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Sample records for active tectonic setting

  1. Coseismic landslides reveal near-surface rock strength in a high-relief tectonically active setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallen, Sean F.; Clark, Marin K.; Godt, Jonathan W.

    2014-01-01

    We present quantitative estimates of near-surface rock strength relevant to landscape evolution and landslide hazard assessment for 15 geologic map units of the Longmen Shan, China. Strength estimates are derived from a novel method that inverts earthquake peak ground acceleration models and coseismic landslide inventories to obtain material proper- ties and landslide thickness. Aggregate rock strength is determined by prescribing a friction angle of 30° and solving for effective cohesion. Effective cohesion ranges are from 70 kPa to 107 kPa for 15 geologic map units, and are approximately an order of magnitude less than typical laboratory measurements, probably because laboratory tests on hand-sized specimens do not incorporate the effects of heterogeneity and fracturing that likely control near-surface strength at the hillslope scale. We find that strength among the geologic map units studied varies by less than a factor of two. However, increased weakening of units with proximity to the range front, where precipitation and active fault density are the greatest, suggests that cli- matic and tectonic factors overwhelm lithologic differences in rock strength in this high-relief tectonically active setting.

  2. The Central-Western Mediterranean: Anomalous igneous activity in an anomalous collisional tectonic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustrino, Michele; Duggen, Svend; Rosenberg, Claudio L.

    2011-01-01

    alteration state of the crust), the variable thermo-baric conditions of magma formation, coupled with variable molar concentrations of CO 2 and H 2O in the fluid phase released by the subducting plates are the most important. Compared to classic collisional settings (e.g., Himalayas), the central-western Mediterranean area shows a range of unusual geological and magmatological features. These include: a) the rapid formation of extensional basins in an overall compressional setting related to Africa-Europe convergence; b) centrifugal wave of both compressive and extensional tectonics starting from a 'pivotal' region around the Gulf of Lyon; c) the development of concomitant Cenozoic subduction zones with different subduction and tectonic transport directions; d) subduction 'inversion' events (e.g., currently along the Maghrebian coast and in northern Sicily, previously at the southern paleo-European margin); e) a repeated temporal pattern whereby subduction-related magmatic activity gives way to magmas of intraplate geochemical type; f) the late-stage appearance of magmas with collision-related 'exotic' (potassic to ultrapotassic) compositions, generally absent from simple subduction settings; g) the relative scarcity of typical calcalkaline magmas along the Italian peninsula; h) the absence of igneous activity where it might well be expected (e.g., above the hanging-wall of the Late Cretaceous-Eocene Adria-Europe subduction system in the Alps); i) voluminous production of subduction-related magmas coeval with extensional tectonic régimes (e.g., during Oligo-Miocene Sardinian Trough formation). To summarize, these salient central-western Mediterranean features, characterizing a late-stage of the classic 'Wilson Cycle' offer a 'template' for interpreting magmatic compositions in analogous settings elsewhere.

  3. Applicability of dinoflagellate cyst stratigraphy to the analyses of passive and active tectonic settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilpshaar, M.

    1995-01-01

    The notion that fluctuating tectonic stress patterns within or between continental plates directly influence the development of a given sedimentary basin is a well-established concept in geotectonics. In recent years it has become increasingly understood that notably the phase of relative

  4. Discriminating four tectonic settings: Five new geochemical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of basic and ultrabasic rocks from four tectonic settings of island arc, continental rift, ocean-island, and mid-ocean ridge. These diagrams were ...... 9. Macdonald et al (1995). 8. 1. 35.9. 3.7. Kenya, Turkana Rift (Bird Nest,. Central). 3 ...... reproduction in diverse applications. 4.2 Comparison of linear discriminant analysis.

  5. Earth's glacial record and its tectonic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyles, N.

    1993-09-01

    Glaciations have occurred episodically at different time intervals and for different durations in Earth's history. Ice covers have formed in a wide range of plate tectonic and structural settings but the bulk of Earth's glacial record can be shown to have been deposited and preserved in basins within extensional settings. In such basins, source area uplift and basin subsidence fulfill the tectonic preconditions for the initiation of glaciation and the accomodation and preservation of glaciclastic sediments. Tectonic setting, in particular subsidence rates, also dictates the type of glaciclastic facies and facies successions that are deposited. Many pre-Pleistocene glaciated basins commonly contain well-defined tectonostratigraphic successions recording the interplay of tectonics and sedimentation; traditional climatostratigraphic approaches involving interpretation in terms of either ice advance/retreat cycles or glacio-eustatic sea-level change require revision. The direct record of continental glaciation in Earth history, in the form of classically-recognised continental glacial landforms and "tillites", is meagre; it is probable that more than 95% of the volume of preserved "glacial" strata are glacially-influenced marine deposits that record delivery of large amounts of glaciclastic sediment to offshore basins. This flux has been partially or completely reworked by "normal" sedimentary processes such that the record of glaciation and climate change is recorded in marine successions and is difficult to decipher. The dominant "glacial" facies in the rock record are subaqueous debris flow diamictites and turbidites recording the selective preservation of poorly-sorted glaciclastic sediment deposited in deep water basins by sediment gravity flows. However, these facies are also typical of many non-glacial settings, especially volcanically-influenced environments; numerous Archean and Proterozoic diamictites, described in the older literature as tillites, have no

  6. HVDC Ground Electrodes and Tectonic Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, P. F.; Pereira, S. Y.

    2017-12-01

    Ground electrodes in HVDC transmission are huge grounding systems for the DC part of the converter substation, about 1 km wide, sized to inject in the ground DC currents up to 3.5 kA. This work presents an analysis of how the tectonic setting at converter substation location is determinant for the search of the best electrode location (Site Selection) and on its design and performance. It will briefly present the author experience on HVDC electrode design, summarized as follows: Itaipu - Foz do Iguaçu electrodes (transmitter side) located in the middle of Paraná Sedimentary Basin, and Ibiúna electrodes (receiving side) on the border of the basin, 6 km from the geological strike, where the crystalline basement outcrops in São Paulo state; Madeira River - North electrodes (transmitting side) located on the Northwest border of South Amazon Craton, where the crystalline basement is below a shallow sediments layer, and South electrodes (receiving side) located within Paraná Sedimentary Basin; Chile - electrodes located on the Andean forearc, where the Nazca Plate plunges under the South American Plate; Kenya - Ethiopia - electrodes located in the African Rift; Belo Monte - North electrodes (transmitter side) located within the Amazonian Sedimentary Basin, about 35 km of its South border, and South electrodes (receiving side) within Paraná Sedimentary Basin (bipole 1) and on crystalline metamorphic terrain "Brasília Belt" (bipole 2). This diversity of geological conditions results on ground electrodes of different topologies and dimensions, with quite different electrical and thermal performances. A brief study of the geology of the converter stations regions, the so-called Desktop Study, allows for the preview of several important parameters for the site selection and design of the electrodes, such as localization, type, size and estimate of the interference area, which are important predictors of the investment to be made and indications of the design to be

  7. Africa's Megafans and Their Tectonic Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, M. J.; Burke, K.

    2016-01-01

    Megafans are a really extensive continental sediment bodies, fluvially derived, and fan-shaped in planform. Only those >80 km long were included in this study. Africa's megafans were mapped for purposes of both comprehensive geomorphic description and as a method of mapping by remote sensing large probable fluvial sediment bodies (we exclude sediment bodies deposited in well defined, modern floodplains and coastal deltas). Our criteria included a length dimension of >80 km and maximum width >40 km, partial cone morphology, and a radial drainage pattern. Visible and especially IR imagery were used to identify the features, combined with topographic SRTM data. We identified 99 megafans most of which are unstudied thus far. Their feeder rivers responsible for depositing megafan sediments rise on, and are consequent drainages oriented down the slopes of the swells that have dominated African landscapes since approximately 34 Ma (the high points in Africa's so-called basin-and-swell topography [1]). Most megafans (66%) have developed along these consequent rivers relatively near the swell cores, oriented radially away from the swells. The vast basins between the swells provide accommodation for megafan sediment wedges. Although clearly visible remotely, most megafans are inactive as a result of incision by the feeder river (which then no longer operates on the fan surface). Two tectonic settings control the location of Africa's megafans, 66% on swell flanks, and 33% related to rifts. (i) Swell flanks Most megafans are apexed relatively near the core of the parent swell, and are often clustered in groups: e.g., six on the west and north flanks of the Hoggar Swell (Algeria), seven on the north and south flanks of the Tibesti Swell (Libya-Chad borderlands), twelve on the west flank of the Ethiopian Swell, four on the east flank of the East African Swell (Kenya), Africa's largest, and eight around Angola's Bié Swell (western Zambia, northern Namibia). A cluster of possible

  8. A comparative study on seismic response of two unstable rock slopes within same tectonic setting but different activity level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinbrod, Ulrike; Burjánek, Jan; Hugentobler, Marc; Amann, Florian; Fäh, Donat

    2017-12-01

    In this study, the seismic response of two slope instabilities is investigated with seismic ambient vibration analysis. Two similar sites have been chosen: an active deep-seated slope instability at Cuolm da Vi and the geologically, structurally and morphologically similar, but presently not moving Alp Caschlè slope. Both slopes are located at the upper Vorderrheintal (Canton Graubünden, Switzerland). Ambient vibrations were recorded on both slopes and processed by time-frequency polarization and site-to-reference spectral ratio analysis. The data interpretation shows correlations between degree of disintegration of the rock mass and amplification. However, the ambient vibration analysis conducted, does not allow retrieving a resonance frequency that can be related to the total depth of the instability of Cuolm da Vi. Even though seismic waves can be hardly traced in rock instabilities containing open fractures, it was possible to retrieve a dispersion curve and a velocity profile from the array measurement at Cuolm da Vi due to the high level of disintegration of the rock material down to a depth of about 100 m. From the similar amplification pattern at the two sites, we expect a similar structure, indicating that also the slope at Alp Caschlè was active in the past in a similar manner as Cuolm da Vi. However, a smoother increase of amplification with frequency is observed at Alp Caschlè, which might indicate less disintegration of the rock mass in a particular depth range at this site, when comparing to Cuolm da Vi where a high level of disintegration is observed, resulting from the high activity at the slope. From the frequency-dependent amplification, we can distinguish between two parts within both instabilities, one part showing decreasing disintegration of the rock mass with increasing depth, for the other parts less-fractured blocks are observed. Since the block structures are found in the lower part of the instabilities, they might contribute to the

  9. Radon emanation in tectonically active areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, C.Y.

    1980-01-01

    Subsurface radon emanation has been continuously monitored for up to three years by the Track Etch method in shallow dry holes at more than 60 sites along several tectonic faults in central California and at 9 sites near the Kilauea volcano in Hawaii. The measured emanation in these tectonically active areas shows large long-term variations that may be related mainly to crustal strain changes

  10. Tectonic signatures on active margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogarth, Leah Jolynn

    High-resolution Compressed High-Intensity Radar Pulse (CHIRP) surveys offshore of La Jolla in southern California and the Eel River in northern California provide the opportunity to investigate the role of tectonics in the formation of stratigraphic architecture and margin morphology. Both study sites are characterized by shore-parallel tectonic deformation, which is largely observed in the structure of the prominent angular unconformity interpreted as the transgressive surface. Based on stratal geometry and acoustic character, we identify three sedimentary sequences offshore of La Jolla: an acoustically laminated estuarine unit deposited during early transgression, an infilling or "healing-phase" unit formed during the transgression, and an upper transparent unit. The estuarine unit is confined to the canyon edges in what may have been embayments during the last sea-level rise. The healing-phase unit appears to infill rough areas on the transgressive surface that may be related to relict fault structures. The upper transparent unit is largely controlled by long-wavelength tectonic deformation due to the Rose Canyon Fault. This unit is also characterized by a mid-shelf (˜40 m water depth) thickness high, which is likely a result of hydrodynamic forces and sediment grain size. On the Eel margin, we observe three distinct facies: a seaward-thinning unit truncated by the transgressive surface, a healing-phase unit confined to the edges of a broad structural high, and a highly laminated upper unit. The seaward-thinning wedge of sediment below the transgressive surface is marked by a number of channels that we interpret as distributary channels based on their morphology. Regional divergence of the sequence boundary and transgressive surface with up to ˜8 m of sediment preserved across the interfluves suggests the formation of subaerial accommodation during the lowstand. The healing-phase, much like that in southern California, appears to infill rough areas in the

  11. 3D monitoring of active tectonic structures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stemberk, Josef; Košťák, Blahoslav; Vilímek, V.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 36, 1-2 (2003), s. 103-112 ISSN 0264-3707 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 625.10 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3046908 Keywords : tectonics * monitoring * active structures Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.754, year: 2003

  12. Survey explores active tectonics in northeastern Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbó, A.; Córdoba, D.; Muñoz-Martín, A.; Granja, J.L.; Martín-Dávila, J.; Pazos, A.; Catalán, M.; Gómez, M.; ten Brink, Uri S.; von Hillebrandt, Christa; Payero, J.

    2005-01-01

    There is renewed interest in studying the active and complex northeastern Caribbean plate boundary to better understand subduction zone processes and for earthquake and tsunami hazard assessments [e.g., ten Brink and Lin, 2004; ten Brink et al., 2004; Grindlay et al., 2005]. To study the active tectonics of this plate boundary, the GEOPRICO-DO (Geological, Puerto Rico-Dominican) marine geophysical cruise, carried out between 28 March and 17 April 2005 (Figure 1), studied the active tectonics of this plate boundary.Initial findings from the cruise have revealed a large underwater landslide, and active faults on the seafloor (Figures 2a and 2c). These findings indicate that the islands within this region face a high risk from tsunami hazards, and that local governments should be alerted in order to develop and coordinate possible mitigation strategies.

  13. Petrology, geochemistry and tectonic settings of the mafic dikes and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    margins of the basin, whereas, others are aligned .... areas of mantle upwelling, igneous intrusions, deep ... to and during the sedimentary accumulation, and ...... The development of continental margins in plate tectonic theory; J. Aust. Petrol.

  14. Active Tectonics Around Almaty and along the Zailisky Alatau Rangefront

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grützner, C.; Walker, R. T.; Abdrakhmatov, K. E.; Mukambaev, A.; Elliott, A. J.; Elliott, J. R.

    2017-10-01

    The Zailisky Alatau is a >250 km long mountain range in Southern Kazakhstan. Its northern rangefront around the major city of Almaty has more than 4 km topographic relief, yet in contrast to other large mountain fronts in the Tien Shan, little is known about its Late Quaternary tectonic activity despite several destructive earthquakes in the historical record. We analyze the tectonic geomorphology of the rangefront fault using field observations, differential GPS measurements of fault scarps, historical and recent satellite imagery, meter-scale topography derived from stereo satellite images, and decimeter-scale elevation models from unmanned aerial vehicle surveys. Fault scarps ranging in height from 2 m to >20 m in alluvial fans indicate that surface rupturing earthquakes occurred along the rangefront fault since the Last Glacial Maximum. Minimum estimated magnitudes for those earthquakes are M6.8-7. Radiocarbon dating results from charcoal layers in uplifted river terraces indicate a Holocene slip rate of 1.2-2.2 mm/a. We find additional evidence for active tectonic deformation all along the Almaty rangefront, basinward in the Kazakh platform, and in the interior of the Zailisky mountain range. Our data indicate that the seismic hazard faced by Almaty comes from a variety of sources, and we emphasize the problems related to urban growth into the loess-covered foothills and secondary earthquake effects. With our structural and geochronologic framework, we present a schematic evolution of the Almaty rangefront that may be applicable to similar settings of tectonic shortening in the mountain ranges of Central Asia.

  15. Sedimentary petrography of the Early Proterozoic Pretoria Group, Transvaal Sequence, South Africa: implications for tectonic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, U. M.; Eriksson, P. G.; van der Neut, M.; Snyman, C. P.

    1992-11-01

    Sandstone petrography, geochemistry and petrotectonic assemblages of the predominantly clastic sedimentary rocks of the Early Proterozoic Pretoria Group, Transvaal Sequence, point to relatively stable cratonic conditions at the beginning of sedimentation, interrupted by minor rifting events. Basement uplift and a second period of rifting occurred towards the end of Pretoria Group deposition, which was followed by the intrusion of mafic sill swarms and the emplacement of the Bushveld Complex in the Kaapvaal Craton at about 2050 Ma, the latter indicating increased extensional tectonism, and incipient continental rifting. An overall intracratonic lacustrine tectonic setting for the Pretoria Group is supported by periods of subaerial volcanic activity and palaeosol formation, rapid sedimentary facies changes, significant arkosic sandstones, the presence of non-glacial varves and a highly variable mudrock geochemistry.

  16. Problems of the active tectonics of the Eastern Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javakhishvili, Z.; Godoladze, T.; Dreger, D. S.; Mikava, D.; Tvaliashvili, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Black Sea Basin is the part of the Arabian Eurasian Collision zone and important unit for understanding the tectonic process of the region. This complex basin comprises two deep basins, separated by the mid-Black Sea Ridge. The basement of the Black Sea includes areas with oceanic and continental crust. It was formed as a "back-arc" basin over the subduction zone during the closing of the Tethys Ocean. In the past decades the Black Sea has been the subject of intense geological and geophysical studies. Several papers were published about the geological history, tectonics, basement relief and crustal and upper mantle structure of the basin. New tectonic schemes were suggested (e. g. Nikishin et al 2014, Shillington et al. 2008, Starostenko et al. 2004 etc.). Nevertheless, seismicity of the Black Sea is poorly studied due to the lack of seismic network in the coastal area. It is considered, that the eastern basin currently lies in a compressional setting associated with the uplift of the Caucasus and structural development of the Caucasus was closely related to the evolution of the Eastern Black Sea Basin. Analyses of recent sequence of earthquakes in 2012 can provide useful information to understand complex tectonic structure of the Eastern Black Sea region. Right after the earthquake of 2012/12/23, National Seismic monitoring center of Georgia deployed additional 4 stations in the coastal area of the country, close to the epicenter area, to monitor aftershock sequence. Seismic activity in the epicentral area is continuing until now. We have relocated approximately 1200 aftershocks to delineate fault scarf using data from Georgian, Turkish and Russian datacenters. Waveforms of the major events and the aftershocks were inverted for the fault plane solutions of the events. For the inversion were used green's functions, computed using new 1D velocity model of the region. Strike-slip mechanism of the major events of the earthquake sequence indicates extensional

  17. Temporal Variation of Tectonic Tremor Activity Associated with Nearby Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, K.; Van der Lee, S.; Hsu, Y. J.; Pu, H. C.

    2017-12-01

    Tectonic tremor and slow slip events, located downdip from the seismogenic zone, hold the key to recurring patterns of typical earthquakes. Several findings of slow aseismic slip during the prenucletion processes of nearby earthquakes have provided new insight into the study of stress transform of slow earthquakes in fault zones prior to megathrust earthquakes. However, how tectonic tremor is associated with the occurrence of nearby earthquakes remains unclear. To enhance our understanding of the stress interaction between tremor and earthquakes, we developed an algorithm for the automatic detection and location of tectonic tremor in the collisional tectonic environment in Taiwan. Our analysis of a three-year data set indicates a short-term increase in the tremor rate starting at 19 days before the 2010 ML6.4 Jiashian main shock (Chao et al., JGR, 2017). Around the time when the tremor rate began to rise, one GPS station recorded a flip in its direction of motion. We hypothesize that tremor is driven by a slow-slip event that preceded the occurrence of the shallower nearby main shock, even though the inferred slip is too small to be observed by all GPS stations. To better quantify what the necessary condition for tremor to response to nearby earthquakes is, we obtained a 13-year ambient tremor catalog from 2004 to 2016 in the same region. We examine the spatiotemporal relationship between tremor and 37 ML>=5.0 (seven events with ML>=6.0) nearby earthquakes located within 0.5 degrees to the active tremor sources. The findings from this study can enhance our understanding of the interaction among tremor, slow slip, and nearby earthquakes in the high seismic hazard regions.

  18. Linking fault permeability, fluid flow, and earthquake triggering in a hydrothermally active tectonic setting: Numerical Simulations of the hydrodynamics in the Tjörnes Fracture Zone, Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupi, M.; Geiger, S.; Graham, C.; Claesson, L.; Richter, B.

    2007-12-01

    A good insight into the transient fluid flow evolution within a hydrothermal system is of primary importance for the understanding of several geologic processes, for example the hydrodynamic triggering of earthquakes or the formation of mineral deposits. The strong permeability contrast between different crustal layers as well as the high geothermal gradient of these areas are elements that strongly affect the flow behaviour. In addition, the sudden and transient occurrence of joints, faults and magmatic intrusions are likely to change the hydrothermal flow paths in very short time. The Tjörnes Fracture Zone (TFZ) north of Iceland, is such a hydrothermal area where a high geothermal gradient, magmatic bodies, faults, and the strong contrast between sediments and fractured lava layers govern the large-scale fluid flow. The TFZ offsets the Kolbeinsey Ridge and the Northern Rift Zone. It is characterized by km-scale faults that link sub-seafloor sediments and lava layers with deeper crystalline rocks. These structures focus fluid flow and allow for the mixing between cold seawater and deep hydrothermal fluids. A strong seismic activity is present in the TFZ: earthquakes up to magnitude 7 have been recorded over the past years. Hydrogeochemical changes before, during and after a magnitude 5.8 earthquake suggest that the evolving stress state before the earthquake leads to (remote) permeability variations, which alter the fluid flow paths. This is in agreement with recent numerical fluid flow simulations which demonstrate that fluid flow in magmatic- hydrothermal systems is often convective and very sensitive to small variations in permeability. In order to understand the transient fluid flow behaviour in this complex geological environment, we have conducted numerical simulations of heat and mass transport in two geologically realistic cross-sectional models of the TFZ. The geologic models are discretised using finite element and finite volume methods. They hence have

  19. Bridging the Gap: Formation of Voluminous Pseudotachylitic Rocks in Tectonic and Impact Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, B.; Shipton, Z. K.; Reimold, W. U.

    2015-09-01

    Pseudotachylitic breccias (PTBs) from the Outer Hebrides Fault Zone, Scotland, show structural similarities to impact PTBs. In both impact and tectonic settings, processes additional to friction heat melting are requisite for the formation of PTBs.

  20. Drilling to investigate processes in active tectonics and magmatism

    OpenAIRE

    J. Shervais; J. Evans; V. Toy; J. Kirkpatrick; A. Clarke; J. Eichelberger

    2014-01-01

    Coordinated drilling efforts are an important method to investigate active tectonics and magmatic processes related to faults and volcanoes. The US National Science Foundation (NSF) recently sponsored a series of workshops to define the nature of future continental drilling efforts. As part of this series, we convened a workshop to explore how continental scientific drilling can be used to better understand active tectonic and magmatic processes. The workshop, held in Park C...

  1. Tectonic setting of the Wooded Island earthquake swarm, eastern Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakely, Richard J.; Sherrod, Brian L.; Weaver, Craig S.; Rohay, Alan C.; Wells, Ray E.

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic anomalies provide insights into the tectonic implications of a swarm of ~1500 shallow (~1 km deep) earthquakes that occurred in 2009 on the Hanford site,Washington. Epicenters were concentrated in a 2 km2 area nearWooded Island in the Columbia River. The largest earthquake (M 3.0) had first motions consistent with slip on a northwest-striking reverse fault. The swarm was accompanied by 35 mm of vertical surface deformation, seen in satellite interferometry (InSAR), interpreted to be caused by ~50 mm of slip on a northwest-striking reverse fault and associated bedding-plane fault in the underlying Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG). A magnetic anomaly over exposed CRBG at Yakima Ridge 40 km northwest of Wooded Island extends southeastward beyond the ridge to the Columbia River, suggesting that the Yakima Ridge anticline and its associated thrust fault extend southeastward in the subsurface. In map view, the concealed anticline passes through the earthquake swarm and lies parallel to reverse faults determined from first motions and InSAR data. A forward model of the magnetic anomaly near Wooded Island is consistent with uplift of concealed CRBG, with the top surface swarm and the thrust and bedding-plane faults modeled from interferometry all fall within the northeastern limb of the faulted anticline. Although fluids may be responsible for triggering the Wooded Island earthquake swarm, the seismic and aseismic deformation are consistent with regional-scale tectonic compression across the concealed Yakima Ridge anticline.

  2. Active tectonics and earthquake potential of the Myanmar region

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yu; Sieh, Kerry; Tun, Soe Thura; Lai, Kuang-Yin; Myint, Than

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes geomorphologic evidence for the principal neotectonic features of Myanmar and its immediate surroundings. We combine this evidence with published structural, geodetic, and seismic data to present an overview of the active tectonic architecture of the region and its seismic potential. Three tectonic systems accommodate oblique collision of the Indian plate with Southeast Asia and extrusion of Asian territory around the eastern syntaxis of the Himalayan mountain range. Subd...

  3. Favorable Structural–Tectonic Settings and Characteristics of Globally Productive Arcs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinz, Nick [UNR; Coolbaugh, Mark [ATLAS Geosciences Inc; Shevenell, Lisa [ATLAS Geosciences Inc; Stelling, Pete [WWU; Melosh, Glenn [GEODE; Cumming, William [Cumming Geoscience

    2016-02-19

    There are currently 74 productive geothermal systems associated with volcanic centers (VCs) in arcs globally, including actively producing systems, past producing systems, and systems with successful flow tests. The total installed or tested capacity of these 74 geothermal systems is 7,605 MWe, ranging from 0.7 MWe each at Copahue, Chile and Barkhatnaya Sopka, Kamchatka to 795 MWe, Larderello, Italy, and averaging 90.5 MWe per system. These 74 productive VCs constitute 10% of 732 VCs distributed across more than a dozen major arcs around the world. The intra-arc (within-arc) tectonic setting is highly variable globally, ranging from extension to transtension, transpression, or compression. Furthermore, the shear strain associated with oblique plate convergence can be accommodated by either intra-arc or arc-marginal deformation. The structural-tectonic settings of these 74 productive VCs were characterized to add to a global catalog of parameters to help guide future exploration, development, and regional resource potential.

  4. Scheme of fault tectonic and tectonic activity manifestation in the region of the Crimea nuclear power plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasynkov, A.L.

    1989-01-01

    Characteristic of fault tectonics and tectonic activity manifestation in the region of the Crimea nuclear power plant construction is presented. Mosaic-block structure of the area, predetermined by the development of diagonal systems of activated tectonic dislocations with different displacement amplitudes and different stratigraphic ranges of manifestation, was established. Strained-stressed state of the region is determined by the presence of the South-Azov zone of deep fault and Krasnogorsk-Samarlinks fault system. The presented scheme can be used as tectonic basis of seismogenic activity of the region

  5. Assessment of relative active tectonics, south central Alborz (north Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khavari, R.; Ghorashi, M.; Arian, M.

    2009-04-01

    The paper present a method for evaluating relative active tectonics based on geomorphic indices useful in evaluating morphology and topography. Indices used include: stream length-gradient index (SL), drainage basin asymmetry (Af), hypsometric integral (Hi), ratio of valley-floor width to valley height (Vf), index of drainage basin shape (Bs), and index of mountain front sinuosity (Smf). Results from the analysis are accumulated and expressed as an index of relative active tectonics (Iat), which we divide into four classes from relatively low to highest tectonic activity. The study area along the south flank of the central Alborz mountain range in north Iran is an ideal location to test the concept of an index to predict relative tectonic activity on a basis of area rather than a single valley or mountain front. The recent investigations show that neotectonism has played a key role in the geomorphic evolution of this part of the Alborz mountain range. Geomorphic indices indicate the presence of differential uplifting in the geological past. The area surrounding the Amirkabir lake shows very high relative tectonic activity.

  6. Active Tectonics Revealed by River Profiles along the Puqu Fault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Lu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Puqu Fault is situated in Southern Tibet. It is influenced by the eastward extrusion of Northern Tibet and carries the clockwise rotation followed by the southward extrusion. Thus, the Puqu Fault is bounded by the principal dynamic zones and the tectonic evolution remains active alongside. This study intends to understand the tectonic activity in the Puqu Fault Region from the river profiles obtained from the remotely sensed satellite imagery. A medium resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM, 20 m was generated from an Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER stereo pair of images and the stream network in this region was extracted from this DEM. The indices of slope and drainage area were subsequently calculated from this ASTER DEM. Based on the stream power law, the area-slope plots of the streams were delineated to derive the indices of channel concavity and steepness, which are closely related to tectonic activity. The results show the active tectonics varying significantly along the Puqu Fault, although the potential influence of glaciations may exist. These results are expected to be useful for a better understanding of tectonic evolution in Southeastern Tibet.

  7. Tectonic setting of synorogenic gold deposits of the Pacific Rim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, R.J.; Phillips, G.N.; Nokleberg, W.J.

    1998-01-01

    batholith have yielded more than 100 million oz of gold. Additional significant ore-forming events during the development of North America's Cordilleran orogen included those in the Klamath Mountains region, California in the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous; the Klondike district, Yukon by the Early Cretaceous; the Nome and Fairbanks districts, Alaska, and the Bridge River district, British Columbia in the middle Cretaceous; and the Juneau gold belt, Alaska in the Eocene. Gold-bearing veins deposited during the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous terrane collision that formed the present-day Russian Far East have been the source for more than 130 million oz of placer gold. The abundance of gold-bearing quartz-carbonate veins throughout the Gondwanan, North American and Eurasian continental margins suggests the migration and concentration of large fluid volumes during continental growth. Such volumes could be released during orogenic heating of hydrous silicate mineral phases within accreted marine strata. The common temporal association between gold veining and magmatism around the Pacific Rim reflects these thermal episodes. Melting of the lower thickened crust during arc formation, slab rollback and extensional tectonism, and subduction of a slab window beneath the seaward part of the forearc region can all provide the required heat for initation of the ore-forming processes.

  8. Discussion on geochemical characteristics and tectonic setting of Maofeng pluton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yi; Ruan Kun; Cai Jiajia; Liu Jing; Li Haidong; Zhang Lu; Wang Xiaona

    2014-01-01

    Xiazhuang granite type uranium deposit is the most important one in South China. The closest relation with Xiazhuang uranium mineralization is Maofeng granite pluton. To expound the relationship of granite and uranium mineralization, the paper studied Maofeng granite pluton which is the host granite of the deposit in petrogeochemistry, its structure and geodynamic setting. (authors)

  9. Relief Evolution in Tectonically Active Mountain Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipple, Kelin X.

    2004-01-01

    The overall aims of this 3-yr project, as originally proposed were to: (1) investigate quantitatively the roles of fluvial and glacial erosion in the evolution of relief in mountainous regions, and (2) test rigorously the quality and accuracy of SRTM topographic data in areas of rugged relief - both the most challenging and of greatest interest to geomorphic, neotectonic, and hazards applications. Natural laboratories in both the western US and the Southern Alps of New Zealand were identified as most promising. The project has been both successful and productive, despite the fact that no SRTM data for our primary field sites in New Zealand were released on the time frame of the work effort. Given the delayed release of SRTM data, we pursued the scientific questions of the roles of fluvial and, especially, glacial erosion in the evolution of relief in mountainous regions using available digital elevation models (DEMs) for the Southern Alps of New Zealand (available at both 25m and 50m pixel sizes), and USGS 10m and 30m DEMs within the Western US. As emphasized in the original proposal, we chose the emphasis on the role of glacial modification of topographic relief because there has been little quantitative investigation of glacial erosion processes at landscape scale. This is particularly surprising considering the dramatic sculpting of most mid- and high-latitude mountain ranges, the prodigious quantities of glacially-derived sediment in terrestrial and marine basins, and the current cross-disciplinary interest in the role of denudational processes in orogenesis and the evolution of topography in general. Moreover, the evolution of glaciated landscapes is not only a fundamental problem in geomorphology in its own right, but also is at the heart of the debate over Late Cenozoic linkages between climate and tectonics.

  10. Crustal structure and active tectonics in the Eastern Alps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brückl, E.; Behm, M.; Decker, K.

    2010-01-01

    fragment (PA), was interpreted and a triple junction was inferred. The goal of this study has been to relate these deep crustal structures to active tectonics. We used elastic plate modeling to reconsider the Moho fragmentation. We interpret subduction of EU below AD and PA from north to south......During the last decade, a series of controlled source seismic experiments brought new insight into the crustal and lithospheric structure of the Eastern Alps and their adjacent tectonic provinces. A fragmentation of the lithosphere into three blocks, Europe (EU), Adria (AD), and the new Pannonian...

  11. Provenance and tectonic setting of the Triassic Yidun Group, the Yidun Terrane, Tibet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai-Qiu Wang

    2013-11-01

    Prominently high Zr/Sc ratio or Hf concentration and Paleoproterozoic Nd modal ages (1.94–2.21 Ga point to input of recycling components derived from old sedimentary source in a relatively stable tectonic setting.

  12. Quaternary tectonic setting of South-Central coastal California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettis, William R.; Hanson, Kathryn L.; Unruh, Jeffrey R.; McLaren, Marcia; Savage, William U.; Keller, Margaret A.

    2004-01-01

    Recent geodetic, geologic, and seismologic studies show that the south-central coast of California is a region of active Quaternary deformation. Northeast-directed crustal shortening is occurring in a triangular-shaped region between the Hosgri-San Simeon fault system on the west, the Southern Coast Ranges on the northeast, and the western Transverse Ranges on the south. We informally call this region the Los Osos domain. In this study, we conducted detailed geological, seismological, and geophysical investigations to characterize the nature and rates of deformation in the domain. Locations of active and potentially active faults and folds are compiled at a scale of 1:250,000 for the entire domain based primarily on onshore geologic data and offshore geophysical data. Crustal shortening in the domain is accommodated by a series of prominent northwest-trending reverse faults and localized folding. The reverse faults separate distinct structural blocks that have little or no internal deformation. Hangingwall blocks are being uplifted at rates of up to 0.2 mm/yr. Footwall blocks are either static or slowly subsiding at rates of 0.1 mm/yr or less, except for localized areas of concentrated subsidence directly adjacent to some faults. The cumulative rate of crustal shortening is about 1 to 2 mm/yr across the northern part of the domain based on observed geologic deformation. Cumulative shortening across the central and southern parts of the domain is poorly constrained by geologic data and may approach 2 to 3 mm/yr. Historical and instrumental seismicity generally are spatially associated with the uplifted blocks and bordering reverse faults to depths of about 10 km. Together with near-surface geological data and deeper crustal geophysical imaging that show high-angle faulting, the seismicity data indicate that the reverse faults probably extend to the base of the seismogenic crust. The base of the seismogenic crust may correspond with a mid-crustal detachment or

  13. Three sets of crystallographic sub-planar structures in quartz formed by tectonic deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derez, Tine; Pennock, Gill; Drury, Martyn; Sintubin, Manuel

    2016-05-01

    In quartz, multiple sets of fine planar deformation microstructures that have specific crystallographic orientations parallel to planes with low Miller-Bravais indices are commonly considered as shock-induced planar deformation features (PDFs) diagnostic of shock metamorphism. Using polarized light microscopy, we demonstrate that up to three sets of tectonically induced sub-planar fine extinction bands (FEBs), sub-parallel to the basal, γ, ω, and π crystallographic planes, are common in vein quartz in low-grade tectonometamorphic settings. We conclude that the observation of multiple (2-3) sets of fine scale, closely spaced, crystallographically controlled, sub-planar microstructures is not sufficient to unambiguously distinguish PDFs from tectonic FEBs.

  14. Measurements of Active Tectonic Deformation on the Guerrero Coast, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, T.; Cundy, A.; Carranza-Edwards, A.; Morales, E.; Kostoglodov, V.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.

    2004-12-01

    The study of tectonic deformation rates using displaced shoreline features is relatively well-established, and has provided much useful information on seismic hazard. Such studies have frequently been complemented by analysis of the coastal sedimentary record, where past marine to terrestrial environmental changes (and vice versa) may be recorded by clear changes in stratigraphy. Studies of this type are particularly valuable for tectonically-active areas where the preservation of former shoreline features is poor, or where long-term subsidence has resulted in their erosion, drowning or burial. The specific objective of this study is to derive rates of tectonic deformation from geomorphic and stratigraphic studies of the Guerrero coastal area, and to examine the feasibility of this stratigraphic approach in the coastal lagoons of the Mexican Pacific coast, in the Guerrero gap. The Guerrero gap coastal area, where a major earthquake is expected to occur, parallels the Cocos plate subduction zone. Here convergence rates vary from 5.2 cm/yr to 5.8 cm/yr. The Guerrero gap has experienced several historical earthquakes, notably the 1911 (7.8 Ms). However, no large magnitude events since the 1911 earthquake and only a few Ms~6 events have occurred near the Guerrero gap edges. It is expected that a major interplate earthquake of estimated magnitude Mw=8.1 to 8.4 has a high probability to occur. Landforms within the Guerrero gap indicate that the coast is subsiding. A series of key indicators such as elongated islands reminiscent of ancient barriers, submerged barriers island, extensive marshy environments, increased depths in the lagoons, and submerged anthropogenic features (shell mounds), among others, suggest active tectonic subsidence of the coast. In contrast, the adjacent northwest area off the Guerrero gap exhibits landforms characteristic of tectonic uplift (marine terraces and uplifted beach ridges), indicating a different seismo-tectonic regime northwest of the

  15. Tectonic setting of the Great Dyke, Chembadzi, Chewore and Atchiza layered complexes in Zimbabwe and Mozambique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Master, S.

    1990-01-01

    The Great Dyke of Zimbabwe is one of the largest ultramafic-mafic layered igneous complexexs in the world. Because of the economic importance of large layered intrusions like the Great Dyke, their tectonic setting is of great interest. The Chembadzi complex is a 14 km long, dyke-like layered intrusion up to 800m wide. The Chewore complex, which was thought to have the structure of an irregular lopolith, outcrops over an area of about 200 km in horst blocks in the lower Zambezi Valley in northern Zimbabwe. The Atchiza complex is situated just north of the Cahora Bassa lake and the Zambezi River valley in Mozambique. In considering the tectonic setting of the Great Dyke and its correlatives, most attention has been focussed on events in the Limpopo Mobile Belt, which were responsible for producing the fractures in the Zimbabwe craton that is occupied by the intrusives. 39 refs

  16. Active tectonics and earthquake potential of the Myanmar region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Sieh, Kerry; Tun, Soe Thura; Lai, Kuang-Yin; Myint, Than

    2014-04-01

    This paper describes geomorphologic evidence for the principal neotectonic features of Myanmar and its immediate surroundings. We combine this evidence with published structural, geodetic, and seismic data to present an overview of the active tectonic architecture of the region and its seismic potential. Three tectonic systems accommodate oblique collision of the Indian plate with Southeast Asia and extrusion of Asian territory around the eastern syntaxis of the Himalayan mountain range. Subduction and collision associated with the Sunda megathrust beneath and within the Indoburman range and Naga Hills accommodate most of the shortening across the transpressional plate boundary. The Sagaing fault system is the predominant locus of dextral motion associated with the northward translation of India. Left-lateral faults of the northern Shan Plateau, northern Laos, Thailand, and southern China facilitate extrusion of rocks around the eastern syntaxis of the Himalaya. All of these systems have produced major earthquakes within recorded history and continue to present major seismic hazards in the region.

  17. Tectonic activity and the evolution of submarine canyons: The Cook Strait Canyon system, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micallef, Aaron; Mountjoy, Joshu; Barnes, Philip; Canals, Miquel; Lastras, Galderic

    2016-04-01

    Submarine canyons are Earth's most dramatic erosional features, comprising steep-walled valleys that originate in the continental shelf and slope. They play a key role in the evolution of continental margins by transferring sediments into deep water settings and are considered important biodiversity hotspots, pathways for nutrients and pollutants, and analogues of hydrocarbon reservoirs. Although comprising only one third of continental margins worldwide, active margins host more than half of global submarine canyons. We still lack of thorough understanding of the coupling between active tectonics and submarine canyon processes, which is necessary to improve the modelling of canyon evolution in active margins and derive tectonic information from canyon morphology. The objectives of this study are to: (i) understand how tectonic activity influences submarine canyon morphology, processes, and evolution in an active margin, and (2) formulate a generalised model of canyon development in response to tectonic forcing based on morphometric parameters. We fulfil these objectives by analysing high resolution geophysical data and imagery from Cook Strait Canyon system, offshore New Zealand. Using these data, we demonstrate that tectonic activity, in the form of major faults and structurally-generated tectonic ridges, leaves a clear topographic signature on submarine canyon location and morphology, in particular their dendritic and sinuous planform shapes, steep and linear longitudinal profiles, and cross-sectional asymmetry and width. We also report breaks/changes in canyon longitudinal slope gradient, relief and slope-area regression models at the intersection with faults. Tectonic activity gives rise to two types of knickpoints in the Cook Strait Canyon. The first type consists of low slope gradient, rounded and diffusive knickpoints forming as a result of short wavelength folds or fault break outs and being restored to an equilibrium profile by upstream erosion and

  18. Morphotectonic analysis and GNSS observations for assessment of relative tectonic activity in Alaknanda basin of Garhwal Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Gopal; Champati ray, P. K.; Mohanty, S.

    2018-01-01

    Alaknanda basin in the Garhwal Himalaya, India, is a tectonically active region owing to ongoing crustal deformation, erosion, and depositional processes active in the region. Active tectonics in this region have greatly affected the drainage system and geomorphic expression of topography and provide an ideal natural set up to investigate the influence of tectonic activity resulting from the India-Eurasia collision. We evaluated active tectonics by using high resolution digital elevation model (DEM) based on eight geomorphic indices (stream length gradient index, valley floor width-to-height ratio, hypsometric integral, drainage basin asymmetry, transverse topography symmetry factor, mountain front sinousity index, bifurcation ratio, and basin shape index) and seismicity in eight subbasins of Alaknanda basin. The integrated product, relative tectonic activity index (TAI) map, was classified into three classes such as: 'highly active' with values ranging up to 2.0; 'moderately active' with values ranging from 2.0 to 2.25; and 'less active' with values > 2.25. Further, the results were compared with relatively high crustal movement rate of 41.10 mm/y computed through high precession Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) based continuous operating reference station (CORS) data. Thus, we concluded that this new quantitative approach can be used for better characterization and assessment of active seismotectonic regions of the Himalaya and elsewhere.

  19. Drilling to investigate processes in active tectonics and magmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shervais, J.; Evans, J.; Toy, V.; Kirkpatrick, J.; Clarke, A.; Eichelberger, J.

    2014-12-01

    Coordinated drilling efforts are an important method to investigate active tectonics and magmatic processes related to faults and volcanoes. The US National Science Foundation (NSF) recently sponsored a series of workshops to define the nature of future continental drilling efforts. As part of this series, we convened a workshop to explore how continental scientific drilling can be used to better understand active tectonic and magmatic processes. The workshop, held in Park City, Utah, in May 2013, was attended by 41 investigators from seven countries. Participants were asked to define compelling scientific justifications for examining problems that can be addressed by coordinated programs of continental scientific drilling and related site investigations. They were also asked to evaluate a wide range of proposed drilling projects, based on white papers submitted prior to the workshop. Participants working on faults and fault zone processes highlighted two overarching topics with exciting potential for future scientific drilling research: (1) the seismic cycle and (2) the mechanics and architecture of fault zones. Recommended projects target fundamental mechanical processes and controls on faulting, and range from induced earthquakes and earthquake initiation to investigations of detachment fault mechanics and fluid flow in fault zones. Participants working on active volcanism identified five themes: the volcano eruption cycle; eruption sustainability, near-field stresses, and system recovery; eruption hazards; verification of geophysical models; and interactions with other Earth systems. Recommended projects address problems that are transferrable to other volcanic systems, such as improved methods for identifying eruption history and constraining the rheological structure of shallow caldera regions. Participants working on chemical geodynamics identified four major themes: large igneous provinces (LIPs), ocean islands, continental hotspot tracks and rifts, and

  20. Geochemical evolution of Cenozoic-Cretaceous magmatism and its relation to tectonic setting, southwestern Idaho, U.S.A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, M.D.; Leeman, W.P.

    1989-01-01

    Magmatism in the western United States spanned a change in tectonic setting from Mesozoic and early Tertiary plate convergence to middle and late Tertiary crustal extension. This paper presents new major element, trace element, and isotopic (Sr, Nd, Pb) data on a diverse suite of Cretaceous to Neogene igneous rocks from the Owyhee area of southwestern Idaho to evaluate possible relationships between the evolving tectonic regime and temporal changes in igneous activity. The oldest studied rocks are Cretaceous granitic intrusives that probably formed by large-scale mixing of Precambrian crust with subduction-related magmas. Silicic Eocene tuffs are also rich in crustal components, but have isotopic compositions unlike the Cretaceous intrusives. These data require at least two crustal sources that may correspond to domains of significantly different age (Archean vs. Proterozoic). The oldest mafic lavas in the study area are Oligocene andesites and basalts compositionally similar to subduction-related magmas derived from asthenospheric mantle and erupted through thick continental crust. Direct crustal involvement during oligocene time was limited to minor interaction with the mafic magmas. Miocene activity produced bimodal basalt-rhyolite suites and minor volumes of hybrid lavas. Compositions of Miocene basalts demonstrate the decline of subduction-related processes, and increased involvement of subcontinental lithospheric mantle as a magma source. Crustally-derived Miocene rhyolites have isotopic compositions similar to those of the Cretaceous granitic rocks but trace element abundances more typical of within-plate magmas. (orig./WB)

  1. Morphological expression of active tectonics in the Southern Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robl, Jörg; Heberer, Bianca; Neubauer, Franz; Hergarten, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    Evolving drainage pattern and corresponding metrics of the channels (e.g. normalized steepness index) are sensitive indicators for tectonic or climatic events punctuating the evolution of mountain belts and their associated foreland basins. The analysis of drainage systems and their characteristic properties represents a well-established approach to constrain the impact of tectonic and climatic drivers on mountainous landscapes in the recent past. The Southern Alps (SA) are one of the seismically most active zones in the periphery of northern Adria. Recent deformation is caused by the ongoing convergence of the Adriatic and European plate and is recorded by numerous earthquakes in the domain of the SA. Deformation in the SA is characterized by back-thrusting causing crustal thickening and should therefore result in uplift and topography formation. The vertical velocity field determined by GPS-data clearly indicates a belt of significant uplift in the south South alpine indenter between Lake Garda in the west and the Triglav in the east and strong subsidence of the foreland basin surrounding the Mediterranean Sea near Venice, although subsidence is often related to ongoing subduction of the Adriatic microplate underneath Appennines. Despite of these short term time series, timing, rates and drivers of alpine landscape evolution are not well constrained and the linkage between crustal deformation and topographic evolution of this highly active alpine segment remains unclear for the following reasons: (1) The eastern Southern Alps were heavily overprinted by the Pleistocene glaciations and tectonic signals in the alpine landscape are blurred. Only the transition zone to the southern foreland basin remained unaffected and allows an analysis of a glacially undisturbed topography. (2) The major part of this domain is covered by lithology (carbonatic rocks) which is unsuitable for low temperature geochronology and cosmogenic isotope dating so that exhumation and erosion

  2. Thirteen million years of silicic magma production in Iceland: Links between petrogenesis and tectonic settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, E.; Sigmarsson, O.

    2010-04-01

    The origin of the Quaternary silicic rocks in Iceland is thought to be linked to the thermal state of the crust, which in turn depends on the regional tectonic settings. This simple model is tested here on rocks from the Miocene to present, both to suggest an internally consistent model for silicic magma formation in Iceland and to constrain the link between tectonic settings and silicic magma petrogenesis. New major and trace-element compositions together with O-, Sr- and Nd-isotope ratios have been obtained on silicic rocks from 19 volcanic systems ranging in age from 13 Ma to present. This allows us to trace the spatial and temporal evolution of both magma generation and the corresponding sources. Low δ18O (geothermal gradient. But later than 5.5 Ma they were produced in a flank zone environment by fractional crystallisation alone, probably due to decreasing geothermal gradient, of basalts derived from a mantle source with lower 143Nd/ 144Nd. This is in agreement with an eastwards rift-jump, from Snæfellsnes towards the present Reykjanes Rift Zone, between 7 and 5.5 Ma. In the South Iceland Volcanic Zone (SIVZ), the intermediate Nd-signature observed in silicic rocks from the Torfajökull central volcano reflects the transitional character of the basalts erupted at this propagating rift segment. Therefore, the abundant evolved rocks at this major silicic complex result from partial melting of the transitional alkaline basaltic crust (Iceland can, therefore, be used for deciphering past geodynamic settings characterized by rift- and off-rift zones resulting from interaction of a mantle plume and divergent plate boundaries.

  3. Late Tharsis tectonic activity and implications for Early Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouley, S.; Baratoux, D.; Paulien, N.; Missenard, Y.; Saint-Bezar, B.

    2017-12-01

    Constraining the timing of Tharsis volcanism is critical to understanding the planet's evolution including its climate, surface environment and mantle dynamics. The tectonic history of the Tharsis bulge was previously documented from the distribution and ages of related tectonic features [1]. Here we revisit the ages of 7493 Tharsis-related tectonic features based on their relationship with stratigraphic units defined in the new geological map [2]. Conversely to previous tectonic mapping [1], which suggested that Tharsis growth was nearly achieved during the Noachian, we find a protracted growth of Tharsis during the Hesperian. Faulting at Tempe Terra, Claritas and Coracis Fossae and Thaumasia Planum confirms that tectonic deformation started during the Noachian. Accumulated tectonic deformation was maximum in the Early Hesperian for compressional strain (Solis, Lunae and Ascuris Planum) and extended over time from Noachian to Amazonian for extensional strain (Noctis Labyrinthus and Fossae, Sinai Planum and Tractus, Ulysses and Fortuna fossae, Alba Patera). This new scenario is consistent with a protracted growth of Tharsis dome during the Hesperian and with the timing a large Tharsis-driven true polar wander post-dating the incision of Late Noachian/Hesperian valley networks[3]. References:[1] Anderson et al. JGR-Planets 106, E9, 20,563-20,585 (2001).[2] Tanaka, K.L. et al. Geologic map of Mars (2014). [3] Bouley et al. Nature doi:10.1038 (2016)

  4. Is Active Tectonics on Madagascar Consistent with Somalian Plate Kinematics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamps, D. S.; Kreemer, C.; Rajaonarison, T. A.

    2017-12-01

    The East African Rift System (EARS) actively breaks apart the Nubian and Somalian tectonic plates. Madagascar finds itself at the easternmost boundary of the EARS, between the Rovuma block, Lwandle plate, and the Somalian plate. Earthquake focal mechanisms and N-S oriented fault structures on the continental island suggest that Madagascar is experiencing east-west oriented extension. However, some previous plate kinematic studies indicate minor compressional strains across Madagascar. This inconsistency may be due to uncertainties in Somalian plate rotation. Past estimates of the rotation of the Somalian plate suffered from a poor coverage of GPS stations, but some important new stations are now available for a re-evaluation. In this work, we revise the kinematics of the Somalian plate. We first calculate a new GPS velocity solution and perform block kinematic modeling to evaluate the Somalian plate rotation. We then estimate new Somalia-Rovuma and Somalia-Lwandle relative motions across Madagascar and evaluate whether they are consistent with GPS measurements made on the island itself, as well as with other kinematic indicators.

  5. Active tectonics on Lanzarote (Canary Islands) from the analysis of CGPS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccardi, Umberto; Arnoso, Jose; Benavent, María Teresa; Velez, Emilio; Tammaro, Umberto; González Montesinos, Fuensanta

    2017-04-01

    We report on the analysis of about three years of CGPS data collected on a small network consisting in five permanent stations, with the largest baseline up to 40 km, spread over Timanfaya National Park in Lanzarote Island. The GPS stations are operated by different institutions, as follows: CAME is co-operated by the Institute of Geosciences (CSIC-UCM), DiSTAR and the Geodesy Research Group of University Complutense of Madrid (GRG-UCM), while LACV is operated by (CSIC-UCM and GRG-UCM). Stations HRIA, TIAS, YAIZ, belong to GRAFCAN (Cartographical Service of the Government of Canary Islands). Lanzarote is the most Northeast and the oldest island of the Canarian Archipelago (Spain), which is located on a transitional zone, a passive margin, between oceanic and continental crust. Due to some peculiarities in geochemistry and geochronology of the rocks as well as tectonics, the origin of the archipelago from a hot spot is still debated. In fact, the most recent Holocenic volcanism is scattered over the islands and the last eruption was a submarine one, occurred in October 2011 at El Hierro Island. The last eruption in Lanzarote was a 7 years voluminous eruptive cycle, occurred during the 18th century. Historical seismicity registered in the region, is customarily attributed to diffuse tectonic activity. This study is intended to contributing to shed light on the active tectonics on Lanzarote island and to separate between local and regional strain fields. With the aid of Gamit 10.6 software, we compute from the GPS observations the "ionofree" linear combinations in order to obtain the positions of the stations in ITRF2008 frame using daily sessions, and IGS precise ephemeris. The frame referencing of the network is realized by eleven IGS GPS stations. Then through a Kalman filtering procedure, implemented in GLOBK software, we obtain the final daily solutions by constraining the fiducial GPS stations to their ITRF2008 coordinates. For a reliable strain field retrieval

  6. Geomorphology, active tectonics, and landscape evolution in the Mid-Atlantic region: Chapter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazzaglia, Frank J.; Carter, Mark W.; Berti, Claudio; Counts, Ronald C.; Hancock, Gregory S.; Harbor, David; Harrison, Richard W.; Heller, Matthew J.; Mahan, Shannon; Malenda, Helen; McKeon, Ryan; Nelson, Michelle S.; Prince, Phillip; Rittenour, Tammy M.; Spotilla, James; Whittecar, G. Richard

    2015-01-01

    In 2014, the geomorphology community marked the 125th birthday of one of its most influential papers, “The Rivers and Valleys of Pennsylvania” by William Morris Davis. Inspired by Davis’s work, the Appalachian landscape rapidly became fertile ground for the development and testing of several grand landscape evolution paradigms, culminating with John Hack’s dynamic equilibrium in 1960. As part of the 2015 GSA Annual Meeting, the Geomorphology, Active Tectonics, and Landscape Evolution field trip offers an excellent venue for exploring Appalachian geomorphology through the lens of the Appalachian landscape, leveraging exciting research by a new generation of process-oriented geomorphologists and geologic field mapping. Important geomorphologic scholarship has recently used the Appalachian landscape as the testing ground for ideas on long- and short-term erosion, dynamic topography, glacial-isostatic adjustments, active tectonics in an intraplate setting, river incision, periglacial processes, and soil-saprolite formation. This field trip explores a geologic and geomorphic transect of the mid-Atlantic margin, starting in the Blue Ridge of Virginia and proceeding to the east across the Piedmont to the Coastal Plain. The emphasis here will not only be on the geomorphology, but also the underlying geology that establishes the template and foundation upon which surface processes have etched out the familiar Appalachian landscape. The first day focuses on new and published work that highlights Cenozoic sedimentary deposits, soils, paleosols, and geomorphic markers (terraces and knickpoints) that are being used to reconstruct a late Cenozoic history of erosion, deposition, climate change, and active tectonics. The second day is similarly devoted to new and published work documenting the fluvial geomorphic response to active tectonics in the Central Virginia seismic zone (CVSZ), site of the 2011 M 5.8 Mineral earthquake and the integrated record of Appalachian

  7. Petrography, geochemistry and tectonic setting of Salmabad Tertiary volcanic rocks, southeast of Sarbisheh, eastern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Goodarzi

    2014-10-01

    is attributed to the mantle source, presumably metasomatized by the Sistan ocean subduction. The trace element features are consistent with the roles played by subducted sediments and fluid released from the subducted slab in magma genesis. Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank reviewers for the constructive comments which greatly contributed to the improvement of the manuscript. References Berberian, F., Muir, I.D., Pankhurst, R.J. and Berberian, M., 1982. Late Cretaceous and early Miocene Andean type plutonic activity in northern Makran and Central Iran. Journal of the Geological Society, 139(5: 605-614. Camp, V.E. and Griffis, R., 1982. Character, genesis and tectonic setting of igneous rocks in the Sistan suture zone, eastern Iran. Lithos, 15(3: 221-239. Gill, R., 2010. Igneous rocks and processes. Wiley-Blackwell, Malaysia, 428 pp. Harangi, S., Downes, H., Thirlwall, M., Gmeling, K., 2007. Geochemistry, Petrogenesis and Geodynamic Relationships of Miocene Calc-alkalineVolcanic Rocks in the Western Carpathian arc, Eastern Central Europe. Journal of petrology, 48(12: 2261-2287. Jung, D., Keller, J., Khorasani, R., Marcks, Chr., Baumann, A. and Horn, P., 1983. Petrology of the Tertiary magmatic activity the northern Lut area, East of Iran. Ministry of mines and metals, Geological survey of Iran, geodynamic project (geotraverse in Iran, Tehran, Report 51, pp. 285-336. Karimpour, M.H., Stern, C.R., Farmer, L., Saadat, S. and Malekezadeh, A., 2011. Review of age, Rb-Sr geochemistry and petrogenesis of Jurassic to Quaternary igneous rocks in Lut Block, Eastern Iran. Geopersia, 1(1:19-36. Kuscu, G.G. and Geneli, F., 2010. Review of post-collisional volcanism in the central Anatolian volcanic province(Turkey, with special reference to the Tepekoy volcanic complex. International Journal of Earth Sciences, 99(3: 593-621. Richards, J.P., Spell, T., Rameh, E., Razique, A. and Fletcher T., 2012. High Sr/Y Magmas Reflect Arc Maturity,High Magmatic Water Content, and

  8. Stress states in the Zagros fold-and-thrust belt from passive margin to collisional tectonic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navabpour, Payman; Barrier, Eric

    2012-12-01

    The present-day Zagros fold-and-thrust belt of SW-Iran corresponds to the former Arabian passive continental margin of the southern Neo-Tethyan basin since the Permian-Triassic rifting, undergoing later collisional deformation in mid-late Cenozoic times. In this paper an overview of brittle tectonics and palaeostress reconstructions of the Zagros fold-and-thrust belt is presented, based on direct stress tensor inversion of fault slip data. The results indicate that, during the Neo-Tethyan oceanic opening, an extensional tectonic regime affectedthe sedimentary cover in Triassic-Jurassic times with an approximately N-S trend of the σ3 axis, oblique to the margin, which was followed by some local changes to a NE-SW trend during Jurassic-Cretaceous times. The stress state significantly changed to thrust setting, with a NE-SW trend of the σ1 axis, and a compressional tectonic regime prevailed during the continental collision and folding of the sedimentary cover in Oligocene-Miocene times. This compression was then followed by a strike-slip stress state with an approximately N-S trend of the σ1 axis, oblique to the belt, during inversion of the inherited extensional basement structures in Pliocene-Recent times. The brittle tectonic reconstructions, therefore, highlighted major changes of the stress state in conjunction with transitions between thin- and thick-skinned structures during different extensional and compressional stages of continental deformation within the oblique divergent and convergent settings, respectively.

  9. Geology, geochemistry, age and tectonic setting of the Gore-Gambella plutonic rocks, western Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alemayehu, T.A.

    1989-01-01

    In transect across the Birbir and Baro domains of western Ethiopia, distinct granitoid suites are recognized on the basis of their field relations, petrology, chemical features and age. The Baro Domain consists of migmatitic, upper amphibolite facies gneisses and metaleucogranites. The Birbir Domain consists of lower amphibolite facies rocks with abundant intrusive and meta-intrusive rocks of mafic and intermediate composition. A ductile, transcurrent fault system, the Birbir Shear Zone, traverses the Birbir Domain. Kinematic indicators such as disrupted dykes and sills within the shear zone suggest major dextral movement which was succeeded by sinistral movement during its final stage. The pre- to syn-kinematic intrusives within the Birbir Domain are metamorphosed and mylonitized to variable degrees. Geochemical and isotopic data from early plutonic units in the Birbir Domain reflect arc-type igneous activity; late- to post-kinematic plutons are more alkalic and of intraplate character. U-Pb zircon and Rb-Sr whole-rock isochron dates show plutonic activity between 830 and 540 Ma. A whole-rock Rb-Sr date of 760 Ma from a pre- to syn-kinematic pluton coincides with the age of low-grade metamorphism of arc-related rocks of the Red Sea Hills of NE Africa and the Jeddah terrane of Arabia. The Birbir Domain is a southward extension of the Pan-African crust of NE Africa and Arabia. The Birbir shear zone indicates a tectonically active continental margin along which magmatic arc rocks were accreted. The Baro Domain is interpreted as a reactivated pre-Pan-African continental margin linked to the Mozambique Belt of east Africa. A subduction model, involving closure of an ocean basin, is proposed for the evolution of rocks of the Birbir Domain.

  10. Tectonic setting of the Seychelles, Mascarene and Amirante Plateaus in the Western Equatorial Indian Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mart, Y.

    1988-01-01

    A system of marine plateaus occurs in the western equatorial Indian Ocean, forming an arcuate series of wide and shallow banks with small islands in places. The oceanic basins that surround the Seychelles - Amirante region are of various ages and reflect a complex seafloor spreading pattern. The structural analysis of the Seychelle - Amirante - Mascarene region reflects the tectonic evolution of the western equatorial Indian Ocean. It is suggested that due to the seafloor spreading during a tectonic stage, the Seychelles continental block drifted southwestwards to collide with the oceanic crust of the Mascarene Basin, forming an elongated folded structure at first, and then a subduction zone. The morphological similarity, the lithological variability and the different origin of the Seychelles Bank, the Mascarene Plateau and the Amirante Arc emphasizes the significant convergent effects of various plate tectonic processes on the development of marine plateaus

  11. Using the ERT method in tectonically active areas: hints from Southern Apennine (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Giocoli

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT method has been used to study two tectonically active areas of southern Apennine (Caggiano Faults and Ufita Basin. The main aim of this job was to study the structural setting of the investigated areas, i.e. the geometry of the basins at depth, the location of active faults at surface, and their geometrical characterization. The comparison between ERT and trench/drilling data allowed us to evaluate the efficacy of the ERT method in studying active faults and the structural setting of seismogenic areas.

    In the Timpa del Vento intermontane basin, high resolution ERT across the Caggiano Fault scarps, with different arrays, electrode spacing (from 1 to 10 m and penetration depth (from about 5 to 40 m was carried out. The obtained resistivity models allowed us to locate the fault planes along the hillslope and to gather information at depth, as later confirmed by paleoseismological trenches excavated across the fault trace.

    In the Ufita River Valley a 3560-m-long ERT was carried out across the basin, joining 11 roll-along multi-channel acquisition system with an electrode spacing of 20 m and reaching an investigation depth of about 170 m. The ERT allowed us to reconstruct the geometry and thickness of the Quaternary deposits filling the Ufita Valley. Our reconstruction of the depositional setting is in agreement with an interpretative geological section based on borehole data.

  12. Appraisal of active tectonics in Hindu Kush: Insights from DEM derived geomorphic indices and drainage analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Amer Mahmood

    2012-07-01

    The results obtained from these indices were combined to yield an index of relative active tectonics (IRAT using GIS. The average of the seven measured geomorphic indices was used to evaluate the distribution of relative tectonic activity in the study area. We defined four classes to define the degree of relative tectonic activity: class 1__very high (1.0 ≤ IRAT < 1.3; class 2__high (1.3 ≥ IRAT < 1.5; class 3—moderate (1.5 ≥ IRAT < 1.8; and class 4—low (1.8 ≥ IRAT. In view of the results, we conclude that this combined approach allows the identification of the highly deformed areas related to active tectonics. Landsat imagery and field observations also evidence the presence of active tectonics based on the deflected streams, deformed landforms, active mountain fronts and triangular facets. The indicative values of IRAT are consistent with the areas of known relative uplift rates, landforms and geology.

  13. Tectonic setting of Cretaceous basins on the NE Tibetan Plateau: Insights from the Jungong basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craddock, W.H.; Kirby, E.; Dewen, Z.; Jianhui, L.

    2012-01-01

    Quantifying the Cenozoic growth of high topography in the Indo-Asian collision zone remains challenging, due in part to significant shortening that occurred within Eurasia before collision. A growing body of evidence suggests that regions far removed from the suture zone experienced deformation before and during the early phases of Himalayan orogenesis. In the present-day north-eastern Tibetan Plateau, widespread deposits of Cretaceous sediment attest to significant basin formation; however, the tectonic setting of these basins remains enigmatic. We present a study of a regionally extensive network of sedimentary basins that are spatially associated with a system of SE-vergent thrust faults and are now exposed in the high ranges of the north-eastern corner of the Tibetan Plateau. We focus on a particularly well-exposed basin, located ~20km north of the Kunlun fault in the Anyemaqen Shan. The basin is filled by ~900m of alluvial sediments that become finer-grained away from the basin-bounding fault. Additionally, beds in the proximal footwall of the basin-bounding fault exhibit progressive, up-section shallowing and several intraformational unconformities which can be traced into correlative conformities in the distal part of the basin. The observations show sediment accumulated in the basin during fault motion. Regional constraints on the timing of sediment deposition are provided by both fossil assemblages from the Early Cretaceous, and by K-Ar dating of volcanic rocks that floor and cross-cut sedimentary fill. We argue that during the Cretaceous, the interior NE Tibetan Plateau experienced NW-SE contractional deformation similar to that documented throughout the Qinling-Dabie orogen to the east. The Songpan-Ganzi terrane apparently marked the southern limit of this deformation, such that it may have been a relatively rigid block in the Tibetan lithosphere, separating regions experiencing deformation north of the convergent Tethyan margin from regions deforming

  14. Applied gamma ray spectrometry and remote sensing in delineation of nepheline syenites in rift tectonic settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiwona, Annock Gabriel; Manning, David A. C.; Gaulton, Rachel; Cortes, Joaquin A.

    2017-04-01

    The United Nations (2016) observes that 'Neglected Development Minerals' including industrial minerals such as nepheline syenites have great potential for sustainable development, yet their exploitation has not been equally promoted like high value minerals. Nepheline syenites have great potential as alternative potassium (K) silicate fertiliser, as well as a source of Rare Earths. Demand for K fertiliser keeps rising by 3-3.5% annually (Jena et al., 2014) due to increased need to replace K removal from the soil (Sheldrick et al., 2002). The situation is most critical in Sub-Sahara Africa where nutrient loss due to intensive farming accounts to 22kg N, 2.5 kg P and 15 kg of K per hectare annually (Keeble, 2012). Ironically, Africa with 15% of global population, which is also expected to double by 2040 (Manning, 2015), uses only 1.5% of global K fertiliser. In this study, we use recently acquired countrywide airborne geophysical gamma ray data of Malawi (Bates & Mechennef, 2013) and satellite remote sensing data to identify nepheline syenites, suitable as sources of K silicate fertilizer, in rift tectonic settings. Initial focus was on the East African Rift System (EARS) starting with Malawi. Results from these two techniques are compared with X-ray fluorescence (XRF) geochemical analyses of sample collected from fieldwork in some potential areas of Malawi. With lessons from the Rochagem movement (Theodoro & Leonardos, 2006), identification of novel alternative potash sources in Africa will greatly benefit millions of farmers in developing countries, especially in Sub Sahara Africa where fertiliser costs are very high. Considering that high-resolution airborne geophysical data is not available in many African countries due to high costs associated with data acquisition campaigns, alternative and effective remote sensing approaches for delineating nepheline syenite rocks are necessary. References: [1] Bates M & Mechennef, F (2013) Data Acquisition Report, Sander

  15. The Geomorphological Evolution of a Landscape in a Tectonically Active Region: the Sennwald Landslide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksay, Selçuk; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Hippe, Kristina; Graemiger, Lorenz; Vockenhuber, Christof

    2016-04-01

    The Säntis nappe is a fold-and-thrust structure in eastern Switzerland consisting of numerous tectonic discontinuities that make rocks vulnerable to rock failure. The Sennwald landslide is one of those events that occurred due to the failure of Lower Cretaceous Helvetic limestones. This study reveals the surface exposure age of the event in relation to geological and tectonic setting, earthquake frequency of the Central Alps, and regional scale climate/weather influence. Our study comprises detailed mapping of landform features, thin section analysis of landslide boulder lithologies, landslide volume estimation, numerical DAN-3D run-out modelling, and the spatial and temporal relationship of the event. In the Sennwald landslide, 92 million m3 of limestones detached from the south-eastern wall of the Säntis nappe and slid with a maximum travel distance of ~4'500 m and a "fahrboeschung" angle of 15° along the SE-dipping sliding plane almost parallel to the orientation of the bedding plane. Numerical run-out modelling results match the extent and the thickness of landslide deposits as observed in the field. The original bedrock stratigraphy was preserved as geologically the top layer in the bedrock package travelled the farthest and the bottom layer came to rest closest to the release bedrock wall during the landslide. Velocities of maximum 90 m/s were obtained from the numerical run-out modelling. Total Cl and 36Cl were determined at ETH AMS facility with isotope dilution methods defined in the literature (Ivy-Ochs et al., 2004). Surface exposure ages of landslide deposits in the accumulation area are revealed from twelve boulders. The distribution of limestone boulders in the accumulation area, the exposure ages, and the numerical run-out modelling support the hypothesis that the Sennwald landslide was a single catastrophic event. The event is likely to have been triggered by at least light to moderate earthquakes (Mw=4.0-6.0). The historical and the last 40-year

  16. The research of modern He discharge in volcanic and tectonically active areas of China's continent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shangguan, Z.G.

    1999-01-01

    The realising features of modern helium in volcanic and tectonically active areas of China's continent are here discussed, presenting that the current escaped He in volcanic areas are mainly the mantle-derived He. The 3 He/ 4 He ratios of crustal gases in Eastern China are relatively higher than those gases in Middle-Western China. The author considers difficult to interpret this phenomenon by means of the differences of tectonic activity in those areas: it may be related to the variation of crustal thickness of China's continent from East to West

  17. Provenance and tectonic setting of the supra-crustal succession of the Qinling Complex: Implications for the tectonic affinity of the North Qinling Belt, Central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yu; Huang, Qianwen; Liu, Xijun; Krapež, Bryan; Yu, Jinhai; Bai, Zhian

    2018-06-01

    The Qinling Complex lies in the Qinling orogenic belt of Central China and holds the key to understanding the evolution of this feature. The Qinling Complex comprises a basement complex composed of amphibolite and ecologite, overlain by a supra-crustal succession that has been metamorphosed to the upper greenschist facies at approximately 516-509 Ma. The protoliths of the meta-sedimentary rocks are graywackes, which are divided into lower, middle and upper units. Detrital zircons from nine samples of the supra-crustal succession have ages ranging from 1182 to 1158 Ma for the lower unit, 957 to 955 Ma for the middle unit and 917 to 840 Ma for the upper unit. The lower unit is intruded by a ca. 960 Ma pluton. The bulk compositions of these meta-sedimentary rocks and their detrital zircon ages clearly indicate derivation from Meso- and Neo-proterozoic granites. Thus, we suggest that the sedimentary succession was derived from an arc-related tectonic setting and that none of the detritus was sourced from the southern margin of the North China Block or from the northern and western margins of the South China Block. We conclude that the North Qinling Belt was an independent micro-continental block during the Meso- to Neo-proterozoic.

  18. Preliminary study on hydrogeology in tectonically active areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Lappin, Allen R.; Gettemy, Glen L.; Jensen, Richard Pearson; Arnold, Bill Walter; James, Scott Carlton; Lee, Moo Yul; Meier, Diane A.

    2006-01-01

    This report represents the final product of a background literature review conducted for the Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan (NUMO) by Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. Internationally, research of hydrological and transport processes in the context of high level waste (HLW) repository performance, has been extensive. However, most of these studies have been conducted for sites that are within tectonically stable regions. Therefore, in support of NUMO's goal of selecting a site for a HLW repository, this literature review has been conducted to assess the applicability of the output from some of these studies to the geological environment in Japan. Specifically, this review consists of two main tasks. The first was to review the major documents of the main HLW repository programs around the world to identify the most important hydrologic and transport parameters and processes relevant in each of these programs. The review was to assess the relative importance of processes and measured parameters to site characterization by interpretation of existing sensitivity analyses and expert judgment in these documents. The second task was to convene a workshop to discuss the findings of Task 1 and to prioritize hydrologic and transport parameters in the context of the geology of Japan. This report details the results and conclusions of both of these Tasks

  19. Preliminary study on hydrogeology in tectonically active areas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Lappin, Allen R.; Gettemy, Glen L.; Jensen, Richard Pearson; Arnold, Bill Walter; James, Scott Carlton; Lee, Moo Yul; Meier, Diane A.

    2006-09-01

    This report represents the final product of a background literature review conducted for the Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan (NUMO) by Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. Internationally, research of hydrological and transport processes in the context of high level waste (HLW) repository performance, has been extensive. However, most of these studies have been conducted for sites that are within tectonically stable regions. Therefore, in support of NUMO's goal of selecting a site for a HLW repository, this literature review has been conducted to assess the applicability of the output from some of these studies to the geological environment in Japan. Specifically, this review consists of two main tasks. The first was to review the major documents of the main HLW repository programs around the world to identify the most important hydrologic and transport parameters and processes relevant in each of these programs. The review was to assess the relative importance of processes and measured parameters to site characterization by interpretation of existing sensitivity analyses and expert judgment in these documents. The second task was to convene a workshop to discuss the findings of Task 1 and to prioritize hydrologic and transport parameters in the context of the geology of Japan. This report details the results and conclusions of both of these Tasks.

  20. Tectonic setting and strain analysis of Halaban Area, Eastern Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamri, Y. A., II; Kassem, O. M. K.

    2016-12-01

    Finite strain technique was applied for Abt schist, sheared granitoids and volcanosedimentary rocks exposed at Halaban area, Eastern Arabian Shield. This study aims to attempt to decipher the relationship of these lithologies to nappe contacts and to clarify the nature of subhorizontal foliation pervasively recorded in the Halaban area. The Rf/φ and Fry methods are utilized on quartz and feldspar porphyroclasts, as well as on mafic crystals, such as hornblende and biotite, in eighteen samples. The X/Z axial ratios range from 1.12 to 4.99 for Rf/φ method and from 1.65 to 4.00 for Fry method. The direction of finite strain for the long axes displays clustering along the WNW trend (occasionally N) with slight plunging. The Z axes are subvertical and associated with a subhorizontal foliation. The data reveal oblate strain symmetry (flattening) and the strain magnitudes show no considerable increase towards the tectonic contacts. The obtained finite-strain data demonstrate that the sheared granitoids are mildly to moderately deformed. It is suggested that the accumulation of finite strain was not associated with any significant volume change. The penetrative subhorizontal foliation was concurrent with thrusting and shows nearly the same attitudes of tectonic contacts with the overlying nappes. Field relations and observations, together with finite stain data, are inconsistent with the proposed idea that nappes in orogens resulted from simple-shear deformation.

  1. Late Cambrian - Early Ordovician turbidites of Gorny Altai (Russia): Compositions, sources, deposition settings, and tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruk, Nikolai N.; Kuibida, Yana V.; Shokalsky, Sergey P.; Kiselev, Vladimir I.; Gusev, Nikolay I.

    2018-06-01

    interplay of plate tectonic and plume tectonic processes.

  2. Evaluating influence of active tectonics on spatial distribution pattern of floods along eastern Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvakumar, R.; Ramasamy, SM.

    2014-12-01

    Flooding is a naturally recurrent phenomenon that causes severe damage to lives and property. Predictions on flood-prone zones are made based on intensity-duration of rainfall, carrying capacity of drainage, and natural or man-made obstructions. Particularly, the lower part of the drainage system and its adjacent geomorphic landforms like floodplains and deltaic plains are considered for analysis, but stagnation in parts of basins that are far away from major riverine systems is less unveiled. Similarly, uncharacteristic flooding in the upper and middle parts of drainage, especially in zones of an anomalous drainage pattern, is also least understood. Even though topographic differences are attributed for such anomalous spatial occurrence of floods, its genetic cause has to be identified for effective management practice. Added to structural and lithological variations, tectonic movements too impart micro-scale terrain undulations. Because active tectonic movements are slow-occurring, long-term geological processes, its resultant topographical variations and drainage anomalies are least correlated with floods. The recent floods of Tamil Nadu also exhibit a unique distribution pattern emphasizing the role of tectonics over it. Hence a detailed geoinformatics-based analysis was carried out to envisage the relationship between spatial distribution of flood and active tectonic elements such as regional arches and deeps, block faults, and graben and drainage anomalies such as deflected drainage, compressed meander, and eyed drainages. The analysis reveals that micro-scale topographic highs and lows imparted by active tectonic movements and its further induced drainage anomalies have substantially controlled the distribution pattern of flood.

  3. Using Vertical Electrical Soundings for Characterizing Hydrogeological and Tectonic Settings in Deir El-Adas Area, Yarmouk Basin, Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Fares, Walid

    2016-06-01

    The present study is aimed at characterizing the subsurface geological and tectonic structure in Deir El-Adas area, by using Vertical Electrical Sounding survey (VES) and hydrogeological investigations, in order to determine the causes of the failure for the majority of the wells drilled in the area. The survey data was treated in three different approaches including direct VES inversion, pseudo-2D method and horizontal profiling, in order to maximize the reliability of the data interpretation. The results revealed the presence of a local faulted anticline structure at the top of the Paleogene formation, underneath the basaltic outcrops where Deir El-Adas village is situated. The appearance of this subsurface anticline structure has complicated the local hydro-geological situation, and most likely led to limitation of the groundwater recharge in the area. Moreover, the performed piezometric and discharge maps indicated the presence of a notable groundwater watershed, in addition to feeble water productivity of the wells drilled adjacent to Deir El-Adas, mostly related to the subsurface geological and tectonic settings in the area.

  4. Syn-sedimentary tectonics and facies analysis in a rift setting: Cretaceous Dalmiapuram Formation, Cauvery Basin, SE India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivedita Chakraborty

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Cretaceous (Albian–Cenomanian Dalmiapuram Formation is one of the economically significant constituents in the hydrocarbon-producing Cauvery rift basin, SE India that opened up during the Late Jurassic–Early Cretaceous Gondwanaland fragmentation. The fossil-rich Dalmiapuram Formation, exposed at Ariyalur within the Pondicherry sub-basin of Cauvery Basin, rests in most places directly on the Archean basement and locally on the Lower Cretaceous (Barremian–Aptian Basal Siliciclastic Formation. In the Dalmiapuram Formation, a facies association of tectonically-disturbed phase is sandwiched between two drastically quieter phases. The early syn-rift facies association (FA 1, records the first carbonate marine transgression within the basin, comprising a bar–lagoon system with occasionally storms affecting along the shore and a sheet-like non-recurrent biomicritic limestone bed on the shallow shelf that laterally grades into pyrite–glauconite-bearing dark-colored shale in the deeper shelf. Spectacular breccias together with varied kinds of mass-flow products comprise the syn-rift facies association (FA 2. While the breccias occur at the basin margin area, the latter extend in the deeper inland sea. Clast composition of the coarse clastics includes large, even block-sized limestone fragments and small fragments of granite and sandstone from the basement. Marl beds of quieter intervals between tectonic pulses occur in alternation with them. Faulted basal contact of the formation, and small grabens filled by multiple mass-flow packages bear the clear signature of the syntectonic activity localized contortions, slump folds, and pillow beds associated with mega slump/slide planes and joints, which corroborates this contention further. This phase of tectonic intervention is followed by another relatively quieter phase and accommodates the late syn-rift facies association (FA 3. A tidal bar–interbar shelf depositional system allowed a

  5. Recent tectonic stress field, active faults and geothermal fields (hot-water type) in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Tianfeng

    1984-10-01

    It is quite probable that geothermal fields of the hot-water type in China do not develop in the absence of recently active faults. Such active faults are all controlled by tectonic stress fields. Using the data of earthquake fault-plane solutions, active faults, and surface thermal manifestations, a map showing the recent tectonic stress field, and the location of active faults and geothermal fields in China is presented. Data collected from 89 investigated prospects with geothermal manifestations indicate that the locations of geothermal fields are controlled by active faults and the recent tectonic stress field. About 68% of the prospects are controlled by tensional or tensional-shear faults. The angle between these faults and the direction of maximum compressive stress is less than 45°, and both tend to be parallel. About 15% of the prospects are controlled by conjugate faults. Another 14% are controlled by compressive-shear faults where the angle between these faults and the direction maximum compressive stress is greater than 45°.

  6. A review of the sedimentology of the Early Proterozoic Pretoria Group, Transvaal Sequence, South Africa: implications for tectonic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, P. G.; Schreiber, U. M.; van der Neut, M.

    The sedimentary rocks of the Early Proterozoic Pretoria Group form the floor rocks to teh 2050 M.a. Bushveld Complex. An overall alluvial fan-fan-delta - lacustrine palaeoenvironmental model is postulated for the Pretoria Group. This model is compatible with a continental half-graben tectonic setting, with steep footwall scarps on the southern margin and a lower gradient hanging wall developed to the north. The latter provided much of the basin-fill detritus. It is envisaged that the southern boundary fault system migrated southwards by footwall collapse as sedimentation continued. Synsedimentary mechanical rifting, associated with alluvial and deltaic sedimentation (Rooihoogte-Strubenkop Formations) was followed by thermal subsidence, with concomitant transgressive lacustrine deposition (Daspoort-Magaliesberg Formations). The proposed half-graben basin was probably related to the long-lived Thabazimbi-Murchison and Sugarbush-Barberton lineaments, which bound the preserved outcrops of the Pretoria Group.

  7. Mesozoic tectonomagmatic activity and uranium metallogenetic sequence in mid-Nanling tectonic belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Ping; Shu Liangshu

    2002-01-01

    Based on the synthesis and analysis of the relationship of various Mesozoic intrusive massifs, the tectonic activity, and the hydrothermal veins, as well as data of isotopic geochronology, the author makes a time sequence of the tectonomagmatic activities, the hydrothermal activities and uranium mineralization, and summarizes characteristics of tectonomagmatic and hydrothermal activities of different stages, and discusses the time sequence of various ore-controlling factors for granite-type uranium metallogeny. Finally, authors conclude that uranium metallogeny shows a very close spatial and temporal relationship to Mesozoic tectonomagmatic and hydrothermal activities

  8. Geochemical Signatures of Potassic to Sodic Adang Volcanics, Western Sulawesi: Implications for Their Tectonic Setting and Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godang Shaban

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available DOI:10.17014/ijog.3.3.195-214The Adang Volcanics represent a series of (ultra potassic to sodic lavas and tuffaceous rocks of predominantly trachytic composition, which forms the part of a sequence of Late Cenozoic high-K volcanic and associated intrusive rocks occurring extensively throughout Western Sulawesi. The tectonic setting and origin of these high-K rocks have been the subject of considerable debates. The Adang Volcanics have mafic to mafitic-intermediate characteristics (SiO2: 46 - 56 wt% and a wide range of high alkaline contents (K2O: 0.80 - 9.08 %; Na2O: 0.90 - 7.21 % with the Total Alkali of 6.67 - 12.60 %. Al2O3 values are relatively low (10.63 - 13.21 % and TiO2 values relatively high (1.27 - 1.91 %. Zr and REE concentrations are also relatively high (Zr: 1154 - 2340 ppm; Total REE (TREY = TRE: 899.20 - 1256.50 ppm; TRExOy: 1079.76 - 1507.97 ppm, with an average Zr/TRE ratio of ~ 1.39. The major rock forming minerals are leucite/pseudoleucite, diopside/aegirine, and high temperature phlogopite. Geochemical plots (major oxides and trace elements using various diagrams suggest the Adang Volcanics formed in a postsubduction, within-plate continental extension/initial rift tectonic setting. It is further suggested magma was generated by minor (< 0.1 % partial melting of depleted MORB mantle material (garnet-lherzolite with the silicate melt having undergone strong metasomatism. Melt enrichment is reflected in the alkaline nature of the rocks and geochemical signatures such as Nb/Zr > 0.0627 and (Hf/SmPM > 1.23. A comparison with the Vulsini ultrapotassic volcanics from the Roman Province in Italy shows both similarities (spidergram pattern indicating affinity with Group III ultrapotassics volcanics and differences (nature of mantle metasomatism.

  9. The study of active tectonic based on hyperspectral remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, J.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, J.; Shen, X.; Ding, R.; Xu, S.

    2017-12-01

    As of the latest technical methods, hyperspectral remote sensing technology has been widely used in each brach of the geosciences. However, it is still a blank for using the hyperspectral remote sensing to study the active structrure. Hyperspectral remote sensing, with high spectral resolution, continuous spectrum, continuous spatial data, low cost, etc, has great potentialities in the areas of stratum division and fault identification. Blind fault identification in plains and invisible fault discrimination in loess strata are the two hot problems in the current active fault research. Thus, the study of active fault based on the hyperspectral technology has great theoretical significance and practical value. Magnetic susceptibility (MS) records could reflect the rhythm alteration of the formation. Previous study shown that MS has correlation with spectral feature. In this study, the Emaokou section, located to the northwest of the town of Huairen, in Shanxi Province, has been chosen for invisible fault study. We collected data from the Emaokou section, including spectral data, hyperspectral image, MS data. MS models based on spectral features were established and applied to the UHD185 image for MS mapping. The results shown that MS map corresponded well to the loess sequences. It can recognize the stratum which can not identity by naked eyes. Invisible fault has been found in this section, which is useful for paleoearthquake analysis. The faults act as the conduit for migration of terrestrial gases, the fault zones, especially the structurally weak zones such as inrtersections or bends of fault, may has different material composition. We take Xiadian fault for study. Several samples cross-fault were collected and these samples were measured by ASD Field Spec 3 spectrometer. Spectral classification method has been used for spectral analysis, we found that the spectrum of the fault zone have four special spectral region(550-580nm, 600-700nm, 700-800nm and 800-900nm

  10. Petrogenesis of Malaysian tin granites: geochemistry, fractional crystallization, U-Pb zircon geochronology and tectonic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wai-Pan Ng, Samuel; Searle, Mike; Whitehouse, Martin; Chung, Sun-Lin; Ghani, Azman; Robb, Laurence; Sone, Masatoshi; Oliver, Grahame; Gardiner, Nick; Roselee, Mohammad

    2014-05-01

    The Malaysian tin granites forming the backbone of the Thai-Malay Peninsula has been long recognized with two distinct granitic provinces:- 1. Early Permian to Late Triassic Eastern Province with mainly "I-type" (Hbl)-Bt granites with associated Cu-Au deposits, with subordinate Bt granites hosting limited Sn-W deposits, and 2. Late Triassic Main Range Province with mainly "S-type" Bt granites with associated Sn-W deposits, and subordinate (Hbl)-Bt granites. New geochemical data show that Chappell and White's (1974) I-S granite classification adopted in the existing model does not adequately distinguish the granites from one another as previously implied. Trace element geochemistry and Sr-Nd isotopic compositions show that the Malaysian tin granites in both provinces have transitional I-S characteristics. In addition, they inherited within-plate signature from Cambro-Ordovician Gondwana-related source rocks. Previous ages were obtained by whole rock Rb-Sr and biotite K-Ar geochronology in the 70s and 80s, dating methods that may not accurately represent the crystallization age of granites. We re-sampled the entire Malaysian Peninsula and 40 samples were collected for high-precision U-Pb SIMS dating on extracted zircon grains in order to better constrain the magmatic and tectonic evolution of Southeast Asia. The crystallization ages of the Eastern Province granitoids have been constrained ranging from 220 to 290 Ma, while the Main Range (Western) Province granitoids have ages ranging from 200 to 230 Ma. A progressive westward younging trend is apparent across the Eastern Province, but becomes less obvious in the Main Range Province. Our model suggests two east dipping subduction zones. We suggest that subduction roll-back along the Bentong-Raub suture might account for the westward younging trend, in the Eastern province. A second Late Triassic east-dipping subduction zone beneath western Malaysia is proposed in order to explain the "I-type" components to the Main

  11. Neutron flux variations near the Earth’s crust. A possible tectonic activity detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Kuzhevskij

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work contains some results of observations of neutron flux variations near the Earth’s surface. The Earth’s crust is determined to be a significant source of thermal and slow neutrons, originated from the interaction between the nuclei of the elements of the Earth’s crust and the atmosphere and α-particles, produced by decay of radioactive gases (Radon, Thoron and Actinon. In turn, variations of radioactive gases exhalation is connected with geodynamical processes in the Earth’s crust, including tectonic activity. This determined relation between the processes in the Earth’s crust and neutrons’ flux allow to use variations of thermal and slow neutrons’ flux in order to observe increasing tectonic activity and to develop methods for short-term prediction of natural hazards.

  12. Drainage Characteristics of Tectonically Active Areas: An Example from Rajasthan, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SWATI JAIN

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The morphotectonic studies help in deciphering the role of tectonics and neotectonics in morphological evolution of drainage basins. On the basis of remote sensing technique, the relationship between morphology and tectonics have been investigated in Bundi-Indergarh sector of southeast Rajasthan. The area selected for present study is drained by Mej river and its tributaries and occupies the southeastern part of the Aravalli Mountain Range (AMR. The course of Mej river is mostly controlled by the Great Boundary Thrust (GBT and associated tectonic elements. GBT separates the folded, faulted and metamorphosed older rocks of the AMR in the west and relatively undeformed Vindhyan rocks in the east. This study has been carried out using digital and hard copy product of IRS 1C/1D LISS III geocoded FCC data. The morphometric and morphotectonic aspects have been studied for identification of present day tectonic activities in the area. The remote sensing data interpretation indicates that the landforms of the area are structurally controlled and mainly covered by linear and parallel strike ridges and valleys. These valleys indicate sign of stream rejuvenation and occasional presence of dynamic ravines. General morphometric parameters, bifurcation ratio, stream length and shape parameters have been computed. Longitudinal river profiles can be quantified by normalizing the elevation and the distance along rivers. Several parameters such as profile shape (concavity, gradient fluctuations, river grade and valley incision have been derived from longitudinal river profile. These quantified parameters and their interrelations are useful in comparing different drainage basins and also help drawing inferences on neotectonism. The computed values suggest that the area is covered by resistant rock and drainage network, affected by tectonic distur-bance. The valley floor ratio is very low, indicating channel down cutting vis-a-vis ground uplift. The gradient index

  13. Recent earthquake activity in Trichonis region and its tectonic significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. DELIBASIS

    1977-06-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY. - The aftershock activity associated with the central Greece
    (Trichonis Lake earthquake of |une-Dec. 1975, has been studied, with emphasis
    on the time and magnitude distribution. It has been found that the value of b,
    in Gutenberg - R i c h t e r ' s relationship was near the same for the primary as
    well as the secondary or second order aftershocks of the sequences, but depends
    upon the focal depth.
    A correlation between the calculated focal mechanisms and the associated
    stress components to the distribution pattern of meizoseismic effects as well
    as to the geological structure of the seismic region was found.
    The seismic region lies at the top of an anticline which was found moving
    downwards, apparently due to compressional stresses.
    Within the series of three earthquakes the progress of the destruction of
    the buildings was observed and reported. The interest is concentrated to modern
    buildings out of reinforced concrete and infill brick walls. The relatively unexpected
    rather bad performance of the later case of buildings was compared to that
    of the traditional small houses out of brick or stone masonry, the behaviour of
    which may be considered as better from what it was expected.

  14. Structural setting and tectonic control of mud volcanous from the central Mediterranean Ridge (Eastern Mediterranean)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huguen, C.; Mascle, J.; Chaumillon, E.; Kopf, A.; Woodside, J.M.; Zitter, T.A.C.

    2004-01-01

    Based on a recent marine geophysical data set, including swath bathymetry, acoustic imagery and six-channel seismics, recorded over a large area of the Mediterranean Ridge (MR) in early 1998 during the Prismed 2 survey, this paper presents a study of the various relationships observed between

  15. The composition and the source of hydrocarbons in sediments taken from the tectonically active Andaman Backarc Basin, Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chernova, T.G.; Rao, P.S.; Pikovskii, Yu.I.; Alekseeva, T.A.; Nath, B.N.; Rao, B.R.; Rao, Ch.M.

    or hydrothermal organic matter. Anthropogenic sources in region studied are of minor importance. From the results obtained, it may be deduced that the hydrocarbons in the sediments of the tectonically active part of the Andaman Basin are mainly due...

  16. Preliminary review and summary of the potential for tectonic, seismic, and volcanic activity at the Nevada Test Site defense waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalf, L.A.

    1983-03-01

    A change from compressional to extensional tectonics, which occurred about 17 m.y. ago, marks the emergence of the present tectonic regime in the southern Great Basin. Crustal extension is continuing at the present time, oriented in a NW-SE direction in the NTS region. Concurrently with the onset of crustal extension a system of NW- and NE-trending shear zones developed, along which mutual offset has occurred. Present seismic and tectonic activity in the NTS region is concentrated along the intersections of the shear zones and in areas of deep basin formation. Natural historic seismicity of the NTS region has been low to moderate. Seismic hazard assessments suggest a maximum magnitude 6-7 earthquake, associated with a maximum peak acceleration of 0.7 to 0.9 g, is probable for the NTS. A return period of 12,700 to 15,000 y for the maximum peak acceleration indicates a relatively low seismic hazard. Silicic volcanism in the NTS region was active from 16 to 6 m.y. ago, followed by a transition to basaltic volcanism. The tectonic settings most favorable for Quaternary basaltic activity are areas of young basin-range extension, caldera ring fracture zones, and intersections of conjugate shear zones. Probability calculations for the Yucca Mountain waste repository result in a volcanic disruption hazard of 10 - 8 to 10 - 9 /y. This value is extremely low and is probably representative of the hazard at Frenchman Flat. However, due to its tectonic setting, Frenchman Flat may be an area conducive to future basaltic volcanism; further investigation is needed to properly assess volcanic hazard

  17. Tectonic and Structural Controls of Geothermal Activity in the Great Basin Region, Western USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulds, J. E.; Hinz, N.; Kreemer, C. W.

    2012-12-01

    We are conducting a thorough inventory of structural settings of geothermal systems (>400 total) in the extensional to transtensional Great Basin region of the western USA. Most of the geothermal systems in this region are not related to upper crustal magmatism and thus regional tectonic and local structural controls are the most critical factors controlling the locations of the geothermal activity. A system of NW-striking dextral faults known as the Walker Lane accommodates ~20% of the North American-Pacific plate motion in the western Great Basin and is intimately linked to N- to NNE-striking normal fault systems throughout the region. Overall, geothermal systems are concentrated in areas with the highest strain rates within or proximal to the eastern and western margins of the Great Basin, with the high temperature systems clustering in transtensional areas of highest strain rate in the northwestern Great Basin. Enhanced extension in the northwestern Great Basin probably results from the northwestward termination of the Walker Lane and the concomitant transfer of dextral shear into west-northwest directed extension, thus producing a broad transtensional region. The capacity of geothermal power plants also correlates with strain rates, with the largest (hundreds of megawatts) along the Walker Lane or San Andreas fault system, where strain rates range from 10-100 nanostrain/yr to 1,000 nanostrain/yr, respectively. Lesser systems (tens of megawatts) reside in the Basin and Range (outside the Walker Lane), where local strain rates are typically fracture density, and thus enhanced permeability. Other common settings include a) intersections between normal faults and strike-slip or oblique-slip faults (27%), where multiple minor faults connect major structures and fluids can flow readily through highly fractured, dilational quadrants, and b) normal fault terminations or tip-lines (22%), where horse-tailing generates closely-spaced faults and increased permeability

  18. Petrography, geochemistry and tectonic setting of Rigi granitoid body (east of Lut Block, Central Iran)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghonjalipour, R.; Biabangard, H.; Ahmadi, A.

    2016-01-01

    The Rigi Granitoid Mountain is located in 5 Km West of Dehsalm and 85 Km West of Nehbandan city, southeast of Birjand province and east of Lut Block. This granitoid with Eocene-Oligocene age was penetrated into sedimentary rocks (shale, limestone and sandstone) and changes theses rocks to skarn, hornfels and calcsilicate rocks. This granitoid consist of granodiorite, quartz monzonite and syenogranite with plagioclase, orthose, biotite, hornblende and quartz minerals. Sericite, chlorite, and Magnetite are secondary mineral in these rocks. Geochemical properties this pluton showes that it subalkaline and has metaluminous. Geochemical diagrams and presence of hornblende mineral in this pluton shows that belong to I-type granite. The rocks in granitoid pluton are enrichment LREE compare to HREE, high contents of LILE relative to HFSE and negative anomalies of Nb, Ti and P show it granitoid related to subduction zone. Also, tectonomagmatic diagrams improve that this pluton has belong to active continental margin.

  19. A review of mineral systems and associated tectonic settings of northern Xinjiang, NW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Pirajno

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a review of mineral systems in northern Xinjiang, NW China, focussing on the Tianshan, West and East Junggar and Altay orogenic belts, all of which are part of the greater Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB. The CAOB is a complex collage of ancient microcontinents, island arcs, oceanic plateaux and oceanic plates, which were amalgamated and accreted in Early Palaeozoic to Early Permian times. The establishment of the CAOB collage was followed by strike-slip movements and affected by intraplate magmatism, linked to mantle plume activity, best exemplified by the 250 Ma Siberian Traps and the 280 Ma Tarim event. In northern Xinjiang, there are numerous and economically important mineral systems. In this contribution we describe a selection of representative mineral deposits, including subduction-related porphyry and epithermal deposits, volcanogenic massive sulphides and skarn systems. Shear zone-hosted Au lodes may have first formed as intrusion-related and subsequently re-worked during strike-slip deformation. Intraplate magmatism led to the emplacement of concentrically zoned (Alaskan-style mafic–ultramafic intrusions, many of which host orthomagmatic sulphide deposits. A huge belt of pegmatites in the Altay orogen, locally hosts world-class rare metal deposits. Roll-front, sandstone-hosted U mineralisation completes the rich mineral endowment of the northern Xinjiang terranes.

  20. Basement Structure and Styles of Active Tectonic Deformation in Central Interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, N.; Hanks, C.

    2017-12-01

    Central Interior Alaska is one of the most seismically active regions in North America, exhibiting a high concentration of intraplate earthquakes approximately 700 km away from the southern Alaska subduction zone. Based on increasing seismological evidence, intraplate seismicity in the region does not appear to be uniformly distributed, but concentrated in several discrete seismic zones, including the Nenana basin and the adjacent Tanana basin. Recent seismological and neotectonics data further suggests that these seismic zones operate within a field of predominantly pure shear driven primarily by north-south crustal shortening. Although the location and magnitude of the seismic activity in both basins are well defined by a network of seismic stations in the region, the tectonic controls on intraplate earthquakes and the heterogeneous nature of Alaska's continental interior remain poorly understood. We investigated the current crustal architecture and styles of tectonic deformation of the Nenana and Tanana basins using existing geological, geophysical and geochronological datasets. The results of our study demonstrate that the basements of the basins show strong crustal heterogeneity. The Tanana basin is a relatively shallow (up to 2 km) asymmetrical foreland basin with its southern, deeper side controlled by the northern foothills of the central Alaska Range. Northeast-trending strike-slip faults within the Tanana basin are interpreted as a zone of clockwise crustal block rotation. The Nenana basin has a fundamentally different geometry; it is a deep (up to 8 km), narrow transtensional pull-apart basin that is deforming along the left-lateral Minto Fault. This study identifies two distinct modes of tectonic deformation in central Interior Alaska at present, and provides a basis for modeling the interplay between intraplate stress fields and major structural features that potentially influence the generation of intraplate earthquakes in the region.

  1. Statistical Modelling of Global Tectonic Activity and some Physical Consequences of its Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Statnikov

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on the analysis of global earthquake data bank for the last thirty years, a global tectonic activity indicator was proposed comprising a weekly globally averaged mean earthquake magnitude value. It was shown that 84% of indicator variability is a harmonic oscillation with a fundamental period of 37.2 years, twice the maximum period in the tidal oscillation spectrum (18.6 years. From this observation, a conclusion was drawn that parametric resonance (PR exists between global tectonic activity and low-frequency tides. The conclusion was also confirmed by the existence of the statistically significant PR response at the second lowest tidal frequency i.e. 182.6 days. It was shown that the global earthquake flow, with a determination factor 93%, is a sum of two Gaussian streams, nearly equally intense, with mean values of 23 and 83 events per week and standard deviations of 9 and 30 events per week, respectively. The Earth periphery to 'mean time interval between earthquakes' ratios in the first and the second flow modes described above match, by the order of magnitude, the sound velocity in the fluid (~1500 m/s and in elastic medium (5500 m/s.

  2. The tectonics of Mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melosh, H.J.; Mckinnon, W.B.

    1988-01-01

    The probable tectonic history of Mercury and the relative sequence of events are discussed on the basis of data collected by the Mariner-10 spacecraft. Results indicate that Mercury's tectonic activity was confined to its early history; its endogenic activity was principally due to a small change in the shape of its lithosphere, caused by tidal despinning, and a small change in area caused by shrinkage due to cooling. Exogenic processes, in particular the impact activity, have produced more abundant tectonic features. Many features associated with the Caloris basin are due to loading of Mercury's thick lithosphere by extrusive lavas or subsidence due to magma withdrawal. It is emphasized that tectonic features observed on Mercury yield insight into the earliest tectonic events on planets like Mars and, perhaps, the earth, where subsequent events obscured or erased the most ancient tectonic records

  3. Geochemical characteristics and tectonic setting of the Tuerkubantao mafic-ultramafic intrusion in West Junggar, Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufeng Deng

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Mineral chemistry, whole-rock major oxide, and trace element compositions have been determined for the Tuerkubantao mafic-ultramafic intrusion, in order to understand the early Paleozoic tectonic evolution of the West Junggar orogenic belt at the southern margin of the Central Asian orogenic belt. The Tuerkubantao mafic-ultramafic intrusion is a well-differentiated complex comprising peridotite, olivine pyroxenite, gabbro, and diorite. The ultramafic rocks are mostly seen in the central part of the intrusion and surrounded by mafic rocks. The Tuerkubantao intrusive rocks are characterized by enrichment of large ion lithophile elements and depleted high field strength elements relative to N-MORB. In addition, the Tuerkubantao intrusion displays relatively low Th/U and Nb/U (1.13–2.98 and 2.53–7.02, respectively and high La/Nb and Ba/Nb (1.15–4.19 and 37.7–79.82, respectively. These features indicate that the primary magma of the intrusion was derived from partial melting of a previously metasomatized mantle source in a subduction setting. The trace element patterns of peridotites, gabbros, and diorite in the Tuerkubantao intrusion have sub-parallel trends, suggesting that the different rock types are related to each other by differentiation of the same primary magma. The intrusive contact between peridotite and gabbro clearly suggest that the Tuerkubantao is not a fragment of an ophiolite. However, the Tuerkubantao intrusion displays many similarities with Alaskan-type mafic-ultramafic intrusions along major sutures of Phanerozoic orogenic belts. Common features include their geodynamic setting, internal lithological zoning, and geochemistry. The striking similarities indicate that the middle Devonian Tuerkubantao intrusion likely formed in a subduction-related setting similar to that of the Alaskan-type intrusions. In combination with the Devonian magmatism and porphyry mineralization, we propose that subduction of the oceanic slab has

  4. Discrimination and Assessment of Induced Seismicity in Active Tectonic Zones: A Case Study from Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, C. E.; Lindsey, N.; Foxall, W.; Robertson, M.

    2014-12-01

    Earthquakes induced by human activity have become a matter of heightened public concern during recent years. Of particular concern is seismicity associated with wastewater injection, which has included events having magnitudes greater than 5. The causes of the induced events are primarily changes in pore-pressure, fluid volume and perhaps temperature due to injection. Recent research in the US has focused on mid-continental regions having low rates of naturally-occurring seismicity, where induced events can be identified by relatively straightforward spatial and temporal correlation of seismicity with high-volume injection activities. Recent examples include events correlated with injection of wastewater in Oklahoma, Arkansas, Texas and Ohio, and long-term brine injection in the Paradox Valley in Colorado. Even in some of the cases where there appears at first sight to be a clear spatial correlation between seismicity and injection, it has been difficult to establish causality definitively. Here, we discuss methods to identify induced seismicity in active tectonic regions. We concentrate our study on Southern California, where large numbers of wastewater injection wells are located in oil-producing basins that experience moderate to high rates of naturally-occurring seismicity. Using the catalog of high-precision CISN relocations produced by Hauksson et al. (BSSA, 2012), we aim to discriminate induced from natural events based on spatio-temporal patterns of seismicity occurrence characteristics and their relationships to injection activities, known active faults and other faults favorably oriented for slip under the tectonic stress field. Since the vast majority of induced earthquakes are very small, it is crucial to include all events above the detection threshold of the CISN in each area studied. In addition to exploring the correlation of seismicity to injection activities in time and space, we analyze variations in frequency-magnitude distributions, which can

  5. An integrated study of geochemistry and mineralogy of the Upper Tukau Formation, Borneo Island (East Malaysia): Sediment provenance, depositional setting and tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, Ramasamy; Roy, Priyadarsi D.; Kessler, Franz L.; Jong, John; Dayong, Vivian; Jonathan, M. P.

    2017-08-01

    An integrated study using bulk chemical composition, mineralogy and mineral chemistry of sedimentary rocks from the Tukau Formation of Borneo Island (Sarawak, Malaysia) is presented in order to understand the depositional and tectonic settings during the Neogene. Sedimentary rocks are chemically classified as shale, wacke, arkose, litharenite and quartz arenite and consist of quartz, illite, feldspar, rutile and anatase, zircon, tourmaline, chromite and monazite. All of them are highly matured and were derived from a moderate to intensively weathered source. Bulk and mineral chemistries suggest that these rocks were recycled from sedimentary to metasedimentary source regions with some input from granitoids and mafic-ultramafic rocks. The chondrite normalized REE signature indicates the presence of felsic rocks in the source region. Zircon geochronology shows that the samples were of Cretaceous and Triassic age. Comparable ages of zircon from the Tukau Formation sedimentary rocks, granitoids of the Schwaner Mountains (southern Borneo) and Tin Belt of the Malaysia Peninsular suggest that the principal provenance for the Rajang Group were further uplifted and eroded during the Neogene. Additionally, presence of chromian spinels and their chemistry indicate a minor influence of mafic and ultramafic rocks present in the Rajang Group. From a tectonic standpoint, the Tukau Formation sedimentary rocks were deposited in a passive margin with passive collisional and rift settings. Our key geochemical observation on tectonic setting is comparable to the regional geological setting of northwestern Borneo as described in the literature.

  6. The Role of Long-Term Tectonic Deformation on the Distribution of Present-Day Seismic Activity in the Caribbean and Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schobelock, J.; Stamps, D. S.; Pagani, M.; Garcia, J.; Styron, R. H.

    2017-12-01

    The Caribbean and Central America region (CCAR) undergoes the entire spectrum of earthquake types due to its complex tectonic setting comprised of transform zones, young oceanic spreading ridges, and subductions along its eastern and western boundaries. CCAR is, therefore, an ideal setting in which to study the impacts of long-term tectonic deformation on the distribution of present-day seismic activity. In this work, we develop a continuous tectonic strain rate model based on inter-seismic geodetic data and compare it with known active faults and earthquake focal mechanism data. We first create a 0.25o x 0.25o finite element mesh that is comprised of block geometries defined in previously studies. Second, we isolate and remove transient signals from the latest open access community velocity solution from UNAVCO, which includes 339 velocities from COCONet and TLALOCNet GNSS data for the Caribbean and Central America, respectively. In a third step we define zones of deformation and rigidity by creating a buffer around the boundary of each block that varies depending on the size of the block and the expected deformation zone based on locations of GNSS data that are consistent with rigid block motion. We then assign each node within the buffer a 0 for the deforming areas and a plate index outside the buffer for the rigid. Finally, we calculate a tectonic strain rate model for CCAR using the Haines and Holt finite element approach to fit bi-cubic Bessel splines to the the GNSS/GPS data assuming block rotation for zones of rigidity. Our model of the CCAR is consistent with compression along subduction zones, extension across the mid-Pacific Rise, and a combination of compression and extension across the North America - Caribbean plate boundary. The majority of CCAR strain rate magnitudes range from -60 to 60 nanostrains/yr. Modeling results are then used to calculate expected faulting behaviors that we compare with mapped geologic faults and seismic activity.

  7. Drainage - Structure Correlation in tectonically active Regions: Case studies in the Bolivian and Colombian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeilinger, Gerold; Parra, Mauricio; Kober, Florian

    2017-04-01

    It is widely accepted, that drainage patterns are often controlled by tectonics/climate and geology/rheology. Classical drainage patterns can be found 1) in fault-and-thrust belt, where rives follow the valleys parallel or cut perpendicular to strike trough the ridges, forming a trellis pattern, 2) at dome structures where the drainage form a radial pattern or 3) rectangular patterns in strongly fractured regions. In this study, we focus on fault-and-thrust belts, that undergone different phases of tectonic activity. According to classical models, the deformation is propagating into the foreland, hence being youngest at the frontal part and getting successively older towards the axis of the orogen. Drainage patterns in the more interior parts of the orogenic wedge should be then less influenced by the direction of structures, as landscape evolution is changing to a tectonic passive stage. This relationship might represent the transience and maturity of drainage pattern evolution. Here we study drainage patterns of the Bolivian and the eastern Colombian Andes by comparing the relative orientation of the drainage network with the orogen structural grain. The drainage is extracted from Digital Elevation Models (SRTM 30 m) and indexed by their Strahler Order. Order 1 channels have an upstream area of 1 km2. The direction of all segments is analyzed by linear directional mean function that results in the mean orientation of input channels with approx. 500 m average length. The orientation of structures for different structural domains is calculated using the same function on digitized faults and fold-axis. Rose diagrams show the length-weighted directional distribution of structures, of higher (>= 4) and of lower order (<= 3) channels. The structural trend in the Bolivian Andes is controlled by the orocline, where a predominant NW-SE trend turns into an N-S trend at 18°S and where the eastern orogen comprise from west to east, the Eastern Cordillera (EC), the

  8. Active tectonics of the southeastern Upper Rhine Graben, Freiburg area (Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivière, B.; Bruestle, A.; Bertrand, G.; Carretier, S.; Behrmann, J.; Gourry, J.-C.

    2008-03-01

    The Upper Rhine Graben has two Plio-Quaternary depocentres usually interpreted as resulting from tectonic reactivation. The southern basin, near Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany), contains up to 250 m of sediments. Beneath the younger alluvial deposits related to the current drainage system, a former river network deeply entrenched in the substratum reveals a very low regional base level of early Pleistocene age. The offset of channels at faults allows us to infer a Pleistocene reactivation of the syn-rift fault pattern and the estimation of slip rates. Maximum vertical movements along the faults have not exceeded 0.1 mm/yr since the middle Pleistocene. Current activity is concentrated along the westernmost faults. Morphologic markers indicate late Pleistocene reactivation of the Rhine River fault, and geophysical prospecting suggests a near-surface offset of young sedimentary deposits. The size of the fault segments potentially reactivated suggests that earthquakes with magnitude larger than Mw=6.3 could be expected in the area with a return interval of about 8000 years. Extrapolated to the duration of the Plio-Pleistocene, the strain rate estimates reveal that the tectonic forcing may account for only one-third to one-half of the whole thickness of the Plio-Pleistocene sediments of the basin fill. Thus other processes must be invoked to understand the growth of the Plio-Pleistocene basin. Especially the piracy of the Rhine River to the north during the early Pleistocene could explain these effects.

  9. Sediment composition of big Chinese and Indochinese rivers reflects geology of their source, not tectonic setting of their sink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzanti, Eduardo; Andò, Sergio; Limonta, Mara; Nie, Junsheng; Resentini, Alberto; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Wang, Jiangang; Yang, Shouye

    2016-04-01

    There are several reasons why the tectonic setting of a sedimentary basin cannot be inferred from the composition of its sedimentary fill. One is that sediments can, and quite often are transported for thousands of kilometers from sources uplifted by certain tectonic processes to subsident basins created by totally different tectonic processes. A classical case is the Amazon River, carrying detritus from the Andean Cordillera to the Atlantic passive margin on the opposite side of South America (Franzinelli and Potter, 1983; Dickinson, 1988). Similar is the case of major rivers in China and Indochina, sourced in Tibetan orogenic highlands and reaching the Chinese passive margin or the back-arc/pull-apart Andaman Sea. The Huang He (Yellow River), the most sediment-laden river in the world, delivers annually to the Bohai Sea 1 billion tons of litho-feldspatho-quartzose sedimentaclastic/metamorphiclastic sediments with moderately rich, amphibole-epidote-garnet suites including apatite and zircon (Nie et al., 2015). The Changjiang (Yangtze) River, the fourth longest on Earth and the largest in Eurasia, carries to the East China Sea litho-feldspatho-quartzose sedimentaclastic/metamorphiclastic sand with moderately poor, amphibole-epidote suites including clinopyroxene and garnet (Vezzoli et al., 2016). The Ayeyarwadi (Irrawaddy) River, ranking among the five major rivers in the world for its annual load of 0.4 billion tons, carries to the Andaman Sea litho-feldspatho-quartzose metamorphiclastic/sedimentaclastic sand with moderately rich, amphibole-epidote suites including garnet and clinopyroxene (Garzanti et al., 2013). Detrital modes in these three very big river basins are thus similar, and would plot in the "Recycled Orogen" field of Dickinson (1985) rather than in the "Continental Block" or "Magmatic Arc" fields. The orogenic signature acquired in mountainous headwaters is carried all the way to the mouth, and even after long-distance transport across wide

  10. Tectonic setting and uplift analysis of the Pangani rift basin in northern Tanzania using apatite fission track thermochronology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mbede, E.I.

    2001-01-01

    Thirty four new Apatite Fission Track (AFT) ages and 32 track length distributions from samples of basement rocks flanking the Pangani rift, East African Rift System (EARS) are presented, in an attempt to elucidate the uplift and erosion of the rift flanks. The ages fall in the range of 207±15 to 48±4 Ma, spanning from Early Jurassic to Early Tertiary. These ages are much younger than the last thermal event in the Mozambique belt that form the basement complex and are interpreted to represent the most recent tectonic events. Track length (TL) distributions suggest that uplift and erosion of the rift flanks are related to three different tectonic events, which are also recorded by the sedimentary units within the adjacent coastal basins. These included the Triassic/Early Jurassic, Late Cretaceous and Early Tertiary tectonic events. Erosion and isostatic rebound have modified the tectonically induced topographic patterns and the highly elevated plateaus flanking the Pangani rift represent an erosional surface referred to as the 'Gondwana surface' of eastern and central Africa. T he present AFT data suggest that initial exhumation of the 'Gondwana surface' from temperatures above 383.15 K to temperatures less than 333.15 K, in this area, took place during Early Jurassic times, but the final sub-aerial exposure of the surface did not take place until Early Tertiary. (author)

  11. Interaction between active tectonics, erosion and diapirism, a case study from Habble-Rud in Southern Central Alborz (Northern Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaberi, Maryam; Ghassemi, Mohammad R.; Shayan, Siavosh; Yamani, Mojtaba; Zamanzadeh, Seyed Mohammad

    2018-01-01

    The Alborz mountain chain is a region of active deformation within the Arabia-Eurasia continental collision zone. The southern part of central Alborz Mountains, in the north of Iran, represents complex tectonics because it is located at the border of two developing continental sedimentary basins between southern central Alborz and Central Iran. An arid and semi-arid climate, a large extent of Quaternary sediments, rugged topography, salt domes and faults with historical seismicity influence the Habble-Rud River catchment. In the present research, a number of tectonic geomorphologic indices were extracted from satellite imagery and 10 m DEM (digital elevation model) data in order to identify relative tectonic activity within the basin. The indices include: stream length-gradient index (Sl), drainage basin asymmetry (Af), index of mountain front sinuosity (Smf), hypsometric integral (Hi), index of drainage basin shape (Bs), ratio of valley-floor width to valley height (Vf), and fault density (Fd). Due to the presence of heterogeneous indices for all sections of the catchment causing large extension of Habble-Rud (3260 km2), all of the variables such as extremely erodible formations, faults and folds and salt tectonics on the Southern part; were put into a matrix table. As a new approach, the variables were put into the SAW (simple additive model) model as one of MADM (multi-attribute decision-making models) techniques. The study area was divided into four regions according to the values of SAW. These classes include very high (%11), high (48.3%), moderate (34.7%), and low activity (3.4%). The result of the model suggests that the study area is located on a changing tectonic trend in central Alborz from NW-SE to NE-SW. The regions with high relative tectonic activity in HR catchment correspond to the active Garmsar and Sorkhe-Kalout faults and diapirs.

  12. The QuakeSim Project: Numerical Simulations for Active Tectonic Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnellan, Andrea; Parker, Jay; Lyzenga, Greg; Granat, Robert; Fox, Geoffrey; Pierce, Marlon; Rundle, John; McLeod, Dennis; Grant, Lisa; Tullis, Terry

    2004-01-01

    In order to develop a solid earth science framework for understanding and studying of active tectonic and earthquake processes, this task develops simulation and analysis tools to study the physics of earthquakes using state-of-the art modeling, data manipulation, and pattern recognition technologies. We develop clearly defined accessible data formats and code protocols as inputs to the simulations. these are adapted to high-performance computers because the solid earth system is extremely complex and nonlinear resulting in computationally intensive problems with millions of unknowns. With these tools it will be possible to construct the more complex models and simulations necessary to develop hazard assessment systems critical for reducing future losses from major earthquakes.

  13. Volcanic and Tectonic Activity in the Red Sea Region (2004-2013): Insights from Satellite Radar Interferometry and Optical Imagery

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Wenbin

    2015-01-01

    due to insufficient in-situ data and remoteness of some of the activity. In this dissertation, I have used satellite remote sensing to derive new information about several recent volcanic and tectonic events in the Red Sea region. I first report

  14. Quaternary volcano-tectonic activity in the Soddo region, western margin of the Southern Main Ethiopian Rift

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corti, G.; Sani, F.; Philippon, M.; Sokoutis, D.; Willingshofer, E.; Molin, P.

    We present an analysis of the distribution, timing, and characteristics of the volcano-tectonic activity on the western margin of the Southern Main Ethiopian Rift in the Soddo area (latitudes between ~7°10'N and ~6°30'N). The margin is characterized by the presence of numerous normal faults, with

  15. Marine and land active-source seismic investigation of geothermal potential, tectonic structure, and earthquake hazards in Pyramid Lake, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisses, A.; Kell, A.; Kent, G. [UNR; Driscoll, N. [UCSD; Karlin, R.; Baskin, R. [USGS; Louie, J. [UNR; Pullammanappallil, S. [Optim

    2016-08-01

    Amy Eisses, Annie M. Kell, Graham Kent, Neal W. Driscoll, Robert E. Karlin, Robert L. Baskin, John N. Louie, Kenneth D. Smith, Sathish Pullammanappallil, 2011, Marine and land active-source seismic investigation of geothermal potential, tectonic structure, and earthquake hazards in Pyramid Lake, Nevada: presented at American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, San Francisco, Dec. 5-9, abstract NS14A-08.

  16. Tectonic implications of seismic activity recorded by the northern Ontario seismograph network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetmiller, R.J.; Cajka, M.G.

    1989-01-01

    The northern Ontario seismograph network, which has operated under the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program since 1982, has provided valuable data to supplement those recorded by the Canadian national networks on earthquake activity, rockburst activity, the distribution of regional seismic velocities, and the contemporary stress field in northern Ontario. The combined networks recorded the largest earthquake known in northwestern Ontario, M 3.9 near Sioux Lookout on February 11, 1984, and many smaller earthquakes in northeastern Ontario. Focal mechanism solutions of these and older events showed high horizontal stress and thrust faulting to be dominant features of the contemporary tectonics of northern Ontario. The zone of more intense earthquake activity in western Quebec appeared to extend northwestward into the Kapuskasing area of northeastern Ontario, where an area of persistent microearthquake activity had been identified by a seismograph station near Kapuskasing. Controlled explosions of the 1984 Kapuskasing Uplift seismic profile experiment recorded on the northern Ontario seismograph network showed the presence of anomalously high LG velocities in northeastern Ontario (3.65 km/s) that when properly taken into account reduced the mislocation errors of well-recorded seismic events by 50% on average

  17. Besshi-type mineral systems in the Palaeoproterozoic Bryah Rift-Basin, Capricorn Orogen, Western Australia: Implications for tectonic setting and geodynamic evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Pirajno

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution we use VMS mineral systems in the Bryah rift-basin to constrain the tectonic setting of the widespread mafic and ultramafic magmatism that characterises the rift-basin in question. Two distinct, but temporally closely associated, lithostratigraphic sequences, Narracoota and Karalundi Formations, are discussed. The Karalundi Formation is the main host of VMS mineral systems in the region. The Karalundi Formation consists of turbiditic and immature clastic sediments, which are locally intercalated with basaltic hyaloclastites, dolerites and banded jaspilites. We propose that the basaltic hyaloclastites, dolerites and clastics and jaspilites rocks, form a distinct unit of the Karalundi Formation, named Noonyereena Member. The VMS mineral systems occur near the north-east trending Jenkin Fault and comprise the giant and world-class DeGrussa and the Red Bore deposits. The nature of these deposits and their intimate association with terrigenous clastic rocks and dominantly marine mafic volcanic and subvolcanic rocks, as well as the common development of peperitic margins, are considered indicative of a Besshi-type environment, similar to that of present-day Gulf of California. Our Re-Os age data from a primary pyrite yielded a mean model age of 2012 ± 48 Ma, which coincides (within error with recent published Re-Os data (Hawke et al., 2015 and confirms the timing of the proposed geodynamic evolution. We propose a geodynamic model that attempts to explain the presence of the Narracoota and Karalundi Formations as the result of mantle plume activity, which began with early uplift of continental crust with intraplate volcanism, followed by early stages of rifting with the deposition of the Karalundi Formation (and Noonyereena Member, which led to the formation of Besshi-type VMS deposits. With on-going mantle plume activity and early stages of continental separation, an oceanic plateau was formed and is now represented by mafic

  18. Rome in its setting. Post-glacial aggradation history of the Tiber River alluvial deposits and tectonic origin of the Tiber Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Laura; Brock, Andrea L.; Macrì, Patrizia; Florindo, Fabio; Sadori, Laura; Terrenato, Nicola

    2018-01-01

    The Tiber valley is a prominent feature in the landscape of ancient Rome and an important element for understanding its urban development. However, little is known about the city’s original setting. Our research provides new data on the Holocene sedimentary history and human-environment interactions in the Forum Boarium, the location of the earliest harbor of the city. Since the Last Glacial Maximum, when the fluvial valley was incised to a depth of tens of meters below the present sea level, 14C and ceramic ages coupled with paleomagnetic analysis show the occurrence of three distinct aggradational phases until the establishment of a relatively stable alluvial plain at 6–8 m a.s.l. during the late 3rd century BCE. Moreover, we report evidence of a sudden and anomalous increase in sedimentation rate around 2600 yr BP, leading to the deposition of a 4-6m thick package of alluvial deposits in approximately one century. We discuss this datum in the light of possible tectonic activity along a morpho-structural lineament, revealed by the digital elevation model of this area, crossing the Forum Boarium and aligned with the Tiber Island. We formulate the hypothesis that fault displacement along this structural lineament may be responsible for the sudden collapse of the investigated area, which provided new space for the observed unusually large accumulation of sediments. We also posit that, as a consequence of the diversion of the Tiber course and the loss in capacity of transport by the river, this faulting activity triggered the origin of the Tiber Island. PMID:29590208

  19. Goal setting: Eating, Physical activity & Weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    No matter what your weight loss goal is, the key to reaching your goals is to make changes to your lifestyle behaviors like eating and physical activity. This involves setting realistic expectations and making a plan.

  20. The dehydration, rehydration and tectonic setting of greenstone belts in a portion of the northern Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanreenen, D. D.; Barton, J. M., Jr.; Roering, C.; Vanschalkwyk, J. C.; Smit, C. A.; Debeer, J. D.; Stettler, E. H.

    1986-01-01

    High-grade gneiss terranes and low-grade granite-greenstone terranes are well known in several Archaean domains. The geological relationship between these different crustal regions, however, is still controversial. One school of thought favors fundamental genetic differences between high-grade and low-grade terranes while others argue for a depth-controlled crustal evolution. The detailed examination of well-exposed Archaean terranes at different metamorphic grades, therefore, is not only an important source of information about the crustal levels exposed, but also is critical to the understanding of the possible tectonic and metamorphic evolution of greenstone belts with time. Three South African greenstone belts are compared.

  1. Peculiar Active-Tectonic Landscape Within the Sanctuary of Zeus at Mt. Lykaion (Peloponnese, Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, G. H.

    2008-12-01

    The Sanctuary of Zeus (Mt. Lykaion) lies in the Peloponnese within the Pindos fold and thrust belt. It is the object of investigation of the Mt. Lykaion Excavation and Survey (http://lykaionexcavation.org/). Mt. Lykaion is a thrust klippe, on the summit of which is an upper sanctuary marked by an ash altar, temenos, and column bases. Earliest objects recovered from the ash altar go back to 3000 BCE, leading Dr. David Romano (University of Pennsylvania), a principal leader of the project, to conclude that worship of divinities on the summit is ancient. Detailed structural geological mapping reveals one dimension of the "power" of the site. Crisscrossing the upper sanctuary are scree bands that mark the traces of active normal faults, which are expressions of tectonic stretching of the Aegean region. The scree bands, composed of cinder-block-sized limestone blocks, range up to 10 m in outcrop breadth, 100 m in length, and 5 m in thickness. Though discontinuous, most of the scree bands lie precisely on the traces of through-going faults, which cut and displace the sedimentary formations of the Pindos group. Some cut the thrust fault, whose elliptical trace defines the Lykaion klippe. What makes the scree bands of this active-tectonic landscape "peculiar" is that there are no cliffs from which the scree descends. Rather, the bands of scree occur along flanks of smooth, rounded hillslopes and ridges. The scree bands coincide with modest steps in the topography, ranging from tens of centimeters to several tens of meters. The specific bedrock formation where the bands are best developed is an Upper Cretaceous limestone whose average platy-bedding thickness (approximately 20 cm) matches closely the average joint spacing. The limestone has little mechanical integrity. It cannot support itself as a scarp footwall and instead collapses into a pile of scree, whose upper-surface inclination conforms to a stable angle of repose. Evidence of the contemporary nature of this

  2. The metamorphic basement of the southern Sierra de Aconquija, Eastern Sierras Pampeanas: Provenance and tectonic setting of a Neoproterozoic back-arc basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisterna, Clara Eugenia; Altenberger, Uwe; Mon, Ricardo; Günter, Christina; Gutiérrez, Antonio

    2018-03-01

    (wackes, shales, Fe-shales and minor litharenites) are characteristic for turbidity currents deposits along tectonically active region. They are also commonly associated with calcareous clays (marbles), commonly observed in the evolution of basins with slope and shelf derived carbonate turbidites. The amphibolites members are probably derived from lava-flows synchronous with the sedimentation during the basin evolution. The basin was controlled by a continental island arc possible evolving to a back-arc setting, as indicated for the mixed nature of the inferred source. The metasedimentary sequence from the Cuesta de La Chilca have petrographic, structural and strong chemical similarities, building a north-south striking belt from the north of the Sierra de Aconquija and to the south along the Sierra de Ancasti (La Majada area). The observed similarities allow to present this portion of the Eastern Sierras Pampeanas as a crustal block that records the sedimentary sequences developed along the geodynamic context of the southwestern margin of Gondwana during the Neoproterozoic and Early Palaeozoic.

  3. Provenance and fate of arsenic and other solutes in the Chaco-Pampean Plain of the Andean foreland, Argentina: From perspectives of hydrogeochemical modeling and regional tectonic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raychowdhury, Nilasree; Mukherjee, Abhijit; Bhattacharya, Prosun; Johannesson, Karen; Bundschuh, Jochen; Sifuentes, Gabriela Bejarano; Nordberg, Erika; Martin, Raúl A.; Storniolo, Angel del Rosario

    2014-10-01

    Extensive arsenic (As) enriched groundwater is known to occur in the aquifers of the Chaco-Pampean Plain of Argentina. Previous studies speculated that the As mobilization in these groundwaters was a direct result of their elevated pH and oxidative conditions. The volcanic glass layers present in the aquifer matrix were hypothesized as one of the possible sources of As to the groundwaters. Here, we examine the groundwater chemistry of the Santiago del Estero province of Chaco-Pampean Plains of Argentina, and test these hypotheses by using hydrogeochemical modeling within the framework of the regional geologic-tectonic setting. The study area is located in the active foreland of the Andean orogenic belt, which forms a continental arc setting, and is dotted with several hot springs. Rhyolitic volcanic glass fragments derived from arc volcanism are abundant within the aeolian-fluvial aquifer sediments, and are related to the paleo-igneous extrusion in the vicinity. Hydrogeochemical analyses show that the groundwater is in predominantly oxidative condition. In addition, some of the groundwaters exhibit very high Na, Cl- and SO42- concentrations. It is hypothesized in this study that the groundwater chemistry has largely evolved by dissolution of rhyolitic volcanic glass fragments contained within the aquifer sediments along with mixing with saline surface waters from, adjoining salinas, which are thought to be partially evaporated remnants of a paleo inland sea. Flow path modeling, stability diagrams, and thermodynamic analyses undertaken in this study indicate that the dominant evolutionary processes include ion exchange reactions, chemical weathering of silicate and evaporites, in monosialitization-dominated weathering. Geochemical modeling predicts that plagioclase feldspar and volcanic glass are the major solids phases that contribute metal cations and dissolved silica to the local groundwaters. Co-influxed oxyanions, with similar ionic radii and structure (e.g. Mo

  4. Recent and active tectonics of the external zone of the Northern Apennines (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccaletti, Mario; Corti, Giacomo; Martelli, Luca

    2011-08-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the recent and active tectonics of the external part of the Northern Apennines (Italy) by using morphotectonic, geological-structural, and stratigraphic analysis, compared with the current seismicity of the region. This analysis suggests that the external part of the Northern Apennines is characterised by presence of three major systems of Quaternary compressive structures corresponding to (1) the Apenninic watershed, (2) the Apennines-Po Plain margin (pede-Apenninic thrust front), and (3) the Emilia, Ferrara, and Adriatic Fold systems buried below the Po Plain. Geological data and interpreted seismic sections indicate a roughly N-S Quaternary deformation direction, with rates <2.5 mm/year. The shortening decreased since the Pliocene, when our data indicate compression in a NNW-SSE direction and rates up to 7 mm/year. The trend and kinematics of the structures affecting the Apennines-Po Plain margin and the Po Plain subsoil fit well the pattern of the current seismicity of the area, as well as recent GPS and geodetic levelling data, pointing to a current activity of these thrust systems controlled by an overall compressive stress field. Close to the Apenninic watershed, earthquake focal mechanisms indicate that shallow extension is associated to deep compression. The extensional events may be related to a secondary extensional stress field developing on the hangingwall of the thrust system affecting the Apenninic watershed; alternatively, this thrust system may have been recently deactivated and overprinted by active normal faulting. Deeper compressive events are related to the activity of both a major basement thrust that connects at surface with the pede-Apenninic thrust front and a major Moho structure.

  5. Geomorphological evidences of Quaternary tectonic activities in the Santa Cruz river valley, Patagonia, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massabie, A.; Sanguinetti, A.; Nestiero, O.

    2007-01-01

    From Argentin lake, at west on Andean hills, to Puerto Santa Cruz on Atlantic coast, Santa Cruz river cross eastward Santa Cruz province over 250 km in Patagonia at southern Argentina. Present bed of the river has a meandering outline with first order meanders of great ratio bends and second order meanders of minor ratio bends. Principal wanderings are 45 to 55 km spaced from near Estancia La Julia or Rio Bote at west to Comandante Luis Piedrabuena at east. On river's bed middle sector these great curvatures are located at Estancia Condor Cliff and Estancia Rincon Grande. Regional and partial detailed studies allow to recognize structural control on river's bed sketch and valley s geomorphology that relates first order bends with reactivated principal faults. These faults fit well with parallel system of northwest strike of Austral Basin.On geological, geomorphologic and structural evidences recognized in Santa Cruz river, quaternary tectonic activity, related to Andean movements in southern Patagonian foreland, is postulated. (author)

  6. Active tectonics of the Rif Mountains (Morocco) from geomorphic and geochronological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, Jean-François; Poujol, Antoine; Tahayt, Abdelilah; Vernant, Philippe; Condomines, Michel; Blard, Pierre-Henri; Braucher, Régis; Benedetti, Lucilla; Bourles, Didier; Leroux-Mallouf, Romain; Ferry, Matthieu; Maate, Soufian

    2014-05-01

    We present results of a geomorphological and morphotectonic analysis of the Rif Mountains (Morocco). We show that the present day kinematics of the Rif is characterized by active deformation along normal and left-lateral strike-slip faults in the North-East (Trougout, Rouadi, Boujibar and Nekor faults), reverse fault in the South (the South Rif Front) and inherited fold structures in the West. Digital Elevation Models of offset drainage features (streams, fluvial terraces) allow determining horizontal cumulative displacements of ~25-35m along the Trougout fault and ~40m along the Nekor fault. 14C dating of tectonic markers yields vertical and horizontal slip rates of ~2.8 mm/yr and ~2.3 mm/yr respectively, along the Trougout fault. For the first time, cosmogenic 3He method is used on volcanic rocks to date the successive exposure of the fault plane. Along the Trougout fault, this yields recurrence time between 3,1 and 4,1 ka. The present-day localized transtension seen in the northeastern Rif morphology (Ras Tarf) is coeval with uplifted marine terraces near the Al Hoceima Bay. U/Th dating of shells yields an average uplift rate of ~0.2 mm/yr during the past 500 Ka. These data show that active transtension in the northeastern Rif is also associated with uplift. Comparison with cosmogenic 10Be/3He dating of perched fluvial surface located above these marine terraces is in progress and may allow us to confirm or not this uplift rate. In the western Rif, geomorphic markers allow us to suggest that active deformation is accommodated along blind thrust and NNW-SSE inherited folds. These new morphotectonic constraints are consistent with the GPS measurements showing southwestward overall motion of most of the Rif belt with respect to stable Africa and suggest a continuum of the deformation from the Pliocene.

  7. Variations in Tectonic Activities of the Central and Southwestern Foothills, Taiwan, Inferred from River Hack Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Chieh Chen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A longitudinal profile of a river under static equilibrium shows no degradation or aggradation and can be ideally described as a straight line on a semi-logarithmic graph. This type of profile is called a “Hack profile”. If a river runs across uprising active structure systems, its Hack profile becomes convex. Accumulated tectonic strain varies positively with the intensity of the upwarping in Hack-profile convexity. In this paper, we compare curvature changes in Hack profiles of a series of rivers running through faults in the central and southwestern Foothills of Taiwan. Longitudinal profiles of these rivers were derived from two versions of topographic maps (1904 and 1985 and recent DTM data (2000. Prior to comparisons, we calibrated the 1904 topographic map, named “Taiwan Bautu”, by “offsetting” horizontal coordinates north and westward approximately 440 m and then “linear transforming” the elevation values. The Tungtzchiau fault of the central Foothills has remained inactive since 1935. Here relatively high uplift activity near the Wu River is indicated by significantly convex Hack profiles. This strain accumulation can be attributed to a lack of small magnitude earthquakes along the fault over the past 70 years. In the southwestern Foothills, relatively high uplift activity of similar intensity to the central Foothills is indicted near the Neocho River. Significant profiles with concave segments below the ideal graded profiles, at the lower reaches of rivers where continuous small magnitude strain release events have occurred, can only be found along the Sandieh, Neocho and Bazhang rivers in the southwestern Foothills. All these findings indicate that fault systems in the central Foothills tend to be locked and these faults could yield large earthquakes similar to the Chi-Chi event.

  8. Stratigraphy, geochronology and regional tectonic setting of the Late Cretaceous (ca. 82-70 Ma) Cabullona basin, Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-León, Carlos M.; Solari, Luigi A.; Madhavaraju, Jayagopal

    2017-12-01

    The Cabullona basin in northeastern Sonora is a continental depocenter whose origin is related to the adjacent Sierra Anibacachi uplift that bounds its tectonic eastern flank. Its exposed, mostly fluvial and lacustrine sedimentary fill, the Cabullona Group, was deposited between 81.9 ± 0.7 and 69.8 ± 0.7 Ma and its outcrops extends for 70 km from north to south. The oldest measured stratigraphic column of the Cabullona Group is the Los Atolillos column of the southern part of the basin, but its base is not exposed. A basal conglomerate in the younger El Malacate (ca. 80 Ma), Cuauhtémoc (ca. 75 Ma) and San Joaquín (ca. 70 Ma) columns onlaps deformed basement rocks. The type section in which the Cabullona Group was previously named is herein referred as the Naco section and is dated ∼73-72 Ma. The younger strata of the Cabullona Group correspond to the fluvial San Joaquín column that onlaps the eastern tectonic boundary of the basin and to the lacustrine Esqueda column. These columns are dated at ca. 70 Ma and may represent the late evolution of the Cabullona basin. Sandstone petrography and detrital zircon geochronology are used to infer provenance of sediments of the Cabullona Group. Sandstones consist of lithic arkose to feldespathic litharenite, indicating provenance from dissected to transitional volcanic arc, but samples of the El Malacate column classify as arkose and lithic arkose with possible provenance from basement uplift of Sierra Los Ajos; litharenite from the Esqueda column indicate arc provenance. Detrital zircons yielded mostly Proterozoic and Mesozoic ages with age peaks at ca. 1568, 167, 100, 80 and 73 Ma indicating possible provenance from the Precambrian basement rocks and the Jurassic continental magmatic arc that underlie the region, the Alisitos arc and La Posta plutons in Baja California, and from the Laramide magmatic arc of Sonora. The Cabullona basin developed nearly contemporaneous to the early, eastwards migrating Laramide

  9. Tectonic Geomorphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, William B.

    1984-01-01

    Summarizes representative quantitative tectonic-geomorphology studies made during the last century, focusing on fault-bounded mountain-front escarpments, marine terraces, and alluvial geomorphic surfaces (considering stream terraces, piedmont fault scarps, and soils chronosequences). Also suggests where tectonic-geomorphology courses may best fit…

  10. Textile Tectonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mossé, Aurélie

    2008-01-01

    of the discipline. Inspiring time gathering some of the most exciting architects of the moment, Lars Spuybroeck, Mark Burry, Evan Douglis, Michael Hensel and Cecil Balmond were invited to discuss their understanding of tectonics. Full text available at http://textilefutures.co.uk/exchange/bin/view/TextileFutures/TextileTectonics...

  11. Architecture and evolution of an Early Permian carbonate complex on a tectonically active island in east-central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Calvin H.; Magginetti, Robert T.; Stone, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The newly named Upland Valley Limestone represents a carbonate complex that developed on and adjacent to a tectonically active island in east-central California during a brief interval of Early Permian (late Artinskian) time. This lithologically unique, relatively thin limestone unit lies within a thick sequence of predominantly siliciclastic rocks and is characterized by its high concentration of crinoidal debris, pronounced lateral changes in thickness and lithofacies, and a largely endemic fusulinid fauna. Most outcrops represent a carbonate platform and debris derived from it and shed downslope, but another group of outcrops represents one or possibly more isolated carbonate buildups that developed offshore from the platform. Tectonic activity in the area occurred before, probably during, and after deposition of this short-lived carbonate complex.

  12. Active tectonics in Central Italy: Constraint from surface wave tomography and source moment tensor inversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chimera, G.; Aoudia, A.; Panza, G.F.; Sarao, A.

    2002-06-01

    We make a multiscale investigation of the lithosphere-asthenosphere structure and of the active tectonics along a stripe from the Tyrrhenian to the Adriatic coast, with emphasis on the Umbria-Marche area, by means of surface-wave tomography and inversion experiments for structure and seismic moment tensor retrieval. The data include: a large number of new local and regional group velocity measurements sampling the Umbria-Marche Apennines and the Adria margin respectively; new and published phase velocity measurements sampling Italy and surroundings; deep seismic soundings which, crossing the whole Peninsula from the Tyrrhenian to the Adriatic coasts, go through the Umbria-Marche area. The local group velocity maps cover the area reactivated by the 1997-1998 Umbria-Marche earthquake sequence. These maps suggest an intimate relation between the lateral variations and distribution of the active fault systems and related sedimentary basins. Such relation is confirmed by the non-linear inversion of the local dispersion curves. To image the structure of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system from the Tyrrhenian to the Adriatic coast, we fix the upper crust parameters consistently with our Umbria-Marche models and with pertinent deep seismic sounding data and invert the regional long period dispersion measurements. At a local scale, in the Umbria-Marche area, the retrieved models for the upper crust reveal the importance of the inherited compressional tectonics on the ongoing extensional deformation and related seismic activity. The lateral and in-depth structural changes in the upper crust are likely controlling fault segmentation and seismogenesis. Source inversion studies of the large crustal events of the 1997 earthquake sequence show the dominance of normal faulting mechanisms, whereas selected aftershocks between the fault segments reveal that the prevailing deformation at the step-over is of strike-slip faulting type and may control the lateral fault extent. At the

  13. GEODYNAMIC ACTIVITY OF MODERN STRUCTURES AND TECTONIC STRESS FIELDS IN NORTHEAST ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Imaeva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the analysis of changes in the stress-strain state of the crust at the boundary of the Eurasian and North American tectonic plates, we develop a dynamic model of the main seismogenerating structures inNortheast Asia. We have established a regularity in changes of geodynamic regimes within the interplate boundary between the Kolyma-Chukotka crustal plate and the Eurasian, North American and Pacific tectonic plates: spreading in the Gakkel Ridge area; rifting in the Laptev Sea shelf; a mixture of tectonic stress types in the Kharaulakh segment; transpression in the Chersky seismotectonic zone, in the segment from the Komandor to the Aleutian Islands, and in the Koryak segment; and crustal stretching in the Chukotka segment.

  14. Spectral damping scaling factors for shallow crustal earthquakes in active tectonic regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaeian, Sanaz; Bozorgnia, Yousef; Idriss, I.M.; Campbell, Kenneth; Abrahamson, Norman; Silva, Walter

    2012-01-01

    Ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) for elastic response spectra, including the Next Generation Attenuation (NGA) models, are typically developed at a 5% viscous damping ratio. In reality, however, structural and non-structural systems can have damping ratios other than 5%, depending on various factors such as structural types, construction materials, level of ground motion excitations, among others. This report provides the findings of a comprehensive study to develop a new model for a Damping Scaling Factor (DSF) that can be used to adjust the 5% damped spectral ordinates predicted by a GMPE to spectral ordinates with damping ratios between 0.5 to 30%. Using the updated, 2011 version of the NGA database of ground motions recorded in worldwide shallow crustal earthquakes in active tectonic regions (i.e., the NGA-West2 database), dependencies of the DSF on variables including damping ratio, spectral period, moment magnitude, source-to-site distance, duration, and local site conditions are examined. The strong influence of duration is captured by inclusion of both magnitude and distance in the DSF model. Site conditions are found to have less significant influence on DSF and are not included in the model. The proposed model for DSF provides functional forms for the median value and the logarithmic standard deviation of DSF. This model is heteroscedastic, where the variance is a function of the damping ratio. Damping Scaling Factor models are developed for the “average” horizontal ground motion components, i.e., RotD50 and GMRotI50, as well as the vertical component of ground motion.

  15. Perceived climate in physical activity settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Diane L; Morrow, Ronald G; Collins, Karen E; Lucey, Allison B; Schultz, Allison M

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on the perceived climate for LGBT youth and other minority groups in physical activity settings. A large sample of undergraduates and a selected sample including student teachers/interns and a campus Pride group completed a school climate survey and rated the climate in three physical activity settings (physical education, organized sport, exercise). Overall, school climate survey results paralleled the results with national samples revealing high levels of homophobic remarks and low levels of intervention. Physical activity climate ratings were mid-range, but multivariate analysis of variation test (MANOVA) revealed clear differences with all settings rated more inclusive for racial/ethnic minorities and most exclusive for gays/lesbians and people with disabilities. The results are in line with national surveys and research suggesting sexual orientation and physical characteristics are often the basis for harassment and exclusion in sport and physical activity. The current results also indicate that future physical activity professionals recognize exclusion, suggesting they could benefit from programs that move beyond awareness to skills and strategies for creating more inclusive programs.

  16. Petrography and geochemistry characteristics of the lower Cretaceous Muling Formation from the Laoheishan Basin, Northeast China: implications for provenance and tectonic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yu; Liu, Zhaojun; Meng, Qingtao; Wang, Yimeng; Zheng, Guodong; Xu, Yinbo

    2017-06-01

    The petrography, mineralogy and geochemistry of sedimentary rocks from the lower Cretaceous Muling Formation (K1ml) in the Laoheishan basin, northeast (NE) China are studied to determine the weathering intensity, provenance and tectonic setting of the source region. Petrographic data indicate the average quartz-feldspar-lithic fragments (QFL) of the sandstone is Q = 63 %, F = 22 %, and L = 15 %. Lithic fragments mainly contain volcanic clasts that derived from surrounding basement. X-ray diffraction (XRD) data reveal abundant clay and detrital minerals (e.g. quartz), as well as minor calcite in the fine-grained sediments. The Hf contents and element concentration ratios such as Al2O3/TiO2, Co/Th, La/Sc, and La/Th are comparable to sediments derived from felsic and intermediate igneous rocks. The strong genetic relationship with the igneous rocks from the northwest and northeast areas provides evidence that the sediments of the Muling Formation (K1ml) in the Laoheishan basin have been derived from this area. The chemical index of alteration (CIA) and index of chemical variability (ICV) reveal an intensive weathering in the source region of the sediments. The multidimensional tectonic discrimination diagrams indicate that the source rocks of K1ml are mainly derived from the collision system. However, they may also comprise sediments derived from the continental rift system. The results are consistent with the geology of the study area.

  17. A detection method of subrecent to recent tectonic activity in the anticlinal system of the northern Negev, Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zilberman, E.; Wachs, D.

    1988-01-01

    Geomorphological and geophysical methods combined with borehole information were employed to search for possible subrecent small-scale vertical movement along the anticlinal fold belt of the central Negev, Israel. Such tectonic deformation might indicate displacement on the buried reverse faults underneath the anticlines. Variations in the thickness of the alluvial fill in the study area, which are in accordance with the fold structures, could be an indication of recent folding activity along the anticlinal system. In order to detect these thickness variations in the alluvial fill, seismic refraction and electrical resistivity measurements were carries out along the valley of Nahal Besor, which crosses the anticlinal belt. The thickness variations of the alluvial fill along the valley were not found to indicate any significant tectonic movement along the anticlines during the Pleistocene. The thickest alluvium was found overlying a karst bedrock, hence karst relief is suggested to be responsible for these variations

  18. First results of an INGV project for the integrated analysis of the active tectonics in SW Sicily

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattia, Mario; Giovanni, Barreca; Carla, Bottari; Valentina, Bruno; Pierfrancesco, Burrato; Fabrizio, Cultrera; Luigi, Dardanelli; Sofia, De Gregorio; Luigi, Ferranti; Laura, Guzzetta; Paolo, Madonia; Carmelo, Monaco; Claudia, Pipitone; Fabrizio, Pepe; Francesco, Guglielmino

    2017-04-01

    We present the first results of a project financed by the "Struttura Terremoti" of INGV to study the potential sources of earthquakes in south-western Sicily, including the area hit by the 1968 Belice earthquake sequence and the archaeological area of Selinunte, affected by two earthquakes in historical times. We adopt in this project a multi-disciplinary approach, with the goal of addressing the following points: 1) define the active tectonic framework of south-western Sicily, 2) investigate and characterize on-shore and off-shore faults, potential sources of damaging earthquakes, and 3) evaluate the current deformation rates. To do this, we collected a new set of geodetic (GPS and InSAR) and geochemical data, and performed geological and geomorphological surveys on-land in the area between Mazara, Castelvetrano and Selinunte. We also acquired high-resolution Sparker seismic profiles off-shore Sciacca. Geological and geomorphological surveys have been focused around the 10 km long Castelvetrano-Campobello di Mazara (CCM) lineament, where previous research (Barreca et al., 2014) showed geodetic and geoarchaeological evidence of recent deformation. In particular, a detailed survey of Quaternary coastal forms and deposits was performed, in order to reconstruct the sequence of uplifted paleoshorelines and to search for differential motions between adjacent coastal sectors spanning the CCM. Preliminary observations indicate that the footwall of the CCM hosts a larger number, and a more elevated position of paleo-shorelines suggestive of syntectonic uplift . A grid of about 200 km of high-resolution reflection seismic profiles was recorded along the continental shelf in the offshore of Sciacca. Profiles are mostly oriented in the WNW-ESE direction, with tie lines acquired in ENE-WSW direction. The acoustic source used during seismic prospecting was a 1 kJ Sparker power supply with a multi-tips Sparker array. Preliminary seismic data interpretation indicates that a

  19. Provenance and tectonic setting of siliciclastic rocks associated with the Neoproterozoic Dahongliutan BIF: Implications for the Precambrian crustal evolution of the Western Kunlun orogenic belt, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jun; Wang, He; Wang, Min

    2017-10-01

    The Late Neoproterozoic Dahongliutan BIF is associated with siliciclastic rocks in the Tianshuihai terrane of the Western Kunlun orogenic belt (WKO), NW China. The sedimentary rocks have various weathering indices (e.g., CIA = 57-87, PIA = 61-96 and Th/U = 4.85-12.45), indicative of varying degrees of weathering in the source area. The rocks have trace element ratios, such as Th/Sc = 0.60-1.21 and Co/Th = 0.29-1.67, and light rare earth element (LREE) enriched chondrite-normalized REE patterns, suggesting that they were mainly sourced from intermediate and felsic rocks. Available U-Pb ages of detrital zircon from these rocks reveal that the detrital sources may have been igneous and metamorphic rocks from the WKO and the Tarim Block. Our study suggests that the Dahongliutan BIF and hosting siliciclastic rocks may have deposited in a setting transitional from a passive to active continental margin, probably related to the Late Neoproterozoic-Early Cambrian seafloor spreading and subduction of the Proto-Tethys Ocean. U-Pb dating of 163 detrital zircons defines five major age populations at 2561-2329 Ma, 2076-1644 Ma, 1164-899 Ma, 869-722 Ma and 696-593 Ma. These age groups broadly correspond to the major stages of supercontinent assembly and breakup events widely accepted for Columbia, Rodinia and Gondwana. Some zircons have TDM2 model ages of 3.9-1.8 Ga and negative εHf(t) values, suggesting that the Archean to Paleoproterozoic (as old as Eoarchean) crustal materials were episodically reworked and incorporated into the late magmatic process in the WKO. Some Neoproterozoic zircons have TDM2 model ages of 1.47-1.07 Ga and 1.81-1.53 Ga and positive εHf(t) values, indicating juvenile crustal growth during the Mesoproterozoic. Our new results, combined with published data, imply that both the Tianshuihai terrane in the WKO and the Tarim Block share the same Precambrian tectonic evolution history.

  20. Digital Tectonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Karl; Borup, Ruben; Søndergaard, Asbjørn

    2014-01-01

    Digital Tectonics treats the architectonical possibilities in digital generation of form and production. The publication is the first volume of a series, in which aspects of the strategic focus areas of the Aarhus School of Architecture will be disseminated.......Digital Tectonics treats the architectonical possibilities in digital generation of form and production. The publication is the first volume of a series, in which aspects of the strategic focus areas of the Aarhus School of Architecture will be disseminated....

  1. Sedimentary structure and tectonic setting of the abyssal basins adjoining the southeast part of the Ontong Java Plateau, western Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, S.; Masato, N.; Miura, S.; Suetsugu, D.

    2017-12-01

    Ontong Java Plateau(OJP) in the western Pacific Ocean is one of the largest oceanic plateau in the world. Radioactive ages of drilling samples indicate that the most part of the OJP was emplaced about 122 Ma (Mahoney et al., 1993). Taylor (2006) proposed that the OJP formed as a single large volcanic province together with the Manihiki and Hikurangi plateaus. OJP is surrounding by East Mariana, Pigafetta, Nauru, Ellice, Stewart, and Lyra basins. The East Mariana and Pigafetta basins were formed at the Pacific-Izanagi ridge and the Nauru basin was formed at Pacific-Phoenix ridges (Nakanishi et al., 1992). The tectonic history of the Ellice, Stewart, and Lyra basins is still unknown because of lack of magnetic anomaly lineations. Tectonic setting during the OJP formation is thus a matter of controversy. To expose the tectonic setting of the Ellice, Stewart, and Lyra basins, we conducted the Multi-Channel Seismic (MCS) survey in the basins during the research cruise by R/V Mirai of JAMSTEC in 2014. We present our preliminary results of the MCS survey in the Stewart basin(SB) and Ellice Basin(EB). After the regular data processing, we compared the seismic facies of MCS profile with DSDP Site 288 and ODP Site 1184 to assign ages to seismic reflectors. Our processing exposed several remarkable structures in the basins. The graben structures deformed only the igneous basement in the northwestern and northeastern and southwestern margins of the SB. This suggests the graben structures were formed before sedimentary layer deposited. Taylor (2006) proposed that the basin was formed by the NW-SE rifting during the separation of OJP and Manihiki Plateau around 120 Ma. Neal (1997) proposed that the NE-SW rifting formed the basin around 80 Ma. Our study supports the rifting model proposed by Neal et al. (1997) because the displacement of graben in northeastern and southwestern margins of the SB is larger than that in northwestern of the SB. We found several igneous diapirs in the

  2. The April 2007 earthquake swarm near Lake Trichonis and implications for active tectonics in western Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiratzi, A.; Sokos, E.; Ganas, A.; Tselentis, A.; Benetatos, C.; Roumelioti, Z.; Serpetsidaki, A.; Andriopoulos, G.; Galanis, O.; Petrou, P.

    2008-06-01

    We investigate the properties of the April 2007 earthquake swarm (Mw 5.2) which occurred at the vicinity of Lake Trichonis (western Greece). First we relocated the earthquakes, using P- and S-wave arrivals to the stations of the Hellenic Unified Seismic Network (HUSN), and then we applied moment tensor inversion to regional broad-band waveforms to obtain the focal mechanisms of the strongest events of the 2007 swarm. The relocated epicentres, cluster along the eastern banks of the lake, and follow a distinct NNW-ESE trend. The previous strong sequence close to Lake Trichonis occurred in June-December 1975. We applied teleseismic body waveform inversion, to obtain the focal mechanism solution of the strongest earthquake of this sequence, i.e. the 31 December 1975 (Mw 6.0) event. Our results indicate that: a) the 31 December 1975 Mw 6.0 event was produced by a NW-SE normal fault, dipping to the NE, with considerable sinistral strike-slip component; we relocated its epicentre: i) using phase data reported to ISC and its coordinates are 38.486°N, 21.661°E; ii) using the available macroseismic data, and the coordinates of the macroseismic epicentre are 38.49°N, 21.63°E, close to the strongly affected village of Kato Makrinou; b) the earthquakes of the 2007 swarm indicate a NNW-SSE strike for the activated main structure, parallel to the eastern banks of Lake Trichonis, dipping to the NE and characterized by mainly normal faulting, occasionally combined with sinistral strike-slip component. The 2007 earthquake swarm did not rupture the well documented E-W striking Trichonis normal fault that bounds the southern flank of the lake, but on the contrary it is due to rupture of a NW-SE normal fault that strikes at a ˜ 45° angle to the Trichonis fault. The left-lateral component of faulting is mapped for the first time to the north of the Gulf of Patras which was previously regarded as the boundary for strike-slip motions in western Greece. This result signifies the

  3. Non-tectonic exposure Rates along Bedrock Fault Scarps in an active Mountain Belt of the central Apennines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastelic, Vanja; Burrato, Pierfrancesco; Carafa, Michele M. C.; Basili, Roberto

    2017-04-01

    The central Apennines (Italy) are a mountain chain affected by post-collisional active extension along NW-SE striking normal faults and well-documented regional-scale uplift. Moderate to strong earthquakes along the seismogenically active extensional faults are frequent in this area, thus a good knowledge on the characteristics of the hosting faults is necessary for realistic seismic hazard models. The studied bedrock fault surfaces are generally located at various heights on mountain fronts above the local base level of glacio-fluvial valleys and intermountain fluvio-lacustrine basins and are laterally confined to the extent of related mountain fronts. In order to investigate the exposure of the bedrock fault scarps from under their slope-deposit cover, a process that has often been exclusively attributed to co-seismic earthquake slip and used as proxy for tectonic slip rates and earthquake recurrence estimations, we have set up a measurement experiment along various such structures. In this experiment we measure the relative position of chosen markers on the bedrock surface and the material found directly at the contact with its hanging wall. We present the results of monitoring the contact between the exposed fault surfaces and slope deposits at 23 measurement points on 12 different faults over 3.4 year-long observation period. We detected either downward or upward movements of the slope deposit with respect to the fault surface between consecutive measurements. During the entire observation period all points, except one, registered a net downward movement in the 2.9 - 25.6 mm/yr range, resulting in the progressive exposure of the fault surface. During the monitoring period no major earthquakes occurred in the region, demonstrating the measured exposure process is disconnected from seismic activity. We do however observe a positive correlation between the higher exposure in respect to higher average temperatures. Our results indicate that the fault surface

  4. Geochemistry, geochronology, and tectonic setting of Early Cretaceous volcanic rocks in the northern segment of the Tan-Lu Fault region, northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Yi-Yun; Zhang, Jin-Jiang; Liu, Kai; Ge, Mao-Hui; Wang, Meng; Wang, Jia-Min

    2017-08-01

    We present new geochemical and geochronological data for volcanic and related rocks in the regions of the Jia-Yi and Dun-Mi faults, in order to constrain the late Mesozoic tectonic evolution of the northern segment of the Tan-Lu Fault. Zircon U-Pb dating shows that rhyolite and intermediate-mafic rocks along the southern part of the Jia-Yi Fault formed at 124 and 113 Ma, respectively, whereas the volcanic rocks along the northern parts of the Jia-Yi and Dun-Mi faults formed at 100 Ma. The rhyolite has an A-type granitoid affinity, with high alkalis, low MgO, Ti, and P contents, high rare earth element (REE) contents and Ga/Al ratios, enrichments in large-ion lithophile (LILEs; e.g., Rb, Th, and U) and high-field-strength element (HFSEs; e.g., Nb, Ta, Zr, and Y), and marked negative Eu anomalies. These features indicate that the rhyolites were derived from partial melting of crustal material in an extensional environment. The basaltic rocks are enriched in light REEs and LILEs (e.g., Rb, K, Th, and U), and depleted in heavy REEs, HFSEs (e.g., Nb, Ta, Ti, and P), and Sr. These geochemical characteristics indicate that these rocks are calc-alkaline basalts that formed in an intraplate extensional tectonic setting. The dacite is a medium- to high-K, calc-alkaline, I-type granite that was derived from a mixed source involving both crustal and mantle components in a magmatic arc. Therefore, the volcanic rocks along the Jia-Yi and Dun-Mi faults were formed in an extensional regime at 124-100 Ma (Early Cretaceous), and these faults were extensional strike-slip faults at this time.

  5. Permian A-type rhyolites of the Muráň Nappe, Inner Western Carpathians, Slovakia: in-situ zircon U-Pb SIMS ages and tectonic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondrejka, Martin; Li, Xian-Hua; Vojtko, Rastislav; Putis, Marian; Uher, Pavel; Sobocký, Tomas

    2018-04-01

    Three representative A-type rhyolitic rock samples from the Muráň Nappe of the inferred Silicic Unit of the Inner Western Carpathians (Slovakia) were dated using the high-precision SIMS U-Pb isotope technique on zircons. The geochronological data presented in this paper is the first in-situ isotopic dating of these volcanic rocks. Oscillatory zoned zircon crystals mostly revealed concordant Permian (Guadalupian) ages: 266.6 ± 2.4 Ma in Tisovec-Rejkovo (TIS-1), 263.3 ± 1.9 Ma in Telgárt-Gregová Hill (TEL-1) and 269.5 ± 1.8 Ma in Veľká Stožka-Dudlavka (SD-2) rhyolites. The results indicate that the formation of A-type rhyolites and their plutonic equivalents are connected to magmatic activity during the Permian extensional tectonics and most likely related to the Pangea supercontinent break-up.

  6. A Paleogeographic and Depositional Model for the Neogene Fluvial Succession, Pishin Belt, Northwest Pakistan: Effect of Post Collisional Tectonics on Sedimentation in a Peripheral Foreland Setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasi, Aimal Khan; Kassi, Akhtar Muhammad; Umar, Muhammad

    2018-01-01

    . During the Early Miocene, subaerial sedimentation started after the final closure of the Katawaz Remnant Ocean. Based on detailed field data, twelve facies were recognized in Neogene successions exposed in the Pishin Belt. These facies were further organized into four facies associations i.e. channels......‐story sandstone and/or conglomerate channels, lateral accretion surfaces (point bars) and alluvial fans. Neogene sedimentation in the Pishin Belt was mainly controlled by active tectonism and thrusting in response to the oblique collision of the Indian Plate with the Afghan Block of the Eurasian Plate along......, crevasse splay, natural levee and floodplain facies associations. Facies associations and variations provided ample evidence to recognize a number of fluvial architectural components in the succession e.g., low‐sinuosity sandy braided river, mixed‐load meandering, high‐sinuosity meandering channels, single...

  7. Dinosaur tectonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graversen, Ole; Milàn, Jesper; B. Loope, David

    2007-01-01

    A dinosaur trackway in the Middle Jurassic eolian Entrada Sandstone of southern Utah, USA, exposes three undertracks that we have modeled as isolated tectonic regimes showing the development of fold-thrust ramp systems induced by the dinosaur's feet. The faulted and folded sequence is comparable...... to crustal scale tectonics associated with plate tectonics and foreland fold-thrust belts. A structural analysis of the dinosaur tracks shows the timing and direction of the forces exercised on the substrate by the animal's foot during the stride. Based on the structural analysis, we establish a scenario...... the back. As the body accelerated, the foot was forced backward. The rotated disc was forced backward along a detachment fault that was bounded by lateral ramps. The interramp segment matches the width of the dinosaur's foot which created an imbricate fan thrust system that extended to the far end...

  8. Lesser Himalayan sequences in Eastern Himalaya and their deformation: Implications for Paleoproterozoic tectonic activity along the northern margin of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Saha

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Substantial part of the northern margin of Indian plate is subducted beneath the Eurasian plate during the Caenozoic Himalayan orogeny, obscuring older tectonic events in the Lesser Himalaya known to host Proterozoic sedimentary successions and granitic bodies. Tectonostratigraphic units of the Proterozoic Lesser Himalayan sequence (LHS of Eastern Himalaya, namely the Daling Group in Sikkim and the Bomdila Group in Arunachal Pradesh, provide clues to the nature and extent of Proterozoic passive margin sedimentation, their involvement in pre-Himalayan orogeny and implications for supercontinent reconstruction. The Daling Group, consisting of flaggy quartzite, meta-greywacke and metapelite with minor mafic dyke and sill, and the overlying Buxa Formation with stromatolitic carbonate-quartzite-slate, represent shallow marine, passive margin platformal association. Similar lithostratigraphy and broad depositional framework, and available geochronological data from intrusive granites in Eastern Himalaya indicate strikewise continuity of a shallow marine Paleoproterozoic platformal sequence up to Arunachal Pradesh through Bhutan. Multiple fold sets and tectonic foliations in LHS formed during partial or complete closure of the sea/ocean along the northern margin of Paleoproterozoic India. Such deformation fabrics are absent in the upper Palaeozoic–Mesozoic Gondwana formations in the Lesser Himalaya of Darjeeling-Sikkim indicating influence of older orogeny. Kinematic analysis based on microstructure, and garnet composition suggest Paleoproterozoic deformation and metamorphism of LHS to be distinct from those associated with the foreland propagating thrust systems of the Caenozoic Himalayan collisional belt. Two possibilities are argued here: (1 the low greenschist facies domain in the LHS enveloped the amphibolite to granulite facies domains, which were later tectonically severed; (2 the older deformation and metamorphism relate to a Pacific type

  9. Plate tectonics

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chaubey, A.K.

    's continental drift theory was later disproved, it was one of the first times that the idea of crustal movement had been introduced to the scientific community; and it has laid the groundwork for the development of modern plate tectonics. In the early... of the structure of the atom was to physical sciences and the theory of evolution was to the life sciences. Tectonics is the study of the forces within the Earth that give rise to continents, ocean basins, mountain ranges, earthquake belts and other large-scale...

  10. Teaching Plate Tectonic Concepts using GeoMapApp Learning Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwillie, A. M.; Kluge, S.

    2012-12-01

    GeoMapApp Learning Activities ( http://serc.carleton.edu/geomapapp/collection.html ) can help educators to expose undergraduate students to a range of earth science concepts using high-quality data sets in an easy-to-use map-based interface called GeoMapApp. GeoMapApp Learning Activities require students to interact with and analyse research-quality geoscience data as a means to explore and enhance their understanding of underlying content and concepts. Each activity is freely available through the SERC-Carleton web site and offers step-by-step student instructions and answer sheets. Also provided are annotated educator versions of the worksheets that include teaching tips, additional content and suggestions for further work. The activities can be used "off-the-shelf". Or, since the educator may require flexibility to tailor the activities, the documents are provided in Word format for easy modification. Examples of activities include one on the concept of seafloor spreading that requires students to analyse global seafloor crustal age data to calculate spreading rates in different ocean basins. Another activity has students explore hot spots using radiometric age dating of rocks along the Hawaiian-Emperor seamount chain. A third focusses upon the interactive use of contours and profiles to help students visualise 3-D topography on 2-D computer screens. A fourth activity provides a study of mass wasting as revealed through geomorphological evidence. The step-by-step instructions and guided inquiry approach reduce the need for teacher intervention whilst boosting the time that students can spend on productive exploration and learning. The activities can be used, for example, in a classroom lab with the educator present and as self-paced assignments in an out-of-class setting. GeoMapApp Learning Activities are funded through the NSF GeoEd program and are aimed at students in the introductory undergraduate, community college and high school levels. The activities are

  11. Active tectonics and drainage evolution in the Tunisian Atlas driven by interaction between crustal shortening and slab pull

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camafort, Miquel; Booth-Rea, Guillermo; Pérez-Peña, Jose Vicente; Melki, Fetheddine; Gracia, Eulalia; Azañón, Jose Miguel; Ranero, César R.

    2017-04-01

    Active tectonics in North Africa is fundamentally driven by NW-SE directed slow convergence between the Nubia and Eurasia plates, leading to a region of thrust and strike-slip faulting. In this paper we analyze the morphometric characteristics of the little-studied northern Tunisia sector. The study aimed at identifying previously unknown active tectonic structures, and to further understand the mechanisms that drive the drainage evolution in this region of slow convergence. The interpretation of morphometric data was supported with a field campaign of a selection of structures. The analysis indicates that recent fluvial captures have been the main factor rejuvenating drainage catchments. The Medjerda River, which is the main catchment in northern Tunisia, has increased its drainage area during the Quaternary by capturing adjacent axial valleys to the north and south of its drainage divide. These captures are probably driven by gradual uplift of adjacent axial valleys by reverse/oblique faults or associated folds like El Alia-Teboursouk and Dkhila faults. Our fieldwork found that these faults cut Holocene colluvial fans containing seismites like clastic dikes and sand volcanoes, indicating recent seismogenic faulting. The growth and stabilization of the axial Medjerda River against the natural tendency of transverse drainages might be caused by a combination of dynamic topography and transpressive tectonics. The orientation of the large axial Medjerda drainage that runs from eastern Algeria towards northeastern Tunisia into the Gulf of Tunis, might be the associated to negative buoyancy caused by the underlying Nubia slab at its mouth, together with uplift of the Medjerda headwaters along the South Atlassic dextral transfer zone.

  12. Glacier ice mass fluctuations and fault instability in tectonically active Southern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauber, Jeanne M.; Molnia, Bruce F.

    2004-07-01

    Across the plate boundary zone in south central Alaska, tectonic strain rates are high in a region that includes large glaciers undergoing wastage (glacier retreat and thinning) and surges. For the coastal region between the Bering and Malaspina Glaciers, the average ice mass thickness changes between 1995 and 2000 range from 1 to 5 m/year. These ice changes caused solid Earth displacements in our study region with predicted values of -10 to 50 mm in the vertical and predicted horizontal displacements of 0-10 mm at variable orientations. Relative to stable North America, observed horizontal rates of tectonic deformation range from 10 to 40 mm/year to the north-northwest and the predicted tectonic uplift rates range from approximately 0 mm/year near the Gulf of Alaska coast to 12 mm/year further inland. The ice mass changes between 1995 and 2000 resulted in discernible changes in the Global Positioning System (GPS) measured station positions of one site (ISLE) located adjacent to the Bagley Ice Valley and at one site, DON, located south of the Bering Glacier terminus. In addition to modifying the surface displacements rates, we evaluated the influence ice changes during the Bering glacier surge cycle had on the background seismic rate. We found an increase in the number of earthquakes ( ML≥2.5) and seismic rate associated with ice thinning and a decrease in the number of earthquakes and seismic rate associated with ice thickening. These results support the hypothesis that ice mass changes can modulate the background seismic rate. During the last century, wastage of the coastal glaciers in the Icy Bay and Malaspina region indicates thinning of hundreds of meters and in areas of major retreat, maximum losses of ice thickness approaching 1 km. Between the 1899 Yakataga and Yakutat earthquakes ( Mw=8.1, 8.1) and prior to the 1979 St. Elias earthquake ( Ms=7.2), the plate interface below Icy Bay was locked and tectonic strain accumulated. We used estimated ice mass

  13. Everyday Tectonics?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beim, Anne; Hvejsel, Marie Frier

    2016-01-01

    Frascari and Kenneth Frampton (Harris & Berke 1997, Read 2000, Frascari 1984, Frampton 1995kilder). Whereas the focus upon everyday architecture seems to have lost its momentum too quickly, tectonic theory in architecture has been steadily growing as a field of research in architecture, especially related...

  14. Numerical modeling of tectonic stress field and fault activity in North China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of a 3-dimension visco-elastic finite element model of lithosphere in North China, we numerically simulate the recent mutative figures of tectonic stress field. Annual change characteristics of stress field are; 1 Maximum principal tensile stress is about 3–9 kPaa−1 and its azimuth lie in NNW-SSE. 2 Maximum principal compressive stress is about 1–6 kPaa−1 and its azimuth lie in NEE-SWW. 3 Maximum principal tensile stress is higher both in the west region and Liaoning Province. 4 Variation of tectonic stress field benefits fault movement in the west part and northeast part of North China. 5 Annual accumulative rates of Coulomb fracture stress in Tanlu fault belt have segmentation patterns: Jiashan-Guangji segment is the highest (6 kPaa−1, Anshan-Liaodongwan segment is the second (5 kPaa−1, and others are relatively lower (3–4 kPaa−1.

  15. GeoBioScience: Red Wood Ants as Bioindicators for Active Tectonic Fault Systems in the West Eifel (Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Schreiber

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In a 1.140 km² study area of the volcanic West Eifel, a comprehensive investigation established the correlation between red wood ant mound (RWA; Formica rufa-group sites and active tectonic faults. The current stress field with a NW-SE-trending main stress direction opens pathways for geogenic gases and potential magmas following the same orientation. At the same time, Variscan and Mesozoic fault zones are reactivated. The results showed linear alignments and clusters of approx. 3,000 RWA mounds. While linear mound distribution correlate with strike-slip fault systems documented by quartz and ore veins and fault planes with slickensides, the clusters represent crosscut zones of dominant fault systems. Latter can be correlated with voids caused by crustal block rotation. Gas analyses from soil air, mineral springs and mofettes (CO2, Helium, Radon and H2S reveal limiting concentrations for the spatial distribution of mounds and colonization. Striking is further the almost complete absence of RWA mounds in the core area of the Quaternary volcanic field. A possible cause can be found in occasionally occurring H2S in the fault systems, which is toxic at miniscule concentrations to the ants. Viewed overall, there is a strong relationship between RWA mounds and active tectonics in the West Eifel.

  16. Hot spot activity and tectonic settings near Amsterdam–St. Paul plateau (Indian Ocean)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Janin, M.; Hemond, C.; Guillou, H.; Maia, M.; Johnson, K.T.M.; Bollinger, C.; Liorzou, C.; Mudholkar, A.V.

    orientation of the CDP as well as the seamount's elongated shapes support an opening motion between the Capricorn and Australian plates along a suture oriented in the N155 degree direction. This motion compared to the Antarctic plate amounts to an apparent...

  17. Magmatic tectonic effects of high thermal regime at the site of active ridge subduction: the Chile Triple Junction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagabrielle, Yves; Guivel, Christèle; Maury, René C.; Bourgois, Jacques; Fourcade, Serge; Martin, Hervé

    2000-11-01

    High thermal gradients are expected to be found at sites of subduction of very young oceanic lithosphere and more particularly at ridge-trench-trench (RTT) triple junctions, where active oceanic spreading ridges enter a subduction zone. Active tectonics, associated with the emplacement of two main types of volcanic products, (1) MORB-type magmas, and (2) calc-alkaline acidic magmas in the forearc, also characterize these plate junction domains. In this context, MORB-type magmas are generally thought to derive from the buried active spreading center subducted at shallow depths, whereas the origin of calc-alkaline acidic magmas is more problematic. One of the best constrained examples of ridge-trench interaction is the Chile Triple Junction (CTJ) located southwest of the South American plate at 46°12'S, where the active Chile spreading center enters the subduction zone. In this area, there is a clear correlation between the emplacement of magmatic products and the migration of the triple junction along the active margin. The CTJ lava population is bimodal, with mafic to intermediate lavas (48-56% SiO 2) and acidic lavas ranging from dacites to rhyolites (66-73% SiO 2). Previous models have shown that partial melting of oceanic crust plus 10-20% of sediments, leaving an amphibole- and plagioclase-rich residue, is the only process that may account for the genesis of acidic magmas. Due to special plate geometry in the CTJ area, a given section of the margin may be successively affected by the passage of several ridge segments. We emphasize that repeated passages will lead to the development of very high thermal gradients allowing melting of rocks of oceanic origin at temperatures of 800-900°C and low pressures, corresponding to depths of 10-20 km depth only. In addition, the structure of the CTJ forearc domain is dominated by horizontal displacements and tilting of crustal blocks along a network of strike-slip faults. The occurrence of such a deformed domain implies

  18. Provenance and tectonic setting of the Neoproterozoic clastic rocks hosting the Banana Zone Cu-Ag mineralisation, northwest Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelepile, Tebogo; Bineli Betsi, Thierry; Franchi, Fulvio; Shemang, Elisha; Suh, Cheo Emmanuel

    2017-05-01

    Petrographic and geochemical data were combined in order to decipher the petrogenesis of the Neoproterozoic sedimentary succession associated with the Banana Zone Cu-Ag mineralisation (northwest Botswana), in the Kalahari Copperbelt. The investigated Neoproterozoic sedimentary succession is composed of two formations including the Ngwako Pan and the D'kar Formations. The Ngwako Pan Formation is made up of continental siliciclastic sediments, mainly sandstones interbedded with siltstones and mudstones, whereas the D'kar Formation is comprised of shallow marine laminated siltstones, sandstones and mudstones, with subordinate limestone. Copper-Ag mineralisation is essentially confined at the base of the D'kar Formation, which bears reduced organic components, likely to have controlled Cu-Ag precipitation. Sandstones of both the Ngwako Pan and the D'kar Formations are arkoses and subarkoses, composed of quartz (Q), feldspars (F) and lithic fragments (L). Moreover, geochemically the sandstones are considered as potassic and classified as arkoses. On the other hand, mudrocks of the D'kar Formation are finely laminated and are dominated by muscovite, sericite, chlorite and quartz. The modified chemical index of weathering (CIW‧) values indicated an intense chemical weathering of the source rock. The dominance of detrital quartz and feldspar grains coupled with Al2O3/TiO2 ratios (average 29.67 and 24.52 for Ngwako Pan and D'kar Formations, respectively) and Ni and Cr depletion in the sandstones, suggest a dominant felsic source. However, high concentrations of Ni and Cr and a low Al2O3/TiO2 ratio (block and deposited in a continental rift setting (passive margin) in a humid environment. The source rocks might have been the Palaeoproterozoic basement rocks (granitoids and granitic gneiss) and the Mesoproterozoic Kgwebe volcanic rocks exposed north of the study area.

  19. Petrology, Magnetic susceptibility, Tectonic setting and mineralization associated with Plutonic and Volcanic Rocks, Eastern Bajestan and Taherabad, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Ghoorchi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Study area is located in district of Bajestan and Ferdows cities, NE of Iran. Structurally, this area is part of Lut block. The oldest exposed rocks, to the north of intrusive rocks and in Eastern Bajestan, are meta-chert, slate, quartzite, thin-bedded crystalline limestone and meta-argillite. The sedimentary units are: Sardar Formation (Carboniferous, Jamal Formation (Permian, Sorkh Shale and Shotori Formations (Triassic, carbonateous rocks (Cretaceous and lithostratigraphically equivalent to Kerman conglomerate (Cretaceous-Paleocene are exposed in this area. Based on relative age, magmatism in eastern Bajestan and Taherabad started after Late Cretaceous and it has been active and repeated during Tertiary time. At least, three episodes of volcanic activities are recognized in this area. The first stage was mainly volcanic flow with mafic composition and minor intermediate. The second episode was mainly intermediate in composition. The third stage was changed to acid-intermediate in composition. Since the plutonic rocks intruded the volcanic rocks, therefore they may be Oligo-Miocene age. Bajestan intrusive rocks are granite-granodiorite-quartz monzonite. Taherabad intrusive rocks are diorite-quartz diorite- monzonite-latite. Bajestan intrusive rocks are reduced type (ilmenite series and Taherabad intrusive rocks are oxidized type (magnetite series.Based on geochemical analysis including trace elements, REE and isotopic data, Bajestan intrusive rocks formed in continental collision zone and the magma has crustal origin. Taherabad intrusive rocks were formed in subduction zone and magma originated from oceanic crust. Taherabad intrusive rock has exploration potential for Cu-Au and pb.

  20. Volcanic and Tectonic Activity in the Red Sea Region (2004-2013): Insights from Satellite Radar Interferometry and Optical Imagery

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Wenbin

    2015-04-01

    Studying recent volcanic and tectonic events in the Red Sea region is important for improving our knowledge of the Red Sea plate boundary and for regional geohazard assessments. However, limited information has been available about the past activity due to insufficient in-situ data and remoteness of some of the activity. In this dissertation, I have used satellite remote sensing to derive new information about several recent volcanic and tectonic events in the Red Sea region. I first report on three volcanic eruptions in the southern Red Sea, the 2007-8 Jebel at Tair eruption and the 2011-12 & 2013 Zubair eruptions, which resulted in formation of two new islands. Series of high- resolution optical images were used to map the extent of lava flows and to observe and analyze the growth and destructive processes of the new islands. I used Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data to study the evolution of lava flows, to estimate their volumes, as well as to generate ground displacements maps, which were used to model the dikes that fed the eruptions. I then report on my work of the 2009 Harrat Lunayyir dike intrusion and the 2004 Tabuk earthquake sequence in western Saudi Arabia. I used InSAR observations and stress calculations to study the intruding dike at Harrat Lunayyir, while I combined InSAR data and Bayesian estimation to study the Tabuk earthquake activity. The key findings of the thesis are: 1) The recent volcanic eruptions in the southern Red Sea indicate that the area is magmatically more active than previously acknowledged and that a rifting episode has been taken place in the southern Red Sea; 2) Stress interactions between an ascending dike intrusion and normal faulting on graben-bounding faults above the dike can inhibit vertical propagation of magma towards the surface; 3) InSAR observations can improve locations of shallow earthquakes and fault model uncertainties are useful to associate earthquake activity with mapped faults; 4). The

  1. International Field Research with Undergraduate Students: Investigating Active Tectonics of the Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, J. S.; Gardner, T. W.; Protti, M.

    2005-12-01

    Over the past eight years, 18 undergraduate students from 12 U.S. and Costa Rican universities and colleges have participated in field research projects investigating coastal tectonics on the Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica. These projects have been organized around two different models: 1) a month-long "field camp" with 10 students and 5 project faculty (Keck Geology Consortium Project, 1998), and 2) several two-week field projects with 1-3 students and one faculty advisor (Cal Poly Pomona University and Trinity University). Under the direction of the authors, each of these projects has been carefully designed to provide a new piece to a larger research puzzle. The Nicoya Peninsula lies along Costa Rica's northern Pacific coast inboard of the Middle America Trench where the Cocos and Caribbean plates converge at 10 cm/yr. In 1950, the peninsula was shaken by a ~M 7.7 subduction earthquake that produced widespread damage and 0.5-1.0 m of coseismic coastal uplift. With a large slip deficit since 1950, the Nicoya Peninsula is viewed as a high-potential seismic gap. Field study of uplifted Quaternary marine terraces along the Nicoya coastline provides undergraduate students with a unique opportunity to examine rapid forearc deformation related to large subduction earthquakes. The field research conducted by each of these students provides the basis for a senior thesis at their home institution. In most cases, the students have focused their individual work on separate, but adjacent field areas. Collectively, each of these projects has generated significant data that contribute toward of an ongoing investigation of fore arc tectonics and subduction cycle earthquakes along the Costa Rican Pacific margin.

  2. Geomorphologic, stratigraphic and sedimentologic evidences of tectonic activity in Sone-Ganga alluvial tract in Middle Ganga Plain, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Sudarsan; Saha, Dipankar

    2014-08-01

    The basement of the Ganga basin in the Himalayan foreland is criss-crossed by several faults, dividing the basin into several sub-blocks forming horsts, grabens, or half-grabens. Tectonic perturbations along basement faults have affected the fluvial regime and extent of sediment fill in different parts of the basin during Late Quaternary. The East Patna Fault (EPF) and the West Patna Fault (WPF), located in Sone-Ganga alluvial tract in the southern marginal parts of Middle Ganga Plain (MGP), have remained tectonically active. The EPF particularly has acted significantly and influenced in evolving the geomorphological landscape and the stratigraphic architecture of the area. The block bounded by the two faults has earlier been considered as a single entity, constituting a half-graben. The present investigation (by morpho-stratigraphic and sedimentologic means) has revealed the existence of yet another fault within the half-graben, referred to as Bishunpur-Khagaul Fault (BKF). Many of the long profile morphological characters (e.g., knick-zone, low width-depth ratio) of the Sone River at its lower reaches can be ascribed to local structural deformation along BKF. These basement faults in MGP lie parallel to each other in NE-SW direction.

  3. Paleozoic magmatism and porphyry Cu-mineralization in an evolving tectonic setting in the North Qilian Orogenic Belt, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Kun-Feng; Deng, Jun; Taylor, Ryan D.; Song, Kai-Rui; Song, Yao-Hui; Li, Quan-Zhong; Goldfarb, Richard J.

    2016-05-01

    40-m.y.-younger ore-bearing porphyritic granodiorite is sub-alkaline and peraluminous. They are enriched in LREEs and LILEs, depleted in HFSEs, and show weak negative Eu anomalies. They display εHf(t) values of captured or inherited zircons in the range of +8.5 to +10.0, and younger two-stage Hf model ages of 0.78 Ga and 0.86 Ga, similar to those of ca. 485 Ma tonalite. The ca. 445 Ma zircons have εHf(t) values of -2.1 to +9.9, with two-stage Hf model ages of 0.75-1.27 Ga. Moreover, they have relatively high oxygen fugacity than that of the precursor barren tonalite. The ca. 445 Ma magmas at Wangdian thus formed in a subduction setting, and incorporated melts from the subduction-modified lithosphere that had previously been enriched by additions of chalcophile and siderophile element-rich materials by the earlier magmatism and metasomatism during the Paleo Qilian-Qinling Ocean subduction event.

  4. Paleozoic magmatism and porphyry Cu-mineralization in an evolving tectonic setting in the North Qilian Orogenic Belt, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Kun-Feng; Deng, Jun; Taylor, Ryan D.; Song, Kai-Rui; Song, Yao-Hui; Li, Quan-Zhong; Goldfarb, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    the lithosphere. In contrast, the 40-m.y.-younger ore-bearing porphyritic granodiorite is sub-alkaline and peraluminous. They are enriched in LREEs and LILEs, depleted in HFSEs, and show weak negative Eu anomalies. They displayεHf(t) values of captured or inherited zircons in the range of +8.5 to +10.0, and younger two-stage Hf model ages of 0.78 Ga and 0.86 Ga, similar to those of ca. 485 Ma tonalite. The ca. 445 Ma zircons have εHf(t) values of −2.1 to +9.9, with two-stage Hf model ages of 0.75–1.27 Ga. Moreover, they have relatively high oxygen fugacity than that of the precursor barren tonalite. The ca. 445 Ma magmas at Wangdian thus formed in a subduction setting, and incorporated melts from the subduction-modified lithosphere that had previously been enriched by additions of chalcophile and siderophile element-rich materials by the earlier magmatism and metasomatism during the Paleo Qilian-Qinling Ocean subduction event.

  5. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 3. Geological setting and tectonic framework in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Gravesen, P.

    2011-01-01

    The low and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe (the nuclear reactor buildings plus different types of material from the research periods) and radioactive waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The Minister for Health and Prevention presented the background and decision plan for the Danish Parliament in January 2009. All political parties agreed on the plan. The task for the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) is to find approximately 20 areas potentially useful for a waste disposal. These 20 areas are afterwards reduced to 2-3 most optimal locations. At these 2-3 locations, detailed field investigations of the geological, hydrogeological - hydrochemical and technical conditions will be performed. This report provides an introduction to the geological setting of Denmark with the focus on providing an overview of the distribution of various tectonic and structural features. These are considered important in the context of choosing suitable areas for the location of a disposal for radioactive waste. The geological structures, deep and shallow are important for the selection of potential disposals basically because the structures describes the geometry of the areas. Additionally, the structures provides the information about the risk of unwanted movements of the geological layers around the disposal that have to be investigated and evaluated as a part of the selection process. (LN)

  6. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 3. Geological setting and tectonic framework in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Gravesen, P.

    2011-07-01

    The low and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe (the nuclear reactor buildings plus different types of material from the research periods) and radioactive waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The Minister for Health and Prevention presented the background and decision plan for the Danish Parliament in January 2009. All political parties agreed on the plan. The task for the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) is to find approximately 20 areas potentially useful for a waste disposal. These 20 areas are afterwards reduced to 2-3 most optimal locations. At these 2-3 locations, detailed field investigations of the geological, hydrogeological - hydrochemical and technical conditions will be performed. This report provides an introduction to the geological setting of Denmark with the focus on providing an overview of the distribution of various tectonic and structural features. These are considered important in the context of choosing suitable areas for the location of a disposal for radioactive waste. The geological structures, deep and shallow are important for the selection of potential disposals basically because the structures describes the geometry of the areas. Additionally, the structures provides the information about the risk of unwanted movements of the geological layers around the disposal that have to be investigated and evaluated as a part of the selection process. (LN)

  7. Source characteristics and tectonic setting of mafic-ultramafic intrusions in North Xinjiang, NW China: Insights from the petrology and geochemistry of the Lubei mafic-ultramafic intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bao-Yun; Yu, Jin-Jie; Liu, Shuai-Jie

    2018-05-01

    -ocean-ridge-basalt mantle and enriched-mantle I components. The Permian mafic-ultramafic intrusions in North Xinjiang were formed from tholeiitic basaltic magmas derived from decompression partial melting of the metasomatized mantle in a post-collision extensional tectonic setting. The tholeiitic basaltic magmas are equivalent to the voluminous underplated basaltic magmas that formed during vertical crustal growth of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt in the later Paleozoic.

  8. Formwork tectonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manelius, Anne-Mette

    2012-01-01

    På engelsk: Based on the concept of techné and framed in architectural studies of tectonics and an experimental practice of making, this paper investigates the multiple technological roles of textiles in fabric formwork for concrete in four analytical studies of experimental data of the author......’s doctoral dissertation Fabric Formwork for Concrete – Investigations into Formwork Tectonics and Stereogeneity in Architectural Constructions. In the paper only textile roles are discussed but it is suggested that a study of multiple technological roles of key formwork elements will emphasize...... their potential as ‘common denominators’ between architects, engineers and builders. Findings include textile used for the ‘textilization’ of concrete and the ‘concretization’ of textiles as two opposite starting points in fabric-forming. Recent research into thin-shell construction using fabric formwork is shown...

  9. Applying Activity Theory in Multiagency Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniels H.,

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I explore the extent to which two approaches to the social formation of mind are compatible and may be used to enrich and extend each other. These are: Activity Theory (AT as derived from the work of the early Russian psychologists, Vygotsky and Leontiev, and the work of the sociologist Basil Bernstein. The purpose is to show how Bernstein provides a language of description which allows Vygotsky’s account of social formation of mind to be extended and enhanced through an understanding of the sociological processes which form specific modalities of pedagogic practice and their specialized scientific concepts. The two approaches engage with a common theme namely the social shaping of consciousness, from different perspectives and yet as Bernstein acknowledges both develop many of their core assumptions from the work of Marx and the French school of early twentieth century sociology. The work of the Russian linguist is also be used to further nuance the argument applied in multiagency settings.

  10. Tectonic tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelly, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Tectonic, non-volcanic tremor is a weak vibration of ground, which cannot be felt by humans but can be detected by sensitive seismometers. It is defined empirically as a low-amplitude, extended duration seismic signal associated with the deep portion (∼20–40 km depth) of some major faults. It is typically observed most clearly in the frequency range of 2–8 Hz and is depleted in energy at higher frequencies relative to regular earthquakes.

  11. Tectonic design strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beim, Anne

    2000-01-01

    as the poetics of construction, thus it may be considered as an essential activity in the development of the architectural design process.  Similar to the complex nature of the tectonic, the design process is an ongoing movement of interpretation, mediation, and decision making where the skills of the architect...

  12. The Investigation of Active Tectonism Offshore Cide-Sinop, Southern Black Sea by Seismic Reflection and Bathymetric Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alp, Y. I.; Ocakoglu, N.; Kılıc, F.; Ozel, A. O.

    2017-12-01

    The active tectonism offshore Cide-Sinop at the Southern Black Sea shelf area was first time investigated by multi-beam bathymetric and multi-channel seismic reflection data under the Research Project of The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBİTAK-ÇAYDAG-114Y057). The multi-channel seismic reflection data of about 700 km length were acquired in 1991 by Turkish Petroleum Company (TP). Multibeam bathymetric data were collected between 2002-2008 by the Turkish Navy, Department of Navigation, Hydrography and Oceanography (TN-DNHO). Conventional data processing steps were applied as follows: in-line geometry definition, shot-receiver static correction, editing, shot muting, gain correction, CDP sorting, velocity analysis, NMO correction, muting, stacking, predictive deconvolution, band-pass filtering, finite-difference time migration, and automatic gain correction. Offshore area is represented by a quite smooth and large shelf plain with an approx. 25 km wide and the water depth of about -100 m. The shelf gently deepens and it is limited by the shelf break with average of -120 m contour. The seafloor morphology is charasterised by an erosional surface. Structurally, E-W trending strike-slip faults with generally compression components and reverse/thrust faults have been regionally mapped for the first time. Most of these faults deform all seismic units and reach the seafloor delimiting the morphological highs and submarine plains. Thus, these faults are intepreted as active faults. These results support the idea that the area is under the active compressional tectonic regime

  13. Fault kinematics and active tectonics of the Sabah margin: Insights from the 2015, Mw 6.0, Mt. Kinabalu earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Wei, S.; Tapponnier, P.; WANG, X.; Lindsey, E.; Sieh, K.

    2016-12-01

    A gravity-driven "Mega-Landslide" model has been evoked to explain the shortening seen offshore Sabah and Brunei in oil-company seismic data. Although this model is considered to account simultaneously for recent folding at the edge of the submarine NW Sabah trough and normal faulting on the Sabah shelf, such a gravity-driven model is not consistent with geodetic data or critical examination of extant structural restorations. The rupture that produced the 2015 Mw6.0 Mt. Kinabalu earthquake is also inconsistent with the gravity-driven model. Our teleseismic analysis shows that the centroid depth of that earthquake's mainshock was 13 to 14 km, and its favored fault-plane solution is a 60° NW-dipping normal fault. Our finite-rupture model exhibits major fault slip between 5 and 15 km depth, in keeping with our InSAR analysis, which shows no appreciable surface deformation. Both the hypocentral depth and the depth of principal slip are far too deep to be explained by gravity-driven failure, as such a model would predict a listric normal fault connecting at a much shallower depth with a very gentle detachment. Our regional mapping of tectonic landforms also suggests the recent rupture is part of a 200-km long system of narrowly distributed active extension in northern Sabah. Taken together, the nature of the 2015 rupture, the belt of active normal faults, and structural consideration indicate that active tectonic shortening plays the leading role in controlling the overall deformation of northern Sabah and that deep-seated, onland normal faulting likely results from an abrupt change in the dip-angle of the collision interface beneath the Sabah accretionary prism.

  14. Seismo-turbidite Sedimentology: Implications for Active Tectonic Margin Stratigraphy and Sediment Facies Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, C. H.; Goldfinger, C.; Gutierrez Pastor, J.; Polonia, A.; Van Daele, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    Earthquakes generate mass transport deposits (MTDs); megaturbidites (MTD overlain by coeval turbidite); multi-pulsed, stacked, and mud homogenite seismo-turbidites; tsunamites; and seiche deposits. The strongest (Mw 9) earthquake shaking signatures appear to create multi-pulsed individual turbidites, where the number and character of multiple coarse-grained pulses for correlative turbidites generally remain constant both upstream and downstream in different channel systems. Multiple turbidite pulses, that correlate with multiple ruptures shown in seismograms of historic earthquakes (e.g. Chile 1960, Sumatra 2004 and Japan 2011), support this hypothesis. The weaker (Mw = or turbidity currents that deposit in channels below confluences of the tributaries. Proven tsunamites, which result from tsunami waves sweeping onshore and shallow water debris into deeper water, are a fine-grained turbidite cap over other seismo-turbidites. In contrast, MTDs and seismo-turbidites result from slope failures. Multiple great earthquakes cause seismic strengthening of slope sediment, which results in minor MTDs in basin floor turbidite system deposits (e.g. maximum run-out distances of MTDs across basin floors along active margins are up to an order of magnitude less than on passive margins). In contrast, the MTDs and turbidites are equally intermixed in turbidite systems of passive margins (e.g. Gulf of Mexico). In confined basin settings, earthquake triggering results in a common facies pattern of coeval megaturbidites in proximal settings, thick stacked turbidites downstream, and ponded muddy homogenite turbidites in basin or sub-basin centers, sometimes with a cap of seiche deposits showing bi-directional flow patterns.

  15. Spiral tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan Asadiyan, Mohammad

    2014-05-01

    Spiral Tectonics (ST) is a new window to global tectonics introduced as alternative model for Plate Tectonics (PT). ST based upon Dahw(rolling) and Tahw(spreading) dynamics. Analogues to electric and magnetic components in the electromagnetic theory we could consider Dahw and Tahw as components of geodynamics, when one component increases the other decreases and vice versa. They are changed to each other during geological history. D-component represents continental crust and T-component represents oceanic crust. D and T are two arm of spiral-cell. T-arm 180 degree lags behind D-arm so named Retard-arm with respect to D or Forward-arm. It seems primary cell injected several billions years ago from Earth's center therefore the Earth's core was built up first then mantel and finally the crust was build up. Crust building initiate from Arabia (Mecca). As the universe extended gravitation wave swirled the earth fractaly along cycloid path from big to small scale. In global scale (order-0) ST collect continents in one side and abandoned Pacific Ocean in the other side. Recent researches also show two mantels upwelling in opposite side of the Earth: one under Africa (tectonic pose) and the other under Pacific Ocean (tectonic tail). In higher order (order-1) ST build up Africa in one side and S.America in the other side therefore left Atlantic Ocean meandered in between. In order-n e.g. Khoor Musa and Bandar-Deylam bay are seen meandered easterly in the Iranian part but Khoor Abdullah and Kuwait bay meandered westerly in the Arabian part, they are distributed symmetrically with respect to axis of Persian Gulf(PG), these two are fractal components of easterly Caspian-wing and westerly Black Sea-wing which split up from Anatoly. Caspian Sea and Black Sea make two legs of Y-like structure, this shape completely fitted with GPS-velocity map which start from PG and split up in the Catastrophic Point(Anatoly). We could consider PG as remnants of Ancient Ocean which spent up

  16. Off-axis volcano-tectonic activity during continental rifting: Insights from the transversal Goba-Bonga lineament, Main Ethiopian Rift (East Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corti, Giacomo; Sani, Federico; Agostini, Samuele; Philippon, Melody; Sokoutis, Dimitrios; Willingshofer, Ernst

    2018-03-01

    The Main Ethiopian Rift, East Africa, is characterized by the presence of major, enigmatic structures which strike approximately orthogonal to the trend of the rift valley. These structures are marked by important deformation and magmatic activity in an off-axis position in the plateaus surrounding the rift. In this study, we present new structural data based on a remote and field analysis, complemented with analogue modelling experiments, and new geochemical analysis of volcanic rocks sampled in different portions of one of these transversal structures: the Goba-Bonga volcano-tectonic lineament (GBVL). This integrated analysis shows that the GBVL is associated with roughly E-W-trending prominent volcano-tectonic activity affecting the western plateau. Within the rift floor, the approximately E-W alignment of Awasa and Corbetti calderas likely represent expressions of the GBVL. Conversely, no tectonic or volcanic features of similar (E-W) orientation have been recognized on the eastern plateau. Analogue modelling suggests that the volcano-tectonic features of the GBVL have probably been controlled by the presence of a roughly E-W striking pre-existing discontinuity beneath the western plateau, which did not extend beneath the eastern plateau. Geochemical analysis supports this interpretation and indicates that, although magmas have the same sub-lithospheric mantle source, limited differences in magma evolution displayed by products found along the GBVL may be ascribed to the different tectonic framework to the west, to the east, and in the axial zone of the rift. These results support the importance of the heterogeneous nature of the lithosphere and the spatial variations of its structure in controlling the architecture of continental rifts and the distribution of the related volcano-tectonic activity.

  17. Accurate relocation of seismicity along the North Aegean Trough and its relation to active tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinou, K. I.

    2017-10-01

    The tectonics of northern Aegean are affected by the westward push of Anatolia and the gravitational spreading of the Aegean lithosphere that promote transtensional deformation in the area. This regime is also responsible for the creation of a series of pull-apart basins, collectively known as the North Aegean Trough. This work accurately relocates a total of 2300 earthquakes that were recorded along the North Aegean Trough during 2011-2016 by stations of the Hellenic Unified Seismic Network (HUSN) and strong-motion sensors. Absolute locations for these events were obtained using a nonlinear probabilistic algorithm and utilizing a minimum 1D velocity model with station corrections. The hypocentral depth distribution of these events shows a peak at 8 km diminishing gradually down to 20 km. A systematic overestimation of hypocentral depths is observed in the routine locations provided by the National Observatory of Athens where the majority of events appear to be deeper than 15 km. In order to obtain more accurate relative locations these events were relocated using the double-difference method. A total of 1693 events were finally relocated with horizontal and vertical uncertainties that do not exceed 0.11 km and 0.22 km respectively. Well-defined clusters of seismicity can be observed along the Saros and Sporades basins as well as the Kassandra and Sithonia peninsulas. These clusters either occur along the well-known NE-SW strike-slip faults bounding the basins, or along normal faults whose strike is perpendicular to the regional minimum stress axis. Locking depth along the North Aegean Trough is found to be remarkably stable between 13 and 17 km. This is likely a consequence of simultaneous reduction along the SW direction of heat flow (from 89 to 51 mW/m2) and strain rate (from 600 to 50 nstrain/yr) whose opposite effects are canceled out, precluding any sharp changes in locking depth.

  18. Late Pleistocene to Holocene alluvial tableland formation in an intra-mountainous basin in a tectonically active mountain belt - A case study in the Puli Basin, central Taiwan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tseng, Chia Han; Lüthgens, Christopher; Tsukamoto, Sumiko; Reimann, Tony; Frechen, Manfred; Böse, Margot

    2016-01-01

    The morphology in Taiwan is a product of high tectonic activity at the convergent margin and East Asian monsoon climate. Tablelands are prominent geomorphic features in the Puli Basin in central Taiwan. These tablelands provide an archive to understand links between past climatic evolution and

  19. SETS, arbitrage activity and stock price dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taylor, N.; van Dijk, D.; Franses, P.H.; Lucas, A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper provides an empirical description of the relationship between the trading system operated by a stock exchange and the trading behaviour of heterogeneous investors who use the exchange. The recent introduction of SETS in the London Stock Exchange provides an excellent opportunity to study

  20. Active tectonic deformation of the western Indian plate boundary: A case study from the Chaman Fault System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crupa, Wanda E.; Khan, Shuhab D.; Huang, Jingqiu; Khan, Abdul S.; Kasi, Aimal

    2017-10-01

    Collision of the Eurasian and Indian plates has resulted in two spatially offset subduction zones, the Makran subduction zone to the south and the Himalayan convergent margin to the north. These zones are linked by a system of left-lateral strike-slip faults known as the Chaman Fault System, ∼1200 km, which spans along western Pakistan. Although this is one of the greatest strike-slip faults, yet temporal and spatial variation in displacement has not been adequately defined along this fault system. This study conducted geomorphic and geodetic investigations along the Chaman Fault in a search for evidence of spatial variations in motion. Four study areas were selected over the span of the Chaman Fault: (1) Tarnak-Rud area over the Tarnak-Rud valley, (2) Spinatizha area over the Spinatizha Mountain Range, (3) Nushki area over the Nushki basin, and (4) Kharan area over the northern tip of the Central Makran Mountains. Remote sensing data allowed for in depth mapping of different components and faults within the Kohjak group. Wind and water gap pairs along with offset rivers were identified using high-resolution imagery and digital-elevation models to show displacement for the four study areas. The mountain-front-sinuosity ratio, valley height-to-width-ratio, and the stream-length-gradient index were calculated and used to determine the relative tectonic activity of each area. These geomorphic indices suggest that the Kharan area is the most active and the Tarnak-Rud area is the least active. GPS data were processed into a stable Indian plate reference frame and analyzed. Fault parallel velocity versus fault normal distance yielded a ∼8-10 mm/yr displacement rate along the Chaman Fault just north of the Spinatizha area. InSAR data were also integrated to assess displacement rates along the fault system. Geodetic data support that ultra-slow earthquakes similar to those that strike along other major strike-slip faults, such as the San Andreas Fault System, are

  1. Orogen migration and tectonic setting of the Andrelândia Nappe system: An Ediacaran western Gondwana collage, south of São Francisco craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos Neto, Mario da Costa; Basei, Miguel Angelo Stipp; Assis Janasi, Valdecir de; Moraes, Renato

    2011-12-01

    The southern Brasília Orogen is organized in a pile of nappes that records the Neoproterozoic history of the subduction and collision between passive and active margins, respectively belonging to the São Francisco and Paranapanema Plates. The whole pile of allochthons comprises the rootless Andrelândia Nappe System (the upper kyanite-bearing granulite of Três Pontas-Varginha Nappe, the intermediate high-pressure amphibolite-to eclogite facies of Liberdade Nappe and the lower Andrelândia Nappe) that is located below an Andean-type magmatic arc (Socorro-Guaxupé Nappe) and overrides the Lima Duarte Nappe and the Carrancas Nappe System. The tectonic units of the Andrelândia Nappe System seem to be exotic to the São Francisco Plate. The retroeclogite of the Liberdade Nappe yielded a 670 Ma SHRIMP U-Pb age in zircon, that is interpreted as the age of N-MORB-type basic magmatism. Detrital zircon grains of proximal flysh deposits of wackes in the Andrelândia Nappe present similar ages that reflect the crystallization in its source area. Both, rocks present Nd isotopic juvenile signatures with T DM in the range of 1.4 to 1.1 Ga. Rhyacian orthogneisses occur as slices in the Liberdade Nappe and have Nd isotope signature of juvenile source. The building of the collision pile of the whole system of nappes was diachronic and records a continuous outward migration of the orogen. The main structure is a middle crust-level duplex. The propagation of the structure and the metamorphism advanced progressively from the upper to the lower nappes, as is shown by U-Pb monazite ages in the range of 618-595 Ma for the Andrelândia Nappe System and 590-575 Ma for the Carrancas and Lima Duarte nappes.

  2. Late Pleistocene-Holocene Activity of the Strike-slip Xianshuihe Fault Zone, Tibetan Plateau, Inferred from Tectonic Landforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, A.; Yan, B.

    2017-12-01

    Knowledges on the activity of the strike-slip fault zones on the Tibetan Plateau have been promoted greatly by the interpretation of remote sensing images (Molnar and Tapponnier, 1975; Tapponnier and Molnar, 1977). The active strike-slip Xianshuihe-Xiaojiang Fault System (XXFS), with the geometry of an arc projecting northeastwards, plays an important role in the crustal deformation of the Tibetan Plateau caused by the continental collision between the Indian and Eurasian plates. The Xianshuihe Fault Zone (XFZ) is located in the central segment of the XXFS and extends for 370 km, with a maximum sinistral offset of 60 km since 13‒5 Ma. In this study, we investigated the tectonic landforms and slip rate along the central segment of the left-lateral strike-slip XFZ. Field investigations and analysis of ttectonic landforms show that horizontal offset has been accumulated on the topographical markers of different scales that developed since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The central segment of the XFZ is composed of three major faults: Yalahe, Selaha, and Zheduotang faults showing a right-stepping echelon pattern, that is characterized by systematical offset of drainages, alluvial fans and terrace risers with typical scissoring structures, indicating a structural feature of left-lateral strike-slip fault. Based on the offset glacial morphology and radiocarbon dating ages, we estimate the Late Pleistocene-Holocene slip rate to be 10 mm/yr for the central segment of the XFZ, which is consistent with that estimated from the GPS observations and geological evidence as reported previously. Across the central segment of the XFZ, the major Selaha and Zheduotang faults participate a slip rate of 5.8 mm/yr and 3.4 mm/yr, respectively. Detailed investigations of tectonic landforms are essential for the understanding the activity of active faults. Our findings suggest that the left-lateral slipping of the XFZ partitions the deformation of eastward extrusion and northeastward

  3. Minimum Data Set Active Resident Information Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The MDS Active Resident Report summarizes information for residents currently in nursing homes. The source of these counts is the residents MDS assessment record....

  4. ACTIVITY AND Vp/Vs RATIO OF VOLCANO-TECTONIC SEISMIC SWARM ZONES AT NEVADO DEL RUIZ VOLCANO, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Londoño B. John Makario

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the seismic activity for volcano-tectonic earthquake (VT swarms zones at Nevado del Ruiz Volcano (NRV was carried out for the interval 1985- 2002, which is the most seismic active period at NRV until now (2010. The swarm-like seismicity of NRV was frequently concentrated in very well defined clusters around the volcano. The seismic swarm zone located at the active crater was the most active during the entire time. The seismic swarm zone located to the west of the volcano suggested some relationship with the volcanic crises. It was active before and after the two eruptions occurred in November 1985 and September 1989. It is believed that this seismic activity may be used as a monitoring tool of volcanic activity. For each seismic swarm zone the Vp/Vs ratio was also calculated by grouping of earthquakes and stations. It was found that each seismic swarm zone had a distinct Vp/Vs ratio with respect to the others, except for the crater and west swarm zones, which had the same value. The average Vp/Vs ratios for the seismic swarm zones located at the active crater and to the west of the volcano are about 6-7% lower than that for the north swarm zone, and about 3% lower than that for the south swarm zone. We suggest that the reduction of the Vp/Vs ratio is due to degassing phenomena inside the central and western earthquake swarm zones, or due to the presence of microcracks inside the volcano. This supposition is in agreement with other studies of geophysics, geochemistry and drilling surveys carried out at NRV.

  5. Tectonic Setting of the Gravity Fault and Implications for Ground-Water Resources in the Death Valley Region, Nevada and California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakely, R. J.; Sweetkind, D. S.; Faunt, C. C.; Jansen, J. R.; McPhee, D. K.; Morin, R. L.

    2007-12-01

    The Amargosa trough, extending south from Crater Flat basin to the California-Nevada state line, is believed to be a transtensional basin accommodated in part by strike-slip displacement on the northwest-striking State Line fault and normal displacement on the north-striking Gravity fault. The Gravity fault, lying along the eastern margin of the Amargosa trough, was first recognized in the 1970s on the basis of correlations between gravity anomalies and a prominent spring line in Amargosa Valley. The Gravity fault causes an inflection in water-table levels, similar to other (but not all) normal faults in the area. Pools along the spring line, some of which lie within Death Valley National Park and Ash Meadows Wildlife Refuge, include endemic species potentially threatened by increasing agricultural activities in Amargosa Valley immediately to the west, where water tables are declining. Most of the springs and pools lie east of the Gravity fault, however, and it is important to understand the role that the Gravity fault plays in controlling ground-water flow. We have conducted a variety of geophysical investigations at various scales to better understand the tectonic framework of the Amargosa Desert and support new ground-water-flow models. Much of our focus has been on the tectonic interplay of the State Line, Gravity, and other faults in the area using gravity, ground-magnetic, audiomagnetotelluric (AMT), and time-domain electromagnetic (TEM) surveys. With 1250 new gravity measurements from Ash Meadows and Stewart Valley, we have developed a revised three-dimensional crustal model of the Amargosa trough constrained by well information and geologic mapping. The model predicts approximately 2 km of vertical offset on the Gravity fault but also suggests a complex structural framework. The fault is conventionally seen as a simple, down-to-the-west normal fault juxtaposing permeable pre-Tertiary carbonate rocks to the east against less permeable Tertiary sediments to

  6. Accurate activity recognition in a home setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kasteren, T.; Noulas, A.; Englebienne, G.; Kröse, B.

    2008-01-01

    A sensor system capable of automatically recognizing activities would allow many potential ubiquitous applications. In this paper, we present an easy to install sensor network and an accurate but inexpensive annotation method. A recorded dataset consisting of 28 days of sensor data and its

  7. Mixed carbonate-siliciclastic sedimentation on a tectonically active margin: Example from the Pliocene of Baja California Sur, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, Rebecca J.; Kidwell, Susan M.

    1999-10-01

    Bioclast-rich, coarse-grained deposits in the Pliocene Loreto basin provide a record of mixed carbonate and siliciclastic sedimentation at the steep hanging-wall margin of this small, fault-controlled basin. Sedimentary facies consist of sand- to gravel-sized carbonate debris mixed with volcaniclastic sand and gravel in a proximal to distal facies tract that includes matrix-rich and matrix-poor shelly conglomerate, impure calcirudite and calcarenite, mixed-composition turbidites, and bioturbated calcarenitic sandstone. Carbonate material was produced by mollusks and other benthic organisms on a narrow, high-energy shelf and mixed with volcaniclastic sand and gravel in cross-shelf channels. These mixtures were transported down a steep subaqueous slope by debris flows, grain flows, and turbidity currents, forming foresets and bottomsets of marine Gilbert-type deltas. This style of mixed carbonate-siliciclastic sedimentation has not been documented in detail elsewhere but should be locally abundant in the stratigraphic record of fault-bounded basins, particularly those with cool or nutrient-rich waters that support relatively few binding and framework-building faunas. Recognition of similar facies in other settings can provide useful insights into ancient conditions of carbonate production, oceanography, climate, and tectonics.

  8. Early Permian intrusions of the Alai range: Understanding tectonic settings of Hercynian post-collisional magmatism in the South Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopelko, D.; Wilde, S. A.; Seltmann, R.; Romer, R. L.; Biske, Yu. S.

    2018-03-01

    We present geochemical and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotope data as well as the results of single grain U-Pb zircon dating for ten granitoid and alkaline intrusions of the Alai segment of Kyrgyz South Tien Shan (STS). The intrusions comprise four geochemically contrasting series or suites, including (1) I-type and (2) shoshonitic granitoids, (3) peraluminous granitoids including S-type leucogranites and (4) alkaline rocks and carbonatites, closely associated in space. New geochronological data indicate that these diverse magmatic series of the Alai segment formed in a post-collisional setting. Five single grain U-Pb zircon ages in the range 287-281 Ma, in combination with published ages, define the main post-collisional magmatic pulse at 290-280 Ma, which is similar to ages of post-collisional intrusions elsewhere in the STS. An age of 287 ± 4 Ma, obtained for peraluminous graniodiorite of the Liayliak massif, emplaced in amphibolite-facies metamorphic rocks of the Zeravshan-Alai block, is indistinguishable from ca. 290 Ma age of peraluminous granitoids emplaced coevally with Barrovian-type metamorphism in the Garm block, located ca. 40 km south-west of the research area. The Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic compositions of the studied intrusions are consistent with the reworking of crustal material with 1.6-1.1 Ga average crustal residence times, indicating the formation of the Alai segment on a continental basement with Mesoproterozoic or older crust. The pattern of post-collisional magmatism in the Alai segment, characterized by emplacement of I-type and shoshoninitic granitoids in combination with coeval Barrovian-type metamorphism, is markedly different from the pattern of post-collisional magmatism in the adjacent Kokshaal segment of the STS with predominant A-type granitoids that formed on a former passive margin of the Tarim Craton. We suggest that during the middle-late Carboniferous the Alai segment probably comprised a microcontinent with Precambrian basement located between

  9. Remote sensing as a preliminary analysis for the detection of active tectonic structures: an application to the Albanian orogenic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Favretto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available As is well known, both the traditional direct geological and geophysical survey methods used to identify geologic features are very expensive and time-consuming procedures. In this regard, remote sensing methods applied to multispectral and medium spatial resolution satellite images allow a more focused approach with respect to the more specific geologic methods. This is achieved by a preliminary land inspection carried out by the semi-automated analysis of satellite imagery. This avoids wasting resources as the geological/geophysical survey methods can be later applied only to those zones suspected of having certain tectonic activity (derived by the remotely sensed imagery. This paper will evaluate an ASTER sensor satellite image (and its derived Digital Elevation Model or DEM, in order to point out the suspected presence of active geologic structures (faults. The area in question is west – central Albania. The results of the remote sensing procedures are later compared with the established data for the same area taken by satellite images, in order to verify the reliability of the adopted method. The source of the established data has been from the bibliography.

  10. Predictive Active Set Selection Methods for Gaussian Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henao, Ricardo; Winther, Ole

    2012-01-01

    We propose an active set selection framework for Gaussian process classification for cases when the dataset is large enough to render its inference prohibitive. Our scheme consists of a two step alternating procedure of active set update rules and hyperparameter optimization based upon marginal...... high impact to the classifier decision process while removing those that are less relevant. We introduce two active set rules based on different criteria, the first one prefers a model with interpretable active set parameters whereas the second puts computational complexity first, thus a model...... with active set parameters that directly control its complexity. We also provide both theoretical and empirical support for our active set selection strategy being a good approximation of a full Gaussian process classifier. Our extensive experiments show that our approach can compete with state...

  11. A systematic overview of the coincidences of river sinuosity changes and tectonically active structures in the Pannonian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovszki, Judit; Székely, Balázs; Timár, Gábor

    2012-12-01

    As tectonic movements change the valley slope (low-gradient reaches of valleys, in sedimentary basins), the alluvial rivers, as sensitive indicators, respond to these changes, by varying their courses to accommodate this forcing. In our study sinuosity values, a commonly used characteristic parameter to detect river pattern changes, were studied for the major rivers in the Pannonian Basin in order to reveal neotectonic influence on their planform shape. Our study area comprises the entire Pannonian Basin (330,000 km2) located in eastern Central-Europe, bounded by the Alps, Carpathians and Dinarides. The studied rivers were mostly in their natural meandering state before the main river regulations of the 19th century. The last quasi-natural, non-regulated river planforms were surveyed somewhat earlier, during the Second Military Survey of the Habsburg Empire. Using the digitized river sections of that survey, the sinuosities of the rivers were calculated with different sample section sizes ranging from 5 km to 80 km. Depending on the bank-full discharge, also a 'most representative' section size is given, which can be connected to the neotectonic activity. In total, the meandering reaches of 28 rivers were studied; their combined length is 7406 km. The places where the river sinuosity changed were compared to the structural lines of the "Atlas of the present-day geodynamics of the Pannonian Basin" (Horváth et al., 2006). 36 junctions along 26 structural lines were identified where the fault lines of this neotectonic map crossed the rivers. Across these points the mean sinuosity changed. Depending on the direction of the relative vertical movements, the sinuosity values increased or decreased. There were some points, where the sinuosity changed in an opposite way. Along these sections, the rivers belong to the range of unorganized meandering or there are lithological margins. Assuming that the rivers indicate on-going faulting accurately, some places were found

  12. Damping scaling factors for elastic response spectra for shallow crustal earthquakes in active tectonic regions: "average" horizontal component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaeian, Sanaz; Bozorgnia, Yousef; Idriss, I.M.; Abrahamson, Norman; Campbell, Kenneth; Silva, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) for elastic response spectra are typically developed at a 5% viscous damping ratio. In reality, however, structural and nonstructural systems can have other damping ratios. This paper develops a new model for a damping scaling factor (DSF) that can be used to adjust the 5% damped spectral ordinates predicted by a GMPE for damping ratios between 0.5% to 30%. The model is developed based on empirical data from worldwide shallow crustal earthquakes in active tectonic regions. Dependencies of the DSF on potential predictor variables, such as the damping ratio, spectral period, ground motion duration, moment magnitude, source-to-site distance, and site conditions, are examined. The strong influence of duration is captured by the inclusion of both magnitude and distance in the DSF model. Site conditions show weak influence on the DSF. The proposed damping scaling model provides functional forms for the median and logarithmic standard deviation of DSF, and is developed for both RotD50 and GMRotI50 horizontal components. A follow-up paper develops a DSF model for vertical ground motion.

  13. Petrology of the Porriño late-Variscan pluton from NW Iberia. A model for post-tectonic plutons in collisional settings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González Menéndez, L.; Gallastegui, G.; Cuesta, A.; Montero, P.; Rubio-Ordoñez, A.; Molina, J.F.; Bea, F.

    2017-07-01

    The Variscan orogen of NW Iberia contains abundant syn- and post-tectonic granitoids. The post-tectonic granitoids are metaluminous to slightly peraluminous, I-type granites, monzogranites ± granodiorites ± tonalites. The Porriño pluton studied here is a representative example. It consists of two units: i) a pink-red, peraluminous, biotite granite and ii) a gray, metaluminous to peraluminous, biotite (± amphibole ± titanite) monzogranite, including maficintermediate enclaves. SHRIMP U-Pb dating yielded 290-295Ma ages for all the units. The mineralogy and geochemistry show that the pink-red granite has features of I- and A-type granites, whereas the gray monzogranite and enclaves are I-types. Sr isotopes show scattered values for the pink-red granite (87Sr/86Sr295Ma ≈ 0.702-0.710) and uniform values for the gray monzogranite and enclaves (87Sr/86Sr295Ma≈ 0.705-0.706). Geochemical results indicate a peritectic entrainment of clinopyroxene + orthopyroxene ± Ca-plagioclase ± ilmenite ± garnet, and minor accessory phases (± zircon ± titanite ± apatite) into a melt similar to the leucocratic gray monzogranite. A mafic-intermediate source is proposed for the gray monzogranite and its enclaves. Restitic protoliths generated granitic melts with A-type features such as the pink-red granite. The I-type nature of many post-tectonic granitoids could be explained by the previous extraction of S-type syn-tectonic granites that left restites and less fertile rocks. Late orogenic new melting affected the previously unmelted and more mafic lithologies of the lower-middle crust, and gave rise to I-type granitoids. Repeated melting events affecting such lithologies and previous restites could have generated granitic melts with A-type features.

  14. Active tectonics in the Mygdonia basin (northern Greece): a combined seismological and remote-sensed geomorphology approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkarlaouni, Charikleia; Andreani, Louis; Pennos, Chris; Gloaguen, Richard; Papadimitriou, Eleftheria; Kilias, Adamantios; Michail, Maria

    2014-05-01

    In Greek mainland, active extensional deformation resulted in the development of numerous seismogenic E- to SE-trending basins. The Mygdonia graben located in central Macedonia produced major historical earthquakes and poses a serious threat to the neighbouring city of Thessaloniki. Our aim is to determine which active seismic sources have the potential to generate strong events. Active tectonics shape the landscape, control the evolution of the fluvial network and cause the occurrence of strong and frequent earthquakes generated by fault populations. Thus, our approach combined both seismology and remote-sensed geomorphology. Seismological investigation and more especially relocation analysis was performed for recent seismicity in the area (2000-2012). Low magnitude earthquakes not exceeding 4.8 constitute the seismicity pattern for this period. Accurately determined focal parameters indicate that seismicity is not only localized along major fault zones. Smaller faults seem also to be activated. Temporal and spatial investigation show that seismicity is clustered and seismic bursts often migrate to adjacent faults. The hypocentral distribution of precisely determined microearthquake foci reveals the existence of high-angle (> 60º) normal faults dipping both south and north. This is consistent with fault plane solutions of stronger earthquakes. The largest amount of earthquakes is generated along the NW-SE sub-basin bounded from "Assiros-Analipsi" and "Lagina" fault zone, as well as in "Sochos" fault in the north which dips with approximately 70º-80º to the south. All these structures played an important role in the seismotectonic evolution of the area. We used geomorphic indices in order to analyse the landscapes of the Mygdonia region. Geomorphic indices were derived from DEM and computed using MATLAB scripts. We classified the landscapes according to their erosional stages using hypsometric integral and surface roughness. Both indices suggest stronger erosion

  15. A New Sulfur and Carbon Degassing Inventory for the Southern Central American Volcanic Arc: The Importance of Accurate Time-Series Data Sets and Possible Tectonic Processes Responsible for Temporal Variations in Arc-Scale Volatile Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moor, J. M.; Kern, C.; Avard, G.; Muller, C.; Aiuppa, A.; Saballos, A.; Ibarra, M.; LaFemina, P.; Protti, M.; Fischer, T. P.

    2017-12-01

    This work presents a new database of SO2 and CO2 fluxes from the Southern Central American Volcanic Arc (SCAVA) for the period 2015-2016. We report ˜300 SO2 flux measurements from 10 volcanoes and gas ratios from 11 volcanoes in Costa Rica and Nicaragua representing the most extensive available assessment of this ˜500 km arc segment. The SO2 flux from SCAVA is estimated at 6,240 ± 1,150 T/d, about a factor of three higher than previous estimations (1972-2013). We attribute this increase in part to our more complete assessment of the arc. Another consideration in interpreting the difference is the context of increased volcanic activity, as there were more eruptions in 2015-2016 than in any period since ˜1980. A potential explanation for increased degassing and volcanic activity is a change in crustal stress regime (from compression to extension, opening volcanic conduits) following two large (Mw > 7) earthquakes in the region in 2012. The CO2 flux from the arc is estimated at 22,500 ± 4,900 T/d, which is equal to or greater than estimates of C input into the SCAVA subduction zone. Time-series data sets for arc degassing need to be improved in temporal and spatial coverage to robustly constrain volatile budgets and tectonic controls. Arc volatile budgets are strongly influenced by short-lived degassing events and arc systems likely display significant short-term variations in volatile output, calling for expansion of nascent geochemical monitoring networks to achieve spatial and temporal coverage similar to traditional geophysical networks.

  16. Fault morphology of the lyo Fault, the Median Tectonic Line Active Fault System

    OpenAIRE

    後藤, 秀昭

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, we investigated the various fault features of the lyo fault and depicted fault lines or detailed topographic map. The results of this paper are summarized as follows; 1) Distinct evidence of the right-lateral movement is continuously discernible along the lyo fault. 2) Active fault traces are remarkably linear suggesting that the angle of fault plane is high. 3) The lyo fault can be divided into four segments by jogs between left-stepping traces. 4) The mean slip rate is 1.3 ~ ...

  17. Estimates of late Cenozoic climate change relevant to Earth surface processes in tectonically active orogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutz, Sebastian G.; Ehlers, Todd A.; Werner, Martin; Lohmann, Gerrit; Stepanek, Christian; Li, Jingmin

    2018-04-01

    The denudation history of active orogens is often interpreted in the context of modern climate gradients. Here we address the validity of this approach and ask what are the spatial and temporal variations in palaeoclimate for a latitudinally diverse range of active orogens? We do this using high-resolution (T159, ca. 80 × 80 km at the Equator) palaeoclimate simulations from the ECHAM5 global atmospheric general circulation model and a statistical cluster analysis of climate over different orogens (Andes, Himalayas, SE Alaska, Pacific NW USA). Time periods and boundary conditions considered include the Pliocene (PLIO, ˜ 3 Ma), the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, ˜ 21 ka), mid-Holocene (MH, ˜ 6 ka), and pre-industrial (PI, reference year 1850). The regional simulated climates of each orogen are described by means of cluster analyses based on the variability in precipitation, 2 m air temperature, the intra-annual amplitude of these values, and monsoonal wind speeds where appropriate. Results indicate the largest differences in the PI climate existed for the LGM and PLIO climates in the form of widespread cooling and reduced precipitation in the LGM and warming and enhanced precipitation during the PLIO. The LGM climate shows the largest deviation in annual precipitation from the PI climate and shows enhanced precipitation in the temperate Andes and coastal regions for both SE Alaska and the US Pacific Northwest. Furthermore, LGM precipitation is reduced in the western Himalayas and enhanced in the eastern Himalayas, resulting in a shift of the wettest regional climates eastward along the orogen. The cluster-analysis results also suggest more climatic variability across latitudes east of the Andes in the PLIO climate than in other time slice experiments conducted here. Taken together, these results highlight significant changes in late Cenozoic regional climatology over the last ˜ 3 Myr. Comparison of simulated climate with proxy-based reconstructions for the MH and

  18. Active tectonics of the Seattle fault and central Puget sound, Washington - Implications for earthquake hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S.Y.; Dadisman, S.V.; Childs, J. R.; Stanley, W.D.

    1999-01-01

    We use an extensive network of marine high-resolution and conventional industry seismic-reflection data to constrain the location, shallow structure, and displacement rates of the Seattle fault zone and crosscutting high-angle faults in the Puget Lowland of western Washington. Analysis of seismic profiles extending 50 km across the Puget Lowland from Lake Washington to Hood Canal indicates that the west-trending Seattle fault comprises a broad (4-6 km) zone of three or more south-dipping reverse faults. Quaternary sediment has been folded and faulted along all faults in the zone but is clearly most pronounced along fault A, the northernmost fault, which forms the boundary between the Seattle uplift and Seattle basin. Analysis of growth strata deposited across fault A indicate minimum Quaternary slip rates of about 0.6 mm/yr. Slip rates across the entire zone are estimated to be 0.7-1.1 mm/yr. The Seattle fault is cut into two main segments by an active, north-trending, high-angle, strike-slip fault zone with cumulative dextral displacement of about 2.4 km. Faults in this zone truncate and warp reflections in Tertiary and Quaternary strata and locally coincide with bathymetric lineaments. Cumulative slip rates on these faults may exceed 0.2 mm/yr. Assuming no other crosscutting faults, this north-trending fault zone divides the Seattle fault into 30-40-km-long western and eastern segments. Although this geometry could limit the area ruptured in some Seattle fault earthquakes, a large event ca. A.D. 900 appears to have involved both segments. Regional seismic-hazard assessments must (1) incorporate new information on fault length, geometry, and displacement rates on the Seattle fault, and (2) consider the hazard presented by the previously unrecognized, north-trending fault zone.

  19. Scaling and spatial complementarity of tectonic earthquake swarms

    KAUST Repository

    Passarelli, Luigi

    2017-11-10

    Tectonic earthquake swarms (TES) often coincide with aseismic slip and sometimes precede damaging earthquakes. In spite of recent progress in understanding the significance and properties of TES at plate boundaries, their mechanics and scaling are still largely uncertain. Here we evaluate several TES that occurred during the past 20 years on a transform plate boundary in North Iceland. We show that the swarms complement each other spatially with later swarms discouraged from fault segments activated by earlier swarms, which suggests efficient strain release and aseismic slip. The fault area illuminated by earthquakes during swarms may be more representative of the total moment release than the cumulative moment of the swarm earthquakes. We use these findings and other published results from a variety of tectonic settings to discuss general scaling properties for TES. The results indicate that the importance of TES in releasing tectonic strain at plate boundaries may have been underestimated.

  20. Tectonics control over instability of volcanic edifices in transtensional tectonic regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norini, G.; Capra, L.; Lagmay, A. M. F.; Manea, M.; Groppelli, G.

    2009-04-01

    We present the results of analogue modeling designed to investigate the interactions between volcanic edifices and transtensional basement faulting. Three sets of experiments were run to account for three examples of stratovolcanoes in active transtensive tectonics regimes, the Nevado de Toluca and Jocotitlan volcanoes in Mexico, and the Mayon volcano in the Philippines. All these volcanoes show different behavior and relationship among volcanism, instability of the volcanic edifice, and basement tectonics. Field geological and structural data gave the necessary constrains to the models. The modeling apparatus consisted of a sand cone on a sheared basal layer. Injections of vegetable oil were used to model the rising of magma inside the deformed analogue cones. Set 1: In the case of a volcano directly on top of a basal transtensive shear producing a narrow graben, as observed on the Nevado de Toluca volcano, the analogue models reveal a strong control of the basement faulting on the magma migration path and the volcano instability. Small lateral collapses are directed parallel to the basal shear and affect a limited sector of the cone. Set 2: If the graben generated by transtensive tectonics is bigger in respect to the volcanic edifice and the volcano sits on one boundary fault, as in the case of Mayon volcano, the combined normal and transcurrent movements of the analogue basement fault generate a sigmoidal structure in the sand cone, inducing major sector collapses directed at approx 45° relative to the basement shear toward the downthrown block. Set 3: For volcanoes located near major transtensive faults, as the Jocotitlan volcano, analogue modelling shows an important control of the regional tectonics on the geometry of the fractures and migration paths of magma inside the cone. These structures render unstable the flanks of the volcano and promote sector collapses perpendicular to the basement shear and directed toward the graben formed by the transtensive

  1. Seismic structure of the western U.S. mantle and its relation to regional tectonic and magmatic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmandt, Brandon

    Vigorous convective activity in the western U.S. mantle has long been inferred from the region's widespread intra-plate crustal deformation, volcanism, and high elevations, but the specific form of convective activity and the degree and nature of lithospheric involvement have been strongly debated. I design a seismic travel-time tomography method and implement it with seismic data from the EarthScope Transportable Array and complementary arrays to constrain three-dimensional seismic structure beneath the western U.S. Tomographic images of variations in compressional velocity, shear velocity, and the ratio of shear to compressional velocity in the western U.S. mantle to a depth of 1000 km are produced. Using these results I investigate mantle physical properties, Cenozoic subduction history, and the influence of small-scale lithospheric convection on regional tectonic and magmatic activity, with particular focus on southern California and the Pacific Northwest. This dissertation includes previously published co-authored material. Chapter II presents a travel-time tomography method I designed and first implemented with data from southern California and the surrounding southwestern U.S. The resulting images provide a new level of constraint on upper mantle seismic anomalies beneath the Transverse Ranges, southern Great Valley, Salton Trough, and southwestern Nevada volcanic field. Chapter III presents tomographic images of the western U.S. mantle, identifies upper mantle volumes where partial melt is probable, and discusses implications of the apparently widespread occurrence of gravitational instabilities of continental lithsophere and the complex geometry and buoyancy of subducted ocean lithosphere imaged beneath the western U.S. In Chapter IV, tomography images are used in conjunction with geologic constraints on major transitions in crustal deformation and magmatism to construct a model for Pacific Northwest evolution since the Cretaceous. Accretion in the Pacific

  2. Geological, petrogical and geochemical characteristics of granitoid rocks in Burma: with special reference to the associated WSn mineralization and their tectonic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaw, Khin

    . These central belt granitoids were formed from a calc-alkaline magma derived from a source of continental, sialic materials. Highly potassiccharacters and high initial Sr 87/Sr 86 ratios (0.717±0.002) and Rb/Sr ratios (0.40-33.10) with an average value of 6.70, further corroborate their derivation from a well established continental, sialic basement. Although future chemical and isotopic investigations would be desirable, none of the present evidence argues the interpretation that the granitoid magma was generated by the re-melting of the regionally metamorphosed country rocks. The close association of W-Sn bearing quartz veins and the granitoid rocks also suggests that the metals were derived from the same crustal sources as their host granitoids. The central belt granitoids are considered to have been emplaced during the continent-arc collision of inferred Upper Triassic-Jurassic magmatic-volcanic arc with the continental foreland to the east at the early stage of westward migration of the east-dipping subduction zone to the west. The W-Sn related, central belt granitoids of Upper Mesozoic-Lower Eocene are notably different from those of mainly Triassic granitoids from northern Thailand and Permo-Triassic granites of the Malay Peninsula, and thus the central belt granitoids were emplaced in a uniquely distinct geologic and tetonic setting in the SE Asian region. Major element data for the central belt granitoids, which are associated with W-Sn mineralization lie within the field of Sn-mineralizing granites from New England in Na-K-Ca plot (Juniper and Kleeman, J. Geochem. Explor.11, 321-333, 1979), but largely outside the field on SiO 2CaO +_MgO + FeONa 2O + K 2O + Al 2O 3 plot. Trace element abundances of the central belt granitoid rocks suggest that the Sn content of the granitoids alone should be used with great caution to discriminate the W-Sn bearing (mineralized) granitoid plutons from the W-Sn poor (barren) plutons in search for the W-Sn deposits in

  3. The Mw 5.4 Reggio Emilia 1996 earthquake: active compressional tectonics in the Po Plain, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaggi, G.; Ferulano, F.; Di Bona, M.; Frepoli, A.; Azzara, R.; Basili, A.; Chiarabba, C.; Ciaccio, M. G.; Di Luccio, F.; Lucente, F. P.; Margheriti, L.; Nostro, C.

    2001-01-01

    We have analysed the seismic sequence that occurred in October 1996 near the town of Reggio Emilia on the southern edge of the Po Plain. The onset of the sequence was marked by a 5.4 moment magnitude main shock, located at 15km depth. The main-shock focal mechanism is a reverse solution with a strike-slip component and the scalar moment is 1.46×1017Nm. We used broad-band digital recordings from a borehole station, located at about 70km from the epicentre, for a spectral analysis in order to estimate attenuation and source parameters for the main shock. In addition, the empirical Green's function method has been applied to evaluate the source time function in terms of both moment rate and stress rate. We infer an asperity-like rupture process for the main shock, as suggested by the short duration of the stress release with respect to the overall duration of the moment rate function. This analysis also allows us to estimate the average dynamic stress drop of the main shock (600bar). We analysed the digital recordings of the temporary local seismic network deployed after the main shock and of a permanent local network maintained by the Italian Petroleum Agency (AGIP). During 15days of field experiments, we recorded more than 800 aftershocks, which delineate a 9km long, NE-elongated distribution, confined between 12 and 15km depth, suggesting that the basement is involved in the deformation processes. 102 focal mechanism of aftershocks have been computed from P-wave polarities, showing mainly pure reverse solutions. We calculate the principal stress axes from a selected population of earthquakes providing a constraint on the stress regime of this part of the Po Plain. The focal mechanisms are consistent with a N-S subhorizontal σ1. All the seismological data we have analysed confirm that this region is undergoing active compressional tectonics, as already inferred from recent earthquakes, geomorphological data and other stress indicators. Moreover, the elongation of

  4. Active tectonics of the onshore Hengchun Fault using UAS DSM combined with ALOS PS-InSAR time series (Southern Taiwan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deffontaines, Benoit; Chang, Kuo-Jen; Champenois, Johann; Lin, Kuan-Chuan; Lee, Chyi-Tyi; Chen, Rou-Fei; Hu, Jyr-Ching; Magalhaes, Samuel

    2018-03-01

    Characterizing active faults and quantifying their activity are major concerns in Taiwan, especially following the major Chichi earthquake on 21 September 1999. Among the targets that still remain poorly understood in terms of active tectonics are the Hengchun and Kenting faults (Southern Taiwan). From a geodynamic point of view, the faults affect the outcropping top of the Manila accretionary prism of the Manila subduction zone that runs from Luzon (northern Philippines) to Taiwan. In order to better locate and quantify the location and quantify the activity of the Hengchun Fault, we start from existing geological maps, which we update thanks to the use of two products derived from unmanned aircraft system acquisitions: (1) a very high precision (the studied area. Moreover, the superimposition of the resulting structural sketch map with new Persistent Scatterer Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PS-InSAR) results obtained from PALSAR ALOS images, validated by Global Positioning System (GPS) and leveling data, allows the characterization and quantification of the surface displacements during the monitoring period (2007-2011). We confirm herein the geometry, characterization and quantification of the active Hengchun Fault deformation, which acts as an active left-lateral transpressive fault. As the Hengchun ridge was the location of one of the last major earthquakes in Taiwan (26 December 2006, depth: 44 km, ML = 7.0), Hengchun Peninsula active tectonics must be better constrained in order if possible to prevent major destructions in the near future.

  5. PASS-GP: Predictive active set selection for Gaussian processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henao, Ricardo; Winther, Ole

    2010-01-01

    available in GPs to make a common ranking for both active and inactive points, allowing points to be removed again from the active set. This is important for keeping the complexity down and at the same time focusing on points close to the decision boundary. We lend both theoretical and empirical support...

  6. Deformation bands, early markers of tectonic activity in front of a fold-and-thrust belt: Example from the Tremp-Graus basin, southern Pyrenees, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Romain; Robion, Philippe; Souloumiac, Pauline; David, Christian; Saillet, Elodie

    2018-05-01

    Strain localization in a porous calcarenite facies of the Aren formation in the Tremp basin was studied. This Maastrichtian syn-tectonic formation exposed in front of the Boixols thrust, in the Central South Pyrenean Zone, hosts bedding perpendicular deformation bands. These bands are organized in two major band sets, striking East-West and N-020 respectively. Both populations formed during early deformation stages linked to the growth of the fold and thrust. A magnetic fabric study (Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility, AMS) was carried out to constrain the shortening direction responsible for the deformation bands development during the upper Cretaceous-Paleocene N-S contraction in the region, which allowed us to define populations of Pure Compaction Bands (PCB) and Shear Enhanced Compaction Bands (SECB) regarding their orientations compared to the shortening direction. Both sets are formed by cataclastic deformation, but more intense in the case of SECBs, which are also thinner than PCBs. The initial pore space is both mechanically reduced and chemically filled by several cementation phases. We propose a geomechanical model based on the regional context of layer parallel shortening, thrusting and strike-slip tectonics considering the burial history of the formation, in order to explain the development of both types of bands at remarkably shallow depths.

  7. Fault displacement along the Naruto-South fault, the Median Tectonic Line active fault system in the eastern part of Shikoku, southwestern Japan

    OpenAIRE

    高田, 圭太; 中田, 高; 後藤, 秀昭; 岡田, 篤正; 原口, 強; 松木, 宏彰

    1998-01-01

    The Naruto-South fault is situated of about 1000m south of the Naruto fault, the Median Tectonic Line active fault system in the eastern part of Shikoku. We investigated fault topography and subsurface geology of this fault by interpretation of large scale aerial photographs, collecting borehole data and Geo-Slicer survey. The results obtained are as follows; 1) The Naruto-South fault runs on the Yoshino River deltaic plain at least 2.5 km long with fault scarplet. the Naruto-South fault is o...

  8. Transition from strike-slip faulting to oblique subduction: active tectonics at the Puysegur Margin, South New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamarche, Geoffroy; Lebrun, Jean-Frédéric

    2000-01-01

    series of transpressional faults that splay northwards across the Snares Fault, and terminate at the top of the Puysegur trench slope. Between ca. 48°S and 46°30'S, the relative plate motion appears to be distributed over the Puysegur subduction zone and the strike-slip faults located on the edge of the upper plate. Conversely, north of ca. 46°S, a lack of active strike-slip faulting along the MFS and across most of Puysegur Bank indicates that the subduction in the northern part of Puysegur Trench accounts for most of the oblique convergence. Hence, active transpression in the Snares fault zone indicates that the relative PAC-AUS plate motion is transferred from strike-slip faulting along the Puysegur Fault to subduction at Puysegur Trench. The progressive transition from thrusts at Puysegur Trench and strike-slip faulting at the Puysegur Fault to oblique subduction at Puysegur Trench suggests that the subduction interface progressively developed from a western shallow splay of the Puysegur Fault. It implies that the transfer fault links the subduction interface at depth. A tectonic sliver is identified between Puysegur Trench and the Puysegur Fault. Its northwards motion relative to the Pacific Plate implies that is might collide with Puysegur Bank.

  9. Tok-Algoma magmatic complex of the Selenga-Stanovoi Superterrain in the Central Asian fold belt: Age and tectonic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotov, A. B.; Larin, A. M.; Salnikova, E. B.; Velikoslavinskii, S. D.; Sorokin, A. A.; Sorokin, A. P.; Yakovleva, S. Z.; Anisimova, I. V.; Tolmacheva, E. V.

    2012-05-01

    According to the results of U-Pb geochronological investigations, the hornblende subalkali diorite rocks making up the Tok-Algoma Complex in the eastern part of the Selenga-Stanovoi Superterrain of the Central Asian fold belt were formed in the Middle Jurassic rather than in the Middle Archean as was suggested previously. Thus, the age of the regional amphibolite facies metamorphism manifested itself in the Ust'-Gilyui rock sequence of the Stanovoi Complex and that superimposed on granitoids of the Tok-Algoma Complex is Mesozoic rather than Early Precambrian. The geochemical features of the Tok-Algoma granitoids are indicative of the fact that they were formed in the geodynamic setting of the active continental margin or a mature island arc. Hence, it is possible to suggest that the subduction processes along the southern boundary between the Selenga-Stanovoi Superterrain and the Mongolian-Okhotsk ocean basin in the Middle Jurassic resulted in the formation of a magmatic belt of over 500 km in length.

  10. A brief study on the imprints of seismo tectonic activities in the crust of central and southern Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, K.V.L.N.S.; Subrahmanyam, A; Subrahmanyam, V.; Murty, G.P.S.; Rao, K.M.

    .Previousresults indicate that IT Imprintsof seismo tectonicactivities inthe crustof pans of Bay of Bengal --~ . i' . " " "'. ,. Fig.S. Sarellirederil'ed gral'iry allomaly data of Hm' of BellRalsho'A'i1ll!the imprillls of cru.\\.talstructure alld glm'in' lows (After Salld.... - April 2007. Vol. XXVIII '\\10.1& 2 pp 55 to 62 A BRIEF STUDY ON IMPRINTS OF SEISMO TECTONIC ,\\CTIVITIES IN THE CRUST OF CENTRAL AND SOUTHERN BAY OF BENGAL K.V.L.N.S.Sarma,A.S. Subrahmanyam, V.Subrahmanyam, G.P.S. Murty and K. Mohana Rao Nationallll...

  11. Transformation of graphite by tectonic and hydrothermal processes in an active plate boundary fault zone, Alpine Fault, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirilova, Matina; Toy, Virginia; Timms, Nicholas; Halfpenny, Angela; Menzies, Catriona; Craw, Dave; Rooney, Jeremy; Giorgetti, Carolina

    2017-04-01

    Graphite is a material with one of the lowest frictional strengths, with coefficient of friction of 0.1 and thus in natural fault zones it may act as a natural solid lubricant. Graphitization, or the transformation of organic matter (carbonaceous material, or CM) into crystalline graphite, is induced by compositional and structural changes during diagenesis and metamorphism. The supposed irreversible nature of this process has allowed the degree of graphite crystallinity to be calibrated as an indicator of the peak temperatures reached during progressive metamorphism. We examine processes of graphite emplacement and deformation in the Alpine Fault Zone, New Zealand's active continental tectonic plate boundary. Raman spectrometry indicates that graphite in the distal, amphibolite-facies Alpine Schist, which experienced peak metamorphic temperatures up to 640 ◦C, is highly crystalline and occurs mainly along grain boundaries within quartzo-feldspathic domains. The subsequent mylonitisation in the Alpine Fault Zone resulted in progressive reworking of CM under lower temperature conditions (500◦C-600◦C) in a structurally controlled environment, resulting in spatial clustering in lower-strain protomylonites, and further foliation-alignment in higher-strain mylonites. Subsequent brittle deformation of the mylonitised schists resulted in cataclasites that contain over three-fold increase in the abundance of graphite than mylonites. Furthermore, cataclasites contain graphite with two different habits: highly-crystalline, foliated forms that are inherited mylonitic graphite; and lower-crystallinity, less mature patches of finer-grained graphite. The observed graphite enrichment and the occurrence of poorly-organised graphite in the Alpine Fault cataclasites could result from: i) hydrothermal precipitation from carbon-supersaturated fluids; and/or ii) mechanical degradation by structural disordering of mylonitic graphite combined with strain-induced graphite

  12. Fault kinematics and tectonic stress in the seismically active Manyara Dodoma Rift segment in Central Tanzania Implications for the East African Rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macheyeki, Athanas S.; Delvaux, Damien; De Batist, Marc; Mruma, Abdulkarim

    2008-07-01

    The Eastern Branch of the East African Rift System is well known in Ethiopia (Main Ethiopian Rift) and Kenya (Kenya or Gregory Rift) and is usually considered to fade away southwards in the North Tanzanian Divergence, where it splits into the Eyasi, Manyara and Pangani segments. Further towards the south, rift structures are more weakly expressed and this area has not attracted much attention since the mapping and exploratory works of the 1950s. In November 4, 2002, an earthquake of magnitude Mb = 5.5 struck Dodoma, the capital city of Tanzania. Analysis of modern digital relief, seismological and geological data reveals that ongoing tectonic deformation is presently affecting a broad N-S trending belt, extending southward from the North Tanzanian Divergence to the region of Dodoma, forming the proposed "Manyara-Dodoma Rift segment". North of Arusha-Ngorongoro line, the rift is confined to a narrow belt (Natron graben in Tanzania) and south of it, it broadens into a wide deformation zone which includes both the Eyasi and Manyara grabens. The two-stage rifting model proposed for Kenya and North Tanzania also applies to the Manyara-Dodoma Rift segment. In a first stage, large, well-expressed topographic and volcanogenic structures were initiated in the Natron, Eyasi and Manyara grabens during the Late Miocene to Pliocene. From the Middle Pleistocene onwards, deformations related to the second rifting stage propagated southwards to the Dodoma region. These young structures have still limited morphological expressions compared to the structures formed during the first stage. However, they appear to be tectonically active as shown by the high concentration of moderate earthquakes into earthquake swarms, the distribution of He-bearing thermal springs, the morphological freshness of the fault scarps, and the presence of open surface fractures. Fault kinematic and paleostress analysis of geological fault data in basement rocks along the active fault lines show that recent

  13. The Tectonic Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Anne Marie Due

    has the consequence that it is difficult to create architecture where the technical concerns are an inherent part of the architectural expression. The aim of the thesis is to discuss the role of digital tools in overcoming the distance between the professional specializations and thereby support...... a tectonic practice. The project develops a framework to understand the role of digital tools in the tectonic practice from and discusses how and in which areas the tectonic practice could become supported by digital tools....

  14. Geomorphology, tectonics, and exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabins, F. F., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Explorationists interpret satellite images for tectonic features and patterns that may be clues to mineral and energy deposits. The tectonic features of interest range in scale from regional (sedimentary basins, fold belts) to local (faults, fractures) and are generally expressed as geomorphic features in remote sensing images. Explorationists typically employ classic concepts of geomorphology and landform analysis for their interpretations, which leads to the question - Are there new and evolving concepts in geomorphology that may be applicable to tectonic analyses of images?

  15. Towards a Tectonic Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvejsel, Marie Frier; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Mortensen, Sophie Bondgaard

    2015-01-01

    through this transformation is inevitably a tectonic question. By analyzing three historical examples, Adolf Loos’ Villa Moller, Le Corbusier’s Unité d’Habitation, and Frank Lloyd Wright’s Johnson Wax Administration Building, chosen for their tectonic ability to exploit the technical ‘principle’ defining...

  16. Tracking Activities in Complex Settings Using Smart Environment Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Geetika; Cook, Diane J; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen

    2009-01-01

    The pervasive sensing technologies found in smart homes offer unprecedented opportunities for providing health monitoring and assistance to individuals experiencing difficulties living independently at home. A primary challenge that needs to be tackled to meet this need is the ability to recognize and track functional activities that people perform in their own homes and everyday settings. In this paper we look at approaches to perform real-time recognition of Activities of Daily Living. We enhance other related research efforts to develop approaches that are effective when activities are interrupted and interleaved. To evaluate the accuracy of our recognition algorithms we assess them using real data collected from participants performing activities in our on-campus smart apartment testbed.

  17. A comparative study on seismic response of two unstable rock slopes within same tectonic setting but different activity level

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kleinbrod, U.; Burjánek, Jan; Hugentobler, M.; Amann, F.; Fäh, D.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 211, č. 3 (2017), s. 1428-1448 ISSN 0956-540X Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : seismic noise * site effects * wave propagation Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure OBOR OECD: Volcanology Impact factor: 2.414, year: 2016

  18. Digital Tectonic Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Anne Marie Due

    2005-01-01

    Tectonics has been an inherent part of the architectural field since the Greek temples while the digital media is new to the field. This paper is built on the assumption that in the intermediate zone between the two there is a lot to be learned about architecture in general and the digital media...... in particular. A model of the aspects in the term tectonics – epresentation, ontology and culture – will be presented and used to discuss the current digital tools’ ability in tectonics. Furthermore it will be discussed what a digital tectonic tool is and could be and how a connection between the digital...... and tectonic could become a part of the architectural education....

  19. Factors for simultaneous rupture assessment of active fault. Part 1. Fault geometry and slip-distribution based on tectonic geomorphological and paleoseismological investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Toshinori; Ueta, Keiichi

    2012-01-01

    It is important to evaluate the magnitude of an earthquake caused by multiple active faults, taking into account the simultaneous effects. The simultaneity of adjacent active faults is often decided on the basis of geometric distances except for the cases in which paleoseismic records of these faults are well known. We have been studying the step area between the Nukumi fault and the Neodani fault, which appeared as consecutive ruptures in the 1891 Nobi earthquake, since 2009. The purpose of this study is to establish innovation in valuation technique of the simultaneity of adjacent active faults in addition to the techniques based on the paleoseismic record and the geometric distance. The present work is intended to clarify the distribution of tectonic geomorphology along the Nukumi fault and the Neodani fault by high-resolution interpretations of airborne LiDAR DEM and aerial photograph, and the field survey of outcrops and location survey. As a result of topographic survey, we found consecutive tectonic topography which is left lateral displacement of ridge and valley lines and reverse scarplets along these faults in dense vegetation area. We have found several new outcrops in this area where the surface ruptures of the 1891 Nobi earthquake have not been known. At the several outcrops, humic layer whose age is from 14th century to 19th century by 14C age dating was deformed by the active fault. We conclude that the surface rupture of Nukumi fault in the 1891 Nobi earthquake is continuous to 12km southeast of Nukumi village. In other words, these findings indicate that there is 10-12km parallel overlap zone between the surface rupture of the southeastern end of Nukumi fault and the northwestern end of Neodani fault. (author)

  20. ON TECTONIC PROBLEMS OF THE OKINAWA TROUGH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The Okinawa Trough is a very active tectonic zone at the margin of the Northwest Pacific and is typical of back-arc rifting at the young stage of tectonic evolution. Many scientists from Japan, China, Germany, France, the U.S.A. and Russia have done a lot of geologic and geophysical investigations there. It is well known that the Okinawa Trough is an active back-arc rift with extremely high heat flow, very strong hydrothermal circulation, strong volcanic and magmatic activity, frequent earthquakes, rapid subsidence and rifting, well-developed fault and central graben. But up to now, there are still some important tectonic problems about the Okinawa Trough that require clarification on some aspects such as the type of its crust, its forming time, its tectonic evolution, the distribution of its central grabens, the relationship between its high heat flow and tectonic activity. Based on the data obtained from seismic survey, geomagnetic and gravity measurements, submarine sampling and heat flow measurements in the last 15 years, the author discusses the following tectonic problems about the Okinawa Trough: (1) If the Okinawa Trough develops oceanic crust or not. (2) Is the South Okinawa Trough tectonically more active than the North Okinawa Trough with shallower water and few investigation data on it. (3) The formation time of the Okinawa Trough and its tectonic evolution. The Okinawa Trough has a very thin continental crust. Up to now, there is no evidence of oceanic crust in the Okinawa Trough. The North, Middle and South Okinawa Trough are all very strongly active areas. From 6 Ma B.P., the Okinawa Trough began to form. Since 2 Ma, the Okinawa Trough has been very active.

  1. ON TECTONIC PROBLEMS OF THE OKINAWA TROUGH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李乃胜

    2001-01-01

    The Okinawa Trough is a very active tectonic zone at the margin of the Northwest Pacific and is typical of back-arc rifting at the young stage of tectonic evolution. Many scientists from Japan,China, Germany, France, the U. S.A. and Russia have done a lot of geologic and geophysical investigations there. It is well known that the Okinawa Trough is an active back-arc rift with extremely high heat flow, very strong hydrothermal circulation, strong volcanic and magmatic activity, frequent earthquakes,rapid subsidence and rifting, well-developed fault and central graben. But up to now, there are still some important tectonic problems about the Okinawa Trough that require clarification on some aspects such as the type of its crust, its forming time, its tectonic evolution, the distribution of its central grabens, the relationship between its high heat flow and tectonic activity. Based on the data obtained from seismic sur-vey, geomagnetic and gravity measurements, submarine sampling and heat flow measurements in the last 15 years, the author discusses the following tectonic problems about the Okinawa Trough: (1) If the Okinawa Trough develops oceanic crust or not. (2) Is the South Okinawa Trough tectonically more active than the North Okinawa Trough with shallower water and few investigation data on it. (3) The formation time of the Okinawa Trough and its tectonic evolution. The Okinawa Trough has a very thin continental crust. Up to now, there is no evidence of oceanic crust in the Okinawa Trough. The North, Middle and South Okinawa Trough are all very strongly active areas. From 6 Ma B.P. , the Okinawa Trough began to form. Since 2 Ma, the Okinawa Trough has been very active.

  2. Tectonic activity as a significant source of crustal tetrafluoromethane emissions to the atmosphere: observations in groundwaters along the San Andreas Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeds, Daniel A.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Muhle, Jens; Weiss, Ray F.

    2015-01-01

    Tetrafluoromethane (CF4) concentrations were measured in 14 groundwater samples from the Cuyama Valley, Mil Potrero and Cuddy Valley aquifers along the Big Bend section of the San Andreas Fault System (SAFS) in California to assess whether tectonic activity in this region is a significant source of crustal CF4 to the atmosphere. Dissolved CF4 concentrations in all groundwater samples but one were elevated with respect to estimated recharge concentrations including entrainment of excess air during recharge (CreCre; ∼30 fmol kg−1 H2O), indicating subsurface addition of CF4 to these groundwaters. Groundwaters in the Cuyama Valley contain small CF4 excesses (0.1–9 times CreCre), which may be attributed to an in situ release from weathering and a minor addition of deep crustal CF4 introduced to the shallow groundwater through nearby faults. CF4 excesses in groundwaters within 200 m of the SAFS are larger (10–980 times CreCre) and indicate the presence of a deep crustal flux of CF4 that is likely associated with the physical alteration of silicate minerals in the shear zone of the SAFS. Extrapolating CF4 flux rates observed in this study to the full extent of the SAFS (1300 km × 20–100 km) suggests that the SAFS potentially emits (0.3–1)×10−1 kg(0.3–1)×10−1 kg CF4 yr−1 to the Earth's surface. For comparison, the chemical weathering of ∼7.5×104 km2∼7.5×104 km2 of granitic rock in California is estimated to release (0.019–3.2)×10−1 kg(0.019–3.2)×10−1 kg CF4 yr−1. Tectonic activity is likely an important, and potentially the dominant, driver of natural emissions of CF4 to the atmosphere. Variations in preindustrial atmospheric CF4 as observed in paleo-archives such as ice cores may therefore represent changes in both continental weathering and tectonic activity, including changes driven by variations in continental ice cover during glacial–interglacial transitions.

  3. Ore-lead isotopes and Grenville plate tectonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farquhar, R.M.; Fletcher, I.R.

    1980-01-01

    Recent advances in the 'whole earth' modelling of evolutionary processes of Pb isotopes shed light upon the origin of the metals found in various types of ore deposits. On the bases of these models and several recently published data sets, we believe that the ore deposits formed in various plate tectonic environments may carry 'isotopic fingerprints' which, when used with other characteristics such as mineral assemblages, may identify the depositional environments of many ore bodies. In the present study Pb-isotopic measurements have been made of a number of Precambrain mineralization types and localities throughout the Central Metasedimentary Belt of the Grenville Province. The data for individual deposits are at best ambiguous, but fall into two groups sufficiently distinctive to allow some degree of 'fingerprint' identification. Comparisons with data from other areas suggest that the major periods of sedimentation within the Central Metasedimentary Belt accompanied plate rifting and/or island arc tectonic activity, with most of the mineralized lead being derived from mantle sources. Detailed comparisons between the Grenville and other regions are uncertain, mainly because there are few detailed high-accuracy data sets from younger, tectonically unambiguous mineral occurrences. We suggest that once these data sets are availble, isotopic fingerprinting may become diagnostic for deposits ranging well back into the Precambrain

  4. A test of the hypothesis that impact-induced fractures are preferred sites for later tectonic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Sean C.; Duxbury, Elizabeth D.

    1987-01-01

    Impact cratering has been an important process in the solar system. The cratering event is generally accompanied by faulting in adjacent terrain. Impact-induced faults are nearly ubiquitous over large areas on the terrestrial planets. The suggestion is made that these fault systems, particularly those associated with the largest impact features are preferred sites for later deformation in response to lithospheric stresses generated by other processes. The evidence is a perceived clustering of orientations of tectonic features either radial or concentric to the crater or basin in question. An opportunity exists to test this suggestion more directly on Earth. The terrestrial continents contain more than 100 known or probable impact craters, with associated geological structures mapped to varying levels of detail. Prime facie evidence for reactivation of crater-induced faults would be the occurrence of earthquakes on these faults in response to the intraplate stress field. Either an alignment of epicenters with mapped fault traces or fault plane solutions indicating slip on a plane approximately coincident with that inferred for a crater-induced fault would be sufficient to demonstrate such an association.

  5. Dolerites of Svalbard, north-west Barents Sea Shelf: age, tectonic setting and significance for geotectonic interpretation of the High-Arctic Large Igneous Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán Pécskay

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The dolerites of Svalbard are mineralogically and geochemically homogeneous with geochemical features typical of continental within-plate tholeiites. Their geochemistry is similar to tholeiites belonging to a bimodal suite defined as the High-Arctic Large Igneous Province (HALIP. K–Ar dating of numerous dolerites sampled from many locations across Svalbard define a narrow time span of this magmatism from 125.5±3.6 to 78.3±2.6 Mya. Discrete peaks of intensive activity occurred at 115.3, 100.8, 91.3 and 78.5 Mya corresponding to (1 breakup of the continental crust and formation of an initial rift as a result of mantle plume activity, located in the southern part of the Alpha Ridge; (2 magmatic activity related to spreading along the Alpha Ridge that led to the development of the initial oceanic crust and (3 continuation of spreading along the Alpha Ridge and termination of magmatic activity related to HALIP (last two peaks at 91.3 and 78.5 Mya.

  6. Geochemistry of komatiites and basalts from the Rio das Velhas and Pitangui greenstone belts, São Francisco Craton, Brazil: Implications for the origin, evolution, and tectonic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Sanjeet K.; Oliveira, Elson P.; Silva, Paola M.; Moreno, Juan A.; Amaral, Wagner S.

    2017-07-01

    213 and the relationship between the Nb/Th and Th/Yb ratios indicate that there is no crustal contamination in the Pitangui greenstone basalts. New multi-dimensional discrimination diagrams and conventional normalized multi-element diagrams indicate an island arc (IA) setting for the komatiites and high-Mg basalts from the Rio das Velhas and a mid ocean-ridge (MOR) to IA setting for the basalts from the Pitangui greenstone belts.

  7. A multidisciplinary approach for the study of the effects of active tectonics along the North Anatolian fault zone: possibilities for the application of the electrical self potential method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Balderer

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this joint interdisciplinary project “Marmara” of ETH Zurich and the Istanbul Technical University (ITO are to study the effects of active tectonics as evidenced by geology, geodesy and seismology on hydrogeology and geothermics in selected areas along the North Anatolian fault zone. Within the framework of this project thermal water systems in seven different areas have been investigated or are under investigation up to now (SchindIer et al., 1993. For three study areas along the North Anatolian fault zone (from east to west of Kuzuluk/Adapazari, Bursa and of Canakkale the investigations with respect to the geological and hydrogeological features are complete. The now possible hydrogeological characterisation shows encouraging possibilities for the application of new methods like the electrical self potential method for the following reasons: 1 a fully interdisciplinary approach, including seismic survey with especially conceived network, geodetic survey to investigate tectonic movements by the GPS method, geothermic survey combined with geological mapping and hydrogeological investigations of normal mineral and thermal waters; 2 groundwaters of very different chemical and isotopical composition e.g.: Ca-HCO3-type thermal waters of up to 82 °C temperature and total mineralisation of 500 mg/I to 1500 mg/I in the Bursa area, Na-HCO3-type cold mineral waters of up to 2500 mg/I to thermal waters of same mineralisation of up to 80 °C temperature, containing large amounts of CO2 of up to 1 l per 1 kg of water (at surface conditions in the Kuzuluk area and Na-Cl-type waters presenting real thermal brines of up to 65 000 mg/I of total mineralisation and temperatures of up to 100 °C in the Canakkale area; 3 distinct types of hydrodynamic flow regime in areas of different geological and tectonic structure. Based on the results of the investigations within these areas the possibilities of further studies including self potential methods

  8. The Research of Tectonic Framework and the Fault Activity in Large Detachment Basin System on Northern Margin of South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, L., Sr.; Ren, J.

    2017-12-01

    The South China Sea (SCS) is one of the largest marginal sea on southeast Asia continental margin, developed Paleogene extension-rifting continental margin system which is rare in the world and preserving many deformed characterizes of this kind system. With the investigation of the SCS, guiding by the development of tectonics and geo-physics, especially the development of tectonics and the high quality seismic data based on the development of geo-physics, people gradually accept that the northern margin of the SCS has some detachment basin characterizes. After researching the northern margin of the SCS, we come up with lithosphere profiles across the shelf, slope and deep sea basin in the northeast of the SCS to confirm the tectonic style of ocean-continental transition and the property of the detachment fault. Furthermore, we describe the outline of large detachment basins at northern SCS. Based on the large number of high-quality 2D and 3D deep seismic profile(TWT,10s), drilling and logging data, combined with domestic and international relevant researches, using basin dynamics and tectono-stratigraphy theory, techniques and methods of geology and geophysics, qualitative and quantitative, we describe the formation of the detachment basin and calculate the fault activity rate, stretching factor and settlement. According to the research, we propose that there is a giant and complete detachment basin system in the northern SCS and suggest three conclusions. First of all, the detachment basin system can be divided into three domains: proximal domain covering the Yangjiang Sag, Shenhu uplift and part of Shunde Sag, necking zone covering part of the Shunde Sag and Heshan Sag, distal domain covering most part of Heshan Sag. Second, the difference of the stretching factor is observed along the three domains of the detachment basin system. The factor of the proximal domain is the minimum among them. On the other side, the distal domain is the maximum among them. This

  9. Crustal-scale shear zones recording 400 m.y. of tectonic activity in the North Caribou greenstone belt, western Superior Province of Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalbfleisch, Netasha

    A series of crustal-scale shear zones demarcates the northern and eastern margins of the North Caribou greenstone belt (NCGB), proximal to a Mesoarchean terrane boundary in the core of the western Superior Province of Canada. The dominant deformation produced a pervasive steeply dipping fabric that trends broadly parallel to the doubly arcuate shape of the belt and was responsible for tight folding the banded iron formation host to Goldcorp's prolific gold deposit at Musselwhite mine. The shear zones in the North Caribou greenstone belt are of particular interest because of their ability to channel hydrothermal fluids with the potential to bear ore and cause alteration of the middle to shallow crust. Shear zones are commonly reactivated during subsequent tectonism, but exhibit a consistent and dominant dextral shear sense across the belt; fabric-forming micas and chlorite are generally Mg-rich. Although garnets samples from within the shear zones are dominantly almandine, they possess variable geochemical trends (HREEs of >2 orders of magnitude) and can be syn-, intra-, or post-tectonic in origin. In situ geochronological analysis of zircon (U-Pb) and monazite (total-Pb) in high strain rocks in and around the NCGB, interpreted in light of in situ geochemical analysis of garnet and fabric-forming micas and chlorite, reveals four relatively discrete events that span 400 million years. Metamorphism of the mid-crust was coeval with magmatism during docking of the Island Lake domain at c. 2.86 Ga and subsequent terrane accretion at the north and south margins of the North Caribou Superterrane from c. 2.75 to 2.71 Ga. Transpressive shear at c. 2.60 to 2.56 Ga and late re-activation of shear zones at c. 2.44 Ga produced a steeply-dipping pervasive fabric, and channeled fluids for late crystallization of garnet and monazite recorded in the Markop Lake deformation zone. These observations implicate a horizontal tectonic model similar to the modern eastern Pacific plate

  10. Unraveling the tectonic evolution of a Neoproterozoic-Cambrian active margin in the Ribeira Orogen (Se Brazil): U-Pb and Lu-Hf provenance data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Gabriel Lamounier de F. [Servico Geologico do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (DRM-RJ), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Schmitt, Renata; Bongiolo, Everton M.; Mendes, Julio [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Basei, Miguel S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Full text: The Neoproterozoic-Ordovician Central Ribeira Orogen, in SE Brazil, presents two contrasting tectonic domains in its southern portion: (a) The Arc Domain constituted of Neoproterozoic to Paleozoic magmatic rocks and low P-high T metamorphic para (Sao Fidelis Group) - and ortho- derived units (in Oriental Terrane); and (b) The Basement Domain, constituted of a Paleoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic medium P-high T metamorphic para (Palmital-Buzios Succession)- and ortho-derived units (in Cabo Frio Tectonic Domain). Our work focuses on paraderived rocks sequences from both domains. The provenance analysis using U-Pb and Lu-Hf in zircon grains is presented here as an effective tool to unravel the paleogeography and nature of the pre-collisional sedimentary basins. We performed 505 analyses (U-Pb) on detrital zircon grains and some metamorphic overgrowths from six paragneiss samples. Besides, 141 analyses (Lu-Hf) in six samples only on the detrital zircon grains domains. All samples present a main peak from Neoproterozoic sources (750-570 Ma) and the other minor peak in the Stenian/Tonian periods (1200-850Ma), this indicate an orogenic contribution for this basin. Scarce register from the Mesoproterozoic and two peaks in the Archean/Paleoproterozoic (2.6 and 1.9 Ga) are recognized as a contribution from an ancient continent. The Lu-Hf data reveals a juvenile source for the detrital zircon grains from Buzios Succession while Palmital and Sao Fidelis Group units show a main crustal signature for their detrital zircon population. Based on the U-Pb and Lu-Hf data presented here, plus petrological data, geological correlations, and compilation of data from literature, we propose a tectonic model for the origin of para-derived rocks from the eastern part of the Ribeira Orogen. Starting with an extensional environment of ca. 600 Ma in a back-arc basin (Buzios succession deposition) and continuing as an active margin between 570 and 550 Ma in the fore-arc and prism

  11. Constraining fault activity by investigating tectonically-deformed Quaternary palaeoshorelines using a synchronous correlation method: the Capo D'Orlando Fault as a case study (NE Sicily, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meschis, Marco; Roberts, Gerald P.; Robertson, Jennifer

    2016-04-01

    Long-term curstal extension rates, accommodated by active normal faults, can be constrained by investigating Late Quaternary vertical movements. Sequences of marine terraces tectonically deformed by active faults mark the interaction between tectonic activity, sea-level changes and active faulting throughout the Quaternary (e.g. Armijo et al., 1996, Giunta et al, 2011, Roberts et al., 2013). Crustal deformation can be calculated over multiple seismic cycles by mapping Quaternary tectonically-deformed palaeoshorelines, both in the hangingwall and footwall of active normal faults (Roberts et al., 2013). Here we use a synchronous correlation method between palaeoshorelines elevations and the ages of sea-level highstands (see Roberts et al., 2013 for further details) which takes advantage of the facts that (i) sea-level highstands are not evenly-spaced in time, yet must correlate with palaeoshorelines that are commonly not evenly-spaced in elevation, and (ii) that older terraces may be destroyed and/or overprinted by younger highstands, so that the next higher or lower paleoshoreline does not necessarily correlate with the next older or younger sea-level highstand. We investigated a flight of Late Quaternary marine terraces deformed by normal faulting as a result of the Capo D'Orlando Fault in NE Sicily (e.g. Giunta et al., 2011). This fault lies within the Calabrian Arc which has experienced damaging seismic events such as the 1908 Messina Straits earthquake ~ Mw 7. Our mapping and previous mapping (Giunta et al. (2011) demonstrate that the elevations of marine terraces inner edges change along the strike the NE - SW oriented normal fault. This confirms active deformation on the Capo D'Orlando Fault, strongly suggesting that it should be added into the Database of Individual Seismogenic Sources (DISS, Basili et al., 2008). Giunta et al. (2011) suggested that uplift rates and hence faults lip-rates vary through time for this examples. We update the ages assigned to

  12. Petrology, geochemistry and tectonic setting of alkaline mafic rocks in the Jalal Abad area in the NW of Zarand (Kerman Province: Evidence for Paleo-Tethys rifting in the Central Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusef Vesali

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Jalal Abad region lies within the southern sector of Posht Badam block near to Jalal Abad, Najaf Abad iron deposits. In this region, several mafic intrusions and associated dyke and sills were intruded within the volcano-sedimentary unit of Rizu series and magnetite veins producing a narrow contact metamorphic aureole and overlain by Desu Series dolomites. These intrusion massives include irregular coarse- grained gabbro- diorites stocks and several NW-SE-trending basaltic dykes and sills. Petrographical and geochemical studies on the Jalal Abad mafic units reveal that they are alkaline in nature and based on the tectonic discrimination diagrams are grouped in alkaline basalts field of the intra-continental rift setting. They display LREE enrichment and HREE depletion, and significant enrichment in LILE in comparison to HFSE and HREE. Compositionally, they resemble modern OIB and the Hawaiian alkaline basalts. Magmas of these OIB-type and alkaline rock associations formed from partial melting of garnet- lherzolite facieses in the plume source, during the rift-drift and seafloor spreading evolution of the Proto-Tethys oceanic lithosphere during the Ordovician through Silurian periods.

  13. Segmentation of the eastern North Greenland oblique-shear margin – regional plate tectonic implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Arne Døssing; Stemmerik, Lars; Dahl-Jensen, T.

    2010-01-01

    a highly complex, Paleozoic–early Cenozoic pre-opening setting. However, due to extreme ice conditions, very little is known about the offshore areas seawards of – and between – the peninsulas. Consequently, prevailing structural-tectonic models of the margin tend to be significantly oversimplified...... anticipated. In particular, we interpret strong margin segmentation along N/NE-striking fault structures. The structures are likely to have formed by Late Mesozoic–early Cenozoic strike-slip tectonics and have continued to be active during the late Cenozoic. A more than 8 km deep sedimentary basin...

  14. Active tectonics within the NW and SE extensions of the Pambak-Sevan-Syunik fault: Implications for the present geodynamics of Armenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, Jeff; Avagyan, A.; Mkrtchyan, M.; Nazari, H.; Blard, P. H.; Karakhanian, A.; Philip, H.; Balescu, Sanda; Mahan, Shannon; Huot, Sebastien; Münch, P.; Lamothe, M.

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzes the active tectonics within the northwestern and southeastern extensions of the Pambak-Sevan-Syunik fault (PSSF), a major right-lateral strike-slip fault cutting through Armenia. Quantifying the deformations in terms of geometry, kinematics, slip rates and earthquake activity, using cosmogenic 3He, OSL/IRSL and radiocarbon dating techniques, reveal different behaviors between the two regions. Within the northwestern extension, in the region of Amasia, the PSSF bends to the west and splits into two main WNW–ESE trending reverse faults defining a compressional pop-up structure. We estimate an uplift rate and a shortening rate of 0.5 ± 0.1 mm/y and 1.4 ± 0.6 mm/y, respectively. This suggests that most of the ∼2 mm/y right lateral movement of the PSSF seems to be absorbed within the Amasia pop-structure. Within the southeastern extension, the PSSF shows signs of dying out within the Tsghuk Volcano region at the southernmost tip of the Syunik graben. There, the tectonic activity is characterized by a very slow NS trending normal faulting associated with a slight right-lateral movement. Slip rates analyses (i.e. vertical slip rate, EW stretching rate at 90° to the fault, and right-lateral slip rate of ∼0.2 mm/y, ∼0.1 mm/y and ∼0.05 mm/y, respectively) lead to the conclusion that the right lateral movement observed further north along the PSSF is mainly transferred within other active faults further west within the Karabagh (Hagari fault or other structures further northwestwards). Comparing our slip rates with those estimated from GPS data suggests that most of the deformation is localized and seismic, at least within the Tsghuk region. The geometrical and kinematic pattern observed within the two terminations of the PSSF suggests that the fault and its surrounding crustal blocks are presently rotating anticlockwise, as also observed within the GPS velocity field. This is consistent with the recent kinematic models proposed for the

  15. The Tectonic Potentials of Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egholm Pedersen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    tectonic thinking. The ideas of German Theorist Gottfried Semper are presented as a strategy for describing form as a result of materials and technical matter. Furthermore the idea of poetic construction are presented. Set forth by the english / american theorist Kenneth Frampton, the idea is that poetic...... techniques are used in an iterative process, exploring boundaries rather than defining solutions. The Object Oriented design paradigm is found to support such development, allowing for structuring of code into ’classes’ such as: concept, geometry / material, and fabrication. Based on an analysis...

  16. Why does the Size of the Laacher See Magma Chamber and its Caldera Size not go together? - New Findings with regard to Active Tectonics in the East Eifel Volcanic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Ulrich; Berberich, Gabriele

    2013-04-01

    . 2002). Our research findings suggest that due to the slow movement rates of active tectonic faults, an estimated 18 km³ magma chamber within the brittle fracture section of the earth's crust beneath the Laacher See (v. d. Bogaard & Schmincke 1984) cannot be confirmed yet. Another discrepancy is given by a comparison of modeling of caldera evolution (Acocella 2007) with the Laacher See Caldera formation. The Laacher See caldera has a volume of 0.5 km³ with regard to the pre-eruptive surface (Viereck & v.d. Bogaard 1986). According to v. d. Bogaard & Schmincke (1984) a volume of 6.3 km³ dry rock equivalent of lava and basic rock was erupted. This magnitude is contradictory to the calculated 0.5 km³ volume of the Laacher See caldera. A volume compensation of approx. 6 km³ which could have prevented a further subsidence of the magma chamber cannot be a scientific possible explanation. This hypothesis is strengthened by performed sonar recordings of the post-eruptive Laacher See sediment layers which do not show any displacements that might indicate a doming caused by magma. Estimations of the erupted tephra volume provided the basis for the calculation of the size of the Laacher See magma chamber (v.d. Bogaard 1983), but there is no statistical significant data set with regard to spatial distribution of the erupted tephra amount. Our findings show an overestimation of the tephra thickness in published isopach maps of the Westerwald. Therefore, an order of magnitude smaller magma chamber stretched over a longer vertical crustal section can help to better match the given tectonic movement rates and the size of the caldera. To estimate the future development of the East Eifel volcanic field, a good knowledge of the active tectonics is an absolute prerequisite. Along the "Laacher See Strike-slip Fault", an area of intensive micro-seismicity and a new seismically active zone with local magnitudes up to 4 has developed over the last 40 years (Hinzen 2003). In the last

  17. Applications of quaternary stratigraphic, soil-geomorphic, and quantitative geomorphic analyses to the evaluation of tectonic activity and landscape evolution in the Upper Coastal Plain, South Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, K.L.; Bullard, T.F.; Wit, M.W. de; Stieve, A.L.

    1993-01-01

    Geomorphic analyses combined with mapping of fluvial terraces and upland geomorphic surfaces provide new approaches and data for evaluating the Quaternary activity of post-Cretaceous faults that are recognized in subsurface data at the Savannah River Site in the Upper Coastal Plain of southwestern South Carolina. Analyses of longitudinal stream and terrace profiles, regional slope maps, and drainage basin morphometry indicate long-term uplift and southeast tilt of the site region. Preliminary results of drainage basin characterization suggests an apparent rejuvenation of drainages along the trace of the Pen Branch fault (a Tertiary reactivated reverse fault that initiated as a basin-margin normal fault along the northern boundary of the Triassic Dunbarton Basin). This apparent rejuvenation of drainages may be the result of nontectonic geomorphic processes or local tectonic uplift and tilting within a framework of regional uplift. Longitudinal profiles of fluvial terrace surfaces that are laterally continuous across the projected surface trace of the Pen Branch fault show no obvious evidence of warping or faulting within a resolution of ∼3 m. This combined with the estimated age of the terrace surfaces (350 ka to 1 Ma) indicates that if the Pen Branch fault is active, the Pleistocene rate of slip is very low (0.002 to 0.009 mm/yr)

  18. Magnetic Data Interpretation for the Source-Edge Locations in Parts of the Tectonically Active Transition Zone of the Narmada-Son Lineament in Central India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, G. K.

    2016-02-01

    The study has been carried out in the transition zone of the Narmada-Son lineament (NSL) which is seismically active with various geological complexities, upwarp movement of the mantle material into the crust through fault, fractures lamination and upwelling. NSL is one of the most prominent lineaments in central India after the Himalaya in the Indian geology. The area of investigation extends from longitude 80.25°E to 81.50°E and latitude 23.50°N to 24.37°N in the central part of the Indian continent. Different types of subsurface geological formations viz. alluvial, Gondwana, Deccan traps, Vindhyan, Mahakoshal, Granite and Gneisses groups exist in this area with varying geological ages. In this study area tectonic movement and crustal variation have been taken place during the past time and which might be reason for the variation of magnetic field. Magnetic anomaly suggests that the area has been highly disturbed which causes the Narmada-Son lineament trending in the ENE-WSW direction. Magnetic anomaly variation has been taken place due to the lithological variations subject to the changes in the geological contacts like thrusts and faults in this area. Shallow and deeper sources have been distinguished using frequency domain analysis by applying different filters. To enhance the magnetic data, various types of derivatives to identify the source-edge locations of the causative source bodies. The present study carried out the interpretation using total horizontal derivative, tilt angle derivative, horizontal tilt angle derivative and Cos (θ) derivative map to get source-edge locations. The results derived from various derivatives of magnetic data have been compared with the basement depth solutions calculated from 3D Euler deconvolution. It is suggested that total horizontal derivative, tilt angle derivative and Cos (θ) derivative are the most useful tools for identifying the multiple source edge locations of the causative bodies in this tectonically active

  19. Easy handling of tectonic data: the programs TectonicVB for Mac and TectonicsFP for Windows™

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortner, Hugo; Reiter, Franz; Acs, Peter

    2002-12-01

    TectonicVB for Macintosh and TectonicsFP for Windows TM operating systems are two menu-driven computer programs which allow the shared use of data on these environments. The programs can produce stereographic plots of orientation data (great circles, poles, lineations). Frequently used statistical procedures like calculation of eigenvalues and eigenvectors, calculation of mean vector with concentration parameters and confidence cone can be easily performed. Fault data can be plotted in stereographic projection (Angelier and Hoeppener plots). Sorting of datasets into homogeneous subsets and rotation of tectonic data can be performed in interactive two-diagram windows. The paleostress tensor can be calculated from fault data sets using graphical (calculation of kinematic axes and right dihedra method) or mathematical methods (direct inversion or numerical dynamical analysis). The calculations can be checked in dimensionless Mohr diagrams and fluctuation histograms.

  20. Soft sediment deformation structures in a lacustrine sedimentary succession induced by volcano-tectonic activities: An example from the Cretaceous Beolgeumri Formation, Wido Volcanics, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Kyoungtae; Kim, Sung Won; Lee, Hong-Jin; Hwang, In Gul; Kim, Bok Chul; Kee, Won-Seo; Kim, Young-Seog; Gihm, Yong Sik

    2017-08-01

    magmatic activities, as is the case for modern tectonic earthquakes around active volcanoes.

  1. Active tectonics of the Binalud Mountains, a key puzzle segment to describe Quaternary deformations at the northeastern boundary of the Arabia-Eurasia collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabanian, Esmaeil; Bellier, Olivier; Siame, Lionel L.; Abbassi, Mohammad R.; Leanni, Laetitia; Braucher, Régis; Farbod, Yassaman; Bourlès, Didier L.

    2010-05-01

    In northeast Iran, the Binalud Mountains accommodate part of active convergence between the Arabian and Eurasian plates. This fault-bounded mountain range has been considered a key region to describe Quaternary deformations at the northeastern boundary of the Arabia-Eurasia collision. But, the lack of knowledge on active faulting hampered evaluating the geological reliability of tectonic models describing the kinematics of deformation in northeast Iran. Morphotectonic investigations along both sides of the Binalud Mountains allowed us to characterize the structural and active faulting patterns along the Neyshabur and Mashhad fault systems on the southwest and northeast sides of the mountain range, respectively. We applied combined approaches of morphotectonic analyses based on satellite imageries (SPOT5 and Landsat ETM+), STRM and site-scale digital topographic data, and field surveys complemented with in situ-produced 10Be exposure dating to determine the kinematics and rate of active faulting. Three regional episodes of alluvial surface abandonments were dated at 5.3±1.1 kyr (Q1), 94±5 kyr (Q3), and 200±14 kyr (S3). The geomorphic reconstruction of both vertical and right-lateral fault offsets postdating these surface abandonment episodes yielded Quaternary fault slip rates on both sides of the Binalud Mountains. On the Neyshabur Fault System, thanks to geomorphic reconstructions of cumulative offsets recorded by Q3 fan surfaces, slip rates of 2.7±0.8 mm/yr and 2.4±0.2 mm/yr are estimated for right-lateral and reverse components of active faulting, respectively. Those indicate a total slip rate of 3.6±1.2 mm/yr for the late Quaternary deformation on the southwest flank of the Binalud Mountains. Reconstructing the cumulative right-lateral offset recorded by S3 surfaces, a middle-late Quaternary slip rate of 1.6±0.1 mm/yr is determined for the Mashhad Fault System. Altogether, our geomorphic observations reveal that, on both sides of the Binalud Mountains

  2. Tectonic interpretation of the 13 february 2001, mw 6.6, El Salvador Earthquake: New evidences of coseismic surface rupture and paleoseismic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Diaz, J. J.; Canora, C.; Villamor, P.; Capote, R.; Alvarez-Gomez, J. A.; Berryman, K.; Bejar, M.; Tsige, M.

    2009-04-01

    In February 2001 a major strike slip earthquake stroke the central part of El Salvador causing hundreds of people killed, thousands injured and extensive damage. After this event the scientific effort was mainly focused on the study of the enormous and catastrophic landslides triggered by this event and no evidences of surface faulting were detected. This earthquake was produced by the reactivation of the Ilopango-San Vicente segment of the El Salvador Fault Zone. Recently, a surface rupture displacement on the ground was identified. The analysis of aerial and field photographs taken few hours after the event and the mapping of the conserved ground structures shows a pure strike-slip displacement ranging from 20 to 50 cm, with secondary features indicating dextral shearing. The paleoseismic analysis made through the excavation of six trenches and Radiocarbon dating indicate a minimum slip rate of 2.0 mm/yr and a recurrence of major ruptures (Mw > 6.5) lower than 500 yr. These evidences give interesting local data to increase our understanding about the tectonic behavior and the way how active deformation develops along the northern limit of the forearc sliver related to the Centroamerican subduction area.

  3. Use of PSInSAR™ data to infer active tectonics: Clues on the differential uplift across the Giudicarie belt (Central-Eastern Alps, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massironi, M.; Zampieri, D.; Bianchi, M.; Schiavo, A.; Franceschini, A.

    2009-10-01

    The Permanent Scatterers Synthetic Aperture Radar INterferometry (PSInSAR™) methodology provides high-resolution assessment of surface deformations (precision ranging from 0.8 to 0.1 mm/year) over long periods of observation. Hence, it is particularly suitable to analyze surface motion over wide regions associated to a weak tectonic activity. For this reason we have adopted the PSInSAR technique to study regional movement across the Giudicarie belt, a NNE-trending trust belt oblique to the Southern Alpine chain and presently characterized by a low to moderate seismicity. Over 11,000 PS velocities along the satellite Line Of Sight (LOS) were calculated using images acquired in descending orbit during the 1992-1996 time span. The PSInSAR data show a differential uplift of around 1.4-1.7 mm/year across the most external WNW-dipping thrusts of the Giudicarie belt (Mt. Baldo, Mt. Stivo and Mt. Grattacul thrusts alignment). This corresponds to a horizontal contraction across the external part of the Giudicarie belt of about 1.3-1.5 mm/year.

  4. Tectonic vision in architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beim, Anne

    1999-01-01

    By introducing the concept; Tectonic Visions, The Dissertation discusses the interrelationship between the basic idea, the form principles, the choice of building technology and constructive structures within a given building. Includes Mies van der Rohe, Le Corbusier, Eames, Jorn Utzon, Louis Kahn...

  5. Cretacic tectonics in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Rifas, C.

    2012-01-01

    This work is about Cretacic tectonics in Uruguay, this formation is characterized by high level cortex because the basament is cratonized since Middle Devonian. There were formed two main grabens such as Santa Lucia and Mirim-Pelotas which are filled with basalt and sediments.

  6. Active tectonics in the eastern margin of the Bohemian Massif – based on the geophysical, geomorphological and GPS data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pospíšil, L.; Roštínský, Pavel; Švábenský, O.; Weigl, J.; Witiska, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 3 (2012), s. 315-329 ISSN 1214-9705 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED2.1.00/03.0097 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : active geodynamics * geomorphological indicator * Waitzendorf and Diendorf faults Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 0.530, year: 2011 http://www.irsm.cas.cz/abstracts/AGG/03_12/7.Pospisil.pdf

  7. Assessment of tectonic hazards to waste storage in interior-basin salt domes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kehle, R.

    1979-01-01

    Salt domes in the northern Gulf of Mexico may make ideal sites for storage of radioactive waste because the area is tectonically quiet. The stability of such salt domes and the tectonic activity are discussed

  8. Active Ways to Teach Health Concepts in the Elementary Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Julie

    2015-01-01

    This article provides three movement-based activities for teaching health concepts to elementary school students. Two activities focus on nutrition concepts and the other focuses on teaching body systems. Diagrams are provided to show the setup of activities, as well as links for accessing materials to help implement the activities.

  9. Storm-related sedimentation influenced by coastal configuration in the stratigraphic record of a tectonically active shelf (Upper Pleistocene Le Castella terrace, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalin, Ronald; Massari, Francesco

    2018-03-01

    Analysis of patterns of coastal circulation and sediment dispersal is an essential step for the study of controlling factors influencing the long-term dynamics of coastal systems. Modern settings offer the possibility to monitor relevant parameters over relatively short time spans. However, geological examples complement this perspective by providing a time-averaged record where longer trends and stratigraphically significant processes can be evaluated. This study investigates the shallow marine deposits of Le Castella terrace (Upper Pleistocene, southern Italy) to document how patterns of circulation influenced by coastline configuration can affect the preserved millennial-scale depositional record of a progradational shoreline system. The regressive portion of the Le Castella terrace deposits, developed during a relative sea-level highstand and falling stage, consists of a progradational wedge mainly composed of redistributed skeletal particles of a coeval shallow water carbonate factory. Preservation of the morphology of the paleocoastline and abundant current-related sedimentary structures allow reconstruction of the predominant sediment dispersal dynamics responsible for the formation of this sedimentary wedge. Facies and paleocurrent analysis indicate offshore and alongshore sediment transport modes, consistent with coastal circulation driven by storms normally incident to the shoreline and a sharp change in coastline orientation. This coastal inflection influenced circulation patterns causing flow separation and eddy formation in the lee of the curved coastline. Syndepositional tectonic deformation also affected the architecture of the preserved deposits, controlling the nucleation and development of a clinostratified body and determining localized lateral stratigraphic variability. This study illustrates how transient but recurrent circulation patterns associated with changes in coastal orientation and related to high-energy storm events can leave a

  10. Plate tectonics, habitability and life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spohn, Tilman; Breuer, Doris

    2016-04-01

    weathering of possible land surfaces and a biosphere could set up a CO2 sink that would further stabilize the temperature. As long as the planet keeps degassing CO2 at a sufficient rate, CO2 recycling through the mantle may not be required. However, this would require a sufficiently oxidized planet early on. If not sufficiently oxidized during accretion and core formation, oxidization of the planet would require cycling of matter between surface and interior reservoirs. Oxidization of an initially reduced Earth interior with the help of plate tectonics has been cited as a possible mechanism to allow the building up of oxygen in the terrestrial atmosphere around 2.3Ga b.p. (e.g., Catling and Claire, 2005), a pre-requisite for more evolved eukaryotic life. The oxidization would diminish a sink in the oxygen budget of the atmosphere by lowering the rate of outgassing of chemically reducing gases from the interior. Clearly, plate tectonics is a mechanism more potent of keeping a planet habitable and allow evolution of the biosphere than alternative concepts such as crust delamination. Catling, DC, Claire DW (2005), EPSL, 237, 1-20 Elkins-Tanton, L (2015) AGU Fall Meeting Abstract Tosi, N et al. (2016) EGU Abstract

  11. Late Quaternary paleoseismology of the Milin fault: Implications for active tectonics along the Yarlung Zangbo Suture, Southeastern Tibet Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kang; Xu, Xiwei; Kirby, Eric; Tang, Fangtou; Kang, Wenjun

    2018-04-01

    How the eastward motion of crust in the central Tibetan Plateau is accommodated in the remote regions of the eastern Himalayan syntaxis remains uncertain. Although the Yarlung Zangbo suture (YZS) forms a striking lineament in the topography of the region, evidence for recent faulting along this zone has been equivocal. To understand whether faults along the YZS are active, we performed a geological investigation along the eastern segments of the YZS. Geomorphic observations suggest the presence of active faulting along several segments of the YZS, which we collectively refer to as the "Milin fault". Paleoseismologic data from trenches reveal evidence for one faulting event, which is constrained to occur between 5620 and 1945 a BP. The latest faulting event displaced alluvial surface T2 by 7 m. The offset on this earthquake place the minimum value on the vertical slip rate of 0.3 mm/yr. Empirical relationships between surface rupture length, displacement and magnitude, suggest that magnitude of the latest event could have been Mw 7.3-7.7. On the basis of this slip rate and the elapsed time since the last event, it is estimated that a seismic moment equivalent to Mw 7.0 has been accumulated on the Milin fault. It is pose a threat to the surrounding region. Our results suggest that shortening occurs in the vicinity of the eastern Himalayan syntaxis, and part of eastward motion of crust from the central Tibetan Plateau is absorbed by uplift of the eastern Himalayan syntaxis.

  12. Soft-sediment deformation in a tectonically active area: The Plio-Pleistocene Zarzal Formation in the Cauca Valley (Western Colombia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuwerth, Ralph; Suter, Fiore; Guzman, Carlos A.; Gorin, Georges E.

    2006-04-01

    seismites in the Zarzal Formation represents corroboration of tectonic activity in this area during the Pleistocene. Earthquakes with a magnitude higher than 5 can be postulated, based upon the proximity of active faults and the types of deformations.

  13. Skill set or mind set? Associations between health literacy, patient activation and health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel G Smith

    Full Text Available There is ongoing debate on whether health literacy represents a skill-based construct for health self-management, or if it also more broadly captures personal 'activation' or motivation to manage health. This research examines 1 the association between patient activation and health literacy as they are most commonly measured and 2 the independent and combined associations of patient activation and health literacy skills with physical and mental health.A secondary analysis of baseline cross-sectional data from the LitCog cohort of older adults was used. Participants (n = 697 were recruited from multiple US-based health centers. During structured face-to-face interviews, participants completed the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (TOFHLA, the Patient Activation Measure (PAM, the SF-36 physical health summary subscale, and Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information Service (PROMIS short form subscales for depression and anxiety.The relationship between health literacy and patient activation was weak, but significant (r = 0.11, p<0.01. In models adjusted for participant characteristics, lower health literacy was associated with worse physical health (β = 0.13, p<0.001 and depression (β = -0.16, p<0.001. Lower patient activation was associated with worse physical health (β = 0.19, p<0.001, depression (β = -0.27, p<0.001 and anxiety (β-0.24, p<0.001.The most common measures of health literacy and patient activation are weakly correlated with each other, but also independently correlated with health outcomes. This suggests health literacy represents a distinct skill-based construct, supporting the Institute of Medicine's definition. Deficits in either construct could be useful targets for behavioral intervention.

  14. WAVE TECTONICS OF THE EARTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Yu. Tveretinova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Earth's lithosphere, wavy alternation of positive and negative heterochronous structures is revealed; such structures are variable in ranks and separated by vergence zones of fractures and folds. In the vertical profile of the lithosphere, alternating are layers characterized by relatively plastic or fragile rheological properties and distinguished by different states of stress. During the Earth’s evolution, epochs of compression and extension are cyclically repeated, including planetary-scale phenomena which are manifested by fluctuating changes of the planet’s volume. Migration of geological and geophysical (geodynamic processes takes place at the Earth's surface and in its interior. The concept of the wave structure and evolution of the Earth's lithosphere provides explanations to the abovementioned regularities. Wavy nature of tectonic structures of the lithosphere, the cyclic recurrence of migration and geological processes in space and time can be described in terms of the multiple-order wave geodynamics of the Earth's lithosphere that refers to periodical variations of the state of stress. Effects of structure-forming tectonic forces are determined by «interference» of tangential and radial stresses of the Earth. The tangential stresses, which occur primarily due to the rotational regime of the planet, cause transformations of the Earth’s shape, redistributions of its substance in depths, the westward drift of the rock mass in its upper levels, and changes of structural deformation plans. The radial stresses, which are largely impacted by gravity, determine the gravitational differentiation of the substance, vertical flattening and sub-horizontal flow of the rock masses, and associated fold-rupture deformation. Under the uniform momentum geodynamic concept proposed by [Vikulin, Tveritinova, 2004, 2005, 2007, 2008], it is possible to provide consistent descriptions of seismic and volcanic, tectonic and geological processes

  15. Active tectonics and Holocene versus modern catchment erosion rates at 300 MW Baspa II hydroelectric power plant (NW Himalaya, India)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draganits, Erich; Grasemann, Bernhard; Gier, Susanne; Hofmann, Christa-Charlotte; Janda, Christoph; Bookhagen, Bodo; Preh, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    The Baspa River is one of the most important tributaries to the Sutlej River in the NW Himalaya (India). Its catchment is 1116 km2 in size, ranges from c. 6400 m asl to 1770 m asl and contains India's largest private hydroelectric facility, the 300 MW Baspa II. Geologically, the hydroelectric installation is located in the Higher Himalayan Crystalline, just above the active Karcham Normal Fault, which is reactivating the Early Miocene Main Central Thrust, one of the principal Himalayan faults. The area is seismically active and mass-movements are common. Around 8200 yrs BP the Baspa was dammed by a rock-avalanche dam, leading to the formation of the originally c. 260 m deep palaeo-lake Sangla palaeo-lake. Detailed sedimentological investigations and radiocarbon dating indicate that the palaeo-lake was completely filled with sediments until c. 5100 yrs BP. This makes the Sangla palaeo-lake to a very rare example of a mass-movement dam with very long duration and its lacustrine sediments represent a valuable archive for geological processes and environmental proxies within the Baspa catchment during the c. 3100 years of its existence - which are the aim of our study. At least 5 levels of soft-sediment deformation have been recorded in the exposed part of the lacustrine sediments of Sangla palaeo-lake, including brecciated laminae, overturned laminae, folds, faults and deformation bands, separated by undeformed deposits. They are interpreted as seismites, indicating at least 5 earthquakes within 2500 years strong enough to cause liquefaction. The 300 MW Baspa II hydro-electric power plant has been built exactly on top of this palaeo-lake. This special location represents a very rare possibility to evaluate the short-term, river load and hydrological parameters measured during the planning and operational stages of Baspa II with the long-term parameters gained from the palaeo-lake sediments from the catchment. This data show that the Mid-Holocene erosion rates of the

  16. Hydrothermal fluid flow within a tectonically active rift-ridge transform junction: Tjörnes Fracture Zone, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupi, M.; Geiger, S.; Graham, C. M.

    2010-05-01

    We investigate the regional fluid flow dynamics in a highly faulted transform area, the Tjörnes Fracture Zone in northern Iceland which is characterized by steep geothermal gradients, hydrothermal activity, and strong seismicity. We simulate fluid flow within the Tjörnes Fracture Zone using a high-resolution model that was based on the available geological and geophysical data and has the aim to represent the complex geological structures and the thermodynamical processes that drive the regional fluid flow in a physically realistic way. Our results show that convective heat flow and mixing of cold and saline seawater with deep hydrothermal fluids controls the large-scale fluid flow. The distribution of faults has a strong influence on the local hydrodynamics by focusing flow around clusters of faults. This explains the nature of isolated upflow zones of hot hydrothermal fluids which are observed in the Tjörnes Fracture Zone. An important emergent characteristic of the regional fluid flow in the Tjörnes Fracture Zone are two separate flow systems: one in the sedimentary basins, comprising more vigorous convection, and one in the crystalline basement, which is dominated by conduction. These two flow systems yield fundamental insight into the connection between regional hydrothermal fluid flow and seismicity because they form the basis of a toggle switch mechanism that is thought to have caused the hydrogeochemical anomalies recorded at Húsavik before and after the 5.8 M earthquake in September 2002.

  17. Iapetus: Tectonic structure and geologic history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Steven K.

    1991-01-01

    Many papers have been written about the surface of Iapetus, but most of these have discussed either the nature of the strongly contrasting light and dark materials or the cratering record. Little has been said about other geologic features on Iapetus, such as tectonic structures, which would provide constraints on Iapetus' thermal history. Most references have suggested that there is no conclusive evidence for any tectonic activity, even when thermal history studies indicate that there should be. However, a new study of Iapetus' surface involving the use of stereo pairs, an extensive tectonic network has been recognized. A few new observations concerning the craters and dark material were also made. Thus the geology and geologic history of Iapetus can be more fully outlined than before. The tectonic network is shown along with prominent craters and part of the dark material in the geologic/tectonic sketch map. The topology of crater rims and scarps are quite apparent and recognizable in the different image pairs. The heights and slopes of various features given are based on comparison with the depths of craters 50 to 100 km in diameter, which are assumed to have the same depths as craters of similar diameter on Rhea and Titania.

  18. A new plate tectonic concept for the eastern-most Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebscher, C.; McGrandle, A.; Scaife, G.; Spoors, R.; Stieglitz, T.

    2012-04-01

    Owing to the seismogenic faults bordering the Levant-Sinai realm and the discovery of giant gas reservoirs in the marine Levant Basin the scientific interest in this tectonically complex setting increased in recent years. Here we provide a new model for the Levant Basin architecture and adjacent plate boundaries emphasizing the importance of industrial seismic data for frontier research in earth science. PSDM seismics, residual gravity and depth to basement maps give a clear line of evidence that the Levant Basin, formerly considered as a single tectonic entity, is divided into two different domains. Highly stretched continental crust in the southern domain is separated from deeper and presumably Tethyan oceanic crust in the north. A transform continuing from southwest Cyprus to the Carmel Fault in northern Israel is considered as the boundary. If this interpretation holds, the Carmel-Cyprus Transform represents a yet unknown continent-ocean boundary in the eastern Mediterranean, thus adding new constrains for the Mediterranean plate tectonic puzzle. The Eratosthenes Seamount, considered as the spearhead of incipient continental collision in the eastern Mediterranean, is interpreted as a carbonate platform that developed above a volcanic basement. NW-SE trending strike-slip faults are abundant in the entire Levant region. Since this trend also shapes the topography of the Levant hinterland including Quaternary deposits their recent tectonic activity is quite likely. Thus, our study supports previous studies which attributed the evolution of submarine canyons and Holocene triggering of mass failures not only to salt tectonics or depositional processes, but also to active plate-tectonics.

  19. Tectonic Vocabulary & Materialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvejsel, Marie Frier; Beim, Anne; Bundgaard, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    . On the occasion of the Second International Conference on Structures & Architecture held in July 2013 in Portugal the authors organized a special session entitled From open structures to the cladding of control bringing together researchers from the Nordic countries to discuss this issue. Likewise the initiative......By referring to the fundamental question of how we unite aesthetics and technology – tectonic theory is necessarily a focal point in the development of the architectural discipline. However, a critical reconsideration of the role of tectonic theory seems necessary when facing the present everyday...... conditions of the built environment. We see an increasing number of square meters in ordinary housing, in commercial buildings and in public buildings such as hospitals and schools that are dealt with as performative structural frameworks rather than qualitative spaces for habitation and contemplation...

  20. Positive affect and physical activity: Testing effects on goal setting, activation, prioritisation, and attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, David S; Bertenshaw, Emma J; Sheeran, Paschal

    2018-02-01

    The present research tested whether incidental positive affect promotes pursuit of physical activity goals. Four key features of goal pursuit were examined - setting physical activity goals (Study 1), goal activation (Study 2), and goal prioritization and goal attainment (Study 3). Participants (N s = 80, 81, and 59, in Studies 1-3, respectively) were randomized to positive affect (joy, hope) or neutral affect (control) conditions in each study. Questionnaire measures of goal level, goal commitment, and means selection (Study 1); a lexical decision task indexed goal activation (Study 2), a choice task captured goal prioritization and MET minutes quantified goal attainment (Study 3). Study 1 showed that positive affect led to a greater number of intended physical activities, and that joy engendered greater willingness to try activities. In Study 2, a positive affect induction led to heightened activation of the physical activity goal compared to the control condition. The joy induction in Study 3 led to greater physical activity, and a trend towards greater goal prioritization. These findings suggest that positive affect enhances the pursuit of physical activity goals. Implications for health behavior theories and interventions are outlined.

  1. Stars and Planets: A New Set of Middle School Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquhart, M. L.

    2002-01-01

    A set of lesson plans for grades 6-8 which deal with the sizes and distances of stars and planets using a scale factor of 1 to 10 billion, the life cycle of stars, and the search for planets beyond the solar system. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  2. The Nysa-Morava Zone: an active tectonic domain with Late Cenozoic sedimentary grabens in the Western Carpathians' foreland (NE Bohemian Massif)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špaček, P.; Bábek, O.; Štěpančíková, Petra; Švancara, J.; Pazdírková, J.; Sedláček, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 4 (2015), s. 963-990 ISSN 1437-3254 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP210/12/0573; GA MŠk LM2010008 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : Bohemian Massif * Upper Morava Basin * tectonic evolution * seismicity * sedimentary grabens Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 2.133, year: 2015

  3. Can deep seated gravitational slope deformations be activated by regional tectonic strain: First insights from displacement measurements in caves from the Eastern Alps

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baron, I.; Plan, L.; Grasemann, B.; Mitrovic, I.; Lenhardt, W.; Hausmann, H.; Stemberk, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 259, APR 15 (2016), 81-89 ISSN 0169-555X Grant - others:Austrian Science Fund(AT) P25884-N29 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : tectonic strain * slope failure * earthquake Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 2.958, year: 2016

  4. Applying activity-based costing to healthcare settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canby, J B

    1995-02-01

    Activity-based costing (ABC) focuses on processes that drive cost. By tracing healthcare activities back to events that generate cost, a more accurate measurement of financial performance is possible. This article uses ABC principles and techniques to determine costs associated with the x-ray process in a midsized outpatient clinic. The article also provides several tips for initiating an ABC cost system for an entire healthcare organization.

  5. Activity Settings and Daily Routines in Preschool Classrooms: Diverse Experiences in Early Learning Settings for Low-Income Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuligni, Allison Sidle; Howes, Carollee; Huang, Yiching; Hong, Sandra Soliday; Lara-Cinisomo, Sandraluz

    2012-06-01

    This paper examines activity settings and daily classroom routines experienced by 3- and 4-year-old low-income children in public center-based preschool programs, private center-based programs, and family child care homes. Two daily routine profiles were identified using a time-sampling coding procedure: a High Free-Choice pattern in which children spent a majority of their day engaged in child-directed free-choice activity settings combined with relatively low amounts of teacher-directed activity, and a Structured-Balanced pattern in which children spent relatively equal proportions of their day engaged in child-directed free-choice activity settings and teacher-directed small- and whole-group activities. Daily routine profiles were associated with program type and curriculum use but not with measures of process quality. Children in Structured-Balanced classrooms had more opportunities to engage in language and literacy and math activities, whereas children in High Free-Choice classrooms had more opportunities for gross motor and fantasy play. Being in a Structured-Balanced classroom was associated with children's language scores but profiles were not associated with measures of children's math reasoning or socio-emotional behavior. Consideration of teachers' structuring of daily routines represents a valuable way to understand nuances in the provision of learning experiences for young children in the context of current views about developmentally appropriate practice and school readiness.

  6. Activity Settings and Daily Routines in Preschool Classrooms: Diverse Experiences in Early Learning Settings for Low-Income Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuligni, Allison Sidle; Howes, Carollee; Huang, Yiching; Hong, Sandra Soliday; Lara-Cinisomo, Sandraluz

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines activity settings and daily classroom routines experienced by 3- and 4-year-old low-income children in public center-based preschool programs, private center-based programs, and family child care homes. Two daily routine profiles were identified using a time-sampling coding procedure: a High Free-Choice pattern in which…

  7. Venus tectonics: another Earth or another Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGill, G.E.

    1979-01-01

    The presence of presumably primordial large craters has led to the suggestion that Venus may have a thick lithosphere like that of Mars despite its similarities to Earth in size and density. However, crust and upper mantle temperatures on Venus are very likely higher than on Earth so that a dry Venus could have a lithosphere with a thickness similar to that of Earth. If a trace of volatiles is present in the mantle, the lithosphere of Venus could be thinner. Due to the absence of liquid water, erosion and deposition will be much slower on Venus than on Earth, favoring retention of primordial cratered surfaces on portions of the crust that have not been destroyed or buried by tectonic and volcanic activity. Geochemical models of solar system origin and petrological considerations suggest that K is about as abundant in Venus as in Earth. The abundance of 40 Ar in the atmosphere of Venus lies somewhere between the Earth value and one-tenth of the Earth value. Because erosional liberation of 40 Ar on Venus will be relatively inefficient, this range for 40 Ar abundance at least permits an active tectonic history, and if the 40 Ar abundance is towards the high end of the range, it may well require an active tectonic history. Thus we are not constrained to a Mars-like model of Venus tectonics by craters and possible mantle dryness; an Earth-like model is equally probable

  8. The Role of Physical Activity in the CKD Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Aucella

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A sedentary lifestyle contributes to the development of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes and probably cancer in the general population; this cluster of disease may be defined the diseasome of physical inactivity. Also in CKD/ESRD patients physical activity is strikingly low. As a result of growing evidence suggestive of cardiovascular benefit among the CKD population with exercise, the National Kidney Foundation recommended counseling by nephrologists to increase patients' levels of physical activity in their guideline about management of cardiovascular disease. Therefore, to maintain the well-being and functional capacity of renal patients attention should be directed toward maintaining strength and aerobic fitness as well as focusing on renal function and anemia or other comorbidities. All CKD/ESRD patients should be counseled and regularly encouraged by nephrology and dialysis staff to increase their level of physical activity.

  9. Geomorphic evidence of active tectonics in the San Gorgonio Pass region of the San Andreas Fault system: an example of discovery-based research in undergraduate teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinen, L. A.; Yule, J. D.

    2014-12-01

    Student-conducted research in courses during the first two undergraduate years can increase learning and improve student self-confidence in scientific study, and is recommended for engaging and retaining students in STEM fields (PCAST, 2012). At Pomona College, incorporating student research throughout the geology curriculum tripled the number of students conducting research prior to their senior year that culminated in a professional conference presentation (Reinen et al., 2006). Here we present an example of discovery-based research in Neotectonics, a second-tier course predominantly enrolling first-and second-year students; describe the steps involved in the four week project; and discuss early outcomes of student confidence, engagement and retention. In the San Gorgonio Pass region (SGPR) in southern California, the San Andreas fault undergoes a transition from predominantly strike-slip to a complex system of faults with significant dip-slip, resulting in diffuse deformation and raising the question of whether a large earthquake on the San Andreas could propagate through the region (Yule, 2009). In spring 2014, seven students in the Neotectonics course conducted original research investigating quantifiable geomorphic evidence of tectonic activity in the SGPR. Students addressed questions of [1] unequal uplift in the San Bernardino Mountains, [2] fault activity indicated by stream knick points, [3] the role of fault style on mountain front sinuosity, and [4] characteristic earthquake slip determined via fault scarp degradation models. Students developed and revised individual projects, collaborated with each other on methods, and presented results in a public forum. A final class day was spent reviewing the projects and planning future research directions. Pre- and post-course surveys show increases in students' self-confidence in the design, implementation, and presentation of original scientific inquiries. 5 of 6 eligible students participated in research the

  10. Is plate tectonics needed to evolve technological species on exoplanets?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Stern

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available As we continue searching for exoplanets, we wonder if life and technological species capable of communicating with us exists on any of them. As geoscientists, we can also wonder how important is the presence or absence of plate tectonics for the evolution of technological species. This essay considers this question, focusing on tectonically active rocky (silicate planets, like Earth, Venus, and Mars. The development of technological species on Earth provides key insights for understanding evolution on exoplanets, including the likely role that plate tectonics may play. An Earth-sized silicate planet is likely to experience several tectonic styles over its lifetime, as it cools and its lithosphere thickens, strengthens, and becomes denser. These include magma ocean, various styles of stagnant lid, and perhaps plate tectonics. Abundant liquid water favors both life and plate tectonics. Ocean is required for early evolution of diverse single-celled organisms, then colonies of cells which specialized further to form guts, appendages, and sensory organisms up to the complexity of fish (central nervous system, appendages, eyes. Large expanses of dry land also begin in the ocean, today produced above subduction zones in juvenile arcs and by their coalescence to form continents, although it is not clear that plate tectonics was required to create continental crust on Earth. Dry land of continents is required for further evolution of technological species, where modification of appendages for grasping and manipulating, and improvement of eyes and central nervous system could be perfected. These bioassets allowed intelligent creatures to examine the night sky and wonder, the beginning of abstract thinking, including religion and science. Technology arises from the exigencies of daily living such as tool-making, agriculture, clothing, and weapons, but the pace of innovation accelerates once it is allied with science. Finally, the importance of plate

  11. A cycling workstation to facilitate physical activity in office settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, Steven J; Martin, James C

    2014-07-01

    Facilitating physical activity during the workday may help desk-bound workers reduce risks associated with sedentary behavior. We 1) evaluated the efficacy of a cycling workstation to increase energy expenditure while performing a typing task and 2) fabricated a power measurement system to determine the accuracy and reliability of an exercise cycle. Ten individuals performed 10 min trials of sitting while typing (SIT type) and pedaling while typing (PED type). Expired gases were recorded and typing performance was assessed. Metabolic cost during PED type was ∼ 2.5 × greater compared to SIT type (255 ± 14 vs. 100 ± 11 kcal h(-1), P physical activity without compromising typing performance. The exercise cycle's inaccuracy could be misleading to users. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  12. Exercise Self-Efficacy as a Mediator between Goal-Setting and Physical Activity: Developing the Workplace as a Setting for Promoting Physical Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshie Iwasaki; Sumihisa Honda; Shuji Kaneko; Kazuhiro Kurishima; Ayumi Honda; Ayumu Kakinuma; Doosub Jahng

    2017-01-01

    Background: Physical activity (PA) is ranked as a leading health indicator and the workplace is a key setting to promote PA. The purpose of this study was to examine how goal-setting and exercise self-efficacy (SE) during a health promotion program influenced PA level among Japanese workers. Methods: Using a cross-sectional study design, we surveyed 281 employees. The short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to assess PA level. Exercise SE was assessed us...

  13. New Geologic Data on the Seismic Risks of the Most Dangerous Fault on Shore in Central Japan, the Itoigawa-Shizuoka Tectonic Line Active Fault System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, K.; Kondo, H.; Toda, S.; Takada, K.; Kinoshita, H.

    2006-12-01

    Ten years have past since the first official assessment of the long-term seismic risks of the Itoigawa-Shizuoka tectonic line active fault system (ISTL) in 1996. The disaster caused by the1995 Kobe (Hyogo-ken-Nanbu) earthquake urged the Japanese government to initiated a national project to assess the long-term seismic risks of on-shore active faults using geologic information. ISTL was the first target of the 98 significant faults and the probability of a M7 to M8 event turned out to be the highest among them. After the 10 years of continued efforts to understand the ISTL, now it is getting ready to revise the assessment. Fault mapping and segmentation: The most active segment of the Gofukuji fault (~1 cm/yr left-lateral strike slip, R=500~800 yrs.) had been maped only for less than 10 km. Adjacent segments were much less active. This large slip on such a short segment was contradictory. However, detailed topographic study including Lidar survey revealed the length of the Gofukuji fault to be 25 km or more. High slip rate with frequent earthquakes may be restricted to the Gofukuji fault while the 1996 assessment modeled frequent >100 km rupture scenario. The geometry of the fault is controversial especially on the left-lateral strike-slip section of the ISTL. There are two models of high-angle Middel ISTL and low-angle Middle ISTL with slip partitioning. However, all geomorphic and shallow geologic data supports high-angle almost pure strike slip on the faults in the Middle ISTL. CRIEPI's 3- dimensional trenching in several sites as well as the previous results clearly demonstrated repeated pure strike-slip offset during past a few events. In Middle ISTL, there is no evidence of recent activity of pre-existing low-angle thrust faults that are inferred to be active from shallow seismic survey. Separation of high (~3000 m) mountain ranges and low (lack of reliable time constraints on past earthquakes. In order to solve this problem, we have carried out intensive

  14. On attracting sets in artificial networks: cross activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadyrbaev Felix

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical models of artificial networks can be formulated in terms of dynamical systems describing the behaviour of a network over time. The interrelation between nodes (elements of a network is encoded in the regulatory matrix. We consider a system of ordinary differential equations that describes in particular also genomic regulatory networks (GRN and contains a sigmoidal function. The results are presented on attractors of such systems for a particular case of cross activation. The regulatory matrix is then of particular form consisting of unit entries everywhere except the main diagonal. We show that such a system can have not more than three critical points. At least n–1 eigenvalues corresponding to any of the critical points are negative. An example for a particular choice of sigmoidal function is considered.

  15. Transient magmatic control in a tectonic domain: the central Aeolian volcanic arc (South Italy)

    KAUST Repository

    Ruch, Joel; Vezzoli, Luigina; Di Lorenzo, Riccardo; De Rosa, Rosanna; Acocella, Valerio

    2015-01-01

    The background stress field in volcanic areas may be overprinted by that produced by transient magmatic intrusions, generating local faulting. These events are rarely monitored and thus not fully understood, generating debate about the role of magma and tectonics in any geodynamic setting. Here we carried out a field structural analysis on the NNW-SSE strike-slip system of the central Aeolian Arc, Italy (Lipari and Vulcano islands) with ages constrained by stratigraphy to better capture the tectonic and magmatic evolution at the local and regional scales. We consider both islands as a single magmatic system and define 5 principal stratigraphic units based on magmatic and tectonic activity. We collected >500 measurements of faults, extension fractures and dikes at 40 sites, mostly NNE-SSW to NNW-SSE oriented with a dominant NS orientation. These structures are governed quasi exclusively by pure dip-slip motion, consistent with an E-W extension direction, with minor dextral and sinistral slip, the latter being mostly related to old deposits (>50 ka). We further reconstructed the evolution of the Vulcano-Lipari system during the last ~20 ka and find that it consists of an overall half-graben-like structure, with faults with predominant eastward dips. Field evidence suggests that faulting occurs often in temporal and spatial relation with magmatic events, suggesting that most of the observable deformation derived from transient magmatic activity, rather than from steady regional tectonics. To explain the dominant magmatic and episodic extension in a tectonic dominant domain, we propose a model where the regional N-S trending maximum horizontal stress, responsible for strike-slip activity, locally rotates to vertical in response to transient pressurization of the magmatic system and magma rise below Lipari and Vulcano. This has possibly generated the propagation of N-S trending dikes in the past 1 ka along a 10 km long by 1 km wide crustal corridor, with important

  16. Transient magmatic control in a tectonic domain: the central Aeolian volcanic arc (South Italy)

    KAUST Repository

    Ruch, Joel

    2015-04-01

    The background stress field in volcanic areas may be overprinted by that produced by transient magmatic intrusions, generating local faulting. These events are rarely monitored and thus not fully understood, generating debate about the role of magma and tectonics in any geodynamic setting. Here we carried out a field structural analysis on the NNW-SSE strike-slip system of the central Aeolian Arc, Italy (Lipari and Vulcano islands) with ages constrained by stratigraphy to better capture the tectonic and magmatic evolution at the local and regional scales. We consider both islands as a single magmatic system and define 5 principal stratigraphic units based on magmatic and tectonic activity. We collected >500 measurements of faults, extension fractures and dikes at 40 sites, mostly NNE-SSW to NNW-SSE oriented with a dominant NS orientation. These structures are governed quasi exclusively by pure dip-slip motion, consistent with an E-W extension direction, with minor dextral and sinistral slip, the latter being mostly related to old deposits (>50 ka). We further reconstructed the evolution of the Vulcano-Lipari system during the last ~20 ka and find that it consists of an overall half-graben-like structure, with faults with predominant eastward dips. Field evidence suggests that faulting occurs often in temporal and spatial relation with magmatic events, suggesting that most of the observable deformation derived from transient magmatic activity, rather than from steady regional tectonics. To explain the dominant magmatic and episodic extension in a tectonic dominant domain, we propose a model where the regional N-S trending maximum horizontal stress, responsible for strike-slip activity, locally rotates to vertical in response to transient pressurization of the magmatic system and magma rise below Lipari and Vulcano. This has possibly generated the propagation of N-S trending dikes in the past 1 ka along a 10 km long by 1 km wide crustal corridor, with important

  17. Indonesian Landforms and Plate Tectonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Th. Verstappen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v5i3.103The horizontal configuration and vertical dimension of the landforms occurring in the tectonically unstable parts of Indonesia were resulted in the first place from plate tectonics. Most of them date from the Quaternary and endogenous forces are ongoing. Three major plates – the northward moving Indo-Australian Plate, the south-eastward moving SE-Asian Plate and the westward moving Pacific Plate - meet at a plate triple-junction situated in the south of New Guinea’s Bird’s Head. The narrow North-Moluccan plate is interposed between the Asia and Pacific. It tapers out northward in the Philippine Mobile Belt and is gradually disappearing. The greatest relief amplitudes occur near the plate boundaries: deep ocean trenches are associated with subduction zones and mountain ranges with collision belts. The landforms of the more stable areas of the plates date back to a more remote past and, where emerged, have a more subdued relief that is in the first place related to the resistance of the rocks to humid tropical weathering Rising mountain ranges and emerging island arcs are subjected to rapid humid-tropical river erosions and mass movements. The erosion products accumulate in adjacent sedimentary basins where their increasing weight causes subsidence by gravity and isostatic compensations. Living and raised coral reefs, volcanoes, and fault scarps are important geomorphic indicators of active plate tectonics. Compartmental faults may strongly affect island arcs stretching perpendicular to the plate movement. This is the case on Java. Transcurrent faults and related pull-apart basins are a leading factor where plates meet at an angle, such as on Sumatra. The most complicated situation exists near the triple-junction and in the Moluccas. Modern research methods, such as GPS measurements of plate movements and absolute dating of volcanic outbursts and raised coral reefs are important tools. The mega-landforms resulting

  18. Suitability of public use secondary data sets to study multiple activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Michelle; Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Inoue, Megumi; Greenfield, Jennifer C; Chen, Huajuan; Lee, YungSoo

    2014-10-01

    The aims of this study were to inventory activity items within and across U.S. public use data sets, to identify gaps in represented activity domains and challenges in interpreting domains, and to assess the potential for studying multiple activity engagement among older adults using existing data. We engaged in content analysis of activity measures of 5U.S. public use data sets with nationally representative samples of older adults. Data sets included the Health & Retirement Survey (HRS), Americans' Changing Lives Survey (ACL), Midlife in the United States Survey (MIDUS), the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), and the Panel Study of Income Dynamics survey (PSID). Two waves of each data set were analyzed. We identified 13 distinct activity domains across the 5 data sets, with substantial differences in representation of those domains among the data sets, and variance in the number and type of activity measures included in each. Our findings indicate that although it is possible to study multiple activity engagement within existing data sets, fuller sets of activity measures need to be developed in order to evaluate the portfolio of activities older adults engage in and the relationship of these portfolios to health and wellness outcomes. Importantly, clearer conceptual models of activity broadly conceived are required to guide this work. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. A study on the regional geological setting of uranium metallogenesis in Lu-Zong region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yifeng; Ma Changming; Fan Huanxin

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a new understanding of features of main ore-bearing horizons and magmatic rocks, evolution regularities, regional tectonic characteristics and the compositions and formation of the Yangtze tectonic belt in Lu-Zong region. Favourable horizons, magmatic series of Yangtze-type crust-mantle mixed melting magmatic rocks, activities of regional gigantic deep-seated faults and their subsidiary structures provided good regional geological setting for the formation of uranium and polymetallic mineral resources in this region

  20. The use of damaged speleothems and in situ fault displacement monitoring to characterise active tectonic structures: an ex¬ample from Západní Cave, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Briestenský, Miloš; Stemberk, Josef; Rowberry, Matthew David

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 1 (2014), s. 129-138 ISSN 0583-6050 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 625.10; GA ČR GA205/05/2770; GA ČR GA205/06/1828; GA ČR GA205/09/2024; GA MŠk LM2010008 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : active tectonics * speleothem damage * fault displacement * stress field * Lusatian Thrust Zone Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.451, year: 2014

  1. River history and tectonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vita-Finzi, C

    2012-05-13

    The analysis of crustal deformation by tectonic processes has gained much from the clues offered by drainage geometry and river behaviour, while the interpretation of channel patterns and sequences benefits from information on Earth movements before or during their development. The interplay between the two strands operates at many scales: themes which have already benefited from it include the possible role of mantle plumes in the breakup of Gondwana, the Cenozoic development of drainage systems in Africa and Australia, Himalayan uplift in response to erosion, alternating episodes of uplift and subsidence in the Mississippi delta, buckling of the Indian lithospheric plate, and changes in stream pattern and sinuosity along individual alluvial channels subject to localized deformation. Developments in remote sensing, isotopic dating and numerical modelling are starting to yield quantitative analyses of such effects, to the benefit of geodymamics as well as fluvial hydrology. This journal is © 2012 The Royal Society

  2. Tectonic Theory and Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frier, Marie; Fisker, Anna Marie; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2010-01-01

    ’ is an example of this sensuous interior transformation of a house into a home, a level of detailing which is, however, seldom represented in the prefabricated house. Consequently, this paper investigates whether interiority can be developed as a tectonic theory and design principle for uniting home and system...... and assembly processes, seems a paradoxical challenge which has left prefabricated houses raw constructions rather than inhabitable homes. Based on the hypothesis that home is determined spatially via sensuous impressions of interiority at the threshold of furniture: The bath in Le Corbusier’s ‘Villa Savoye...... in the development of novel prefab solutions. This is pursued trough a deductive study comparing Gottfried Semper’s theories on the origins of construction with Werner Blaser’s technical and practical studies of the joint. In combining Blaser’s constructive understanding of the joint with the interior softness...

  3. Teaching And Learning Tectonics With Web-GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasio, D. J.; Sahagian, D. L.; Bodzin, A.; Teletzke, A. L.; Rutzmoser, S.; Cirucci, L.; Bressler, D.; Burrows, J. E.

    2012-12-01

    Tectonics is a new curriculum enhancement consisting of six Web GIS investigations designed to augment a traditional middle school Earth science curriculum. The investigations are aligned to Disciplinary Core Ideas: Earth and Space Science from the National Research Council's (2012) Framework for K-12 Science Education and to tectonics benchmark ideas articulated in the AAAS Project 2061 (2007) Atlas of Science Literacy. The curriculum emphasizes geospatial thinking and scientific inquiry and consists of the following modules: Geohazards, which plate boundary is closest to me? How do we recognize plate boundaries? How does thermal energy move around the Earth? What happens when plates diverge? What happens when plate move sideways past each other? What happens when plates collide? The Web GIS interface uses JavaScript for simplicity, intuition, and convenience for implementation on a variety of platforms making it easier for diverse middle school learners and their teachers to conduct authentic Earth science investigations, including multidisciplinary visualization, analysis, and synthesis of data. Instructional adaptations allow students who are English language learners, have disabilities, or are reluctant readers to perform advanced desktop GIS functions including spatial analysis, map visualization and query. The Web GIS interface integrates graphics, multimedia, and animation in addition to newly developed features, which allow users to explore and discover geospatial patterns that would not be easily visible using typical classroom instructional materials. The Tectonics curriculum uses a spatial learning design model that incorporates a related set of frameworks and design principles. The framework builds on the work of other successful technology-integrated curriculum projects and includes, alignment of materials and assessments with learning goals, casting key ideas in real-world problems, engaging students in scientific practices that foster the use of key

  4. Unsteady Landscapes: Climatic and Tectonic Controls on Fluvial Terrace Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clubb, F. J.; Mudd, S. M.

    2017-12-01

    Fluvial terraces are common landforms throughout mountainous regions which represent abandoned remnants of active river systems and their floodplains. The formation of these landforms points to a fundamental unsteadiness in the incision rate of the fluvial network, providing important information on channel response to climatic, tectonic, and base-level forcing, sediment storage and dynamics within mountainous systems, and the relative importance of lateral and vertical incision rates. In his 1877 Report on the Geology of the Henry Mountains, G.K. Gilbert suggested that strath terraces may form due to climatically-driven increase in sediment supply, causing armouring of the channel bed and hindering vertical incision. An alternative hypothesis suggests that strath terraces may be preserved through progressive tectonic uplift or base-level fall. These different formation mechanisms should result in varying distribution of terrace elevations along channels: if terraces are formed through climate-driven variations in sediment supply, we might expect that terrace elevations would be random, whereas progressive fluvial incision should result in a series of terraces with a systematic elevation pattern. Here we test alternative hypotheses for strath terrace formation using a new method for objectively and rapidly identifying terrace surfaces from digital elevation models (DEMs) over large spatial scales. Our new method identifies fluvial terraces using their gradient and elevation compared to the modern channel, thresholds of which are statistically calculated from the DEM and do not need to be set manually by the user. We use this method to extract fluvial terraces for every major river along the coast of California, and quantify their distribution and elevation along the fluvial long profile. Our results show that there is no systematic pattern in terrace elevations despite a well-constrained spatial variation in uplift rates, suggesting that terraces in this region do

  5. Public regulations towards a tectonic architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Anne Marie Due

    2006-01-01

    's activities has primarily been to support the optimization of the building process through ‘trimmed building’ and ‘partnering’ that only takes the immediate economic benefits of the changes to the building process into account and as such has no measures for architectural quality. The public initiatives so......Public regulations can support tectonic architecture by changes to the tendering system, supporting new organizational structures of the building industry in public building projects and suggesting a focus on innovation through increased research and development activity. The Danish state...... are happening very slowly which is understandable when there is no economic incitement for the industry to change. A change of these public regulations from sticks to carrots could create the economic incitement for the building industry to create tectonic architecture and thereby develop the building industry...

  6. New active faults on Eurasian-Arabian collision zone: Tectonic activity of Özyurt and Gülsünler faults (Eastern Anatolian Plateau, Van-Turkey)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dicle, S.; Üner, S.

    2017-11-01

    The Eastern Anatolian Plateau emerges from the continental collision between Arabian and Eurasian plates where intense seismicity related to the ongoing convergence characterizes the southern part of the plateau. Active deformation in this zone is shared by mainly thrust and strike-slip faults. The Özyurt thrust fault and the Gülsünler sinistral strike-slip fault are newly determined fault zones, located to the north of Van city centre. Different types of faults such as thrust, normal and strike-slip faults are observed on the quarry wall excavated in Quaternary lacustrine deposits at the intersection zone of these two faults. Kinematic analysis of fault-slip data has revealed coeval activities of transtensional and compressional structures for the Lake Van Basin. Seismological and geomorphological characteristics of these faults demonstrate the capability of devastating earthquakes for the area.

  7. New active faults on Eurasian-Arabian collision zone: Tectonic activity of Özyurt and Gülsünler faults (Eastern Anatolian Plateau, Van-Turkey)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dicle, S.; Üner, S.

    2017-01-01

    The Eastern Anatolian Plateau emerges from the continental collision between Arabian and Eurasian plates where intense seismicity related to the ongoing convergence characterizes the southern part of the plateau. Active deformation in this zone is shared by mainly thrust and strike-slip faults. The Özyurt thrust fault and the Gülsünler sinistral strike-slip fault are newly determined fault zones, located to the north of Van city centre. Different types of faults such as thrust, normal and strike-slip faults are observed on the quarry wall excavated in Quaternary lacustrine deposits at the intersection zone of these two faults. Kinematic analysis of fault-slip data has revealed coeval activities of transtensional and compressional structures for the Lake Van Basin. Seismological and geomorphological characteristics of these faults demonstrate the capability of devastating earthquakes for the area.

  8. Paleomagnetic and magnetic fabric studies of Lower Triassic red sandstones from the autochthonous cover of the Central Western Carpathians: new insights into paleogeographic setting and tectonic evolution of the area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szaniawski, R.; Jankowski, L.; Ludwiniak, M.; Mazzoli, S.; Szczygieł, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Carpathian Mountains were formed through progressive collision and amalgamation of the Alcapa and Tisza-Dacia microplates with the European Platform. The Central Western Carpathians (CWC) tectonic unit analyzed in this study constitutes a fragment of the Alcapa microplate - research in this area is therefore of great importance in the context of the geotectonic evolution of the Carpathian orogen. Our paleomagnetic and magnetic fabric studies were focused on Lower Triassic red sandstones from the autochthonous cover of the crystalline basement. We present new results from three mountain massifs: Low Tatra, Velka Fatra and Strazovske Vrchy, comparing them with our earlier works performed in the Tatra Mts. Rockmagnetic studies reveal similar results in all four studied regions - the dominant ferromagnetic carrier in red sandstones is hematite, while the magnetic fabric is mostly controlled by paramagnetic minerals. AMS results outline a bedding parallel foliation and a tectonic lineation. This lineation lies in the bedding plane but is somewhat oblique to the present horizontal plane. The fact that the lineation is not exactly parallel to the strike of the beds is most likely due to multistage deformation: the lineation is related to bedding parallel shortening associated with the folding and thrusting stage, while present-day bedding attitude results at least partially from rotations associated with subsequent uplift and/or faulting. Paleomagnetic analysis indicate that hematite carrier records characteristic remanent component of high unblocking temperatures (680°C) and both normal (dominant) and reversed polarity. Paleomagnetic inclinations are similar to those expected from reference paleomagnetic data from the European Platform. Declination values are rather similar in all four studied areas and imply moderate counterclockwise rotations of the CWC. These results are incompatible with some of the previous paleomagnetic studies of younger rocks from the CWC

  9. Development of a direct observation Measure of Environmental Qualities of Activity Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Gillian; Rigby, Patty; Batorowicz, Beata; McMain-Klein, Margot; Petrenchik, Theresa; Thompson, Laura; Gibson, Michelle

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an observer-rated measure of aesthetic, physical, social, and opportunity-related qualities of leisure activity settings for young people (with or without disabilities). Eighty questionnaires were completed by sets of raters who independently rated 22 community/home activity settings. The scales of the 32-item Measure of Environmental Qualities of Activity Settings (MEQAS; Opportunities for Social Activities, Opportunities for Physical Activities, Pleasant Physical Environment, Opportunities for Choice, Opportunities for Personal Growth, and Opportunities to Interact with Adults) were determined using principal components analyses. Test-retest reliability was determined for eight activity settings, rated twice (4-6wk interval) by a trained rater. The factor structure accounted for 80% of the variance. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy was 0.73. Cronbach's alphas for the scales ranged from 0.76 to 0.96, and interrater reliabilities (ICCs) ranged from 0.60 to 0.93. Test-retest reliabilities ranged from 0.70 to 0.90. Results suggest that the MEQAS has a sound factor structure and preliminary evidence of internal consistency, interrater, and test-retest reliability. The MEQAS is the first observer-completed measure of environmental qualities of activity settings. The MEQAS allows researchers to assess comprehensively qualities and affordances of activity settings, and can be used to design and assess environmental qualities of programs for young people. © 2014 Mac Keith Press.

  10. The alternative concept of global tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anokhin, Vladimir; Kholmyansky, Mikhael

    2016-04-01

    The existing plate tectonic paradigm becomes more questionable in relation to the new facts of the Earth. The most complete to date criticism of plate tectonics provisions contained in the article (Pratt, 2000). Authors can recall a few facts that contradict the idea of long-range movement of plates: - The absence of convection cells in the mantle, detected by seismic tomography; - The presence of long-lived deep regmatic network in the crust, not distorted by the movement of plates; - The inability of linking the global geometry of the of mutual long-distance movement of plates. All this gives reason to believe that correct, or at least a satisfactory concept of global tectonics are not exist now. After overcoming the usual inertia of thinking the plate paradigm in the foreseeable future will replace by different concept, more relevant as the observable facts of the Earth and the well-known physical laws. The authors suggest that currently accumulated sufficient volume of facts and theoretical ideas for the synthesis of a new general hypothesis of the structure and dynamics of the Earth. Analysis of the existing tectonic theory suggests that most of their provisions are mutually compatible. Obviously, plume tectonics perfectly compatible with any of classical models. It contradicts the only plate tectonics (movement of hot spots in principle not linked either with each other or with the general picture of the plate movements, the presence of mantle convection and mantle streams are mutually exclusive, and so on). The probable transfer of the heated material down up within the Earth may occur in various forms, the simplest of which (and, consequently, the most probable) are presented plumes. The existence in the mantle numerous large volumes of decompressed substances (detected seismic tomography), can be correlated with the bodies of plumes at different stages of uplift. Plumes who raise to the bottom of the lithosphere, to spread out to the sides and form a set

  11. Biological modulation of tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep, N. H.; Bird, D. K.

    2008-12-01

    Photosynthesis has had geologic consequences over the Earth's history. In addition to modifying Earth's atmosphere and ocean chemistry, it has also modulated tectonic processes through enhanced weathering and modification of the nature and composition of sedimentary rocks within fold mountain belts and convergent margins. Molecular biological studies indicate that bacterial photosynthesis evolved just once and that most bacterial clades descend from this photosynthetic common ancestor. Iron-based photosynthesis (ideally 4FeO + CO2 + H2O = 2Fe2O3 + CH2O) was the most bountiful anoxygenic niche on land. The back reaction provided energy to heterotrophic microbes and returned FeO to the photosynthetic microbes. Bacterial land colonists evolved into ecosystems that effectively weathered FeO-bearing minerals and volcanic glass. Clays, sands, and dissolved cations from the weathering process entered the ocean and formed our familiar classes sedimentary rocks: shales, sandstones, and carbonates. Marine photosynthesis caused organic carbon to accumulate in black shales. In contrast, non-photosynthetic ecosystems do not cause organic carbon to accumulate in shale. These evolutionary events occurred before 3.8 Ga as black shales are among the oldest rock types (Rosing and Frei, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 217, 237-244, 2004). Thick sedimentary sequences deformed into fold mountain belts. They remelted at depth to form granitic rocks (Rosing et al., Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 232, 99-11, 2006). Regions of outcropping low-FeO rocks including granites, quartzites, and some shales were a direct result. This dearth of FeO favored the evolution of oxic photosynthesis of cyanobacteria from photosynthetic soil bacteria. Black shales have an additional modulation effect on tectonics as they concentrate radioactive elements, particularly uranium (e.g. so that the surface heat flow varies by a factor of ca. 2). Thick sequences of black shales at continental rises of passive margins are

  12. Climate vs. tectonic induced variations in Cenozoic sediment supply from western Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gołędowski, Bartosz; Nielsen, S.B.; Clausen, O.R.

    The scope of this work is the causality of sediment flux variations from western Scandinavia during the Cenozoic. Over the decades of exploration in the North Sea and in the Norwegian shelf most of these variations were given tectonic causes. During the final period of North Atlantic break......-up (Paleocene-Early Eocene) this link is quite striking, especially in the northern British Isles and in the Faeroe-Shetland Platform where sediment production pulses can be correlated with well documented periods of tectonic activity (e.g. magmatism). However, during the subsequent Cenozoic epochs this link...... is much less constrained. For this period we therefore search for an alternative explanation in terms of climate and climate change [1-3] Methods The extensive seismic and well data set allow investigation of inland erosion rates via the offshore distribution of sediments. However, varying marine...

  13. Tectonic evolution of Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, D.U.; Golombek, M.P.; McGill, G.E.

    1979-01-01

    Any model for the tectonic evolution of Mars must account for two major crustal elements: the Tharsis bulge and the topographically low and lightly crated northern third of the planet. Ages determined by crater density indicate that both of these elements came into existence very early in Martian history, a conclusion that holds no matter which of the current crater density versus age curves is used. The size of these two major crustal elements and their sequential development suggest that both may be related to a global-scale internal process. It is proposed that the resurfacing of the northern third of Mars is related to subcrustal erosion and isostatic foundering during the life of a first-order convection cell. With the demise of the cell, denser segregations of metallic materials began to coalesce as a gravitatively unstable layer which finally overturned to form the core. In the overturn, lighter crustal materials was shifted laterally and underplated beneath Tharsis to cause rapid and permanent isostatic rise. This was followed by a long-lived thermal phase produced by the hot underplate and by the gravitative energy of core formation slowly making its way to the surface to produce the Tharsis volcanics

  14. Tectonic evolution of Lavinia Planitia, Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squyres, Steven W.; Frank, Sharon L.; Mcgill, George E.; Solomon, Sean C.

    1991-01-01

    High resolution radar images from the Magellan spacecraft have revealed the first details of the morphology of the Lavinia Planitia region of Venus. Lavinia is a broad lowland over 2000 km across, centered at about 45 deg S latitude, 345 deg E longitude. Herein, the tectonic evolution of Lavinia is discussed, and its possible relationship to processes operating in the planet's interior. The discussion is restricted to the region from 37.3 to 52.6 deg S latitude and from about 340 to 0 deg E longitude. One of the most interesting characteristics of Lavinia is that the entire region possesses a regional tectonic framework of striking regularity. Lavinia is also transected by a complex pattern of belts of intense tectonic deformation known as ridge belts. Despite the gross topographic similarity of all of the ridge belts in Lavinia, they exhibit two rather distinct styles of near surface deformation. One is composed of sets of broad, arch-like ridges rising above the surrounding plains. In the other type, obvious fold-like ridges are rare to absent in the radar images. Both type show evidence for small amounts of shear distributed across the belts.

  15. The Ecology of Urban Tectonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beim, Anne; Hvejsel, Marie Frier

    2016-01-01

    This paper is related to previous research by the authors that examine the phenomenon of tectonics as architectural design theory and method. These studies have shown that the notion of tectonics at large is associated with exclusive architecture, and that, as a profession architects have...... to develop methods for applying tectonic knowledge extracted from significant existing examples for developing future practical methods (Frampton 2002: 81). The specific intention of this paper is to push the understanding of tectonics further, into the scale of the urban context and thereby to discuss...... using Hansen’s work as a case study. (Beim & Madsen (ed.) 2014) Methodologically this has been done by applying the notion of ‘urban tectonics’ inspired by the work of Eduard F. Sekler, as a critical lens. (Sekler 1964, Sekler 1965) Through this lens we study how Hansen was able to treat culture...

  16. Improve earthquake hypocenter using adaptive simulated annealing inversion in regional tectonic, volcano tectonic, and geothermal observation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ry, Rexha Verdhora, E-mail: rexha.vry@gmail.com [Master Program of Geophysical Engineering, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesha No.10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Nugraha, Andri Dian, E-mail: nugraha@gf.itb.ac.id [Global Geophysical Research Group, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesha No.10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2015-04-24

    Observation of earthquakes is routinely used widely in tectonic activity observation, and also in local scale such as volcano tectonic and geothermal activity observation. It is necessary for determining the location of precise hypocenter which the process involves finding a hypocenter location that has minimum error between the observed and the calculated travel times. When solving this nonlinear inverse problem, simulated annealing inversion method can be applied to such global optimization problems, which the convergence of its solution is independent of the initial model. In this study, we developed own program codeby applying adaptive simulated annealing inversion in Matlab environment. We applied this method to determine earthquake hypocenter using several data cases which are regional tectonic, volcano tectonic, and geothermal field. The travel times were calculated using ray tracing shooting method. We then compared its results with the results using Geiger’s method to analyze its reliability. Our results show hypocenter location has smaller RMS error compared to the Geiger’s result that can be statistically associated with better solution. The hypocenter of earthquakes also well correlated with geological structure in the study area. Werecommend using adaptive simulated annealing inversion to relocate hypocenter location in purpose to get precise and accurate earthquake location.

  17. Understanding the Importance, Dimensions and Settings for Developing Children’s Physical Activity Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Hyndman, Brendon

    2015-01-01

    Promotion of regular physical activity during childhood within schools, home and community settings is important as childhood forms the foundation for physical activity habits that can track into adulthood. Despite childhood being a crucial period for developing physical activity behaviour, there is a limited understanding of the physical activity behaviours of school-aged children. The aim of this research report is to facilitate understanding of children’s physical activity behaviours by ou...

  18. Evidence for sub-lacustrine volcanic activity in Lake Bolsena (central Italy) revealed by high resolution seismic data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindhorst, Katja; Krastel, Sebastian; Wagner, Bernd; Schuerer, Anke

    2017-06-01

    The Bolsena caldera that formed between 0.6 and 0.2 Ma has a well preserved structural rim, which makes it an ideal site to study the tectonic and volcanic evolution of calderas. However, the main area is covered by a 150 m deep lake which makes it rather difficult to investigate the subsurface structure directly. To overcome this problem new high resolution hydro-acoustic surveys using a multichannel reflection seismic system and a sediment echo-sounder system were conducted in September 2012. As space was limited we used a rowing boat towed by a rubber boat to handle a 36 m long and 24 channel streamer to receive seismic reflections produced using a Mini GI-Gun (0.25 l). The subsurface structure of Lake Bolsena was imaged up to a sediment depth of 190 m, which is estimated to have filled over a period of 333 kyrs. However, massive pyroclastic flow deposits found in the deeper parts of the basin indicate an initial infill of volcanic deposits from two adjacent younger calderas, the Latera (W) and Montefiascone (SE) calderas. Our data suggest that the caldera has a long history of active volcanism, because the lacustrine sediments show post-sedimentary influences of geothermal fluids. We mapped several mound structures at various stratigraphic depths. Two volcanic structures outcrop at the modern lake surface implying recent activity. One of these structures is hardly covered by sediments and has a crater-like feature in its summit. The other structure shows a pockmark-like depression on top. Another observable feature is a partially sediment filled crater located in the western part of the lake which further implies the existence of a magma chamber located beneath the Bolsena caldera. Since the late Pleistocene and Holocene, the sedimentation was mainly hemipelagic evidenced by a sediment drape of up to 10 m thick sediment drape on the uppermost sediments. Beneath the drape we found evidence for a distal tephra layer likely related to an explosive eruption from

  19. Crustal Magnetic Field Anomalies and Global Tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storetvedt, Karsten

    2014-05-01

    A wide variety of evidence suggests that the ruling isochron (geomagnetic polarity versus age) hypothesis of marine magnetic lineations has no merit - undermining therefore one of the central tenets of plate tectonics. Instead, variable induction by the ambient geomagnetic field is likely to be the principal agent for mega-scale crustal magnetic features - in both oceanic and continental settings. This revitalizes the fault-controlled susceptibility-contrast model of marine magnetic lineations, originally proposed in the late 1960s. Thus, the marine magnetic 'striping' may be ascribed to tectonic shearing and related, but variable, disintegration of the original iron-oxide mineralogy, having developed primarily along one of the two pan-global sets of orthogonal fractures and faults. In this way, fault zones (having the more advanced mineral alteration) would be characterized by relatively low susceptibility, while more moderately affected crustal sections (located between principal fault zones) would be likely to have less altered oxide mineralogy and therefore higher magnetic susceptibility. On this basis, induction by the present geomagnetic field is likely to produce oscillating magnetic field anomalies with axis along the principal shear grain. The modus operandi of the alternative magneto-tectonic interpretation is inertia-driven wrenching of the global Alpine age palaeo-lithosphere - triggered by changes in Earth's rotation. Increasing sub-crustal loss to the upper mantle during the Upper Mesozoic had left the ensuing Alpine Earth in a tectonically unstable state. Thus, sub-crustal eclogitization and associated gravity-driven delamination to the upper mantle led to a certain degree of planetary acceleration which in turn gave rise to latitude-dependent, westward inertial wrenching of the global palaeo-lithosphere. During this process, 1) the thin and mechanically fragile oceanic crust were deformed into a new type of broad fold belts, and 2) the continents

  20. From Plate Tectonic to Continental Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, P. H.

    2017-12-01

    By the early 1970s, the basics of plate tectonics were known. Although much understanding remained to be gained, as a topic of research, plate tectonics no longer defined the forefront of earth science. Not only had it become a foundation on which to build, but also the methods used to reveal it became tools to take in new directions. For me as a seismologist studying earthquakes and active processes, the deformation of continents offered an obvious topic to pursue. Obviously examining the deformation of continents and ignoring the widespread geologic evidence of both ongoing and finite deformation of crust would be stupid. I was blessed with the opportunity to learn from and collaborate with two of the best, Paul Tapponnier and Clark Burchfiel. Continental deformation differed from plate tectonics both because deformation was widespread but more importantly because crust shortens (extends) horizontally and thickens (thins), processes that can be ignored where plate tectonics - the relative motion of rigid plates - occurs. Where a plate boundary passes into a continent, not only must the forces that move plates do work against friction or other dissipative processes, but where high terrain is created, they must also do work against gravity, to create gravitational potential energy in high terrain. Peter Bird and Kenneth Piper and Philip England and Dan McKenzie showed that a two-dimensional thin viscous sheet with vertically averaged properties enabled both sources of resistance to be included without introducing excessive complexity and to be scaled by one dimensionless number, what the latter pair called the Argand number. Increasingly over the past thirty years, emphasis has shifted toward the role played by the mantle lithosphere, because of both its likely strength and its negative buoyancy, which makes it gravitationally unstable. Despite progress since realizing that rigid plates (the essence of plate tectonics) provides a poor description of continental

  1. History and Evolution of Precambrian plate tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Ria; Gerya, Taras

    2014-05-01

    Plate tectonics is a global self-organising process driven by negative buoyancy at thermal boundary layers. Phanerozoic plate tectonics with its typical subduction and orogeny is relatively well understood and can be traced back in the geological records of the continents. Interpretations of geological, petrological and geochemical observations from Proterozoic and Archean orogenic belts however (e.g., Brown, 2006), suggest a different tectonic regime in the Precambrian. Due to higher radioactive heat production the Precambrian lithosphere shows lower internal strength and is strongly weakened by percolating melts. The fundamental difference between Precambrian and Phanerozoic tectonics is therefore the upper-mantle temperature, which determines the strength of the upper mantle (Brun, 2002) and the further tectonic history. 3D petrological-thermomechanical numerical modelling experiments of oceanic subduction at an active plate at different upper-mantle temperatures show these different subduction regimes. For upper-mantle temperatures 250 K above the present day value no subduction occurs any more. The whole lithosphere is delaminating and due to strong volcanism and formation of a thicker crust subduction is inhibited. This stage of 200-250 K higher upper mantle temperature which corresponds roughly to the early Archean (Abbott, 1994) is marked by strong volcanism due to sublithospheric decompression melting which leads to an equal thickness for both oceanic and continental plates. As a consequence subduction is inhibited, but a compressional setup instead will lead to orogeny between a continental or felsic terrain and an oceanic or mafic terrain as well as internal crustal convection. Small-scale convection with plume shaped cold downwellings also in the upper mantle is of increased importance compared to the large-scale subduction cycle observed for present temperature conditions. It is also observed that lithospheric downwellings may initiate subduction by

  2. Parallel effects of memory set activation and searchon timing and working memory capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard eSchweickert

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Accurately estimating a time interval is required in everyday activities such as driving or cooking. Estimating time is relatively easy, provided a person attends to it. But a brief shift of attention to another task usually interferes with timing. Most processes carried out concurrently with timing interfere with it. Curiously, some do not. Literature on a few processes suggests a general proposition, the Timing and Complex-Span Hypothesis: A process interferes with concurrent timing if and only if process performance is related to complex span. Complex-span is the number of items correctly recalled in order, when each item presented for study is followed by a brief activity. Literature on task switching, visual search, memory search, word generation and mental time travel supports the hypothesis. Previous work found that another process, activation of a memory set in long term memory, is not related to complex-span. If the Timing and Complex-Span Hypothesis is true, activation should not interfere with concurrent timing in dual-task conditions. We tested such activation in single-task memory search task conditions and in dual-task conditions where memory search was executed with concurrent timing. In Experiment 1, activating a memory set increased reaction time, with no significant effect on time production. In Experiment 2, set size and memory set activation were manipulated. Activation and set size had a puzzling interaction for time productions, perhaps due to difficult conditions, leading us to use a related but easier task in Experiment 3. In Experiment 3 increasing set size lengthened time production, but memory activation had no significant effect. Results here and in previous literature on the whole support the Timing and Complex-Span Hypotheses. Results also support a sequential organization of activation and search of memory. This organization predicts activation and set size have additive effects on reaction time and multiplicative

  3. Parallel effects of memory set activation and search on timing and working memory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweickert, Richard; Fortin, Claudette; Xi, Zhuangzhuang; Viau-Quesnel, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Accurately estimating a time interval is required in everyday activities such as driving or cooking. Estimating time is relatively easy, provided a person attends to it. But a brief shift of attention to another task usually interferes with timing. Most processes carried out concurrently with timing interfere with it. Curiously, some do not. Literature on a few processes suggests a general proposition, the Timing and Complex-Span Hypothesis: A process interferes with concurrent timing if and only if process performance is related to complex span. Complex-span is the number of items correctly recalled in order, when each item presented for study is followed by a brief activity. Literature on task switching, visual search, memory search, word generation and mental time travel supports the hypothesis. Previous work found that another process, activation of a memory set in long term memory, is not related to complex-span. If the Timing and Complex-Span Hypothesis is true, activation should not interfere with concurrent timing in dual-task conditions. We tested such activation in single-task memory search task conditions and in dual-task conditions where memory search was executed with concurrent timing. In Experiment 1, activating a memory set increased reaction time, with no significant effect on time production. In Experiment 2, set size and memory set activation were manipulated. Activation and set size had a puzzling interaction for time productions, perhaps due to difficult conditions, leading us to use a related but easier task in Experiment 3. In Experiment 3 increasing set size lengthened time production, but memory activation had no significant effect. Results here and in previous literature on the whole support the Timing and Complex-Span Hypotheses. Results also support a sequential organization of activation and search of memory. This organization predicts activation and set size have additive effects on reaction time and multiplicative effects on percent

  4. Tectonic evolution of mercury; comparison with the moon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.G.; Masson, P.

    1983-01-01

    With regard to the Earth or to Mars, the Moon and Mercury look like tectonicless planetary bodies, and the prominent morphologies of these two planets are due to impact and volcanic processes. Despite these morphologies, several types of tectonic activities may be shown. Statistical studies of lineaments direction indicate that Mercury, as well as the Moon, have a planet wide lineament pattern, known as a ''grid''. Statistical studies of Mercury scarps and the Moon grabens indicate an interaction between planetary lithospheric evolution and large impact basins. Detailed studies of the largest basins indicate specific tectonic motions directly or indirectly related to impacts. These three tectonic types have been compared on each planet. The first tectonic type seems to be identical for Mercury and the Moon. But the two other types seem to be different, and are consistent with the planets' thermal evolution

  5. Mesozoic tectonics of the Otway Basin region: The legacy of Gondwana and the active Pacific margin: a review and ongoing research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, K.A. [Monash Univ., Clayton, VIC (Australia). Department of Earth Sciences; Finlayson, D.M. [Australian Geological Survey Organisation, Canberra, ACT (Australia); Hill, K.C. [La Trobe Univ., Bundoora, VIC (Australia). School of Earth Sciences; Cooper, G.T. [Monash Univ., Clayton, VIC (Australia). Department of Earth Sciences

    1995-12-31

    Recent plate tectonic models for SE Australia and the formerly contiguous parts of Gondwana are reviewed in this paper in order to assess the Mesozoic evolution of the Otway Basin. Research around the Otway Basin is summarised to demonstrate how the application of new technology can address some of the outstanding questions regarding the Basin`s evolution on local to lithospheric scales. The geometry and geology of Australia`s southern margin are compared with Atlantic rift-drift margins to provide analogues for tectonics and hydrocarbon exploration in the Otway Basin. At least two stages of rifting were found to be evident in the Cretaceous and in the deep structure of the Otway basin. These are Early Cretaceous rifting which is manifested in numerous half-graben and accommodation zones, and Late Cretaceous rifting in the deep seismic data seaward of the Tartwaup, Timboon and Sorell fault zones. Major offsets of the spreading axis during break up, at the Tasman and Spencer Fracture Zones were probably controlled by the location of Paleozoic terrace boundaries. The Tasman Fracture System was reactivated during break-up, with considerable uplift and denudation of the Bass failed rift to the east, which controlled Otway Basin facies distribution. Paleozoic structures also had a significant effect in determining the half graben orientations within a general N-S extensional regime during early Cretaceous rifting. The late Cretaceous second stage of rifting, seaward of the Tartwaup, Timboon and Sorell fault zones, left stable failed rift margin to the north, but the attenuated lithosphere of the Otway-Sorell microplate to the south records repeated extension that led to continental separation and may be part of an Antarctic upper plate. 1 table. 16 figs., 4 photos., refs.

  6. Climate vs. tectonic induced variations in Cenozoic sediment supply from western Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gołędowski, Bartosz; Nielsen, S.B.; Clausen, O.R.

    Eocene times tectonic activity related to the final stage of opening of the North Atlantic was apparently controlling the sediment input in the North Sea as sediment pulses correlate well with tectonic events. Although there is no signs of Cenozoic tectonic activity onshore Scandinavia (igneous bodies......, faulting), tectonic disturbance related to ocean opening could be responsible for deposition of thick Paleocene wedges along the western coast of Norway. During subsequent Cenozoic periods domal structures in the Norwegian shelf are a proof for mild and protracted compression. However, depositional...... patterns from offshore Scandinavia have been interpreted as a result of significant tectonic movements. In the absence of proofs for active tectonic agents we attempt to explain these sediment input variations as a result of climate fluctuations. The Eocene-Oligocene greenhouse-icehouse climate transition...

  7. Seismicity and tectonics of Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, K.M.

    1989-05-01

    Northern and eastern Bangladesh and surrounding areas belong to a seismically active zone and are associated with the subduction of the Indian plate. The seismicity and tectonics have been studied in detail and the observations have been correlated to understand the earthquake phenomenon in the region. The morphotectonic behaviour of northern Bangladesh shows that it is deeply related to the movement of the Dauki fault system and relative upliftment of the Shillong plateau. Contemporary seismicity in the Dauki fault system is relatively quiet comparing to that in the Naga-Disang-Haflong thrust belt giving rise to the probability of sudden release of energy being accumulated in the vicinity of the Dauki fault system. This observation corresponds with the predicted average return period of a large earthquake (1897 type) and the possibility of M > 8 earthquake in the vicinity of the Dauki fault within this century should not be ruled out. The seismicity in the folded belt in the east follows the general trend of Arakan-Yoma anticlinorium and represents shallow and low-angled thrust movements in conformity with the field observation. Seismotectonic behaviour in the deep basin part of Bangladesh demonstrates that an intraplate movement in the basement rock has been taking place along the deep-seated faults causing relative upliftment and subsidence in the basin. Bangladesh has been divided into three seismic zones on the basis of morphotectonic and seismic behaviour. Zone-I has been identified as the zone of high seismic risk. (author). 43 refs, 5 figs, 3 tabs

  8. Exercise Self-Efficacy as a Mediator between Goal-Setting and Physical Activity: Developing the Workplace as a Setting for Promoting Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Yoshie; Honda, Sumihisa; Kaneko, Shuji; Kurishima, Kazuhiro; Honda, Ayumi; Kakinuma, Ayumu; Jahng, Doosub

    2017-03-01

    Physical activity (PA) is ranked as a leading health indicator and the workplace is a key setting to promote PA. The purpose of this study was to examine how goal-setting and exercise self-efficacy (SE) during a health promotion program influenced PA level among Japanese workers. Using a cross-sectional study design, we surveyed 281 employees. The short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to assess PA level. Exercise SE was assessed using a partially modified version of Oka's exercise SE scale. Personal goals were assessed as the total numbers of "yes" responses to five items regarding "details of personal goals to perform PA". A mediational model was used to examine whether exercise SE mediates between the number of personal goals and PA level. The mean age of the participants was 46.3 years, 76.2% were men, and the most common occupational category was software engineer (30.6%). The average PA level per week exceeded the recommended level in 127 participants (45.2%). One hundred and eighty-four participants (65.5%) set some form of concrete personal goal to perform PA. The relationship between the number of personal goals and PA level was mediated by exercise SE. Our study showed that exercise SE mediates goal-setting and increases PA. The results suggest that the components of PA promotion programs should be tailored to enhance participants' confidence in performing PA.

  9. Study of the metamorphic belts and tectonics; Henseitai kenkyu to tectonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, T. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

    1997-10-25

    Study of metamorphic belts and tectonics is introduced. Minerals supposedly originating in the transitional zone and the lower mantle, that is, inclusions in diamond in kimberlite, are deemed to carry information about the depth level of 670km and lower. The place of origin of peridotite, Alpe Arami of Switzerland, is again estimated at a level of 300km or deeper. In the tectonic cross section in this region, the oceanic crust is bent and folded, and such a structure enables the supposition that fragments off the transitional zone may be carried upward to the ground surface. This region is now being limelighted, with plume tectonics enjoying popularity. The split of Pangaea is related with the ascent of plume. In the eastern part of Australia, there are alkali rocks attributable to the plume that was supposedly active at the end of the Proterozoic. Zircon U-Pb dating by SHRIMP offers a new approach to the tectonics of metamorphic rocks, and is reinforcing the position of metamorphic petrology relative to the study of collision and split of continents. 64 refs., 10 figs.

  10. Role of tectonic inheritance in the instauration of Tunisian Atlassic fold-and-thrust belt: Case of Bouhedma - Boudouaou structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanmi, Mohamed Abdelhamid; Ghanmi, Mohamed; Aridhi, Sabri; Ben Salem, Mohamed Sadok; Zargouni, Fouad

    2016-07-01

    Tectonic inversion in the Bouhedma-Boudouaou Mountains was investigated through recent field work and seismic lines interpretation calibrated with petroleum well data. Located to the Central-Southern Atlas of Tunisia, this area signed shortened intra-continental fold-and-thrust belts. Two dissymmetric anticlines characterize Bouhedma - Boudouaou major fold. These structures show a strong virgation respectively from E-W to NNE-SSW as a response to the interference between both tectonic inversion and tectonic inheritance. This complex geometry is driven by Mesozoic rifting, which marked an extensional inherited regime. A set of late Triassic-Early Jurassic E-W and NW-SE normal faults dipping respectively to the North and to the East seems to widely affect the overall geodynamic evolution of this domain. They result in major thickness changes across the hanging wall and the footwall blocks in response with the rifting activity. Tectonic inversion is inferred from convergence between African and European plates since late Cretaceous. During Serravalian - Tortonian event, NW-SE trending paroxysm led to: 1) folding of pre-inversion and syn-inversion strata, 2) reactivation of pre-existing normal faults to reverse ones and 3) orogeny of the main structures with NE-SW and E-W trending. The compressional feature still remains active during Quaternary event (Post-Villafranchian) with N-S trending compression. Contraction during inversion generates folding and internal deformation as well as Fault-Propagation-Fold and folding related strike.

  11. Andean tectonics: Implications for Satellite Geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allenby, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    Current knowledge and theories of large scale Andean tectonics as they relate to site planning for the NASA Crustal Dynamics Program's proposed high precision geodetic measurements of relative motions between the Nazca and South American plates are summarized. The Nazca Plate and its eastern margin, the Peru-Chile Trench, is considered a prototype plate marked by rapid motion, strong seismicity and well defined boundaries. Tectonic activity across the Andes results from the Nazca Plate subducting under the South American plate in a series of discrete platelets with different widths and dip angles. This in turn, is reflected in the tectonic complexity of the Andes which are a multitutde of orogenic belts superimposed on each other since the Precambrian. Sites for Crustal Dynamics Program measurements are being located to investigate both interplate and extraplate motions. Observing operations have already been initiated at Arequipa, Peru and Easter Island, Santiago and Cerro Tololo, Chile. Sites under consideration include Iquique, Chile; Oruro and Santa Cruz, Bolivia; Cuzco, Lima, Huancayo and Bayovar, Peru; and Quito and the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador. Based on scientific considerations, Santa Cruz, Huancayo (or Lima), Quito and the Galapagos Islands should be replaced by Isla San Felix, Chile; Brazilia or Petrolina, Brazil; and Guayaquil, Ecuador. If resources permit, additional important sites would be Buenaventura and Villavicencio or Puerto La Concordia, Colombia; and Mendoza and Cordoba, Argentina.

  12. Identifying tectonic parameters that influence tsunamigenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zelst, Iris; Brizzi, Silvia; van Dinther, Ylona; Heuret, Arnauld; Funiciello, Francesca

    2017-04-01

    The role of tectonics in tsunami generation is at present poorly understood. However, the fact that some regions produce more tsunamis than others indicates that tectonics could influence tsunamigenesis. Here, we complement a global earthquake database that contains geometrical, mechanical, and seismicity parameters of subduction zones with tsunami data. We statistically analyse the database to identify the tectonic parameters that affect tsunamigenesis. The Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficients reveal high positive correlations of 0.65 between, amongst others, the maximum water height of tsunamis and the seismic coupling in a subduction zone. However, these correlations are mainly caused by outliers. The Spearman's rank correlation coefficient results in more robust correlations of 0.60 between the number of tsunamis in a subduction zone and subduction velocity (positive correlation) and the sediment thickness at the trench (negative correlation). Interestingly, there is a positive correlation between the latter and tsunami magnitude. In an effort towards multivariate statistics, a binary decision tree analysis is conducted with one variable. However, this shows that the amount of data is too scarce. To complement this limited amount of data and to assess physical causality of the tectonic parameters with regard to tsunamigenesis, we conduct a numerical study of the most promising parameters using a geodynamic seismic cycle model. We show that an increase in sediment thickness on the subducting plate results in a shift in seismic activity from outerrise normal faults to splay faults. We also show that the splay fault is the preferred rupture path for a strongly velocity strengthening friction regime in the shallow part of the subduction zone, which increases the tsunamigenic potential. A larger updip limit of the seismogenic zone results in larger vertical surface displacement.

  13. Teaching Tectonics to Undergraduates with Web GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasio, D. J.; Bodzin, A.; Sahagian, D. L.; Rutzmoser, S.

    2013-12-01

    Geospatial reasoning skills provide a means for manipulating, interpreting, and explaining structured information and are involved in higher-order cognitive processes that include problem solving and decision-making. Appropriately designed tools, technologies, and curriculum can support spatial learning. We present Web-based visualization and analysis tools developed with Javascript APIs to enhance tectonic curricula while promoting geospatial thinking and scientific inquiry. The Web GIS interface integrates graphics, multimedia, and animations that allow users to explore and discover geospatial patterns that are not easily recognized. Features include a swipe tool that enables users to see underneath layers, query tools useful in exploration of earthquake and volcano data sets, a subduction and elevation profile tool which facilitates visualization between map and cross-sectional views, drafting tools, a location function, and interactive image dragging functionality on the Web GIS. The Web GIS platform is independent and can be implemented on tablets or computers. The GIS tool set enables learners to view, manipulate, and analyze rich data sets from local to global scales, including such data as geology, population, heat flow, land cover, seismic hazards, fault zones, continental boundaries, and elevation using two- and three- dimensional visualization and analytical software. Coverages which allow users to explore plate boundaries and global heat flow processes aided learning in a Lehigh University Earth and environmental science Structural Geology and Tectonics class and are freely available on the Web.

  14. Tectonic characteristics and structural styles of a continental rifted basin: Revelation from deep seismic reflection profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Fushan Depression is a half-graben rifted sub-basin located in the southeast of the Beibuwan Basin, South China Sea. The Paleogene Liushagang sequence is the main hydrocarbon-bearing stratigraphic unit in the sub-basin. Using three-dimensional (3-D seismic data and logging data over the sub-basin, we analyzed structural styles and sedimentary characteristics of the Liushagang sequence. Five types of structural styles were defined: ancient horst, traditional slope, flexure slope-break, faulted slope-break and multiple-stage faults slope, and interpretations for positions, background and development formations of each structural style were discussed. Structural framework across the sub-basin reveals that the most remarkable tectonic setting is represented by the central transfer zone (CTZ which divides the sub-basin into two independent depressions, and two kinds of sequence architectures are summarized: (i the western multi-stage faults slope; (ii the eastern flexure slope break belt. Combined with regional stress field of the Fushan Depression, we got plane combinations of the faults, and finally built up plan distribution maps of structural system for main sequence. Also, we discussed the controlling factors mainly focused on subsidence history and background tectonic activities such as volcanic activity and earthquakes. The analysis of structural styles and tectonic evolution provides strong theoretical support for future prospecting in the Fushan sub-basin and other similar rifted basins of the Beibuwan Basin in South China Sea.

  15. Guided goal setting: effectiveness in a dietary and physical activity intervention with low-income adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilts, Mical Kay; Horowitz, Marcel; Townsend, Marilyn S

    2009-01-01

    Determining the effectiveness of the guided goal setting strategy on changing adolescents' dietary and physical activity self-efficacy and behaviors. Adolescents were individually assigned to treatment (intervention with guided goal setting) or control conditions (intervention without guided goal setting) with data collected before and after the education intervention. Urban middle school in a low-income community in Central California. Ethnically diverse middle school students (n = 94, 55% male) who were participants of a USDA nutrition education program. Driven by the Social Cognitive Theory, the intervention targeted dietary and physical activity behaviors of adolescents. Dietary self-efficacy and behavior; physical activity self-efficacy and behavior; goal effort and spontaneous goal setting. ANCOVA and path analysis were performed using the full sample and a sub-sample informed by Locke's recommendations (accounting for goal effort and spontaneous goal setting). No significant differences were found between groups using the full sample. Using the sub-sample, greater gains in dietary behavior (p goal effort and spontaneous goal setting, this study provides some evidence that the use of guided goal setting with adolescents may be a viable strategy to promote dietary and physical activity behavior change.

  16. End Late Paleozoic tectonic stress field in the southern edge of Junggar Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Ju

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the end Late Paleozoic tectonic stress field in the southern edge of Junggar Basin by interpreting stress-response structures (dykes, folds, faults with slickenside and conjugate joints. The direction of the maximum principal stress axes is interpreted to be NW–SE (about 325°, and the accommodated motion among plates is assigned as the driving force of this tectonic stress field. The average value of the stress index R′ is about 2.09, which indicates a variation from strike-slip to compressive tectonic stress regime in the study area during the end Late Paleozoic period. The reconstruction of the tectonic field in the southern edge of Junggar Basin provides insights into the tectonic deformation processes around the southern Junggar Basin and contributes to the further understanding of basin evolution and tectonic settings during the culmination of the Paleozoic.

  17. Bidirectional Active Learning: A Two-Way Exploration Into Unlabeled and Labeled Data Set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Shupeng; Yun, Xiaochun

    2015-12-01

    In practical machine learning applications, human instruction is indispensable for model construction. To utilize the precious labeling effort effectively, active learning queries the user with selective sampling in an interactive way. Traditional active learning techniques merely focus on the unlabeled data set under a unidirectional exploration framework and suffer from model deterioration in the presence of noise. To address this problem, this paper proposes a novel bidirectional active learning algorithm that explores into both unlabeled and labeled data sets simultaneously in a two-way process. For the acquisition of new knowledge, forward learning queries the most informative instances from unlabeled data set. For the introspection of learned knowledge, backward learning detects the most suspiciously unreliable instances within the labeled data set. Under the two-way exploration framework, the generalization ability of the learning model can be greatly improved, which is demonstrated by the encouraging experimental results.

  18. Ground subsidence and associated ground fracturing in urban areas: InSAR monitoring of active tectonic structures (Ciudad Guzman, Colima Graben - Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bignami, C.; Brunori, C.; Zucca, F.; Groppelli, G.; Norini, G.; Hernandez, N. D.; Stramondo, S.

    2013-12-01

    This study focuses on the observation of a creeping phenomenon that produces subsidence of the Zapotlan basin and ground fracturing in correspondence of the Ciudad Guzmàn (Jalisco - Mexico). The September 21, 2012, the Ciudad Guzmàn has been struck by a phenomenon of ground fracturing of about 1.5 km of length. This event caused the deformation of the roads and the damage of 30 houses, of which eight have been declared uninhabitable. The alignment of fractures is coincident with the escarpments produced in September 19, 1985, in the Ciudad Guzman urban area, when a strong earthquake, magnitude 8.1, struck the Mexican area, causing the deaths of at least 10,000 people and serious damage in Mexico City. In Ciudad Guzmán, about 60% of the buildings were destroyed, with about 50 loss of life. The city is located in the Zapotlan basin (northern Colima graben), a wide tectonic depression where the depth of the infilling sediments is about 1 km. This subsidence cannot be measured outside the urbanized area, but it can be considered as a deformation mechanism of the central part of the basin. In order to detect and mapping the spatio-temporal features of the processes that led to this event, we applied InSAR multi-temporal techniques to analyze a dataset of ENVISAT satellite SAR images, acquired in a time span between 2003-2010. InSAR techniques detect a subsidence of the north-western part of Ciudad Guzmàn of about 15 mm/yr in the time interval 2003-2010. The displacement occurred in September 21, 2012, was detected using two RadarSAT2 acquisitions (2012-03-22 and 2013-03-17). The explanation of surface movements based on interferometric results, ground data and geological field observations, allowed confirming surface effect due to the overexploitation of the aquifers and highlights a subsidence due to anthropogenic causes coupled to buried tectonic structures.

  19. Maintenance of Physical Activity among Faculty and Staff in University Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipple, Kerry; Kinney, Judy; Kattenbraker, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies have placed little emphasis on maintenance of healthy behaviors longer than six months. This study examined factors that contribute to maintenance of physical activity among faculty and staff in university settings. A 55-item survey on physical activity maintenance was used to assess attitudes towards exercise, exercise…

  20. An Integrative Review of In-Class Activities That Enable Active Learning in College Science Classroom Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthurs, Leilani A.; Kreager, Bailey Zo

    2017-01-01

    Engaging students in active learning is linked to positive learning outcomes. This study aims to synthesise the peer-reviewed literature about "active learning" in college science classroom settings. Using the methodology of an integrative literature review, 337 articles archived in the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) are…

  1. Barrel organ of plate tectonics - a new tool for outreach and education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broz, Petr; Machek, Matěj; Šorm, Zdar

    2016-04-01

    Plate tectonics is the major geological concept to explain dynamics and structure of Earth's outer shell, the lithosphere. In the plate tectonic theory processes in the Earth lithosphere and its dynamics is driven by the relative motion and interaction of lithospheric plates. Geologically most active regions on Earth often correlate with the lithospheric plate boundaries. Thus for explaining the earth surface evolution, mountain building, volcanism and earthquake origin it is important to understand processes at the plate boundaries. However these processes associated with plate tectonics usually require significant period of time to take effects, therefore, their entire cycles cannot be directly observed in the nature by humans. This makes a challenge for scientists studying these processes, but also for teachers and popularizers trying to explain them to students and to the general public. Therefore, to overcome this problem, we developed a mechanical model of plate tectonics enabling demonstration of most important processes associated with plate tectonics in real time. The mechanical model is a wooden box, more specifically a special type of barrel organ, with hand painted backdrops in the front side. These backdrops are divided into several components representing geodynamic processes associated with plate tectonics, specifically convective currents occurring in the mantle, sea-floor spreading, a subduction of the oceanic crust under the continental crust, partial melting and volcanism associated with subduction, a formation of magmatic stripes, an ascent of mantle plume throughout the mantle, a volcanic activity associated with hot spots, and a formation and degradation of volcanic islands on moving lithospheric plate. All components are set in motion by a handle controlled by a human operator, and the scene is illuminated with colored lights controlled automatically by an electric device embedded in the box. Operation of the model may be seen on www

  2. Fluid phases contemporary with sandstone diagenesis tectonic movements and the activity of the natural nuclear reactors in the Oklo deposit, Republic of Gabon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poty, B.

    1979-12-01

    A research contract was agreed between the IAEA and the Centre de Recherches Petrographiques et Geochimiques of Nancy (France) to analyze some aspects of the fluid phases present during diagenesis of the Precambrian Francevillean sandstones of Gabon, which include the Oklo uranium deposit in which because of the geometry of the ore body, the high ore grade, etc., a natural uranium reactor was formed. The investigation was orientated to define some special characteristics of the fluid inclusions and two main methods were applied for this purpose: The Raman spectroscopy (MOLE microsonde) and microthermometric analysis. The main conclusions of the research are the following: 1. The Francevillean sandstones were buried up to a depth of 4-5 km where the corresponding geothermal temperature was of around 240 0 C but during the Oklo nuclear reaction, the fluid temperatures were higher than 450 0 C and in at least one case (Zone II) up to 600 0 C. 2. The tectonic fracturing has favoured the fluid circulation, which was possibly the responsible of the mineral re-concentration after the Oklo nuclear reaction. 3. The diagenetic fluids were essentially aqueous solutions and no sulphur components were identified. 4. The hydrogen presence in a quartz veinlet is surprising and possibly due to water decomposition by strong irradiation

  3. Self-potential anomalies preceding tectonic and volcanic crises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patella, D.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper I consider a possible physical mechanism capable of explaining self-potential anomalies, which are currently observed on the ground surface prior to tectonic and volcanic activities. A rock cracking-fluid diffusion-charge polarization model is described. The electrical charge polarization is assumed to be the electrokinetic effect due to invasion of fluid into new fissures, which open inside a stressed rock material because of dilatancy, in the case of tectonic activity, and of the rising of a magma intrusion in the case of volcanic activity. (author). 10 refs, 2 figs

  4. After-school setting, physical activity, and sedentary behavior in 5th grade boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taverno Ross, S E; Dowda, M; Colabianchi, N; Saunders, R; Pate, R R

    2012-09-01

    After-school hours are considered critical for children's physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviors (SB); however, whether the after-school setting influences children's activity patterns is unknown. This study examined the influence of after-school setting (i.e., parent report of the child's usual after-school setting) on 5th grade children's PA and SB, and differences by race/ethnicity. Boys whose parents reported they usually attended an after-school program had higher PA than boys who usually went home after school. A significant interaction between race/ethnicity and after-school setting showed that minority girls whose parents reported they usually attended an after-school program had higher PA and engaged in less SB compared with those who usually went home, whereas the activity patterns of white girls did not differ by after-school setting. Children's usual after-school setting affects their activity patterns; after-school programs may potentially increase PA in boys and minority girls. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Soft Plate and Impact Tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikoff, Basil

    In the field of tectonics, most of our ideas are published in journals. This is not true of other fields, such as history, in which ideas are primarily published in books. Within my own field of structural geology, I can recall only one book, Strain Fades by E. Hansen (Springer-Verlag, 1971), which presents a new idea in book form. However, even this book is more useful for its philosophical approach and particular methodology of determining directions of folding, than for its overarching idea.Enter Soft Plate and Impact Tectonics, a new book with an interesting hypothesis that has been informally discussed in the geoscience community: A fundamental tenet of plate tectonics is incorrect—namely, that the plates are rigid. This assertion is evident when looking at any mountain range, and is perhaps most clearly stated in Molnar [1988].

  6. Géochimie et cadre géodynamique du volcanisme néoprotérozoïque terminal (vendien) du Haut Atlas occidental, Maroc(Geochemical features and tectonic setting of late Neoproterozoic Vendian volcanism in the western High Atlas, Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouhari, A.; El-Archi, A.; Aarab, M.; El-Attari, A.; Ennih, N.; Laduron, D.

    2001-05-01

    Late Neoproterozoic Vendian volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks are widely distributed in the western High Atlas. They are located north of the Tizi n'Test Fault, separating the West African Craton from a northerly adjacent craton. These volcanic rocks overlie a semipelitic formation, which represents the equivalent of the Tidilline and Anzi Formations of the Anti-Atlas. The geochemical characteristics of these volcanic rocks suggest a calc-alkaline active margine environment associated with the post Pan-African tectonics. They differ from those of the Anti-Atlas by their lower content of K 2O. The later rock type was generated by a melting process of the crust subducted beneath the northern craton. A carbonate-shale unit, which contains examples of interstratified calc-alkaline dacite, overlies the volcanic succession, demonstrating that the volcanic activity continued sporadically until Early Cambrian times.

  7. Tectonics: The meaning of form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Karl; Brandt, Per Aage

    Tectonics – The meaning of form deals with one of the core topics of architecture: the relationship between form and content. In the world of architecture, form is not only made from brick, glass and wood. Form means something. When a material is processed with sufficient technical skill and insi...... perspectives. You can read the chapters in any order you like – from the beginning, end or the middle. There is no correct order. The project is methodologically inductive: the more essays you read, the broader your knowledge of tectonics get....

  8. Development of the International Spinal Cord Injury Activities and Participation Basic Data Set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Post, M W; Charlifue, S; Biering-Sørensen, F

    2016-01-01

    on a three-point scale for each item completes the total of 24 A&P variables. CONCLUSION: Collection of the International SCI A&P Basic Data Set variables in all future research on SCI outcomes is advised to facilitate comparison of results across published studies from around the world. Additional......STUDY DESIGN: Consensus decision-making process. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to develop an International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Activities and Participation (A&P) Basic Data Set. SETTING: International working group. METHODS: A committee of experts was established to select...... and define A&P data elements to be included in this data set. A draft data set was developed and posted on the International Spinal Cord Society (ISCoS) and American Spinal Injury Association websites and was also disseminated among appropriate organizations for review. Suggested revisions were considered...

  9. Inhibition of p53 acetylation by INHAT subunit SET/TAF-Iβ represses p53 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Young; Lee, Kyu-Sun; Seol, Jin-Ee; Yu, Kweon; Chakravarti, Debabrata; Seo, Sang-Beom

    2012-01-01

    The tumor suppressor p53 responds to a wide variety of cellular stress signals. Among potential regulatory pathways, post-translational modifications such as acetylation by CBP/p300 and PCAF have been suggested for modulation of p53 activity. However, exactly how p53 acetylation is modulated remains poorly understood. Here, we found that SET/TAF-Iβ inhibited p300- and PCAF-mediated p53 acetylation in an INHAT (inhibitor of histone acetyltransferase) domain-dependent manner. SET/TAF-Iβ interacted with p53 and repressed transcription of p53 target genes. Consequently, SET/TAF-Iβ blocked both p53-mediated cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in response to cellular stress. Using different apoptosis analyses, including FACS, TUNEL and BrdU incorporation assays, we also found that SET/TAF-Iβ induced cellular proliferation via inhibition of p53 acetylation. Furthermore, we observed that apoptotic Drosophila eye phenotype induced by either dp53 overexpression or UV irradiation was rescued by expression of dSet. Inhibition of dp53 acetylation by dSet was observed in both cases. Our findings provide new insights into the regulation of stress-induced p53 activation by HAT-inhibiting histone chaperone SET/TAF-Iβ.

  10. Tectonic analysis of the Oklo deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauthier-Lafaye, F.; Ruhland, M.; Weber, F.

    1975-01-01

    A large folded structure with a 40 0 incline and extending 500 m in the north-south direction has been uncovered at the Oklo mine. This structure has been analysed from the geometric and dynamic points of view in order to determine the possible role of tectonic activity in the creation of the uraniferous concentrations. Compression and extension zones which at certain points control the shape and arrangement of the lodes are associated with the structure. The natural reactors are situated in an extension zone where compartmentation and slippage, which explain the arrangement of the reactors, are observed

  11. Setting them up for lifetime activity: Play competence perceptions and physical activity in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Lisa M; Ridgers, Nicola D; Hesketh, Kylie; Salmon, Jo

    2017-09-01

    Possessing positive physical perceived competence is important for physical activity in older children. Young children are primarily physically active through play-based behaviour rather than through organised sports and activities, so understanding how play perceptions might influence physical activity behaviour is important. The study purpose was to assess if perceived active play competence is associated with young children's physical activity. Cross sectional study. This paper uses two different samples drawn from the same Australian city, both collected in 2013. The first sample included 152 children (49% boys) aged 4-5 years (M=4.7, SD=0.47), the second sample included 78 children (55% boys) aged 5-8 years (M=6.6, SD=0.93). The Pictorial Scale of Perceived Movement Skill Competence was used to assess children's perceived competence in six skill-related play activities. Moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) was assessed for 8 consecutive days via accelerometers. A general linear model with the mean minutes in MVPA per day as the outcome, perceived play competence as the independent variable and adjusting for relevant confounders was performed in each sample. Perceived active play competence was not related to MVPA min/day (B=0.44, p=0.323) in the younger sample, but was in the older sample (B=1.53, p=0.026), explaining 24% of adjusted variance. Positive findings in the older sample show school-aged children need exposure to play based activities in order to develop the positive self-perception needed to engage in MVPA every day. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Magmatism and underplating, a broadband seismic perspective on the Proterozoic tectonics of the Great Falls and Snowbird Tectonic Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.; Gu, Y. J.; Dokht, R.; Wang, R.

    2017-12-01

    The crustal and lithospheric structures beneath the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) and northern Montana contain vital records of the Precambrian tectonic development of Laurentia. In this study, we analyze the broadband seismic data recorded by the USArray and the most complete set of regional seismic networks to date near the WCSB. We adopt an integrated approach to investigate crustal structure and history, based primarily on P-to-S receiver functions but incorporate results from noise correlation functions, finite-frequency tomography and potential field measurements. In comparison with existing regional and global models, our stacked receiver functions show considerable improvements in the resolution of both Moho depth and Vp/Vs ratio. We identify major variations in Moho depth from the WCSB to the adjacent Cordillera. The Moho deepens steeply from 40 km in the Alberta basin to 50 km beneath the foothills, following Airy isostasy, but thermal buoyancy may be responsible for a flat, shallow ( 35 km) Moho to the west of the Rocky Mountain Trench. The Moho depth also increases sharply near the Snowbird Tectonic Zone (STZ), which is consistent with earlier findings from active-source data. Multiple lower crustal phases, a high velocity shallow mantle and elevated Vp/Vs ratios along the westernmost STZ jointly suggest major Proterozoic subduction and magmatism along this collisional boundary. In northern Montana, the Moho deepens along the Great Falls Tectonic Zone (GFTZ), a proposed Proterozoic suture between the Medicine Hat Block and Wyoming craton. This transition occurs near the Little Belt Mountain, which is located south of the Great Falls Shear Zone, an extensive northeast striking fault system characterized by strong potential field gradients. Similar to the STZ, our receiver functions offer new evidence for Proterozoic underplating in the vicinity of the GFTZ. In view of similar rock ages near the collisional boundaries in all parts of northern

  13. The tectonic plates are moving!

    CERN Document Server

    Livermore, Roy

    2018-01-01

    Written in a witty and informal style, this book explains modern plate tectonics in a non-technical manner, showing not only how it accounts for phenomena such as great earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions, but also how it controls conditions at the Earth’s surface, including global geography and climate, making it suitable for life. The book presents the advances that have been made since the establishment of plate tectonics in the 1960s, highlighting, on the fiftieth anniversary of the theory, the contributions of a small number of scientists who have never been widely recognized for their discoveries. Beginning with the publication of a short article in Nature by Vine and Matthews, the book traces the development of plate tectonics through two generations of the theory. First-generation plate tectonics covers the exciting scientific revolution of the 1960s, its heroes, and its villains. The second generation includes the rapid expansions in sonar, satellite, and seismic technologies during the 1...

  14. An integrative review of in-class activities that enable active learning in college science classroom settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthurs, Leilani A.; Kreager, Bailey Zo

    2017-10-01

    Engaging students in active learning is linked to positive learning outcomes. This study aims to synthesise the peer-reviewed literature about 'active learning' in college science classroom settings. Using the methodology of an integrative literature review, 337 articles archived in the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) are examined. Four categories of in-class activities emerge: (i) individual non-polling activities, (ii) in-class polling activities, (iii) whole-class discussion or activities, and (iv) in-class group activities. Examining the collection of identified in-class activities through the lens of a theoretical framework informed by constructivism and social interdependence theory, we synthesise the reviewed literature to propose the active learning strategies (ALSs) model and the instructional decisions to enable active learning (IDEAL) theory. The ALS model characterises in-class activities in terms of the degrees to which they are designed to promote (i) peer interaction and (ii) social interdependence. The IDEAL theory includes the ALS model and provides a framework for conceptualising different levels of the general concept 'active learning' and how these levels connect to instructional decision-making about using in-class activities. The proposed ALS model and IDEAL theory can be utilised to inform instructional decision-making and future research about active learning in college science courses.

  15. Magma-Tectonic Interactions along the Central America Volcanic Arc: Insights from the August 1999 Magmatic and Tectonic Event at Cerro Negro, Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Femina, P.; Connor, C.; Strauch, W.

    2002-12-01

    Volcanic vent alignments form parallel to the direction of maximum horizontal stress, accommodating extensional strain via dike injection. Roughly east-west extension within the Central America Volcanic Arc is accommodated along north-northwest-trending basaltic vent alignments. In Nicaragua, these alignments are located in a northwest-trending zone of dextral shear, with shear accommodated along northeast trending bookshelf faults. The recent eruption of Cerro Negro volcano, Nicaragua and Marabios Range seismic swarm revealed the interaction of these fault systems. A low energy (VEI 1), small volume (0.001 km3 DRE) eruption of highly crystalline basalt occurred at Cerro Negro volcano, Nicaragua, August 5-7, 1999. This eruption followed three tectonic earthquakes (each Mw 5.2) in the vicinity of Cerro Negro hours before the onset of eruptive activity. The temporal and spatial pattern of microseismicity and focal mechanisms of the Mw 5.2 earthquakes suggests the activation of northeast-trending faults northwest and southeast of Cerro Negro within the Marabios Range. The eruption was confined to three new vents formed on the southern flank of Cerro Negro along a preexisting north-northwest trending alignment; the El Hoyo alignment of cinder cones, maars and explosion craters. Surface ruptures formed > 1 km south and southeast of the new vents suggest dike injection. Numerical simulations of conduit flow illustrate that the observed effusion rates (up to 65 ms-1) and fountain heights (50-300 m) can be achieved by eruption of magma with little or no excess fluid pressure, in response to tectonic strain. These observations and models suggest that 1999 Cerro Negro activity is an excellent example of tectonically induced small-volume eruptions in an arc setting.

  16. Do You Hear What I Hear? Overweight Children's Perceptions of Different Physical Activity Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meaney, Karen; Hart, Melanie A.; Griffin, L. Kent

    2011-01-01

    Social-Cognitive Theory (Bandura, 1986, 1999) served as the framework to explore overweight children's perceptions of different physical activity settings. Participants were children (n = 67) enrolled in an after-school and summer program for overweight African-American and Hispanic-American children from low-income families. To gain insight into…

  17. 3D Printing in Instructional Settings: Identifying a Curricular Hierarchy of Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Abbie

    2015-01-01

    A report of a year-long study in which the author engaged in 3D printing activity in order to determine how to facilitate and support skill building, concept attainment, and increased confidence with its use among teachers. Use of 3D printing tools and their applications in instructional settings are discussed. A hierarchy of 3D printing…

  18. Teachers' Facebook Use: Their Use Habits, Intensity, Self-Disclosure, Privacy Settings, and Activities on Facebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumuer, Evren; Esfer, Sezin; Yildirim, Soner

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated K12 teachers' Facebook usage habits, intensity, self-disclosure, privacy settings and activities. A multi-method design was employed by collecting quantitative data from 616 teachers with a Facebook account using an online questionnaire and qualitative data from 32 teachers using online open-ended questions. The results of…

  19. Using Computational Chemistry Activities to Promote Learning and Retention in a Secondary School General Chemistry Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochterski, Joseph W.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the results of using state-of-the-art, research-quality software as a learning tool in a general chemistry secondary school classroom setting. I present three activities designed to introduce fundamental chemical concepts regarding molecular shape and atomic orbitals to students with little background in chemistry, such as…

  20. The Potential of Using Virtual Reality Technology in Physical Activity Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasco, Denis

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, virtual reality technology has been successfully used for learning purposes. The purposes of the article are to examine current research on the role of virtual reality in physical activity settings and discuss potential application of using virtual reality technology to enhance learning in physical education. The article starts…

  1. Sharing Attention and Activities among Toddlers: The Spatial Dimension of the Setting and the Educator's Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musatti, Tullia; Mayer, Susanna

    2011-01-01

    The study proposes an analysis of the processes through which the material and symbolic features of the setting and the activities of the educators interact to determine the children's experience in an early educational centre. This analysis is of particular interest with regard to both educational practice and understanding developmental…

  2. Dose Relations between Goal Setting, Theory-Based Correlates of Goal Setting and Increases in Physical Activity during a Workplace Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishman, Rod K.; Vandenberg, Robert J.; Motl, Robert W.; Wilson, Mark G.; DeJoy, David M.

    2010-01-01

    The effectiveness of an intervention depends on its dose and on moderators of dose, which usually are not studied. The purpose of the study is to determine whether goal setting and theory-based moderators of goal setting had dose relations with increases in goal-related physical activity during a successful workplace intervention. A…

  3. Tectonic forward modelling of positive inversion structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandes, C. [Leibniz Univ. Hannover (Germany). Inst. fuer Geologie; Schmidt, C. [Landesamt fuer Bergbau, Energie und Geologie (LBEG), Hannover (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    Positive tectonic inversion structures are common features that were recognized in many deformed sedimentary basins (Lowell, 1995). They are characterized by a two phase fault evolution, where initial normal faulting was followed by reverse faulting along the same fault, accompanied by the development of hanging wall deformation. Analysing the evolution of such inversion structures is important for understanding the tectonics of sedimentary basins and the formation of hydrocarbon traps. We used a 2D tectonic forward modelling approach to simulate the stepwise structural evolution of inversion structures in cross-section. The modelling was performed with the software FaultFold Forward v. 6, which is based on trishear kinematics (Zehnder and Allmendinger, 2000). Key aspect of the study was to derive the controlling factors for the geometry of inversion structures. The simulation results show, that the trishear approach is able to reproduce the geometry of tectonic inversion structures in a realistic way. This implies that inversion structures are simply fault-related folds that initiated as extensional fault-propagation folds, which were subsequently transformed into compressional fault-propagation folds when the stress field changed. The hanging wall deformation is a consequence of the decrease in slip towards the tip line of the fault. Trishear angle and propagation-to-slip ratio are the key controlling factors for the geometry of the fault-related deformation. We tested trishear angles in the range of 30 - 60 and propagation-to-slip ratios between 1 and 2 in increments of 0.1. Small trishear angles and low propagation-to-slip ratios produced tight folds, whereas large trishear angles and high propagation-to-slip ratios led to more open folds with concentric shapes. This has a direct effect on the size and geometry of potential hydrocarbon traps. The 2D simulations can be extended to a pseudo 3D approach, where a set of parallel cross-sections is used to describe

  4. upSET, the Drosophila homologue of SET3, Is Required for Viability and the Proper Balance of Active and Repressive Chromatin Marks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle A. McElroy

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Chromatin plays a critical role in faithful implementation of gene expression programs. Different post-translational modifications (PTMs of histone proteins reflect the underlying state of gene activity, and many chromatin proteins write, erase, bind, or are repelled by, these histone marks. One such protein is UpSET, the Drosophila homolog of yeast Set3 and mammalian KMT2E (MLL5. Here, we show that UpSET is necessary for the proper balance between active and repressed states. Using CRISPR/Cas-9 editing, we generated S2 cells that are mutant for upSET. We found that loss of UpSET is tolerated in S2 cells, but that heterochromatin is misregulated, as evidenced by a strong decrease in H3K9me2 levels assessed by bulk histone PTM quantification. To test whether this finding was consistent in the whole organism, we deleted the upSET coding sequence using CRISPR/Cas-9, which we found to be lethal in both sexes in flies. We were able to rescue this lethality using a tagged upSET transgene, and found that UpSET protein localizes to transcriptional start sites (TSS of active genes throughout the genome. Misregulated heterochromatin is apparent by suppressed position effect variegation of the wm4 allele in heterozygous upSET-deleted flies. Using nascent-RNA sequencing in the upSET-mutant S2 lines, we show that this result applies to heterochromatin genes generally. Our findings support a critical role for UpSET in maintaining heterochromatin, perhaps by delimiting the active chromatin environment.

  5. PRESENTDAY STRESS STATE OF THE SHANXI TECTONIC BELT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Kaiying

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Shanxi tectonic belt is a historically earthquakeabundant area. For the majority of strong earthquakes in this area, the distribution of earthquake foci was controlled by the N–S oriented local structures on the tectonic belt. Studies of the present stress state of the Shanxi tectonic belt can contribute to the understanding of the relationship between strong earthquakes’ occurrence and their structural distribution and also facilitate assessments of regional seismic danger and determination of the regions wherein strong earthquakes may occur in future. Using the Cataclastic Analysis Method (CAM, we performed stress inversion based on the focal mechanism data of earthquakes which took place in the Shanxi tectonic belt from 1967 to 2010. Our results show that orientations of the maximum principal compressive stress axis of the Shanxi tectonic belt might have been variable before and after the 2001 Kunlun MS=8.1 strong earthquake, with two different superior trends of the NW–SE and NE–SW orientation in different periods. When the maximum principal compressive stress axis is oriented in the NE–SW direction, the pattern of the space distribution of the seismic events in the Shanxi tectonic belt shows a trend of their concentration in the N–S oriented tectonic segments. At the same time, the stress state is registered as horizontal shearing and horizontal extension in the N–S and NE–SW oriented local segments in turn. When the maximum principal compressive stress axis is NW–SE oriented, the stress state of the N–S and NE–SW oriented tectonic segments is primarily registered as horizontal shearing. Estimations of plunges of stress axes show that seismicity in the Shanxi belt  corresponds primarily to the activity of lowangle faults, and highangle stress sites are located in the NE–SW oriented extensional tectonic segments of the Shanxi belt. This indicates that the stress change of the Shanxi belt is

  6. Integrating cultural community psychology: activity settings and the shared meanings of intersubjectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Clifford R; Tharp, Roland G

    2012-03-01

    Cultural and community psychology share a common emphasis on context, yet their leading journals rarely cite each other's articles. Greater integration of the concepts of culture and community within and across their disciplines would enrich and facilitate the viability of cultural community psychology. The contextual theory of activity settings is proposed as one means to integrate the concepts of culture and community in cultural community psychology. Through shared activities, participants develop common experiences that affect their psychological being, including their cognitions, emotions, and behavioral development. The psychological result of these experiences is intersubjectivity. Culture is defined as the shared meanings that people develop through their common historic, linguistic, social, economic, and political experiences. The shared meanings of culture arise through the intersubjectivity developed in activity settings. Cultural community psychology presents formidable epistemological challenges, but overcoming these challenges could contribute to the transformation and advancement of community psychology.

  7. Accessible cultural mind-set modulates default mode activity: evidence for the culturally situated brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenbo; Oyserman, Daphna; Liu, Qiang; Li, Hong; Han, Shihui

    2013-01-01

    Self-construal priming modulates human behavior and associated neural activity. However, the neural activity associated with the self-construal priming procedure itself remains unknown. It is also unclear whether and how self-construal priming affects neural activity prior to engaging in a particular task. To address this gap, we scanned Chinese adults, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, during self-construal priming and a following resting state. We found that, relative to a calculation task, both interdependent and independent self-construal priming activated the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). The contrast of interdependent vs. independent self-construal priming also revealed increased activity in the dorsal MPFC and left middle frontal cortex. The regional homogeneity analysis of the resting-state activity revealed increased local synchronization of spontaneous activity in the dorsal MPFC but decreased local synchronization of spontaneous activity in the PCC when contrasting interdependent vs. independent self-construal priming. The functional connectivity analysis of the resting-state activity, however, did not show significant difference in synchronization of activities in remote brain regions between different priming conditions. Our findings suggest that accessible collectivistic/individualistic mind-set induced by self-construal priming is associated with modulations of both task-related and resting-state activity in the default mode network.

  8. TERRAIN TECTONICS OF THE CENTRAL ASIAN FOLDED BELT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Buslov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The terrain analysis concept envisages primarily a possibility of approximation of fragments / terrains of various geodynamic settings which belong to different plates. The terrain analysis can supplement the theory of plate tectonics in solving problems of geodynamics and tectonics of regions of the crust with complex structures. The Central Asian belt is among such complicated regions. Terrain structures occurred as a result of combined movements in the system of 'frontal' and/or oblique subduction – collision. In studies of geological objects, it is required first of all to prove their (vertical and horizontal autochthony in relations to each other and then proceed to paleogeodynamic, paleotectonic and paleogeographic reconstructions. Obviously, such a complex approach needs data to be obtained by a variety of research methods, including those applied to study geologic structures, stratigraphy, paleontology, paleogeography, lithothlogy, geochemistry, geochronology, paleomagnetism etc. Only by correlating such data collected from inter-disciplinary studies of the regions, it is possible to establish reliable characteristics of the geological settings and avoid mistakes and misinterpretations that may be associated with the 'stratigraphic' approach to solutions of both regional and global problems of geodynamics and tectonics of folded areas. The terrain analysis of the Central Asian folded belt suggests that its tectonic structure combines marginal continental rock complexes that were formed by the evolution of two major oceanic plates. One of them is the plate of the Paleo-Asian Ocean. As the analogue of the current Indo-Atlantic segment of Earth, it is characterised by the presence of continental blocks in the composition of the oceanic crust and the formation of oceanic basins resulting from the breakup of Rodinia and Gondvana. In the course of its evolution, super-continents disintegrated, and the blocks were reunited into the Kazakhstan

  9. Investigating the landscape of Arroyo Seco—Decoding the past—A teaching guide to climate-controlled landscape evolution in a tectonically active region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Emily M.; Sweetkind, Donald S.; Havens, Jeremy C.

    2017-05-19

    IntroductionArroyo Seco is a river that flows eastward out of the Santa Lucia Range in Monterey County, California. The Santa Lucia Range is considered part of the central California Coast Range. Arroyo Seco flows out of the Santa Lucia Range into the Salinas River valley, near the town of Greenfield, where it joins the Salinas River. The Salinas River flows north into Monterey Bay about 40 miles from where it merges with Arroyo Seco. In the mountain range, Arroyo Seco has cut or eroded a broad and deep valley. This valley preserves a geologic story in the landscape that is influenced by both fault-controlled mountain building (tectonics) and sea level fluctuations (regional climate).Broad flat surfaces called river terraces, once eroded by Arroyo Seco, can be observed along the modern drainage. In the valley, terraces are also preserved like climbing stairs up to 1,800 feet above Arroyo Seco today. These terraces mark where Arroyo Seco once flowed.The terraces were formed by the river because no matter how high they are, the terraces are covered by gravel deposits exactly like those that can be observed in the river today. The Santa Lucia Range, Arroyo Seco, and the Salinas River valley must have looked very different when the highest and oldest terraces were forming. The Santa Lucia Range may have been lower, the Arroyo Seco may have been steeper and wider, and the Salinas River valley may have been much smaller.Arroyo Seco, like all rivers, is always changing. Some-times rivers flow very straight, and sometimes they are curvy. Sometimes rivers are cutting down or eroding the landscape, and sometimes they are not eroding but depositing material. Sometimes rivers are neither eroding nor transporting material. The influences that change the behavior of Arroyo Seco are mountain uplift caused by fault moment and sea level changes driven by regional climate change. When a stream is affected by one or both of these influences, the stream accommodates the change by

  10. Observations of Children's Interactions with Teachers, Peers, and Tasks across Preschool Classroom Activity Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booren, Leslie M; Downer, Jason T; Vitiello, Virginia E

    2012-07-01

    This descriptive study examined classroom activity settings in relation to children's observed behavior during classroom interactions, child gender, and basic teacher behavior within the preschool classroom. 145 children were observed for an average of 80 minutes during 8 occasions across 2 days using the inCLASS, an observational measure that conceptualizes behavior into teacher, peer, task, and conflict interactions. Findings indicated that on average children's interactions with teachers were higher in teacher-structured settings, such as large group. On average, children's interactions with peers and tasks were more positive in child-directed settings, such as free choice. Children experienced more conflict during recess and routines/transitions. Finally, gender differences were observed within small group and meals. The implications of these findings might encourage teachers to be thoughtful and intentional about what types of support and resources are provided so children can successfully navigate the demands of particular settings. These findings are not meant to discourage certain teacher behaviors or imply value of certain classroom settings; instead, by providing an evidenced-based picture of the conditions under which children display the most positive interactions, teachers can be more aware of choices within these settings and have a powerful way to assist in professional development and interventions.

  11. Observations of Children’s Interactions with Teachers, Peers, and Tasks across Preschool Classroom Activity Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booren, Leslie M.; Downer, Jason T.; Vitiello, Virginia E.

    2014-01-01

    This descriptive study examined classroom activity settings in relation to children’s observed behavior during classroom interactions, child gender, and basic teacher behavior within the preschool classroom. 145 children were observed for an average of 80 minutes during 8 occasions across 2 days using the inCLASS, an observational measure that conceptualizes behavior into teacher, peer, task, and conflict interactions. Findings indicated that on average children’s interactions with teachers were higher in teacher-structured settings, such as large group. On average, children’s interactions with peers and tasks were more positive in child-directed settings, such as free choice. Children experienced more conflict during recess and routines/transitions. Finally, gender differences were observed within small group and meals. The implications of these findings might encourage teachers to be thoughtful and intentional about what types of support and resources are provided so children can successfully navigate the demands of particular settings. These findings are not meant to discourage certain teacher behaviors or imply value of certain classroom settings; instead, by providing an evidenced-based picture of the conditions under which children display the most positive interactions, teachers can be more aware of choices within these settings and have a powerful way to assist in professional development and interventions. PMID:25717282

  12. Tectonic evolution of the outer Izu-Bonin-Mariana fore arc system: initial results from IODP Expedition 352

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, W.; Ferre, E. C.; Robertson, A. H. F.; Avery, A. J.; Kutterolf, S.

    2015-12-01

    During International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 352, a section through the volcanic stratigraphy of the outer fore arc of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) system was drilled to trace magmatism, tectonics, and crustal accretion associated with subduction initiation. Structures within drill cores, borehole and site survey seismic data indicate that tectonic deformation in the outer IBM fore arc is mainly post-magmatic. Extension generated asymmetric sediment basins such as half-grabens at sites 352-U1439 and 352-U1442 on the upper trench slope. Along their eastern margins the basins are bounded by west-dipping normal faults. Deformation was localized along multiple sets of faults, accompanied by syn-tectonic pelagic and volcaniclastic sedimentation. The lowermost sedimentary units were tilted eastward by ~20°. Tilted beds were covered by sub-horizontal beds. Biostratigraphic constraints reveal a minimum age of the oldest sediments at ~ 35 Ma; timing of the sedimentary unconformities is between ~ 27 and 32 Ma. At sites 352-U1440 and 352-U1441 on the outer fore arc strike-slip faults are bounding sediment basins. Sediments were not significantly affected by tectonic tilting. Biostratigraphy gives a minimum age of the basement-cover contact between ~29.5 and 32 Ma. The post-magmatic structures reveal a multiphase tectonic evolution of the outer IBM fore arc. At sites 352-U1439 and 352-U1442, shear with dominant reverse to oblique reverse displacement was localized along subhorizontal fault zones, steep slickensides and shear fractures. These were either re-activated as or cut by normal-faults and strike-slip faults. Extension was also accommodated by steep to subvertical mineralized veins and extensional fractures. Faults at sites 352-U1440 and 352-U1441 show mainly strike-slip kinematics. Sediments overlying the igneous basement(maximum Late Eocene to Recent age), document ash and aeolian input, together with mass wasting of the fault-bounded sediment ponds.

  13. Designing an activity-based costing model for a non-admitted prisoner healthcare setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xiao; Moore, Elizabeth; McNamara, Martin

    2013-09-01

    To design and deliver an activity-based costing model within a non-admitted prisoner healthcare setting. Key phases from the NSW Health clinical redesign methodology were utilised: diagnostic, solution design and implementation. The diagnostic phase utilised a range of strategies to identify issues requiring attention in the development of the costing model. The solution design phase conceptualised distinct 'building blocks' of activity and cost based on the speciality of clinicians providing care. These building blocks enabled the classification of activity and comparisons of costs between similar facilities. The implementation phase validated the model. The project generated an activity-based costing model based on actual activity performed, gained acceptability among clinicians and managers, and provided the basis for ongoing efficiency and benchmarking efforts.

  14. Imaging different components of a tectonic tremor sequence in southwestern Japan using an automatic statistical detection and location method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poiata, Natalia; Vilotte, Jean-Pierre; Bernard, Pascal; Satriano, Claudio; Obara, Kazushige

    2018-06-01

    the long-duration energy-release regions, matching the large-scale clustering features evidenced from the low-frequency earthquake's activity analysis. Further examination of the two catalogues showed that the extracted short-duration low-frequency earthquakes activity coincides in space, within about 10-15 km distance, with the longer-duration energy sources during the tectonic tremor sequence. This observation provides a potential constraint on the size of the longer-duration energy-radiating source region in relation with the clustering of low-frequency earthquakes activity during the analysed tectonic tremor sequence. We show that advanced statistical network-based methods offer new capabilities for automatic high-resolution detection, location and monitoring of different scale-components of tectonic tremor activity, enriching existing slow earthquakes catalogues. Systematic application of such methods to large continuous data sets will allow imaging the slow transient seismic energy-release activity at higher resolution, and therefore, provide new insights into the underlying multiscale mechanisms of slow earthquakes generation.

  15. Imaging different components of a tectonic tremor sequence in southwestern Japan using an automatic statistical detection and location method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poiata, Natalia; Vilotte, Jean-Pierre; Bernard, Pascal; Satriano, Claudio; Obara, Kazushige

    2018-02-01

    the long-duration energy-release regions, matching the large-scale clustering features evidenced from the low-frequency earthquake's activity analysis. Further examination of the two catalogues showed that the extracted short-duration low-frequency earthquakes activity coincides in space, within about 10-15 km distance, with the longer-duration energy sources during the tectonic tremor sequence. This observation provides a potential constraint on the size of the longer-duration energy-radiating source region in relation with the clustering of low-frequency earthquakes activity during the analysed tectonic tremor sequence. We show that advanced statistical network-based methods offer new capabilities for automatic high-resolution detection, location and monitoring of different scale-components of tectonic tremor activity, enriching existing slow earthquakes catalogues. Systematic application of such methods to large continuous data sets will allow imaging the slow transient seismic energy-release activity at higher resolution, and therefore, provide new insights into the underlying multi-scale mechanisms of slow earthquakes generation.

  16. Global tectonics and space geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Richard G.; Stein, Seth

    1992-01-01

    Much of the success of plate tectonics can be attributed to the near rigidity of tectonic plates and the availability of data that describe the rates and directions of motion across narrow plate boundaries of about 1 to 60 kilometers. Nonetheless, many plate boundaries in both continental and oceanic lithosphere are not narrow but are hundreds to thousands of kilometers wide. Wide plate boundary zones cover approximately 15 percent of earth's surface area. Space geodesy, which includes very long baseline radio interferometry, satellite laser ranging, and the global positioning system, provides the accurate long-distance measurements needed to estimate the present motion across and within wide plate boundary zones. Space geodetic data show that plate velocities averaged over years are remarkably similar to velocities avaraged over millions of years.

  17. Continental tectonics and continental kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allegre, C.J.; Jaupart, C.; Paris-7 Univ., 75

    1985-01-01

    We present a model of continental growth which combines the results of geochemical studies and tectonic ideas about the evolution of continents through geological time. The process of continental growth is mainly controlled by surface phenomena. Continental material is extracted from the mantle along subduction zones at the periphery of oceans, and is destroyed in collision zones where it is remobilized and made available for subduction. We derive an equation for S, the portion of the Earth's surface occupied by continents, which reads as follows: dS/dt=a . √(1-S)-b . S. Coefficients a and b depend on the geometry of plates, on their number and on their velocities. We assume that they decrease exponentially with time with the same time-scale α. This model satisfies both geochemical and tectonic constraints, and allows the integration of several current observations in a single framework. (orig.)

  18. Our Solar Connection: A themed Set of Activities for Grades 5-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Veen, W. E.; Gary, D. E.; Gallagher, A. C.; Vinski, J. M.

    2005-12-01

    The project is a partnership between the Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research at New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT), and the New Jersey Astronomy Center for Education (NJACE) at Raritan Valley Community College. It was supported by a NASA Education/Public Outreach grant from the Office of Space Science. The project involved the development of a set of seven activities connected by the theme of solar magnetism and designed to meet the New Jersey Science Process Standards and the Science Core Curriculum Content Standards in Physics and Astronomy. The products include a 70-page teacher guide and an integrated CD-ROM with video clips, internet links, image sets used in the activities, and worksheets. The activities were presented at a series of teacher workshops. The teachers performed the activities themselves, learned additional background information on the Sun, solar magnetism, and the Sun-Earth connection, and were trained to use several items of equipment, which were made available in two "resource centers," one at NJIT and one at NJACE. In all, 81 teachers have been exposed to some or all of the activities. After the training, the teachers took the activities back to their classrooms, and 15 equipment to use with their students. Some teachers had access to, or had their schools purchase, Sunspotters and spectrometers rather than borrow the equipment. The success of the teacher training was assessed by questionnaires at the end of the workshops, by evaluation forms that the teachers filled out on returning the borrowed equipment.

  19. Tectonic framework of the Hanoe Bay area, southern Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wannaes, K.O.; Floden, T.

    1994-06-01

    The tectonic framework and the general geologic development of the Hanoe Bay, from the Scanian coast in the west to south of Oeland in the east, has been investigated by means of reflection seismic methods. The Hanoe Bay is in this paper subdivided into four areas of different geologic settings. These are: 1) The Hanoe Bay slope, which forms a southward dipping continuation of the rigid Blekinge coastal plain. 2) The eastward dipping Kalmarsund Slope, which southwards from Oeland forms the western part of the Paleozoic Baltic Syneclise. 3) The Mesozoic Hanoe Bay Halfgraben, which forms the central and southern parts of the Hanoe Bay. The ongoing subsidence of the Halfgraben is estimated to be in the order of 20-60 m during the Quaternary. 4) The Yoldia Structural Element, which forms a deformed, tilted and possibly rotated block of Paleozoic bedrock located east of the Hanoe Bay Halfgraben. Two tectonic phases dominate the post-Paleozoic development of the Hanoe Bay, these are: 1) The Early Kimmerian phase, which initiated subsidence and reactivated older faults. 2) The Late Cretaceous phase, which is the main subsidence phase of the Hanoe Bay Halfgraben. The tectonic fault pattern of the Hanoe Bay is dominated by three directions, i.e. NW-SE, NE-SW and WNW-ESE. The two main tectonic elements of the area are the Kullen-Christiansoe Ridge System (NW-SE) and the Bornholm Gat Tectonic Zone (NE-SW). Sinistral strike-slip movements in order of 2-3 km are interpreted to have occurred along the Bornholm Gat Tectonic Zone during the late Cretaceous. 20 refs, 19 figs

  20. Quantitative morphometric analysis for the tectonic characterisation of northern Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camafort, Miquel; Pérez-Peña, José Vicente; Booth-Rea, Guillermo; Ranero, César R.; Gràcia, Eulàlia; Azañón, José Miguel; Melki, Fetheddine; Ouadday, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    Northern Tunisia is characterized by low deformation rates and low to moderate seismicity. Although instrumental seismicity reaches maximum magnitudes of Mw 5.5, some historical earthquakes have occurred with catastrophic consequences in this region. Aiming to improve our knowledge of active tectonics in Tunisia, we carried out both a quantitative morphometric analysis and field study in the north-western region. We applied different morphometric tools, like river profiles, knickpoint analysis, hypsometric curves and integrals and drainage pattern anomalies in order to differentiate between zones with high or low recent tectonic activity. This analysis helps identifying uplift and subsidence zones, which we relate to fault activity. Several active faults in a sparse distribution were identified. A selected sector was studied with a field campaign to test the results obtained with the quantitative analysis. During the fieldwork we identified geological evidence of recent activity and a considerable seismogenic potential along El Alia-Teboursouk (ETF) and Dkhila (DF) faults. The ETF fault could be responsible of one of the most devastating historical earthquakes in northern Tunisia that destroyed Utique in 412 A.D. Geological evidence include fluvial terraces folded by faults, striated and cracked pebbles, clastic dikes, sand volcanoes, coseismic cracks, etc. Although not reflected in the instrumental seismicity, our results support an important seismic hazard, evidenced by the several active tectonic structures identified and the two seismogenic faults described. After obtaining the current active tectonic framework of Tunisia we discuss our results within the western Mediterranean trying to contribute to the understanding of the western Mediterranean tectonic context. With our results, we suggest that the main reason explaining the sparse and scarce seismicity of the area in contrast with the adjacent parts of the Nubia-Eurasia boundary is due to its extended

  1. Sediment Dispersal on the Topset of a Tectonically Active Shelf-edge Delta: an Interplay Between Sediment Supply and Subsidence, as Demonstrated for the Selenga River, Lake Baikal, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nittrouer, J. A.; Dong, T. Y.

    2017-12-01

    The Selenga River delta (Lake Baikal, Russia), located adjacent to an active rift margin and filling the world's deepest lake, represents one of the few examples of a modern shelf-edge system. Research into sediment dispersal on the Selenga delta was undertaken with the aim of linking topset morphodynamics and sediment accumulation patterns with the production of stratigraphy. The subaerial delta is constructed of three active lobes that receive varying amounts of water and sediment, distributed among a nine-order bifurcating channel network. Data from multiple expeditions include bathymetric and water-discharge measurements, side-scan images of the bed and banks, sediment samples, and bankline composition (including sediment type and vegetation). This information is analyzed to evaluate spatial variability in: 1. channel geometry, 2. boundary shear stress, 3. bedform size, and 4. bed sediment composition. The delta possesses downstream sediment fining, whereby median channel bed size decreases by two orders of magnitude over thirty kilometers, from a predominantly gravel and sand mixture near the delta apex to silt and fine sand at the lake interface. The location of gravel termination among distributary channels coincides with a reduction in sediment-transport capacity, as assessed by measurements of boundary shear stress. Interestingly, backwater hydrodynamics, which operate as important influences on bed grain size for many deltas, is not a major influence on the Selenga system. Instead, a non-linear downstream decrease in boundary shear stress arises due to partitioning of water among the bifurcating channel network. As has been documented in previous studies, gravel and coarse sand are absent on the delta foreset and bottomset (i.e., the rift axis), despite a continuous sediment feed from upstream that should provide the supply necessary to increase bed slope and enhance transport capacity over the delta. To reconcile this discrepancy, a tectonic timescale is

  2. Habitability from Tidally Induced Tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, Diana; Tan, Vivian Yun Yan; Zajac, Zachary

    2018-04-01

    The stability of Earth’s climate on geological timescales is enabled by the carbon–silicate cycle that acts as a negative feedback mechanism stabilizing surface temperatures via the intake and outgassing of atmospheric carbon. On Earth, this thermostat is enabled by plate tectonics that sequesters outgassed CO2 back into the mantle via weathering and subduction at convergent margins. Here we propose a separate tectonic mechanism—vertical recycling—that can serve as the vehicle for CO2 outgassing and sequestration over long timescales. The mechanism requires continuous tidal heating, which makes it particularly relevant to planets in the habitable zone of M stars. Dynamical models of this vertical recycling scenario and stability analysis show that temperate climates stable over timescales of billions of years are realized for a variety of initial conditions, even as the M star dims over time. The magnitude of equilibrium surface temperatures depends on the interplay of sea weathering and outgassing, which in turn depends on planetary carbon content, so that planets with lower carbon budgets are favored for temperate conditions. The habitability of planets such as found in the Trappist-1 system may be rooted in tidally driven tectonics.

  3. Tectonic Geomorphology of the northern Upper Rhine Graben, Germany.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, G; van Balen, R.T.

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on the northern Upper Rhine Graben (URG), which experienced low tectonic deformation and multiple climate changes during Quaternary times. Recently, human modifications have been high. The paper presents the results of a study into the effects of fault activity on the landscape

  4. Pennsylvania seismic monitoring network and related tectonic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, S.S.

    1991-06-01

    This report summarizes the results of the operation of the Pennsylvania Seismic Monitoring Network during the interval May 1, 1983--March 31, 1985 to monitor seismic activity in Pennsylvania and surrounding areas, to characterize the earthquake activity in terms of controlling tectonic structures and related tectonic stress conditions in the crust, and to obtain improved crustal velocity models for hypocentral determinations. Most of the earthquake activity was concentrated in the Lancaster, PA area. The magnitude 4.2 mainshock that occurred there on April 23, 1984 was the largest ever recorded instrumentally and its intensity of VI places it among the largest in the historic record for that area. Other activity during the monitoring interval of this report was confined to eastern Pennsylvania. The very large number of quarry explosions that occur regularly in Pennsylvania account for most of the seismic events recorded and they provide important crustal velocity data that are needed to obtain accurate hypocenter estimates. In general the earthquakes that occurred are located in areas of past historic seismicity. Block-tectonic structures resulting from pre-Ordovician tectonic displacements appear to influence the distribution of contemporary seismicity in Pennsylvania and surrounding areas. 17 refs., 5 figs

  5. Physiological Measures of Dopaminergic and Noradrenergic Activity During Attentional Set Shifting and Reversal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Pajkossy

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine (DA and noradrenaline (NA are important neurotransmitters, which are suggested to play a vital role in modulating the neural circuitry involved in the executive control of cognition. One way to investigate the functions of these neurotransmitter systems is to assess physiological indices of DA and NA transmission. Here we examined how variations of spontaneous eye-blink rate and pupil size, as indirect measures of DA and NA activity, respectively, are related to performance in a hallmark aspect of executive control: attentional set shifting. We used the Intra/Extradimensional Set Shifting Task, where participants have to choose between different compound stimuli while the stimulus-reward contingencies change periodically. During such rule shifts, participants have to refresh their attentional set while they reassess which stimulus-features are relevant. We found that both eye-blink rate (EBR and pupil size increased after rule shifts, when explorative processes are required to establish stimulus–reward contingencies. Furthermore, baseline pupil size was related to performance during the most difficult, extradimensional set shifting stage, whereas baseline EBR was associated with task performance prior to this stage. Our results support a range of neurobiological models suggesting that the activity of DA and NA neurotransmitter systems determines individual differences in executive functions (EF, possibly by regulating neurotransmission in prefrontal circuits. We also suggest that assessing specific, easily accessible indirect physiological markers, such as pupil size and blink rate, contributes to the comprehension of the relationship between neurotransmitter systems and EF.

  6. Comparison of cortical activation during Mahjong game play in a video game setting and a real-life setting

    OpenAIRE

    Fujimori, Satomi; Terasawa, Koji; Murata, Yuki; Ogawa, Kishiko; Tabuchi, Hisaaki; Yanagisawa, Hiroki; Terasawa, Saiki; Shinohara, Kikunori; Yanagisawa, Akitaka

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the hemodynamic changes that occur during Mahjong game play in virtual and real-life settings. Fourteen healthy right-handed men (average age ± standard deviation; 36.7 ± 14.9 years) played: 1) a Mahjong solitaire game on a video console against virtual rivals; 2) a Mahjong game against human opponents without conversation; and 3) a Mahjong game against human opponents with conversation. We measured oxygenated hemoglobin concentration at 44 locations o...

  7. Potential-based methodology for active sound control in three dimensional settings

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, H.; Utyuzhnikov, S V; Lam, Y.W.; Kelly, L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper extends a potential-based approach to active noise shielding with preservation of wanted sound in three-dimensional settings. The approach, which was described in a previous publication [Lim et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 129(2), 717–725 (2011)], provides several significant advantages over conventional noise control methods. Most significantly, the methodology does not require any information including the characterization of sources, impedance boundary conditions and surrounding med...

  8. Observations of Children’s Interactions with Teachers, Peers, and Tasks across Preschool Classroom Activity Settings

    OpenAIRE

    Booren, Leslie M.; Downer, Jason T.; Vitiello, Virginia E.

    2012-01-01

    This descriptive study examined classroom activity settings in relation to children’s observed behavior during classroom interactions, child gender, and basic teacher behavior within the preschool classroom. 145 children were observed for an average of 80 minutes during 8 occasions across 2 days using the inCLASS, an observational measure that conceptualizes behavior into teacher, peer, task, and conflict interactions. Findings indicated that on average children’s interactions with teachers w...

  9. Pneumatic transport devices based on the ARS equipment set for activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, I.V.; Ivanets, V.N.; Rogachev, V.M.; Zakharov, E.A.

    1978-01-01

    The AGIDEL and ARS-28G facilities manufactured on the basis of a set of standardized and aggregated products for activation analysis are described. The AGIDEL is designed for automatic activation analysis of relatively homogeneous samples from oil boreholes. The ARS-28G is designed for transporting the test samples during activation analysis, using a fast-neutron generator. Structurally, the ARS-28 is based on a pneumatic transportation system with two independenhat transport cnnels and a two-channel rotating irradiation unit. The analyzed samples are transported in polyethylene containers, which are moved by compressed air. The facility has been successfully tested and is used in an automated system for multielement activation analysis

  10. Evidence and theory for the prediction of tectonic activity in the Basin and Range Province of Nevada and Utah for the next one million years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovejoy, E.M.P.

    1979-01-01

    Major conclusions of the report are: Important seismic activity in the next one million years will be restricted to the Intermountain Seismic Belt. Minor seismic activity in the same period will be restricted to the Nevada Seismic Belt, Sierra Nevada front, and Reno-Yellowstone lineament. There will be seismic inactivity in the same period in the rest of the Basin and Range Province except locally along high mountain frontal fault zones. In these zones, isostatic unloading will produce slow, secular, mild seismic activity for many millions of years to come

  11. Petrogenesis and tectonic setting of an basalt-Trachyte-Rhyolite suite in the Spilli area (south of Siahkal, north of Iran: evidences of continental rift-related bimodal magmatism in Alborz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrooz Haghnazar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The spilli volcanic rocks suite consisting of Basalt- Trachyte- Rhyolite with upper Cretaceous, outcrop in the northern part of Alborz and south of Siahkal area (east of the Guilan province. Based on geochemical data, the studied suite attributed to transitional to alkali series. Negative correlation of Al2O3, CaO, P2O5 and positive correlation of Rb and Th versus SiO2 reveal the occurrence of fractional crystallization process. Also, the negative correlation of Sr versus Y, Sr/Zr versus Sr and CaO/Al2O3 versus SiO2 show that fractionation of plagioclase has played an important role in petrogenesis of the spilli Suite. The hypotheses is supported by the negative anomalies of Eu, Ba and Sr. The overall geochemical evidences indicate that the basic rocks belong to intra-continental rift zone whereas the felsic rocks are classified as A1 type derived from parent basaltic magmas via fractional crystallization in an anorogenic setting. The studied magmatism share many similarities with bimodal magmatism in continental rift zones.

  12. The dynamic nature of relative sea level in Southeast Asia: tectonic effects and human impacts (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, E.; Qiu, Q.; Feng, L.; Lubis, A.; Meltzner, A. J.; Tsang, L. L.; Daly, P.; McCaughey, J.; Banerjee, P.; Rubin, C. M.; Sieh, K.

    2013-12-01

    Tectonic changes can have significant effects on crustal deformation, the geoid, and relative sea level (RSL). Indeed, the tectonic impacts on RSL in some regions can be greater than those predicted as a result of climate change. In the case of earthquakes, these changes can occur suddenly, as coastlines uplift or subside by up to many meters. The changes can also occur over many decades as a result of interseismic or postseismic processes, or periodically in the form of transient slow-slip events. Although these effects are (mostly) recovered elastically over the course of the earthquake cycle, they are occurring in the context of ever-increasing populations living along affected coastlines, particularly the case in areas such as SE Asia. The societal effects of these tectonic-induced sea-level changes are therefore becoming increasingly significant, and important to consider in future projections for sea-level change. Additionally, tide-gauge and gravity measurements made in tectonically active areas cannot be interpreted without consideration and modeling of the tectonic setting. These facts highlight the need for accurate geodetic measurements of land-height change. Along the Sumatra subduction zone, a series of great earthquakes have occurred over the last decade, along with numerous moderate and smaller earthquakes. These, and their ensuing postseismic deformation, have reshaped regional coastlines. We will show visualization of land height changes using a decade of Sumatra GPS Array (SuGAr) data, and related tectonic models, that demonstrate dramatically the ups and downs of land elevation close to the earthquake sources. Vertical coseismic displacements as large as ~2.9 m have been recorded by the SuGAr (an uplift at Nias, during the 2005 Mw 8.6 earthquake), and vertical postseismic rates on the order of tens of mm/yr or greater (e.g., in northern Aceh, one station has been uplifting at a rate of ~34 mm/yr since the 2004 Mw 9.2 earthquake, while in southern

  13. Influence of Goal Setting on Physical Activity and Cardiorespiratory Endurance in Low-Income Children Enrolled in CSPAP Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Ryan D.; Brusseau, Timothy A.; Fu, You

    2017-01-01

    Background: Comprehensive school physical activity programming (CSPAP) has been shown to increase school day physical activity and health-related fitness. The use of goal setting may further enhance the outcomes of CSPAP. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of physical activity leader (PAL) goal setting on school day…

  14. Tectonically controlled sedimentation: impact on sediment supply and basin evolution of the Kashafrud Formation (Middle Jurassic, Kopeh-Dagh Basin, northeast Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardar Abadi, Mehrdad; Da Silva, Anne-Christine; Amini, Abdolhossein; Aliabadi, Ali Akbar; Boulvain, Frédéric; Sardar Abadi, Mohammad Hossein

    2014-11-01

    The Kashafrud Formation was deposited in the extensional Kopeh-Dagh Basin during the Late Bajocian to Bathonian (Middle Jurassic) and is potentially the most important siliciclastic unit from NE Iran for petroleum geology. This extensional setting allowed the accumulation of about 1,700 m of siliciclastic sediments during a limited period of time (Upper Bajocian-Bathonian). Here, we present a detailed facies analysis combined with magnetic susceptibility (MS) results focusing on the exceptional record of the Pol-e-Gazi section in the southeastern part of the basin. MS is classically interpreted as related to the amount of detrital input. The amount of these detrital inputs and then the MS being classically influenced by sea-level changes, climate changes and tectonic activity. Facies analysis reveals that the studied rocks were deposited in shallow marine, slope to pro-delta settings. A major transgressive-regressive cycle is recorded in this formation, including fluvial-dominated delta to turbiditic pro-delta settings (transgressive phase), followed by siliciclastic to mixed siliciclastic and carbonate shoreface rocks (regressive phase). During the transgressive phase, hyperpycnal currents were feeding the basin. These hyperpycnal currents are interpreted as related to important tectonic variations, in relation to significant uplift of the hinterland during opening of the basin. This tectonic activity was responsible for stronger erosion, providing a higher amount of siliciclastic input into the basin, leading to a high MS signal. During the regressive phase, the tectonic activity strongly decreased. Furthermore, the depositional setting changed to a wave- to tide-dominated, mixed carbonate-siliciclastic setting. Because of the absence of strong tectonic variations, bulk MS was controlled by other factors such as sea-level and climatic changes. Fluctuations in carbonate production, possibly related to sea-level variations, influenced the MS of the siliciclastic

  15. Stagnant lid tectonics: Perspectives from silicate planets, dwarf planets, large moons, and large asteroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Stern

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To better understand Earth's present tectonic style–plate tectonics–and how it may have evolved from single plate (stagnant lid tectonics, it is instructive to consider how common it is among similar bodies in the Solar System. Plate tectonics is a style of convection for an active planetoid where lid fragment (plate motions reflect sinking of dense lithosphere in subduction zones, causing upwelling of asthenosphere at divergent plate boundaries and accompanied by focused upwellings, or mantle plumes; any other tectonic style is usefully called “stagnant lid” or “fragmented lid”. In 2015 humanity completed a 50+ year effort to survey the 30 largest planets, asteroids, satellites, and inner Kuiper Belt objects, which we informally call “planetoids” and use especially images of these bodies to infer their tectonic activity. The four largest planetoids are enveloped in gas and ice (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune and are not considered. The other 26 planetoids range in mass over 5 orders of magnitude and in diameter over 2 orders of magnitude, from massive Earth down to tiny Proteus; these bodies also range widely in density, from 1000 to 5500 kg/m3. A gap separates 8 silicate planetoids with ρ = 3000 kg/m3 or greater from 20 icy planetoids (including the gaseous and icy giant planets with ρ = 2200 kg/m3 or less. We define the “Tectonic Activity Index” (TAI, scoring each body from 0 to 3 based on evidence for recent volcanism, deformation, and resurfacing (inferred from impact crater density. Nine planetoids with TAI = 2 or greater are interpreted to be tectonically and convectively active whereas 17 with TAI <2 are inferred to be tectonically dead. We further infer that active planetoids have lithospheres or icy shells overlying asthenosphere or water/weak ice. TAI of silicate (rocky planetoids positively correlates with their inferred Rayleigh number. We conclude that some type of stagnant lid tectonics is

  16. Geochronology, geochemistry, and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopes of the Zhunsujihua granitoid intrusions associated with the molybdenum deposit, northern Inner Mongolia, China: implications for petrogenesis and tectonic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaojun; Lentz, David R.; Yao, Chunliang; Liu, Rui; Yang, Zhen; Mei, Yanxiong; Fan, Xianwang; Huang, Fei; Qin, Ying; Zhang, Kun; Zhang, Zhenfei

    2018-03-01

    The Zhunsujihua porphyry molybdenum deposit, located in northern Inner Mongolia of China that belongs to Central-Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), is the only Mo deposit formed in the late Carboniferous in this area so far. Its mineralization is mainly restricted to the Zhunsujihua granitoid intrusions, which are composed of the main granodiorite (GD) and crosscutting, virtually coeval minor syn-ore leucogranite (LG) and diorite porphyry (DP) dykes. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating yields crystallization ages of 300.0 ± 2.0, 299.3 ± 2.0, and 299.0 ± 2.6 Ma for the GD, LG, and DP, respectively. The major and trace element lithogeochemical data show that the GD and LG are metaluminous to weakly peraluminous, high-K calc-alkaline series with I-type granite characteristics, strongly oxidized, with low concentrations of Ba, Nb, Sr, P, and Ti and elevated K and Rb contents, indicating typical arc magmatic features. The LG is a product derived by extensive fractional crystallization of a parental magma similar to the GD as evident from the lower Eu/Eu*, Nb/Ta, Zr/Hf, and T Zr. The moderately altered DP exhibits high concentrations of K, Rb, Cs, LREE, Y, and low Sr/Y, with a positive ɛ Nd (300 Ma), which indicates a mantle or juvenile source associated with an arc setting. The Sr-Nd-Hf isotope data show low I Sr (0.70406-0.70461) and moderate ɛ Nd (300 Ma) (-0.9 to 1.5) for the GD and LG, and relatively high ɛ Hf (300 Ma) values (-3.6 to +11.2) for the GD, suggesting the magma mainly originated from the juvenile lower crust that was derived from depleted mantle, with a minor component of ancient continental crust. Lead isotope data have characteristics of a lower crust source with minor contamination by upper crustal material. Combined with previous research, the Zhunsujihua granitoid intrusions developed in an intracontinental volcanic arc (Uliastai) associated with northward subduction of the Paleo-Asian Ocean plate during late Carboniferous to early Permian; this suggests

  17. Barriers in the implementation of a physical activity intervention in primary care settings: lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josyula, Lakshmi K; Lyle, Roseann M

    2013-01-01

    Barriers encountered in implementing a physical activity intervention in primary health care settings, and ways to address them, are described in this paper. A randomized comparison trial was designed to examine the impact of health care providers' written prescriptions for physical activity, with or without additional physical activity resources, to adult, nonpregnant patients on preventive care or chronic disease monitoring visits. Following abysmal recruitment outcomes, the research protocol was altered to make it more appealing to all the participants, i.e., health care providers, office personnel, and patients. Various barriers--financial, motivational, and executive--to the implementation of health promotion interventions in primary health care settings were experienced and identified. These barriers have been classified by the different participants in the research process, viz., healthcare providers, administrative personnel, researchers, and patients. Some of the barriers identified were lack of time and reimbursement for health promotion activities, and inadequate practice capacity, for health care providers; increased time and labor demands for administrative personnel; constrained access to participants, and limited funding, for researchers; and superseding commitments, and inaccurate comprehension of the research protocol, for patients. Solutions suggested to overcome these barriers include financial support, e.g., funding for researchers, remuneration for health care organization personnel, reimbursement for providers, payment for participants, and free or subsidized postage, and use of health facilities; motivational strategies such as inspirational leadership, and contests within health care organizations; and partnerships, with other expert technical and creative entities, to improve the quality, efficiency, and acceptability of health promotion interventions.

  18. Pargo Chasma and its relationship to global tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghail, R. C.

    1993-01-01

    Pargo Chasma was first identified on Pioneer Venus data as a 10,000 km long lineation extending from Atla Regio in the north terminating in the plains south of Phoebe Regio. More recent Magellan data have revealed this feature to be one of the longest chains of coronae so far identified on the planet. Stofan et al have identified 60 coronae and 2 related features associated with this chain; other estimates differ according to the classification scheme adopted, for example Head et al. identify only 29 coronae but 43 arachnoids in the same region. This highlights one of the major problems associated with the preliminary mapping of the Magellan data: there has been an emphasis on identifying particular features on Venus without a universally accepted scheme to classify those features. Nevertheless, Pargo Chasma is clearly identified as a major tectonic belt of global significance. Together with the Artemis-Atla-Beta tectonic zone and the Beta-Phoebe rift belt, Pargo Chasma defines a region on Venus with an unusually high concentration of tectonic and volcanic features. Thus, an understanding of the processes involved in the formation of Pargo Chasma may lend significant insight into the evolution of the region and the planet as a whole. I have produced a detailed 1 to 10 million scale map of Pargo Chasma and the surrounding area from preliminary USGS controlled mosaiced image maps of Venus constructed from Magellan data. In view of the problems highlighted above in relation the efforts already made at identifying a particular set of features I have mapped the region purely on the basis of the geomorphology visible in the magellan data without any attempt at identifying a particular set or class of features. Thus, the map produced distinguishes between areas of different brightness and texture. This has the advantage of highlighting the tectonic fabric of Pargo Chasma and clearly illustrates the close inter-relationship between individual coronae and the surrounding

  19. Translation of lifestyle modification programs focused on physical activity and dietary habits delivered in community settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoutenberg, Mark; Stanzilis, Katie; Falcon, Ashley

    2015-06-01

    Lifestyle modification programs (LMPs) can provide individuals with behavioral skills to sustain long-term changes to their physical activity (PA) levels and dietary habits. Yet, there is much work to be done in the translation of these programs to community settings. This review identified LMPs that focused on changing both PA and dietary behaviors and examined common features and barriers faced in their translation to community settings. A search of multiple online databases was conducted to identify LMPs that included participants over the age of 18 who enrolled in LMPs, offered in community settings, and had the goal of improving both PA and dietary behaviors. Data were extracted on participant demographics, study design characteristics, and study outcome variables including changes in PA, dietary habits, body weight, and clinical outcomes. We identified 27 studies that met inclusion criteria. Despite high levels of retention and adherence to the interventions, varying levels of success were observed in increasing PA levels, improving dietary habits, reducing body weight, and improving clinic outcomes. LMPs addressing issues of PA and dietary habits can be successfully implemented in a community setting. However, inconsistent reporting of key components in the translation of these studies (participant recruitment, utilization of behavioral strategies) may limit their replication and advancement of future programs. Future efforts should better address issues such as identifying barriers to participation and program implementation, utilization of community resources, and evaluating changes across multiple health behaviors.

  20. Embedded Real-Time Architecture for Level-Set-Based Active Contours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejnožková Eva

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods described by partial differential equations have gained a considerable interest because of undoubtful advantages such as an easy mathematical description of the underlying physics phenomena, subpixel precision, isotropy, or direct extension to higher dimensions. Though their implementation within the level set framework offers other interesting advantages, their vast industrial deployment on embedded systems is slowed down by their considerable computational effort. This paper exploits the high parallelization potential of the operators from the level set framework and proposes a scalable, asynchronous, multiprocessor platform suitable for system-on-chip solutions. We concentrate on obtaining real-time execution capabilities. The performance is evaluated on a continuous watershed and an object-tracking application based on a simple gradient-based attraction force driving the active countour. The proposed architecture can be realized on commercially available FPGAs. It is built around general-purpose processor cores, and can run code developed with usual tools.

  1. Navigating Towards Digital Tectonic Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Anne Marie Due; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2006-01-01

    The computer holds a great potential to break down the barriers between architecture and the technical aspects relating to architecture, thus supporting innovative architecture with an inner correspondence between form and technique. While the differing values in architecture and technique can seem...... a tectonic tool should encompass. Secondly the ability and validity of the model are shown by applying it to a case study of Jørn Utzon’s work on Minor Hall in Sydney Opera House - for the sake of exemplification the technical field focused on in this paper is room acoustics. Thirdly the relationship between...

  2. On the Relationship between Variational Level Set-Based and SOM-Based Active Contours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelsamea, Mohammed M.; Gnecco, Giorgio; Gaber, Mohamed Medhat; Elyan, Eyad

    2015-01-01

    Most Active Contour Models (ACMs) deal with the image segmentation problem as a functional optimization problem, as they work on dividing an image into several regions by optimizing a suitable functional. Among ACMs, variational level set methods have been used to build an active contour with the aim of modeling arbitrarily complex shapes. Moreover, they can handle also topological changes of the contours. Self-Organizing Maps (SOMs) have attracted the attention of many computer vision scientists, particularly in modeling an active contour based on the idea of utilizing the prototypes (weights) of a SOM to control the evolution of the contour. SOM-based models have been proposed in general with the aim of exploiting the specific ability of SOMs to learn the edge-map information via their topology preservation property and overcoming some drawbacks of other ACMs, such as trapping into local minima of the image energy functional to be minimized in such models. In this survey, we illustrate the main concepts of variational level set-based ACMs, SOM-based ACMs, and their relationship and review in a comprehensive fashion the development of their state-of-the-art models from a machine learning perspective, with a focus on their strengths and weaknesses. PMID:25960736

  3. Quaternary Tectonic Tilting Governed by Rupture Segments Controls Surface Morphology and Drainage Evolution along the South-Central Coast of Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echtler, H. P.; Bookhagen, B.; Melnick, D.; Strecker, M.

    2004-12-01

    The Chilean coast represents one of the most active convergent margins in the Pacific rim, where major earthquakes (M>8) have repeatedly ruptured the surface, involving vertical offsets of several meters. Deformation along this coast takes place in large-scale, semi-independent seismotectonic segments with partially overlapping transient boundaries. They are possibly related to reactivated inherited crustal anisotropies; internal seismogenic deformation may be accommodated by structures that have developed during accretionary wedge evolution. Seismotectonic segmentation and the identification of large-scale rupture zones, however, are based on limited seismologic und geodetic observations over short timespans. In order to better define the long-term behavior and deformation rates of these segments and to survey the tectonic impact on the landscape on various temporal and spatial scales, we investigated the south-central coast of Chile (37-38S). There, two highly active, competing seismotectonic compartments influence the coastal and fluvial morphology. A rigorous analysis of the geomorphic features is a key for an assessment of the tectonic evolution during the Quaternary and beyond. We studied the N-S oriented Santa María Island (SMI), 20 km off the coast and only ~70km off the trench, in the transition between the two major Valdivia (46-37S) and Concepción (38-35S) rupture segments. The SMI has been tectonically deformed throughout the Quaternary and comprises two tilt domains with two topographic highs in the north and south that are being tilted eastward. The low-lying and flat eastern part of the island is characterized by a set of emergent Holocene strandlines related to coseismic uplift. We measured detailed surface morphology of these strandlines and E-W traversing ephemeral stream channels with a laser-total station and used these data to calibrate and validate high-resolution, digital imagery. In addition, crucial geomorphic markers were dated by the

  4. Accessory mineral records of tectonic environments? (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, C.; Marschall, H. R.; Enea, F.; Taylor, J.; Jennings, E. S.

    2010-12-01

    Accessory mineral research continues to gather momentum as we seek to unleash their full potential. It is now widely recognised that robust accessory minerals, such as zircon, rutile, titanite, allanite and monazite, are archives of important trace elements that can help deduce metamorphic reaction history in metapelites, metabasites and other rock types. Moreover, they are important carriers of certain trace elements and govern or influence the products of partial melting and of fluid-rock interaction (e.g. magmas and mineralisation) in settings like subduction zones and hydrothermal systems. Perhaps most importantly, they can often be dated using the U-Th-Pb system. More recently, radiogenic (Lu-Hf, Sm-Nd, Rb-Sr) and stable (O) isotope systems have been applied and have further pushed the utility of accessory mineral research. In this talk I will discuss some of these advances towards one particular aim: the use of detrital accessory minerals for fingerprinting tectonic environments. This is a particularly laudable aim in Precambrian rocks, for which the preservation potential of orogenic belts and fossil subduction zones and their diagnostic metamorphic rocks is low. The implication is that our understanding of plate tectonics, particularly in the Archaean, is biased by the preserved in-tact rock record. An analogy is that Jack Hills zircons record evidence of Earth’s crust some 400 Ma before the preserved rock record begins. I will focus on some recent advances and new data from rutile and also the mineral inclusion record within zircon, which shows great promise for petrologic interpretation.

  5. Active convergence between the Lesser and Greater Caucasus in Georgia: Constraints on the tectonic evolution of the Lesser-Greater Caucasus continental collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokhadze, G.; Floyd, M.; Godoladze, T.; King, R.; Cowgill, E. S.; Javakhishvili, Z.; Hahubia, G.; Reilinger, R.

    2018-01-01

    We present and interpret newly determined site motions derived from GPS observations made from 2008 through 2016 in the Republic of Georgia, which constrain the rate and locus of active shortening in the Lesser-Greater Caucasus continental collision zone. Observation sites are located along two ∼160 km-long profiles crossing the Lesser-Greater Caucasus boundary zone: one crossing the Rioni Basin in western Georgia and the other crossing further east near the longitude of Tbilisi. Convergence across the Rioni Basin Profile occurs along the southern margin of the Greater Caucasus, near the surface trace of the north-dipping Main Caucasus Thrust Fault (MCTF) system, and is consistent with strain accumulation on the fault that generated the 1991 MW6.9 Racha earthquake. In contrast, convergence along the Tbilisi Profile occurs near Tbilisi and the northern boundary of the Lesser Caucasus (near the south-dipping Lesser Caucasus Thrust Fault), approximately 50-70 km south of the MCTF, which is inactive within the resolution of geodetic observations (< ± 0.5 mm/yr) at the location of the Tbilisi Profile. We suggest that the southward offset of convergence along strike of the range is related to the incipient collision of the Lesser-Greater Caucasus, and closing of the intervening Kura Basin, which is most advanced along this segment of the collision zone. The identification of active shortening near Tbilisi requires a reevaluation of seismic hazards in this area.

  6. Application of activation methods on the Dubna experimental transmutation set-ups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoulos, S; Fragopoulou, M; Adloff, J C; Debeauvais, M; Brandt, R; Westmeier, W; Krivopustov, M; Sosnin, A; Papastefanou, C; Zamani, M; Manolopoulou, M

    2003-02-01

    High spallation neutron fluxes were produced by irradiating massive heavy targets with proton beams in the GeV range. The experiments were performed at the Dubna High Energy Laboratory using the nuclotron accelerator. Two different experimental set-ups were used to produce neutron spectra convenient for transmutation of radioactive waste by (n,x) reactions. By a theoretical analysis neutron spectra can be reproduced from activation measurements. Thermal-epithermal and fast-super-fast neutron fluxes were estimated using the 197Au, 238U (n,gamma) and (n,2n) reactions, respectively. Depleted uranium transmutation rates were also studied in both experiments.

  7. Exploring Daily Physical Activity and Nutrition Patterns in Early Learning Settings: Snapshots of Young Children in Head Start, Primary, and After-School Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegelin, Dolores A.; Anderson, Denise; Kemper, Karen; Wagner, Jennifer; Evans, Katharine

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research project was to gain a greater understanding of daily routines of 4-7 year olds regarding physical activity and nutrition practices in typical early learning environments. The settings selected for this observational study included Head Start, primary, and after-school learning environments in a city in the southeast.…

  8. Validation of five minimally obstructive methods to estimate physical activity energy expenditure in young adults in semi-standardized settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneller, Mikkel Bo; Pedersen, Mogens Theisen; Gupta, Nidhi

    2015-01-01

    We compared the accuracy of five objective methods, including two newly developed methods combining accelerometry and activity type recognition (Acti4), against indirect calorimetry, to estimate total energy expenditure (EE) of different activities in semi-standardized settings. Fourteen particip...

  9. Gan-Hang tectonic belt and its geologic significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Jiarui; Zhang Zhiping.

    1989-01-01

    Gan-Hang tectonic belt is predominantly controlled by Gan-Hang fracture zone. It is mainly composed of Yongfeng-Zhuji downwarping zone, Gan-Hang volcanic activity structural belt and Gan-Hang red basin downfaulted zone. Gan-Hang fracture zone is derived from evolution and development of Shaoxing-Jiangshan deep fracture. It is mainly composed of three deep and large fracture and Fuzhou-Yongfeng large fracture. The fracture zone is a long active belt, but in each active period the geologic structural patterns intensity, depth and forming time were not same. Gan-Hang tectonic belt possesses obvious inheritance. It has always maintained the character of the relative depression or low land since the Caledonian movement. This specific structural environment is favourable for uranium mineralization. At any rate, the formation of this uranium minerogenetic zone has been experiencing a long and complicated processes which were closely associated with long activity of Gan-Hang fracture zone

  10. Search for outlying data points in multivariate solar activity data sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartkowiak, A.; Jakimiec, M.

    1989-01-01

    The aim of this paper is the investigation of outlying data points in the solar activity data sets. Two statistical methods for identifying of multivariate outliers are presented: the chi2-plot method based on the analysis of Mahalanobis distances and the method based on principal component analysis, i.e. on scatterdiagrams constructed from the first two or last two eigenvectors. We demonstrate the usefullness of these methods applying them to same data of solar activity. The methods allow to reveal quite precisely the data vectors containing some errors and also some untypical vectors, i.e. vectors with unusually large values or with values revealing untypical relations as compared with the common relations between the appropriate variables. 12 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs. (author)

  11. Everyday science & science every day: Science-related talk & activities across settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Heather

    To understand the development of science-related thinking, acting, and learning in middle childhood, I studied youth in schools, homes, and other neighborhood settings over a three-year period. The research goal was to analyze how multiple everyday experiences influence children's participation in science-related practices and their thinking about science and scientists. Ethnographic and interaction analysis methodologies were to study the cognition and social interactions of the children as they participated in activities with peers, family, and teachers (n=128). Interviews and participant self-documentation protocols elucidated the participants' understandings of science. An Everyday Expertise (Bell et al., 2006) theoretical framework was employed to study the development of science understandings on three analytical planes: individual learner, social groups, and societal/community resources. Findings came from a cross-case analysis of urban science learners and from two within-case analyses of girls' science-related practices as they transitioned from elementary to middle school. Results included: (1) children participated actively in science across settings---including in their homes as well as in schools, (2) children's interests in science were not always aligned to the school science content, pedagogy, or school structures for participation, yet children found ways to engage with science despite these differences through crafting multiple pathways into science, (3) urban parents were active supporters of STEM-related learning environments through brokering access to social and material resources, (4) the youth often found science in their daily activities that formal education did not make use of, and (5) children's involvement with science-related practices can be developed into design principles to reach youth in culturally relevant ways.

  12. Exercise Self-Efficacy as a Mediator between Goal-Setting and Physical Activity: Developing the Workplace as a Setting for Promoting Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshie Iwasaki

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: Our study showed that exercise SE mediates goal-setting and increases PA. The results suggest that the components of PA promotion programs should be tailored to enhance participants' confidence in performing PA.

  13. Thermal springs, fumaroles and gas vents of continental Yemen: Their relation with active tectonics, regional hydrology and the country's geothermal potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minissale, Angelo; Mattash, Mohamed A.; Vaselli, Orlando; Tassi, Franco; Al-Ganad, Ismail N.; Selmo, Enrico; Shawki, Nasr M.; Tedesco, Dario; Poreda, Robert; Ad-Dukhain, Abdassalam M.; Hazzae, Mohammad K.

    2007-01-01

    Most thermal springs of continental Yemen (about 65 emergences at 48 sampling sites) and a couple of fumaroles and boiling water pools have been sampled and analyzed for chemical and isotopic composition in the liquid phase and the associated free-gas phase. Whatever the emergence, all the water discharges have an isotopic signature of meteoric origin. Springs seeping out from high altitudes in the central volcanic plateau show a prevalent Na-HCO 3 -composition, clearly affected by an anomalous flux of deep CO 2 deriving from active hydrothermal systems located in the Jurassic Amran Group limestone sequence and/or the Cretaceous Tawilah Group, likely underlying the 2000-3000 m thick volcanic suite. At lower elevations, CO 2 also affects the composition of some springs emerging at the borders of the central volcanic plateau. Although mixing to a limited extent with organic CO 2 infiltrating together with the meteoric recharge waters cannot be ruled out, all the CO 2 -rich gas samples have a δ 13 C-CO 2 signature that falls in the range of mantle CO 2 (-3 13 C 3 He/ 4 He (1 a 2 -rich springs and also some mixed N 2 -CO 2 gas vents in the far east Hadramaut region support the presence of mantle magmas and related hydrothermal systems residing at the crust level in several areas of Yemen. This well agrees with the presence of Quaternary basaltic magmatic activity along the Gulf of Aden, as well as inside the central Yemen volcanic plateau. Presently, the thermal springs of Yemen are prevalently used for spas and/or bathing. Nevertheless, liquid- and gas-geothermometry and geological considerations suggest that there are at least three areas (Al Lisi, Al Makhaya and Damt) inside the Yemen volcanic plateau (around Dhamar) that may be promising prospects for the future development of geothermal energy in Yemen. Alternatively, they could be used as a source of energy for small-to-medium scale agriculture and/or industrial purposes. Moreover, most of the thermal water

  14. Thermal springs, fumaroles and gas vents of continental Yemen: Their relation with active tectonics, regional hydrology and the country's geothermal potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minissale, Angelo [CNR - Italian Council for Research, Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources of Florence, Via La Pira 4, 50121 Florence (Italy)]. E-mail: minissa@igg.cnr.it; Mattash, Mohamed A. [Ministry of Oil and Mineral Resources, Geological Survey and Minerals Resources Board, P.O. Box 297, Sana' a (Yemen); Vaselli, Orlando [Department of Earth Sciences, Via La Pira 4, 50121 Firenze (Italy); CNR - Italian Council for Research, Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources of Florence, Via La Pira 4, 50121 Firenze (Italy); Tassi, Franco [Department of Earth Sciences, Via La Pira 4, 50121 Firenze (Italy); Al-Ganad, Ismail N. [Ministry of Oil and Mineral Resources, Geological Survey and Minerals Resources Board, P.O. Box 297, Sana' a (Yemen); Selmo, Enrico [Department of Earth Sciences, Parco Area delle Scienze 157A, 43100 Parma (Italy); Shawki, Nasr M. [Department of Geology, University of Ta' iz, P.O. Box 5679, Ta' iz (Yemen); Tedesco, Dario [Department of Environmental Sciences, Second University of Naples, Via Vivaldi 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy); Poreda, Robert [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, 227 Hutchinson Hall, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Ad-Dukhain, Abdassalam M. [Ministry of Oil and Mineral Resources, Geological Survey and Minerals Resources Board, P.O. Box 297, Sana' a (Yemen); Hazzae, Mohammad K. [Ministry of Oil and Mineral Resources, Geological Survey and Minerals Resources Board, P.O. Box 297, Sana' a (Yemen)

    2007-04-15

    Most thermal springs of continental Yemen (about 65 emergences at 48 sampling sites) and a couple of fumaroles and boiling water pools have been sampled and analyzed for chemical and isotopic composition in the liquid phase and the associated free-gas phase. Whatever the emergence, all the water discharges have an isotopic signature of meteoric origin. Springs seeping out from high altitudes in the central volcanic plateau show a prevalent Na-HCO{sub 3}-composition, clearly affected by an anomalous flux of deep CO{sub 2} deriving from active hydrothermal systems located in the Jurassic Amran Group limestone sequence and/or the Cretaceous Tawilah Group, likely underlying the 2000-3000 m thick volcanic suite. At lower elevations, CO{sub 2} also affects the composition of some springs emerging at the borders of the central volcanic plateau. Although mixing to a limited extent with organic CO{sub 2} infiltrating together with the meteoric recharge waters cannot be ruled out, all the CO{sub 2}-rich gas samples have a {delta} {sup 13}C-CO{sub 2} signature that falls in the range of mantle CO{sub 2} (-3 < {delta} {sup 13}C < -7 per mille V-PDB). The relatively high {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He (1 < R/R {sub a} < 3.2) ratios measured in all the CO{sub 2}-rich springs and also some mixed N{sub 2}-CO{sub 2} gas vents in the far east Hadramaut region support the presence of mantle magmas and related hydrothermal systems residing at the crust level in several areas of Yemen. This well agrees with the presence of Quaternary basaltic magmatic activity along the Gulf of Aden, as well as inside the central Yemen volcanic plateau. Presently, the thermal springs of Yemen are prevalently used for spas and/or bathing. Nevertheless, liquid- and gas-geothermometry and geological considerations suggest that there are at least three areas (Al Lisi, Al Makhaya and Damt) inside the Yemen volcanic plateau (around Dhamar) that may be promising prospects for the future development of geothermal energy

  15. Earth Sciences The geochemistry, tectonic setting and origin of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A massive melanocratic amphibolite, (MMA) occurs in Ilesha schist belt within a series of muscovite schists and amphibolite gneiss. Though metamorphosed, MMA shows no obvious textural deformation. Actinolite, tremolite, hornblende and boitite constitute the major minerals in MMA. Minor minerals in MMA include calcite, ...

  16. Provenance, tectonic setting and source-area weathering of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    valley in the Spiti basin, India ... presence of clay minerals control the abundances of these elements and suggests a warm and humid climate for this region. ..... Length Dispersive XRF system (Siemens SRS. 3000). ..... that the effect of diagenetic process on the REE ..... A greenhouse to icehouse transition; Precamb. Res.

  17. Characteristics of lithology and tectonic setting in the Korean peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byungjoo; Chae, Byunggon; Choi, Junghae

    2011-01-01

    The west coast of the Korean Peninsula is bounded by the Korean Bay to the north and the Yellow Sea to the south; the east coast is bounded by the East Sea. Two hundred kilometers separate the peninsula from eastern China. The Japanese islands of Honshu and Kyushu are located 206 kilometers to the southeast, just across the Korea Strait. Because of its unique geographical location, Chinese culture filtered into Japan through Korea; a common cultural sphere of Buddhism and Confucianism was thus established between the three countries. The total area of the peninsula, including the islands, is 222,154 square kilometers of which about 45 percent, excluding the area in the Demilitarized Zone, constitutes the territory of South Korea. There are about 3,000 islands belonging to Korea. The islands are located mostly around the Yellow Sea; Ulleungdo, the largest island in the East Sea, serves as a major fishery base as does Dokdo island. Important islands within South Korea territory include Jejudo, the largest island, which lies off the southwest corner of the peninsula, Geojedo, Ganghwado, and Namhaedo. Nearly 70 percent of the Korean Peninsula is covered by mountains and hills. Located mostly in the southern and the western regions, these hills give way gradually to increasingly higher mountains toward the eastern and the northern end. On the whole, the western and southern slopes of the peninsula are wide with some plains and basins along rivers, while the eastern slope is very narrow because the high mountains hug the East Sea coastline

  18. Characteristics of lithology and tectonic setting in the Korean peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byungjoo; Chae, Byunggon; Choi, Junghae [KIGAM, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-01

    The west coast of the Korean Peninsula is bounded by the Korean Bay to the north and the Yellow Sea to the south; the east coast is bounded by the East Sea. Two hundred kilometers separate the peninsula from eastern China. The Japanese islands of Honshu and Kyushu are located 206 kilometers to the southeast, just across the Korea Strait. Because of its unique geographical location, Chinese culture filtered into Japan through Korea; a common cultural sphere of Buddhism and Confucianism was thus established between the three countries. The total area of the peninsula, including the islands, is 222,154 square kilometers of which about 45 percent, excluding the area in the Demilitarized Zone, constitutes the territory of South Korea. There are about 3,000 islands belonging to Korea. The islands are located mostly around the Yellow Sea; Ulleungdo, the largest island in the East Sea, serves as a major fishery base as does Dokdo island. Important islands within South Korea territory include Jejudo, the largest island, which lies off the southwest corner of the peninsula, Geojedo, Ganghwado, and Namhaedo. Nearly 70 percent of the Korean Peninsula is covered by mountains and hills. Located mostly in the southern and the western regions, these hills give way gradually to increasingly higher mountains toward the eastern and the northern end. On the whole, the western and southern slopes of the peninsula are wide with some plains and basins along rivers, while the eastern slope is very narrow because the high mountains hug the East Sea coastline.

  19. A study of tectonic activity in the Basin-Range Province and on the San Andreas Fault. No. 1: Kinematics of Basin-Range intraplate extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddington, P. K.; Smith, R. B.; Renggli, C.

    1986-01-01

    Strain rates assessed from brittle fracture and total brittle-ductile deformation measured from geodetic data were compared to estimates of paleo-strain from Quaternary geology for the intraplate Great Basin part of the Basin-Range, western United States. These data provide an assessment of the kinematics and mode of lithospheric extension that the western U.S. Cordillera has experienced from the past few million years to the present. Strain and deformation rates were determined by the seismic moment tensor method using historic seismicity and fault plane solutions for sub-regions of homogeneous strain. Contemporary deformation in the Great Basin occurs principally along the active seismic zones. The integrated opening rate across the entire Great Basin is accommodated by E-E extension at 8 to 10 mm/a in the north that diminishes to NW-SE extension of 3.5 mm/a in the south. Zones of maximum lithospheric extension correspond to belts of thin crust, high heat flow, and Quaternary basaltic volcanism, suggesting that these parameters are related through mechanism of extension such as a stress relaxation, allowing bouyant uplift and ascension of magmas.

  20. Tectonic controlled submarine slidings and dewatering structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Y.; Hirono, T.; Takahashi, M.

    2003-04-01

    Geologic structures associated with mass movements processes such as slumping, sliding, and creeping can be the key to understanding the tectonic or geologic constraints in the time they were formed. Because they are sensitively reflected by the paleo-topography which must be associated with active tectonics. It must be very useful if the direction of paleo-slope instability is known easily in a wide area. We paid attentions to convolute lamination and flame structure which might be associated with dewatering and loading, respectively. Some recent researches report the possibility that well regulated flame structures might be formed in relation to paleo-slope instability. However, there is an alternative idea that they were reflection of heterogeneous loading associated with ripple marks on the sandy layers. This controversy has not been settled. Accordingly, to evaluate the reliability of the relationship between formation of such structures with well regulated arrays and paleo-slope instability, the Pliocene Chikura Group in the southern part of the Boso Peninsula, central Japan, was studied. The Chikura Group overlying the Miura Group, Miocene accretionary prism, is composed of trench-fill sediments in the lowermost and of trench-slope basin sediments in the upper. The Chikura Group was deposited on an east-west extended sedimentary basin during east-west trending folds and faults development. These indicate the direction of paleo-slope in the Chikura Group due north or south. Flame structures and convolute laminations were recognized over 60 sites in the Chikura Group. They have well-regulated planar arrays which extend almost east west, perpendicular to the direction of paleo-slope instability. Some examples of such structures and slump deposit were observed in the same outcrop. Vergence of these slump deposits were toward north or south, and ridges of flame structures and convolute laminations extend east-west. Experimental study of direct imaging of

  1. Small scale turbidity currents in a tectonically active submarine graben, the Gulf of Corinth (Greece): their significance in dispersing mine tailings and their relevance to basin filling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papatheodorou, G.; Stefatos, A.; Christodoulou, D.; Ferentinos, G.

    2003-04-01

    The Gulf of Corinth is an intra-plate active graben within the Aegean microplate, which is characterized by high frequency occurrence of gravitative mass movements. A detailed marine survey in Antikyra bay, on the northern margin of the graben, was carried out (i) to study the bathymetry and morphology of the seafloor and (ii) to examine the distribution and dispersion of bauxite “red-mud” tailings and the formation of present-day fine grained, thin bedded turbidites. The examination of high resolution seismic profiles has shown that the northern flank of the gulf of Corinth consists of the shelf, slope and basin floor. The shelf has an average width of 10 km and dips very gently at a gradient less than 1.2o to a depth of 300m. The slope extends from the 300m to the 700m isobath with a gradient ranging from 5o to 7.5o. The basin floor deeper than the 700m isobath is flat with a gradient less than 0.1o. The shelf break and upper slope are affected by mass-movements. The seafloor on slope is incised by numerous channels trending in a NNE-SSW direction. The floor of the plain is covered by ponded turbidites. The analysis of cores based on (i) the texture and the structure of the individual layers of the surficial sedimentary cover and (ii) the tracing of bauxite red-mud tailing which have been discharged since 1970 on the upper shelf of the Antikyra Bay, have shown that: (i) Shelf and upper slope sediments are transported to the basin floor by turbidity flows. (ii) The slope surface is affected by the erosional action of the turbidity currents. (iii) The basin floor is covered by thin-bedded fine-grained turbidites whose thickness ranges from 0.8-4 cm. (iv) The individual turbidite beds, which consist of silt and clay, are structureless and are separated by sharp, planar or erosional contacts. (v) Hemipelagic intercalations are absent. The number of turbiditic events recorded in the surveyed area is from 2-5 events over a period of 15 years or 122 to 333 events

  2. Landslides control the spatial and temporal variation of channel width in southern Taiwan: implications for landscape evolution and cascading hazards in steep, tectonically active landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanites, B.; Bregy, J. C.; Carlson, G.; Cataldo, K.; Holahan, M.; Johnston, G.; Mitchell, N. A.; Nelson, A.; Valenza, J.; Wanker, M.

    2017-12-01

    Intense precipitation or seismic events can generate clustered mass movement processes across a landscape. These rare events have significant impacts on the landscape, however, the rarity of such events leads to uncertainty in how these events impact the entire geomorphic system over a range of timescales. Taiwan is a steep, seismically active region and is highly prone to landslide and debris flows, especially when exposed to heavy rainfall events. Typhoon Morakot made landfall in Taiwan in August of 2009, delivering record-breaking rainfall and inducing more than 22,000 landslides in southern Taiwan. The topographic gradient in southern Taiwan leads to spatial variability in landslide susceptibility providing an opportunity to infer the long-term impact of landslides on channel morphology. The availability of pre and post typhoon imagery allows a quantitative reconstruction on the propagating impact of this event on channel width. The pre and post typhoon patterns of channel width to river and hillslope gradients in 20 basins in the study area reveal the importance of cascading hazards from landslides on landscape evolution. Prior to Typhoon Morakot, the river channels in the central part of the study area were about 3-10 times wider than the channels in the south. Aggradation and widening was also a maximum in these basins where hillslope gradients and channel steepness is high. The results further show that the narrowest channels are located where channel steepness is the lowest, an observation inconsistent with a detachment-limited model for river evolution. We infer this pattern is indicative of a strong role of sediment supply, and associated landslide events, on long-term channel evolution. These findings have implications across a range of spatial and temporal scales including understanding the cascade of hazards in steep landscapes and geomorphic interpretation of channel morphology.

  3. How Do Regional Stress Changes Following Megathrust Events Affect Active Retroarc Tectonics? A Case Study of the 27 February 2010 Mw 6.1 Salta Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, P. K.; Bennett, R. A.

    2017-12-01

    The 27 February 2010 M­­w 6.1 Salta earthquake occurred in the active retroarc fold-thrust belt of northwest Argentina approximately 9 hours after and 1500 km away from the Mw 8.8 Maule earthquake that occurred off the coast of central Chile. It has been proposed that the Salta earthquake occurred on a fault that was already at or near failure at the time of the Maule event, and the Maule earthquake simply advanced the seismic cycle of the fault. In this study, we examine a transient signal in the east component of the position time series for the continuously operating GPS (cGPS) station UNSA, which lies approximately 32 km northeast of the Salta earthquake epicenter. The transient signal is observed in the roughly 2.3 years prior to the Salta earthquake. It begins immediately following the 11 November 2007 Mw 7.7 Tocopilla megathrust event that occurred about 550 km due west of Salta on the Nazca-South America subduction interface and terminates abruptly after the Salta earthquake. We use the published relocated main shock and aftershock hypocenters determined using data from a local seismic network (INPRES) along with the published main shock focal mechanism to demonstrate that the Salta earthquake likely occurred on the Golgota Fault, a N-S striking and steeply-east-dipping reverse fault. Further, we use elastic dislocation modeling to show that rupture on the Golgota Fault is consistent with the co-seismic offsets observed at the surrounding cGPS stations. We propose that the transient signal observed at station UNSA may be due to initiation or acceleration of interseismic strain accumulation on the Golgota Fault at mid-crustal depths following a change in the regional stress field associated with the Tocopilla megathrust earthquake. Finally, we use published rupture models for both the Tocopilla and Maule events to demonstrate that the regional static Coulomb stress change following each of these megathrusts is consistent with our proposed model.

  4. The 2016 seismic series in the south Alboran Sea: Seismotectonics, Coulomb Failure Stress changes and implications for the active tectonics in the area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Gómez, José A.; Martín, Rosa; Pérez-López, Raul; Stich, Daniel; Cantavella, Juan V.; Martínez-Díaz, José J.; Morales, José; Soto, Juan I.; Carreño, Emilio

    2017-04-01

    The Southern Alboran Sea, particularly the area offshore Al Hoceima Bay, presents moderate but continuous seismic activity since the Mw 6.0 1994 Al Hoceima earthquake. The maximum magnitude occurred in the area was a Mw 6.3 earthquake in the 2004 Al Hoceima - Tamasint seismic series. Since then, the seismicity in the Al Hoceima area has been usual, with maximum seismic magnitudes around 4. An increase in the seismic rate was registered during 2015, especially from May, culminating in the seismic series in January 2016. The mainshock occurred on January 25th 2016 with a magnitude Mw 6.3 and it was preceded by a Mw 5.1 foreshock on January 21st. The seismic series took place at the western end of the Alboran Ridge. Towards the northeast the Alboran Ridge bends, and seems to be connected with the NW-SE right-lateral transtensional Yusuf Fault. The recorded seismicity is mainly located in the Alboran Ridge area and along the N-S Al-Idrisi Fault that seems to continue southwards, towards the Al Hoceima Bay. The focal mechanisms calculated previously in the area showed a left-lateral strike-slip faulting with some normal component in the Alboran Ridge; but always within a complex system of diffuse deformation and high rupture type variability. We have used 41 computed focal mechanisms of this seismic series to analyze its seismotectonics and structural characteristics. To group the focal mechanisms we used a clustering algorithm using the spatial distribution of the events and also the type of rupture mechanism. For each cluster we have obtained the composed focal mechanism, associating it to a particular fault or family of structures. We have tested the mechanical compatibility of these structures by Coulomb Failure Stress transfer modeling. The mainshock of the series occurred in the Al Idrisi Fault intersecting the western Alboran Ridge. This event triggered aftershocks and independent series in left-lateral strike-slip faults associated with the Al Idrisi Fault

  5. Plain formation on Mercury: tectonic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.

    1980-01-01

    Four major plain units, plus intermediates, are distinguished on Mercury. The chronologic relationships between these plains indicate that plains formation was a permanent process on Mercury. Their location and morphology seem to indicate a possible volcanic origin for these plains. The relationships between tectonism and volcanism seems to indicate the global contraction is not the only tectonic process on Mercury. (Auth.)

  6. Framework for Tectonic Thinking, a Conceptual Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garritzmann, Udo

    2017-01-01

    This research paper is a contribution to the field of architectural design theory in the area of tectonics. From the designer’s point of view, it will develop an overarching conceptual framework for tectonic thinking (FTT), which will serve as a tool for the comparative analysis and interpretation...

  7. Kinematics and age of Early Tertiary trench parallel volcano-tectonic lineaments in southern Mexico: Tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, M.; Ferrari, L.; Lopez Martinez, M.; Cerca Martinez, M.; Serrano Duran, L.

    2007-05-01

    We present new geological, structural, and geochronological data that constrain the timing and geometry of Early Tertiary strike slip deformation in southwestern Mexico and its relation with the concurrent magmatic activity. Geologic mapping in Guerrero and Michoacan States documented two regional WNW trending volcano-tectonic lineaments sub parallel to the present trench. The southernmost lineament runs for ~140 km from San Miguel Totolapan area (NW Guerrero) to Sanchiqueo (SE Michoacan), and passes through Ciudad Altamirano. Its southeastern part is marked by the alignment of at least eleven silicic to intermediate major domes as well as by the course of the Balsas River. The northwestern part of the lineament is characterized by ductile left lateral shear zones in Early Tertiary plutonic rocks observed in the Rio Chiquito valley. Domes near Ciudad Altamirano are unaffected by ductile shearing and yielded a ~42 Ma 40Ar/39Ar age, setting a minimum age for this deformation. The northern volcano-tectonic lineament runs for ~190 km between the areas of Huitzuco in northern Guerrero and the southern part of the Tzitzio fold in eastern Michoacan. The Huautla, Tilzapotla, Taxco, La Goleta and Nanchititla silicic centers (all in the range 37-34 Ma) are emplaced along this lineament, which continues to the WNW trough a mafic dike swarm exposed north of Tiquicheo (37-35 Ma) and the Purungueo subvolcanic body (~42 Ma). These rocks, unaffected by ductile shearing, give a minimum age of deformation similar to the southern Totolapan-Sanquicheo lineament. Post ~42 Ma deformation is essentially brittle and is characterized by several left lateral and right lateral transcurrent faults with typical Riedel patterns. Other trench-parallel left lateral shear zones active in pre-Oligocene times were recently reported in western Oaxaca. The recognizing of Early Tertiary trench-parallel and left-lateral ductile shearing in internal areas of southern Mexico suggest a field of widely

  8. Correlation set analysis: detecting active regulators in disease populations using prior causal knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Chia-Ling

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of active causal regulators is a crucial problem in understanding mechanism of diseases or finding drug targets. Methods that infer causal regulators directly from primary data have been proposed and successfully validated in some cases. These methods necessarily require very large sample sizes or a mix of different data types. Recent studies have shown that prior biological knowledge can successfully boost a method's ability to find regulators. Results We present a simple data-driven method, Correlation Set Analysis (CSA, for comprehensively detecting active regulators in disease populations by integrating co-expression analysis and a specific type of literature-derived causal relationships. Instead of investigating the co-expression level between regulators and their regulatees, we focus on coherence of regulatees of a regulator. Using simulated datasets we show that our method performs very well at recovering even weak regulatory relationships with a low false discovery rate. Using three separate real biological datasets we were able to recover well known and as yet undescribed, active regulators for each disease population. The results are represented as a rank-ordered list of regulators, and reveals both single and higher-order regulatory relationships. Conclusions CSA is an intuitive data-driven way of selecting directed perturbation experiments that are relevant to a disease population of interest and represent a starting point for further investigation. Our findings demonstrate that combining co-expression analysis on regulatee sets with a literature-derived network can successfully identify causal regulators and help develop possible hypothesis to explain disease progression.

  9. Histone H4 Lys 20 methyltransferase SET8 promotes androgen receptor-mediated transcription activation in prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Lushuai [Laboratory of Genome Variations and Precision Bio-Medicine, Beijing Institute of Genomics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Li, Yanyan; Du, Fengxia [Laboratory of Genome Variations and Precision Bio-Medicine, Beijing Institute of Genomics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Han, Xiao [Laboratory of Genome Variations and Precision Bio-Medicine, Beijing Institute of Genomics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Li, Xiaohua [Laboratory of Genome Variations and Precision Bio-Medicine, Beijing Institute of Genomics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Niu, Yuanjie [Chawnshang Chang Sex Hormone Research Center, Tianjin Institute of Urology, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070 (China); Ren, Shancheng, E-mail: renshancheng@gmail.com [Department of Urology, Shanghai Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Sun, Yingli, E-mail: sunyl@big.ac.cn [Laboratory of Genome Variations and Precision Bio-Medicine, Beijing Institute of Genomics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China)

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • Dihydrotestosterone stimulates H4K20me1 enrichment at the PSA promoter. • SET8 promotes AR-mediated transcription activation. • SET8 interacts with AR and promotes cell proliferation. - Abstract: Histone methylation status in different lysine residues has an important role in transcription regulation. The effect of H4K20 monomethylation (H4K20me1) on androgen receptor (AR)-mediated gene transcription remains unclear. Here we show that AR agonist stimulates the enrichment of H4K20me1 and SET8 at the promoter of AR target gene PSA in an AR dependent manner. Furthermore, SET8 is crucial for the transcription activation of PSA. Co-immunoprecipitation analyses demonstrate that SET8 interacts with AR. Therefore, we conclude that SET8 is involved in AR-mediated transcription activation, possibly through its interaction with AR and H4K20me1 modification.

  10. Construction of a century solar chromosphere data set for solar activity related research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ganghua; Wang, Xiao Fan; Yang, Xiao; Liu, Suo; Zhang, Mei; Wang, Haimin; Liu, Chang; Xu, Yan; Tlatov, Andrey; Demidov, Mihail; Borovik, Aleksandr; Golovko, Aleksey

    2017-06-01

    This article introduces our ongoing project "Construction of a Century Solar Chromosphere Data Set for Solar Activity Related Research". Solar activities are the major sources of space weather that affects human lives. Some of the serious space weather consequences, for instance, include interruption of space communication and navigation, compromising the safety of astronauts and satellites, and damaging power grids. Therefore, the solar activity research has both scientific and social impacts. The major database is built up from digitized and standardized film data obtained by several observatories around the world and covers a time span of more than 100 years. After careful calibration, we will develop feature extraction and data mining tools and provide them together with the comprehensive database for the astronomical community. Our final goal is to address several physical issues: filament behavior in solar cycles, abnormal behavior of solar cycle 24, large-scale solar eruptions, and sympathetic remote brightenings. Significant signs of progress are expected in data mining algorithms and software development, which will benefit the scientific analysis and eventually advance our understanding of solar cycles.

  11. Construction of a century solar chromosphere data set for solar activity related research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganghua Lin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces our ongoing project “Construction of a Century Solar Chromosphere Data Set for Solar Activity Related Research”. Solar activities are the major sources of space weather that affects human lives. Some of the serious space weather consequences, for instance, include interruption of space communication and navigation, compromising the safety of astronauts and satellites, and damaging power grids. Therefore, the solar activity research has both scientific and social impacts. The major database is built up from digitized and standardized film data obtained by several observatories around the world and covers a timespan more than 100 years. After careful calibration, we will develop feature extraction and data mining tools and provide them together with the comprehensive database for the astronomical community. Our final goal is to address several physical issues: filament behavior in solar cycles, abnormal behavior of solar cycle 24, large-scale solar eruptions, and sympathetic remote brightenings. Significant progresses are expected in data mining algorithms and software development, which will benefit the scientific analysis and eventually advance our understanding of solar cycles.

  12. Interaction between central volcanoes and regional tectonics along divergent plate boundaries: Askja, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippanera, Daniele; Ruch, Joël; Acocella, Valerio; Thordarson, Thor; Urbani, Stefano

    2018-01-01

    Activity within magmatic divergent plate boundaries (MDPB) focuses along both regional fissure swarms and central volcanoes. An ideal place to investigate their mutual relationship is the Askja central volcano in Iceland. Askja consists of three nested calderas (namely Kollur, Askja and Öskjuvatn) located within a hyaloclastite massif along the NNE-SSW trending Icelandic MDPB. We performed an extensive field-based structural analysis supported by a remote sensing study of tectonic and volcanic features of Askja's calderas and of the eastern flank of the hyaloclastite massif. In the massif, volcano-tectonic structures trend N 10° E to N 40° E, but they vary around the Askja caldera being both parallel to the caldera rim and cross-cutting on the Western side. Structural trends around the Öskjuvatn caldera are typically rim parallel. Volcanic vents and dikes are preferentially distributed along the caldera ring faults; however, they follow the NNE-SSW regional structures when located outside the calderas. Our results highlight that the Askja volcano displays a balanced amount of regional (fissure-swarm related) and local (shallow-magma-chamber related) tectonic structures along with a mutual interaction among these. This is different from Krafla volcano (to the north of Askja) dominated by regional structures and Grímsvötn (to the South) dominated by local structures. Therefore, Askja represents an intermediate tectono-magmatic setting for volcanoes located in a slow divergent plate boundary. This is also likely in accordance with a northward increase in the spreading rate along the Icelandic MDPB.

  13. Interaction between central volcanoes and regional tectonics along divergent plate boundaries: Askja, Iceland

    KAUST Repository

    Trippanera, Daniele

    2017-12-04

    Activity within magmatic divergent plate boundaries (MDPB) focuses along both regional fissure swarms and central volcanoes. An ideal place to investigate their mutual relationship is the Askja central volcano in Iceland. Askja consists of three nested calderas (namely Kollur, Askja and Öskjuvatn) located within a hyaloclastite massif along the NNE-SSW trending Icelandic MDPB. We performed an extensive field-based structural analysis supported by a remote sensing study of tectonic and volcanic features of Askja’s calderas and of the eastern flank of the hyaloclastite massif. In the massif, volcano-tectonic structures trend N 10° E to N 40° E, but they vary around the Askja caldera being both parallel to the caldera rim and cross-cutting on the Western side. Structural trends around the Öskjuvatn caldera are typically rim parallel. Volcanic vents and dikes are preferentially distributed along the caldera ring faults; however, they follow the NNE-SSW regional structures when located outside the calderas. Our results highlight that the Askja volcano displays a balanced amount of regional (fissure-swarm related) and local (shallow-magma-chamber related) tectonic structures along with a mutual interaction among these. This is different from Krafla volcano (to the north of Askja) dominated by regional structures and Grímsvötn (to the South) dominated by local structures. Therefore, Askja represents an intermediate tectono-magmatic setting for volcanoes located in a slow divergent plate boundary. This is also likely in accordance with a northward increase in the spreading rate along the Icelandic MDPB.

  14. Tectonic Evolution of Jabal Tays Ophiolite Complex, Eastern Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlHumidan, Saad; Kassem, Osama; Almutairi, Majed; Al-Faifi, Hussain; Kahal, Ali

    2017-04-01

    Microstructural analysis is important for investigation of tectonic evaluation of Jable Tays area. Furthermore, the Jable Tays ophiolite complex is effected by Al Amar -Idsas fault. The nature of the Al Amar-Idsas fault is a part of the Eastern Arabian Shield, which was subjected to multiple interpretations. Through fieldwork investigation, microscopic examination, and microstructural analysis, we aim to understand the evolution and tectonic setting of the Jable Tays area. Finite-strain data displays that the Abt schist, the metavolcanics and the metagranites are highly to moderately deformed. The axial ratios in the XZ section range from 1.40 to 2.20. The long axes of the finite-strain ellipsoids trend NW- SE and W-E in the Jable Tays area while, their short axes are subvertical to subhorizontal foliations. The strain magnitude does not increase towards the tectonic contacts between the Abt schist and metavolcano-sedimentary. While majority of the obtained data indicate a dominant oblate with minor prolate strain symmetries in the Abt schist, metavolcano-sedimentary and metagranites. The strain data also indicate flattening with some constriction. We assume that the Abt schist and the metavolcano-sedimentry rocks have similar deformation behavior. The finite strain in the studied rocks accumulated during the metamorphism that effected by thrusting activity. Based on these results, we finally concluded that the contact between Abt schist and metavolcano-sedimentary rocks were formed during the progressive thrusting under brittle to semi-ductile deformation conditions by simple shear that also involved a component of vertical shortening, causing subhorizontal foliation in Jable Tays area.

  15. Shared investment projects and forecasting errors: setting framework conditions for coordination and sequencing data quality activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, Stephan; Brauneis, Alexander; Rausch, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the impact of inaccurate forecasting on the coordination of distributed investment decisions. In particular, by setting up a computational multi-agent model of a stylized firm, we investigate the case of investment opportunities that are mutually carried out by organizational departments. The forecasts of concern pertain to the initial amount of money necessary to launch and operate an investment opportunity, to the expected intertemporal distribution of cash flows, and the departments' efficiency in operating the investment opportunity at hand. We propose a budget allocation mechanism for coordinating such distributed decisions The paper provides guidance on how to set framework conditions, in terms of the number of investment opportunities considered in one round of funding and the number of departments operating one investment opportunity, so that the coordination mechanism is highly robust to forecasting errors. Furthermore, we show that-in some setups-a certain extent of misforecasting is desirable from the firm's point of view as it supports the achievement of the corporate objective of value maximization. We then address the question of how to improve forecasting quality in the best possible way, and provide policy advice on how to sequence activities for improving forecasting quality so that the robustness of the coordination mechanism to errors increases in the best possible way. At the same time, we show that wrong decisions regarding the sequencing can lead to a decrease in robustness. Finally, we conduct a comprehensive sensitivity analysis and prove that-in particular for relatively good forecasters-most of our results are robust to changes in setting the parameters of our multi-agent simulation model.

  16. Shared Investment Projects and Forecasting Errors: Setting Framework Conditions for Coordination and Sequencing Data Quality Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, Stephan; Brauneis, Alexander; Rausch, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the impact of inaccurate forecasting on the coordination of distributed investment decisions. In particular, by setting up a computational multi-agent model of a stylized firm, we investigate the case of investment opportunities that are mutually carried out by organizational departments. The forecasts of concern pertain to the initial amount of money necessary to launch and operate an investment opportunity, to the expected intertemporal distribution of cash flows, and the departments’ efficiency in operating the investment opportunity at hand. We propose a budget allocation mechanism for coordinating such distributed decisions The paper provides guidance on how to set framework conditions, in terms of the number of investment opportunities considered in one round of funding and the number of departments operating one investment opportunity, so that the coordination mechanism is highly robust to forecasting errors. Furthermore, we show that—in some setups—a certain extent of misforecasting is desirable from the firm’s point of view as it supports the achievement of the corporate objective of value maximization. We then address the question of how to improve forecasting quality in the best possible way, and provide policy advice on how to sequence activities for improving forecasting quality so that the robustness of the coordination mechanism to errors increases in the best possible way. At the same time, we show that wrong decisions regarding the sequencing can lead to a decrease in robustness. Finally, we conduct a comprehensive sensitivity analysis and prove that—in particular for relatively good forecasters—most of our results are robust to changes in setting the parameters of our multi-agent simulation model. PMID:25803736

  17. Shared investment projects and forecasting errors: setting framework conditions for coordination and sequencing data quality activities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Leitner

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the impact of inaccurate forecasting on the coordination of distributed investment decisions. In particular, by setting up a computational multi-agent model of a stylized firm, we investigate the case of investment opportunities that are mutually carried out by organizational departments. The forecasts of concern pertain to the initial amount of money necessary to launch and operate an investment opportunity, to the expected intertemporal distribution of cash flows, and the departments' efficiency in operating the investment opportunity at hand. We propose a budget allocation mechanism for coordinating such distributed decisions The paper provides guidance on how to set framework conditions, in terms of the number of investment opportunities considered in one round of funding and the number of departments operating one investment opportunity, so that the coordination mechanism is highly robust to forecasting errors. Furthermore, we show that-in some setups-a certain extent of misforecasting is desirable from the firm's point of view as it supports the achievement of the corporate objective of value maximization. We then address the question of how to improve forecasting quality in the best possible way, and provide policy advice on how to sequence activities for improving forecasting quality so that the robustness of the coordination mechanism to errors increases in the best possible way. At the same time, we show that wrong decisions regarding the sequencing can lead to a decrease in robustness. Finally, we conduct a comprehensive sensitivity analysis and prove that-in particular for relatively good forecasters-most of our results are robust to changes in setting the parameters of our multi-agent simulation model.

  18. Grabens on Io: Evidence for Extensional Tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogenboom, T.; Schenk, P.

    2012-12-01

    Io may well be the most geologically active body in the solar system. A variety of volcanic features have been identified, including a few fissure eruptions, but tectonism is generally assumed to be limited to compression driven mountain formation (Schenk et al., 2001). A wide range of structural features can also be identified including scarps, lineaments, faults, and circular depressions (pits and patera rims). Narrow curvilinear graben (elongated, relatively depressed crustal unit or block that is bounded by faults on its sides) are also scattered across Io's volcanic plains. These features are dwarfed by the more prominent neighboring volcanoes and mountains, and have been largely ignored in the literature. Although they are likely to be extensional in origin, their relationship to local or global stress fields is unknown. We have mapped the locations, length and width of graben on Io using all available Voyager and Galileo images with a resolution better than 5 km. We compare the locations of graben with existing volcanic centers, paterae and mountain data to determine the degree of correlation between these geologic features and major topographic variations (basins/swells) in our global topographic map of Io (White et al., 2011). Graben are best observed in > 1-2 km low-sun angle images. Approximately 300 images were converted from ISIS to ArcMap format to allow easy comparison with the geological map of Io (Williams et al., 2012) along with previous higher resolution structural mapping of local areas (e.g. Crown et al., 1992). We have located >45 graben to date. Typically 1-3 kilometers across, some of these features can stretch for over 500 kilometers in length. Their formation may be related to global tidal stresses or local deformation. Io's orbit is eccentric and its solid surface experiences daily tides of up to ˜0.1 km, leading to repetitive surface strains of 10-4 or greater. These tides flex and stress the lithosphere and can cause it to fracture

  19. Set of Activities Addressed for Elementary School Students: Cells and the Genetic Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.M. Miranda

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The time lag between the progresses in the area of molecular biology reached in the last years and the schools science curricula  can be reduced through  initiatives of the university  regarding  the dissemina- tion of sciences. Inside of this context, one of the major objectives of the CBME has been the scientific education  and  dissemination on Molecular  Biosciences.  Among the  strategies organized  to promote the dissemination of this area, the Scientific Dissemination Coordination of CBME developed a set of playful activities  for students from public and private  elementary schools (7th  and 8th grades.  As a first step science teachers were interviewed  in order to indicate  which topics related  to molecular bio- sciences they  usually  include in their curricula  planning.  The approach  considered  in the elaboration of the set of activities  was the construction of knowledge of the concepts related  to topics as cell types, their  structures and  organelles,  and  the  importance of the  nucleus and  DNA. The set was offered to170 students. Students from private  schools were evaluated by their  performance  through  the classes, which were registered  by the  notes  of the  instructors.  Students from public  schools were evaluated through  questionnaires containing  basic  concepts  on the  theme  applied  before (pre-test and  after (post-test the set of activities  in order to measure,  respectively,  the previous and acquired knowledge. The  programming accomplished  at  the  public  school was partially modified  due  to  the  absence  of a laboratory, microscopes  and  a room  of computers, without, however,  to  alter  the  objectives  and content of the  activities.   The  comparative analysis  of the  pre- and  post-tests revealed  that, in this latter, there  was an increase of the average percentage  of correct  answers and an

  20. Tectonic isolation from regional sediment sourcing of the Paradox Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T. M.; Saylor, J.; Sundell, K. E.; Lapen, T. J.

    2017-12-01

    feature among other intraplate, tectonically active basins.

  1. Extensional tectonics on continents and the transport of heat and matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, H. J.

    1985-01-01

    Intracontinental zones of extensional tectonic style are commonly of finite width and length. Associated sedimentary troughs are fault-controlled. The evolution of those structures is accompanied by volcanic activity of variable intensity. The characteristic surface structures are usually underlaid by a lower crust of the transitional type while deeper subcustal areas show delayed travel times of seismic waves especially at young tectonic provinces. A correspondence between deep-seated processes and zones of continental extension appears obvious. A sequential order of mechanisms and their importance are discussed in the light of modern data compilations and quantitative kinematic and dynamic approaches. The Cenozoic exensional tectonics related with the Rhine River are discussed.

  2. Geomorphological features of active tectonics and ongoing ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    earthquakes (magnitude 1.0–3.0) frequently occur in the region and hypocenters of these earthquakes are ... movement of Indian landmass and its collision with ... within the Eurasian Plate (Avouac and Tapponnier .... Description of ... (a) Terrace deposition in Dharchula (India) and Darchula (Nepal) side; (b) series of three ...

  3. Earthquakes as Expressions of Tectonic Activity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sources, Types and Examples. Kusala Rajendran ... Science, Bangalore. Her research interests are mostly ... ogy, and some highlights on Indian earthquakes studies, and ..... jects, I did Applied Geophysics from the University of Roorkee.

  4. The seismicity of Ethiopia; active plate tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, P.

    1981-01-01

    "But I tell you, when you look at the way the pieces of the northeastern portion of the African continent seem to fit together, separated by a narrow gulf, you could almost make a believer [in continental drift] of anybody" Astronaut Harrison Schmidt, on the view from Apollo 17.

  5. Exploring Tectonic Activity on Vesta and Ceres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczkowski, D.; Scully, J. E. C.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2017-12-01

    Images of Vesta and Ceres taken by the Dawn spacecraft revealed large-scale linear structural features on both asteroids. We evaluate their morphology to determine 1) what processes caused them to form and 2) what implications this has for the history of Vesta and Ceres as planetary bodies. The Divalia Fossae are wide troughs bounded by steep scarps that encircle Vesta roughly aligned with the equator. Fault plane analysis suggests that their formation was triggered by the impact event that formed the Rheasilvia basin. The Saturnalia Fossae extend from Divalia to the northern polar region; fault plane analysis ties their formation to the Veneneia basin impact event. Also, it has been suggested that the elongate hill Brumalia Tholus could have been formed as a magmatic intrusion utilizing the subsurface Albalonga fracture as a conduit to the surface, intruding into and deforming the rock above it. Kilometer-scale linear structures cross much of the eastern hemisphere of Ceres. Many structures appear to be radial to the large craters Urvara and Yalode, and likely formed due to impact processes. However, the Samhain Catenae do not have any obvious relationship to a crater and the lack of raised rims makes it unlikely that these are secondary impacts; they are also crosscut by linear features radial to Urvara and Yalode, indicating they are not fractures formed during those impact events. Instead, the morphology of these structures more closely resembles that of pit crater chains (buried normal faults), and show en echelon orientation and S-shaped linkages. Polygonal craters, which form where there is pervasive subsurface fracturing, are widespread on Ceres, and those polygonal craters proximal to the Samhain Catenae have straight crater rims aligned with the structures. Several craters on Ceres have fractured floors, similar to lunar floor-fractured craters (FFCs), which are theorized to form from floor uplift due to magmatic intrusion. Large (>50 km) Ceres FFCs can have both radial and concentric fractures at the crater center, and/or concentric fractures near the crater wall. Smaller craters have a v-shaped moat separating the wall scarp from the crater interior, but different interior morphologies. A depth vs. diameter analysis shows that the Ceres FFCs are unusually shallow, consistent with the magmatic intrusion models.

  6. Design activities toward the achievement of the conceptual phase of the EU-TBM sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallory, J., E-mail: Joelle.vallory@f4e.europa.eu [Fusion for Energy—F4E, Josep Pla 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Panayotov, D.; Zmitko, M.; Poitevin, Y. [Fusion for Energy—F4E, Josep Pla 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Plaza, F.J. Calvo; Sadaba, S.; Gil, A. [Idom, Avda. Monasterio de El Escorial, 4, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-11-01

    Europe is developing two reference tritium breeder blanket concepts that will be tested in ITER under the form of Test Blanket Modules (TBMs): the helium–cooled lithium–lead (HCLL) which uses the liquid Pb–16Li as both breeder and neutron multiplier and the helium–cooled pebble-bed (HCPB) with lithiated ceramic pebbles as breeder and beryllium pebbles as neutron multiplier. Both concepts are using the EUROFER reduced activation ferritic–martensitic steel as structural material and pressurized helium technology for heat extraction. In view of the conceptual design review, design activities of the TBM sets have been focused on specific areas. The convergence of TBMs design, developed in their pre-conceptual phase by different European Fusion laboratories, has been sought in order to optimize fabrication and maintenance in ITER port #16. The structural strength of the helium back manifold of both TBMs is now based on the HCLL stiffening rod concept proposed in 2010. Through iterations between the nuclear analyses and design, the radiation shield design reaches a good compromise between its shielding performances versus manufacturing. A shield-to-TBM attachment has been implemented which complies with constraints related to thermal expansion under operating conditions and mechanical strength to handle dynamic loads such as major disruptions and seismic event. A full set of thermomechanical, hydraulic and structural analysis of the TBM sets has been carried out. They cover the loads selected as design drivers in the conceptual phase along with exploration of operational domain in terms of helium cooling conditions versus RCC-MRx code criteria compliance. The analysis results show that thermal loads are the main design driver for most of TBM sub-components. Pressure loads are also a design driver for the TBM stiffening grids under in-TBM loss of coolant accident. From the analyses carried out for the shields, the most demanding scenario has been demonstrated to

  7. Developing an Active Play Resource for a Range of Australian Early Childhood Settings: Formative Findings and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riethmuller, Annaleise; McKeen, Kim; Okely, Anthony D.; Bell, Colin; de Silva Sanigorski, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Physical activity habits are established in early childhood. Increasing a child's fundamental movement skill confidence and competence may result in a trajectory of increased physical activity and a lower risk of becoming overweight. The evidence upon which the promotion of physical activity in early childhood settings is based is tenuous. This…

  8. Qualitative Evaluation of a Physical Activity Health Promotion Programme for People with Intellectual Disabilities in a Group Home Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon-Ibarra, A.; Driver, S.; Nery-Hurwit, M.; VanVolkenburg, H.

    2018-01-01

    Background: There is a lack of health promotion programming designed to change the physical activity environment of the group home setting. The Menu-Choice programme assists staff in creating physical activity goals alongside residents with intellectual disabilities and provides strategies to incorporate activity into the group home schedule. The…

  9. Child Goal Setting of Dietary and Physical Activity in a Serious Videogame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Monique; Baranowski, Janice; Thompson, Debbe; Buday, Richard; Abdelsamad, Dina; Baranowski, Tom

    2013-06-01

    To inform child obesity prevention programs, the current article identified what children thought were the most important goals, values, and perceived barriers related to healthy eating and physical activity (PA) within a serious videogame for health, "Escape from Diab" (Archimage Inc., Houston, TX). One hundred three children, 10-12 years of age, played "Escape from Diab." During game play the children were presented with a menu of goals, values, and barriers from which they selected the ones most important to them. The children's selections were transmitted to a central server and stored in a database. Frequencies were calculated and reported. The most important diet-related values and reasons for children were getting good grades and being healthy and fit. The most often reported barrier for fruit intake was that it does not fill you up, and for vegetable intake it was that availability at home was limited. Also, limited availability of bottled water at home was an often chosen barrier. PA-related important values and reasons were not missing school and having energy to do homework. Children preferred to limit sedentary activities for only 30 minutes rather than for 60 minutes. The most frequently mentioned barrier for reducing inactivity was "feeling too tired to do anything else." These findings provide important input for future obesity prevention videogames attempting to motivate children to set healthy diet and PA goals.

  10. Psychometric assessment of the patient activation measure short form (PAM-13) in rural settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Man; Carter, Marjorie; Hayden, Candace; Dzierzon, Rhonda; Morales, Jose; Snow, Laverne; Butler, Jorie; Bateman, Kim; Samore, Matthew

    2013-04-01

    The patient activation measure short form (PAM-13) assesses patients' self-reported health management skills, knowledge, confidence, and motivation. We used item response theory to evaluate the psychometric properties of the PAM-13 utilized in rural settings. A Rasch partial credit model analysis was conducted on the PAM-13 instrument using a sample of 812 rural patients recruited by providers and our research staff. Specially, we examined dimensionality, item fit, and quality of measures, category response curves, and item differential functioning. Convergent and divergent validities were also examined. The PAM-13 instrument has excellent convergent and divergent validities. It is fairly unidimensional, and all items fit the Rasch model well. It has relatively high person and item reliability indices. Majority of the items were free of item differential functioning. There were, however, some issues with ceiling effects. Additionally, there was a lack of responses for category one across all items. Patient activation measure short form (PAM-13) performs well in some areas, but not all. In general, more items need to be added to cover the upper end of the trait. The four response categories of PAM-13 should be collapsed into three.

  11. Tectonic controls of Holocene erosion in a glaciated orogen

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Byron A.; Ehlers, Todd A.

    2018-01-01

    Recent work has highlighted a strong, worldwide, glacial impact of orogen erosion rates over the last 2 Ma. While it may be assumed that glaciers increased erosion rates when active, the degree to which past glaciations influence Holocene erosion rates through the adjustment of topography is not known. In this study, we investigate the influence of long-term tectonic and post-glacial topographic controls on erosion in a glaciated orogen, the Olympic Mountains, USA. We present 14 new 10Be and ...

  12. Error Characterisation and Merging of Active and Passive Microwave Soil Moisture Data Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Wolfgang; Gruber, Alexander; de Jeu, Richard; Parinussa, Robert; Chung, Daniel; Dorigo, Wouter; Reimer, Christoph; Kidd, Richard

    2015-04-01

    As part of the Climate Change Initiative (CCI) programme of the European Space Agency (ESA) a data fusion system has been developed which is capable of ingesting surface soil moisture data derived from active and passive microwave sensors (ASCAT, AMSR-E, etc.) flown on different satellite platforms and merging them to create long and consistent time series of soil moisture suitable for use in climate change studies. The so-created soil moisture data records (latest version: ESA CCI SM v02.1 released on 5/12/2014) are freely available and can be obtained from http://www.esa-soilmoisture-cci.org/. As described by Wagner et al. (2012) the principle steps of the data fusion process are: 1) error characterisation, 2) matching to account for data set specific biases, and 3) merging. In this presentation we present the current data fusion process and discuss how new error characterisation methods, such as the increasingly popular triple collocation method as discussed for example by Zwieback et al. (2012) may be used to improve it. The main benefit of an improved error characterisation would be a more reliable identification of the best performing microwave soil moisture retrieval(s) for each grid point and each point in time. In case that two or more satellite data sets provides useful information, the estimated errors can be used to define the weights with which each satellite data set are merged, i.e. the lower its error the higher its weight. This is expected to bring a significant improvement over the current data fusion scheme which is not yet based on quantitative estimates of the retrieval errors but on a proxy measure, namely the vegetation optical depth (Dorigo et al., 2015): over areas with low vegetation passive soil moisture retrievals are used, while over areas with moderate vegetation density active retrievals are used. In transition areas, where both products correlate well, both products are being used in a synergistic way: on time steps where only one of

  13. Theory of denudation tectonics and practice in prospecting. Pt.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Hangshou

    1994-01-01

    The theory of denudation tectonics--earth science frontiers--upsurged in the 1980's of the century and a great mass fervor of its research has spread to the uranium geology. For the studying and applying the theory of denudation tectonics and on the invitation of the Editorial Department of 'Uranium Geology', this paper has been written and will be published in several issues with the following contents accordingly: (1) New progress in the research on denudation tectonics in China; (2) The evolution of denudation tectonics' concept and layer zoning of the Earth; (3) The fundamental implication of the denudation tectonics and relevant tectonic terminology; (4) Discussion on dynamics of the formation of denudation tectonics; (5) Definition and discrimination of denudation tectonics; (6) Research method of denudation tectonics; (7) Ore control theory of denudation tectonics and prospecting; (8) Outlook on the research of denudation tectonics

  14. A proterozoic tectonic model for northern Australia and its economic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossiter, A.G.; Ferguson, J.

    1980-01-01

    It is argued that at the end of Archaean time the Australian continent was confined to the area now occupied by the Yilgarn, Pilbara, Gawler, and Musgrave Blocks, and the southern part of the Arunta Block. During the Early Proterozoic, sedimentary and volcanic rocks were laid down in an extensive depositional zone trending roughly east-west along the northern margin of the Archaean continent. Copper and gold mineralization, commonly showing stratigraphic control, is widespread in this belt. Following deformation and metamorphism of the Early Proterozoic rocks, felsic and mafic igneous activity, and accumulation of platform sediments on the newly stabilized crust, a predominantly north-south depositional zone developed along the eastern margin of the continent during the Middle Proterozoic. Lead and zinc assume much more importance in the mineral deposits of this belt. It is postulated that the present positions of rocks of the Pine Creek and Georgetown regions are due to horizontal displacements of several hundred kilometres along major fault zones. Apparent rifting of these blocks away from palaeo-continental margins may be related to the occurrence of uraniferous granitic rocks and uranium mineralization within them via a mantle plume mechanism. Although current data are limited, tectonic environments suggested for Proterozoic mafic igneous rocks of northern Australia by their geochemistry are compatible with the geological settings of these rocks and with the tectonic model put forward. (author)

  15. Seismic Interpretation of the Nam Con Son Basin and its Implication for the Tectonic Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Quang Tuan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI:10.17014/ijog.3.2.127-137The Nam Con Son Basin covering an area of circa 110,000 km2 is characterized by complex tectonic settings of the basin which has not fully been understood. Multiple faults allowed favourable migration passageways for hydrocarbons to go in and out of traps. Despite a large amount of newly acquired seismic and well data there is no significant update on the tectonic evolution and history of the basin development. In this study, the vast amount of seismic and well data were integrated and reinterpreted to define the key structural events in the Nam Con Son Basin. The results show that the basin has undergone two extentional phases. The first N - S extensional phase terminated at around 30 M.a. forming E - W trending grabens which are complicated by multiple half grabens filled by Lower Oligocene sediments. These grabens were reactivated during the second NW - SE extension (Middle Miocene, that resulted from the progressive propagation of NE-SW listric fault from the middle part of the grabens to the margins, and the large scale building up of roll-over structure. Further to the SW, the faults of the second extentional phase turn to NNE-SSW and ultimately N - S in the SW edge of the basin. Most of the fault systems were inactive by Upper Miocene except for the N - S fault system which is still active until recent time.

  16. SECULAR CHANGES IN RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN PLATE-TECTONIC AND MANTLE-PLUME ENGENDERED PROCESSES DURING PRECAMBRIAN TIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Mints

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Paradoxically, the lists of “proxies” of both plate- and plume-related settings are devoid of even a mention of the high-grade metamorphic rocks (granulite, amphibolite and high-temperature eclogite facies. However, the granulite-gneiss belts and areas which contain these rocks, have a regional distribution in both the Precambrian and the Phanerozoic records. The origin and evolution of the granulite-gneiss belts correspond to the activity of plumes expressed in vigorous heating of the continental crust; intraplate magmatism; formation of rift depressions filled with sediments, juvenile lavas, and pyroclastic flow deposits; and metamorphism of lower and middle crustal complexes under conditions of granulite and high-temperature amphibolite facies that spreads over the fill of rift depressions also. Granulite-gneiss complexes of the East European Craton form one of the main components of the large oval intracontinental tectonic terranes of regional or continental rank. Inclusion of the granulite-gneiss complexes from Eastern Europe, North and South America, Africa, India, China and Australia in discussion of the problem indicated in the title to this paper, suggests consideration of a significant change in existing views on the relations between the plate- and plume-tectonic processes in geological history, as well as in supercontinent assembly and decay. The East European and North American cratons are fragments of the long-lived supercontinent Lauroscandia. After its appearance at ~2.8 Ga, the crust of this supercontinent evolved under the influence of the sequence of powerful mantle plumes (superplumes up to ~0.85 Ga. During this time Lauroscandia was subjected to rifting, partial breakup and the following reconstruction of the continent. The processes of plate-tectonic type (rifting with the transition to spreading and closing of the short-lived ocean with subduction within Lauroscandia were controlled by the superplumes. Revision of the

  17. Effect of a tailored physical activity intervention delivered in general practice settings: results of a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluijs, van E.M.F.; Poppel - Bruinvels, van M.N.M.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Paw, M.J.M. Chin A; Calfas, K.J.; Mechelen, van W.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the effectiveness of a minimal intervention physical activity strategy (physician-based assessment and counseling for exercise [PACE]) applied in general practice settings in the Netherlands. METHODS: Randomization took place at the general practice level. Participants were

  18. Effect of a tailored physical activity intervention delivered in general practice settings: results of a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sluijs, E.M.F.; van Poppel-Bruinvels, M.N.M.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.; Calfas, K.J.; van Mechelen, W.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the effectiveness of a minimal intervention physical activity strategy (physician-based assessment and counseling for exercise [PACE]) applied in general practice settings in the Netherlands. Methods. Randomization took place at the general practice level. Participants were

  19. Automated contour detection in cardiac MRI using active appearance models: the effect of the composition of the training set

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angelié, Emmanuelle; Oost, Elco R.; Hendriksen, Dennis; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P. F.; van der Geest, Rob J.; Reiber, Johan H. C.

    2007-01-01

    Definition of the optimal training set for the automated segmentation of short-axis left ventricular magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies in clinical practice based on active appearance model (AAM). We investigated the segmentation accuracy by varying the size and composition of the training set

  20. Groundwater fluoride enrichment in an active rift setting: Central Kenya Rift case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olaka, Lydia A., E-mail: lydiaolaka@gmail.com [Department of Geology, University of Nairobi, P.O Box 30197, Nairobi (Kenya); Wilke, Franziska D.H. [Geoforschungs Zentrum, Telegrafenberg, 14473 Potsdam (Germany); Olago, Daniel O.; Odada, Eric O. [Department of Geology, University of Nairobi, P.O Box 30197, Nairobi (Kenya); Mulch, Andreas [Senckenberg Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre, Senckenberganlage 25, 60325 Frankfurt (Germany); Institut für Geowissenschaften, Goethe Universität Frankfurt, Altenhöferallee 1, 60438 Frankfurt (Germany); Musolff, Andreas [UFZ-Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Hydrogeology, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2016-03-01

    Groundwater is used extensively in the Central Kenya Rift for domestic and agricultural demands. In these active rift settings groundwater can exhibit high fluoride levels. In order to address water security and reduce human exposure to high fluoride in drinking water, knowledge of the source and geochemical processes of enrichment are required. A study was therefore carried out within the Naivasha catchment (Kenya) to understand the genesis, enrichment and seasonal variations of fluoride in the groundwater. Rocks, rain, surface and groundwater sources were sampled for hydrogeochemical and isotopic investigations, the data was statistically and geospatially analyzed. Water sources have variable fluoride concentrations between 0.02–75 mg/L. 73% exceed the health limit (1.5 mg/L) in both dry and wet seasons. F{sup −} concentrations in rivers are lower (0.2–9.2 mg/L) than groundwater (0.09 to 43.6 mg/L) while saline lake waters have the highest concentrations (0.27–75 mg/L). The higher values are confined to elevations below 2000 masl. Oxygen (δ{sup 18}O) and hydrogen (δD) isotopic values range from − 6.2 to + 5.8‰ and − 31.3 to + 33.3‰, respectively, they are also highly variable in the rift floor where they attain maximum values. Fluoride base levels in the precursor vitreous volcanic rocks are higher (between 3750–6000 ppm) in minerals such as cordierite and muscovite while secondary minerals like illite and kaolinite have lower remnant fluoride (< 1000 ppm). Thus, geochemical F{sup −} enrichment in regional groundwater is mainly due to a) rock alteration, i.e. through long residence times and natural discharge and/or enhanced leakages of deep seated geothermal water reservoirs, b) secondary concentration fortification of natural reservoirs through evaporation, through reduced recharge and/or enhanced abstraction and c) through additional enrichment of fluoride after volcanic emissions. The findings are useful to help improve water management

  1. Oil prospection using the tectonic plate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pointu, Agnès

    2015-04-01

    Tectonic plate models are an intellectual setting to understand why oil deposits are so uncommon and unequally distributed and how models can be used in actual oil and gas prospection. In this case, we use the example of the Ghawar deposit (Saudi Arabia), one of the largest producing well in the world. In the first step, physical properties of rocks composing the oil accumulation are studied by laboratory experiments. Students estimate the porosity of limestone and clay by comparing their mass before and after water impregnation. Results are compared to microscopic observations. Thus, students come to the conclusion that oil accumulations are characterized by superposition of rocks with very different properties: a rich organic source rock (clays of the Hanifa formation), a porous reservoir rock to store the petroleum in (limestones of the Arab formation) and above an impermeable rock with very low porosity (evaporites of the Tithonien). In previous lessons, students have seen that organic matter is usually mineralized by bacteria and that this preservation requires particular conditions. The aim is to explain why biomass production has been so important during the deposit of the clays of the Hanifa formation. Tectonic plate models make it possible to estimate the location of the Arabian Peninsula during Jurassic times (age of Hanifa formation). In order to understand why the paleo-location of the Arabian Peninsula is important to preserve organic matter, students have different documents showing: - That primary production of biomass by phytoplankton is favored by climatic conditions, - That the position of continents determinate the ocean currents and the positions of upwelling zones and zones where organic matter will be able to be preserved, - That north of the peninsula there was a passive margin during Jurassic times. An actual seismic line is studied in order to highlight that this extensive area allowed thick sedimentary deposits to accumulate and that fast

  2. Mapping Tectonic Stress Using Earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, Richard; Townend, John; Vignaux, Tony

    2005-01-01

    An earthquakes occurs when the forces acting on a fault overcome its intrinsic strength and cause it to slip abruptly. Understanding more specifically why earthquakes occur at particular locations and times is complicated because in many cases we do not know what these forces actually are, or indeed what processes ultimately trigger slip. The goal of this study is to develop, test, and implement a Bayesian method of reliably determining tectonic stresses using the most abundant stress gauges available - earthquakes themselves.Existing algorithms produce reasonable estimates of the principal stress directions, but yield unreliable error bounds as a consequence of the generally weak constraint on stress imposed by any single earthquake, observational errors, and an unavoidable ambiguity between the fault normal and the slip vector.A statistical treatment of the problem can take into account observational errors, combine data from multiple earthquakes in a consistent manner, and provide realistic error bounds on the estimated principal stress directions.We have developed a realistic physical framework for modelling multiple earthquakes and show how the strong physical and geometrical constraints present in this problem allow inference to be made about the orientation of the principal axes of stress in the earth's crust

  3. The Tectonic Potentials of Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egholm Pedersen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary techniques for concrete casting in an architectural context are challenged by demands of increased individualization in our built environment, reductions in the use of resources and waste generation. In recent years, new production technologies and strategies that break with the indu......Contemporary techniques for concrete casting in an architectural context are challenged by demands of increased individualization in our built environment, reductions in the use of resources and waste generation. In recent years, new production technologies and strategies that break...... with the industrial paradigm of standardization, have been put forward. This development is carried forward by computers and digital fabrication, but has yet to find its way into the production of building components. With regards to concrete casting, however, existing research do offer advancement towards...... an increased customisation of casting moulds. The hypothesis of this research is that the techniques used in this research do not fully address the tectonic potentials of concrete which gives rise to the primary research question: Is it possible to enhance existing or develop new concrete casting techniques...

  4. Can the anti-inflammatory activities of β2-agonists be harnessed in the clinical setting?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theron AJ

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Annette J Theron,1,2 Helen C Steel,1 Gregory R Tintinger,1 Charles Feldman,3 Ronald Anderson1 1Medical Research Council Unit for Inflammation and Immunity, Department of Immunology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, 2Tshwane Academic Division of the National Health Laboratory Service, Pretoria, 3Division of Pulmonology, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand and Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital, Johannesburg, South Africa Abstract: Beta2-adrenoreceptor agonists (β2-agonists are primarily bronchodilators, targeting airway smooth muscle and providing critical symptomatic relief in conditions such as bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. These agents also possess broad-spectrum, secondary, anti-inflammatory properties. These are mediated largely, though not exclusively, via interactions with adenylyl cyclase-coupled β2-adrenoreceptors on a range of immune and inflammatory cells involved in the immunopathogenesis of acute and chronic inflammatory disorders of the airways. The clinical relevance of the anti-inflammatory actions of β2-agonists, although often effective in the experimental setting, remains contentious. The primary objectives of the current review are: firstly, to assess the mechanisms, both molecular and cell-associated, that may limit the anti-inflammatory efficacy of β2-agonists; secondly, to evaluate pharmacological strategies, several of which are recent and innovative, that may overcome these limitations. These are preceded by a consideration of the various types of β2-agonists, their clinical applications, and spectrum of anti-inflammatory activities, particularly those involving adenosine 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase-mediated clearance of cytosolic calcium, and altered gene expression in immune and inflammatory cells. Keywords: adenylyl cyclase, corticosteroids, cyclic AMP, muscarinic

  5. The importance of continent tectonic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro, C.D.R.

    1992-01-01

    Some aspects of tectonic study in the continents are presented, including the use of methods that measure the isotope radioactive disintegration of some elements presents in rocks and the mineral distribution in African and South American continents. (author)

  6. Towards a Tectonic Sustainable Building Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Danielsen, Claus

    and environmental problems? The objective of the project is to analyse and develop the tectonic practice based on case studies, in relation to: • Cultural anchoring and identity creation • Building culture and creative processes • Sustainability, lifecycle and resource management The research project is divided...... into a main project and various subprojects, respectively, two levels that mutually feed each other.The main project, which constitutes the general level, seeks to identify a coherent strategy towards a new tectonically sustainable building culture.The subprojects look at partial issues and go into specific......Can a tectonic building practice be strengthened through new creation processes, where resources are used more purposefully, deliberately and systematically? Which new measures are necessary if we are to develop a strong tectonic building practice with due consideration for increasing climate...

  7. Effects of a physical activity programme in the school setting on physical fitness in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre-Román, P A; Mora-López, D; García-Pinillos, F

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a 10-week aerobic games programme on physical fitness. One hundred eleven children, aged 3 to 6 years, participated in this study; 60 children were male (age: 4.28 ± 0.61 years old), and 51 were female (age 4.59 ± 0.49 years old). Participants were randomly assigned to an experimental group (EG; n = 56) and a control group (CG; n = 55). A fitness test battery previously validated for preschoolers was used. The children in the EG performed 3 weekly training sessions of physical activity in a classroom during a 10-week period. Every EG session lasted about 30 min. There were no significant differences in any variable in the pretest between groups. In the posttest, the EG achieved better results in horizontal jump and sprint. In relation to posttest-pretest differences, the EG showed a greater increase in horizontal jump, sprint, and endurance. An aerobic games programme in the school setting improved physical fitness in preschool children. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Tectonic and metallogenic model for northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfenov, Leonid M.; Nokleberg, Warren J.; Berzin, Nikolai A.; Badarch, Gombosuren; Dril, Sergy I.; Gerel, Ochir; Goryachev, Nikolai A.; Khanchuk, Alexander I.; Kuz'min, Mikhail I.; Prokopiev, Andrei V.; Ratkin, Vladimir V.; Rodionov, Sergey M.; Scotese, Christopher R.; Shpikerman, Vladimir I.; Timofeev, Vladimir F.; Tomurtogoo, Onongin; Yan, Hongquan; Nokleberg, Warren J.

    2011-01-01

    This document describes the digital files in this report that contains a tectonic and metallogenic model for Northeast Asia. The report also contains background materials. This tectonic and metallogenic model and other materials on this report are derived from (1) an extensive USGS Professional Paper, 1765, on the metallogenesis and tectonics of Northeast Asia that is available on the Internet at http://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/1765/; and (2) the Russian Far East parts of an extensive USGS Professional Paper, 1697, on the metallogenesis and tectonics of the Russian Far East, Alaska, and the Canadian Cordillera that is available on the Internet at http://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/pp1697/. The major purpose of the tectonic and metallogenic model is to provide, in movie format, a colorful summary of the complex geology, tectonics, and metallogenesis of the region. To accomplish this goal four steps were taken: (1) 13 time-stage diagrams, from the late Neoproterozoic (850 Ma) through the present (0 Ma), were adapted, generalized, and transformed into color static time-stage diagrams; (2) the 13 time-stage diagrams were placed in a computer morphing program to produce the model; (3) the model was examined and each diagram was successively adapted to preceding and subsequent diagrams to match the size and surface expression of major geologic units; and (4) the final version of the model was produced in successive iterations of steps 2 and 3. The tectonic and metallogenic model and associated materials in this report are derived from a project on the major mineral deposits, metallogenesis, and tectonics of the Northeast Asia and from a preceding project on the metallogenesis and tectonics of the Russian Far East, Alaska, and the Canadian Cordillera. Both projects provide critical information on bedrock geology and geophysics, tectonics, major metalliferous mineral resources, metallogenic patterns, and crustal origin and evolution of mineralizing systems for this region. The major

  9. How the continents deform: The evidence from tectonic geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Wayne R.

    2009-01-01

    Space geodesy now provides quantitative maps of the surface velocity field within tectonically active regions, supplying constraints on the spatial distribution of deformation, the forces that drive it, and the brittle and ductile properties of continental lithosphere. Deformation is usefully described as relative motions among elastic blocks and is block-like because major faults are weaker than adjacent intact crust. Despite similarities, continental block kinematics differs from global plate tectonics: blocks are much smaller, typically ∼100–1000 km in size; departures from block rigidity are sometimes measurable; and blocks evolve over ∼1–10 Ma timescales, particularly near their often geometrically irregular boundaries. Quantitatively relating deformation to the forces that drive it requires simplifying assumptions about the strength distribution in the lithosphere. If brittle/elastic crust is strongest, interactions among blocks control the deformation. If ductile lithosphere is the stronger, its flow properties determine the surface deformation, and a continuum approach is preferable.

  10. Power and color Doppler ultrasound settings for inflammatory flow: impact on scoring of disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torp-Pedersen, Søren; Christensen, Robin; Szkudlarek, Marcin; Ellegaard, Karen; D'Agostino, Maria Antonietta; Iagnocco, Annamaria; Naredo, Esperanza; Balint, Peter; Wakefield, Richard J; Torp-Pedersen, Arendse; Terslev, Lene

    2015-02-01

    To determine how settings for power and color Doppler ultrasound sensitivity vary on different high- and intermediate-range ultrasound machines and to evaluate the impact of these changes on Doppler scoring of inflamed joints. Six different types of ultrasound machines were used. On each machine, the factory setting for superficial musculoskeletal scanning was used unchanged for both color and power Doppler modalities. The settings were then adjusted for increased Doppler sensitivity, and these settings were designated study settings. Eleven patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with wrist involvement were scanned on the 6 machines, each with 4 settings, generating 264 Doppler images for scoring and color quantification. Doppler sensitivity was measured with a quantitative assessment of Doppler activity: color fraction. Higher color fraction indicated higher sensitivity. Power Doppler was more sensitive on half of the machines, whereas color Doppler was more sensitive on the other half, using both factory settings and study settings. There was an average increase in Doppler sensitivity, despite modality, of 78% when study settings were applied. Over the 6 machines, 2 Doppler modalities, and 2 settings, the grades for each of 7 of the patients varied between 0 and 3, while the grades for each of the other 4 patients varied between 0 and 2. The effect of using different machines, Doppler modalities, and settings has a considerable influence on the quantification of inflammation by ultrasound in RA patients, and this must be taken into account in multicenter studies. Copyright © 2015 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  11. Two possibilities for New Siberian Islands terrane tectonic history during the Early Paleozoic based on paleomagnetic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metelkin, Dmitry V.; Chernova, Anna I.; Vernikovsky, Valery A.; Matushkin, Nikolay Yu.

    2017-04-01

    The New Siberian Islands (NSI), located in the East Siberian Sea in the junction region of various structural elements, are a key target for deciphering the tectonic evolution of the Eastern Arctic. In recent years, we went on several expeditions and gathered an extensive geological material for this territory. Among other things, we could prove that the basement of the De Long and Anjou archipelagos structures is Precambrian and the overlying Paleozoic sections formed within the same terrane. The form of the boundaries of the NSI terrane are actively debated and are probably continued from the Lyakhovsky islands in the south-west to the southern parts of the submerged Mendeleev Ridge, for which there is increasing evidence of continental crust. Today there are several models that interpret the Paleozoic-Mesozoic tectonic history and structural affiliation of the NSI terrane. Some propose that the Paleozoic sedimentary section formed in a passive margin setting of the Siberian paleocontinent. Others compare its history with marginal basins of the Baltica and Laurentia continents or consider the NSI terrane as an element of the Chukotka-Alaska microplate. These models are mainly based on results of paleobiogeographical and lithological-facies analyses, including explanations of probable sources for detrital zircons. Our paleomagnetic research on sedimentary, volcanogenic-sedimentary and igneous rocks of the Anjou (Kotelny and Bel'kovsky islands) and De Long (Bennett, Jeannette and Henrietta islands) archipelagos let us calculate an apparent polar wander path for the early Paleozoic interval of geological history, which allows us to conclude that the NSI terrane could not have been a part of the continental plates listed above, but rather had active tectonic boundaries with them. Our paleomagnetic data indicate that the NSI terrane drifted slowly and steadily in the tropical and subtropical regions no higher than 40 degrees. However, the main uncertainty for the

  12. Assessment of the geodynamical setting around the main active faults at Aswan area, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Radwan; Hosny, Ahmed; Kotb, Ahmed; Khalil, Ahmed; Azza, Abed; Rayan, Ali

    2013-04-01

    The proper evaluation of crustal deformations in the Aswan region especially around the main active faults is crucial due to the existence of one major artificial structure: the Aswan High Dam. This construction created one of the major artificial lakes: Lake Nasser. The Aswan area is considered as an active seismic area in Egypt since many recent and historical felted earthquakes occurred such as the impressive earthquake occurred on November 14, 1981 at Kalabsha fault with a local magnitude ML=5.7. Lately, on 26 December 2011, a moderate earthquake with a local magnitude Ml=4.1 occurred at Kalabsha area too. The main target of this study is to evaluate the active geological structures that can potentially affect the Aswan High Dam and that are being monitored in detail. For implementing this objective, two different geophysical tools (magnetic, seismic) in addition to the Global Positioning System (GPS) have been utilized. Detailed land magnetic survey was carried out for the total component of geomagnetic field using two proton magnetometers. The obtained magnetic results reveal that there are three major faults parallel {F1 (Kalabsha), F2 (Seiyal) and F3} affecting the area. The most dominant magnetic trend strikes those faults in the WNW-ESE direction. The seismicity and fault plain solutions of the 26 December 2011 earthquake and its two aftershocks have been investigated. The source mechanisms of those events delineate two nodal plains. The trending ENE-WSW to E-W is consistent with the direction of Kalabsha fault and its extension towards east for the events located over it. The trending NNW-SSE to N-S is consistent with the N-S fault trending. The movement along the ENE-WSW plain is right lateral, but it is left lateral along the NNW-SSE plain. Based on the estimated relative motions using GPS, dextral strike-slip motion at the Kalabsha and Seiyal fault systems is clearly identified by changing in the velocity gradient between south and north stations

  13. Spreading continents kick-started plate tectonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Patrice F; Coltice, Nicolas; Flament, Nicolas

    2014-09-18

    Stresses acting on cold, thick and negatively buoyant oceanic lithosphere are thought to be crucial to the initiation of subduction and the operation of plate tectonics, which characterizes the present-day geodynamics of the Earth. Because the Earth's interior was hotter in the Archaean eon, the oceanic crust may have been thicker, thereby making the oceanic lithosphere more buoyant than at present, and whether subduction and plate tectonics occurred during this time is ambiguous, both in the geological record and in geodynamic models. Here we show that because the oceanic crust was thick and buoyant, early continents may have produced intra-lithospheric gravitational stresses large enough to drive their gravitational spreading, to initiate subduction at their margins and to trigger episodes of subduction. Our model predicts the co-occurrence of deep to progressively shallower mafic volcanics and arc magmatism within continents in a self-consistent geodynamic framework, explaining the enigmatic multimodal volcanism and tectonic record of Archaean cratons. Moreover, our model predicts a petrological stratification and tectonic structure of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle, two predictions that are consistent with xenolith and seismic studies, respectively, and consistent with the existence of a mid-lithospheric seismic discontinuity. The slow gravitational collapse of early continents could have kick-started transient episodes of plate tectonics until, as the Earth's interior cooled and oceanic lithosphere became heavier, plate tectonics became self-sustaining.

  14. The revised tectonic history of Tharsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouley, Sylvain; Baratoux, David; Paulien, Nicolas; Missenard, Yves; Saint-Bézar, Bertrand

    2018-04-01

    Constraining the timing of the emplacement of the volcano-tectonic province of Tharsis is critical to understanding the evolution of mantle, surface environment and climate of Mars. The growth of Tharsis had exerted stresses on the lithosphere, which were responsible for tectonic deformation, previously mapped as radial or concentric faults. Insights into the emplacement history of Tharsis may be gained from an analysis of the characteristics and ages of these tectonic features. The number, total length, linear density of extensional or compressional faults in the Tharsis region and deformation rates are reported for each of the following 6 stages: Early and Middle Noachian (stage 1); Late Noachian (stage 2); Early Hesperian (stage 3); Late Hesperian (stage 4), Early Amazonian (stage 5) and Middle Amazonian to Late Amazonian (stage 6). 8571 Tharsis-related tectonic features (radial or concentric to the center of Tharsis) were assigned to one of these periods of time based on their relationship with stratigraphic units defined in the most recent geological map. Intense faulting at Tempe Terra, Claritas and Coracis Fossae and Thaumasia Planum confirms that tectonic deformation started during the Noachian. However, we report a peak in both compressive and extensive rates of deformation during the Early Hesperian whereas the quantitative indicators for compressional and extensional tectonics vary within less than one order of magnitude from the Late Noachian to the Late Hesperian. These observations indicate a protracted growth of Tharsis during the first quarter of Mars evolution and declining from 3 Gyrs ago.

  15. Comparing of goal setting strategy with group education method to increase physical activity level: A randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiryaee, Nasrin; Siadat, Zahra Dana; Zamani, Ahmadreza; Taleban, Roya

    2015-10-01

    Designing an intervention to increase physical activity is important to be based on the health care settings resources and be acceptable by the subject group. This study was designed to assess and compare the effect of the goal setting strategy with a group education method on increasing the physical activity of mothers of children aged 1 to 5. Mothers who had at least one child of 1-5 years were randomized into two groups. The effect of 1) goal-setting strategy and 2) group education method on increasing physical activity was assessed and compared 1 month and 3 months after the intervention. Also, the weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist and hip circumference, and well-being were compared between the two groups before and after the intervention. Physical activity level increased significantly after the intervention in the goal-setting group and it was significantly different between the two groups after intervention (P goal-setting group after the intervention. In the group education method, only the well-being score improved significantly (P goal-setting strategy to boost physical activity, improving the state of well-being and decreasing BMI, waist, and hip circumference.

  16. Comparing of goal setting strategy with group education method to increase physical activity level: A randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Jiryaee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Designing an intervention to increase physical activity is important to be based on the health care settings resources and be acceptable by the subject group. This study was designed to assess and compare the effect of the goal setting strategy with a group education method on increasing the physical activity of mothers of children aged 1 to 5. Materials and Methods: Mothers who had at least one child of 1-5 years were randomized into two groups. The effect of 1 goal-setting strategy and 2 group education method on increasing physical activity was assessed and compared 1 month and 3 months after the intervention. Also, the weight, height, body mass index (BMI, waist and hip circumference, and well-being were compared between the two groups before and after the intervention. Results: Physical activity level increased significantly after the intervention in the goal-setting group and it was significantly different between the two groups after intervention (P < 0.05. BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference, and well-being score were significantly different in the goal-setting group after the intervention. In the group education method, only the well-being score improved significantly (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Our study presented the effects of using the goal-setting strategy to boost physical activity, improving the state of well-being and decreasing BMI, waist, and hip circumference.

  17. Active Aging: Exploration into Self-Ratings of "Being Active," Out-of-Home Physical Activity, and Participation among Older Australian Adults Living in Four Different Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aird, Rosemary L; Buys, Laurie

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether self-ratings of "being active" among older people living in four different settings (major city high and lower density suburbs, a regional city, and a rural area) were associated with out-of-home participation and outdoor physical activity. A mixed-methods approach (survey, travel diary, and GPS tracking over a one-week period) was used to gather data from 48 individuals aged over 55 years. Self-ratings of "being active" were found to be positively correlated with the number of days older people spent time away from home but unrelated to time traveled by active means (walking and biking). No significant differences in active travel were found between the four study locations, despite differences in their respective built environments. The findings suggest that additional strategies to the creation of "age-friendly" environments are needed if older people are to increase their levels of outdoor physical activity. "Active aging" promotion campaigns may need to explicitly identify the benefits of walking outdoors to ambulatory older people as a means of maintaining their overall health, functional ability, and participation within society in the long-term and also encourage the development of community-based programs in order to facilitate regular walking for this group.

  18. Quaternary Tectonic and Climatic Processes shaping the Central Andean hyperarid forearc (southern Peru)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audin, Laurence; Benavente, Carlos; Zerathe, Swann; Saillard, Marianne; Hall, Sarah R.; Farber, Daniel L.

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the forearc structure and processes related to Quaternary evolution and uplift of the Western Andean Cordillera remains an outstanding scientific issue. Models of Andean Plateau evolution based on Tertiary volcanic stratigraphy since 5Ma suggest that the deformation was focused along the eastern margin of the plateau and that minimal uplift occurred along the Pacific margin. On the contrary, new tectonic data and Quaternary surface 10Be dating highlight the presence of recently active deformation, incision and alluvial processes within the upper Andean forearc together with a regional uplift of the coastal zone. Additionally, the high obliquity observed in the northern Arica Bend region makes it an ideal target to discuss whether partitioning of the oblique convergence is accommodated by the neotectonic features that dissect the Quaternary forearc. Our goals are both to decipher the Quaternary tectonic and climatic processes shaping the hyperarid forearc along strike and across strike. Finally, we aim to quantify the respective influence of these factors in the overall uplift of the Western Andes. Indeed, sequences of pediment surfaces, landslide products, paleolake deposits and marine terraces found along the oblique Peruvian margin are a unique set of datable markers that can be used to quantify the rates of Quaternary processes. In this study, we focus on the southern Peru hyperarid Atacama area where regional surfaces and tectonic markers (scarps, folds, temporary streams and paleolake levels offsets…) are well preserved for the Quaternary timescale. Numerous landsliding events align on the major fault segments and reflect Plio-Pleistocene climatic and tectonic activity together with filled and strath terraces. As the present day sea-level is one of the highest levels recorded for Quaternary time span, any emerged marine terrace is preserved by tectonic coastal uplift. In particular, the geomorphic and chronologic correlation between marine and

  19. CT liver volumetry using geodesic active contour segmentation with a level-set algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kenji; Epstein, Mark L.; Kohlbrenner, Ryan; Obajuluwa, Ademola; Xu, Jianwu; Hori, Masatoshi; Baron, Richard

    2010-03-01

    Automatic liver segmentation on CT images is challenging because the liver often abuts other organs of a similar density. Our purpose was to develop an accurate automated liver segmentation scheme for measuring liver volumes. We developed an automated volumetry scheme for the liver in CT based on a 5 step schema. First, an anisotropic smoothing filter was applied to portal-venous phase CT images to remove noise while preserving the liver structure, followed by an edge enhancer to enhance the liver boundary. By using the boundary-enhanced image as a speed function, a fastmarching algorithm generated an initial surface that roughly estimated the liver shape. A geodesic-active-contour segmentation algorithm coupled with level-set contour-evolution refined the initial surface so as to more precisely fit the liver boundary. The liver volume was calculated based on the refined liver surface. Hepatic CT scans of eighteen prospective liver donors were obtained under a liver transplant protocol with a multi-detector CT system. Automated liver volumes obtained were compared with those manually traced by a radiologist, used as "gold standard." The mean liver volume obtained with our scheme was 1,520 cc, whereas the mean manual volume was 1,486 cc, with the mean absolute difference of 104 cc (7.0%). CT liver volumetrics based on an automated scheme agreed excellently with "goldstandard" manual volumetrics (intra-class correlation coefficient was 0.95) with no statistically significant difference (p(F<=f)=0.32), and required substantially less completion time. Our automated scheme provides an efficient and accurate way of measuring liver volumes.

  20. Miocene magmatism and tectonics within the Peri-Alboran orogen (western Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Azzouzi, M.; Bellon, H.; Coutelle, A.; Réhault, J.-P.

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this paper concerns Miocene igneous activity in the Alboran Sea and Peri-Alboran area (northern Morocco, western Algeria and Betic Cordilleras in Spain), considering its age and its location with regard to major tectonics structures. We have compiled previous K-Ar isotopic ages of lavas and plutonic boulders and intrusives with an error of ±1σ and completed this set by a new K-Ar isotopic age for andesitic tuffites from Alboran Island. Geochemistry of most of these samples has been considered after previous analyses completed with new data for Spain magmatism. These two sets of data allow us to place the magmatic activity within the regional stratigraphy and tectonics and their chronological framework of the three major tectonic phases of the Maghrebian orogen, at 17 Ma (Burdigalian), 15 Ma (Langhian) and 9 Ma (Tortonian). Petro-geochemical characteristics are compared through time and geographical locations. A major goal of this coupled approach is to help the elaboration of possible geodynamical processes. As an application, we present the case study of the Dellys, Djinet and Thenia region (east of Algiers) where the successive magmatic events between 19.4 ± 1 and 11.6 ± 0.5 Ma are closely related to the local tectonics and sedimentation. The Peri-Alboran igneous activity is placed in a multidisciplinary framework. Timing of activity is defined according to the ages of the neighbouring sedimentary units and the K-Ar ages of igneous rocks. In Spain, the Cabo de Gata-Carboneras magmatic province displays late Oligocene and early Miocene leucogranitic dikes, dated from 24.8 ± 1.3 to 18.1 ± 1.2 Ma; three following andesitic to rhyolitic events took place around 15.1 ± 0.8 to 14.0 ± 0.7 Ma, 11.8 ± 0.6 to 9.4 ± 0.4 Ma, 8.8 ± 0.4 to 7.9 ± 0.4 Ma; this last event displays also granitic rocks. Lamproitic magmas dated between 8.4 ± 0.4 and 6.76 ± 0.04 Ma were emplaced after the Tortonian phase. In Morocco, after the complex building of the Ras Tarf

  1. Surface-wave potential for triggering tectonic (nonvolcanic) tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, D.P.

    2010-01-01

    Source processes commonly posed to explain instances of remote dynamic triggering of tectonic (nonvolcanic) tremor by surface waves include frictional failure and various modes of fluid activation. The relative potential for Love- and Rayleigh-wave dynamic stresses to trigger tectonic tremor through failure on critically stressed thrust and vertical strike-slip faults under the Coulomb-Griffith failure criteria as a function of incidence angle is anticorrelated over the 15- to 30-km-depth range that hosts tectonic tremor. Love-wave potential is high for strike-parallel incidence on low-angle reverse faults and null for strike-normal incidence; the opposite holds for Rayleigh waves. Love-wave potential is high for both strike-parallel and strike-normal incidence on vertical, strike-slip faults and minimal for ~45?? incidence angles. The opposite holds for Rayleigh waves. This pattern is consistent with documented instances of tremor triggered by Love waves incident on the Cascadia mega-thrust and the San Andreas fault (SAF) in central California resulting from shear failure on weak faults (apparent friction, ????? 0.2). However, documented instances of tremor triggered by surface waves with strike-parallel incidence along the Nankai megathrust beneath Shikoku, Japan, is associated primarily with Rayleigh waves. This is consistent with the tremor bursts resulting from mixed-mode failure (crack opening and shear failure) facilitated by near-lithostatic ambient pore pressure, low differential stress, with a moderate friction coefficient (?? ~ 0.6) on the Nankai subduction interface. Rayleigh-wave dilatational stress is relatively weak at tectonic tremor source depths and seems unlikely to contribute significantly to the triggering process, except perhaps for an indirect role on the SAF in sustaining tremor into the Rayleigh-wave coda that was initially triggered by Love waves.

  2. Tectonic implications of Mesozoic magmatism to initiation of Cenozoic basin development within the passive South China Sea margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Hue Anh; Chan, Yu Lu; Yeh, Meng Wan; Lee, Tung Yi

    2018-04-01

    The South China Sea (SCS) is one of the classical example of a non-volcanic passive margin situated within three tectonic plates of the Eurasian, Indo-Australian and Philippine Sea plate. The development of SCS resulted from interaction of various types of plate boundaries, and complex tectonic assemblage of micro blocks and accretionary prisms. Numerous models were proposed for the formation of SCS, yet none can fully satisfy different aspects of tectonic forces. Temporal and geographical reconstruction of Cretaceous and Cenozoic magmatism with the isochrones of major basins was conducted. Our reconstruction indicated the SE margin of Asia had gone through two crustal thinning events. The sites for rifting development are controlled by localized thermal weakening of magmatism. NW-SE extension setting during Late Cretaceous revealed by magmatism distribution and sedimentary basins allow us to allocate the retreated subduction of Pacific plate to the cause of first crustal thinning event. A magmatic gap between 75 and 65 Ma prior to the initiation of first basin rifting suggested a significant modification of geodynamic setting occurred. The Tainan basin, Pearl River Mouth basin, and Liyue basins started to develop since 65 Ma where the youngest Late Cretaceous magmatism concentrated. Sporadic bimodal volcanism between 65 and 40 Ma indicates further continental extension prior to the opening of SCS. The E-W extension of Malay basin and West Natuna began since late Eocene followed by N-S rifting of SCS as Neotethys subducted. The SCS ridge developed between Pearl River Mouth basin and Liyue basin where 40 Ma volcanic activities concentrated. The interaction of two continental stretching events by Pacific followed by Neotethys subduction with localized magmatic thermal weakening is the cause for the non-volcanic nature of SCS.

  3. On the distinction of tectonic and nontectonic faulting in palaeoseismological research: a case study from the southern Marmara region of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özaksoy, Volkan

    2017-12-01

    This study reports on spectacular deformation structures, including arrays of striated thrusts, discovered by excavation work in Holocene deposits in vicinity of a major neotectonic strike-slip fault in one of the tectonically most active regions of Turkey. The deformation structures were initially considered an evidence of sub-recent tectonic activity, but their detailed multidisciplinary study surprisingly revealed that the deformation of the clay-rich soil and its strongly weathered Jurassic substrate was of nontectonic origin, caused by argilliturbation. This phenomenon of vertisol self-deformation is well-known to pedologists, but may easily be mistaken for tectonic deformation by geologists less familiar with pedogenic processes. The possibility of argilliturbation thus needs to be taken into consideration in palaeoseismological field research wherever the deformed substrate consists of clay-rich muddy deposits. The paper reviews a range of specific diagnostic features that can serve as field criteria for the recognition of nontectonic deformation structures induced by argilliturbation in mud-dominated geological settings.

  4. Data-Driven Derivation of an "Informer Compound Set" for Improved Selection of Active Compounds in High-Throughput Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paricharak, Shardul; IJzerman, Adriaan P; Jenkins, Jeremy L; Bender, Andreas; Nigsch, Florian

    2016-09-26

    Despite the usefulness of high-throughput screening (HTS) in drug discovery, for some systems, low assay throughput or high screening cost can prohibit the screening of large numbers of compounds. In such cases, iterative cycles of screening involving active learning (AL) are employed, creating the need for smaller "informer sets" that can be routinely screened to build predictive models for selecting compounds from the screening collection for follow-up screens. Here, we present a data-driven derivation of an informer compound set with improved predictivity of active compounds in HTS, and we validate its benefit over randomly selected training sets on 46 PubChem assays comprising at least 300,000 compounds and covering a wide range of assay biology. The informer compound set showed improvement in BEDROC(α = 100), PRAUC, and ROCAUC values averaged over all assays of 0.024, 0.014, and 0.016, respectively, compared to randomly selected training sets, all with paired t-test p-values agnostic fashion. This approach led to a consistent improvement in hit rates in follow-up screens without compromising scaffold retrieval. The informer set is adjustable in size depending on the number of compounds one intends to screen, as performance gains are realized for sets with more than 3,000 compounds, and this set is therefore applicable to a variety of situations. Finally, our results indicate that random sampling may not adequately cover descriptor space, drawing attention to the importance of the composition of the training set for predicting actives.

  5. Accuracy, reproducibility, and uncertainty analysis of thyroid-probe-based activity measurements for determination of dose calibrator settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquinas, Pedro L; Tanguay, Jesse; Gonzalez, Marjorie; Vuckovic, Milan; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Cristina; Häfeli, Urs O; Celler, Anna

    2016-12-01

    In the nuclear medicine department, the activity of radiopharmaceuticals is measured using dose calibrators (DCs) prior to patient injection. The DC consists of an ionization chamber that measures current generated by ionizing radiation (emitted from the radiotracer). In order to obtain an activity reading, the current is converted into units of activity by applying an appropriate calibration factor (also referred to as DC dial setting). Accurate determination of DC dial settings is crucial to ensure that patients receive the appropriate dose in diagnostic scans or radionuclide therapies. The goals of this study were (1) to describe a practical method to experimentally determine dose calibrator settings using a thyroid-probe (TP) and (2) to investigate the accuracy, reproducibility, and uncertainties of the method. As an illustration, the TP method was applied to determine 188 Re dial settings for two dose calibrator models: Atomlab 100plus and Capintec CRC-55tR. Using the TP to determine dose calibrator settings involved three measurements. First, the energy-dependent efficiency of the TP was determined from energy spectra measurements of two calibration sources ( 152 Eu and 22 Na). Second, the gamma emissions from the investigated isotope ( 188 Re) were measured using the TP and its activity was determined using γ-ray spectroscopy methods. Ambient background, scatter, and source-geometry corrections were applied during the efficiency and activity determination steps. Third, the TP-based 188 Re activity was used to determine the dose calibrator settings following the calibration curve method [B. E. Zimmerman et al., J. Nucl. Med. 40, 1508-1516 (1999)]. The interobserver reproducibility of TP measurements was determined by the coefficient of variation (COV) and uncertainties associated to each step of the measuring process were estimated. The accuracy of activity measurements using the proposed method was evaluated by comparing the TP activity estimates of 99m Tc

  6. Regional stratigraphy and its dependency on tectonic movements (case study: Upper Cretaceous and Paleogene stages in Western Siberia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podobina, V

    2015-01-01

    Multiscale and divergent tectonic movements have been identified in Western Siberia of which first - order movements caused transgressions and regressions, as well as the partial formation of sediments. As a result of tectonic movement direction turn, no transgression was observed in the cross-sections of Campanian and Danian central section and in the Priabonian top section. During second-order tectonic movements and undirectional transgression insignificant bed thicknesses and channels were formed. Such movements could have included different tectonic activities within the western and eastern parts of the region limited by the Koltogorsk-Urengoy Rift. Third-order tectonic movement of moderate amplitude promoted either extension, contraction or even depth variations of the marine basin itself

  7. Tectonic map of the Circum-Pacific region, Pacific basin sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheibner, E.; Moore, G.W.; Drummond, K.J.; Dalziel, Corvalan Q.J.; Moritani, T.; Teraoka, Y.; Sato, T.; Craddock, C.

    2013-01-01

    Circum-Pacific Map Project: The Circum-Pacific Map Project was a cooperative international effort designed to show the relationship of known energy and mineral resources to the major geologic features of the Pacific basin and surrounding continental areas. Available geologic, mineral, and energy-resource data are being complemented by new, project-developed data sets such as magnetic lineations, seafloor mineral deposits, and seafloor sediment. Earth scientists representing some 180 organizations from more than 40 Pacific-region countries are involved in this work. Six overlapping equal-area regional maps at a scale of 1:10,000,000 form the cartographic base for the project: the four Circum-Pacific Quadrants (Northwest, Southwest, Southeast, and Northeast), and the Antarctic and Arctic Sheets. There is also a Pacific Basin Sheet at a scale of 1:17,000,000. The Base Map Series and the Geographic Series (published from 1977 to 1990), the Plate-Tectonic Series (published in 1981 and 1982), the Geodynamic Series (published in 1984 and 1985), and the Geologic Series (published from 1984 to 1989) all include six map sheets. Other thematic map series in preparation include Mineral-Resources, Energy-Resources and Tectonic Maps. Altogether, more than 50 map sheets are planned. The maps were prepared cooperatively by the Circum-Pacific Council for Energy and Mineral Resources and the U.S. Geological Survey and are available from the Branch of Distribution, U. S. Geological Survey, Box 25286, Federal Center, Denver, Colorado 80225, U.S.A. The Circum-Pacific Map Project is organized under six panels of geoscientists representing national earth-science organizations, universities, and natural-resource companies. The six panels correspond to the basic map areas. Current panel chairmen are Tomoyuki Moritani (Northwest Quadrant), R. Wally Johnson (Southwest Quadrant), Ian W.D. Dalziel (Antarctic Region), vacant. (Southeast Quadrant), Kenneth J. Drummond (Northeast Quadrant), and

  8. Peer assisted learning in the clinical setting: an activity systems analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett, Deirdre; O?Flynn, Siun; Kelly, Martina

    2014-01-01

    Peer assisted learning (PAL) is a common feature of medical education. Understanding of PAL has been based on processes and outcomes in controlled settings, such as clinical skills labs. PAL in the clinical setting, a complex learning environment, requires fresh evaluation. Socio-cultural theory is proposed as a means to understand educational interventions in ways that are practical and meaningful. We describe the evaluation of a PAL intervention, introduced to support students? transition i...

  9. Social influence and adolescent health-related physical activity in structured and unstructured settings: role of channel and type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spink, Kevin S; Wilson, Kathleen S; Ulvick, Jocelyn

    2012-08-01

    Social influence channels (e.g., parents) and types (e.g., compliance) have each been related to physical activity independently, but little is known about how these two categories of influence may operate in combination. This study examined the relationships between various combinations of social influence and physical activity among youth across structured and unstructured settings. Adolescents (N=304), classified as high or low active, reported the social influence combinations they received for being active. Participants identified three channels and three types of influence associated with being active. For structured activity, compliance with peers and significant others predicted membership in the high active group (values of psocial influence, when examining health-related physical activity.

  10. The relationship between tectonic-thermal evolution and sandstone-type uranium ore-formation in Ordos basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Honggang

    2005-01-01

    The comprehensive study of the volcanic activities, the geothermal field, the thermal flow field, the paleogeo-thermal activity and the tectonic evolution of the Ordos basin indicates that the tectonic-thermal evolution of the Ordos basin has offered the basis for the fluid-fluid and fluid-rock mutual reactions, and has created favourable conditions for the formation of organic mineral resources and sandstone-type uranium deposits. Especially, the tectonic-thermal event during middle-Late Jurassic to Cretaceous played an important role in providing uranium source material, and assisting the migration, the concentration and precipitation of uranium and uranium ore-formation. (authors)

  11. Plate tectonics hiati as the cause of global glaciations: 2. The late Proterozoic 'Snowball Earth'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmaston, M. F.

    2003-04-01

    A fundamental reappraisal of the mechanisms that drive plate tectonics has yielded the remarkable conclusion that, for at least the past 130 Ma, the principal agent has not been ridge-push or slab-pull but a CW-directed torque (probably of electromagnetic origin at the CMB) reaching the deep (>600 km, e.g.[1]) tectospheric keel of the Antarctica craton. Major changes in spreading direction marked both ends of the 122--85 Ma Cretaceous Superchron and started by forming the Ontong Java Plateau. Action of MORs as gearlike linkages has driven Africa and India CCW since Gondwana breakup and continues to drive the Pacific plate CCW. In the Arctic there is now no cratonic keel to pick up any corresponding polar torque, so northern hemisphere plate tectonics is far less active. The thesis of this contribution is that in the Neoproterozoic the lack of cratons at high latitudes would have deprived plate tectonics of this motivation, causing MORs to die (see below) and a major fall in sea-level, leading to global glaciation as outlined in Part 1 for the Huronian events. Like that seen during that first hiatus, dyke-swarm volcanism could have arisen from thermal shrinkage of the global lithosphere, providing CO2 and ash-covering that interrrupted glacial episodes. In oceanic settings this volcanism would have lowered pH and supplied Fe2+ for shallow bio-oxygenic action to deposit as BIF. My multifacet studies of the subduction process convince me that the rapid development of "flat-slab" interface profiles involves the physical removal of hanging-wall material in front of the downbend by basal subduction tectonic erosion (STE). Historically this, and its inferred ubiquity in the Archaean as the precursor to PSM (Part 1), suggests that the required subducting-plate buoyancy is thermal. Accordingly, a redesign [2] of the MOR process has incorporated the heat-containing LVZ as an integral part of the plate and luckily provides a lot more ridge-push to ensure the subduction of

  12. Structural analysis and Miocene-to-Present tectonic evolution of a lithospheric-scale, transcurrent lineament: The Sciacca Fault (Sicilian Channel, Central Mediterranean Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorik, Jakub; Toscani, Giovanni; Lodolo, Emanuele; Civile, Dario; Bonini, Lorenzo; Seno, Silvio

    2018-01-01

    Seismo-stratigraphic and structural analysis of a large number of multichannel seismic reflection profiles acquired in the northern part of the Sicilian Channel allowed a 3-D reconstruction of a regional NS-trending transfer zone which displays a transcurrent tectonic regime, and that is of broad relevance for its seismotectonic and geodynamic implications. It is constituted of two major transcurrent faults delimiting a 30-km-wide, mostly undeformed basin. The western fault (Capo Granitola) does not show clear evidence of present-day tectonic activity, and toward the south it is connected with the volcanic area of the Graham Bank. The eastern fault (Sciacca) is structurally more complex, showing active deformation at the sea-floor, particularly evident along the Nerita Bank. The Sciacca Fault is constituted of a master and splay faults compatible with a right-lateral kinematics. Sciacca Fault is superimposed on an inherited weakness zone (a Mesozoic carbonate ramp), which borders to the east a 2.5-km-thick Plio-Quaternary basin, and that was reactivated during the Pliocene. A set of scaled claybox analogue models was carried out in order to better understand the tectonic processes that led to the structural setting displayed by seismic data. Tectonic structures and uplift/subsidence patterns generated by the models are compatible with the 3-D model obtained from seismic reflection profiles. The best fit between the tectonic setting deriving from the interpretation of seismic profiles and the analogue models was obtained considering a right-lateral movement for the Sciacca Fault. Nevertheless, the stress field in the study area derived from GPS measurements does not support the present-day modelled right-lateral kinematics along the Sciacca Fault. Moreover, seismic events along this fault show focal mechanisms with a left-lateral component. We ascribe the slip change along the Sciacca Fault, from a right-lateral transcurrent regime to the present-day left

  13. Summary of the stretching tectonics research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Dagan

    1994-01-01

    The rise of stretching tectonics is established on the basis of recent structural geology theory, the establishment of metamorphic nucleus complex structural model on one hand plays an important promoting art to the development of stretching structure, on the other hand, it needs constant supplement and perfection in practice. Metamorphic nucleus complex is the carrier of comparatively deep geological information in vertical section of the crust and has wide distribution in the era of south China. Evidently, it can be taken as the 'key' to understanding the deep and studying the basement, Strengthening the study will play the important promoting role to the deep prospecting. The study of stretching tectonics is not only limited within the range of structure and metamorphism, but combine with the studies of sedimentation, magmatism, metamorphism and mineralization, thus form a new field of tectonic geology of self-developing system

  14. A study of tectonic activity in the Basin-Range Province and on the San Andreas Fault. No. 2: Lithospheric structure, seismicity, and contemporary deformation of the United States Cordillera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. B.

    1986-01-01

    The structural evolution of the U.S. Cordillera has been influenced by a variety of tectonic mechanisms including passive margin rifting and sedimentation; arc volcanism; accretion of exotic terranes; intraplate magmatism; and folding and faulting associated with compression and extension processes that have profoundly influenced the lithospheric structure. As a result the Cordilleran crust is laterally inhomogeneous across its 2000 km east-west breadth. It is thin along the West Coast where it has close oceanic affinities. The crust thickens eastward beneath the Sierra Nevada, then thins beneath the Basin-Range. Crustal thickening continues eastward beneath the Colorado Plateau, the Rocky Mountains, and the Great Plains. The total lithospheric thickness attains 65 km in the Basin-Range and increases eastward beneath the Colorado Plateau. The upper-crust, including the crystalline basement of the Cordillera, has P sub G velocities of 6 km/s in the Basin-Range and Rio Grande Rift. Lower P sub G velocities of 5.4 to 5.7 km/s are associated with the youthful Yellowstone, Valles and Long Valley calderas and the Franciscan assemblage of the western coastal margin. Averaged crustal velocity reflects integrated tectonic evolution of the crust-thick silicic bodies, velocity reversals, and a thin crust produce low averaged velocities that are characteristic of a highly attenuated and thermally deformed crust.

  15. Subduction Drive of Plate Tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, W. B.

    2003-12-01

    Don Anderson emphasizes that plate tectonics is self-organizing and is driven by subduction, which rights the density inversion generated as oceanic lithosphere forms by cooling of asthenosphere from the top. The following synthesis owes much to many discussions with him. Hinge rollback is the key to kinematics, and, like the rest of actual plate behavior, is incompatible with bottom-up convection drive. Subduction hinges (which are under, not in front of, thin leading parts of arcs and overriding plates) roll back into subducting plates. The Pacific shrinks because bounding hinges roll back into it. Colliding arcs, increasing arc curvatures, back-arc spreading, and advance of small arcs into large plates also require rollback. Forearcs of overriding plates commonly bear basins which preclude shortening of thin plate fronts throughout periods recorded by basin strata (100 Ma for Cretaceous and Paleogene California). This requires subequal rates of advance and rollback, and control of both by subduction. Convergence rate is equal to rates of rollback and advance in many systems but is greater in others. Plate-related circulation probably is closed above 650 km. Despite the popularity of concepts of plumes from, and subduction into, lower mantle, there is no convincing evidence for, and much evidence against, penetration of the 650 in either direction. That barrier not only has a crossing-inhibiting negative Clapeyron slope but also is a compositional boundary between fractionated (not "primitive"), sluggish lower mantle and fertile, mobile upper mantle. Slabs sink more steeply than they dip. Slabs older than about 60 Ma when their subduction began sink to, and lie down on and depress, the 650-km discontinuity, and are overpassed, whereas younger slabs become neutrally buoyant in mid-upper mantle, into which they are mixed as they too are overpassed. Broadside-sinking old slabs push all upper mantle, from base of oceanic lithosphere down to the 650, back under

  16. Wearable accelerometry-based technology capable of assessing functional activities in neurological populations in community settings: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steins, Dax; Dawes, Helen; Esser, Patrick; Collett, Johnny

    2014-03-13

    Integrating rehabilitation services through wearable systems has the potential to accurately assess the type, intensity, duration, and quality of movement necessary for procuring key outcome measures. This review aims to explore wearable accelerometry-based technology (ABT) capable of assessing mobility-related functional activities intended for rehabilitation purposes in community settings for neurological populations. In this review, we focus on the accuracy of ABT-based methods, types of outcome measures, and the implementation of ABT in non-clinical settings for rehabilitation purposes. Cochrane, PubMed, Web of Knowledge, EMBASE, and IEEE Xplore. The search strategy covered three main areas, namely wearable technology, rehabilitation, and setting. Potentially relevant studies were categorized as systems either evaluating methods or outcome parameters. Methodological qualities of studies were assessed by two customized checklists, depending on their categorization and rated independently by three blinded reviewers. Twelve studies involving ABT met the eligibility criteria, of which three studies were identified as having implemented ABT for rehabilitation purposes in non-clinical settings. From the twelve studies, seven studies achieved high methodological quality scores. These studies were not only capable of assessing the type, quantity, and quality measures of functional activities, but could also distinguish healthy from non-healthy subjects and/or address disease severity levels. While many studies support ABT's potential for telerehabilitation, few actually utilized it to assess mobility-related functional activities outside laboratory settings. To generate more appropriate outcome measures, there is a clear need to translate research findings and novel methods into practice.

  17. Structural basis for inhibition of the histone chaperone activity of SET/TAF-Iβ by cytochrome c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Arzola, Katiuska; Díaz-Moreno, Irene; Cano-González, Ana; Díaz-Quintana, Antonio; Velázquez-Campoy, Adrián; Moreno-Beltrán, Blas; López-Rivas, Abelardo; De la Rosa, Miguel A

    2015-08-11

    Chromatin is pivotal for regulation of the DNA damage process insofar as it influences access to DNA and serves as a DNA repair docking site. Recent works identify histone chaperones as key regulators of damaged chromatin's transcriptional activity. However, understanding how chaperones are modulated during DNA damage response is still challenging. This study reveals that the histone chaperone SET/TAF-Iβ interacts with cytochrome c following DNA damage. Specifically, cytochrome c is shown to be translocated into cell nuclei upon induction of DNA damage, but not upon stimulation of the death receptor or stress-induced pathways. Cytochrome c was found to competitively hinder binding of SET/TAF-Iβ to core histones, thereby locking its histone-binding domains and inhibiting its nucleosome assembly activity. In addition, we have used NMR spectroscopy, calorimetry, mutagenesis, and molecular docking to provide an insight into the structural features of the formation of the complex between cytochrome c and SET/TAF-Iβ. Overall, these findings establish a framework for understanding the molecular basis of cytochrome c-mediated blocking of SET/TAF-Iβ, which subsequently may facilitate the development of new drugs to silence the oncogenic effect of SET/TAF-Iβ's histone chaperone activity.

  18. Reducing risk where tectonic plates collide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomberg, Joan S.; Ludwig, Kristin A.

    2017-06-19

    Most of the world’s earthquakes, tsunamis, landslides, and volcanic eruptions are caused by the continuous motions of the many tectonic plates that make up the Earth’s outer shell. The most powerful of these natural hazards occur in subduction zones, where two plates collide and one is thrust beneath another. The U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) “Reducing Risk Where Tectonic Plates Collide—A USGS Plan to Advance Subduction Zone Science” is a blueprint for building the crucial scientific foundation needed to inform the policies and practices that can make our Nation more resilient to subduction zone-related hazards.

  19. Management implications of changes in recreation activity motivation across physical settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    David A Graefe; Rudy M. Schuster; Gary T. Green; H. Ken Cordell

    2010-01-01

    Outdoor recreation management frameworks suggest that a diverse set of recreation opportunities is necessary to meet the needs and desires of a diverse population of recreationists. Managers of recreation resources must understand recreational demand if they wish to provide high-quality recreation opportunities to their users. The purpose of this study was to examine...

  20. Identification and priority setting for health technology assessment in The Netherlands : Actors and activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oortwijn, W.; Banta, D.; Vondeling, H.; Bouter, L.

    1999-01-01

    This article describes the actual situation at the beginning of 1999 with regard to identification and priority setting for health technology assessment (HTA) on a national level in the Netherlands. For this purpose the literature on HTA published in 1980-1998, mainly national, was thoroughly

  1. Volcano-tectonic earthquakes: A new tool for estimating intrusive volumes and forecasting eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Randall A.; McCausland, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    We present data on 136 high-frequency earthquakes and swarms, termed volcano-tectonic (VT) seismicity, which preceded 111 eruptions at 83 volcanoes, plus data on VT swarms that preceded intrusions at 21 other volcanoes. We find that VT seismicity is usually the earliest reported seismic precursor for eruptions at volcanoes that have been dormant for decades or more, and precedes eruptions of all magma types from basaltic to rhyolitic and all explosivities from VEI 0 to ultraplinian VEI 6 at such previously long-dormant volcanoes. Because large eruptions occur most commonly during resumption of activity at long-dormant volcanoes, VT seismicity is an important precursor for the Earth's most dangerous eruptions. VT seismicity precedes all explosive eruptions of VEI ≥ 5 and most if not all VEI 4 eruptions in our data set. Surprisingly we find that the VT seismicity originates at distal locations on tectonic fault structures at distances of one or two to tens of kilometers laterally from the site of the eventual eruption, and rarely if ever starts beneath the eruption site itself. The distal VT swarms generally occur at depths almost equal to the horizontal distance of the swarm from the summit out to about 15 km distance, beyond which hypocenter depths level out. We summarize several important characteristics of this distal VT seismicity including: swarm-like nature, onset days to years prior to the beginning of magmatic eruptions, peaking of activity at the time of the initial eruption whether phreatic or magmatic, and large non-double couple component to focal mechanisms. Most importantly we show that the intruded magma volume can be simply estimated from the cumulative seismic moment of the VT seismicity from:

  2. Preventing Obesity among Preschool Children: How Can Child-Care Settings Promote Healthy Eating and Physical Activity? Research Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole; Ward, Dianne; Neelon, Sara Benjamin; Story, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Child-care settings provide numerous opportunities to promote healthy eating and physical activity behaviors among preschool children. The majority of U.S. children are placed in some form of non-parental care during their preschool years. While approximately 15 percent of preschool children are primarily cared for by their relatives, most…

  3. Implementation of Lifestyle Modification Program Focusing on Physical Activity and Dietary Habits in a Large Group, Community-Based Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoutenberg, Mark; Falcon, Ashley; Arheart, Kris; Stasi, Selina; Portacio, Francia; Stepanenko, Bryan; Lan, Mary L.; Castruccio-Prince, Catarina; Nackenson, Joshua

    2017-01-01

    Background: Lifestyle modification programs improve several health-related behaviors, including physical activity (PA) and nutrition. However, few of these programs have been expanded to impact a large number of individuals in one setting at one time. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether a PA- and nutrition-based lifestyle…

  4. Exploration of Pre-Service Teachers' Beliefs in Relation to Mathematics Teaching Activities in Classroom-Based Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kul, Umit; Celik, Sedef

    2017-01-01

    This paper has been conducted to determine future teachers' mathematical beliefs and to explore the relationship between their mathematical beliefs and initial teaching practice in a classroom setting, in terms of how they design the content of teaching activities, they employed the style of teaching in mathematics, and they engaged with pupils. A…

  5. 77 FR 77016 - Authorization of Production Activity: Foreign-Trade Zone 230: Sonoco Corrflex (Kitting-Gift Sets...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [B-69-2012] Authorization of Production Activity: Foreign-Trade Zone 230: Sonoco Corrflex (Kitting-Gift Sets); Rural Hall and Winston-Salem, North Carolina On August 20, 2012, the Piedmont Triad Partnership, grantee of FTZ 230, submitted a notification of...

  6. Using a Web GIS Plate Tectonics Simulation to Promote Geospatial Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodzin, Alec M.; Anastasio, David; Sharif, Rajhida; Rutzmoser, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Learning with Web-based geographic information system (Web GIS) can promote geospatial thinking and analysis of georeferenced data. Web GIS can enable learners to analyze rich data sets to understand spatial relationships that are managed in georeferenced data visualizations. We developed a Web GIS plate tectonics simulation as a capstone learning…

  7. The Potential for Volcanism and Tectonics on Extrasolar Terrestrial Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, Lynnae C.; Roberge, Aki

    2018-01-01

    JWST and other next-generation space telescopes (e.g., LUVOIR, HabEx, & OST) will usher in a new era of exoplanet characterization that may lead to the identification of habitable, Earth-like worlds. Like the planets and moons in our solar system, the surfaces and interiors of terrestrial exoplanets may be shaped by volcanism and tectonics (Fu et al., 2010; van Summeren et al., 2011; Henning and Hurford, 2014). The magnitude and rate of occurrence of these dynamic processes can either facilitate or preclude the existence of habitable environments. Likewise, it has been suggested that detections of cryovolcanism on icy exoplanets, in the form of geyser-like plumes, could indicate the presence of subsurface oceans (Quick et al., 2017).The presence of volcanic and tectonic activity on solid exoplanets will be intimately linked to planet size and heat output in the form of radiogenic and/or tidal heating. In order to place bounds on the potential for such activity, we estimated the heat output of a variety of exoplanets observed by Kepler. We considered planets whose masses and radii range from 0.067 ME (super-Ganymede) to 8 ME (super-Earth), and 0.5 to 1.8 RE, respectively. These heat output estimates were then compared to those of planets, moons, and dwarf planets in our solar system for which we have direct evidence for the presence/absence of volcanic and tectonic activity. After exoplanet heating rates were estimated, depths to putative molten layers in their interiors were also calculated. For planets such as TRAPPIST-1h, whose densities, orbital parameters, and effective temperatures are consistent with the presence of significant amounts of H2O (Luger et al., 2017), these calculations reveal the depths to internal oceans which may serve as habitable niches beneath surface ice layers.

  8. Learning Plate Tectonics Using a Pre-Analogy Step

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glesener, G. B.; Sandoval, W. A.

    2011-12-01

    Previous research has shown that children tend to demonstrate lower performance on analogical reasoning tasks at a causal relations level compared to most adults (Gentner & Toupin, 1986). This tendency is an obstacle that geoscience educators must overcome because of the high frequency of analogies used in geoscience pedagogy. In particular, analog models are used to convey complex systems of non-everyday/non-observable events found in nature, such as plate tectonics. Key factors in successful analogical reasoning that have been suggested by researchers include knowledge of the causal relations in the base analog (Brown & Kane, 1988; Gentner, 1988; Gentner & Toupin, 1986), and development of learning strategies and metaconceptual competence(Brown & Kane, 1988). External factors, such as guiding cues and hints have been useful cognitive supports that help students reason through analogical problems (Gick & Holyoak, 1980). Cognitive supports have been seen by researchers to decrease processing demands on retrieval and working memory (Richland, Zur, & Holyoak, 2007). We observed third and fourth graders learning about plate tectonics beginning with a pre-analogy step-a cognitive support activity a student can do before working with an analogy to understand the target. This activity was designed to aid students in developing their understanding of object attributes and relations within an analog model so that more focus can be placed on mapping the corresponding higher-order relations between the base and target. Students learned targeted concepts of plate tectonics, as measured by pre to post gains on items adapted from the Geosciences Concept Inventory. Analyses of classroom interaction showed that students used the object attributes and higher-order relations highlighted in the pre-analogy activity as resources to reason about plate boundaries and plate movement during earthquakes.

  9. The Effects of Reflective Activities on Skill Adaptation in a Work-Related Instrumental Learning Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roessger, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    In work-related instrumental learning contexts, the role of reflective activities is unclear. Kolb's experiential learning theory and Mezirow's transformative learning theory predict skill adaptation as an outcome. This prediction was tested by manipulating reflective activities and assessing participants' response and error rates during novel…

  10. Setting the scene: Human activities, environmental impacts and governance arrangements in Antarctica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tin, T.; Lamers, M.A.J.; Liggett, D.; Maher, P.T.; Hughes, K.A.

    2014-01-01

    The scope and intensity of human activity in the Antarctic region has changed considerably over the past 100 years, resulting in significant modifications to the Antarctic environment and its ecosystems, and to the institutional arrangements governing human activities. Since the nineteenth century,

  11. The Hei River Basin in northwestern China - tectonics, sedimentary processes and pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudersdorf, Andreas; Nottebaum, Veit; Schimpf, Stefan; Yu, Kaifeng; Hartmann, Kai; Stauch, Georg; Wünnemann, Bernd; Reicherter, Klaus; Diekmann, Bernhard; Lehmkuhl, Frank

    2014-05-01

    The Hei River Basin (catchment area of c. 130,000 km²) is situated at the transition between the northern margin of the Tibetan Plateau and the southern slopes of Gobi-Tien-Shan. As part of the northwestern Chinese deserts, the Ejina Basin (Gaxun Nur Basin) constitutes the endorheic erosion base of the drainage system. The basin - hosting the second largest continental alluvial fans in the world, is tectonically strongly shaped by the Gobi belt of left-lateral transpression. The tectonic setting in combination with competing climatic driving forces (Westerlies and summer/winter monsoon currents) has supported the formation of a valuable long-time sediment archive comprises at least the last 250,000 yrs. of deposition. It is composed by the interplay of eolian, fluvial and lacustrine sedimentation cycles and today is dominated by widespread (gravel) gobi surfaces, insular dune fields and shallow evaporitic playa areas. Thus, it provides excellent conditions to investigate tectonic evolution and Quaternary environmental changes. Recently, geomorphological, geophysical, neotectonic and mineralogical studies have enhanced the understanding of the environmental history and the modern depositional environment. Moreover, the role of the Hei River Basin as an important source area of silt particles which were later deposited on the Chinese Loess Plateau is evaluated. Therefore, a 230 m long drill core, sediment sections and ca. 700 surface samples throughout the whole catchment and basin were analyzed. Instrumental and historical seismicity are very low, but the proximity to active fault zones and dating irregularities in earlier publications indicate evidence for deformation in the study area. Despite flat topography, indications of active tectonics such as fault-related large-scale lineations can be observed. Seismically deformed unconsolidated lacustrine deposits (seismites), presumably of Holocene age, are evident and must be related to the nearby faults. The upper

  12. Using Office Simulation Software in Teaching Computer Literacy Using Three Sets of Teaching/Learning Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azad Ali

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The most common course delivery model is based on teacher (knowledge provider - student (knowledge receiver relationship. The most visible symptom of this situation is over-reliance on textbook’s tutorials. This traditional model of delivery reduces teacher flexibility, causes lack of interest among students, and often makes classes boring. Especially this is visible when teaching Computer Literacy courses. Instead, authors of this paper suggest a new active model which is based on MS Office simulation. The proposed model was discussed within the framework of three activities: guided software simulation, instructor-led activities, and self-directed learning activities. The model proposed in the paper of active teaching based on software simulation was proven as more effective than traditional.

  13. Selective Activation of Cholinergic Interneurons Enhances Accumbal Phasic Dopamine Release: Setting the Tone for Reward Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Cachope

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine plays a critical role in motor control, addiction, and reward-seeking behaviors, and its release dynamics have traditionally been linked to changes in midbrain dopamine neuron activity. Here, we report that selective endogenous cholinergic activation achieved via in vitro optogenetic stimulation of nucleus accumbens, a terminal field of dopaminergic neurons, elicits real-time dopamine release. This mechanism occurs via direct actions on dopamine terminals, does not require changes in neuron firing within the midbrain, and is dependent on glutamatergic receptor activity. More importantly, we demonstrate that in vivo selective activation of cholinergic interneurons is sufficient to elicit dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens. Therefore, the control of accumbal extracellular dopamine levels by endogenous cholinergic activity results from a complex convergence of neurotransmitter/neuromodulator systems that may ultimately synergize to drive motivated behavior.

  14. Late Mesozoic basin and range tectonics and related magmatism in Southeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dezi Wang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available During the Late Mesozoic Middle Jurassic–Late Cretaceous, basin and range tectonics and associated magmatism representative of an extensional tectonic setting was w