard prescription of inhaled corticosteroids with long acting inhaled B2 agonists and montelukast as controller medication and short acting inhaled B2 agonist as needed as reliever medication according to the standard guidelines. Conclusion: The majority of young female doctors had the suboptimal knowledge and practice of asthma management in pregnancy. We suggest initiating the training programs to optimize their knowledge and practices. (author)

  8. Training strategy of explosive strength in young female volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ana; Costa, Aldo M; Santos, Patricia; Figueiredo, Teresa; João, Paulo Vicente

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of an 8-week combined jump and ball throwing training program in the performance of upper and lower extremities among young female volleyball players of the high school. A total of 20 young female volleyball players playing at Scholar Sport in High School at the district level were divided in two groups: the experimental group (n=10; 14.0±0.0 years; 1.6±0.1 m; 52.0±7.0 kg and 20.7±2.4% body mass) and the control group (n=10; 13.8±0.4 years, 1.6±0.1 m; 53.5±4.7 kg and 20.3±1.7% body mass). The experimental group received additional plyometric and ball throwing exercises besides their normal volleyball practice. The control group underwent only their regular session of training. Strength performance in the experimental group significantly improved (medicine ball and volleyball ball throwing: P=0.00; and counter movement jump: P=0.05), with the improvement ranging from 5.3% to 20.1%. No significant changes in strength performance were observed in the control group (P>0.05). The 8-week combined jump and ball throwing training can significantly improve muscular performance in young female volleyball players. These findings may be useful for all physical education teachers and volleyball coaches. Copyright © 2015 Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  9. Spinning: an arising cause of rhabdomyolysis in young females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y H; Ham, Y R; Na, K R; Lee, K W; Choi, D E

    2016-09-01

    'Spinning' is an indoor cycling regimen. The number of case reports of spinning-induced rhabdomyolysis (SIR) has increased since 2004 in South Korea. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical characteristics of SIR and compare it with other causes of rhabdomyolysis. Patients who were diagnosed with rhabdomyolysis from 1 September 2011 to 30 April 2015 were included. We analysed the incidence of rhabdomyolysis, biochemical parameters and forced hospitalisation, which was defined as the days from admission to creatinine phosphokinase rhabdomyolysis in young, unfit females, which is typically severe. A graded exercise programme is advised at the first session. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  10. Eagle′s syndrome: A rare case of young female

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abdul Baseer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Eagle′s syndrome is a condition that causes pain in the Craniofacial and cervical region of the neck. Symptoms related to the Eagle′s syndrome may be confused with the variety of neuralgias, oral, dental and temporomandibular joint (TMJ conditions. In this paper, a case of the very young female suffering with the difficulty in swallowing and recurrent dull pain in the throat with restriction of the movement of head to the left side was presented. A thorough past medical and dental history, extra oral and intra oral examination coupled with the panoramic radiographic interpretation were used to diagnose Eagle′s syndrome.

  11. Psychiatric and addictive symptoms of young adult female indoor tanners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, Carolyn J; Cohen-Filipic, Jessye; Darlow, Susan; Kloss, Jacqueline D; Manne, Sharon L; Munshi, Teja

    2014-01-01

    Indoor tanning (IT) increases risk for melanoma and is particularly common among young adult women. IT has also been linked with some psychiatric symptoms, and frequent tanning may indicate tanning dependence (addiction) associated with endorphin release during ultraviolet radiation exposure. The objective of the current study was to investigate associations between IT, tanning dependence, and psychiatric and substance use symptoms in young adult women. Cross-sectional survey and psychiatric interview. Online, except for the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), which was completed over the telephone. Participants were 306 female university students aged 18 to 25 years. MINI, Seasonal Scale Index, tanning dependence scales, reporting ever having used a tanning bed or booth with tanning lamps (single item), reporting smoking a cigarette in the last 30 days (single item). Descriptive statistics, χ(2) analysis, multivariate logistic regression. Forty-six percent of the sample reported a history of IT, and 25% were classified as tanning dependent. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that IT was significantly associated with symptoms of alcohol use disorders, generalized anxiety, and not having social anxiety. Tanning dependence was associated with symptoms of alcohol use disorders. Tanning is of concern not only for its association with skin cancer but for its association with psychiatric and substance use symptoms. Young women with certain psychological problems may seek relief from their symptoms by IT. These findings suggest that indoor tanners may benefit from health behavior and other psychosocial interventions.

  12. "A Shock of Electricity Just Sort of Goes through My Body": Physical Activity and Embodied Reflexive Practices in Young Female Ballet Dancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellard, Ian; Pickard, Angela; Bailey, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Participation in physical activities, in and out of school, remains heavily influenced by social constructions of gendered behaviour. In addition, the body plays a significant part in the presentation of legitimate performances of physical practice and the construction of a physical "identity". The consequence is that in formalized…

  13. Eye Movements Affect Postural Control in Young and Older Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Neil M; Bampouras, Theodoros M; Donovan, Tim; Dewhurst, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Visual information is used for postural stabilization in humans. However, little is known about how eye movements prevalent in everyday life interact with the postural control system in older individuals. Therefore, the present study assessed the effects of stationary gaze fixations, smooth pursuits, and saccadic eye movements, with combinations of absent, fixed and oscillating large-field visual backgrounds to generate different forms of retinal flow, on postural control in healthy young and older females. Participants were presented with computer generated visual stimuli, whilst postural sway and gaze fixations were simultaneously assessed with a force platform and eye tracking equipment, respectively. The results showed that fixed backgrounds and stationary gaze fixations attenuated postural sway. In contrast, oscillating backgrounds and smooth pursuits increased postural sway. There were no differences regarding saccades. There were also no differences in postural sway or gaze errors between age groups in any visual condition. The stabilizing effect of the fixed visual stimuli show how retinal flow and extraocular factors guide postural adjustments. The destabilizing effect of oscillating visual backgrounds and smooth pursuits may be related to more challenging conditions for determining body shifts from retinal flow, and more complex extraocular signals, respectively. Because the older participants matched the young group's performance in all conditions, decreases of posture and gaze control during stance may not be a direct consequence of healthy aging. Further research examining extraocular and retinal mechanisms of balance control and the effects of eye movements, during locomotion, is needed to better inform fall prevention interventions.

  14. Adoption consideration and concerns among young adult female cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Jessica R; Whitcomb, Brian W; Standridge, Daniel; Malcarne, Vanessa L; Romero, Sally A D; Roberts, Samantha A; Su, H Irene

    2017-02-01

    We compared adoption consideration between female young adult cancer survivors and women of the same age in the general US population, hypothesizing that cancer survivors who desired children would report greater interest in adoption than an age-adjusted general population sample who desired children. After age-standardizing the cancer survivor cohort to match the age distribution of the 2006-2010 National Survey for Family Growth (NSFG), we estimated adoption consideration among women age 18-35 years who wanted a (another) child in the two cohorts overall and within age groups. We assessed characteristics and concerns related to adoption consideration among cancer survivors. Among cancer survivors, 81.6 % (95 % CI 75.7-87.6) reported that they would consider adoption compared to 40.3 % (95 % CI 40.3-40.3) of women in the general population. While over 80 % of the cancer survivor sample reported that they would consider adoption, only 15 % of cancer survivors reported no concerns about adoption. The most common concerns were desire for a biological child (48 %), expense (45 %), adoption agency candidacy (41 %), and needing more information (39 %). We observed a twofold higher interest in adoption when comparing the cancer survivor with the general population, suggesting that adoption is a consideration for many young women who have survived cancer. Adoption is an important family-building option for those who want to have a child but are unable to or choose not to have a biological child. However, young adult survivors may need more support to understand and navigate this process.

  15. The knowledge of breast cancer among young Saudi females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wafa A. Sait; Samia M. Al-Amoudi; Dalal A. Tawtai; Hassan S. Abduljabbar

    2010-01-01

    To assess the breast cancer knowledge level of Saudi female school students.A detailed questionnaire on cancer breast was designed with all the needed information. Using a map of the Jeddah area of Saudi Arabia, schools were identified in each area and permission was sought from the Ministry of Education to distribute the questionnaire to the students. A team of volunteers was instructed on how to distribute and collect the questionnaires. The collected questionnaires were then statistically analyzed. This Pilot study of 500 students was performed in King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital using high schools from the city of Jeddah between April and June 2009. The results were used to build up a base for designing a community educational program. Analysis of the data from 337 questionnaires from high school and college students showed that the level of knowledge of young females on breast cancer is limited. However, it also indicated that the students are very enthusiastic to learn about cancer breast, and its prevention. The limited knowledge level of breast cancer in the younger generation might be an obstacle to screening programs and early diagnosis. Awareness programs should be developed including lectures, seminars workshops, and on hands training (Author).

  16. Laterality of the legs in young female soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antosiak-Cyrak Katarzyna Z.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the present study was assessment of laterality of the legs of young female soccer players and their non-training counterparts. Methods. The study sample comprised 9 female soccer players and 19 non-training girls. They underwent three measurement sessions, one every six months. The applied tests included kinesthetic differentiation, rate of local movements, static balance, single-leg hop, rate of global movements, strength and speed, and functional asymmetry of the legs tests. Results. The soccer players were better than the controls in their performance of the rate of local movements, rate of global movements, kinesthetic differentiation, single-leg 15m timed hop and static balance tests. Smaller differences between the results of the left and the right legs in soccer players, than in non-training girls, were noted in the rate of local movements, rate of global movements and kinesthetic differentiation tests. In the static balance test, the differences were greater in the group of soccer players. Conclusions. Lateralization of the lower limbs is a highly complex characteristic with a different variability in athletes than in nontraining individuals. The results of the present study also point to the specialization of soccer players’ left legs in body balance and single-leg hop tests.

  17. Frequency of osteopenia and associated risk factors among young female students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soomro, R.R.; Ahmed, S.I.; Khan, M.

    2017-01-01

    To find out the frequency of osteopenia and associated risk factors among young female students. Methods: This observational, cross-sectional study was conducted at the Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, from August 2011 to January 2012, and comprised young female students. Convenient sampling method was used. Age, residence, sun exposure, menstrual status, level of physical activity, exercise, vitamin D, calcium intake were variables of interest. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan was used to measure bone mineral density on the lumbar spine, hip, femur and distal forearm. SPSS 16 was used for data analysis. Results: A total of 100(76.9%) students were included in this study. The age range was 20-30 years. Overall,70(70%)participants were osteopenic, while 30(30%) were normal. Age<25 years, living with less exposure to sun, less physical activity and diet low in calcium and vitamin D were common risk factors. Conclusion: The frequency of osteopenia was significantly high among young female students. (author)

  18. Poor Acceptability of Female Condom by Young Cameroonians: an Unmet Programmatic Agenda for HIV Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanou Sobze, Martin; Fokam, Joseph; Onohiol, James-Francis; Soung Iballa, Brice; Djeunang, Bruna; Azeufack Ngueko, Yannick; Mbida, Mpoame; Ercoli, Lucia; Colizzi, Vittorio; Russo, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    An important component of the response to the AIDS epidemic is the prevention of HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases through the use of condoms. In order to enhance HIV prevention programs and minimize the occurrence of unwanted pregnancies, female condoms have been introduced within the community, with the ultimate goal of reducing vulnerability of women. The success of such a program depends on its acceptance by the target population. A survey was conducted among 426 respondents from different regions of Cameroon, to evaluate their perception of HIV/AIDS and their level of acceptance of condom usage in general, and female condom use in particular. Respondents were young adults residing in seven regions of Cameroon (86.4% west, 6.5% Littoral, 3% Centre and 4.1% Adamawa, East, Far-North and North-West). Mean age was 22.6 years; 57% were male, 95% were single, and 77% were university educated. Overall, 76% of participants reported using condoms, though 48% complained of decreased sexual satisfaction. Interestingly, awareness regarding female condoms was 74.5% and 88.5% in men and women respectively, however only 8% and 9.9% respectively reported having ever used them. Respondents generally learnt about sexual education through broadcasting media (~90%). In this sexually active Cameroonian population, the rate of acceptance or use of female condom remains very low, even among women. Strategies to increase awareness of female condoms among young women, their benefits and correct use, are needed.

  19. Reliability of anthropometric measurements in young male and female artistic gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siatras, Theophanis; Skaperda, Malamati; Mameletzi, Dimitra

    2010-12-01

    Body dimensions and body composition of children participating in artistic activities, such as gymnastics and many types of dancing, are important factors in performance improvement. The present study aimed to determine the reliability of a series of selected anthropometric measurements in young male and female gymnasts. Segment lengths, body breadths, circumferences, and skinfold thickness were measured in 20 young gymnasts by the same experienced examiner, using portable and easy-to-use instruments. All parameters were measured twice (test-retest) under the same conditions within a week's period. The high intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) values ranging from 0.87 to 0.99, as well as the low coefficient of variation (CV) values (artistic gymnasts. Therefore, these measurements could contribute to further research in this field of investigation, helping to monitor young artistic gymnasts' growth status and identify specific characteristics for increased performance in this sport.

  20. Acute onset of ovarian dysfunction in young females after start of cancer treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mörse, Helena; Elfving, Maria; Lindgren, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Female childhood cancer survivors are at risk of ovarian failure and premature ovarian insufficiency. We hereby present an interim analysis of a prospective observational study of ovarian function during cancer treatment of young females in relation to clinical factors.......Female childhood cancer survivors are at risk of ovarian failure and premature ovarian insufficiency. We hereby present an interim analysis of a prospective observational study of ovarian function during cancer treatment of young females in relation to clinical factors....

  1. Age-Related Increase in Electromyography Burst Activity in Males and Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Theou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid advancement of electromyography (EMG technology facilitates measurement of muscle activity outside the laboratory during daily life. The purpose of this study was to determine whether bursts in EMG recorded over a typical 8-hour day differed between young and old males and females. Muscle activity was recorded from biceps brachii, triceps brachii, vastus lateralis, and biceps femoris of 16 young and 15 old adults using portable surface EMG. Old muscles were active 16–27% of the time compared to 5–9% in young muscles. The number of bursts was greater in old than young adults and in females compared to males. Burst percentage and mean amplitude were greater in the flexor muscles compared with the extensor muscles. The greater burst activity in old adults coupled with the unique activity patterns across muscles in males and females provides further understanding of how changes in neuromuscular activity effects age-related functional decline between the sexes.

  2. Sprint vs. intermittent training in young female basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attene, G; Pizzolato, F; Calcagno, G; Ibba, G; Pinna, M; Salernitano, G; Padulo, J

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed at comparing the effects of intermittent and repeated sprint ability training on physiological variables. Sixteen young female basketball players were randomly allocated to intermittent training (IT=8) or repeated sprint ability training (RST=8) groups. The following outcomes were measured at baseline and after 6 weeks of training: Yo-Yo intermittent recovery (Yo-Yo) and repeated sprint ability (RSA) tests. For all the variables investigated the effect of training type showed a different trend respect at current knowledge. In the RSA, best time (BT) was a significant main effect of training time (pre- vs. post-) (Ptraining type/time (P=0.03). The RST showed a decrease in BT of 3.1% (P=0.005) while the IT showed a decrease of 6.2% (Ptraining methods used in this study can be an effective training strategy for inducing anaerobic and basketball-specific training schedules. Besides, even when IT training is not done at very high speed, it can increase the maximum speed of the RSA.

  3. Learning Curves: Body Image and Female Sexuality in Young Adult Literature. Scarecrow Studies in Young Adult Literature #35

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younger, Beth

    2009-01-01

    Adolescence is a time of growth, change, and confusion for young women. During this transition from childhood to adulthood, sex and gender roles become more important. Meanwhile, depictions of females--from the hyper-sexualized girls of music videos to the chaste repression of Purity Balls--send mixed messages to young women about their bodies…

  4. Assessment of bone mineral density in young female handball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tathyane Krahenbühl

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Optimizing bone mass gain during childhood and adolescence may help prevent bone diseases in advanced ages. The aim of this study was to verify the bone mineral density (BMD and bone mineral content (BMC in female adolescent’s handball players. This is a cross-sectional study where 68 female adolescents (12–17 years were allocated into two groups: handball players (n = 29 (HG and control group (n = 39 (CG. BMC and BMD from total body (TB, total body less head (TBLH, lumbar spine (L1–L4, femoral neck (FN, Ward’s triangle (WT and respectively Z-scores were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Sexual maturity, menarche, PHV, time of sun exposure, physical activity level and Calcium and vitamin D intake were assessed. The HG showed significantly higher BMC, BMD as well Z-scores values (p≤0.05 of total body, TBLH, femoral neck, hip and lumbar spine than the CG. When the values were adjusted for lean soft tissue (LST the HG showed significantly higher BMC of femoral neck (p≤0.05, as well as BMD of TBLH and femoral neck (p≤0.05 and Z-score values all bone sites except hip, than the CG. We conclude that handball players have significantly higher bone mass values compared to group of girls of the same age.

  5. Physical Activity and Adolescent Female Psychological Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covey, Linda A.; Feltz, Deborah L.

    1991-01-01

    Relationships between self-reported past and present physical activity levels and self-image, sense of mastery, gender role identity, self-perceived physical ability, and self-perceived attractiveness were studied for 149 female high school sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Results are discussed in terms of adolescent emotional health. (SLD)

  6. The influence of outdoor thermal environment on young Japanese females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurazumi, Yoshihito; Ishii, Jin; Kondo, Emi; Fukagawa, Kenta; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Sakoi, Tomonori; Tsuchikawa, Tadahiro; Matsubara, Naoki; Horikoshi, Tetsumi

    2014-07-01

    The influence of short wave solar radiation appears to be strong outdoors in summer, and the influence of airflow appears to be strong outdoors in winter. The purpose of this paper was to clarify the influence of the outdoor environment on young Japanese females. This research shows the relationship between the physiological and psychological responses of humans and the enhanced conduction-corrected modified effective temperature (ETFe). Subjective experiments were conducted in an outdoor environment. Subjects were exposed to the thermal environment in a standing posture. Air temperature, humidity, air velocity, short wave solar radiation, long wave radiation, ground surface temperature, sky factor, and the green solid angle were measured. The temperatures of skin exposed to the atmosphere and in contact with the ground were measured. Thermal sensation and thermal comfort were measured by means of rating the whole-body thermal sensation (cold-hot) and the whole body thermal comfort (comfortable-uncomfortable) on a linear scale. Linear rating scales are given for the hot (100) and cold (0), and comfortable (100) and uncomfortable (0) directions only. Arbitrary values of 0 and 100 were assigned to each endpoint, the reported values read in, and the entire length converted into a numerical value with an arbitrary scale of 100 to give a linear rating scale. The ETFe considered to report a neither hot nor cold, thermally neutral sensation of 50 was 35.9 °C, with 32.3 °C and 42.9 °C, respectively, corresponding to the low and high temperature ends of the ETFe considered to report a neither comfortable nor uncomfortable comfort value of 50. The mean skin temperature considered to report a neither hot nor cold, thermally neutral sensation of 50 was 33.3 °C, with 31.0 °C and 34.3 °C, respectively, corresponding to the low and high temperature ends of the mean skin temperature considered to report a neither comfortable nor uncomfortable comfort value of 50. The

  7. Heightened Olfactory Sensitivity in Young Females with Recent-Onset Anorexia Nervosa and Recovered Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentz, Mette; Guldberg, Johanne; Vangkilde, Signe

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Olfaction may be related to food restriction and weight loss. However, reports regarding olfactory function in individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) have been inconclusive. OBJECTIVE: Characterize olfactory sensitivity and identification in female adolescents and young adults...

  8. Visual and psychological stress during computer work in healthy, young females-physiological responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mork, Randi; Falkenberg, Helle K; Fostervold, Knut Inge; Thorud, Hanne Mari S

    2018-05-30

    Among computer workers, visual complaints, and neck pain are highly prevalent. This study explores how occupational simulated stressors during computer work, like glare and psychosocial stress, affect physiological responses in young females with normal vision. The study was a within-subject laboratory experiment with a counterbalanced, repeated design. Forty-three females performed four 10-min computer-work sessions with different stress exposures: (1) minimal stress; (2) visual stress (direct glare); (3) psychological stress; and (4) combined visual and psychological stress. Muscle activity and muscle blood flow in trapezius, muscle blood flow in orbicularis oculi, heart rate, blood pressure, blink rate and postural angles were continuously recorded. Immediately after each computer-work session, fixation disparity was measured and a questionnaire regarding perceived workstation lighting and stress was completed. Exposure to direct glare resulted in increased trapezius muscle blood flow, increased blink rate, and forward bending of the head. Psychological stress induced a transient increase in trapezius muscle activity and a more forward-bent posture. Bending forward towards the computer screen was correlated with higher productivity (reading speed), indicating a concentration or stress response. Forward bent posture was also associated with changes in fixation disparity. Furthermore, during computer work per se, trapezius muscle activity and blood flow, orbicularis oculi muscle blood flow, and heart rate were increased compared to rest. Exposure to glare and psychological stress during computer work were shown to influence the trapezius muscle, posture, and blink rate in young, healthy females with normal binocular vision, but in different ways. Accordingly, both visual and psychological factors must be taken into account when optimizing computer workstations to reduce physiological responses that may cause excessive eyestrain and musculoskeletal load.

  9. Higher tibial quantitative ultrasound in young female swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, B; Bronshtein, Z; Zigel, L; Constantini, N; Eliakim, A

    2004-08-01

    It has been found that swimming, a non-impact sport, generally has no effect on bone mineral density. To examine bone properties, as measured by quantitative ultrasound, among female swimmers in comparison with control girls and women. Subjects included 61 swimmers and 71 controls aged 8.5 to 26.5 years. None of the swimmers was at the elite level and none had included resistance training in her schedule. Bone speed of sound (SOS) was measured bilaterally at the distal radius and the mid-tibia. No differences were observed between swimmers and controls in body mass (mean (SD): 49.7 (12.3) v 50.7 (12.4) kg, respectively), although swimmers were taller (159 (12) v 155 (12) cm) and had lower body fat (18.3 (4.2)% v 22.3 (5.4)%). No difference was found in time since menarche (5.2 (4.0) and 4.5 (2.9) years in swimmers and controls, respectively; 21 swimmers and 25 control were premenarcheal). Radial speed of sound (SOS) increased with age but did not differ between swimmers and controls (non-dominant: 3904 (172) and 3889 (165) m/s for swimmers and controls, respectively). Tibial SOS also increased with age and was significantly higher in swimmers than in controls (non-dominant: 3774 (155) v 3712 (171) m/s). No differences were found between dominant and non-dominant sides. Swimming appears to be associated with higher bone SOS in the lower but not in the upper extremities. Further studies are needed to assess whether this difference reflects higher habitual activity among the swimmers or swimming specific mechanisms.

  10. Empowering Girls through Sport? Sports Advice Books for Young Female Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinecken, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    Advice books by female athletes are among the top selling sports books for young readers in the US. Though they have received little attention to date, sports advice books are important to examine because of how they function as a form of conduct manual instructing girls in specific understandings of female identity. Implying that girls face…

  11. Detained Adolescent Females' Multiple Mental Health and Adjustment Problem Outcomes in Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, E.; Vermeiren, R. R. J. M.; Krabbendam, A. A.; Beekman, A. T. F.; Doreleijers, T. A. H.; Jansen, L. M. C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although prior studies have shown that detained females are marked by significant adverse circumstances, little is known about their adult outcomes. Method: Prospective follow-up study of 184 (80.4% of original sample of 229) detained adolescent females who were reassessed 4.5 SD = 0.6) years later in young adulthood (mean age = 20.0,…

  12. Activation of antioxidant defenses in whole saliva by psychosocial stress is more manifested in young women than in young men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoriia Tsuber

    Full Text Available Psychosocial stress has been long known to have deleterious effects on health. Nevertheless, an exposure to moderate stressors enhances resilience and promotes health benefits. Male and female organisms differ in many aspects of health and disease. The aim of this study was to investigate antioxidant activity and oxidative damage in saliva in a psychosocial stress paradigm in men and women. Here, we show that an acute stressor of moderate strength augments antioxidant activity and decreases oxidative damage in whole saliva of young people. An examination stress caused a significant increase of catalase activity, accompanied by a decrease of levels of oxidized proteins. Levels of thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances did not increase at stress, indicating that lipid peroxidation was not activated. The stress-induced alterations were more manifested in young women compared to young men. Thus, antioxidant protective mechanisms are more activated by a moderate stressor in young women than in young men.

  13. Activation of antioxidant defenses in whole saliva by psychosocial stress is more manifested in young women than in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuber, Viktoriia; Kadamov, Yunus; Tarasenko, Lydia

    2014-01-01

    Psychosocial stress has been long known to have deleterious effects on health. Nevertheless, an exposure to moderate stressors enhances resilience and promotes health benefits. Male and female organisms differ in many aspects of health and disease. The aim of this study was to investigate antioxidant activity and oxidative damage in saliva in a psychosocial stress paradigm in men and women. Here, we show that an acute stressor of moderate strength augments antioxidant activity and decreases oxidative damage in whole saliva of young people. An examination stress caused a significant increase of catalase activity, accompanied by a decrease of levels of oxidized proteins. Levels of thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances did not increase at stress, indicating that lipid peroxidation was not activated. The stress-induced alterations were more manifested in young women compared to young men. Thus, antioxidant protective mechanisms are more activated by a moderate stressor in young women than in young men.

  14. Influence of Peers on Young Adolescent Females' Romantic Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisnieski, Deborah; Sieving, Renee E.; Garwick, Ann W.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Initiation of sexual intercourse during early adolescence is a known risk factor for teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Purpose: To examine young women's stories describing peer in?uences on their romantic and sexual decisions and behavior during early adolescence. Methods: Semistructured ethnographic interviews were…

  15. Vaginal Bleeding In 6 Years Old Young Female: Diagnostic Challenge

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 6 year old young girl was referred to Mendefera (Zoba Debub Referral) Hospital with vaginal bleeding of 4 days duration. She had a history of swimming in a river prior to the incident. An aquatic leech bloated with blood detached from the vagina after 100 milliliters of normal saline flushing into the vagina. The patient was ...

  16. Nongenomic Actions of 17-β Estradiol Restore Respiratory Neuroplasticity in Young Ovariectomized Female Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Brendan J.; Kopp, Elizabeth S.

    2017-01-01

    Gonadal steroids modulate CNS plasticity, including phrenic long-term facilitation (pLTF), a form of spinal respiratory neuroplasticity resulting in increased phrenic nerve motor output following exposure to acute intermittent hypoxia (aIH; three 5 min episodes, 10.5% O2). Despite the importance of respiratory system neuroplasticity, and its dependence on estrogen in males, little is known about pLTF expression or mechanisms of estrogen signaling in females. Here, we tested the hypotheses that (1) pLTF expression in young, gonadally intact female rats would be expressed during estrous cycle stages in which 17β-estradiol (E2) is naturally high (e.g., proestrus vs estrus), (2) pLTF would be absent in ovariectomized (OVX) rats and in physiological conditions in which serum progesterone, but not E2, is elevated (e.g., lactating rats, 3–10 d postpartum), and (3) acute E2 administration would be sufficient to restore pLTF in OVX rats. Recordings of phrenic nerve activity in female Sprague Dawley rats (3–4 months) revealed a direct correlation between serum E2 levels and pLTF expression in cycling female rats. pLTF was abolished with OVX, but was re-established by acute E2 replacement (3 h, intraperitoneal). To identify underlying E2 signaling mechanisms, we intrathecally applied BSA-conjugated E2 over the spinal phrenic motor nucleus and found that pLTF expression was restored within 15 min, suggesting nongenomic E2 effects at membrane estrogen receptors. These data are the first to investigate the role of ovarian E2 in young cycling females, and to identify a role for nongenomic estrogen signaling in any form of respiratory system neuroplasticity. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Exposure to acute intermittent hypoxia induces phrenic long-term facilitation (pLTF), a form of spinal respiratory motor plasticity that improves breathing in models of spinal cord injury. Although pathways leading to pLTF are well studied in males and estradiol (E2) is known to be required, it has

  17. Epidemiological impact of a genital herpes type 2 vaccine for young females.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijun Lou

    Full Text Available Genital Herpes, which is caused by Herpes Simplex Virus-1 or -2 (HSV-1, -2, predominantly HSV-2 is a sexually transmitted infection (STI that causes a chronic latent infection with outbreak episodes linked to transmission. Antiviral therapies are effective in reducing viral shedding during these episodes, but are ineffective as a whole since many outbreaks are asymptomatic or have mild symptoms. Thus, the development of a vaccine for genital herpes is needed to control this disease. The question of how to implement such a vaccine program is an important one, and may be similar to the vaccination program for Human Papilloma Virus (HPV for young females. We have developed a mathematical model to describe the epidemiology of vaccination targeting young females against HSV-2. The model population is delineated with respect to age group, sexual activity and infection status including oral infection of HSV-1, which may affect vaccine efficacy. A threshold parameter R(C, which determines the level of vaccine uptake needed to eradicate HSV-2, is found. Computer simulation shows that an adolescent-only vaccination program may be effective in eliminating HSV-2 disease, however, the success of extinction greatly depends on the level of vaccine uptake, the vaccine efficacy, the age of sexual maturity and safe sex practices. However, the time course of eradication would take many years. We also investigate the prevalence of infection in the total population and in women between 16-30 years of age before and after vaccination has been introduced, and show that the adolescent-only vaccination program can be effective in reducing disease prevalence in these populations depending on the level of vaccine uptake and vaccine efficacy. This will also result in a decrease of maternal-fetal transmission of HSV-2 infection. Another important, if commonsense, conclusion is that vaccination of some females reduces infection in men, which then reduces infection in women.

  18. Electrophysiological analysis of the cognitive component of social creativity in young males and females with different individual characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saakyan, O. S.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article sets forth the problem of studying social creativity from the psychophysiological perspective. Presented here are the first experimental records of studying the cognitive component of social activity. This article describes the peculiar hemispheric activity during the resolution of interpersonal problems by students of different individual peculiarities and professional achievement levels. The author shows that when the solution to a verbal divergent task by young males and females of high creativity and professional achievement is reached, the frequency-spatial EEG indexes are higher in the parietal and frontal brain regions. In the solution of a convergent task, these indexes are higher in the frontal, central and cervical brain zones. In case of young males and females of low creativity and average and low levels of professional achievement, the solution of a convergent task is accompanied by increased EEG power in the central, frontal, parietal zones of both hemispheres. Thus, the assessment of the psychophysiological mechanisms of the cognitive component in social activity has shown that a definite picture of hemispheric activation stipulates the peculiarities of divergent and convergent thinking in young males and females of various levels of creativity and professional success. This difference, revealed at the initial stage of investigation, demands a deeper study of the phenomenon of social creativity in the professional training of a personality that is inclusive of this personality’s individual peculiarities.

  19. Young people's participation in physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stine Frydendal; Ottesen, Laila; Thing, Lone Friis

    regarding physical activity. 469 students participated in the survey. It is carried out through the online program SurveyXact. The data is processed in SPSS, and subsequently discussed. The primary results reveal that spare time jobs have a large impact on young people’s participation in physical activity......; Shame has an immense influence on the girls’ participation in physical activity; The offers regarding physical activity, provided by the school, appeal more to the boys and the students who are already physically active. Consequently, the students express a wish to have more influence on physical...... of young people today. This means that participation in physical activity cannot be discussed independently, but must always be viewed within the context of the lives of young people today....

  20. Percutaneous absorption of triadimefon in the adult and young male and female rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knaak, J.B.; Yee, K.; Ackerman, C.R.; Zweig, G.; Wilson, B.W.

    1984-01-01

    The percutaneous absorption of 14 C-phenoxy ring labeled triadimefon was studied in adult and young male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Triadimefon was applied (41.1 to 46.4 micrograms/cm2) in 0.2 ml of acetone to areas comprising 3% of the body surface (7.0 to 14.5 cm2). Thirty-six animals were treated at the initiation of each study. Groups of three animals were subsequently killed at 1, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, 168, and 192 hr after treatment. Skin from the treated area as well as blood, heart, liver, kidneys, remaining carcass, urine, and feces were analyzed for 14 C by scintillation counting techniques. Based on 14 C counts, triadimefon was lost more rapidly from the skin of young animals (t 1/2, 20 to 25 hr) than from the skin of adult animals (t 1/2, 29 to 53 hr). Recovery studies indicated that adult males, adult females, young males, and young females, respectively, absorbed 53, 82, 57, and 52% of the dose. The rest of the dose based on material balance was presumably lost by evaporation. Approximately 2.5 to 3.9% of the dose penetrated the skin in one hour and was available for absorption. The rate of entry triadimefon into blood was 2 to 2.5 times faster for young than that observed in adult animals. Elimination of it from blood was faster in the case of the young animals. Triadimefon was absorbed through the skins of the adult male, adult female, young male, and young female rats, respectively, at rates of 0.20, 0.50, 0.58, and 0.48 micrograms/hr/cm2 of skin

  1. Music increases alcohol consumption rate in young females

    OpenAIRE

    Stafford, Lorenzo D.; Dodd, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    Previous field research has shown that individuals consumed more alcohol and at a faster rate in environments paired with loud music. Theoretically, this effect has been linked to approach/avoidance accounts of how music influences arousal and mood, but no work has tested this experimentally. In the present study, female participants (n = 45) consumed an alcoholic (4% alcohol-by-volume) beverage in one of three contexts: slow tempo music, fast tempo music, or a no-music control. Results revea...

  2. Brachial biceps tendon injuries in young female high-level tennis players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsur, A; Gillson, S

    2000-06-01

    To evaluate brachial biceps tendon lesions in four young female tennis players who complained about anterior shoulder pain on their dominant side. Medical and sport's activity history, palpation of the painful zone, Ghilchrist (palm-up) test, and brachial biceps contraction against resistance were performed. The two girls who suffered from mild tenderness in the bicipital groove and over the anterior aspect of the upper arm and the shoulder joint, had tendinitis of the long biceps head. The two girls who suffered from severe tenderness just under the groove, had a partial tear in the long head of the biceps. Ghilchrist test was positive in all girls. Tennis players can have shoulder pain without clear history of trauma. Pain occurred probably as a result of technical errors or use of inadequate equipment.

  3. Female sexual dysfunction in young adult women - Impact of age and lifestyle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoian, Dana; PAter, Liana; Pater, Flavius; Craciunescu, Mihaela

    2014-12-01

    Female sexual function is a difficult entity to be assessed. Subjective factors and interview biases can change the perception of it. Using validated questionnaires can improve the scientific approach to this matter. There is a huge difference of severity and incidence among young, apparent healthy women, which are in a harmonious relationship. We evaluated 320 healthy women, with stable sexual active relationship, with no know depressive disease, endocrinological and metabolic pathology, no premature menopause, no malignancy. We compose a mathematic model to study the impact of age, and body weight on the sexual function, with FSFI total score as surrogate marker. We observed that even in healthy women, increase in age and/or weight/body mass significantly impair general sexual function.

  4. [Active career management needed for female doctors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Angela H E M; ter Braak, Edith W M T; Verbon, Annelies

    2015-01-01

    For more than 15 years two-thirds of medical students have been women. Despite this, they represent a minority (16-25 %) of professors in academic medicine. There is still a major gender gap to the disadvantage of women in leading positions in academia, with women earning only 80% of the salary of their male counterparts and fewer opportunities for scientific grants. Recent studies have shown that career ambition among men and women in medicine is comparable. However, successful women more often doubt their own achievements than men do. This is known as the 'imposter phenomenon' and acts as a barrier to career progression. Female leadership should be more actively promoted and encouraged to establish the diversity and creativity that we need in our current healthcare system.

  5. Does Ramadan Fasting Adversely Affect Cognitive Function in Young Females?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboubeh Ghayour Najafabadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the effects of Ramadan fasting on cognitive function in 17 female athletes. Data were obtained from participants of two fasting (n=9 and nonfasting (n=8 groups at three periods of the study (before Ramadan, at the third week in Ramadan, and after Ramadan. Digit span test (DST and Stroop color test were employed to assess short-term memory and inhibition/cognitive flexibility at each time point. There were no significant changes for DST and Stroop task 1 in both groups, whereas Stroop task 2 and task 3 showed significant improvements in Ramadan condition (p<0.05. Interference indices did not change significantly across the study except in post-Ramadan period of fasting group (p<0.05. Group × week interaction was significant only for error numbers (p<0.05. Athletes in nonfasting showed a significant decrease in number of errors in Ramadan compared to baseline (p<0.05. The results suggest that Ramadan fasting may not adversely affect cognitive function in female athletes.

  6. Obstacles in Advancement of Young Female Geoscientists: Research Results from the Earth Science Women's Network (ESWN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, M.; Laursen, S. L.

    2011-12-01

    requiring couples to consider two STEM careers when making career decisions. Women's partners more often worked full time than did the partners of men. This may limit the possibility of work-related travel for female geoscientists and increase the burden of household duties on two working partners. In fact, women did report doing significantly more household upkeep and more parenting than men. Another barrier to retention and promotion of women includes a lack of mentors and role models. The example of women in senior positions is especially important, justifying young women's aspiration to be successful geoscientists. In our data, young female geoscientists less often saw women as adequately represented in senior roles than did male respondents. While ESWN cannot solve these problems for individuals, ESWN activities do seem to address these concerns. In discussions on the ESWN listserv, women share ideas and strategies for navigating these obstacles. Young female geoscientists may also find role models among the more experienced members. Knowledge of these obstacles also provides ESWN and other organizations aiming to advance women in science with the potential best practices in supporting women through these challenges.

  7. Reproductive health education and sexual risk among high-risk female adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancheta, Rosedelia; Hynes, Colin; Shrier, Lydia A

    2005-04-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the associations of sources, content, and timing of reproductive health education with cognitive and behavioral sexual risk in a sample of high-risk female adolescents and young adults. Female adolescents and young adults (n=113, median age 17 years) receiving treatment for a sexually transmitted disease (STD) reported sources of reproductive health education, topics covered, and when first formal education occurred. Dependent variables included sexual risk knowledge; condom attitudes, negotiation skills, and use (consistent and at last sex); and number of sexual partners. Most participants reported receiving reproductive health education from both parental (80%) and formal sources (92%). Parents discussed the menstrual cycle (94%) more frequently than other sex education topics, while formal sources focused most on teaching about STDs (91%). Although median age of first formal instruction was 12 years, 26% of girls received their first formal education during or after the year they initiated coitus. Girls with a parental source of education and those receiving formal instruction on pregnancy reported greater ability to negotiate condom use. Girls who received education later in relation to the onset of sexual activity and those with a parental source of education reported more sexual partners. Early reproductive health education and education from both parental and formal sources is associated with reduced sexual risk among high-risk adolescent girls. Interestingly, receiving parental education is also associated with more sexual partners, suggesting that parental educational efforts may be reactive to their daughters' increasing sexual risk behavior. Future research should examine multiple sources of reproductive health education and the timing of education from these sources to enhance understanding the dynamic interactions between reproductive health education and adolescent sexual risk.

  8. Takayasu’s Arteritis and Crohn’s Disease in a Young Hispanic Female

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namrata Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Takayasu’s arteritis (TA and Crohn’s disease (CD are chronic inflammatory granulomatous disorders of undetermined etiology. TA is a large vessel vasculitis with a predilection for the aorta and its branches in young women of Asian descent; whereas CD has characteristic gastrointestinal manifestations more prevalent in young Caucasians. We describe a case of both diseases in a young Hispanic female, review the literature, and impart new insight on possible genetic linkage and the role of interleukin 12 B (IL-12B as the common autoimmune mechanism and potential therapeutic target in this rare disease combination.

  9. Unusual presentation and inconlusive biopsy render fibroadenoma in two young females a diagnostic dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Meerkotter

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Two young non-lactating females presented with acutely painful breast masses. Sonographic features showed mixed echogenic masses. Core biopsy was non-diagnostic in both and surgical excision revealed infarcted fibroadenomas. Although fibroadenomas are common, they do not commonly infarct and only rarely in non-lactating and non-pregnant females. These two cases highlight the clinical and imaging characteristics of this important differential diagnosis.

  10. Music increases alcohol consumption rate in young females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Lorenzo D; Dodd, Hannah

    2013-10-01

    Previous field research has shown that individuals consumed more alcohol and at a faster rate in environments paired with loud music. Theoretically, this effect has been linked to approach/avoidance accounts of how music influences arousal and mood, but no work has tested this experimentally. In the present study, female participants (n = 45) consumed an alcoholic (4% alcohol-by-volume) beverage in one of three contexts: slow tempo music, fast tempo music, or a no-music control. Results revealed that, compared with the control, the beverage was consumed fastest in the two music conditions. Interestingly, whereas arousal and negative mood declined in the control condition, this was not the case for either of the music conditions, suggesting a downregulation of alcohol effects. We additionally found evidence for music to disrupt sensory systems in that, counterintuitively, faster consumption was driven by increases in perceived alcohol strength, which, in turn, predicted lower breath alcohol level (BrAL). These findings suggest a unique interaction of music environment and psychoactive effects of alcohol itself on consumption rate. Because alcohol consumed at a faster rate induces greater intoxication, these findings have implications for applied and theoretical work. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Sexual abuse and risky sexual behaviors among young female hawkers in Burkina Faso: a mixed method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouédraogo, Saide Yacine Y A; Sisawo, Ebrima J; Huang, Song-Lih

    2017-01-04

    Young street hawkers in Burkina Faso are increasingly exposed to workplace hazards such as physical and sexual abuse, and also unsafe sexual practices. The objectives of this study were to identify the socio-demographic status and work characteristics of young female hawkers, describe their sexual behavior and their experience with regards to sex-related violence at the workplace. The study used a mixed design combining qualitative and quantitative methods. It was carried out in two traffic stations in Burkina Faso namely Bittou customs station and Boromo bus station. Female hawkers aged 13 - 24 years were invited to participate in a questionnaire survey and local key informants were recruited to partake in an in-depth interview. The recruitment was based on their duties related to the hawkers. The study included 264 participants in the survey and 16 interviewees. The survey showed that three quarter of participants had primary education or lower. About half of them had been sexually harassed, with clients, public members and co-hawkers as the most common source of assault. Most (68.6%) hawkers were sexually active; among them 43.7% had received money or gifts for sex. Positive factors associated with commercial sex include working in Boromo and age above 17, while negative factors include being Muslim and having female genital mutilation. The interviews confirmed the relationship between hawking and the socio-economic situation of participant's family, and pointed out societal factors that expose hawkers to risky sexual behaviors. This study provides a better understanding of young female hawking activity in Boromo and Bittou. Implementing an empowerment program for female street vendors and their families, and an efficient surveillance system might help reduce these hazards.

  12. Subacute Thyroiditis Following Influenza Vaccine (Vaxigrip® in A Young Female

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeng-Yueh Hsiao

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Subacute thyroiditis (SAT, also called de Quervain thyroiditis or granulomatous thyroiditis, is a self- limiting, possibly viral, and inflammatory thyroid disorder that is usually associated with thyroid pain and systemic symptoms. This report details a case of SAT possibly associated with influenza vaccine (Vaxigrip® in a young female. The diagnosis, therapeutic management and outcome are discussed.

  13. Career Progression of Young Female Accountants: Evidence from the Accountancy Profession in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twomey, Ann Marie; Linehan, Margaret; Walsh, James S.

    2002-01-01

    A study of 12 male and 12 female accountants under age 30 in Ireland indicated that young women encountered gender-based obstacles in an industry still dominated by males. They had fewer opportunities for informal networking, and more women than men believed children would affect their career progress. (Contains 41 references.) (SK)

  14. An anthropometric comparison between young female spanish and brazilian dancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Henrique De Rose

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Not much is known about the influence of dance on the morphological and anthropometric development of young and teenager dancers. Bibliography on the subject is almost nonexistent, given the difficulty to find studies about this type of population. It is very important to control the morphological development of girls that study dance in order to quantify, qualify and achieve better results. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the anthropometric characteristics of two populations: one group of classical ballet dancers, average age 11.12 ± 1.00, from Porto Alegre, Brazil, and the other group including dancers of Spanish dance and classical ballet, with an average age of 11.50 ± 0.94, from Cordoba, Spain. A parallel was established between the populations, comparing and relating the data obtained. Fifty anthropometrical variables were measured, including body weight, stature, height, skinfolds, girths, breadths and lengths, based on the ISAK (International Society of the Advancement of kinanthropometry protocol, proposed by Ross and Marfell-Jones (1991. Descriptive statistical methodology was used in order to obtain a database for the two samples studied and the t test was used to compare their data. The conclusion was that the two groups are very similar despite the fact that a few statistically different variables were found. These differences were mainly related to breadths. RESUMO Pouco se sabe a respeito da influência da dança no desenvolvimento morfológico e antropométrico de meninas e adolescentes – meninas-bailarinas. A bibliografia referente a esse tema é quase inexistente, tendo-se grande dificuldade de encontrar estudos realizados acerca de populações desse tipo. É muito importante poder controlar o desenvolvimento morfológico de meninas que estudam dança, para poder quantificar, qualificar e, conseqüentemente, alcançar melhores resultados. Portanto, o objetivo deste estudo foi analisar, por meio de um

  15. Effects of sports training & nutrition on bone mineral density in young Indian healthy females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwaha, Raman K; Puri, Seema; Tandon, Nikhil; Dhir, Sakshi; Agarwal, Neha; Bhadra, Kuntal; Saini, Namita

    2011-09-01

    Peak bone mass, a major determinant of osteoporosis is influenced by genetic, nutritional, lifestyle and hormonal factors. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of sports training on dietary intake and bone mineral and metabolic parameters in young healthy Indian females. Healthy female college going students (N=186, sportswomen, 90; controls 96) in the age group of 18-21 yr, residing in New Delhi (India) were evaluated for anthropometry, biochemistry (serum total and ionic calcium, phosphorus, total alkaline phosphatase, 25-hydroxyvitamin D & parathyroid hormone), diet, physical activity and lifestyle. Bone mineral density (BMD) at hip, forearm and lumbar spine were studied using central DXA. Sports related physical activity (3 vs. 0 h/day, P direct sunlight exposure (120 vs. 30 min/day, P < 0.001) were significantly higher in sportswomen than in controls with sedentary lifestyle. Significantly higher intake of all macronutrients (energy, protein, carbohydrates and fat) and dietary calcium was noted in the diets of sportswomen. Mean serum 25(OH)D levels were significantly higher (53.0 ± 18.9 vs. 12.9 ± 7.7 nmol/l; P < 0.001) while PTH (35.3 ± 17.6 vs. 51.7 ± 44.9 pg/ml; P < 0.001) and ALP levels (194.0 ± 51.0 vs. 222.1 ± 51.4 IU/l; P<0.001) were significantly lower in sportswomen when compared to controls. No significant difference was found in ionized calcium and inorganic phosphorus in the two groups. Significantly higher (P < 0.001) total BMD and BMD at all sites except femur neck were found in sportswomen than controls (P < 0.001). Physical activity, optimal nutrition and adequate sun exposure are vital for attaining peak bone mass.

  16. Weight-related concerns and diet behaviors among urban young females: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabnam Omidvar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Females are more likely than males to perceive themselves as too heavy, this has been explained in terms of the equation of “female beauty with extreme thinness.” Therefore, females are in general prone to develop unhealthy behaviors for weight management. Wrong weight control behaviors have significant health consequences. Objectives: To investigate the body weight concerns, body satisfaction, and weight control behaviors among young females and their association with age and socioeconomic status (SES. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted in urban areas from a major city in South India. About 650 healthy unmarried females aged 15–25 years formed the study population. Self-reporting questionnaires were used to obtain relevant data. The categorical data were analyzed using Chi-square, correlation, and regression analyses by SPSS version 16. Results: Most overweight and obese subjects perceived themselves as overweight. Adolescents were more likely to report themselves as overweight. The perceived weight, body satisfaction, and weight control behaviors are influenced by weight status and age of the subjects. However, SES of the participants did not exhibit effect of others' opinion about their weight and body satisfaction as well as weight management behaviors. Conclusion: The high prevalence of weight-related concerns suggests that all females should be reached with appropriate information and interventions. Healthy weight control practices need to be explicitly promoted and unhealthy practices discouraged. Young females need special attention toward weight management.

  17. Socialization Agents and Activities of Young Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnon, Sara; Shamai, Shmuel; Ilatov, Zinaida

    2008-01-01

    Research examined the relative importance of peer groups for young adolescents as compared with diverse adult socialization agents--family, school, and community. The factors involved were teenagers' activities, preferences, feelings, and thoughts as to how they spend their leisure time, their preferences for help providers, and their sense of…

  18. A comparison of muscle stiffness and musculoarticular stiffness of the knee joint in young athletic males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; De Vito, Giuseppe; Ditroilo, Massimiliano; Fong, Daniel T P; Delahunt, Eamonn

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the gender-specific differences in peak torque (PT), muscle stiffness (MS) and musculoarticular stiffness (MAS) of the knee joints in a young active population. Twenty-two male and twenty-two female recreational athletes participated. PT of the knee joint extensor musculature was assessed on an isokinetic dynamometer, MS of the vastus lateralis (VL) muscle was measured in both relaxed and contracted conditions, and knee joint MAS was quantified using the free oscillation technique. Significant gender differences were observed for all dependent variables. Females demonstrated less normalized PT (mean difference (MD)=0.4Nm/kg, p=0.005, η(2)=0.17), relaxed MS (MD=94.2N/m, pjoint injury incidence and prevalence in females when compared to males. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cervical Cancer Incidence in Young U.S. Females After Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fangjian; Cofie, Leslie E; Berenson, Abbey B

    2018-05-30

    Since 2006, human papillomavirus vaccine has been recommended for young females in the U.S. This study aimed to compare cervical cancer incidence among young women before and after the human papillomavirus vaccine was introduced. This cross-sectional study used data from the National Program for Cancer Registries and Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Incidence-U.S. Cancer Statistics 2001-2014 database for U.S. females aged 15-34 years. This study compared the 4-year average annual incidence of invasive cervical cancer in the 4 years before human papillomavirus vaccine was introduced (2003-2006) and the 4 most recent years in the vaccine era (2011-2014). Joinpoint regression models of cervical incidence from 2001 to 2014 were fitted to identify the discrete joints (year) that represent statistically significant changes in the direction of the trend after the introduction of human papillomavirus vaccination in 2006. Data were collected in 2001-2014, released, and analyzed in 2017. The 4-year average annual incidence rates for cervical cancer in 2011-2014 were 29% lower than that in 2003-2006 (6.0 vs 8.4 per 1,000,000 people, rate ratio=0.71, 95% CI=0.64, 0.80) among females aged 15-24 years, and 13.0% lower among females aged 25-34 years. Joinpoint analyses of cervical cancer incidence among females aged 15-24 years revealed a significant joint at 2009 for both squamous cell carcinoma and non-squamous cell carcinoma. Among females aged 25-34 years, there was no significant decrease in cervical cancer incidence after 2006. A significant decrease in the incidence of cervical cancer among young females after the introduction of human papillomavirus vaccine may indicate early effects of human papillomavirus vaccination. Copyright © 2018 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Identification af explosive power factors as predictors of player quality in young female volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grgantov, Zoran; Milić, Mirjana; Katić, Ratko

    2013-05-01

    With the purpose of determining the factor structure of explosive power, as well as the influence of each factor on situational efficiency, 56 young female volleyball players were tested using 14 tests for assessing nonspecific and specific explosive power. By factor analysis, 4 significant factors were isolated which explained the total of over 80% of the common variability in young female volleyball players. The first factor was defined as volleyball-specific jumping, the second factor as nonspecific jumping and sprinting, the third factor as throwing explosive power, while the fourth factor was interpreted as volleyball-specific throwing and spiking speed from the ground. Results obtained by regression analysis in the latent space of explosive power indicate that the identified factors are good predictors of player quality in young female volleyball players. The fourth factor defined as throwing and spiking speed from the ground had the largest influence on player quality, followed by volleyball-specific jumping and nonspecific jumping and sprinting, and to a much lesser extent, by throwing explosive power The results obtained in this age group bring to the fore the ability of spiking and serving a ball of high speed, which hinders the opponents from playing those balls in serve reception and field defence. This ability, combined with a high standing vertical jump reach and spike approach vertical jump reach (which is the basis of the 1st varimax factor) enables successful performance of all volleyball elements by which points are won in complex 1 (spike) and complex 2 (serve and block). Even though the 2nd factor (nonspecific jumping and sprinting) has a slightly smaller impact on situational efficiency in young players, this ability provides preconditions i.e. preparation for successful realisation of all volleyball elements, so greater attention must be paid to perfecting it in young female volleyball players.

  1. Feed efficiency, blood parameters, and ingestive behavior of young Nellore males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilha, Sarah Figueiredo Martins; Cyrillo, Joslaine Noely dos Santos Gonçalves; dos Santos, Guilherme Pinheiro; Branco, Renata Helena; Ribeiro, Enilson Geraldo; Mercadante, Maria Eugênia Zerlotti

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate differences in efficiency of feed utilization between young Nellore males and females by comparing growth traits, feed intake, blood parameters, and ingestive behavior of the animals. Data from 768 Nellore males and females that participated in eight performance tests for individual feed intake evaluation were used. Performance and feed efficiency measures, efficiency-related hematological, metabolic and hormonal variables, and data regarding ingestive behavior were collected. Feed efficiency measures were defined by the relationship between performance and feed intake. Data were analyzed using mixed models that included the fixed effects of sex, herd, and the covariate age within sex and the random effects of facility within year, year, and residual. Significant differences between males and females were observed for traits related to weight gain and feed intake. Although individual dynamics of feed efficiency measures differed between males and females, no significant differences in residual feed intake, feed efficiency, or relative growth rate were observed between sexes. Significant differences between sexes were found for platelets, red blood cells, hemoglobin, creatinine, glucose, urea, triglycerides, insulin, cortisol, and IGF-I. Females spent more time feeding and less time ruminating when compared to males. However, males exhibited higher feeding efficiency and lower rumination efficiency than females. Growing Nellore males and females are efficient in feed utilization, and the differences in blood variables observed are probably due to differences in body size and feed intake. Males spend less time eating, consume more food, and spend more time ruminating than females.

  2. The influence of motion control shoes on the running gait of mature and young females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilley, Kim; Stiles, Vicky; Dixon, Sharon

    2013-03-01

    This study compared the running gait of mature and young females, and investigated the effect of a motion control shoe. First, it was hypothesised that in a neutral shoe, mature females would display significantly greater rearfoot eversion, knee internal rotation and external adductor moments when compared to a younger group. Secondly, the motion control shoe would reduce rearfoot eversion and knee internal rotation in both groups. Thirdly it was hypothesised that the motion control shoe would increase knee external adductor moment, through an increase in knee varus and moment arm. 15 mature (40-60 years) and 15 young (18-25 years) females performed 10 running trials at 3.5ms(-1)±5% over a force platform. Two shoes were tested, the Adidas Supernova Glide (neutral), and the Adidas Supernova Sequence (motion control). Ankle and knee joint dynamics were analysed for the right leg, and the mean of ten trials was calculated. Joint moments were calculated using inverse dynamics. In the neutral condition, mature females presented greater peak rearfoot eversion, knee internal rotation, and external adductor moments than young females (p<0.05). A motion control shoe significantly reduced peak rearfoot eversion and knee internal rotation among both groups (p<0.05). No between shoe differences in knee external adductor moment were observed. A motion control shoe is recommended to reduce risk of injury associated with rearfoot eversion and knee internal rotation in mature females. However since the knee external adductor moment is a variable commonly associated with medial knee loading it is suggested that alternative design features are required to influence this moment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Shear modulus estimation on vastus intermedius of elderly and young females over the entire range of isometric contraction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong-Zhi Wang

    Full Text Available Elderly people often suffer from sarcopenia in their lower extremities, which gives rise to the increased susceptibility of fall. Comparing the mechanical properties of the knee extensor/flexors on elderly and young subjects is helpful in understanding the underlying mechanisms of the muscle aging process. However, although the stiffness of skeletal muscle has been proved to be positively correlated to its non-fatiguing contraction intensity by some existing methods, this conclusion has not been verified above 50% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC due to the limitation of their measurement range. In this study, a vibro-ultrasound system was set up to achieve a considerably larger measurement range on muscle stiffness estimation. Its feasibility was verified on self-made silicone phantoms by comparing with the mechanical indentation method. The system was then used to assess the stiffness of vastus intermedius (VI, one of the knee extensors, on 10 healthy elderly female subjects (56.7 ± 4.9 yr and 10 healthy young female subjects (27.6 ± 5.0 yr. The VI stiffness in its action direction was confirmed to be positively correlated to the % MVC level (R2 = 0.999 over the entire range of isometric contraction, i.e. from 0% MVC (relaxed state to 100% MVC. Furthermore, it was shown that there was no significant difference between the mean VI shear modulus of the elderly and young subjects in a relaxed state (p > 0.1. However, when performing step isometric contraction, the VI stiffness of young female subjects was found to be larger than that of elderly participants (p < 0.001, especially at the relatively higher contraction levels. The results expanded our knowledge on the mechanical property of the elderly's skeletal muscle and its relationship with intensity of active contraction. Furthermore, the vibro-ultrasound system has a potential to become a powerful tool for investigating the elderly's muscle diseases.

  4. A Qualitative Exploration of Gender Identity in Young People who identify as Neither Male nor Female

    OpenAIRE

    Boddington, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    The dominant approach to categorising gender in western cultures, follows a binary\\ud system, where the gender of an individual must be either male or female. However,\\ud some individuals feel that their gender identity is neither male nor female, and may\\ud define themselves as non-binary. Non-binary gender has predominantly been\\ud encompassed within wider transgender research and, therefore, little is known about\\ud how young people who identify as non-binary describe their gender identity...

  5. The first Latin American workshop on professional skills for young female scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila, A.; Meza-Montes, Lilia; Ponce-Dawson, Silvina

    2015-12-01

    To effectively build capacity for research and training in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) across Latin America and the Caribbean, a gender perspective must be factored in. Working from an awareness of the gender situation as well as of the multiple personal challenges experienced due to gender disparity, a group of Latin American female scientists organized a workshop with the goal of empowering young female scientists and assessing the challenges they face. In this paper we summarize the outcomes of the workshop, highlighting the barriers that are common in the region. Among other aspects, the workshop stressed the need for resource platforms for finding technical and professional networks, jobs, and scholarships.

  6. Luxury fashion brands: factors influencing young female consumers’ luxury fashion purchasing in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Meng-Shan Sharon; Chaney, Isabella; Chen, Cheng-Hao Steven; Nguyen, Bang; Melewar, T. C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose - Against the background of increasing consumption of luxury fashion brands by young female consumers in Asian countries, this paper offers insights into the consumption motives and purchasing behaviour of that market segment in Taiwan.\\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach - Analysis of data collected using face-to-face semi-structured interviews with twenty-three 18-32 year-old fashion-conscious females was completed and new empirical insights are offered.\\ud \\ud Findings - The study f...

  7. Heightened Olfactory Sensitivity in Young Females with Recent-Onset Anorexia Nervosa and Recovered Individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Bentz

    Full Text Available Olfaction may be related to food restriction and weight loss. However, reports regarding olfactory function in individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN have been inconclusive.Characterize olfactory sensitivity and identification in female adolescents and young adults with first-episode AN and young females recovered from AN.We used the Sniffin' Sticks Odor Threshold Test and Odor Identification Test to assess 43 participants with first-episode AN, 27 recovered participants, and 39 control participants. Participants completed the Importance of Olfaction questionnaire, the Beck Youth Inventory and the Eating Disorder Inventory. We also conducted a psychiatric diagnostic interview and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule with participants.Both clinical groups showed heightened olfactory sensitivity. After excluding participants with depression, participants with first-episode AN identified more odors than recovered participants.Heightened olfactory sensitivity in AN may be independent of clinical status, whereas only individuals with current AN and without depression show more accurate odor identification.

  8. Shift Work Is Associated with Metabolic Syndrome in Young Female Korean Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kyoung Hwa; Yi, Yu Hyeon; Kim, Yun Jin; Cho, Byung Mann; Lee, Sang Yeoup; Lee, Jeong Gyu; Jeong, Dong Wook; Ji, So Yeon

    2017-03-01

    Shift work is associated with health problems, including metabolic syndrome. This study investigated the association between shift work and metabolic syndrome in young workers. A total of 3,317 subjects aged 20-40 years enrolled in the 2011-2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were divided into shift and day workers. We conducted a cross-sectional study and calculated odds ratios using multivariate logistic regression analysis in order to examine the association between shift work and metabolic syndrome. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 14.3% and 7.1% among male and female shift workers, respectively. After adjusting for confounding factors, shift work was associated with metabolic syndrome in female workers (odds ratio, 2.53; 95% confidence interval, 1.12 to 5.70). Shift work was associated with metabolic syndrome in young women. Timely efforts are necessary to manage metabolic syndrome in the workplace.

  9. Level of anxiety and disordered eating behavior among young female athletes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatima, S.; Khan, I.; Bashir, M.S.; Fatima, M.

    2017-01-01

    To find level of anxiety and disordered eating behavior among young female athletes. Methodology: A questionnaire based survey was undertaken among 71 athletes (15-25 years old) athletes from University of Lahore and Lahore College for Women University. Then the level of anxiety and disordered eating behavior calculated. Data were statistically analyzed by SPSS version 16. Results: Out of 71 athletes, 56 (78.87%) had anxiety due to eating disorder and 15 (21.12%) had no eating disorder. And 67 (94.3%) athletes had raised anxiety levels while 3 (4.2%) had no anxiety. Conclusion: Dieting behavior and binge eating that prompted eating disorder are the main cause of anxiety among young female athletes. (author)

  10. Severe community-acquired pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae in young female patient

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    Milačić Nena

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma pneumonia is common agent causing community acquired pneumonia in younger population. However, the course of illness is usually benign and is rarely associated with pulmonary complications. We report a 27 years old female patient with unilateral pneumonia followed by pleural effusion and adhesions on the same side. This potential source of infection should be considered in young patients where resolution of symptoms from pneumonia is delayed.

  11. Myocardial Infarction in a Young Female with Palindromic Rheumatism: A Consequence of Negative Remodeling

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    Timothy R. Larsen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Palindromic rheumatism is a rare disease associated with systemic inflammation. Negative or constrictive coronary artery remodeling is typically not seen until the 7th or 8th decade of life. We report a case of a young female with palindromic rheumatism who suffered a non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction secondary to a flow-limiting lesion that demonstrated negative remodeling by intravascular ultrasound (IVUS.

  12. Musical rhythms and their influence on P300 velocity in young females

    OpenAIRE

    Sá, Cintia Ishii de; Pereira, Liliane Desguado

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to music may be useful in the P300 retest and avoid habituation. AIM: To verify the influence of the exposure to different kinds of music in P300 in young females. STUDY DESIGN: Clinical prospective. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Forty-five women aged from 20 to 36 years were evaluated. P300 was studied before and after musical stimulation with different rhythms. Brazilian songs, international songs, and classical music melodies were selected. Each song had its velocity altered and was named ...

  13. Balance Comparisons between Female Dancers and Active Nondancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambegaonkar, Jatin P.; Caswell, Shane V.; Winchester, Jason B.; Shimokochi, Yohei; Cortes, Nelson; Caswell, Amanda M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Female dancers have lower anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury rates compared with physically active women. Enhanced balance can decrease musculoskeletal injury risk. Dancers are proposed to have superior balance compared with physically active nondancers, and this may reduce their risk for ACL injury. However, whether female dancers…

  14. Preliminary bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) equation for body composition assessment in young females from Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caicedo, J C; González-Correa, C H; González-Correa, C A

    2013-01-01

    A previous study showed that reported BIA equations for body composition are not suitable for Colombian population. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a preliminary BIA equation for body composition assessment in young females from Colombia, using hydrodensitometry as reference method. A sample of 30 young females was evaluated. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were defined to minimize the variability of BIA. Height, weight, BIA, residual lung volume (RV) and underwater weight (UWW) were measured. A preliminary BIA equation was developed (r 2 = 0.72, SEE = 2.48 kg) by stepwise multiple regression with fat-free mass (FFM) as dependent variable and weight, height and impedance measurements as independent variables. The quality of regression was evaluated and a cross-validation against 50% of sample confirmed that results obtained with the preliminary BIA equation is interchangeable with results obtained with hydrodensitometry (r 2 = 0.84, SEE = 2.62 kg). The preliminary BIA equation can be used for body composition assessment in young females from Colombia until a definitive equation is developed. The next step will be increasing the sample, including a second reference method, as deuterium oxide dilution (D 2 O), and using multi-frequency BIA (MF-BIA). It would also be desirable to develop equations for males and other ethnic groups in Colombia.

  15. The Association of Adiposity Indices and Plasma Vitamin D in Young Females in Saudi Arabia

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    Lubna Ibrahim Al Asoom

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Vitamin D deficiency is a global health problem. Some evidences indicate its association with metabolic syndrome, type II diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. In the current study we aim to study the association of vitamin D level and indicators of adiposity in young Saudi females. Subjects and Methods. 87 young healthy Saudi females were recruited from University of Dammam, Dammam, Saudi Arabia. Each subject filled vitamin D questionnaire and had exercise stress test to determine VO2 peak. Body weight, BMI, waist and hip circumference, and ratios were determined. Blood was analyzed for 25-OH vitamin D, glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and differential cholesterol. Results. 25-OH vitamin D/body weight was negatively associated with waist circumference and waist/stature ratio. No significant difference was found between the groups of BMI with regard to the data of questionnaire or 25-OH vitamin D/body weight. Obese and overweight subjects had lower VO2 peak. Conclusion. In young Saudi females we found that the relative value of vitamin D to body weight is a better indicator of vitamin D status particularly in obese subjects and it is negatively associated with adiposity measures of waist circumference and waist/stature ratio.

  16. Retention of young female post-doc physics researchers in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelegg, Elizabeth

    2004-03-01

    The talk will describe the results of a research project to investigate the problems young women physics researchers encountered during early stages of their careers and their perceptions of the longer-term difficulties they anticipated were they to pursue a career in physics research. The project examined quantitative data from a large sample of female members of the UK Institute of Physics (IOP) and qualitative data from intensive interviews with 27 young female doctoral and post-doctoral researchers at an early stage in their careers. In the survey of women PhD members of the IOP, only 15% of the younger women (aged under 30) said they had encountered gender barriers compared with 45% of older women. However, within a few years of completing their PhDs only 25% of the young women remained in physics research although they had previously aspired to work in this area. The reasons given for leaving physics included a dislike of the male culture or atmosphere in research labs, the fact that few of the young women thought that they would ever attain a senior physics post, concerns about balancing a research career with raising a young family and anticipating a need to relocate to match a partners career moves. These are clearly gender-related barriers and constraints although these young women often did not perceive them in this way. This research examines the notion of direct and indirect gender barriers. It addresses the idea of subtle discrimination by examining both institutional employment practices and the prevalent male culture or atmosphere in physics research, which contribute to the leaky pipeline in womens physics employment in the UK.

  17. [Somatic and mental morbidity of young female physicians. Does emotional exhaustion constitute the missing link?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Győrffy, Zsuzsa; Adám, Szilvia

    2013-01-06

    The high prevalence of morbidity among female physicians in Hungary is well documented, however, little is known about the prevalence of that in certain age groups. To assess the prevalence of somatic and psychiatric morbidity in two age cohorts (Cohort 1: age 24-43 and Cohort 2: age 44-76) of female physicians and to explore the relationship between morbidity and potential risk factors including work-related stressors. Representative, cross-sectional, quantitative survey among representative samples of female physicians (N = 408). Physicians in Cohort 1 reported more frequent night shift rotation, less leisure time, and fewer days off compared to physicians in Cohort 2. Physicians in Cohort 1 were less satisfied with their work, workplace, reported less support from their colleagues, and received lower salary compared to physicians in Cohort 2. Physicians in Cohort 1 scored significantly higher on the emotional exhaustion and the personal accomplishment scales MBI as compared to Cohort 2 physicians. In Cohort 1 emotional exhaustion and personal accomplishment were associated with high depression scores and frequent suicidal ideation. The role of emotional exhaustion is decisive of young physicians' well-being. Future research should focus on understanding the psycho-social, individual, organizational, and societal correlates of the high prevalence of morbidity among young female physicians in Hungary.

  18. How Can Pharmacists Support STI Prevention and Treatment Among Female Adolescents and Young Adults?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufunmilola Abraham

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Sexual and reproductive health is a critical focus area for adolescents and young adults (AYAs. Of the 20 million newly diagnosed Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs annually, nearly half of them are contracted by young people between the ages of 15 to 24. It has become increasingly necessary to improve awareness and prevention of STIs during adolescent years. The knowledge gained through appropriately relevant sexual and reproductive health education may persist as adolescents transition into adulthood. Community pharmacists interact with AYAs frequently and are therefore well positioned to engage this vulnerable population in conversations about their sexual and reproductive health through use innovative and interactive technologies. For instance, mobile applications are easily accessible to AYAs and can allow pharmacists to disseminate relevant medication information to smartphone users that download adolescent-tailored mobile applications. Although many medication adherence apps are currently available on the market, none of these apps are tailored towards sexual reproductive health information for female AYAs. A mobile-based program designed to provide a pharmacist-guided sexual and reproductive health education to female AYAs may help to address the lapses in current adolescent-aged school health classes. In the future, usage of this intervention would improve the accuracy and comprehension of female adolescents and young adults’ awareness and knowledge of their sexual and reproductive health. As a result, further research should be conducted to develop mobile applications conducive to adolescent and young adults to address sexual and reproductive health issues. Conflict of Interest We declare no conflicts of interest or financial interests that the authors or members of their immediate families have in any product or service discussed in the manuscript, including grants (pending or received, employment, gifts, stock holdings or

  19. Transaxillary Subpectoral Placement of Cardiac Implantable Electronic Devices in Young Female Patients

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    Joo Hyun Oh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe current indications of cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs have expanded to include young patients with serious cardiac risk factors, but CIED placement has the disadvantage of involving unsightly scarring and bulging of the chest wall. A collaborative team of cardiologists and plastic surgeons developed a technique for the subpectoral placement of CIEDs in young female patients via a transaxillary approach.MethodsFrom July 2012 to December 2015, subpectoral CIED placement via an axillary incision was performed in 10 young female patients, with a mean age of 25.9 years and mean body mass index of 20.1 kg/m2. In the supine position, with the patient's shoulder abducted, an approximately 5-cm linear incision was made along one of the deepest axillary creases. The submuscular plane was identified at the lateral border of the pectoralis major, and the dissection continued over the clavipectoral fascia until the subpectoral pocket could securely receive a pulse generator. Slight upward dissection also exposed an entrance to the subclavian vein, allowing the cardiology team to gain access to the vein. One patient with dilated cardiomyopathy underwent augmentation mammoplasty and CIED insertion simultaneously.ResultsOne case of late-onset device infection occurred. All patients were highly satisfied with the results and reported that they would recommend the procedure to others.ConclusionsWith superior aesthetic outcomes compared to conventional methods, the subpectoral placement of CIEDs via a transaxillary approach is an effective, single-incision method to hide operative scarring and minimize bulging of the device, and is particularly beneficial for young female or lean patients.

  20. Uterine and ovarian changes during testosterone administration in young female-to-male transsexuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Loverro

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion: Our data suggest that long-term testosterone administration to female-to-male patients during reproductive age induces a low proliferative active endometrium, associated with some hypertrophic myometrial changes.

  1. Parental Attitudes and Young People's Online Sexual Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorbring, Emma; Hallberg, Jonas; Bohlin, Margareta; Skoog, Therése

    2015-01-01

    Parental attitudes towards young people's sexuality in traditional (i.e. non-online media) settings have been associated with young people's sexual activities. In this study, we explored the association between key parent and youth characteristics and parental attitudes towards young people's online sexual activities. We also examined the…

  2. Extraction of items identifying hiesho (cold disorder) and their utility in young males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Shunji; Kuge, Hiroshi; Mori, Hidetoshi; Miyazaki, Junji; Tanaka, Tim Hideaki; Hanyu, Kazuyo; Takeda, Taro; Sasaki, Kazuro

    2016-01-01

    Hie (cold sensation) is one of the most common health complaints in Japan. Those who suffer from severe hie are considered as having hiesho (cold disorder). However, exact hiesho symptoms have not been defined clearly and the decision as to whether a person suffers from hiesho is subjective and based on self-awareness. The study was conducted in attempt to develop a standardized hiesho diagnostic scale. Subjects comprised 1 146 students. From the self-awareness of hiesho symptoms, males and females were divided into hiesho and non-hiesho groups. Physical, behavioral and adaptive characteristics were compared using the 24-item questionnaire (four-grade survey) and indicators for hiesho symptoms were extracted. Based on the scores, a receiver operating characteristic curve was drawn for the total ordinal scale score of the extracted items in relation to the presence and absence of hiesho symptoms, and an optimal cutoff value was determined. The self-awareness of having hiesho was found in 23.2% males and in 55.6% females. The sensitivity was 84.5% for males and 83.3% for females in the hiesho groups, and the specificity was 86.0% for males and 85.2% for females in the non-hiesho groups. A questionnaire consisting of the extracted items may be useful to identify hiesho in young males and females with a high level of accuracy.

  3. Overweight young female kidney donors have low renal functional reserve post-donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Londen, Marco; Schaeffers, Anouk W M A; de Borst, Martin H; Joles, Jaap A; Navis, Gerjan; Lely, A Titia

    2018-01-03

    Maintenance of adequate renal function after living kidney donation is important for donor outcome. Overweight donors in particular may have an increased risk for end stage kidney disease (ESKD), and young female donors have an increased preeclampsia risk. Both of these risks may associate with low post-donation renal functional reserve (RFR). Because we previously found that higher BMI and lower post-donation RFR were associated, we now studied the relationship between BMI and RFR in young female donors. RFR, the rise in GFR (125I-Iothalamate clearance) during dopamine, was measured in female donors (donation. Donors who are overweight (BMI>25) and non-overweight donors were compared by t-test; the association was subsequently explored with regression analysis. We included 105 female donors (age 41 [36-44] (median[IQR])) with a BMI of 25 [22-27] kg/m2. Pre-donation GFR was 118 (17) ml/min (mean(SD)) rising to 128 (19) ml/min during dopamine; mean RFR was 10 (10) ml/min. Post-donation GFR was 76 (13) ml/min, rising to 80 (12); RFR was 4 (6) ml/min (pdonation). In overweight donors, RFR was fully lost after donation (1 ml/min vs. 10 ml/min pre-donation, pdonation, independent of confounders (St. β 0.37, p=0.02). Reduced RFR might associate with the risk of preeclampsia and ESKD in kidney donors. Prospective studies should explore whether RFR is related to preeclampsia and whether BMI reduction prior to conception is of benefit to overweight female kidney donors during and after pregnancy.

  4. Dysmenorrhea: Prevalence and Impact on Quality of Life among Young Adult Jordanian Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jefout, Moamar; Seham, Abu-Fraijeh; Jameel, Hijazeen; Randa, Al-Qaisi; Ola, Al-Ma'aitah; Oday, Al-Ma'aitah; Luscombe, Georgina

    2015-06-01

    To establish the prevalence and impact on quality of life of dysmenorrhea among young adult Jordanian females. Cross-sectional study based on quantitative self-reported anonymous questionnaire. University-based study. A total of 272 female medical students (aged 19-25 years). None. Self-reports of menstruation-related pain symptoms and methods of dealing with them. Of study subjects 152/272 (55.8%) participants had moderate and severe dysmenorrhea. Of them, 55.8% had a family history of severe dysmenorrhea compared with 33.1% of those without dysmenorrhea (χ2 = 13.40, df = 1, P dysmenorrhea and poor university attendance (χ(2) = 45.35, df = 2, P Dysmenorrhea worsens during examination periods in 50% of cases. The most common pain symptom was low back pain (60.2%). Body mass index, family monthly income and early age at menarche had no correlation with the occurrence of dysmenorrhea. Of those with dysmenorrhea, 69.4% were using analgesics. Mothers were the main source of information regarding menstruation. Dysmenorrhea is highly prevalent among young adult Jordanian females and seems to negatively affect quality of life, particularly as related to university attendance and performance and social relationships. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Learned Helplessness and Sexual Risk Taking in Adolescent and Young Adult African American Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittiglio, Laura

    2017-08-01

    Research involving adolescent and young African American (AA) females has demonstrated that they face uncontrollable obstacles which can interfere with the negotiation of safer sexual behaviors. If these obstacles are perceived as uncontrollable, then these females may be at risk for the development of Learned Helplessness (LH). As the LH model predicts, if these obstacles are believed not to be in their control, it may lead to deficits in motivational or cognitive decision-making, deficits that could certainly influence their sexual risk taking behaviors. Therefore, the primary objective for this pilot study was to trial the Learned Helplessness Scale (LHS) to examine the perceptions of LH in this population. A convenience sample of 50 adolescent and young AA females between the ages of 16 and 21 were recruited from two clinics in Southeast Michigan. Scores on the LHS ranged from 20 to 57, with a mean score of 39.1 (standard deviation = 10.49). The higher range of scores in the sample demonstrates a continuum of LH among the participants in the study.

  6. Assessment of isokinetic knee strength in elite young female basketball players: correlation with vertical jump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouis, M; Coudrat, L; Jaafar, H; Filliard, J-R; Vandewalle, H; Barthelemy, Y; Driss, T

    2015-12-01

    To explore the isokinetic concentric strength of the knee muscle groups, and the relationship between the isokinetic knee extensors strength and the vertical jump performance in young elite female basketball players. Eighteen elite female basketball players performed a countermovement jump, and an isokinetic knee test using a Biodex dynamometer. The maximal isokinetic peak torque of the knee extensor and flexor muscles was recorded at four angular velocities (90°/s, 180°/s, 240°/s and 300°/s) for the dominant and non-dominant legs. The conventional hamstring/quadriceps ratio (H/Q) was assessed at each angular velocity for both legs. There was no significant difference between dominant and non-dominant leg whatever the angular velocity (all P>0.05). However, the H/Q ratio enhanced as the velocity increased from 180°/s to 300°/s (Pvertical jump height. The highest one was found for the knee extensors peak torque at a velocity of 240°/s (r=0.88, Pvertical jump height. Interestingly, the H/Q ratio of the young elite female basketball players in the present study was unusual as it was close to that generally observed in regular sportsmen.

  7. Red-cockaded woodpecker male/female foraging differences in young forest stands.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzreb, Kathleen, E.

    2010-07-01

    ABSTRACT The Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) is an endangered species endemic to pine (Pinus spp.) forests of the southeastern United States. I examined Red-cockaded Woodpecker foraging behavior to learn if there were male/female differences at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina. The study was conducted in largely young forest stands (,50 years of age) in contrast to earlier foraging behavior studies that focused on more mature forest. The Redcockaded Woodpecker at the Savannah River site is intensively managed including monitoring, translocation, and installation of artificial cavity inserts for roosting and nesting. Over a 3-year period, 6,407 foraging observations covering seven woodpecker family groups were recorded during all seasons of the year and all times of day. The most striking differences occurred in foraging method (males usually scaled [45% of observations] and females mostly probed [47%]),substrate used (females had a stronger preference [93%] for the trunk than males [79%]), and foraging height from the ground (mean 6 SE foraging height was higher for males [11.1 6 0.5 m] than females [9.8 6 0.5 m]). Niche overlap between males and females was lowest for substrate (85.6%) and foraging height (87.8%), and highest for tree species (99.0%), tree condition (98.3%), and tree height (96.4%). Both males and females preferred to forage in older, large pine trees. The habitat available at the Savannah River Site was considerably younger than at most other locations, but the pattern of male/female habitat partitioning observed was similar to that documented elsewhere within the range attesting to the species’ ability to adjust behaviorally.

  8. Tracking of physical activity, fitness, body composition and diet from adolescence to young adulthood: The Young Hearts Project, Northern Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savage J Maurice

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The assumption that lifestyles formed early in life track into adulthood has been used to justify the targeting of health promotion programmes towards children and adolescents. The aim of the current study was to use data from the Northern Ireland Young Hearts Project to ascertain the extent of tracking, between adolescence and young adulthood, of physical activity, aerobic fitness, selected anthropometric variables, and diet. Methods Males (n 245 and females (n 231 were assessed at age 15 y, and again in young adulthood [mean (SD age 22 (1.6 y]. At both timepoints, height, weight and skinfold thicknesses were measured, and physical activity and diet were assessed by questionnaire and diet history method respectively. At 15y, fitness was assessed using the 20 metre shuttle run, while at young adulthood, the PWC170 cycle ergometer test was used. For each measurement made at 15y, subjects were ranked into 'low' (L1; lowest 25%, 'medium' (M1; middle 50% or 'high' (H1; highest 25% categories. At young adulthood, similar categories (L2, M2, H2 were created. The extent of tracking of each variable over time was calculated using 3 × 3 matrices constructed using these two sets of categories, and summarised using kappa (κ statistics. Results Tracking of diet and fitness was poor (κ ≤ 0.20 in both sexes, indicating substantial drift of subjects between the low, medium and high categories over time. The tracking of physical activity in males was fair (κ 0.202, but was poor in females (κ 0.021. In contrast, anthropometric variables such as weight, body mass index and sum of skinfolds tracked more strongly in females (κ 0.540, κ 0.307, κ 0.357 respectively than in males (κ 0.337, κ 0.199, κ 0.216 respectively. Conclusions The poor tracking of fitness and diet in both sexes, and physical activity in females, suggests that these aspects of adolescent lifestyle are unlikely to be predictive of behaviours in young adulthood. In

  9. Changes in work situation and work ability in young female and male workers. A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boström, Maria; Sluiter, Judith K.; Hagberg, Mats

    2012-01-01

    Background: Good work ability is very important in young workers, but knowledge of work situations that influence work ability in this group is poor. The aim of this study was to assess whether changes in self-reported work factors are associated with self-reported work ability among young female

  10. American Immigrant Girls' Understanding of Female Body Image in Disney: A Critical Analysis of Young Korean Girls' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lena

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses young Korean immigrant girls' understanding of American popular culture in a small-scale qualitative study in order to disclose young American immigrant girls' perspectives on such culture. In particular, this paper explores how these Korean girls (age five to eight) perceive female body images in American popular culture -…

  11. The physical activity energy cost of the latest active video games in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Cheryl A; Barr, Marcus W; Winner, Brett C; Kimble, Jenelyn R; White, Jason B

    2015-02-01

    Although promoted for weight loss, especially in young adults, it has yet to be determined if the physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and intensity of the newest active video games (AVGs) qualifies as moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA; > 3.0 METs). This study compared the PAEE and intensity of AVGs to traditional seated video games (SVGs). Fifty-three young adults (18-35 y; 27 females) volunteered to play 6 video games (4 AVGs, 2 SVGs). Anthropometrics and resting metabolism were measured before testing. While playing the games (6-10 min) in random order against a playmate, the participants wore a portable metabolic analyzer for measuring PAEE (kcal/min) and intensity (METs). A repeated-measures ANOVA compared the PAEE and intensity across games with sex, BMI, and PA status as main effects. The intensity of AVGs (6.1 ± 0.2 METs) was significantly greater than SVGs (1.8 ± 0.1 METs). AVGs elicited greater PAEE than SVGs in all participants (5.3 ± 0.2 vs 0.8 ± 0.0 kcal/min); PAEE during the AVGs was greater in males and overweight participants compared with females and healthy weight participants (p's < .05). The newest AVGs do qualify as MVPA and can contribute to the recommended dose of MVPA for weight management in young adults.

  12. Epstein-Barr Virus and Cytomegalovirus induced Acute Hepatitis in Young Female Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, İhsan; Kaplan, Mustafa; Yilmaz, Nisbet; Çiftçi, Filiz

    2015-01-01

    Acute hepatitis is a disorder that goes with liver cell necrosis and liver inflammation. Among the causes of acute hepatitis, the most common reasons are viral hepatitis. About 95% of the acute hepatitis generate because of hepatotropic viruses. Epstein-barr virus (EBV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) are from the family of herpes viruses and rare causes of acute hepatitis. In this case report, acute hepatitis due to EBV and CMV coinfection will be described. Ates İ, Kaplan M, Yilmaz N, Çiftçi F. Epstein-Barr Virus and Cytomegalovirus induced Acute Hepatitis in Young Female Patient. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2015;5(1):60-61.

  13. Management of a young female patient with Fournier's gangrene and Lemierre's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslanidis, Theodoros; Myrou, Athena; Giannakou-Peftoulidou, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Fournier's gangrene is an acute, rapidly progressive, and potentially fatal, infective necrotizing fasciitis affecting the external genitalia, perineal or perianal regions. Lemierre's syndrome is a condition characterized by thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein and bacteremia caused by primarily anaerobic organisms, following a recent oropharyngeal infection. Although the literature about either of them is rich, there is no report about co-appearance of the two syndromes. We present the case of a young healthy female patient who suffered concomitantly from Fournier's gangrene and Lemierre's syndrome after minor surgery.

  14. Non puerperal uterine inversion in a young female- a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathod, Setu; Samal, Sunil Kumar; Pallavee, P; Ghose, Seetesh

    2014-09-01

    We report a case of 28-year-old, primipara who presented with complaints of mass descending per vaginum along with excessive bleeding and foul smelling vaginal discharge for the past six months. Clinical examination revealed an inverted uterus, cervix and vagina with a large submucosal fundal fibroid. A diagnosis of non-puerperal uterine inversion was made. Surgical management included vaginal myomectomy with repositioning of the uterus using an abdomino-vaginal approach and a successful outcome. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of leiomyoma. Hence, we conclude that uterus-sparing surgery should be considered in young females desirous for future pregnancy until the final pathology is known.

  15. Parental Influence on Young Children's Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl A. Zecevic

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Parents influence on their young children's physical activity (PA behaviours was examined in a sample of 102 preschool-aged children (54 boys. Questionnaires regarding family sociodemographics and physical activity habits were completed. Results showed that children who received greater parental support for activity (B=.78, P<.10 and had parents who rated PA as highly enjoyable (B=.69, P<.05 were significantly more likely to engage in one hour or more of daily PA. Being an older child (B=−.08, P<.01, having older parents (B=−.26, P<.01, and watching more than one hour of television/videos per day (B=1.55, P<.01 reduced the likelihood that a child would be rated as highly active. Children who received greater parental support for PA were 6.3 times more likely to be highly active than inactive (B=1.44, P<.05. Thus, parents can promote PA among their preschoolers, not only by limiting TV time but also by being highly supportive of their children's active pursuits.

  16. The Success Process of Freshwomen in Workplaces: Movie Narratives and Young Female Audiences’ Reception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ting Yang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available “Chick lit” has become more and more popular in recent years, and the portrayed female’s power and subjectivity have stirred many debates and been centered as controversial issues. Focusing on two films of this genre, this study firstly undertook narrative analysis to understand how in the storylines women just entering the workplaces could overcome a wide variety of challenges, and then performed in-depth interviews to explore how young female audiences interpreted the films. The study found that both movies presented conflicts within and between love life and workplace relationship in the kernel events. Regarding these conflicts portrayed, interviewed audiences, on one hand, thought that work and love life both should get well balanced, echoing social expectations for women, while on the other hand, recognized and appreciated the successful career women’s characteristics owned by the heroines, and pointed out that the films equipped females with the power to accomplish their dreams.

  17. Equine Assisted Therapy and Changes in Gait for a Young Adult Female with Down Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine J. Coffey

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of equine assisted therapy on selected gait parameters in a person with Down syndrome. One female participant with Down syndrome completed two therapeutic horseback riding programs, each consisting of six riding sessions. Specific gait characteristics were analyzed with a trend analysis of the data by examining the means of the different variables. The trend analysis revealed a difference in stride length as well as hip and knee angle. These results indicate that over the course of the two therapeutic horseback riding programs, changes in gait occurred. Therefore, therapeutic horseback riding may have the potential to benefit gait characteristics and stability in young adult females with Down syndrome; however, further research is warranted.

  18. Shoulder rotational profiles in young healthy elite female and male badminton players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couppé, C; Thorborg, K; Hansen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to profile shoulder passive range of motion (ROM) and isometric strength for external (ER) and internal (IR) rotation as part of a preseason screening in adolescent national badminton players. Passive external range of motion (EROM) and internal range of motion...... (IROM) were examined on the dominant and nondominant shoulder in 31 adolescent national badminton players (12 females and 19 males) with a standard goniometer. Muscle strength was examined with a hand-held dynamometer in ER and IR. Total range of motion (TROM = EROM+IROM) was lower on the dominant side...... on the dominant side compared with the nondominant side in young elite badminton players, irrespective of gender. No rotational strength differences existed between the dominant and nondominant side in male players, but in female players a higher IR strength on the dominant side was not balanced by a higher ER...

  19. Influences of climacteric in female sexual activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthonio Alisancharles Batista de Almeida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to identify complaints of sexual function related to climacteric symptoms among women in climacteric age. Methods: this is an descritive study. A sample of 330 women aged from 35 to 65 years old, with three previous Pap tests. We used a semi-structured questionnaire developed by the researchers. A descriptive statistical analysis was performed having the central tendency of proportion and measure the average as a parameter. Results: it was evidenced that 50.0% were between 35-45 years, 73.0% were sexually active, 59.4% had decreased libido, and 58.5% reported dyspareunia. Conclusion: it is necessary that the health services and professionals are aware of the influence of climacteric on women’s health to develop strategies aimed at quality of life.

  20. Sport specificity background affects the principal component structure of vertical squat jump performance of young adult female athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilios Panoutsakopoulos

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: Various different profiles of FPD and TPD were detected due to different sporting background in young female athletes. Since TF superiority in SQJ was relied on the larger power production and a greater FPD, female indoor team sport athletes are suggested to execute jumping exercises adopting the jumping strategies utilized by TF.

  1. Older maternal age is associated with depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms in young adult female offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tearne, Jessica E; Robinson, Monique; Jacoby, Peter; Allen, Karina L; Cunningham, Nadia K; Li, Jianghong; McLean, Neil J

    2016-01-01

    The evidence regarding older parental age and incidence of mood disorder symptoms in offspring is limited, and that which exists is mixed. We sought to clarify these relationships by using data from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. The Raine Study provided comprehensive data from 2,900 pregnancies, resulting in 2,868 live born children. A total of 1,220 participants completed the short form of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21) at the 20-year cohort follow-up. We used negative binomial regression analyses with log link and with adjustment for known perinatal risk factors to examine the extent to which maternal and paternal age at childbirth predicted continuous DASS-21 index scores. In the final multivariate models, a maternal age of 30-34 years was associated with significant increases in stress DASS-21 scores in female offspring relative to female offspring of 25- to 29-year-old mothers. A maternal age of 35 years and over was associated with increased scores on all DASS-21 scales in female offspring. Our results indicate that older maternal age is associated with depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms in young adult females. Further research into the mechanisms underpinning this relationship is needed. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Short term effects of kinesio taping on pain and functional disability in young females with menstrual low back pain: A randomised control trial study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forozeshfard, Mohammad; Bakhtiary, Amir Hoshang; Aminianfar, Atefeh; Sheikhian, Sajedeh; Akbarzadeh, Zeinab

    2016-11-21

    Menstrual low back pain (LBP) in young females can reduce daily activity and cause functional disability, while the progressive application of kinesio-taping (KT) on pain reduction and functional correction has been stated. This study has been designed to investigate the efficacy of the lumbar vertebral column KT in young female with menstrual LBP. Thirty-two young females with menstrual LBP participated in this crossover study and were assigned randomly in two separate groups. The first group received KT during their first menstrual cycle and No-KT in their next menstrual, while the other group had no KT during the first mentrual cycle and received KT during the next menstrual cycle. The primary outcome measurements included the visual analogue scale (VAS) of pain, Oswestry disability index and McGill pain questionnaire score which were planned to collect at the end of the third day of the menstrual cycle. Comparing pain and disability between two conditions, of menstrual cycle with KT and menstrual cycle without KT, revealed significant reduction in VAS (mean change = 1.7; 95%CI = 0.6 to 2.8; P= 0.005), McGill pain score (mean change = 20.1; 95%CI = 8.7 to 31.3; P= 0.001) and functional disability (mean change = 12.3; 95%CI = 7.2 to 17.5; Pkinesiotaping in young females with menstrual LBP.

  3. Cigarette smoking is associated with body shape concerns and bulimia symptoms among young adult females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendzor, Darla E; Adams, Claire E; Stewart, Diana W; Baillie, Lauren E; Copeland, Amy L

    2009-01-01

    Elevated rates of cigarette smoking have been reported among individuals with Bulimia Nervosa. However, little is known about eating disorder symptoms within non-clinical samples of smokers. The purpose of the present study was to compare the eating disorder symptoms of young adult female smokers (n=184) and non-smokers (n=56), to determine whether smokers were more likely to endorse bulimic symptoms and report greater body shape concern than non-smokers. Analyses indicated that smokers scored significantly higher than non-smokers on the Body Shape Questionnaire, p=.03, and the Bulimia Test-Revised, p=.006. In addition, a higher proportion of smokers than non-smokers scored > or = 85 on the Bulimia Test-Revised, p=.05, suggesting the possibility that Bulimia Nervosa diagnoses were more prevalent among smokers. No differences were found between smokers and non-smokers on other measures of eating behavior. Overall, findings suggest that smoking is specifically associated with symptoms of Bulimia Nervosa and body shape concern among young adult females.

  4. A comparison of the posture between young female handball players and non-training peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabara, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate and compare the posture in young female handball players and a group of non-training peers. 125 handball players and 135 non-training individuals as a control group. All the subjects were aged 12-15. Measurements of basic somatic parameters (body height and mass, BMI, fat mass and total body water) were taken with an electronic balance 'Tanita'. The posture was evaluated using the moiré method. We analysed the shape of the spine in the sagittal plane and the position of the spine, pelvis and shoulder girdle in terms of symmetry. In 13-year-old handball players there was a smaller inclination of the thoracolumbar segment and a greater forward tilt of the torso. Among the training 15-year-olds, the inclination of the lower back, the sum of angles of anteroposterior curvatures and the angle of lumbar lordosis were smaller than in their non-training peers. Moreover, a correct pelvic alignment in the frontal plane, and pelvis and scapulas asymmetries in the transverse plane were more common in handball players. The formation of anteroposterior curvatures of the spine diversified some of the age groups of training and non-training young females. Handball training can affect the quality of posture.

  5. Effects of Early Smoking Habits on Young Adult Female Voices in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafiadis, Dionysios; Toki, Eugenia I; Miller, Kevin J; Ziavra, Nausica

    2017-11-01

    Cigarette use is a preventable cause of mortality and diseases. The World Health Organization states that Europe and especially Greece has the highest occurrence of smoking among adults. The prevalence of smoking among women in Greece was estimated to be over 30% in 2012. Smoking is a risk factor for many diseases. Studies have demonstrated the association between smoking and laryngeal pathologies as well as changes in voice characteristics. The purpose of this study was to estimate the effect of early smoking habit on young adult female voices and if they perceive any vocal changes using two assessment methods. The Voice Handicap Index and the acoustic analyses of voice measurements were used, with both serving as mini-assessment protocols. Two hundred and ten young females (110 smokers and 100 nonsmokers) attending the Technological Educational Institute of Epirus in the School of Health and Welfare were included. Statistically significant increases for physical and total scores of the Voice Handicap Index were found in the smokers group (P smoking habits. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cigarette Smoking is Associated with Body Shape Concerns and Bulimia Symptoms Among Young Adult Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendzor, Darla E.; Adams, Claire E.; Stewart, Diana W.; Baillie, Lauren E.; Copeland, and Amy L.

    2014-01-01

    Elevated rates of cigarette smoking have been reported among individuals with Bulimia Nervosa. However, little is known about eating disorder symptoms within non-clinical samples of smokers. The purpose of the present study was to compare the eating disorder symptoms of young adult female smokers (n = 184) and non-smokers (n = 56), to determine whether smokers were more likely to endorse bulimic symptoms and report greater body shape concern than non-smokers. Analyses indicated that smokers scored significantly higher than non-smokers on the Body Shape Questionnaire, p = .03, and the Bulimia Test-Revised, p = .006. In addition, a higher proportion of smokers than non-smokers scored ≥ 85 on the Bulimia Test-Revised, p = .05, suggesting the possibility that Bulimia Nervosa diagnoses were more prevalent among smokers. No differences were found between smokers and non-smokers on other measures of eating behavior. Overall, findings suggest that smoking is specifically associated with symptoms of Bulimia Nervosa and body shape concern among young adult females. PMID:19171320

  7. Musical rhythms and their influence on P300 velocity in young females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, Cintia Ishii de; Pereira, Liliane Desguado

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to music may be useful in the P300 retest and avoid habituation. To verify the influence of the exposure to different kinds of music in P300 in young females. Clinical prospective. Forty-five women aged from 20 to 36 years were evaluated. P300 was studied before and after musical stimulation with different rhythms. Brazilian songs, international songs, and classical music melodies were selected. Each song had its velocity altered and was named as fast and slow. Subjects were divided into 2 groups exposed to music: one group was exposed to the fast version and the other to the slow version. The control group not exposed to music and was evaluated within the same time period of the others. There were statistically significant differences when comparing P300 amplitude in the first and third stimulation with the comparison group. In the same subject, several sequential registrations of P300 caused habituation, which was not seen during exposure to music before P300 recording. Exposure to music at preset different velocities did not affect the P300 in young females.

  8. Contesting restrictive mobility norms among female mentors implementing a sport based programme for young girls in a Mumbai slum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankar, Shweta; Collumbien, Martine; Das, Madhumita; Verma, Ravi K; Cislaghi, Beniamino; Heise, Lori

    2018-04-10

    Harmful gender norms are known structural barriers to many public health and development interventions involving adolescent girls. In India, restrictions on girls' liberty to move freely in public spaces contribute to school dropout and early marriage, and negatively affect girls' health and wellbeing, from adolescence into adulthood. We report on mechanisms of change among female mentors 18 to 24 years old who contested discriminatory norms while implementing a sports-based programme for adolescent girls in a Mumbai slum. We adopted a prospective qualitative research design. Our analysis is based on case studies derived from two rounds of face to face, in -depth interviews with 10 young women recruited to serve as mentors for the project's young female athletes. We combined both thematic and narrative analysis. The programme created opportunities for collective action, increasing mentors' ability to think and relate in a collectivized manner, and challenged the traditional female identity constructed for young women, which centres on domestic duties. The mentors themselves negotiated freedoms both in and outside their homes, which required careful and strategic bargaining. They changed the nature of key day-to-day social interactions with parents and brothers, as well as with neighbours, parents of their groups of athletes and men on the streets. They formed a new reference group for each other in terms of what was possible and acceptable. Demonstrating greater negotiation skills within the family helped win parents' trust in the mentor's ability to be safe in public spaces. Parents became active supporters by not giving into social sanctions of neighbours and relatives thus co-producing a new identity for their daughters as respectable young women doing 'good work'. They effectively side stepped reputational risk with their presence in public spaces becoming de-sexualised. Mentors contested mobility restrictions by taking risks as a group first, with collective

  9. Female Genital Mutilation in Kenya: are young men allies in social change programmes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Eleanor; Mwangi-Powell, Faith; Jerotich, Miriam; le May, Victoria

    2016-05-01

    The Girl Summit held in 2014 aimed to mobilise greater effort to end Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) within a generation, building on a global movement which viewed the practice as a severe form of violence against women and girls and a violation of their rights. The UN, among others, endorse "comprehensive" strategies to end FGM, including legalistic measures, social protection and social communications. FGM is a sensitive issue and difficult to research, and rapid ethnographic methods can use existing relations of trust within social networks to explore attitudes towards predominant social norms which posit FGM as a social necessity. This study used Participatory Ethnographic Evaluation Research (PEER) to understand young men's (18-25 years) perceptions of FGM, demand for FGM among future spouses, and perceptions of efforts to end FGM in a small town in West Pokot, Kenya, where FGM is reported to be high (between 85% to 96%). Twelve PEER researchers were recruited, who conducted two interviews with their friends, generating a total of 72 narrative interviews. The majority of young men who viewed themselves as having a "modern" outlook and with aspirations to marry "educated" women were more likely not to support FGM. Our findings show that young men viewed themselves as valuable allies in ending FGM, but that voicing their opposition to the practice was often difficult. More efforts are needed by multi-stakeholders - campaigners, government and local leaders - to create an enabling environment to voice that opposition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The importance of flexibility in training activities of female judoist.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firynskaya O.A.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available It is present the results of a three-year study to identify the development of flexibility of female judoist of 15-17 years. The study was conducted in three phases. Proved that the targeted development of flexibility, enhances the effectiveness of training activities of female judoist. The developed technique can be used by other coaches - teachers for teaching and training work.

  11. Female directors and real activities manipulation: Evidence from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-hui Luo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Unlike previous studies that focus on accrual-based earnings management, this study analyzes real activities manipulation and investigates whether female directors on boards of directors (BoDs affect managers’ real activities manipulation. Using a large sample of 11,831 firm-year observations from Chinese listed companies from the 2000 to 2011 period, we find that higher female participation on BoDs is associated with lower levels of real activities manipulation, and that this negative relationship is stronger when female directors have higher ownership. These results hold for a battery of robustness checks. Overall, our findings indicate that board gender diversity may serve as a substitute mechanism for corporate governance to curb real activities manipulation and thus provide interested stakeholders with higher quality earnings reports.

  12. Ideas Exchange: "How Important Is Activity in Young Children (Preschool) to a Lifetime of Physical Activity?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hushman, GLenn; Morrison, Jaime; Mally, Kristi; McCall, Renee; Corso, Marjorie; Kamla, Jim; Magnotta, John; Chase, Melissa A.; Garrahy, Deborah A.; Lorenzi, David G.; Barnd, Sue

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the opinions of several professionals who were asked: "How important is activity in young children (preschool) to a lifetime of physical activity?" These professionals point out the importance of physical activity to young children.

  13. Well Researched, Yet Little Understood: Young Adults and Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cothran, Donetta; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges

    2005-01-01

    The authors present two beginning studies. One investigated the teaching-style preferences of young adults, and the other looked at physical activity trends within this age group. One key to understanding young adults and physical activity is to recognize the importance of participant cognition on physical activity patterns. From this…

  14. Do low levels of physical activity in female adolescents cause ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recently Mokabane et al. asserted that black female periurban adolescents exhibited low levels of physical activity and high levels of sedentary behaviour, and that there is a causal, unidirectional, inverse relationship between physical activity and adiposity.[1] However, contrary to their conclusions, the data they presented ...

  15. Fertility preservation in young females with non-gynaecologic malignancy: an emerging speciality.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Smyth, C

    2013-06-06

    BACKGROUND: As new treatment and research advances continue to improve the prognosis of cancer patients, oncologists and surgeons are increasingly faced with the issue of fertility protection and preservation. Cancer patients are frequently exposed to gonadotoxic chemotherapy and radiation therapy as a component of their treatment regimens. There are currently various anticipatory techniques available to women who wish to retain future reproductive ability, the most successful of which involves oocyte retrieval followed by in vitro fertilisation and embryo cryopreservation. Innovative methods include oocyte cryopreservation, ovarian follicle cryopreservation and oophoropexy. AIM: The aim of this study was to examine our combined experiences at Mayo General Hospital of treating female patients (<30 years) with non-gynaecologic malignancy and requiring referral to the HARI Unit during a 6-year period (2007-2012). Emphasis was placed on reviewing the fertility-preservation options available. METHODS: The hospital inpatient enquiry system was inspected for all cases of non-gynaecologic malignancy referred for fertility preservation from 2007 to 2012. RESULTS: Three cases of non-gynaecologic malignancy in young females, with an intention to protect and preserve future fertility were identified. The primary treatment plan did not initially incorporate input from a gynaecology or fertility specialist. It was after concerted inquiry and reflection by both physician and patient that oncofertility consultation was sought. CONCLUSION: The responsibility is on both physicians and surgeons to consider a more holistic approach to cancer care in young female patients, which focuses not only on the elimination of malignancy but also on preservation of fertility and quality of life.

  16. Risk factors for stress fracture among young female cross-country runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, Jennifer L; Bachrach, Laura K; Procter-Gray, Elizabeth; Nieves, Jeri; Greendale, Gail A; Sowers, Maryfran; Brown, Byron W; Matheson, Kim A; Crawford, Sybil L; Cobb, Kristin L

    2007-09-01

    To identify risk factors for stress fracture among young female distance runners. Participants were 127 competitive female distance runners, aged 18-26, who provided at least some follow-up data in a randomized trial among 150 runners of the effects of oral contraceptives on bone health. After completing a baseline questionnaire and undergoing bone densitometry, they were followed an average of 1.85 yr. Eighteen participants had at least one stress fracture during follow-up. Baseline characteristics associated (Pstress fracture occurrence were one or more previous stress fractures (rate ratio [RR] [95% confidence interval]=6.42 (1.80-22.87), lower whole-body bone mineral content (RR=2.70 [1.26-5.88] per 1-SD [293.2 g] decrease), younger chronologic age (RR=1.42 [1.05-1.92] per 1-yr decrease), lower dietary calcium intake (RR=1.11 [0.98-1.25] per 100-mg decrease), and younger age at menarche (RR=1.92 [1.15-3.23] per 1-yr decrease). Although not statistically significant, a history of irregular menstrual periods was also associated with increased risk (RR=3.41 [0.69-16.91]). Training-related factors did not affect risk. The results of this and other studies indicate that risk factors for stress fracture among young female runners include previous stress fractures, lower bone mass, and, although not statistically significant in this study, menstrual irregularity. More study is needed of the associations between stress fracture and age, calcium intake, and age at menarche. Given the importance of stress fractures to runners, identifying preventive measures is of high priority.

  17. Changes of Physiological Tremor Following Maximum Intensity Exercise in Male and Female Young Swimmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajewski Jan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this study was to determine the changes in postural physiological tremor following maximum intensity effort performed on arm ergometer by young male and female swimmers. Methods. Ten female and nine male young swimmers served as subjects in the study. Forearm tremor was measured accelerometrically in the sitting position before the 30-second Wingate Anaerobic Test on arm ergometer and then 5, 15 and 30 minutes post-test. Results. Low-frequency tremor log-amplitude (L1−5 increased (repeated factor: p < 0.05 from −7.92 ± 0.45 to −7.44 ± 0.45 and from −6.81 ± 0.52 to −6.35 ± 0.58 in women and men, respectively (gender: p < 0.05 5 minute post-test. Tremor log-amplitude (L15−20 increased (repeated factor: p < 0.001 from −9.26 ± 0.70 to −8.59 ± 0.61 and from −8.79 ± 0.65 to −8.39 ± 0.79 in women and men, respectively 5 minute post-test. No effect of gender was found for high frequency range.The increased tremor amplitude was observed even 30 minute post-exercise. Mean frequency of tremor spectra gradually decreased post-exercises (p < 0.001. Conclusions. Exercise-induced changes in tremor were similar in males and females. A fatigue produced a decrement in the mean frequency of tremor what suggested decreased muscle stiffness post-exercise. Such changes intremorafter exercise may be used as the indicator of fatigue in the nervous system.

  18. A Cross-Sectional Study of the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome among Young Female Emirati Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayesha S Al Dhaheri

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MetS is a growing problem in the United Arab Emirates (UAE. Moreover, the prevalence of overweight and obesity is rapidly increasing in the UAE especially among young females. However, few studies have evaluated the prevalence of MetS among young female adults in the UAE. This study determined the prevalence of MetS in Emirati females aged 17-25 years and its relation to overweight and obesity.In total, 555 Emirati female college students were enrolled in a cross-sectional study, conducted during 2013-2014 at United Arab Emirates University in Al Ain, UAE. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure and biochemical measurements were collected. MetS was defined according to the harmonised International Diabetes Federation criteria.Of the 555 participants enrolled, 23.1% were overweight and 10.4% were classified as obese. The overall prevalence of MetS was 6.8%. MetS prevalence was highest among obese participants (34.5%, as compared with normal-weight (1.7% and overweight (10.1% participants. MetS was significantly associated with overweight (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.8, 95% confidence interval [CI]; 1.15-12.52 and obesity (aOR = 11.2, 95% CI; 3.1-40.9, as compared with normal-weight. Waist-hip ratio ≥ 0.8 (aOR = 3.04, 95% CI; 1.10-8.44 was significantly associated with MetS, as compared with waist-hip ratio <0.8. The odds of MetS were 22 fold higher in participants with glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c ≥ 6.5% (aOR = 22.5, 95% CI; 6.37-79.42 compared to HbA1c <6.5%. This difference was 9 fold higher when HbA1c between 5.6%-6.4% was compared to HbA1c <5.6% (aOR = 8.9, 95% CI; 3.4-23.5.The prevalence of MetS among obese Emirati female students was significantly higher than overweight and normal weight students. The high prevalence of MetS highlights the importance of regular screening and intervention programmes targeting weight reduction.

  19. Factors Predicting the Physical Activity Behavior of Female Adolescents: A Test of the Health Promotion Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashem Mohamadian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivesPhysical activity behavior begins to decline during adolescence and continues to decrease throughout young adulthood. This study aims to explain factors that influence physical activity behavior in a sample of female adolescents using a health promotion model framework.MethodsThis cross-sectional survey was used to explore physical activity behavior among a sample of female adolescents. Participants completed measures of physical activity, perceived self-efficacy, self-esteem, social support, perceived barriers, and perceived affect. Interactions among the variables were examined using path analysis within a covariance modeling framework.ResultsThe final model accounted for an R2 value of 0.52 for physical activity and offered a good model-data fit. The results indicated that physical activity was predicted by self-esteem (β=0.46, p<0.001, perceived self-efficacy (β=0.40, p<0.001, social support (β=0.24, p<0.001, perceived barriers (β=-0.19, p<0.001, and perceived affect (β=0.17, p<0.001.ConclusionsThe findings of this study showed that the health promotion model was useful to predict physical activity behavior among the Iranian female adolescents. Information related to the predictors of physical activity behavior will help researchers plan more tailored culturally relevant health promotion interventions for this population.

  20. Joint power contribution during jumping and sidecutting in young female elite handball players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bencke, Jesper; Lauridsen, Hanne B.; Sørensen, Rikke S.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction One game-changing parameter in handball is explosive power during jumping or sidecutting. In order to improve game performance, more knowledge about the physical demands of the different joints and muscle groups during sports specific movements may help trainers to implement specific...... exercises for enhancing performance in these movements. The aim of the study was to describe the kinematics and kinetics of the ankle, knee and hip joint during jumping and sidecutting, and investigate their relation to optimal performance. Methods 54 young female handball players, aged 16.8 yrs (SD: 1......: 0.21, β=0.47, p=0.001). Conclusions The results show that different muscle groups may be performance dependant in different handball specific movements. While vertical jumping is mostly depending on high knee joint power, peak concentric ankle joint power is the most important parameter during...

  1. Multicentric extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma of uterine adnexa in a young female: An unusual presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surbhi Goyal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma is a rare soft-tissue sarcoma, mostly occurring in the proximal extremities and limb girdle. Majority of the patients are in fifth and sixth decades of life with male preponderance. We report here a case of primary extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma of the uterine adnexa involving the broad ligament and fallopian tube synchronously without any evidence of uterine/ovarian involvement in a young multiparous female of 27 years. After the histopathological diagnosis, re-excision of the tumor bed with wide local margins was recommended. Since the tumor has an aggressive course, with propensity for late recurrence and metastases to lungs, the patient must be considered for long-term follow-up.

  2. Rapid Partial Repigmentation of Vitiligo in a Young Female Adult with a Gluten-Free Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit N. Khandalavala

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vitiligo is a common pigmentary skin condition with a profound impact. Despite a number of therapeutic modalities, few have been demonstrated to result in significant repigmentation within a brief period of time. Reported dietary interventions are sparse. Following exclusion of gluten in the diet, early and extensive repigmentation of facial lesions were noted in a young female adult of Asian ethnicity with acrofacial vitiligo. The majority of the benefits occurred within the first month and stabilized at 4 months. Previous topical and phototherapy had not been found to be effective. The patient was maintained on the previously prescribed dapsone therapy. Dietary elimination can potentially be a disease-modifying intervention for vitiligo and should be considered even in patients without concomitant celiac disease.

  3. [Valve-sparing aortic root replacement for young female patients with Marfan syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawata, Kan; Morota, T

    2009-10-01

    Annuloaortic ectasia is frequently related with Marfan syndrome, and Bentall procedure or aortic root replacement with valved conduit has been the conventional standard operation for this disease. Recently, some institutes have adopted valve-sparing aortic root replacement (VSARR) instead of Bentall procedure. Young female patients with Marfan syndrome who wishes for childbearing seem to be a group of good candidates of this type of operation, because it let them free from morbidities after artificial valve implantation. Valve-sparing operation should be taken into consideration when the size of Valsalva sinus reaches 45 mm for patients with Marfan syndrome and when it reaches 40 mm for patients with past histories or family histories of aortic dissection or aortic rupture. Since pregnancy is one of the most serious risk factors for aortic events, Valsalva sinus of 40 mm or larger could be the new standard for surgical indication if VSARR is applicable.

  4. Effects of hypogonadism on bone metabolism in female adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Madhusmita

    2012-01-24

    Gonadal steroids, including androgens and oestrogens, play a critical part in bone metabolism, and conditions associated with a deficiency of gonadal steroids can reduce BMD in adults and impair bone accrual in adolescents. In addition, other associated hormone alterations, for example, insulin-like growth factor 1 deficiency or high cortisol levels, can further exacerbate the effect of hypogonadism on bone metabolism, as can factors such as calcium and vitamin D deficiency, low body weight and exercise status. This Review discusses the effects of different hypogonadal states on bone metabolism in female adolescents and young adults, with particular emphasis on conditions associated with low energy availability, such as anorexia nervosa and athletic amenorrhoea, in which many factors other than hypogonadism affect bone. In contrast to most hypogonadal conditions, in which replacement of gonadal steroids is sufficient to normalize bone accrual rates and BMD, gonadal steroid replacement may not be sufficient to normalize bone metabolism in these states of energy deficit.

  5. Giant Desmoid Tumor of the Anterior Abdominal Wall in a Young Female: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahim Koshariya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Desmoid tumors (also called desmoids fibromatosis are rare slow growing benign and musculoaponeurotic tumors. Although these tumors have a propensity to invade surrounding tissues, they are not malignant. These tumors are associated with women of fertile age, especially during and after pregnancy. We report a young female patient with a giant desmoid tumor of the anterior abdominal wall who underwent primary resection. The patient had no history of an earlier abdominal surgery. Preoperative evaluation included abdominal ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. The histology revealed a desmoid tumor. Primary surgical resection with immediate reconstruction of abdominal defect is the best management of this rarity. To the best of our knowledge and PubMed search, this is the first case ever reported in the medical literature of such a giant desmoid tumor arising from anterior abdominal wall weighing 6.5 kg treated surgically with successful outcome.

  6. A combined microfinance and training intervention can reduce HIV risk behaviour in young female participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronyk, Paul M; Kim, Julia C; Abramsky, Tanya; Phetla, Godfrey; Hargreaves, James R; Morison, Linda A; Watts, Charlotte; Busza, Joanna; Porter, John Dh

    2008-08-20

    To assess effects of a combined microfinance and training intervention on HIV risk behavior among young female participants in rural South Africa. : Secondary analysis of quantitative and qualitative data from a cluster randomized trial, the Intervention with Microfinance for AIDS and Gender Equity study. Eight villages were pair-matched and randomly allocated to receive the intervention. At baseline and after 2 years, HIV risk behavior was assessed among female participants aged 14-35 years. Their responses were compared with women of the same age and poverty group from control villages. Intervention effects were calculated using adjusted risk ratios employing village level summaries. Qualitative data collected during the study explored participants' responses to the intervention including HIV risk behavior. After 2 years of follow-up, when compared with controls, young participants had higher levels of HIV-related communication (adjusted risk ratio 1.46, 95% confidence interval 1.01-2.12), were more likely to have accessed voluntary counseling and testing (adjusted risk ratio 1.64, 95% confidence interval 1.06-2.56), and less likely to have had unprotected sex at last intercourse with a nonspousal partner (adjusted risk ratio 0.76, 95% confidence interval 0.60-0.96). Qualitative data suggest a greater acceptance of intrahousehold communication about HIV and sexuality. Although women noted challenges associated with acceptance of condoms by men, increased confidence and skills associated with participation in the intervention supported their introduction in sexual relationships. In addition to impacts on economic well being, women's empowerment and intimate partner violence, interventions addressing the economic and social vulnerability of women may contribute to reductions in HIV risk behavior.

  7. Thought-shape fusion in young healthy females appears after vivid imagination of thin ideals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyssen, Andrea; Coelho, Jennifer S; Wilhelm, Peter; Zimmermann, Grégoire; Munsch, Simone

    2016-09-01

    It has been shown that exposure to female thin ideals in media has minimal to moderate direct effects on body image satisfaction (BIS), mood and dysfunctional eating in healthy young women. Evidence has been found for several intervening variables such as social comparison processes. Accordingly it is assumed, that cognitive processing (rather than mere media exposure) is crucial. Consequently, vivid imagination of thin ideals after exposure to a fashion magazine was induced in order to trigger cognitive processes. Changes in mood, BIS and resulting bodyrelated cognitive distortions (Thought-Shape Fusion Body, TSF-B) were assessed. A total of 91 healthy women (mean age 21.9 years, SD = 2.0) were exposed to either a fashion magazine (thin-ideal group) or a nature magazine (control group) in a waiting room design. Afterwards they were instructed to vividly imagine either the thin ideals or landscapes. When exposed to thin ideals, a significant decrease in mood and BIS emerged after vivid imagination, but not after mere magazine exposure. Imagining thin ideals triggered body-related cognitive distortions (TSF-B). A higher degree of eating disorder (ED) symptomatology amplified this effect. These findings apply to young healthy females and cannot be generalized to samples with obesity, EDs or males. Internal validity is limited since the intensity of the exposure has not been systematically controlled. Vivid imagination of thin ideals promoted by magazines results in impaired mood and BIS and moreover in body-related cognitive distortions (TSF-B) in healthy women, especially, for those with stronger ED symptomatology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Young female cancer survivors' use of fertility care after completing cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jayeon; Mersereau, Jennifer E.; Su, H. Irene; Whitcomb, Brian W.; Malcarne, Vanessa L.; Gorman, Jessica R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate factors associated with female young adult cancer survivors’ (YCS) use of fertility care (FC), including consultation or fertility treatment, after completing their cancer treatment. Methods In this cross-sectional study, females between that ages of 18 and 35 years who had been diagnosed with childhood, adolescent, or young adult cancers completed a 20-min web-based survey that included demographics, reproductive history, use of FC, fertility-related informational needs, and reproductive concerns. Results A total of 204 participants completed the survey. Participants’ mean age was 28.3±4.5 years. Thirty (15%) participants reported using FC after cancer treatment. The majority of participants recalled not receiving enough information about FP options at the time of cancer diagnosis (73%). In multivariable analysis, those with higher concerns about having children because of perceived risk to their personal health (P=0.003) were less likely to report use of FC after cancer treatment. Those who had used FC before cancer treatment (P=0.003) and who felt less fertile than age-matched women (P=0.02) were more likely to use FC after their cancer treatment. Conclusions While most YCS in this cohort believed that they did not receive enough information about fertility and most wanted to have children, the vast majority did not seek FC. The findings of this study offer further evidence of the need for improved education and emotional support regarding reproductive options after cancer treatment is completed. Targeted discussions with YCS about appropriate post-treatment FC options may improve providers’ capacity to help YCS meet their parenthood goals. PMID:26939923

  9. Sexual abuse and risky sexual behaviors among young female hawkers in Burkina Faso: a mixed method study

    OpenAIRE

    Ou?draogo, Saide Yacine Y.A.; Sisawo, Ebrima J.; Huang, Song-Lih

    2017-01-01

    Background Young street hawkers in Burkina Faso are increasingly exposed to workplace hazards such as physical and sexual abuse, and also unsafe sexual practices. The objectives of this study were to identify the socio-demographic status and work characteristics of young female hawkers, describe their sexual behavior and their experience with regards to sex-related violence at the workplace. Methods The study used a mixed design combining qualitative and quantitative methods. It was carried o...

  10. Change and continuity of consensual unions in Mexico: the case of young female in Tijuana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Ojeda

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The union libre or consensual union is one of the conjugal arrangements in the formation of families of procreation throughout generations in Mexico. This is particularly the case among women who are very young and have low education among other characteristics. An important increase of this type of union has been observed during the last two decades. This paper analyzes the continuity and most recent changes that the union libre presents among the younger generations in the country. The analysis is based on the case study of Tijuana, B.C. and its population of young adults (18–29 years old, particularly females. This is one of the most prosperous and open to social change social contexts in the country; situation that contributes to the economic independence between the sexes, especially among the youth. The study uses information from the Mexican Population Census of 2010 and the survey Encuesta Sobre Salud Reproductiva de los Adolescentes de B.C., 2006.

  11. Core strengthening and synchronized swimming: TRX® suspension training in young female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinto, Amalia; Campanella, Marta; Fasano, Milena

    2017-06-01

    Developing muscle strength and full body stability is essential for the efficient execution of technical moves in synchronized swimming. However, many swimmers find it difficult to control body stability while executing particular figures in water. We evaluated the effects of TRX® suspension training (2 sessions weekly for 6 months on core strength and core stability in young female. Twenty synchronized swimmers (Beginners A category, mean age 10±1 years) are divided in experimental group (EG; N.=10 athletes) and control group (CG; N.=10 athletes). EG received suspension training twice weekly (each session lasting about 15 min) as dryland exercises for 6 months in addition to routine training. CG completed routine training with conventional dryland exercises. Before (T1) and after (T2) completion of the study oblique and transversus abdominis muscle force was measured using a Stabilizer Pressure Biofeedback unit, in prone and supine positions, and isotonic muscle endurance was evaluated with the McGill Test. Non-parametric statistical analysis showed a significant increase (Ptraining in dryland exercises for muscle strengthening in young athletes practicing synchronized swimming, and in general reiterates the importance of strengthening the core area to ensure stability and specific adaptations, improve the quality of the movement and prevent against injury.

  12. Cytokine profiling of young overweight and obese female African American adults with prediabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Rudolf; Parikh, Samip J.; Sridhar, Supriya; Guo, De-Huang; Bhagatwala, Jigar; Dong, Yutong; Caldwell, Ruth; Mellor, Andrew; Caldwell, William; Zhu, Haidong; Dong, Yanbin

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 5–10% of subjects with prediabetes become diabetic every year. Inflammation is involved in the development of obesity-related type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, to date, the relationship between inflammation and prediabetes, defined by hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) ≥ 5.7 and prediabetes. A total of 21 otherwise healthy, overweight/obese, young adult African American females with prediabetes, together with 20 matched overweight/obese controls, were selected for this study. Plasma cytokines were assessed by multiplex cytokine profiling. Plasma concentrations of interleukin (IL)-5, IL-6, IL-7, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and granulocyte-monocyte colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) were significantly higher in the prediabetic group, as compared to the control group (all p prediabetic group, but failed to reach statistical significances. Upon merging both groups, HbA1c was found to be positively correlated with IFN- γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-5, IL-7, IL-8, TNF-α and GM-CSF. This study demonstrates elevated levels of various pro-inflammatory cytokines in overweight/obese young subjects with prediabetes, which place them at higher risk of developing T2D and cardiovascular diseases. Our data also call for further investigations in animal models and population cohorts to establish the roles of a variety of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the early development of obesity-related T2D. PMID:23769592

  13. Migration Experiences and Reported Sexual Behavior Among Young, Unmarried Female Migrants in Changzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Zhanhong; Yang, Wenjian; Sun, Xiaoming; Mao, Jingshu; Shu, Xingyu; Hearst, Norman

    2017-09-27

    China has a large migrant population, including many young unmarried women. Little is known about their sexual behavior, contraceptive use, and risk of unintended pregnancy. 475 unmarried female migrants aged 15-24, working in 1 of 6 factories in 2 districts of Changzhou city, completed an anonymous self-administered questionnaire in May 2012 on demographic characteristics, work and living situation, and health. We examined demographic and migration experience predictors of sexual and contraceptive behavior using bivariate and multivariate regressions. 30.1% of the respondents were sexually experienced, with the average age at first sex of 19 years (standard deviation=3). 37.8% reported using contraception at first sex, 58.0% reported using consistent contraception during the past year, and 28.0% reported having at least 1 unintended pregnancy with all unintended pregnancies resulting in abortion. Those who had had at least 1 abortion reported having on average 1.6 abortions [SD=1] in total. Migrating with a boyfriend and changing jobs fewer times were associated with being sexually experienced. Younger age, less education, and changing jobs more times were associated with inconsistent contraceptive use. These findings demonstrate there is an unmet need for reproductive health education and services where these women work as well as in their hometown communities. This education must begin early to reach young women before they migrate. © Zong et al.

  14. Prevalence of Sexual Activity and Outcome among Female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sexual activity among 534 Nigerian female secondary school students was studied using self-administered questionnaire. Prevalence of sexual intercourse was 25.7%. There was no significant difference between the junior (48.2%) and senior (51.8%) students (p > 0.05). Seventeen (12.4%) students had initiated sexual ...

  15. A Rare Case of an Early Postoperative Obstructive Ileus in a Young Female Patient due to a Residual Trichobezoar Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Christopoulos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichobezoar is a rare cause of small bowel obstruction, whereby a mass forms most commonly in the stomach and duodenum of young females, from ingestion of hair, a condition known as trichophagia. We present a case of recurrent small bowel obstruction due to a residual hair mass that was removed surgically in a young female patient who had a laparotomy and gastrotomy for removal of a large gastric trichobezoar just two weeks prior to the current admission. This case illustrates the importance of a thorough inspection of the whole bowel to ensure that no residual bezoars remain after surgery.

  16. Males and females differ in brain activation during cognitive tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Emily C; Willson, Morgan C; Wilman, Alan H; Dave, Sanjay; Silverstone, Peter H

    2006-04-01

    To examine the effect of gender on regional brain activity, we utilized functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a motor task and three cognitive tasks; a word generation task, a spatial attention task, and a working memory task in healthy male (n = 23) and female (n = 10) volunteers. Functional data were examined for group differences both in the number of pixels activated, and the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) magnitude during each task. Males had a significantly greater mean activation than females in the working memory task with a greater number of pixels being activated in the right superior parietal gyrus and right inferior occipital gyrus, and a greater BOLD magnitude occurring in the left inferior parietal lobe. However, despite these fMRI changes, there were no significant differences between males and females on cognitive performance of the task. In contrast, in the spatial attention task, men performed better at this task than women, but there were no significant functional differences between the two groups. In the word generation task, there were no external measures of performance, but in the functional measurements, males had a significantly greater mean activation than females, where males had a significantly greater BOLD signal magnitude in the left and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the right inferior parietal lobe, and the cingulate. In neither of the motor tasks (right or left hand) did males and females perform differently. Our fMRI findings during the motor tasks were a greater mean BOLD signal magnitude in males in the right hand motor task, compared to females where males had an increased BOLD signal magnitude in the right inferior parietal gyrus and in the left inferior frontal gyrus. In conclusion, these results demonstrate differential patterns of activation in males and females during a variety of cognitive tasks, even though performance in these tasks may not vary, and also that variability in performance may not

  17. A study of the factors affecting the attitudes of young female students toward chemistry at the high school level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banya, Santonino K.

    Chemistry is a human endeavor that relies on basic human qualities like creativity, insights, reasoning, and skills. It depends on habits of the mind: skepticism, tolerance of ambiguity, openness to new ideas, intellectual honesty, curiosity, and communication. Young female students begin studying chemistry curiosity; however, when unconvinced, they become skeptical. Researches focused on gender studies have indicated that attitudes toward science education differ between males and females. A declining interest in chemistry and the under representation of females in the chemical science was found (Jacobs, 2000). This study investigated whether self-confidence toward chemistry, the influence of role models, and knowledge about the usefulness of chemistry were affecting the attitudes toward chemistry, of 183 high school young females across the United States. The young female students surveyed, had studied chemistry for at least one year prior to participating in the study during the fall semester of 2003. The schools were randomly selected represented diverse economic backgrounds and geographical locations. Data were obtained using Chemistry Attitude Influencing Factors (CAIF) instrument and from interviews with a focus group of three young female students about the effect of self-confidence toward chemistry, the influence of role models, and knowledge about the usefulness of chemistry on their decision to study chemistry. The CAIF instrument consisted of a 12-items self-confidence questionnaire (ConfiS), 12-items each of the influence of role models (RoMoS) and knowledge about usefulness of chemistry (US) questionnaire. ConfiS was adopted (with permission) from CAEQ (Coll & Dalgety, 2001), and both RoMoS and US were modified from TOSRA (Fraser, 1978), public domain document. The three young female students interviewed, gave detailed responses about their opinions regarding self-confidence toward chemistry, the influence of role models, and knowledge about the

  18. The influence of isometric exercises of the quadriceps muscle on young female patients with anterior knee pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Wilczyński

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Anterior knee pain is a disease associated with abnormalities in the patellofemoral joint. It is a common reason for seeking advice from an orthopaedist. This problem is characterised by chronic pain in the anterior part of one or both knees. This issue often affects women, especially at a young age. The effect of this ailment is deterioration of the quality of life. This dysfunction significantly reduces abilities, and often prevents the performance of daily activities. Pain usually occurs during physical activity, but may also be accompanied by prolonged immobilisation of the knee joint. In defining the type of patellofemoral instability, orthopaedists use magnetic resonance imaging, arthroscopy, ultrasonography, and X-ray examination. A relatively effective method of treatment of pain in the patellofemoral joint is through isometric exercises of the quadriceps. They increase the strength of the quadriceps femoris muscle and reduce instability in the patellofemoral joint. Aim of the research: To evaluate the effectiveness of isometric exercises of the quadriceps muscle on young female patients with anterior knee pain. Material and methods : The study involved 30 women aged 13–44 years (mean age: 26.8 years, who had been diagnosed with pain in the front of the knee. Results and conclusions: Isometric exercises of the quadriceps muscle are an effective method of reducing anterior knee pain. Isometric exercises have a beneficial influence on improving physical activity, including performing basic activities of daily living. Student’s t distribution showed, that isometric exercises of the quadriceps muscle reduce pain at the front of the knee. Kruskal-Wallis test confirmed a significant reduction of anterior knee pain.

  19. Stiff Landings Are Associated With Increased ACL Injury Risk in Young Female Basketball and Floorball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppänen, Mari; Pasanen, Kati; Kujala, Urho M; Vasankari, Tommi; Kannus, Pekka; Äyrämö, Sami; Krosshaug, Tron; Bahr, Roald; Avela, Janne; Perttunen, Jarmo; Parkkari, Jari

    2017-02-01

    Few prospective studies have investigated the biomechanical risk factors of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. To investigate the relationship between biomechanical characteristics of vertical drop jump (VDJ) performance and the risk of ACL injury in young female basketball and floorball players. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. At baseline, a total of 171 female basketball and floorball players (age range, 12-21 years) participated in a VDJ test using 3-dimensional motion analysis. The following biomechanical variables were analyzed: (1) knee valgus angle at initial contact (IC), (2) peak knee abduction moment, (3) knee flexion angle at IC, (4) peak knee flexion angle, (5) peak vertical ground-reaction force (vGRF), and (6) medial knee displacement. All new ACL injuries, as well as match and training exposure, were then recorded for 1 to 3 years. Cox regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs. Fifteen new ACL injuries occurred during the study period (0.2 injuries/1000 player-hours). Of the 6 factors considered, lower peak knee flexion angle (HR for each 10° increase in knee flexion angle, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.34-0.88) and higher peak vGRF (HR for each 100-N increase in vGRF, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.09-1.45) were the only factors associated with increased risk of ACL injury. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed an area under the curve of 0.6 for peak knee flexion and 0.7 for vGRF, indicating a failed-to-fair combined sensitivity and specificity of the test. Stiff landings, with less knee flexion and greater vGRF, in a VDJ test were associated with increased risk of ACL injury among young female basketball and floorball players. However, although 2 factors (decreased peak knee flexion and increased vGRF) had significant associations with ACL injury risk, the ROC curve analyses revealed that these variables cannot be used for screening of athletes.

  20. Relationships between Salivary Melatonin Levels, Quality of Sleep, and Stress in Young Japanese Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Ito

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A decrease in the quality of sleep is believed to cause anxiety and worsen depression. Comparisons of salivary melatonin levels with different factors including quality of sleep, state and trait anxieties, and depression, were conducted to examine whether there is a relationship between melatonin, presumably associated with sleep, and psychological stress. The saliva of healthy young females was collected during the daytime and before they went to bed at night (when they were awake and resting in a sitting position, and salivary melatonin levels were measured. The quality of sleep was scored using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI–-a questionnaire method. State and trait anxieties, and depression were scored using other questionnaire methods: the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI and Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS, respectively. The following findings were obtained: (1 Salivary melatonin levels measured during the daytime and before going to bed were higher in females with a high depression score, compared to those with a low score, and there was a correlation between the depression scores and salivary melatonin levels measured at night; and (2 salivary melatonin levels measured before going to bed at night (in a sitting position were higher in females with a high state anxiety score, suggesting a correlation between state anxiety scores and salivary melatonin levels during the night. Both depression and a sense of anxiety are forms of psychological stress. Therefore, it is assumed that, when a person is under psychological stress, the action of melatonin as a ligand on its receptor is reduced. Meaning psychological stress may induce oxidative stress in the body. On the other hand, no correlation was noted between the quality of sleep and salivary melatonin levels during the night, presumably because saliva was collected when the subjects were awake and sitting, rather than sleeping.

  1. Low back pain in physically active young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Bučar Pajek

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research of low back pain (LBP has been recently directed towards the younger age groups due to high predictive value for later life. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence and risk factors for LBP in the Slovene population of young adults, which are yet unknown. Methods: In this cross sectional study firstgrade students at the Faculty of Sport (FS and the Faculty of Chemistry (FC, University of Ljubljana, in 2009 were included. The Slovene translation of Chronic Pain Grade questionnaire was implemented. In the FS subgroup the associations between questionnaire results and results of the entrance examination were analyzed and a follow-up questionnaire survey was done after the 1st semesterResults: The questionnaire was returned by 283 students. Average age was 19.9 (2.3 years. Lifelong and 6-month LBP prevalences were 87.3 % (83.1–90.9 % and 63 % (57.4–68.6 %, respectively. Average LBP intensity was 36.6 (16.9 (range 0–90 out of 100 points, average disability was 18 (18.7 (range 0–83 out of 100 points. Females had higher intensity and disability scores. Competitors had higher pain disability scores than students engaging in sports at recreational level. Gender and level of physical activity were significant independent predictors of intensity and disability scores at multivariate linear regression. LBP was not associated with entrance test results and there were no important changes in the follow- up after the 1st semester in the FS students. Conclusions: We found high LBP prevalence, which was of moderate intensity and caused minor disability. LBP was more severe in females and associated with the level of physical activity. Information about LBP and preventive workout programs should be incorporated into study programs.

  2. Young and Active (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Regular physical activity is essential at all stages of life, but it’s especially important that young people develop good exercise habits early. In this podcast, Dr. Kathy Watson discusses the importance of ensuring that young people get enough exercise.

  3. Young and Active (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-06-16

    Regular physical activity is essential at all stages of life, but it’s especially important that young people develop good exercise habits early. In this podcast, Dr. Kathy Watson discusses the importance of ensuring that young people get enough exercise.  Created: 6/16/2016 by MMWR.   Date Released: 6/16/2016.

  4. Coinheritance of hereditary spherocytosis and reversibility of cirrhosis in a young female patient with hereditary hemochromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höblinger, A; Erdmann, C; Strassburg, C P; Sauerbruch, T; Lammert, F

    2009-04-16

    Here we report a 33-years-old woman with hereditary spherocytosis and hemochromatosis due to homozygosity for the C282Y mutation of the HFE gene. The coinheritance of both conditions led to severe iron overload and liver cirrhosis at young age. The patient was treated by repeated phlebotomy, and reversibility of cirrhosis was documented by transient elastography. This report discusses the pathophysiology of iron accumulation in patients with hemolytic anemia combined with HFE C282Y homozygosity. The case indicates that patients with hematological disorders characterized by increased erythropoetic activity should be screened for HFE mutations.

  5. Simultaneous bilateral Mason type IIb radial head fractures in a young female: Was an increased carrying angle the cause?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2015-01-01

    Radial head fracture is the most common type of elbow fracture in adults. It results from a fall on an outstretched hand. However, simultaneous bilateral radial head fractures are extremely rare. We report a case of simultaneous bilateral mason type IIb radial head fractures in a young female, which was treated nonoperatively with excellent results

  6. Aerobic endurance in young female athletes in respect to sexual maturation, age and growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Tereza Silveira Böhme

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were, in young female athletes: a to describe the development of aerobic endurance in relation to different sexual maturation stages by each chronological age; b to verify the existence of significant differences among the sexual maturation stages in each age; c to describe the development of aerobic endurance in relation to different ages by each sexual stage; d to verify the existence of significant differences among the ages by each sexual stage; e to verify the influence of chronological age, sexual maturation, adiposity, muscularity, physical growth and kind of sport on aerobic endurance. The sample comprised 305 female young athletes from 10 to 17 years of age, of basketball, handball, soccer and track and field, who were measured for their physical growth, adiposity, muscularity, sexual maturation stage and aerobic endurance. The variance and multiple regression analyses indicated that sexual maturation had no significant influence on the aerobic endurance of these female young athletes. RESUMO Este trabalho de pesquisa teve por objetivos, com relação a jovens atletas do sexo feminino: a descrever o desenvolvimento da resistência geral aeróbia considerando-se os diferentes níveis de maturação biológica em cada idade cronológica; b verificar a existência de diferenças significativas entre os níveis de maturação em cada idade cronológica; c descrever o desenvolvimento da resistência geral aeróbia considerando-se as diferentes idades cronológicas em cada nível de maturação biológica; d verificar a existência de diferenças significativas entre as idades cronológicas de mesmo estágio maturacional; e verificar a influência da maturação biológica, crescimento físico, adiposidade subcutânea, muscularidade, idade cronológica e o tipo de modalidade esportiva praticada sobre a resistência geral aeróbia. Para isso, uma amostra de 305 jovens atletas mulheres na faixa etária de 10 a 17 anos das

  7. Importance of peers and dating in the development of romantic relationships and sexual activity of young adults with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegerink, D.J.H.G.; Roebroeck, M.E.; van der Slot, W.M.A.; Stam, H.J.; Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to describe the peer group activities, romantic relationships, and sexual activity and their interrelations of young adults with cerebral palsy (CP). Method: A cross-sectional study was performed in 87 participants (51 males, 36 females; mean age 20y 4mo, SD 1y 3mo

  8. EFFECT OF SHOULDER SIDE PACK ON DYNAMIC POSTURAL STABILITY IN YOUNG HEALTHY FEMALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enas ELsayed Mohamed Abutaleb

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Control of balance is a complex motor skill that involves integration of sensory inputs and the planning and execution of flexible movement patterns. Carrying side packs is famous in our society especially shoulder side packs. Most students carry shoulder side packs and they don't care about the way to carry them to be more balanced. The purpose of the study is to investigate the effect of carrying shoulder side pack on dynamic postural stability and to determine the best way of carrying a shoulder side pack either on the dominant side or non-dominant side that doesn’t affect dynamic postural stability in young healthy female. Methods: Sixty female volunteers aged from 18 to 25 years old participated in the study. Biodex balance system was used to measure the dynamic postural stability in three different occasions (without carrying a shoulder side pack, with carrying a shoulder side pack on the dominant side, and on the non-dominant side with a rest period in between. Results: Repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by Bonferroni post hoc test were used to compare dynamic posture balance without carrying and during carrying a shoulder side pack on dominant and non-dominant sides. Analysis revealed that overall, anteroposterior and mediolateral stability indexes reduced significantly (P<0.0001 when carrying shoulder side pack on dominant side in comparison with when carrying shoulder side pack on non-dominant side and without carrying bag. Conclusion: It was concluded that carrying a shoulder side pack on the non-dominant side didn't disturb the postural stability when compared to carrying on the dominant side so, we recommend the students to carry shoulder side packs on the non-dominant side.

  9. Awareness and predictors of female genital mutilation/cutting among young health advocates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolfotouh, Sherif M; Ebrahim, Ahmed Z; Abolfotouh, Mostafa A

    2015-01-01

    The act of female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is considered internationally as a violent act against girls and women and a violation of their human rights. This study sought to assess the awareness and predictors of FGM/C in young Egyptian health advocates. A cross-sectional study of 600 medical students from a total of 2,500 members of the International Federation of Medical Students' Associations (IFMSA)-Egypt, across all Egyptian medical schools, was conducted using a previously validated online Google survey. The overall prevalence of circumcision was 14.7/100 female students, with a significantly higher prevalence in students from rural areas (25%) than in non-rural areas (10.8%, P=0.001), and in those residing in Upper (southern) Egypt (20.6%) than in Lower (northern) Egypt (8.7%, P=0.003). The students' mean percentage score for knowledge about the negative health consequences of FGM/C was 53.50±29.07, reflecting a modest level of knowledge; only 30.5% had a good level of knowledge. The mean percentage score for the overall attitude toward discontinuation of the practice of FGM/C was 76.29±17.93, reflecting a neutral attitude; 58.7% had a favorable attitude/norms toward discontinuation of the practice. Of circumcised students, approximately one-half (46.8%) were unwilling to have their daughters circumcised, and 60% reported no harm from being circumcised. After controlling for confounders, a negative attitude toward FGM/C was significantly (Pdrive a change in attitude toward discontinuation of this harmful practice.

  10. Quasars: Active nuclei of young galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komberg, B. V.

    1980-01-01

    The hypothetical properties of 'young' galaxies and possible methods of observing them are discussed. It is proposed that star formation first takes place in the central regions of protogalaxies which may appear as quasar-like objects. An evolutionary scheme is outlined in which the radio quasars are transformed in time into the nuclei of radio galaxies.

  11. Prevalence and associated factors of female genital cutting among young adult females in Jigjiga district, eastern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional mixed study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebremariam K

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Kidanu Gebremariam,1 Demeke Assefa,2 Fitsum Weldegebreal3 1Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Mekelle University, Mekelle, 2Reproductive Health and Health Service Management, School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, 3Medical Laboratory Science, College of Health and Medical Sciences, Haramaya University, Harar, Ethiopia Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of female genital cutting (FGC among young adult (10–24 years of age females in Jigjiga district, eastern Ethiopia. Methods: A school-based cross-sectional mixed method combining both quantitative and qualitative research methods was employed among 679 randomly selected young adult female students from Jigjiga district, Somali regional state, eastern Ethiopia, from February to March 2014 to assess the prevalence and associated factors with FGC. A pretested structured questionnaire was used to collect data. The qualitative data were collected using focus group discussion. Results: This study depicted that the prevalence of FGC among the respondents was found to be 82.6%. The dominant form of FGC in this study was type I FGC, 265 (49.3%. The majority of the respondents, 575 (88.3%, had good knowledge toward the bad effects of FGC. Four hundred and seven (62.7% study participants had positive attitude toward FGC discontinuation. Religion, residence, respondents’ educational level, maternal education, attitude, and belief in religious requirement were the most significant predictors of FGC. The possible reasons for FGC practice were to keep virginity, improve social acceptance, have better marriage prospects, religious approval, and have hygiene. Conclusion: Despite girls’ knowledge and attitude toward the bad effects of FGC, the prevalence of FGC was still high. There should be a concerted effort among women, men, religious leaders, and other concerned bodies in understanding and clarifying the wrong

  12. Young and Active (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-06-16

    Regular physical activity is essential to good health. This podcast discusses the importance of young people developing good exercise habits early.  Created: 6/16/2016 by MMWR.   Date Released: 6/16/2016.

  13. Indoor Tanning, Skin Cancer and the Young Female Patient: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Blake; English, Joseph C; Ferris, Laura K

    2015-08-01

    Young, non-Hispanic white females represent the population most likely to use indoor tanning facilities. This population may be at increased risk of skin cancer as recent meta-analyses support a strong association between cutaneous malignancy and indoor tanning. Public perception of the purported health benefits of indoor tanning may be partially to blame for the popularity of tanning salons as a desire to prepare skin prior to sun exposure is among the most commonly cited motivations for indoor tanning. Improving education and counseling to address misconceptions regarding tanning safety will require the participation of healthcare providers for both physical and psychological screenings as well as for information dissemination. This review presents the association between tanning bed use and skin cancer, biological effects of UV radiation exposure, UV burden associated with tanning devices, public perception of tanning, demographic and psychological profile of indoor tanners, and current legislation regulating tanning bed use. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Predictors of delayed disclosure of rape in female adolescents and young adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicanic, Iva A. E.; Hehenkamp, Lieve M.; van de Putte, Elise M.; van Wijk, Arjen J.; de Jongh, Ad

    2015-01-01

    Background Delayed disclosure of rape has been associated with impaired mental health; it is, therefore, important to understand which factors are associated with disclosure latency. The purpose of this study was to compare various demographics, post-rape characteristics, and psychological functioning of early and delayed disclosers (i.e., more than 1-week post-rape) among rape victims, and to determine predictors for delayed disclosure. Methods Data were collected using a structured interview and validated questionnaires in a sample of 323 help-seeking female adolescents and young adults (12–25 years), who were victimized by rape, but had no reported prior chronic child sexual abuse. Results In 59% of the cases, disclosure occurred within 1 week. Delayed disclosers were less likely to use medical services and to report to the police than early disclosers. No significant differences were found between delayed and early disclosers in psychological functioning and time to seek professional help. The combination of age category 12–17 years [odds ratio (OR) 2.05, confidence intervals (CI) 1.13–3.73], penetration (OR 2.36, CI 1.25–4.46), and closeness to assailant (OR 2.64, CI 1.52–4.60) contributed significantly to the prediction of delayed disclosure. Conclusion The results point to the need of targeted interventions that specifically encourage rape victims to disclose early, thereby increasing options for access to health and police services. PMID:25967381

  15. APPLICATION OF ALLOMETRY FOR DETERMINATION OF STRENGTH PROFILE IN YOUNG FEMALE ATHLETES FROM DIFFERENT SPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gajewski

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the study was to determine a strength profile in young female athletes practising different sports and to use allometry to evaluate muscular strength with respect to body mass. The study included 42 women who practised taekwondo (n = 10, weightlifting (n = 10, canoeing (n = 14 and speed skating (n = 8. Measurements of maximal muscle torques under static conditions in 10 groups of flexors and extensors of the elbow, shoulder, hip, knee and trunk were carried out. The MANCOVA procedure was employed to compare means between the groups. A logarithm of body mass was adopted as a covariate. Relationships between body mass and muscle torques in each muscle group were determined using a procedure of linear regression. The analysis of residuals was employed for the evaluation of maximal muscle torques. Mean values of logarithms of maximal muscle torques were significantly different for the representatives of individual sports and they depended on the logarithm of body mass. It was proposed to use a mean of residuals normalized for individual muscle groups as a synthetic strength index (mean of the strength profile. The women practising canoeing were characterized by the highest strength index. Its lowest values were obtained by weightlifting and taekwondo athletes. Differences in strength profiles in the tested athletes were attributed to the specific nature of their sports. It is suggested to use an allometric relationship scaled by body mass for strength assessment.

  16. Predictors of delayed disclosure of rape in female adolescents and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva A. E. Bicanic

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Delayed disclosure of rape has been associated with impaired mental health; it is, therefore, important to understand which factors are associated with disclosure latency. The purpose of this study was to compare various demographics, post-rape characteristics, and psychological functioning of early and delayed disclosers (i.e., more than 1-week post-rape among rape victims, and to determine predictors for delayed disclosure. Methods: Data were collected using a structured interview and validated questionnaires in a sample of 323 help-seeking female adolescents and young adults (12–25 years, who were victimized by rape, but had no reported prior chronic child sexual abuse. Results: In 59% of the cases, disclosure occurred within 1 week. Delayed disclosers were less likely to use medical services and to report to the police than early disclosers. No significant differences were found between delayed and early disclosers in psychological functioning and time to seek professional help. The combination of age category 12–17 years [odds ratio (OR 2.05, confidence intervals (CI 1.13–3.73], penetration (OR 2.36, CI 1.25–4.46, and closeness to assailant (OR 2.64, CI 1.52–4.60 contributed significantly to the prediction of delayed disclosure. Conclusion: The results point to the need of targeted interventions that specifically encourage rape victims to disclose early, thereby increasing options for access to health and police services.

  17. School burnout and heart rate variability: risk of cardiovascular disease and hypertension in young adult females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Ross W; Seibert, Gregory S; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Marcos A; Fincham, Frank D

    2018-05-01

    Emerging research documents the relationship between school burnout and some indicators of increased cardiovascular risk. Indicators of cardiovascular functioning assessed via ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate variability (HRV) have not been thoroughly explored in this research domain. Therefore, the current study examined relationships between school burnout and indicators of cardiac functioning via 24 h ambulatory blood pressure (BP) and electrocardiogram monitoring in a sample of young adult female undergraduates (N = 88). Two hypotheses were tested: (1) that independent of related negative affective symptomology (depression and anxiety), increased school burnout would be related to greater systolic and diastolic BP, higher low frequency (LF) HRV and lower very low frequency (VLF) HRV, and (2) that lower VLF would be related to greater school burnout independently of LF HRV. Hierarchical multiple regression analyzes showed that school burnout was significantly related to elevated ambulatory BP (systolic and diastolic) and HRV markers of increased cardiac sympathovagal tone. These findings support the hypotheses and suggest that school burnout might be implicated in the development of pre-hypertension or early cardiovascular disease. Study limitations and the need for future longitudinal research are discussed.

  18. Anthropometric analysis and performance characteristics to predict selection in young male and female handball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan J. Fernández-Romero

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was two-fold. The first aim was to determine if there were any anthropometric and physical performance differences (controlling for maturation between male and female handball players selected in training categories as well asthe relation of these differences with the performance level achieved. The second aim was to identify the discriminatory variables between the performance levels achieved. A total of 216 young handball players (125 men and 91 women participated in the study. The data were classified by selection level (regional n=154; national n=62, gender (men; women and age category (under-15; under-17. The use of MANCOVA analyses, controllingfor maturation, identified how gender could determine variables related to handball players' future competitive levels. The results revealed that anthropometric variables such as height, arm span, trochanter height, thigh girth, and leg girth were more influential in men than in women. In addition, the physical performance tests of vertical jump (squat jump and counter movement jump with/without arm and 10x5m shuttle run were determinants in both sexes. Discriminatory analysis predicted that a combination of five variables (counter movement jump with arm, body mass, 10x5m shuttle run, dominant hand length and trochanter height would successfully distinguish between regional and national players, with a predictive accuracy of 81.9% for all players.

  19. The mediating role of partner communication skills on HIV/STD-associated risk behaviors in young African American females with a history of sexual violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Jessica McDermott; Salazar, Laura F; Wingood, Gina M; DiClemente, Ralph J; Rose, Eve; Crosby, Richard A

    2008-05-01

    To examine the prevalence of sexual violence among young African American females and to explore the mediating role that partner communication plays on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted disease-associated risk behaviors among youth with a history of sexual violence relative to those without. Only data from baseline, before randomization, were used for this analysis. A clinic-based sample of young females enrolled in a randomized trial of an HIV-prevention program in Atlanta, Georgia, from March 2002 to August 2004. African American females aged 15 to 21 years who reported sexual activity in the previous 60 days. Of 1558 screened, 874 females were eligible and 82% (n = 715) participated at baseline. History of sexual violence as well as (1) sexual partner communication skills, (2) current sexual behaviors, and (3) psychological well-being. Lifetime prevalence of sexual violence was 26%. Communication skills partially mediated the relationship between sexual violence and psychological well-being and sexual behavior outcomes. Given the lifetime prevalence of sexual violence and its adverse sexual, psychological, and relational sequelae, it is paramount that effective interventions are developed. Based on our findings, improving partner communications skills is one particularly important area for HIV/sexually transmitted disease risk-reduction interventions for youths with a history of sexual violence.

  20. Morphostructural characterization of female and young male of naturalized Sul-mato-grossenses “Pantaneiros” sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Portela de Oliveira

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Morphometric measurements are important to evaluate the variability, determine the racial standard and the existence of sexual dimorphism in genetic group. With this objective, were measured 20 morphometric measurements and one measurements of weight for 338 animals of the genetic group of Sul-mato-grossenses naturalized sheep belonging to Manoel de Barros Foundation and breeding at Centro Tecnologico de Ovinos from Anhanguera-Uniderp University and Federal University of the Grande Dourados. The statistical analyses were realized through software SAS. The females and young males showed short variation for morphometric measured of head and limbs region. However, higher variation was observed in the morphometric measurements taken from torso region, indicate that this region could be inserted in breeding programs like a selection criterion. The Pearson correlation coefficients between the morphostructural characteristics of females and young males, appears to have certain harmony degree in the morphostructural model. The females are characterized by animals with relatively large head, torso with proportional features and good angulations. The gender did not influence characteristics of the head region and body weight in the young animals. However, the characteristics of other regions, such as thoracic perimeter and posterior width of rump measured in the head region, and the perimeter of carpal and metacarpal in the limbs were influenced by gender in young animals.

  1. A review of the risk factors for lower extremity overuse injuries in young elite female ballet dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowerman, Erin Anne; Whatman, Chris; Harris, Nigel; Bradshaw, Elizabeth

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to review the evidence for selected risk factors of lower extremity overuse injuries in young elite female ballet dancers. An electronic search of key databases from 1969 to July 2013 was conducted using the keywords dancers, ballet dancers, athletes, adolescent, adolescence, young, injury, injuries, risk, overuse, lower limb, lower extremity, lower extremities, growth, maturation, menarche, alignment, and biomechanics. Thirteen published studies were retained for review. Results indicated that there is a high incidence of lower extremity overuse injuries in the target population. Primary risk factors identified included maturation, growth, and poor lower extremity alignment. Strong evidence from well-designed studies indicates that young elite female ballet dancers suffer from delayed onset of growth, maturation, menarche, and menstrual irregularities. However, there is little evidence that this deficit increases the risk of overuse injury, with the exception of stress fractures. Similarly, there is minimal evidence linking poor lower extremity alignment to increased risk of overuse injury. It is concluded that further prospective, longitudinal studies are required to clarify the relationship between growth, maturation, menarche, and lower extremity alignment, and the risk of lower extremity overuse injury in young elite female ballet dancers.

  2. RAISING YOUNG LEARNERS‟ AWARENESS OF GRAMMAR THROUGH CREATIVE LANGUAGE ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Murni Wahyanti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Current developments in foreign language teaching have shown the need to reconsider the role of grammar. It is argued that grammar understanding can promote more precise use of the foreign language. This belief has led to an increased interest in grammar teaching, including grammar teaching for young learners. In teaching English to young learners, activities that can promote grammar awareness are needed. The activities should be presented in context to make sure that the meaning is clear. The activities should also be creatively designed in order to challenge students‘ motivation and involvement. Grammar activities presented creatively in meaningful contexts are useful for noticing the language patterns. This paper focuses on the changing status of grammar, the importance of grammar in the young learner classroom, and how to raise grammar awareness through creative language activities. It also reports the result of a small-scale study on implementing grammarawareness activities for teaching English to Elementary School students.

  3. The Life, Work and Recreational Physical Activity of Female Cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenneis, Verena

    The main aim of this article-based PhD thesis was to explore the recreational physical activity participation of female cleaners – an occupational group mainly consisting of minority ethnic women from non-western countries. As the PhD project was integrated in and financially supported...... by the Copenhagen Centre for Team Sport and Health, a part of the PhD project was to organize and evaluate a workplace physical activity programme that used team games as the main form of exercise. Via participant observation and semi-structured interviews with 42 cleaners and their supervisors I gained insights...... and employed different theories, they drew a coherent picture: the interviewees’ everyday lives as migrant cleaners in Denmark had a decisive influence on their opportunities to engage in recreational physical activity: most women struggled with the demands of a physically exhausting job and an extensive...

  4. Dominance-Popularity Status, Behavior, and the Emergence of Sexual Activity in Young Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddy H. de Bruyn

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigated the sexual activity levels of several subtypes of middle adolescents (age 14–15 years. The subtype profiles were based on dominance-popularity status and a range of behaviors associated with dominance and popularity. In addition, gender differences in behavioral profiles were examined among dominant-popular, sexually active young adolescents. Results showed that socially dominant and popular young adolescent boys who exhibited a highly aggressive profile were more sexually active than their low-status and non-aggressive male peers; dominant-popular girls who were very attractive and gossips were more sexually active than their female peers. The results are discussed from an evolutionary psychological framework.

  5. Carbohydrate Electrolyte Solutions Enhance Endurance Capacity in Active Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Hua Sun

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of supplementation with a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (CES in active females during a prolonged session of submaximal running to exhaustion. Eight healthy active females volunteered to perform a session of open-ended running to exhaustion at 70% of their maximal oxygen consumption on a treadmill during the follicular phase of their menstrual cycle on two occasions. During each run, the subjects consumed either 3mL·kg−1 body mass of a 6% CES or a placebo drink (PL every 20 min during exercise. The trials were administered in a randomized double-blind, cross-over design. During the run, the subjects ingested similar volumes of fluid in two trials (CES: 644 ± 75 mL vs. PL: 593 ± 66 mL, p > 0.05. The time to exhaustion was 16% longer during the CES trial (106.2 ± 9.4 min than during the PL trial (91.6 ± 5.9 min (p < 0.05. At 45 min during exercise, the plasma glucose concentration in the CES trial was higher than that in PL trial. No differences were observed in the plasma lactate level, respiratory exchange ratio, heart rate, perceived rate of exertion, sensation of thirst, or abdominal discomfort between the two trials (p > 0.05. The results of the present study confirm that CES supplementation improves the moderate intensity endurance capacity of active females during the follicular phases of the menstrual cycle. However, the exogenous oxidation of carbohydrate does not seem to explain the improved capacity after CES supplementation.

  6. Awareness and predictors of female genital mutilation/cutting among young health advocates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfotouh SM

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sherif M Abolfotouh,1,2 Ahmed Z Ebrahim,1,3 Mostafa A Abolfotouh4 On Behalf of IFMSA-Egypt 1IFMSA-Egypt, Alexandria, Egypt; 2Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland; 3Alexandria Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria, Egypt; 4King Abdullah International Medical Research Center (KAIMRC, King Saud bin-Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Abstract: The act of female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C is considered internationally as a violent act against girls and women and a violation of their human rights. This study sought to assess the awareness and predictors of FGM/C in young Egyptian health advocates. A cross-sectional study of 600 medical students from a total of 2,500 members of the International Federation of Medical Students’ Associations (IFMSA-Egypt, across all Egyptian medical schools, was conducted using a previously validated online Google survey. The overall prevalence of circumcision was 14.7/100 female students, with a significantly higher prevalence in students from rural areas (25% than in non-rural areas (10.8%, P=0.001, and in those residing in Upper (southern Egypt (20.6% than in Lower (northern Egypt (8.7%, P=0.003. The students’ mean percentage score for knowledge about the negative health consequences of FGM/C was 53.50±29.07, reflecting a modest level of knowledge; only 30.5% had a good level of knowledge. The mean percentage score for the overall attitude toward discontinuation of the practice of FGM/C was 76.29±17.93, reflecting a neutral attitude; 58.7% had a favorable attitude/norms toward discontinuation of the practice. Of circumcised students, approximately one-half (46.8% were unwilling to have their daughters circumcised, and 60% reported no harm from being circumcised. After controlling for confounders, a negative attitude toward FGM/C was significantly (P<0.001 in all cases associated with male sex, residency in Upper Egypt, rural origin, previous circumcision, and the preclinical

  7. Body temperature and cold sensation during and following exercise under temperate room conditions in cold‐sensitive young trained females

    OpenAIRE

    Fujii, Naoto; Aoki‐Murakami, Erii; Tsuji, Bun; Kenny, Glen P.; Nagashima, Kei; Kondo, Narihiko; Nishiyasu, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract We evaluated cold sensation at rest and in response to exercise‐induced changes in core and skin temperatures in cold‐sensitive exercise trained females. Fifty‐eight trained young females were screened by a questionnaire, selecting cold‐sensitive (Cold‐sensitive, n = 7) and non‐cold‐sensitive (Control, n = 7) individuals. Participants rested in a room at 29.5°C for ~100 min after which ambient temperature was reduced to 23.5°C where they remained resting for 60 min. Participants then...

  8. Evaluation of central and peripheral fatigue in the quadriceps using fractal dimension and conduction velocity in young females.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Beretta-Piccoli

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, linear and non-linear surface electromyography descriptors for central and peripheral components of fatigue have been developed. In the current study, we tested fractal dimension (FD and conduction velocity (CV as myoelectric descriptors of central and peripheral fatigue, respectively. To this aim, we analyzed FD and CV slopes during sustained fatiguing contractions of the quadriceps femoris in healthy humans.A total of 29 recreationally active women (mean age±standard deviation: 24±4 years and two female elite athletes (one power athlete, age 24 and one endurance athlete, age 30 years performed two knee extensions: (1 at 20% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC for 30 s, and (2 at 60% MVC held until exhaustion. Surface EMG signals were detected from the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis using bidimensional arrays.Central and peripheral fatigue were described as decreases in FD and CV, respectively. A positive correlation between FD and CV (R=0.51, p<0.01 was found during the sustained 60% MVC, probably as a result of simultaneous motor unit synchronization and a decrease in muscle fiber CV during the fatiguing task.Central and peripheral fatigue can be described as changes in FD and CV, at least in young, healthy women. The significant correlation between FD and CV observed at 60% MVC suggests that a mutual interaction between central and peripheral fatigue can arise during submaximal isometric contractions.

  9. Evaluation of Central and Peripheral Fatigue in the Quadriceps Using Fractal Dimension and Conduction Velocity in Young Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beretta-Piccoli, Matteo; D’Antona, Giuseppe; Barbero, Marco; Fisher, Beth; Dieli-Conwright, Christina M.; Clijsen, Ron; Cescon, Corrado

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Over the past decade, linear and non-linear surface electromyography descriptors for central and peripheral components of fatigue have been developed. In the current study, we tested fractal dimension (FD) and conduction velocity (CV) as myoelectric descriptors of central and peripheral fatigue, respectively. To this aim, we analyzed FD and CV slopes during sustained fatiguing contractions of the quadriceps femoris in healthy humans. Methods A total of 29 recreationally active women (mean age±standard deviation: 24±4 years) and two female elite athletes (one power athlete, age 24 and one endurance athlete, age 30 years) performed two knee extensions: (1) at 20% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) for 30 s, and (2) at 60% MVC held until exhaustion. Surface EMG signals were detected from the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis using bidimensional arrays. Results Central and peripheral fatigue were described as decreases in FD and CV, respectively. A positive correlation between FD and CV (R=0.51, pfatiguing task. Conclusions Central and peripheral fatigue can be described as changes in FD and CV, at least in young, healthy women. The significant correlation between FD and CV observed at 60% MVC suggests that a mutual interaction between central and peripheral fatigue can arise during submaximal isometric contractions. PMID:25880369

  10. Motion Sensor Reactivity in Physically Active Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Timothy K.; Dinger, Mary K.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether young adults changed their physical activity (PA) behavior when wearing motion sensors. PA patterns of 119 young adults (M age = 20.82 years, SD = 1.50, M body mass index = 23.93 kg/m[superscript 2] , SD = 4.05) were assessed during 2 consecutive weeks. In Week 1, participants wore an accelerometer.…

  11. Female but not male young heavy drinkers display altered performance monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Janette L; Mattick, Richard P; Sufani, Christopher

    2015-09-30

    Difficulties in monitoring ongoing behaviour may be linked to real-life problematic drinking behaviours. Prior research suggests female heavy drinkers in particular display greater cognitive control deficits. Here, we examine trial-to-trial behavioural adaptations in a conflict monitoring task, relative to drinking behaviour and sex. Heavy drinkers (n=31, 16 male) and controls (n=35, 18 male) completed an Eriksen flanker task while brain electrical activity was recorded. For reaction time, error rates, and N2 and P3 amplitude of the event-related potential, trial-to-trial conflict adaptation was evidenced by a differential response to the current (congruent vs. incongruent) trials dependent on the identity of the previous trial. For the proportion of errors, heavy drinkers showed increased conflict adaptation compared to controls. Conflict adaptation for N2 (indexing monitoring) was larger for female heavy drinkers than controls, and the opposite was observed for males. There were no interactions involving group or sex for the P3 (indexing inhibition). The results suggest a compensatory response, such that heavy drinkers are required to increase performance monitoring in order to achieve the same behavioural outcome as controls. We also confirm the importance of sex as a factor in the relationship between behavioural control and heavy alcohol use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Wrist-ankle acupuncture (WAA) for primary dysmenorrhea (PD) of young females: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yingfan; Tian, Sinan; Tian, Jing; Shu, Shi

    2017-08-22

    Primary dysmenorrhea (PD) is one of the most common health complaints all over the world, specifically among young females. Acupuncture has been employed to relieve the pain-based symptoms and to avoid the side effects of conventional medication, and wrist-ankle acupuncture (WAA) has confirmed analgesic efficacy for various types of pain. The aim of this study is to evaluate the immediate analgesia effect of WAA on PD of young females. This study will carry out a randomized parallel controlled single-blind trial to observe the immediate analgesia effect of WAA in PD of young females. Sixty participants who meet inclusion criteria will be recruited from September 2016 to September 2017 in Changhai hospital of China. They are randomly assigned to WAA therapy or sham acupuncture groups (30 patients for each group), and then receive real or sham acupuncture treatment, respectively. In this trial, the primary outcome measure is simple form of McGill pain questionnaire (SF-MPQ), while expectation and treatment credibility scale (ETCS), safety assessment, the COX menstrual symptom scale (CMSS), questionnaire about the feeling of being punctured are included in the secondary outcomes. This trial will be the first study protocol designed to evaluate the immediate analgesia effect of WAA in PD of young females. The strengths in methodology, including rigorous randomized, sham-controlled, participants-blinded and assessors-blinded, will guarantee the quality of this study. WAA doesn't require any needling sensation, so non-penetrating sham acupuncture can serve as an effective placebo intervention in this trial. Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (identifier: ChiCTR-IOR-16008546 ; registration date: 27 May 2016).

  13. Egyptian Activism against Female Genital Cutting as Catachrestic Claiming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Van Raemdonck

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with questions of the politics of location in knowledge and norm production within the context of Egyptian feminist activism for abandoning female genital cutting practices. It seeks to determine underlying schemes of international campaigning discourse and analyzes how these predicate and complicate Egyptian postcolonial activism. It draws on a broad literature study in addition to fieldwork in Cairo consisting of in-depth interviews with activists and policy makers. My focus is on the national Task Force against FGM from 1994 until 1999 and its subsequent cooptation by the National Council of Childhood and Motherhood. I argue through the concept of catachresis that location matters in setting the terms of anti-FGC discourse and its relation to religion.

  14. Effects of different frequencies of rhythmic auditory cueing on the stride length, cadence, and gait speed in healthy young females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lili; Zhang, Qi; Hu, Chunying; Huang, Qiuchen; Ye, Miao; Li, Desheng

    2015-02-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to explore the effects of different frequencies of rhythmic auditory cueing (RAC) on stride length, cadence, and gait speed in healthy young females. The findings of this study might be used as clinical guidance of physical therapy for choosing the suitable frequency of RAC. [Subjects] Thirteen healthy young females were recruited in this study. [Methods] Ten meters walking tests were measured in all subjects under 4 conditions with each repeated 3 times and a 3-min seated rest period between repetitions. Subjects first walked as usual and then were asked to listen carefully to the rhythm of a metronome and walk with 3 kinds of RAC (90%, 100%, and 110% of the mean cadence). The three frequencies (90%, 100%, and 110%) of RAC were randomly assigned. Gait speed, stride length, and cadence were calculated, and a statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS (version 17.0) computer package. [Results] The gait speed and cadence of 90% RAC walking showed significant decreases compared with normal walking and 100% and 110% RAC walking. The stride length, cadence, and gait speed of 110% RAC walking showed significant increases compared with normal walking and 90% and 100% RAC walking. [Conclusion] Our results showed that 110% RAC was the best of the 3 cueing frequencies for improvement of stride length, cadence, and gait speed in healthy young females.

  15. Sexual behaviour and risk of sexually transmitted infections in young female healthcare students in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Navarro-Cremades

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Several authors have examined the risk for sexually transmitted infections (STI, but no study has yet analyzed it solely in relation with sexual behaviour in women. We analyzed the association of sexual behaviour with STI risk in female university students of healthcare sciences. Methods. We designed a cross-sectional study assessing over three months vaginal intercourse with a man. The study involved 175 female university students, without a stable partner, studying healthcare sciences in Spain. Main outcome variable: STI risk (not always using male condoms. Secondary variables: sexual behaviour, method of orgasm, desire to increase the frequency of sexual relations, desire to have more variety in sexual relations, frequency of sexual intercourse with the partner, and age. The information was collected with an original questionnaire. A logistic regression model was used to estimate the adjusted odds ratios (ORs in order to analyze the association between the STI risk and the study variables. Results. Of the 175 women, 52 were positive for STI risk (29.7%, 95% CI [22.9–36.5%]. Factors significantly associated with STI risk (p < 0.05 included: orgasm (not having orgasms →OR = 7.01, 95% CI [1.49–33.00]; several methods →OR = 0.77, 95% CI [0.31–1.90]; one single method →OR = 1; p = 0.008 and desiring an increased frequency of sexual activities (OR = 0.27, 95% CI [0.13–0.59], p < 0.001. Conclusions. Women’s desire for sexual activities and their sexual function were significant predictors of their risk for STI. Information about sexual function is an intrinsic aspect of sexual behaviour and should be taken into consideration when seeking approaches to reduce risks for STI.

  16. Lessons learned from recruiting young female students to a randomised controlled trial of chlamydia screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivaz, Stella; Brennan, Sarah; Dean, Sally; Hay, Sima; Hay, Phillip; Kerry, Sally; Oakeshott, Pippa

    2006-04-01

    Recruitment is a problem in many trials. Two female medical students offered to help with recruiting problems in a community-based trial of chlamydia screening to prevent pelvic inflammatory disease. We need to recruit 2500 sexually active female students and ask them to provide a self-taken low vaginal swab and complete a questionnaire with follow-up after a year. To identify recruitment difficulties in a community-based trial of chlamydia screening and to investigate how they might be overcome. Descriptive study. London South Bank and Kingston Universities. The students observed the recruitment methods used for the first 4 months of the trial. This comprised single researchers recruiting individual women in student bars and common rooms. With the researchers they piloted a new method of group recruitment with pairs of researchers making announcements at the end of lectures after first sending out all male students and those aged>25 years. This involved extra time planning and liaising with the lecturers in advance of recruitment sessions. The recruitment rate had been averaging only 25 participants per week. Many students were ineligible: never been sexually active, too old, recently been tested for chlamydia. Many eligible students were reluctant to take part because of embarrassment or anxiety about providing a swab. Using a new method of group recruitment after lectures we recruited 192 participants in 2 weeks. For a study on a sensitive topic, two researchers recruiting women in groups after lectures may be a more effective and cost-effective way than individual recruitment by researchers working alone.

  17. [Methylphenidate and short-term memory in young females with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. A study using functional magnetic resonance imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Garrido, A A; Barrios, F A; de la Serna-Tuya, J M; Cocula-León, H; Gómez-Velázquez, F R

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common behavioral disorder found mainly in males, thus current knowledge on its clinical expression in female adults is extremely limited. AIM. To evaluate the behavioral and neural substrates associated with the performance of a short-term memory task in female ADHD adults, with and without methylphenidate exposure, with respect to a control group. Two groups of eight young right-handed, female, university students with ADHD and healthy controls matched by age, gender, handedness and academic level, voluntarily participated. All subjects performed twice an easy auditory short-term memory task (ADHD group without, and 90 minutes post-intake of methylphenidate 0.4 mg/kg in a counterbalanced order). The BOLD-fMRI response was used as a measure of neural activity during task performance. ADHD subjects showed a tendency to improve their performances under medication, showing an increased widespread functional activation, especially relevant over left frontal and cerebellar areas, in comparison with control subjects. Methylphenidate slightly improves short-term memory task performance in adult female ADHD subjects by modifying underlying neural functioning patterns.

  18. Non-completion of upper secondary school among female and male young adults in an Arctic sociocultural context; the NAAHS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Valmyr Bania

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Education is closely associated with health. Non-completion of upper secondary school influences academic achievement, employment, income and personal well-being. The purpose of the study is to explore predictors of non-completion of upper secondary school among female and male young adults in relation to mental health and educational factors in a socio-cultural, Arctic context. Methods The Norwegian Arctic Adolescent Health Study (NAAHS is a cross-sectional, school-based survey that was conducted in 2003–2005. Eighty-three percent of the population of 5,877 10th graders participated; 49.1%females, 450 reported indigenous Sami ethnicity, and 304 reported Laestadian affiliation. Data from NAAHS were merged with registry data from the National Education Database (NUDB Norway for 3,987 adolescents who gave their consent for follow-up studies. Results Non-completion of upper secondary school was 36.9 % among females and 36.6 % among males. Among females, predictors for non-completion were related to mental health symptoms, and among males, to residency in the northernmost and remote areas and self-reported functional difficulties at school, home and in leisure activities due to mental health problems. There was marginal significance between ethnicity and non-completion of upper secondary school, measured at 41.3 % for Sami and 36.8 % for non-Sami, respectively. Conclusions The gender differences found in this study emphasize the need for gender-specific interventions in preventing non-completion of upper secondary school. There is a need to recognize and treat extensive pro-social behaviour and social problems in young females. Young males from remote areas and those who in early adolescence struggle with functional impairment due to mental health problems need early interventions in lower secondary school. Enhancing parents’ and teachers’ ability to detect symptoms and problems as well as low-threshold health services

  19. Motivations associated with physical activity in young breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voege, Patricia; Bower, Julienne E; Stanton, Annette L; Ganz, Patricia A

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity is associated with positive health outcomes in breast cancer survivors. However, factors that promote or discourage physical activity in this population are not fully understood. This cross-sectional study was designed to examine approach and avoidance motivations, barriers for exercise, and their association with physical activity in breast cancer survivors younger than 50 years old at time of diagnosis. Current physical activity levels, approach and avoidance motivations, and barriers to exercise were assessed through self-report questionnaires in young breast cancer survivors (N = 156). Results indicated that barriers to exercise were negatively associated with physical activity (p physical activity (p barriers (p physical activity (p = .91).

  20. Behavioural differences between single scandinavian brown bears (Ursus arctos) and females with dependent young when experimentally approached by humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlén, Veronica; Ordiz, Andrés; Swenson, Jon E; Støen, Ole Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    Carnivore-human encounters that result in human injury present a conservation and management challenge and it is therefore important to understand under what conditions such incidents occur. Females with cubs are often involved when humans are injured by brown bears Ursus arctos. In Scandinavia, this is particularly true for unarmed recreational forest users. Our aim was to document behavioural differences between single bears and females with cubs in order to develop recommendations to minimize the risk of injuries to recreational forest users. We documented the reactions of GPS-collared females with cubs and single brown bears to experimental approaches by humans to 50 m from the bear on 42 and 108 occasions, respectively. The majority of females with cubs (95%) and single bears (89%) left when approached. Bears that left were passed at shorter distances and were in more open areas than those that stayed. Both groups had similar flight initiation distances, which were longer for bears that were active at the time of the disturbance. Females with cubs selected more open habitat than single bears, also for the new site they selected following disturbance. Females with cubs, particularly active females with cubs of the year, moved greater distances and spent more time active following the approach. Females with cubs and single bears were seen or heard in 26% and 14% of the approaches, respectively. None of the bears displayed any aggressive behaviour during the approaches. Females with cubs selected more open habitat, perhaps predisposing them to encountering people that are not involved in hunting activities, which might be the primary explanation why females with cubs are most frequently involved when unarmed people are injured by bears in Scandinavia. To mitigate injury risks, one must consider factors that bring bears closer to human activity in the first place.

  1. Hip and ankle range of motion and hip muscle strength in young female ballet dancersand controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennell, K.; Khan, K. M.; Matthews, B.; De Gruyter, M.; Cook, E.; Holzer, K.; Wark, J. D.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the hip and ankle range of motion and hip muscle strength in 8-11 year old novice female ballet dancers and controls. METHODS: Subjects were 77 dancers and 49 controls (mean (SD) age 9.6 (0.8) and 9.6 (0.7) years respectively). Supine right active hip external rotation (ER) and internal rotation (IR) were measured using an inclinometer. A turnout protractor was used to assess standing active turnout range. The measure of ER achieved from below the hip during turnout (non-hip ER) was calculated by subtracting hip ER range from turnout range, and hip ER:IR was derived by dividing ER range by IR range. Range of right weight bearing ankle dorsiflexion was measured in a standing lunge using two methods: the distance from the foot to the wall (in centimetres) and the angle of the shank to the vertical via an inclinometer (in degrees). Right calf muscle range was measured in weight bearing using an inclinometer. A manual muscle tester was used to assess right isometric hip flexor, internal rotator, external rotator, abductor, and adductor strength. RESULTS: Dancers had less ER (pballetic training. 


 PMID:10522638

  2. Active lifestyle in childhood and adolescence prevents obesity development in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Soyang; Janz, Kathleen F; Letuchy, Elena M; Burns, Trudy L; Levy, Steven M

    2015-12-01

    To test the hypothesis that individuals who are active but who decrease physical activity (PA) over time have a higher risk of becoming obese in young adulthood, when compared to individuals who are consistently active throughout childhood and adolescence. Iowa Bone Development Study cohort members (242 males and 251 females) participated in accelerometry assessments, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans, and dietary questionnaire surveys at ages 5, 8, 11, 13, 15, 17, and 19 years. Group-based trajectory analyses identified distinct trajectory patterns of moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA), percentage of body fat, and energy intake. A multivariable logistic regression model was fit to estimate the odds of "becoming obese" based on the MVPA trajectories, adjusted for mother's education, somatic maturation, and energy intake. Among males, 74.7% had a "normal" body fat pattern, 14.6% had a "becoming obese" pattern, and 10.7% had a "consistently obese" pattern, while among females, the percentages were 58.6%, 28.6%, and 12.8%, respectively. Participants who were active (≥45 min MVPA) as children but decreased MVPA with age were more likely to become obese, compared to consistently active participants (adjusted OR = 2.77; 95% CI = 1.16, 6.58). An active lifestyle throughout childhood and adolescence could prevent obesity development in young adulthood. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  3. The Impact of Cigarette Packaging Design Among Young Females in Canada: Findings From a Discrete Choice Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotnowski, Kathy; Fong, Geoffrey T; Gallopel-Morvan, Karine; Islam, Towhidul; Hammond, David

    2016-05-01

    The tobacco industry uses various aspects of cigarette packaging design to market to specific groups. The current study examined the relative importance of five cigarette packaging attributes--pack structure (eg, "slims"), brand, branding, warning label size, and price--on perceptions of product taste, harm, and interest in trying, among young females in Canada. A discrete choice experiment was conducted with smoking and nonsmoking females, aged 16 to 24 (N = 448). Respondents were shown 10 choice sets, each containing four packs with different combinations of the attributes: pack structure (slim, lipstick, booklet, traditional); brand ("Vogue," "du Maurier"); branding (branded, plain); warning label size (50%, 75%); and price ($8.45, $10.45). For each choice set, respondents chose the brand that they: (1) would rather try, (2) would taste better, and (3) would be less harmful, or "none." For each outcome, the attributes' impact on consumer choice was analyzed using a multinomial logit model. The multinomial logit analyses revealed that young females weighted pack structure to be most important to their intention to try (46%), judgment of product taste (52%), and judgment of product harm (48%). Price and branding were weighted important in trial intent decisions (23% and 18%, respectively) and product taste judgments (29% and 15%, respectively). Whereas warning label size and brand were weighted important when judging product harm (23% and 17%, respectively). The findings suggest that standardized cigarette packaging may decrease demand and reduce misleading perceptions about product harm among young females. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Exploring access and attitudes to regular sexually transmitted infection screening: the views of young, multi-ethnic, inner-city, female students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normansell, Rebecca; Drennan, Vari M; Oakeshott, Pippa

    2016-04-01

    Low uptake of sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing by young people is a major public health problem worldwide. The aims of this qualitative, community-based study were to explore access and attitudes to STI screening in high risk, young, ethnically diverse female students. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted at an inner-London further education college with 17 women aged 16-25 years. The women wanted convenient, regular STI testing and perceived this as responsible behaviour. However, they doubted the maturity of their peers who were unlikely to view themselves as candidates for testing, and feared the perceived stigma associated with testing. This was reflected in their preference for confidential testing. Despite attending their general practice for non-sexual health matters, most did not consider this option for STI testing. However, the long wait in specialist clinics was an important barrier. Many younger participants would not want postal STI sample kits sent to their homes. We found dissatisfaction with sexual health education. STI screening for underserved groups such as young sexually active ethnically diverse female college students needs to be confidential, convenient, easily accessed and offered in ways that allow them to consider themselves as candidates for such screening without fear of social stigma. Family doctors should be aware that young women often do not perceive primary care to be an option for accessing STI screening, and could consider ways of advertising these services. Policymakers and commissioners should be aware that clinic waiting times and lack of education remain barriers to testing. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Attention and Activity in the Young Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, S.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Study I examined activity spans in four types of preschool establishments. Overall span was greatest in the nursery school and lowest in the day nursery. Study II examined attention spans in a primary school. Both studies demonstrated the influence of adults in increasing children's attention. (Author/SJL)

  6. 474 Science Activities for Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Moira D.

    This book uses a child-initiated, whole language approach to help children have fun while exploring the world of science. The activities are divided into 23 units. Each unit begins with an "Attention Getter," the purpose of which is to introduce the unit to children in a way that grabs their attention, stimulates their interest, and creates…

  7. Exercise tolerance and selected motor skills in young females with idiopathic scoliosis treated with different physiotherapeutic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Krzysztof Marek; Rożek-Piechura, Krystyna

    2014-01-01

    Scoliosis is a disorder that leads to dysfunction of a number of systems in the body, especially in young females. Physical capacity is one of the most important elements of good health as well as ofbiological development. Adolescence is a time when physical capacity develops intensively, and the condition of the respiratory system is one of many factors that have an impact on the level of physical capacity. This paper aims to evaluate a short-term application of two methods of physiotherapy and their influence on the level of exercise tolerance in young females suffering from idiopathic scoliosis. The study involved a group of 49 young females aged 14-15 years diagnosed with (2040°) thoracic and lumbar scoliosis who were in-patients at the rehabilitation ward of the Regional Paediatric Rehabilitation Hospital in Jastrzębie Zdrój. The group was divided into two subgroups depending on the method of rehabilitation employed: the first subgroup received asymmetric breathing exercise therapy by Dobosiewicz and the second subgroup practised symmetric remedial exercises. Cobb's angle, the degree of skeletal maturity, i.e. the Risser sign and the degree trunk rotation of the apex of the curvature by means of Raimondi's coefficient were determined once in an x-ray image. Basic somatic features, maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV parameter), selected motor skills and exercise tolerance were assessed on two occasions (before beginning and after completion of the rehabilitation treatment). 1. Young females suffering from (20-40°) thoracic and lumbar scoliosis demonstrate respiratory dysfunction, as shown by decreased maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV) in the two subgroups in the present study. Exercises according to Dobosiewicz's method brought about a significantly higher degree of improvement in this parameter. 2. The physiotherapeutic regimen administered to the young girls with scoliosis significantly improved their strength motor skills and exercise tolerance. A

  8. Young female survivors of sexual abuse in Malaysia and depression: what factors are associated with better outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahab, Suzaily; Tan, Susan Mooi Koon; Marimuthu, Sheila; Razali, Rosdinom; Muhamad, Nor Asiah

    2013-04-01

    Research in the field of child sexual abuse is lacking in Malaysia. The aims of this study are to identify the association between sociodemographic factors and depression among sexually abused females. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 51 young sexually abused female attendees at the Suspected Child Abuse and Neglect (SCAN) clinic of Hospital Kuala Lumpur, a tertiary referral centre. Upon obtaining informed consent from participant and guardian, participants were screened for depression using the Strength and Difficulty Questionnaire (SDQ) and interviewed using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Aged Children (K-SADS) for depressive disorders and K-SADS-PL (Present and Lifetime version) to diagnose depression. Sociodemographic data and details of the abuse were also obtained. Of the survivors, 33.3% were depressed. Univariate analysis showed significant association between legal guardianship, living environment and duration of abuse with depression, however, multivariate analyses later showed that the sole predictor for depression was living environment. Respondents who lived with others were 23-times more likely to be depressed as compared to those who lived with their parents. Depression is common among young survivors of sexual abuse. Those who lived with parents appeared to have a better outcome. Thus, further research to explore possible protective factors associated with living with parents is vital. This will help clinicians develop strategies to empower parents and families help these young survivors get back on track with their lives despite the abuse. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. Lack of facilities rather than sociocultural factors as the primary barrier to physical activity among female Saudi university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samara, Anastasia; Nistrup, Anne; Al-Rammah, Tamader Y; Aro, Arja R

    2015-01-01

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is experiencing a dramatic increase in physical inactivity, with women having higher levels of inactivity than men among all age groups. It is assumed that factors such as dress codes, restrictions on going outdoors, and conservative norms are the main reasons for women's low physical activity. Our aim was to explore the different parameters related to physical activity, including self-efficacy, as well as the perceived barriers to and benefits of physical activity in young Saudi females. Ninety-four first-year female Saudi university students in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, participated in the present study in 2014. The students were from eight bachelor's programs in health and well-being, and each completed a questionnaire with questions divided into five parts as follows: 1) socioeconomic status, 2) physical activity, 3) self-efficacy 4) social factors, and 5) barriers and facilitators related to physical activity. The students exercised at home and alone, and there was low self-efficacy for physical activity (mean score =42±14). Among social factors, attending university was the only factor that hindered physical activity (32%). Physical activity was positively perceived overall (mean score =131±10). Students showed awareness of the benefits of physical activity for health and well-being. The most important barrier was the lack of designated areas available for physical activity. Students disagreed that family or the Islamic community were barriers to physical activity. The lack of facilities and lack of encouragement from the university, but not a lack of knowledge (a high level of knowledge is to be expected given their health and well-being studies backgrounds) and/or restrictions from families and society, seem to hinder female students' physical activity, at least young Saudi students.

  10. Young, Gifted, and Female: A Look at Academic and Social Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Corine Cadle

    2009-01-01

    This article illuminates the current status of our understanding regarding the academic and social-emotional needs of gifted, early adolescent females in the United States. A synthesis of both theoretical and empirical studies addresses two foundational questions. First, how do we describe the unique population of gifted, female, adolescent…

  11. Expression of "Kawaii" ("Cute"): Gender Reinforcement of Young Japanese Female School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano-Cavanagh, Yuko

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the Japanese word "kawaii" "cute". Teachers frequently use "kawaii" to show positive feelings toward objects in the classroom. Female children also are primary users of the word, which suggests that they are acquiring "kawaii" as an index of female gender identity. From a linguistic…

  12. Young Asian Women Experiences of the Summer Activities Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Laura

    2002-01-01

    Interviews and observations focused on experiences of 15 young Asian women at a 5-day summer adventure program in southern England. Participants seemed bored with presentations about future career options, activities lost their challenge through repetition, and debriefing was weak. However, the women connected with the transferable skills of trust…

  13. A Diversified Recruitment Approach Incorporating Social Media Leads to Research Participation Among Young Adult-Aged Female Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Jessica R; Roberts, Samantha C; Dominick, Sally A; Malcarne, Vanessa L; Dietz, Andrew C; Su, H Irene

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Cancer survivors in their adolescent and young adult (AYA) years are an understudied population, possibly in part because of the high effort required to recruit them into research studies. The aim of this paper is to describe the specific recruitment strategies used in four studies recruiting AYA-aged female cancer survivors and to identify the highest yielding approaches. We also discuss challenges and recommendations. Methods: We recruited AYA-aged female cancer survivors for two studies conducted locally and two conducted nationally. Recruitment strategies included outreach and referral via: healthcare providers and clinics; social media and the internet; community and word of mouth; and a national fertility information hotline. We calculated the yield of each recruitment approach for the local and national studies by comparing the number that participated to the number of potential participants. Results: We recruited a total of 534 participants into four research studies. Seventy-one percent were diagnosed as young adults and 61% were within 3 years of their cancer diagnosis. The highest-yielding local recruitment strategy was healthcare provider and clinic referral. Nationally, social media and internet outreach yielded the highest rate of participation. Overall, internet-based recruitment resulted in the highest number and yield of participants. Conclusion: Our results suggest that outreach through social media and the internet are effective approaches to recruiting AYA-aged female cancer survivors. Forging collaborative relationships with survivor advocacy groups' members and healthcare providers also proved beneficial.

  14. Cognitive-Affective Dimensions of Female Orgasm: The Role of Automatic Thoughts and Affect During Sexual Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Inês M; Laan, Ellen T M; Nobre, Pedro J

    2017-06-01

    of automatic thoughts and of positive emotions experienced during sexual activity. Data were not collected face to face, which constitutes a strength of this study, because it is known that social desirability is lower in self-administered online questionnaires compared with traditional paper-and-pencil questionnaires, particularly for more sensitive sexual issues. The fact that the sample was composed of heterosexual, premenopausal, and relatively young women demands some caution regarding generalization of the present results. The findings support the contribution of cognitive and affective factors to female orgasmic functioning. It is recommended that future research confirm these findings with other samples, particularly clinical samples of women with orgasmic difficulties. Tavares IM, Laan ETM, Nobre PJ. Cognitive-Affective Dimensions of Female Orgasm: The Role of Automatic Thoughts and Affect During Sexual Activity. J Sex Med 2017;14:818-828. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Promoting physical activity of adolescent and young Iranian girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Rajabi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Women play a central role in the health of the whole family, but they are faced with more barriers while taking part in physical activities. Methods: This study was composed of two main phases. In the first phase, the status of physical activity among young and adolescent in Iran and global evidence of effective interventions were searched. In the second phase, Focused Group Discussion (FGD sessions were held with the key stakeholders in Tehran to investigate the results obtained from the first phase. Results: Physical activity among young and adolescent in Iran is inadequate. Based on the results obtained from the evidence and analysis of the FGDs, solutions defined as supporting policies, supporting environment, and supporting programs for physical activities. Conclusions: Multilevel cooperation among schools, families, and society is necessary to develop and implement policies and supporting programs, with an emphasis on combined interventions.

  16. Fructose-enriched diet induces inflammation and reduces antioxidative defense in visceral adipose tissue of young female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovačević, Sanja; Nestorov, Jelena; Matić, Gordana; Elaković, Ivana

    2017-02-01

    The consumption of refined, fructose-enriched food continuously increases and has been linked to development of obesity, especially in young population. Low-grade inflammation and increased oxidative stress have been implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity-related disorders including type 2 diabetes. In this study, we examined alterations in inflammation and antioxidative defense system in the visceral adipose tissue (VAT) of fructose-fed young female rats, and related them to changes in adiposity and insulin sensitivity. We examined the effects of 9-week fructose-enriched diet applied immediately after weaning on nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) intracellular distribution, and on the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNFα) and key antioxidative enzymes in the VAT of female rats. Insulin signaling in the VAT was evaluated at the level of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) protein and its inhibitory phosphorylation on Ser 307 . Fructose-fed rats had increased VAT mass along with increased NF-κB nuclear accumulation and elevated IL-1β, but not TNFα expression. The protein levels of antioxidative defense enzymes, mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase 2, and glutathione peroxidase, were reduced, while the protein content of IRS-1 and its inhibitory phosphorylation were not altered by fructose diet. The results suggest that fructose overconsumption-related alterations in pro-inflammatory markers and antioxidative capacity in the VAT of young female rats can be implicated in the development of adiposity, but do not affect inhibitory phosphorylation of IRS-1.

  17. ARSH 3: Reproductive and sexual health knowledge: a comparison among married male and female young adults (15-24 y).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, M K C; Thankachi, Yamini; Leena, M L; George, Babu; Russell, Paul Swamidhas Sudhakar

    2013-11-01

    To examine reproductive and sexual knowledge of young married men and women between (15-24 y) in Kerala and to compare the reproductive health knowledge and sexual health knowledge among young married men and women of 20-24 y. This cross sectional community survey was conducted in three districts in Kerala. The married young adults were stratified into age groups of 15-19 y and 20-24 y. Data was collected using separate pretested structured interview schedule. There were no married males below the age of 20 y and only 24 females below the age of 20 y. More proportion of males had statistically significant knowledge about masturbation (72.3%), night emission in boys as an indicator of adolescence (92.6%), the fact that there is no relation between size of penis and sexual performance (78.8%) and condom prevents pregnancy and HIV/AIDS. Among the married 20-24 y group higher proportion of males had knowledge on safe period (47.9%) and condom use (97.9%) whereas higher proportion of females had knowledge on copper-T. With regard to sexual health higher percentage females talked about satisfactory sexual life (83.5%) and good sexual hygiene practices (81.5%). This study on reproductive sexual health knowledge of married men and women between 15 and 24 y, conducted in three districts of Kerala suggests a gap in knowledge level of reproductive health between married men and women. However, with regard to sexual health the opinion expressed are more open in content but not necessarily healthy, suggesting the need for both premarital and newlywed counseling.

  18. Changes in work situation and work ability in young female and male workers. A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boström, Maria; Sluiter, Judith K; Hagberg, Mats

    2012-08-24

    Good work ability is very important in young workers, but knowledge of work situations that influence work ability in this group is poor. The aim of this study was to assess whether changes in self-reported work factors are associated with self-reported work ability among young female and male workers. A sample of 1,311 (718 women and 593 men) was selected from a Swedish cohort of workers aged 21-25 years. At baseline and at 1-year follow-up, participants completed a self-administrated questionnaire including ratings of physical and psychosocial work factors and current work ability. Prevalence ratios were calculated to assess univariate and multivariate associations between changes in work factors and changes in work ability. Decreased job control (PR 1.7, 95% CI 1.49-2.12) and increased negative influence of job demands on private life (PR 1.5, 95% CI 1.25-1.69) were associated with reduced work ability for both female and male workers in the multivariate analyses. Among female workers, an association was found between improved work ability and increased social support at work (PR 2.4, CI 1.43-3.95). For male workers, increased job control (PR 2.3, 95% CI 1.21-4.54) and decreased negative influence of job demands on private life (PR 2.1, 95% CI 1.10-3.87) were associated with improved work ability in the multivariate analyses. Decreased job control and increased negative influence of job demands on private life over time seem to be the most important work factors associated with reduced work ability among young workers of both sexes. Increased social support at work, increased job control, and decreased negative influence of job demands on private life were also found to be the main work factors associated with improved work ability, although with possible gender differences.

  19. Cortical activation during mental rotation in male-to-female and female-to-male transsexuals under hormonal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Beatriz; Gómez-Gil, Esther; Rametti, Giuseppina; Junque, Carme; Gomez, Angel; Karadi, Kazmer; Segovia, Santiago; Guillamon, Antonio

    2010-09-01

    There is strong evidence of sex differences in mental rotation tasks. Transsexualism is an extreme gender identity disorder in which individuals seek cross-gender treatment to change their sex. The aim of our study was to investigate if male-to-female (MF) and female-to-male (FM) transsexuals receiving cross-sex hormonal treatment have different patterns of cortical activation during a three-dimensional (3D) mental rotation task. An fMRI study was performed using a 3-T scan in a sample of 18 MF and 19 FM under chronic cross-sex hormonal treatment. Twenty-three males and 19 females served as controls. The general pattern of cerebral activation seen while visualizing the rotated and non-rotated figures was similar for all four groups showing strong occipito-parieto-frontal brain activation. However, compared to control males, the activation of MF transsexuals during the task was lower in the superior parietal lobe. Compared to control females, MF transsexuals showed higher activation in orbital and right dorsolateral prefrontal regions and lower activation in the left prefrontal gyrus. FM transsexuals did not differ from either the MF transsexual or control groups. Regression analyses between cerebral activation and the number of months of hormonal treatment showed a significant negative correlation in parietal, occipital and temporal regions in the MF transsexuals. No significant correlations with time were seen in the FM transsexuals. In conclusion, although we did not find a specific pattern of cerebral activation in the FM transsexuals, we have identified a specific pattern of cerebral activation during a mental 3D rotation task in MF transsexuals under cross-sex hormonal treatment that differed from control males in the parietal region and from control females in the orbital prefrontal region. The hypoactivation in MF transsexuals in the parietal region could be due to the hormonal treatment or could reflect a priori cerebral differences between MF transsexual

  20. Definition of osteoporosis by bone density criteria in men: effect of using female instead of male young reference data depends on skeletal site and densitometer manufacturer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schousboe, John T; Tanner, S Bobo; Leslie, William D

    2014-01-01

    Whether to use young male or young female reference data to calculate bone mineral density (BMD) T-scores in men remains controversial. The third National Health and Nutrition Examination and Survey (NHANES III) data show that the mean and standard deviation of femoral neck and total hip BMD is greater in young men than young women, and therefore differences in T-scores at these sites using NHANES III female vs male norms becomes less as BMD decreases. In contrast, manufacturer-specific reference databases generally assume similar standard deviations of BMD in men and women. Using NHANES III reference data for the femoral neck and total hip, respectively we found that men with T-scores of -2.5 when young male norms are used have T-scores of -2.4 and -2.3 when young female norms are used. Using manufacturer-specific reference data, we found that men with T-scores of -2.5 when young male norms are used at the femoral neck, total hip, lumbar spine, or one-third of the forearm would have T-scores ranging from -2.4 to -0.4 when young female norms are used, depending on skeletal site and densitometer manufacturer. The change of proportions of men diagnosed with osteoporosis when young female norms are used instead of young male reference data differs substantially according to skeletal site and densitometer manufacturer. Copyright © 2014 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Chlamydia trachomatis prevalence and chlamydial/HPV co-infection among HPV-unvaccinated young Italian females with normal cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panatto, Donatella; Amicizia, Daniela; Bianchi, Silvia; Frati, Elena Rosanna; Zotti, Carla Maria; Lai, Piero Luigi; Domnich, Alexander; Colzani, Daniela; Gasparini, Roberto; Tanzi, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    Infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) and human papillomavirus (HPV) are the two main sexually transmitted infections; however, epidemiological data on Ct prevalence and Ct/HPV co-infection in Italy are scant. This study aimed at estimating the prevalence of Ct infection and Ct/HPV co-infection in young HPV-unvaccinated females with normal cytology, and placed particular attention on the possible association between Ct-DNA positivity and different HPV infecting genotypes. Five hundred 66 healthy females aged 16-26 years without cervical lesions, previously assessed for HPV infection (HPV-DNA prevalence: 18.2%), were tested for Ct-DNA. The overall prevalence of Ct was 5.8% (95% CI: 4.2-8.1), while Ct/HPV co-infection was recorded in 2.7% (95% CI: 1.6-4.3) of subjects. Compared with HPV-DNA-negative females, HPV-DNA positive subjects had significantly (P < 0.001) higher odds of being infected with Ct (odds ratio of 4.20, 95% CI: 2.01-8.71). Both Ct and Ct/HPV infections were much more prevalent in under 18-year-olds than in older women. Subjects positive for single high-risk HPV genotypes and various multiple HPV infections had higher odds of being Ct-DNA positive. Our findings confirm that HPV and Ct infections are very common among asymptomatic young Italian females. This underlines the urgent need for nationwide Ct screening programs and reinforcement of sexual health education, which would be the most important public health strategies, since no Ct vaccines are currently available.

  2. A thymic neuroendocrine tumour in a young female: a rare cause of relapsing and remitting Cushing's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trott, M J; Farah, G; Stokes, V J; Wang, L M; Grossman, A B

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of a young female patient with a rare cause of relapsing and remitting Cushing's syndrome due to ectopic ACTH secretion from a thymic neuroendocrine tumour. A 34-year-old female presented with a constellation of symptoms of Cushing's syndrome, including facial swelling, muscle weakness and cognitive impairment. We use the terms 'relapsing and remitting' in this case report, given the unpredictable time course of symptoms, which led to a delay of 2 years before the correct diagnosis of hypercortisolaemia. Diagnostic workup confirmed ectopic ACTH secretion, and a thymic mass was seen on mediastinal imaging. The patient subsequently underwent thymectomy with complete resolution of her symptoms. Several case series have documented the association of Cushing's syndrome with thymic neuroendocrine tumours (NETs), although to our knowledge there are a few published cases of patients with relapsing and remitting symptoms. This case is also notable for the absence of features of the MEN-1 syndrome, along with the female gender of our patient and her history of non-smoking. Ectopic corticotrophin (ACTH) secretion should always be considered in the diagnostic workup of young patients with Cushing's syndromeThere is a small but growing body of literature describing the correlation between ectopic ACTH secretion and thymic neuroendocrine tumours (NETs)The possibility of a MEN-1 syndrome should be considered in all patients with thymic NETs, and we note the observational association with male gender and cigarette smoking in this cohortAn exception to these associations is the finding of relatively high incidence of thymic NETs among female non-smoking MEN-1 patients in the Japanese compared with Western populationsThe relapsing and remitting course of our patient's symptoms is noteworthy, given the paucity of this finding among other published cases.

  3. The politics of sex research and constructions of female sexuality: what relevance to sexual health work with young women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Few, C

    1997-03-01

    By examining the relationship between the cultural construction of female sexuality and the lack of potential for many young heterosexual women to be truly sexually healthy this paper submits that messages for women within HIV prevention programmes can be confused, confining and at times dangerous to women's health and well-being. It is suggested that these messages also reinforce a traditional, biologically determined medical understanding of female sexuality that does not take note of social or culturally based research or commentary on female experience or female desire, but rather confines many women to sexual restrictions, doing little to empower women to prevent sexual risk-taking. The ideological basis of the discussion within this paper is informed by the awareness that applications and understandings of 'sexuality' are diverse and contested within sex research traditions and will influence the choice of research concerns. The 'deterministic' explanation of sexuality that 'sexuality' (the abstract noun referring to the quality of being 'sexual', Williams 1983) is your fate or destiny and that biology causes the patterns of sexual life, is abandoned in this paper in favour of a search for a definition of sexuality which brings together a host of different biological and mental possibilities which are given meaning only in social relations. This allows for a framework for the study of sexuality that relates it to other social phenomena, particularly economic, political and social structures (Foucault 1979); in other words, a study of the 'social construction' of sexuality. This paper suggests that health care professionals need to develop an awareness of the diversities within female sexuality and gain insight into their own values and assumptions about female sexuality if these are not to inhibit effective approaches and interventions in the areas of HIV and sexual health.

  4. HIV prevalence and high-risk behaviour of young brothel and non-brothel based female sex workers in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, Uchenna Onyekachi; Crutzen, Rik; Ifeanyi, Okekearu; Adebajo, Sylvia; Van den Borne, Hubertus

    2017-08-10

    Female sex workers (FSWs) have been identified as a core group in the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Young FSWs are particularly more vulnerable to HIV due to the combination of vulnerabilities associated with their youth and the sex work they engage in. This study aims to give more insight into HIV prevalence and sexual risk behaviour of young FSWs in Nigeria, by focusing on the differences between BB and NBB young FSWs. Data was obtained from the Nigeria Integrated Biological and Behavioural Surveillance Survey (IBBSS) for high-risk groups conducted in 2010. IBBSS is a quantitative survey conducted amongst identified high-risk sub populations within Nigeria. HIV prevalence and risk behaviour data for young BB and NBB FSWs aged 15-24 years for nine states was extracted and analysed. A total of 1796 FSWs aged 15-24 years were interviewed during the survey, 746 (41.5%) were BB while 1050 (58.5%) were NBB. The HIV prevalence was higher among BB FSWs compared to the NBB FSWs (21.0% vs. 15.5%). BB FSWs reported less condom use with boyfriends and casual partners than NBB FSWs (26.3% vs. 45.5%) and (55.1% vs. 61.1%) respectively while risk of HIV infection due to injecting drug use was higher in NBB compared to BB FSWs (6.6% vs. 1.2%). Existing and future interventions on HIV prevention should focus on empowering young FSWs with innovative and sustainable approaches aimed at improving their health and wellbeing.

  5. Spotlighting a Silent Category of Young Females: The Life Experiences of "House Girls" in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Kezban; Lukuslu, Demet

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the everyday life experiences of young women in Turkey known as "ev kizi" or "house girls." The article explores how traditional gender roles and family structure in Turkish society limit their full participation in political, economic, and public life. The study is based on in-depth interviews conducted…

  6. Work Activities and Compensation of Male and Female Cardiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagsi, Reshma; Biga, Cathie; Poppas, Athena; Rodgers, George P; Walsh, Mary N; White, Patrick J; McKendry, Colleen; Sasson, Joseph; Schulte, Phillip J; Douglas, Pamela S

    2016-02-09

    Much remains unknown about experiences, including working activities and pay, of women in cardiology, which is a predominantly male specialty. The goal of this study was to describe the working activities and pay of female cardiologists compared with their male colleagues and to determine whether sex differences in compensation exist after accounting for differences in work activities and other characteristics. The personal, job, and practice characteristics of a national sample of practicing cardiologists were described according to sex. We applied the Peters-Belson technique and multivariate regression analysis to evaluate whether gender differences in compensation existed after accounting for differences in other measured characteristics. The study used 2013 data reported by practice administrators to MedAxiom, a subscription-based service provider to cardiology practices. Data regarding cardiologists from 161 U.S. practices were included, and the study sample included 2,679 subjects (229 women and 2,450 men). Women were more likely to be specialized in general/noninvasive cardiology (53.1% vs. 28.2%), and a lower proportion (11.4% vs. 39.3%) reported an interventional subspecialty compared with men. Job characteristics that differed according to sex included the proportion working full-time (79.9% vs. 90.9%; p worked (387 vs. 406 days; p = 0.001), and mean work relative value units generated (7,404 vs. 9,497; p women and men, respectively. Peters-Belson analysis revealed that based on measured job and productivity characteristics, the women in this sample would have been expected to have a mean salary that was $31,749 (95% confidence interval: $16,303 to $48,028) higher than that actually observed. Multivariate analysis confirmed the direction and magnitude of the independent association between sex and salary. Men and women practicing cardiology in this national sample had different job activities and salaries. Substantial sex-based salary differences existed

  7. Analysis of Setting Efficacy in Young Male and Female Volleyball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Silva, Jara; Domínguez, Alberto Moreno; Fernández-Echeverría, Carmen; Rabaz, Fernando Claver; Arroyo, M Perla Moreno

    2016-12-01

    The main objective of this study was to analyse the variables that predicted setting efficacy in complex I (KI) in volleyball, in formative categories and depending on gender. The study sample was comprised of 5842 game actions carried out by the 16 male category and the 18 female category teams that participated in the Under-16 Spanish Championship. The dependent variable was setting efficacy. The independent variables were grouped into: serve variables (a serve zone, the type of serve, striking technique, an in-game role of the server and serve direction), reception variables (a reception zone, a receiver player and reception efficacy) and setting variables (a setter's position, a setting zone, the type of a set, setting technique, a set's area and tempo of a set). Multinomial logistic regression showed that the best predictive variables of setting efficacy, both in female and male categories, were reception efficacy, setting technique and tempo of a set. In the male category, the jump serve was the greatest predictor of setting efficacy, while in the female category, it was the set's area. Therefore, in the male category, it was not only the preceding action that affected setting efficacy, but also the serve. On the contrary, in the female category, only variables of the action itself and of the previous action, reception, affected setting efficacy. The results obtained in the present study should be taken into account in the training process of both male and female volleyball players in formative stages.

  8. Analysis of Setting Efficacy in Young Male and Female Volleyball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Silva Jara

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to analyse the variables that predicted setting efficacy in complex I (KI in volleyball, in formative categories and depending on gender. The study sample was comprised of 5842 game actions carried out by the 16 male category and the 18 female category teams that participated in the Under-16 Spanish Championship. The dependent variable was setting efficacy. The independent variables were grouped into: serve variables (a serve zone, the type of serve, striking technique, an in-game role of the server and serve direction, reception variables (a reception zone, a receiver player and reception efficacy and setting variables (a setter‘s position, a setting zone, the type of a set, setting technique, a set’s area and tempo of a set. Multinomial logistic regression showed that the best predictive variables of setting efficacy, both in female and male categories, were reception efficacy, setting technique and tempo of a set. In the male category, the jump serve was the greatest predictor of setting efficacy, while in the female category, it was the set’s area. Therefore, in the male category, it was not only the preceding action that affected setting efficacy, but also the serve. On the contrary, in the female category, only variables of the action itself and of the previous action, reception, affected setting efficacy. The results obtained in the present study should be taken into account in the training process of both male and female volleyball players in formative stages.

  9. Anatomical glenohumeral internal rotation deficit and symmetric rotational strength in male and female young beach volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccol, Michele Forgiarini; Almeida, Gabriel Peixoto Leão; de Souza, Vivian Lima

    2016-08-01

    Beach volleyball is a sport with a high demand of shoulder structures that may lead to adaptations in range of motion (ROM) and strength like in other overhead sports. Despite of these possible alterations, no study evaluated the shoulder adaptations in young beach volleyball athletes. The aim of this study was to compare the bilateral ROM and rotation strength in the shoulders of young beach volleyball players. Goniometric passive shoulder ROM of motion and isometric rotational strength were evaluated in 19 male and 14 female asymptomatic athletes. External and internal ROM, total rotation motion, glenohumeral internal rotation deficit (GIRD), external rotation and internal rotation strength, bilateral deficits and external rotation to internal rotation ratio were measured. The statistical analysis included paired Student's t-test and analysis of variance with repeated measures. Significantly lower dominant GIRD was found in both groups (pvolleyball athletes present symmetric rotational strength and shoulder ROM rotational adaptations that can be considered as anatomical. These results indicate that young practitioners of beach volleyball are subject to moderate adaptations compared to those reported for other overhead sports. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Realistic limitations of detecting planets around young active stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinfield D.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Current planet hunting methods using the radial velocity method are limited to observing middle-aged main-sequence stars where the signatures of stellar activity are much less than on young stars that have just arrived on the main-sequence. In this work we apply our knowledge from the surface imaging of these young stars to place realistic limitations on the possibility of detecting orbiting planets. In general we find that the magnitude of the stellar jitter is directly proportional to the stellar vsini. For G and K dwarfs, we find that it is possible, for models with high stellar activity and low stellar vsini, to be able to detect a 1 MJupiter mass planet within 50 epochs of observations and for the M dwarfs it is possible to detect a habitable zone Earth-like planet in 10s of observational epochs.

  11. Young female cancer patients' experiences with fertility counselling and fertility preservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeg, Didde; Schmidt, Lone; Tryde Macklon, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    were aware that chemotherapy could destroy their eggs. The participants described how specialized fertility counselling and fertility preservation contributed to a belief in life after cancer, which gave them hope that they would survive their cancer disease. Further, the women described how......Introduction: Fertility counselling for young women newly diagnosed with cancer is an important field of preconceptional counselling. This qualitative, small-scale study explored how young women newly diagnosed with cancer experienced specialized fertility preservation counselling and treatment...... in the public Danish health care system. Methods: Semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with five women below 40 years recently diagnosed with cancer. All women received fertility counselling by a fertility specialist at the Fertility Clinic, University Hospital of Copenhagen, Denmark before...

  12. Postactivation Potentiation of the Plantar Flexors Does Not Directly Translate to Jump Performance in Female Elite Young Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieske, Olaf; Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Granacher, Urs

    2018-01-01

    High-intensity muscle actions have the potential to temporarily improve muscle contractile properties (i.e., postactivation potentiation, PAP) thereby inducing acute performance enhancements. There is evidence that balance training can improve performance during strength exercises. Taking these findings together, the purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of a combined balance and strength (B+S) exercise vs. a strength only (S) exercise on twitch contractile properties, maximum voluntary strength, and jump performance in young athletes. Female elite young soccer players ( N = 12) aged 14-15 years conducted three experimental conditions in randomized order: S included 3 sets of 8-10 dynamic leg extensions at 80% of the 1-repetition maximum, B+S consisted of 3 sets of 40 s double-leg stances on a balance board prior to leg extensions (same as S), and a resting control period. Before and 7 min after exercise, participants were tested for their electrically-evoked isometric twitches (i.e., twitch peak torque, twitch rate of torque development) and maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) torque of the plantar flexor muscles. Additionally, countermovement (CMJ) and drop jump (DJ) performances (i.e., CMJ/DJ height, DJ ground contact time) were assessed. Significant effects of condition on twitch contractile properties ( p jump performance outputs ( p jump performance. It is concluded that PAP effects in the plantar flexors may not directly translate to improved jump performance in female elite young soccer players. Therefore, the observed gains in jump performance following B+S are most likely related to neuromuscular changes (e.g., intramuscular coordination) rather than improved contractile properties.

  13. Influencers and preference predictors of HPV vaccine uptake among US male and female young adult college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Scott LaJoie

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of male and female college students in Kentucky about HPV associated diseases and vaccines, and to determine which parameters predicted self-reported uptake of HPV vaccination. Materials and methods: A self-selected cross-sectional sample of college students completed an evidence-based online survey. Results: Of approximately 1200 potential respondents, 585 completed the survey. The average age was 20.6 (SD 3.15 and 78% were female; 84% of the population had had one or more sexual partners. Concern for HPV vaccine safety and potential need for boosters did not significantly deter vaccine uptake. Likewise, knowledge about HPV associated cancers was not predictive of vaccine uptake. On the other hand, parental influence for vaccination was a strong predictor for vaccine uptake (aOR = 5.32, 2.71–13.03, and free vaccine nearly doubled the likelihood of being vaccinated (aOR 1.90, 1.05–3.41. In addition, the strong preference for the respondent's partner to be HPV vaccinated predicted vaccine uptake (aOR = 4.04, 95% CI: 2.31–7.05, but the lack of preference for partner vaccination predicted an unvaccinated self (aOR = 0.50, 0.27–0.93. Conclusions: HPV vaccination has been successful in young adult college students in Kentucky. Young adults prefer their partners to be HPV vaccinated regardless of whether they themselves are vaccinated. Parental influence and free vaccine were positive predictors for vaccine uptake in this population. Keywords: Knowledge, HPV vaccine, Young adults, Preferences, Safety

  14. Shift Work Is Associated with Metabolic Syndrome in Young Female Korean Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Kyoung Hwa; Yi, Yu Hyeon; Kim, Yun Jin; Cho, Byung Mann; Lee, Sang Yeoup; Lee, Jeong Gyu; Jeong, Dong Wook; Ji, So Yeon

    2017-01-01

    Background Shift work is associated with health problems, including metabolic syndrome. This study investigated the association between shift work and metabolic syndrome in young workers. Methods A total of 3,317 subjects aged 20?40 years enrolled in the 2011?2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were divided into shift and day workers. We conducted a cross-sectional study and calculated odds ratios using multivariate logistic regression analysis in order to examine the...

  15. Spinning Top Urethra and Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction in a Young Female

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.N. Dogra

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinning top urethra (STU denotes a particular urethral configuration that is a dilated posterior urethra mainly seen in young girls or women. STU deformity arises secondary to detrusor instability, leading to a rise the intravesical pressure against a closed sphincter. We describe a case of spinning top urethra in a 30-year-old woman who presented with lower urinary tract symptoms and left flank pain.

  16. Spinning Top Urethra and Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction in a Young Female

    OpenAIRE

    P.N. Dogra; M.S. Ansari

    2004-01-01

    Spinning top urethra (STU) denotes a particular urethral configuration that is a dilated posterior urethra mainly seen in young girls or women. STU deformity arises secondary to detrusor instability, leading to a rise the intravesical pressure against a closed sphincter. We describe a case of spinning top urethra in a 30-year-old woman who presented with lower urinary tract symptoms and left flank pain.

  17. Spinning top urethra and lower urinary tract dysfunction in a young female.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogra, P N; Ansari, M S

    2004-06-07

    Spinning top urethra (STU) denotes a particular urethral configuration that is a dilated posterior urethra mainly seen in young girls or women. STU deformity arises secondary to detrusor instability, leading to a rise the intravesical pressure against a closed sphincter. We describe a case of spinning top urethra in a 30-year-old woman who presented with lower urinary tract symptoms and left flank pain.

  18. Cardiac transplant in young female patient diagnosed with diffuse systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennasar, Guillermo; Carlevaris, Leandro; Secco, Anastasia; Romanini, Felix; Mamani, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SS) in a multifactorial and systemic, chronic, autoimmune disease that affects the connective tissue. We present this clinical case given the low prevalence of diffuse SS with early and progressive cardiac compromise in a young patient, and treatment with cardiac transplantation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  19. Aggressive adenoid cystic carcinoma involving palate extending to maxillary sinus in a young female

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh R Patil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC is a rare malignant tumor that affects the head and neck region. It is a malignant tumor arising from minor salivary glands, palate being the most common intraoral location, usually affecting individuals of the fifth decade. This tumor generally has a slow growth rate, and it is often present for several years before the patient seeks treatment. We report a case of extensive ACC involving palate, extending to a maxillary sinus in a young lady.

  20. AORTIC DISSECTiON IN YOUNG FEMALE PATIENT : A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Esen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aorta dissection is a real emergency due to high mortality rate. Therefore, diagnosis and treatment should not be delayed. It is commonly seen between the ages of 40 and 70 in male patients.. The present case describes a young lady diagnosed with aorta dissection with echocardiography the main complaint of whom was headache. [J Contemp Med 2012; 2(3.000: 179-181

  1. Comparison of parameters of bone profile and homocysteine in physically active and non-active postmenopausal females

    OpenAIRE

    Tariq, Sundus; Lone, Khalid Parvez; Tariq, Saba

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives: Optimal physical activity is important in attaining a peak bone mass. Physically active women have better bone mineral density and reduce fracture risk as compared to females living a sedentary life. The objective of this study was to compare parameters of bone profile and serum homocysteine levels in physically active and non-active postmenopausal females. Methods: In this cross sectional study postmenopausal females between 50-70 years of age were recruited and di...

  2. Promoting Physical Activity Among Overweight Young African American Women

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-01-15

    This podcast is an interview with Nefertiti Durant, MD, MPH, from the University of Alabama at Birmingham about promoting physical activity among overweight and obese young African American Women using Internet-based tools.  Created: 1/15/2014 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/15/2014.

  3. The young and active travellers' attitudes towards sustainable leisure tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Lindholm, Lauha

    2016-01-01

    This bachelor thesis studies the travellers’ attitudes towards sustainable tourism. Due to the size of the topic a limitation was made to specify in young and active travellers attitudes and moreover to focus on the leisure tourism. Sustainability is a hot topic in all fields of business but it is not yet a standard. Sustainable business is business that takes the future in notice. Considering the fast growth of the tourism industry, sustainable development will be necessary and needed. ...

  4. Freedom between the Lines: Clothing Behavior and Identity Work among Young Female Soccer Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendley, Alexandra; Bielby, Denise D.

    2012-01-01

    Our research examines the relationship among identity, age, gender and athleticism through a study of the association between sports clothing and the identity work of pre-adolescent female soccer players. Based on participant-observation and interviews conducted at three co-ed youth soccer camps, we find that age is an important element of…

  5. Comparison of athropometrical measures among young female footballers and girls who are not involved in sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Međedović Tanja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to gain relevant knowledge about significant differences in some anthropometric measures among female footballers and girls who are not involved in any sport at all. The sample comprised 107 female subjects. They were divided into two groups - female footballers and girls who are not involved in any sport. The selected group of female footballers (54 average age, 16,3 years represents the girls from various clubs in Vojvodina and Serbia (representatives of Vojvodina and Western Serbia. The group of girls who are not involved in any sport (53 average age, 16, 9 years consists of students of secondary school 'Svetozar Miletic' in Novi Sad. The sample of variables comprised 12 anthropometrical measures that defined longitudinal and transverse dimensions of the skeleton, volume and body mass, and subcutaneous fat (in accordance with the International Biological Programme. Both multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA and univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA were performed in order to determine the significant differences at the multivariate and univariate level. Based on the results, it was concluded that 8 variables out of 12 applied variables, showed significant differences between the groups. The following variables did not show any differences: knee diameter, weight, maximum volume of the lower leg and calf skin fold, while the following variables showed statistical significance in favor of the girls who are not involved in any sport: height, foot length, pelvic width, shoulder width and maximum thigh circumference.

  6. EEG with extreme delta brush in young female with methotrexate neurotoxicity supports NMDA receptor involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lisbeth Samsø; Kjær, Troels W; Schmiegelow, Kjeld

    2017-01-01

    Sub-acute neurotoxicity is a well-known complication to high-dose and intrathecal methotrexate (MTX) treatment of children with leukemia. Symptoms can be treated safely by dextromethorphan, a non-competitive antagonist to N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor (NMDAR). In a female with subacute MTX...

  7. ICEBREAKER: A STRATEGY TO ACTIVE INVOLVEMENT FOR YOUNG ADOLESCENT LEARNERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iin Indrayanti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Motivating students to participate in classroom discussions is a big matter to overcome. There are some students who seem to assume that as long as the assigned work is completed on time, test scores are good, and attendance is satisfactory, they shouldn‘t be forced to participate. Educational research has shown that students who are actively involved in the learning activity will learn more than students who are passive recipients of knowledge. Young adolescents who are 10 to 15 years old experience stages of life and more growth than any other time in their life. They have intelectual capacity and learn best through interaction and activity rather than just listening. Obviously, increased attention and motivation are the essential ingredients for learning, and are more important than intelligence. In other words, to increasing student involvement, attention and motivation, teachers can use a very beginning action that held the first time before core teaching activity with a hope that engaging the senses and emotions will increase students‘ attention span. Accordingly, as start-up activities, icebreakers can be a useful way of creating a sense of relaxed and informal atmosphere which motivate and activate an interaction. Icebreakers allow for a student to become emotionally connected with classroom situation and increases motivation to engage with the following discussion. Therefore, this paper presents icebreaker as a strategy to active involevement for young adolescent learners.

  8. Weight-Related Correlates of Psychological Dysregulation in Adolescent and Young Adult (AYA) Females with Severe Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowey, Marissa A.; Reiter-Purtill, Jennifer; Becnel, Jennifer; Peugh, James; Mitchell, James E.; Zeller, Meg H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Severe obesity is the fastest growing pediatric subgroup of excess weight levels. Psychological dysregulation (i.e., impairments in regulating cognitive, emotional, and/or behavioral processes) has been associated with obesity and poorer weight loss outcomes. The present study explored associations of dysregulation with weight-related variables among adolescent and young adult (AYA) females with severe obesity. Methods Fifty-four AYA females with severe obesity (MBMI=48.71 kg/m2; Mage=18.29, R=15–21 years; 59.3% White) completed self-report measures of psychological dysregulation and weight-related constructs including meal patterns, problematic eating behaviors, and body and weight dissatisfaction, as non-surgical comparison participants in a multi-site study of adolescent bariatric surgery outcomes. Pearson and bivariate correlations were conducted and stratified by age group to analyze associations between dysregulation subscales (affective, behavioral, cognitive) and weight-related variables. Results Breakfast was the most frequently skipped meal (consumed 3–4 times/week). Eating out was common (4–5 times/week) and mostly occurred at fast-food restaurants. Evening hyperphagia (61.11%) and eating in the absence of hunger (37.04%) were commonly endorsed, while unplanned eating (29.63%), a sense of loss of control over eating (22.22%), eating beyond satiety (22.22%), night eating (12.96%), and binge eating (11.11%) were less common. Almost half of the sample endorsed extreme weight dissatisfaction. Dysregulation was associated with most weight-related attitudes and behaviors of interest in young adults but select patterns emerged for adolescents. Conclusions Higher levels of psychological dysregulation are associated with greater BMI, problematic eating patterns and behaviors, and body dissatisfaction in AYA females with severe obesity. These findings have implications for developing novel intervention strategies for severe obesity in AYAs that may

  9. Fundamental movement skills and habitual physical activity in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Abigail; Reilly, John J; Kelly, Louise A; Montgomery, Colette; Williamson, Avril; Paton, James Y; Grant, Stan

    2005-04-01

    To test for relationships between objectively measured habitual physical activity and fundamental movement skills in a relatively large and representative sample of preschool children. Physical activity was measured over 6 d using the Computer Science and Applications (CSA) accelerometer in 394 boys and girls (mean age 4.2, SD 0.5 yr). Children were scored on 15 fundamental movement skills, based on the Movement Assessment Battery, by a single observer. Total physical activity (r=0.10, Pmovement skills score. Time spent in light-intensity physical activity was not significantly correlated with motor skills score (r=0.02, P>0.05). In this sample and setting, fundamental movement skills were significantly associated with habitual physical activity, but the association between the two variables was weak. The present study questions whether the widely assumed relationships between motor skills and habitual physical activity actually exist in young children.

  10. Effect of teaching with or without mirror on balance in young female ballet students

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background In literature there is a general consensus that the use of the mirror improves proprioception. During rehabilitation the mirror is an important instrument to improve stability. In some sports, such as dancing, mirrors are widely used during training. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of a mirror on balance in young dancers. Sixty-four young dancers (ranging from 9–10 years) were included in this study. Thirty-two attending lessons with a mirror (mirror- group) were compared to 32 young dancers that attended the same lessons without a mirror (non-mirror group). Balance was evaluated by BESS (Balance Error Scoring System), which consists of three stances (double limb, single limb, and tandem) on two surfaces (firm and foam). The errors were assessed at each stance and summed to create the two subtotal scores (firm and foam surface) and the final total score (BESS). The BESS was performed at recruitment (T0) and after 6 months of dance lessons (T1). Results The repeated measures ANOVA analysis showed that for the BESS total score there is a difference due to the time (F = 3.86; p  0.05). The analysis of the multiple regression model showed the influence of the values at T0 for every BESS items and the dominance of limb for stability on an unstable surface standing on one or two legs. Conclusions These preliminary results suggest that the use of a mirror in a ballet classroom does not improve balance acquisition of the dancer. On the other hand, improvement found after 6 months confirms that at the age of the dancers studied motor skills and balance can easily be trained and improved. PMID:24996519

  11. Effect of teaching with or without mirror on balance in young female ballet students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notarnicola, Angela; Maccagnano, Giuseppe; Pesce, Vito; Di Pierro, Silvia; Tafuri, Silvio; Moretti, Biagio

    2014-07-04

    In literature there is a general consensus that the use of the mirror improves proprioception. During rehabilitation the mirror is an important instrument to improve stability. In some sports, such as dancing, mirrors are widely used during training. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of a mirror on balance in young dancers. Sixty-four young dancers (ranging from 9-10 years) were included in this study. Thirty-two attending lessons with a mirror (mirror- group) were compared to 32 young dancers that attended the same lessons without a mirror (non-mirror group). Balance was evaluated by BESS (Balance Error Scoring System), which consists of three stances (double limb, single limb, and tandem) on two surfaces (firm and foam). The errors were assessed at each stance and summed to create the two subtotal scores (firm and foam surface) and the final total score (BESS). The BESS was performed at recruitment (T0) and after 6 months of dance lessons (T1). The repeated measures ANOVA analysis showed that for the BESS total score there is a difference due to the time (F = 3.86; p  0.05). The analysis of the multiple regression model showed the influence of the values at T0 for every BESS items and the dominance of limb for stability on an unstable surface standing on one or two legs. These preliminary results suggest that the use of a mirror in a ballet classroom does not improve balance acquisition of the dancer. On the other hand, improvement found after 6 months confirms that at the age of the dancers studied motor skills and balance can easily be trained and improved.

  12. Shoulder rotational profiles in young healthy elite female and male badminton players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couppé, C; Thorborg, K; Hansen, M; Fahlström, M; Bjordal, J M; Nielsen, D; Baun, M; Storgaard, M; Magnusson, S P

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to profile shoulder passive range of motion (ROM) and isometric strength for external (ER) and internal (IR) rotation as part of a preseason screening in adolescent national badminton players. Passive external range of motion (EROM) and internal range of motion (IROM) were examined on the dominant and nondominant shoulder in 31 adolescent national badminton players (12 females and 19 males) with a standard goniometer. Muscle strength was examined with a hand-held dynamometer in ER and IR. Total range of motion (TROM = EROM+IROM) was lower on the dominant side compared with the nondominant side in both groups (P badminton players, irrespective of gender. No rotational strength differences existed between the dominant and nondominant side in male players, but in female players a higher IR strength on the dominant side was not balanced by a higher ER strength. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Lack of facilities rather than sociocultural factors as the primary barrier to physical activity among female Saudi university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samara A

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Anastasia Samara,1 Anne Nistrup,1 Tamader Y AL-Rammah,2 Arja R Aro11Unit for Health Promotion and Research, University of Southern Denmark, Esbjerg, Denmark; 2Faculty of Rehabilitation and Health Sciences, Princess Nora Bint Abdul Rahman University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaPurpose: The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is experiencing a dramatic increase in physical inactivity, with women having higher levels of inactivity than men among all age groups. It is assumed that factors such as dress codes, restrictions on going outdoors, and conservative norms are the main reasons for women’s low physical activity. Our aim was to explore the different parameters related to physical activity, including self-efficacy, as well as the perceived barriers to and benefits of physical activity in young Saudi females.Patients and methods: Ninety-four first-year female Saudi university students in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, participated in the present study in 2014. The students were from eight bachelor’s programs in health and well-being, and each completed a questionnaire with questions divided into five parts as follows: 1 socioeconomic status, 2 physical activity, 3 self-efficacy 4 social factors, and 5 barriers and facilitators related to physical activity.Results: The students exercised at home and alone, and there was low self-efficacy for physical activity (mean score =42±14. Among social factors, attending university was the only factor that hindered physical activity (32%. Physical activity was positively perceived overall (mean score =131±10. Students showed awareness of the benefits of physical activity for health and well-being. The most important barrier was the lack of designated areas available for physical activity. Students disagreed that family or the Islamic community were barriers to physical activity.Conclusion: The lack of facilities and lack of encouragement from the university, but not a lack of knowledge (a high level of

  14. Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue for fertility preservation in young female oncological patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus Yding; Kristensen, Stine Gry; Greve, Tine

    2012-01-01

    Girls and women suffering from a cancer that requires treatment with gonadotoxic drugs may experience cessation of reproductive function as a side effect due to obliteration of the ovarian pool of follicles. Techniques are now available for fertility preservation, such as cryopreservation of mature...... and growth of follicles, giving rise to menstrual cycles and hormone production for several years. Worldwide, the procedure has resulted in the birth of 15 healthy children. Many cancer patients including girls and young women want fertility preservation, and the techniques are now being further developed...

  15. Interesting case of spontaneously resolved dysphagia in a young female due to complicated esophageal tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Dhaval Choksi; Alisha Chaubal; Ruchir Patel; Chetan Rathi; Meghraj Ingle; Prabha Sawant

    2017-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis can affect any organ of the body. Gastrointestinal tubercular involvement is fairly common. Esophageal tuberculosis though is uncommon. Esophageal tuberculosis accounts for only 0.3% of gastrointestinal tuberculosis. It presents with dysphagia, retrosternal pain, cough or constitutional symptoms. Complications like hemorrhage from the ulcer and development of fistulas like esophagomediastinal fistula is extremely uncommon. We report a case of a 27 years old female w...

  16. Young Children's Screen Activities, Sweet Drink Consumption and Anthropometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olafsdottir, Steingerdur; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Siani, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives: This longitudinal study describes the relationship between young children’s screen time, dietary habits and anthropometric measures. The hypothesis was that television viewing and other screen activities at baseline result in increased consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages...... children, both on their consumption of sugary drinks and on an increase in BMI and central obesity. Our findings suggest that television viewing seems to have a stronger effect on food habits and anthropometry than other screen activities in this age group....

  17. Young adult females' views regarding online privacy protection at two time points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Megan A; Kelleher, Erin; Ameenuddin, Nusheen; Rastogi, Sarah

    2014-09-01

    Risks associated with adolescent Internet use include exposure to inappropriate information and privacy violations. Privacy expectations and policies have changed over time. Recent Facebook security setting changes heighten these risks. The purpose of this study was to investigate views and experiences with Internet safety and privacy protection among older adolescent females at two time points, in 2009 and 2012. Two waves of focus groups were conducted, one in 2009 and the other in 2012. During these focus groups, female university students discussed Internet safety risks and strategies and privacy protection. All focus groups were audio recorded and manually transcribed. Qualitative analysis was conducted at the end of each wave and then reviewed and combined in a separate analysis using the constant comparative method. A total of 48 females participated across the two waves. The themes included (1) abundant urban myths, such as the ability for companies to access private information; (2) the importance of filtering one's displayed information; and (3) maintaining age limits on social media access to avoid younger teens' presence on Facebook. The findings present a complex picture of how adolescents view privacy protection and online safety. Older adolescents may be valuable partners in promoting safe and age-appropriate Internet use for younger teens in the changing landscape of privacy. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Meniscal injuries in the young, athletically active patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Matthew R; Johnson, Darren L

    2011-02-01

    Meniscal injuries are common in young physically active individuals, particularly those who are involved in contact level 1 sports that involve frequent pivoting, such as soccer and American football. This is a unique population because of their high physical activity at a young age, and it is important that correct diagnosis and appropriate treatment are provided, as the medial and lateral menisci are essential for normal knee function. In this article, we review the anatomy and function of the meniscus, the epidemiology of meniscal tears, and mechanism(s) of injury. Important concomitant injuries are also discussed. When making a diagnosis, relevant patient history, physical examination, and appropriate imaging studies are required. Nonoperative treatment is rarely successful for treating meniscal tears in young athletes, and therefore repair of the torn menisci is often required. We also discuss partial resection (which should only be performed when repair is not possible), as well as rehabilitation protocols after repair has been performed. All of these factors associated with meniscal injuries are important for a physician when diagnosing and treating these often complex injuries.

  19. Changes in work situation and work ability in young female and male workers. A prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boström Maria

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Good work ability is very important in young workers, but knowledge of work situations that influence work ability in this group is poor. The aim of this study was to assess whether changes in self-reported work factors are associated with self-reported work ability among young female and male workers. Methods A sample of 1,311 (718 women and 593 men was selected from a Swedish cohort of workers aged 21–25 years. At baseline and at 1-year follow-up, participants completed a self-administrated questionnaire including ratings of physical and psychosocial work factors and current work ability. Prevalence ratios were calculated to assess univariate and multivariate associations between changes in work factors and changes in work ability. Results Decreased job control (PR 1.7, 95% CI 1.49–2.12 and increased negative influence of job demands on private life (PR 1.5, 95% CI 1.25–1.69 were associated with reduced work ability for both female and male workers in the multivariate analyses. Among female workers, an association was found between improved work ability and increased social support at work (PR 2.4, CI 1.43–3.95. For male workers, increased job control (PR 2.3, 95% CI 1.21–4.54 and decreased negative influence of job demands on private life (PR 2.1, 95% CI 1.10–3.87 were associated with improved work ability in the multivariate analyses. Conclusions Decreased job control and increased negative influence of job demands on private life over time seem to be the most important work factors associated with reduced work ability among young workers of both sexes. Increased social support at work, increased job control, and decreased negative influence of job demands on private life were also found to be the main work factors associated with improved work ability, although with possible gender differences.

  20. Anxiety symptoms and occupational stress among young Korean female manufacturing workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang Ho; Ho Chae, Chang; Ouk Kim, Young; Seok Son, Jun; Kim, Ja-Hyun; Woo Kim, Chan; Ouk Park, Hyoung; Ho Lee, Jun; Saeng Jung, Young

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of anxiety disorders has been increasing in South Korea, with recent studies reporting anxiety disorders as the most common mental disorder among all South Korean females. Anxiety disorders, which are independent risk factors of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts, are significantly correlated with productivity loss, high medical costs, impaired work performance, and frequent worker absence, and thus are potentially serious problems affecting the health of South Korean female workers. In previous studies, anxiety disorders were shown to have a significant correlation with occupational stress. This study seeks to examine the prevalence of anxiety symptoms as well as the relationship between occupational stress and anxiety symptoms among South Korean female manufacturing workers. A structured self-reported questionnaire was administered to 1,141 female workers at an electrical appliance manufacturing plant. The questionnaire collected data on general characteristics, health behaviors, sleep quality, job characteristics (shift work, shift work schedule, and job tenure), occupational stress, and anxiety symptoms. Sleep quality was measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, occupational stress with the Korean Occupational Stress Scale-Short Form (KOSS-SF), and anxiety symptoms with the Korean version of the Beck Anxiety Inventory. A chi square test was conducted to determine the distribution differences in anxiety symptoms based on general characteristics, health behaviors, job characteristics, and sleep quality. A linear-by-linear association test was used to determine the distribution differences between anxietysymptoms and the levels of occupational stress. Last, logistic regression analysis was used in order to determine the association between occupational stress and anxiety symptoms. The prevalence of anxiety symptoms was 15.2 %. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis that adjusted for sleep quality and general characteristics

  1. Result of randomized control trial to increase breast health awareness among young females in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoosh Akhtari-Zavare

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the second principal cause of cancer deaths in women worldwide as well as in Malaysia. Breast self-examination (BSE has a role in raising breast cancer awareness among women and educational programs play an important role in breast cancer preventive behavior. The aim of this study is to develop, implement and evaluate the effectiveness of Breast Health Awareness program based on health belief model on knowledge of breast cancer and breast-selfexamination and BSE practice among female students in Malaysia. Methods A single-blind randomized controlled trial was carried out among 370 female undergraduate students from January 2011 to April 2012 in two selected public universities in Malaysia. Participants were randomized to either the intervention group or the control group. The educational program was delivered to the intervention group. The outcome measures were assessed at baseline, 6, and 12 months after implementing the health educational program. Chi-square, independent samples t-test and two-way repeated measures ANOVA (GLM were conducted in the course of the data analyses. Results Mean scores of knowledge on breast cancer (p<0.003, knowledge on breast self examination (p<0.001, benefits of BSE (p<0.00, barrier of BSE (0.01 and confidence of BSE practice (p<0.00 in the intervention group had significant differences in comparison with those of the control group 6 and 12 months after the intervention. Also, among those who never practiced BSE at baseline, frequency of BSE practice increased 6 and 12 months after the intervention (p<0.05. Conclusion The Breast Health Awareness program based on health the belief model had a positive effect on knowledge of breast cancer and breast self-examination and practice of BSE among females in Malaysia. Trial registration The ANZCTR clinical trial registry ( ACTRN12616000831482 , retrospectively registered on Jun 23, 2016 in ANZCTR.org.au.

  2. Cemento-ossifying fibroma of maxillary antrum in a young female patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, A; Ram, R; Singhal, P; Bhatnagar, S; Das, U M

    2011-12-01

    The cemento-ossifying fibroma is classified as a fibro-osseous lesion of the jaws. It commonly presents as a progressively growing lesion that can attain an enormous size with resultant deformity if left untreated. The cemento-ossifying fibroma is a central neoplasm of bone as well as periodontium which has caused considerable controversy because of controversy regarding terminology and the criteria for its diagnosis. This case report describes a female patient with cemento-ossifying fibroma involving maxillary antrum. The clinical, radiographic and histological features as well as the surgical findings are presented.

  3. Aggressive Digital Papillary Adenocarcinoma in a Young Female-a Rare Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gole, Gautam Nandkumar; Tati, Shekhar Y; Deshpande, Ashok Kumar; Gole, Sheetal G

    2011-06-01

    A 20 year old female presented with a recurrent soft tissue swelling over the medial aspect of proximal phalanx of left little finger. It had recurred one year after excision. There was no lymphadenopathy or bony involvement. Previous histopathology reports were not available. After excision histopathological diagnosis was aggressive digital papillary adenocarcinoma. Later Ray's amputation of little finger was planned. Aggressive digital papillary adenocarcinomas are rare sweat gland tumors which occur on hands, fingers, and toes. They have high local recurrence rate and may metastasize to lungs and lymph nodes.

  4. Association of Pulmonary Cysts and Nodules in a Young Female Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Olívia Meira; do Nascimento, Ellen Caroline Toledo; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro; Araujo, Mariana Sponholz; Freitas, Carolina Salim Gonçalves; Kairalla, Ronaldo Adib; Dolhnikoff, Marisa; Baldi, Bruno Guedes

    2016-06-01

    A 27-year-old female patient was referred to our outpatient clinic with a 1-year history of shortness of breath when walking fast on level ground or when climbing stairs. Symptoms worsened after a second episode of spontaneous left pneumothorax, when a chest tube was placed in another hospital for complete lung expansion. During this hospitalization, an open lung biopsy was performed. There was no history of rhinorrhea, nasal congestion, cough, hemoptysis, wheezing, or expectoration. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Basal cell carcinoma with halo phenomenon in a young female: Significance of dermatoscopy in early diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Yuksel Basak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Halo phenomenon of nevus may be observed as a circular reaction, although it is unusual around tumors. A 29-year-old woman presented with a pigmented lesion on the cheek since three years. She noted whitening of the skin around the lesion almost after a year following its appearance. Dermatologic examination revealed a pigmented nodular lesion with a hypopigmented halo on the left infraorbital region. The clinical impression was halo nevus, whereas basal cell carcinoma (BCC was considered in dermatoscopic differential diagnosis. The diagnosis was infiltrative-type BCC histopathologically. The persistence of a perilesional halo around an enlarging pigmented lesion should be carefully examined with accompanying dermatoscopic findings even in young patients for early diagnosis of tumoral lesions.

  6. Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue for fertility preservation in young female oncological patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Claus Yding; Kristensen, Stine Gry; Greve, Tine; Schmidt, Kirsten Tryde

    2012-05-01

    Girls and women suffering from a cancer that requires treatment with gonadotoxic drugs may experience cessation of reproductive function as a side effect due to obliteration of the ovarian pool of follicles. Techniques are now available for fertility preservation, such as cryopreservation of mature oocytes, embryos or ovarian cortical tissue. Whereas collection of mature oocytes and embryos requires at least a 2-week period, ovarian tissue may on short notice be frozen prior to treatment and can be transplanted back into women with ovarian failure. Transplanted frozen/thawed tissue supports survival and growth of follicles, giving rise to menstrual cycles and hormone production for several years. Worldwide, the procedure has resulted in the birth of 15 healthy children. Many cancer patients including girls and young women want fertility preservation, and the techniques are now being further developed and implemented in several centers.

  7. Successful Intra-peritoneal Antibiotic Therapy for Primary Abdominal Nocardiosis in an Immunocompetent Young Female Masquerading as Carcinoma Ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi N Patil

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nocardiosis is a common opportunistic infection in the immunocompromised and in patients with chronic debilitating diseases,e.g continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD patients. Primary abdominal nocardiosis is rare and is indeed a very rare infection in immunocompetent persons. Only two cases have been reported in immunocompetent patients so far and this may be third case to the best of our knowledge and first in India. About 11 cases have been reported in CAPD patients and AIDS patients.We report a case of Nocardiosis in an immunocompetent young female who presented with an abdomino-pelvic mass masquerading as carcinoma ovary.After initial resistance to various antibiotics, she responded to intraperitoneal and oral linezolid and oral ciprofloxacin.

  8. Musculoskeletal health profile for elite female footballers versus untrained young women before and after 16 weeks of football training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jackman, Sarah R; Scott, Suzanne; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We investigated the musculoskeletal health profile of elite female football players (ET) in comparison to untrained (UT) young women subjected to 16 weeks of football training (2 × 1 h per week). DXA scans, blood sampling, sprint testing and Flamingo postural balance testing were carried...... out for 27 Danish national team players and 28 untrained women, with eight women being tested after training. At baseline total BMD and BMC were 13% (1.305 ± 0.050 versus 1.159 ± 0.056 g · cm(-2)) and 23% (3047 ± 235 versus 2477 ± 526 g) higher (P ...

  9. Musculoskeletal health profile for elite female footballers versus untrained young women before and after 16 weeks of football training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Sarah R; Scott, Suzanne; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Orntoft, Christina; Blackwell, Jamie; Zar, Abdossaleh; Helge, Eva Wulff; Mohr, Magni; Krustrup, Peter

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the musculoskeletal health profile of elite female football players (ET) in comparison to untrained (UT) young women subjected to 16 weeks of football training (2 × 1 h per week). DXA scans, blood sampling, sprint testing and Flamingo postural balance testing were carried out for 27 Danish national team players and 28 untrained women, with eight women being tested after training. At baseline total BMD and BMC were 13% (1.305 ± 0.050 versus 1.159 ± 0.056 g · cm(-2)) and 23% (3047 ± 235 versus 2477 ± 526 g) higher (P football training for UT, lean body mass increased by 1.4 ± 0.5 kg and the number of left leg falls decreased by 29% (P footballers have an impressive musculoskeletal health profile compared with untrained controls, but short-term football training seems to reduce the risk of falls and increase bone formation.

  10. Result of randomized control trial to increase breast health awareness among young females in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtari-Zavare, Mehrnoosh; Juni, Muhamad Hanafiah; Said, Salmiah Md; Ismail, Irmi Zarina; Latiff, Latiffah A; Ataollahi Eshkoor, Sima

    2016-08-08

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the second principal cause of cancer deaths in women worldwide as well as in Malaysia. Breast self-examination (BSE) has a role in raising breast cancer awareness among women and educational programs play an important role in breast cancer preventive behavior. The aim of this study is to develop, implement and evaluate the effectiveness of Breast Health Awareness program based on health belief model on knowledge of breast cancer and breast-selfexamination and BSE practice among female students in Malaysia. A single-blind randomized controlled trial was carried out among 370 female undergraduate students from January 2011 to April 2012 in two selected public universities in Malaysia. Participants were randomized to either the intervention group or the control group. The educational program was delivered to the intervention group. The outcome measures were assessed at baseline, 6, and 12 months after implementing the health educational program. Chi-square, independent samples t-test and two-way repeated measures ANOVA (GLM) were conducted in the course of the data analyses. Mean scores of knowledge on breast cancer (pMalaysia. The ANZCTR clinical trial registry ( ACTRN12616000831482 ), retrospectively registered on Jun 23, 2016 in ANZCTR.org.au.

  11. Factors associated with unwanted sexual experiences of young Australian females: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subasinghe, Asvini K; Jayasinghe, Yasmin L; Wark, John D; Gorelik, Alexandra; Garland, Suzanne M

    2017-08-01

    Background Behavioural and lifestyle factors associated with childhood unwanted sexual experiences (USE) have yet to be investigated in Australian females aged less than 18 years. Women aged 16-25 years living in Victoria were recruited via targeted advertising on Facebook. A web-based validated questionnaire was used to collect information on participant demographics, mental health, USE and sexual behaviours. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine associations between a history of childhood (<16 years) and adolescent (16-18 years) USE and indices of sexual orientation. Data were collected from 639 females (mean±s.d. age 22±3 years). Approximately 14% reported childhood USE and 15% reported adolescent USE. Approximately 37% of survivors of childhood USE reported penile-genital contact in relation to their USE. Participants who reported depression were almost four times as likely to have experienced childhood USE than those who did not report suffering from depression (odds ratio 3.6, 95% confidence interval 2.1-6.0, P<0.001). Positive associations between childhood USE, same-sex relationships and smoking were also detected. A strong relationship between childhood USE, depression and same-sex sexual behaviours was found, but results did not determine the direction of this association. Longitudinal studies should be conducted to investigate whether there are groups of individuals who are at a high risk of experiencing childhood USE, so that appropriate support systems can be put in place.

  12. Clomiphene Associated Inferior STEMI in a Young Female due to Right Coronary Artery Dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feras Husain Abuzeyad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonatherosclerotic spontaneous coronary artery dissection (NA-SCAD is an uncommon cause of myocardial infarction. It most commonly affects females in the perimenopausal age. NA-SCAD has been associated with many predisposing factors including pregnancy and hormonal therapy for both contraception and ovulation induction. The presented case is a previously healthy 41-year-old woman diagnosed with inferior ST-elevation myocardial infarction due to right descending coronary artery dissection associated with recent use of clomiphene monotherapy for ovulation induction (a previously fertile woman, which was not previously reported. Learning Objectives. Emergency physicians (EPs should be aware about NA-SCAD as a cause of acute coronary syndrome (ACS especially in perimenopausal women even with no risk factors. NA-SCAD occurs more commonly in the postpartum period and in females following hormonal therapy. Here, clomiphene monotherapy was reported as a possible contributing factor to NA-SCAD. Guidelines for NA-SCAD management are not up to date, and EPs should avoid some interference before the final diagnosis of the cause of myocardial infarction.

  13. THE EFFECTS OF BACK EXTENSION TRAINING ON BACK MUSCLE STRENGTH AND SPINAL RANGE OF MOTION IN YOUNG FEMALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yıldız Yaprak

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effects of a 10-week dynamic back extension training programme and its effects on back muscle strength, back muscle endurance and spinal range of motion (ROM for healthy young females. Seventy-three young females (age: 19.32±1.80 years, height: 158.89±4.71 cm, body weight: 55.67±6.30 kg volunteered for the study. Prior to the training period, all participants completed anthropometric measurements, back muscle strength and endurance test, lateral bending and spinal ROM measurements. After measurements, the participants were divided into two groups. The exercise group (N:35 performed the dynamic back extension exercise 3 days per week for 10 weeks. The control group (N:38 did not participate in any type of exercise. The mixed design ANOVA (group x time was used to determine the difference in pre- and post-training values. The present findings show that there were significant differences between pre-training and post-training values for back muscle strength and spinal ROM in the exercise group. Following the dynamic strength training programme, back muscle strength and spine ROM values except flexion of the lumbar 5-sacrum 1 (L5-S1 segment of the exercise group showed a significant increase when compared with the pre test values. The control group did not show any significant changes when compared with the pre-training values. The results demonstrate that the 10-week dynamic strength training programme was effective for spinal extension ROM and back muscle strength, but there was no change in back muscle endurance. In this context, this programme could potentially be used to prevent the decrease of spinal ROM as well as provide an increase in the fitness parameters of healthy individuals.

  14. Cancer prevention awareness among young adult Polish females on the basis of the assessment of knowledge and health behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna R. Wiraszka

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The accelerating rate of incidence of malignant cancers in Polish women as compared to men and the higher mortality due to these diseases as compared to other regions in Europe is an important medical and social problem. Aim of the research : To attempt an assessment of cancer prevention awareness among young adult Polish females on the basis of the analysis of their knowledge as well as of the prevalence of negative health behaviours. Material and methods : The study was conducted in 270 young Polish females: students of nursing and pedagogy. The study was conducted using a proprietary questionnaire, the Inventory of Health Behaviour, the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, and Nina Schenider’s Motivation for Quitting Smoking Test. Results : The highest percentages of negative behaviours included low intake of fruit and vegetables (76.3%, whole-grain products (78.9%, and fish (93.3%, as well as tanning (56.7% and smoking (37% and health check behaviours (breast self-exams 60.7%, cervical cytological screening 36%. Conclusions: Despite the relatively high level of knowledge, cancer risk-related lifestyles and behaviours unfavourable for the possibility of early diagnosis were observed among the subjects. The less favourable model of cognitive and behavioural competence in health and cancer prevention was observed at bachelor-level students of pedagogy at the ages below 24 years. Development of skills and motivation for pro-health behaviours and the awareness of behaviour models presented by educators are, along with appropriate knowledge, the most desirable strategies for the success of health education in the area of cancer prevention.

  15. A sex risk reduction text-message program for young adult females discharged from the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suffoletto, Brian; Akers, Aletha; McGinnis, Kathleen A; Calabria, Jaclyn; Wiesenfeld, Harold C; Clark, Duncan B

    2013-09-01

    To pilot test a text message (SMS) sex risk reduction program among at-risk young adult female patients discharged from an emergency department (ED). A convenience sample of 52 female patients with hazardous drinking behavior and recent risky sexual encounters were recruited from an urban ED and randomized to the SMS program (n = 23) or a control group (n = 29). All participants completed a web-based questionnaire in the ED and at 3-month follow-up. For 12 weeks, SMS participants were asked to report whether they had a risky sexual encounter in the past week, received theory-based feedback, and were asked if they were willing set a goal to refrain from having another risky encounter. Thirty-nine percent of SMS participants completed all weeks of SMS reports, and noncompletion increasing from 12% on week 1 to a 33% by week 12. Three-month follow-up was completed in 56% of participants. In the intervention group, there was an increase in the proportion with condom use with last vaginal sex from 20% (95% CI 4%-48%) to 53% (95% CI 27%-79%) and an increase in always condom use over the past 28 days from 0% (95% CI 0%-22%) to 33% (95% CI 12%-62%). These changes were not statistically different from control participants. SMS programs may be useful to reduce risk for sexually transmitted diseases among at-risk young adults being discharged from the ED. Future trials should examine ways to improve adherence to SMS dialog over time and measure objective outcomes in a larger sample. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Influencers and preference predictors of HPV vaccine uptake among US male and female young adult college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaJoie, A Scott; Kerr, Jelani C; Clover, Richard D; Harper, Diane M

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of male and female college students in Kentucky about HPV associated diseases and vaccines, and to determine which parameters predicted self-reported uptake of HPV vaccination. A self-selected cross-sectional sample of college students completed an evidence-based online survey. Of approximately 1200 potential respondents, 585 completed the survey. The average age was 20.6 (SD 3.15) and 78% were female; 84% of the population had had one or more sexual partners. Concern for HPV vaccine safety and potential need for boosters did not significantly deter vaccine uptake. Likewise, knowledge about HPV associated cancers was not predictive of vaccine uptake. On the other hand, parental influence for vaccination was a strong predictor for vaccine uptake (aOR = 5.32, 2.71-13.03), and free vaccine nearly doubled the likelihood of being vaccinated (aOR 1.90, 1.05-3.41). In addition, the strong preference for the respondent's partner to be HPV vaccinated predicted vaccine uptake (aOR = 4.04, 95% CI: 2.31-7.05), but the lack of preference for partner vaccination predicted an unvaccinated self (aOR = 0.50, 0.27-0.93). HPV vaccination has been successful in young adult college students in Kentucky. Young adults prefer their partners to be HPV vaccinated regardless of whether they themselves are vaccinated. Parental influence and free vaccine were positive predictors for vaccine uptake in this population. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Use of Oral Contraceptives to Manipulate Menstruation in Young, Physically Active Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaumberg, Mia A; Emmerton, Lynne M; Jenkins, David G; Burton, Nicola W; Janse de Jonge, Xanne A K; Skinner, Tina L

    2018-01-01

    Menstruation and menstrual symptoms are commonly cited barriers to physical activity in women. The delay or avoidance of menstruation through extended oral-contraceptive (OC) regimens may mitigate these barriers, yet information on menstrual-manipulation practices in young physically active women is sparse. The objective of this study was to investigate prevalence of, and reasons for, menstrual manipulation with OCs in recreationally and competitively active women. One hundred ninety-one recreationally active (self-reported moderate to vigorous physical activity 150-300 min/wk) women (age 23 ± 5 y), 160 subelite recreationally active (self-reported moderate to vigorous physical activity >300 min/wk) women (age 23 ± 5 y), and 108 competitive (state-, national- or international-level) female athletes (age 23 ± 4 y) completed a self-administered questionnaire assessing OC-regimen habits and reasons for manipulation of menstruation. The majority (74%) of OC users reported having deliberately manipulated menstruation at least once during the previous year, with 29% reporting having done so at least 4 times. Prevalence of menstrual manipulation (at least once in the previous year) was not different between competitive athletes, subelite recreationally active women, and recreationally active women (77% vs 74% vs 72%; P > .05). The most cited reasons for manipulating menstruation were special events or holidays (rated by 75% as important/very important), convenience (54%), and sport competition (54%). Menstrual manipulation through extended OC regimens is common practice in recreationally and competitively active young women, for a range of reasons relating to convenience that are not limited to physical activity. This strategy may help reduce hormone-related barriers to exercise participation, thereby positively affecting participation and performance.

  18. Physical activity patterns and risk of depression in young adulthood: a 20-year cohort study since childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKercher, Charlotte; Sanderson, Kristy; Schmidt, Michael D; Otahal, Petr; Patton, George C; Dwyer, Terence; Venn, Alison J

    2014-11-01

    Little is known about how physical activity patterns during childhood and adolescence are associated with risk of subsequent depression. We examined prospective and retrospective associations between leisure physical activity patterns from childhood to adulthood and risk of clinical depression in young adulthood. Participants (759 males, 871 females) in a national survey, aged 9-15 years, were re-interviewed approximately 20 years later. Leisure physical activity was self-reported at baseline (1985) and follow-up (2004-2006). To bridge the interval between the two time-points, historical leisure activity from age 15 years to adulthood was self-reported retrospectively at follow-up. Physical activity was categorized into groups that, from a public health perspective, compared patterns that were least beneficial (persistently inactive) with those increasingly beneficial (decreasing, increasing and persistently active). Depression (major depressive or dysthymic disorder) was assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Compared with those persistently inactive, males who were increasingly and persistently active had a 69 and 65 % reduced risk of depression in adulthood, respectively (all p active had a 51 % reduced risk of depression in adulthood (p = 0.01). Similar but non-significant trends were observed for leisure physical activity in females and historical leisure activity in males. Results excluded those with childhood onset of depression and were adjusted for various sociodemographic and health covariates. Findings from both prospective and retrospective analyses indicate a beneficial effect of habitual discretionary physical activity since childhood on risk of depression in young adulthood.

  19. Male and female differences in health benefits derived from physical activity: implications for exercise prescription

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hands, Beth; Larkin, Dawne; Cantell, Marja Helena; Rose, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Males are consistently reported as more physically active than females regardless of age or measure. Often, this difference results in females identified as under active and at risk of longterm poor health outcomes. In this paper a different perspective drawing on evidence from many sources is

  20. The Influence of Marijuana and Alcohol Use on Condom Use Behavior: Findings from a Sample of Young Adult Female Bar Drinkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Kathleen A.; Collins, R. Lorraine; Derrick, Jaye L.

    2012-01-01

    Prevalence data indicate that alcohol and marijuana are frequently used intoxicants among young adults in the United States. In a number of studies, both alcohol use and marijuana use have been associated with failure to use condoms, a high risk sexual behavior. The purpose of the current study was to assess the individual and additive effects of alcohol and marijuana use on this risky sexual behavior among 251, young adult, female, bar drinkers. Multi-level modeling was used to assess the likelihood of condom use during sexual events that occurred as a function of substance use (none, only alcohol, only marijuana, or both) prior to and partner type during the event, as well as individual differences in sexual assertiveness. Initial model testing (level 1 and 2) revealed that there were significant main effects for partner type (known), substance use (alcohol and marijuana) and sexual assertiveness (refusal, pregnancy/STI prevention) on risky sex. Final model testing indicated that sexual assertiveness interacted with substance use to influence risky sex. Women who were low in sexual assertiveness refusal were more likely to engage in risky sex on days when they had consumed both alcohol and marijuana prior to the sexual activity. These findings highlight the complex nature of the relationship between substance use and risky sex. PMID:22612253

  1. Delayed Recognition of an Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction in a Young Adult Female

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Schulman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A percentage of ureteropelvic junction obstruction cases are clinically silent in childhood and manifest symptoms in adults. Herein we present a 25-year-old female with several years of intermittent flank pain and abdominal symptoms with prior inconclusive diagnostic workup including abdominal imaging without hydronephrosis. Ultimately, a CT scan performed during an acute pain crisis clearly identified right-sided hydronephrosis. The keys to diagnosis are awareness of this entity, a detailed history, and obtaining imaging studies during a crisis. The patient subsequently underwent a right robotic-assisted laparoscopic pyeloplasty with preservation of a lower pole crossing vessel. We highlight noteworthy features of the clinical presentation and surgical repair.

  2. Interesting case of spontaneously resolved dysphagia in a young female due to complicated esophageal tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhaval Choksi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis can affect any organ of the body. Gastrointestinal tubercular involvement is fairly common. Esophageal tuberculosis though is uncommon. Esophageal tuberculosis accounts for only 0.3% of gastrointestinal tuberculosis. It presents with dysphagia, retrosternal pain, cough or constitutional symptoms. Complications like hemorrhage from the ulcer and development of fistulas like esophagomediastinal fistula is extremely uncommon. We report a case of a 27 years old female who presented with retrosternal pain, dysphagia and hematemesis. The patient had esophageal ulcer secondary to erosion of the esophagus by the subcarinal lymph nodes. Imaging was suggestive of esophagomediastinal fistula. Esophageal ulcer biopsy showed chronic tubercular infection. Culture from the esophageal biopsy confirmed the presence of tubercular bacilli. Patient responded to anti-tubercular therapy. Spontaneous dysphagia resolution prior to starting therapy was likely due to the rupture of the lymph node into the esophagus, which was compressing it initially. Esophageal tuberculosis presenting with hematemesis and fistula is extremely uncommon.

  3. Fiction or not? Fifty Shades is associated with health risks in adolescent and young adult females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonomi, Amy E; Nemeth, Julianna M; Altenburger, Lauren E; Anderson, Melissa L; Snyder, Anastasia; Dotto, Irma

    2014-09-01

    No prior study has empirically characterized the association between health risks and reading popular fiction depicting violence against women. Fifty Shades--a blockbuster fiction series--depicts pervasive violence against women, perpetuating a broader social narrative that normalizes these types of risks and behaviors in women's lives. The present study characterized the association between health risks in women who read and did not read Fifty Shades; while our cross-sectional study design precluded causal determinations, an empirical representation of the health risks in women consuming the problematic messages in Fifty Shades is made. Females ages 18 to 24 (n=715), who were enrolled in a large Midwestern university, completed a cross-sectional online survey about their health behaviors and Fifty Shades' readership. The analysis included 655 females (219 who read at least the first Fifty Shades novel and 436 who did not read any part of Fifty Shades). Age- and race-adjusted multivariable models characterized Fifty Shades' readers and nonreaders on intimate partner violence victimization (experiencing physical, sexual and psychological abuse, including cyber-abuse, at some point during their lifetime); binge drinking (consuming five or more alcoholic beverages on six or more days in the last month); sexual practices (having five or more intercourse partners and/or one or more anal sex partner during their lifetime); and using diet aids or fasting for 24 or more hours at some point during their lifetime. One-third of subjects read Fifty Shades (18.6%, or 122/655, read all three novels, and 14.8%, or 97/655, read at least the first novel but not all three). In age- and race-adjusted models, compared with nonreaders, females who read at least the first novel (but not all three) were more likely than nonreaders to have had, during their lifetime, a partner who shouted, yelled, or swore at them (relative risk [RR]=1.25) and who delivered unwanted calls/text messages

  4. Prenatal exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants and female reproductive function in young adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Susanne Lund; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Ernst, Erik

    2016-01-01

    . OBJECTIVES: To investigate effects on female reproduction following intrauterine exposure to selected biopersistent organochlorines. METHODS: We used data from a Danish pregnancy cohort with follow-up on 436 eligible daughters at approximately 20years of age. Information on age of menarche (n=335), menstrual...... cycle length (n=230) and serum concentrations of reproductive hormones (n=243) was obtained. Number of antral follicles was counted by vaginal ultrasound (n=147). Of 244 daughters who attended clinical examination, 170 used hormonal contraceptives and 74 were non-users. Concentrations of p,p'-DDE, HCB...... and six PCB congeners were analysed in maternal serum samples obtained in pregnancy week 30. RESULTS: Age of menarche and menstrual cycle length were found not to be statistically significant associated with prenatal organochlorine exposure. Among non-users of hormonal contraceptives with information...

  5. Pulmonary Tuberculosis in a Young Pregnant Female: Challenges in Diagnosis and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manogna Maddineni

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. With the world becoming a global village, tuberculosis is no longer limited to endemic areas. Our case emphasizes the impact of immigration on infectious disease epidemiology and challenges associated with diagnosis and treatment in pregnancy. Case. A 21-year-old Hispanic female presented in preterm labor and was found to be hypoxic. Chest X-ray revealed a paratracheal mass which a CT scan confirmed. PPD test was positive. Bronchoalveolar lavage did not reveal acid-fast bacilli and biopsy revealed caseating granulomas. Diagnosis and treatment were challenging due to constraints in radiological investigations, lack of initial evidence of acid-fast bacilli, and toxic profile of medications. Due to her high risk, she was started on antituberculosis regimen. The diagnosis was confirmed on Day 26 when Mycobacterium tuberculosis was isolated by DNA probe. Conclusion. A high index of suspicion is required to recognize the changing face and disease spectrum of tuberculosis and initiate treatment for better outcomes.

  6. Severe aberrant glenohumeral motor patterns in a young female rower: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGurk Neal

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This case features an 18-year-old female with glenohumeral dysrhythmia and subluxation-relocation patterns. This unusual case highlights the need for careful examination and consideration to the anatomical structures involved. Conventional approaches to shoulder examination include range of motion, orthopaedic tests and manual resistance tests. We also assessed the patient's cognitive ability to coordinate muscle function. With this type of assessment we found that co-contraction of local muscle groups seemed to initially improve the patients abnormal shoulder motion. With this information a rehabilitation method was instituted with a goal to maintain the improvement. Case presentation An 18-year-old female with no history of trauma, presented with painless kinesiopathology of the left shoulder (in abduction consisting of dysrhythmia of the glenohumeral joint and early lateral rotation of the scapula. Examination also showed associated muscle atrophy of the lower trapezius and surrounding general muscle weakness. We used an untested functional assessment method in addition to more conventional methods. Exercise rehabilitation interventions were subsequently prescribed and graduated in accordance with what is known as the General Physical Rehabilitation Pyramid. Conclusion This paper presents an unusual case of aberrant shoulder movement. It highlights the need for careful examination and thought regarding the anatomical structures and normal motor patterns associated with the manoeuvre being tested. It also emphasised the use of co-contraction during examination in an attempt to immediately improve a regional dysrythmia if there is suspicion of a regional aberrant motor pattern. Further research may be warranted to test this approach.

  7. The acute effects of stretching with vibration on dynamic flexibility in young female gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Aaron W; Warcup, Caisa N; Seeley, Matthew K; Eggett, Dennis; Feland, Jeffery B

    2018-01-10

    While stretching with vibration has been shown to improve static flexibility; the effect of stretching with vibration on dynamic flexibility is not well known. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of stretching with vibration on acute dynamic flexibility and jump height in novice and advanced competitive female gymnasts during a split jump. Female gymnast (n=27, age: 11.5 ± 1.7 years, Junior Olympic levels 5-10) participated in this cross-over study. Dynamic flexibility during gymnastic split jumps were video recorded and analyzed with Dartfish software. All participants completed both randomized stretching protocols with either the vibration platform turned on (VIB) (frequency of 30 Hz and 2 mm amplitude) or off (NoVIB) separated by 48 h. Participants performed 4 sets of three stretches on the vibration platform. Each stretch was held for 30 s with 5 s rest for a total of 7 min of stretch. Split jump flexibility decreased significantly from pre to post measurement in both VIB (-5.8°±5.9°) (p<0.001) and NoVIB (-2.6°±6.1°) (p=0.041) conditions (adjusted for gymnast level). This effect was greatest in lower skill level gymnasts (p=0.003), while the highest skill level gymnasts showed no significant decrease in the split jump (p=0.105). Jump height was not significantly different between conditions (p=0.892) or within groups (p=0.880). An acute session of static stretching with or without vibration immediately before performance does not alter jump height. Stretching with vibration immediately prior to gymnastics competition decreases split jump flexibility in lower level gymnasts more than upper level gymnasts.

  8. Mental toughness, sleep disturbances, and physical activity in patients with multiple sclerosis compared to healthy adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Gerber, Markus; Kalak, Nadeem; Lemola, Sakari; Clough, Peter J; Calabrese, Pasquale; Shaygannejad, Vahid; Pühse, Uwe; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common chronic autoimmune demyelinating and inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, afflicting both the body and mind. The risk of suffering from MS is 2.5-3.5 times greater in females than in males. While there is extant research on fatigue, depression, and cognitive impairment in patients with MS during its clinical course, there is a lack of research focusing on sleep, psychological functioning, and physical activity (PA) at the point of disease onset. The aims of the present study were therefore, to assess the markers of mental toughness (MT) as a dimension of psychological functioning, sleep disturbances (SD), and PA among patients at the moment of disease onset and to compare these with the corresponding values for healthy adolescents and young adults. A total of 23 patients with MS at disease onset (mean age =32.31 years; 91% females), 23 healthy adolescents (mean age =17.43 years; 82% females), and 25 healthy young adults (mean age =20.72 years; 80% females) took part in the study. They completed questionnaires covering sociodemographic data, MT, SD, and PA. Patients with MS had similar scores for MT traits as those in healthy adolescents and healthy young adults, and equivalent levels of moderate-intensity PA and SD as young adults. MS patients reported lower levels of vigorous PA compared to both healthy adolescents and young adults. The pattern of the results of the present study suggests that the onset of MS is not associated with poor MT, poor sleep, or reduced moderate-intensity PA. Lower levels of vigorous PA were observed in MS patients. Low levels of vigorous PA may lead to decreased cardiorespiratory fitness in patients with MS and, in the long run, to reduced cardiovascular health and degraded psychological functioning.

  9. Strength Training Using Elastic Bands: Improvement of Muscle Power and Throwing Performance in Young Female Handball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarin, Naryana Cristina; de Lira, Claudio Andre Barbosa; Vancini, Rodrigo Luiz; de Castro Pochini, Alberto; da Silva, Antonio Carlos; Dos Santos Andrade, Marilia

    2017-05-01

    Imbalance in shoulder-rotator muscles has been considered a risk factor for injuries in handball. Strength training programs (STPs) may play an important preventive role. To verify the effects of an STP using elastic bands on shoulder muscles and ball-throwing speed. Randomized and prospective controlled trial. Exercise physiology laboratory. Thirty-nine female handball players were randomly assigned to an experimental (EG, n = 21, 15.3 ± 1.1 y) or a control (CG, n = 18, 15.0 ± 0.8 y) group. The EG performed the STP with elastic-band progressive exercises for 6 wk before regular handball training, and the CG underwent only their regular training. Before and after the STP, both groups underwent a ball-throwing-speed test and isokinetic test to assess shoulder internal- (IR) and external-rotator muscle performance. Average power values for IR muscles presented a significant group-vs-time interaction effect (F = 3.9, P = .05); EG presented significantly higher values after the STP (P = .03). Ball speed presented higher values in EG after the STP in standing (P = .04) and jumping (P = .03) throws. IR peak-torque values and balance in shoulder-rotator muscles presented no group-vs-time interaction effect. STP using elastic bands performed for 6 wk was effective to improve muscle power and ball speed for young female handball players.

  10. Effects of caffeine on endurance capacity and psychological state in young females and males exercising in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvi, Silva; Timpmann, Saima; Tamm, Maria; Aedma, Martin; Kreegipuu, Kairi; Ööpik, Vahur

    2017-01-01

    Acute caffeine ingestion is considered effective in improving endurance capacity and psychological state. However, current knowledge is based on the findings of studies that have been conducted on male subjects mainly in temperate environmental conditions, but some physiological and psychological effects of caffeine differ between the sexes. The purpose of this study was to compare the physical performance and psychological effects of caffeine in young women and men exercising in the heat. Thirteen male and 10 female students completed 2 constant-load walks (60% of thermoneutral peak oxygen consumption on a treadmill until volitional exhaustion) in a hot-dry environment (air temperature, 42 °C; relative humidity, 20%) after caffeine (6 mg·kg -1 ) and placebo (wheat flour) ingestion in a double-blind, randomly assigned, crossover manner. Caffeine, compared with placebo, induced greater increases (p exercise in the heat, but it has no impact on thermoregulation or endurance capacity in either gender. Under exercise-heat stress, caffeine reduces ratings of perceived exertion and fatigue in males but not in females.

  11. High Prevalence of the BIM Deletion Polymorphism in Young Female Breast Cancer in an East Asian Country.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Hung Lin

    Full Text Available A rapid surge of female breast cancer has been observed in young women in several East Asian countries. The BIM deletion polymorphism, which confers cell resistance to apoptosis, was recently found exclusively in East Asian people with prevalence rate of 12%. We aimed to evaluate the possible role of this genetic alteration in carcinogenesis of breast cancer in East Asians.Female healthy volunteers (n = 307, patients in one consecutive stage I-III breast cancer cohort (n = 692 and one metastatic breast cancer cohort (n = 189 were evaluated. BIM wild-type and deletion alleles were separately genotyped in genomic DNAs.Both cancer cohorts consistently showed inverse associations between the BIM deletion polymorphism and patient age (≤35 y vs. 36-50 y vs. >50 y: 29% vs. 22% vs. 15%, P = 0.006 in the consecutive cohort, and 40% vs. 23% vs. 13%, P = 0.023 in the metastatic cohort. In healthy volunteers, the frequencies of the BIM deletion polymorphism were similar (13%-14% in all age groups. Further analyses indicated that the BIM deletion polymorphism was not associated with specific clinicopathologic features, but it was associated with poor overall survival (adjusted hazard ratio 1.71 in the consecutive cohort.BIM deletion polymorphism may be involved in the tumorigenesis of the early-onset breast cancer among East Asians.

  12. Nutritional factors that influence change in bone density and stress fracture risk among young female cross-country runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieves, Jeri W; Melsop, Kathryn; Curtis, Meredith; Kelsey, Jennifer L; Bachrach, Laura K; Greendale, Gail; Sowers, Mary Fran; Sainani, Kristin L

    2010-08-01

    To identify nutrients, foods, and dietary patterns associated with stress fracture risk and changes in bone density among young female distance runners. Two-year, prospective cohort study. Observational data were collected in the course of a multicenter randomized trial of the effect of oral contraceptives on bone health. One hundred and twenty-five female competitive distance runners ages 18-26 years. Dietary variables were assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. Bone mineral density and content (BMD/BMC) of the spine, hip, and total body were measured annually by dual x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Stress fractures were recorded on monthly calendars, and had to be confirmed by radiograph, bone scan, or magnetic resonance imaging. Seventeen participants had at least one stress fracture during follow-up. Higher intakes of calcium, skim milk, and dairy products were associated with lower rates of stress fracture. Each additional cup of skim milk consumed per day was associated with a 62% reduction in stress fracture incidence (P stress fracture rate. Potassium intake was also associated with greater gains in hip and whole-body BMD. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Bone Mechanical Properties and Mineral Density in Response to Cessation of Jumping Exercise and Honey Supplementation in Young Female Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Sadat Tavafzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated effects of cessation of exercise and honey supplementation on bone properties in young female rats. Eighty-four 12-week-old Sprague-Dawley female rats were divided into 7 groups: 16S, 16J, 16H, 16JH, 8J8S, 8H8S, and 8JH8S (8 = 8 weeks, 16 = 16 weeks, S = sedentary without honey supplementation, H = honey supplementation, and J = jumping exercise. Jumping exercise consisted of 40 jumps/day for 5 days/week. Honey was given to the rats at a dosage of 1 g/kg body weight/rat/day via force feeding for 7 days/week. Jumping exercise and honey supplementation were terminated for 8 weeks in 8J8S, 8H8S, and 8JH8S groups. After 8 weeks of cessation of exercise and honey supplementation, tibial energy, proximal total bone density, midshaft cortical moment of inertia, and cortical area were significantly higher in 8JH8S as compared to 16S. Continuous sixteen weeks of combined jumping and honey resulted in significant greater tibial maximum force, energy, proximal total bone density, proximal trabecular bone density, midshaft cortical bone density, cortical area, and midshaft cortical moment of inertia in 16JH as compared to 16S. These findings showed that the beneficial effects of 8 weeks of combined exercise and honey supplementation still can be observed after 8 weeks of the cessation and exercise and supplementation.

  14. Effects of whole-body vibration training on explosive strength and postural control in young female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Azahara; Romero, Daniel; Bagur, Caritat; Guerra, Myriam

    2012-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a whole-body vibration training program to improve neuromuscular performance in young elite female athletes. Twenty-three women basketball players (14-18 years old) were randomly assigned to a control group (CG, n = 11) or to a whole-body vibration group (WBVG, n = 12). During the study period, both groups continued their usual training program, but the WBVG also underwent a 15-week vibration training program. We analyzed the countermovement jump test (CMJ), the 1-leg hop test for the right leg and for the left leg, and the single-limb standing balance for both legs and with eyes open and closed at 3 time points: before training (T1), after an 8-week training period (T2), and after a further 7-week training period (T3). Compared with the CG, CMJ increased significantly in the WBVG from T1 to T2 (6.47%, p training program improves explosive strength and postural stability in adolescent female basketball players.

  15. Prevalence of menstrual problems and their association with psychological stress in young female students studying health sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazish Rafique

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To identify the prevalence of various menstrual problems in young females studying health sciences and to identify their association with academic stress. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, conducted in the health colleges of Immam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia between February 2015 and February 2016. Seven hundred and thirty-eight female students aged 18-25 years anonymously completed menstrual problem identification and perceived stress scale questionnaire. The data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 16.0. Results: Ninety-one percent of the students were suffering from some kind of menstrual problem. The different menstrual problems reported, and their incidences included irregular menstruation (27%, abnormal vaginal bleeding (9.3%, amenorrhea (9.2%, menorrhagia (3.4%, dysmenorrhea (89.7%, and premenstrual symptoms (46.7%. High perceived stress (HPS was identified in 39% of the students. A significant positive correlation was found between HPS and menstrual problems. Students with HPS had 4 times, 2 times, and 2.8 times increased odds ratio for experiencing amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, and premenstrual syndrome (p less than 0.05. Conclusion: The most prevalent menstrual problems (dysmenorrhea and premenstrual symptoms in the target population were strongly associated with stress. Therefore, it is recommended that health science students should be provided with early psychological and gynecological counselling to prevent future complications.

  16. Prevalence of and risk factors for sexual dysfunction in young Chinese women according to the Female Sexual Function Index: an internet-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Juan; Ruan, Xiangyan; Gu, Muqing; Bitzer, Johannes; Mueck, Alfred O

    2016-06-01

    Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is a very common sexual health problem worldwide. The prevalence of FSD in Chinese women is, however, unknown. This is the first study to investigate a large number of young women throughout China via the internet, to determine the prevalence and types of FSD and to identify the risk factors for FSD. The primary endpoint was the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) score, with additional questions on contraception, sexual activity, relationship stability, pregnancy and other factors which may influence sexual function. The online questionnaire was completed by women from 31 of the 34 Chinese provinces. A total of 1618 completed questionnaires were received, and 1010 were included in the analyses after screening (62.4%). The mean age of the respondents was 25.1 ± 4.5 years. The mean total FSFI score was 24.99 ± 4.60. According to FSFI definitions (cut-off score 26.55), 60.2% of women were at risk of FSD. Based on domain scores, 52 were considered at high risk of dysfunction for pain (5.1%), 35 for orgasm (3.5%), 33 for desire (3.3%), 20 for arousal (2.0%), 6 for satisfaction (0.6%) and 2 for lubrication (0.2%). The prevalence of FSFI scores indicating risk of sexual dysfunction was about 60% in Chinese women. An unstable relationship, pressure to become pregnant, non-use of contraception, negative self-evaluation of appearance and increasing age were significantly associated with FSD in young Chinese women.

  17. Postactivation Potentiation of the Plantar Flexors Does Not Directly Translate to Jump Performance in Female Elite Young Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf Prieske

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available High-intensity muscle actions have the potential to temporarily improve muscle contractile properties (i.e., postactivation potentiation, PAP thereby inducing acute performance enhancements. There is evidence that balance training can improve performance during strength exercises. Taking these findings together, the purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of a combined balance and strength (B+S exercise vs. a strength only (S exercise on twitch contractile properties, maximum voluntary strength, and jump performance in young athletes. Female elite young soccer players (N = 12 aged 14–15 years conducted three experimental conditions in randomized order: S included 3 sets of 8–10 dynamic leg extensions at 80% of the 1-repetition maximum, B+S consisted of 3 sets of 40 s double-leg stances on a balance board prior to leg extensions (same as S, and a resting control period. Before and 7 min after exercise, participants were tested for their electrically-evoked isometric twitches (i.e., twitch peak torque, twitch rate of torque development and maximal voluntary contraction (MVC torque of the plantar flexor muscles. Additionally, countermovement (CMJ and drop jump (DJ performances (i.e., CMJ/DJ height, DJ ground contact time were assessed. Significant effects of condition on twitch contractile properties (p < 0.05, d = 1.1 and jump performance outputs (p < 0.05, 1.1 ≤ d ≤ 1.2 were found. Post-hoc tests revealed that S compared to control produced larger PAP for twitch peak torques by trend (p = 0.07, d = 1.8, 33 vs. 21% and significantly larger PAP for twitch rate of torque development (p < 0.05, d = 2.4, 55 vs. 43%. Following B+S compared to control, significant improvements in CMJ height (p < 0.01, d = 1.9, 3% and DJ contact time were found (p < 0.01, d = 2.0, 10%. This study revealed protocol-specific acute performance improvements. While S resulted in significant increases in twitch contractile properties, B+S produced

  18. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) for sarcopenic obesity (SO) diagnosis in young female subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González-Correa, C H; Caicedo-Eraso, J C; Villada-Gomez J S

    2013-01-01

    Sarcopenia is defined as a loss of muscle mass depending of ageing and affecting physical function (definition A). A new definition considers excluding mass reduction criterion (definition B). Obesity is pandemic and occurs at all ages. Sarcopenic obesity (SO) implies both processes. The purpose of this study was to compare the results obtained after applying these 2 definitions in 66 aged 22 ± 2.8 years overweight or obese young college women. Percentage body fat (%BF) and skeletal mass index (SMI) were estimated by BIA, muscle function by handgrip strength test (HGS) and physical performance by Harvard step test (HST). There were 9.1% and 90.9% overweight or obese subjects. Twenty nine subjects (43.9%) had decreased HGS and 22 (33.3%) had impaired physical performance. One obese subject (1.5%) met the criteria for sarcopenic obesity by definition A and 9 (13.6%) by definition B. Although a linear regression (α 2 = 0.094, 0.037 and 0.275 respectively) it was observed a tendency for HGS, HST and SMI deterioration when %BF increases. However, other confounding factors must be investigated. Probably as the population gets more obese, the problematic of SO will be found earlier in life.

  19. Body temperature and cold sensation during and following exercise under temperate room conditions in cold-sensitive young trained females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Naoto; Aoki-Murakami, Erii; Tsuji, Bun; Kenny, Glen P; Nagashima, Kei; Kondo, Narihiko; Nishiyasu, Takeshi

    2017-11-01

    We evaluated cold sensation at rest and in response to exercise-induced changes in core and skin temperatures in cold-sensitive exercise trained females. Fifty-eight trained young females were screened by a questionnaire, selecting cold-sensitive (Cold-sensitive, n  = 7) and non-cold-sensitive (Control, n  = 7) individuals. Participants rested in a room at 29.5°C for ~100 min after which ambient temperature was reduced to 23.5°C where they remained resting for 60 min. Participants then performed 30-min of moderate intensity cycling (50% peak oxygen uptake) followed by a 60-min recovery. Core and mean skin temperatures and cold sensation over the whole-body and extremities (fingers and toes) were assessed throughout. Resting core temperature was lower in the Cold-sensitive relative to Control group (36.4 ± 0.3 vs. 36.7 ± 0.2°C). Core temperature increased to similar levels at end-exercise (~37.2°C) and gradually returned to near preexercise rest levels at the end of recovery (>36.6°C). Whole-body cold sensation was greater in the Cold-sensitive relative to Control group during resting at a room temperature of 23.5°C only without a difference in mean skin temperature between groups. In contrast, cold sensation of the extremities was greater in the Cold-sensitive group prior to, during and following exercise albeit this was not paralleled by differences in mean extremity skin temperature. We show that young trained females who are sensitive to cold exhibit augmented whole-body cold sensation during rest under temperate ambient conditions. However, this response is diminished during and following exercise. In contrast, cold sensation of extremities is augmented during resting that persists during and following exercise. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  20. Weight-related correlates of psychological dysregulation in adolescent and young adult (AYA) females with severe obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowey, Marissa A; Reiter-Purtill, Jennifer; Becnel, Jennifer; Peugh, James; Mitchell, James E; Zeller, Meg H

    2016-04-01

    Severe obesity is the fastest growing pediatric subgroup of excess weight levels. Psychological dysregulation (i.e., impairments in regulating cognitive, emotional, and/or behavioral processes) has been associated with obesity and poorer weight loss outcomes. The present study explored associations of dysregulation with weight-related variables among adolescent and young adult (AYA) females with severe obesity. Fifty-four AYA females with severe obesity (MBMI = 48.71 kg/m(2); Mage = 18.29, R = 15-21 years; 59.3% White) completed self-report measures of psychological dysregulation and weight-related constructs including meal patterns, problematic eating behaviors, and body and weight dissatisfaction, as non-surgical comparison participants in a multi-site study of adolescent bariatric surgery outcomes. Pearson and bivariate correlations were conducted and stratified by age group to analyze associations between dysregulation subscales (affective, behavioral, cognitive) and weight-related variables. Breakfast was the most frequently skipped meal (consumed 3-4 times/week). Eating out was common (4-5 times/week) and mostly occurred at fast-food restaurants. Evening hyperphagia (61.11%) and eating in the absence of hunger (37.04%) were commonly endorsed, while unplanned eating (29.63%), a sense of loss of control over eating (22.22%), eating beyond satiety (22.22%), night eating (12.96%), and binge eating (11.11%) were less common. Almost half of the sample endorsed extreme weight dissatisfaction. Dysregulation was associated with most weight-related attitudes and behaviors of interest in young adults but select patterns emerged for adolescents. Higher levels of psychological dysregulation are associated with greater BMI, problematic eating patterns and behaviors, and body dissatisfaction in AYA females with severe obesity. These findings have implications for developing novel intervention strategies for severe obesity in AYAs that may have a multidimensional

  1. Effect of Chronic Athletic Activity on Brown Fat in Young Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibha Singhal

    Full Text Available The effect of chronic exercise activity on brown adipose tissue (BAT is not clear, with some studies showing positive and others showing negative associations. Chronic exercise is associated with increased resting energy expenditure (REE secondary to increased lean mass and a probable increase in BAT. Many athletes are in a state of relative energy deficit suggested by lower fat mass and hypothalamic amenorrhea. States of severe energy deficit such as anorexia nervosa are associated with reduced BAT. There are no data regarding the impact of chronic exercise activity on BAT volume or activity in young women and it is unclear whether relative energy deficiency modifies the effects of exercise on BAT.We assessed cold induced BAT volume and activity in young female athletes compared with non-athletes, and further evaluated associations of BAT with measures of REE, body composition and menstrual status.The protocol was approved by our Institutional Review Board. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants prior to study initiation. This was a cross-sectional study of 24 women (16 athletes and8 non-athletes between 18-25 years of age. Athletes were either oligo-amenorrheic (n = 8 or eumenorrheic (n = 8.We used PET/CT scans to determine cold induced BAT activity, VMAX Encore 29 metabolic cart to obtain measures of REE, and DXA for body composition.Athletes and non-athletes did not differ for age or BMI. Compared with non-athletes, athletes had lower percent body fat (p = 0.002, higher percent lean mass (p = 0.01 and trended higher in REE (p = 0.09. BAT volume and activity in athletes trended lower than in non-athletes (p = 0.06; p = 0.07, respectively. We found negative associations of BAT activity with duration of amenorrhea (r = -0.46, p = 0.02.BAT volume correlated inversely with lean mass (r = -0.46, p = 0.02, and positively with percent body fat, irisin and thyroid hormones.Our study shows a trend for lower BAT in young female

  2. Effect of Chronic Athletic Activity on Brown Fat in Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Vibha; Maffazioli, Giovana D; Ackerman, Kate E; Lee, Hang; Elia, Elisa F; Woolley, Ryan; Kolodny, Gerald; Cypess, Aaron M; Misra, Madhusmita

    2016-01-01

    The effect of chronic exercise activity on brown adipose tissue (BAT) is not clear, with some studies showing positive and others showing negative associations. Chronic exercise is associated with increased resting energy expenditure (REE) secondary to increased lean mass and a probable increase in BAT. Many athletes are in a state of relative energy deficit suggested by lower fat mass and hypothalamic amenorrhea. States of severe energy deficit such as anorexia nervosa are associated with reduced BAT. There are no data regarding the impact of chronic exercise activity on BAT volume or activity in young women and it is unclear whether relative energy deficiency modifies the effects of exercise on BAT. We assessed cold induced BAT volume and activity in young female athletes compared with non-athletes, and further evaluated associations of BAT with measures of REE, body composition and menstrual status. The protocol was approved by our Institutional Review Board. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants prior to study initiation. This was a cross-sectional study of 24 women (16 athletes and8 non-athletes) between 18-25 years of age. Athletes were either oligo-amenorrheic (n = 8) or eumenorrheic (n = 8).We used PET/CT scans to determine cold induced BAT activity, VMAX Encore 29 metabolic cart to obtain measures of REE, and DXA for body composition. Athletes and non-athletes did not differ for age or BMI. Compared with non-athletes, athletes had lower percent body fat (p = 0.002), higher percent lean mass (p = 0.01) and trended higher in REE (p = 0.09). BAT volume and activity in athletes trended lower than in non-athletes (p = 0.06; p = 0.07, respectively). We found negative associations of BAT activity with duration of amenorrhea (r = -0.46, p = 0.02).BAT volume correlated inversely with lean mass (r = -0.46, p = 0.02), and positively with percent body fat, irisin and thyroid hormones. Our study shows a trend for lower BAT in young female athletes

  3. Sexual Activity and Contraceptive Use among Low-Income Urban Black Adolescent Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Judith B.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Examined sexual activity and contraception among urban, low-income African-American adolescent female clients who were not sexually active (n=50), sexually active/noncontracepting (n=20), or sexually active/contracepting (n=72). Not sexually active group was younger, more career motivated, had father at home, was more influenced by family values,…

  4. Personal and environmental factors contributing to participation in romantic relationships and sexual activity of young adults with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegerink, Diana J H G; Stam, Henk J; Ketelaar, Marjolijn; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Roebroeck, Marij E

    2012-01-01

    To study determinants of romantic relationships and sexual activity of young adults with cerebral palsy (CP), focusing on personal and environmental factors. A cohort study was performed with 74 young adults (46 men; 28 women) aged 20-25 years (SD 1.4) with CP (49% unilateral CP, 76% GMFCS level I, 85% MACS level I). All participants were of normal intelligence. Romantic relationships, sexual activity (outcome measures), personal and environmental factors (associated factors) were assessed. Associations were analyzed using logistic regression analyses. More females than males with CP were in a current romantic relationship. Self-esteem, sexual esteem and feelings of competence regarding self-efficacy contributed positively to having current romantic relationships. A negative parenting style contributed negatively. Age and gross motor functioning explained 20% of the variance in experience with intercourse. In addition, sexual esteem and taking initiative contributed significantly to intercourse experience. For young adults with CP personal factors (20-35% explained variances) seem to contribute more than environmental factors (9-12% explained variances) to current romantic relationships and sexual experiences. We advice parents and professionals to focus on self-efficacy, self-esteem and sexual self-esteem in development of young adults with CP. [ • The severity of gross motor functioning contributed somewhat to sexual activities, but not to romantic relationships.• High self-efficacy, self-esteem and sexual self-esteem can facilitate involvement in romantic and sexual relationships for young adults with CP.

  5. Technical player profiles related to the physical fitness of young female volleyball players predict team performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila-Romero, C; Hernández-Mocholí, M A; García-Hermoso, A

    2015-03-01

    This study is divided into three sequential stages: identification of fitness and game performance profiles (individual player performance), an assessment of the relationship between these profiles, and an assessment of the relationship between individual player profiles and team performance during play (in championship performance). The overall study sample comprised 525 (19 teams) female volleyball players aged 12-16 years and a subsample (N.=43) used to examine study aims one and two was selected from overall sample. Anthropometric, fitness and individual player performance (actual game) data were collected in the subsample. These data were analyzed through clustering methods, ANOVA and independence chi-square test. Then, we investigated whether the proportion of players with the highest individual player performance profile might predict a team's results in the championship. Cluster analysis identified three volleyball fitness profiles (high, medium, and low) and two individual player performance profiles (high and low). The results showed a relationship between both types of profile (fitness and individual player performance). Then, linear regression revealed a moderate relationship between the number of players with a high volleyball fitness profile and a team's results in the championship (R2=0.23). The current study findings may enable coaches and trainers to manage training programs more efficiently in order to obtain tailor-made training, identify volleyball-specific physical fitness training requirements and reach better results during competitions.

  6. Effects of x-irradiation of young female beagles on life span and tumor incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenblatt, L.S.; Book, S.A.; Goldman, M.

    1986-01-01

    Causes of death and the occurrence of neoplasia in female beagle dogs were evaluated retrospectively for 57 unexposed and 296 exposed dogs given single or fractionated whole-body x-irradiation exposures of 100 or 300 R. Some dogs subsequently were bred, and all were observed for the duration of their lives. The pathology for these dogs was derived from clinical records, gross-necropsy reports, tissue slides, and Formalin-fixed tissues. The results of this study indicated dose-related shortening of life span was clearly evident; causes of death due to either neoplasia (50%) or nonneoplastic disease (50%), with few exceptions, were similar in control and irradiated dogs; the incidences of neoplasms were not significantly greater for irradiated dogs than for controls, but the latency period decreased as dose increased; protraction increased survival in dogs given 300 R but not 100 R, which is attributable solely to amelioration of incidence rates of nonmammary neoplasia; and the cumulative rates of death due to mammary tumors were the same in dogs exposed to 100 R and 300 R. 14 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Balloon Cell Malignant Melanoma in a Young Female: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yui Hattori

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Balloon cell malignant melanoma (BCMM is a very rare malignant melanoma subtype. The clinical appearance of BCMM varies; it may be nodular, ulcerated, polypoid, papillomatous and often non-pigmented. The tumor cells histologically appear large, polygonal or round and contain abundant granular or vacuolated cytoplasm. We herein report the case of a 32-year-old female who presented with a focal eccentric pigmented mass in the left lumbar region of 15 mm in diameter that had been present for several years. She underwent tumor excision. The histopathological analysis showed epithelioid melanocytes with clear cytoplasm. An immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the cells were positive for HMB-45 and S-100 protein and negative for cytokeratin. The balloon cell component stained negative for Fontana-Masson. A month later, the patient underwent excision of the bilateral inguinal lymph nodes and metastatic BCMM was revealed. The lymph node metastases showed the complete replacement of lymph nodes by balloon cells. A diagnosis of BCMM (Breslow depth 10 mm, Clark level V without ulcer was rendered. Staining with Ki-67 was positive in almost 44% of the balloon cells.

  8. Mesothelioma with superior vena cava obstruction in young female following short latency of asbestos exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupam Patra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An 18 years female was admitted with right-sided chest pain, dry cough, and low-grade fever and weight loss for last 1 month. On examination, patient had features of superior vena cava (SVC syndrome with right-sided pleural effusion. Chest X-ray showed mediastinal widening with nonhomogenous opacity mainly in the periphery of right upper and mid zone with right-sided pleural effusion. Ultrasonography thorax confirmed mild pleural effusion. Pleural fluid analysis showed lymphocytic, exudative, low adenosine deaminase with negative for Pap smear. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT thorax revealed large extensive nodular soft tissue lesion along right mediastinum as well as costal pleura, with enlarged pretracheal lymphadenopathy and SVC obstruction. CT guided Tru-cut biopsy report came as malignant epithelial tumor with polygonal shape, abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm and nuclei with prominent nucleoli suggestive of mesothelioma of epithelioid type. The tumor cell expressed calretinin, WT-1, and immunonegative for thyroid transcription factor-1.

  9. The Relationship between Neck Pain and Cervical Alignment in Young Female Nursing Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jang-Hun; Kim, Joo Han; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Kwon, Taek-Hyun; Park, Yoon-Kwan; Moon, Hong Joo

    2015-09-01

    Degenerative changes in the cervical spine are commonly accompanied by cervical kyphosis which can cause neck pain. This study examined the relationship between neck pain and cervical alignment. A total of 323 female nursing staff from our hospital were enrolled. Sagittal radiographs of the cervical spine, Body Mass Index (BMI), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) measures of neck and arm pain, Neck Disability Index (NDI) and the Short Form (36) Health Survey (SF-36 scores) were obtained and reviewed retrospectively. Global lordosis (GL) of the cervical spine was measured on radiograph images. Correlations between GL and questionnaire scores were investigated using the following three methods : 1) correlation between GL and questionnaire scores among the entire sample; 2) subgroup analysis of patients with "kyphosis (KYP) : GL scores0" on questionnaire measures; and 3) subgroup analysis of patients with pain vs. those without pain, on GL and questionnaire measures. There was no significant correlation between GL and any questionnaire measure. There was a significant difference between the mean GLs of the KYP and LOR groups, but there were no group differences in BMI, age or any questionnaire measures. There was no difference between the pain (n=92) and pain-free (n=231) groups in age, BMI or GL, but there were differences in neck, and arm pain, and physical function and NDI scores. Our data suggest that kyphotic deformity was not associated with neck pain.

  10. Regulation of antioxidant enzyme activities in male and female rat macrophages by sex steroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azevedo R.B.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Human and animal immune functions present sex dimorphism that seems to be mainly regulated by sex hormones. In the present study, the activities of the antioxidant enzymes total superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px were measured in intraperitoneal resident macrophages from adult male and female rats. In addition to comparing males and females, we also examined the regulation of these enzyme activities in macrophages by sex steroids. GSH-Px activity did not differ between male and female macrophages. However, both total SOD and CAT activities were markedly higher in females than in males (83 and 180%. Removal of the gonads in both males and females (comparison between castrated groups increased the difference in SOD activity from 83 to 138% and reduced the difference in CAT activity from 180 to 86%. Castration and testosterone administration did not significantly modify the activities of the antioxidant enzymes in male macrophages. Ovariectomy did not affect SOD or GSH-Px activity but markedly reduced (48% CAT activity. This latter change was fully reversed by estrogen administration, whereas progesterone had a smaller effect. These results led us to conclude that differences in the SOD and CAT activities may partially explain some of the differences in immune function reported for males and females. Also, estrogen is a potent regulator of CAT in macrophages and therefore this enzyme activity in macrophages may vary considerably during the menstrual cycle.

  11. Lifetime physical activity and female stress urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygaard, Ingrid E; Shaw, Janet M; Bardsley, Tyler; Egger, Marlene J

    2015-07-01

    We sought to estimate whether moderate/severe stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in middle-aged women is associated with overall lifetime physical activity (including leisure, household, outdoor, and occupational), as well as lifetime leisure (recreational), lifetime strenuous, and strenuous activity during the teen years. Recruitment for this case-control study was conducted in primary-care-level family medicine and gynecology clinics. A total of 1538 enrolled women ages 39-65 years underwent a Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification examination to assess vaginal support. Based on Incontinence Severity Index scores, cases had moderate/severe and controls had no/mild SUI. We excluded 349 with vaginal descent at/below the hymen (pelvic organ prolapse), 194 who did not return questionnaires, and 110 with insufficient activity data for analysis. In all, 213 cases were frequency matched 1:1 by age group to controls. Physical activity was measured using the Lifetime Physical Activity Questionnaire, in which women recall activity from menarche to present. We created separate multivariable logistic regression models for activity measures. SUI odds increased slightly with overall lifetime activity (odds ratio [OR], 1.20 per 70 additional metabolic equivalent of task-h/wk; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.41), and were not associated with lifetime strenuous activity (OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.99-1.25). In quintile analysis of lifetime leisure activity, which demonstrated a nonlinear pattern, all quintiles incurred about half the odds of SUI compared to reference (second quintile; P = .009). Greater strenuous activity in teen years modestly increased SUI odds (OR, 1.37 per 7 additional h/wk; 95% CI, 1.09-1.71); OR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.15-2.66 in sensitivity analysis adjusting for measurement error. The predicted probability of SUI rose linearly in women exceeding 7.5 hours of strenuous activity/wk during teen years. Teen strenuous activity had a similar effect on SUI odds when

  12. Westernization of dietary patterns among young Japanese and Polish females -- a comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morinaka, Tomoko; Wozniewicz, Malgorzata; Jeszka, Jan; Bajerska, Joanna; Nowaczyk, Paulina; Sone, Yoshiaki

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, the process of the westernization of eating habits is perceived to be one of the main causes of epidemics of civilization diseases, such as metabolic syndrome. The aim of the study was to assess the westernization of eating habits among 100 Japanese (aged 18-23 years) and 111 Polish female students (aged 19-25 years) of nutrition science related faculties. Food-frequency questionnaires were used to assess a dietary pattern during the four seasons of a one-year investigation. Data obtained in each season was pooled. The frequency of consumption of different foods (servings/week) between the two countries was compared and characterization of the dietary patterns of both studied populations was analyzed by factor analysis. When food consumption between the two countries was compared, apart from total meat and meat products and high-energy drink intake, significant differences were observed in all foods and food groups. Three dietary patterns were identified in both groups. Among Japanese participants, the first pattern was 'traditional Japanese', the second 'sweets and beverages', and the third 'Western', explaining 9.0%, 8.5% and 6.4% of the total variance, respectively. Among Polish participants, the first pattern was 'prudent', the second 'Western', and the third 'sweets and alcoholic beverages', explaining 8.2%, 7.7%, 6.4% of the total variance, respectively. Although the 'Western' dietary pattern was found in both groups, there were some differences in the remaining dietary patterns between the two countries. In the Japanese participants, significant cultural influences on habitual food intake could still be observed, and the extent of diet westernization seems to be smaller compared to the Polish participants.

  13. Physical exercise during encoding improves vocabulary learning in young female adults: a neuroendocrinological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Kassow, Maren; Deusser, Marie; Thiel, Christian; Otterbein, Sascha; Montag, Christian; Reuter, Martin; Banzer, Winfried; Kaiser, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    Acute physical activity has been repeatedly shown to improve various cognitive functions. However, there have been no investigations comparing the effects of exercise during verbal encoding versus exercise prior to encoding on long-term memory performance. In this current psychoneuroendocrinological study we aim to test whether light to moderate ergometric bicycling during vocabulary encoding enhances subsequent recall compared to encoding during physical rest and encoding after being physically active. Furthermore, we examined the kinetics of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in serum which has been previously shown to correlate with learning performance. We also controlled for the BDNF val66met polymorphism. We found better vocabulary test performance for subjects that were physically active during the encoding phase compared to sedentary subjects. Post-hoc tests revealed that this effect was particularly present in initially low performers. BDNF in serum and BDNF genotype failed to account for the current result. Our data indicates that light to moderate simultaneous physical activity during encoding, but not prior to encoding, is beneficial for subsequent recall of new items.

  14. Physical activity, lifestyle and leisure constraints in a selected female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research has revealed that physical activity and a healthy lifestyle are inter alia considered as crucial factors in maintaining optimal health. These relationships are however influenced by age and sex. Women are often constrained in their ability to reach optimum levels of physical activity participation and healthy lifestyle.

  15. Physical activity patterns of female students of Kyambogo University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Watching television (TV) was the second (64%) common passive activity students engaged in. ... of pain (67%), accessibility to available facilities (66%), financial costs (63%), safety (46%) cultural appropriateness (43%), peer support (36%) and embarrassment (27%) as factors hindering their participation in physical activity ...

  16. Do low levels of physical activity in female adolescents cause ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. The increase in obesity levels in South African adolescents is attributed to an energy imbalance such that physical inactivity is causally related to adiposity. However, in some settings obesity occurs in spite of high physical activity levels. Objectives. To examine objectively measured physical activity levels of ...

  17. Physical activity of female Malay Muslims before, during and after ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ramadan is the fasting month for Muslims, during which physical activities like sports may be held in abeyance for a more spiritual life. ... on the standard by Tudor-Locke and Bassett (2004) in which a minimum of 10,000 steps a day denotes an 'active' lifestyle, deemed sufficient to confer health benefits to the individual.

  18. Estradiol target neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus and lateral ventromedial nucleus of young adult, reproductively senescent, and monosodium glutamate-lesioned female golden hamsters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaha, G.C.; Lamperti, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    Histoautoradiographic methods were used to assess estrogen target neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) and ventromedial nucleus, lateral portion (LVM), comparing young adult and aged female golden hamsters. A subgroup of young adult females had ARC lesions induced by monosodium glutamate at neonatal day 8. All were ovariectomized to remove endogenous estrogens. Controls were given nonradioactive estradiol. After 3 H-estradiol ( 3 H-E2) was injected intravenously, hypothalami were removed, frozen, and processed for histoautoradiography. In the ARC and LVM the ratio of 3 H-E2 labelled neurons to total neurons counted was significantly lower in the older animals. Young females with ARC lesions had very few 3 H-E2 labelled neurons remaining in the ARC but had a normal complement in the LVM. Although 3 H-E2 labelled ARC neurons were notably decreased in old females, those ARC neurons that were labelled in the old had virtually the same frequency distribution of the labelling index as in the young, suggesting no change in the average estrogen uptake per target cell

  19. Effects of Implementing STEM-I Project-Based Learning Activities for Female High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Shi-Jer; Tsai, Huei-Yin; Tseng, Kuo-Hung; Shih, Ru-Chu

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to explore the application of STEM-I (STEM-Imagination) project-based learning activities and its effects on the effectiveness, processes, and characteristics of STEM integrative knowledge learning and imagination development for female high school students. A total of 72 female high school students were divided into 18 teams.…

  20. Promoting Female Students' Learning Motivation towards Science by Exercising Hands-On Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen-jin, Kuo; Chia-ju, Liu; Shi-an, Leou

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to design different hands-on science activities and investigate which activities could better promote female students' learning motivation towards science. This study conducted three types of science activities which contains nine hands-on activities, an experience scale and a learning motivation scale for data…

  1. HEALTH ATTITUDES OF THE FEMALE STUDENTS FROM OLSZTYN, POLAND - THE PHYSICAL ACTIVITY, ADDICTIONS AND THE KNOWLEDGE ABOUT HEALTH BEHAVIORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podstawski Robert

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to improve the health of the population are now focused on promoting healthy lifestyle, improve living conditions and to reduce mortality. Health education activities include regular physical activity, optimal nutrition, reduce addictions and stress. The purpose of the survey conducted among 672 first-year female students at the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn (Poland was to determine the attitudes of young women towards a healthy lifestyle. Using anonymous survey questionnaire asked students about the form of physical activity, nutrition, the presence of stressful situations, the use of drugs, such as alcohol and cigarettes, and the interest in deepening knowledge of public health. The majority of students have participated only in obligatory physical education classes in high school and college. They considered that physical activity during the studies should be voluntary. Only 4.24% of students were total abstinence from alcohol, but 79.10% was non-smoking. Many of the women declared the need to change the diet, reducing alcohol intake and give up smoking habit. The students felt that stress connected with attending university is unavoidable, and thus revealed an interest in reducing and limiting mental tension. Despite their young age, students expressed interest in topics such as: first aid course, nutrition, sexuality, and pregnancy problems.

  2. Preventive Neuromuscular Training for Young Female Athletes: Comparison of Coach and Athlete Compliance Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Dai; Mattacola, Carl G; Bush, Heather M; Thomas, Staci M; Foss, Kim D Barber; Myer, Gregory D; Hewett, Timothy E

    2017-01-01

     Fewer athletic injuries and lower anterior cruciate ligament injury incidence rates were noted in studies of neuromuscular-training (NMT) interventions that had high compliance rates. However, several groups have demonstrated that preventive NMT interventions were limited by low compliance rates.  To descriptively analyze coach and athlete compliance with preventive NMT and compare the compliance between study arms as well as among school levels and sports.  Randomized, controlled clinical trial.  Middle and high school athletic programs. Participants or Other Participants: A total of 52 teams, comprising 547 female athletes, were randomly assigned to the experimental or control group and followed for 1 athletic season.  The experimental group (n = 30 teams [301 athletes]: 12 basketball teams [125 athletes], 6 soccer teams [74 athletes], and 12 volleyball teams [102 athletes]) participated in an NMT program aimed at reducing traumatic knee injuries through a trunk-stabilization and hip-strengthening program. The control group (n = 22 teams [246 athletes]: 11 basketball teams [116 athletes], 5 soccer teams [68 athletes], and 6 volleyball teams [62 athletes]) performed a resistive rubber-band running program.  Compliance with the assigned intervention protocols (3 times per week during the preseason [mean = 3.4 weeks] and 2 times per week in-season [mean = 11.9 weeks] of coaches [coach compliance] and athletes [athlete compliance]) was measured descriptively. Using an independent t test, we compared coach and athlete compliance between the study arms. A 2-way analysis of variance was calculated to compare differences between coach and athlete compliance by school level (middle and high schools) and sport (basketball, soccer, and volleyball).  The protocols were completed at a mean rate of 1.3 ± 1.1 times per week during the preseason and 1.2 ± 0.5 times per week in-season. A total of 88.4% of athletes completed 2/3 of the intervention sessions

  3. Physical activity, body composition and metabolic syndrome in young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minna K Salonen

    Full Text Available Low physical activity (PA is a major risk factor for cardiovascular and metabolic disorders in all age groups. We measured intensity and volume of PA and examined the associations between PA and the metabolic syndrome (MS, its components and body composition among young Finnish adults.The study comprises 991 men and women born 1985-86, who participated in a clinical study during the years 2009-11 which included assessments of metabolism, body composition and PA. Objectively measured (SenseWear Armband five-day PA data was available from 737 participants and was expressed in metabolic equivalents of task (MET.The prevalence of MS ranged between 8-10%. Higher total mean volume (MET-hours or intensity (MET were negatively associated with the risk of MS and separate components of MS, while the time spent at sedentary level of PA was positively associated with MS.MS was prevalent in approximately every tenth of the young adults at the age of 24 years. Higher total mean intensity and volume rates as well as longer duration spent at moderate and vigorous PA level had a beneficial impact on the risk of MS. Longer time spent at the sedentary level of PA increased the risk of MS.

  4. The situation for female survivors of non-partner sexual violence: A focused enquiry of Somali young women's views, knowledge and opinions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrskog, Ulrika; Hussein, Ifrah Hashi; Yusuf, Farah Mohamed; Egal, Jama Ali; Erlandsson, Kerstin

    2018-06-01

    The aim of the study is to elucidate young women's perceptions of the situation for female survivors of non-partner sexual violence in Somaliland. Young Somali women with diverse backgrounds (n = 25) shared views, knowledge and opinions about non partner sexual violence in focus group discussions held in urban settings. Data was analysed using content analysis. A main category "Bound by culture and community perceptions" with four subcategories comprises the informants' perceptions of non-partner sexual violence among young women in Somaliland. Illuminated is the importance of protecting oneself and the family dignity, a fear of being rejected and mistrusted, how the juridical system exists in the shadow of tradition and potential keys to healthcare support. The study raises awareness of the dilemmas which may be faced by young women subjected to non-partner sexual violence and healthcare providers in the intersection between state and traditional norms. Education is a key when it comes to a young woman considering the use of the services available in a society where traditional problem-solving is relied on parallel to state-based support. State-based functions, communities and families need to work together to provide comprehensive support to young female survivors of non-partner sexual violence in Somaliland. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Energy expenditure during sexual activity in young healthy couples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Frappier

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine energy expenditure in kilocalories (kcal during sexual activity in young healthy couples in their natural environment and compare it to a session of endurance exercise. METHODS: The study population consisted of twenty one heterosexual couples (age: 22.6 ± 2.8 years old from the Montreal region. Free living energy expenditure during sexual activity and the endurance exercise was measured using the portable mini SenseWear armband. Perceived energy expenditure, perception of effort, fatigue and pleasure were also assessed after sexual activity. All participants completed a 30 min endurance exercise session on a treadmill at a moderate intensity. RESULTS: Mean energy expenditure during sexual activity was 101 kCal or 4.2 kCal/min in men and 69.1 kCal or 3.1 kCal/min in women. In addition, mean intensity was 6.0 METS in men and 5.6 METS in women, which represents a moderate intensity. Moreover, the energy expenditure and intensity during the 30 min exercise session in men was 276 kCal or 9.2 kCal/min and 8.5 METS, respectively and in women 213 kCal or 7.1 kCal/min and 8.4 METS, respectively. Interestingly, the highest range value achieved by men for absolute energy expenditure can potentially be higher than that of the mean energy expenditure of the 30 min exercise session (i.e. 306.1 vs. 276 kCal, respectively whereas this was not observed in women. Finally, perceived energy expenditure during sexual activity was similar in men (100 kCal and in women (76.2 kCal when compared to measured energy expenditure. CONCLUSION: The present study indicates that energy expenditure during sexual activity appears to be approximately 85 kCal or 3.6 kCal/min and seems to be performed at a moderate intensity (5.8 METS in young healthy men and women. These results suggest that sexual activity may potentially be considered, at times, as a significant exercise.

  6. Young Children as Active Citizens in Local Government: Possibilities and Challenges from an Australian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomaeus, Clare; Gregoric, Carolyn; Krieg, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Despite considerable research and discussion regarding children and young people's rights and citizenship, the participation of young children in community decision-making is still limited. In this exploratory research, a case study is reported on how ideas about young children as active citizens are interpreted within one local government…

  7. Threats during sex work and association with mental health among young female sex workers in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Phoenix K H; Mak, Winnie W S; Kwok, Yvonne T Y; Xin, Meiqi; Chan, Charlie W L; Yip, Louise W M

    2018-08-01

    Young female sex workers (YFSWs) are confronted with significant threats during sex work. The present cross-sectional study examined different levels of threats (i.e., threats to life and health, threats to humanity, threats to control of work and financial security, and the threats to future) experienced by 87 YFSWs (age 16-25) in Hong Kong, and identified their association with mental health (i.e., psychological well-being) together with other factors, including childhood trauma, self-efficacy, hope, and social support. Results showed that the participants encountered a significant number of threats. More than half reported that they had a condom removed by clients during sex (51.7%); or have been humililated by clients (51.7%). Because of sex work, about a quarter (25.3%) have had sexually transmitted disease, and respectively 10.3% and 12.6% have had abortion and unplanned pregnancy. The majority have had friends found out that they engaged in sex work (72.4%). They also showed a high level of worry about the various threats. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that childhood trauma (β = -.26) and worry about threats during sex work (β = -.22) were significantly negative predictors, while self-efficacy (β = .20) and hope (β = .27) were significantly positive predictors of mental health. Future services should improve YFSWs' skills to minimize potential threats during female sex work, address the structural correlates and relieve their worries, and empower them with more hope and self-efficacy in choosing clients.

  8. Male mice ultrasonic vocalizations enhance female sexual approach and hypothalamic kisspeptin neuron activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaba, Akari; Osakada, Takuya; Touhara, Kazushige; Kato, Masahiro; Mogi, Kazutaka; Kikusui, Takefumi

    2017-08-01

    Vocal communication in animals is important for ensuring reproductive success. Male mice emit song-like "ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs)" when they encounter female mice, and females show approach to the USVs. However, it is unclear whether USVs of male mice trigger female behavioral and endocrine responses in reproduction. In this study, we first investigated the relationship between the number of deliveries in breeding pairs for 4months and USVs syllables emitted from those paired males during 3min of sexual encounter with unfamiliar female mice. There was a positive correlation between these two indices, which suggests that breeding pairs in which males could emit USVs more frequently had more offspring. Further, we examined the effect of USVs of male mice on female sexual behavior. Female mice showed more approach behavior towards vocalizing males than devocalized males. Finally, to determine whether USVs of male mice could activate the neural system governing reproductive function in female mice, the activation of kisspeptin neurons, key neurons to drive gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons in the hypothalamus, was examined using dual-label immunocytochemistry with cAMP response element-binding protein phosphorylation (pCREB). In the arcuate nucleus (Arc), the number of kisspeptin neurons expressing pCREB significantly increased after exposure to USVs of male as compared with noise exposure group. In conclusion, our results suggest that USVs of male mice promote fertility in female mice by activating both their approaching behavior and central kisspeptin neurons. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparisons of muscular activity in males and females while walking in restricted postures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hodgskiss, J

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine differences in muscular activation between males and females while walking in restricted postures. Restricted postures are evident in various industries, including mining, construction and agriculture...

  10. Perceived Expectations for Active Aging, Formal Productive Roles, and Psychological Adjustment Among the Young-Old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Maria K; Silbereisen, Rainer K

    2016-01-01

    We investigated how older adults' perceptions of societal expectations for active aging, or activation demands (e.g., to stay fit and to contribute to the public good), relate to their involvement in paid work and formal volunteering and psychological adjustment. We used two waves of survey data on young-old Germans (aged 56-75, N(T1) = 1,508, N(T2) = 602). With the exception of several items on perceived activation demands, paid work and volunteering were not significant longitudinal predictors of such demands. In females, perceived activation demands increased the likelihood to work for pay a year later. Finally, among nonworking individuals, perceived activation demands predicted a better physical self-concept and a higher positive affect, whereas among nonvolunteers, such demands predicted fewer depressive symptoms a year later. We conclude that the policy debate on active aging may benefit some older German adults but is of little consequence for most of them. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Male and female experiences of having fertility matters raised alongside a cancer diagnosis during the teenage and young adult years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawshaw, M A; Glaser, A W; Hale, J P; Sloper, P

    2009-07-01

    Discussion and management of potential reproductive health sequelae of adolescent cancer are essential and challenging components of care for the multidisciplinary team. Despite this, research has been limited to specific experiences (e.g. sperm banking) or fertility-related concerns of adult survivors. This grounded theory study of 38 male and female survivors of adolescent cancer aged 16-30 years drew on in-depth single interviews to map the range of experiences of being advised that treatment might affect fertility. Strong support for being told at around diagnosis was found regardless of gender, age, incapacity or availability of fertility preservation services. Age and life stage appeared less significant for impact than the perceived level of threat to personal and social well-being. Women were more likely to achieve lower levels of comprehension about the physiological impact, to report later distress from lack of fertility preservation services and to revisit more frequently those decisions made by the few offered fertility preservation. Men found decision making about sperm banking straightforward on the whole and reported satisfaction with having the choice regardless of outcome. Findings suggest that young people can cope with this information alongside diagnosis especially when professional and parental support is proportionate to the particular impact on them.

  12. Adolescent males and young females in tehran: differing perspectives, behaviors and needs for reproductive health and implications for gender sensitive interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahani, Farideh Khalaj Abadi; Shah, Iqbal; Cleland, John; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza

    2012-04-01

    Despite cultural and religious prohibitions against premarital heterosexual relationships and intimacy, some recent evidence suggests some rise in premarital heterosexual interactions and relationships among young people. On the other hand, although HIV in Iran is a concentrated epidemic and mainly reported among high risk groups such as injecting drug users (IDUs), but there are evidences that the mode of transmission is shifting towards sexual contacts. This trend has caused concern among health policy makers in terms of prevention of STDs and HIV/AIDS particularly, among young people. This paper was prepared with the aim of highlighting how gender contributes to variation in reproductive health needs and conduct of young people in Iran. This paper is based on a secondary analysis and compares comparable reproductive beliefs and conducts of women and men based on the data of two surveys conducted in Tehran in 2002 and 2005. A survey among 1385 adolescent males and another survey among 1743 female undergraduate students in four multidisciplinary universities in Tehran. Both surveys used anonymous self-administered questionnaires. To make the two samples comparable, the data of unmarried female university undergraduate students who resided in Tehran were merged with the data of adolescent male students who intended to pursue higher education. Common variables of the two surveys were identified, homogenized, merged and analysed. Reproductive health knowledge among male adolescents was poor compared to that of their female peers. Although premarital friendships were moderately acceptable from view points of both males and females, the majority were against premarital sex, particularly among female participants. There were evidences of gender-based double standards in perceptions of premarital sexuality among both males and females; particularly, it was stronger among males than females. Male adolescents reported earlier and greater experiences of premarital

  13. Title IX, Girls' Sports Participation, and Adult Female Physical Activity and Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaestner, Robert; Xu, Xin

    2010-01-01

    Arguably, the most important school-based intervention to increase physical activity was Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, which led to a 600% increase in girls' sports participation between 1972 and 1978. We studied the effect of this increase in sports participation and athletic opportunities while young on the physical activity and…

  14. Association Between Internet Use and Body Dissatisfaction Among Young Females: Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Canadian Community Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Allison; Forrest, Jamie I; Kaida, Angela

    2017-02-09

    Recent research suggests Internet exposure, including Facebook use, is positively correlated with body dissatisfaction, especially among girls and young women. Canada has one of the highest Internet access rates in the world, yet no previous study has examined this relationship using nationally representative data. Our objective was to evaluate the relationship between Internet use and body dissatisfaction among a national, population-based sample of Canadian females 12-29 years of age. We used cross-sectional data from the Canadian Community Health Survey 2011-2012. Body dissatisfaction was measured using a 5-point Likert scale and defined as "very dissatisfied/dissatisfied" with one's body. The explanatory variable was time spent using the Internet per week in the past 3 months, ranging from none/20 hours. We used multinomial logistic regression to investigate whether greater Internet use was associated with increasing odds of being very dissatisfied/dissatisfied, neutral, or satisfied with one's body, using very satisfied as the referent. Probability survey sampling weights were applied to all analyses. Of 2983 included participants, sampled to represent 940,786 young Canadian females, most were 20-29 years old (61.98%) and living in households with an annual income Can $80,000 or more (44.61%). The prevalence of body dissatisfaction was 14.70%, and 25- to 29-year-olds were more likely than 12- to 14-year-olds to be very dissatisfied or dissatisfied with their body (20.76% vs 6.34%). Few (5.01%) reported none/Internet use, over half (56.93%) reported 1-10 hours, and one-fifth (19.52%) reported spending >20 hours online per week. Adjusting for age and income, the odds of being very dissatisfied/dissatisfied, relative to very satisfied, were greater in the highest versus lowest Internet use group (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 3.03, 95% CI 1.19-7.70). The AORs for this level of body dissatisfaction increased across increasing levels of Internet use, ranging from 0

  15. Comparison of parameters of bone profile and homocysteine in physically active and non-active postmenopausal females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, Sundus; Lone, Khalid Parvez; Tariq, Saba

    2016-01-01

    Optimal physical activity is important in attaining a peak bone mass. Physically active women have better bone mineral density and reduce fracture risk as compared to females living a sedentary life. The objective of this study was to compare parameters of bone profile and serum homocysteine levels in physically active and non-active postmenopausal females. In this cross sectional study postmenopausal females between 50-70 years of age were recruited and divided into two groups: Physically inactive (n=133) performing light physical activity and Physically active (n=34) performing moderate physical activity. Physical activity (in metabolic equivalents), bone mineral density and serum homocysteine levels were assessed. Spearman's rho correlation was applied to observe correlations. Two independent sample t test and Mann Whitney U test were applied to compare groups. P-value ≤ 0.05 was taken statistically significant. Parameters of bone profile were significantly higher and serum homocysteine levels were significantly lower in postmenopausal females performing moderate physical activity as compared to females performing light physical activity. Homocysteine was not significantly related to T-score and Z-score in both groups. Improving physical activity could be beneficial for improving the quality of bone, decreasing fracture risk and decreasing serum homocysteine levels.

  16. Oxytocin decreases cocaine taking, cocaine seeking, and locomotor activity in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Kah-Chung; Zhou, Luyi; Ghee, Shannon M; See, Ronald E; Reichel, Carmela M

    2016-02-01

    Oxytocin has been shown to decrease cocaine taking and seeking in male rats, suggesting potential treatment efficacy for drug addiction. In the present study, we extended these findings to the assessment of cocaine seeking and taking in female rats. Further, we made direct comparisons of oxytocin's impact on cocaine induced locomotor activity in both males and females. In females, systemic oxytocin (0.3, 1.0, 3.0 mg/kg) attenuated lever pressing for cocaine during self-administration and oxytocin (1.0 mg/kg) attenuated cue-induced cocaine seeking following extinction. Cocaine increased baseline locomotor activity to a greater degree in females relative to males. Oxytocin (0.1, 0.3, 1.0, and 3.0 mg/kg) reduced cocaine-induced locomotor activity in females, but not significantly in males. These data illustrate sex similarities in oxytocin's attenuation of cocaine seeking, but sex differences in cocaine-induced locomotor effects. While reductions in cocaine seeking cannot be attributed to a reduction in locomotor activity in males, attenuation of locomotor function cannot be entirely ruled out as an explanation for a decrease in cocaine seeking in females suggesting that oxytocin's effect on cocaine seeking may be mediated by different mechanisms in male and females. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. THE RECRUITMENT OF YOUNG PEOPLE FOR R&D ACTIVITY AND THE ISSUE OF GENDER EQUALITY – THE CASE OF SLOVENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franc Mali

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years European Union and its member states are facing with a big policy challenge how to increase the human resources in R&D activities and how to attract young people for entering science careers, first of all women. Although the participation of women in science has increased in recent decades, they are still too often dispriviliged and underrepresented in everyday scientific practice. In the article, there is addressed the case of Slovenia. There is analysed the recruitment of young female researchers in “The Young Research Programme” in Slovenia and mentor’s support to the female PhD candidates. The results of empirical study show that regardless of the efficiency of “The Young Research Programme” it has not succeeded in improving the gender structure of young researchers in Slovenia. Moreover, the authors of empirical analysis come to the conclusion, that on the micro level young female researchers receive less intellectual and psychological support from their mentors than their male counterparts.

  18. Alcohol Use, Risk Taking, Leisure Activities and Health Care Use Among Young People in Northern Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Thi Kim Thoa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption is associated with a wide range of health and social consequences. It is also associated with a number of risk taking behaviours. These include illicit drug use and unsafe sex.  Alcohol consumption appears to be increasing in Vietnam. The purpose of this paper is to examine the patterns of alcohol consumption and its relationship with a number of other risk taking behaviours amongst young people.  Information was also obtained concerning leisure activities and use of health care. The paper also sets out to examine possible gender differences in relation to alcohol consumption and risk behaviour and to propose the development and implementation of alcohol monitoring and prevention programs in Vietnam.  The study involved a cross-sectional, community survey using a standardised interview.  This was conducted during face-to-face interviews with 1,408 young people aged 10-19 years.  Respondents were recruited randomly through the lists of the households from 12 selected communes in three areas in Northern Vietnam. The findings presented here were part of a larger health risk behaviour survey.  Levels of alcohol use were low. Overall, 16.5% of participants were experienced drinkers, and only 4% of them were current drinkers. Males were significantly more likely than females to report drinking. This study also showed that rates of alcohol consumption were associated with age, education, geographical area, gender, tobacco smoking, involvement in violence, watching television, computer use and playing computer games, wearing safety helmets and use of health services. Alcohol consumption tended to increase with age for both males and females.  Alcohol and its effects on young people are clearly a growing public health issue in Vietnam.  Because of this, more detailed behavioral research should be conducted into the relationship between alcohol consumption and other risky behaviours amongst young people.  It is also

  19. The Changes of Muscle Strength and Functional Activities During Aging in Male and Female Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Jung Cheng

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: We noted that the muscle strength and functional activities were decreased earlier in female than male individuals. The decrease of functional activities during the aging process seems to be earlier than the decrease of muscle strength. It is important to implement functional activities training in addition to strengthening exercise to maintain functional levels of the geriatric population.

  20. Perceived Body Image, Eating Behavior, and Sedentary Activities and Body Mass Index Categories in Kuwaiti Female Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemia H. Shaban

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The State of Kuwait has a growing obesity epidemic in both genders and all age groups; however, obesity rates in the young seem to be rising. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in 169 Kuwaiti female adolescents attending both private and public schools spanning the six governorates in the State of Kuwait in order to explore female adolescents’ self-image, body dissatisfaction, type of school (private versus public, TV viewing, and computer games and their relationship to body mass index. Results. Approximately half the students classified as obese perceived their body image to lie in the normal range. Females in the obese category were the most dissatisfied with their body image, followed by those in the overweight category. Eating behavior, level of physical activity, school type, television viewing, computer/video usage, and desired BMI were not significantly associated with level of obesity. Conclusion. This study was one of the few studies to assess adolescent females’ body image dissatisfaction in relation to obesity in the State of Kuwait. The results suggest that including body image dissatisfaction awareness into obesity prevention programs would be of value.

  1. Examining differences in types and location of recruitment venues for young males and females from urban neighborhoods: findings from a multi-site HIV prevention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chutuape, Kate S; Ziff, Mauri; Auerswald, Colette; Castillo, Marné; McFadden, Antionette; Ellen, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    Finding and accessing members of youth subpopulations, such as young men who have sex with men (YMSM) of color or young females of color, for behavioral or disease surveillance or study recruitment, pose particular challenges. Venue-based sampling strategies--which hinge on where individuals congregate or "hang out" rather than where they live--appear to be effective alternatives. Methods used to identify venues focus on engaging members of social networks to learn where targeted populations congregate. However, it is not always clear if and how these methods differ according to gender, whether the youth accessed at a venue are actually from neighborhoods in which the venues are found, and whether the location of venues relative to neighborhoods of residence is different for young men and young women. This study illustrates the gender differences in venue type and venue location where eligible youth study participants from high-risk neighborhoods could be accessed for HIV research across 15 research sites (sites). The findings indicate that the study's method led to identifying venues where one quarter or more of the youth were eligible study participants and from the high-risk neighborhoods. Sites targeting young women of color had a higher proportion of eligible study participants who were also from the high-risk neighborhoods than sites targeting YMSM. Clubs were most commonly identified by sites targeting YMSM as recruitment venues, whereas neighborhood-based service or commercial centers were more common venues for young women of color. This study reveals how venue-based recruitment strategies can be tailored and resources maximized by understanding the key differences in the types of venues preferred by males and females and by recognizing that female-preferred venues are more likely to be closer to home.

  2. Physical Activity across Frailty Phenotypes in Females with Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaitlyn P. Roland

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Females with Parkinson’s disease (PD are vulnerable to frailty. PD eventually leads to decreased physical activity, an indicator of frailty. We speculate PD results in frailty through reduced physical activity. Objective. Determine the contribution of physical activity on frailty in PD (n=15, 65 ± 9 years and non-PD (n=15, 73 ± 14 years females. Methods. Frailty phenotype (nonfrail/prefrail/frail was categorized and 8 hours of physical activity was measured using accelerometer, global positioning system, and self-report. Two-way ANCOVA (age as covariate was used to compare physical activity between disease and frailty phenotypes. Spearman correlation assessed relationships, and linear regression determined associations with frailty. Results. Nonfrail recorded more physical activity (intensity, counts, self-report compared with frail. Self-reported physical activity was greater in PD than non-PD. In non-PD, step counts, light physical activity time, sedentary time, and self-reported physical activity were related to frailty (R=0.91. In PD, only carbidopa-levodopa dose was related to frailty (r=0.61. Conclusion. Physical activity influences frailty in females without PD. In PD females, disease management may be a better indicator of frailty than physical activity. Further investigation into how PD associated factors contribute to frailty is warranted.

  3. Studies on thyroid activity at sexual maturity in the male and female Bengal goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varshney, V.P.; Pande, J.K.; Sanwal, P.C.

    1980-01-01

    Thyroid activity at sexual maturity in the male and female Black Bengal goats was investigated. No change could be recorded at the attainment of sexual maturity in either of the sexes. The cyclic female goats also failed to reflect any change in the thyroid activity during any phase of the oestrous cycle. Again the male goats also failed to reflect any differences in the thyroid activity from the females, either during their immature, or during their mature life. The observations presented thus reflect that the thyroid activity in goats is not influenced by the attainments of sexual maturity or by the sex, in this species. The thyroid gland activity was assessed by using the in vitro technique of triiodothyronine- 125 I uptake by resin. (author)

  4. Sexual behavior experiences and characteristics of male-female partnerships among HIV positive adolescent girls and young women: Qualitative findings from Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavhu, Webster; Rowley, Elizabeth; Thior, Ibou; Kruse-Levy, Natalie; Mugurungi, Owen; Ncube, Getrude; Leclerc-Madlala, Suzanne

    2018-01-01

    New HIV infections among sub-Saharan Africa's adolescent girls and young women (AGYW, ages 15-24) greatly exceed those of their male peers. In addition, AGYW tend to acquire HIV at a much earlier age. Understanding the factors associated with HIV infection in AGYW could inform effective prevention and treatment interventions for these populations and their male sexual partners. This qualitative study, conducted October-November 2016, was a follow on to a quantitative survey that sought to characterize male sexual partners and sexual behaviors of sexually active HIV positive AGYW in Zimbabwe. The qualitative study explored sexual behavior experiences and characteristics of male-female partnerships among the same participants. We conducted in-depth interviews with purposively sampled AGYW (16-24 years). Audio recorded qualitative data were transcribed, translated into English, and thematically coded using NVivo. 28 AGYW (n = 14 urban, n = 14 rural) took part in the in-depth interviews. 50% were 16-19 years old. Discussions with 10/11 (91%) AGYW who were reportedly infected through sex suggested that they had acquired HIV from their husbands or romantic partners. Accounts also suggested that the age difference between respondents and their male sexual partners was ≥5 years. Overall, respondents described two types of male partners: those older (''sugar daddies'', men ≥35 years old) and younger (characteristics of relationships between AGYW and their male sexual partners. Findings could inform interventions to engender risk perception among AGYW, promote female-controlled HIV prevention efforts and, foster risk-reduction among men.

  5. The Oxidant-Antioxidant Equilibrium and Inflammatory Process Indicators after an Exercise Test on the AlterG Antigravity Treadmill in Young Amateur Female Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sielski, Łukasz; Sutkowy, Paweł; Skopowska, Agnieszka; Pawlak-Osińska, Katarzyna; Augustyńska, Zofia; Hewelt, Katarzyna; Drapała, Radosław; Woźniak, Alina

    2018-01-01

    The AlterG antigravity treadmill allows running with a considerable weight reduction. Physical exercise practiced on this treadmill is an innovative method supporting the treatment of injuries in sports and rehabilitation of patients. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of a 30 min run on the AlterG treadmill with 80% body weight reduction comparing the effect to the similar effort on the classic treadmill on the redox equilibrium and the activity of selected lysosomal enzymes and a serine protease inhibitor in the blood of amateur minor female volleyball players. Venous blood samples were taken before the exercise and 30 minutes and 24 hours after its completion. The obtained results were analysed using Tukey's test and Pearson's linear correlations were calculated. 24 h after the running test on classic treadmill, the erythrocytic superoxide dismutase activity was higher than before and 30 min after it, as well as compared to the run on AlterG treadmill ( p < 0.001). The erythrocytic-conjugated diene concentration 24 h after the exercise on the classic treadmill was meaningly higher compared to that after the exercise on the AlterG treadmill ( p < 0.001). The cathepsin D activity was significantly lower after the exercise in AlterG conditions compared to the baseline value and that measured after the exercise on classic treadmill ( p < 0.001). It seems that the exercise on the AlterG treadmill keeps the oxidant-antioxidant equilibrium and stabilizes lysosomal membranes in young, physically active women in contrast to the exercise on the classic treadmill. This trial is registered with CTRI/2018/01/011344.

  6. The Oxidant–Antioxidant Equilibrium and Inflammatory Process Indicators after an Exercise Test on the AlterG Antigravity Treadmill in Young Amateur Female Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sielski, Łukasz; Skopowska, Agnieszka; Pawlak-Osińska, Katarzyna; Augustyńska, Zofia; Hewelt, Katarzyna; Drapała, Radosław

    2018-01-01

    The AlterG antigravity treadmill allows running with a considerable weight reduction. Physical exercise practiced on this treadmill is an innovative method supporting the treatment of injuries in sports and rehabilitation of patients. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of a 30 min run on the AlterG treadmill with 80% body weight reduction comparing the effect to the similar effort on the classic treadmill on the redox equilibrium and the activity of selected lysosomal enzymes and a serine protease inhibitor in the blood of amateur minor female volleyball players. Venous blood samples were taken before the exercise and 30 minutes and 24 hours after its completion. The obtained results were analysed using Tukey's test and Pearson's linear correlations were calculated. 24 h after the running test on classic treadmill, the erythrocytic superoxide dismutase activity was higher than before and 30 min after it, as well as compared to the run on AlterG treadmill (p < 0.001). The erythrocytic-conjugated diene concentration 24 h after the exercise on the classic treadmill was meaningly higher compared to that after the exercise on the AlterG treadmill (p < 0.001). The cathepsin D activity was significantly lower after the exercise in AlterG conditions compared to the baseline value and that measured after the exercise on classic treadmill (p < 0.001). It seems that the exercise on the AlterG treadmill keeps the oxidant–antioxidant equilibrium and stabilizes lysosomal membranes in young, physically active women in contrast to the exercise on the classic treadmill. This trial is registered with CTRI/2018/01/011344. PMID:29765494

  7. The Oxidant–Antioxidant Equilibrium and Inflammatory Process Indicators after an Exercise Test on the AlterG Antigravity Treadmill in Young Amateur Female Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Sielski

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The AlterG antigravity treadmill allows running with a considerable weight reduction. Physical exercise practiced on this treadmill is an innovative method supporting the treatment of injuries in sports and rehabilitation of patients. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of a 30 min run on the AlterG treadmill with 80% body weight reduction comparing the effect to the similar effort on the classic treadmill on the redox equilibrium and the activity of selected lysosomal enzymes and a serine protease inhibitor in the blood of amateur minor female volleyball players. Venous blood samples were taken before the exercise and 30 minutes and 24 hours after its completion. The obtained results were analysed using Tukey’s test and Pearson’s linear correlations were calculated. 24 h after the running test on classic treadmill, the erythrocytic superoxide dismutase activity was higher than before and 30 min after it, as well as compared to the run on AlterG treadmill (p<0.001. The erythrocytic-conjugated diene concentration 24 h after the exercise on the classic treadmill was meaningly higher compared to that after the exercise on the AlterG treadmill (p<0.001. The cathepsin D activity was significantly lower after the exercise in AlterG conditions compared to the baseline value and that measured after the exercise on classic treadmill (p<0.001. It seems that the exercise on the AlterG treadmill keeps the oxidant–antioxidant equilibrium and stabilizes lysosomal membranes in young, physically active women in contrast to the exercise on the classic treadmill. This trial is registered with CTRI/2018/01/011344.

  8. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF LIPID PROFILE IN SEDENTARY AND ACTIVE ADULT FEMALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhasini Sanda

    2018-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Lipids and lipoproteins are essential constituents of the body and their activities assist in maintenance of body homeostasis. Sedentary lifestyle has been shown to lead to inactivity, which could lead to lipid disorders. Hyperlipidaemias is one of the major independent risk factor, which affects the cardiovascular system adversely resulting eventually damage to various organs most notably heart, kidneys and brain. The present study is therefore designed to ascertain the effect of sedentary lifestyle on lipid status of sedentary adult females when compared to that of the lipid status of active adult females. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study comprised of Group I - 50 sedentary adult females and Group II - 50 active adult females aged between 30 to 60 years. The subjects selected in both groups were matched for age and dietary habits. The subjects with hypertension, diabetes, smokers, pregnancy and subjects with Body Mass Index (BMI greater than 30 are excluded. After overnight fasting of 12 to 14 hours, 5 mL of blood is collected from the subjects and fasting Total Serum Cholesterol (TC, Total Serum Triglycerides (TG, HDL cholesterol (HDL-C, LDL cholesterol (LDL-C and total serum cholesterol/HDL-C ratio are measured and data is statistically analysed. RESULTS The evaluation of lipid profile patterns in above subjects showed hypercholesterolaemia, hypertriglyceridaemia, increased LDLC and total serum cholesterol/HDL-C ratio in sedentary adult females and also decreased HDL-C levels in them when compared to the normal healthy lipid profile patterns in active adult females. A statistically significant increased lipid profiles (P-value <0.001 was observed in the sedentary adult females than in active adult females. CONCLUSION This study shows that sedentary lifestyle predisposes to hyperlipidaemias, one of the major risk factor of cardiovascular disease and lack of exercise worsens the situation.

  9. The Female Athlete Triad: Disordered Eating, Amenorrhea, and Osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, Dawnella M.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the Female Athlete Triad, an interrelated combination of disorders that can occur in girls and women who are physically active. Presents nine resources for the Female Athlete Triad. Concludes that as more young females become physically active, school personnel need to be aware of the importance of promoting healthy eating and training…

  10. Anthropometric and physical characteristics allow differentiation of young female volleyball players according to playing position and level of expertise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milić, M; Grgantov, Z; Chamari, K; Bianco, A; Padulo, J

    2016-01-01

    The aim of our study was to determine the differences in some anthropometric and physical performance variables of young Croatian female volleyball players (aged 13 to 15) in relation to playing position (i.e., independent variable) and performance level within each position (i.e., independent variable). Players were categorized according to playing position (i.e., role) as middle blockers (n=28), opposite hitters (n=41), passer-hitters (n=54), setters (n=30), and liberos (n=28). Within each position, players were divided into a more successful group and a less successful group according to team ranking in the latest regional championship and player quality within the team. Height and body mass, somatotype by the Heath-Carter method, and four tests of lower body power, speed, agility and upper body power (i.e., dependent variables) were assessed. Players in different positions differed significantly in height and all three somatotype components, but no significant differences were found in body mass, body mass index or measured physical performance variables. Players of different performance level differed significantly in both anthropometric and physical performance variables. Generally, middle blockers were taller, more ectomorphic, less mesomorphic and endomorphic, whereas liberos were shorter, less ectomorphic, more mesomorphic and endomorphic than players in other positions. More successful players in all positions had a lower body mass index, were less mesomorphic and endomorphic, and more ectomorphic than less successful players. Furthermore, more successful players showed better lower body power, speed, agility and upper body power. The results of this study can potentially provide coaches with useful indications about the use of somatotype selection and physical performance assessment for talent identification and development. PMID:28416892

  11. Activity-based anorexia activates nesfatin-1 immunoreactive neurons in distinct brain nuclei of female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharner, Sophie; Prinz, Philip; Goebel-Stengel, Miriam; Lommel, Reinhard; Kobelt, Peter; Hofmann, Tobias; Rose, Matthias; Stengel, Andreas

    2017-12-15

    Activity-based anorexia (ABA) is an established animal model for the eating disorder anorexia nervosa (AN). The pathophysiology of AN and the involvement of food intake-regulatory peptides is still poorly understood. Nesfatin-1, an anorexigenic peptide also involved in the mediation of stress, anxiety and depression might be a likely candidate involved in the pathogenesis of AN. Therefore, activation of nesfatin-1 immunoreactive (ir) brain nuclei was investigated under conditions of ABA. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were used and divided into four groups (n=6/group): activity-based anorexia (ABA), restricted feeding (RF), activity (AC) and ad libitum fed (AL). After the 21-day experimental period and development of ABA, brains were processed for c-Fos/nesfatin-1 double labeling immunohistochemistry. ABA increased the number of nesfatin-1 immunopositive neurons in the paraventricular nucleus, arcuate nucleus, dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, locus coeruleus and in the rostral part of the nucleus of the solitary tract compared to AL and AC groups (p0.05). Moreover, we observed significantly more c-Fos and nesfatin-1 ir double-labeled cells in ABA rats compared to RF, AL and AC in the supraoptic nucleus (p<0.05) and compared to AL and AC in the paraventricular nucleus, arcuate nucleus, dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, dorsal raphe nucleus and the rostral raphe pallidus (p<0.05). Since nesfatin-1 plays a role in the inhibition of food intake and the response to stress, we hypothesize that the observed changes of brain nesfatin-1 might play a role in the pathophysiology and symptomatology under conditions of ABA and potentially also in patients with AN. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Differences in male and female spino-pelvic alignment in asymptomatic young adults: a three-dimensional analysis using upright low-dose digital biplanar X-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Michiel M A; Drevelle, Xavier; Humbert, Ludovic; Skalli, Wafa; Castelein, René M

    2009-11-01

    A three-dimensional analysis of spino-pelvic alignment in 60 asymptomatic young adult males and females. To analyze the differences in sagittal spino-pelvic alignment in a group of asymptomatic young adult males and females and describe gender specific reference values. Several spinal disorders like idiopathic scoliosis and Scheuermann's disease have a well-known sex-related prevalence ratio. As spino-pelvic alignment plays an important role in spinal biomechanics, it is imperative to analyze possible differences between the male and female spino-pelvic alignment. Furthermore, in spinal fusion surgery, normal sagittal balance should be recreated as closely as possible. An innovative biplanar ultra low-dose radiographic technique was used to obtain three-dimensional reconstructions of the spine (T1-L5), sacrum, and pelvis in a freestanding position of 30 asymptomatic young male and 30 young female adults. Values were calculated for thoracic kyphosis (T4-T12), lumbar lordosis (L1-S1), total and regional lumbopelvic lordosis (PRT12, PRL2, PRL4, and PRL5), sagittal plumb line of T1, T4, and T9 (HAT1, HAT4, and HAT9), T1-L5 sagittal spinal inclination, T9 sagittal offset, and pelvic parameters (pelvic tilt, sacral slope, and pelvic incidence). In addition, vertebral inclination in the sagittal plane of each vertebra was measured. Differences in spino-pelvic alignment between the sexes were analyzed. The female spine was more dorsally inclined (11 degrees vs. 8 degrees ; P = 0.003). High thoracic and thoracolumbar vertebrae were more dorsally inclined in women than in men. Thoracic kyphosis, lumbar lordosis, regional lumbopelvic lordosis, sagittal plumb lines, T9 sagittal offset, and pelvic parameters were not statistically different between the sexes. These results indicate that the female spine is definitely different from the male spine. The spine as whole and individual vertebrae in certain regions of the normal spine is more backwardly inclined in females than in

  13. [Transgender] Young Men: Gendered Subjectivities and the Physically Active Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caudwell, Jayne

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I discuss [transgender] young men's social, physical and embodied experiences of sport. These discussions draw from interview research with two young people who prefer to self-identify as "male" and not as "trans men", although they do make use of this term. Finn and Ed volunteered to take part in the research…

  14. (GPx) activity in young barley seedlings enriched with selenium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB_YOMI

    2011-09-21

    Sep 21, 2011 ... E-mail: guzx@njau.edu.cn. Tel/Fax: +86. 25 84396293. have been used for animal feeds and beer malts. Recently, young barley seedlings have been used as food material for people in Asian countries such as China,. Japan, and Korea. Young barley seedlings are rich in dietary fiber, chlorophyll, carotene ...

  15. Den site activity patterns of adult male and female swift foxes, Vulpes velox, in Northwestern Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemons, P.R.; Ballard, W.B.; Sullivan, R.M.; Sovada, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Activity of Swift Foxes (Vulpes velox) at den sites was studied in northwestern Texas during pup rearing seasons in 2000 and 2001 to determine role of males in parental care. Twenty-four percent of radio-collared females with a potential to breed successfully raised pups to eight weeks of age. We intensively monitored presence and absence of male and female Swift Foxes at two den sites each year. Females were present >2.6 times more at den sites than males during the pup rearing season. Female and male Swift Foxes largely stayed at dens during diurnal hours and were active away from dens during nocturnal and crepuscular hours. Females and males spent 12.4% and 3.0% more time at dens before pups emerged, than after pups emerged, respectively. Following depredation of one male parent, the female spent 29% less time at the den site. Decrease in time spent at the den by the female following loss of her mate suggested that loss of one parent might severely impact recruitment of Swift Foxes. Our observations indicated that intense Coyote (Canis latrans) depredation may severely impact pup-rearing success as well as the parental care within Swift Fox family groups.

  16. Participation in Daily Activities of Young Adults with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollum, Mary; LaVesser, Patti; Berg, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Young adults with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) struggle to assume adult roles. This research assessed the feasibility of using the Adolescent and Young Adult Activity Card Sort (AYA-ACS) with emerging adults with high functioning ASD. Two phases were utilized during this research: (1) comparing the activity participation reported by emerging…

  17. Brief Report: The Theory of Planned Behaviour Applied to Physical Activity in Young People Who Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everson, Emma S.; Daley, Amanda J.; Ussher, Michael

    2007-01-01

    It has been hypothesised that physical activity may be useful as a smoking cessation intervention for young adults. In order to inform such interventions, this study evaluated the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) for understanding physical activity behaviour in young smokers. Regular smokers aged 16-19 years (N=124), self-reported physical…

  18. Young People's Voluntary and Campaigning Activities as Sources of Political Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roker, Debi; Player, Katie; Coleman, John

    1999-01-01

    Discusses political apathy and alienation among youth, challenging this negative image. Describes empirical research that demonstrates a high level of engagement by young people in social activism and community activities, focuses on factors influencing young people's participation, and demonstrates that volunteering and campaigning affect young…

  19. Physical activity and associated factors among young adults in Malaysia: an online exploratory survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeramareddy, C T; Majeed Kutty, N A; Razzaq Jabbar, M A; Boo, N Y

    2012-06-01

    The burden of non-communicable diseases is increasing in Malaysia. Insufficient Physical Activity, which is an important risk factor for non-communicable diseases, is less researched in Malaysia. We aimed to assess the level of physical activity and identify its correlates. An online survey was carried out during October, 2011 in the University Tunku Abdul Rahman by the opinion poll research committee. Young adults answered the Short International Physical Activity Questionnaire and a questionnaire about factors according to a socio-ecological model which was adapted from published studies. Metabolic equivalent (MET)-hours and MET-minutes were calculated. Physical activity was classified as sufficient when MET-minutes were > 840. The mean age of the 474 participants was 22.4 years (S.D. = 4.7), and 253 (53.4%) were females. Their mean and median of MET-hours of PA done during the previous seven days were 31.36 (S.D., 52.19) and 14.7 (IQR, 5.77-32.07), respectively. Physical activity done was sufficient among 242 (51.1%) participants. Using univariate analysis, being male, good self-rated health, positive intention, self-efficacy, perceived benefits, social support, and availability of facilities were associated with sufficient physical activity. Using multivariate analysis sufficient physical activity was associated with participants' intention (OR 0.75, 95% CIs 0.64, 0.88), self-efficacy (OR 0.91, 95% CIs 0.85, 0.97) and facility availability (OR 0.81, 95% CIs 0.73, 0.91). The proportion of participants with sufficient physical activity was low. Positive intention and self-efficacy associated with sufficient physical activity should be supported by availability of facilities and a safely-built environment. A nationwide survey about physical and associated socialecological factors is needed to design rational health promotion strategies.

  20. Oxytocin decreases cocaine taking, cocaine seeking, and locomotor activity in female rats

    OpenAIRE

    Leong, Kah-Chung; Zhou, Luyi; Ghee, Shannon M.; See, Ronald E.; Reichel, Carmela M.

    2016-01-01

    Oxytocin has been shown to decrease cocaine taking and seeking in male rats, suggesting potential treatment efficacy for drug addiction. In the present study, we extended these findings to the assessment of cocaine seeking and taking in female rats. Further, we made direct comparisons of oxytocin’s impact on cocaine induced locomotor activity in both males and females. In females, systemic oxytocin (0.3, 1.0, 3.0 mg/kg) attenuated lever pressing for cocaine during self-administration and oxyt...

  1. Effect of Motivation by “Instagram” on Adherence to Physical Activity among Female College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Eisa, Einas; Al-Rushud, Asma; Alghadir, Ahmad; Anwer, Shahnawaz; Al-Harbi, Bashayer; Al-Sughaier, Noha; Al-Yoseef, Noha; Al-Otaibi, Reem; Al-Muhaysin, Hanadi Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the efficacy of using ?Instagram application? with a ?home-exercise program? as a motivational stimulus in improving physical activity (PA) adherence levels among female college students. Methods. Fifty-eight female undergraduate students with the mean age 20.3 ? 0.96 years participated. Participants were divided into two groups: intervention and the control group; both the groups received an exercise program and the intervention group was additionally motivated by ?...

  2. Substrate Utilization is Influenced by Acute Dietary Carbohydrate Intake in Active, Healthy Females

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory, Sara; Wood, Richard; Matthews, Tracey; VanLangen, Deborah; Sawyer, Jason; Headley, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared the metabolic responses between a single low-carbohydrate (LC) and low-fat (LF) meal followed by an aerobic exercise bout in females. Subjects included 8 active, premenopausal females. Subjects completed a LC and LF testing session. Respiratory gas exchange (RER) measurements were taken for 20 min fasted, for 55 min postprandial (PP), and during 30 min of exercise. Blood was collected for assessment of glucose (G), insulin (IN), triglycerides (TG), and free fatty ac...

  3. Mental toughness, sleep disturbances, and physical activity in patients with multiple sclerosis compared to healthy adolescents and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeghi Bahmani D

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dena Sadeghi Bahmani,1 Markus Gerber,2 Nadeem Kalak,1 Sakari Lemola,3 Peter J Clough,4 Pasquale Calabrese,5 Vahid Shaygannejad,6 Uwe Pühse,2 Edith Holsboer-Trachsler,1 Serge Brand1,2 1Psychiatric Clinics of the University of Basel, Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders, 2Department of Sport, Exercise and Health, Sport Science Section, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 3Department of Psychology, University of Warwick, Coventry, 4Department of Psychology, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, UK; 5Division of Molecular and Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 6Department of Neurology and Isfahan Neurosciences Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS is the most common chronic autoimmune demyelinating and inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, afflicting both the body and mind. The risk of suffering from MS is 2.5–3.5 times greater in females than in males. While there is extant research on fatigue, depression, and cognitive impairment in patients with MS during its clinical course, there is a lack of research focusing on sleep, psychological functioning, and physical activity (PA at the point of disease onset. The aims of the present study were therefore, to assess the markers of mental toughness (MT as a dimension of psychological functioning, sleep disturbances (SD, and PA among patients at the moment of disease onset and to compare these with the corresponding values for healthy adolescents and young adults. Methods: A total of 23 patients with MS at disease onset (mean age =32.31 years; 91% females, 23 healthy adolescents (mean age =17.43 years; 82% females, and 25 healthy young adults (mean age =20.72 years; 80% females took part in the study. They completed questionnaires covering sociodemographic data, MT, SD, and PA. Results: Patients with MS had similar scores for MT traits as those in healthy

  4. Maternal High Fat Feeding Does Not Have Long-Lasting Effects on Body Composition and Bone Health in Female and Male Wistar Rat Offspring at Young Adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula M. Miotto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available High fat diets adversely affect body composition, bone mineral and strength, and alter bone fatty acid composition. It is unclear if maternal high fat (HF feeding permanently alters offspring body composition and bone health. Female rats were fed control (CON or HF diet for 10 weeks, bred, and continued their diets throughout pregnancy and lactation. Male and female offspring were studied at weaning and 3 months, following consumption of CON diet. At weaning, but not 3 months of age, male and female offspring from dams fed HF diet had lower lean mass and higher fat and bone mass, and higher femur bone mineral density (females only than offspring of dams fed CON diet. Male and female offspring femurs from dams fed HF diet had higher monounsaturates and lower n6 polyunsaturates at weaning than offspring from dams fed CON diet, where females from dams fed HF diet had higher saturates and lower n6 polyunsaturates at 3 months of age. There were no differences in strength of femurs or lumbar vertebrae at 3 months of age in either male or female offspring. In conclusion, maternal HF feeding did not permanently affect body composition and bone health at young adulthood in offspring.

  5. Opinions of Female Juvenile Delinquents on Language-Based Literacy Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanger, Dixie; Ritzman, Mitzi; Stremlau, Aliza; Fairchild, Lindsey; Brunken, Cindy

    2009-01-01

    A mixed methods study was conducted to examine female juvenile delinquents' opinions and reactions on nine language-based literacy activities. Forty-one participants ranging in age from 13 to 18 years responded to a survey consisting of nine multiple-choice items and one open-ended question concerning the usefulness of activities. Quantitative and…

  6. Cervico-mandibular muscle activity in females with chronic cervical pain

    OpenAIRE

    T. Lang; R. Parker; T. Burgess

    2013-01-01

    Pathophysiological mechanisms behind pain in chroniccervical musculoskeletal conditions (MSC) in office workers remainunclear. Chronic cervical pain has established links with temporomandibular(TM) disorders. Yet there is no current published evidence to reportwhether individuals with cervical dysfunction exhibit altered masseterand cervical extensor (CE) muscle activity. Objective: To explore CE andmasseter surface electromyographic (sEMG) activity and teeth clenchinghabits in females with c...

  7. Musical rhythms and their influence on P300 velocity in young females Ritmos musicais diferentes: influência da velocidade no P300 em jovens mulheres

    OpenAIRE

    Cintia Ishii de Sá; Liliane Desguado Pereira

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to music may be useful in the P300 retest and avoid habituation. AIM: To verify the influence of the exposure to different kinds of music in P300 in young females. STUDY DESIGN: Clinical prospective. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Forty-five women aged from 20 to 36 years were evaluated. P300 was studied before and after musical stimulation with different rhythms. Brazilian songs, international songs, and classical music melodies were selected. Each song had its velocity altered and was named ...

  8. Views of adolescent female youth on physical activity during early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yungblut, Hope E; Schinke, Robert J; McGannon, Kerry R

    2012-01-01

    Early adolescence is a time when a transition away from sport and physical activity participation is at its highest level among female youth (Hedstrom & Gould, 2004). This has led to the identification of barriers and facilitators of physical activity participation for adolescent females. Consequently there have been calls to overcome barriers and augment facilitators via the creation of gender-relevant programming. Despite these calls and efforts, a gender disparity remains, and a detailed understanding of how girls experience and interpret physical activity within the context of their lives is still lacking. The current project aimed to gain further insight into the foregoing using tenets of Interpretive Phenomenology to further understand the lived physical activity experiences of females during early adolescence, delineating their barriers to participation and the factors enabling participation. Five themes were identified and made into vignettes to facilitate understanding from adolescent females' perspectives: friends or don't know anyone, good or not good enough, fun or not fun; good feeling or gross; and peer support or peer pressure. The physical activity promotion implications for female youth are discussed within the context of these themes.

  9. VIEWS OF ADOLESCENT FEMALE YOUTH ON PHYSICAL ACTIVITY DURING EARLY ADOLESCENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hope E. Yungblut

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Early adolescence is a time when a transition away from sport and physical activity participation is at its highest level among female youth (Hedstrom & Gould, 2004. This has led to the identification of barriers and facilitators of physical activity participation for adolescent females. Consequently there have been calls to overcome barriers and augment facilitators via the creation of gender-relevant programming. Despite these calls and efforts, a gender disparity remains, and a detailed understanding of how girls experience and interpret physical activity within the context of their lives is still lacking. The current project aimed to gain further insight into the foregoing using tenets of Interpretive Phenomenology to further understand the lived physical activity experiences of females during early adolescence, delineating their barriers to participation and the factors enabling participation. Five themes were identified and made into vignettes to facilitate understanding from adolescent females' perspectives: friends or don't know anyone, good or not good enough, fun or not fun; good feeling or gross; and peer support or peer pressure. The physical activity promotion implications for female youth are discussed within the context of these themes.

  10. Zero tolerance against patriarchal norms? A cross-sectional study of Swedish physicians' attitudes towards young females requesting virginity certificates or hymen restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juth, Niklas; Lynöe, Niels

    2015-03-01

    Many countries, Sweden among them, lack professional guidelines and established procedures for responding to young females requesting virginity certificates or hymen restoration due to honour-related threats. The purpose of the present survey study was to further examine the attitudes of the Swedish healthcare professionals concerned towards young females requesting virginity certificates or hymen restorations. The study indicates that a small majority of Swedish general practitioners and gynaecologists would accommodate these patients, at least given certain circumstances. But a large minority of physicians would under no circumstances help the young females, regardless of speciality, years of practice within medicine, gender, or experience of the phenomenon. Their responses are similar to other areas where it has been claimed that society should adopt a zero tolerance policy against certain phenomena, for instance drug policy, where it has also been argued that society should never act in ways that express support for the practice in question. However, this argument is questionable. A more pragmatic approach would also allow for follow-ups and evaluation of virginity certificates and hymen restorations, as is demonstrated by the Dutch policy. Hence, there are some obvious advantages to this pragmatic approach compared to the restrictive one espoused by a large minority of Swedish physicians and Swedish policy-makers in this area. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. Study of sympathetic nerve activity in young Indian obese individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Kalpana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is the culmination of a chronic imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. This energy balance can be potentially affected by the activity of autonomic nervous system (ANS. Altered sympathetic nerve function may be of importance in obesity. Objective: The present study is an attempt to pinpoint the defect (if any in the activity of sympathetic limb of the ANS in obesity, by subjecting to isometric exercise stress. Materials and Methods: A total of 81 females belonging to the age group of 18-22 years were recruited for the study. The participants were divided into two groups as normal weight and obese based on WHO guidelines for Asia Pacific region. After recording the resting blood pressure, they were subjected to isometric exercise by Handgrip dynamometer. Blood pressure was recorded again, and the difference was noted down. All recorded parameters were compared between two groups using unpaired t test. The relationship between body mass index (BMI and rise in diastolic pressure was quantified by Pearson′s correlation test. A P value less than 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: In obese, the diastolic pressure was significantly higher at rest, but showed reduced rise during handgrip test in comparison with normal weight individuals. Also, the rise in diastolic pressure exhibited a negative relation with BMI. Conclusion: The result is suggestive of impaired autonomic function at rest and reduced sympathetic activity in the group of obese when subjected to stress. This could make them more prone for future development of hypertension or other cardiovascular disorders.

  12. Exploring the built environment, physical activity and related behaviours of young people attending school, college and those not in employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, A A; Townshend, T G

    2013-03-01

    Evidence suggests that environments impact behaviour, including physical activity (PA). The aim was to understand where young people are physically active and the environmental contexts to their activity. To explore how they perceived both barriers to, and enablers for, PA in their environment. Focus groups were conducted with five groups aged 16-20 years (n = 42; 29 male, 13 female) in Newcastle-upon-Tyne, England between November 2006 and June 2007. Analysis was an iterative process of looking for broad themes and subthemes across the transcripts. Themes explored included their main environment; perceptions of their environment; PA and where they are active; activity in the past and safety concerns. Emergent themes included working and PA, transport and activity, limitations of the environment to PA and gender differences. Our results suggest PA was distributed across a range of environments, rather than focused in one locale, or setting. Obesity in young people is a major concern and prevention of obesity a high priority. Little is known about the PA behaviours of this age group and the context of these behaviours during this period of transition. Understanding lifestyle behaviours such as PA and context of activity is an important first step in development interventions to encourage greater activity in this transitory age group.

  13. Activity cycles in members of young loose stellar associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distefano, E.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Lanza, A. F.; Messina, S.; Spada, F.

    2017-10-01

    Context. Magnetic cycles analogous to the solar cycle have been detected in tens of solar-like stars by analyzing long-term time series of different magnetic activity indexes. The relationship between the cycle properties and global stellar parameters is not fully understood yet. One reason for this is the lack of long-term time series for stars covering a wide range of stellar parameters. Aims: We searched for activity cycles in a sample of 90 young solar-like stars with ages between 4 and 95 Myr with the aim to investigate the properties of activity cycles in this age range. Methods: We measured the length Pcyc of a given cycle by analyzing the long-term time series of three different activity indexes: the period of rotational modulation, the amplitude of the rotational modulation and the median magnitude in the V band. For each star, we also computed the global magnetic activity index ⟨ IQR ⟩ that is proportional to the amplitude of the rotational modulation and can be regarded as a proxy of the mean level of the surface magnetic activity. Results: We detected activity cycles in 67 stars. Secondary cycles were also detected in 32 stars of the sample. The lack of correlation between Pcyc and Prot and the position of our targets in the Pcyc/Prot-Ro-1 diagram suggest that these stars belong to the so-called transitional branch and that the dynamo acting in these stars is different from the solar dynamo and from that acting in the older Mt. Wilson stars. This statement is also supported by the analysis of the butterfly diagrams whose patterns are very different from those seen in the solar case. We computed the Spearman correlation coefficient rS between Pcyc, ⟨ IQR ⟩ and various stellar parameters. We found that Pcyc in our sample is uncorrelated with all the investigated parameters. The ⟨ IQR ⟩ index is positively correlated with the convective turnover timescale, the magnetic diffusivity timescale τdiff, and the dynamo number DN, whereas it is anti

  14. Work and Non-Work Physical Activity Predict Real-Time Smoking Level and Urges in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadell, Melanie J; Mermelstein, Robin J; Hedeker, Donald; Marquez, David X

    2015-07-01

    Physical activity (PA) and smoking are inversely related. However, evidence suggests that some types of PA, namely work-related PA, may show an opposite effect. Despite growing knowledge, there remains a paucity of studies examining the context of these behaviors in naturalistic settings or in young adults, a high-risk group for escalation. Participants were 188 young adults (mean age = 21.32; 53.2% female; 91% current smokers) who participated in an electronic diary week to assess daily smoking and urges and a PA recall to examine daily PA. PA was coded into non-work-related and work-related activity to examine differential effects. We considered both participants' weekly average PA and their daily deviations from their average. Mixed-effects regression models revealed that higher weekly average non-work PA was associated with lower smoking level and urges. Daily deviations in non-work PA did not predict urges; however, increased daily non-work PA relative to participants' weekly average was associated with lower smoking for females but higher levels for males. Regarding work PA, only higher weekly average work PA was associated with higher smoking level for both genders; work PA did not predict urges. Results extend previous literature by documenting differential associations between non-work and work PA and young adult smoking and suggest that young adults engaged in work PA should be considered a high-risk group for escalation. Findings provide theoretical and clinical implications for the use of PA in intervention and highlight the necessity of considering PA as a multidimensional construct when examining its links to health behavior. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Association of Light Exposure on Physical Activity and Sedentary Time in Young People

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    Daniel Aggio

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: To investigate whether light exposure was associated with objectively measured physical activity (PA and sedentary behaviour in young people. Methods: Participants (n = 229, 46.7% female were young people (mean 8.8 years [SD ± 2.2] from the borough of Camden, UK. Daily sedentary time, moderate and vigorous PA (MVPA and light exposure were measured using a tri-axial accelerometer with an ambient light sensor during the summer. Multiple linear regression models examined associations between average daily light exposure, sedentary time and time in MVPA. Models were repeated investigating weekdays and weekend days separately. Analyses were adjusted for pre-specified covariables, including age, sex, device wear time, ethnic group, school and body fat. Results: There were significant associations between average daily light exposure and time sedentary (β coefficient = −11.2, 95% CI, −19.0 to −3.4 and in MVPA (β coefficient = 3.5, 95% CI, 1.2 to 5.9. Light exposure was significantly associated with weekend sedentary time (β coefficient = −10.0, 95% CI, −17.6, −2.4, weekend MVPA (β coefficient = 3.7, 95% CI, 1.7, 5.7, weekday sedentary time (β coefficient = −15.0, 95% CI, −22.7 to −7.2, but not weekday MVPA (β coefficient = 2.0, 95% CI, −0.5 to 4.5. Conclusion: Average daily light exposure is positively associated with time in MVPA and negatively associated with sedentary time. Increasing daylight exposure may be a useful intervention strategy for promoting physical activity.

  16. Physical demands on young elite European female basketball players with special reference to speed, agility, explosive strength, and take-off power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erčulj, Frane; Blas, Mateja; Bračič, Mitja

    2010-11-01

    The aim of the study was to determine and analyze the level of certain motor abilities (acceleration and agility, the explosive strength of arms, and take-off power) of young elite European female basketball players. We also wanted to establish whether there were any differences between 3 groups of female basketball players who differed in terms of their playing performance. The sample of subjects consists of 65 female basketball players aged 14.49 (± 0.61) years who were divided into 3 groups (divisions A, B, and C of the European Championships). We compare the groups by using 8 motor tests. p Values training status, this is also 1 of the key reasons for these players' lower playing efficiency compared to those from divisions A and B. We hope the findings of this study will enable the generation of model values, which can assist basketball coaches for this age category in basketball clubs, high schools, national teams, and basketball camps.

  17. Setting them up for lifetime activity: Play competence perceptions and physical activity in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Lisa M; Ridgers, Nicola D; Hesketh, Kylie; Salmon, Jo

    2017-09-01

    Possessing positive physical perceived competence is important for physical activity in older children. Young children are primarily physically active through play-based behaviour rather than through organised sports and activities, so understanding how play perceptions might influence physical activity behaviour is important. The study purpose was to assess if perceived active play competence is associated with young children's physical activity. Cross sectional study. This paper uses two different samples drawn from the same Australian city, both collected in 2013. The first sample included 152 children (49% boys) aged 4-5 years (M=4.7, SD=0.47), the second sample included 78 children (55% boys) aged 5-8 years (M=6.6, SD=0.93). The Pictorial Scale of Perceived Movement Skill Competence was used to assess children's perceived competence in six skill-related play activities. Moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) was assessed for 8 consecutive days via accelerometers. A general linear model with the mean minutes in MVPA per day as the outcome, perceived play competence as the independent variable and adjusting for relevant confounders was performed in each sample. Perceived active play competence was not related to MVPA min/day (B=0.44, p=0.323) in the younger sample, but was in the older sample (B=1.53, p=0.026), explaining 24% of adjusted variance. Positive findings in the older sample show school-aged children need exposure to play based activities in order to develop the positive self-perception needed to engage in MVPA every day. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Specific cerebral activation due to visual erotic stimuli in male-to-female transsexuals compared with male and female controls: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizewski, Elke R; Krause, Eva; Schlamann, Marc; Happich, Friederike; Ladd, Mark E; Forsting, Michael; Senf, Wolfgang

    2009-02-01

    Transsexuals harbor the strong feeling of having been born to the wrong sex. There is a continuing controversial discussion of whether or not transsexualism has a biological representation. Differences between males and females in terms of functional imaging during erotic stimuli have been previously described, revealing gender-specific results. Therefore, we postulated that male-to-female (MTF) transsexuals may show specific cerebral activation differing from their biological gender. Cerebral activation patterns during viewing of erotic film excerpts in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twelve male and 12 female heterosexual volunteers and 12 MTF transsexuals before any treatment viewed erotic film excerpts during fMRI. Additionally, subjective rating of sexual arousal was assessed. Statistics were performed using the Statistical Parametric Mapping software. Significantly enhanced activation for men compared with women was revealed in brain areas involved in erotic processing, i.e., the thalamus, the amygdala, and the orbitofrontal and insular cortex, whereas no specific activation for women was found. When comparing MTF transsexuals with male volunteers, activation patterns similar to female volunteers being compared with male volunteers were revealed. Sexual arousal was assessed using standard rating scales and did not differ significantly for the three groups. We revealed a cerebral activation pattern in MTF transsexuals compared with male controls similar to female controls compared with male controls during viewing of erotic stimuli, indicating a tendency of female-like cerebral processing in transsexualism.

  19. Fertility information needs and concerns post-treatment contribute to lowered quality of life among young adult female cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Catherine; Thom, Bridgette; Friedman, Danielle N; Pottenger, Elaine; Raghunathan, Nirupa; Kelvin, Joanne F

    2018-07-01

    Cancer treatment may lead to premature menopause and infertility. Young adult female cancer survivors (YAFCS) are often concerned about their fertility and future family-building options, but research is limited on how concerns may affect more general quality of life (QOL) domains. This study examined how fertility factors relate to QOL among YAFCS who received gonadotoxic therapy. A national sample of YAFCS completed an online, anonymous survey. The survey included investigator-designed questions about perceived fertility information needs (five items; Cronbach's α = .83) and general QOL (four items; α = .89), the Reproductive Concerns after Cancer Scale (RCACS) and Decisional Conflict Scale (DCS). Analyses included Pearson's correlation, t tests, and stepwise regression. Participants (N = 314) were an average of 30 years old (SD = 4.1) and 5 years (SD = 5.4) post-treatment; 31% reported being infertile and 19% had undergone fertility preservation (FP). Overall, QOL was relatively high (M = 7.3, SD = 1.9, range 0-10) and did not vary by fertility status (t[272] = .743, p = .46), prior FP (t[273] = .53, p = .55) or sociodemographic/clinical factors (p's > .05) except socioeconomic indicators (p's < .05).In separate models, greater unmet fertility information needs (β = - .19, p = .004) and, among fertile women, greater reproductive concerns (β = - .26, p = .001) related to lower QOL. Among fertile women without prior FP, greater decisional distress about future FP related to lower QOL (β = - .19, p = .03). These preliminary findings suggest that unaddressed fertility information needs, concerns, and decision distress may affect general QOL among post-treatment YAFCS who hope to have children in the future. Future work should identify ways to optimally incorporate fertility counseling and support resources into survivorship care programs, including referrals to reproductive

  20. Effects of sex pheromones and sexual maturation on locomotor activity in female sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walaszczyk, Erin J.; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Steibel, Juan Pedro; Li, Weiming

    2013-01-01

    Synchronization of male and female locomotor rhythmicity can play a vital role in ensuring reproductive success. Several physiological and environmental factors alter these locomotor rhythms. As sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, progress through their life cycle, their locomotor activity rhythm changes multiple times. The goal of this study was to elucidate the activity patterns of adult female sea lamprey during the sexual maturation process and discern the interactions of these patterns with exposure to male pheromones. During these stages, preovulated and ovulated adult females are exposed to sex pheromone compounds, which are released by spermiated males and attract ovulated females to the nest for spawning. The locomotor behavior of adult females was monitored in a natural stream with a passive integrated tag responder system as they matured, and they were exposed to a sex pheromone treatment (spermiated male washings) or a control (prespermiated male washings). Results showed that, dependent on the hour of day, male sex pheromone compounds reduce total activity (p reproductive synchrony of mature adults, thus increasing reproductive success in this species.

  1. Relationships between global physical activity and bone mineral density in a group of male and female students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualini, Leonella; Leli, Christian; Ministrini, Stefano; Schillaci, Giuseppe; Zappavigna, Rosa M; Lombardini, Rita; Scarponi, Anna M; Mannarino, Elmo

    2017-03-01

    Peak of bone mass (PBM) is generally reached about the age of 18 both in boys and girls. Maximizing PBM during growth may contribute to fracture risk reduction in adulthood and in the elderly. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects on bone mineral density (BMD) of global physical activity (PA), carried out in the past 15 years, in a population of 70 healthy, young male and female subjects aged 22 to 25. BMD of the lumbar spine and total hip was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA); global PA, resulting from sports-related, occupational and commuting PA, was evaluated using validated questionnaires. Women spent more time than men both in sports-related, occupational and commuting PA in the age range between 10-15 years. In the female group global PA positively correlated with BMD of the lumbar spine (r=0.38; P=0.02) and the total hip (r=0.36; P=0.04) and BMD of the lumbar spine was independently predicted by global PA and Body Mass Index. Our retrospective cross-sectional study indicates that global PA, not only sports-related PA, performed during prepubertal age, is associated with a greater PBM in women.

  2. The Investigation of Social Support and Physical Activity Related to Workplace among Female Teachers in Jolfa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibeh Sahranavard-Gargari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Although active life style is one of the main determining factors of health, the amount of regular physical activities in women is less than in men and even this amount, decreases with aging. Family, friends, colleagues and society’s support, especially at workplace, have a positive effect on the amount of engagement in physical activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the status of social support and physical activity related to workplace among female teachers in Jolfa. Material and Methods: In this study, 230 female teachers working at different schools in Jolfa were selected according to the inclusion criteria. Required data were collected using International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ and social support questionnaire by Sallis et al. The data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: The average of physical activity related to teachers’ work was about 20 minutes per week which is very low. Ten percent of them had light physical activity, 61.7% had moderate physical activity and 28.3% had heavy activity. The results of this study proved a significant relationship between social support and physical activity. Conclusion: Regarding the fact that a large percentage of the teachers do not have enough physical activity, having more physical activity and creating a social network through encouraging friends and colleagues to promote physical activity is emphasized.

  3. Altered biomarkers of mucosal immunity and reduced vaginal Lactobacillus concentrations in sexually active female adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Pellett Madan

    Full Text Available Genital secretions collected from adult women exhibit in vitro activity against herpes simplex virus (HSV and Escherichia coli (E. coli, but prior studies have not investigated this endogenous antimicrobial activity or its mediators in adolescent females.Anti-HSV and anti-E.coli activity were quantified from cervicovaginal lavage (CVL specimens collected from 20 sexually active adolescent females (15-18 years. Soluble immune mediators that may influence this activity were measured in CVL, and concentrations of Lactobacillus jensenii and crispatus were quantified by PCR from vaginal swabs. Results for adolescents were compared to those obtained from 54 healthy, premenopausal adult women. Relative to specimens collected from adults, CVL collected from adolescent subjects had significantly reduced activity against E. coli and diminished concentrations of protein, IgG, and IgA but significantly increased anti-HSV activity and concentrations of interleukin (IL-1α, IL-6 and IL-1 receptor antagonist. Vaginal swabs collected from adolescent subjects had comparable concentrations of L. crispatus but significantly reduced concentrations of L. jensenii, relative to adult swabs.Biomarkers of genital mucosal innate immunity may differ substantially between sexually active adolescents and adult women. These findings warrant further study and may have significant implications for prevention of sexually transmitted infections in adolescent females.

  4. Physical activity levels and determinants of change in young adults: a longitudinal panel study

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmermann Erwin; Wanner Miriam; Zimmermann-Sloutskis Dorith; Martin Brian W

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background There is growing concern about physical inactivity in adolescents and young adults. Identifying determinants that are associated with low levels of physical activity and with changes in physical activity levels will help to develop specific prevention strategies. The present study describes the prevalence and potential determinants of physical activity behavior and behavior changes of young adults. The study is based on the Swiss Household Panel (SHP), a longitudinal study...

  5. Promoting Physics Among Female Learners in the Western Cape Through Active Engagement (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendse, Gillian J.

    2009-04-01

    In 2006 the author organized a one-day intervention aimed at promoting physics among female learners at the University of Stellenbosch. The activities included an interactive lecture demonstration promoting active engagement, a hands-on session, and short presentations by female physicists addressing issues such as balancing family and career, breaking the stereotypes, and launching a successful career in physics. Each learner was expected to evaluate the program. In 2007 the author joined forces with Hip2B2 (Shuttleworth Foundation) to host a competition among grade-10 learners with the theme, ``promoting creativity through interactivity.'' The author was tasked by the Hip2B2-team to assist with a program for female learners planned for August 2008, coinciding with our national celebration of Women's Day. The event targeted 160 learners and took place in Durban, East London, Cape Town, and Johannesburg. The author shares some of the learners' experiences and personal triumphs.

  6. Temporal and spatial resource use by female three-toed sloths and their young in an agricultural landscape in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Ramirez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The information on ecological behavior of wild sloths is very scarce. In this study we determined the home ranges and resources used by three adult female three-toed sloths (Bradypus variegatus and their four young in an agricultural matrix of cacao (Theobroma cacao, pasture, riparian forests and living fencerows in Costa Rica. Births occurred during November-December and the young became independent at five to seven months of age. Initially, mothers remained fixed in one or a few trees, but expanded their use of resources as young sloths became independent from them. Mothers initially guided the young to preferred food and cover resources, but they gradually left their young in small nucleus areas and colonized new areas for themselves. Home range sizes for young sloths (up to seven months of age varied between 0.04-0.6 hectares, while home range sizes for mothers varied from 0.04-25.0 hectares. During the maternal care period, 22 tree species were used, with the most common being Cecropia obtusifolia (30.9%, Coussapoa villosa (25.6%, Nectandra salicifolia (12.1%, Pterocarpus officinalis (5.8% and Samanea saman (5.4%. However, young sloths used only 20 tree species, with the most common being C. villosa (18.4%, S. saman (18.5 % and N. salicifolia (16.7%. The cacao agroforest was used only by mother sloths and never by their young following separation. However, in the riparian forest, both mother sloths and young used the tree species. A total of 28 tree species were used by the mother sloth; including the food species: C. obtusifolia, C. villosa, N. salicifolia and P. officinalis. However, the young used 18 trees species in this habitat with N. salicifolia and S. saman most commonly used, although they rested and fed during the day in C. obtusifolia, C. villosa and O. sinnuata. The cacao agroforest with adjacent riparian forests and fencerows provides an important habitat type that links the smaller secondary forests and other patches. Rev

  7. Does Staphylococcus Saprophyticus Cause Acute Cystitis only in Young Females, or is there more to the Story? A One-Year Comprehensive Study Done in Budapest, Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeghate, Jennifer; Juhász, Emese; Pongrácz, Júlia; Rimanóczy, Éva; Kristóf, Katalin

    2016-03-01

    Staphylococcus saprophyticus is a well-known urinary pathogen in acute cystitis in young females. We completed a retrospective overview of the distribution of urinary tract infections (UTIs) occurring in 2014, at Semmelweis University hospitals and at Heim Pál Children's Hospital. Six age-groups (ages 0-100) were examined, with the frequency of S. saprophyticus in females being: 0.1% (0-4), 0.7%, (5-15), 7.4% (16-24), 1.2% (25-39), 0.4% (40-59) and 0.1% (60-100), and S. saprophyticus being the 3(rd) most common pathogen in females aged 16-24. In males, S. saprophyticus was only isolated from those aged 5-15. Seasonal distribution of UTIs caused by S. saprophyticus showed that most infections occurred during the months of January, June, August and November. Antibiotic-resistance rates of amoxicillin, clindamycin, doxycycline, erythromycin, gentamicin and sulfamethoxazole- trimethoprim varied as follows: 0.9%, 32.7%, 19.6%, 34.6%, 0.9% and 0.9%, respectively. Thirty randomly selected samples were analysed by pulsed-field gelelectrophoresis, and 28 different genotypes were identified. S. saprophyticus is involved in the pathogenesis of acute cystitis not only in young females, but also in other age-groups, and in young males as well. We did not find any significant seasonal occurrence in S. saprophyticus-caused UTIs. The infective strains were genetically diverse. Antibiotic-resistance does not pose any issue as of yet.

  8. Young adult males' motivators and perceived barrier towards eating healthily and being active: A qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a lack of understanding of young men's perspectives in obesity-related research. This study aims to: (1) identify young men's perceived motivators and barriers in adopting healthy eating and physical activity behaviors, and (2) explore any differences in responses by weight status categorie...

  9. Motivators and barriers to engaging in healthy eating and physical activity in young adult men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Internationally, young men (aged 18-25 years) have a high prevalence of overweight and obesity and many fail to meet recommended levels of physical activity or dietary guidelines. There is a lack of engagement and understanding of young men's needs in health-related research. Therefore, this study a...

  10. Coping in adolescents and young adults with chronic digestive disorders: impact on school and leisure activities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calsbeek, H.; Rijken, M.; Bekkers, M.J.T.M.; Berge Henegouwen, G.P. van; Dekker, J.

    2006-01-01

    Coping strategies were compared across adolescents and young adults with several chronic digestive disorders and healthy peers, and across age groups. Subsequently, the impact of coping on performance in school and leisure activities was investigated. Participants were adolescents and young adults

  11. The importance of physical activity and diet in the life of female students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Pawłowski

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : The lifestyle is known to be the most influential factor for maintaining a good health condition. Lack of physical activity and poor nutrition are two factors that suport each other in a negative way and result in an increasing number of obese people. Irregular nutrition is often closely related to irregular academic life. Aim of the research: The objective of this research is to find out how female students perceive health – how they understand and define it. Another objective is to determine whether nurses-to-be and psychiatrists-to-be perceive health differently than other students and whether their health-esteem is backed with their free-time physical activity and regular nutrition. It is crucial to find out what factors, according to the research, have the biggest influence on people’s health. Material and methods: The research involved 180 female students of full-time courses at the Jan Kochanowski University in Kielce: 98 female students of the Health Sciences Faculty and 82 female students of other faculties. The method of a diagnostic survey and a questionnaire were used in the research. Results : The female students perceived health as a quality, well-being, an absence of disease; and for female nursing students health was not only the absence of disease or disability but also biopsychosocial well-being. The most important factors that influence the health condition are physical activity and nutrition. A high evaluation does not correspond to taking care of one’s health. Fewer than 8% of the female students practised sport in their free time and ate regularly. More than a half neither did sport nor ate regularly (Pearson’s contingency coefficient C reaches a value of 0.1. Conclusions : The female nursing students, contrary to the female students of other faculties, perceive health in the same way as the World Health Organisation. Regardless of faculty, physical activity and regular nutrition are considered to be

  12. Factors related to rural young adolescents' participation in outdoor, noncompetitive physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiana, Richard W; Davis, Marsha; Wilson, Mark G; McCarty, Frances A; Green, Gary T

    2014-12-01

    Young adolescents who have little interest in participating in competitive team sports are at an increased risk for physical inactivity. Noncompetitive outdoor physical activity can provide young adolescents with increased opportunities to participate in physical activities that appeal to them and have positive health effects. The purpose of this study was to examine factors related to rural young adolescents' participation in noncompetitive outdoor physical activity to inform intervention design. Young adolescents aged 10 to 14 years old (N = 1,032) from 1 rural county completed a self-administered questionnaire assessing constructs from self-determination theory (SDT) and the theory of planned behavior (TPB) related to noncompetitive outdoor physical activity. Structural equation modeling was used to examine an integrated conceptual model of hypothesized relationships among constructs. The hypothesized conceptual model provided a good fit to the data with greater perceptions of autonomy support and self-determined motivation having statistically significant positive indirect effects on participation in noncompetitive outdoor physical activity mediated by the constructs of the TPB. All direct paths in the model were statistically significant; however, the direct effect of attitudes on intention was weak (.08) and self-determined motivation had no indirect effect on intention through attitudes (.03). Constructs of SDT and TPB should be accounted for by interventions targeting noncompetitive outdoor physical activity among young adolescents. More research is needed to determine young adolescents' preferences for noncompetitive and competitive physical activity and the potential influence that noncompetitive outdoor physical activity may have on total daily physical activity.

  13. IN VITRO ANDROGENIC ACTIVITY OF KRAFT MILL EFFLUENT IS ASSOCIATED WITH MASCULINIZATION OF FEMALE FISH

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Vitro Androgenic Activity of Kraft Mill Effluent is Associated with Masculinization of Female Fish. Lambright, CS 1 , Parks, LG 1, Orlando, E 2, Guillette, LJ, Jr.2, Ankley, G 3, Gray, LE, Jr.1 , 1USEPA, NHEERL, RTP, NC, 2 University of Florida, Dept. of Zoology, Gainesville ...

  14. Penetration of Treosulfan and its Active Monoepoxide Transformation Product into Central Nervous System of Juvenile and Young Adult Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romański, Michał; Baumgart, Joachim; Böhm, Sonja; Główka, Franciszek K

    2015-12-01

    Treosulfan (TREO) is currently investigated as an alternative treatment of busulfan in conditioning before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The knowledge of the blood-brain barrier penetration of the drug is still scarce. In this paper, penetration of TREO and its active monoepoxide (S,S-EBDM) and diepoxide (S,S-DEB) into the CNS was studied in juvenile (JR) and young adult rats (YAR) for the first time. CD rats of both sexes (n = 96) received an intravenous dose of TREO 500 mg/kg b.wt. Concentrations of TREO, S,S-EBDM, and S,S-DEB in rat plasma, brain, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, in YAR only) were determined by validated bioanalytical methods. Pharmacokinetic calculations were performed in WinNonlin using a noncompartmental analysis and statistical evaluation was done in Statistica software. In male JR, female JR, male YAR, and female YAR, the brain/plasma area under the curve (AUC) ratio for unbound TREO was 0.14, 0.17, 0.10, and 0.07 and for unbound S,S-EBDM, it was 0.52, 0.48, 0.28, and 0.22, respectively. The CSF/plasma AUC ratio in male and female YAR was 0.12 and 0.11 for TREO and 0.66 and 0.64 for S,S-EBDM, respectively. Elimination rate constants of TREO and S,S-EBDM in all the matrices were sex-independent with a tendency to be lower in the JR. No quantifiable levels of S,S-DEB were found in the studied samples. TREO and S,S-EBDM demonstrated poor and sex-independent penetration into CNS. However, the brain exposure was greater in juvenile rats, so very young children might potentially be more susceptible to high-dose TREO-related CNS exposure than young adults. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  15. The invisible addiction: Cell-phone activities and addiction among male and female college students

    OpenAIRE

    ROBERTS, JAMES A.; PETNJI YAYA, LUC HONORE; MANOLIS, CHRIS

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: The primary objective of the present study was to investigate which cell-phone activities are associated with cell-phone addiction. No research to date has studied the full-range of cell-phone activities, and their relationship to cell-phone addiction, across male and female cell-phone users. Methods: College undergraduates (N = 164) participated in an online survey. Participants completed the questionnaire as part of their class requirements. The questionnaire took 10 an...

  16. Effects of Environmental Conditions on Activity, Feeding, and Body Weight in Male and Female Adolescent Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-31

    marshmallows , etc.) gained more weight than did the rats that were provided standard chow. The animals with access to the activity wheel (activity...salami, cheese, bananas, marshmallows , milk chocolate, and peanut butter (Sclafani & Springer, 1976). In fact, adult female rats given constant...them foods that are high in fat and sugar through foods usually used for human consumption such as cream filled cookies, marshmallows , milk chocolate

  17. Activation of Antioxidant Defenses in Whole Saliva by Psychosocial Stress Is More Manifested in Young Women than in Young Men

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuber, Viktoriia; Kadamov, Yunus; Tarasenko, Lydia

    2014-01-01

    Psychosocial stress has been long known to have deleterious effects on health. Nevertheless, an exposure to moderate stressors enhances resilience and promotes health benefits. Male and female organisms differ in many aspects of health and disease. The aim of this study was to investigate antioxidant activity and oxidative damage in saliva in a psychosocial stress paradigm in men and women. Here, we show that an acute stressor of moderate strength augments antioxidant activity and decreases o...

  18. Factors associated with the receipt of fertility preservation services along the decision-making pathway in young Canadian female cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Samantha

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the factors associated with the receipt of fertility preservation (FP) services along the decision-making pathway in young Canadian female cancer patients. The roles of the oncologists were examined. A total of 188 women who were diagnosed with cancer between the ages of 18-39 after the year 2000 and had finished active cancer treatment by the time of the survey (2012-2013) participated in the study. Logistic regression models and Pearson χ (2) tests were used for analyses. The mean ages of participants at diagnosis and at survey time were 30.2 (SD = 3.7) and 33.9 (SD = 5.9). One quarter (n = 45, 23.9 %) did not recall having a fertility discussion with their oncologists. Of the three quarters who had a fertility discussion (n = 143, 76.1 %), discussions were equally initiated by oncologists (n = 71) and patients (n = 72). Of the 49 women (26 %) who consulted a fertility specialist, 17 (9 %) underwent a FP procedure. Fertility concern at diagnosis was the driving force of the receipt of FP services at all decision points. Our findings suggest that not only was the proactive approach of oncologists in initiating a fertility discussion important, the quality of the discussion was equally critical in the decision-making pathway. Oncologists play a pivotal role in the provision of fertility services in that they are not only gate keepers, knowledge brokers, and referral initiators of FP consultation, but also they are catalysts in supporting cancer patients making important FP decision in conjunction with the consultation provided by a fertility specialist.

  19. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide: occurrence and relaxant effect in female genital tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenstrup, B R; Alm, P; Hannibal, J

    1995-01-01

    The distribution, localization, and smooth muscle effects of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) were studied in the human female genital tract. The concentrations of PACAP-38 and PACAP-27 were measured by radioimmunoassays, and both peptides were found throughout the genital...... was observed. The findings suggest a smooth muscle regulatory role of PACAP in the human female reproductive tract....... tract. The highest concentrations of PACAP-38 were detected in the ovary, the upper part of vagina, and the perineum. The concentrations of PACAP-27 were generally low, in some regions below the detection limit and in other regions 1 to 5% of the PACAP-38 concentrations. Immunocytochemistry revealed...

  20. Association between Physical Activity and Insomnia among Saudi Female College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Eisa, Einas; Buragadda, Syamala; Melam, Ganeswara Rao; Al-Osaimi, Atheer O.; Al-Mubarak, Huda A.; Al-Huwaimel, Noura A.

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] Insomnia is quite common and it can affect the quality of life of an individual. Students undergo stress due to various academic demands leading to sleeplessness and daytime sleepiness. This study was conducted to investigate the association between physical activity and insomnia among female Saudi students. [Subjects] 62 female students with a mean age of 21 ± 1.5 years took part in a motivational program to increase the number of steps taken per day for three weeks. [Methods] Afte...

  1. Plyometric exercise combined with high-intensity interval training improves metabolic abnormalities in young obese females more so than interval training alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racil, Ghazi; Zouhal, Hassane; Elmontassar, Wassim; Ben Abderrahmane, Abderraouf; De Sousa, Maysa Vieira; Chamari, Karim; Amri, Mohamed; Coquart, Jeremy B

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 12 weeks of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) with the effects of 12 weeks of plyometric exercise combined with HIIT (P+HIIT) on anthropometric, biochemical, and physical fitness data in young obese females. Sixty-eight participants (age, 16.6 ± 1.3 y; body mass, 82.8 ± 5.0 kg; body fat, 39.4% ± 3.3%; body mass index z score, 2.9 ± 0.4) were assigned to 1 of 3 groups: HIIT (2 blocks per session of 6-8 bouts of 30-s runs at 100% velocity at peak oxygen uptake, with 30-s active recovery between bouts at 50%velocity at peak oxygen uptake (n = 23)); P+HIIT (2 blocks per session of 3 different 15-s plyometric exercises with 15-s passive recoveries, totaling 2 min for each plyometric exercise + the same HIIT program (n = 26)); or control (no exercise (n = 19)). Anthropometric (body mass, body mass index z score, body fat, lean body mass, and waist circumference), biochemical (plasma glucose, insulin, leptin and adiponectin concentrations, leptin/adiponectin ratio, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)), physical fitness (peak oxygen uptake, velocity at peak oxygen uptake, squat jump, and countermovement jump performances), and energy intake data were collected. Both training programs improved the anthropometric, biochemical, and physical fitness variables. However, the P+HIIT program induced greater improvements than did the HIIT program in lean body mass (+3.0% ± 1.7%), plasma glucose and leptin concentrations (-11.0% ± 4.7% and -23.8% ± 5.8%, respectively), plasma leptin/adiponectin ratio (-40.9% ± 10.9%), HOMA-IR (-37.3% ± 6.2%), and squat jump performance (22.2% ± 7.5%). Taken together, these findings suggest that adding plyometric exercises to a HIIT program may be more beneficial than HIIT alone in obese female adolescents.

  2. Promoting Physical Activity Among Overweight Young African American Women Using the Internet

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is an interview with Nefertiti Durant, MD, MPH, from the University of Alabama at Birmingham about promoting physical activity among overweight and obese young African American Women using Internet-based tools.

  3. Tracking of leisure-time physical activity during adolescence and young adulthood: a 10-year longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsheim Torbjørn

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to show how participation in leisure-time physical activity changes between ages 13 to 23, and to what extent engaging in specific types of sports tracks into young adulthood. Methods The sample comprised 630 subjects who responded to questionnaires at age 13, with seven follow-ups over a 10-year period in the Norwegian Longitudinal Health Behaviour Study. The associations between adolescent participation in global and specific types of leisure-time physical activity were examined by analyses of variance, regression analysis and growth curve analysis. Results The findings suggest that the transition from adolescence to adulthood is, on average, a period of decline in physical activity, but with the decline levelling off into adulthood. The decline was significantly greater among males than females. There were substantial individual differences in the amount of change, in particular among males. Jogging alone and cycling, recreational activities such as skiing and hiking, and ball games, showed a high degree of tracking from age 15 to 23. The findings indicate low associations between participation in specific types of activities during adolescence and global leisure-time physical activity in young adulthood, while participation in several adolescent physical activities simultaneously was moderately related to later activity. Thus, being involved in various types of physical activity may offer good opportunities for establishing lifelong involvement in physical activity, independent of the specific type of activity. Conclusion The observed variation in change might suggest a need for a more targeted approach, with a focus on subgroups of individuals. The group of inactive youth may be considered as a high risk group, and the findings suggest that adolescent males who are inactive early seem likely to continue to be inactive later. The observed heterogeneity in change highlights the limitation of

  4. Year in school and physical activity stage of change as discriminators of variation in the physical activity correlate profile of adolescent females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Con; Murphy, John J; MacDonncha, Ciaran

    2014-05-01

    Knowledge of the physical activity correlate profile of adolescent females will provide insight into decreasing physical activity patterns among adolescent females. Correlates of physical activity and physical activity stage of change were assessed during 2007-2008 among 871 Irish adolescent females in years 1-6 in secondary schools (15.28 ± 1.8 years). Multivariate Analysis of Variance was used to identify whether differences in correlates of physical activity could be detected across year in school and physical activity stages of change. Significant differences (P physically active (partial eta range (ηp2) .21-.25) to be the most important predictors of physical activity stage of change. Females in more senior years in school and in earlier physical activity stages of change reported a significantly less positive physical activity correlate profile than females in junior years and in later physical activity stages of change. This finding supports the construct validity of the physical activity stages of change.

  5. The Influence of Physical Qualities on Activity Profiles of Female Australian Football Match-Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Georgia M; Gabbett, Tim J; Johnston, Rich D; Cole, Michael H; Naughton, Geraldine; Dawson, Brian

    2017-10-16

    The rapid transition of female Australian football players from amateur to semi-elite competitions has the potential for athletes to be underprepared for match-play. To gain an understanding the match demands of female football, the aims of this study were three-fold: (1) to highlight the physical qualities that discriminate selected and non-selected female Australian Football players, (2) to investigate activity profiles of female Australian Football players, and (3) to gain an understanding of the influence of physical qualities on running performance in female Australian Football match-play. Twenty-two female Australian football (AF) state academy players (mean ± SD age, 23.2 ± 4.5 years) and 27 non-selected players (mean ± SD age, 23.4 ± 4.9 years) participated in this study. The Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test (Level 1), countermovement jump and 30m sprint tests were completed prior to the competitive season. During 14 matches, players wore global positioning system (GPS) units to describe the running demands of female AF match-play. Selected players were faster over 30 metres (ES=0.57; p=0.04) and covered greater distances on the Yo-Yo IR1 test (ES=1.09; pfemale AF players were faster and had greater intermittent running ability than players not selected to a State academy program. An emphasis should be placed on the development of physical fitness in this playing group to ensure optimal preparation for the national competition.

  6. Barriers, Motivations, and Preferences for Physical Activity Among Female African American Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gothe, Neha P; Kendall, Bradley J

    2016-01-01

    According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, less than 11% of adults more than the age of 65 meet the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. Among minority populations, only 5% of non-Hispanic Black older adults met the guidelines. Given our limited understanding of psychosocial and environmental factors that affect physical activity participation in these groups, the purpose of our focus groups was to investigate barriers, motivators, and preferences of physical activity for community-dwelling African American older adults. Three focus groups were conducted with female African American older adults ( N = 20). Questions posed to each focus group targeted motivations and barriers toward physical activity as well as their preferences for physical activity. The motivations included perceived health benefits of physical activity, social support, and enjoyment associated with engagement in physical activity. Prominent barriers included time and physical limitations, peer pressure and family responsibilities, and weather and poor neighborhood conditions. Group activities involving a dance component and novel exercises such as tai-chi or yoga were preferred choices. These findings should be taken into consideration when designing and implementing research or community physical activity programs for female African American older adults.

  7. Barriers, Motivations, and Preferences for Physical Activity Among Female African American Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha P. Gothe PhD

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, less than 11% of adults more than the age of 65 meet the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. Among minority populations, only 5% of non-Hispanic Black older adults met the guidelines. Given our limited understanding of psychosocial and environmental factors that affect physical activity participation in these groups, the purpose of our focus groups was to investigate barriers, motivators, and preferences of physical activity for community-dwelling African American older adults. Three focus groups were conducted with female African American older adults ( N = 20. Questions posed to each focus group targeted motivations and barriers toward physical activity as well as their preferences for physical activity. The motivations included perceived health benefits of physical activity, social support, and enjoyment associated with engagement in physical activity. Prominent barriers included time and physical limitations, peer pressure and family responsibilities, and weather and poor neighborhood conditions. Group activities involving a dance component and novel exercises such as tai-chi or yoga were preferred choices. These findings should be taken into consideration when designing and implementing research or community physical activity programs for female African American older adults.

  8. Female reproductive factors are associated with objectively measured physical activity in middle-aged women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulmala, Janne; Aukee, Pauliina; Hakonen, Harto; Kujala, Urho M.; Lowe, Dawn A.; Kovanen, Vuokko; Tammelin, Tuija; Sipilä, Sarianna

    2017-01-01

    Physical activity improves health and may delay the onset of several chronic diseases. For women in particular, the rate of these diseases accelerates at middle age; therefore it is important to identify the determinants of health-enhancing physical activity during midlife in this population. In this study, we focused on determinants that are unique to the female sex, such as childbearing and menopause. The main objective was to characterize the level of physical activity and differences between active and inactive middle-aged Finnish women. In addition, we examined the association of physical activity with female reproductive factors at midlife. The study population consisted of 647 women aged 48 to 55 years who participated in our Estrogenic Regulation of Muscle Apoptosis (ERMA) study during the period from 2015 to 2016. Physical activity was measured objectively using hip-worn accelerometers for seven consecutive days. The outcome measures included the amounts of light intensity physical activity and moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity accumulated in bouts of at least 10 minutes (MVPA10). MVPA10 was used to determine whether women were placed in the active (≥150 min/week) or inactive (physical activity measures as dependent variables and cumulative reproductive history index, menopausal symptoms, and pelvic floor dysfunction as independent variables. We found that a large portion (61%) of Finnish middle-aged women did not meet the physical activity recommendations of 150 minutes of MVPA10 per week. In the studied cohort, 78% of women experienced menopausal symptoms, and 54% exhibited pelvic floor dysfunction. Perceived menopausal symptoms were associated with greater light physical activity. Perceived pelvic floor dysfunction was associated with lower MVPA10. According to the fully adjusted multiple linear regression models, reproductive factors explained 6.0% of the variation of MVPA10 and 7.5% of the variation of light physical activity. The

  9. Test–re-test reliability and inter-rater reliability of a digital pelvic inclinometer in young, healthy males and females

    OpenAIRE

    Chris Beardsley; Tim Egerton; Brendon Skinner

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability of a digital pelvic inclinometer (DPI) for measuring sagittal plane pelvic tilt in 18 young, healthy males and females.\\ud \\ud Method. The inter-rater reliability and test–re-test reliabilities of the DPI for measuring pelvic tilt in standing on both the right and left sides of the pelvis were measured by two raters carrying out two rating sessions of the same subjects, three weeks apart.\\ud \\ud Results. For measuring pel...

  10. Is physical activity maintenance from adolescence to young adulthood associated with reduced CVD risk factors, improved mental health and satisfaction with life: the HUNT Study, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Little is known about the effect maintaining physical activity throughout adolescence has on cardiovascular risk factors and health status in early adulthood. This ten-year prospective longitudinal study investigated whether differences in physical activity patterns from adolescence to young-adulthood showed different associations with subsequent cardio-metabolic risk factors and mental health in young-adulthood. Methods Based on the second and third Norwegian Nord-Trøndelag Health Surveys (HUNT2 and 3), we included 1869 individuals (838 males) participating in Young-HUNT (1995–97), aged 13–19 years and followed-up at HUNT3 (2006–08), aged 23–31. Self-reported physical activity (PA), mental health and perceived health were recorded, along with measurements of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), total cholesterol (TC), HDL cholesterol, glucose, triglycerides, resting heart rate (HR) and blood pressure. We used separate linear regressions models to investigate associations between physical activity and each CVD risk factor, and logistic regression analysis to examine PA patterns and subsequent mental health. Physically active maintainers were compared to inactive maintainers. Adopters (inactive as adolescents and physically active as young adults) were compared to inactive maintainers and to those who discontinued activity (relapsers). Results Active maintainers had significantly lower HR, compared to all other PA patterns. Active maintaining men had significantly lower WC than relapsers and inactive maintainers. When adjusted for age and gender, WC, BMI, HR, diastolic blood pressure and HDL-C showed significant differences comparing active maintaining to other PA patterns. Comparing inactive maintainers against adopters, only HR was significantly lower. Male adopters did not differ significantly in CVD risk compared to inactive maintainers and relapsers. Among females adopting was associated with lower HR and TC compared to inactive

  11. Is physical activity maintenance from adolescence to young adulthood associated with reduced CVD risk factors, improved mental health and satisfaction with life: the HUNT Study, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangul, Vegar; Bauman, Adrian; Holmen, Turid Lingaas; Midthjell, Kristian

    2012-12-14

    Little is known about the effect maintaining physical activity throughout adolescence has on cardiovascular risk factors and health status in early adulthood. This ten-year prospective longitudinal study investigated whether differences in physical activity patterns from adolescence to young-adulthood showed different associations with subsequent cardio-metabolic risk factors and mental health in young-adulthood. Based on the second and third Norwegian Nord-Trøndelag Health Surveys (HUNT2 and 3), we included 1869 individuals (838 males) participating in Young-HUNT (1995-97), aged 13-19 years and followed-up at HUNT3 (2006-08), aged 23-31. Self-reported physical activity (PA), mental health and perceived health were recorded, along with measurements of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), total cholesterol (TC), HDL cholesterol, glucose, triglycerides, resting heart rate (HR) and blood pressure. We used separate linear regressions models to investigate associations between physical activity and each CVD risk factor, and logistic regression analysis to examine PA patterns and subsequent mental health. Physically active maintainers were compared to inactive maintainers. Adopters (inactive as adolescents and physically active as young adults) were compared to inactive maintainers and to those who discontinued activity (relapsers). Active maintainers had significantly lower HR, compared to all other PA patterns. Active maintaining men had significantly lower WC than relapsers and inactive maintainers. When adjusted for age and gender, WC, BMI, HR, diastolic blood pressure and HDL-C showed significant differences comparing active maintaining to other PA patterns. Comparing inactive maintainers against adopters, only HR was significantly lower. Male adopters did not differ significantly in CVD risk compared to inactive maintainers and relapsers. Among females adopting was associated with lower HR and TC compared to inactive maintainers. Active maintainers

  12. Singing-Related Activity in Anterior Forebrain of Male Zebra Finches Reflects Courtship Motivation for Target Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Mai; Poulsen, Thomas M.; Oka, Kotaro; Hessler, Neal A.

    2013-01-01

    A critical function of singing by male songbirds is to attract a female mate. Previous studies have suggested that the anterior forebrain system is involved in this courtship behavior. Neural activity in this system, including the striatal Area X, is strikingly dependent on the function of male singing. When males sing to attract a female bird rather than while alone, less variable neural activity results in less variable song spectral features, which may be attractive to the female. These characteristics of neural activity and singing thus may reflect a male's motivation for courtship. Here, we compared the variability of neural activity and song features between courtship singing directed to a female with whom a male had previously formed a pair-bond or to other females. Surprisingly, across all units, there was no clear tendency for a difference in variability of neural activity or song features between courtship of paired females, nonpaired females, or dummy females. However, across the population of recordings, there was a significant relationship between the relative variability of syllable frequency and neural activity: when syllable frequency was less variable to paired than nonpaired females, neural activity was also less variable (and vice-versa). These results show that the lower variability of neural activity and syllable frequency during directed singing is not a binary distinction from undirected singing, but can vary in intensity, possibly related to the relative preference of a male for his singing target. PMID:24312344

  13. The invisible addiction: cell-phone activities and addiction among male and female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, James A; Yaya, Luc Honore Petnji; Manolis, Chris

    2014-12-01

    The primary objective of the present study was to investigate which cell-phone activities are associated with cell-phone addiction. No research to date has studied the full-range of cell-phone activities, and their relationship to cell-phone addiction, across male and female cell-phone users. College undergraduates (N = 164) participated in an online survey. Participants completed the questionnaire as part of their class requirements. The questionnaire took 10 and 15 minutes to complete and contained a measure of cell-phone addiction and questions that asked how much time participants spent daily on 24 cell-phone activities. Findings revealed cell-phone activities that are associated significantly with cell-phone addiction (e.g., Instagram, Pinterest), as well as activities that one might logically assume would be associated with this form of addiction but are not (e.g., Internet use and Gaming). Cell-phone activities that drive cell-phone addiction (CPA) were found to vary considerably across male and female cell-phone users. Although a strong social component drove CPA for both males and females, the specific activities associated with CPA differed markedly. CPA amongst the total sample is largely driven by a desire to connect socially. The activities found to be associated with CPA, however, differed across the sexes. As the functionality of cell-phones continues to expand, addiction to this seemingly indispensable piece of technology becomes an increasingly realistic possibility. Future research must identify the activities that push cell-phone use beyond its “tipping point” where it crosses the line from a helpful tool to one that undermines our personal well-being and that of others.

  14. The invisible addiction: Cell-phone activities and addiction among male and female college students

    Science.gov (United States)

    PETNJI YAYA, LUC HONORE; MANOLIS, CHRIS

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: The primary objective of the present study was to investigate which cell-phone activities are associated with cell-phone addiction. No research to date has studied the full-range of cell-phone activities, and their relationship to cell-phone addiction, across male and female cell-phone users. Methods: College undergraduates (N = 164) participated in an online survey. Participants completed the questionnaire as part of their class requirements. The questionnaire took 10 and 15 minutes to complete and contained a measure of cell-phone addiction and questions that asked how much time participants spent daily on 24 cell-phone activities. Results: Findings revealed cell-phone activities that are associated significantly with cell-phone addiction (e.g., Instagram, Pinterest), as well as activities that one might logically assume would be associated with this form of addiction but are not (e.g., Internet use and Gaming). Cell-phone activities that drive cell-phone addiction (CPA) were found to vary considerably across male and female cell-phone users. Although a strong social component drove CPA for both males and females, the specific activities associated with CPA differed markedly. Conclusions: CPA amongst the total sample is largely driven by a desire to connect socially. The activities found to be associated with CPA, however, differed across the sexes. As the functionality of cell-phones continues to expand, addiction to this seemingly indispensable piece of technology becomes an increasingly realistic possibility. Future research must identify the activities that push cell-phone use beyond its “;tipping point” where it crosses the line from a helpful tool to one that undermines our personal well-being and that of others. PMID:25595966

  15. Use of emergency contraception in Nigeria: An exploration of related factors among sexually active female university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiodun, Olumide

    2016-03-01

    Unsafe abortions account for nearly one-third of maternal deaths among young people. Women who have an induced abortion are usually literate and less than 30 years old; usually undergraduates with unintended pregnancies. Many of these pregnancies could have been prevented by contraception. The aim of this study was to determine the correlates of uptake of emergency contraception among university students. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1328 sexually active, never married female university students. Self-administered questionnaire was used to assess knowledge, perception and practice of emergency contraception. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify the predictors of emergency contraception. Majority of the participants were aware of emergency contraception (72.6%), had good knowledge (56.0%), and had the perception that it is effective (74.6%) and easy to use (72.4%). The main sources of information about emergency contraception were friends (32.9%) and the media (20.0%). About 52.0% of the participants had unprotected sex in the preceding six months, while 718 (54.1%) had ever used emergency contraception. The main sources of the commodities were sexual partners (46.2%) and medicine stores (35.4%). The uptake of emergency contraception was predicted by being ≤19 years (AOR = 3.193), rural dwelling (AOR = 4.247), perceptions that it is effective (AOR = 2.229E11) and easy to use (AOR = 6.680E8). Use of contraception among sexually active female Nigerian university students is predicted by the perception about its effectiveness and ease of use. Sexual and reproductive health programmes should focus on improving knowledge and addressing misconception in order to improve perception about emergency contraception. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Protein requirement of young adult Nigerian females on habitual Nigerian diet at the usual level of energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egun, G N; Atinmo, T

    1993-09-01

    A short-term N balance study was conducted in twelve healthy female adults aged 21-32 years to determine their protein requirement. Four dietary protein levels (0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 g protein/kg per d) were used. Energy intake of the subjects was kept constant at 0.18 MJ/kg per d. All subjects maintained their normal activity throughout the study period. N excretion was determined from the measurements of N in a total collection of urine, faeces, sweat and menstrual fluid for each dietary period. N balance during the four protein levels were -15.15 (SD 5.95), -5.53 (SD 6.71), +6.15 (SD 4.76) and +12.05 (SD 8.63) mg N/kg per d for 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 g protein/kg per d respectively. The calculated average N requirements from regression analysis was 76.0 (SD 3.37) mg N/kg per d (0.48 g protein/kg per d). The estimate of allowance for individual variation to cover the 97.5% population was 95 mg N/kg per d (0.6 g protein/kg per d). The net protein utilization (NPU) of the diet was 0.55. When compared with a similar study with men, there was a significant difference in the protein requirement between sexes. Thus, the unjustifiable sex difference in the protein allowance recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization/United Nations University (1985) Expert Consultation group must be reviewed.

  17. Male pheromone protein components activate female vomeronasal neurons in the salamander Plethodon shermani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feldhoff Pamela W

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mental gland pheromone of male Plethodon salamanders contains two main protein components: a 22 kDa protein named Plethodon Receptivity Factor (PRF and a 7 kDa protein named Plethodon Modulating Factor (PMF, respectively. Each protein component individually has opposing effects on female courtship behavior, with PRF shortening and PMF lengthening courtship. In this study, we test the hypothesis that PRF or PMF individually activate vomeronasal neurons. The agmatine-uptake technique was used to visualize chemosensory neurons that were activated by each protein component individually. Results Vomeronasal neurons exposed to agmatine in saline did not demonstrate significant labeling. However, a population of vomeronasal neurons was labeled following exposure to either PRF or PMF. When expressed as a percent of control level labeled cells, PRF labeled more neurons than did PMF. These percentages for PRF and PMF, added together, parallel the percentage of labeled vomeronasal neurons when females are exposed to the whole pheromone. Conclusion This study suggests that two specific populations of female vomeronasal neurons are responsible for responding to each of the two components of the male pheromone mixture. These two neural populations, therefore, could express different receptors which, in turn, transmit different information to the brain, thus accounting for the different female behavior elicited by each pheromone component.

  18. Role of spontaneous physical activity in prediction of susceptibility to activity based anorexia in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Leighton, Claudio E; Grace, Martha; Billington, Charles J; Kotz, Catherine M

    2014-08-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a chronic eating disorder affecting females and males, defined by body weight loss, higher physical activity levels and restricted food intake. Currently, the commonalities and differences between genders in etiology of AN are not well understood. Animal models of AN, such as activity-based anorexia (ABA), can be helpful in identifying factors determining individual susceptibility to AN. In ABA, rodents are given an access to a running wheel while food restricted, resulting in paradoxical increased physical activity levels and weight loss. Recent studies suggest that different behavioral traits, including voluntary exercise, can predict individual weight loss in ABA. A higher inherent drive for movement may promote development and severity of AN, but this hypothesis remains untested. In rodents and humans, drive for movement is defined as spontaneous physical activity (SPA), which is time spent in low-intensity, non-volitional movements. In this paper, we show that a profile of body weight history and behavioral traits, including SPA, can predict individual weight loss caused by ABA in male and female rats with high accuracy. Analysis of the influence of SPA on ABA susceptibility in males and females rats suggests that either high or low levels of SPA increase the probability of high weight loss in ABA, but with larger effects in males compared to females. These results suggest that the same behavioral profile can identify individuals at-risk of AN for both male and female populations and that SPA has predictive value for susceptibility to AN. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Young Scientists Explore an Encyclopedia of Energy Activities. Book 8--Intermediate Level. A Good Apple Activity Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBruin, Jerry

    Designed to develop creativity in young learners, this book contains interdisciplinary activities which focus on the theme of energy. Activity pages are provided that can serve as front and back covers of a student booklet and the suggested activities can be duplicated for insertion between the covers resulting in a booklet for each student. A…

  20. Synergistic effect of estradiol and fluoxetine in young adult and middle-aged female rats in two models of experimental depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Récamier-Carballo, Soledad; Estrada-Camarena, Erika; Reyes, Rebeca; Fernández-Guasti, Alonso

    2012-08-01

    The antidepressant effect of estrogens combined with antidepressants is controversial: some preclinical data showed that estrogens facilitate the effect of antidepressants in the forced swimming test (FST) in young adult rats, while others failed to find such effect in middle-aged rats in the chronic mild stress (CMS) model. In clinics similar differences were reported and may be due to the compounds, the depression model or type of depression, the experimental design, and the age of the subjects or the women's menopause stage. The objective of this study was to analyze the antidepressant-like effect of the combination of 17β-estradiol (E(2)) and fluoxetine (FLX) in young adults (2-4 months) and middle-aged (12-14 months) ovariectomized (OVX) rats in two experimental models: FST and CMS. E(2) (5 and 10 μg/rat) and FLX (2.5 and 10 mg/kg) per se dose-dependently reduced immobility in both age groups and, in young adults both compounds increased swimming, whereas in middle-aged rats they increased swimming and climbing. Analysis of the antidepressant-like effect of the combination of suboptimal doses of FLX (1.25 mg/kg) and E(2) (2.5 μg/rat) showed a decrease in immobility and an increase in swimming in both age groups. In the CMS, chronic E(2) (2.5 μg/rat) with FLX (1.25 mg/kg) augmented relative sucrose intake, but middle-aged rats responded 2 weeks earlier than young adults. These results show that the antidepressant-like effect of the combination of E(2) and FLX in young adult and middle-aged female rats is evidenced in the two animal models of depression: FST and CMS. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The effect of increasing autonomy through choice on young children’s physical activity behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing autonomy by manipulating the choice of available physical activity options in a laboratory setting can increase physical activity in older children and adults. However, the effect of manipulating the number of physically active choices has yet to be examined in young children in a gymnas...

  2. Young Scientists Explore Animals. Book 2--Intermediate Level. A Good Apple Activity Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBruin, Jerry

    Designed to develop creativity in young learners, this book contains interdisciplinary activities which focus on the theme of animals. Activity pages are provided that can serve as front and back covers of a student booklet and the suggested activities can be duplicated for insertion between the covers resulting in a booklet for each student. A…

  3. Young Scientists Explore the World Around Them. Book 1--Intermediate Level. A Good Apple Activity Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBruin, Jerry

    Designed to develop creativity in young learners, this book contains interdisciplinary activities which focus on the theme of scientists. Activity pages are provided that can serve as front and back covers of a student booklet and the suggested activities can be duplicated for insertion between the covers resulting in a booklet for each student. A…

  4. Young Scientists Explore Nature. Book 10--Intermediate Level. A Good Apple Activity Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBruin, Jerry

    Designed to develop creativity in young learners, this book contains interdisciplinary activities which focus on the theme of nature. Activity pages are provided that can serve as front and back covers of a student booklet and the suggested activities can be duplicated for insertion between the covers resulting in a booklet for each student. A…

  5. Young Scientists Explore the Moon. Book 3--Intermediate Level. A Good Apple Activity Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBruin, Jerry

    Designed to develop creativity in young learners, this book contains interdisciplinary activities which focus on the theme of the moon. Activity pages are provided that can serve as front and back covers of a student booklet and the suggested activities can be duplicated for insertion between the covers resulting in a booklet for each student. A…

  6. Young Scientists Explore Inner & Outer Space. Book 6--Intermediate Level. A Good Apple Activity Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBruin, Jerry

    Designed to develop creativity in young learners, this book contains interdisciplinary activities which focus on the theme of space (inner and outer). Activity pages are provided that can serve as front and back covers of a student booklet and the suggested activities can be duplicated for insertion between the covers resulting in a booklet for…

  7. Young Scientists Explore the Weather. Book 5--Intermediate Level. A Good Apple Activity Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBruin, Jerry

    Designed to develop creativity in young learners, this book contains interdisciplinary activities which focus on the theme of the weather. Activity pages are provided that can serve as front and back covers of a student booklet and the suggested activities can be duplicated for insertion between the covers resulting in a booklet for each student.…

  8. Young Scientists Explore the World of Water. Book 9--Intermediate Level. A Good Apple Activity Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBruin, Jerry

    Designed to develop creativity in young learners, this book contains interdisciplinary activities which focus on the theme of water. Activity pages are provided that can serve as front and back covers of a student booklet and the suggested activities can be duplicated for insertion between the covers resulting in a booklet for each student. A…

  9. Young Scientists Explore Rocks & Minerals. Book 11--Intermediate Level. A Good Apple Activity Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBruin, Jerry

    Designed to develop creativity in young learners, this book contains interdisciplinary activities which focus on the theme of rocks and minerals. Activity pages are provided that can serve as front and back covers of a student booklet and the suggested activities can be duplicated for insertion between the covers resulting in a booklet for each…

  10. Young Scientists Explore Light & Color. Book 12--Intermediate Level. A Good Apple Activity Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBruin, Jerry

    Designed to develop creativity in young learners, this book contains interdisciplinary activities which focus on the theme of light and color. Activity pages are provided that can serve as front and back covers of a student booklet and the suggested activities can be duplicated for insertion between the covers resulting in a booklet for each…

  11. Young Scientists Explore Electricity & Magnetism. Book 7--Intermediate Level. A Good Apple Activity Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBruin, Jerry

    Designed to develop creativity in young learners, this book contains interdisciplinary activities which focus on the theme of electricity and magnetism. Activity pages are provided that can serve as front and back covers of a student booklet and the suggested activities can be duplicated for insertion between the covers resulting in a booklet for…

  12. Young Scientists Explore the Five Senses. Book 4--Intermediate Level. A Good Apple Activity Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBruin, Jerry

    Designed to develop creativity in young learners, this book contains interdisciplinary activities which focus on the theme of the five senses. Activity pages are provided that can serve as front and back covers of a student booklet and the suggested activities can be duplicated for insertion between the covers resulting in a booklet for each…

  13. The Treasure in Leisure Activities: Fostering Resilience in Young People Who Are Blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessup, Glenda M.; Cornell, Elaine; Bundy, Anita C.

    2010-01-01

    Because leisure activities are often viewed as optional, their value to people with disabilities may not be recognized. This study explored the benefits of leisure activities for eight young people who are blind. These activities provided them with supportive relationships, a desirable identity, experiences of power and control, and experiences of…

  14. Changes of indicators of special physical fitness of young female tennis-players at the stage of basic training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Shevchenko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to improve performance of special physical qualities of young tennis players at the stage of initial training. Material and Methods: analysis of scientific and methodical literature, test of physical fitness, pedagogical experiment, methods of mathematical statistics. The study involved 11 women aged 7–8 years in the group of initial training. In the training sessions of physical training of young tennis players the game has been used teaching method. Results: to investigate the changes in the indices of physical fitness of young tennis players 7–8 years. Analyzed the impact of the development on the physical qualities of assimilation techniques. Pointed out that for the qualitative development of physical qualities necessary to use outdoor games and relay races. Revealed that the results of the physical fitness of young tennis players after the pedagogical experiment and had risen significantly different to those in the beginning of the study (P<0,05, except for indicators exercises "run on 18 meters". Conclusions: it was found that the use of training sessions on physical preparation of mobile games and relays increase the interest and motivation for tennis lessons for children in the group of initial training.

  15. Neurocognitive functions and social functioning in young females with recent-onset anorexia nervosa and recovered individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentz, Mette; Jepsen, Jens Richardt Moellegaard; Kjaersdam Telléus, Gry

    2017-01-01

    Background: Young individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) or recovered from AN display impairments of social function. To date, however, it is not clear whether they differ from controls with respect to neurocognitive performance and whether those functions contribute to the compromised social fun...

  16. Azadirachtin impact on mate choice, female sexual receptivity and male activity in Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aribi, N; Oulhaci, M C; Kilani-Morakchi, S; Sandoz, J C; Kaiser, L; Denis, B; Joly, D

    2017-11-01

    Azadirachtin, a neem compound (Azadirachta indica) with medical and anti-insect properties, is one the most successful botanical pesticides in agricultural use. However, its controversial impact on non-targeted species and its mechanism of action need to be clarified. In addition, Azadirachtin impact on pre- and post-mating traits remains largely undocumented. The current study examined the effects of Azadirachtin on Drosophila melanogaster as a non-target and model species. Azadirachtin was applied topically at its LD 50 (0.63μg) on the day of adult emergence and its effect was evaluated on several traits of reproductive behavior: mate choice, male activity, female sexual receptivity, sperm storage and female sterility. In choice and no choice conditions, only male treatment reduced mating probability. Female treatment impaired mating probability only when males had the choice. Males' mating ability may have been impaired by an effect of the treatment on their mobility. Such an effect was observed in the actimeter, which revealed that treated males were less active than untreated ones, and this effect persisted over 8days. Azadirachtin treatment had, however, no effect on the nycthemeral rhythm of those males. Even when mating occurred, Azadirachtin treatment impaired post-mating responses especially when females or both sexes were treated: remating probability increases and female fertility (presence of larvae) decreases. No impairment was observed on the efficiency of mating, evaluated by the presence of sperm in the spermatheca or the ventral receptacle. Male treatment only had no significant effect on these post-mating responses. These findings provide clear evidence that Azadirachtin alters the reproductive behavior of both sexes in D. melanogaster via mating and post-mating processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Plasma vitamin D is associated with fasting insulin and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance in young adult males, but not females, of the Jerusalem Perinatal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Amy; Hochner, Hagit; Sitlani, Colleen M; Williams, Michelle A; Hoofnagle, Andrew N; de Boer, Ian H; Kestenbaum, Bryan; Siscovick, David S; Friedlander, Yechiel; Enquobahrie, Daniel A

    2015-05-01

    To examine cross-sectional relationships between plasma vitamin D and cardiometabolic risk factors in young adults. Data were collected from interviews, physical examinations and biomarker measurements. Total plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured using LC-tandem MS. Associations between 25(OH)D and cardiometabolic risk factors were modelled using weighted linear regression with robust estimates of standard errors. Individuals born in Jerusalem during 1974-1976. Participants of the Jerusalem Perinatal Study (n 1204) interviewed and examined at age 32 years. Participants were oversampled for low and high birth weight and for maternal pre-pregnancy obesity. Mean total 25(OH)D concentration among participants was 21·7 (sd 8·9) ng/ml. Among males, 25(OH)D was associated with homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (natural log-transformed, β=-0·011, P=0·004) after adjustment for BMI. However, these associations were not present among females (P for sex interaction=0·005). We found evidence for inverse associations of 25(OH)D with markers of insulin resistance among males, but not females, in a healthy, young adult Caucasian population. Prospective studies and studies conducted on other populations investigating sex-specific effects of vitamin D on cardiometabolic risk factors are warranted.

  18. Plasma vitamin D is associated with fasting insulin and HOMA-IR in young adult males, but not females, of the Jerusalem Perinatal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Amy; Hochner, Hagit; Sitlani, Colleen M; Williams, Michelle A; Hoofnagle, Andrew N; de Boer, Ian H; Kestenbaum, Bryan; Siscovick, David S; Friedlander, Yechiel; Enquobahrie, Daniel A

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine cross-sectional relationships between plasma vitamin D and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in young adults. Design Data were collected from interviews, physical examinations, and biomarker measurements. Total plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) was measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Associations between 25[OH]D and CMR were modeled using weighted linear regression with robust standard error estimates. Setting Individuals born in Jerusalem during 1974-1976. Subjects Participants of the Jerusalem Perinatal Study (n = 1,204) interviewed and examined at age 32 years. Participants were oversampled for low and high birthweight and for maternal pre-pregnancy obesity. Results Mean total 25[OH]D concentration among participants was 21.7 ng/mL (SD 8.9). Among males, 25[OH]D was associated with Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) (natural log-transformed, β = -0.011, p = 0.004) after adjustment for body mass index. However, these associations were not present among females (p for sex interaction = 0.005). Conclusions We found evidence for inverse associations of 25[OH]D with markers of insulin resistance among males, but not females, in a health, young adult Caucasian population. Prospective studies and studies conducted on other populations investigating sex specific effects of vitamin D on CMR are warranted. PMID:25145881

  19. ACCEPTABILITY OF ULTRA LOW-DOSE ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES CONTAINING 20 µg ETHINYL ESTRADIOL AND 75 µg GESTODENE IN YOUNG FEMALES IN A MULTICENTER CLINICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojana Pinter

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. The acceptability of ultra low-dose oral contraception (OC among young females after three and six cycles of treatment was assessed.Methods. In the clinical prospective study, carried out in 10 outpatient clinics in Slovenia, 240 healthy women aged 16– 30 years choosing ultra low-dose OC (20 µg ethinyl estradiol and 75 µg gestodene were included.Results. The average age was 20.6 (± 3.5 years. After three cycles (N = 228 there were no changes in body weight or blood pressure; one tenth (9.6% of women reported irregular bleeding and 3.9% weight gain while other side effects occurred rarely. After three cycles 88.3% of the women initially included continued OC use (5% discontinued the use due to side effects. After six cycles (N = 195 there were no changes in blood pressure; body weight statistically significantly increased for 0.5 kg providing the weight changes during the time were not considered. Fewer women reported side effects (3.6% irregular bleeding, 2.6% weight gain and rarely other side effects. After six cycles 75.0% of the women initially included continued the OC use (7.5% discontinued the use due to the side effects.Conclusions. The study has shown good clinical acceptability of ultra low-dose OC by young females.

  20. Low back pain in female elite football and handball players compared with an active control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunås, Paula; Nilstad, Agnethe; Myklebust, Grethe

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to compare the prevalence of low back pain (LBP) among female elite football and handball players to a matched non-professional active control group. The participants were requested to answer a questionnaire based on standardized Nordic questionnaires for musculoskeletal symptoms to assess the prevalence of LBP. Included participants were elite female football (n = 277) and handball players (n = 190), and a randomly selected control group from the Norwegian population (n = 167). Fifty-seven percentage of the football players, 59 % of the handball players and 60 % of the control group had experienced LBP the previous year. There were no significant group differences in the prevalence of LBP ever (p = 0.62), the previous year (p = 0.85) or the previous 7 days (p = 0.63). For both sports, there was a significant increase in prevalence of LBP from the resting period to the competitive periods of the season (p ≤ 0.001). Seventy percent of the goalkeepers in both football and handball had experienced LBP the previous year. There were no difference in LBP among female elite football and handball players compared with the control group. However, female elite athletes in football and handball reported a high prevalence of LBP compared to previous studies. The variations in LBP and playing positions indicate that specific field positions, in football and handball, is a risk factor for developing LBP.

  1. An occupational therapy approach to the support of a young immigrant female's mental health: A story of bicultural personal growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Pooremamali

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Young immigrants who suffer from psychosis perceive their illness from the outlook of at least two cultures, which is often a source of confusion and misunderstanding for clients, their families, and clinicians. This article presents a case study with a narrative approach, aiming to illustrate how an occupational therapy intervention can highlight the role of culture and address bicultural identification in a young adult immigrant woman with mental health problems. The results show how a culturally adapted intervention model can be used to help the client go through a transition from an interdependent to a more independent self. During the course of occupational therapy, the client gained greater insight into her problems and could view herself as integrating numerous facets related to two different social and cultural contexts. Moreover, the client achieved better skills in dealing with discrepancies and cultural contradictions and became capable of relying on either or both of the cultures in different situations.

  2. Apolipoprotein E4, Gender, Body Mass Index, Inflammation, Insulin Resistance, and Air Pollution Interactions: Recipe for Alzheimer's Disease Development in Mexico City Young Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; de la Monte, Suzanne M

    2017-01-01

    Given the epidemiological trends of increasing Alzheimer's disease (AD) and growing evidence that exposure and lifestyle factors contribute to AD risk and pathogenesis, attention should be paid to variables such as air pollution, in order to reduce rates of cognitive decline and dementia. Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone (O3) above the US EPA standards is associated with AD risk. Mexico City children experienced pre- and postnatal high exposures to PM2.5, O3, combustion-derived iron-rich nanoparticles, metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and endotoxins. Exposures are associated with early brain gene imbalance in oxidative stress, inflammation, innate and adaptive immune responses, along with epigenetic changes, accumulation of misfolded proteins, cognitive deficits, and brain structural and metabolic changes. The Apolipoprotein E (APOE) 4 allele, the most prevalent genetic risk for AD, plays a key role in the response to air pollution in young girls. APOE 4 heterozygous females with >75% to <94% BMI percentiles are at the highest risk of severe cognitive deficits (1.5-2 SD from average IQ). This review focused on the relationships between gender, BMI, systemic and neural inflammation, insulin resistance, hyperleptinemia, dyslipidemia, vascular risk factors, and central nervous system involvement in APOE4 urbanites exposed to PM2.5 and magnetite combustion-derived iron-rich nanoparticles that can reach the brain. APOE4 young female heterozygous carriers constitute a high-risk group for a fatal disease: AD. Multidisciplinary intervention strategies could be critical for prevention or amelioration of cognitive deficits and long-term AD progression in young individuals at high risk.

  3. Is female circumcision evolving or dissolving in Norway? A qualitative study on attitudes toward the practice among young Somalis in the Oslo area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gele, Abdi A; Sagbakken, Mette; Kumar, Bernadette

    2015-01-01

    Female genital mutilation or female circumcision (FC) is increasingly visible on the global health and development agenda - both as a matter of social justice and equality for women and as a research priority. Norway is one of the global nations hosting a large number of immigrants from FC-practicing countries, the majority from Somalia. To help counteract this practice, Norway has adopted a multifaceted policy approach that employs one of the toughest measures against FC in the world. However, little is known about the impact of Norway's approach on the attitudes toward the practice among traditional FC-practicing communities in Norway. Against this background, this qualitative study explores the attitudes toward FC among young Somalis between the ages of 16 to 22 living in the Oslo and Akershus regions of Norway. Findings indicate that young Somalis in the Oslo area have, to a large extent, changed their attitude toward the practice. This was shown by the participants' support and sympathy toward criminalization of FC in Norway, which they believed was an important step toward saving young girls from the harmful consequences of FC. Most of the uncircumcised girls see their uncircumcised status as being normal, whereas they see circumcised girls as survivors of violence and injustice. Moreover, the fact that male participants prefer a marriage to uncircumcised girls is a strong condition for change, since if uncut girls are seen as marriageable then parents are unlikely to want to circumcise them. As newly arrived immigrants continue to have positive attitudes toward the practice, knowledge of FC should be integrated into introduction program classes that immigrants attend shortly after their residence permit is granted. This study adds to the knowledge of the process of the abandonment of FC among immigrants in Western countries.

  4. Analysis of the relationship of leptin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, adiponectin, insulin, and uric acid to metabolic syndrome in lean, overweight, and obese young females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Abdul Ridha; Hasan, Haydar A; Raigangar, Veena L

    2009-02-01

    Over the last decade there has been a steady rise in obesity and co-morbidity, but little is known about the rate of metabolic dysfunction among young adults in the United Arab Emirates. Various factors have been implicated as biomarkers of metabolic syndrome. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationships of leptin, C-reactive protein (CRP), adiponectin, insulin, and uric acid to the metabolic syndrome components in lean, overweight, and obese young females. This was a cross-sectional study of 69 apparently healthy young females, who were classified according to their body mass index (BMI) (kg/m(2)) into three groups: lean (25 and or=30). Estimated biomarkers were: leptin, insulin, adiponectin, high-sensitivity [hs]-CRP, uric acid, blood sugar, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), total cholesterol, and triglycerides (TG). Anthropometric measures, blood pressure, and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were also measured. Serum leptin, hs-CRP, insulin, and uric acid increased significantly (p syndrome components was found in lean subjects (leptin vs. waist circumference r = 0.48) as opposed to six in the obese group (hs-CRP vs. waist circumference and systolic blood pressure [SBP], r = 0.45 and r = -0.41, respectively; insulin vs. diastolic blood pressure [DBP], r = 0.47; adiponectin vs. blood sugar, r = -0.44; and uric acid vs. waist circumference and TG, r = 0.5 and r = 0.51, respectively). Estimation of the levels of studied biomarkers could be an important tool for early detection of metabolic syndrome before the appearance of its frank components. Uric acid seems to be the most reliable biomarker to identify obese subjects with metabolic syndrome.

  5. Games AS Warming Up Activities In Young Learners' Classrooms At An English Course

    OpenAIRE

    Aisyatin, Noviani

    2014-01-01

    The present research aimed at investigating types of games used by a teacher as warming-up activities in young learners' classrooms. The research involved a teacher of an English course and her young learner students. The data were collected by using observation and interview. The collected data were analyzed by using qualitative method. According to the result of data collection and data analysis, it was found that the teacher applied some types of games proposed by Hadfield (2001) and Evans...

  6. Tissue Mercury Concentrations and Survival of Tree Swallow Embryos, Nestlings and Young Adult Females on a Contaminated Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Capwell E; Cristol, Daniel A

    2015-10-01

    Tree swallows nesting on mercury-contaminated sites along the South River in Virginia, USA were monitored for reproductive success. The bodies of nestlings found deceased in their nest boxes were collected, along with blood and feather samples from the adult parents and surviving siblings. We also measured hatching and fledging success of the clutches and the annual recapture rate of adults. We found that the body feathers of deceased nestlings contained significantly higher concentrations of mercury (12.89 ± 8.42 μg/g, n = 15) than those of nestlings that survived to fledge (7.41 ± 4.79 μg/g, n = 15). However, mothers of more successful clutches (>75 % hatching) did not differ in mercury concentrations from females with less successful clutches (<50 % hatching). Additionally, adult females breeding for the first time that returned to breed the following year did not differ in blood mercury from females of the same age that bred once but never returned. Our results suggest that mercury had its greatest effect on these songbirds during the nestling stage, whereas for embryos or first-time breeding females, other factors likely played larger roles in mortality.

  7. COMPARING ANALYSIS OF ANTHROPOMETRICS CHARACTERISTICS AND FUNCTIONAL ABILITIES OF TOP FEMALE FOOTBALL PLAYERS AND OF FEMALE WHO DOESN'T TRAIN ANY SPORT ACTIVELY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Mladenovic

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Football is very popular game all over the world and in SCG as well.Every year in Yugoslavia girls and women are from 7 to 40 years take part in the game of football as a sport as well as a sort of recreation. Technically and tactically this game more and more resembles the male football. The process of training is close to the very edge of female abilities, so we have dynamic game full of duel, long shots and spectacular goals.The aim of this research is to confirm differences of developing characteristics and functional abilities female football players and women who don't train any sport actively.The research encircled 20 female football players members of football club Masinac (winner of 2003 competition. The control group consisted of 20 female students who didn't go in for any sport actively.The results show that the average height of female football players is 166.85 ± 5.47 cm and average height of control group is 166.11 ± 5.6 cm. Relative values of maximal oxygen up take is 63.14 ± 8.11 ml/min/kg and 55.43 ± 7.25 for control group. This result show that bought group have aerobic abilities higher than one of average women (30-40 ml/min/kg.

  8. Bone geometry in young male and female football players: a peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Berges, Gabriel; Matute-Llorente, Ángel; Gómez-Bruton, Alejandro; González-Agüero, Alex; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán; Casajús, José A

    2018-05-08

    The present study shows that football practice during growth may improve bone geometry in male and female football players. However, only females had better bone strength in comparison with controls. The aim of this study was to compare bone geometry in adolescent football players and controls. A total of 107 football players (71 males/36 females; mean age 12.7 ± 0.6/12.7 ± 0.6 years) and 42 controls (20 males/22 females; mean age 13.1 ± 1.4/12.7 ± 1.3 years) participated in this study. Total and trabecular volumetric bone mineral content (Tt.BMC/Tb.BMC), cross-sectional area (Tt.Ar/Tb.Ar), and bone strength index (BSI) were measured at 4% site of the non-dominant tibia by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Moreover, Tt.BMC, cortical BMC (Ct.BMC), Tt.Ar, cortical Ar (Ct.Ar), cortical thickness (Ct.Th), periosteal circumference (PC), endosteal circumference (EC), fracture load in X-axis, and polar strength strain index (SSIp) were measured at 38% site of the tibia. Multivariate analyses of covariance were used to compare bone pQCT variables between football players and controls using the tibia length and maturity offset as covariates. Female football players demonstrated 13.8-16.4% higher BSI, Ct.Th, fracture load in X-axis, and SSIp than controls (p  .0036). In relation to bone mineral content and area, male football players showed 8.8% higher Tt.Ar and Tb.Ar at the 4% site of the tibia when compared to controls; whereas 13.8-15.8% higher Tt.BMC, Ct.BMC, and Ct.Ar at the 38% site of the tibia were found in female football players than controls (p female adolescent football players presented better bone geometry and strength values than controls. In contrast, only bone geometry was higher in male football players than controls.

  9. Identifying novel phenotypes of vulnerability and resistance to activity-based anorexia in adolescent female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarich-Marsteller, Nicole C; Underwood, Mark D; Foltin, Richard W; Myers, Michael M; Walsh, B Timothy; Barrett, Jeffrey S; Marsteller, Douglas A

    2013-11-01

    Activity-based anorexia is a translational rodent model that results in severe weight loss, hyperactivity, and voluntary self-starvation. The goal of our investigation was to identify vulnerable and resistant phenotypes of activity-based anorexia in adolescent female rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained under conditions of restricted access to food (N = 64; or unlimited access, N = 16) until experimental exit, predefined as a target weight loss of 30-35% or meeting predefined criteria for animal health. Nonlinear mixed effects statistical modeling was used to describe wheel running behavior, time to event analysis was used to assess experimental exit, and a regressive partitioning algorithm was used to classify phenotypes. Objective criteria were identified for distinguishing novel phenotypes of activity-based anorexia, including a vulnerable phenotype that conferred maximal hyperactivity, minimal food intake, and the shortest time to experimental exit, and a resistant phenotype that conferred minimal activity and the longest time to experimental exit. The identification of objective criteria for defining vulnerable and resistant phenotypes of activity-based anorexia in adolescent female rats provides an important framework for studying the neural mechanisms that promote vulnerability to or protection against the development of self-starvation and hyperactivity during adolescence. Ultimately, future studies using these novel phenotypes may provide important translational insights into the mechanisms that promote these maladaptive behaviors characteristic of anorexia nervosa. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Estrogenic activities of diuron metabolites in female Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Thiago Scremin Boscolo; Boscolo, Camila Nomura Pereira; Felício, Andreia Arantes; Batlouni, Sergio Ricardo; Schlenk, Daniel; de Almeida, Eduardo Alves

    2016-03-01

    Some endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can alter the estrogenic activities of the organism by directly interacting with estrogen receptors (ER) or indirectly through the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis. Recent studies in male Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) indicated that diuron may have anti-androgenic activity augmented by biotransformation. In this study, the effects of diuron and three of its metabolites were evaluated in female tilapia. Sexually mature female fish were exposed for 25 days to diuron, as well as to its metabolites 3,4-dichloroaniline (DCA), 3,4-dichlorophenylurea (DCPU) and 3,4-dichlorophenyl-N-methylurea (DCPMU), at concentrations of 100 ng/L. Diuron metabolites caused increases in E2 plasma levels, gonadosomatic indices and in the percentage of final vitellogenic oocytes. Moreover, diuron and its metabolites caused a decrease in germinative cells. Significant differences in plasma concentrations of the estrogen precursor and gonadal regulator17α-hydroxyprogesterone (17α-OHP) were not observed. These results show that diuron metabolites had estrogenic effects potentially mediated through enhanced estradiol biosynthesis and accelerated the ovarian development of O. niloticus females. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Physical activity in young children with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwier, J.N.; van Schie, P.E.M.; Becher, J.G.S.J.S.; Smits, D.W.; Gorter, J.W.; Dallmeijer, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this study was to describe the physical activity levels of 5- and 7-year-old children with cerebral palsy (CP, n=97), to compare their physical activity levels with those of typically developing peers (TD, n=57) and the Dutch recommendation for physical activity, and to

  12. Technical activity profile and influence of body anthropometry on playing performance in female elite team handball

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michalsik, Lars B; Aagaard, Per; Madsen, Klavs

    2015-01-01

    regular tournament match seasons. Technical match activities were distributed in 6 major types of playing actions (shots, breakthroughs, fast breaks, technical errors, defensive errors, and tackles) and further divided into various subcategories (e.g., type of shot, hard or light tackles, claspings......, screenings, and blockings). Furthermore, anthropometric measurements were performed. Each player had 28.3 ± 11.0 (group means ± SD) high-intense playing actions per match with a total effective playing time of 50.70 ± 5.83 minutes. On average, each player made 2.8 ± 2.6 fast breaks, gave 7.9 ± 14...... that female elite TH players during competitive games intermittently perform a high number of short-term, high-intense technical playing actions making modern female elite TH a physically demanding team sport. No sign of technical fatigue were observed, since the amount of intense technical playing actions...

  13. Experimental evidence showing that no mitotically active female germline progenitors exist in postnatal mouse ovaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Zheng, Wenjing; Shen, Yan; Adhikari, Deepak; Ueno, Hiroo; Liu, Kui

    2012-07-31

    It has been generally accepted for more than half a century that, in most mammalian species, oocytes cannot renew themselves in postnatal or adult life, and that the number of oocytes is already fixed in fetal or neonatal ovaries. This assumption, however, has been challenged over the past decade. In this study, we have taken an endogenous genetic approach to this question and generated a multiple fluorescent Rosa26(rbw/+);Ddx4-Cre germline reporter mouse model for in vivo and in vitro tracing of the development of female germline cell lineage. Through live cell imaging and de novo folliculogenesis experiments, we show that the Ddx4-expressing cells from postnatal mouse ovaries did not enter mitosis, nor did they contribute to oocytes during de novo folliculogenesis. Our results provide evidence that supports the traditional view that no postnatal follicular renewal occurs in mammals, and no mitotically active Ddx4-expressing female germline progenitors exist in postnatal mouse ovaries.

  14. Experiencing flow in a workplace physical activity intervention for female health care workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elbe, Anne-Marie; Barene, Svein; Strahler, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    and adherence to regular physical activity 18 weeks after the end of the intervention was found. Furthermore, repeated measures throughout the intervention period showed a significantly different development of flow values over time for the adherers and nonadherers. Flow therefore may be of importance...... for adherence to regular workplace physical activity. Future research needs to investigate the importance of flow in other physical activity settings, especially also for male participants.......Flow is a rewarding psychological state that motivates individuals to repeat activities. This study explored healthcare workers’ flow experiences during a workplace exercise intervention. Seventy-nine females were assigned to either a 12-week football or Zumba exercise intervention and their flow...

  15. The Effect of Increasing Autonomy Through Choice on Young Children's Physical Activity Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Gabriel J; Juvancic-Heltzel, Judith; Williamson, Megan L; Roemmich, James N; Feda, Denise M; Barkley, Jacob E

    2016-04-01

    Increasing autonomy by manipulating the choice of available physical activity options in a laboratory setting can increase physical activity in older children and adults. However, the effect of manipulating the number of physically active choices has yet to be examined in young children in a gymnasium environment. Twenty children (n = 10 girls, 6.1 ± 1.4 years old) individually participated in 2 [low choice (LC), high choice (HC)] free-choice activity conditions for 30 minutes in a 4360 square foot gymnasium. Children had access to 2 or 8 physical activity options in the LC and HC conditions, respectively. Physical activity behavior was measured via accelerometry. Children's 30-minute accelerometer counts increased (P autonomy through choice of a greater number of physically active options increased young children's physical activity participation by 20.5%.

  16. [The role of intense physical activity in the formation of body shape - research based on female figure skaters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paluchowska, Monika

    2015-01-01

    The article concerns figure skating competitors. Figure skating is a very demanding discipline. It requires a combination of endurance, strength and flexibility. The training ground is ice, which puts strain on the muscles and skeleton. Young children often train more than is healthy for a young and growing body. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of training on the height and weight of female skaters. 181 measurements were taken from three skating clubs, and a survey was conducted among skaters' parents about skaters' siblings. Female skaters are relatively shorter and lighter than their peers, but the differences were not statistically significant. Significant differences were noted between girls whose sisters do not do sports. The results suggest the influence of genetic factors and selection processes on the morphology of the skaters' body.

  17. Antiphospholipid and antioangiogenic activity in females with recurrent miscarriage and antiphospholipid syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelusa, Hector F; Pezzarini, Eleonora; Basiglio, Cecilia L; Musuruana, Jorge; Bearzotti, Mariela; Svetaz, María J; Daniele, Stella M; Bottai, Hebe; Arriaga, Sandra Mm

    2017-09-01

    Background Antiphospholipid syndrome is an autoimmune disease characterized by thrombosis, fetal losses and thrombocytopenia associated to antiphospholipid antibodies. They are directed to phospholipids, such as cardiolipins (anticardiolipin) and lupus anticoagulant or to complexes formed by phospholipids and protein cofactors, such as β2 glycoprotein 1 (a-β2GP1) and annexin V (a-annexin V). These auto-antibodies may be considered as a family of antibodies involved in thrombotic events and antiphospholipid activity. On the other hand, some proangiogenic factors are involved in the normal development of placental vasculature, such as the vascular endothelial growth factor. Overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor in its soluble form (sVEGFR-1) has been associated to a higher antiangiogenic activity. Our aim was to analyse the association between anticardiolipin, lupus anticoagulant, a-β2GP1, a-annexin V and sVEGFR-1 with recurrent miscarriage before week 10 of gestation in females with antiphospholipid syndrome. Methods We studied 24 females (primary or secondary antiphospholipid syndrome), who were divided into two groups: females with recurrent miscarriage before week 10 of gestation (M; n = 12) and females with no history of fetal loss (NM; n = 12). Anticardiolipin, a-β2GP1, a-annexin V and sVEGF-R1 concentrations were assessed by ELISA, while lupus anticoagulant was assessed by screening and confirmatory tests. Results A significant association was observed between the number of positive biomarkers and the belonging group ( P antiphospholipid syndrome.

  18. Physical Activity Levels among Adolescent and Young Adult Women and Men with and without Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundahl, Lina; Zetterberg, Marie; Wester, Anita; Rehn, Börje; Blomqvist, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Background: As physical activity can prevent overweight and promote general health, the aim was to investigate the amount of physical activity among adolescent and young adult women and men with intellectual disability (ID), compared to age-matched control groups without intellectual disability. A further aim was to examine whether physical…

  19. Trends in Leisure Time Physical Activity among Young People in Finland, 1977-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakso, Lauri; Telama, Risto; Nupponen, Heimo; Rimpela, Arja; Pere, Lasse

    2008-01-01

    The decline in physical activity among young people has been discussed in the media during recent decades, although the scientific evidence for this has been scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate trends over 30 years in leisure time physical activity of Finnish boys and girls aged 12, 14, 16 and 18 years from 1977 to 2007. The data were…

  20. Understanding How Young People Do Activism: Youth Strategies on Sexual Health in Ecuador and Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Anna-Britt; Goicolea, Isabel; Hurtig, Anna-Karin; San Sebastian, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    While social movement research employs "tactical repertoire" to emphasize protest tactics directed at the state, literature on youth activism globally indicates that young people do politics outside the realm of formal political spheres. Youth activism on body politics in Latin America offers evidence that enhances conceptual tools…

  1. VOLUME OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND INJURY OCCURRENCE IN YOUNG BASKETBALL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Gianoudis

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Participation in organised, competitive physical activity by young athletes is increasing rapidly. This is concurrent with an increase in sporting injuries in the young population. This pilot study aimed to compare the weekly volume and types of physical activity in young basketball players injured and not injured during the season. Detailed physical activity and injury data were prospectively collected in 46 school-level basketball players aged 14 to 18 years. Participants completed physical activity logs which documented the type of physical activity undertaken, what the activity consisted of (i.e. training, competition and the level at which it was played on a daily basis. Allied health staff completed a weekly injury form. Results showed that injured and uninjured athletes participated in a similar volume of total weekly physical activity over the season. However, injured athletes (p = 0.04 and athletes who specifically sustained overuse injuries (p = 0.01 participated in a greater amount of basketball refereeing than uninjured athletes. Based on these findings it was concluded that greater participation in running-type physical activity such as refereeing, as an addition to training and competition, may predispose the young basketball player to increased injury risk. Future research using larger sample sizes are required to further investigate the role of participation volume and type on injury occurrence in adolescent athletes

  2. Development of Romantic Relationships and Sexual Activity in Young Adults With Cerebral Palsy: A Longitudinal Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegerink, D.J.; Stam, H.J.; Gorter, J.W.; Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.; Roebroeck, M.E.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the development of romantic relationships and sexual activity of young adults with cerebral palsy (CP), to investigate whether this development is associated with demographic and physical characteristics, and to compare the sexual activity of this group with an

  3. Cervico-mandibular muscle activity in females with chronic cervical pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Lang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pathophysiological mechanisms behind pain in chroniccervical musculoskeletal conditions (MSC in office workers remainunclear. Chronic cervical pain has established links with temporomandibular(TM disorders. Yet there is no current published evidence to reportwhether individuals with cervical dysfunction exhibit altered masseterand cervical extensor (CE muscle activity. Objective: To explore CE andmasseter surface electromyographic (sEMG activity and teeth clenchinghabits in females with chronic cervical dysfunction and no TM disorder.Design: Descriptive cross-sectional correlational study with singleblinding.Participants: University students and staff with or without chroniccervical pain and no TM involvement. Methods: Descriptive and paindata captured from Research Diagnostic Criteria for TM disorders, NeckDisability Index, Computer Usage, Brief Pain Inventory, and EuroQoL-5Dquestionnaires. Female participants allocated to a chronic cervical (n = 20 and a control group (n = 22. Investigator blindedto the study groups recorded sEMG of bilateral masseter and CE muscles (C4/5 level at rest and during light teeth clenching.Results: No differences in socio-demographic profile; or in masseter or CE sEMG activity at rest or during light clench betweengroups. The pain group had higher scores for pain, reported a daytime teeth clenching habit, and had worse scores for the healthrelatedquality of life (HRQoL sub-sections for pain, anxiety/depression, and lower scores for perceived health status. Conclusion:No relationship established between cervico-mandibular sEMG activity and reported disability in females with chronic cervicaldysfunction and no TM disorder. Association between biopsychosocial factors of teeth clenching and anxiety/depression highlightscomplex pathophysiological mechanisms in chronic recurrent cervical pain.

  4. Frequencies of aneuploidy and dominant lethal mutations in young female mice induced by low dose γ-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Suyan; Zhang Chaoyang; Dai Lianlian; Gao Changwen

    1991-01-01

    Relationship between aneuploidy, dominant lethal mutations and doses in young feral mice induced by low dose γ-rays was examined. The results suggest that the frequencies of aneuploidy of embryos increased at 0.15 Gy, but increases at over 0.50 Gy after irradiation in groups. The frequencies of aneuploidy and dominant lethal mutations increased with increasing doses and fitted linear relationship. This dose-response relationship of trisomic was not significant. The frequency of dominant lethal mutations induced by 60 Co γ irradiation is 5.59%. The effect of dominant lethal mutation is higher than that of the aneuploidy

  5. EXAMINATION OF EFFECTS OF RHYTHMIC GYMNASTICS ON BALANCE DEVELOPMENT AT THE SCHOOL CLASES OF YOUNG ELEMENTARY SCHOOL FEMALE PUPILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Aleksić

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Balance is, in this work, important to three different balances: elementary balance, defined as body ability to fix in assigned balance position at minimal lean area, visual difficult balance, defined as body ability to fix in assigned balance position without visual control, and dynamic difficult balance, defined as body ability to fix in assigned balance position with center of gravity above the lean area, in spite of external forces difficulties. The battery for the evaluation of balance consists of three following tests: MPSG, MHNG, MSJN. During the 2005/06 academic year, a research was conducted so as to determine the effects of rhythmic gymnastics` program of physical education teaching on balance of female pupils. The subjects (N=99 were classified in experimental and control groups. At the beginning of the academic year, initial (first measurement was performed, followed by experimental final (second measurement at the end of experiment. Research data was processed using the multi-variant procedures MANCOVA, MANOVA, and mono-variant procedures ANCOVA, ANOVA i interval of entrust in distinction declined mean. After the experimental treatment, it was concluded that there are significant differences between female pupils in experimental and control groups i interest of experimental group evaluation of balance. The basic conclusion is that the female pupils of experimental group achieved significantly higher teaching effects than the control group, in view of partly increased motor abilities, being the result of the effects of the experimental treatment, as well as other external and internal factors. The main conclusion was that experimental treatment contributed better results in balance estimation tests in female pupils experimental group.

  6. Comparison between hemoglobin and packed cell volume among young male and female students from a Medical College of Islamabad, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zia, Q.U.A.

    2015-01-01

    To high light the importance of laboratory investigations for students and encourage them to participate in research. Methodology: This cross sectional study was carried out at Islamabad Medical and Dental College Islamabad for a three months period from April 1, 2014 to June 30, 2014. Students with age 18-20 years were chosen by convenience sampling for sample collection. Verbal consent was taken from candidates before sample collection. Packed cell volume (PCV) was measured by using Micro Hematocrit method and hemoglobin (Hb) concentration by Sahli acid haematin method. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results: Out of 106 students, there were 32 males and 74 females. Male participants had significantly greater Hb concentration and PCV as compared to females (p=0.05). Conclusion: Both Hb and PCV were significantly higher in males as compared to females of almost same age. For improving Hb concentration, dietary sources of iron and iron supplements may be used for better health of future generation. (author)

  7. Listening to young people with special needs: the influence of group activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Peter

    2005-12-01

    The article reports on the experiences of group activities within an area of Yorkshire that helped young people with special needs to express their views and opinions. Significant issues were raised by the ethics of undertaking work with young people and these are reviewed. The young people involved in the research reported that their participation in the groups developed their self-confidence and advocacy skills. This led them to be more confident in expressing their needs at school and in the community. To establish wider generalizability for the study findings, the Yorkshire group activities were compared with another similar group in London where further data were collected from the young people involved. In facilitating group activities, willing staff were an important addition to the group because their presence provided and encouraged positive reactions to the distinctive achievements of the young people themselves. In both groups, members were committed to participation in project-based activities that raised their self-esteem and helped establish a sense of their own identity and purpose.

  8. THE STUDY OF RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PARENTING STYLES OF MOTHERS WITH PHYSICAL ACTIVITY LEVELS AND OVERWEIGHT AMONG FEMALE STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Nooshin Benar; Ayoub Behrozi

    2012-01-01

    Objective - the purpose of the present study was to determine whether mothers parenting styles are associated with physical activity levels and Overweight in 14- to 17-years old female students lived city of Rasht. Study would focus on that mothers influence their children by what ways and which were the most effective. Methods - the target population consisted entirely of female students of Rasht City. Then, according to Odineski table 360 females, 80 ninth graders, 148 tenth graders 132 ele...

  9. Barriers and Facilitators for Utilization of Genetic Counseling and Risk Assessment Services in Young Female Breast Cancer Survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth Anderson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Women diagnosed with breast cancer at a young age are more likely to carry a cancer predisposing genetic mutation. Per the current NCCN recommendations, women diagnosed under age 50 should be referred to cancer genetic counseling for further risk evaluation. This study seeks to assess patient-reported barriers and facilitators to receiving genetic counseling and risk assessment among a community-based population of young breast cancer survivors (YBCS. Methods. Through the Michigan Cancer Surveillance Program, a state-based cancer registry, 488 women diagnosed with breast cancer before age 50 in 2006-2007 were identified. They received a mail survey regarding family history and facilitators and barriers to receiving genetic counseling and risk assessment. Results. Responses were received from 289 women (59.2%. One hundred twenty-two (42.2% reported having received cancer genetic counseling. The most frequent reason identified for receiving services was to benefit their family's future. The top reasons for not attending were “no one recommended it” and “medical insurance coverage issues.” Discussion. This study is the first published report using a state cancer registry to determine facilitators and barriers to receiving genetic counseling and risk assessment among YBCS. These findings demonstrate the need for additional awareness and education about appropriate indications for genetic services.

  10. Barriers and Facilitators for Utilization of Genetic Counseling and Risk Assessment Services in Young Female Breast Cancer Survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, B.; McLosky, J.; Wasilevich, E.; Callo, S. L.; Duquette, D.; Copeland, G.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Women diagnosed with breast cancer at a young age are more likely to carry a cancer predisposing genetic mutation. Per the current NCCN recommendations, women diagnosed under age 50 should be referred to cancer genetic counseling for further risk evaluation. This study seeks to assess patient-reported barriers and facilitators to receiving genetic counseling and risk assessment among a community-based population of young breast cancer survivors (YBCS). Methods. Through the Michigan Cancer Surveillance Program, a state-based cancer registry, 488 women diagnosed with breast cancer before age 50 in 2006-2007 were identified. They received a mail survey regarding family history and facilitators and barriers to receiving genetic counseling and risk assessment. Results. Responses were received from 289 women (59.2%). One hundred twenty-two (42.2%) reported having received cancer genetic counseling. The most frequent reason identified for receiving services was to benefit their family's future. The top reasons for not attending were “no one recommended it” and “medical insurance coverage issues.” Discussion. This study is the first published report using a state cancer registry to determine facilitators and barriers to receiving genetic counseling and risk assessment among YBCS. These findings demonstrate the need for additional awareness and education about appropriate indications for genetic services.

  11. Lactobacillus proteins are associated with the bactericidal activity against E. coli of female genital tract secretions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabah Kalyoussef

    Full Text Available Female genital tract secretions are bactericidal for Escherichia (E. coli ex vivo. However, the intersubject variability and molecules that contribute to this activity have not been defined.The bactericidal activity and concentration of immune mediators in cervicovaginal lavage (CVL collected from 99 healthy women were determined.CVL reduced the number of E. coli colonies by 68% [-26, 100] (median [range]. CVL were active against laboratory and clinical isolates of E. coli, but were inactive against Lactobacillus species. Bactericidal activity correlated with the concentration of protein recovered (p90% inhibitory activity (active and two with<30% activity were subjected to MS/MS proteomic analysis. 215 proteins were identified and six were found exclusively in active samples. Four of these corresponded to Lactobacillus crispatus or jensenii proteins. Moreover, culture supernatants from Lactobacillus jensenii were bactericidal for E. coli.Both host and commensal microbiota proteins contribute to mucosal defense. Identification of these proteins will facilitate the development of strategies to maintain a healthy vaginal microbiome and prevent colonization with pathogenic bacteria such as E. coli that increase the risk for urinary tract infections, preterm labor and perinatal infection.

  12. Determination of zinc concentration in female reproductive system by instrumental neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Fernando Ramos de

    2009-01-01

    Non-surgical female sterilization through the transcervical insertion of quinacrine pellets was considered a definitive, low-cost, safe and effective contraceptive method. The zinc, present in both uterus and Fallopian tubes, inhibit the quinacrine efficiency. The addition of copper increases the efficacy of quinacrine, reducing the risk of pregnancy due to the failure to obstruct the Fallopian tubes. The copper neutralized the deleterious effect of the zinc and so the treatment efficacy is increased. In order to obtain a mapping to study the zinc content in the female reproductive system, samples of both uterus and Fallopian tubes were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation. The results show that, on average, the obtained zinc concentrations in tubes (89 μg-g -1 ) is lower than in the uterus (118 μg-g -1 ), confirming results obtained by other authors. These results will support a research project about non-surgical female sterilization of the 'Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais' (Medical School of Federal University of Minas Gerais). The used methodology and obtained results are here reported. (author)

  13. Determination of zinc concentration in female reproductive system by instrumental neutron activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Fernando Ramos de, E-mail: framosc@oi.com.b [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear; Oliveira, Arno Heeren de, E-mail: heeren@nuclear.ufmg.b [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Ginecologia e Obstetricia; Ferreira, Claudia R.C.; Ferreira, Ricardo Alberto Neto; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C., E-mail: claudia@medicina.ufmg.b, E-mail: ranf@cdtn.b, E-mail: menezes@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Non-surgical female sterilization through the transcervical insertion of quinacrine pellets was considered a definitive, low-cost, safe and effective contraceptive method. The zinc, present in both uterus and Fallopian tubes, inhibit the quinacrine efficiency. The addition of copper increases the efficacy of quinacrine, reducing the risk of pregnancy due to the failure to obstruct the Fallopian tubes. The copper neutralized the deleterious effect of the zinc and so the treatment efficacy is increased. In order to obtain a mapping to study the zinc content in the female reproductive system, samples of both uterus and Fallopian tubes were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation. The results show that, on average, the obtained zinc concentrations in tubes (89 mug-g{sup -1}) is lower than in the uterus (118 mug-g{sup -1}), confirming results obtained by other authors. These results will support a research project about non-surgical female sterilization of the 'Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais' (Medical School of Federal University of Minas Gerais). The used methodology and obtained results are here reported. (author)

  14. Comparison of physical activities of female football players in junior high school and high school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yuri; Otani, Yoshitaka; Takemasa, Seiichi

    2017-08-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to compare physical activities between junior high school and high school female football players in order to explain the factors that predispose to a higher incidence of sports injuries in high school female football players. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-nine female football players participated. Finger floor distance, the center of pressure during single limb stance with eyes open and closed, the 40-m linear sprint time, hip abduction and extension muscle strength and isokinetic knee flexion and extension peak torque were measured. The modified Star Excursion Balance Test, the three-steps bounding test and three-steps hopping tests, agility test 1 (Step 50), agility test 2 (Forward run), curl-up test for 30 seconds and the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test were performed. [Results] The high school group was only significantly faster than the junior high school group in the 40-m linear sprint time and in the agility tests. The distance of the bounding test in the high school group was longer than that in the junior high school group. [Conclusion] Agility and speed increase with growth; however, muscle strength and balance do not develop alongside. This unbalanced development may cause a higher incidence of sports injuries in high school football players.

  15. Work related perceived stress and muscle activity during standardized computer work among female computer users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsman, P; Thorn, S; Søgaard, K

    2009-01-01

    The current study investigated the associations between work-related perceived stress and surface electromyographic (sEMG) parameters (muscle activity and muscle rest) during standardized simulated computer work (typing, editing, precision, and Stroop tasks). It was part of the European case......-control study, NEW (Neuromuscular assessment in the Elderly Worker). The present cross-sectional study was based on a questionnaire survey and sEMG measurements among Danish and Swedish female computer users aged 45 or older (n=49). The results show associations between work-related perceived stress...... and trapezius muscle activity and rest during standardized simulated computer work, and provide partial empirical support for the hypothesized pathway of stress induced muscle activity in the association between an adverse psychosocial work environment and musculoskeletal symptoms in the neck and shoulder....

  16. Geometric Characteristics of the Knee Are Associated With a Noncontact ACL Injury to the Contralateral Knee After Unilateral ACL Injury in Young Female Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levins, James G; Argentieri, Erin C; Sturnick, Daniel R; Gardner-Morse, Mack; Vacek, Pamela M; Tourville, Timothy W; Johnson, Robert J; Slauterbeck, James R; Beynnon, Bruce D

    2017-12-01

    Contralateral anterior cruciate ligament (CACL) injury after recovery from a first-time ACL rupture occurs at a high rate in young females; however, little is known about the risk factors associated with bilateral ACL trauma. The geometric characteristics of the contralateral knee at the time of the initial ACL injury are associated with risk of suffering a CACL injury in these female athletes. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Sixty-two female athletes who suffered their first noncontact ACL injury while participating in sports at the high school or college level were identified, and geometry of the femoral notch, ACL, tibial spines, tibial subchondral bone, articular cartilage surfaces, and menisci of the contralateral, uninjured, knee was characterized in 3 dimensions. We were unable to contact 7 subjects and followed the remaining 55 until either a CACL injury or an ACL graft injury occurred or, if they were not injured, until the date of last contact (mean, 34 months after their first ACL injury). Cox regression was used to identify risk factors for CACL injury. Ten (18.2%) females suffered a CACL injury. Decreases of 1 SD in femoral intercondylar notch width (measured at its outlet and anterior attachment of the ACL) were associated with increases in the risk of suffering a CACL injury (hazard ratio = 1.88 and 2.05, respectively). Likewise, 1 SD decreases in medial-lateral width of the lateral tibial spine, height of the medial tibial spine, and thickness of the articular cartilage located at the posterior region of the medial tibial compartment were associated with 3.59-, 1.75-, and 2.15-fold increases in the risk of CACL injury, respectively. After ACL injury, subsequent injury to the CACL is influenced by geometry of the structures that surround the ACL (the femoral notch and tibial spines). This information can be used to identify individuals at increased risk for CACL trauma, who might benefit from targeted risk-reduction interventions.

  17. “It’s a Different Condom, Let’s See How It Works”: Young Men’s Reactions to and Experiences of Female Condom Use During an Intervention Trial in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Masvawure, Tsitsi B.; Mantell, Joanne E.; Mabude, Zonke; Ngoloyi, Claudia; Milford, Cecilia; Beksinska, Mags; Smit, Jennifer A.

    2013-01-01

    Although male partner cooperation is often essential for successful use of the female condom, only a few studies have directly assessed men’s experiences of using the device. We examined barriers to and facilitators of female condom use via qualitative in-depth interviews with 38 young men (18 to 28 years) in South Africa whose partners, all university students, were enrolled in a female condom intervention trial. In all, 21 men used the female condom; the remaining 17 did not attempt use. Th...

  18. Effect of Motivation by "Instagram" on Adherence to Physical Activity among Female College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Eisa, Einas; Al-Rushud, Asma; Alghadir, Ahmad; Anwer, Shahnawaz; Al-Harbi, Bashayer; Al-Sughaier, Noha; Al-Yoseef, Noha; Al-Otaibi, Reem; Al-Muhaysin, Hanadi Ali

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the efficacy of using "Instagram application" with a "home-exercise program" as a motivational stimulus in improving physical activity (PA) adherence levels among female college students. Fifty-eight female undergraduate students with the mean age 20.3 ± 0.96 years participated. Participants were divided into two groups: intervention and the control group; both the groups received an exercise program and the intervention group was additionally motivated by "Instagram." Adherence to PA was measured by using an adherence sheet. The Exercise Motivation Inventory (EMI-2) was used to assess the motivational factors. The most frequent motivational factors were extrinsic as assessed using the EMI-2. "Positive health" was the most frequent factor mentioned of the two types with 47% of the sample. The intervention group adhered with 17% more to the activity program compared to the control group. Moreover, 72% of the participants in the intervention and control groups found the activity program flexible enough to be performed at home; they agreed about its effectiveness on adherence (53%). The use of Instagram with the home exercise program as a motivational modality could be attractive and effective to reinforce adherence and maintain an appropriate PA level.

  19. Effect of Motivation by “Instagram” on Adherence to Physical Activity among Female College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Eisa, Einas; Al-Rushud, Asma; Alghadir, Ahmad; Al-Harbi, Bashayer; Al-Sughaier, Noha; Al-Yoseef, Noha; Al-Otaibi, Reem; Al-Muhaysin, Hanadi Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the efficacy of using “Instagram application” with a “home-exercise program” as a motivational stimulus in improving physical activity (PA) adherence levels among female college students. Methods. Fifty-eight female undergraduate students with the mean age 20.3 ± 0.96 years participated. Participants were divided into two groups: intervention and the control group; both the groups received an exercise program and the intervention group was additionally motivated by “Instagram.” Adherence to PA was measured by using an adherence sheet. The Exercise Motivation Inventory (EMI-2) was used to assess the motivational factors. Results. The most frequent motivational factors were extrinsic as assessed using the EMI-2. “Positive health” was the most frequent factor mentioned of the two types with 47% of the sample. The intervention group adhered with 17% more to the activity program compared to the control group. Moreover, 72% of the participants in the intervention and control groups found the activity program flexible enough to be performed at home; they agreed about its effectiveness on adherence (53%). Conclusions. The use of Instagram with the home exercise program as a motivational modality could be attractive and effective to reinforce adherence and maintain an appropriate PA level. PMID:27034927

  20. Effect of Motivation by “Instagram” on Adherence to Physical Activity among Female College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einas Al-Eisa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the efficacy of using “Instagram application” with a “home-exercise program” as a motivational stimulus in improving physical activity (PA adherence levels among female college students. Methods. Fifty-eight female undergraduate students with the mean age 20.3±0.96 years participated. Participants were divided into two groups: intervention and the control group; both the groups received an exercise program and the intervention group was additionally motivated by “Instagram.” Adherence to PA was measured by using an adherence sheet. The Exercise Motivation Inventory (EMI-2 was used to assess the motivational factors. Results. The most frequent motivational factors were extrinsic as assessed using the EMI-2. “Positive health” was the most frequent factor mentioned of the two types with 47% of the sample. The intervention group adhered with 17% more to the activity program compared to the control group. Moreover, 72% of the participants in the intervention and control groups found the activity program flexible enough to be performed at home; they agreed about its effectiveness on adherence (53%. Conclusions. The use of Instagram with the home exercise program as a motivational modality could be attractive and effective to reinforce adherence and maintain an appropriate PA level.

  1. The impact of urinary stress incontinence in young and middle-age women practising recreational sports activity: an epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatore, S; Serati, M; Laterza, R; Uccella, S; Torella, M; Bolis, P-F

    2009-12-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of urinary stress incontinence (USI) in menstruating women practising recreational sports activity, to detect specific sports with a stronger association with urinary incontinence (UI) and to evaluate risk factors possibly related to this condition. Epidemiological study. Non-competitive sports organisations in the province of Varese, Italy. 679 women of fertile age, practising recreational sports activity. Anonymous questionnaire on UI. The questionnaire included questions about patients' general characteristics, occurrence of UI in relation to sport or daily general activities, time of onset of this condition, frequency of leakage episodes, correlation of incontinence with types of movements or sports, subjective impression of being limited on such occasions and/or necessity to modify the type of sport. UI was reported by 101 women (14.9%). Of these, 32 (31.7%) complained of UI only during sports activity, 48 (47.5%) only during daily life and 21 (20.8%) in both circumstances. Body mass index and parity were significantly associated with the risk of UI. Looking at the different sports activities, a higher rate of incontinence was found in women participating in basketball (16.6%), athletics (15%), and tennis or squash (11%). 10.4% of women abandoned their favourite sport, because of USI, and a further 20% limited the way they practised their favourite sport to reduce leakage episodes. Female UI affects a significant proportion of young women practising non-competitive sports activity; it can cause abandonment of the sport or limitation of its practice.

  2. Human Blood Feeding Activity of Female Hybrids between Culex pipiens pipiens and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus(Diptera: Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshii, Manabu; Mine, Mariko; Kurokawa, Kenji; Oda, Tsutomu; Kato, Katsutomo; Ogawa, Yasunori; Eshita, Yuuki; Uchida, Keikichi

    2007-01-01

    Human blood feeding activity was examined in females of hybrids between Culex pipiens pipiens and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus during long photoperiod at 25℃. Blood feeding rates of hybrids were lower than in Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus and Culex pipiens pallens, and higher than in Culex pipiens pipiens, because no females fed on human blood in Culex pipiens pipiens.

  3. An Analysis of Female Lecturers' Participation in Civil Engineering Research and Development Activities at One Polytechnic in Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikuvadze, Pinias; Matswetu, Vimbai Sharon; Mugijima, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to explore female lecturers' participation in civil engineering research and development activities at one polytechnic in Zimbabwe. Case study design was chosen for this study to make predictions, narration of events, comparisons and drawing of conclusions. The female lecturers were purposively sampled to participate in the…

  4. Saddle-nose and bilateral cauliflower ear deformities with pyoderma gangrenosum-like ulcers, cavitary pulmonary lesions, digital gangrene and pulselessness in a young female.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhadarshani, Sweta; Gupta, Vishal; Chahal, Anurag; Verma, Kaushal K

    2017-06-15

    We report a young female who presented with saddle-nose and bilateral cauliflower ear deformities along with pyoderma gangrenosum-like ulcers, digital gangrene and pulselessness. Subsequently, she was found to have bilateral conductive hearing loss, a corneal opacity, mild aortic regurgitation and radiological evidence of cavitary changes in lungs and aortoarteritis. Our patient had a constellation of symptoms which posed a diagnostic challenge. Finally, a diagnosis of relapsing polychondritis with several unusual features was made. Overlap with Takayasu's arteritis and granulomatosis with polyangitis, which has been reported rarely in the literature, cannot be excluded. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Influence of a sport-specific training background on vertical jumping and throwing performance in young female basketball and volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, G; Paoli, A; Bellafiore, M; Bianco, A; Palma, A

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of 3 years of sport-specific training background (SSTB) on vertical jumping and throwing performance in young female basketball and volleyball players. Thirty-one healthy adolescent girls, of which 11 age-matched control subjects [C], 10 basketballers (BP) and 10 volleyballers (VP) participated to the study. The throwing performance was assessed by seated backward overhead ball throw (SBOMBT) and seated chest pass throw (SCPT) using a 3-kg rubber medicine ball. Instead, the vertical jumping performance was evaluated by squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump with (CMJ-AS) and without arm swing (CMJ) using Optojump system (Microgate srl, Italy). During SJ and CMJ with and without arm swing VP group showed a higher vertical jump performance than BP and C ones. In particular we showed that VP exhibited a higher flight time and jump height than C (Pbasketball athletes' maximal power compared to age-matched control subjects.

  6. Activity-based anorexia activates CRF immunoreactive neurons in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharner, Sophie; Friedrich, Tiemo; Goebel-Stengel, Miriam; Kobelt, Peter; Rose, Matthias; Stengel, Andreas

    2018-05-01

    Activity-based anorexia (ABA) is a well-established animal model mimicking the eating disorder anorexia nervosa (AN). Since the pathophysiology of AN is yet poorly understood and specific drug treatments are lacking so far, animal models might be useful to further understand this disease. ABA consists of time-restricted access to food for 1.5 h/day and the possibility to exercise in a running wheel for 24 h/day. This combination leads to robust body weight loss as observed in AN. Here, we investigated the activation of brain corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) neurons, a transmitter involved in the response to stress, emotional processes and also food intake. After development of ABA, rat brains were processed for c-Fos and CRF double immunohistochemistry. ABA increased the number of c-Fos/CRF double labeled neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DMH) compared to the ad libitum (AL, ad libitum fed, no running wheel) and activity (AC, ad libitum fed, running wheel, p  0.05) group. Also the number of CRF neurons was increased in the DMH of ABA rats compared to AL and AC (p  0.05). Taken together, brain CRF activated under conditions of ABA might play a role in the development and maintenance of this animal model and possibly also in human AN. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Beliefs about unmet interpersonal needs mediate the relation between conflictual family relations and borderline personality features in young adult females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalpakci, Allison; Venta, Amanda; Sharp, Carla

    2014-01-01

    Central to most theories of borderline personality disorder (BPD) is the notion that the family environment interacts with genetically-based vulnerabilities to influence the development of BPD, with particular attention given to risk conferred by conflictual familial relations. However, the extent to which family conflict may relate to the development of BPD via related interpersonal beliefs is currently unknown. This study sought to test the hypothesis that the concurrent relation between conflictual family relations and borderline features in female college students is explained by beliefs associated with real or perceived unmet interpersonal needs (captured by Joiner's [2005] Interpersonal Psychological Theory, specifically thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness). The sample included 267 female undergraduates ages 18-25 years (M = 20.86; SD = 1.80). Level of borderline personality features, unmet interpersonal needs, and family conflict were assessed. Bivariate analyses revealed significant relations between both thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness, conflictual family relations, and borderline features. Multivariate analyses revealed that thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness both mediated the relation between family conflict and borderline personality features, thus supporting a multiple mediation model. This cross-sectional study is a preliminary step towards confirming the broad theoretical hypothesis that conflictual family relations relate to beliefs about thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness, which, in turn, relate to borderline personality pathology. Limitations and areas of future research are discussed.

  8. Substrate Utilization is Influenced by Acute Dietary Carbohydrate Intake in Active, Healthy Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Sara; Wood, Richard; Matthews, Tracey; Vanlangen, Deborah; Sawyer, Jason; Headley, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared the metabolic responses between a single low-carbohydrate (LC) and low-fat (LF) meal followed by an aerobic exercise bout in females. Subjects included 8 active, premenopausal females. Subjects completed a LC and LF testing session. Respiratory gas exchange (RER) measurements were taken for 20 min fasted, for 55 min postprandial (PP), and during 30 min of exercise. Blood was collected for assessment of glucose (G), insulin (IN), triglycerides (TG), and free fatty acids (FFA) during the final 10 min of each time period. The LF meal provided 396 kcal (78% carbohydrate, 7% fat, and 15% protein). The LC meal provided 392 kcal (15% carbohydrate, 68% fat, and 18% protein). No significant differences existed between test meals for fasting blood measurements. PP IN (μU·mL(-1)) levels were significantly lower following LC compared to LF [10.7 (6.1) vs. 26.0 (21.0)]. Postexercise (PE) FFA (mEq·L(-1)) levels were significantly greater following LC [1.1 (0.3) vs. 0.5 (0.3)]. PE TG (mg·dL(-1)) levels were significantly greater following LC [152.0 (53.1) vs. 114.4 (40.9)]. RER was significantly lower at all time points following LC compared to LF. In moderately active adult females, ingestion of a single LC meal resulted in greater lipid oxidation at rest and during exercise as compared to a single LF meal. Although macronutrient distribution appears to have dictated substrate utilization in the present study, more research is needed regarding the long-term effects of macronutrient redistribution with and without exercise on substrate utilization. Key pointsThe relative carbohydrate content of a single meal has a significant impact on postprandial metabolism and substrate utilization in healthy, active females.A single bout of aerobic exercise performed within an hour of meal ingestion has the potential to modify the postprandial response.Interventions aimed at improving body composition and preventing chronic disease should focus on dietary

  9. SUBSTRATE UTILIZATION IS INFLUENCED BY ACUTE DIETARY CARBOHYDRATE INTAKE IN ACTIVE, HEALTHY FEMALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Gregory

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study compared the metabolic responses between a single low-carbohydrate (LC and low-fat (LF meal followed by an aerobic exercise bout in females. Subjects included 8 active, premenopausal females. Subjects completed a LC and LF testing session. Respiratory gas exchange (RER measurements were taken for 20 min fasted, for 55 min postprandial (PP, and during 30 min of exercise. Blood was collected for assessment of glucose (G, insulin (IN, triglycerides (TG, and free fatty acids (FFA during the final 10 min of each time period. The LF meal provided 396 kcal (78% carbohydrate, 7% fat, and 15% protein. The LC meal provided 392 kcal (15% carbohydrate, 68% fat, and 18% protein. No significant differences existed between test meals for fasting blood measurements. PP IN (µU·mL-1 levels were significantly lower following LC compared to LF [10.7 (6.1 vs. 26.0 (21.0]. Postexercise (PE FFA (mEq·L-1 levels were significantly greater following LC [1.1 (0.3 vs. 0.5 (0.3]. PE TG (mg·dL-1 levels were significantly greater following LC [152.0 (53.1 vs. 114.4 (40.9]. RER was significantly lower at all time points following LC compared to LF. In moderately active adult females, ingestion of a single LC meal resulted in greater lipid oxidation at rest and during exercise as compared to a single LF meal. Although macronutrient distribution appears to have dictated substrate utilization in the present study, more research is needed regarding the long-term effects of macronutrient redistribution with and without exercise on substrate utilization.

  10. Intermittent pair-housing, pair relationship qualities, and HPA activity in adult female rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannibal, Darcy L; Cassidy, Lauren C; Vandeleest, Jessica; Semple, Stuart; Barnard, Allison; Chun, Katie; Winkler, Sasha; McCowan, Brenda

    2018-05-02

    Laboratory rhesus macaques are often housed in pairs and may be temporarily or permanently separated for research, health, or management reasons. While both long-term social separations and introductions can stimulate a stress response that impacts inflammation and immune function, the effects of short-term overnight separations and whether qualities of the pair relationship mediate these effects are unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of overnight separations on the urinary cortisol concentration of 20 differentially paired adult female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) at the California National Primate Research Center. These females were initially kept in either continuous (no overnight separation) or intermittent (with overnight separation) pair-housing and then switched to the alternate pair-housing condition part way through the study. Each study subject was observed for 5 weeks, during which we collected measures of affiliative, aggressive, anxious, abnormal, and activity-state behaviors in both pair-housing conditions. Additionally, up to three urine samples were collected from each subject per week and assayed for urinary free cortisol and creatinine. Lastly, the behavioral observer scored each pair on four relationship quality attributes ("Anxious," "Tense," "Well-meshed," and "Friendly") using a seven-point scale. Data were analyzed using a generalized linear model with gamma distribution and an information theoretic approach to determine the best model set. An interaction between the intermittent pairing condition and tense pair adjective rating was in the top three models of the best model set. Dominance and rates of affiliation were also important for explaining urinary cortisol variation. Our results suggest that to prevent significant changes in HPA-axis activation in rhesus macaque females, which could have unintended effects on research outcomes, pairs with "Tense" relationships and overnight separations preventing tactile contact

  11. Simple artificial training device for respiratory muscle strength and lung volumes in healthy young male and female subjects: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leelarungrayub, Jirakrit; Pinkaew, Decha; Yankai, Araya; Chautrakoon, Busaba; Kuntain, Rungtiwa

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of a simple artificial device for respiratory muscle strength training and lung volumes using either combined or non-combined exercise with elastic bands in healthy young participants. Forty healthy young participants (20 male and 20 female) aged 19-24 years old were randomized into two main experiments with four sub-groups; (1) artificial device (n = 10) & standard device (n = 10) training, and (2) artificial device training combined with elastic band (EB) exercise (n = 10) & standard device training combined with EB (n = 10) exercise. Respiratory muscle strength with maximal peak inspiratory pressure (PImax), and lung volumes; tidal volume (TV), inspiratory reserve volume (IRV), expiratory reserve volume (ERV) and vital capacity (VC) were evaluated before and after training once daily for 3 weeks. Moreover, the peak dyspnea score and vital sign parameters were compared between the experimental groups after final training. All parameters had no statistical differences (p > 0.5) between the training devices alone and those combined with EB exercise prior to any experiments. Results from the first experiment showed that training with an artificial device increased all parameters (PImax, VC, IRV, ERV) significantly (p artificial device training combined with EB exercise showed a significant increase in all parameters, except for TV, and they were the same as the increased results in training with the standard device combined with EB exercise. There was no significant difference of data between these groups after the training period. Finally, the results of peak dyspnea score and all vital sign parameters from using the artificial device, with or without EB exercise, showed no statistical difference when compared to use of the standard device. This study proposed that a simple artificial device can be used to train the respiratory muscle with or without elastic band exercise in healthy young subjects

  12. Influence of stress systems and physical activity on different dimensions of fatigue in female fibromyalgia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerr, Johanna M; Fischer, Susanne; Nater, Urs M; Strahler, Jana

    2017-02-01

    Fatigue is a defining characteristic and one of the most debilitating features of fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). The mechanisms underlying different dimensions of fatigue in FMS remain unclear. The aim of the current study was to test whether stress-related biological processes and physical activity modulate fatigue experience. Using an ambulatory assessment design, 26 female FMS patients reported general, mental, and physical fatigue levels at six time points per day for 14 consecutive days. Salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase were analyzed as markers of neuroendocrine functioning. Participants wore wrist actigraphs for the assessment of physical activity. Lower increases in cortisol after awakening predicted higher mean daily general and physical fatigue levels. Additionally, mean daily physical activity positively predicted next-day mean general fatigue. Levels of physical fatigue at a specific time point were positively associated with momentary cortisol levels. The increase in cortisol after awakening did not mediate the physical activity - fatigue relationship. There were no associations between alpha-amylase and fatigue. Our findings imply that both changes in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and physical activity contribute to variance in fatigue in the daily lives of patients with FMS. This study helps to paint a clearer picture of the biological and behavioral underpinnings of fatigue in FMS and highlight the necessity of interdisciplinary treatment approaches targeting biological, behavioral and psychological aspects of FMS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Where Young People See Science: Everyday Activities Connected to Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Heather Toomey; Bell, Philip

    2014-01-01

    This project analyses the prevalence and social construction of science in the everyday activities of multicultural, multilingual children in one urban community. Using cross-setting ethnographic fieldwork (i.e. home, museum, school, community), we developed an ecologically grounded interview protocol and analytical scheme for gauging students'…

  14. Music Preferences and Civic Activism of Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ambrose; Kier, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between music preferences and civic activism among 182 participants aged 14-24 years. Our analyses show that participants who regularly listened to certain music genres such as classical, opera, musicals, new age, easy listening, house, world music, heavy metal, punk, and ska were significantly more likely to…

  15. Consequences of activation policy targeting young adults with health-related problems in Sweden and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hultqvist, Sara; Nørup, Iben

    2017-01-01

    The Scandinavian countries have a long history of active labor market policy and over the years, activation has been used as a method to combat unemployment amongst those with no problems besides unemployment. However, activation policy is now permeating social policies providing economic...... protection for young adults who cannot work for health reasons . A strong emphasis on paid work as the main source to social participation has legitimized work-promoting activation that targets socially vulnerable groups such as young adults with comprehensive health problems. In this paper we discuss...... the consequences of this activation policy in Denmark and Sweden, and argue that the strong emphasis on work has counterproductive consequences when directed towards individuals whose problems are medical rather than related to their position on the labour market....

  16. Cognitive-Affective Dimensions of Female Orgasm: The Role of Automatic Thoughts and Affect During Sexual Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tavares, Inês M.; Laan, Ellen T. M.; Nobre, Pedro J.

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive-affective factors contribute to female sexual dysfunctions, defined as clinically significant difficulties in the ability to respond sexually or to experience sexual pleasure. Automatic thoughts and affect presented during sexual activity are acknowledged as maintenance factors for these

  17. Prediction of bone mineral density and content from measures of physical activity and sedentary behavior in younger and older females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saori I. Braun

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: These findings highlight the importance of engaging in sufficient moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during adolescence and reducing sedentary behavior in older adults to improve bone health in females.

  18. What do parents and preschool staff tell us about young children's physical activity: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baur Louise A

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity and small screen recreation are two modifiable behaviours associated with childhood obesity and the development of chronic health problems. Parents and preschool staff shape behaviour habits in young children. The aims of this qualitative study were to explore the attitudes, values, knowledge and understanding of parents and carers of preschool-age children in relation to physical activity and small screen recreation and to identify influences upon these behaviours. Methods This research involved a focus group study with parents and carers of the target population. A purposive sample of 39 participants (22 parents, 17 carers participated in 9 focus groups. Participants were drawn from three populations of interest: those from lower socioeconomic status, and Middle-Eastern and Chinese communities in the Sydney (Australia metropolitan region. Results All participants understood the value of physical activity and the impact of excessive small screen recreation but were unfamiliar with national guidelines for these behaviours. Participants described the nature and activity patterns of young children; however, the concept of activity 'intensity' in this age group was not a meaningful term. Factors which influenced young children's physical activity behaviour included the child's personality, the physical activity facilities available, and the perceived safety of their community. Factors facilitating physical activity included a child's preference for being active, positive parent or peer modelling, access to safe play areas, organised activities, preschool programs and a sense of social connectedness. Barriers to physical activity included safety concerns exacerbated by negative media stories, time restraints, financial constraints, cultural values favouring educational achievement, and safety regulations about equipment design and use within the preschool environment. Parents considered that young children are

  19. Prospective Relationships Between Physical Activity and Optimism in Young and Mid-aged Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavey, Toby G; Burton, Nicola W; Brown, Wendy J

    2015-07-01

    There is growing evidence that regular physical activity (PA) reduces the risk of poor mental health. Less research has focused on the relationship between PA and positive wellbeing. The study aims were to assess the prospective associations between PA and optimism, in both young and mid-aged women. 9688 young women (born 1973-1978) completed self-report surveys in 2000 (age 22 to 27), 2003, 2006, and 2009; and 11,226 mid-aged women (born 1946-1951) completed surveys in 2001 (age 50-55) 2004, 2007, and 2010, as part of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health. Generalized estimating equation models (with 3-year time lag) were used to examine the relationship between PA and optimism in both cohorts. In both cohorts, women reporting higher levels of PA had greater odds of reporting higher optimism over the 9-year period, (young, OR = 5.04, 95% CI: 3.85-6.59; mid-age, OR = 5.77, 95% CI: 4.76-7.00) than women who reported no PA. Odds were attenuated in adjusted models, with depression accounting for a large amount of this attenuation (young, OR = 2.00, 95% CI: 1.57-2.55; mid-age, OR = 1.64 95% CI: 1.38-1.94). Physical activity can promote optimism in young and mid-aged women over time, even after accounting for the negative effects of other psychosocial indicators such as depression.

  20. Psychometric Properties of the Chinese Version of the Eating Attitudes Test in Young Female Patients with Eating Disorders in Mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Qing; Chan, Raymond C K; Li, Xiaoping; Arcelus, Jon; Yue, Ling; Huang, Jiabin; Gu, Lian; Fan, Qing; Zhang, Haiyin; Xiao, Zeping; Chen, Jue

    2017-11-01

    The study aimed to investigate the reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the eating attitudes test (EAT-26) among female adolescents and young adults in Mainland China. This scale was administered to 396 female eating disorder patients and 406 noneating disorder healthy controls, in addition 35 healthy controls completed a retest after a 4-week intervals. Tests for reliability, convergent validity and receiver operating characteristic analysis were performed to detect the psychometric properties. The EAT-26 demonstrated good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.822-0.922), test-retest reliability (interclass correlation coefficient = 0.817) and convergent validity(r = 0.450-0.750). The receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that the cut-off 14 for anorexia nervosa and 15 for bulimia nervosa represented good compromises with approximate sensitivity (0.66-0.68) and specificity (0.85-0.86). Our findings provided evidence that the Chinese version of the EAT-26 was a psychometrically reliable and valid self-rating instrument for identifying people suffering from an eating disorder in Mainland China. A clinical cut-off range between 14 and 15 could be used, but caution should be exercised because of the low sensitivity of the tool. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.