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Sample records for active tails enhance

  1. Enhancement Experiment on Cementitious Activity of Copper-Mine Tailings in a Geopolymer System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Yu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Copper-mine tailings are the residual products after the extraction of precious copper metal from copper ores, and their storage can create numerous environmental problems. Many researchers have used copper-mine tailings for the preparation of geopolymers. This paper studies the enhancement of the cementitious activity of copper-mine tailings in geopolymer systems. First, copper-mine tailings are activated through mechanical grinding activation. Then, the mechanically activated copper-mine tailings are further processed through thermal activation and alkaline-roasting activation. The cementitious activity index of copper-mine tailings is characterized through the degree of leaching concentration of Si and Al. It was observed that the Si and Al leaching concentration of mechanically activated tailings was increased by 26.03% and 93.33%, respectively. The concentration of Si and Al was increased by 54.19% and 119.92%, respectively. For alkaline-roasting activation, roasting time, temperature and the mass ratio of copper-mine tailings to NaOH (C/N ratio were evaluated through orthogonal tests, and the best condition for activation was 120 min at 600 °C with a C/N ratio of 5:1. In this study, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD and infra-red (IR analysis show that mechanical, thermal and alkaline-roasting activation could be used to improve the cementitious activity index of copper-mine tailings.

  2. Aided phytostabilisation reduces metal toxicity, improves soil fertility and enhances microbial activity in Cu-rich mine tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touceda-González, M; Álvarez-López, V; Prieto-Fernández, Á; Rodríguez-Garrido, B; Trasar-Cepeda, C; Mench, M; Puschenreiter, M; Quintela-Sabarís, C; Macías-García, F; Kidd, P S

    2017-01-15

    (Aided) phytostabilisation has been proposed as a suitable technique to decrease the environmental risks associated with metal(loid)-enriched mine tailings. Field scale evaluations are needed for demonstrating their effectiveness in the medium- to long-term. A field trial was implemented in spring 2011 in Cu-rich mine tailings in the NW of Spain. The tailings were amended with composted municipal solid wastes and planted with Salix spp., Populus nigra L. or Agrostis capillaris L. cv. Highland. Plant growth, nutritive status and metal accumulation, and soil physico- and bio-chemical properties, were monitored over three years (four years for plant growth). The total bacterial community, α- and β-Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Streptomycetaceae were studied by DGGE of 16s rDNA fragments. Compost amendment improved soil properties such as pH, CEC and fertility, and decreased soil Cu availability, leading to the establishment of a healthy vegetation cover. Both compost-amendment and plant root activity stimulated soil enzyme activities and induced important shifts in the bacterial community structure over time. The woody plant, S. viminalis, and the grassy species, A. capillaris, showed the best results in terms of plant growth and biomass production. The beneficial effects of the phytostabilisation process were maintained at least three years after treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Alanine substitution of conserved residues in the cytoplasmic tail of herpes simplex virus gB can enhance or abolish cell fusion activity and viral entry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruel, Nancy; Zago, Anna; Spear, Patricia G.

    2006-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) glycoprotein B (gB) is one of the four viral glycoproteins required for viral entry and cell fusion and is highly conserved among herpesviruses. Mutants of HSV type 2 gB were generated by substituting conserved residues in the cytoplasmic tail with alanine or by deleting 41 amino acids from the C-terminus. Some of the mutations abolished cell fusion activity and also prevented transport of gB to the cell surface, identifying residues in the gB cytoplasmic tail that are critical for intracellular transport of this glycoprotein. These mutations also prevented production of infectious virus, possibly because the mutant forms of gB were not transported to the site of envelopment. Other mutations, particularly the deletion, significantly enhanced cell fusion activity. These mutations, as well as others described previously, identify regions of the gB cytoplasmic domain that modulate cell fusion activity

  4. Performance Enhancement of a Vertical Tail Using Synthetic Jet Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathay, Nicholas

    The performance enhancement of a vertical tail using an array of finite span synthetic jet actuators was investigated in wind tunnel experiments on 1/25th, 1/19th, and 1/9 th scale models. The models were sweptback, tapered, and instrumented with multiple synthetic jets placed upstream of the rudder hinge--line with the objective of controlling the separation that commenced over the rudder when it was deflected to high angles. By controlling the separation, the side force generated by the tail was augmented, which may allow for the size of the tail to be decreased. This would reduce the weight, drag, and corresponding fuel costs of an airplane. The synthetic jets augmented the side force coefficient by a maximum of 0.17 (34%). Furthermore, the performance of the vertical tail was dependent on jet strength. It was expected that the increase in side force would continue to grow as the momentum generation capabilities of the jets improved. A primary goal of the research was to determine the effect of multiple synthetic jet parameters on side force enhancement. Experiments were conducted with various jet orifice configurations, which indicated the following: the spacing between adjacent orifice edges and the orifices' aspect ratio were relatively unimportant; in terms of quantifying jet strength, the area--based (3--D) momentum coefficient of the jets was a more dominant parameter than the blowing ratio or the chord--based (2--D) momentum coefficient. Moreover, the most favorable spanwise location of control was, in general, found to be near the mid--span at lower rudder deflections and toward the inboard section of the model at larger deflections. The optimal chordwise location was hypothesized to be on the stabilizer as close as possible to the hinge--line. An investigation into the spanwise spacing of active jets demonstrated that, for some conditions, when the individual strength of the jets was held constant, larger jet spacing was more effective. Also, similar

  5. Sandia's activities in uranium mill tailings remedial action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuhauser, S.

    1980-01-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 requires that remedial action be taken at over 20 inactive uranium mill tailings sites in the United States. Standards promulgated by the EPA under this act are to be the operative standards for this activity. Proposed standards must still undergo internal review, public comment, and receive Nuclear Regulatory Commission concurrence before being finalized. Briefly reviewed, the standards deal separately with new disposal sites (Part A) and cleanup of soil and contaminated structures at existing locations (Part B). In several cases, the present sites are felt to be too close to human habitations or to be otherwise unacceptably located. These tailings will probably be relocated. New disposal sites for relocated tailings must satisfy certain standards. The salient features of these standards are summarized

  6. Two active galaxies with tidal tails and companions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keel, W.C.

    1985-01-01

    Spectroscopic, imaging, and radio observations of the tidally disturbed active systems VV 144 and I Zw 96 are presented, and indicate that the prominent optical extensions seen in both cases represent tidal tails rather than matter ejected from their nuclei (jets). This conclusion is based on the presence of stellar spectral features in the tails, lack of significant ionized gas over most of their length, and lack of radio emission outside the nuclei. Discrete knots in these tails are identified with remnant cores of the companion galaxies responsible for the morphological disturbances of the main galaxies and perhaps contributing to their nuclear activity. In both cases, the dynamics of the interactions are unusual in nature or viewing geometry. VV 144 is seen in the common plane of interaction and disk rotation, appearing strongly foreshortened. I Zw 96 shows tails associated with two companions; each is accompanied by changes in tail structure. This may be the result of a binary system of spirals colliding with a giant elliptical galaxy. 18 references

  7. Microbial activities and communities in oil sands tailings ponds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gieg, Lisa; Ramos, Esther; Clothier, Lindsay; Bordenave, Sylvain; Lin, Shiping; Voordouw, Gerrit; Dong, Xiaoli; Sensen, Christoph [University of Calgary (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    This paper discusses how the microbial communities and their activity play a vital role in tailings ponds. The ponds contain microorganisms along with metals, hydrocarbon diluent, naphthenic acid and others. The ponds play an important role in mining operations because they store bitumen extraction waste and also allow water to be re-used in the bitumen extraction process. Pond management presents a few challenges that include, among others, gas emissions and the presence of toxic and corrosive acids. Microbial activities and communities help in managing these ponds. Microbial activity measurement in active and inactive ponds is described and analyzed and the results are presented. The conditions for reducing sulfate, nitrate and iron are also presented. From the results it can be concluded that naphthenic acids can potentially serve as substrates for anaerobic populations in tailings ponds.

  8. Activity, tail loss, growth and survivorship of male Psammodromus algirus

    OpenAIRE

    Salvador Milla, Alfredo; Veiga, José Pablo

    2005-01-01

    Males with autotomized tail were sighted more often and moved longer distances than males with complete tail. There were no significant differences in survival between the two groups. The increase of snout-vent lenght at emergence the following year was significantly lower for males with autotomized tail than for males with complete tail.

  9. Tailings From Mining Activities, Impact on Groundwater, and Remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Al-Rawahy

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Effluent wastes from mining operations and beneficiation processes are comprized mostly of the following pollutants: total suspended solids (TTS, alkalinity or acidity (pH, settleable solids, iron in ferrous mining, and dissolved metals in nonferrous mining. Suspended solids consist of small particles of solid pollutants that resist separation by conventional means. A number of dissolved metals are considered toxic pollutants. The major metal pollutants present in ore mining and beneficiation waste waters include arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, and zinc. Tailings ponds are used for both the disposal of solid waste and the treatment of waste-water streams. The supernatant decanted from these ponds contains suspended solids and, at times, process reagents introduced to the water during ore beneficiation. Leakage of material from tailings pond into groundwater is one possible source of water pollution in the mining industry. Percolation of waste-water from impoundment may occur if tailings ponds are not properly designed. This paper addresses potential groundwater pollution due to effluent from mining activities, and the possible remediation options.

  10. [Effects of bio-crust on soil microbial biomass and enzyme activities in copper mine tailings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zheng; Yang, Gui-de; Sun, Qing-ye

    2009-09-01

    Bio-crust is the initial stage of natural primary succession in copper mine tailings. With the Yangshanchong and Tongguanshan copper mine tailings in Tongling City of Anhui Province as test objects, this paper studied the soil microbial biomass C and N and the activities of dehydrogenase, catalase, alkaline phosphatase, and urease under different types of bio-crust. The bio-crusts improved the soil microbial biomass and enzyme activities in the upper layer of the tailings markedly. Algal crust had the best effect in improving soil microbial biomass C and N, followed by moss-algal crust, and moss crust. Soil microflora also varied with the type of bio-crust. No'significant difference was observed in the soil enzyme activities under the three types of bio-crust. Soil alkaline phosphatase activity was significantly positively correlated with soil microbial biomass and dehydrogenase and urease activities, but negatively correlated with soil pH. In addition, moss rhizoid could markedly enhance the soil microbial biomass and enzyme activities in moss crust rhizoid.

  11. Fungal mediator tail subunits contain classical transcriptional activation domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhongle; Myers, Lawrence C

    2015-04-01

    Classical activation domains within DNA-bound eukaryotic transcription factors make weak interactions with coactivator complexes, such as Mediator, to stimulate transcription. How these interactions stimulate transcription, however, is unknown. The activation of reporter genes by artificial fusion of Mediator subunits to DNA binding domains that bind to their promoters has been cited as evidence that the primary role of activators is simply to recruit Mediator. We have identified potent classical transcriptional activation domains in the C termini of several tail module subunits of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida albicans, and Candida dubliniensis Mediator, while their N-terminal domains are necessary and sufficient for their incorporation into Mediator but do not possess the ability to activate transcription when fused to a DNA binding domain. This suggests that Mediator fusion proteins actually are functioning in a manner similar to that of a classical DNA-bound activator rather than just recruiting Mediator. Our finding that deletion of the activation domains of S. cerevisiae Med2 and Med3, as well as C. dubliniensis Tlo1 (a Med2 ortholog), impairs the induction of certain genes shows these domains function at native promoters. Activation domains within coactivators are likely an important feature of these complexes and one that may have been uniquely leveraged by a common fungal pathogen. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Modeling white-tailed deer activity patterns across forested landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda S. Gribko; Michael E. Hohn; William M. Ford

    2000-01-01

    White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) herbivory has been identified as a major impediment to the survival and growth of forest regeneration in the northeastern United States. As a supplement to direct control of deer densities through hunting, it may be possible for land managers to manipulate habitat and browsing pressure through carefully...

  13. Active vertical tail buffeting suppression based on macro fiber composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Chengzhe; Li, Bin; Liang, Li; Wang, Wei

    2016-04-01

    Aerodynamic buffet is unsteady airflow exerting forces onto a surface, which can lead to premature fatigue damage of aircraft vertical tail structures, especially for aircrafts with twin vertical tails at high angles of attack. In this work, Macro Fiber Composite (MFC), which can provide strain actuation, was used as the actuator for the buffet-induced vibration control, and the positioning of the MFC patches was led by the strain energy distribution on the vertical tail. Positive Position Feedback (PPF) control algorithm has been widely used for its robustness and simplicity in practice, and consequently it was developed to suppress the buffet responses of first bending and torsional mode of vertical tail. However, its performance is usually attenuated by the phase contributions from non-collocated sensor/actuator configuration and plants. The phase lag between the input and output signals of the control system was identified experimentally, and the phase compensation was considered in the PPF control algorithm. The simulation results of the amplitude frequency of the closed-loop system showed that the buffet response was alleviated notably around the concerned bandwidth. Then the wind tunnel experiment was conducted to verify the effectiveness of MFC actuators and compensated PPF, and the Root Mean Square (RMS) of the acceleration response was reduced 43.4%, 28.4% and 39.5%, respectively, under three different buffeting conditions.

  14. Overexpression of the polycystin-1 (PC-1) C-tail enhances sensitivity of M-1 cells to ouabain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Kyle; Magenheimer, Brenda S.; Maser, Robin L.; Calvet, James P.; Blanco, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    Cells derived from renal cysts of patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) are abnormally sensitive to ouabain, responding to physiological ouabain concentrations with enhanced proliferation and increased forskolin-induced transepithelial fluid secretion. This requires activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), Src kinase, and the extracellular regulated kinases MEK and ERK. Here, we have determined if the ADPKD phenotype obtained in mouse cortical collecting duct cells by stable overexpression of the C-terminal domain of polycystin-1 (PC-1 C-tail) also elicits the ADPKD-like response to ouabain in the cells. M-1 C20 cells expressing the PC-1 C-tail, and M-1 C17 cells, lacking expression of this construct, were treated with physiological concentrations of ouabain, and cell proliferation, activation of the EGFR-Src-MEK-ERK pathway, forskolin-induced transepithelial Cl− secretion, and the sensitivity of the Na,K-ATPase to ouabain were explored. M-1 C20 cells responded to ouabain with increased cell proliferation and ERK phosphorylation. Ouabain also augmented forskolin-induced and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-mediated apical secretion of Cl− in M-1 C20 cells. These effects required activation of EGFR, Src and MEK. In contrast, ouabain had no significant effects on M-1 C17 cells. Interestingly, approximately 20 % of the Na,K-ATPase from M-1 C20 cells presented an abnormally increased sensitivity to ouabain. Overexpression of PC-1 C-tail in M-1 C20 cells is associated with a ouabain sensitive phenotype and an increased ability of the cells to proliferate and secrete anions upon ouabain stimulation. This phenotype mimics the ouabain sensitivity of ADPKD cells and may help promote their cystogenic potential. PMID:23784065

  15. Vertical Tail Buffeting Alleviation Using Piezoelectric Actuators-Some Results of the Actively Controlled Response of Buffet-Affected Tails (ACROBAT) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Robert W.

    1997-01-01

    Buffet is an aeroelastic phenomenon associated with high performance aircraft especially those with twin vertical tails. In particular, for the F/A-18 aircraft at high angles of attack, vortices emanating from wing/fuselage leading edge extensions burst, immersing the vertical tails in their wake. The resulting buffet loads on the vertical tails are a concern from fatigue and inspection points of view. Recently, a 1/6-scale F-18 wind-tunnel model was tested in the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel at the NASA Langley Research Center as part of the Actively Controlled Response Of Buffet Affected Tails (ACROBAT) Program to assess the use of active controls in reducing vertical tail buffeting. The starboard vertical tail was equipped with an active rudder and the port vertical tail was equipped with piezoelectric actuators. The tunnel conditions were atmospheric air at Mach 0.10. By using single-input-single-output control laws at gains well below the physical limits of the actuators, the power spectral density of the root strains at the frequency of the first bending mode of the vertical tail was reduced by as much as 60 percent up to angles of attack of 37 degrees. Root mean square (RMS) values of root strain were reduced by as much as 19 percent. The results herein illustrate that buffet alleviation of vertical tails can be accomplished using simple active control of the rudder or piezoelectric actuators. In fact, as demonstrated herein, a fixed gain single input single output control law that commands piezoelectric actuators may be active throughout the high angle-of-attack maneuver without requiring any changes during the maneuver. Future tests are mentioned for accentuating the international interest in this area of research.

  16. Key programmatic steps and activities for implementing the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-07-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA) was enacted based upon findings by Congress ''that uranium mill tailings located at active and inactive hazard to the public, and that protection of the public health, safety and welfare, and the regulations of interstate commerce, require that every reasonable effort be made to provide for the stabilization, disposal, and control in a safe and environmentally sound manner of such tailings in order to prevent or minimize radon diffusion into the environment and to prevent or minimize other environmental hazards from such tailings.'' A general understanding of the steps leading to elimination of the hazards associated with designated uranium mill tailings sites, and the parties involved in that effort, are presented in this document. A representative schedule is also presented in this document to show both program sequence and activity interdependence. Those activities that have the most potential to influence program duration, because of the significant amount of additional time that may be required, include identification and selection of a suitable site, field data collection delays due to weather, actual acquisition of the designated or alternate disposal site, construction delays due to weather, and site licensing. This document provides an understanding of the steps, the sequence, the parties involved, and a representative duration of activities leading to remedial action and cleanup at the designated inactive uranium mill tailings sites. 10 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  17. Slowing down tail enhanced, neoclassical and classical alpha particle fluxes in tokamak reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catto, P.J.; Tessarotto, M.

    1988-01-01

    The classical and neoclassical particle and energy fluxes associated with a slowing down tail, alpha particle distribution function are evaluated for arbitrary aspect ratio ε -1 , cross section, and poloidal magnetic field. The retention of both electron and ion drag and pitch angle scattering by the background ions results in a large diffusive neoclassical heat flux in the plasma core. This flux remains substantial at larger radii only if the characteristic speed associated with pitch angle scattering, v/sub b/, is close enough to the alpha birth speed v 0 so that ε(v 0 /v/sub b/) 3 remains less than some order unity critical value which is not determined by the methods herein. The enhanced neoclassical losses would only have a serious impact on ignition if the critical value of ε(v 0 /v/sub b/) 3 is found to be somewhat larger than unity

  18. Vertical Tail Buffeting Alleviation Using Piezoelectric Actuators: Some Results of the Actively Controlled Response of Buffet-Affected Tails (ACROBAT) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Robert W.

    1997-01-01

    A 1/6-scale F-18 wind-tunnel model was tested in the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel at the NASA Langley Research Center as part of the Actively Controlled Response Of Buffet Affected Tails (ACROBAT) program to assess the use of active controls in reducing vertical tail buffeting. The starboard vertical tail was equipped with an active rudder and the port vertical tail was equipped with piezoelectric actuators. The tunnel conditions were atmospheric air at a dynamic pressure of 14 psf. By using single-input-single-output control laws at gains well below the physical limits of the actuators, the power spectral density of the root strains at the frequency of the first bending mode of the vertical tail was reduced by as much as 60 percent up to angles of attack of 37 degrees. Root mean square (RMS) values of root strain were reduced by as much as 19 percent. Buffeting alleviation results when using the rudder are presented for comparison. Stability margins indicate that a constant gain setting in the control law may be used throughout the range of angle of attack tested.

  19. The C-terminal tail of CRTH2 is a key molecular determinant that constrains GalphaI- and downstream-signaling cascade activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, Ralf; Merten, Nicole; Mathiesen, Jesper Mosolff

    2009-01-01

    Prostaglandin D(2) activation of the seven transmembrane receptor CRTH2 regulates numerous cell functions that are important in inflammatory diseases such as asthma. Despite its disease implication, no studies to date aimed at identifying receptor domains governing signaling and surface expression......2 at the plasma membrane, presence of this domain confers a signaling-compromised conformation onto the receptor. Indeed, a mutant receptor lacking the major portion of its C-terminal tail displays paradoxically enhanced Galphai and ERK1/2 activation in spite of enhanced constitutive and agonist......-mediated internalization. Enhanced activation of Galphai proteins and downstream signaling cascades is likely due to the inability of the tail-truncated receptor to recruit beta-arrestin2 and undergo homologous desensitization. Unexpectedly, CRTH2 is not phosphorylated upon agonist-stimulation, a primary mechanism...

  20. Double-tailed acyl glycoside niosomal nanocarrier for enhanced oral bioavailability of Cefixime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Muhammad; Shah, Muhammad Raza; Ullah, Farhat; Ullah, Shafi; Sadiq, Abdul; Ali, Imdad; Ahmed, Farid; Nawaz, Waqas

    2017-11-01

    Novel, safe, efficient, and cost effective surfactants from renewable resources has attracted attention for enhancing solubility and bioavailability of hydrophobic dugs. We report the synthesis, characterization, and biocompatibility of a novel non-ionic acyl glycoside double-tailed surfactant for niosomal drug delivery system. Structure of the surfactant was confirmed by 1 H NMR and mass spectroscopy. Applications of surfactant in niosomal drug delivery were explored using Cefixime as model. The shape, size, and polydispersity index (PDI) of drug loaded vesicles were investigated with atomic force microscope (AFM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Drug entrapping efficiency (EE%) was determined using HPLC. Biocompatibility of the surfactant was evaluated by in vitro cytotoxicity, blood hemolysis, and in vivo acute toxicity. Bioavailability of the surfactant based formulation was investigated in rabbits using HPLC. Vesicles were found to be 159.76 ± 6.54 nm with narrow size distribution and spherical shape. EE% was found to be 71.39 ± 3.52%. Novel surfactant was non-cytotoxicity and hemo-compatible even at 1000 μg/mL concentration and was safe up to 2000 mg/kg body weight. The in vivo bioavailability of niosomal formulation showed elevated plasma concentration and decreased clearance of Cefixime. Current findings reveal that this novel surfactant is biocompatible and could be employed for niosomal drug delivery.

  1. Airborne particulate concentrations and fluxes at an active uranium mill tailings site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    Direct measurements of airborne particulate concentrations and fluxes of transported mill tailing materials were measured at an active mill tailings site. Experimental measurement equipment consisted of meteorological instrumentation to automatically activate total particulate air samplers as a function of wind speed increments and direction, as well as particle cascade impactors to measure airborne respirable concentrations as a function of particle size. In addition, an inertial impaction device measured nonrespirable fluxes of airborne particles. Caclulated results are presented in terms of the airborne solid concentration in g/m 3 , the horizontal airborne mass flux in g/(m 2 -day) for total collected nonrespirable particles and the radionuclide concentrations in dpm/g as a function of particle diameter for respirable and nonrespirable particles

  2. Ion channel signaling influences cellular proliferation and phagocyte activity during axolotl tail regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Brandon M; Voss, S Randal; Osborn, Jeffrey L

    2017-08-01

    Little is known about the potential for ion channels to regulate cellular behaviors during tissue regeneration. Here, we utilized an amphibian tail regeneration assay coupled with a chemical genetic screen to identify ion channel antagonists that altered critical cellular processes during regeneration. Inhibition of multiple ion channels either partially (anoctamin1/Tmem16a, anoctamin2/Tmem16b, K V 2.1, K V 2.2, L-type Ca V channels and H/K ATPases) or completely (GlyR, GABA A R, K V 1.5 and SERCA pumps) inhibited tail regeneration. Partial inhibition of tail regeneration by blocking the calcium activated chloride channels, anoctamin1&2, was associated with a reduction of cellular proliferation in tail muscle and mesenchymal regions. Inhibition of anoctamin 1/2 also altered the post-amputation transcriptional response of p44/42 MAPK signaling pathway genes, including decreased expression of erk1/erk2. We also found that complete inhibition via voltage gated K + channel blockade was associated with diminished phagocyte recruitment to the amputation site. The identification of H + pumps as required for axolotl tail regeneration supports findings in Xenopus and Planaria models, and more generally, the conservation of ion channels as regulators of tissue regeneration. This study provides a preliminary framework for an in-depth investigation of the mechanistic role of ion channels and their potential involvement in regulating cellular proliferation and other processes essential to wound healing, appendage regeneration, and tissue repair. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Flapping foil power generator performance enhanced with a spring-connected tail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhengliang; Tian, Fang-Bao; Young, John; Lai, Joseph C. S.

    2017-12-01

    The flexibility effects on the performance of a flapping foil power generator are numerically studied by using the immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method at a Reynolds number of 1100. The flapping foil system consists of a rigid NACA0015 foil undergoing harmonic pitch and plunge motions and a passively actuated flat plate pinned to the trailing edge of the rigid foil. The flexibility is modeled by a torsional spring model at the conjuncture of the rigid foil and the tail. Here, a parametric study on mass density and natural frequency is conducted under the optimum kinematic condition of the rigid system identified from the literature and numerical simulations made for reduced frequency f* = 0.04-0.24 and pitch amplitude θ0 = 40°-90°. Four typical cases are discussed in detail by considering time histories of hydrodynamic loads and tail deformations under the optimal and non-optimal kinematic conditions. Results show that under the rigid-system optimal kinematic condition, a tail with appropriate mass density (μ = 0.60) and resonant frequency ( fr*=1.18 ) can improve the maximum efficiency by 7.24% accompanied by an increase of 6.63% in power compared to those of a rigid foil with a rigid tail. This is because the deflection of the tail reduces the low pressure region on the pressure surface (i.e., the lower surface during the upstroke or the upper surface during the downstroke) caused by the leading edge vortex after the stroke reversal, resulting in a higher efficiency. At high flapping frequencies, a spring-connected tail ( fr*=0.13 ) eliminates the large spike in the moment observed in high stiffness cases, reducing the power required for the pitch motion, resulting in 117% improvement in efficiency over that with a rigid tail at a reduced frequency of 0.24.

  4. Transcriptomic analysis of tail regeneration in the lizard Anolis carolinensis reveals activation of conserved vertebrate developmental and repair mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth D Hutchins

    Full Text Available Lizards, which are amniote vertebrates like humans, are able to lose and regenerate a functional tail. Understanding the molecular basis of this process would advance regenerative approaches in amniotes, including humans. We have carried out the first transcriptomic analysis of tail regeneration in a lizard, the green anole Anolis carolinensis, which revealed 326 differentially expressed genes activating multiple developmental and repair mechanisms. Specifically, genes involved in wound response, hormonal regulation, musculoskeletal development, and the Wnt and MAPK/FGF pathways were differentially expressed along the regenerating tail axis. Furthermore, we identified 2 microRNA precursor families, 22 unclassified non-coding RNAs, and 3 novel protein-coding genes significantly enriched in the regenerating tail. However, high levels of progenitor/stem cell markers were not observed in any region of the regenerating tail. Furthermore, we observed multiple tissue-type specific clusters of proliferating cells along the regenerating tail, not localized to the tail tip. These findings predict a different mechanism of regeneration in the lizard than the blastema model described in the salamander and the zebrafish, which are anamniote vertebrates. Thus, lizard tail regrowth involves the activation of conserved developmental and wound response pathways, which are potential targets for regenerative medical therapies.

  5. Bacillus pumilus ES4: candidate plant growth-promoting bacterium to enhance establishment of plants in mine tailings

    Science.gov (United States)

    de-Bashan, Luz E.; Hernandez, Juan-Pablo; Bashan, Yoav; Maier, Raina

    2014-01-01

    Three plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB; Bacillus pumilus ES4, B. pumilus RIZO1, and Azospirillum brasilense Cd) were tested for their ability to enhance plant growth and development of the native Sonoran Desert shrub quailbush (Atriplex lentiformis) and for their effect on the native bacterial community in moderately acidic, high-metal content (AHMT) and in neutral, low metal content natural tailings (NLMT) in controlled greenhouse experiments. Inoculation of quailbush with all three PGPB significantly enhanced plant growth parameters, such as germination, root length, dry weight of shoots and roots, and root/shoot ratio in both types of tailings. The effect of inoculation on the indigenous bacterial community by the most successful PGPB Bacillus pumilus ES4 was evaluated by denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) fingerprinting and root colonization was followed by specific fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Inoculation with this strain significantly changed the bacterial community over a period of 60 days. FISH analysis showed that the preferred site of colonization was the root tips and root elongation area. This study shows that inoculation of native perennial plants with PGPB can be used for developing technologies for phytostabilizing mine tailings. PMID:25009362

  6. Nicotine, but not mecamylamine, enhances antidepressant-like effects of citalopram and reboxetine in the mouse forced swim and tail suspension tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen T., Jesper; Redrobe, John P

    2009-01-01

    and 10mg/kg citalopram and 3 and 10mg/kg reboxetine in the mTST. No concomitant locomotor stimulation was observed at the tested dose combinations. Mecamylamine was effective on its own in some tests, but did not augment the effects of citalopram or reboxetine at the doses tested. The data show...... activity and facilitates serotonin and noradrenaline release. Thus, we hypothesise that nicotine may enhance the behavioural effects of serotonin (e.g., citalopram) and/or noradrenaline (e.g., reboxetine) reuptake inhibitors. Here, we tested if nicotine enhanced the activity of citalopram or reboxetine...... in the mouse forced swim test (mFST) and the mouse tail suspension test (mTST). The potential for mecamylamine to augment antidepressant drug action was also investigated. Sub-threshold and threshold doses of citalopram (3 and 10mg/kg) or reboxetine (3, 10 and 20mg/kg) were tested alone and in combination...

  7. Electrical activity in rat tail artery during asynchronous activation of postganglionic nerve terminals by ciguatoxin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, J. A.; McLachlan, E. M.; Jobling, P.; Lewis, R. J.

    1995-01-01

    1. The effects of ciguatoxin-1 (CTX-1) on the membrane potential of smooth muscle cells have been examined in rat proximal tail arteries isolated in vitro. 2. CTX-1 (> or = 10 pM) increased the frequency of spontaneous excitatory junction potentials (s.e.j.ps). At 100-400 pM, there was also a marked and maintained depolarization (19.7 +/- 1.4 mV, n = 14, at 400 pM). 3. In 20-400 pM CTX-1, perivascular stimuli evoked excitatory junction potentials (e.j.ps) which were prolonged in time course relative to control. 4. Although threshold and latency of the e.j.p. were not affected by CTX-1 ( or = 100 pM. 5. The spontaneous activity and the depolarization produced by CTX-1 were reduced in the presence of Ca2+ (0.1 mM)/Mg2+ (25 mM), omega-conotoxin (0.1 microM) or Cd2+ (50-100 microM). 6. All effects of CTX-1 were abolished by tetrodotoxin (0.3 microM). 7. Raised Ca2+ (6 mM) reduced the depolarization and spontaneous activity produced by CTX-1. 8. In 400 pM CTX-1, the membrane repolarized (17 +/- 3.2 mV, n = 4) following the addition of phentolamine (1 microM). S.e.j.ps and e.j.ps were selectively abolished by suramin (1 mM), and the membrane repolarized by 1.3 +/- 1.6 mV (n = 4). 9. We conclude that CTX-1 releases noradrenaline and ATP by initiating asynchronous discharge of postganglionic perivascular axons. In 100-400 pM CTX-1, the smooth muscle was depolarized to levels resembling those recorded in this artery during ongoing vasoconstrictor discharge in vivo. PMID:8564251

  8. In vitro analysis of RQC activities provides insights into the mechanism and function of CAT tailing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuna, Beatriz A; Howard, Conor J; KC, Subheksha; Frost, Adam; Weinberg, David E

    2017-01-01

    Ribosomes can stall during translation due to defects in the mRNA template or translation machinery, leading to the production of incomplete proteins. The Ribosome-associated Quality control Complex (RQC) engages stalled ribosomes and targets nascent polypeptides for proteasomal degradation. However, how each RQC component contributes to this process remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that key RQC activities—Ltn1p-dependent ubiquitination and Rqc2p-mediated Carboxy-terminal Alanine and Threonine (CAT) tail elongation—can be recapitulated in vitro with a yeast cell-free system. Using this approach, we determined that CAT tailing is mechanistically distinct from canonical translation, that Ltn1p-mediated ubiquitination depends on the poorly characterized RQC component Rqc1p, and that the process of CAT tailing enables robust ubiquitination of the nascent polypeptide. These findings establish a novel system to study the RQC and provide a framework for understanding how RQC factors coordinate their activities to facilitate clearance of incompletely synthesized proteins. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.27949.001 PMID:28718767

  9. Mediator Tail Module Is Required for Tac1-Activated CDR1 Expression and Azole Resistance in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhongle; Myers, Lawrence C

    2017-11-01

    The human fungal pathogen Candida albicans develops drug resistance after long-term exposure to azole drugs in the treatment of chronic candidiasis. Gain-of-function (GOF) mutations in the transcription factor Tac1 and the consequent expression of its targets, drug efflux pumps Cdr1 and Cdr2, are a common mechanism by which C. albicans acquires fluconazole resistance. The mechanism by which GOF mutations hyperactivate Tac1 is currently unknown. Here, we define a transcriptional activation domain (TAD) at the C terminus of Tac1. GOF mutations within the Tac1 TAD, outside the context of full-length Tac1, generally do not enhance its absolute potential as a transcriptional activator. Negative regulation of the Tac1 TAD by the Tac1 middle region is necessary for the activating effect of GOF mutations or fluphenazine to be realized. We have found that full-length Tac1, when hyperactivated by xenobiotics or GOF mutations, facilitates the recruitment of the Mediator coactivator complex to the CDR1 promoter. Azole resistance and the activation of Tac1 target genes, such as CDR1 , are dependent on the Tac1 TAD and subunits of the Mediator tail module. The dependence of different Tac1 target promoters on the Mediator tail module, however, varies widely. Lastly, we show that hyperactivation of Tac1 is correlated with its Mediator-dependent phosphorylation, a potentially useful biomarker for Tac1 hyperactivation. The role of Mediator in events downstream of Tac1 hyperactivation in fluconazole-resistant clinical isolates is complex and provides opportunities and challenges for therapeutic intervention. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  10. Analysis of gold and silver concentration on gold mining tailings by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadikov, I.I.; Salimov, M.I.; Sadykova, Z.O.

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Instrumental neutron-activation analysis without radiochemical separation is one of most applicable and often used methods to analyze the concentration of gold, silver and other rare and noble metals in gold ores. This method is not suitable for analyzing low concentration of gold and silver in gold mining tailings due to rather high concentration of some elements. Samples are dissolved by boiling in a mixture of concentrated hydrochloric and nitric acids to extract gold and silver into the solution. Chemical yield of gold and silver after dissolution of the sample and further chromatographic separation is between 92 and 95 percent respectively

  11. The Unstructured Paramyxovirus Nucleocapsid Protein Tail Domain Modulates Viral Pathogenesis through Regulation of Transcriptase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakkar, Vidhi D; Cox, Robert M; Sawatsky, Bevan; da Fontoura Budaszewski, Renata; Sourimant, Julien; Wabbel, Katrin; Makhsous, Negar; Greninger, Alexander L; von Messling, Veronika; Plemper, Richard K

    2018-04-15

    The paramyxovirus replication machinery comprises the viral large (L) protein and phosphoprotein (P-protein) in addition to the nucleocapsid (N) protein, which encapsidates the single-stranded RNA genome. Common to paramyxovirus N proteins is a C-terminal tail (Ntail). The mechanistic role and relevance for virus replication of the structurally disordered central Ntail section are unknown. Focusing initially on members of the Morbillivirus genus, a series of measles virus (MeV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) N proteins were generated with internal deletions in the unstructured tail section. N proteins with large tail truncations remained bioactive in mono- and polycistronic minireplicon assays and supported efficient replication of recombinant viruses. Bioactivity of Ntail mutants extended to N proteins derived from highly pathogenic Nipah virus. To probe an effect of Ntail truncations on viral pathogenesis, recombinant CDVs were analyzed in a lethal CDV/ferret model of morbillivirus disease. The recombinant viruses displayed different stages of attenuation ranging from ameliorated clinical symptoms to complete survival of infected animals, depending on the molecular nature of the Ntail truncation. Reinfection of surviving animals with pathogenic CDV revealed robust protection against a lethal challenge. The highly attenuated virus was genetically stable after ex vivo passaging and recovery from infected animals. Mechanistically, gradual viral attenuation coincided with stepwise altered viral transcriptase activity in infected cells. These results identify the central Ntail section as a determinant for viral pathogenesis and establish a novel platform to engineer gradual virus attenuation for next-generation paramyxovirus vaccine design. IMPORTANCE Investigating the role of the paramyxovirus N protein tail domain (Ntail) in virus replication, we demonstrated in this study that the structurally disordered central Ntail region is a determinant for viral

  12. Performance Enhancement of the In-Line Fan Equipped with the Guiding Vane and the Tail Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Cheng Yen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This integrated numerical and experimental study intends to enhance the performance of an in-line fan with the implement of the guiding vane and the tail body. At first the flow flied associated with the original in-line fan is simulated and analyzed within the framework of CFD code Fluent, in which the finite volume method is applied. Next, the guiding vane is constructed based on the calculated flow characteristics, and attached in the downstream of rotor to smoothen the flow pattern. An appropriate guiding vane with high-performance and low-noise features can be achieved after several design iterations. In addition, the tail body connected to the motor is introduced for further enhancing the fan performance by reducing the sizes of wake and reversed flow behind the hub. Thereafter, to manufacture the mockup for experimental verification, the modified fan with guiding vane is plotted in the CAD/CAM format for mockup fabrication via the rapid-prototype technique. Moreover, a set of relations correlating the performance and noise of this fan prototype are executed inside AMCA test chamber and semianechoic chamber, respectively. Consequently, the feasibility of design scheme and numerical system can be verified according to these experimental results. In summary, this work provides a systematic scheme for designing and analyzing the in-line fan.

  13. Low-concentration tailing and subsequent quicklime-enhanced remediation of volatile chlorinated hydrocarbon-contaminated soils by mechanical soil aeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yan; Du, Xiaoming; Shi, Yi; Xu, Zhu; Fang, Jidun; Li, Zheng; Li, Fasheng

    2015-02-01

    Mechanical soil aeration has long been regarded as an effective ex-situ remediation technique and as suitable for remediation of large-scale sites contaminated by volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at low cost. However, it has been reported that the removal efficiency of VOCs from soil is relatively low in the late stages of remediation, in association with tailing. Tailing may extend the remediation time required; moreover, it typically results in the presence of contaminants residues at levels far exceeding regulations. In this context, the present study aimed to discuss the tailing that occurs during the process of remediation of soils contaminated artificially with volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons (VCHs) and to assess possible quicklime-enhanced removal mechanisms. The results revealed the following conclusions. First, temperature and aeration rate can be important controls on both the timing of appearance of tailing and the levels of residual contaminants. Furthermore, the addition of quicklime to soil during tailing can reduce the residual concentrations rapidly to below the remedial target values required for site remediation. Finally, mechanical soil aeration can be enhanced using quicklime, which can improve the volatilization of VCHs via increasing soil temperature, reducing soil moisture, and enhancing soil permeability. Our findings give a basic understanding to the elimination of the tailing in the application of mechanical soil aeration, particularly for VOCs-contaminated soils. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Hrq1 requires a long 3′-tailed DNA substrate for helicase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Sung-Hun; Choi, Do-Hee; Lee, Rina; Bae, Sung-Ho

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Hrq1 has intrinsic 3′–5′ helicase and DNA strand annealing activities. ► Hrq1 requires a long 3′-tail for efficient DNA unwinding. ► Helicase activity of Hrq1 is stimulated by a fork structure. ► Hrq1 is a moderately processive helicase. -- Abstract: RecQ helicases are well conserved proteins from bacteria to human and function in various DNA metabolism for maintenance of genome stability. Five RecQ helicases are found in humans, whereas only one RecQ helicase has been described in lower eukaryotes. However, recent studies predicted the presence of a second RecQ helicase, Hrq1, in fungal genomes and verified it as a functional gene in fission yeast. Here we show that 3′–5′ helicase activity is intrinsically associated with Hrq1 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We also determined several biochemical properties of Hrq1 helicase distinguishable from those of other RecQ helicase members. Hrq1 is able to unwind relatively long duplex DNA up to 120-bp and is significantly stimulated by a preexisting fork structure. Further, the most striking feature of Hrq1 is its absolute requirement for a long 3′-tail (⩾70-nt) for efficient unwinding of duplex DNA. We also found that Hrq1 has potent DNA strand annealing activity. Our results indicate that Hrq1 has vigorous helicase activity that deserves further characterization to expand our understanding of RecQ helicases.

  15. DYNAMICS OF LARGE FRAGMENTS IN THE TAIL OF ACTIVE ASTEROID P/2010 A2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Jessica; Jewitt, David; Weaver, Harold

    2013-01-01

    We examine the motions of large fragments at the head of the dust tail of the active asteroid P/2010 A2. In previous work, we showed that these fragments were ejected from the primary nucleus in early 2009, either following a hypervelocity impact or by rotationally induced breakup. Here, we follow their positions through a series of Hubble Space Telescope images taken during the first half of 2010. The orbital evolution of each fragment allows us to constrain its velocity relative to the main nucleus after leaving its sphere of gravitational influence. We find that the fragments constituting a prominent X-shaped tail feature were emitted in a direction opposite to the motion of the asteroid and toward the south of its orbital plane. Derived emission velocities of these primary fragments range between 0.02 and 0.3 m s –1 , comparable to the ∼0.08 m s –1 gravitational escape speed from the nucleus. Their sizes are on the order of decimeters or larger. We obtain the best fits to our data with ejection velocity vectors lying in a plane that includes the nucleus. This may suggest that the cause of the disruption of P/2010 A2 is rotational breakup.

  16. Consolidation of tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, J.D.; Wardwell, R.E.; Abt, S.R.; Staub, W.P.

    1983-09-01

    The integrity of cover systems placed on tailings impoundments will be affected by the potential for differential settlement of the tailings surface. Settlement of the sand fraction will occur relatively rapidly. The slimes will take longer time for consolidation and will produce greater settlement. This report reviews the phenomenon of consolidation for saturated and unsaturated tailings. The effect of load application by cover placement and the extent to which dewatering of tailings will cause consolidation are considered. In addition, the feasibility of inducing consolidation by alternative means and the potential applicability of these methods to tailings impoundments reclamation are discussed. Differential settlement of the tailings will cause tensile strain to be developed in covers. This strain could be large enough to cause cracking within a relatively brittle compacted clay. Dewatering of tailings by drainage can cause settlement even greater than that by placement of a cover material. Dewatering of the tailings would also increase the stability of the tailings surface, thereby enhancing reclamation operations. Consequently, in view of the enhanced surface stability and the fact that a portion of the differential settlement can be accomplished prior to cover placement, dewatering of tailings impoundments during operations may have benefical effects

  17. Ecological aspects of microorganisms inhabiting uranium mill tailings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C.L.; Landa, E.R.; Updegraff, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    Numbers and types of microorganisms in uranium mill tailings were determined using culturing techniques. Arthrobacter were found to be the predominant microorganism inhabiting the sandy tailings, whereas Bacillus and fungi predominated in the slime tailings. Sulfate-reducing bacteria, capable of leaching radium, were isolated in low numbers from tailings samples but were isolated in significantly high numbers from topsoil in contact with the tailings. The results are placed in the context of the magnitude of uranium mill tailings in the United States, the hazards posed by the tailings, and how such hazards could be enhanced or diminished by microbial activities. Patterns in the composition of the microbial population are evaluated with respect to the ecological variables that influence microbial growth. ?? 1987 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  18. Enhanced NIF neutron activation diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeamans, C B; Bleuel, D L; Bernstein, L A

    2012-10-01

    The NIF neutron activation diagnostic suite relies on removable activation samples, leading to operational inefficiencies and a fundamental lower limit on the half-life of the activated product that can be observed. A neutron diagnostic system measuring activation of permanently installed samples could remove these limitations and significantly enhance overall neutron diagnostic capabilities. The physics and engineering aspects of two proposed systems are considered: one measuring the (89)Zr/(89 m)Zr isomer ratio in the existing Zr activation medium and the other using potassium zirconate as the activation medium. Both proposed systems could improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the current system by at least a factor of 5 and would allow independent measurement of fusion core velocity and fuel areal density.

  19. Selenium concentrations and enzyme activities of glutathione metabolism in wild long-tailed ducks and common eiders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian; Hoffman, David J.; Flint, Paul L.

    2011-01-01

    The relationships of selenium (Se) concentrations in whole blood with plasma activities of total glutathione peroxidase, Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase were studied in long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis) and common eiders (Somateria mollissima) sampled along the Beaufort Sea coast of Alaska, USA. Blood Se concentrations were >8 μg/g wet weight in both species. Linear regression revealed that the activities of total and Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase were significantly related to Se concentrations only in long-tailed ducks, raising the possibility that these birds were experiencing early oxidative stress.

  20. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Hrq1 requires a long 3'-tailed DNA substrate for helicase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Sung-Hun; Choi, Do-Hee; Lee, Rina; Bae, Sung-Ho

    2012-10-26

    RecQ helicases are well conserved proteins from bacteria to human and function in various DNA metabolism for maintenance of genome stability. Five RecQ helicases are found in humans, whereas only one RecQ helicase has been described in lower eukaryotes. However, recent studies predicted the presence of a second RecQ helicase, Hrq1, in fungal genomes and verified it as a functional gene in fission yeast. Here we show that 3'-5' helicase activity is intrinsically associated with Hrq1 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We also determined several biochemical properties of Hrq1 helicase distinguishable from those of other RecQ helicase members. Hrq1 is able to unwind relatively long duplex DNA up to 120-bp and is significantly stimulated by a preexisting fork structure. Further, the most striking feature of Hrq1 is its absolute requirement for a long 3'-tail (⩾70-nt) for efficient unwinding of duplex DNA. We also found that Hrq1 has potent DNA strand annealing activity. Our results indicate that Hrq1 has vigorous helicase activity that deserves further characterization to expand our understanding of RecQ helicases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Radiological survey activities: uranium mill tailings remedial action project procedures manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, C.A.; Berven, B.A.; Carter, T.E.

    1986-07-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) was assigned the responsibility for conducting remedial action at 24 sites, which are located in one eastern and nine western states. The DOE's responsibilities are being met through its Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project Office (UMTRA-PO) in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The purpose of this Procedures Manual is to provide a standardized set of procedures that document in an auditable manner the activities performed by the Radiological Survey Activities (RASA) group in the Dosimetry and Biophysical Transport Section (DABTS) of the Health and Safety Research Division (HASRD) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), in its role as the Inclusion Survey Contractor (ISC). Members of the RASA group assigned to the UMTRA Project are headquartered in the ORNL/RASA office in Grand Junction, Colorado, and report to the ORNL/RASA Project Manager. The Procedures Manual ensures that the organizational, administrative, and technical activities of the RASA/UMTRA group conform properly to those of the ISC as described in the Vicinity Properties Management and Implementation Manual and the Summary Protocol. This manual also ensures that the techniques and procedures used by the RASA/UMTRA group and contractor personnel meet the requirements of applicable governmental, scientific, and industrial standards

  2. Quality assurance program plan for the Radiological Survey Activities Program - Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, S.J.; Berven, B.A.; Little, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    The Radiological Survey Activities (RASA) program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is responsible for surveying designated sites in the vicinity of 24 inactive mill sites involved in the Department of Energy's (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP). The purpose of these surveys is to provide a recommendation to DOE whether to include or exclude the site from UMTRAP based on whether the onsite residual radioactive material (if any) originated from the former mill sites, and radiation levels onsite are in excess of appropriate Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) criteria. This report describes the quality assurance program plan for the RASA program in conducting all activities related to the UMTRA project. All quality assurance provisions given by the DOE, DOE/UMTRA, and ORNL organizations are integrated into this plan. Specifically, this report identifies the policies and procedures followed in accomplishing the RASA/UMTRAP QA program, identifies those organizational units involved in the implementation of these procedures, and outlines the respective responsibilities of those groups

  3. Quality assurance program plan for the radiological survey activities program: Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, S.J.; Berven, B.A.; Little, C.A.

    1986-08-01

    The Radiological Survey Activities (RASA) program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is responsible for surveying designated sites in the vicinity of 24 inactive mill sites involved in the Department of Energy's (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP). The purpose of these surveys is to provide a recommendation to DOE whether to include or exclude the site from UMTRAP based on whether the onsite residual radioactive material (if any) originated from the former mill sites, and radiation levels onsite are in excess of appropriate Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) criteria. This report describes the quality assurance program plan for the RASA program in conducting all activities related to the UMTRA project. All quality assurance provisions given by the DOE, DOE/UMTRA, and ORNL organizations are integrated into this plan. Specifically, this report identifies the policies and procedures followed in accomplishing the RASA/UMTRAP QA program, identifies those organizational units involved in the implementation of these procedures, and outlines the respective responsibilities of those groups

  4. Taming the tailings : dead ducks notwithstanding, extensive research is underway to deal with oilsands tailings in a more efficient manner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collison, M.

    2008-09-15

    Research is now being conducted to reduce the environmental impacts of oil sands tailing ponds. Alberta's oil sands region contains an estimated 60 km{sup 2} of tailings ponds, which serve as holding basins for recycled water as well as collection sites for materials used in reclamation activities. The ponds contain residual bitumen, production chemicals, and minerals. While some of the water in the ponds can be re-used, mature fine tailings must be contained behind dikes. Every barrel of bitumen produced by the industry results in the creation of 1.5 barrels of mature fine tailings. Natural Resources Canada's CANMET Energy Technology Centre is currently conducting a research program with the University of Alberta to reduce the amounts of tailings produced by the industry. Options for dry stackable tailings are being explored, as well as methods of using the tailings to enhance various oil sands processes. It is hoped that the dry, stackable tailings can be used to help reclaim and rebuild Boreal regions impacted by the oil sands industry. The program is gaining interest due to concerns that leakages from the tailings ponds may pollute aquifers and rivers in a region noted for its water shortages. Research teams are also investigating the use of flocculants to create heavy non-segregated tailings. Researchers are also examining methods of recovering hydrocarbons, titanium, and zircon from the tailings. 3 figs.

  5. Quality Assurance Program Plan for the radiological survey activities program --- Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knott, R.R.; Little, C.A.

    1991-08-01

    The Pollutant Assessments Group (PAG) at the Grand Junction Office (GJO), Colorado, of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is responsible for surveying designated sites in the vicinity of 24 inactive mill sites involved in the Department of Energy's (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP). The purpose of these surveys is to provide a recommendation to DOE whether to include or exclude these sites from UMTRAP based on whether the on-site residual radioactive material (if any) originated from the former mill sites, and radiation levels on-site are in excess of appropriate Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) criteria. This report describes the Quality Assurance Plan (QAP) for the PAG in conducting all activities related to UMTRAP. All quality assurance provisions given by the DOE, DOE/UMTRA and ORNL organizations are integrated into this plan. Specifically, this report identifies the policies and procedures followed in accomplishing the PAG/UMTRA QA program, identifies those organizational units involved in the implementation of these procedures, and outlines the respective responsibilities of those groups. 11 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  6. Enhancement of wave growth for warm plasmas with a high-energy tail distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Richard M.; Summers, Danny

    1991-01-01

    The classical linear theory of electromagnetic wave growth in a warm plasma is considered for waves propagating parallel to a uniform ambient magnetic field. Wave-growth rates are calculated for ion-driven right-hand mode waves for Kappa and Maxwellian particle distribution functions and for various values of the spectral index, the temperature anisotropy, and the ratio of plasma pressure to magnetic pressure appropriate to the solar wind. When the anisotropy is low the wave growth is limited to frequencies below the proton gyrofrequency and the growth rate increases dramatically as the spectral index is reduced. The growth rate for any Kappa distribution greatly exceeds that for a Maxwellian with the same bulk properties. For large thermal anisotropy the growth rate from either distribution is greatly enhanced. The growth rates from a Kappa distribution are generally larger than for a Maxwellian distribution, and significant wave growth occurs over a broader range of frequencies.

  7. Mediator Recruitment to Heat Shock Genes Requires Dual Hsf1 Activation Domains and Mediator Tail Subunits Med15 and Med16*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunyoung; Gross, David S.

    2013-01-01

    The evolutionarily conserved Mediator complex is central to the regulation of gene transcription in eukaryotes because it serves as a physical and functional interface between upstream regulators and the Pol II transcriptional machinery. Nonetheless, its role appears to be context-dependent, and the detailed mechanism by which it governs the expression of most genes remains unknown. Here we investigate Mediator involvement in HSP (heat shock protein) gene regulation in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We find that in response to thermal upshift, subunits representative of each of the four Mediator modules (Head, Middle, Tail, and Kinase) are rapidly, robustly, and selectively recruited to the promoter regions of HSP genes. Their residence is transient, returning to near-background levels within 90 min. Hsf1 (heat shock factor 1) plays a central role in recruiting Mediator, as indicated by the fact that truncation of either its N- or C-terminal activation domain significantly reduces Mediator occupancy, whereas removal of both activation domains abolishes it. Likewise, ablation of either of two Mediator Tail subunits, Med15 or Med16, reduces Mediator recruitment to HSP promoters, whereas deletion of both abolishes it. Accompanying the loss of Mediator, recruitment of RNA polymerase II is substantially diminished. Interestingly, Mediator antagonizes Hsf1 occupancy of non-induced promoters yet facilitates enhanced Hsf1 association with activated ones. Collectively, our observations indicate that Hsf1, via its dual activation domains, recruits holo-Mediator to HSP promoters in response to acute heat stress through cooperative physical and/or functional interactions with the Tail module. PMID:23447536

  8. Population growth of Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana predates human agricultural activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cox Murray P

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human activities, such as agriculture, hunting, and habitat modification, exert a significant effect on native species. Although many species have suffered population declines, increased population fragmentation, or even extinction in connection with these human impacts, others seem to have benefitted from human modification of their habitat. Here we examine whether population growth in an insectivorous bat (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana can be attributed to the widespread expansion of agriculture in North America following European settlement. Colonies of T. b. mexicana are extremely large (~106 individuals and, in the modern era, major agricultural insect pests form an important component of their food resource. It is thus hypothesized that the growth of these insectivorous bat populations was coupled to the expansion of agricultural land use in North America over the last few centuries. Results We sequenced one haploid and one autosomal locus to determine the rate and time of onset of population growth in T. b. mexicana. Using an approximate Maximum Likelihood method, we have determined that T. b. mexicana populations began to grow ~220 kya from a relatively small ancestral effective population size before reaching the large effective population size observed today. Conclusions Our analyses reject the hypothesis that T. b. mexicana populations grew in connection with the expansion of human agriculture in North America, and instead suggest that this growth commenced long before the arrival of humans. As T. brasiliensis is a subtropical species, we hypothesize that the observed signals of population growth may instead reflect range expansions of ancestral bat populations from southern glacial refugia during the tail end of the Pleistocene.

  9. Comparative study on effects of four energy plants growth on chemical fractions of heavy metals and activity of soil enzymes in copper mine tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Yang, Shiyong; Yang, Hongfei; Huang, Yongjie; Zheng, Liming; Yuan, Jing; Zhou, Shoubiao

    2018-05-12

    Four gramineous energy plants, Miscanthus sacchariflorus, M. floridulus, Phragmites australis, and Arundo donax were grown on copper tailings in the field for four years. Their phytoremediation potential was examined in terms of their effects on the fractions of heavy metals and soil enzyme activities. Results showed that plantation of these four gramineous plants has improved the proportion of organic material (OM)-binding fraction of heavy metals in copper tailings as a whole, and reduced the proportion of exchangeable and residual fractions. In particular, M. sacchariflorus growth improved significantly the proportion of the OM-binding fractions of Cu (1.73 times), Cd (1.71 times), Zn (1.18 times), and Pb (3.14 times) (P tailings to some extent. In particular, the activity of soil phosphatase and urease in planted tailings differed significantly from that of control (P tailings.

  10. Presentations of the CONRAD tailings seminar : exploring the past, present and future of tailings technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This symposium explored oil sand tailings activities in Canada and their associated technologies. It was attended by active and prospective tailings researchers and developers of tailings technology who addressed timely issues regarding mature fine tailings, consolidated tailings, thickened tailings, and emerging tailings technologies. The collaborative research projects that are underway at the Oil Sands Tailings Research Facility were also discussed along with other topics such as tailings ponds management, water treatment, water quality and water supply security. All 16 presentations featured at this conference were indexed separately for inclusion in this database

  11. The B7-1 cytoplasmic tail enhances intracellular transport and mammalian cell surface display of chimeric proteins in the absence of a linear ER export motif.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chieh Lin

    Full Text Available Membrane-tethered proteins (mammalian surface display are increasingly being used for novel therapeutic and biotechnology applications. Maximizing surface expression of chimeric proteins on mammalian cells is important for these applications. We show that the cytoplasmic domain from the B7-1 antigen, a commonly used element for mammalian surface display, can enhance the intracellular transport and surface display of chimeric proteins in a Sar1 and Rab1 dependent fashion. However, mutational, alanine scanning and deletion analysis demonstrate the absence of linear ER export motifs in the B7 cytoplasmic domain. Rather, efficient intracellular transport correlated with the presence of predicted secondary structure in the cytoplasmic tail. Examination of the cytoplasmic domains of 984 human and 782 mouse type I transmembrane proteins revealed that many previously identified ER export motifs are rarely found in the cytoplasmic tail of type I transmembrane proteins. Our results suggest that efficient intracellular transport of B7 chimeric proteins is associated with the structure rather than to the presence of a linear ER export motif in the cytoplasmic tail, and indicate that short (less than ~ 10-20 amino acids and unstructured cytoplasmic tails should be avoided to express high levels of chimeric proteins on mammalian cells.

  12. Endothelial and Neuronal Nitric Oxide Activate Distinct Pathways on Sympathetic Neurotransmission in Rat Tail and Mesenteric Arteries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Beatriz Sousa

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO seems to contribute to vascular homeostasis regulating neurotransmission. This work aimed at assessing the influence of NO from different sources and respective intracellular pathways on sympathetic neurotransmission, in two vascular beds. Electrically-evoked [3H]-noradrenaline release was assessed in rat mesenteric and tail arteries in the presence of NO donors or endothelial/neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS inhibitors. The influence of NO on adenosine-mediated effects was also studied using selective antagonists for adenosine receptors subtypes. Location of neuronal NOS (nNOS was investigated by immunohistochemistry (with specific antibodies for nNOS and for Schwann cells and Confocal Microscopy. Results indicated that: 1 in mesenteric arteries, noradrenaline release was reduced by NO donors and it was increased by nNOS inhibitors; the effect of NO donors was only abolished by the adenosine A1 receptors antagonist; 2 in tail arteries, noradrenaline release was increased by NO donors and it was reduced by eNOS inhibitors; adenosine receptors antagonists were devoid of effect; 3 confocal microscopy showed nNOS staining in adventitial cells, some co-localized with Schwann cells. nNOS staining and its co-localization with Schwann cells were significantly lower in tail compared to mesenteric arteries. In conclusion, in mesenteric arteries, nNOS, mainly located in Schwann cells, seems to be the main source of NO influencing perivascular sympathetic neurotransmission with an inhibitory effect, mediated by adenosine A1 receptors activation. Instead, in tail arteries endothelial NO seems to play a more relevant role and has a facilitatory effect, independent of adenosine receptors activation.

  13. Rescuing Alu: recovery of new inserts shows LINE-1 preserves Alu activity through A-tail expansion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley J Wagstaff

    Full Text Available Alu elements are trans-mobilized by the autonomous non-LTR retroelement, LINE-1 (L1. Alu-induced insertion mutagenesis contributes to about 0.1% human genetic disease and is responsible for the majority of the documented instances of human retroelement insertion-induced disease. Here we introduce a SINE recovery method that provides a complementary approach for comprehensive analysis of the impact and biological mechanisms of Alu retrotransposition. Using this approach, we recovered 226 de novo tagged Alu inserts in HeLa cells. Our analysis reveals that in human cells marked Alu inserts driven by either exogenously supplied full length L1 or ORF2 protein are indistinguishable. Four percent of de novo Alu inserts were associated with genomic deletions and rearrangements and lacked the hallmarks of retrotransposition. In contrast to L1 inserts, 5' truncations of Alu inserts are rare, as most of the recovered inserts (96.5% are full length. De novo Alus show a random pattern of insertion across chromosomes, but further characterization revealed an Alu insertion bias exists favoring insertion near other SINEs, highly conserved elements, with almost 60% landing within genes. De novo Alu inserts show no evidence of RNA editing. Priming for reverse transcription rarely occurred within the first 20 bp (most 5' of the A-tail. The A-tails of recovered inserts show significant expansion, with many at least doubling in length. Sequence manipulation of the construct led to the demonstration that the A-tail expansion likely occurs during insertion due to slippage by the L1 ORF2 protein. We postulate that the A-tail expansion directly impacts Alu evolution by reintroducing new active source elements to counteract the natural loss of active Alus and minimizing Alu extinction.

  14. Contribution of α-adrenoceptors to depolarization and contraction evoked by continuous asynchronous sympathetic nerve activity in rat tail artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, J A; McLachlan, E M; Rayner, S E

    1997-01-01

    The effects of continuous but asynchronous nerve activity induced by ciguatoxin (CTX-1) on the membrane potential and contraction of smooth muscle cells have been investigated in rat proximal tail arteries isolated in vitro. These effects have been compared with those produced by the continuous application of phenylephrine (PE).CTX-1 (0.4 nM) and PE (10 μM) produced a maintained depolarization of the arterial smooth muscle that was almost completely blocked by α-adrenoceptor blockade. In both cases, the depolarization was more sensitive to the selective α2-adrenoceptor antagonist, idazoxan (0.1 μM), than to the selective α1-adrenoceptor antagonist, prazosin (0.01 μM).In contrast, the maintained contraction of the tail artery induced by CTX-1 (0.2 nM) and PE (2 and 10 μM) was more sensitive to prazosin (0.01) μM, than to idazoxan (0.01 μM). In combination, these antagonists almost completely inhibited contraction to both agents.Application of the calcium channel antagonist, nifedipine (1 μM), had no effect on the depolarization induced by either CTX-1 or PE but maximally reduced the force of the maintained contraction to both agents by about 50%.We conclude that the constriction of the tail artery induced by CTX-1, which mimics the natural discharge of postganglionic perivascular axons, is due almost entirely to α-adrenoceptor activation. The results indicate that neuronally released noradrenaline activates more than one α-adrenoceptor subtype. The depolarization is dependent primarily on α2-adrenoceptor activation whereas the contraction is dependent primarily on α1-adrenoceptor activation. The links between α-adrenoceptor activation and the voltage-dependent and voltage-independent mechanisms that deliver Ca2+ to the contractile apparatus appear to be complex. PMID:9113373

  15. Neural stem/progenitor cells are activated during tail regeneration in the leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, E A B; Vickaryous, M K

    2018-02-01

    As for many lizards, the leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius) can self-detach its tail to avoid predation and then regenerate a replacement. The replacement tail includes a regenerated spinal cord with a simple morphology: an ependymal layer surrounded by nerve tracts. We hypothesized that cells within the ependymal layer of the original spinal cord include populations of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) that contribute to the regenerated spinal cord. Prior to tail loss, we performed a bromodeoxyuridine pulse-chase experiment and found that a subset of ependymal layer cells (ELCs) were label-retaining after a 140-day chase period. Next, we conducted a detailed spatiotemporal characterization of these cells before, during, and after tail regeneration. Our findings show that SOX2, a hallmark protein of NSPCs, is constitutively expressed by virtually all ELCs before, during, and after regeneration. We also found that during regeneration, ELCs express an expanded panel of NSPC and lineage-restricted progenitor cell markers, including MSI-1, SOX9, and TUJ1. Using electron microscopy, we determined that multiciliated, uniciliated, and biciliated cells are present, although the latter was only observed in regenerated spinal cords. Our results demonstrate that cells within the ependymal layer of the original, regenerating and fully regenerate spinal cord represent a heterogeneous population. These include radial glia comparable to Type E and Type B cells, and a neuronal-like population of cerebrospinal fluid-contacting cells. We propose that spinal cord regeneration in geckos represents a truncation of the restorative trajectory observed in some urodeles and teleosts, resulting in the formation of a structurally distinct replacement. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Environmental assessment of ground-water compliance activities at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site, Spook, Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-02-01

    This report assesses the environmental impacts of the Uranium Mill Tailings Site at Spook, Wyoming on ground water. DOE previously characterized the site and monitoring data were collected during the surface remediation. The ground water compliance strategy is to perform no further remediation at the site since the ground water in the aquifer is neither a current nor potential source of drinking water. Under the no-action alternative, certain regulatory requirements would not be met

  17. Rheological Link Between Polymer Melts with a High Molecular Weight Tail and Enhanced Formation of Shish-Kebabs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wingstrand, Sara Lindeblad; Shen, Bo; Kornfield, Julie A.

    2017-01-01

    Presence of an ultra high molecular weight (UHMw) fraction in flowingpolymer melts is known to facilitate formation of oriented crystalline structures significantly. The UHMw fraction manifests itself as a minor tail in the molar mass distribution and is hardly detectable in the canonical...... a clear increase in extensional stress that is directly correlated with the crystalline orientation of the quenched samples. Extensional rheology, particularly, in combination with linear creep measurements, thus, enables the conformational evolution of the UHMw-tail to be studied and linked...

  18. Posttranslational Modifications of the Histone 3 Tail and Their Impact on the Activity of Histone Lysine Demethylases In Vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Brian; Helgstrand, Charlotte; Andersson, Jan Legaard

    2013-01-01

    mimicking histone H3. Various combinations with other PTMs were employed to study possible cross-talk effects by comparing enzyme kinetic characteristics. We compared the kinetics of histone tail substrates for truncated histone lysine demethylases KDM4A and KDM4C containing only the catalytic core (cc...... toward bis-trimethylated substrates could be observed. Furthermore, a significant difference in the catalytic activity between dimethylated and trimethylated substrates was found for full length demethylases in line with what has been reported previously for truncated demethylases. Histone peptide...

  19. Abundance and activity of 16S rRNA, amoA and nifH bacterial genes during assisted phytostabilization of mine tailings

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Karis N.; Neilson, Julia W.; Root, Robert A.; Chorover, Jon; Maier, Raina M.

    2015-01-01

    Mine tailings in semiarid regions are highly susceptible to erosion and are sources of dust pollution and potential avenues of human exposure to toxic metals. One constraint to revegetation of tailings by phytostabilization is the absence of microbial communities critical for biogeochemical cycling of plant nutrients. The objective of this study was to evaluate specific genes as in situ indicators of biological soil response during phytoremediation. The abundance and activity of 16S rRNA, nif...

  20. Laboratory validation of two real-time RT-PCR methods with 5'-tailed primers for an enhanced detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbussche, Frank; Lefebvre, David J; De Leeuw, Ilse; Van Borm, Steven; De Clercq, Kris

    2017-08-01

    The 3D and 5UTR real-time RT-PCR assays (RT-qPCR) from Callahan et al. (2002) and Reid et al. (2002) are commonly used reference methods for the detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). For an optimal detection of FMDV in clinical samples, it is advised to use both assays simultaneously (King et al., 2006). Recently, Vandenbussche et al. (2016) showed that the addition of 5'-tails to the FMDV-specific primers enhances the detection of FMDV in both the 3D and the 5UTR RT-qPCR assay. To validate the 3D and 5UTR RT-qPCR assays with 5'-tailed primers for diagnostic purposes, both assays were run in parallel in a triplex one-step RT-qPCR protocol with beta-actin as an internal control and synthetic RNA as an external control. We obtained low limits of detection and high linearity's, high repeatability and reproducibility, near 100% analytical specificity and >99% diagnostic accuracy for both assays. It was concluded that the 3D and 5UTR RT-qPCR assays with 5'-tailed primers are particularly suited for the detection of FMDV as well as to exclude the presence of FMDV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Study On Selenium Accumulation In Turkey Tail Fungus (Trametes Versicolor) By Using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Xuam Tham; Ho Van Hai; Bui Thi Minh Hai; Nguyen Giang; Nguyen Thi Dieu Hanh

    2008-01-01

    Medicinal mushroom Kawaratake Trametes versicolor strain obtained from Chiba University, Japan, was fermented at stationary Erlenmayer flasks 250 ml, containing PG media with Se (10 ppm as selenate) and without Se (control) supplement, incubated at 32-34 o C (room temperature in Ho Chi Minh City). Selenium was added as dissolve selenate Na 2 SeO 4 , in which Se was enriched with 74 Se. Under neutron fluxes in nuclear reactor 74 Se will be activated into 75 Se emitted gamma rays (n-γ reaction), recorded for calculations of Se contents in the samples. Cultivation of Kawaratake on mixed substrates based sawdusts supplemented with Se by injecting directly into center region of the substrate based on rubber tree sawdust. Analysis of Se contents in fungal biomass harvested by using INAA with neutron flux at 10 12 cm -2 .s -1 in Nuclear Reactor at Dalat City, Vietnam. The results obtained with Trametes versicolor showed Se levels in mycelial biomass up to 600-1500 ppm, while in the control (without Se supplement), only trace of Se (1 ppm more or less) was found. It would be related to the researches on configurations of complex of polysaccharides and proteins in biomass with high bioactivities. Se would substitute S for some due structures and enhance their antioxydant activities. (author)

  2. Molecular cloning and anti-HIV-1 activities of APOBEC3s from northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Liang ZHANG

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Northern pig-tailed macaques (NPMs, Macaca leonina are susceptible to HIV-1 infection largely due to the loss of HIV-1-restricting factor TRIM5α. However, great impediments still exist in the persistent replication of HIV-1 in vivo, suggesting some viral restriction factors are reserved in this host. The APOBEC3 proteins have demonstrated a capacity to restrict HIV-1 replication, but their inhibitory effects in NPMs remain elusive. In this study, we cloned the NPM A3A-A3H genes, and determined by BLAST searching that their coding sequences (CDSs showed 99% identity to the corresponding counterparts from rhesus and southern pig-tailed macaques. We further analyzed the anti-HIV-1 activities of the A3A-A3H genes, and found that A3G and A3F had the greatest anti-HIV-1 activity compared with that of other members. The results of this study indicate that A3G and A3F might play critical roles in limiting HIV-1 replication in NPMs in vivo. Furthermore, this research provides valuable information for the optimization of monkey models of HIV-1 infection.

  3. Opening Data in the Long Tail for Community Discovery, Curation and Action Using Active and Social Curation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedstrom, M. L.; Kumar, P.; Myers, J.; Plale, B. A.

    2012-12-01

    In data science, the most common sequence of steps for data curation are to 1) curate data, 2) enable data discovery, and 3) provide for data reuse. The Sustainable Environments - Actionable Data (SEAD) project, funded through NSF's DataNet program, is creating an environment for sustainability scientists to discover data first, reuse data next, and curate data though an on-going process that we call Active and Social Curation. For active curation we are developing tools and services that support data discovery, data management, and data enhancement for the community while the data is still being used actively for research. We are creating an Active Content Repository, using drop box, semantic web technologies, and a Flickr-like interface for researchers to "drop" data into a repository where it will be replicated and minimally discoverable. For social curation, we are deploying a social networking tool, VIVO, which will allow researchers to discover data-publications-people (e.g. expertise) through a route that can start at any of those entry points. The other dimension of social curation is developing mechanisms to open data for community input, for example, using ranking and commenting mechanisms for data sets and a community-sourcing capability to add tags, clean up and validate data sets. SEAD's strategies and services are aimed at the sustainability science community, which faces numerous challenges including discovery of useful data, cleaning noisy observational data, synthesizing data of different types, defining appropriate models, managing and preserving their research data, and conveying holistic results to colleagues, students, decision makers, and the public. Sustainability researchers make significant use of centrally managed data from satellites and national sensor networks, national scientific and statistical agencies, and data archives. At the same time, locally collected data and custom derived data products that combine observations and

  4. Internalisation of the protease-activated receptor 1: role of the third intracellular loop and of the cytoplasmic tail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X; Berrou, J; Vigneau, C; Delarue, F; Rondeau, E

    2001-06-01

    To analyse the mechanisms of PAR-1 internalisation, we constructed several PAR-1 mutants and stably expressed them in CHO cells. Our study shows that the Ser(306)-->Ala mutation (S306A), which eliminates a potential site of phosphorylation by PKC in the third intracellular loop of PAR-1, did not change the rate of phosphorylation but reduced the rate of thrombin-induced internalisation of the PAR-1 mutant (58 versus 78% of membrane PAR-1 in 15 min, pinternalisation upon activation. This deletion also inhibited the PMA-induced and the agonist-independent internalisation of the receptor. The Tyr(371)--> Ala mutation (Y371A), in a NPXXY motif of the seventh transmembrane domain of the receptor had no effect on the receptor behaviour. Our results indicate that both the C-tail and the third intracellular loop are involved in PAR-1 internalisation induced by thrombin while only the C-tail plays a role in the PMA-induced and in the agonist-independent PAR-1 internalisation.

  5. Enhanced nitrogen removal from electroplating tail wastewater through two-staged anoxic-oxic (A/O) process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xinmei; Zhu, Chunyan; Huang, Bin; Yan, Qun; Zhang, Guangsheng

    2018-01-01

    Consisted of anaerobic (ANA), anoxic-1 (AN1), aerobic-1 (AE1), anoxic-2 (AN2), aerobic-2 (AE2) reactors and sediment tank, the two-staged A/O process was applied for depth treatment of electroplating tail wastewater with high electrical conductivity and large amounts of ammonia nitrogen. It was found that the NH 4 + -N and COD removal efficiencies reached 97.11% and 83.00%, respectively. Besides, the short-term salinity shock of the control, AE1 and AE2 indicated that AE1 and AE2 have better resistance to high salinity when the concentration of NaCl ranged from 1 to 10g/L. Meanwhile, it was found through high-throughput sequencing that bacteria genus Nitrosomonas, Nitrospira and Thauera, which are capable of nitrogen removal, were enriched in the two-staged A/O process. Moreover, both salt-tolerant bacteria and halophili bacteria were also found in the combined process. Therefore, microbial community within the two-staged A/O process could be acclimated to high electrical conductivity, and adapted for electroplating tail wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Behaviour of radiotoxic pollutants from tailings of uranium mining activities, measured data to serve as a basis for the development of concepts for mine site rehabilitation. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geipel, G.; Bernhard, G.; Thieme, M.; Grambole, G.; Neubert, H.

    1994-01-01

    Dependencies of the activity ratios U-234/U-238, Th-230/U-238, and especially Ra-226/U-238 on the depth of the mill tailing pile were found. Seepage waters show that U-234 has a preferential solubility compared with U-238. Because of sorption effects and incorporation into weathering products, Th and Ra show lower activity concentrations in seepage waters than uranium. Leaching experiments allow to distinguish between uranium coming from desorption and weathering processes. The distribution ratio of uranium between rock the material and the solution shows a maximum at pH∝7. For rock materials from the Schelma mining area, distribution ratios of uranium up to 10 3 depending on grain size and pH were found. About 2.5% of the uranium inventory of the mill tailing are bonded to the rock surface and that leaching of this uranium is very easy. The balance of weathering processes in the mill tailing pile shows that about 0.8 mg U/l in the seepage water originated from weathering processes. It was found that every year about 30 t of the rock material in a mill tailing pile underlie weathering processes. For the remediation of mill tailing piles, the seepage waters must be collected and cleaned. (orig./HP) [de

  7. Enhancement of hypoxia-activated prodrug TH-302 anti-tumor activity by Chk1 inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fanying; Bhupathi, Deepthi; Sun, Jessica D; Liu, Qian; Ahluwalia, Dharmendra; Wang, Yan; Matteucci, Mark D; Hart, Charles P

    2015-05-21

    The hypoxia-activated prodrug TH-302 is reduced at its nitroimidazole group and selectively under hypoxic conditions releases the DNA cross-linker bromo-isophosphoramide mustard (Br-IPM). Here, we have explored the effect of Chk1 inhibition on TH-302-mediated pharmacological activities. We employed in vitro cell viability, DNA damage, cellular signaling assays and the in vivo HT29 human tumor xenograft model to study the effect of Chk1inhibition on TH-302 antitumor activities. TH-302 cytotoxicity is greatly enhanced by Chk1 inhibition in p53-deficient but not in p53-proficient human cancer cell lines. Chk1 inhibitors reduced TH-302-induced cell cycle arrest via blocking TH-302-induced decrease of phosphorylation of histone H3 and increasing Cdc2-Y15 phosphorylation. Employing the single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay, we observed a potentiation of the TH-302 dependent tail moment. TH-302 induced γH2AX and apoptosis were also increased upon the addition of Chk1 inhibitor. Potentiation of TH-302 cytotoxicity by Chk1 inhibitor was only observed in cell lines proficient in, but not deficient in homology-directed DNA repair. We also show that combination treatment led to lowering of Rad51 expression levels as compared to either agent alone. In vivo data demonstrate that Chk1 inhibitor enhances TH-302 anti-tumor activity in p53 mutant HT-29 human tumor xenografts, supporting the hypothesis that these in vitro results can translate to enhanced in vivo efficacy of the combination. TH-302-mediated in vitro and in vivo anti-tumor activities were greatly enhanced by the addition of Chk1 inhibitors. The preclinical data presented in this study support a new approach for the treatment of p53-deficient hypoxic cancers by combining Chk1 inhibitors with the hypoxia-activated prodrug TH-302.

  8. Method for enhancing amidohydrolase activity of fatty acid amide hydrolase

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, George; Nagarajan, Subbiah; Chapman, Kent; Faure, Lionel; Koulen, Peter

    2016-10-25

    A method for enhancing amidohydrolase activity of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH) is disclosed. The method comprising administering a phenoxyacylethanolamide that causes the enhanced activity. The enhanced activity can have numerous effects on biological organisms including, for example, enhancing the growth of certain seedlings. The subject matter disclosed herein relates to enhancers of amidohydrolase activity.

  9. Preparation and adsorption characteristics for heavy metals of active silicon adsorbent from leaching residue of lead-zinc tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Chang; Yan, Bo; Chen, Tao; Xiao, Xian-Ming

    2018-05-19

    To comprehensively reuse the leaching residue obtained from lead-zinc tailings, an active silicon adsorbent (ASA) was prepared from leaching residue and studied as an adsorbent for copper(II), lead(II), zinc(II), and cadmium(II) in this paper. The ASA was prepared by roasting the leaching residue with either a Na 2 CO 3 /residue ratio of 0.6:1 at 700 °C for 1 h or a CaCO 3 /residue ratio of 0.8:1 at 800 °C for 1 h. Under these conditions, the available SiO 2 content of the ASA was more than 20%. The adsorption behaviors of the metal ions onto the ASA were investigated and the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm models were used to analyze the adsorption isotherm. The result showed that the maximum adsorption capacities of copper(II), lead(II), cadmium(II), and zinc(II) calculated by the Langmuir model were 3.40, 2.83, 0.66, and 0.62 mmol g -1 , respectively. The FT-IR spectra of the ASA and the mean free adsorption energies indicated that ion exchange was the mechanism of copper(II), lead(II), and cadmium(II) adsorption and that chemical reaction was the mechanism of zinc(II) adsorption. These results provide a method for reusing the leaching residue obtained from lead-zinc tailings and show that the ASA is an effective adsorbent for heavy metal pollution remediation.

  10. An active site–tail interaction in the structure of hexahistidine-tagged Thermoplasma acidophilum citrate synthase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Jesse R.; Donini, Stefano; Kappock, T. Joseph, E-mail: kappock@purdue.edu [Purdue University, 175 South University Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2063 (United States)

    2015-09-23

    Citrate synthase from the thermophilic euryarchaeon T. acidophilum fused to a hexahistidine tag was purified and biochemically characterized. The structure of the unliganded enzyme at 2.2 Å resolution contains tail–active site contacts in half of the active sites. Citrate synthase (CS) plays a central metabolic role in aerobes and many other organisms. The CS reaction comprises two half-reactions: a Claisen aldol condensation of acetyl-CoA (AcCoA) and oxaloacetate (OAA) that forms citryl-CoA (CitCoA), and CitCoA hydrolysis. Protein conformational changes that ‘close’ the active site play an important role in the assembly of a catalytically competent condensation active site. CS from the thermoacidophile Thermoplasma acidophilum (TpCS) possesses an endogenous Trp fluorophore that can be used to monitor the condensation reaction. The 2.2 Å resolution crystal structure of TpCS fused to a C-terminal hexahistidine tag (TpCSH6) reported here is an ‘open’ structure that, when compared with several liganded TpCS structures, helps to define a complete path for active-site closure. One active site in each dimer binds a neighboring His tag, the first nonsubstrate ligand known to occupy both the AcCoA and OAA binding sites. Solution data collectively suggest that this fortuitous interaction is stabilized by the crystalline lattice. As a polar but almost neutral ligand, the active site–tail interaction provides a new starting point for the design of bisubstrate-analog inhibitors of CS.

  11. An active site–tail interaction in the structure of hexahistidine-tagged Thermoplasma acidophilum citrate synthase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, Jesse R.; Donini, Stefano; Kappock, T. Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Citrate synthase from the thermophilic euryarchaeon T. acidophilum fused to a hexahistidine tag was purified and biochemically characterized. The structure of the unliganded enzyme at 2.2 Å resolution contains tail–active site contacts in half of the active sites. Citrate synthase (CS) plays a central metabolic role in aerobes and many other organisms. The CS reaction comprises two half-reactions: a Claisen aldol condensation of acetyl-CoA (AcCoA) and oxaloacetate (OAA) that forms citryl-CoA (CitCoA), and CitCoA hydrolysis. Protein conformational changes that ‘close’ the active site play an important role in the assembly of a catalytically competent condensation active site. CS from the thermoacidophile Thermoplasma acidophilum (TpCS) possesses an endogenous Trp fluorophore that can be used to monitor the condensation reaction. The 2.2 Å resolution crystal structure of TpCS fused to a C-terminal hexahistidine tag (TpCSH6) reported here is an ‘open’ structure that, when compared with several liganded TpCS structures, helps to define a complete path for active-site closure. One active site in each dimer binds a neighboring His tag, the first nonsubstrate ligand known to occupy both the AcCoA and OAA binding sites. Solution data collectively suggest that this fortuitous interaction is stabilized by the crystalline lattice. As a polar but almost neutral ligand, the active site–tail interaction provides a new starting point for the design of bisubstrate-analog inhibitors of CS

  12. Foraging activity of the free-tailed bat Molossus molossus (Chiroptera; Molossidae in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CEL. Esbérard

    Full Text Available Sunset and sunrise regulate the activities of most studied bat species. To verify patterns of foraging activity, 29 bat sampling nights were carried out over a dam in Rio de Janeiro city, which resulted in 363 hours with 730 captures, representing 13 species of insectivorous bats. Molossus molossus constituted the bulk of the captures (79.9% and was present in 82.8% of the sampling nights. This bat species exhibited crepuscular and nocturnal activity (from -6 minutes to 900 minutes after the time of sunset. A bimodal activity pattern was observed, and two non-overlapping capture peaks. The first peak lasted from 6 minutes before sunset to 420 minutes after sunset. The second peak began at 564 minutes after sunset and ended just after sunrise. The first capture peak was observed in 75.9% of the nights, and the second peak in 62.1% of the nights. The time of the first capture exhibited a positive linear relationship with sunset and the time of the last capture, a positive linear relationship with sunrise. The existence of a relationship between night length and the difference between first and last captures of each night shows that M. molossus has longer activity the longer the night, showing a seasonal variation in the activity period.

  13. Abundance and activity of 16S rRNA, amoA and nifH bacterial genes during assisted phytostabilization of mine tailings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Karis N.; Neilson, Julia W.; Root, Robert A.; Chorover, Jon; Maier, Raina M.

    2014-01-01

    Mine tailings in semiarid regions are highly susceptible to erosion and are sources of dust pollution and potential avenues of human exposure to toxic metals. One constraint to revegetation of tailings by phytostabilization is the absence of microbial communities critical for biogeochemical cycling of plant nutrients. The objective of this study was to evaluate specific genes as in situ indicators of biological soil response during phytoremediation. The abundance and activity of 16S rRNA, nifH, and amoA were monitored during a nine month phytostabilization study using buffalo grass and quailbush grown in compost-amended, metalliferous tailings. The compost amendment provided a greater than 5-log increase in bacterial abundance, and survival of this compost-inoculum was more stable in planted treatments. Despite increased abundance, the activity of the introduced community was low, and significant increases were not detected until six and nine months in quailbush, and unplanted compost and buffalo grass treatments, respectively. In addition, increased abundances of nitrogen-fixation (nifH) and ammonia-oxidizing (amoA) genes were observed in rhizospheres of buffalo grass and quailbush, respectively. Thus, plant establishment facilitated the short term stabilization of introduced bacterial biomass and supported the growth of two key nitrogen-cycling populations in compost-amended tailings. PMID:25495940

  14. Abundance and Activity of 16S rRNA, AmoA and NifH Bacterial Genes During Assisted Phytostabilization of Mine Tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Karis N; Neilson, Julia W; Root, Robert A; Chorover, Jon; Maier, Raina M

    2015-01-01

    Mine tailings in semiarid regions are highly susceptible to erosion and are sources of dust pollution and potential avenues of human exposure to toxic metals. One constraint to revegetation of tailings by phytostabilization is the absence of microbial communities critical for biogeochemical cycling of plant nutrients. The objective of this study was to evaluate specific genes as in situ indicators of biological soil response during phytoremediation. The abundance and activity of 16S rRNA, nifH, and amoA were monitored during a nine month phytostabilization study using buffalo grass and quailbush grown in compost-amended, metalliferous tailings. The compost amendment provided a greater than 5-log increase in bacterial abundance, and survival of this compost-inoculum was more stable in planted treatments. Despite increased abundance, the activity of the introduced community was low, and significant increases were not detected until six and nine months in quailbush, and unplanted compost and buffalo grass treatments, respectively. In addition, increased abundances of nitrogen-fixation (nifH) and ammonia-oxidizing (amoA) genes were observed in rhizospheres of buffalo grass and quailbush, respectively. Thus, plant establishment facilitated the short term stabilization of introduced bacterial biomass and supported the growth of two key nitrogen-cycling populations in compost-amended tailings.

  15. Biochar application to hardrock mine tailings: Soil quality, microbial activity, and toxic element sorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Charlene N.; Peltz, Christopher D.; Stanton, Mark R.; Rutherford, David W.; Rostad, Colleen E.

    2014-01-01

    Waste rock piles from historic mining activities remain unvegetated as a result of metal toxicity and high acidity. Biochar has been proposed as a low-cost remediation strategy to increase soil pH and reduce leaching of toxic elements, and improve plant establishment. In this laboratory column study, biochar made from beetle-killed pine wood was assessed for utility as a soil amendment by mixing soil material from two mine sites collected near Silverton, Colorado, USA with four application rates of biochar (0%, 10%, 20%, 30% vol:vol). Columns were leached seven times over 65 days and leachate pH and concentration of toxic elements and base cations were measured at each leaching. Nutrient availability and soil physical and biological parameters were determined following the incubation period. We investigated the hypotheses that biochar incorporation into acidic mine materials will (1) reduce toxic element concentrations in leaching solution, (2) improve soil parameters (i.e. increase nutrient and water holding capacity and pH, and decrease compaction), and (3) increase microbial populations and activity. Biochar directly increased soil pH (from 3.33 to 3.63 and from 4.07 to 4.77 in the two materials) and organic matter content, and decreased bulk density and extractable salt content in both mine materials, and increased nitrate availability in one material. No changes in microbial population or activity were detected in either mine material upon biochar application. In leachate solution, biochar increased base cations from both materials and reduced the concentrations of Al, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in leachate solution from one material. However, in the material with greater toxic element content, biochar did not reduce concentrations of any measured dissolved toxic elements in leachate and resulted in a potentially detrimental release of Cd and Zn into solution at concentrations above that of the pure mine material. The length of time of effectiveness and specific

  16. Fluorescence Enhancement of Fluorescent Unnatural Streptavidin by Binding of a Biotin Analogue with Spacer Tail and Its Application to Biotin Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianwei Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We designed a novel molecular biosensing system for the detection of biotin, an important vitamin by the combination of fluorescent unnatural streptavidin with a commercialized biotin-(AC52-hydrazide. A fluorescent unnatural amino acid, BODIPY-FL-aminophenylalanine (BFLAF, was position-specifically incorporated into Trp120 of streptavidin by four-base codon method. Fluorescence of the Trp120BFLAF mutant streptavidin was enhanced by the addition of biotin-(AC52-hydrazide with the concentration dependent, whereas fluorescence enhancement was not observed at all by the addition of natural biotin. It was considered that the spacer tail of biotin-(AC52-hydrazide may disturb the fluorescence quenching of the Trp120BFLAF by Trp79 and Trp108 of the neighbor subunit. Therefore, biotin sensing was carried out by the competitive binding reaction of biotin-(AC52-hydrazide and natural biotin to the fluorescent mutant streptavidin. The fluorescence intensity decreased by increasing free biotin concentration. The result suggested that molecular biosensor for small ligand could be successfully designed by the pair of fluorescent mutant binding protein and ligand analogue.

  17. arXiv Bose enhancement, the Liouville effective action and the high multiplicity tail in p-A collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Kovner, Alex

    In the framework of dense-dilute CGC approach we study fluctuations in the multiplicity of produced particles in p-A collisions. We show that the leading effect that drives the fluctuations is the Bose enhancement of gluons in the proton wave function. We explicitly calculate the moment generating function that resums the effects of Bose enhancement. We show that it can be understood in terms of the Liouville effective action for the composite field which is identified with the fluctuating density, or saturation momentum of the proton. The resulting probability distribution turns out to be very close to the gamma-distribution. We also calculate the first correction to this distribution which is due to pairwise Hanbury Brown-Twiss correlations of produced gluons.

  18. Changes in behaviour and faecal glucocorticoid levels in response to increased human activities during weekends in the pin-tailed sandgrouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Fabián; Benítez-López, Ana; Tarjuelo, Rocío; Barja, Isabel; Viñuela, Javier; García, Jesús T; Morales, Manuel B; Mougeot, Francois

    2016-12-01

    Human recreational activities are becoming increasingly widespread and frequent, a fact that may potentially exacerbate their effects on wildlife. These human-related disturbances on animals may induce behavioural and physiological changes that can ultimately affect their fitness, showing a similar anti-predator response that against natural predator or other threats. Here, we combine the use of behavioural and physiological approaches to assess the potential effect of winter human activities on a threatened farmland bird in Europe, the pin-tailed sandgrouse (Pterocles alchata). We compared before, during and after weekend variations in human activity rates, pin-tailed sandgrouse behaviour (flocking and flying behaviour, interspecific association in mixed flocks and habitat use) and faecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations. Human disturbances, in particular those associated with hunting activities, peaked during weekends. Sandgrouse showed significant behavioural changes (increased sandgrouse-only flock sizes, increased proportion of birds flying and changes in habitat use) during weekends and higher faecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations after the weekends compared with during or before weekends. Therefore, physiological stress levels could be modulated by behavioural adjustments such as increased flock sizes and changes in habitat use that may allow sandgrouse to cope with increased human disturbance rates during weekends. Nevertheless, temporal and spatial organization of hunting days among groups of estates might be good strategies to buffer these potential adverse effects on wintering pin-tailed sandgrouse and other steppe species of conservation concern, while preserving a socio-economically important activity such as hunting.

  19. Changes in behaviour and faecal glucocorticoid levels in response to increased human activities during weekends in the pin-tailed sandgrouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Fabián; Benítez-López, Ana; Tarjuelo, Rocío; Barja, Isabel; Viñuela, Javier; García, Jesús T.; Morales, Manuel B.; Mougeot, Francois

    2016-12-01

    Human recreational activities are becoming increasingly widespread and frequent, a fact that may potentially exacerbate their effects on wildlife. These human-related disturbances on animals may induce behavioural and physiological changes that can ultimately affect their fitness, showing a similar anti-predator response that against natural predator or other threats. Here, we combine the use of behavioural and physiological approaches to assess the potential effect of winter human activities on a threatened farmland bird in Europe, the pin-tailed sandgrouse ( Pterocles alchata). We compared before, during and after weekend variations in human activity rates, pin-tailed sandgrouse behaviour (flocking and flying behaviour, interspecific association in mixed flocks and habitat use) and faecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations. Human disturbances, in particular those associated with hunting activities, peaked during weekends. Sandgrouse showed significant behavioural changes (increased sandgrouse-only flock sizes, increased proportion of birds flying and changes in habitat use) during weekends and higher faecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations after the weekends compared with during or before weekends. Therefore, physiological stress levels could be modulated by behavioural adjustments such as increased flock sizes and changes in habitat use that may allow sandgrouse to cope with increased human disturbance rates during weekends. Nevertheless, temporal and spatial organization of hunting days among groups of estates might be good strategies to buffer these potential adverse effects on wintering pin-tailed sandgrouse and other steppe species of conservation concern, while preserving a socio-economically important activity such as hunting.

  20. Method for enhancing amidohydrolase activity of fatty acid amide hydrolase

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, George; Nagarajan, Subbiah; Chapman, Kent; Faure, Lionel; Koulen, Peter

    2017-12-26

    A method for enhancing amidohydrolase activity of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH) is disclosed. The method comprising administering a phenoxyacyl-ethanolamide that causes the enhanced activity. The enhanced activity can have numerous effects on biological organisms including, for example, enhancing the growth of certain seedlings.

  1. Separation and Recovery of Iron and Rare Earth from Bayan Obo Tailings by Magnetizing Roasting and (NH42SO4 Activation Roasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhou

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A novel approach for recovery of iron and rare earth elements (REEs from Bayan Obo tailings of Baotou, China, was developed by combining magnetizing roasting, magnetic separation, (NH42SO4 activation roasting, and water leaching. Thermodynamic analysis of carbothermal reduction was conducted to determine the temperature of magnetizing roasting, and it agreed well with the experimental results. The maximum recovery of Fe reached 77.8% at 600 °C, and the grade of total Fe in the magnetic concentrate was 56.3 wt. %. An innovative approach, using water to leach REEs after (NH42SO4 activation roasting, was used to extract REEs from magnetic separation tailings. The main influence factors of the leaching recovery during (NH42SO4 activation roasting, were investigated with the mass ratio of (NH42SO4 to magnetic separation tailings, roasting temperature and roasting time. The leaching recoveries of La, Ce and Nd reached 83.12%, 76.64% and 77.35%, respectively, under the optimized conditions: a mass ratio of 6:1, a roasting temperature of 400 °C and a roasting time of 80 min. Furthermore, the phase composition and reaction process during the (NH42SO4 activation roasting were analyzed with X-ray diffraction (XRD, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy & scanning electron microscopy (EDS-SEM and thermogravimetry & differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC, and the leaching solution and leaching residue were also characterized.

  2. On the Hydrodynamics of Anomalocaris Tail Fins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, K A; Rival, D E; Caron, J-B

    2018-04-25

    Anomalocaris canadensis, a soft-bodied stem-group arthropod from the Burgess Shale, is considered the largest predator of the Cambrian period. Thanks to a series of lateral flexible lobes along its dorso-ventrally compressed body, it is generally regarded as an efficient swimmer, well-adapted to its predatory lifestyle. Previous theoretical hydrodynamic simulations have suggested a possible optimum in swimming performance when the lateral lobes performed as a single undulatory lateral fin, comparable to the pectoral fins in skates and rays. However, the role of the unusual fan-like tail of Anomalocaris has not been previously explored. Swimming efficiency and maneuverability deduced from direct hydrodynamic analysis are here studied in a towing tank facility using a three-vane physical model designed as an abstraction of the tail fin. Through direct force measurements, it was found that the model exhibited a region of steady-state lift and drag enhancement at angles of attack greater than 25° when compared to a triangular-shaped reference model. This would suggest that the resultant normal force on the tail fin of Anomalocaris made it well-suited for turning maneuvers, giving it the ability to turn quickly and through small radii of curvature. These results are consistent with an active predatory lifestyle, although detailed kinematic studies integrating the full organism, including the lateral lobes, would be required to test the effect of the tail fin on overall swimming performance. This study also highlights a possible example of evolutionary convergence between the tails of Anomalocaris and birds, which, in both cases, are well-adapted to efficient turning maneuvers.

  3. Status of activities on the inactive uranium mill tailings sites remedial action program. Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-04-01

    This report on the status of the Office of Environment's program for inactive uranium mill tailings sites is an analysis of the current status and a forecast of future activities of the Office of Environment. The termination date for receipt of information was September 30, 1980. Aerial radiological surveys and detailed ground radiological assessments of properties within the communities in the vicinity of the designated processing sites in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania, Salt Lake City, Utah, and Boise, Idaho led to the designation of an initial group of vicinity properties for remedial action. The potential health effects of the residual radioactive materials on or near these properties were estimated, and the Assistant Secretary for Environment recommended priorities for performing remedial action to the Department's Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Energy. In designating these properties and establishing recommended priorities for performing remedial action, the Office of Environment consulted with the Environmental Protection Agency, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, representatives from the affected State and local governments, and individual property owners. After notifying the Governors of each of the affected States and the Navajo Nation of the Secretary of Energy's designation of processing sites within their areas of jurisdiction and establishment of remedial action priorities, a Sample Cooperative Agreement was developed by the Department in consultation with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and provided to the affected States and the Navajo Nation for comments. During September 1980, a Cooperative Agreement with the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania for the designated Canonsburg processing site was executed by the Department. It is anticipated that a Cooperative Agreement between the State of Utah and the Department to perform remedial actions at the designated Salt Lake City site will be executed in the near future

  4. Status of activities on the inactive uranium mill tailings sites remedial action program. Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-04-01

    This report on the status of the Office of Environment's program for inactive uranium mill tailings sites is an analysis of the current status and a forecast of future activities of the Office of Environment. The termination date for receipt of information was September 30, 1980. Aerial radiological surveys and detailed ground radiological assessments of properties within the communities in the vicinity of the designated processing sites in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania, Salt Lake City, Utah, and Boise, Idaho led to the designation of an initial group of vicinity properties for remedial action. The potential health effects of the residual radioactive materials on or near these properties were estimated, and the Assistant Secretary for Environment recommended priorities for performing remedial action to the Department's Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Energy. In designating these properties and establishing recommended priorities for performing remedial action, the Office of Environment consulted with the Environmental Protection Agency, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, representatives from the affected State and local governments, and individual property owners. After notifying the Governors of each of the affected States and the Navajo Nation of the Secretary of Energy's designation of processing sites within their areas of jurisdiction and establishment of remedial action priorities, a Sample Cooperative Agreement was developed by the Department in consultation with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and provided to the affected States and the Navajo Nation for comments. During September 1980, a Cooperative Agreement with the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania for the designated Canonsburg processing site was executed by the Department. It is anticipated that a Cooperative Agreement between the State of Utah and the Department to perform remedial actions at the designated Salt Lake City site will be executed in the near future.

  5. Hydrolytic enzyme activity enhanced by Barium supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Muñoz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hydrolysis of polymers is a first and often limiting step during the degradation of plant residues. Plant biomass is generally a major component of waste residues and a major renewable resource to obtain a variety of secondary products including biofuels. Improving the performance of enzymatic hydrolysis of plant material with minimum costs and limiting the use of additional microbial biomass or hydrolytic enzymes directly influences competitiveness of these green biotechnological processes. In this study, we cloned and expressed a cellulase and two esterases recovered from environmental thermophilic soil bacterial communities and characterize their optimum activity conditions including the effect of several metal ions. Results showed that supplementing these hydrolytic reactions with Barium increases the activity of these extracellular hydrolytic enzymes. This observation represents a simple but major improvement to enhance the efficiency and competitiveness of this process within an increasingly important biotechnological sector.

  6. Mechanism of the Ca2+-induced enhancement of the intrinsic factor VIIa activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelke, Jais R; Olsen, Ole H; Fodje, Michel

    2008-01-01

    between the loop and Lys(161) in the N-terminal tail. In support of the first mechanism, the mutations E296V and D212N resulted in similar, about 2-fold, enhancements of the amidolytic activity. Moreover, mutation of the Lys(161)-interactive residue Asp(217) or Asp(219) to Ala reduced the amidolytic...... activity by 40-50%, whereas the K161A mutation resulted in 80% reduction. Hence one of these Asp residues in the Ca(2+)-binding loop appears to suffice for some residual interaction with Lys(161), whereas the more severe effect upon replacement of Lys(161) is due to abrogation of the interaction with the N......-terminal tail. However, Ca(2+) attenuation of the repulsion between Asp(212) and Glu(296) keeps the activity above that of apoFVIIa. Altogether, our data suggest that repulsion involving Asp(212) in the Ca(2+)-binding loop suppresses FVIIa activity and that optimal activity requires a favorable interaction...

  7. Sulfide oxidation and acid mine drainage formation within two active tailings impoundments in the Golden Quadrangle of the Apuseni Mountains, Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sima, Mihaela; Dold, Bernhard; Frei, Linda; Senila, Marin; Balteanu, Dan; Zobrist, Jurg

    2011-05-30

    Sulfidic mine tailings have to be classified as one of the major source of hazardous materials leading to water contamination. This study highlights the processes leading to sulfide oxidation and acid mine drainage (AMD) formation in the active stage of two tailings impoundments located in the southern part of the Apuseni Mountains, in Romania, a well-known region for its long-term gold-silver and metal mining activity. Sampling was undertaken when both impoundments were still in operation in order to assess their actual stage of oxidation and long-term behavior in terms of the potential for acid mine drainage generation. Both tailings have high potential for AMD formation (2.5 and 3.7 wt.% of pyrite equivalent, respectively) with lesser amount of carbonates (5.6 and 3.6 wt.% of calcite equivalent) as neutralization potential (ABA=-55.6 and -85.1 tCaCO(3)/1000 t ) and showed clear signs of sulfide oxidation yet during operation. Sequential extraction results indicate a stronger enrichment and mobility of elements in the oxidized tailings: Fe as Fe(III) oxy-hydroxides and oxides (transformation from sulfide minerals, leaching in oxidation zone), Ca mainly in water soluble and exchangeable form where gypsum and calcite are dissolved and higher mobility of Cu for Ribita and Pb for Mialu. Two processes leading to the formation of mine drainage at this stage could be highlighted (1) a neutral Fe(II) plume forming in the impoundment with ferrihydrite precipitation at its outcrop and (2) acid mine drainage seeping in the unsaturated zone of the active dam, leading to the formation of schwertmannite at its outcrop. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Tail gut cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, G Mallikarjuna; Haricharan, P; Ramanujacharyulu, S; Reddy, K Lakshmi

    2002-01-01

    The tail gut is a blind extension of the hindgut into the tail fold just distal to the cloacal membrane. Remnants of this structure may form tail gut cyst. We report a 14-year-old girl with tail gut cyst that presented as acute abdomen. The patient recovered after cyst excision.

  9. Galaxies with long tails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweizer, F.

    1978-01-01

    Two types of galaxies with long tails are described. The first occurs in pairs, each individual one having a long tail and the second occurs on its own with two tails. NGC 7252 shows several characteristics which one would expect of a merger: a pair of tidal tails despite the splendid isolation, a single nucleus, tail motions in opposite directions relative to the nucleus, and chaotic motions of a strangely looped main body. (C.F.)

  10. Electrodialytic remediation of copper mine tailings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Rojo, A.; Ottpsen, Lisbeth M.

    2005-01-01

    electrodialytic remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. The results show that electric current could remove copper from watery tailing if the potential gradient was higher than 2V/cm during 21 days. With addition of sulphuric acid, the process was enhanced because the pH decreased to around 4...

  11. Function of the cytoplasmic tail of human calcitonin receptor-like receptor in complex with receptor activity-modifying protein 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwasako, Kenji, E-mail: kuwasako@fc.miyazaki-u.ac.jp [Frontier Science Research Center, University of Miyazaki, 5200 Kihara, Kiyotake, Miyazaki 889-1692 (Japan); Kitamura, Kazuo; Nagata, Sayaka; Hikosaka, Tomomi [Division of Circulation and Body Fluid Regulation, Faculty of Medicine, University of Miyazaki, 5200 Kihara, Kiyotake, Miyazaki 889-1692 (Japan); Kato, Johji [Frontier Science Research Center, University of Miyazaki, 5200 Kihara, Kiyotake, Miyazaki 889-1692 (Japan)

    2010-02-12

    Receptor activity-modifying protein 2 (RAMP2) enables calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CRLR) to form an adrenomedullin (AM)-specific receptor. Here we investigated the function of the cytoplasmic C-terminal tail (C-tail) of human (h)CRLR by co-transfecting its C-terminal mutants into HEK-293 cells stably expressing hRAMP2. Deleting the C-tail from CRLR disrupted AM-evoked cAMP production or receptor internalization, but did not affect [{sup 125}I]AM binding. We found that CRLR residues 428-439 are required for AM-evoked cAMP production, though deleting this region had little effect on receptor internalization. Moreover, pretreatment with pertussis toxin (100 ng/mL) led to significant increases in AM-induced cAMP production via wild-type CRLR/RAMP2 complexes. This effect was canceled by deleting CRLR residues 454-457, suggesting Gi couples to this region. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that CRLR truncation mutants lacking residues in the Ser/Thr-rich region extending from Ser{sup 449} to Ser{sup 467} were unable to undergo AM-induced receptor internalization and, in contrast to the effect on wild-type CRLR, overexpression of GPCR kinases-2, -3 and -4 failed to promote internalization of CRLR mutants lacking residues 449-467. Thus, the hCRLR C-tail is crucial for AM-evoked cAMP production and internalization of the CRLR/RAMP2, while the receptor internalization is dependent on the aforementioned GPCR kinases, but not Gs coupling.

  12. Plant growth-promoting bacteria for phytostabilization of mine tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandlic, Christopher J; Mendez, Monica O; Chorover, Jon; Machado, Blenda; Maier, Raina M

    2008-03-15

    Eolian dispersion of mine tailings in arid and semiarid environments is an emerging global issue for which economical remediation alternatives are needed. Phytostabilization, the revegetation of these sites with native plants, is one such alternative. Revegetation often requires the addition of bulky amendments such as compost which greatly increases cost. We report the use of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) to enhance the revegetation of mine tailings and minimize the need for compost amendment. Twenty promising PGPB isolates were used as seed inoculants in a series of greenhouse studies to examine revegetation of an extremely acidic, high metal contenttailings sample previously shown to require 15% compost amendment for normal plant growth. Several isolates significantly enhanced growth of two native species, quailbush and buffalo grass, in tailings. In this study, PGPB/compost outcomes were plant specific; for quailbush, PGPB were most effective in combination with 10% compost addition while for buffalo grass, PGPB enhanced growth in the complete absence of compost. Results indicate that selected PGPB can improve plant establishment and reduce the need for compost amendment. Further, PGPB activities necessary for aiding plant growth in mine tailings likely include tolerance to acidic pH and metals.

  13. Diagnostic analysis of electrodialysis in mine tailing materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.; Mateus, Eduardo

    2007-01-01

    Removal of heavy metals from mine tailings and soil contaminated by copper mining activities was studied under batch electrodialytic conditions. Two types of mine tailings were treated: (i) freshly produced tailings coming directly from the flotation process, and (ii) tailings deposited...... in a tailings pond, for approximately 20 years. The main contaminant was copper-found in concentration around 800-1800 ppm. The fractionation of copper and other characteristics of the tailings differ for the two tailings, indicating natural oxidation reactions in the old deposited ones. Electrodialytical...

  14. Phanerochaete mutants with enhanced ligninolytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakar, S.N.; Perez, A.; Gonzales, J.

    1994-01-01

    In addition to lignin, the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has the ability to degrade a wide spectrum of recalcitrant organo pollutants in soils and aqueous media. Most of the organic compounds are degraded under ligninolytic conditions with the involvement of the extracellular enzymes, lignin peroxidases, and manganese-dependent peroxidases, which are produced as secondary metabolites triggered by conditions of nutrient starvation (e.g., nitrogen limitation). The fungus and its enzymes can thus provide alternative technologies for bioremediation, bio pulping, bio bleaching, and other industrial applications. The efficiency and effectiveness of the fungus can be enhanced by increasing production and secretion of the important enzymes in large quantities and as primary metabolites under enriched conditions. One way this can be achieved is through isolation of mutants that are deregulated, or are hyper producers or super secretors of key enzymes under enriched conditions. Through UV-light and γ-ray mutagenesis, we have isolated a variety of mutants, some of which produce key enzymes of the ligninolytic system under high-nitrogen growth conditions. One of the mutants, 76UV, produced 272 U of lignin peroxidases enzyme activity/L after 9 d under high nitrogen (although the parent strain does not produce this enzyme under these conditions). The mutant and the parent strains produced up to 54 and 62 U/L, respectively, of the enzyme activity under low nitrogen growth conditions during this period. In some experiments, the mutant showed 281 U/L of enzyme activity under high nitrogen after 17 d

  15. Uranium Mill Tailings Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at the Fifth Symposium on Uranium Mill Tailings Management. Advances made with regard to uranium mill tailings management, environmental effects, regulations, and reclamation are reviewed. Topics considered include tailings management and design (e.g., the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project, environmental standards for uranium mill tailings disposal), surface stabilization (e.g., the long-term stability of tailings, long-term rock durability), radiological aspects (e.g. the radioactive composition of airborne particulates), contaminant migration (e.g., chemical transport beneath a uranium mill tailings pile, the interaction of acidic leachate with soils), radon control and covers (e.g., radon emanation characteristics, designing surface covers for inactive uranium mill tailings), and seepage and liners (e.g., hydrologic observations, liner requirements)

  16. Separation and Recovery of Iron and Rare Earth from Bayan Obo Tailings by Magnetizing Roasting and (NH4)2SO4 Activation Roasting

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Zhou; He Yang; Xiang-xin Xue; Shuai Yuan

    2017-01-01

    A novel approach for recovery of iron and rare earth elements (REEs) from Bayan Obo tailings of Baotou, China, was developed by combining magnetizing roasting, magnetic separation, (NH4)2SO4 activation roasting, and water leaching. Thermodynamic analysis of carbothermal reduction was conducted to determine the temperature of magnetizing roasting, and it agreed well with the experimental results. The maximum recovery of Fe reached 77.8% at 600 °C, and the grade of total Fe in the magnetic conc...

  17. Heavy tails of OLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikosch, Thomas Valentin; de Vries, Casper

    2013-01-01

    Suppose the tails of the noise distribution in a regression exhibit power law behavior. Then the distribution of the OLS regression estimator inherits this tail behavior. This is relevant for regressions involving financial data. We derive explicit finite sample expressions for the tail probabili...

  18. Effects of various tailings covers on radon gas emanation from pyritic uranium tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dave, N.K.; Lim, T.P.

    1987-01-01

    Radon emanation studies were carried out at an inactive pyritic uranium tailings site in Elliot Lake, Ontario, Canada, to evaluate the effects of various existing dry and wet covers on radon flux rates. Measurements were taken using activated charcoal cartridges for various surface covers consisting of bare, vegetated, acidophilic moss with high degree of water saturation, compacted crushed rock and gravel, and winter snow. The results showed that at a given site, there was no significant difference in radon emanation rates between various tailings covers and bare tailings. In particular, no increase In radon emanation rates from vegetated areas compared to bare tailings was observed. Radon emanation rates varied spatially depending on tailings grain size, porosity, moisture content and on pressure and water table variations. The emanation rates were higher for tailings with low water contents compared to those for wet and moss covered tailings

  19. Nitrogen isotopic patterns of vegetation as affected by breeding activity of Black-tailed Gull (Larus crassiostris): A coupled analysis of feces, inorganic soil nitrogen and flora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizota, C.

    2009-01-01

    Two currently breeding colonies (Matsushima Bay and Rishiri island; northern Japan) of predominant Black-tailed Gull (Larus crassiostris) were studied for N isotopic patterns of flora, which is affected by increased supply of inorganic soil N derived from the microbial transformation of feces. Coupled samples of feces, topsoil and flora were collected in early to mid July (2008), when input of fecal N onto soils was at its maximum. As bird migration and breeding continued, native Japanese red-pine (Pinus densiflora), junipers (Juniperus chinensis and Juniperus rigita; Matsushima Bay colony) and Sasa senanensis (Rishiri colony) declined, while ornithocoprophilus exotic plants succeeded. Among tree species on the islands, P. densiflora with ectomycorrizal colonization appears highly susceptible to elevated concentrations of NH 4 -N in the topsoil. A mechanism for best explaining the plant succession associated with the breeding activity of Black-tailed Gull was evidenced by two parameters: first, concomitant elevation of N content in the flora and second, inorganic soil N content, along with changes in N isotopic composition (δ 15 N). Earlier isotopic data on the foliar N affected by breeding activity were compiled and reviewed. Emphasis was put on isotopic information for inorganic N in soils that controls plant succession.

  20. Why are most EU pigs tail docked?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'eath, R.B.; Niemi, J.K.; Vosough Ahmadi, B.

    2016-01-01

    To limit tail biting incidence, most pig producers in Europe tail dock their piglets. This is despite EU Council Directive 2008/120/EC banning routine tail docking and allowing it only as a last resort. The paper aims to understand what it takes to fulfil the intentions of the Directive...... by examining economic results of four management and housing scenarios, and by discussing their consequences for animal welfare in the light of legal and ethical considerations. The four scenarios compared are: ‘Standard Docked’, a conventional housing scenario with tail docking meeting the recommendations...... for Danish production (0.7 m2/pig); ‘Standard Undocked’, which is the same as ‘Standard Docked’ but with no tail docking, ‘Efficient Undocked’ and ‘Enhanced Undocked’, which have increased solid floor area (0.9 and 1.0 m2/pig, respectively) provision of loose manipulable materials (100 and 200 g/straw per...

  1. Uranium tailings reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.W.; Steger, H.F.; Bowman, W.S.

    1984-01-01

    Samples of uranium tailings from Bancroft and Elliot Lake, Ontario, and from Beaverlodge and Rabbit Lake, Saskatchewan, have been prepared as compositional reference materials at the request of the National Uranium Tailings Research Program. The four samples, UTS-1 to UTS-4, were ground to minus 104 μm, each mixed in one lot and bottled in 200-g units for UTS-1 to UTS-3 and in 100-g units for UTS-4. The materials were tested for homogeneity with respect to uranium by neutron activation analysis and to iron by an acid-decomposition atomic absorption procedure. In a free choice analytical program, 18 laboratories contributed results for one or more of total iron, titanium, aluminum, calcium, barium, uranium, thorium, total sulphur, and sulphate for all four samples, and for nickel and arsenic in UTS-4 only. Based on a statistical analysis of the data, recommended values were assigned to all elements/constituents, except for sulphate in UTS-3 and nickel in UTS-4. The radioactivity of thorium-230, radium-226, lead-210, and polonium-210 in UTS-1 to UTS-4 and of thorium-232, radium-228, and thorium-228 in UTS-1 and UTS-2 was determined in a radioanalytical program composed of eight laboratories. Recommended values for the radioactivities and associated parameters were calculated by a statistical treatment of the results

  2. Electroacupuncture Delays Hypertension Development through Enhancing NO/NOS Activity in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Suk Hwang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Using spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR, this study investigated whether electroacupuncture (EA could reduce early stage hypertension by examining nitric oxide (NO levels in plasma and nitric oxide synthase (NOS levels in the mesenteric resistance artery. EA was applied to the acupuncture point Governor Vessel 20 (GV20 or to a non-acupuncture point in the tail twice weekly for 3 weeks under anesthesia. In conscious SHR and normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY rats, blood pressure was determined the day after EA treatment by the tail-cuff method. We measured plasma NO concentration, and evaluated endothelial NO syntheses (eNOS and neuronal NOS (nNOS protein expression in the mesenteric artery. Systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP were lower after 3 weeks of GV20 treatment than EA at non-acupuncture point and no treatment control in SHR. nNOS expression by EA was significantly different between both WKY and no treatment SHR control, and EA at GV20 in SHR. eNOS expression was significantly high in EA at GV 20 compared with no treatment control. In conclusion, EA could attenuate the blood pressure elevation of SHR, along with enhancing NO/NOS activity in the mesenteric artery in SHR.

  3. Tail posture predicts tail biting outbreaks at pen level in weaner pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahrmann, Helle Pelant; Hansen, Christian Fink; D'Eath, Rick

    2018-01-01

    posture and behaviour could be detected at pen level between upcoming tail biting pens (T-pens) and control pens (C-pens). The study included 2301 undocked weaner pigs in 74 pens (mean 31.1 pigs/pen; SD 1.5). Tails were scored three times weekly (wound freshness, wound severity and tail length) between 07......Detecting a tail biting outbreak early is essential to reduce the risk of pigs getting severe tail damage. A few previous studies suggest that tail posture and behavioural differences can predict an upcoming outbreak. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate if differences in tail......:00 h-14:00 h from weaning until a tail biting outbreak. An outbreak (day 0) occurred when at least four pigs had a tail damage, regardless of wound freshness. On average 7.6 (SD 4.3) pigs had a damaged tail (scratches + wound) in T-pens on day 0. Tail posture and behaviour (activity, eating...

  4. Assessing Risks of Mine Tailing Dam Failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concha Larrauri, P.; Lall, U.

    2017-12-01

    The consequences of tailings dam failures can be catastrophic for communities and ecosystems in the vicinity of the dams. The failure of the Fundão tailings dam at the Samarco mine in 2015 killed 19 people with severe consequences for the environment. The financial and legal consequences of a tailings dam failure can also be significant for the mining companies. For the Fundão tailings dam, the company had to pay 6 billion dollars in fines and twenty-one executives were charged with qualified murder. There are tenths of thousands of active, inactive, and abandoned tailings dams in the world and there is a need to better understand the hazards posed by these structures to downstream populations and ecosystems. A challenge to assess the risks of tailings dams in a large scale is that many of them are not registered in publicly available databases and there is little information about their current physical state. Additionally, hazard classifications of tailings dams - common in many countries- tend to be subjective, include vague parameter definitions, and are not always updated over time. Here we present a simple methodology to assess and rank the exposure to tailings dams using ArcGIS that removes subjective interpretations. The method uses basic information such as current dam height, storage volume, topography, population, land use, and hydrological data. A hazard rating risk was developed to compare the potential extent of the damage across dams. This assessment provides a general overview of what in the vicinity of the tailings dams could be affected in case of a failure and a way to rank tailings dams that is directly linked to the exposure at any given time. One hundred tailings dams in Minas Gerais, Brazil were used for the test case. This ranking approach could inform the risk management strategy of the tailings dams within a company, and when disclosed, it could enable shareholders and the communities to make decisions on the risks they are taking.

  5. Voltage-sensing domain mode shift is coupled to the activation gate by the N-terminal tail of hERG channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Peter S; Perry, Matthew D; Ng, Chai Ann; Vandenberg, Jamie I; Hill, Adam P

    2012-09-01

    Human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) potassium channels exhibit unique gating kinetics characterized by unusually slow activation and deactivation. The N terminus of the channel, which contains an amphipathic helix and an unstructured tail, has been shown to be involved in regulation of this slow deactivation. However, the mechanism of how this occurs and the connection between voltage-sensing domain (VSD) return and closing of the gate are unclear. To examine this relationship, we have used voltage-clamp fluorometry to simultaneously measure VSD motion and gate closure in N-terminally truncated constructs. We report that mode shifting of the hERG VSD results in a corresponding shift in the voltage-dependent equilibrium of channel closing and that at negative potentials, coupling of the mode-shifted VSD to the gate defines the rate of channel closure. Deletion of the first 25 aa from the N terminus of hERG does not alter mode shifting of the VSD but uncouples the shift from closure of the cytoplasmic gate. Based on these observations, we propose the N-terminal tail as an adaptor that couples voltage sensor return to gate closure to define slow deactivation gating in hERG channels. Furthermore, because the mode shift occurs on a time scale relevant to the cardiac action potential, we suggest a physiological role for this phenomenon in maximizing current flow through hERG channels during repolarization.

  6. Memory enhancing activity of Spondias mombin Anarcadiaceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In traditional medical practices, several plants have been used to treat cognitive disorders associated with aging as well as neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's. Spondias mombin and Pycnanthus angolensis were found among recipes used ethnomedicine in Nigeria as memory enhancer.

  7. Uranium tailings bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holoway, C.F.; Goldsmith, W.A.; Eldridge, V.M.

    1975-12-01

    A bibliography containing 1,212 references is presented with its focus on the general problem of reducing human exposure to the radionuclides contained in the tailings from the milling of uranium ore. The references are divided into seven broad categories: uranium tailings pile (problems and perspectives), standards and philosophy, etiology of radiation effects, internal dosimetry and metabolism, environmental transport, background sources of tailings radionuclides, and large-area decontamination

  8. Enhanced activation of the left hemisphere promotes normative decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corser, Ryan; Jasper, John D

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that enhanced activation of the left cerebral hemisphere reduces risky-choice, attribute, and goal-framing effects relative to enhanced activation of the right cerebral hemisphere. The present study sought to extend these findings and show that enhanced activation of the left hemisphere also reduces violations of other normative principles, besides the invariance principle. Participants completed ratio bias (Experiment 1, N = 296) and base rate neglect problems (Experiment 2, N = 145) under normal (control) viewing or with the right or left hemisphere primarily activated by imposing a unidirectional gaze. In Experiment 1 we found that enhanced left hemispheric activation reduced the ratio bias relative to normal viewing and a group experiencing enhanced right hemispheric activation. In Experiment 2 enhanced left hemispheric activation resulted in using base rates more than normal viewing, but not significantly more than enhanced right hemispheric activation. Results suggest that hemispheric asymmetries can affect higher-order cognitive processes, such as decision-making biases. Possible theoretical accounts are discussed as well as implications for dual-process theories.

  9. Uranium tailings sampling manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feenstra, S.; Reades, D.W.; Cherry, J.A.; Chambers, D.B.; Case, G.G.; Ibbotson, B.G.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this manual is to describe the requisite sampling procedures for the application of uniform high-quality standards to detailed geotechnical, hydrogeological, geochemical and air quality measurements at Canadian uranium tailings disposal sites. The selection and implementation of applicable sampling procedures for such measurements at uranium tailings disposal sites are complicated by two primary factors. Firstly, the physical and chemical nature of uranium mine tailings and effluent is considerably different from natural soil materials and natural waters. Consequently, many conventional methods for the collection and analysis of natural soils and waters are not directly applicable to tailings. Secondly, there is a wide range in the physical and chemical nature of uranium tailings. The composition of the ore, the milling process, the nature of tailings depositon, and effluent treatment vary considerably and are highly site-specific. Therefore, the definition and implementation of sampling programs for uranium tailings disposal sites require considerable evaluation, and often innovation, to ensure that appropriate sampling and analysis methods are used which provide the flexibility to take into account site-specific considerations. The following chapters describe the objective and scope of a sampling program, preliminary data collection, and the procedures for sampling of tailings solids, surface water and seepage, tailings pore-water, and wind-blown dust and radon

  10. Uranium mill tailings management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Facilities for the disposal of uranium mill tailings will invariably be subjected to geomorphological and climatological influences in the long-term. Proceedings of a workshop discuss how the principles of geomorphology can be applied to the siting, design, construction, decommissioning and rehabilitation of disposal facilities in order to provide for long-term containment and stability of tailings. The characteristics of tailings and their behaviour after disposal influence the potential impacts which might occur in the long-term. Proceedings of another workshop examine the technologies for uranium ore processing and tailings conditioning with a view to identifying improvements that could be made in such characteristics

  11. Suspended electrodialytic extraction of toxic elements for detoxification of three different mine tailings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, H.K.

    2016-01-01

    have shown that electrokinetic treatment can remove Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn from tailings soils; As from tailings; and Cu from tailings. Still, however, a major concern is the long treatment-time required for the element-transport through the tailings matrix. Therefore several enhancement methods have been...

  12. Enhancement of the Electrocatalytic Activity of Gold Nanoparticles via Anodic Treatment and the Decrease of the Enhanced Activity with Aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Kyung Min; Kang, Hyun Ju; Yang, Hae Sik

    2011-01-01

    We have recently shown that the electrocatalytic activity of Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) can be enhanced via NaBH 4 treatment and cathodic treatment and that the enhanced activity slowly decreases with aging. We have also demonstrated that the electrocatalytic activity of the AuNPs freshly prepared by electrochemical or chemical reduction slowly decreases with aging in both air and solution. Likewise, the electrocatalytic activity of anodically treated Au electrodes or AuNPs might change with aging. Herein, we report that the electrocatalytic activity of long-aged AuNPs can be enhanced via anodic treatment and that the enhanced electrocatalytic activity decreases with aging in air. The change in the electrocatalytic activity of AuNPs was evaluated by comparing cyclic voltammograms for the electrooxi-dation of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and formic acid

  13. Modeling cancer registration processes with an enhanced activity diagram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyalin, D; Williams, W

    2005-01-01

    Adequate instruments are needed to reflect the complexity of routine cancer registry operations properly in a business model. The activity diagram is a key instrument of the Unified Modeling Language (UML) for the modeling of business processes. The authors aim to improve descriptions of processes in cancer registration, as well as in other public health domains, through the enhancements of an activity diagram notation within the standard semantics of UML. The authors introduced the practical approach to enhance a conventional UML activity diagram, complementing it with the following business process concepts: timeline, duration for individual activities, responsibilities for individual activities within swimlanes, and descriptive text. The authors used an enhanced activity diagram for modeling surveillance processes in the cancer registration domain. Specific example illustrates the use of an enhanced activity diagram to visualize a process of linking cancer registry records with external mortality files. Enhanced activity diagram allows for the addition of more business concepts to a single diagram and can improve descriptions of processes in cancer registration, as well as in other domains. Additional features of an enhanced activity diagram allow to advance the visualization of cancer registration processes. That, in turn, promotes the clarification of issues related to the process timeline, responsibilities for particular operations, and collaborations among process participants. Our first experiences in a cancer registry best practices development workshop setting support the usefulness of such an approach.

  14. Enhancing Activity for the Oxygen Evolution Reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydendal, Rasmus; Busch, Michael; Halck, Niels Bendtsen

    2014-01-01

    Electrochemical production of hydrogen, facilitated in electrolyzers, holds great promise for energy storage and solar fuel production. A bottleneck in the process is the catalysis of the oxygen evolution reaction, involving the transfer of four electrons. The challenge is that the binding energies...... of all reaction intermediates cannot be optimized individually. However, experimental investigations have shown that drastic improvements can be realized for manganese and cobalt-based oxides if gold is added to the surface or used as substrate. We propose an explanation for these enhancements based...... that the oxygen evolution reaction overpotential decreases by 100–300 mV for manganese oxides and 100 mV for cobalt oxides....

  15. Discovery of stimulation-responsive immune enhancers with CRISPR activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeonov, Dimitre R.; Gowen, Benjamin G.; Boontanrart, Mandy; Roth, Theodore L.; Gagnon, John D.; Mumbach, Maxwell R.; Satpathy, Ansuman T.; Lee, Youjin; Bray, Nicolas L.; Chan, Alice Y.; Lituiev, Dmytro S.; Nguyen, Michelle L.; Gate, Rachel E.; Subramaniam, Meena; Li, Zhongmei; Woo, Jonathan M.; Mitros, Therese; Ray, Graham J.; Curie, Gemma L.; Naddaf, Nicki; Chu, Julia S.; Ma, Hong; Boyer, Eric; van Gool, Frederic; Huang, Hailiang; Liu, Ruize; Tobin, Victoria R.; Schumann, Kathrin; Daly, Mark J.; Farh, Kyle K.; Ansel, K. Mark; Ye, Chun J.; Greenleaf, William J.; Anderson, Mark S.; Bluestone, Jeffrey A.; Chang, Howard Y.; Corn, Jacob E.; Marson, Alexander

    2017-09-01

    The majority of genetic variants associated with common human diseases map to enhancers, non-coding elements that shape cell-type-specific transcriptional programs and responses to extracellular cues. Systematic mapping of functional enhancers and their biological contexts is required to understand the mechanisms by which variation in non-coding genetic sequences contributes to disease. Functional enhancers can be mapped by genomic sequence disruption, but this approach is limited to the subset of enhancers that are necessary in the particular cellular context being studied. We hypothesized that recruitment of a strong transcriptional activator to an enhancer would be sufficient to drive target gene expression, even if that enhancer was not currently active in the assayed cells. Here we describe a discovery platform that can identify stimulus-responsive enhancers for a target gene independent of stimulus exposure. We used tiled CRISPR activation (CRISPRa) to synthetically recruit a transcriptional activator to sites across large genomic regions (more than 100 kilobases) surrounding two key autoimmunity risk loci, CD69 and IL2RA. We identified several CRISPRa-responsive elements with chromatin features of stimulus-responsive enhancers, including an IL2RA enhancer that harbours an autoimmunity risk variant. Using engineered mouse models, we found that sequence perturbation of the disease-associated Il2ra enhancer did not entirely block Il2ra expression, but rather delayed the timing of gene activation in response to specific extracellular signals. Enhancer deletion skewed polarization of naive T cells towards a pro-inflammatory T helper (TH17) cell state and away from a regulatory T cell state. This integrated approach identifies functional enhancers and reveals how non-coding variation associated with human immune dysfunction alters context-specific gene programs.

  16. Discovery of stimulation-responsive immune enhancers with CRISPR activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeonov, Dimitre R.; Gowen, Benjamin G.; Boontanrart, Mandy; Roth, Theodore L.; Gagnon, John D.; Mumbach, Maxwell R.; Satpathy, Ansuman T.; Lee, Youjin; Bray, Nicolas L.; Chan, Alice Y.; Lituiev, Dmytro S.; Nguyen, Michelle L.; Gate, Rachel E.; Subramaniam, Meena; Li, Zhongmei; Woo, Jonathan M.; Mitros, Therese; Ray, Graham J.; Curie, Gemma L.; Naddaf, Nicki; Chu, Julia S.; Ma, Hong; Boyer, Eric; Van Gool, Frederic; Huang, Hailiang; Liu, Ruize; Tobin, Victoria R.; Schumann, Kathrin; Daly, Mark J.; Farh, Kyle K; Ansel, K. Mark; Ye, Chun J.; Greenleaf, William J.; Anderson, Mark S.; Bluestone, Jeffrey A.; Chang, Howard Y.; Corn, Jacob E.; Marson, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    The majority of genetic variants associated with common human diseases map to enhancers, non-coding elements that shape cell-type-specific transcriptional programs and responses to extracellular cues1–3. Systematic mapping of functional enhancers and their biological contexts is required to understand the mechanisms by which variation in non-coding genetic sequences contributes to disease. Functional enhancers can be mapped by genomic sequence disruption4–6, but this approach is limited to the subset of enhancers that are necessary in the particular cellular context being studied. We hypothesized that recruitment of a strong transcriptional activator to an enhancer would be sufficient to drive target gene expression, even if that enhancer was not currently active in the assayed cells. Here we describe a discovery platform that can identify stimulus-responsive enhancers for a target gene independent of stimulus exposure. We used tiled CRISPR activation (CRISPRa)7 to synthetically recruit a transcriptional activator to sites across large genomic regions (more than 100 kilobases) surrounding two key autoimmunity risk loci, CD69 and IL2RA. We identified several CRISPRa-responsive elements with chromatin features of stimulus-responsive enhancers, including an IL2RA enhancer that harbours an autoimmunity risk variant. Using engineered mouse models, we found that sequence perturbation of the disease-associated Il2ra enhancer did not entirely block Il2ra expression, but rather delayed the timing of gene activation in response to specific extracellular signals. Enhancer deletion skewed polarization of naive T cells towards a pro-inflammatory T helper (TH17) cell state and away from a regulatory T cell state. This integrated approach identifies functional enhancers and reveals how non-coding variation associated with human immune dysfunction alters context-specific gene programs. PMID:28854172

  17. TIDAL TAILS OF MINOR MERGERS. II. COMPARING STAR FORMATION IN THE TIDAL TAILS OF NGC 2782

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knierman, Karen A.; Scowen, Paul; Veach, Todd; Groppi, Christopher [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, 550 E. Tyler Mall, Room PSF-686 (P.O. Box 871404), Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States); Mullan, Brendan; Charlton, Jane [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Penn State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA (United States); Konstantopoulos, Iraklis [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde NSW 1670 (Australia); Knezek, Patricia M., E-mail: karen.knierman@asu.edu, E-mail: paul.scowen@asu.edu, E-mail: tveach@asu.edu, E-mail: cgroppi@asu.edu, E-mail: mullan@astro.psu.edu, E-mail: iraklis@aao.gov.au, E-mail: pknezek@noao.edu [WIYN Consortium, Inc., 950 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)

    2013-09-10

    The peculiar spiral NGC 2782 is the result of a minor merger with a mass ratio {approx}4: 1 occurring {approx}200 Myr ago. This merger produced a molecular and H I-rich, optically bright eastern tail and an H I-rich, optically faint western tail. Non-detection of CO in the western tail by Braine et al. suggested that star formation had not yet begun. However, deep UBVR and H{alpha} narrowband images show evidence of recent star formation in the western tail, though it lacks massive star clusters and cluster complexes. Using Herschel PACS spectroscopy, we discover 158 {mu}m [C II] emission at the location of the three most luminous H{alpha} sources in the eastern tail, but not at the location of the even brighter H{alpha} source in the western tail. The western tail is found to have a normal star formation efficiency (SFE), but the eastern tail has a low SFE. The lack of CO and [C II] emission suggests that the western tail H II region may have a low carbon abundance and be undergoing its first star formation. The western tail is more efficient at forming stars, but lacks massive clusters. We propose that the low SFE in the eastern tail may be due to its formation as a splash region where gas heating is important even though it has sufficient molecular and neutral gas to make massive star clusters. The western tail, which has lower gas surface density and does not form high-mass star clusters, is a tidally formed region where gravitational compression likely enhances star formation.

  18. TIDAL TAILS OF MINOR MERGERS. II. COMPARING STAR FORMATION IN THE TIDAL TAILS OF NGC 2782

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knierman, Karen A.; Scowen, Paul; Veach, Todd; Groppi, Christopher; Mullan, Brendan; Charlton, Jane; Konstantopoulos, Iraklis; Knezek, Patricia M.

    2013-01-01

    The peculiar spiral NGC 2782 is the result of a minor merger with a mass ratio ∼4: 1 occurring ∼200 Myr ago. This merger produced a molecular and H I-rich, optically bright eastern tail and an H I-rich, optically faint western tail. Non-detection of CO in the western tail by Braine et al. suggested that star formation had not yet begun. However, deep UBVR and Hα narrowband images show evidence of recent star formation in the western tail, though it lacks massive star clusters and cluster complexes. Using Herschel PACS spectroscopy, we discover 158 μm [C II] emission at the location of the three most luminous Hα sources in the eastern tail, but not at the location of the even brighter Hα source in the western tail. The western tail is found to have a normal star formation efficiency (SFE), but the eastern tail has a low SFE. The lack of CO and [C II] emission suggests that the western tail H II region may have a low carbon abundance and be undergoing its first star formation. The western tail is more efficient at forming stars, but lacks massive clusters. We propose that the low SFE in the eastern tail may be due to its formation as a splash region where gas heating is important even though it has sufficient molecular and neutral gas to make massive star clusters. The western tail, which has lower gas surface density and does not form high-mass star clusters, is a tidally formed region where gravitational compression likely enhances star formation

  19. Analysis of Heavy-Tailed Time Series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xie, Xiaolei

    This thesis is about analysis of heavy-tailed time series. We discuss tail properties of real-world equity return series and investigate the possibility that a single tail index is shared by all return series of actively traded equities in a market. Conditions for this hypothesis to be true...... are identified. We study the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of sample covariance and sample auto-covariance matrices of multivariate heavy-tailed time series, and particularly for time series with very high dimensions. Asymptotic approximations of the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of such matrices are found...... and expressed in terms of the parameters of the dependence structure, among others. Furthermore, we study an importance sampling method for estimating rare-event probabilities of multivariate heavy-tailed time series generated by matrix recursion. We show that the proposed algorithm is efficient in the sense...

  20. Dwarf Galaxies Swimming in Tidal Tails

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This false-color infrared image from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope shows little 'dwarf galaxies' forming in the 'tails' of two larger galaxies that are colliding together. The big galaxies are at the center of the picture, while the dwarfs can be seen as red dots in the red streamers, or tidal tails. The two blue dots above the big galaxies are stars in the foreground. Galaxy mergers are common occurrences in the universe; for example, our own Milky Way galaxy will eventually smash into the nearby Andromeda galaxy. When two galaxies meet, they tend to rip each other apart, leaving a trail, called a tidal tail, of gas and dust in their wake. It is out of this galactic debris that new dwarf galaxies are born. The new Spitzer picture demonstrates that these particular dwarfs are actively forming stars. The red color indicates the presence of dust produced in star-forming regions, including organic molecules called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. These carbon-containing molecules are also found on Earth, in car exhaust and on burnt toast, among other places. Here, the molecules are being heated up by the young stars, and, as a result, shine in infrared light. This image was taken by the infrared array camera on Spitzer. It is a 4-color composite of infrared light, showing emissions from wavelengths of 3.6 microns (blue), 4.5 microns (green), 5.8 microns (orange), and 8.0 microns (red). Starlight has been subtracted from the orange and red channels in order to enhance the dust features.

  1. Assessment of radiation hazards associated with tailing and sediment from an abandoned gold mine in Ilesa and an active tantalite mine in Ijero, southwest Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isinkaye, O. [Ekiti State University (Nigeria)

    2014-07-01

    The implication of indiscriminate or unregulated mining activities has been pointed out as a major risk to human health and the environment. In order to assess the potential radiological hazards pose to the environment due to mining activities in southwest Nigeria, the activity concentrations of {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th was determined in tailing and sediment from two mines within the study area. The samples were analysed by gamma spectrometry with low background NaI(Tl) detector. The activity concentrations of {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th in all the measured samples ranged from 249.66-1459.25 BqKg{sup -1}, 7.62-50.31 Bqkg{sup -1} and 12.68-234.18 Bqkg{sup -1}, respectively in soil while in sediment samples, the values ranged from 241.86-1590.40 Bqkg{sup -1}, 9.86-74.8 Bqkg{sup -1} and 15.47-145.46 Bqkg{sup -1} for {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th, respectively. In order to evaluate the radiological hazards due to the concentrations of natural radionuclides in the samples, the radium equivalent activity, external hazard index, absorbed gamma dose rates and the annual effective dose rates were determined. All these hazard indexes have mean values which are higher than the world average values but are all within their acceptable limits. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  2. Tales of island tails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de Alma V.; Oost, Albert P.; Veeneklaas, Roos M.; Lammerts, Evert Jan; Duin, van Willem E.; Wesenbeeck, van Bregje K.

    2016-01-01

    The Frisian islands (Southern North Sea) have extensive island tails, i.e. the entire downdrift side of an island consisting of salt marshes, dunes, beaches and beach plains, and green beaches. Currently, large parts of these tails are ageing and losing dynamics, partly due to human influence.

  3. Bar-tailed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijns, S.; Hidayati, N.A.; Piersma, T.

    2013-01-01

    Capsule Across the European wintering range Bar-tailed Godwits Limosa lapponica lapponica selected polychaete worms and especially Ragworms Hediste diversicolor, with differences between areas due to variations in prey availability.Aims To determine the diet of Bar-tailed Godwits across their

  4. Elemental characterization of Tummalapalle uranium mill tailing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patra, A.C.; Sahoo, S.K.; Thakur, V.K.; Dubey, J.S.; Jha, S.K.; Tripathi, R.M.; Sharma, D.B.

    2018-01-01

    Elements are present in environmental matrices at varying concentrations. Their levels may increase due to anthropogenic activities like transportation, industrial activities, agriculture, urbanization and human activities. Trace elements can be classified as potentially toxic (eg. cadmium, arsenic, mercury, lead, nickel), probably essential (eg. cobalt, vanadium) and essential (eg. iron, zinc, copper, selenium, manganese). Due to the expansion of the Indian Nuclear Power Programme, new uranium mining sites are coming up. Mining and milling produce large quantities of low active mill tailings contained in engineered Tailings Ponds. The tailings are amenable for interaction with the geochemical forces and can act as potential sources of contamination. Thus it is necessary to ascertain the concentrations of elements that are present therein. In this paper we aim to characterize the uranium tailings generated from Tummalapalle uranium mining facility in Kadappa district, Andhra Pradesh, India

  5. Is Enhanced Physical Activity Possible Using Active Videogames?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowski, Tom; Baranowski, Janice; O'Connor, Teresia; Lu, Amy Shirong; Thompson, Debbe

    2012-06-01

    Our research indicated that 10-12-year-old children receiving two active Wii ™ (Nintendo ® ; Nintendo of America, Inc., Redmond, WA) console videogames were no more physically active than children receiving two inactive videogames. Research is needed on how active videogames may increase physical activity.

  6. Is Enhanced Physical Activity Possible Using Active Videogames?

    OpenAIRE

    Baranowski, Tom; Baranowski, Janice; O'Connor, Teresia; Lu, Amy Shirong; Thompson, Debbe

    2012-01-01

    Our research indicated that 10–12-year-old children receiving two active Wii™ (Nintendo®; Nintendo of America, Inc., Redmond, WA) console videogames were no more physically active than children receiving two inactive videogames. Research is needed on how active videogames may increase physical activity.

  7. Surface enhanced Raman optical activity (SEROA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdali, Salim; Blanch, E.W.

    2008-01-01

    Raman optical activity (ROA) directly monitors the stereochemistry of chiral molecules and is now an incisive probe of biomolecular structure. ROA spectra contain a wealth of information on tertiary folding, secondary structure and even the orientation of individual residues in proteins and nucleic...

  8. Enhancement of immunological activity after mild hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi, Kenichi; Hasegawa, Takeo; Takahashi, Tohru

    2002-01-01

    At present, hyperthermia is clinically very important as interdisciplinary therapeutic method, and studies are being performed on combined effects with surgical treatment, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and gene therapy for the treatment of malignant tumors. We evaluated the effects of hyperthermia under temperature of 42.5C and demonstrated that the activation of immunological response is increased and anti-tumor effect cabn be obtained in this studies. We used animals were C3H mice (male,7W) bearing SCC-VII tumor on femur skin. Then, the mice were divided to 10 mice in each group, and only femur region was immersed in warm water for thermal treatment. Also we measured the tumor growth, changes of blood cell fraction and NK cell activity. The results of the present study confirmed: (1) Anti-tumor effect can be given by thermal treatment at relatively mild temperature (mild temperature at 39C-42C); (2) The increase of neutrophils is dependent on the quantity of heat added; (3) Immunological response of monocytes and lymphocytes is associated with it; (4) Activity of the immunological potency as a whole such as activation of NK cells was also confirmed

  9. Enhanced casein kinase II activity in human tumour cell cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prowald, K; Fischer, H; Issinger, O G

    1984-01-01

    Casein kinase II (CKII) activity is enhanced as much as 2-3 fold in established and 4-5-fold in transformed human cell lines when compared to that of fibroblasts and primary human tumour cell cultures where CKII activity never exceeded a basic level. The high activity of CKII in transformed cells...

  10. Tail-assisted pitch control in lizards, robots and dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libby, Thomas; Moore, Talia Y; Chang-Siu, Evan; Li, Deborah; Cohen, Daniel J; Jusufi, Ardian; Full, Robert J

    2012-01-04

    In 1969, a palaeontologist proposed that theropod dinosaurs used their tails as dynamic stabilizers during rapid or irregular movements, contributing to their depiction as active and agile predators. Since then the inertia of swinging appendages has been implicated in stabilizing human walking, aiding acrobatic manoeuvres by primates and rodents, and enabling cats to balance on branches. Recent studies on geckos suggest that active tail stabilization occurs during climbing, righting and gliding. By contrast, studies on the effect of lizard tail loss show evidence of a decrease, an increase or no change in performance. Application of a control-theoretic framework could advance our general understanding of inertial appendage use in locomotion. Here we report that lizards control the swing of their tails in a measured manner to redirect angular momentum from their bodies to their tails, stabilizing body attitude in the sagittal plane. We video-recorded Red-Headed Agama lizards (Agama agama) leaping towards a vertical surface by first vaulting onto an obstacle with variable traction to induce a range of perturbations in body angular momentum. To examine a known controlled tail response, we built a lizard-sized robot with an active tail that used sensory feedback to stabilize pitch as it drove off a ramp. Our dynamics model revealed that a body swinging its tail experienced less rotation than a body with a rigid tail, a passively compliant tail or no tail. To compare a range of tails, we calculated tail effectiveness as the amount of tailless body rotation a tail could stabilize. A model Velociraptor mongoliensis supported the initial tail stabilization hypothesis, showing as it did a greater tail effectiveness than the Agama lizards. Leaping lizards show that inertial control of body attitude can advance our understanding of appendage evolution and provide biological inspiration for the next generation of manoeuvrable search-and-rescue robots.

  11. Tailings management at Nabarlek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waggitt, P.

    1989-01-01

    As the entire uranium deposit at Nabarlek was mined in 1979, the mine pit was available as a tailing's repository from the time of commencement of ore processing. In the early years Nabarlek's tailings were deposited subaqueously. In 1985 the tailings deposition method was changed to a sub-aerial, or semi-dry, method. Over the subsequent three years there was evidence that the tailings settled further and squeezed water from lower layers. The water was pumped away and treated for removal of radium before being evaporated in one of the mine's evaporation ponds. When milling was completed in 1988 it was decided to try and increase the rate of water removal and so obtain even greater consolidation of the trailings in a shorter time. This was achieved by loading the tailings with a layer of screened leached sands and waste rock placed on a layer of geotextile filter fabric that had been laid over the whole of the tailings surface in the pit. Once this was completed a modified piling rig was used to insert vertical drains, or wicks, up to 30 metres into the tailings. The drains were placed on a square grid at a spacing of 3.25 metres. Water that was forced out of the tailings by the downward pressure of the sand and rock could flow freely to the surface up these drains. Once at the surface the water was gathered into a sump and pumped away for treatment as before. The drains are working very well at present although it will be some considerable time before the water stops flowing. Already settlement of the tailings is apparent and the settled density of the material is increasing. As far as is known this is the first time that such a system has been employed on mine tailings in a pit in this way

  12. The Running Wheel Enhances Food Anticipatory Activity: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flôres, Danilo E F L; Bettilyon, Crystal N; Jia, Lori; Yamazaki, Shin

    2016-01-01

    Rodents anticipate rewarding stimuli such as daily meals, mates, and stimulant drugs. When a single meal is provided daily at a fixed time of day, an increase in activity, known as food anticipatory activity (FAA), occurs several hours before feeding time. The factors affecting the expression of FAA have not been well-studied. Understanding these factors may provide clues to the undiscovered anatomical substrates of food entrainment. In this study we determined whether wheel-running activity, which is also rewarding to rodents, modulated the robustness of FAA. We found that access to a freely rotating wheel enhanced the robustness of FAA. This enhancement was lost when the wheel was removed. In addition, while prior exposure to a running wheel alone did not enhance FAA, the presence of a locked wheel did enhance FAA as long as mice had previously run in the wheel. Together, these data suggest that FAA, like wheel-running activity, is influenced by reward signaling.

  13. Tailings management for the twenty-first century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, S.E.

    1996-01-01

    The evolution of tailings management at Saskatchewan uranium mines is traced from the fifties to the nineties. Some of the problems with past systems are discussed. The new tailings systems now being proposed for the new operations currently undergoing environmental assessment in Saskatchewan are examined in detail. These new systems represent a change in tailings management philosophy, from keeping tailings high and dry on the surface, to placement of tailings in a low-energy regime within the water table. There they are removed from the active surface environment, avoiding future erosion problems, with a reduced likelihood of suffering intrusion from future human or animal activities. (author). 16 refs., 5 figs

  14. Groundwater restoration long beyond closure at the Homestake-Milan and United Nuclear-Church Rock uranium mill tailings piles, New Mexico, USA: full-scale programs requiring more than 20 years of active treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, W.P.

    1998-01-01

    Since as early as 1975, groundwater contamination from New Mexico uranium mill tailings has been investigated with two sites -Homestake-Milan and United Nuclear-Church Rock -showing severe enough groundwater damage to merit listing on the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Superfund National Priority List -a nationwide list based on severity of pollution and water resource usefulness. These two sites provide valuable case studies for the first - 1950s -and second - 1970s -generations of uranium mill tailings facilities demonstrating the severity of contamination which ineffective control can allow and the challenge of full scale groundwater restoration. While the groundwater restoration at these sites began in the 1970s and 1980s, active treatment is anticipated into the 21st century. This paper summarizes the groundwater restoration programs at two of these sites - Homestake Mining Company's (HMC) Milan Mill (now called the ''Grants Project'') and United Nuclear Corporation's (UNC) Church Rock Mill. The two sites are summarized with respect to operations, groundwater impact, tailings disposal systems, hydrogeological characteristics of the site and affected areas, applicable standards, and remedial technology applied. This review provides a basis for initial comparisons with uranium mill tailings groundwater restoration challenges outside the USA. These sites provide an important benchmark the complexity of restoration at for large-scale uranium mill tailings sites. The longevity of the restoration efforts demonstrate the results of low-intensity responses to contamination upon detection and delayed enforcement actions. These ''witnesses'' to the value of effective pollution prevention in tailings design and full review and monitoring of tailings operations, have potential to be models of effective groundwater restoration. (orig.)

  15. Is enhanced physical activity possible using active videogames?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our research indicated that 10– to 12-year-old children receiving two active Wii (TM)(Nintendo (R); Nintendo of America, Inc., Redmond, WA) console videogames were no more physically active than children receiving two inactive videogames. Research is needed on how active videogames may increase phys...

  16. Frost evolution in tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    A review was carried out on the physical and thermal mechanisms of permafrost evaluation in soils and uranium tailings. The primary mechanism controlling permafrost evolution is conductive heat transfer with the latent heat of fusion of water being liberated as phase change occurs. Depending on the soil properties and freezing rate, pore water can be expelled from the frost front or pore water can migrate towards the frost front. Solute redistribution may occur as the frost front penetrates into the soil. The rate of frost penetration is a function of the thermal properties of the tailings and the climatic conditions. Computer modelling programmes capable of modelling permafrost evolution were reviewed. The GEOTHERM programme was selected as being the most appropriate for this study. The GEOTHERM programme uses the finite element method of thermal analysis. The ground surface temperature is determined by solving the energy balance equations a the ground surface. The GEOTHERM programme was used to simulate the permafrost evolution in the Key Lake Mine tailings located in north central Saskatchewan. The analyses indicated that the existing frozen zones in the tailing pond will eventually thaw if an average snow depth covers the tailings. Hundreds of years are required to thaw the tailings. If minimal snow cover is present the extent of the frozen zone in the tailings will increase

  17. Presence and seeding activity of pathological prion protein (PrP(TSE in skeletal muscles of white-tailed deer infected with chronic wasting disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin L Daus

    Full Text Available Chronic wasting disease (CWD is a contagious, rapidly spreading transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE, or prion disease, occurring in cervids such as white tailed-deer (WTD, mule deer or elk in North America. Despite efficient horizontal transmission of CWD among cervids natural transmission of the disease to other species has not yet been observed. Here, we report for the first time a direct biochemical demonstration of pathological prion protein PrP(TSE and of PrP(TSE-associated seeding activity, the static and dynamic biochemical markers for biological prion infectivity, respectively, in skeletal muscles of CWD-infected cervids, i. e. WTD for which no clinical signs of CWD had been recognized. The presence of PrP(TSE was detected by Western- and postfixed frozen tissue blotting, while the seeding activity of PrP(TSE was revealed by protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA. Semi-quantitative Western blotting indicated that the concentration of PrP(TSE in skeletal muscles of CWD-infected WTD was approximately 2000-10,000-fold lower than in brain tissue. Tissue-blot-analyses revealed that PrP(TSE was located in muscle-associated nerve fascicles but not, in detectable amounts, in myocytes. The presence and seeding activity of PrP(TSE in skeletal muscle from CWD-infected cervids suggests prevention of such tissue in the human diet as a precautionary measure for food safety, pending on further clarification of whether CWD may be transmissible to humans.

  18. The Tail of BPM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruba, Steve; Meyer, Jim

    Business process management suites (BPMS's) represent one of the fastest growing segments in the software industry as organizations automate their key business processes. As this market matures, it is interesting to compare it to Chris Anderson's 'Long Tail.' Although the 2004 "Long Tail" article in Wired magazine was primarily about the media and entertainment industries, it has since been applied (and perhaps misapplied) to other markets. Analysts describe a "Tail of BPM" market that is, perhaps, several times larger than the traditional BPMS product market. This paper will draw comparisons between the concepts in Anderson's article (and subsequent book) and the BPM solutions market.

  19. Environmental Education Activities to Enhance Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yambert, Paul A.; And Others

    This document contains a set of 10 activities that teachers may use with students (ages 10 to adult) to enhance environmental knowledge and environmentally responsible behavior. Sample worksheets are included when applicable. The activities focus on: renewable and nonrenewable resources; recycling; population growth; wildlife; recycling in a…

  20. Estimation of Jump Tails

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Todorov, Victor

    We propose a new and flexible non-parametric framework for estimating the jump tails of Itô semimartingale processes. The approach is based on a relatively simple-to-implement set of estimating equations associated with the compensator for the jump measure, or its "intensity", that only utilizes...... the weak assumption of regular variation in the jump tails, along with in-fill asymptotic arguments for uniquely identifying the "large" jumps from the data. The estimation allows for very general dynamic dependencies in the jump tails, and does not restrict the continuous part of the process...... and the temporal variation in the stochastic volatility. On implementing the new estimation procedure with actual high-frequency data for the S&P 500 aggregate market portfolio, we find strong evidence for richer and more complex dynamic dependencies in the jump tails than hitherto entertained in the literature....

  1. Tail posture predicts tail damage among weaned piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zonderland, J.J.; Riel, van J.W.; Bracke, M.B.M.; Kemp, B.; Hartog, den L.A.; Spoolder, H.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Tail biting in pigs is a widespread behavioural vice with significant animal welfare and economic consequences. All too often, tail biting is not diagnosed nor dealt with until tail damage is present. To effectively reduce the negative effects of tail biting, it must be diagnosed in an early stage.

  2. Markov Tail Chains

    OpenAIRE

    janssen, Anja; Segers, Johan

    2013-01-01

    The extremes of a univariate Markov chain with regularly varying stationary marginal distribution and asymptotically linear behavior are known to exhibit a multiplicative random walk structure called the tail chain. In this paper we extend this fact to Markov chains with multivariate regularly varying marginal distributions in Rd. We analyze both the forward and the backward tail process and show that they mutually determine each other through a kind of adjoint relation. In ...

  3. Antidepressant-like activity of resveratrol treatment in the forced swim test and tail suspension test in mice: the HPA axis, BDNF expression and phosphorylation of ERK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Gu, Jianhua; Wang, Xueer; Xie, Kai; Luan, Qinsong; Wan, Nianqing; Zhang, Qun; Jiang, Hong; Liu, Dexiang

    2013-11-01

    Resveratrol is a natural polyphenol enriched in Polygonum cuspidatum and has diverse biological activities. There is only limited information about the antidepressant-like effect of resveratrol. The present study assessed whether resveratrol treatment (20, 40 and 80mg/kg, i.p., 21days) has an antidepressant-like effect on the forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) in mice and examined what its molecular targets might be. The results showed that resveratrol administration produced antidepressant-like effects in mice, evidenced by the reduced immobility time in the FST and TST, while it had no effect on the locomotor activity in the open field test. Resveratrol treatment significantly reduced serum corticosterone levels, which had been elevated by the FST and TST. Moreover, resveratrol increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation levels in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. All of these antidepressant-like effects of resveratrol were essentially similar to those observed with the clinical antidepressant, fluoxetine. These results suggest that the antidepressant-like effects of resveratrol in the FST and TST are mediated, at least in part, by modulating hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, BDNF and ERK phosphorylation expression in the brain region of mice. © 2013.

  4. Chronic treatment with caffeine and its withdrawal modify the antidepressant-like activity of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in the forced swim and tail suspension tests in mice. Effects on Comt, Slc6a15 and Adora1 gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szopa, Aleksandra; Doboszewska, Urszula; Herbet, Mariola; Wośko, Sylwia; Wyska, Elżbieta; Świąder, Katarzyna; Serefko, Anna; Korga, Agnieszka; Wlaź, Aleksandra; Wróbel, Andrzej; Ostrowska, Marta; Terlecka, Joanna; Kanadys, Adam; Poleszak, Ewa; Dudka, Jarosław; Wlaź, Piotr

    2017-12-15

    Recent preclinical and clinical data suggest that low dose of caffeine enhances the effects of common antidepressants. Here we investigated the effects of chronic administration of caffeine (5mg/kg, twice daily for 14days) and its withdrawal on day 15th on the activity of per se ineffective doses of fluoxetine (5mg/kg) and escitalopram (2mg/kg) given on day 15th. We found decreased immobility time in the forced swim and tail suspension tests in mice in which caffeine was administered simultaneously with antidepressants on day 15th following a 14-day caffeine treatment and no alterations in the spontaneous locomotor activity. A decrease in the level of escitalopram and an increase in the level of caffeine in serum were observed after concomitant administration of these compounds, while the joint administration of caffeine and fluoxetine was not associated with changes in their levels in serum or brain. Caffeine withdrawal caused a decrease in Adora1 mRNA level in the cerebral cortex (Cx). Administration of escitalopram or fluoxetine followed by caffeine withdrawal caused an increase in this gene expression, whereas administration of escitalopram, but not fluoxetine, on day 15th together with caffeine caused a decrease in Adora1 mRNA level in the Cx. Furthermore, antidepressant-like activity observed after joint administration of the tested drugs with caffeine was associated with decreased Slc6a15 mRNA level in the Cx. The results show that withdrawal of caffeine after its chronic intake may change activity of antidepressants with concomitant alterations within monoamine, adenosine and glutamate systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Constitutive activation of the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR by mutating Ile691 in the cytoplasmic tail segment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Autosomal dominant non-autoimmune hyperthyroidism (ADNAH is a rare genetic disorder of the endocrine system. Molecular genetic studies in ADNAH have revealed heterozygous germline mutations in the TSHR. To data, mutations leading to an increase in the constitutive activation of the TSHR have been described in the transmembrane segments, exoloops and cytoplasmic loop of TSHR. These mutations result in constitutive activation of the G(αs/cAMP or G(αq/11/inositol phosphate (IP pathways, which stimulate thyroid hormone production and thyroid proliferation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a previous study, we reported a new TSHR mutation located in the C-terminal domain of TSHR, which results in a substitution of the conserved Ile(691 for Phe. In this study, to address the question of whether the I691F mutated receptor could be responsible for G(αs/cAMP or G(αq/11/IP constitutive activity, wild-type and TSHR mutants were expressed in COS-7 cells to determine cAMP constitutive activity and IP formation. Compared to the cell surface with expression of the A623V mutated receptor as positive control, the I691F mutated receptor showed a slight increase of cAMP accumulation. Furthermore, I691F resulted in constitutive activation of the G(αq/11/IP signaling pathway. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that Ile(691 not only contributes to keeping TSHR inactive in the G(αs/cAMP pathways but also in the G(αq/11/IP cascade.

  6. Gramicidin D enhances the antibacterial activity of fluoride

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, James W.; Zhou, Zhiyuan; Breaker, Ronald R.

    2014-01-01

    Fluoride is a toxic anion found in many natural environments. One of the major bacterial defenses against fluoride is the cell envelope, which limits passage of the membrane-impermeant fluoride anion. Accordingly, compounds that enhance the permeability of bacterial membranes to fluoride should also enhance fluoride toxicity. In this study, we demonstrate that the pore-forming antibiotic gramicidin D increases fluoride uptake in B. subtilis and that the antibacterial activity of this compound...

  7. Antimicrobial activity and self-assembly behavior of antimicrobial peptide chensinin-1b with lipophilic alkyl tails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Weibing; Liu, Ziang; Sun, Liying; Wang, Cui; Guan, Yue; Mao, Xiaoman; Shang, Dejing

    2018-04-25

    The threshold hydrophobicity and amphipathic structure of the peptidic chain are important for the biological function of antimicrobial peptides. Chensinin-1b exhibits broad-spectrum bactericidal activity with no hemolytic activity but has almost no anticancer ability against the selected cancer cell lines. In this study, the conjugation of aliphatic acid was designed with different lengths of N-terminal of chensinin-1b, the antimicrobial activity of the resulting lipo-chensinin-1b was examined, in which OA-C1b showed much stronger activity than those of cheninin-1b and the other two lipopeptides. The membrane interaction between the lipo-chensinin-1b and real/mimetic bacterial cell membrane was investigated. Electrostatic interactions between the lipo-chensinin-1b and lipopolysaccharides were detected by isothermal titration calorimetry and the binding affinities were 10.83 μM, 8.77 μM and 7.35 μM for OA-C1b, LA-C1b and PA-C1b, respectively. The antimicrobial activity and membrane interaction ability of the lipo-chensinin-1b followed this order: OA-C1b > chensinin-1b > LA-C1b > PA-C1b. In addition, the lipo-chensinin-1b also exhibited lytic activity against various cancer cells and demonstrated the ability to inhibit LPS-stimulated cytokine release from human U937 cells. The CD spectra indicated that the helical or β-strands contents were existed as the main components in TFE or LPS solution, respectively. The self-assembly behavior was trigged by the solution pH and affected by the length of carbon chain, in which chensinin-1b, OA-C1b, LA-C1b and PA-C1b formed micelles at neutral pH and the micelle size increased for chensinin-1b, OA-C1b and LA-C1b. PA-C1b formed nanofibers in an acidic environment indicated by TEM experiments, and the peptides formed aggregates in an acidic environment and re-dissociated when the pH was adjusted to neutral. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Disease limits populations: plague and black-tailed prairie dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cully, Jack F.; Johnson, T.; Collinge, S.K.; Ray, C.

    2010-01-01

    Plague is an exotic vector-borne disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis that causes mortality rates approaching 100% in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). We mapped the perimeter of the active portions of black-tailed prairie dog colonies annually between 1999 and 2005 at four prairie dog colony complexes in areas with a history of plague, as well as at two complexes that were located outside the distribution of plague at the time of mapping and had therefore never been affected by the disease. We hypothesized that the presence of plague would significantly reduce overall black-tailed prairie dog colony area, reduce the sizes of colonies on these landscapes, and increase nearest-neighbor distances between colonies. Within the region historically affected by plague, individual colonies were smaller, nearest-neighbor distances were greater, and the proportion of potential habitat occupied by active prairie dog colonies was smaller than at plague-free sites. Populations that endured plague were composed of fewer large colonies (>100 ha) than populations that were historically plague free. We suggest that these differences among sites in colony size and isolation may slow recolonization after extirpation. At the same time, greater intercolony distances may also reduce intercolony transmission of pathogens. Reduced transmission among smaller and more distant colonies may ultimately enhance long-term prairie dog population persistence in areas where plague is present.

  9. Ficus Deltoidea Enhance Glucose Uptake Activity in Cultured Muscle Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainah Adam; Shafii Khamis; Amin Ismail; Muhajir Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Ficus deltoidea or locally known as Mas cotek is one of the common medicinal plants used in Malaysia. Our previous studies showed that this plant have blood glucose lowering effect. Glucose uptake into muscle and adipocytes cells is one of the known mechanisms of blood glucose lowering effect. This study was performed to evaluate the effect of Ficus deltoidea on glucose uptake activity into muscle cells. The cells were incubated with Ficus deltoidea extracts either alone or combination with insulin. Amount of glucose uptake by L6 myotubes was determined using glucose tracer, 2-deoxy-(1- 3 H 1 )-glucose. The results showed that Ficus deltoidea extracts at particular doses enhanced basal or insulin-mediated glucose uptake into muscle cells significantly. Hot aqueous extract enhanced glucose uptake at the low concentration (10 μg/ ml) whereas methanolic extract enhanced glucose uptake at low and high concentrations. Methanolic extract also mimicked insulin activity during enhancing glucose uptake into L^ muscle cells. Glucose uptake activity of Ficus deltoidea could be attributed by the phenolic compound presence in the plant. This study had shown that Ficus deltoidea has the ability to enhance glucose uptake into muscle cells which is partly contributed the antidiabetic activity of this plant. (author)

  10. Proteomic and biochemical analyses of short-tailed pit viper (Gloydius brevicaudus) venom: age-related variation and composition-activity correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jian-Fang; Wang, Jin; He, Ying; Qu, Yan-Fu; Lin, Long-Hui; Ma, Xiao-Mei; Ji, Xiang

    2014-06-13

    We conducted an in-depth analysis of the proteomic and biochemical profiles of the venom of neonate and adult short-tailed pit vipers (Gloydius brevicaudus). Identified proteins were assigned to a few main toxin families. Disintegrin, phospholipase A2 (PLA2), serine proteinase, cysteine-rich secretory protein, C-type lectin-like protein, l-amino acid oxidase and snake venom metalloproteinase (SVMP) were detected in both venoms, while 5'-nucleotidase was detected only in the adult venom. SVMP was the predominant protein family in both venoms (neonate: 65.7%; adult: 64.4%), followed by PLA2 (neonate: 13.4%; adult: 25.0%). Antivenomic analysis revealed that commercial G. brevicaudus antivenom almost neutralized the chromatographic peaks with medium and high molecular masses in both venoms, but did not completely recognize peaks with low molecular mass. Toxicological and enzymatic activities show remarkable age-related variation in G. brevicaudus venom, probably resulting from variation in venom composition. Our data demonstrate age-related variation across venomics, antivenomics and biochemical profiles of G. brevicaudus venom, and have implications for the management of G. brevicaudus bites, including improving antivenom preparation by combining both venoms. This study investigates the composition and biochemical activity of neonate and adult Gloydius brevicaudus venoms. We found remarkable age-related variation in venom biological activity, likely the result of variation in venom composition. Antivenomics analysis was used to explore difference in neonate and adult G. brevicaudus venoms. Our findings have implications for the diagnosis and clinical management of G. brevicaudus bites, and the design of venom mixtures that will increase the efficacy of commercial antivenom. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Proteomics of non-model organisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The Sodium Tail of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matta, M.; Smith, S.; Baumgardner, J.; Wilson, J.; Martinis, C.; Mendillo, M.

    2009-01-01

    During the few days centered about new Moon, the lunar surface is optically hidden from Earth-based observers. However, the Moon still offers an observable: an extended sodium tail. The lunar sodium tail is the escaping "hot" component of a coma-like exosphere of sodium generated by photon-stimulated desorption, solar wind sputtering and meteoroid impact. Neutral sodium atoms escaping lunar gravity experience solar radiation pressure that drives them into the anti-solar direction forming a comet-like tail. During new Moon time, the geometry of the Sun, Moon and Earth is such that the anti-sunward sodium flux is perturbed by the terrestrial gravitational field resulting in its focusing into a dense core that extends beyond the Earth. An all-sky camera situated at the El Leoncito Observatory (CASLEO) in Argentina has been successfully imaging this tail through a sodium filter at each lunation since April 2006. This paper reports on the results of the brightness of the lunar sodium tail spanning 31 lunations between April 2006 and September 2008. Brightness variability trends are compared with both sporadic and shower meteor activity, solar wind proton energy flux and solar near ultra violet (NUV) patterns for possible correlations. Results suggest minimal variability in the brightness of the observed lunar sodium tail, generally uncorrelated with any single source, yet consistent with a multi-year period of minimal solar activity and non-intense meteoric fluxes.

  12. Uranium mill tailings stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, J.N.; Koehmstedt, P.L.; Esterl, D.J.; Freeman, H.D.

    1980-02-01

    Uranium mill tailings pose a potential radiation health hazard to the public. Therefore, stabilization or disposal of these tailings in a safe and environmentally sound way is needed to minimize radon exhalation and other environmental hazards. One of the most promising concepts for stabilizing U tailings is the use of asphalt emulsion to contain radon and other hazardous materials within uranium tailings. This approach is being investigated at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Results of these studies indicate that a radon flux reduction of greater than 99% can be obtained using either a poured-on/sprayed-on seal (3.0 to 7.0 mm thick) or an admixture seal (2.5 to 12.7 cm thick) containing about 18 wt % residual asphalt. A field test was carried out in June 1979 at the Grand Junction tailings pile in order to demonstrate the sealing process. A reduction in radon flux ranging from 4.5 to greater than 99% (76% average) was achieved using a 15.2-cm (6-in.) admix seal with a sprayed-on top coat. A hydrostatic stabilizer was used to apply the admix. Following compaction, a spray coat seal was applied over the admix as the final step in construction of a radon seal. Overburden was applied to provide a protective soil layer over the seal. Included in part of the overburden was a herbicide to prevent root penetration

  13. Liquefaction of uranium tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    Numerical methods for assessing the liquefaction potential of soils are reviewed with a view to their application to uranium tailings. The method can be divided into two categories: total stress analysis, where changes in pore pressure are not considered in the soil model, and effective stress analysis, where changes in pore pressure are included in the soil model. Effective stress analysis is more realistic, but few computer programs exist for such analysis in two or three dimensions. A simple linearized, two-dimensional, finite element effective stress analysis which incorporates volumetric compaction due to shear motion is described and implemented. The new program is applied to the assessment of liquefaction potential of tailings in the Quirke Mine tailings area near Elliot Lake, Ontario. The results are compared with those of a total stress analysis. Both analyses indicate liquefaction would occur if a magnitude 6.0 earthquake were to occur near the area. However, the extent of liquefaction predicted by the effective stress analysis is much less than that predicted by the total stress analysis. The results of both methods are sensitive to assumed material properties and to the method used to determine the cyclic shear strength of the tailings. Further analysis, incorporating more in situ and/or laboratory data, is recommended before conclusions can be made concerning the dynamic stability of these tailings

  14. Mine tailings disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales, P.A.; Adams, B.J.

    1980-06-01

    The hydrologic evaluation of mine tailings disposal sites after they are abandoned is considered in relation to their potential environmental impact on a long term basis. There is a direct relation between the amounts and types of water leaving a disposal site and the severity of the potential damage to the environment. The evaluation of the relative distribution of the precipitation reaching the ground into evaporation, runoff and infiltration is obtained for a selected site and type of tailings material whose characteristics and physical properties were determined in the soils laboratory. A conceptual model of the hydrologic processes involved and the corresponding mathematical model were developed to simulate the physical system. A computer program was written to solve the set of equations forming the mathematical model, considering the physical properties of the tailings and the rainfall data selected. The results indicate that the relative distribution of the precipitation depends on the surface and upper layer of the tailings and that the position of the groundwater table is governed by the flow through the bottom of the profile considered. The slope of the surface of the mass of tailings was found to be one of the principal factors affecting the relative distribution of precipitation and, therefore, the potential pollution of the environment

  15. Oil sands tailings technology : understanding the impact to reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamer, M. [Suncor Energy Inc., Fort McMurray, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This paper discussed tailings management techniques at oil sands mines and their effects on reclamation schedules and outcomes. The layer of mature fine tailings (MFT) that forms in tailings ponds does not settle within a reasonable time frame, requiring more and larger tailings ponds for storing MFT. Consolidated tailings (CT) technology was developed to accelerate the consolidation of MFT, although the process nonetheless takes decades. CT is produced from mixing tailings sand, gypsum, and MFT to create a mixture that will consolidate more quickly and release water. However, CT production is tied to the extraction process, making it applicable only when the plant is operational, and a precise recipe and accurate injection are required for CT to work. In tailings reduction operations (TRO), a new approach to tailings management, MFT is mixed with a polymer flocculant, deposited in thin layers, and allowed to dry. TRO has a significant advantage over CT in that the latter takes up to 30 years to consolidate to a trafficable surface compared to weeks for TRO. TRO allows MFT to be consumed more quickly than it is produced, reducing need to build more tailings ponds, operates independent of plant operations, accelerates the reclamation time frame, and offers enhanced flexibility in final tailings placement sites. TRO also creates a dry landscape, to which well established reclamation techniques can be applied. Dried MFT is a new material type, and research is exploring optimum reclamation techniques. 2 figs.

  16. Recycling of asbestos tailings used as reinforcing fillers in polypropylene based composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Wensi; Wang, Yao; Deng, Yuan; Gao, Hongli; Lin, Zhen; Li, Mao

    2014-04-15

    In this work, asbestos tailings were recycled and used as reinforcing fillers to enhance the mechanical properties of polypropylene (PP). A silane coupling agent was used to chemically modify the asbestos tailings to increase the compatibility between asbestos tailings and polypropylene matrix. Both raw and chemically treated asbestos tailings with different loading levels (from 3 to 30 wt%) were utilized to fabricate composites. Mechanical properties of these composites have been investigated by dynamic mechanical analysis, tensile test and notched impact test. Results showed that hybridization of asbestos tailings in the composites enhanced the mechanical properties of neat PP evidently, and treated asbestos tailings/PP composites yielded even better mechanical properties compared with those of raw asbestos tailings/PP composites. This recycling method of asbestos tailings not only reduces disposal costs and avoids secondary pollution but also produces a new PP-based composite material with enhanced mechanical properties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Chimeric polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wogulis, Mark; Sweeney, Matthew; Heu, Tia

    2017-06-14

    The present invention relates to chimeric GH61 polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity. The present invention also relates to polynucleotides encoding the chimeric GH61 polypeptides; nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides; and methods of using the chimeric GH61 polypeptides.

  18. Activity enhancement of ligninolytic enzymes of Trametes versicolor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suspended cultures of white-rot fungus, Trametes versicolor, supplemented with bagasse powder showed a concentration dependent enhancement in the ligninolytic enzymes activity in liquid shake cultures. 2% (w/v) bagasse powder improved greater stability to the enzymes. The optimum pH is 3.5 and the optimum ...

  19. Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiyuran, Suchindra; Kramer, Randall; Harris, Paul

    2013-10-29

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  20. Can aquatic worms enhance methane production from waste activated sludge?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serrano, Antonio; Hendrickx, Tim L.G.; Elissen, Hellen; Laarhoven, Bob; Buisman, Cees J.N.; Temmink, Hardy

    2016-01-01

    Although literature suggests that aquatic worms can help to enhance the methane production from excess activated sludge, clear evidence for this is missing. Therefore, anaerobic digestion tests were performed at 20 and at 30 °C with sludge from a high-loaded membrane bioreactor, the aquatic worm

  1. Past climate change and recent anthropogenic activities affect genetic structure and population demography of the greater long-tailed hamster in northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Junbin; Xiao, Zhenlong; Li, Chuanhai; Wang, Fusheng; Liao, Jicheng; Fu, Jinzhong; Zhang, Zhibin

    2015-09-01

    The genetic diversity and the spatial structure of a species are likely consequences of both past and recent evolutionary processes, but relevant studies are still rare in East Asia where the Pleistocene climate has unique influences. In this study, we examined the impact of past climate change and recent anthropogenic activities on the genetic structure and population size of the greater long-tailed hamster (Tscherskia triton), an agricultural rodent pest species in northern China. DNA sequence data of 2 mitochondrial genes and genotypic data of 11 microsatellite DNA loci from 41 populations (545 individuals) were gathered. Phylogenetic and population genetic analyses, as well as species distribution modeling and coalescent simulations, were conducted to infer its historical and demographic patterns and processes. Two deeply diverged mitochondrial clades were recovered. A small one was restricted to the Shandong Peninsula while the main clade was further divided into 3 geographic clusters by their microsatellite DNA genotypes: Northwest, North-center and Northeast. Divergence dating indicated a Middle-to-Late Pleistocene divergence between the 2 clades. Demographic analysis indicated that all 3 and pooled populations showed consistent long-period expansions during last glacial period; but not during the Holocene, probably due to the impact of climate warming and human disturbances. Conflicting patterns between mtDNA and microsatellite markers imply an anthropogenic impact on North-center populations due to intensified agricultural cultivation in this region. Our study demonstrated that the impact of past glaciation on organisms in East Asia significantly differs from that of Europe and North America, and human activity is an important factor in determining the genetic diversity of a species, as well as its spatial structure. © 2015 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  2. Theseus Tail Being Unloaded

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The tail of the Theseus prototype research aircraft is seen here being unloaded at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, in May of 1996. The Theseus aircraft, built and operated by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia, was a unique aircraft flown at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, under a cooperative agreement between NASA and Aurora. Dryden hosted the Theseus program, providing hangar space and range safety for flight testing. Aurora Flight Sciences was responsible for the actual flight testing, vehicle flight safety, and operation of the aircraft. The Theseus remotely piloted aircraft flew its maiden flight on May 24, 1996, at Dryden. During its sixth flight on November 12, 1996, Theseus experienced an in-flight structural failure that resulted in the loss of the aircraft. As of the beginning of the year 2000, Aurora had not rebuilt the aircraft. Theseus was built for NASA under an innovative, $4.9 million fixed-price contract by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation and its partners, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, and Fairmont State College, Fairmont, West Virginia. The twin-engine, unpiloted vehicle had a 140-foot wingspan, and was constructed largely of composite materials. Powered by two 80-horsepower, turbocharged piston engines that drove twin 9-foot-diameter propellers, Theseus was designed to fly autonomously at high altitudes, with takeoff and landing under the active control of a ground-based pilot in a ground control station 'cockpit.' With the potential ability to carry 700 pounds of science instruments to altitudes above 60,000 feet for durations of greater than 24 hours, Theseus was intended to support research in areas such as stratospheric ozone depletion and the atmospheric effects of future high-speed civil transport aircraft engines. Instruments carried aboard Theseus also would be able to validate satellite-based global environmental change measurements

  3. Uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaren, L.H.

    1982-11-01

    This bibliography contains information on uranium mill tailings included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from January 1981 through October 1982. The abstracts are grouped by subject category as shown in the table of contents. Entries in the subject index also facilitate access by subject, e.g., Mill Tailings/Radiation Hazards. Within each category the arrangement is by report number for reports, followed by nonreports in reverse chronological order. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number. (335 abstracts)

  4. Partition of aerobic and anaerobic swimming costs and their correlation to tail-beat frequency and burst activity in Sparus aurata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, John Fleng

    2012-01-01

    until fatigue at 10°C. The anaerobic swimming cost was measured as the excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) following each swimming speed. To determine tail-beat frequency, amplitude and burst and coast behaviour, the peduncle position was determined at 25 s·' by video tracking. The data showed......, and resulted in a total anaerobic capacity of 170 mg O2 kg·'. Normalized tail-beat amplitude and frequency both predicted the swimming speed but only tail-beat frequency was able to predict the aerobic swimming cost. The change to burst and coast swimming was correlated to the first measurements of EPOC...... and both the burst frequency (bursts min·') and burst distance (percentage burst distance) were found to predict EPOC by linear regressions. The low temperature used in the present study resulted in a prolonged recovery time, which increased with the anaerobic contribution to 10 hours after fatigue. Due...

  5. Small scale turbidity currents in a tectonically active submarine graben, the Gulf of Corinth (Greece): their significance in dispersing mine tailings and their relevance to basin filling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papatheodorou, G.; Stefatos, A.; Christodoulou, D.; Ferentinos, G.

    2003-04-01

    The Gulf of Corinth is an intra-plate active graben within the Aegean microplate, which is characterized by high frequency occurrence of gravitative mass movements. A detailed marine survey in Antikyra bay, on the northern margin of the graben, was carried out (i) to study the bathymetry and morphology of the seafloor and (ii) to examine the distribution and dispersion of bauxite “red-mud” tailings and the formation of present-day fine grained, thin bedded turbidites. The examination of high resolution seismic profiles has shown that the northern flank of the gulf of Corinth consists of the shelf, slope and basin floor. The shelf has an average width of 10 km and dips very gently at a gradient less than 1.2o to a depth of 300m. The slope extends from the 300m to the 700m isobath with a gradient ranging from 5o to 7.5o. The basin floor deeper than the 700m isobath is flat with a gradient less than 0.1o. The shelf break and upper slope are affected by mass-movements. The seafloor on slope is incised by numerous channels trending in a NNE-SSW direction. The floor of the plain is covered by ponded turbidites. The analysis of cores based on (i) the texture and the structure of the individual layers of the surficial sedimentary cover and (ii) the tracing of bauxite red-mud tailing which have been discharged since 1970 on the upper shelf of the Antikyra Bay, have shown that: (i) Shelf and upper slope sediments are transported to the basin floor by turbidity flows. (ii) The slope surface is affected by the erosional action of the turbidity currents. (iii) The basin floor is covered by thin-bedded fine-grained turbidites whose thickness ranges from 0.8-4 cm. (iv) The individual turbidite beds, which consist of silt and clay, are structureless and are separated by sharp, planar or erosional contacts. (v) Hemipelagic intercalations are absent. The number of turbiditic events recorded in the surveyed area is from 2-5 events over a period of 15 years or 122 to 333 events

  6. Managing 'tail liability'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frese, Richard C; Weber, Ryan J

    2013-11-01

    To reduce and control their level of tail liability, hospitals should: Utilize a self-insurance vehicle; Consider combined limits between the hospital and physicians; Communicate any program changes to the actuary, underwriter, and auditor; Continue risk management and safety practices; Ensure credit is given to the organization's own medical malpractice program.

  7. Geotechnical field investigation of the rapid densification phenomenon in oil sands mature fine tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, C.; Chalaturnyk, R.J.; Scott, J.D.; Cyre, G. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; MacKinnon, M. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Edmonton Research Centre

    2002-07-01

    The Mildred Lake Settling Basin (MLSB) is an oil sand tailings pond with a water area of about 11 square km and a maximum depth of mature fine tailings (MFT) of about 50 m, rendering it Syncrude's largest disposal site for tailings. Syncrude began storing the MFT in 1978 but in recent years there has been a sharp increase in the consolidation of the fine tailings, creating pumping challenges in the transfer of tailings from the MLSB for the creation of composite tailings. This paper presents preliminary results of field and laboratory study which have been launched to better manage the rapid densification of fine tailings. The study involves sampling, field vane tests, cone penetration tests, steel plate penetration tests and earth pressure measurements. Methane producing microorganisms have become very active in the part of the pond that is experiencing rapid densification. The objective of the study was to determine the inventory and distribution of high strength MFT in current storage ponds and to assess whether geotechnical properties are enough to support direct loading with solids such as sand, clay or coke. The cause of the phenomena was also examined along with ways to possibly enhance MFT development through microbial, physical or chemical treatments. Results show that the accumulation of methane gas may have reached a critical state in some parts of the pond. The densification phenomenon at the southern pond is more significant compared to the northern pond. Earth pressure measurements indicate that the earth pressure cell has good sensitivity and that the coefficient of earth pressure at rest is approximately one. Good agreement was reached between different testing methods used to determine geotechnical properties of MFT. 5 refs., 4 tabs., 14 figs.

  8. Isolation of uranium mill tailings and their component radionuclides from the biosphere; some earth science perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa, Edward

    1980-01-01

    Uranium mining and milling is an expanding activity in the. Western United States. Although the milling process yields a uranium concentrate, the large volume of tailings remaining contains about 85 percent of the radioactivity originally associated with the ore. By virtue of the physical and chemical processing of the ore and the redistribution of the contained radionuclides at the Earth's surface, these tailings constitute a technologically enhanced source of natural radiation exposure. Sources of potential human radiation exposure from uranium mill tailings include the emanation of radon gas, the transport of particles by wind and water, and the transport of soluble radionuclides, seeping from disposal areas, by ground water. Due to the 77,000 year half-life of thorium-230, the parent of radium-226, the environmental effects associated with radionuclides contained in these railings must be conceived of within the framework of geologic processes operating over geologic time. The magnitude of erosion of cover materials and tailings and the extent of geochemical mobilization of the contained radionuclides to the atmosphere and hydrosphere should be considered in the evaluation of the potential, long-term consequences of all proposed uranium mill tailings management plans.

  9. Gramicidin D enhances the antibacterial activity of fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, James W; Zhou, Zhiyuan; Breaker, Ronald R

    2014-07-01

    Fluoride is a toxic anion found in many natural environments. One of the major bacterial defenses against fluoride is the cell envelope, which limits passage of the membrane-impermeant fluoride anion. Accordingly, compounds that enhance the permeability of bacterial membranes to fluoride should also enhance fluoride toxicity. In this study, we demonstrate that the pore-forming antibiotic gramicidin D increases fluoride uptake in Bacillus subtilis and that the antibacterial activity of this compound is potentiated by fluoride. Polymyxin B, another membrane-targeting antibiotic with a different mechanism of action, shows no such improvement. These results, along with previous findings, indicate that certain compounds that destabilize bacterial cell envelopes can enhance the toxicity of fluoride. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. "A Separation Theorem of Active Management and Synthetic Enhanced Active Strategies"(in Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    Takao Kobayashi; Seiji Minami

    2008-01-01

    We propose a Separation Theorem of Active Management. It asserts that in the so-called Enhanced Active Portfolio framework the efficient frontier is linear in the active return/active risk space, and one can separate the determination of optimal active portfolio weights from the determination of optimal leverage ratio. The risk preference of investors does not play any role in the former decision. The theorem holds under a fairly general set of conditions on portfolio restrictions. As such it...

  11. Enhancing learning in geosciences and water engineering via lab activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valyrakis, Manousos; Cheng, Ming

    2016-04-01

    This study focuses on the utilisation of lab based activities to enhance the learning experience of engineering students studying Water Engineering and Geosciences. In particular, the use of modern highly visual and tangible presentation techniques within an appropriate laboratory based space are used to introduce undergraduate students to advanced engineering concepts. A specific lab activity, namely "Flood-City", is presented as a case study to enhance the active engagement rate, improve the learning experience of the students and better achieve the intended learning objectives of the course within a broad context of the engineering and geosciences curriculum. Such activities, have been used over the last few years from the Water Engineering group @ Glasgow, with success for outreach purposes (e.g. Glasgow Science Festival and demos at the Glasgow Science Centre and Kelvingrove museum). The activity involves a specific setup of the demonstration flume in a sand-box configuration, with elements and activities designed so as to gamely the overall learning activity. Social media platforms can also be used effectively to the same goals, particularly in cases were the students already engage in these online media. To assess the effectiveness of this activity a purpose designed questionnaire is offered to the students. Specifically, the questionnaire covers several aspects that may affect student learning, performance and satisfaction, such as students' motivation, factors to effective learning (also assessed by follow-up quizzes), and methods of communication and assessment. The results, analysed to assess the effectiveness of the learning activity as the students perceive it, offer a promising potential for the use of such activities in outreach and learning.

  12. Enhanced supercapacitance of activated vertical graphene nanosheets in hybrid electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Subrata; Sahoo, Gopinath; Polaki, S. R.; Krishna, Nanda Gopala; Kamruddin, M.; Mathews, Tom

    2017-12-01

    Supercapacitors are becoming the workhorse for emerging energy storage applications due to their higher power density and superior cycle life compared to conventional batteries. The performance of supercapacitors depends on the electrode material, type of electrolyte, and interaction between them. Owing to the beneficial interconnected porous structure with multiple conducting channels, vertical graphene nanosheets (VGN) have proved to be leading supercapacitor electrode materials. Herein, we demonstrate a novel approach based on the combination of surface activation and a new organo-aqueous hybrid electrolyte, tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate in H2SO4, to achieve significant enhancement in supercapacitor performance of VGN. As-synthesized VGN exhibits an excellent supercapacitance of 0.64 mF/cm2 in H2SO4. However, identification of a novel electrolyte for performance enhancement is the subject of current research. The present manuscript demonstrates the potential of the hybrid electrolyte in enhancing the areal capacitance (1.99 mF/cm2) with excellent retention (only 5.4% loss after 5000 cycles) and Coulombic efficiency (93.1%). In addition, a five-fold enhancement in the capacitance of VGNs (0.64 to 3.31 mF/cm2) with a reduced internal resistance is achieved by the combination of KOH activation and the hybrid electrolyte.

  13. Uranium mill tailings conditioning technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreesen, D.R.; Cokal, E.J.; Wangen, L.E.; Williams, J.M.; O'Brien, P.D.; Thode, E.F.

    1982-01-01

    Conditioning of uranium mill tailings involves the physicochemical alteration of tailings to remove or immobilize mobile radionuclides and toxic trace elements before disposal in a repository. The principal immobilization approach under investigation is sintering tailings at high temperatures (1100-1200 deg. C) to radically alter the structure of tailings. This thermal stabilization at 1200 deg. C reduced radon emanation power for tailings sands by factors of 20 to 200 and for tailings fines by factors of 300 to 1100. Substantial reductions in the leachability of most contaminants have been found for thermally conditioned tailings. Obvious mineral transformations occur, including an increase in amorphous material, the conversion of gypsum to anhydrite and its subsequent decomposition, the disappearance of clay minerals, and some decrease in quartz content. A conceptual thermal stabilization process has been developed wherein obsolete coal-fired rotary cement kilns perform the sintering. An economic analysis of this conceptual process has shown that thermal stabilization can be competitive at certain tailings sites with other remedial actions requiring the excavation, transportation, and burial of tailings in a repository. An analysis of the long-term radiological hazard posed by untreated tailings and by tailings conditioned by radionuclide removal has illustrated the necessity of extracting both 226 Ra and 230 Th to achieve long-term hazard reductions. Sulphuric acid extraction of residual mineral values and important radionuclides from tailings has been investigated. Concentrated H 2 SO 4 can extract up to 80% of the 226 Ra, 70% of the Ba, and 90% of the 230 Th from tailings in a single stage extraction. An economic analysis of a sulphuric acid leach process was made to determine whether the value of minerals recovered from tailings would offset the leaching cost. For one relatively mineral-rich tailings pile, the U and V values would more than pay for the

  14. Modafinil enhances thalamocortical activity by increasing neuronal electrotonic coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbano, Francisco J.; Leznik, Elena; Llinás, Rodolfo R.

    2007-01-01

    Modafinil (Provigil, Modiodal), an antinarcoleptic and mood-enhancing drug, is shown here to sharpen thalamocortical activity and to increase electrical coupling between cortical interneurons and between nerve cells in the inferior olivary nucleus. After irreversible pharmacological block of connexin permeability (i.e., by using either 18β-glycyrrhetinic derivatives or mefloquine), modafinil restored electrotonic coupling within 30 min. It was further established that this restoration is implemented through a Ca2+/calmodulin protein kinase II-dependent step. PMID:17640897

  15. Enhanced natural radiation exposure enhanced by human activity: the largest contributor to the Chinese population dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Ziqiang; Liu Yanyang

    2011-01-01

    For the radiation exposure caused by human activities, the enhanced natural radiation exposure is the largest contributor to Chinese population dose. This problem has attracted social attention in recent years. Efforts have been made in several fields, such as radon indoors and in workplace, environmental problems associated with NORMs, occupational radiation hazards of non-uranium mine, and radiation dose evaluation for energy chain, but there are still many problems to be solved. In order to protect the health of workers and the public, while ensuring industrial production and economic development, it is also necessary to continue to strengthen research in all aspects above mentioned, and gradually promote the control of natural radiation exposure enhanced by human activities. (authors)

  16. Intelligent Architecture for Enhanced Observability for Active Distribution System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pokhrel, Basanta Raj; Nainar, Karthikeyan; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2017-01-01

    There is a rapid increase of renewable energy resources (RE) and demand response resources (DRR) in the distribution networks. This is challenging for the reliable and stable operation of the grid. So, to ensure secure, optimized and economical operation in such active distribution grids they need...... for active distribution network which satisfies the need for higher observability reach with less field observation. Improved state estimation with composite load forecasting model is aimed for enhanced observability. This paper also summarizes the application of intelligent architecture in the operation...

  17. Mechanisms of morphine enhancement of spontaneous seizure activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saboory, Ehsan; Derchansky, Miron; Ismaili, Mohammed; Jahromi, Shokrollah S; Brull, Richard; Carlen, Peter L; El Beheiry, Hossam

    2007-12-01

    High-dose opioid therapy can precipitate seizures; however, the mechanism of such a dangerous adverse effect remains poorly understood. The aim of our study was to determine whether the neuroexcitatory activity of high-dose morphine is mediated by selective stimulation of opioid receptors. Mice hippocampi were resected intact and bathed in low magnesium artificial cerebrospinal fluid to induce spontaneous seizure-like events recorded from CA1 neurons. Application of morphine had a biphasic effect on the recorded spontaneous seizure-like events. In a low concentration (10 microM), morphine depressed electrographic seizure activity. Higher morphine concentrations (30 and 100 microM) enhanced seizure activity in an apparent dose-dependent manner. Naloxone, a nonselective opiate antagonist blocked the proconvulsant action of morphine. Selective mu and kappa opiate receptor agonists and antagonists enhanced and suppressed the spontaneous seizure activity, respectively. On the contrary, delta opioid receptor ligands did not have an effect. The proseizure effect of morphine is mediated through selective stimulation of mu and kappa opiate receptors but not the activation of the delta receptor system. The observed dose-dependent mechanism of morphine neuroexcitation underscores careful adjustment and individualized opioid dosing in the clinical setting.

  18. Reclamation plans at uranium mill tailings sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abt, S.R.; Nelson, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    Long-term stability of waste impoundments is of concern because of the long time periods over which various types of waste may remain active. Over the past decade much technology has been developed specifically for reclamation of uranium mill tailings impoundments. Aspects of this technology will be discussed here and is presented as also being directly applicable to reclamation of industrial waste impoundments in general. The paper discusses Title I and Title II sites which represent two different generations in uranium tailings impoundment construction. The comparison between the two represent differences in philosophies as well as in impoundment type. Reclamation of uranium mill tailings impoundments in the U.S. is controlled by Federal legislation, which has set forth the regulatory framework for reclamation plan approval. Title I requirements govern government owned inactive sites and Title II requirements govern active tailings impoundments or those operated by private industries. While the Title I and Title II designation may result in a slightly different regulatory process, reclamation of uranium tailings sites has the same. Differences between Title I and Title II reclamation plans to achieve surface stability relate primarily to the embankment and surface covers. The differences in the cover designs result from site-specific conditions, rather than from differences in engineering approaches or the regulatory process. This paper discusses the site-specific conditions that affect the selection of cover designs, and provides a comparative example to illustrate the effect of this condition

  19. Psychosocial Practices that Enhance Cognitive Activity in Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neslihan Lok

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The daily lives of individuals with dementia, cognitive aspects need to be strengthened in order to maintain the quality. For this reason, dementia, cognitive, psycho-social applications there is a need to increase activity. Dementia drug treatment interventions used as an aid to increase cognitive activity. These interventions, behavior, emotion, perception and stimulation-oriented approaches can be classified into four groups. Dementia cognitive enhancer activity and an older group, this intervention and dissemination practices for selecting the most appropriate method to be applied. All psychosocial practices to increase cognitive activity psychiatrist, psychiatric nurse specialists, psychologists, social workers, occupational therapists can with the condition to study the relevant therapy. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(3.000: 210-216

  20. Telling tails: selective pressures acting on investment in lizard tails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Patricia A; Valentine, Leonie E; Bateman, Philip W

    2013-01-01

    Caudal autotomy is a common defense mechanism in lizards, where the animal may lose part or all of its tail to escape entrapment. Lizards show an immense variety in the degree of investment in a tail (i.e., length) across species, with tails of some species up to three or four times body length (snout-vent length [SVL]). Additionally, body size and form also vary dramatically, including variation in leg development and robustness and length of the body and tail. Autotomy is therefore likely to have fundamentally different effects on the overall body form and function in different species, which may be reflected directly in the incidence of lost/regenerating tails within populations or, over a longer period, in terms of relative tail length for different species. We recorded data (literature, museum specimens, field data) for relative tail length (n=350 species) and the incidence of lost/regenerating tails (n=246 species). We compared these (taking phylogeny into account) with intrinsic factors that have been proposed to influence selective pressures acting on caudal autotomy, including body form (robustness, body length, leg development, and tail specialization) and ecology (foraging behavior, physical and temporal niches), in an attempt to identify patterns that might reflect adaptive responses to these different factors. More gracile species have relatively longer tails (all 350 spp., P lost/regenerating tails for nocturnal lizards (all 246 spp., P pressure.

  1. Recent advancements in the geotechnical characterization of oil sands tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, J. [Conetec, Richmond, BC (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The technical aspects of soft oil sands tailings in-situ geotechnical site investigations were discussed. Geotechnical studies are conducted to determine containment structure stability as well as to determine volumetric and mass balances. The results of the studies are used in tailings management plans and construction activities. Flow penetrometers, field vane shear tests, and Gamma-CPTu tests are used in in-situ oil sands tailings geotechnical studies in order to determine pore pressure dissipation, and measure shear strength. Ball penetration tests are conducted to determine tailings strength. Methods of interpreting data from the tests were presented, and data from the tests were also compared and evaluated. Recommended procedures for strength screening were presented. Statistical methods for determining tailings behaviour types were outlined. The study showed that Gamma-CPTu data can be used to obtain reasonable preliminary estimates of solids and fines when combined with tailings behaviour type analyses. tabs., figs.

  2. Antidepressant-Like Activity of the Ethanolic Extract from Uncaria lanosa Wallich var. appendiculata Ridsd in the Forced Swimming Test and in the Tail Suspension Test in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieh-Ching Hsu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the antidepressant activity of ethanolic extract of U. lanosa Wallich var. appendiculata Ridsd (ULEtOH for two-weeks administrations by using FST and TST on mice. In order to understand the probable mechanism of antidepressant-like activity of ULEtOH in FST and TST, the researchers measured the levels of monoamines and monoamine oxidase activities in mice brain, and combined the antidepressant drugs (fluoxetine, imipramine, maprotiline, clorgyline, bupropion and ketanserin. Lastly, the researchers analyzed the content of RHY in the ULEtOH. The results showed that ULEtOH exhibited antidepressant-like activity in FST and TST in mice. ULEtOH increased the levels of 5-HT and 5-HIAA in cortex, striatum, hippocampus, and hypothalamus, the levels of NE and MHPG in cortex and hippocampus, the level of NE in striatum, and the level of DOPAC in striatum. Two-week injection of IMI, CLO, FLU and KET enhanced the antidepressant-like activity of ULEtOH. ULEtOH inhibited the activity of MAO-A. The amount of RHY in ULEtOH was 17.12 mg/g extract. Our findings support the view that ULEtOH exerts antidepressant-like activity. The antidepressant-like mechanism of ULEtOH may be related to the increase in monoamines levels in the hippocampus, cortex, striatum, and hypothalamus of mice.

  3. Uranium tailings in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulden, R.S.; Bragg, K.

    1982-01-01

    The last few years have produced significant changes in the way uranium tailings are managed in Canada. This is due both to the development of new technology and to changes in regulatory approach. The interrelationships between these two areas are examined with particular attention paid to the long term and the development of close-out criteria. New technological initiatives are examined including dry placement techniques, pit disposal and deep lake disposal

  4. Potential virulence factors of bacteria associated with tail fan necrosis in the spiny lobster, Jasus edwardsii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, H; Jeffs, A; Dong, Y; Lewis, G

    2018-05-01

    Tail fan necrosis (TFN) is a common condition found in commercially exploited spiny lobsters that greatly diminishes their commercial value. Bacteria possessing proteolytic, chitinolytic and lipolytic capabilities were associated with TFN in spiny lobsters, Jasus edwardsii. In this study, 69 bacterial isolates exhibiting all the three enzymatic capabilities from the haemolymph and tail fans of J. edwardsii with and without TFN were further characterized and compared, including morphology, biofilm formation, antimicrobial activity, antimicrobial resistance, and production of siderophores, melanin and ammonia. The genomic patterns of the most common Vibrio crassostreae isolates were also compared between TFN-affected and unaffected lobsters. Biofilm formation was stronger in bacterial isolates from both haemolymph and tail fans of TFN-affected lobsters compared to those from the unaffected lobsters, while melanin production and siderophore production were stronger in the isolates from tail fans of lobsters with TFN. By contrast, the other characteristics of isolates were similar in lobsters with and without TFN. The Vib. crassostreae isolates from the affected lobsters had similar genomic patterns. Overall, the results indicate that in addition to proteolytic, chitinolytic and lipolytic activities, the bacteria associated with TFN commonly have enhanced activity of important virulence factors, including biofilm formation, melanin production and siderophore production. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Injurious tail biting in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Eath, R.B.; Amott, G.; Turner, S. P.

    2014-01-01

    not allow tail docking at all. Against this background, using a novel approach focusing on research where tail injuries were quantified, we review the measures that can be used to control tail biting in pigs without tail docking. Using this strict criterion, there was good evidence that manipulable...... substrates and feeder space affect damaging tail biting. Only epidemiological evidence was available for effects of temperature and season, and the effect of stocking density was unclear. Studies suggest that group size has little effect, and the effects of nutrition, disease and breed require further...... underlying processes of tail biting. A quantitative comparison of the efficacy of different methods of provision of manipulable materials, and a review of current practices in countries and assurance schemes where tail docking is banned, both suggest that daily provision of small quantities of destructible...

  6. Thrombopoietin contributes to enhanced platelet activation in cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupia, Enrico; Bosco, Ornella; Goffi, Alberto; Poletto, Cesare; Locatelli, Stefania; Spatola, Tiziana; Cuccurullo, Alessandra; Montrucchio, Giuseppe

    2010-05-01

    Thrombopoietin (TPO) is a humoral growth factor that primes platelet activation in response to several agonists. We recently showed that TPO enhances platelet activation in unstable angina and sepsis. Aim of this study was to investigate the role of TPO in platelet function abnormalities described in cigarette smokers. In a case-control study we enrolled 20 healthy cigarette smokers and 20 nonsmokers, and measured TPO and C-reactive protein (CRP), as well as platelet-leukocyte binding and P-selectin expression. In vitro we evaluated the priming activity of smoker or control plasma on platelet activation, and the role of TPO in this effect. We then studied the effects of acute smoking and smoking cessation on TPO levels and platelet activation indices. Chronic cigarette smokers had higher circulating TPO levels than nonsmoking controls, as well as increased platelet-leukocyte binding, P-selectin expression, and CRP levels. Serum cotinine concentrations correlated with TPO concentrations, platelet-monocyte aggregates and P-selectin expression. In addition, TPO levels significantly correlated with ex vivo platelet-monocyte aggregation and P-selectin expression. In vitro, the plasma from cigarette smokers, but not from nonsmoking controls, primed platelet-monocyte binding, which was reduced when an inhibitor of TPO was used. We also found that acute smoking slightly increased TPO levels, but did not affect platelet-leukocyte binding, whereas smoking cessation induced a significant decrease in both circulating TPO and platelet-leukocyte aggregation. Elevated TPO contributes to enhance platelet activation and platelet-monocyte cross-talk in cigarette smokers. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Remote sensing to monitor uranium tailing sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    This report concerns the feasibility of using remotely-sensed data for long-term monitoring of uranium tailings. Decommissioning of uranium mine tailings sites may require long-term monitoring to confirm that no unanticipated release of contaminants occurs. Traditional ground-based monitoring of specific criteria of concern would be a significant expense depending on the nature and frequency of the monitoring. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether available remote-sensing data and techniques were applicable to the long-term monitoring of tailings sites. This objective was met by evaluating to what extent the data and techniques could be used to identify and discriminate information useful for monitoring tailings sites. The cost associated with obtaining and interpreting this information was also evaluated. Satellite and aircraft remote-sensing-based activities were evaluated. A monitoring programme based on annual coverage of Landsat Thematic Mapper data is recommended. Immediately prior to and for several years after decommissioning of the tailings sites, airborne multispectral and thermal infrared surveys combined with field verification data are required in order to establish a baseline for the long-term satellite-based monitoring programme. More frequent airborne surveys may be required if rapidly changing phenomena require monitoring. The use of a geographic information system is recommended for the effective storage and manipulation of data accumulated over a number of years

  8. measurement of radionuclides in processed mine tailings in jos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    The mine tailings are associated with radioactive minerals as impurities such as monazite, zircon among others. ... milling. A total of thirty-one (31) tailing samples were collected from a processing site in Jos at ... radioactive elements remain active for a very long period of time ..... Measurement of Radioactivity levels in soil.

  9. Trace elements contamination of soils around gold mine tailings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the issue of tailings dams as a potential source of trace elements contamination in soils at the Obuasi gold mine in Ghana. Soil samples taken from depths of up to 12 cm and within a radius of 400 m from the tailings dams (active and recommissioned), were analysed for As, Cu, Pb and. Zn using ...

  10. Chicago section activities to enhance public acceptance of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, T.L.; Keffer, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    The Chicago section of the American Nuclear Society (ANS) is an active organization with ∼450 members. The local section territory encompasses northern Illinois and includes in its territory all six of Commonwealth Edison Company's (CECo's) nuclear generating stations as well as Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Included in the territory are several large engineering firms - ABB Impell, Bechtel, Fluor Daniel, and Sargent ampersand Lundy. The national headquarters of the ANS is also located within the local section boundaries. All these organizations are represented in the local section membership and provide access to abundant technical resources that can be used to enhance public acceptance of nuclear power. An important attribute of any local section that enables it to perform interesting programs and be active in the community is its financial resources. The Chicago section has a strong financial base because of its ability to raise funds by participating in and sponsoring ANS topical and other meetings. For instance, in 1991, they sponsored and were actively involved in the Emergency Preparedness Topical Meeting held in Chicago. In 1992, they were actively involved in sponsoring the organizational activities of the ANS/ENS International Meeting, which will celebrate the 50th year of nuclear fission. The financial and technical resources of the Chicago section continue to contribute to a successful program of public education and public acceptance activities regarding the nuclear industry

  11. Enhancement of DNA polymerase activity in potato tuber slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Akira; Imaseki, Hidemasa

    1977-01-01

    DNA polymerase was extracted from potato (Soleum tuberosum L.) tuber discs and the temporal correlation of its activity change to DNA synthesis in vivo was examined during aging of the discs. Most of the DNA polymerase was recovered as a bound form in the 18,000 x g precipitate. Reaction with the bound-form enzyme was dependent on the presence of four deoxynucleoside triphosphates, Mg 2+ , and a template. ''Activated'' DNA and heat-denatured DNA, but not native DNA, were utilized as templates. The polymerase activity was sensitive to SH reagents. Fresh discs, which do not synthesize DNA in vivo, contained a significant amount of DNA polymerase and its activity increased linearly with time until 48 hr after slicing and became four times that of fresh discs after 72 hr, whereas the activity of DNA synthesis in vivo increased with time and decreased after reaching a maximum at 30 hr. Cycloheximide inhibited the enhancement of polymerase activity. DNA polymerase from aged and fresh discs had identical requirements for deoxynucleotides and a template in their reactions, sensitivity to SH reagent, and affinity to thymidine triphosphate. (auth.)

  12. Mine Waste Technology Program Electrochemical Tailings Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report summarizes the results of Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 40, Electrochemical Tailings Cover, funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and jointly administered by EPA and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). MSE Technology A...

  13. THE NARROW X-RAY TAIL AND DOUBLE Hα TAILS OF ESO 137-002 IN A3627

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, B.; Lin, X. B.; Kong, X.; Sun, M.; Ji, L.; Sarazin, C.; Nulsen, P. E. J.; Forman, W.; Jones, C.; Roediger, E.; Donahue, M.; Voit, G. M.

    2013-01-01

    We present the analysis of a deep Chandra observation of a ∼2 L * late-type galaxy, ESO 137-002, in the closest rich cluster A3627. The Chandra data reveal a long (∼>40 kpc) and narrow tail with a nearly constant width (∼3 kpc) to the southeast of the galaxy, and a leading edge ∼1.5 kpc from the galaxy center on the upstream side of the tail. The tail is most likely caused by the nearly edge-on stripping of ESO 137-002's interstellar medium (ISM) by ram pressure, compared to the nearly face-on stripping of ESO 137-001 discussed in our previous work. Spectral analysis of individual regions along the tail shows that the gas throughout it has a rather constant temperature, ∼1 keV, very close to the temperature of the tails of ESO 137-001, if the same atomic database is used. The derived gas abundance is low (∼0.2 solar with the single-kT model), an indication of the multiphase nature of the gas in the tail. The mass of the X-ray tail is only a small fraction (<5%) of the initial ISM mass of the galaxy, suggesting that the stripping is most likely at an early stage. However, with any of the single-kT, double-kT, and multi-kT models we tried, the tail is always 'over-pressured' relative to the surrounding intracluster medium (ICM), which could be due to the uncertainties in the abundance, thermal versus non-thermal X-ray emission, or magnetic support in the ICM. The Hα data from the Southern Observatory for Astrophysical Research show a ∼21 kpc tail spatially coincident with the X-ray tail, as well as a secondary tail (∼12 kpc long) to the east of the main tail diverging at an angle of ∼23° and starting at a distance of ∼7.5 kpc from the nucleus. At the position of the secondary Hα tail, the X-ray emission is also enhanced at the ∼2σ level. We compare the tails of ESO 137-001 and ESO 137-002, and also compare the tails to simulations. Both the similarities and differences of the tails pose challenges to the simulations. Several implications are

  14. Sharp-tailed Grouse and Pygmy Rabbit Wildlife Mitigation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    The Proposed Action is needed to protect and enhance shrub-steppe and riparian habitat for sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus columbianus), Pygmy rabbits (Brachylagus idahoensis), and other indigenous wildlife species. The purpose of the Proposed Action is to compensate, in part, for wildlife habitat lost from the construction of Grand Coulee Dam and the inundation of Lake Roosevelt. Bonneville Power Administration proposes to fund management agreements, conservation easements, acquisition of fee title, or a combination of these on as many as 29,000 acres in Lincoln and Douglas Counties to improve shrub-steppe and riparian habitat for sharp-tailed grouse and pygmy rabbits. The BPA also proposes to fund habitat improvements (enhancements) on project lands including existing public lands. Proposed habitat treatments would include control of grazing; planting of native trees, shrubs, forbs and grasses; protection of wetlands and streambanks; herbicide use; fire prescriptions; and wildfire suppression. Proposed management activities may include predator control, population introductions, and control of crop depredation

  15. Resonance Raman Optical Activity and Surface Enhanced Resonance Raman Optical Activity analysis of Cytochrome C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Christian; Abdali, Salim; White, Peter C.

    2007-01-01

    High quality Resonance Raman (RR) and resonance Raman Optical Activity (ROA) spectra of cytochrome c were obtained in order to perform full assignment of spectral features of the resonance ROA spectrum. The resonance ROA spectrum of cytochrome c revealed a distinct spectral signature pattern due...... to resonance enhanced skeletal porphyrin vibrations, more pronounced than any contribution from the protein back-bone. Combining the intrinsic resonance enhancement of cytochrome c with surface plasmon enhancement by colloidal silver particles, the Surface Enhanced Resonance Raman Scattering (SERRS) and Chiral...... Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (ChERS) spectra of the protein were successfully obtained at very low concentration (as low as 1 µM). The assignment of spectral features was based on the information obtained from the RR and resonance ROA spectra. Excellent agreement between RR and SERRS spectra is reported...

  16. Psychosocial Pain Management Moderation: The Limit, Activate, and Enhance Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Melissa A; Ehde, Dawn M; Jensen, Mark P

    2015-10-01

    There is a growing emphasis in the pain literature on understanding the following second-order research questions: Why do psychosocial pain treatments work? For whom do various treatments work? This critical review summarizes research that addresses the latter question and proposes a moderation model to help guide future research. A theoretical moderation framework for matching individuals to specific psychosocial pain interventions has been lacking. However, several such frameworks have been proposed in the broad psychotherapy and implementation science literature. Drawing on these theories and adapting them specifically for psychosocial pain treatment, here we propose a Limit, Activate, and Enhance model of pain treatment moderation. This model is unique in that it includes algorithms not only for matching treatments on the basis of patient weaknesses but also for directing patients to interventions that build on their strengths. Critically, this model provides a basis for specific a priori hypothesis generation, and a selection of the possible hypotheses drawn from the model are proposed and discussed. Future research considerations are presented that could refine and expand the model based on theoretically driven empirical evidence. The Limit, Activate, and Enhance model presented here is a theoretically derived framework that provides an a priori basis for hypothesis generation regarding psychosocial pain treatment moderators. The model will advance moderation research via its unique focus on matching patients to specific treatments that (1) limit maladaptive responses, (2) activate adaptive responses, and (3) enhance treatment outcomes based on patient strengths and resources. Copyright © 2015 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Hyperbaric Oxygen Environment Can Enhance Brain Activity and Multitasking Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dor Vadas

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Brain uses 20% of the total oxygen supply consumed by the entire body. Even though, <10% of the brain is active at any given time, it utilizes almost all the oxygen delivered. In order to perform complex tasks or more than one task (multitasking, the oxygen supply is shifted from one brain region to another, via blood perfusion modulation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether a hyperbaric oxygen (HBO environment, with increased oxygen supply to the brain, will enhance the performance of complex and/or multiple activities.Methods: A prospective, double-blind randomized control, crossover trial including 22 healthy volunteers. Participants were asked to perform a cognitive task, a motor task and a simultaneous cognitive-motor task (multitasking. Participants were randomized to perform the tasks in two environments: (a normobaric air (1 ATA 21% oxygen (b HBO (2 ATA 100% oxygen. Two weeks later participants were crossed to the alternative environment. Blinding of the normobaric environment was achieved in the same chamber with masks on while hyperbaric sensation was simulated by increasing pressure in the first minute and gradually decreasing to normobaric environment prior to tasks performance.Results: Compared to the performance at normobaric conditions, both cognitive and motor single tasks scores were significantly enhanced by HBO environment (p < 0.001 for both. Multitasking performance was also significantly enhanced in HBO environment (p = 0.006 for the cognitive part and p = 0.02 for the motor part.Conclusions: The improvement in performance of both single and multi-tasking while in an HBO environment supports the hypothesis which according to, oxygen is indeed a rate limiting factor for brain activity. Hyperbaric oxygenation can serve as an environment for brain performance. Further studies are needed to evaluate the optimal oxygen levels for maximal brain performance.

  18. Initiation of soil formation in weathered sulfidic Cu-Pb-Zn tailings under subtropical and semi-arid climatic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Fang; Dalal, Ram; Huang, Longbin

    2018-08-01

    Field evidence has been scarce about soil (or technosol) formation and direct phytostabilization of base metal mine tailings under field conditions. The present study evaluated key attributes of soil formation in weathered and neutral Cu-Pb-Zn tailings subject to organic amendment (WC: woodchips) and colonization of pioneer native plant species (mixed native woody and grass plant species) in a 2.5-year field trial under subtropical and semi-arid climatic conditions. Key soil indicators of engineered soil formation process were characterized, including organic carbon fractions, aggregation, microbial community and key enzymatic activities. The majority (64-87%) of the OC was stabilized in microaggregate or organo-mineral complexes in the amended tailings. The levels of OC and water soluble OC were elevated by 2-3 folds across the treatments, with the highest level in the treatment of WC and plant colonization (WC+P). Specifically, the WC+P treatment increased the proportion of water stable macroaggregates. Plants further contributed to the N rich organic matter in the tailings, favouring organo-mineral interactions and organic stabilization. Besides, the plants played a major role in boosting microbial biomass and activities in the treated tailings. WC and plants enhanced the contents of organic carbon (OC) associated with aggregates (e.g., physically protected OC), formation of water-stable aggregates (e.g., micro and macroaggregates), chemical buffering capacity (e.g., cation exchange capacity). Microbial community and enzymatic activities were also stimulated in the amended tailings. The present results showed that the formation of functional technosol was initiated in the eco-engineered and weathered Cu-Pb-Zn tailings under field conditions for direct phytostabilization. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Gene activation regresses atherosclerosis, promotes health, and enhances longevity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luoma Pauli V

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lifestyle factors and pharmacological compounds activate genetic mechanisms that influence the development of atherosclerotic and other diseases. This article reviews studies on natural and pharmacological gene activation that promotes health and enhances longevity. Results Living habits including healthy diet and regular physical activity, and pharmacotherapy, upregulate genes encoding enzymes and apolipoprotein and ATP-binding cassette transporters, acting in metabolic processes that promote health and increase survival. Cytochrome P450-enzymes, physiological factors in maintaining cholesterol homeostasis, generate oxysterols for the elimination of surplus cholesterol. Hepatic CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase-α is an important regulator of plasma HDL-C level. Gene-activators produce plasma lipoprotein profile, high HDL-C, HDL2-C and HDL-C/cholesterol ratio, which is typical of low risk of atherosclerotic disease, and also of exceptional longevity together with reduced prevalence of cardiovascular, metabolic and other diseases. High HDL contributes to protection against inflammation, oxidation and thrombosis, and associates with good cognitive function in very old people. Avoiding unhealthy stress and managing it properly promotes health and increases life expectancy. Conclusions Healthy living habits and gene-activating xenobiotics upregulate mechanisms that produce lipoprotein pattern typical of very old people and enhance longevity. Lipoprotein metabolism and large HDL2 associate with the process of living a very long life. Major future goals for health promotion are the improving of commitment to both wise lifestyle choices and drug therapy, and further the developing of new and more effective and well tolerated drugs and treatments.

  20. Modulations of DNA Contacts by Linker Histones and Post-translational Modifications Determine the Mobility and Modifiability of Nucleosomal H3 Tails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stützer, Alexandra; Liokatis, Stamatios; Kiesel, Anja; Schwarzer, Dirk; Sprangers, Remco; Söding, Johannes; Selenko, Philipp; Fischle, Wolfgang

    2016-01-21

    Post-translational histone modifications and linker histone incorporation regulate chromatin structure and genome activity. How these systems interface on a molecular level is unclear. Using biochemistry and NMR spectroscopy, we deduced mechanistic insights into the modification behavior of N-terminal histone H3 tails in different nucleosomal contexts. We find that linker histones generally inhibit modifications of different H3 sites and reduce H3 tail dynamics in nucleosomes. These effects are caused by modulations of electrostatic interactions of H3 tails with linker DNA and largely depend on the C-terminal domains of linker histones. In agreement, linker histone occupancy and H3 tail modifications segregate on a genome-wide level. Charge-modulating modifications such as phosphorylation and acetylation weaken transient H3 tail-linker DNA interactions, increase H3 tail dynamics, and, concomitantly, enhance general modifiability. We propose that alterations of H3 tail-linker DNA interactions by linker histones and charge-modulating modifications execute basal control mechanisms of chromatin function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Ecological restoration alters microbial communities in mine tailings profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Jia, Zhongjun; Sun, Qingye; Zhan, Jing; Yang, Yang; Wang, Dan

    2016-04-29

    Ecological restoration of mine tailings have impact on soil physiochemical properties and microbial communities. The surface soil has been a primary concern in the past decades, however it remains poorly understood about the adaptive response of microbial communities along the profile during ecological restoration of the tailings. In this study, microbial communities along a 60-cm profile were investigated in a mine tailing pond during ecological restoration of the bare waste tailings (BW) with two vegetated soils of Imperata cylindrica (IC) and Chrysopogon zizanioides (CZ) plants. Revegetation of both IC and CZ could retard soil degradation of mine tailing by stimulation of soil pH at 0-30 cm soils and altered the bacterial communities at 0-20 cm depths of the mine tailings. Significant differences existed in the relative abundance of the phyla Alphaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Firmicutes and Nitrospira. Slight difference of bacterial communities were found at 30-60 cm depths of mine tailings. Abundance and activity analysis of nifH genes also explained the elevated soil nitrogen contents at the surface 0-20 cm of the vegetated soils. These results suggest that microbial succession occurred primarily at surface tailings and vegetation of pioneering plants might have promoted ecological restoration of mine tailings.

  2. Ecological restoration alters microbial communities in mine tailings profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Jia, Zhongjun; Sun, Qingye; Zhan, Jing; Yang, Yang; Wang, Dan

    2016-04-01

    Ecological restoration of mine tailings have impact on soil physiochemical properties and microbial communities. The surface soil has been a primary concern in the past decades, however it remains poorly understood about the adaptive response of microbial communities along the profile during ecological restoration of the tailings. In this study, microbial communities along a 60-cm profile were investigated in a mine tailing pond during ecological restoration of the bare waste tailings (BW) with two vegetated soils of Imperata cylindrica (IC) and Chrysopogon zizanioides (CZ) plants. Revegetation of both IC and CZ could retard soil degradation of mine tailing by stimulation of soil pH at 0-30 cm soils and altered the bacterial communities at 0-20 cm depths of the mine tailings. Significant differences existed in the relative abundance of the phyla Alphaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Firmicutes and Nitrospira. Slight difference of bacterial communities were found at 30-60 cm depths of mine tailings. Abundance and activity analysis of nifH genes also explained the elevated soil nitrogen contents at the surface 0-20 cm of the vegetated soils. These results suggest that microbial succession occurred primarily at surface tailings and vegetation of pioneering plants might have promoted ecological restoration of mine tailings.

  3. Estimating impact forces of tail club strikes by ankylosaurid dinosaurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Megan Arbour

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It has been assumed that the unusual tail club of ankylosaurid dinosaurs was used actively as a weapon, but the biological feasibility of this behaviour has not been examined in detail. Ankylosaurid tail clubs are composed of interlocking vertebrae, which form the handle, and large terminal osteoderms, which form the knob. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Computed tomographic (CT scans of several ankylosaurid tail clubs referred to Dyoplosaurus and Euoplocephalus, combined with measurements of free caudal vertebrae, provide information used to estimate the impact force of tail clubs of various sizes. Ankylosaurid tails are modeled as a series of segments for which mass, muscle cross-sectional area, torque, and angular acceleration are calculated. Free caudal vertebrae segments had limited vertical flexibility, but the tail could have swung through approximately 100 degrees laterally. Muscle scars on the pelvis record the presence of a large M. longissimus caudae, and ossified tendons alongside the handle represent M. spinalis. CT scans showed that knob osteoderms were predominantly cancellous, which would have lowered the rotational inertia of the tail club and made it easier to wield as a weapon. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Large knobs could generate sufficient force to break bone during impacts, but average and small knobs could not. Tail swinging behaviour is feasible in ankylosaurids, but it remains unknown whether the tail was used for interspecific defense, intraspecific combat, or both.

  4. Psychopaths show enhanced amygdala activation during fear conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas eSchultz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterized by emotional deficits and a failure to inhibit impulsive behavior and is often subdivided into primary and secondary psychopathic subtypes. The maladaptive behavior related to primary psychopathy is thought to reflect constitutional fearlessness, while the problematic behavior related to secondary psychopathy is motivated by other factors. The fearlessness observed in psychopathy has often been interpreted as reflecting a fundamental deficit in amygdala function, and previous studies have provided support for a low-fear model of psychopathy. However, many of these studies fail to use appropriate screening procedures, use liberal inclusion criteria, or have used unconventional approaches to assay amygdala function. We measured brain activity with BOLD imaging in primary and secondary psychopaths and non-psychopathic control subjects during Pavlovian fear conditioning. In contrast to the low-fear model, we observed normal fear expression in primary psychopaths. Psychopaths also displayed greater differential BOLD activity in the amygdala relative to matched controls. Inverse patterns of activity were observed in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC for primary versus secondary psychopaths. Primary psychopaths exhibited a pattern of activity in the dorsal and ventral ACC consistent with enhanced fear expression, while secondary psychopaths exhibited a pattern of activity in these regions consistent with fear inhibition. These results contradict the low-fear model of psychopathy and suggest that the low fear observed for psychopaths in previous studies may be specific to secondary psychopaths.

  5. Enhancement of activated sludge disintegration and dewaterability by Fenton process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, G. C.; Isa, M. H.

    2016-06-01

    Municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants produce large amounts of sludge. This excess sludge is an inevitable drawback inherent to the activated sludge process. In this study, the waste activated sludge was obtained from the campus wastewater treatment plant at Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (UTP), Malaysia. Fenton pretreatment was optimized by using the response surface methodology (RSM) to study the effects of three operating conditions including the dosage of H2O2 (g H2O2/kg TS), the molar ratio of H2O2/Fe2+ and reaction time. The optimum operating variables to achieve MLVSS removal 65%, CST reduction 28%, sCOD 11000 mg/L and EPS 500 mg/L were: 1000 g H2O2/kg TS, H2O2/Fe2+ molar ratio 70 and reaction time 45 min. Fenton process was proved to be able to enhance the sludge disintegration and dewaterability.

  6. MWCNT/CdS hybrid nanocomposite for enhanced photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhary, Deepti; Khare, Neeraj; Vankar, V. D.

    2016-01-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT)/CdS hybrid nanocomposite were synthesized by one step hydrothermal method. MWCNTs were used as a substrate for the growth of CdS nanoparticles. MWCNT/CdS nanocomposite and pure CdS were characterized by XRD, TEM, UV-vis and photoluminescence spectroscopy. HRTEM study confirms the intimate contact of CdS with MWCNT. The photocatalytic activity of nanocomposite was studied for the degradation of methylene blue dye under UV irradiation. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of MWCNT/CdS nanocomposite as compared to pure CdS has been attributed to reduced recombination of photogenerated charge carriers due to interfacial electron transfer from CdS to MWCNT.

  7. Can tail damage outbreaks in the pig be predicted by behavioural change?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mona Lilian Vestbjerg; Andersen, Heidi Mai-Lis; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2016-01-01

    preventive methods. One strategy is the surveillance of the pigs' behaviour for known preceding indicators of tail damage, which makes it possible to predict a tail damage outbreak and prevent it in proper time. This review discusses the existing literature on behavioural changes observed prior to a tail...... damage outbreak. Behaviours found to change prior to an outbreak include increased activity level, increased performance of enrichment object manipulation, and a changed proportion of tail posture with more tails between the legs. Monitoring these types of behaviours is also discussed for the purpose......, starting with the description of the temporal development of the predictive behaviour in relation to tail damage outbreaks...

  8. Gamma irradiation enhances biological activities of mulberry leaf extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Byoung-Ok; Che, Denis Nchang; Yin, Hong-Hua; Jang, Seon-Il

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of irradiation on the anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and whitening effects of mulberry leaf extract. This was done by comparing the phenolic contents; 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effects; 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonicacid) (ABTS) radical scavenging effects; in vitro tyrosinase inhibitory effects and the production of IL-6, TNF-α, PGE 2 , and NO in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages and the production of IL-6 and TNF-α in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate plus calcium ionophore A23187-stimulated HMC-1 cells, respectively. The results showed that irradiated mulberry leaf extract possesses more anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and tyrosinase inhibitory activities than their non-irradiated counterpart, probably due to increase in phenolic contents induced by gamma irradiation at dose of 10kGy. This research stresses on the importance of irradiation in functional foods. - Highlights: • Gamma-irradiated mulberry leaf extract enhanced in vitro antioxidant activities. • Gamma-irradiated mulberry leaf extract enhanced in vitro tyrosinase inhibitory effects. • Gamma-irradiated mulberry leaf extract treatment reduced the production of IL-6, TNF-α, PGE 2 , and NO.

  9. Silver enhances antibiotic activity against gram-negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morones-Ramirez, J Ruben; Winkler, Jonathan A; Spina, Catherine S; Collins, James J

    2013-06-19

    A declining pipeline of clinically useful antibiotics has made it imperative to develop more effective antimicrobial therapies, particularly against difficult-to-treat Gram-negative pathogens. Silver has been used as an antimicrobial since antiquity, yet its mechanism of action remains unclear. We show that silver disrupts multiple bacterial cellular processes, including disulfide bond formation, metabolism, and iron homeostasis. These changes lead to increased production of reactive oxygen species and increased membrane permeability of Gram-negative bacteria that can potentiate the activity of a broad range of antibiotics against Gram-negative bacteria in different metabolic states, as well as restore antibiotic susceptibility to a resistant bacterial strain. We show both in vitro and in a mouse model of urinary tract infection that the ability of silver to induce oxidative stress can be harnessed to potentiate antibiotic activity. Additionally, we demonstrate in vitro and in two different mouse models of peritonitis that silver sensitizes Gram-negative bacteria to the Gram-positive-specific antibiotic vancomycin, thereby expanding the antibacterial spectrum of this drug. Finally, we used silver and antibiotic combinations in vitro to eradicate bacterial persister cells, and show both in vitro and in a mouse biofilm infection model that silver can enhance antibacterial action against bacteria that produce biofilms. This work shows that silver can be used to enhance the action of existing antibiotics against Gram-negative bacteria, thus strengthening the antibiotic arsenal for fighting bacterial infections.

  10. Hyperbaric Oxygen Environment Can Enhance Brain Activity and Multitasking Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadas, Dor; Kalichman, Leonid; Hadanny, Amir; Efrati, Shai

    2017-01-01

    Background: The Brain uses 20% of the total oxygen supply consumed by the entire body. Even though, multitasking), the oxygen supply is shifted from one brain region to another, via blood perfusion modulation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether a hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) environment, with increased oxygen supply to the brain, will enhance the performance of complex and/or multiple activities. Methods: A prospective, double-blind randomized control, crossover trial including 22 healthy volunteers. Participants were asked to perform a cognitive task, a motor task and a simultaneous cognitive-motor task (multitasking). Participants were randomized to perform the tasks in two environments: (a) normobaric air (1 ATA 21% oxygen) (b) HBO (2 ATA 100% oxygen). Two weeks later participants were crossed to the alternative environment. Blinding of the normobaric environment was achieved in the same chamber with masks on while hyperbaric sensation was simulated by increasing pressure in the first minute and gradually decreasing to normobaric environment prior to tasks performance. Results: Compared to the performance at normobaric conditions, both cognitive and motor single tasks scores were significantly enhanced by HBO environment ( p Multitasking performance was also significantly enhanced in HBO environment ( p = 0.006 for the cognitive part and p = 0.02 for the motor part). Conclusions: The improvement in performance of both single and multi-tasking while in an HBO environment supports the hypothesis which according to, oxygen is indeed a rate limiting factor for brain activity. Hyperbaric oxygenation can serve as an environment for brain performance. Further studies are needed to evaluate the optimal oxygen levels for maximal brain performance.

  11. Mature fine tailings from oil sands processing harbour diverse methanogenic communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penner, T.J.; Foght, J.M. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Biological Sciences

    2010-06-15

    Syncrude's bitumen extraction process produces a fine tailings slurry consisting of water, sand, fines, residual bitumen and naphtha diluent. Following rapid settling of the sand fraction, the tailings are stored in large settling ponds to form a thick mature fine tailings (MFT). This paper discussed the potential benefits of methane production on management of the settling basins. Enhanced methanogenesis accelerates densification and improves the rheological properties of MFT. In this study molecular techniques were used to characterize the methanogenic communities in uncultivated MFT samples to determine the diversity present in the Mildred Lake Settling Basin (MLSB) and West In-Pit tailings deposit. The flux of methane is currently estimated at about 40 million L/day at the MLSB. Clone libraries of amplified archaeal and bacterial 16S rRNA genes were created in order to analyze the methanogenic consortia in MFT samples from depth profiles in the 2 tailings deposits. The archaeal sequences, whose closest matches were primarily cultivated methanogens, were comparable within and between basins and were mostly affiliated with acetoclastic Methanosaeta spp. However, bacterial clone libraries were diverse, with most sequences relating to Proteobacteria, including some presumptive nitrate-, iron-, or sulfate-reducing, hydrocarbon-degrading genera. The study showed that MFT consists of a diverse community of prokaryotes that may be responsible for producing methane from substrates indigenous to the MFT. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the biogenesis of methane and densification of MFT in oil sands tailings deposits. The results from this study will help determine strategies to control and exploit microbial activities in these large systems and improve the understanding of methanogenic environments. 43 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  12. Band tailing and efficiency limitation in kesterite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokmen, Tayfun; Gunawan, Oki; Todorov, Teodor K.; Mitzi, David B.

    2013-09-01

    We demonstrate that a fundamental performance bottleneck for hydrazine processed kesterite Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 (CZTSSe) solar cells with efficiencies reaching above 11% can be the formation of band-edge tail states, which quantum efficiency and photoluminescence data indicate is roughly twice as severe as in higher-performing Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 devices. Low temperature time-resolved photoluminescence data suggest that the enhanced tailing arises primarily from electrostatic potential fluctuations induced by strong compensation and facilitated by a lower CZTSSe dielectric constant. We discuss the implications of the band tails for the voltage deficit in these devices.

  13. Settlement of uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, P.K.; Guros, F.B.; Keshian, B.

    1988-01-01

    Two test embankments were constructed on top of an old tailings deposit near Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico to determine settlement characteristics of hydraulically- deposited uranium mill tailings. Before construction of the embankments, properties of in-situ tailings and foundation soils were determined using data from boreholes, piezocone soundings, and laboratory tests. These properties were used to estimate post-construction settlement of a planned disposal embankment to be constructed on the tailings. However, excessive uncertainty existed in the following: field settlement rates of saturated and unsaturated tailings, degree of preconsolidation of the upper 15 feet of tailings, and the ability of an underlying silty sand foundation layer to facilitate drainage. Thus, assurance could not be provided that differential settlements of the radon barrier and erosion protection layers would be within allowable limits should the planned disposal embankment be constructed in a single-stage

  14. Copper tailings in stucco mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Pavez

    Full Text Available Abstract This investigation addressed the evaluation of the use of copper tailings in the construction industry in order to reduce the impact on the environment. The evaluation was performed by a technical comparison between stucco mortars prepared with crushed conventional sand and with copper tailings sand. The best results were achieved with the stucco mortars containing tailings. The tailings presented a fine particles size distribution curve different from that suggested by the standard. The values of compressive strength, retentivity, and adherence in the stucco mortars prepared with copper tailings were much higher than those obtained with crushed sand. According to the results from this study, it can be concluded that the preparation of stucco mortars using copper tailings replacing conventional sand is a technically feasible alternative for the construction industry, presenting the benefit of mitigating the impact of disposal to the environment.

  15. Sports activities enhance the prevalence of rhinitis symptoms in schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusunoki, Takashi; Takeuchi, Jiro; Morimoto, Takeshi; Sakuma, Mio; Mukaida, Kumiko; Yasumi, Takahiro; Nishikomori, Ryuta; Heike, Toshio

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the association between sports activities and allergic symptoms, especially rhinitis, among schoolchildren. This longitudinal survey of schoolchildren collected data from questionnaires regarding allergic symptoms based on the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) program and sports participation that were distributed to the parents of children at all 12 public primary schools in Ohmi-Hachiman City, Shiga Prefecture, Japan. Data were collected annually from 2011 until 2014, when the children reached 10 years of age. Blood samples were obtained in 2014, and the levels of immunoglobulin (Ig)E specific to four inhalant allergens were measured. Data from 558 children were analyzed. At 10 years of age, prevalence of asthma and eczema did not differ significantly, while rhinitis was significantly higher (p = 0.009) among children who participated in sports. Prevalence of rhinitis increased as the frequency or duration of sports participation increased (p sports (p = 0.03). Among those who participated in continuous sports activities, the prevalence of rhinitis was significantly higher with prolonged eczema (p = 0.006). Sports activities did not increase sensitization to inhalant allergens. Sports activities enhance the prevalence of rhinitis in schoolchildren. Prolonged eczema, together with sports participation, further promotes the symptoms. The mechanisms of these novel findings warrant further investigation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. PERSPECTIVE: Electrical activity enhances neuronal survival and regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corredor, Raul G.; Goldberg, Jeffrey L.

    2009-10-01

    The failure of regeneration in the central nervous system (CNS) remains an enormous scientific and clinical challenge. After injury or in degenerative diseases, neurons in the adult mammalian CNS fail to regrow their axons and reconnect with their normal targets, and furthermore the neurons frequently die and are not normally replaced. While significant progress has been made in understanding the molecular basis for this lack of regenerative ability, a second approach has gained momentum: replacing lost neurons or lost connections with artificial electrical circuits that interface with the nervous system. In the visual system, gene therapy-based 'optogenetics' prostheses represent a competing technology. Now, the two approaches are converging, as recent data suggest that electrical activity itself, via the molecular signaling pathways such activity stimulates, is sufficient to induce neuronal survival and regeneration, particularly in retinal ganglion cells. Here, we review these data, discuss the effects of electrical activity on neurons' molecular signaling pathways and propose specific mechanisms by which exogenous electrical activity may be acting to enhance survival and regeneration.

  17. Enhanced multimaterial 4D printing with active hinges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Saeed; Hosein Sakhaei, Amir; Kowsari, Kavin; Yang, Bill; Serjouei, Ahmad; Yuanfang, Zhang; Ge, Qi

    2018-06-01

    Despite great progress in four-dimensional (4D) printing, i.e. three-dimensional (3D) printing of active (stimuli-responsive) materials, the relatively low actuation force of the 4D printed structures often impedes their engineering applications. In this study, we use multimaterial inkjet 3D printing technology to fabricate shape memory structures, including a morphing wing flap and a deployable structure, which consist of active and flexible hinges joining rigid (non-active) parts. The active hinges, printed from a shape memory polymer (SMP), lock the structure into a second temporary shape during a thermomechanical programming process, while the flexible hinges, printed from an elastomer, effectively increase the actuation force and the load-bearing capacity of the printed structure as reflected in the recovery ratio. A broad range of mechanical properties such as modulus and failure strain can be achieved for both active and flexible hinges by varying the composition of the two base materials, i.e. the SMP and the elastomer, to accommodate large deformation induced during programming step, and enhance the recovery in the actuating step. To find the important design parameters, including local deformation, shape fixity and recovery ratio, we conduct high fidelity finite element simulations, which are able to accurately predict the nonlinear deformation of the printed structures. In addition, a coupled thermal-electrical finite element analysis was performed to model the heat transfer within the active hinges during the localized Joule heating process. The model predictions showed good agreement with the measured temperature data and were used to find the major parameters affecting temperature distribution including the applied voltage and the convection rate.

  18. Novel Antidepressant-Like Activity of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester Is Mediated by Enhanced Glucocorticoid Receptor Function in the Hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Sook Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE is an active component of propolis that has a variety of potential pharmacological effects. Although we previously demonstrated that propolis has antidepressant-like activity, the effect of CAPE on this activity remains unknown. The present study assessed whether treatment with CAPE (5, 10, and 20 µmol/kg for 21 days has an antidepressant-like effect in mice subjected to chronic unpredictable stress via tail suspension (TST and forced swim (FST tests. CAPE administration induced behaviors consistent with an antidepressant effect, evidenced by decreased immobility in the TST and FST independent of any effect on serum corticosterone secretion. Western blots, conducted subsequent to behavioral assessment, revealed that CAPE significantly decreased glucocorticoid receptor phosphorylation at S234 (pGR(S234, resulting in an increased pGR(S220/S234 ratio. We also observed negative correlations between pGR(S220/(S234 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK phosphorylation, which was decreased by CAPE treatment. These findings suggest that CAPE treatment exerts an antidepressant-like effect via downregulation of p38MAPK phosphorylation, thereby contributing to enhanced GR function.

  19. Bioassay for uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschaeche, A.N.

    1986-01-01

    Uranium mill tailings are composed of fine sand that contains, among other things, some uranium (U/sup 238/ primarily), and all of the uranium daughters starting with /sup 230/Th that are left behind after the usable uranium is removed in the milling process. Millions of pounds of tailings are and continue to be generated at uranium mills around the United States. Discrete uranium mill tailings piles exist near the mills. In addition, the tailings materials were used in communities situated near mill sites for such purposes as building materials, foundations for buildings, pipe runs, sand boxes, gardens, etc. The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) is a U.S. Department of Energy Program designed with the intention of removing or stabilizing the mill tailings piles and the tailings used to communities so that individuals are not exposed above the EPA limits established for such tailings materials. This paper discusses the bioassay programs that are established for workers who remove tailings from the communities in which they are placed

  20. Uranium mill tailings and radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanchey, L.A.

    1981-01-01

    The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the US may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100

  1. Uranium mill tailings and radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanchey, L A

    1981-04-01

    The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the United States may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100.

  2. Uranium mill tailings and radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanchey, L A

    1981-01-01

    The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the US may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100.

  3. Orphan Stars Found in Long Galaxy Tail

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    Astronomers have found evidence that stars have been forming in a long tail of gas that extends well outside its parent galaxy. This discovery suggests that such "orphan" stars may be much more prevalent than previously thought. The comet-like tail was observed in X-ray light with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and in optical light with the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope in Chile. The feature extends for more than 200,000 light years and was created as gas was stripped from a galaxy called ESO 137-001 that is plunging toward the center of Abell 3627, a giant cluster of galaxies. "This is one of the longest tails like this we have ever seen," said Ming Sun of Michigan State University, who led the study. "And, it turns out that this is a giant wake of creation, not of destruction." Chandra X-ray Image of ESO 137-001 and Tail in Abell 3627 Chandra X-ray Image of ESO 137-001 and Tail in Abell 3627 The observations indicate that the gas in the tail has formed millions of stars. Because the large amounts of gas and dust needed to form stars are typically found only within galaxies, astronomers have previously thought it unlikely that large numbers of stars would form outside a galaxy. "This isn't the first time that stars have been seen to form between galaxies," said team member Megan Donahue, also of MSU. "But the number of stars forming here is unprecedented." The evidence for star formation in this tail includes 29 regions of ionized hydrogen glowing in optical light, thought to be from newly formed stars. These regions are all downstream of the galaxy, located in or near the tail. Two Chandra X-ray sources are near these regions, another indication of star formation activity. The researchers believe the orphan stars formed within the last 10 million years or so. The stars in the tail of this fast-moving galaxy, which is some 220 million light years away, would be much more isolated than the vast majority of stars in galaxies. H-alpha Image of

  4. TAIL ASYMPTOTICS OF LIGHT-TAILED WEIBULL-LIKE SUMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, Soren; Hashorva, Enkelejd; Laub, Patrick J.

    2017-01-01

    We consider sums of n i.i.d. random variables with tails close to exp{-x(beta)} for some beta > 1. Asymptotics developed by Rootzen (1987) and Balkema, Kluppelberg, and Resnick (1993) are discussed from the point of view of tails rather than of densities, using a somewhat different angle...

  5. Aged refuse enhances anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianwei; Gui, Lin; Wang, Qilin; Liu, Yiwen; Wang, Dongbo; Ni, Bing-Jie; Li, Xiaoming; Xu, Rui; Zeng, Guangming; Yang, Qi

    2017-10-15

    In this work, a low-cost alternative approach (i.e., adding aged refuse (AR) into waste activated sludge) to significantly enhance anaerobic digestion of sludge was reported. Experimental results showed that with the addition dosage of AR increasing from 0 to 400 mg/g dry sludge soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD) increased from 1150 to 5240 mg/L at the digestion time of 5 d, while the maximal production of volatile fatty acids (VFA) increased from 82.6 to 183.9 mg COD/g volatile suspended solids. Although further increase of AR addition decreased the concentrations of both soluble COD and VFA, their contents in these systems with AR addition at any concentration investigated were still higher than those in the blank, which resulted in higher methane yields in these systems. Mechanism studies revealed that pertinent addition of AR promoted solubilization, hydrolysis, and acidogenesis processes and did not affect methanogenesis significantly. It was found that varieties of enzymes and anaerobes in AR were primary reason for the enhancement of anaerobic digestion. Humic substances in AR benefited hydrolysis and acidogenesis but inhibited methanogenesis. The effect of heavy metals in AR on sludge anaerobic digestion was dosage dependent. Sludge anaerobic digestion was enhanced by appropriate amounts of heavy metals but inhibited by excessive amounts of heavy metals. The relative abundances of microorganisms responsible for sludge hydrolysis and acidogenesis were also observed to be improved in the system with AR addition, which was consistent with the performance of anaerobic digestion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of weather and tailings properties on tailings drying times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gantzer, C.; Fasking, T.; Costello, M.; Greenwood, J. [Barr Engineering, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation presented the results of a study conducted to determine the effects of weather and tailings properties on tailings drying times. Weather conditions have a significant impact the potential evaporation (PE) and actual evaporation (AE) of oil sands tailings. A 2-stage drying of slurry at a constant PE was conducted to determine the shrinkage limit of untreated mature fine tailings (MFT). An evaporation and seepage model was used to determine maximum first-stage drying rates. Measurements were also taken in a wind tunnel. Potential evaporation rates were calculated and evaporative water losses from the MFT were determined. Estimated drying times were presented. Results of the approach were compared with field measurements conducted in a previous study. Results of the study showed that evaporative water loss rates for May through August were limited by the properties of the tailings. Water loss rates were limited by weather for other months in the year-long study. tabs., figs.

  7. Soluble ICAM-1 activates lung macrophages and enhances lung injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmal, H; Czermak, B J; Lentsch, A B

    1998-01-01

    production of TNF-alpha and the CXC chemokine, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2). Alveolar macrophages exhibited cytokine responses to both sICAM-1 and immobilized sICAM-1, while rat PBMCs failed to demonstrate similar responses. Exposure of alveolar macrophages to sICAM-1 resulted in NFkappa......B activation (which was blocked by the presence of the aldehyde peptide inhibitor of 28S proteosome and by genistein, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor). As expected, cross-linking of CD18 on macrophages with Ab resulted in generation of TNF-alpha and MIP-2. This response was also inhibited in the presence...... of TNF-alpha and MIP-2 and increased neutrophil recruitment. Therefore, through engagement of beta2 integrins, sICAM-1 enhances alveolar macrophage production of MIP-2 and TNF-alpha, the result of which is intensified lung injury after intrapulmonary disposition of immune complexes....

  8. Slow-light-enhanced gain in active photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ek, Sara; Hansen, Per Lunnemann; Chen, Yaohui

    2014-01-01

    Passive photonic crystals have been shown to exhibit a multitude of interesting phenomena, including slow-light propagation in line-defect waveguides. It was suggested that by incorporating an active material in the waveguide, slow light could be used to enhance the effective gain of the material......, which would have interesting application prospects, for example enabling ultra-compact optical amplifiers for integration in photonic chips. Here we experi- mentally investigate the gain of a photonic crystal membrane structure with embedded quantum wells. We find that by solely changing the photonic...... crystal structural parameters, the maximum value of the gain coefficient can be increased compared with a ridge waveguide structure and at the same time the spectral position of the peak gain be controlled. The experimental results are in qualitative agreement with theory and show that gain values similar...

  9. Autophagic machinery activated by dengue virus enhances virus replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.-R.; Lei, H.-Y.; Liu, M.-T.; Wang, J.-R.; Chen, S.-H.; Jiang-Shieh, Y.-F.; Lin, Y.-S.; Yeh, T.-M.; Liu, C.-C.; Liu, H.-S.

    2008-01-01

    Autophagy is a cellular response against stresses which include the infection of viruses and bacteria. We unravel that Dengue virus-2 (DV2) can trigger autophagic process in various infected cell lines demonstrated by GFP-LC3 dot formation and increased LC3-II formation. Autophagosome formation was also observed under the transmission electron microscope. DV2-induced autophagy further enhances the titers of extracellular and intracellular viruses indicating that autophagy can promote viral replication in the infected cells. Moreover, our data show that ATG5 protein is required to execute DV2-induced autophagy. All together, we are the first to demonstrate that DV can activate autophagic machinery that is favorable for viral replication

  10. Micropore Structure of Cement-Stabilized Gold Mine Tailings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon Kyu Lee

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Mine tailings have often to be stabilized by mixing them with cementing agents. In this study, the pore structure of gold tailings stabilized with Portland cement was evaluated by means of mercury intrusion porosimetry. The investigation was conducted on samples prepared with different fractions of tailings and cement as well as on samples activated with elevated temperature curing and chemical (CaCl2 addition. It was observed that all mixed samples exhibit a mono-modal pore size distribution, indicating that the cement-stabilized tailings are characterized by a single-porosity structure. The results also showed that the higher fraction of tailings and cement leads to a dense and finer pore structure. The total porosity of mixture samples decreases with increasing curing temperature and CaCl2 concentration due to the acceleration of hydration reaction.

  11. Ultrasound enhanced activation of peroxydisulfate by activated carbon fiber for decolorization of azo dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tianyin; Zhang, Ke; Qian, Yajie; Fang, Cong; Chen, Jiabin

    2018-02-20

    Activated carbon fiber (ACF) has become an emerging activator for peroxydisulfate (PDS) to generate sulfate radical (SO 4 •- ). However, the relative low activation efficiency and poor contaminant mineralization limited its widespread application. Herein, ultrasound (US) was introduced to the ACF activated PDS system, and the synergistic effect of US and ACF in PDS activation and the enhancement of contaminant mineralization were investigated. The synergistic effect of US and ACF was observed in the PDS activation to decolorize orange G (OG). The decolorization efficiency increased with increasing ACF loading and US power, and PDS/OG ratio from 1 to 40. The activation energy was determined to be 24.065 kJ/mol. The radical-induced decolorization of OG took place on the surface of ACF, and both SO 4 •- and hydroxyl radical ( • OH) contributed to OG decolorization. The azo bond and naphthalene ring on OG were destructed to other aromatic intermediates and finally mineralized to CO 2 and H 2 O. The introduction of US in the ACF/PDS system significantly enhanced the mineralization of OG. The combination of US and PDS was highly efficient to activate PDS to decolorize azo dyes. Moreover, the introduction of US remarkably improved the contaminant mineralization.

  12. Topical Niosome Gel of Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. Extract for Anti-inflammatory Activity Enhanced Skin Permeation and Stability of Compound D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priprem, Aroonsri; Janpim, Khwanhatai; Nualkaew, Somsak; Mahakunakorn, Pramote

    2016-06-01

    An extract of Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. (ZC) was encapsulated in niosomes of which a topical gel was formed. (E)-4-(3',4'-dimethoxyphenyl)but-3-en-1-ol or compound D detected by a gradient HPLC was employed as the marker and its degradation determined to follow zero-order kinetics. Niosomes significantly retarded thermal-accelerated decomposition of compound D in the gel (p D. Niosomes enhanced in vitro permeation rate of compound D from the gel. Topical applications of ZC noisome gel gave a faster change in tail flick latency than piroxicam gel and hydrocortisone cream (p anti-inflammatory activity up to 6 h using croton oil-induced ear edema model in mice (p > 0.05). Thus, encapsulation of ZC extract in niosomes enhanced chemical stability and skin permeation with comparable topical anti-inflammatory effects to steroid and NSAID.

  13. Enhancing anaerobic digestion of poultry blood using activated carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Cuetos

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The potential of using anaerobic digestion for the treatment of poultry blood has been evaluated in batch assays at the laboratory scale and in a mesophilic semi-continuous reactor. The biodegradability test performed on residual poultry blood was carried out in spite of high inhibitory levels of acid intermediaries. The use of activated carbon as a way to prevent inhibitory conditions demonstrated the feasibility of attaining anaerobic digestion under extreme ammonium and acid conditions. Batch assays with higher carbon content presented higher methane production rates, although the difference in the final cumulative biogas production was not as sharp. The digestion of residual blood was also studied under semi-continuous operation using granular and powdered activated carbon. The average specific methane production was 216 ± 12 mL CH4/g VS. This result was obtained in spite of a strong volatile fatty acid (VFA accumulation, reaching values around 6 g/L, along with high ammonium concentrations (in the range of 6–8 g/L. The use of powdered activated carbon resulted in a better assimilation of C3-C5 acid forms, indicating that an enhancement in syntrophic metabolism may have taken place. Thermal analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM were applied as analytical tools for measuring the presence of organic material in the final digestate and evidencing modifications on the carbon surface. The addition of activated carbon for the digestion of residual blood highly improved the digestion process. The adsorption capacity of ammonium, the protection this carrier may offer by limiting mass transfer of toxic compounds, and its capacity to act as a conductive material may explain the successful digestion of residual blood as the sole substrate.

  14. Microgravity-induced modifications of the vestibuloocular reflex in Xenopus laevis tadpoles are related to development and the occurrence of tail lordosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Eberhard R

    2006-08-01

    During space flights, tadpoles of the clawed toad Xenopus laevis occasionally develop upward bended tails (tail lordosis). The tail lordosis disappears after re-entry to 1g within a couple of days. The mechanisms responsible for the induction of the tail lordosis are unknown; physical conditions such as weight de-loading or physiological factors such as decreased vestibular activity in microgravity might contribute. Microgravity (microg) also exerts significant effects on the roll-induced vestibuloocular reflex (rVOR). The rVOR was used to clarify whether tail lordosis is caused by physiological factors, by correlating the occurrence of microg-induced tail lordosis with the extent of microg-induced rVOR modifications. Post-flight recordings from three space flights (D-2 Spacelab mission, STS-55 in 1993; Shuttle-to-Mir mission SMM-06, STS-84 in 1997; French Soyuz taxi flight Andromède to ISS in 2001) were analyzed in these experiments. At onset of microgravity, tadpoles were at stages 25-28, 33-36 or 45. Parameters tested were rVOR gain (ratio between the angular eye movement and the lateral 30 degrees roll) and rVOR amplitude (maximal angular postural change of the eyes during a 360 degrees lateral roll). A ratio of 22-84% of tadpoles developed lordotic tails, depending on the space flight. The overall observation was that the rVOR of tadpoles with normal tails was either not affected by microgravity, or it was enhanced. In contrast, the rVOR of lordotic animals always revealed a depression. In particular, during post-flight days 1-11, tadpoles with lordotic tails from all three groups (25-28, 33-36 and 45) showed a lower rVOR gain and amplitude than the 1g-controls. The rVOR gain and amplitude of tadpoles from the groups 25-28 and 33-36 that developed normal tails was not affected by microgravity while the rVOR of microg-tadpoles from the stage-45 group with normal tails revealed a significant rVOR augmentation. (1) the vestibular system of tadpoles with lordotic

  15. Radon emanation from backfilled mill tailings in underground uranium mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Patitapaban; Mishra, Devi Prasad; Panigrahi, Durga Charan; Jha, Vivekananda; Patnaik, R Lokeswara; Sethy, Narendra Kumar

    2014-04-01

    Coarser mill tailings used as backfill to stabilize the stoped out areas in underground uranium mines is a potential source of radon contamination. This paper presents the quantitative assessment of radon emanation from the backfilled tailings in Jaduguda mine, India using a cylindrical accumulator. Some of the important parameters such as (226)Ra activity concentration, bulk density, bulk porosity, moisture content and radon emanation factor of the tailings affecting radon emanation were determined in the laboratory. The study revealed that the radon emanation rate of the tailings varied in the range of 0.12-7.03 Bq m(-2) s(-1) with geometric mean of 1.01 Bq m(-2) s(-1) and geometric standard deviation of 3.39. An increase in radon emanation rate was noticed up to a moisture saturation of 0.09 in the tailings, after which the emanation rate gradually started declining with saturation due to low diffusion coefficient of radon in the saturated tailings. Radon emanation factor of the tailings varied in the range of 0.08-0.23 with the mean value of 0.21. The emanation factor of the tailings with moisture saturation level over 0.09 was found to be about three times higher than that of the absolutely dry tailings. The empirical relationship obtained between (222)Rn emanation rate and (226)Ra activity concentration of the tailings indicated a significant positive linear correlation (r = 0.95, p < 0.001). This relationship may be useful for quick prediction of radon emanation rate from the backfill material of similar nature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Runaway tails in magnetized plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam-Taaheri, E.; Vlahos, L.; Rowland, H. L.; Papadopoulos, K.

    1985-01-01

    The evolution of a runaway tail driven by a dc electric field in a magnetized plasma is analyzed. Depending on the strength of the electric field and the ratio of plasma to gyrofrequency, there are three different regimes in the evolution of the tail. The tail can be (1) stable with electrons accelerated to large parallel velocities, (2) unstable to Cerenkov resonance because of the depletion of the bulk and the formation of a positive slope, (3) unstable to the anomalous Doppler resonance instability driven by the large velocity anisotropy in the tail. Once an instability is triggered (Cerenkov or anomalous Doppler resonance) the tail relaxes into an isotropic distribution. The role of a convection type loss term is also discussed.

  17. Human PrimPol activity is enhanced by RPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Jiménez, María I; Lahera, Antonio; Blanco, Luis

    2017-04-10

    Human PrimPol is a primase belonging to the AEP superfamily with the unique ability to synthesize DNA primers de novo, and a non-processive DNA polymerase able to bypass certain DNA lesions. PrimPol facilitates both mitochondrial and nuclear replication fork progression either acting as a conventional TLS polymerase, or repriming downstream of blocking lesions. In vivo assays have shown that PrimPol is rapidly recruited to sites of DNA damage by interaction with the human replication protein A (RPA). In agreement with previous findings, we show here that the higher affinity of RPA for ssDNA inhibits PrimPol activities in short ssDNA templates. In contrast, once the amount of ssDNA increases up to a length in which both proteins can simultaneously bind ssDNA, as expected during replicative stress conditions, PrimPol and RPA functionally interact, and their binding capacities are mutually enhanced. When using M13 ssDNA as template, RPA stimulated both the primase and polymerase activities of PrimPol, either alone or in synergy with Polε. These new findings supports the existence of a functional PrimPol/RPA association that allows repriming at the exposed ssDNA regions formed in the leading strand upon replicase stalling.

  18. Active screen plasma nitriding enhances cell attachment to polymer surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaklamani, Georgia; Bowen, James; Mehrban, Nazia; Dong, Hanshan; Grover, Liam M.; Stamboulis, Artemis

    2013-01-01

    Active screen plasma nitriding (ASPN) is a well-established technique used for the surface modification of materials, the result of which is often a product with enhanced functional performance. Here we report the modification of the chemical and mechanical properties of ultra-high molecular weight poly(ethylene) (UHMWPE) using 80:20 (v/v) N 2 /H 2 ASPN, followed by growth of 3T3 fibroblasts on the treated and untreated polymer surfaces. ASPN-treated UHMWPE showed extensive fibroblast attachment within 3 h of seeding, whereas fibroblasts did not successfully attach to untreated UHMWPE. Fibroblast-coated surfaces were maintained for up to 28 days, monitoring their metabolic activity and morphology throughout. The chemical properties of the ASPN-treated UHMWPE surface were studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, revealing the presence of C-N, C=N, and C≡N chemical bonds. The elastic modulus, surface topography, and adhesion properties of the ASPN-treated UHMWPE surface were studied over 28 days during sample storage under ambient conditions and during immersion in two commonly used cell culture media.

  19. Porous platinum mesoflowers with enhanced activity for methanol oxidation reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang Lina; Wang Wenjin; Hong Feng [School of Science, MOE Key Laboratory for Non-equilibrium Synthesis and Modulation of Condensed Matter, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Yang Shengchun, E-mail: ysch1209@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [School of Science, MOE Key Laboratory for Non-equilibrium Synthesis and Modulation of Condensed Matter, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); You Hongjun, E-mail: hjyou@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [School of Science, MOE Key Laboratory for Non-equilibrium Synthesis and Modulation of Condensed Matter, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Fang Jixiang; Ding Bingjun [School of Science, MOE Key Laboratory for Non-equilibrium Synthesis and Modulation of Condensed Matter, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2012-07-15

    Porous Pt and Pt-Ag alloy mesoflowers (MFs) with about 2 {mu}m in diameter and high porosity were synthesized using Ag mesoflowers as sacrificial template by galvanic reaction. The silver content in Pt-Ag alloys can be facilely controlled by nitric acid treatment. And the pure Pt MFs can be obtained by selective removal of silver element from Pt{sub 72}Ag{sub 28} MFs electrochemically. Both Pt{sub 45}Ag{sub 55}, Pt{sub 72}Ag{sub 28} and pure Pt show a high catalytic performance in methanol oxidation reaction (MOR). Especially, pure Pt MFs exhibited a 2 to 3 times current density enhancement in MOR compared with the commercial used Pt black, which can be attributed to their porous nanostructure with 3-dimentional nature and small crystal sizes. - Graphical Abstract: The CVs of MOR on Pt (red) and Pt black (green) catalysts in 0.1 M HClO{sub 4} and 0.5 M CH{sub 3}OH for specific mass current. The insert shows the SEM images of two porous Pt MFs. Platinum mesoflowers (MFs) with about 2 {mu}m in diameter and high porosity were synthesised with Ag mesoflowers as sacrificial template by galvanic replacement. The porous Pt MFs exhibited a more than 3 times enhancement in electrocatalytic performance for methanol oxidation reaction compared the commercial used Pt black. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Porous Pt and Pt-Ag mesoflowers (MFs) were synthesized using Ag MFs sacrifical template. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pt MFs presents an improved catalytic activity in MOR compared with Pt black. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We provided a facile approach for the development of high performance Pt electrocatalysts for fuel cells.

  20. Development of the disposal technology research component of the national uranium tailings program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melis, L.A.

    1983-03-01

    The National Technical Planning Group on Uranium Tailings Research, organized by CANMET in 1980, recommended the establishment of a National Uranium Tailings Program to develop research on the long-term abandonment of uranium mine tailings. This report deals with the disposal technology component of this program and attempts to provide recommendations with respect to potential research avenues in this area. A description of uranium tailings in Canada is provided in order to identify the current situation with uranium tailings management. Uranium mining sites described include the Elliot Lake and Bancroft area of Ontario, the northern Saskatchewan properties and the two abandoned sites in the North West Territories. The description of the sites was facilitated by subdividing the tailings into inactive sites, active sites, new tailings sites and areas of tailings in a close-out situation. Methods identified as promising include subsurface disposal, in-situ leaching, prevention of pyrite oxidation and reclamation studies at abandoned sites

  1. Hyperglycemia induces a dynamic cooperativity of histone methylase and demethylase enzymes associated with gene-activating epigenetic marks that coexist on the lysine tail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasacchio, Daniella; Okabe, Jun; Tikellis, Christos; Balcerczyk, Aneta; George, Prince; Baker, Emma K; Calkin, Anna C; Brownlee, Michael; Cooper, Mark E; El-Osta, Assam

    2009-05-01

    Results from the Diabetes Control Complications Trial (DCCT) and the subsequent Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) Study and more recently from the U.K. Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) have revealed that the deleterious end-organ effects that occurred in both conventional and more aggressively treated subjects continued to operate >5 years after the patients had returned to usual glycemic control and is interpreted as a legacy of past glycemia known as "hyperglycemic memory." We have hypothesized that transient hyperglycemia mediates persistent gene-activating events attributed to changes in epigenetic information. Models of transient hyperglycemia were used to link NFkappaB-p65 gene expression with H3K4 and H3K9 modifications mediated by the histone methyltransferases (Set7 and SuV39h1) and the lysine-specific demethylase (LSD1) by the immunopurification of soluble NFkappaB-p65 chromatin. The sustained upregulation of the NFkappaB-p65 gene as a result of ambient or prior hyperglycemia was associated with increased H3K4m1 but not H3K4m2 or H3K4m3. Furthermore, glucose was shown to have other epigenetic effects, including the suppression of H3K9m2 and H3K9m3 methylation on the p65 promoter. Finally, there was increased recruitment of the recently identified histone demethylase LSD1 to the p65 promoter as a result of prior hyperglycemia. These studies indicate that the active transcriptional state of the NFkappaB-p65 gene is linked with persisting epigenetic marks such as enhanced H3K4 and reduced H3K9 methylation, which appear to occur as a result of effects of the methyl-writing and methyl-erasing histone enzymes.

  2. Enhanced biological activities of gamma-irradiated persimmon leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Byoung-Ok; Nchang Che, Denis; Yin, Hong-Hua; Jang, Seon-Il

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities of gamma-irradiated persimmon leaf extract (GPLE) with those of non-irradiated persimmon leaf extract (PLE). Ethanolic extract of persimmon leaf was exposed to gamma irradiation at a dose of 10 kGy. After gamma irradiation, the color of the extract changed from dark brown to light brown. The anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities of GPLE and PLE were assessed from: total polyphenol and total flavonoid contents; 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay; 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) assay, and levels of pro-inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). The total polyphenol contents of GPLE and PLE were determined to be 224.44 ± 1.54 and 197.33 ± 5.81 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g, respectively, and the total flavonoid contents of GPLE and PLE were 206.27 ± 1.15 and 167.60 ± 2.00 mg quercetin equivalents (QUE)/g, respectively. The anti-oxidant activities of GPLE and PLE as measured by DPPH assays were 338.33 ± 30.19 μg/ml (IC50) and 388.68 ± 8.45 μg/ml (IC50), respectively, and those measured by ABTS assays were 510.49 ± 15.12 μg/ml (IC50) and 731.30 ± 10.63 μg/ml (IC50), respectively. IC50 is the inhibitor concentration that reduces the response by 50%. GPLE strongly inhibited the production of NO, PGE2 and IL-6 compared with PLE in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. Furthermore, GPLE significantly inhibited the production of TNF-α and IL-6 cytokines compared with PLE in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) plus A23187-stimulated HMC-1 human mast cells. These results indicate that gamma irradiation of PLE can enhance its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities through elevation of the phenolic contents. Therefore, gamma-irradiated PLE has potential for use in the food and cosmetic

  3. Mercury's Dynamic Magnetic Tail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, James A.

    2010-01-01

    The Mariner 10 and MESSENGER flybys of Mercury have revealed a magnetosphere that is likely the most responsive to upstream interplanetary conditions of any in the solar system. The source of the great dynamic variability observed during these brief passages is due to Mercury's proximity to the Sun and the inverse proportionality between reconnection rate and solar wind Alfven Mach number. However, this planet's lack of an ionosphere and its small physical dimensions also contribute to Mercury's very brief Dungey cycle, approx. 2 min, which governs the time scale for internal plasma circulation. Current observations and understanding of the structure and dynamics of Mercury's magnetotail are summarized and discussed. Special emphasis will be placed upon such questions as: 1) How much access does the solar wind have to this small magnetosphere as a function of upstream conditions? 2) What roles do heavy planetary ions play? 3) Do Earth-like substorms take place at Mercury? 4) How does Mercury's tail respond to extreme solar wind events such coronal mass ejections? Prospects for progress due to advances in the global magnetohydrodynamic and hybrid simulation modeling and the measurements to be taken by MESSENGER after it enters Mercury orbit on March 18, 2011 will be discussed.

  4. Nanostructured porous ZnO film with enhanced photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lina; Zheng Yingying; Li Xiaoyun; Dong Wenjun; Tang Weihua; Chen Benyong; Li Chaorong; Li Xiao; Zhang Tierui

    2011-01-01

    Well-defined ZnO nanostructured films have been fabricated directly on Zn foil via hydrothermal synthesis. During the fabrication of the ZnO nanostructured films, the Zn foil serves as the Zn source and also the substrate. Porous nanosheet-based, nanotube-based and nanoflower-based ZnO films can all be easily prepared by adjusting the alkali type, reaction time and reaction temperature. The composition, morphology and structure of ZnO films are characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope and high-resolution transmission electron microscope. The porous ZnO nanosheet-based film exhibits enhanced photocatalytic activity in the degradation of Rhodamine B under UV light irradiation. This can be attributed to the high surface area of the ZnO nanosheet and the large percentage of the exposed [001] facet. Moreover, the self-supporting, recyclable and stable ZnO photocatalytic film can be readily recovered and potentially applied for pollution disposal.

  5. Optical manipulation and catalytic activity enhanced by surface plasmon effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Ningmu; Min, Jiang; Jiao, Wenxiang; Wang, Guanghui

    2017-02-01

    For optical manipulation, a nano-optical conveyor belt consisting of an array of gold plasmonic non-concentric nano-rings (PNNRs) is demonstrated for the realization of trapping and unidirectional transportation of nanoparticles by polarization rotation of excitation beam. These hot spots of an asymmetric plasmonic nanostructure are polarization dependent, therefore, one can use the incident polarization state to manipulate the trapped targets. Trapped particles could be transferred between adjacent PNNRs in a given direction just by rotating the polarization of incident beam due to unbalanced potential. The angular dependent distribution of electric field around PNNR has been solved using the three- dimensional finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique. For optical enhanced catalytic activity, the spectral properties of dimers of Au nanorod-Au nanorod nanostructures under the excitation of 532nm photons have been investigated. With a super-resolution catalytic mapping technique, we identified the existence of "hot spot" in terms of catalytic reactivity at the gap region within the twined plasmonic nanostructure. Also, FDTD calculation has revealed an intrinsic correlation between hot electron transfer.

  6. Eugenol nanocapsule for enhanced therapeutic activity against periodontal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramod, Kannissery; Aji Alex, M R; Singh, Manisha; Dang, Shweta; Ansari, Shahid H; Ali, Javed

    2016-01-01

    Eugenol is a godsend to dental care due to its analgesic, local anesthetic, and anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects. The aim of the present research work was to prepare, characterize and evaluate eugenol-loaded nanocapsules (NCs) against periodontal infections. Eugenol-loaded polycaprolactone (PCL) NCs were prepared by solvent displacement method. The nanometric size of the prepared NCs was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The in vitro drug release was found to follow a biphasic pattern and followed Michaelis-Menten like model. The percentage cell viability values near to 100 in the cell viability assay indicated that the NCs are not cytotoxic. In the in vivo studies, the eugenol NC group displayed significant difference in the continuity of epithelium of the interdental papilla in comparison to the untreated, pure eugenol and placebo groups. The in vivo performance of the eugenol-loaded NCs using ligature-induced periodontitis model in rats indicated that eugenol-loaded NCs could prevent septal bone resorption in periodontitis. On the basis of our research findings it could be concluded that eugenol-loaded PCL NCs could serve as a novel colloidal drug delivery system for enhanced therapeutic activity of eugenol in the treatment of periodontal infections.

  7. Does small-bodied salmon spawning activity enhance streambed mobility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Marwan A.; Tonina, Daniele; Buxton, Todd H.

    2015-09-01

    Female salmonids bury and lay their eggs in streambeds by digging a pit, which is then covered with sediment from a second pit that is dug immediately upstream. The spawning process alters streambed topography, winnows fine sediment, and mixes sediment in the active layer. The resulting egg nests (redds) contain coarser and looser sediments than those of unspawned streambed areas, and display a dune-like shape with an amplitude and length that vary with fish size, substrate conditions, and flow conditions. Redds increase local bed surface roughness (drag, resulting in lower grain shear stress and less particle mobility. Spawning, also prevents streambed armoring by mixing surface and subsurface material, potentially increasing particle mobility. Here we use two-dimensional hydraulic modeling with detailed prespawning and postspawning bathymetries and field observations to test the effect of spawning by small-bodied salmonids on sediment transport. Our results show that topographical roughness from small salmon redds has negligible effects on shear stress at the reach-unit scale, and limited effects at the local scale. Conversely, results indicate sediment mixing reduces armoring and enhances sediment mobility, which increases potential bed load transport by subsequent floods. River restoration in fish-bearing streams should take into consideration the effects of redd excavation on channel stability. This is particularly important for streams that historically supported salmonids and are the focus of habitat restoration actions.

  8. Determination of arsenic in some water bodies, untreated ore and tailing samples at Konongo in the Ashanti region of Ghana and its surrounding towns and villages by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boadu, M.; Osae, E.K.; Serfor-Armah, Y.; Nyarko, B.J.B.; Golow, A.A.

    2001-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been employed for the determination of arsenic in samples of water bodies at Konongo an old mining town in the Ashanti region of Ghana and its surrounding towns and villages. In some of the water samples, significant levels of arsenic were recorded but others gave no indication of the metal. The precision and accuracy of the method was evaluated using real ore samples and standard reference materials. The accuracy of the method was found to be within ±6%. The average arsenic levels found in the water samples ranged between 0.04 and 12.2 mg/l. Untreated ore and tailing samples were also analysed for arsenic. The surface ore gave an arsenic concentration of 4,628 ± 97 ppm while that of the bottom ore was 2,978 ± 69 ppm. For the tailing samples, the range of arsenic level was 1,776 to 1,787 ppm. It was observed that the upper sink (i.e., the surface portion of the ore) showed higher levels of arsenic than the lower one (i.e., bottom portion of the ore). (author)

  9. Photon activation therapy: a Monte Carlo study on dose enhancement by various sources and activation media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakhshabadi, Mahdi; Ghorbani, Mahdi; Meigooni, Ali Soleimani

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, a number of brachytherapy sources and activation media were simulated using MCNPX code and the results were analyzed based on the dose enhancement factor values. Furthermore, two new brachytherapy sources ( 131 Cs and a hypothetical 170 Tm) were evaluated for their application in photon activation therapy (PAT). 125 I, 103 Pd, 131 Cs and hypothetical 170 Tm brachytherapy sources were simulated in water and their dose rate constant and the radial dose functions were compared with previously published data. The sources were then simulated in a soft tissue phantom which was composed of Ag, I, Pt or Au as activation media uniformly distributed in the tumour volume. These simulations were performed using the MCNPX code, and dose enhancement factor (DEF) was obtained for 7, 18 and 30 mg/ml concentrations of the activation media. Each source, activation medium and concentration was evaluated separately in a separate simulation. The calculated dose rate constant and radial dose functions were in agreement with the published data for the aforementioned sources. The maximum DEF was found to be 5.58 for a combination of the 170 Tm source with 30 mg/ml concentration of I. The DEFs for 131 Cs and 170 Tm sources for all the four activation media were higher than those for other sources and activation media. From this point of view, these two sources can be more useful in photon activation therapy with photon emitter sources. Furthermore, 131 Cs and 170 Tm brachytherapy sources can be proposed as new options for use in the field of PAT.

  10. Enhanced persistency of resting and active periods of locomotor activity in schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru Sano

    Full Text Available Patients with schizophrenia frequently exhibit behavioral abnormalities associated with its pathological symptoms. Therefore, a quantitative evaluation of behavioral dynamics could contribute to objective diagnoses of schizophrenia. However, such an approach has not been fully established because of the absence of quantitative biobehavioral measures. Recently, we studied the dynamical properties of locomotor activity, specifically how resting and active periods are interwoven in daily life. We discovered universal statistical laws ("behavioral organization" and their alterations in patients with major depressive disorder. In this study, we evaluated behavioral organization of schizophrenic patients (n = 19 and healthy subjects (n = 11 using locomotor activity data, acquired by actigraphy, to investigate whether the laws could provide objective and quantitative measures for a possible diagnosis and assessment of symptoms. Specifically, we evaluated the cumulative distributions of resting and active periods, defined as the periods with physical activity counts successively below and above a predefined threshold, respectively. Here we report alterations in the laws governing resting and active periods; resting periods obeyed a power-law cumulative distribution with significantly lower parameter values (power-law scaling exponents, whereas active periods followed a stretched exponential distribution with significantly lower parameter values (stretching exponents, in patients. Our findings indicate enhanced persistency of both lower and higher locomotor activity periods in patients with schizophrenia, probably reflecting schizophrenic pathophysiology.

  11. Plant-Mediated Changes in Soil N-Cycling Genes during Revegetation of Copper Mine Tailings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen limitation represents a major bottleneck during the revegetation of mine tailings. However, controls over key nitrogen-cycling genes in rhizospheric soils under differential vegetation management remain poorly understood. The abundance and transcriptional activity of nitrogen-cycling genes and the enzymatic activity of nitrogen transformation are mediated differentially during revegetation of mine tailings by Imperata cylindrica and Chrysopogon zizanioides plants. Results showed that the highest total organic carbon (TOC, total nitrogen (TN, and NH4+-N contents were found in the rhizosphere of I. cylindrica. The nifH gene abundances differed between I. cylindrica and C. zizanioides, and were higher in I. cylindrica which demonstrated by 3.39-fold higher mRNA transcript abundance of the nifH gene and a 2.15-fold higher nitrogen fixation rate in the rhizosphere. In addition, C. zizanioides exhibited a 4.94-fold higher transcript abundance of the archaeal amoA gene and the highest nitrification rate (1.706 ± 0.293 μg N-NO2- g−1 h−1 in the rhizosphere. In conclusion, I. cylindrica and C. zizanioides stimulated the abundances and activities of nifH gene and archaeal amoA gene, respectively. In addition, I. cylindrica appears to be capable of enhancing nitrogen fixation and exhibited accelerated nitrogen accumulation, which may be particularly useful for the rehabilitation of mine tailings.

  12. Effects of coal spoil amendment on heavy metal accumulation and physiological aspects of ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) growing in copper mine tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Zhaoxia; Wang, Xingming; Wang, Yunmin; Liu, Guijian; Dong, Zhongbing; Lu, Xianwen; Chen, Guangzhou; Zha, Fugeng

    2017-12-21

    Copper mine tailings pose many threats to the surrounding environment and human health, and thus, their remediation is fundamental. Coal spoil is the waste by-product of coal mining and characterized by low levels of metals, high content of organic matter, and many essential microelements. This study was designed to evaluate the role of coal spoil on heavy uptake and physiological responses of Lolium perenne L. grown in copper mine tailings amended with coal spoil at rates of 0, 0.5, 1, 5, 10, and 20%. The results showed that applying coal spoil to copper mine tailings decreased the diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn contents in tailings and reduced those metal contents in both roots and shoots of the plant. However, application of coal spoil increased the DTPA-extractable Cr concentration in tailings and also increased Cr uptake and accumulation by Lolium perenne L. The statistical analysis of physiological parameters indicated that chlorophyll and carotenoid increased at the lower amendments of coal spoil followed by a decrease compared to their respective controls. Protein content was enhanced at all the coal spoil amendments. When treated with coal spoil, the activities of superoxide dismutases (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) responded differently. CAT activity was inhibited, but POD activity was increased with increasing amendment ratio of coal spoil. SOD activity increased up to 1% coal spoil followed by a decrease. Overall, the addition of coal spoil decreased the oxidative stress in Lolium perenne L., reflected by the reduction in malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in the plant. It is concluded that coal spoil has the potential to stabilize most metals studied in copper mine tailings and ameliorate the harmful effects in Lolium perenne L. through changing the physiological attributes of the plant grown in copper mine tailings.

  13. Regulation of hepatitis B virus ENI enhancer activity by hepatocyte-enriched transcription factor HNF3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M; Hieng, S; Qian, X; Costa, R; Ou, J H

    1994-11-15

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) ENI enhancer can activate the expression of HBV and non-HBV genes in a liver-specific manner. By performing the electrophoretic mobility-shift assays, we demonstrated that the three related, liver-enriched, transcription factors, HNF3 alpha, HNF3 beta, and HNF3 gamma could all bind to the 2c site of HBV ENI enhancer. Mutations introduced in the 2c site to abolish the binding by HNF3 reduced the enhancer activity approximately 15-fold. Moreover, expression of HNF3 antisense sequences to suppress the expression of HNF3 in Huh-7 hepatoma cells led to reduction of the ENI enhancer activity. These results indicate that HNF3 positively regulates the ENI enhancer activity and this regulation is most likely mediated through the 2c site. The requirement of HNF3 for the ENI enhancer activity could explain the liver specificity of this enhancer element.

  14. Current practices and options for confinement of uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    At the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, which took place in Stockholm from 4 to 6 June 1972, national governments were asked to explore, with the International Atomic Energy Agency and other appropriate international organizations, international co-operation on radioactive waste matters including those of mining and tailings disposal. Since that time the IAEA has been active in the field of uranium and thorium mill tailings management. As part of this activity, the present report describes current practices and options for confinement of uranium mill tailings. It is addressed to technical and administrative personnel who are involved in planning and implementing national and industrial programmes on the management of such tailings. In 1974 and 1975 the IAEA convened meetings of experts to review matters of interest and importance in the management of uranium and thorium mine and mill tailings. These activities led to the publication in 1976 of Management of Wastes from the Mining and Milling of Uranium and Thorium Ores, a Code of Practice and Guide to the Code, IAEA Safety Series No. 44. As a continuation of this activity, the IAEA is here dealing more specifically with the design and siting considerations for the management of uranium mill tailings

  15. Rehabilitation of uranium tailings impoundments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawley, A.H.

    1983-01-01

    Under Australian environmental controls relating to the management of uranium tailings, it is no longer acceptable practice to search for a rehabilitation strategy at the end of production when the generation of tailings has ceased. The uranium projects currently in production and those being proposed are tightly regulated by the authorities. The waste management plans must consider site specific factors and must include selection of appropriate disposal sites and design for long term containment. The final encapsulation in engineered facilities must take into account the probable routes to the environment of the tailings. Rehabilitation shoud be undertaken by the mining and milling operators to standards approved by appropriate authorities. Appropriate administrative arrangements are required, by way of technical committees and financial bonds to ensure that agreed standards of rehabilitation may be achieved. Past and present experience with the rehabilitation of uranium tailings impoundments in Australia is discussed

  16. Sub-aerial tailings deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, R.B.; Haile, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    The sub-aerial technique involves the systematic deposition of tailings in thin layers and allowing each layer to settle, drain and partially air dry prior to covering with a further layer. Underdrainage produces densities in excess of those achieved by sub-aqueous deposition and any air-drying serves to preconsolidate each layer with a resulting further increase in density. The low permeability of the tailings surface resulting from this deposition technique results in high runoff coefficients and, by decanting the runoff component of direct precipitation, a net evaporation condition can be achieved even in high rainfall areas. An underdrainage system prevents the build-up of excess pore-pressures within the tailings mass and at decommissioning the tailings are fully consolidated and drained thereby eliminating the possibility of any long term seepage. This paper presents a general description of these design concepts, and details of two projects where the concepts have been applied

  17. Interactions of tailings leachate with local liner materials found at Canonsburg, Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodson, M.E.; Gee, G.W.; Serne, R.J.

    1984-04-01

    The mill tailings site at Canonsburg, Pennsylvania is the first mill site to receive remedial action under the Department of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program. Part of this remedial action will require excavating the 53,500 m 3 (70,000 yd 3 ) of tailings on the site having a specific activity exceeding 100 pCi/g, and encapsulating these contaminated tailings in a clay-lined cell. As part of the remedial action effort, Pacific Northwest Laboratory has been studying the interactions of tailings and tailings leachate with locally occurring clays proposed for liner materials. These studies include physical and chemical characterization of amended and unamended local clays, chemical characterization of the tailings, column studies of tailings leached with deionized water, and column studies of clays contacted with tailings solutions to determine the attenuation properties of the proposed liner materials. Column studies of tailings leached with deionized water indicated that the Canonsburg tailings could represent a source of soluble radium-226 and uranium-238, several trace metals, cations, and the anions SO 4 , NO 3 , and Cl. Of these soluble contaminants, uranium-238, radium-226, the trace metals As and Mo, and the anions F and SO 4 were present at levels exceeding maximum concentration levels in the tailings leaching column effluents. However, local clays, both in amended and unamended form were effective in attenuating contaminant migration. The soil amendments tested failed to increase radium attenuation. The tailings leaching studies indicated that the tailings will produce leachates of neutral pH and relatively low contaminant levels for at least 200 years. We believe that compacting the tailings within the encapsulation cell will help to reduce leaching of contaminants from the liner system, since very low permeabilities ( -8 cm/s) were observed for even slightly compacted tailings materials

  18. Physico-chemical and radiological characterization of uranium tailings from Tummalapalle uranium mining site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patra, A.C.; Sahoo, S.K.; Lenka, P.; Gupta, Anil; Jha, S.K.; Tripathi, R.M.; Molla, S.; Rana, B.K.

    2018-01-01

    Mining of uranium bearing minerals is essential for the extraction of uranium to meet the power requirements of India. Mining and milling activities produce large quantities of low active tailings, as wastes, which are contained in Tailings Ponds. The nature of tailings depends on the mineralogy of ore and host rock and their quantity depends on the configuration of the ore body and mining methods. The mobility of an element from these tailings depends on elemental concentration, pH, particle size, cation exchange capacity, bulk density and porosity of the tailings etc. This necessitates complete characterisation of the tailings. In this paper we aim to characterize the uranium mill tailings generated from Tummalapalle uranium mining facility in Kadappa district, Andhra Pradesh, India

  19. Design of New Antibacterial Enhancers Based on AcrB’s Structure and the Evaluation of Their Antibacterial Enhancement Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Song

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Previously, artesunate (AS and dihydroartemisinine 7 (DHA7 were found to have antibacterial enhancement activity against Escherichia coli via inhibition of the efflux pump AcrB. However, they were only effective against E. coli standard strains. This study aimed to develop effective antibacterial enhancers based on the previous work. Our results demonstrate that 86 new antibacterial enhancers were designed via 3D-SAR and molecular docking. Among them, DHA27 had the best antibacterial enhancement activity. It could potentiate the antibacterial effects of ampicillin against not only E. coli standard strain but also clinical strains, and of β-lactam antibiotics, not non-β-lactamantibiotics. DHA27 could increase the accumulation of daunomycin and nile red within E. coli ATCC 35218, but did not increase the bacterial membrane permeability. DHA27 reduced acrB’s mRNA expression of E. coli ATCC 35218 in a dose-dependent manner, and its antibacterial enhancement activity is related to the degree of acrB mRNA expression in E. coli clinical strains. The polypeptides from AcrB were obtained via molecular docking assay; the pre-incubated polypeptides could inhibit the activity of DHA27. Importantly, DHA27 had no cytotoxicity on cell proliferation. In conclusion, among newly designed antibacterial enhancers, DHA27 had favorable physical and pharmacological properties with no significant cytotoxicity at effective concentrations, and might serve as a potential efflux pump inhibitor in the future.

  20. Minocycline modulates NFκB phosphorylation and enhances antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus in mesenchymal stromal/stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Alberto Daniel; Rose, Warren E; Hematti, Peiman; Kao, W John

    2017-07-21

    Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) have demonstrated pro-healing properties due to their anti-inflammatory, angiogenic, and even antibacterial properties. We have shown previously that minocycline enhances the wound healing phenotype of MSCs, and MSCs encapsulated in poly(ethylene glycol) and gelatin-based hydrogels with minocycline have antibacterial properties against Staphylococcus aureus (SA). Here, we investigated the signaling pathway that minocycline modulates in MSCs which results in their enhanced wound healing phenotype and determined whether preconditioning MSCs with minocycline has an effect on antimicrobial activity. We further investigated the in-vivo antimicrobial efficacy of MSC and antibiotic-loaded hydrogels in inoculated full-thickness cutaneous wounds. Modulation of cell signaling pathways in MSCs with minocycline was analyzed via western blot, immunofluorescence, and ELISA. Antimicrobial efficacy of MSCs pretreated with minocycline was determined by direct and transwell coculture with SA. MSC viability after SA coculture was determined via a LIVE/DEAD® stain. Internalization of SA by MSCs pretreated with minocycline was determined via confocal imaging. All protein and cytokine analysis was done via ELISA. The in-vivo antimicrobial efficacy of MSC and antibiotic-loaded hydrogels was determined in Sprague-Dawley rats inoculated with SA. Two-way ANOVA for multiple comparisons was used with Bonferroni test assessment and an unpaired two-tailed Student's t test was used to determine p values for all assays with multiple or two conditions, respectively. Minocycline leads to the phosphorylation of transcriptional nuclear factor-κB (NFκB), but not c-Jun NH 2 -terminal kinase (JNK) or mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK). Inhibition of NFκB activation prevented the minocycline-induced increase in VEGF secretion. Preconditioning of MSCs with minocycline led to a reduced production of the antimicrobial peptide LL-37, but enhanced antimicrobial

  1. Sirenomelia apus with vestigial tail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Tushar B; Nanavati, Ruchi N; Udani, Rekha H

    2005-04-01

    Sirenomelia is an exceptionally rare congenital malformation characterized by complete or near complete fusion of lower limbs. A newborn with clinical features of sirenomelia including fused lower limbs in medial position, absent fibula, anal atresia, complete absence of urogenital system (bilateral renal agenesis, absent ureters, urinary bladder, absent internal and external genitalia), a single umbilical artery and a vestigial tail is reported. Association of vestigial tail with sirenomelia is not described in the literature.

  2. Activation of the polyomavirus enhancer by a murine activator protein 1 (AP1) homolog and two contiguous proteins.

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, M E; Piette, J; Yaniv, M; Tang, W J; Folk, W R

    1988-01-01

    The polyomavirus enhancer is composed of multiple DNA sequence elements serving as binding sites for proteins present in mouse nuclear extracts that activate transcription and DNA replication. We have identified three such proteins and their binding sites and correlate them with enhancer function. Mutation of nucleotide (nt) 5140 in the enhancer alters the binding site (TGACTAA, nt 5139-5145) for polyomavirus enhancer A binding protein 1 (PEA1), a murine homolog of the human transcription fac...

  3. Glutamate transporter activity promotes enhanced Na+/K+-ATPase -mediated extracellular K+ management during neuronal activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Brian R; Holm, Rikke; Vilsen, Bente

    2016-01-01

    , in addition, Na+ /K+ -ATPase-mediated K+ clearance could be governed by astrocytic [Na+ ]i . During most neuronal activity, glutamate is released in the synaptic cleft and is re-absorbed by astrocytic Na+ -coupled glutamate transporters, thereby elevating [Na+ ]i . It thus remains unresolved whether...... the different Na+ /K+ -ATPase isoforms are controlled by [K+ ]o or [Na+ ]i during neuronal activity. Hippocampal slice recordings of stimulus-induced [K+ ]o transients with ion-sensitive microelectrodes revealed reduced Na+ /K+ -ATPase-mediated K+ management upon parallel inhibition of the glutamate transporter......+ affinity to the α1 and α2 isoforms than the β2 isoform. In summary, enhanced astrocytic Na+ /K+ -ATPase-dependent K+ clearance was obtained with parallel glutamate transport activity. The astrocytic Na+ /K+ -ATPase isoform constellation α2β1 appeared to be specifically geared to respond to the [Na+ ]i...

  4. Multichannel thickener of flotation tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondratenko, A F; Shuliko, A N; Zinchenko, A F

    1983-04-01

    A multichannel thickener of flotation tailings developed by Ukrniiugleobogashchenie is described. Tailings with solid content ranging from 40 to 60 g/l are mixed with flocculation reagents (quantity ratio from 60 to 70 g/l) in a turbulent mixer: waste water with tailings fed to the mixer is divided into three streams, flocculation reagents are batched in stages with each water stream. After turbulent mixing, water, tailings and reagent are fed to the settling chamber. Settling chamber (dimensions 2.4 x 1.5 x 1.0 m) is divided into a number of channels by settling surfaces of 0.35 m/sup 2/ each, inclined at an angle of 55 degrees. Distance between the surfaces is 50 mm. The thickener has a total settling surface of 18.7 m/sup 2/. Water with tailings flows upwards, cleaned water is removed by a separating system and settled tailings move downward and accumulate in the compacting chamber (dimensions 1.5 x 1.5 x 0.9 m). From the compacting chamber thickened slurry with solid content from 90 to 150 g/l is removed by a hydraulic system. During performance testing in some plants preparing coal difficult to wash, thickening efficiency amounted to 100%. The results of performance testing are shown in two tables. Factors which influence thickener productivity are evaluated. (In Russian)

  5. Prelude to THEMIS tail conjunction study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Y. Lui

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available A close conjunction of several satellites (LANL, GOES, Polar, Geotail, and Cluster distributed from the geostationary altitude to about 16 RE downstream in the tail occurred during substorm activity as indicated by global auroral imaging and ground-based magnetometer data. This constellation of satellites resembles what is planned for the THEMIS (Time History of Events and Macroscopic Interactions during Substorms mission to resolve the substorm controversy on the location of the substorm expansion onset region. In this article, we show in detail the dipolarization and dynamic changes seen by these satellites associated with two onsets of substorm intensification activity. In particular, we find that dipolarization at ~16 RE downstream in the tail can occur with dawnward electric field and without plasma flow, just like some near-Earth dipolarization events reported previously. The spreading of substorm disturbances in the tail coupled with complementary ground observations indicates that the observed time sequence on the onsets of substorm disturbances favors initiation in the near-Earth region for this THEMIS-like conjunction.

  6. Can tail damage outbreaks in the pig be predicted by behavioural change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Mona Lilian Vestbjerg; Andersen, Heidi Mai-Lis; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2016-03-01

    Tail biting, resulting in outbreaks of tail damage in pigs, is a multifactorial welfare and economic problem which is usually partly prevented through tail docking. According to European Union legislation, tail docking is not allowed on a routine basis; thus there is a need for alternative preventive methods. One strategy is the surveillance of the pigs' behaviour for known preceding indicators of tail damage, which makes it possible to predict a tail damage outbreak and prevent it in proper time. This review discusses the existing literature on behavioural changes observed prior to a tail damage outbreak. Behaviours found to change prior to an outbreak include increased activity level, increased performance of enrichment object manipulation, and a changed proportion of tail posture with more tails between the legs. Monitoring these types of behaviours is also discussed for the purpose of developing an automatic warning system for tail damage outbreaks, with activity level showing promising results for being monitored automatically. Encouraging results have been found so far for the development of an automatic warning system; however, there is a need for further investigation and development, starting with the description of the temporal development of the predictive behaviour in relation to tail damage outbreaks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Cytoplasmic Tail Domain of Epstein-Barr Virus gH Regulates Membrane Fusion Activity through Altering gH Binding to gp42 and Epithelial Cell Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Chen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is associated with infectious mononucleosis and a variety of cancers as well as lymphoproliferative disorders in immunocompromised patients. EBV mediates viral entry into epithelial and B cells using fusion machinery composed of four glycoproteins: gB, the gH/gL complex, and gp42. gB and gH/gL are required for both epithelial and B cell fusion. The specific role of gH/gL in fusion has been the most elusive among the required herpesvirus entry glycoproteins. Previous mutational studies have focused on the ectodomain of EBV gH and not on the gH cytoplasmic tail domain (CTD. In this study, we chose to examine the function of the gH CTD by making serial gH truncation mutants as well as amino acid substitution mutants to determine the importance of the gH CTD in epithelial and B cell fusion. Truncation of 8 amino acids (aa 698 to 706 of the gH CTD resulted in diminished fusion activity using a virus-free syncytium formation assay and fusion assay. The importance of the amino acid composition of the gH CTD was also investigated by amino acid substitutions that altered the hydrophobicity or hydrophilicity of the CTD. These mutations also resulted in diminished fusion activity. Interestingly, some of the gH CTD truncation mutants and hydrophilic tail substitution mutants lost the ability to bind to gp42 and epithelial cells. In summary, our studies indicate that the gH CTD is an important functional domain.

  8. Predicting arsenic concentrations in porewaters of buried uranium mill tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langmuir, D.; Mahoney, J.; MacDonald, A.; Rowson, J.

    1999-10-01

    . Consistent with a kinetic model that describes the rate of breakdown of scorodite to form hydrous ferric oxide, the rate of release of dissolved arsenate to tailings porewaters from slake limed tailings: (1) is proportional to pH above pH 6--7; (2) decreases exponentially as the total molar Fe/As ratio of tailings raffinates is increased from 1/1 to greater than 5/1; and (3) is proportional to temperature with an average Arrhenius activation energy of 13.4 {+-} 4.2 kcal/mol. Study results suggest that if ferric sulfate and slaked lime are added in the tailings neutralization circuit to give a raffinate Fe/As molar ratio of at least 3--5 and a nominal (initial) pH of 8 (final pH of 7--8), arsenic and nickel concentrations of 2 mg/L or less, are probable in porewaters of individual tailings in the TMF for 50 to 10,000 yrs after tailings disposal. However, the tailings will be mixed in the TMF, which will contain about 35% tailings with Fe/As = 3.0, and 65% tailings with Fe/As = 5.0--7.7. Thus, it seems likely that average arsenic pore water concentrations in the TMF may not exceed 1 mg/L.

  9. More tail lesions among undocked than tail docked pigs in a conventional herd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahrmann, H. P.; Busch, M. E.; D'Eath, R. B.

    2017-01-01

    The vast majority of piglets reared in the European Union (EU) and worldwide is tail docked to reduce the risk of being tail bitten, even though EU animal welfare legislation bans routine tail docking. Many conventional herds experience low levels of tail biting among tail docked pigs, however...

  10. Research on Long Tail Recommendation Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xuezhi; Zhang, Chuang; Wu, Ming; Zeng, Yang

    2017-10-01

    Most recommendation systems in the major electronic commerce platforms are influenced by the long tail effect more or less. There are sufficient researches of how to assess recommendation effect while no criteria to evaluate long tail recommendation rate. In this study, we first discussed the existing problems of recommending long tail products through specific experiments. Then we proposed a long tail evaluation criteria and compared the performance in long tail recommendation between different models.

  11. ''Dural tail'' adjacent to acoustic neuroma on MRI: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunardi, P.; Mastronardi, L.; Nardacci, B.; Acqui, M.; Fortuna, A.

    1993-01-01

    A 'dural tail' on Gd-DTPA-enhanced MRI has been often observed adjacent to meningiomas and considered to be useful in distinguishing meningioma of the cerebellopontine angle from acoustic neuroma. However, demonstration of a dural tail adjacent to an acoustic neuroma indicates that this sign is not specific. (orig.)

  12. The regenerated tail of juvenile leopard geckos (Gekkota: Eublepharidae: Eublepharis macularius) preferentially stores more fat than the original.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Anthony P; Lynn, Sabrina E; Powell, G Lawrence; Cottle, Andrew

    2015-06-01

    The tail of many species of lizard is used as a site of fat storage, and caudal autotomy is a widespread phenomenon among lizards. This means that caudal fat stores are at risk of being lost if the tail is autotomized. For fat-tailed species, such as the leopard gecko, this may be particularly costly. Previous work has shown that tail regeneration in juveniles of this species is rapid and that it receives priority for energy allocation, even when dietary resources are markedly reduced. We found that the regenerated tails of juvenile leopard geckos are more massive than their original counterparts, regardless of dietary intake, and that they exhibit greater amounts of skeleton, inner fat, muscle and subcutaneous fat than original tails (as assessed through cross-sectional area measurements of positionally equivalent stations along the tail). Autotomy and regeneration result in changes in tail shape, mass and the pattern of tissue distribution within the tail. The regenerated tail exhibits enhanced fat storage capacity, even in the face of a diet that results in significant slowing of body growth. Body growth is thus sacrificed at the expense of rapid tail growth. Fat stores laid down rapidly in the regenerating tail may later be used to fuel body growth or reproductive investment. The regenerated tail thus seems to have adaptive roles of its own, and provides a potential vehicle for studying trade-offs that relate to life history strategy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Biota of uranium mill tailings near the Black Hills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Rumble

    1982-01-01

    Reclamation" often implies the enhancement of the land as wildlife habitat or for other productive uses. However, there are situations where revegetation to stabilize erosion is the only desired goal. Uranium mining and mill sites may fall into this later category. Data pertaining to plant and animal components on revegetated uranium mill tailings was collected....

  14. Growth enhancement and gene expression of Arabidopsis thaliana irradiated with active oxygen species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Satoshi; Ono, Reoto; Hayashi, Nobuya; Shiratani, Masaharu; Tashiro, Kosuke; Kuhara, Satoru; Inoue, Asami; Yasuda, Kaori; Hagiwara, Hiroko

    2016-07-01

    The characteristics of plant growth enhancement effect and the mechanism of the enhancement induced by plasma irradiation are investigated using various active species in plasma. Active oxygen species in oxygen plasma are effective for growth enhancement of plants. DNA microarray analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana indicates that the genes coding proteins that counter oxidative stresses by eliminating active oxygen species are expressed at significantly high levels. The size of plant cells increases owing to oxygen plasma irradiation. The increases in gene expression levels and cell size suggest that the increase in the expression level of the expansin protein is essential for plant growth enhancement phenomena.

  15. Educating Students for a Lifetime of Physical Activity: Enhancing Mindfulness, Motivation, and Meaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennis, Catherine D.

    2017-01-01

    For many years, pedagogical scholars and physical education (PE) teachers have worked to enhance effective teaching and learning environments. Yet for some children, youth, and young adults, many of the benefits associated with a physically active lifestyle remain elusive. Enhancing programming and performance to meet physical activity goals may…

  16. Food constituents enhance urease activity in Healicobacter pylori.

    OpenAIRE

    Mizote, Tomoko; Inatsu, Sakiko; Ehara, Keiko

    2005-01-01

    Urease activity of Helicobacter pylori recovered from the stomach of H. pylori-infected Mongolian gerbils was affected by the diet used after infection. The effect of dietary components on urease activity was investigated by growth of H. pylori in…

  17. Focus on Freshman: Basic Instruction Programs Enhancing Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Jarred; Jenkins, Jayne M.; Weatherford, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity sharply decreases after different life stages, particularly high school graduation to beginning university education. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a specifically designed university physical activity class, Exercise Planning for Freshman (EPF), on students' physical activity and group cohesion…

  18. Dewatering tailings impoundments : interior drains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlie, W.A.; Doehring, D.O.; Durnford, D.S.

    1984-01-01

    For the design of a new uranium tailings impoundment in the western United States, it was proposed that an interior drainage system be considered to economically and reliably minimize potential short- and long-term environmental impacts. The objectives were to decrease the effective hydraulic head on the clay liner, to dewater and stabilize the tailings, and to increase the amount of water recycled to the mill. In addition, desaturation of the impoundment would induce capillary pressure (negative porewater pressure), further reducing the potential movement of dissolved pollutants. This paper presents saturated and unsaturated seepage principles and reviews the concept, criteria and design of the various interior drainage systems considered

  19. Enhanced Gamma Oscillatory Activity in Rats with Chronic Inflammatory Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jing; Wang, Jing; Xing, Guo-Gang; Li, Xiaoli; Wan, You

    2016-01-01

    It has been reported that oscillatory gamma activity participates in brief acute pain and tonic ongoing pain. It is of great interest to determine whether the gamma activity is involved in chronic pain since chronic pain is a more severe pathological condition characterized by pain persistency. To investigate the oscillatory gamma activity in chronic pain, in the present study, we recorded spontaneous electrocorticogram (ECoG) signals during chronic pain development in rats with chronic infla...

  20. The Running Wheel Enhances Food Anticipatory Activity: An Exploratory Study

    OpenAIRE

    Flôres, Danilo E. F. L.; Bettilyon, Crystal N.; Jia, Lori; Yamazaki, Shin

    2016-01-01

    Rodents anticipate rewarding stimuli such as daily meals, mates, and stimulant drugs. When a single meal is provided daily at a fixed time of day, an increase in activity, known as food anticipatory activity (FAA), occurs several hours before feeding time. The factors affecting the expression of FAA have not been well-studied. Understanding these factors may provide clues to the undiscovered anatomical substrates of food entrainment. In this study we determined whether wheel-running activity,...

  1. Enhanced activation of periodate by iodine-doped granular activated carbon for organic contaminant degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaowan; Liu, Xitao; Lin, Chunye; Qi, Chengdu; Zhang, Huijuan; Ma, Jun

    2017-08-01

    In this study, iodine-doped granular activated carbon (I-GAC) was prepared and subsequently applied to activate periodate (IO 4 - ) to degrade organic contaminants at ambient temperature. The physicochemical properties of GAC and I-GAC were examined using scanning electron microscopy, N 2 adsorption/desorption, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. No significant difference was observed between the two except for the existence of triiodide (I 3 - ) and pentaiodide (I 5 - ) on I-GAC. The catalytic activity of I-GAC towards IO 4 - was evaluated by the degradation of acid orange 7 (AO7), and superior catalytic performance was achieved compared with GAC. The effects of some influential parameters (preparation conditions, initial solution pH, and coexisting anions) on the catalytic ability were also investigated. Based on radical scavenging experiments, it appeared that IO 3 was the predominant reactive species in the I-GAC/IO 4 - system. The mechanism underlying the enhanced catalytic performance of I-GAC could be explained by the introduction of negatively charged I 3 - and I 5 - into I-GAC, which induced positive charge density on the surface of I-GAC. This accelerated the interaction between I-GAC and IO 4 - , and subsequently mediated the increasing generation of iodyl radicals (IO 3 ). Furthermore, a possible degradation pathway of AO7 was proposed according to the intermediate products identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Active and Inactive Enhancers Cooperate to Exert Localized and Long-Range Control of Gene Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proudhon, Charlotte; Snetkova, Valentina; Raviram, Ramya; Lobry, Camille; Badri, Sana; Jiang, Tingting; Hao, Bingtao; Trimarchi, Thomas; Kluger, Yuval; Aifantis, Iannis; Bonneau, Richard; Skok, Jane A

    2016-06-07

    V(D)J recombination relies on the presence of proximal enhancers that activate the antigen receptor (AgR) loci in a lineage- and stage-specific manner. Unexpectedly, we find that both active and inactive AgR enhancers cooperate to disseminate their effects in a localized and long-range manner. Here, we demonstrate the importance of short-range contacts between active enhancers that constitute an Igk super-enhancer in B cells. Deletion of one element reduces the interaction frequency between other enhancers in the hub, which compromises the transcriptional output of each component. Furthermore, we establish that, in T cells, long-range contact and cooperation between the inactive Igk enhancer MiEκ and the active Tcrb enhancer Eβ alters enrichment of CBFβ binding in a manner that impacts Tcrb recombination. These findings underline the complexities of enhancer regulation and point to a role for localized and long-range enhancer-sharing between active and inactive elements in lineage- and stage-specific control. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Active and Inactive Enhancers Cooperate to Exert Localized and Long-Range Control of Gene Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Proudhon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available V(DJ recombination relies on the presence of proximal enhancers that activate the antigen receptor (AgR loci in a lineage- and stage-specific manner. Unexpectedly, we find that both active and inactive AgR enhancers cooperate to disseminate their effects in a localized and long-range manner. Here, we demonstrate the importance of short-range contacts between active enhancers that constitute an Igk super-enhancer in B cells. Deletion of one element reduces the interaction frequency between other enhancers in the hub, which compromises the transcriptional output of each component. Furthermore, we establish that, in T cells, long-range contact and cooperation between the inactive Igk enhancer MiEκ and the active Tcrb enhancer Eβ alters enrichment of CBFβ binding in a manner that impacts Tcrb recombination. These findings underline the complexities of enhancer regulation and point to a role for localized and long-range enhancer-sharing between active and inactive elements in lineage- and stage-specific control.

  4. Leachability of radioactive constituents from uranium mine tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, D.N.; Cohen, D.B.; Durham, R.W.

    1979-04-01

    A project was carried out using lysimeters to determine the leaching of radioactive constituents and BaRaSO 4 from abandoned uranium mine tailings. Lime addition to the surface of acidic abandoned tailings did not reduce the level of radioactive constituents in the leachate. Considerable increases in levels of the radionuclides 230 Th, 232 Th and 22 /8Th, as well as gross alpha and beta activity in the leachate, occurred five months after recycling of BaRaSO 4 sediments to the surface layers of abandoned tailings. After nine months of leaching, the levels of 226 Ra in the leachate were 30% greater than the tailings plus sediment treatment than from tailings only (control). Another experiment compared the quality of effluent flowing over chemically-fixed (solidified) BaRaSO 4 sediments with that of non-fixed (control) in simulated sedimentation ponds. During seven months the release of 226 Ra to water from chemically-fixed BaRaSO 4 sediments remained 3 for phosphorus removal) was applied to supply 3 percent organic matter in the top 15 cm of the revegetated lysimeters. Undiluted effluent and leachate from chemically-fixed BaRaSO 4 sediments and fresh tailings were 100 percent lethal to Daphnia pulex and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) in static 96-hour bioassay tests. Diluted (50 percent) effluent samples were non-toxic. (auth)

  5. Allosteric activation of midazolam CYP3A5 hydroxylase activity by icotinib - Enhancement by ketoconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, XiaoMei; Zhang, TianHong; Yue, SiJia; Wang, Juan; Luo, Huan; Zhang, YunXia; Li, Zheng; Che, JinJing; Yang, HaiYing; Li, Hua; Zhu, MingShe; Lu, Chuang

    2016-12-01

    Icotinib (ICO), a novel small molecule and a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, was developed and approved recently in China for non-small cell lung cancer. During screening for CYP inhibition potential in human liver microsomes (HLM), heterotropic activation toward CYP3A5 was revealed. Activation by icotinib was observed with CYP3A-mediated midazolam hydroxylase activity in HLM (∼40% over the baseline) or recombinant human CYP3A5 (rhCYP3A5) (∼70% over the baseline), but not in the other major CYPs including rhCYP3A4. When co-incubated with selective CYP3A4 inhibitor CYP3cide or monoclonal human CYP3A4 inhibitory antibody in HLM, the activation was extended to ∼60%, suggesting CYP3A5 might be the isozyme involved. Further, the relative activation was enhanced to ∼270% in rhCYP3A5 in the presence of ketoconazole. The activation was substrate and pathway dependent and observed only in the formation of 1'-OH-midazolam, and not 4-OH-midazolam, 6β-OH-testosterone, or oxidized nifedipine. The activation requires the presence of cytochrome b5 and it is only observed in the liver microsomes of dogs, monkeys, and humans, but not in rats and mice. Kinetic analyses of 1'-OH-midazolam formation showed that ICO increased the V max values in HLM and rhCYP3A5 with no significant changes in K m values. By adding CYP3cide with ICO to the incubation, the V max values increased 2-fold over the CYP3cide control. Addition of ketoconazole with ICO alone or ICO plus CYP3cide resulted in an increase in V max values and decrease in K m values compared to their controls. This phenomenon may be attributed to a new mechanism of CYP3A5 heterotropic activation, which warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Predicting radon flux from uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, H.D.; Hartley, J.N.

    1983-11-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) office, is developing technology for the design of radon barriers for uranium mill tailings piles. To properly design a radon cover for a particular tailings pile, the radon flux emanating from the bare tailings must be known. The tailings characteristics required to calculate the radon flux include radium-226 content, emanating power, bulk density, and radon diffusivity. This paper presents theoretical and practical aspects of estimating the radon flux from an uranium tailings pile. Results of field measurements to verify the calculation methodology are also discussed. 24 references, 4 figures, 4 tables

  7. Radiation data input for the design of dry or semi-dry U tailings disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvasnicka, J.

    1986-01-01

    Before discussion of design criteria for the handling of dry or semi-dry tailings, it is necessary to obtain an insight into the radiation levels associated with the tailings particles and to study the basic physical properties of dry tailings. This article presents the experimental results of assessing Ra and specific alpha-activity distribution with respect to particle size of the Ranger (RUM) and Nabarlek (QML) uranium mines dry tailings samples. The variation of Rn emanation coefficient versus particle size of dry tailings has also been measured. The nuclear-track detection technique, gamma spectrometry and alpha counting were used for the above measurements. Surface Rn flux from the hypothetical Nabarlek semi-infinite dry tailings pile is 32 Bq m -2 s -1 and the Rn flux for Ranger is 10 Bq m -2 s -1 . The theoretical exposure rates for 1 m above these hypothetical tailings piles are 0.95 microC kg -1 h -1 and 0.28 microC kg -1 h -1 , respectively. The derived air alpha-contamination limits (DAAC) for the tailings dust were calculated to be 1.2 Bq m -3 for workers and 0.034 Bq m -3 for a member of the public. The limit for workers corresponds to the air tailings dust concentration of 0.79 mg m -3 for QML tailings and 2.2 mg m -3 for RUM tailings. The DAAC limit for the public corresponds to the air tailings dust concentration of 0.022 mg m -3 for QML tailings and 0.064 mg m -3 for RUM tailings

  8. Short Communication : Enhancing the Quality and Activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of application of benzoic acid, sodium benzoate and sodium metabisulfite, prior to sun drying of papaya latex, on enzymic activity, colour appearance and smell of the crude papain produced were investigated. The preservatives improved appearance/colour, smell and enzymic activity with respect to control sample ...

  9. Enhancing Learning Outcomes through Application Driven Activities in Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegemann, Nicole; Sutton-Brady, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces an activity used in class to allow students to apply previously acquired information to a hands-on task. As the authors have previously shown active learning is a way to effectively facilitate and improve students' learning outcomes. As a result to improve learning outcomes we have overtime developed a series of learning…

  10. Enhancement of antimicrobial activity of chitosan by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuhashi, S.; Kume, T.

    1997-01-01

    Antimicrobial activity of irradiated chitosan was studied against Escherichia coli B/r. Irradiation of chitosan at 100 kGy under dry conditions was effective in increasing the activity, and inhibited the growth of E. coli completely. The molecular weight of chitosan significantly decreased with the increase in irradiation dose, whereas the relative surface charge of chitosan was decreased only 3% by 100 kGy irradiation. Antimicrobial activity assay of chitosan fractionated according to molecular weight showed that 1 x 10 5 -3 x 10 5 fraction was most effective in suppressing the growth of E coli. This fraction comprised only 8% of the 100 kGy irradiated chitosan. On the other hand, chitosan whose molecular weight was less than 1 x 10 5 had no activity. The results show that low dose irradiation, specifically 100 kGy, of chitosan gives enough degradation to increase its antimicrobial activity as a result of a change in molecular weight. (Author)

  11. High salt intake enhances swim stress-induced PVN vasopressin cell activation and active stress coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, N C; Gilman, T L; Daws, L C; Toney, G M

    2018-07-01

    Stress contributes to many psychiatric disorders; however, responsivity to stressors can vary depending on previous or current stress exposure. Relatively innocuous heterotypic (differing in type) stressors can summate to result in exaggerated neuronal and behavioral responses. Here we investigated the ability of prior high dietary sodium chloride (salt) intake, a dehydrating osmotic stressor, to enhance neuronal and behavioral responses of mice to an acute psychogenic swim stress (SS). Further, we evaluated the contribution of the osmo-regulatory stress-related neuropeptide arginine vasopressin (VP) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), one of only a few brain regions that synthesize VP. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of high dietary salt intake on responsivity to heterotypic stress and the potential contribution of VPergic-mediated neuronal activity on high salt-induced stress modulation, thereby providing insight into how dietary (homeostatic) and environmental (psychogenic) stressors might interact to facilitate psychiatric disorder vulnerability. Salt loading (SL) with 4% saline for 7 days was used to dehydrate and osmotically stress mice prior to exposure to an acute SS. Fluid intake and hematological measurements were taken to quantify osmotic dehydration, and serum corticosterone levels were measured to index stress axis activation. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to stain for the immediate early gene product c-Fos to quantify effects of SL on SS-induced activation of neurons in the PVN and extended amygdala - brain regions that are synaptically connected and implicated in responding to osmotic stress and in modulation of SS behavior, respectively. Lastly, the role of VPergic PVN neurons and VP type 1 receptor (V1R) activity in the amygdala in mediating effects of SL on SS behavior was evaluated by quantifying c-Fos activation of VPergic PVN neurons and, in functional experiments, by nano-injecting the V1R selective

  12. Ruin problems and tail asymptotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønn-Nielsen, Anders

    The thesis Ruin Problems and Tail Asymptotics provides results on ruin problems for several classes of Markov processes. For a class of diffusion processes with jumps an explicit expression for the joint Laplace transform of the first passage time and the corresponding undershoot is derived...

  13. Liner used in tailings ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinchak, W.G.

    1984-01-01

    A composite liner has been developed for use in hazardous waste impoundments and in tailings ponds where uranium is involved. The liner offers a high degree of reliability against seepage, is durable, and provides a firm working surface. The advantages of the liner are discussed

  14. Portfolio selection with heavy tails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hyung, N.; Vries, de C.G.

    2007-01-01

    Consider the portfolio problem of choosing the mix between stocks and bonds under a downside risk constraint. Typically stock returns exhibit fatter tails than bonds corresponding to their greater downside risk. Downside risk criteria like the safety first criterion therefore often select corner

  15. Portfolio Selection with Heavy Tails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Hyung (Namwon); C.G. de Vries (Casper)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractConsider the portfolio problem of choosing the mix between stocks and bonds under a downside risk constraint. Typically stock returns exhibit fatter tails than bonds corresponding to their greater downside risk. Downside risk criteria like the safety first criterion therefore of ten

  16. Tails, Fears and Risk Premia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Todorov, Victor

    solely be explained by the level of the volatil- ity. Our empirical investigations are essentially model-free. We estimate the expected values of the tails under the statistical probability measure from "medium" size jumps in high-frequency intraday prices and an extreme value theory approximation...

  17. Capital regulation and tail risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.; Ratnovski, L.; Vlahu, R.

    2011-01-01

    The paper studies risk mitigation associated with capital regulation, in a context when banks may choose tail risk assets. We show that this undermines the traditional result that higher capital reduces excess risk-taking driven by limited liability. When capital raising is costly, poorly

  18. Capital regulation and tail risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.; Ratnovski, L.; Vlahu, R.

    2011-01-01

    The paper studies risk mitigation associated with capital regulation, in a context where banks may choose tail risk assets. We show that this undermines the traditional result that higher capital reduces excess risk taking driven by limited liability. Moreover, higher capital may have an unintended

  19. DLM for T-Tails

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Zyl, Lourens H

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the extension of the DLM to account for effects that are critical to the modelling of T-tail flutter. The boundary condition is made more general to account for yaw/dihedral and sideslip/dihedral coupling and the calculation...

  20. Low dose radiation enhances the Locomotor activity of D. melanogaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seong, Ki Moon; Lee, Buyng Sub; Nam Seon Young; Kim, Ji Young; Yang, Kwang Hee; Choi, Tae In; Kim, Cha Soon [Radiation Effect Research Team, Radiation Health Research Institute, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    Mild stresses at low level including radiation can induce the beneficial effects in many vertebrate and invertebrate species. However, a large amount of studies in radiation biology have focused on the detrimental effects of high dose radiation (HDR) such as the increased incidence of cancers and developmental diseases. Low dose radiation (LDR) induces biologically favorable effects in diverse fields, for example, cancer development, genomic instability, immune response, and longevity. Our previous data indicated that LDR promotes cells proliferation of which degree is not much but significant, and microarray data explained that LDR irradiated fruit flies showing the augmented immunity significantly changed the program for gene expression of many genes in Gene Ontology (GO) categories related to metabolic process. Metabolic process in development one of major contributors in organism growth, interbreeding, motility, and aging. Therefore, it is valuable to examine whether LDR change the physiological parameters related to metabolism, and how LDR regulates the metabolism in D. melanogaster. In this study, to investigate that LDR influences change of the metabolism, a representative parameter, locomotor activity. In addition, the activation of several cellular signal molecules was determined to investigate the specific molecular mechanism of LDR effects on the metabolism. We explored whether ionizing radiation affects the motility activity. We performed the RING assays to evaluate the locomotor activity, a representative parameter presenting motility of fruit flies. HDR dramatically decreased the motor activity of irradiated flies. Surprisingly, the irradiated flies at low dose radiation in both acute and chronic showed the significantly increased locomotor activity, compared to non-irradiated flies. Irradiation would induce change of the several signal pathways for flies to respond to it. The activation of some proteins involved in the cells proliferation and stress

  1. Reduced graphene oxide wrapped Ag nanostructures for enhanced SERS activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Anju K.; Kala, M. S.; Thomas, Sabu; Kalarikkal, Nandakumar

    2018-04-01

    Graphene - metal nanoparticle hybrids have received great attention due to their unique electronic properties, large specific surface area, very high conductivity and more charge transfer. Thus, it is extremely advantages to develop a simple and efficient process to disperse metal nanostructures over the surface of graphene sheets. Herein, we report a hydrothermal assisted strategy for developing reduced graphene oxide /Ag nanomorphotypes (cube, wire) for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) applications, considering the advantages of synergistic effect of graphene and plasmonic properties of Ag nanomorphotypes.

  2. Sustainable Regeneration of Nanoparticle Enhanced Activated Carbon in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    The regeneration and reuse of exhausted granular activated carbon (GAC) is an appropriate method for lowering operational and environmental costs. Advanced oxidation is a promising environmental friendly technique for GAC regeneration. The main objective of this research was to ...

  3. UTAP, U Tailings Assessment Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, Ron

    1998-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: UTAP carries out probabilistic analyses of the behaviour and environmental effects of uranium mill tailings, following close-out of milling operations. The models have been designed to allow predictions to be made for distances up to 50 kilometers in all directions from the tailings area. The models include features which include the ability to incorporate different receptors and site characteristics and to deal with input parameters which vary with time. 2 - Method of solution: UTAP is composed of a number of modules. These may be classified as either component or control modules. Component modules (or models) are the programs directly concerned with the simulation of a uranium tailings physical system; that is the computer implementation of the mathematical models representing the uranium tailings pile and surrounding environment. Control modules provide the infrastructure for probabilistic analysis using the component modules. These functions include probabilistic sampling of input parameters such as constant, normal, log-normal, uniform, log-uniform, triangular, Weibull, Beta, arbitrary and correlated. The sampling method used is straight Monte Carlo. The radionuclides modelled are: natural uranium, total thorium, radium-226, radon-222 and lead-210. The pH of the reference uranium tailings site and a chained river-lake system are also modelled. For the afore- mentioned radionuclides the following pathways of dose to the receptors modelled: water consumption, fish consumption, radon inhalation, dust inhalation, vegetable consumption, animal produce consumption and ground-shine. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The maximum number of steps through time allowed is 300

  4. Submarine Tailings Disposal (STD—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Dold

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The mining industry is a fundamental industry involved in the development of modern society, but is also the world’s largest waste producer. This role will be enhanced in the future, because ore grades are generally decreasing, thus leading to increases in the waste/metal production ratio. Mine wastes deposited on-land in so-called tailings dams, impoundments or waste-dumps have several associated environmental issues that need to be addressed (e.g., acid mine drainage formation due to sulphide oxidation, geotechnical stability, among others, and social concerns due to land use during mining. The mining industry recognizes these concerns and is searching for waste management alternatives for the future. One option used in the past was the marine shore or shallow submarine deposition of this waste material in some parts of the world. After the occurrence of some severe environmental pollution, today the deposition in the deep sea (under constant reducing conditions is seen as a new, more secure option, due to the general thought that sulphide minerals are geochemically stable under the reduced conditions prevailing in the deep marine environment. This review highlights the mineralogical and geochemical issues (e.g., solubility of sulphides in seawater; reductive dissolution of oxide minerals under reducing conditions, which have to be considered when evaluating whether submarine tailings disposal is a suitable alternative for mine waste.

  5. Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity of Vacuum-activated TiO2 Induced by Oxygen Vacancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Guoyan; Wang, Xin; Chen, Zhiwu; Lu, Zhenya

    2018-05-01

    TiO 2 (Degussa P25) photocatalysts harboring abundant oxygen vacancies (Vacuum P25) were manufactured using a simple and economic Vacuum deoxidation process. Control experiments showed that temperature and time of vacuum deoxidation had a significant effect on Vacuum P25 photocatalytic activity. After 240 min of visible light illumination, the optimal Vacuum P25 photocatalysts (vacuum deoxidation treated at 330 °C for 3 h) reach as high as 94% and 88% of photodegradation efficiency for rhodamine B (RhB) and tetracycline, respectively, which are around 4.5 and 4.9 times as that of pristine P25. The XPS, PL and EPR analyses indicated that the oxygen vacancies were produced in the Vacuum P25 during the vacuum deoxidation process. The oxygen vacancy states can produce vacancy energy level located below the conduction band minimum, which resulting in the bandgap narrowing, thus extending the photoresponse wavelength range of Vacuum P25. The positron annihilation analysis indicated that the concentrations ratio of bulk and surface oxygen vacancies could be adjusted by changing the vacuum deoxidation temperature and time. Decreasing the ratio of bulk and surface oxygen vacancies was shown to improve photogenerated electron-hole pair separation efficiency, which leads to an obvious enhancement of the visible photocatalytic activities of Vacuum P25. © 2017 The American Society of Photobiology.

  6. Sulfur biogeochemistry of oil sands composite tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Lesley; Stephenson, Kate [Earth Sciences, McMaster University (Canada)], email: warrenl@mcmaster.ca; Penner, Tara [Syncrude Environmental Research (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    This paper discusses the sulfur biogeochemistry of oil sands composite tailings (CT). The Government of Alberta is accelerating reclamation activities on composite tailings. As a CT pilot reclamation operation, Syncrude is currently constructing the first freshwater fen. Minor unpredicted incidents with H2S gas released from the dewatering process associated with these reclamations have been reported. The objective of this study is to ascertain the connection between microbial activity and H2S generation within CT and to assess the sulfur biogeochemistry of untreated and treated (fen) CT over seasonal and annual timescales. The microbial geochemical interactions taking place are shown using a flow chart. CT is composed of gypsum, sand, clay and organics like naphthenic acids and bitumen. Sulfur and Fe cycling in mining systems and their microbial activities are presented. The chemistry and the processes involved within CT are also given along with the results. It can be said that the diverse Fe and S metabolizing microorganisms confirm the ecology involved in H2S dynamics.

  7. BURST TAILS FROM SGR J1550–5418 OBSERVED WITH THE ROSSI X-RAY TIMING EXPLORER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muş, Sinem Şaşmaz; Gögüş, Ersin; Kaneko, Yuki; Chakraborty, Manoneeta; Aydın, Berk, E-mail: sinemsmus@sabanciuniv.edu [Sabancı University, Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Orhanlı Tuzla 34956 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2015-07-01

    We present the results of our extensive search using the Bayesian block method for long tails following short bursts from a magnetar, SGR J1550–5418, over all RXTE observations of the source. We identified four bursts with extended tails, most of which occurred during its 2009 burst active episode. The durations of tails range between ∼13 s and over 3 ks, which are much longer than the typical duration of bursts. We performed detailed spectral and temporal analyses of the burst tails. We find that the spectra of three tails show a thermal nature with a trend of cooling throughout the tail. We compare the results of our investigations with the properties of four other extended tails detected from SGR 1900+14 and SGR 1806–20 and suggest a scenario for the origin of the tail in the framework of the magnetar model.

  8. Slow self-activation enhances the potency of viridin prodrugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blois, Joseph; Yuan, Hushan; Smith, Adam; Pacold, Michael E; Weissleder, Ralph; Cantley, Lewis C; Josephson, Lee

    2008-08-14

    When the viridin wortmannin (Wm) is modified by reaction with certain nucleophiles at the C20 position, the compounds obtained exhibit an improved antiproliferative activity even though a covalent reaction between C20 and a lysine in the active site of PI3 kinase is essential to Wm's ability to inhibit this enzyme. Here we show that this improved potency results from an intramolecular attack by the C6 hydroxyl group that slowly converts these inactive prodrugs to the active species Wm over the 48 h duration of the antiproliferative assay. Our results provide a guide for selecting Wm-like compounds to maximize kinase inhibition with the variety of protocols used to assess the role of PI3 kinase in biological systems, or for achieving optimal therapeutic effects in vivo . In addition, the slow self-activation of WmC20 derivatives provides a mechanism that can be exploited to obtain kinase inhibitors endowed with physical and pharmacokinetic properties far different from man-made kinase inhibitors because they do not bind to kinase active sites.

  9. Radon generation and transport in and around a gold mine tailings dam in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speelman, W.J.; Lindsay, R.; Newman, R.T.; Meijer, R.J. de

    2006-01-01

    Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (N.O.R.M.) occurs in most soil and rock, and by mining and mineral processing, some of the radionuclides are significantly enhanced. An in-situ gamma-ray detector called M.E.D.U.S.A., has been used to produce a map of relative activity concentrations in a gold mine tailings dam on the Witwatersrand in South Africa. A CsI(Na) scintillation detector is used in this system. M.E.D.U.S.A. spectra obtained from the survey were analyzed using the Full-Spectrum Analysis (F.S.A.) procedure to compute the 40 K, 238 U and 232 Th activity concentrations. The activity concentrations are used with global positioning data (G.P.S.) to produce the concentration maps. A hyper-pure germanium gamma-ray detector (Hp Ge) was used to measure gamma-rays from the naturally occurring nuclides for soil samples taken at different points on the site to calibrate the M.E.D.U.S.A. system. Radon soil gas measurements were performed at certain points on the mine tailings with a continuous radon monitor; R.A.D.7, and emanation coefficients were measured with electret technology. These parameters have been combined with the activity concentrations to obtain an average radon exhalation rate of about 0.1 Bq.m -2 .s -1 (with an uncertainty of about 20%) from the tailings dam. The purpose of the study is to also review and develop a mathematical model for radon activity concentration predictions in gold mine dumps. (authors)

  10. Radon generation and transport in and around a gold mine tailings dam in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speelman, W.J.; Lindsay, R. [Western Cape Univ., Dept. of Physics (South Africa); Newman, R.T. [IThemba LABS, Somerset West (South Africa); Meijer, R.J. de [Nuclear Geophysics Division (NGD), KVI, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen (Netherlands)

    2006-07-01

    Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (N.O.R.M.) occurs in most soil and rock, and by mining and mineral processing, some of the radionuclides are significantly enhanced. An in-situ gamma-ray detector called M.E.D.U.S.A., has been used to produce a map of relative activity concentrations in a gold mine tailings dam on the Witwatersrand in South Africa. A CsI(Na) scintillation detector is used in this system. M.E.D.U.S.A. spectra obtained from the survey were analyzed using the Full-Spectrum Analysis (F.S.A.) procedure to compute the {sup 40}K, {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th activity concentrations. The activity concentrations are used with global positioning data (G.P.S.) to produce the concentration maps. A hyper-pure germanium gamma-ray detector (Hp Ge) was used to measure gamma-rays from the naturally occurring nuclides for soil samples taken at different points on the site to calibrate the M.E.D.U.S.A. system. Radon soil gas measurements were performed at certain points on the mine tailings with a continuous radon monitor; R.A.D.7, and emanation coefficients were measured with electret technology. These parameters have been combined with the activity concentrations to obtain an average radon exhalation rate of about 0.1 Bq.m{sup -2}.s{sup -1} (with an uncertainty of about 20%) from the tailings dam. The purpose of the study is to also review and develop a mathematical model for radon activity concentration predictions in gold mine dumps. (authors)

  11. Segregation and differential settling in flocculated tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farinato, R.S.; Mahmoudkhani, A.; Fenderson, T.; Watson, P. [Kemira, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Untreated oil sands tailings have a high solids content, have poor dewaterability, and contain no aggregates. This PowerPoint presentation investigated segregation and differential settling in flocculated tailings. Tailings were treated with gypsum and various polymers. Cylinder settling, dynamic rheometry, particle size analysis, and microscopy techniques were used to characterize the composite tailings. The particles sizes of the samples were evaluated in relation to shear rate, bed depth, and treatment. The study showed that the gypsum-treated tailings had small aggregates, size stratification, a high solids content, and poor dewaterability. The polymer N-treated tailings had the lowest solids content, good dewaterability, and weak aggregates. The polymer A-treated tailings had a low solids content, very good dewaterability, and strong aggregates. The addition of a coagulant to the polymer-A treated tailings provided weaker aggregates and a higher solids content. tabs., figs.

  12. Health risks from uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews the risk to public health and the environment from uranium mill tailings. The steps taken by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to reduce this risk from tailing are summarized

  13. Radiation hazard of solid metallic tailings in Shangluo, China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhuang Sukai; Lu Xinwei; Li Jiantao; Li Qian

    2016-01-01

    The radiation hazards of five kinds of different solid metallic tailings collected from Shangluo, China were determined on the basis of natural radioactivity measurements using low background multichannel gamma ray spectrometry. The activity concentration of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in the tailings ranged from 5.1 to 204.3, 3.8 to 28.5, and 289.6 to 762.3 Bq/kg, respectively. The radium equivalent activities and the external hazard indexes of all studied metall...

  14. Business oriented educational experiments enhance active learning by engineering students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Nynne Mia; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans; Simon, Jens

    2012-01-01

    It is generally agreed that one of the keys to recreating industrial growth after the financial crisis is to mobilize universities and engineering schools to be more actively involved in innovation and entrepreneurship activities in cooperation with industrial companies. This active learning...... exploration symposium on bridging the gap between engineering education and business is proposed on the basis of the Copenhagen University College of Engineering (IHK) being involved in a DKK 50m ongoing project “Business Oriented Educational Experiments” financed by the Capital Region of Denmark...... and the European Social Fund. The project is carried out with other major educational institutions in the Copenhagen area and organized in five themes: 1) world class competences, 2) new interactions between education and business, 3) the experimenting organization, 4) education on demand, and 5) new career paths...

  15. Modification of polymer surfaces to enhance enzyme activity and stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Christian

    Enzyme immobilization is an important concept for the development of improved biocatalytic processes, primarily through facilitated separation procedures. However, enzyme immobilization usually comes at a price of reduced biocatalytic activity. For this reason, different immobilization methods have...... already been developed, combining the same goal to improve enzyme activity, stability and selectivity. Polymer materials have shown, due to their easy processibility and versatile properties, high potential as enzyme support. However, in order to achieve improved enzyme performance, the combination...... on their tailored surface modification in order to obtain improved enzyme-support systems. Firstly, an off-stoichiometric thiol-ene (OSTE) thermosetting material was used for the development of a screening platform allowing the investigation of micro-environmental effects and their impact on the activity...

  16. Protein kinase A activation enhances β-catenin transcriptional activity through nuclear localization to PML bodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Zhang

    Full Text Available The Protein Kinase A (PKA and Wnt signaling cascades are fundamental pathways involved in cellular development and maintenance. In the osteoblast lineage, these pathways have been demonstrated functionally to be essential for the production of mineralized bone. Evidence for PKA-Wnt crosstalk has been reported both during tumorigenesis and during organogenesis, and the nature of the interaction is thought to rely on tissue and cell context. In this manuscript, we analyzed bone tumors arising from mice with activated PKA caused by mutation of the PKA regulatory subunit Prkar1a. In primary cells from these tumors, we observed relocalization of β-catenin to intranuclear punctuate structures, which were identified as PML bodies. Cellular redistribution of β-catenin could be recapitulated by pharmacologic activation of PKA. Using 3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts as a model system, we found that PKA phosphorylation sites on β-catenin were required for nuclear re-localization. Further, β-catenin's transport to the nucleus was accompanied by an increase in canonical Wnt-dependent transcription, which also required the PKA sites. PKA-Wnt crosstalk in the cells was bi-directional, including enhanced interactions between β-catenin and the cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB and transcriptional crosstalk between the Wnt and PKA signaling pathways. Increases in canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling were associated with a decrease in the activity of the non-canonical Wnt/Ror2 pathway, which has been shown to antagonize canonical Wnt signaling. Taken together, this study provides a new understanding of the complex regulation of the subcellular distribution of β-catenin and its differential protein-protein interaction that can be modulated by PKA signaling.

  17. Enhanced activities of organically bound tritium in biota samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svetlik, I; Fejgl, M; Malátová, I; Tomaskova, L

    2014-11-01

    A pilot study aimed on possible occurrence of elevated activity of non-exchangable organically bound tritium (NE-OBT) in biota was performed. The first results showed a significant surplus of NE-OBT activity in biota of the valley of Mohelno reservoir and Jihlava river. The liquid releases of HTO from the nuclear power plant Dukovany is the source of tritium in this area. This area can be a source of various types of natural samples for future studies of tritium pathways. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Risk assessment of tailings facility dam failure

    OpenAIRE

    Hadzi-Nikolova, Marija; Mirakovski, Dejan; Stefanova, Violeta

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the consequences of tailings facility dam failure and therefore the needs for its risk assessment. Tailings are fine-grained wastes of the mining industry, output as slurries, due to mixing with water during mineral processing. Tailings dams vary a lot as it is affected by: tailings characteristics and mill output, site characteristics as: topography, hydrology, geology, groundwater, seismicity and available material and disposal methods. The talings which accumulat...

  19. Jungle Honey Enhances Immune Function and Antitumor Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miki Fukuda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Jungle honey (JH is collected from timber and blossom by wild honey bees that live in the tropical forest of Nigeria. JH is used as a traditional medicine for colds, skin inflammation and burn wounds as well as general health care. However, the effects of JH on immune functions are not clearly known. Therefore, we investigated the effects of JH on immune functions and antitumor activity in mice. Female C57BL/6 mice were injected with JH (1 mg/mouse/day, seven times intra-peritoneal. After seven injections, peritoneal cells (PC were obtained. Antitumor activity was assessed by growth of Lewis Lung Carcinoma/2 (LL/2 cells. PC numbers were increased in JH-injected mice compared to control mice. In Dot Plot analysis by FACS, a new cell population appeared in JH-injected mice. The percent of Gr-1 surface antigen and the intensity of Gr-1 antigen expression of PC were increased in JH-injected mice. The new cell population was neutrophils. JH possessed chemotactic activity for neutrophils. Tumor incidence and weight were decreased in JH-injected mice. The ratio of reactive oxygen species (ROS producing cells was increased in JH-injected mice. The effective component in JH was fractionized by gel filtration using HPLC and had an approximate molecular weight (MW of 261. These results suggest that neutrophils induced by JH possess potent antitumor activity mediated by ROS and the effective immune component of JH is substrate of MW 261.

  20. Protecting patients’ electronic health records using enhanced active bundles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salih, R.M.; Lilien, L.T.; Ben Othmane, L.; Arriaga, R.; Matic, A.

    2012-01-01

    We propose a solution that provides protection for patients' electronic health/medical records disseminated among different authorized healthcare information systems. The solution is known as Active Bundles using a Trusted Third Party (ABTTP). It is based on the use of trusted third parties, and the

  1. Prior-to-Exam: What Activities Enhance Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, C. J.; Healy, Therese

    2013-01-01

    Can instructors impact their student performance by recommending an activity just prior to taking an exam? In this study, college students were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups (study, exercise, or meditation) or a control group. Each group was given two different types of tests; a traditional concept exam, and a non-traditional…

  2. Enhanced antioxidant activity of polyolefin films integrated with grape tannins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olejar, Kenneth J; Ray, Sudip; Kilmartin, Paul A

    2016-06-01

    A natural antioxidant derived from an agro-waste of the wine industry, grape tannin, was incorporated by melt blending into three different polyolefins (high-density polyethylene, linear low-density polyethylene and polypropylene) to introduce antioxidant functionality. Significant antioxidant activity was observed at 1% tannin inclusion in all polymer blends. The antioxidant activity was observed to increase steadily with a greater concentration of grape tannins, the highest increases being seen with polypropylene. The mechanical and thermal properties of the polymer films following antioxidant incorporation were minimally altered with up to 3% grape tannins. All of the polyolefin-grape tannin films successfully passed the leachability test following USP661 standard protocol. Superior antioxidant activity was established in polyolefin thin films by utilization of a bulk grape extract obtained from winery waste. Significant increases in antioxidant activity were seen with 1% extract inclusion. This not only demonstrates the potential for food packaging applications of the polyolefin blends, but also valorizes the agro-waste. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Enhanced 3D face processing using an active vision system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Morten; Larsen, Rasmus; Kraft, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    We present an active face processing system based on 3D shape information extracted by means of stereo information. We use two sets of stereo cameras with different field of views (FOV): One with a wide FOV is used for face tracking, while the other with a narrow FOV is used for face identification...

  4. Intense synaptic activity enhances temporal resolution in spinal motoneurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rune W Berg

    Full Text Available In neurons, spike timing is determined by integration of synaptic potentials in delicate concert with intrinsic properties. Although the integration time is functionally crucial, it remains elusive during network activity. While mechanisms of rapid processing are well documented in sensory systems, agility in motor systems has received little attention. Here we analyze how intense synaptic activity affects integration time in spinal motoneurons during functional motor activity and report a 10-fold decrease. As a result, action potentials can only be predicted from the membrane potential within 10 ms of their occurrence and detected for less than 10 ms after their occurrence. Being shorter than the average inter-spike interval, the AHP has little effect on integration time and spike timing, which instead is entirely determined by fluctuations in membrane potential caused by the barrage of inhibitory and excitatory synaptic activity. By shortening the effective integration time, this intense synaptic input may serve to facilitate the generation of rapid changes in movements.

  5. Enhanced Passive and Active Processing of Syllables in Musician Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chobert, Julie; Marie, Celine; Francois, Clement; Schon, Daniele; Besson, Mireille

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the influence of musical expertise in 9-year-old children on passive (as reflected by MMN) and active (as reflected by discrimination accuracy) processing of speech sounds. Musician and nonmusician children were presented with a sequence of syllables that included standards and deviants in vowel frequency,…

  6. Microbial enrichment to enhance the disease suppressive activity of compost

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, J.; Montenari, M.; Boogert, van den P.H.J.F.

    2003-01-01

    Compost amended soil has been found to be suppressive against plant diseases in various cropping systems. The level and reproducibility of disease suppressive properties of compost might be increased by the addition of antagonists. In the present study, the establishment and suppressive activity of

  7. Enhanced Memory as a Common Effect of Active Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markant, Douglas B.; Ruggeri, Azzurra; Gureckis, Todd M.; Xu, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Despite widespread consensus among educators that "active learning" leads to better outcomes than comparatively passive forms of instruction, it is often unclear why these benefits arise. In this article, we review research showing that the opportunity to control the information experienced while learning leads to improved memory…

  8. Activated platelets enhance IL-10 secretion and reduce TNF-α secretion by monocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudbrandsdottir, Sif; Hasselbalch, Hans C; Nielsen, Claus H

    2013-01-01

    ), Escherichia coli LPS, or intact Porphyromonas gingivalis. Addition of platelets activated by thrombin-receptor-activating peptide enhanced IL-10 production induced by LPS (p gingivalis (p ....05), and P. gingivalis (p gingivalis-stimulated cultures (p ... of activated platelets. Adherence of platelets increased TG- and TT-induced IL-10 secretion by monocytes (p gingivalis (p

  9. Capacitance enhancement of polyaniline coated curved-graphene supercapacitors in a redox-active electrolyte

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Wei; Baby, Rakhi Raghavan; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2013-01-01

    We show, for the first time, a redox-active electrolyte in combination with a polyaniline-coated curved graphene active material to achieve significant enhancement in the capacitance (36-92% increase) compared to supercapacitors that lack the redox-active

  10. Slow-light enhancement of spontaneous emission in active photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ek, Sara; Chen, Yaohui; Semenova, Elizaveta

    2012-01-01

    Photonic crystal defect waveguides with embedded active layers containing single or multiple quantum wells or quantum dots have been fabricated. Spontaneous emission spectra are enhanced close to the bandedge, consistently with the enhancement of gain by slow light effects. These are promising...... results for future compact devices for terabit/s communication, such as miniaturised semiconductor optical amplifiers and mode-locked lasers....

  11. 77 FR 25188 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Enhanced Security...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... general aviation (GA) aircraft operators who wish to fly into and/or out of Ronald Reagan Washington.... Information Collection Requirement Title: Enhanced Security Procedures at Ronald Reagan Washington National...] Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Enhanced Security Procedures at Ronald...

  12. Novel Chiroptical Analysis of Hemoglobin by Surface Enhanced Resonance Raman Optical Activity Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brazhe, Nadezda; Brazhe, Alexey; Sosnovtseva, Olga

    2010-01-01

    The metalloprotein hemoglobin (Hb) was studied using surface enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy (SERRS) and surface enhanced resonance Raman optical activity (SERROA). The SERROA results are analyzed and compared with the SERRS, and the later to the resonance Raman (RRS) performed on Hb...

  13. Cylinder Symmetric Measures with the Tail Property

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balkema, A.A.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: A Pareto distribution has the property that any tail of the distribution has the same shape as the original distribution. The exponential distribution and the uniform distribution have the tail property too. The tail property characterizes the univariate generalized Pareto distributions.

  14. An analysis of factors related to the tail-like pattern of myxofibrosarcoma seen on MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuta, Kazutaka; Kubota, Daisuke; Chuuman, Hirokazu; Kawai, Akira; Yoshida, Akihiko; Morioka, Hideo; Toyama, Yoshiaki

    2015-01-01

    Myxofibrosarcoma (MFS) is characterized by a high frequency of local recurrence after surgery because of infiltrative growth of the tumor cells. This infiltrative growth creates a characteristic 'tail-like' pattern on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and it has been reported that this pattern is especially obvious on gadolinium-enhanced MRI (Gd MRI). However, the relationship between the tail-like pattern seen on Gd MRI and clinicopathological features of MFS is still not clear. In this study, we performed a retrospective analysis to identify clinicopathological factors related to the tail-like pattern of the MRI findings in patients with MFS. We retrospectively analyzed 50 patients with MFS to identify factors related to the tail-like pattern. On Gd MRI, 32 of the 50 patients presented the tail-like pattern, whereas 18 presented a solid pattern. The clincopathological factors related to the tail-like pattern were evaluated by chi-squared test. A superficial origin (p = 0.0009) was most significantly related to the tail-like pattern. The 5-year recurrence-free survival (RFS) rate was 75.6 % for patients showing the tail-like pattern and 90.9 % for those showing the solid pattern. The corresponding 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rates were 64.7 and 79.3 %, respectively. Thus in terms of both 5-year RFS and DFS, patients with the tail-like pattern tended to have a poorer outcome. A superficial origin of MFS is significantly related to a tail-like pattern on Gd MRI. The tail-like pattern is associated with poorer prognosis. Further studies of tumor depth and the tail-like pattern on Gd MRI are needed. (orig.)

  15. 78 FR 47676 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Credit Enhancement for Charter School...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    ... the use of information technology. Please note that written comments received in response to this... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION [Docket No. ED-2013-ICCD-0101] Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Credit Enhancement for Charter School Facilities Program Performance Report AGENCY...

  16. Nanocaged enzymes with enhanced catalytic activity and increased stability against protease digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhao; Fu, Jinglin; Dhakal, Soma; Johnson-Buck, Alexander; Liu, Minghui; Zhang, Ting; Woodbury, Neal W.; Liu, Yan; Walter, Nils G.; Yan, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Cells routinely compartmentalize enzymes for enhanced efficiency of their metabolic pathways. Here we report a general approach to construct DNA nanocaged enzymes for enhancing catalytic activity and stability. Nanocaged enzymes are realized by self-assembly into DNA nanocages with well-controlled stoichiometry and architecture that enabled a systematic study of the impact of both encapsulation and proximal polyanionic surfaces on a set of common metabolic enzymes. Activity assays at both bulk and single-molecule levels demonstrate increased substrate turnover numbers for DNA nanocage-encapsulated enzymes. Unexpectedly, we observe a significant inverse correlation between the size of a protein and its activity enhancement. This effect is consistent with a model wherein distal polyanionic surfaces of the nanocage enhance the stability of active enzyme conformations through the action of a strongly bound hydration layer. We further show that DNA nanocages protect encapsulated enzymes against proteases, demonstrating their practical utility in functional biomaterials and biotechnology. PMID:26861509

  17. Self-Assembled Complexes of Horseradish Peroxidase with Magnetic Nanoparticles Showing Enhanced Peroxidase Activity

    KAUST Repository

    Corgié , Sté phane C.; Kahawong, Patarawan; Duan, Xiaonan; Bowser, Daniel; Edward, Joseph B.; Walker, Larry P.; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.

    2012-01-01

    Bio-nanocatalysts (BNCs) consisting of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) self-assembled with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) enhance enzymatic activity due to the faster turnover and lower inhibition of the enzyme. The size and magnetization of the MNPs

  18. Nanocaged enzymes with enhanced catalytic activity and increased stability against protease digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhao; Fu, Jinglin; Dhakal, Soma; Johnson-Buck, Alexander; Liu, Minghui; Zhang, Ting; Woodbury, Neal W.; Liu, Yan; Walter, Nils G.; Yan, Hao

    2016-02-01

    Cells routinely compartmentalize enzymes for enhanced efficiency of their metabolic pathways. Here we report a general approach to construct DNA nanocaged enzymes for enhancing catalytic activity and stability. Nanocaged enzymes are realized by self-assembly into DNA nanocages with well-controlled stoichiometry and architecture that enabled a systematic study of the impact of both encapsulation and proximal polyanionic surfaces on a set of common metabolic enzymes. Activity assays at both bulk and single-molecule levels demonstrate increased substrate turnover numbers for DNA nanocage-encapsulated enzymes. Unexpectedly, we observe a significant inverse correlation between the size of a protein and its activity enhancement. This effect is consistent with a model wherein distal polyanionic surfaces of the nanocage enhance the stability of active enzyme conformations through the action of a strongly bound hydration layer. We further show that DNA nanocages protect encapsulated enzymes against proteases, demonstrating their practical utility in functional biomaterials and biotechnology.

  19. A general approach toward enhancement of pseudocapacitive performance of conducting polymers by redox-active electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Wei; Xia, Chuan; Baby, Rakhi Raghavan; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2014-01-01

    A general approach is demonstrated where the pseudocapacitive performance of different conducting polymers is enhanced in redox-active electrolytes. The concept is demonstrated using several electroactive conducting polymers, including polyaniline

  20. Silver-enhanced block copolymer membranes with biocidal activity

    KAUST Repository

    Madhavan, Poornima

    2014-11-12

    Silver nanoparticles were deposited on the surface and pore walls of block copolymer membranes with highly ordered pore structure. Pyridine blocks constitute the pore surfaces, complexing silver ions and promoting a homogeneous distribution. Nanoparticles were then formed by reduction with sodium borohydride. The morphology varied with the preparation conditions (pH and silver ion concentration), as confirmed by field emission scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Silver has a strong biocide activity, which for membranes can bring the advantage of minimizing the growth of bacteria and formation of biofilm. The membranes with nanoparticles prepared under different pH values and ion concentrations were incubated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and compared with the control. The strongest biocidal activity was achieved with membranes containing membranes prepared under pH 9. Under these conditions, the best distribution with small particle size was observed by microscopy.

  1. Enhancement of Antibacterial activity of Chitosan by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashandy, A.S.; Ibrahim, H.M.M.

    2006-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of irradiated and non-irradiated chitosan against E.coli, S.aureus, Salmonella, Strep. fecalis,Closteridium and P. aerugenosa was studied. Up to 1.25 mg/l, chitosan hardly suppressed the growth of all the strains while 3 mg/l of chitosan clearly inhibited the growth of all the studied strains. Therefore, the concentration of 3 mg/l of chitosan in the medium was adopted in this study. Irradiation at 100 KGy under dry conditions was effective in increasing the activity of chitosan and the growth of bacterial strains which was completely inhibited. It was also found that the addition of chitosan to dressing membranes present good barrier properties against microbes especially that irradiated at 100 KGy

  2. Silver-enhanced block copolymer membranes with biocidal activity

    KAUST Repository

    Madhavan, Poornima; Hong, Pei-Ying; Sougrat, Rachid; Nunes, Suzana Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles were deposited on the surface and pore walls of block copolymer membranes with highly ordered pore structure. Pyridine blocks constitute the pore surfaces, complexing silver ions and promoting a homogeneous distribution. Nanoparticles were then formed by reduction with sodium borohydride. The morphology varied with the preparation conditions (pH and silver ion concentration), as confirmed by field emission scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Silver has a strong biocide activity, which for membranes can bring the advantage of minimizing the growth of bacteria and formation of biofilm. The membranes with nanoparticles prepared under different pH values and ion concentrations were incubated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and compared with the control. The strongest biocidal activity was achieved with membranes containing membranes prepared under pH 9. Under these conditions, the best distribution with small particle size was observed by microscopy.

  3. Enhanced Efflux Pump Activity in Old Candida glabrata Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Somanon; Fries, Bettina C

    2018-03-01

    We investigated the effect of replicative aging on antifungal resistance in Candida glabrata Our studies demonstrate significantly increased transcription of ABC transporters and efflux pump activity in old versus young C. glabrata cells of a fluconazole-sensitive and -resistant strain. In addition, higher tolerance to killing by micafungin and amphotericin B was noted and is associated with higher transcription of glucan synthase gene FKS1 and lower ergosterol content in older cells. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  4. Lipase Activity Enhancement by SC-CO2 Treatment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlavsová, K.; Wimmer, Zdeněk; Xanthakis, E.; Bernášek, Prokop; Sovová, Helena; Zarevúcka, Marie

    63b, č. 6 (2008), s. 779-784 ISSN 0932-0776 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC D30.001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511; CEZ:AV0Z40720504; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : lipase activity * supercritical carbon dioxide * enantioselectivity Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 0.852, year: 2008 www.znaturforsch.com/ab/v63b/63b0779.pdf

  5. Enhancement of antibiotic activity by Cordia verbenacea DC

    OpenAIRE

    Matias, Edinardo F.F.; Santos, Karla K. A.; Almeida, Thiago S.; Costa, José G.M. da; Coutinho, Henrique D.M.

    2010-01-01

    Escherichia coli is known to produce enterotoxins whose properties and its role in diarrheal disease has been extensively investigated. Some species of Staphylococcus are often recognized as etiological agents of many animal and human opportunistic infections. This study is the first test of change in resistance of antibiotic activity by Cordia verbenacea DC. against multiresistant strains of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. In this study, the hexane and methanol extract of Cordia ...

  6. Reactivity of the isolated perfused rat tail vascular bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. França

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Isolated segments of the perfused rat tail artery display a high basal tone when compared to other isolated arteries such as the mesenteric and are suitable for the assay of vasopressor agents. However, the perfusion of this artery in the entire tail has not yet been used for functional studies. The main purpose of the present study was to identify some aspects of the vascular reactivity of the rat tail vascular bed and validate this method to measure vascular reactivity. The tail severed from the body was perfused with Krebs solution containing different Ca2+ concentrations at different flow rates. Rats were anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital (65 mg/kg and heparinized (500 U. The tail artery was dissected near the tail insertion, cannulated and perfused with Krebs solution plus 30 µM EDTA at 36oC and 2.5 ml/min and the procedures were started after equilibration of the perfusion pressure. In the first group a dose-response curve to phenylephrine (PE (0.5, 1, 2 and 5 µg, bolus injection was obtained at different flow rates (1.5, 2.5 and 3.5 ml/min. The mean perfusion pressure increased with flow as well as PE vasopressor responses. In a second group the flow was changed (1.5, 2, 2.5, 3 and 3.5 ml/min at different Ca2+ concentrations (0.62, 1.25, 2.5 and 3.75 mM in the Krebs solution. Increasing Ca2+ concentrations did not alter the flow-pressure relationship. In the third group a similar protocol was performed but the rat tail vascular bed was perfused with Krebs solution containing PE (0.1 µg/ml. There was an enhancement of the effect of PE with increasing external Ca2+ and flow. PE vasopressor responses increased after endothelial damage with air and CHAPS, suggesting an endothelial modulation of the tone of the rat tail vascular bed. These experiments validate the perfusion of the rat tail vascular bed as a method to investigate vascular reactivity

  7. Phytomining for Artisanal Gold Mine Tailings Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baiq Dewi Krisnayanti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mine tailings are generally disposed of by artisanal and small scale gold miners in poorly constructed containment areas and this leads to environmental risk. Gold phytomining could be a possible option for tailings management at artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM locations where plants accumulate residual gold in their above ground biomass. The value of metal recovered from plants could offset some of the costs of environmental management. Getting gold into plants has been repeatedly demonstrated by many research groups; however, a simple working technology to get gold out of plants is less well described. A field experiment to assess the relevance of the technology to artisanal miners was conducted in Central Lombok, Indonesia between April and June 2015. Tobacco was planted in cyanidation tailings (1 mg/kg gold and grown for 2.5 months before the entire plot area was irrigated with NaCN to induce metal uptake. Biomass was then harvested (100 kg, air dried, and ashed by miners in equipment currently used to ash activated carbon at the end of a cyanide leach circuit. Borax and silver as a collector metal were added to the tobacco ash and smelted at high temperature to extract metals from the ash. The mass of the final bullion (39 g was greater than the mass of silver used as a collector (31 g, indicating recovery of metals from the biomass through the smelt process. The gold yield of this trial was low (1.2 mg/kg dry weight biomass concentration, indicating that considerable work must still be done to optimise valuable metal recovery by plants at the field scale. However, the described method to process the biomass was technically feasible, and represents a valid technique that artisanal and small-scale gold miners are willing to adopt if the economic case is good.

  8. TRAF1 Coordinates Polyubiquitin Signaling to Enhance Epstein-Barr Virus LMP1-Mediated Growth and Survival Pathway Activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Greenfeld

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV encoded oncoprotein Latent Membrane Protein 1 (LMP1 signals through two C-terminal tail domains to drive cell growth, survival and transformation. The LMP1 membrane-proximal TES1/CTAR1 domain recruits TRAFs to activate MAP kinase, non-canonical and canonical NF-kB pathways, and is critical for EBV-mediated B-cell transformation. TRAF1 is amongst the most highly TES1-induced target genes and is abundantly expressed in EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disorders. We found that TRAF1 expression enhanced LMP1 TES1 domain-mediated activation of the p38, JNK, ERK and canonical NF-kB pathways, but not non-canonical NF-kB pathway activity. To gain insights into how TRAF1 amplifies LMP1 TES1 MAP kinase and canonical NF-kB pathways, we performed proteomic analysis of TRAF1 complexes immuno-purified from cells uninduced or induced for LMP1 TES1 signaling. Unexpectedly, we found that LMP1 TES1 domain signaling induced an association between TRAF1 and the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC, and stimulated linear (M1-linked polyubiquitin chain attachment to TRAF1 complexes. LMP1 or TRAF1 complexes isolated from EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid B cell lines (LCLs were highly modified by M1-linked polyubiqutin chains. The M1-ubiquitin binding proteins IKK-gamma/NEMO, A20 and ABIN1 each associate with TRAF1 in cells that express LMP1. TRAF2, but not the cIAP1 or cIAP2 ubiquitin ligases, plays a key role in LUBAC recruitment and M1-chain attachment to TRAF1 complexes, implicating the TRAF1:TRAF2 heterotrimer in LMP1 TES1-dependent LUBAC activation. Depletion of either TRAF1, or the LUBAC ubiquitin E3 ligase subunit HOIP, markedly impaired LCL growth. Likewise, LMP1 or TRAF1 complexes purified from LCLs were decorated by lysine 63 (K63-linked polyubiqutin chains. LMP1 TES1 signaling induced K63-polyubiquitin chain attachment to TRAF1 complexes, and TRAF2 was identified as K63-Ub chain target. Co-localization of M1- and K63

  9. Model for Microcapsule Drug Release with Ultrasound-Activated Enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Nadia H; Hall, Elizabeth A H

    2017-11-14

    Microbubbles and microcapsules of silane-polycaprolactone (SiPCL) have been filled with a fluorescent acridium salt (lucigenin) as a model for a drug-loaded delivery vehicle. The uptake and delivery were studied and compared with similar microbubbles and microcapsules of silica/mercaptosilica (S/M/S). Positively charged lucigenin was encapsulated through an electrostatic mechanism, following a Type I Langmuir isotherm as expected, but with an additional multilayer uptake that leads to a much higher loading for the SiPCL system (∼280 μg/2.4 × 10 9 microcapsules compared with ∼135 μg/2.4 × 10 9 microcapsules for S/M/S). Whereas the lucigenin release from the S/M/S bubbles and capsules loaded below the solubility limit is consistent with diffusion from a monolithic structure, the SiPCL structures show distinct release patterns; the Weibull function predicts a general trend for diffusion from normal Euclidean space at short times tending toward diffusion out of fractal spaces with increasing time. As a slow release system, the dissolution time (T d ) increases from 1 to 2 days for the S/M/S and for the low concentration, loaded SiPCl vehicles to ∼10 days for the high loaded microcapsules. However, T d can be reduced on insonation to 2 days, indicating the potential to gain control over the local enhanced release with ultrasound. This was tested for a docetaxel model and its effect on C4-2B prostate cancer cells, showing improved cell toxicity for concentrations below the normal EC 50 in solution.

  10. Activity enhances dopaminergic long-duration response in Parkinson disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auinger, Peggy; Fahn, Stanley; Oakes, David; Shoulson, Ira; Kieburtz, Karl; Rudolph, Alice; Marek, Kenneth; Seibyl, John; Lang, Anthony; Olanow, C. Warren; Tanner, Caroline; Schifitto, Giovanni; Zhao, Hongwei; Reyes, Lydia; Shinaman, Aileen; Comella, Cynthia L.; Goetz, Christopher; Blasucci, Lucia M.; Samanta, Johan; Stacy, Mark; Williamson, Kelli; Harrigan, Mary; Greene, Paul; Ford, Blair; Moskowitz, Carol; Truong, Daniel D.; Pathak, Mayank; Jankovic, Joseph; Ondo, William; Atassi, Farah; Hunter, Christine; Jacques, Carol; Friedman, Joseph H.; Lannon, Margaret; Russell, David S.; Jennings, Danna; Fussell, Barbara; Standaert, David; Schwarzschild, Michael A.; Growdon, John H.; Tennis, Marsha; Gauthier, Serge; Panisset, Michel; Hall, Jean; Gancher, Stephen; Hammerstad, John P.; Stone, Claudia; Alexander-Brown, Barbara; Factor, Stewart A.; Molho, Eric; Brown, Diane; Evans, Sharon; Clark, Jeffrey; Manyam, Bala; Simpson, Patricia; Wulbrecht, Brian; Whetteckey, Jacqueline; Martin, Wayne; Roberts, Ted; King, Pamela; Hauser, Robert; Zesiewicz, Theresa; Gauger, Lisa; Trugman, Joel; Wooten, G. Frederick; Rost-Ruffner, Elke; Perlmutter, Joel; Racette, Brad A.; Suchowersky, Oksana; Ranawaya, Ranjit; Wood, Susan; Pantella, Carol; Kurlan, Roger; Richard, Irene; Pearson, Nancy; Caviness, John N.; Adler, Charles; Lind, Marlene; Simuni, Tanya; Siderowf, Andrew; Colcher, Amy; Lloyd, Mary; Weiner, William; Shulman, Lisa; Koller, William; Lyons, Kelly; Feldman, Robert G.; Saint-Hilaire, Marie H.; Ellias, Samuel; Thomas, Cathi-Ann; Juncos, Jorge; Watts, Ray; Partlow, Anna; Tetrud, James; Togasaki, Daniel M.; Stewart, Tracy; Mark, Margery H.; Sage, Jacob I.; Caputo, Debbie; Gould, Harry; Rao, Jayaraman; McKendrick, Ann; Brin, Mitchell; Danisi, Fabio; Benabou, Reina; Hubble, Jean; Paulson, George W.; Reider, Carson; Birnbaum, Alex; Miyasaki, Janis; Johnston, Lisa; So, Julie; Pahwa, Rajesh; Dubinsky, Richard M.; Wszolek, Zbigniew; Uitti, Ryan; Turk, Margaret; Tuite, Paul; Rottenberg, David; Hansen, Joy; Ramos, Serrano; Waters, Cheryl; Lew, Mark; Welsh, Mickie; Kawai, Connie; O'Brien, Christopher; Kumar, Rajeev; Seeberger, Lauren; Judd, Deborah; Barclay, C. Lynn; Grimes, David A.; Sutherland, Laura; Dawson, Ted; Reich, Stephen; Dunlop, Rebecca; Albin, Roger; Frey, Kirk; Wernette, Kristine; Fahn, Stanley; Oakes, David; Shoulson, Ira; Kieburtz, Karl; Rudolph, Alice; Marek, Kenneth; Seibyl, John; Lang, Anthony; Olanow, C. Warren; Tanner, Caroline; Schifitto, Giovanni; Zhao, Hongwei; Reyes, Lydia; Shinaman, Aileen; Comella, Cynthia L.; Goetz, Christopher; Blasucci, Lucia M.; Samanta, Johan; Stacy, Mark; Williamson, Kelli; Harrigan, Mary; Greene, Paul; Ford, Blair; Moskowitz, Carol; Truong, Daniel D.; Pathak, Mayank; Jankovic, Joseph; Ondo, William; Atassi, Farah; Hunter, Christine; Jacques, Carol; Friedman, Joseph H.; Lannon, Margaret; Russell, David S.; Jennings, Danna; Fussell, Barbara; Standaert, David; Schwarzschild, Michael A.; Growdon, John H.; Tennis, Marsha; Gauthier, Serge; Panisset, Michel; Hall, Jean; Gancher, Stephen; Hammerstad, John P.; Stone, Claudia; Alexander-Brown, Barbara; Factor, Stewart A.; Molho, Eric; Brown, Diane; Evans, Sharon; Clark, Jeffrey; Manyam, Bala; Simpson, Patricia; Wulbrecht, Brian; Whetteckey, Jacqueline; Martin, Wayne; Roberts, Ted; King, Pamela; Hauser, Robert; Zesiewicz, Theresa; Gauger, Lisa; Trugman, Joel; Wooten, G. Frederick; Rost-Ruffner, Elke; Perlmutter, Joel; Racette, Brad A.; Suchowersky, Oksana; Ranawaya, Ranjit; Wood, Susan; Pantella, Carol; Kurlan, Roger; Richard, Irene; Pearson, Nancy; Caviness, John N.; Adler, Charles; Lind, Marlene; Simuni, Tanya; Siderowf, Andrew; Colcher, Amy; Lloyd, Mary; Weiner, William; Shulman, Lisa; Koller, William; Lyons, Kelly; Feldman, Robert G.; Saint-Hilaire, Marie H.; Ellias, Samuel; Thomas, Cathi-Ann; Juncos, Jorge; Watts, Ray; Partlow, Anna; Tetrud, James; Togasaki, Daniel M.; Stewart, Tracy; Mark, Margery H.; Sage, Jacob I.; Caputo, Debbie; Gould, Harry; Rao, Jayaraman; McKendrick, Ann; Brin, Mitchell; Danisi, Fabio; Benabou, Reina; Hubble, Jean; Paulson, George W.; Reider, Carson; Birnbaum, Alex; Miyasaki, Janis; Johnston, Lisa; So, Julie; Pahwa, Rajesh; Dubinsky, Richard M.; Wszolek, Zbigniew; Uitti, Ryan; Turk, Margaret; Tuite, Paul; Rottenberg, David; Hansen, Joy; Ramos, Serrano; Waters, Cheryl; Lew, Mark; Welsh, Mickie; Kawai, Connie; O'Brien, Christopher; Kumar, Rajeev; Seeberger, Lauren; Judd, Deborah; Barclay, C. Lynn; Grimes, David A.; Sutherland, Laura; Dawson, Ted; Reich, Stephen; Dunlop, Rebecca; Albin, Roger; Frey, Kirk; Wernette, Kristine; Mendis, Tilak

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We tested the hypothesis that dopamine-dependent motor learning mechanism underlies the long-duration response to levodopa in Parkinson disease (PD) based on our studies in a mouse model. By data-mining the motor task performance in dominant and nondominant hands of the subjects in a double-blind randomized trial of levodopa therapy, the effects of activity and dopamine therapy were examined. Methods: We data-mined the Earlier versus Later Levodopa Therapy in Parkinson's Disease (ELLDOPA) study published in 2005 and performed statistical analysis comparing the effects of levodopa and dominance of handedness over 42 weeks. Results: The mean change in finger-tapping counts from baseline before the initiation of therapy to predose at 9 weeks and 40 weeks increased more in the dominant compared to nondominant hand in levodopa-treated subjects in a dose-dependent fashion. There was no significant difference in dominant vs nondominant hands in the placebo group. The short-duration response assessed by the difference of postdose performance compared to predose performance at the same visit did not show any significant difference between dominant vs nondominant hands. Conclusions: Active use of the dominant hand and dopamine replacement therapy produces synergistic effect on long-lasting motor task performance during “off” medication state. Such effect was confined to dopamine-responsive symptoms and not seen in dopamine-resistant symptoms such as gait and balance. We propose that long-lasting motor learning facilitated by activity and dopamine is a form of disease modification that is often seen in trials of medications that have symptomatic effects. PMID:22459675

  11. Carbohydrate Electrolyte Solutions Enhance Endurance Capacity in Active Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Hua Sun

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of supplementation with a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (CES in active females during a prolonged session of submaximal running to exhaustion. Eight healthy active females volunteered to perform a session of open-ended running to exhaustion at 70% of their maximal oxygen consumption on a treadmill during the follicular phase of their menstrual cycle on two occasions. During each run, the subjects consumed either 3mL·kg−1 body mass of a 6% CES or a placebo drink (PL every 20 min during exercise. The trials were administered in a randomized double-blind, cross-over design. During the run, the subjects ingested similar volumes of fluid in two trials (CES: 644 ± 75 mL vs. PL: 593 ± 66 mL, p > 0.05. The time to exhaustion was 16% longer during the CES trial (106.2 ± 9.4 min than during the PL trial (91.6 ± 5.9 min (p < 0.05. At 45 min during exercise, the plasma glucose concentration in the CES trial was higher than that in PL trial. No differences were observed in the plasma lactate level, respiratory exchange ratio, heart rate, perceived rate of exertion, sensation of thirst, or abdominal discomfort between the two trials (p > 0.05. The results of the present study confirm that CES supplementation improves the moderate intensity endurance capacity of active females during the follicular phases of the menstrual cycle. However, the exogenous oxidation of carbohydrate does not seem to explain the improved capacity after CES supplementation.

  12. Intense synaptic activity enhances temporal resolution in spinal motoneurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rune W; Ditlevsen, Susanne; Hounsgaard, Jørn Dybkjær

    2008-01-01

    In neurons, spike timing is determined by integration of synaptic potentials in delicate concert with intrinsic properties. Although the integration time is functionally crucial, it remains elusive during network activity. While mechanisms of rapid processing are well documented in sensory systems...... of their occurrence and detected for less than 10 ms after their occurrence. Being shorter than the average inter-spike interval, the AHP has little effect on integration time and spike timing, which instead is entirely determined by fluctuations in membrane potential caused by the barrage of inhibitory...

  13. [Flipped classroom as a strategy to enhance active learning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Noriyuki

    2015-03-01

    This paper reviews the introduction of a flipped class for fourth grade dentistry students, and analyzes the characteristics of the learning method. In fiscal 2013 and 2014, a series of ten three-hour units for removable partial prosthodontics were completed with the flipped class method; a lecture video of approximately 60 minutes was made by the teacher (author) and uploaded to the university's e-learning website one week before each class. Students were instructed to prepare for the class by watching the streaming video on their PC, tablet, or smartphone. In the flipped class, students were not given a lecture, but were asked to solve short questions displayed on screen, to make a short presentation about a part of the video lecture, and to discuss a critical question related to the main subject of the day. An additional team-based learning (TBL) session with individual and group answers was implemented. The average individual scores were considerably higher in the last two years, when the flipped method was implemented, than in the three previous years when conventional lectures were used. The following learning concepts were discussed: the role of the flipped method as an active learning strategy, the efficacy of lecture videos and short questions, students' participation in the class discussion, present-day value of the method, cooperation with TBL, the significance of active learning in relation with the students' learning ability, and the potential increase in the preparation time and workload for students.

  14. Enhancing Physical Activity and Brain Reorganization after Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet H. Carr

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is becoming increasingly clear that, if reorganization of brain function is to be optimal after stroke, there needs to be a reorganisation of the methods used in physical rehabilitation and the time spent in specific task practice, strength and endurance training, and aerobic exercise. Frequency and intensity of rehabilitation need to be increased so that patients can gain the energy levels and vigour necessary for participation in physical activity both during rehabilitation and after discharge. It is evident that many patients are discharged from inpatient rehabilitation severely deconditioned, meaning that their energy levels are too low for active participation in daily life. Physicians, therapists, and nursing staff responsible for rehabilitation practice should address this issue not only during inpatient rehabilitation but also after discharge by promoting and supporting community-based exercise opportunities. During inpatient rehabilitation, group sessions should be frequent and need to include specific aerobic training. Physiotherapy must take advantage of the training aids available, including exercise equipment such as treadmills, and of new developments in computerised feedback systems, robotics, and electromechanical trainers. For illustrative purposes, this paper focuses on the role of physiotherapists, but the necessary changes in practice and in attitude will require cooperation from many others.

  15. The second extracellular loop of the adenosine A1 receptor mediates activity of allosteric enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Dylan P; McRobb, Fiona M; Leonhardt, Susan A; Purdy, Michael; Figler, Heidi; Marshall, Melissa A; Chordia, Mahendra; Figler, Robert; Linden, Joel; Abagyan, Ruben; Yeager, Mark

    2014-02-01

    Allosteric enhancers of the adenosine A1 receptor amplify signaling by orthosteric agonists. Allosteric enhancers are appealing drug candidates because their activity requires that the orthosteric site be occupied by an agonist, thereby conferring specificity to stressed or injured tissues that produce adenosine. To explore the mechanism of allosteric enhancer activity, we examined their action on several A1 receptor constructs, including (1) species variants, (2) species chimeras, (3) alanine scanning mutants, and (4) site-specific mutants. These findings were combined with homology modeling of the A1 receptor and in silico screening of an allosteric enhancer library. The binding modes of known docked allosteric enhancers correlated with the known structure-activity relationship, suggesting that these allosteric enhancers bind to a pocket formed by the second extracellular loop, flanked by residues S150 and M162. We propose a model in which this vestibule controls the entry and efflux of agonists from the orthosteric site and agonist binding elicits a conformational change that enables allosteric enhancer binding. This model provides a mechanism for the observations that allosteric enhancers slow the dissociation of orthosteric agonists but not antagonists.

  16. Numerical modelling for stability of tailings dams

    OpenAIRE

    Auchar, Muhammad; Mattsson, Hans; Knutsson, Sven

    2013-01-01

    A tailings dam is a large embankment structure that is constructed to store the waste from the mining industry. Stability problems may occur in a tailings dam due to factors such as quick rate of raising, internal erosion and liquefaction. The failure of a tailings dam may cause loss of human life and environmental degradation. Tailings Dams must not only be stable during the time the tailings storage facility is in operation, but also long time after the mine is closed. In Sweden, the licens...

  17. Amygdala activity related to enhanced memory for pleasant and aversive stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, S B; Ely, T D; Grafton, S T; Kilts, C D

    1999-03-01

    Pleasant or aversive events are better remembered than neutral events. Emotional enhancement of episodic memory has been linked to the amygdala in animal and neuropsychological studies. Using positron emission tomography, we show that bilateral amygdala activity during memory encoding is correlated with enhanced episodic recognition memory for both pleasant and aversive visual stimuli relative to neutral stimuli, and that this relationship is specific to emotional stimuli. Furthermore, data suggest that the amygdala enhances episodic memory in part through modulation of hippocampal activity. The human amygdala seems to modulate the strength of conscious memory for events according to emotional importance, regardless of whether the emotion is pleasant or aversive.

  18. Integration of Bass Enhancement and Active Noise Control System in Automobile Cabin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Wang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advancement of digital signal processing technologies, consumers are more concerned with the quality of multimedia entertainment in automobiles. In order to meet this demand, an audio enhancement system is needed to improve bass reproduction and cancel engine noise in the cabins. This paper presents an integrated active noise control system that is based on frequency-sampling filters to track and extract the bass information from the audio signal, and a multifrequency active noise equalizer to tune the low-frequency engine harmonics to enhance the bass reproduction. In the noise cancellation mode, a maximum of 3 dB bass enhancement can be achieved with significant noise suppression, while higher bass enhancement can be achieved in the bass enhance mode. The results show that the proposed system is effective for solving both the bass audio reproduction and the noise control problems in automobile cabins.

  19. Modulation of 5' splice site selection using tailed oligonucleotides carrying splicing signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elela Sherif

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously described the use of tailed oligonucleotides as a means of reprogramming alternative pre-mRNA splicing in vitro and in vivo. The tailed oligonucleotides that were used interfere with splicing because they contain a portion complementary to sequences immediately upstream of the target 5' splice site combined with a non-hybridizing 5' tail carrying binding sites for the hnRNP A1/A2 proteins. In the present study, we have tested the inhibitory activity of RNA oligonucleotides carrying different tail structures. Results We show that an oligonucleotide with a 5' tail containing the human β-globin branch site sequence inhibits the use of the 5' splice site of Bcl-xL, albeit less efficiently than a tail containing binding sites for the hnRNP A1/A2 proteins. A branch site-containing tail positioned at the 3' end of the oligonucleotide also elicited splicing inhibition but not as efficiently as a 5' tail. The interfering activity of a 3' tail was improved by adding a 5' splice site sequence next to the branch site sequence. A 3' tail carrying a Y-shaped branch structure promoted similar splicing interference. The inclusion of branch site or 5' splice site sequences in the Y-shaped 3' tail further improved splicing inhibition. Conclusion Our in vitro results indicate that a variety of tail architectures can be used to elicit splicing interference at low nanomolar concentrations, thereby broadening the scope and the potential impact of this antisense technology.

  20. Enhancing laboratory activity with computer-based tutorials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Ritchie

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available In a degree course in electronic engineering, great importance is attached to laboratory work, in which students have the opportunity to develop their creative skills in a practical environment. For example, in the first year of the course they are expected to design and test some basic circuits using data available on the characteristics of the semiconductor devices to be used. Many of the students cannot be prepared sufficiently for this activity by attendance at lectures, in which basic principles are expounded to large classes. Firstyear students have widely differing knowledge, experience and ability in circuit design. Therefore, without individual tuition many of them are insufficiently prepared for their laboratory work. Weaker students often neglect to study the laboratory documentation thoroughly in advance and they make poor progress in the laboratory.

  1. Active sampling technique to enhance chemical signature of buried explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, John S.; French, Patrick D.

    2004-09-01

    Deminers and dismounted countermine engineers commonly use metal detectors, ground penetrating radar and probes to locate mines. Many modern landmines have a very low metal content, which severely limits the effectiveness of metal detectors. Canines have also been used for landmine detection for decades. Experiments have shown that canines smell the explosives which are known to leak from most types of landmines. The fact that dogs can detect landmines indicates that vapor sensing is a viable approach to landmine detection. Several groups are currently developing systems to detect landmines by "sniffing" for the ultra-trace explosive vapors above the soil. The amount of material that is available to passive vapor sensing systems is limited to no more than the vapor in equilibrium with the explosive related chemicals (ERCs) distributed in the surface soils over and near the landmine. The low equilibrium vapor pressure of TNT in the soil/atmosphere boundary layer and the limited volume of the boundary layer air imply that passive chemical vapor sensing systems require sensitivities in the picogram range, or lower. ADA is working to overcome many of the limitations of passive sampling methods, by the use of an active sampling method that employs a high-powered (1,200+ joules) strobe lamp to create a highly amplified plume of vapor and/or ERC-bearing fine particulates. Initial investigations have demonstrated that this approach can amplify the detectability of TNT by two or three orders of magnitude. This new active sampling technique could be used with any suitable explosive sensor.

  2. Hollow mesoporous titania microspheres: New technology and enhanced photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Zhenliang; Wei, Wenrui; Wang, Litong [School of Chemical Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108 (China); Hong, Ruoyu, E-mail: rhong@suda.edu.cn [School of Chemical Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108 (China); College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science & Key Laboratory of Organic Synthesis of Jiangsu Province, Soochow University, SIP, Suzhou 215123 (China)

    2015-12-01

    Graphical abstract: Schematic of the formation process of HTS. - Highlights: • Amino modified porous PS-DVB microspheres were used as templates to coat TiO{sub 2.} • The coating of TiO{sub 2} was conducted under regular changing atmospheric pressure. • The PS-DVB@TiO{sub 2} was calcinated first under nitrogen and then under air to get HTS. • The resultant products were provided with high surface area and excellent photocatalytic activity under UV irradiation. - Abstract: Hollow titania microspheres (HTS) were fabricated via a sol–gel process by coating the hydrolysis product of titanium tetrabutoxide (TBOT) onto the amino (–NH{sub 2}) modified porous polystyrene cross-linked divinyl benzene (PS-DVB) microspheres under changing atmospheric pressure, followed by calcination in nitrogen and air atmosphere. Particularly, the atmospheric pressure was continuously and regularly changed during the formation process of PS-DVB@TiO{sub 2} microspheres. Then the TiO{sub 2} particles were absorbed into the pores and onto the surface of PS-DVB as well. The resultant HTS (around 2 μm in diameter) featured a high specific surface area (84.37 m{sup 2}/g), anatase crystal and stable hollow microsphere structure, which led to high photocatalysis activity. The photocatalytic degradation of malachite green (MG) organic dye solution was conducted under ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation, which showed a high photocatalytic ability (81% of MG was degraded after UV irradiation for 88 min). Therefore, it could be potentially applied for the treatment of wastewater contaminated by organic pollutants.

  3. Capacitance enhancement of polyaniline coated curved-graphene supercapacitors in a redox-active electrolyte

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Wei

    2013-01-01

    We show, for the first time, a redox-active electrolyte in combination with a polyaniline-coated curved graphene active material to achieve significant enhancement in the capacitance (36-92% increase) compared to supercapacitors that lack the redox-active contribution from the electrolyte. The supercapacitors based on the redox-active electrolyte also exhibit excellent rate capability and very long cycling performance (>50 000 cycles). This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  4. Heavy metal leaching from mine tailings as affected by plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, D.; Schwab, A.P.; Banks, M.K.

    1999-12-01

    A column experiment was conducted to determine the impact of soil cover and plants on heavy metal leaching from mine tailings and heavy metal contaminated soil. Columns made of PVC were constructed with 30 cm subsoil covered by 30 cm of mine tailings followed by 0, 30, or 60 cm subsoil covered by 30 cm of mine tailings followed by 0, 30, or 60 cm of clean topsoil. Two grasses, tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii), were grown in the columns. The columns were leached at a slow rate for 1 yr with a 0.001 M CaCl{sub 2} solution under unsaturated conditions. The presence of both tall fescue and big bluestem increased Zn and Cd concentrations in the leachate. Lead concentrations in leachates were not affected by the presence of plants. Although plants generally reduced the total amount of water leached, total mass of Zn and Cd leached generally was not impacted by plants. Total mass of Pb leached was positively correlated with total leachate collected from each column. Covering the mine tailings with 60 cm of topsoil increased the mass of Zn and Cd leached relative to no topsoil. When the subsoil was absent, Zn and Cd leaching increased by as much as 20-fold, verifying the ability of soil to act as a sink for metals. Mine tailing remediation by establishing vegetation can reduce Pb movement but may enhance short-term Cd and Zn leaching. However, the changes were relatively small and do not outweigh the benefits of using vegetation in mine tailings reclamation.

  5. Density and distribution of cutaneous sensilla on tails of leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) in relation to caudal autotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Anthony P; Lai, Erica K; Lawrence Powell, G; Higham, Timothy E

    2014-09-01

    The lizard tail is well known for its ability to autotomize and regenerate. Physical contact of the tail by a predator may induce autotomy at the location at which the tail is grasped, and upon detachment the tail may undergo violent, rapid, and unpredictable movements that appear to be, to some degree, regulated by contact with the physical environment. Neither the mechanism by which tail breakage at a particular location is determined, nor that by which environmental feedback to the tail is received, are known. It has been suggested that mechanoreceptors (sensilla) are the means of mediation of such activities, and reports indicate that the density of sensilla on the tail is high. To determine the feasibility that mechanoreceptors are involved in such phenomena, we mapped scale form and the size, density, distribution, and spacing of sensilla on the head, body, limbs, and tail of the leopard gecko. This species has a full complement of autotomy planes along the length of the tail, and the postautotomic behavior of its tail has been documented. We found that the density of sensilla is highest on the tail relative to all other body regions examined; a dorsoventral gradient of caudal sensilla density is evident on the tail; sensilla are more closely spaced on the dorsal and lateral regions of the tail than elsewhere and are carried on relatively small scales; and that the whorls of scales on the tail bear a one to one relationship with the autotomy planes. Our results are consistent with the hypotheses of sensilla being involved in determining the site at which autotomy will occur, and with them being involved in the mediation of tail behavior following autotomy. These findings open the way for experimental neurological investigations of how autotomy is induced and how the detached tail responds to external environmental input. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Thermal stabilization of uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreesen, D.R.; Williams, J.M.; Cokal, E.J.

    1981-01-01

    The sintering of tailings at high temperatures (1200 0 C) has shown promise as a conditioning approach that greatly reduces the 222 Rn emanation of uranium mill tailings. The structure of thermally stabilized tailings has been appreciably altered producing a material that will have minimal management requirements and will be applicable to on-site processing and disposal. The mineralogy of untreated tailings is presented to define the structure of the original materials. Quartz predominates in most tailings samples; however, appreciable quantities of gypsum, clay, illite, or albites are found in some tailings. Samples from the Durango and Shiprock sites have plagioclase-type aluminosilicates and non-aluminum silicates as major components. The iron-rich vanadium tailings from the Salt Lake City site contain appreciable quantities of α-hematite and chloroapatite. The reduction in radon emanation power and changes in mineralogy as a function of sintering temperature are presented

  7. Ecotoxicity of Mine Tailings: Unrehabilitated Versus Rehabilitated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maboeta, M S; Oladipo, O G; Botha, S M

    2018-05-01

    Earthworms are bioindicators of soil pollution. The ecotoxicity of tailings from selected gold mines in South Africa was investigated utilizing Eisenia andrei bioassays and biomarkers. Samples were obtained from unrehabilitated, rehabilitated and naturally vegetated sites. Biomass, neutral red retention time (NRRT), survival and reproduction were assessed using standardized protocols. Earthworm biomass, NRRT and reproductive success in rehabilitated tailings (comparable to naturally vegetated site) were significantly higher (p tailings. In addition, significantly lower (p tailings compared to the unrehabilitated. Further, significantly lower (p tailings than the rehabilitated and naturally vegetated sites. Overall, reduced ecotoxicity effects were confirmed in rehabilitated compared to unrehabilitated tailings. This suggests that rehabilitation as a post-mining restorative strategy has strong positive influence on mine tailings.

  8. Mineralogy and geochemistry of uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagel, M.; Somot, S.

    2002-01-01

    We have investigated three main types of uranium mill tailings: (1) acid mill tailings (Mounana, Gabon), (2) neutralized acid mill tailings (Ecarpiere and Jouac, France) and (3) alkaline mill tailings (Lodeve, France). We have focused especially on radium behaviour which is of major environmental concern in these tailings, but other metals were also studied. It is shown that in type 1 , trapping of 226 Ra by anglesite and barite is dominant whereas in types 2 and 3, 226 Ra is mainly or significantly scavenged by Fe- Mn oxyhydroxides. This study points out the importance of keeping conditions in which these oxyhydroxides will be stable for the long-term. Uranium would be also released during acidification of the tailings. This shows the importance to know more about the behavior of Ra during the crystallization of oxyhydroxides and during tailings diagenesis. Therefore, it is very important to study the sorption of Ra by clay minerals or late authigeneous minerals such as barite. (author)

  9. [Effects of Three Industrial Organic Wastes as Amendments on Plant Growth and the Biochemical Properties of a Pb/Zn Mine Tailings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xi-zhu; Yang, Sheng-xiang; Li, Feng-mei; Cao, Jian-bing; Peng, Qing-jing

    2016-01-15

    A field trial was conducted in an abandoned Pb/Zn mine tailings to evaluate the effectiveness of three industrial wastes [sweet sorghum vinasse (SSV), medicinal herb residues (MHR) and spent mushroom compost (SMC)] as organic amendments on plant growth, soil nutrients and enzyme activities, and heavy metal concentrations in plant tissues and the mine tailings. (1) The main findings were as follows: (1) The mean concentrations of diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in SSV, MHR and SMC treatments decreased by 24.2%-27.3%, 45.7%-48.3%, 18.0%-20.9% and 10.1%-14.2% as compared to the control tailings. When compared to the control tailings, the mean values of organic matter, ammonium-N and available P in SSV, MHR and SMC treatments increased by 2.27-2.32, 12.4-12.8 and 4.04-4.74 times, respectively. Similarly, the addition of SSV, MHR and SMC significantly enhanced soil enzyme activities (dehydrogenase, beta-glucosidase, urease and phosphatase), being 5.51-6.37, 1.72-1.96, 6.32-6.62 and 2.35-2.62 times higher than those in the control tailings. (2) The application of these wastes promoted seed germination and seedling growth. The vegetation cover reached 84%, 79% and 86% at SSV, MHR and SMC subplots. For Lolium perenne and Cynodon dactylon, the addition of SSV, MHR and SMC led to significant increases in the shoot biomass yields with 4.2-5.6 and 15.7-17.3 times greater than those in the tailings. Moreover, the addition of SSV, MHR and SMC significantly reduced the concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in the shoots of L. perenne and C. dactylon in comparison with the control tailings. (3) Pearson's correlation coefficients showed that the vegetation cover and biomass were positively correlated with soil nutrient elements and enzyme activities. Significant negative correlations were observed between DTPA-extractable metal concentrations and vegetation cover and biomass. The metal concentrations in plants were positively correlated with

  10. Functional assessment of human enhancer activities using whole-genome STARR-sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuwen; Yu, Shan; Dhiman, Vineet K; Brunetti, Tonya; Eckart, Heather; White, Kevin P

    2017-11-20

    Genome-wide quantification of enhancer activity in the human genome has proven to be a challenging problem. Recent efforts have led to the development of powerful tools for enhancer quantification. However, because of genome size and complexity, these tools have yet to be applied to the whole human genome.  In the current study, we use a human prostate cancer cell line, LNCaP as a model to perform whole human genome STARR-seq (WHG-STARR-seq) to reliably obtain an assessment of enhancer activity. This approach builds upon previously developed STARR-seq in the fly genome and CapSTARR-seq techniques in targeted human genomic regions. With an improved library preparation strategy, our approach greatly increases the library complexity per unit of starting material, which makes it feasible and cost-effective to explore the landscape of regulatory activity in the much larger human genome. In addition to our ability to identify active, accessible enhancers located in open chromatin regions, we can also detect sequences with the potential for enhancer activity that are located in inaccessible, closed chromatin regions. When treated with the histone deacetylase inhibitor, Trichostatin A, genes nearby this latter class of enhancers are up-regulated, demonstrating the potential for endogenous functionality of these regulatory elements. WHG-STARR-seq provides an improved approach to current pipelines for analysis of high complexity genomes to gain a better understanding of the intricacies of transcriptional regulation.

  11. Assessment of water quality around Jaduguda uranium tailings ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanty, A.K.; Gurunadha Rao, V.V.S.; Ramesh, G.; Surinaidu, L.; Thama Rao, G.; Dhakate, R.; Sarangi, A.K.; Nair, R.N.

    2010-01-01

    The environmental impacts of uranium mining and milling activities are of great concern in many countries for the last three decades. These impacts range from the creation of massive stockpiles of radioactive and toxic waste rock and sand-like tailings to serious contamination of surface and groundwater with radioactive and toxic pollutants, and releases of conventional, toxic and radioactive air pollutants. Uranium mining is also associated with high concentrations of highly toxic heavy metals, which are a major source of surface and groundwater contamination. Depending upon the hydraulic properties of the fractures involved, contaminated ground water may be transported many miles from its point of origin before feeding into an aquifer. Tailings pond may contaminate the groundwater regime by continuous seepage and leaching of radionuclides and other toxic metals due to interaction of rain water through the tailings ponds. The uranium milling and tailings pond operations were started at Jaduguda since 1968. A comprehensive geological and geophysical investigation has been carried out in the Jaduguda watershed covering the tailings ponds to understand the geohydrological characteristics of the region. High resolution electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) surveys have been carried out to delineate the aquifer geometry. Water quality analyses were carried out in three seasons covering from premonsoon to postmonsoon period during 2008-2009. Uranium concentrations have been observed in the dug wells, surface water and monitoring wells

  12. Regeneration of neural crest derivatives in the Xenopus tadpole tail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slack Jonathan MW

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background After amputation of the Xenopus tadpole tail, a functionally competent new tail is regenerated. It contains spinal cord, notochord and muscle, each of which has previously been shown to derive from the corresponding tissue in the stump. The regeneration of the neural crest derivatives has not previously been examined and is described in this paper. Results Labelling of the spinal cord by electroporation, or by orthotopic grafting of transgenic tissue expressing GFP, shows that no cells emigrate from the spinal cord in the course of regeneration. There is very limited regeneration of the spinal ganglia, but new neurons as well as fibre tracts do appear in the regenerated spinal cord and the regenerated tail also contains abundant peripheral innervation. The regenerated tail contains a normal density of melanophores. Cell labelling experiments show that melanophores do not arise from the spinal cord during regeneration, nor from the mesenchymal tissues of the skin, but they do arise by activation and proliferation of pre-existing melanophore precursors. If tails are prepared lacking melanophores, then the regenerates also lack them. Conclusion On regeneration there is no induction of a new neural crest similar to that seen in embryonic development. However there is some regeneration of neural crest derivatives. Abundant melanophores are regenerated from unpigmented precursors, and, although spinal ganglia are not regenerated, sufficient sensory systems are produced to enable essential functions to continue.

  13. Green remediation of tailings from the mine using inorganic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Došić Aleksandar D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing amounts of residues and waste materials coming from industrial activities in different processes have become an increasingly urgent problem for the future. The paper presents the problem of mine tailings generated in mine “Sase” (Republic of Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina with high metal content (Pb, Cu and Zn. Dumpsite of this tailing represents potential risk for water bodies in the vicinity of this location. Chosen treatment process was stabilization/solidification (S/S. Inorganic agents used in this study were fly ash and red mud that represent secondary industrial waste generated on locations relatively near the mine. Therefore, their application can be used as an example of a sustainable solution of regional environmental problem. Further investigations are related to the impact of various factors on metals leaching from mine tailings solidified/stabilized material using the above mentioned immobilization agents. The performance of the immobilizing procedures was examined using several leaching tests: ANS 16.1, TCLP, DIN, MWLP. The results indicated that all S/S samples can be considered as non-hazardous waste, as all leached metal concentrations met the set criteria. These results will further enable the modelling of metals behaviour during long-term leaching from treated mine tailing. The data are invaluable in terms of economically and environmentally sound management of mine tailing.

  14. Highly reproducible surface-enhanced Raman scattering-active Au nanostructures prepared by simple electrodeposition: origin of surface-enhanced Raman scattering activity and applications as electrochemical substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Suhee; Ahn, Miri; Kim, Jongwon

    2013-05-24

    The fabrication of effective surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates has been the subject of intensive research because of their useful applications. In this paper, dendritic gold (Au) rod (DAR) structures prepared by simple one-step electrodeposition in a short time were examined as an effective SERS-active substrate. The SERS activity of the DAR surfaces was compared to that of other nanostructured Au surfaces with different morphologies, and its dependence on the structural variation of DAR structures was examined. These comparisonal investigations revealed that highly faceted sharp edge sites present on the DAR surfaces play a critical role in inducing a high SERS activity. The SERS enhancement factor was estimated to be greater than 10(5), and the detection limit of rhodamine 6G at DAR surfaces was 10(-8)M. The DAR surfaces exhibit excellent spot-to-spot and substrate-to-substrate SERS enhancement reproducibility, and their long-term stability is very good. It was also demonstrated that the DAR surfaces can be effectively utilized in electrochemical SERS systems, wherein a reversible SERS behavior was obtained during the cycling to cathodic potential regions. Considering the straightforward preparation of DAR substrates and the clean nature of SERS-active Au surfaces prepared in the absence of additives, we expect that DAR surfaces can be used as cost-effective SERS substrates in analytical and electrochemical applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Metabolic factors affecting enhanced phosphorus uptake by activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughton, W H; Gottfried, R J; Sinclair, N A; Yall, I

    1971-10-01

    Activated sludges obtained from the Rilling Road plant located at San Antonio, Tex., and from the Hyperion treatment plant located at Los Angeles, Calif., have the ability to remove all of the orthophosphate normally present in Tucson sewage within 3 hr after being added to the waste water. Phosphorus removal was independent of externally supplied sources of energy and ions, since orthophosphate and (32)P radioactivity were readily removed from tap water, glass-distilled water, and deionized water. Phosphorus uptake by Rilling sludge in the laboratory appears to be wholly biological, as it has an optimum pH range (7.7 to 9.7) and an optimum temperature range (24 to 37 C). It was inhibited by HgCl(2), iodoacetic acid, p-chloromercuribenzoic acid, NaN(3), and 2, 4-dinitrophenol (compounds that affect bacterial membrane permeability, sulfhydryl enzymes, and adenosine triphosphate synthesis). Uptake was inhibited by 1% NaCl but was not affected by 10(-3)m ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt (a chelating agent for many metallic ions).

  16. The enhancement of immunological activity by mild hypothermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawal, Takeo; Gu, Yeun Hwa; Miyata, Katuyuki

    2004-01-01

    In general, the term hypothermia is applied for the therapeutic method for the treatment of cancer using micro wave, RF wave thermal system or intra-tissue thermal device. It was found to be a tumor necrosis factor (TNF), which is one of cytokines secreted by macrophages 'P'j. With remarkable progress in the instruments and technique in recent years, fundamental and clinical research showed extensive development 'Q'j. At present, hypothermia is clinically very important as inter- disciplinary therapeutic method, and studies are being performed on combined effects with surgical treatment, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and gene therapy for the treatment of malignant tumor 'R'j. Also, hypothermia is characterized by its selective thermal effect on tumor 'S'j. In this sense, it is called mild hypothermia. There have been not many reports, which described mild hypothermia for the purpose of treating the cases with cancer. This suggests the possibility of immunological response by heating relatively mild temperature (39-42). In this respect, by experiments using mouse as model, we evaluated the effects of hypothermia under temperature of 42.5 and lower and demonstrated that the activation of immunological response is increased and anti-tumor effect can be obtained

  17. The enhancement of immunological activity by mild hypothermia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawal, Takeo; Gu, Yeun Hwa; Miyata, Katuyuki [Graduate School of Suzuka Univ. of Med Sci. Master, Suzuka (Japan)] (and others)

    2004-11-15

    In general, the term hypothermia is applied for the therapeutic method for the treatment of cancer using micro wave, RF wave thermal system or intra-tissue thermal device. It was found to be a tumor necrosis factor (TNF), which is one of cytokines secreted by macrophages 'P'j. With remarkable progress in the instruments and technique in recent years, fundamental and clinical research showed extensive development 'Q'j. At present, hypothermia is clinically very important as inter- disciplinary therapeutic method, and studies are being performed on combined effects with surgical treatment, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and gene therapy for the treatment of malignant tumor 'R'j. Also, hypothermia is characterized by its selective thermal effect on tumor 'S'j. In this sense, it is called mild hypothermia. There have been not many reports, which described mild hypothermia for the purpose of treating the cases with cancer. This suggests the possibility of immunological response by heating relatively mild temperature (39-42). In this respect, by experiments using mouse as model, we evaluated the effects of hypothermia under temperature of 42.5 and lower and demonstrated that the activation of immunological response is increased and anti-tumor effect can be obtained.

  18. Contemplation of wheat genotypes for enhanced antioxidant enzyme activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasim, S.; Shabbir, G.; Ilyas, M.

    2017-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is leading cereal crop in Pakistan but its yield is highly affected due to various abiotic factors especially drought stress, which affects the metabolism of plants. The present study was conducted at Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi, using thirty three genotypes during 2011 to investigate the response of anti oxidative enzymes. Seedlings were subjected to stress condition with 30 % PEG 6000 solution along with control (irrigated with water) under in vitro conditions. The experiment was conducted in pots following Complete Randomized Design in Laboratory. Results revealed that under control conditions the maximum values for Guaiacol peroxidase were found in Punjab-96 and Auqab-2000 (2.523), for superoxide in C-273 (0.294), for ascorbate peroxide in PAK-81 (2.523) and for catalase in Kohsar-95 (0.487). Under moisture stress condition the maximum value for Guaiacol peroxidase were recorded for Kohsar-95 (2.699), for superoxide in Kohsar-95 (1.259), for ascorbate peroxide in Pak-81, SA-75, Mexipak-65 and PARI-73 (3.000) and for catalase in Mexipak-65 (0.640). The genotypes which showed higher antioxidant enzyme activity under drought stress have the ability to perform better under adverse soil moisture condition. Such potential genotypes can be utilized in the future breeding programs and also in improving the wheat varieties against drought stress. (author)

  19. Sympathetic Innervation Promotes Arterial Fate by Enhancing Endothelial ERK Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardanaud, Luc; Pibouin-Fragner, Laurence; Dubrac, Alexandre; Mathivet, Thomas; English, Isabel; Brunet, Isabelle; Simons, Michael; Eichmann, Anne

    2016-08-19

    Arterial endothelial cells are morphologically, functionally, and molecularly distinct from those found in veins and lymphatic vessels. How arterial fate is acquired during development and maintained in adult vessels is incompletely understood. We set out to identify factors that promote arterial endothelial cell fate in vivo. We developed a functional assay, allowing us to monitor and manipulate arterial fate in vivo, using arteries isolated from quails that are grafted into the coelom of chick embryos. Endothelial cells migrate out from the grafted artery, and their colonization of host arteries and veins is quantified. Here we show that sympathetic innervation promotes arterial endothelial cell fate in vivo. Removal of sympathetic nerves decreases arterial fate and leads to colonization of veins, whereas exposure to sympathetic nerves or norepinephrine imposes arterial fate. Mechanistically, sympathetic nerves increase endothelial ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) activity via adrenergic α1 and α2 receptors. These findings show that sympathetic innervation promotes arterial endothelial fate and may lead to novel approaches to improve arterialization in human disease. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) response to seasonality and frequency of fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felicia D. Archuleta

    2014-01-01

    Fragmentation of the landscape, habitat loss, and fire suppression, all a result of European settlement and activities, have precipitated both the decline of Black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) populations and the occurrence of fire throughout the Great Plains, including the Shortgrass steppe of northeastern New Mexico. The presence of Black-tailed prairie...

  1. Low-level radioactive waste disposal in the USA - Use of mill tailings impoundments as a new policy option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, C.W.

    2006-01-01

    Disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) in the United States is facing severe and immediate capacity limitations. Seemingly intractable regulatory and jurisdictional conflicts make establishment of new LLW disposal sites effectively impossible. Uranium mill tailings impoundments constructed at conventional uranium open-cast and underground mines could offer approximately 40 to 80+ million tons of disposal capacity for low activity radioactive waste. Such impoundments would provide an enhanced, high level of environmental and health and safety protection for the direct disposal of depleted uranium, special nuclear material, technologically-enhanced, naturally-occurring radioactive material (TENORM) and mixed waste. Many waste streams, such as TENORM and decommissioning rubble, will be high-volume, low activity materials and ideally suited for disposal in such structures. Materials in a given decay chain with a total activity from all radionuclides present of ∼820 Bq/g (2.22 x 10 -08 Ci/g) with no single radionuclide present in an activity greater than ∼104 Bq/g (2,800 pCi/g) should be acceptable for disposal. Materials of this type could be accepted without any site-specific dose modelling, so long as the total activity of the tailings impoundment not exceed its design capacity (generally 82 x 10 07 Bq/metric tonne) (0.020 Ci/short ton) and the cover design requirements to limit radon releases are satisfied. This paper provides background on US LLW disposal regulations, examines LLW disposal options under active consideration by the US Environmental Protection Agency and Department of Energy, develops generic waste acceptance criteria and identifies policy needs for federal and state governments to facilitate use of uranium mill tailings impoundments for LLW disposal. (author)

  2. Commingled uranium-tailings study. Volume II. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-06-30

    Public Law 96-540, Section 213, directs the Secretary of Energy to develop a plan for a cooperative program to provide assistance in the stabilization and management of defense-related uranium mill tailings commingled with other tailings. In developing the plan, the Secretary is further directed to: (1) establish the amount and condition of tailings generated under federal contracts; (2) examine appropriate methodologies for establishing the extent of federal assistance; and (3) consult with the owners and operators of each site. This technical report summarizes US Department of Energy (DOE) and contractor activities in pursuit of items (1), (2), and (3) above. Recommendations regarding policy and a cooperative plan for federal assistance are under separate cover as Volume I.

  3. Field experiment on 222Rn flux from reclaimed uranium tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinton, T.G.

    1983-01-01

    Design and construction techniques are described for a 1.6 ha experimental uranium mill tailings reclamation plot. A passive, activated charcoal device was developed and tested for measurements of radon flux. Experiments on radon flux versus overburden depth showed that tailings covered with 1.5 m of revegetated or 0.3 m of bare overburden had exhalation rates comparable to background. Vegetated subplots exhibited a significantly higher (often an order of magnitude) flux than the bare subplots. Results on the variation of flux over time did not reveal any definitive patterns, possibly due to the high variability among replicates. A positive correlation was demonstrated between precipitation and radon flux. This is discussed in detail and possibly explained by the increase in water content of the micropores within the tailings, which increases the emanation coefficient without adversely effecting the diffusion coefficient of the overburden. 30 references, 7 figures, 3 tables

  4. Recent radiochemistry observations at the Riverton and Maybell tailings piles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.R.; Moed, B.A.

    1982-09-01

    Preliminary results are presented from the radiochemistry effort of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory integrated study of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Riverton, Wyoming and Maybell, Colorado. These results were obtained primarily by use of #betta#-ray spectrometric techniques, and included both field and laboratory application of NaI(Tl) crystal and Ge-semiconductor detector systems. Current interpretation of this evidence indicated there has been downward migration of uranium within the tailings column since its emplacement, and upward movement of several radionuclides from the tailings into the overlying cover material. The mechanisms responsible for these migrations are believed to involve fluid transport, and are further believed to be active at the present time

  5. Reading Confidence with "Tail Waggin' Tutors"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveridge, Stacy

    2017-01-01

    This report discusses the benefits of canine-assisted reading through the "Tail Waggin' Tutors" program at the Glen Burnie Regional Library in Anne Arundel County, Maryland. Presented are the two different types of therapy dog interactions, Animal-Assisted Therapy (AAT) and Animal-Assisted Activities (AAA). The first canine-assisted…

  6. Microwave activation of palladium nanoparticles for enhanced ethanol electrocatalytic oxidation reaction in alkaline medium

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rohwer, MB

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available in alkaline medium (in terms of high mass activity stability and fast reaction kinetics). The remarkable microwave-induced properties on the Pd catalyst promise to revolutionize the use of microwave for catalyst activation for enhanced heterogeneous catalysis...

  7. The influence of adsorption capacity on enhanced gas absorption in activated carbon slurries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holstvoogd, R.D.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1990-01-01

    The enhanced absorption of gases in aqueous activated carbbon slurries of fine particles is studied with a non-steady-state absorption model, taking into account the finite adsorption capacity of the carbon particles. It has been found that, for the different gas/activated carbon slurry systems

  8. Enhanced Multisensory Integration and Motor Reactivation after Active Motor Learning of Audiovisual Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Andrew J.; James, Thomas W.; James, Karin Harman

    2011-01-01

    Everyday experience affords us many opportunities to learn about objects through multiple senses using physical interaction. Previous work has shown that active motor learning of unisensory items enhances memory and leads to the involvement of motor systems during subsequent perception. However, the impact of active motor learning on subsequent…

  9. An atlas of active enhancers across human cell types and tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Robin; Gebhard, Claudia; Miguel-Escalada, Irene

    2014-01-01

    Enhancers control the correct temporal and cell-type-specific activation of gene expression in multicellular eukaryotes. Knowing their properties, regulatory activity and targets is crucial to understand the regulation of differentiation and homeostasis. Here we use the FANTOM5 panel of samples, ...

  10. Passivity enhancement by series LC filtered active damper with zero current reference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bai, Haofeng; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    can be improved by enhancing the passivity of the total admittance seen by the grid, which allows for a zero current reference and a much simpler current controller for the active damper. To show the performance of the active damper with zero reference, this paper first carries out the impedance based...... stability analysis of grid converters in the weak grid. Based on the impedance model of the series LC filtered active damper, the real part of its output admittance is investigated and shown to be able to enhance the passivity of the admittance of the converters seen by the grid. Finally, simulation...

  11. Xenobiotics enhance laccase activity in alkali-tolerant γ-proteobacterium JB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gursharan; Batish, Mona; Sharma, Prince; Capalash, Neena

    2009-01-01

    Various genotoxic textile dyes, xenobiotics, substrates (10 µM) and agrochemicals (100 µg/ml) were tested for enhancement of alkalophilic laccase activity in γ-proteobacterium JB. Neutral Red, Indigo Carmine, Naphthol Base Bordears and Sulphast Ruby dyes increased the activity by 3.7, 2.7, 2.6 and 2.3 fold respectively. Xenobiotics/substrates like p-toluidine, 8-hydroxyquinoline and anthracine increased it by 3.4, 2.8 and 2.3 fold respectively. Atrazine and trycyclozole pesticides enhanced the activity by 1.95 and 1.5 fold respectively.

  12. Networking in Sport Management: Ideas and Activities to Enhance Student Engagement and Career Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan S. Kornspan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary purpose of this paper is to present information regarding the development of networking skills to enhance the career development of sport management students. Specifically, literature is reviewed which supports the importance of networking in the attainment of employment and career advancement in the sport industry. This is followed by an overview of emerging networking activities that allow opportunities for sport management students to expand their network. Sport industry career fairs and career conferences that students can attend are discussed. Additionally, sport industry professional associations that students can become involved with are presented. This is then followed with information related to the development of sport management clubs and various events that can be promoted to enhance the networking process. Specifically, activities provided by university faculty to enhance the educational experience of sport management students are detailed. Finally, a sample schedule of semester activities focused on student engagement and networking activities is provided.

  13. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography for the determination of Crohn’s disease activity – preliminary experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białecki, Marcin; Białecka, Agnieszka; Laskowska, Katarzyna; Kłopocka, Maria; Liebert, Ariel; Lemanowicz, Adam; Serafin, Zbigniew

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is a recent non-invasive modality, which may partially replace currently used techniques (endoscopy, CT enterography and MR enterography) in the diagnostics and assessment of Crohn’s disease (CD). The aim of the study was to analyze early experience in the use of CEUS for the measurement of activity and staging of CD. Material/Methods Eleven patients previously diagnosed with CD were included in the study. They underwent contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (SonoVue, Bracco), low-dose CT enterography (LDCTE), assessment of laboratory markers of inflammation and clinical CD activity index (CDAI). Contrast enhancement was evaluated using a semi-quantitative method and a quantitative method that included measurement of peak enhancement (PE), enhancement curve rise time (RT) and wash-in-rate (WiR). Results Ileal wall thickening was observed in all patients. Semi-quantitative method was used to observe CD activity in CEUS in 10 cases that perfectly matched LDCTE findings. There was a moderate positive correlation between PE and CDAI (r=0.65, p<0.001). There was no significant relationship between perfusion parameters and laboratory markers of inflammation. Conclusions CEUS is a promising modality for non-invasive assessment of pathologic ileal vascularization in the course of Crohn’s disease. Intensity of enhancement in CEUS reflects activity of the disease detected in LDCTE and correlates with CDAI. PMID:24723988

  14. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography for the determination of Crohn's disease activity - preliminary experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białecki, Marcin; Białecka, Agnieszka; Laskowska, Katarzyna; Kłopocka, Maria; Liebert, Ariel; Lemanowicz, Adam; Serafin, Zbigniew

    2014-01-01

    Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is a recent non-invasive modality, which may partially replace currently used techniques (endoscopy, CT enterography and MR enterography) in the diagnostics and assessment of Crohn's disease (CD). The aim of the study was to analyze early experience in the use of CEUS for the measurement of activity and staging of CD. Eleven patients previously diagnosed with CD were included in the study. They underwent contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (SonoVue, Bracco), low-dose CT enterography (LDCTE), assessment of laboratory markers of inflammation and clinical CD activity index (CDAI). Contrast enhancement was evaluated using a semi-quantitative method and a quantitative method that included measurement of peak enhancement (PE), enhancement curve rise time (RT) and wash-in-rate (WiR). Ileal wall thickening was observed in all patients. Semi-quantitative method was used to observe CD activity in CEUS in 10 cases that perfectly matched LDCTE findings. There was a moderate positive correlation between PE and CDAI (r=0.65, p<0.001). There was no significant relationship between perfusion parameters and laboratory markers of inflammation. CEUS is a promising modality for non-invasive assessment of pathologic ileal vascularization in the course of Crohn's disease. Intensity of enhancement in CEUS reflects activity of the disease detected in LDCTE and correlates with CDAI.

  15. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography for the determination of Crohn’s disease activity – preliminary experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Białecki, Marcin; Białecka, Agnieszka; Laskowska, Katarzyna; Kłopocka, Maria; Liebert, Ariel; Lemanowicz, Adam; Serafin, Zbigniew

    2014-01-01

    Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is a recent non-invasive modality, which may partially replace currently used techniques (endoscopy, CT enterography and MR enterography) in the diagnostics and assessment of Crohn’s disease (CD). The aim of the study was to analyze early experience in the use of CEUS for the measurement of activity and staging of CD. Eleven patients previously diagnosed with CD were included in the study. They underwent contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (SonoVue, Bracco), low-dose CT enterography (LDCTE), assessment of laboratory markers of inflammation and clinical CD activity index (CDAI). Contrast enhancement was evaluated using a semi-quantitative method and a quantitative method that included measurement of peak enhancement (PE), enhancement curve rise time (RT) and wash-in-rate (WiR). Ileal wall thickening was observed in all patients. Semi-quantitative method was used to observe CD activity in CEUS in 10 cases that perfectly matched LDCTE findings. There was a moderate positive correlation between PE and CDAI (r=0.65, p<0.001). There was no significant relationship between perfusion parameters and laboratory markers of inflammation. CEUS is a promising modality for non-invasive assessment of pathologic ileal vascularization in the course of Crohn’s disease. Intensity of enhancement in CEUS reflects activity of the disease detected in LDCTE and correlates with CDAI

  16. Which is the most preventive measure against tail damage in finisher pigs: tail docking, straw provision or lowered stocking density?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mona Lilian Vestbjerg; Andersen, Heidi Mai-Lis; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2018-01-01

    One challenge of intensive pig production is tail damage caused by tail biting, and farmers often decrease the prevalence of tail damage through tail docking. However, tail docking is not an optimal preventive measure against tail damage and thus, it would be preferable to replace it. The aim of ...

  17. A Study of lymphangiogenesis in a gecko model of tail autotomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsopelas, C.; Munns, S.L.; Lewis, B.; Daniels, C.B.; Cooter, R.D.; Chatterton, B.E.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Lymphoedema is a debilitating problem for which there is no effective cure. Lymphatic vessels do not regenerate after injuries such as infection, trauma, radiotherapy or tumour invasion. One approach is to determine whether lymph vessels can be regenerated in tissues where these structures have been damaged or removed. This study examined lymphangiogenesis in a gecko model of tail autotomy. Christinus marmoratus can regenerate its tail which is non-oedematous. The lymphatics of gecko tails were visualised using 99m Tc-Sb 2 S 3 colloid, image analyses provided lymph speed and % activity migrated from the injection site. Histological images yielded density and diameter of lymphatic vessels. Measurements were obtained for geckos with non-regenerate tails, 3,6, 9,12, 15, 18 and >24 week (fully) old regenerated tails post autotomy (pa). Fully regenerated tails had significantly slower lymph speed, slower radiocolloid migration from injection site, lower lymphatic density and higher diameter of lymphatic vessels, than similar sized geckos with non-regenerate tails. Their comparison to 6-18 week old tails, confirmed no significant difference in lymph speed, radiocolloid migration or diameter of lymphatic vessels. No measurable lymphatic flow was seen at 3 weeks pa. A functional lymphatic network was established in regenerating gecko tails, where a combination of data elude to a critical lymphangiogenesis period during 3-6 weeks post autotomy. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  18. Characterization of oils sands thickened tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, J.D.; Jeeravipoolvarn, S.; Donahue, R.; Ozum, B. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2008-07-01

    This presentation discussed the characterization of oils sands thickened tailings. The problem statement was defined as the fact that many laboratory procedures to characterize fine tailings do not take into account the extraction process, and instead use standardized laboratory tests. The purpose of this presentation was to demonstrate how different extraction processes affect the fine tailings geotechnical properties and water chemistry. Properties that were characterized included particle size analysis from hydrometer-sieve tests; per cent clay from methylene blue tests; per cent clay from mineralogy tests; Atterberg limits; water chemistry; and morphology by scanning electron microscopy. The presentation discussed the origin of fines (silt and clay) in tailings; where fine particles come from; tailings materials; mineralogy of tailings; the hydrometer-sieve test on fine tailings and thickened tailings; and the methylene blue test. It was concluded that the great majority of clay minerals in the tailings come from the clay-shale discontinuous seams and layers. For thickened tailings, the dispersed and non-dispersed hydrometer tests show considerable difference in the amount of clay size material. tabs., figs.

  19. Uranium mill tailings neutralization: contaminant complexation and tailings leaching studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opitz, B.E.; Dodson, M.E.; Serne, R.J.

    1985-05-01

    Laboratory experiments were performed to compare the effectiveness of limestone (CaCO 3 ) and hydrated lime [Ca(OH) 2 ] for improving waste water quality through the neutralization of acidic uranium mill tailings liquor. The experiments were designed to also assess the effects of three proposed mechanisms - carbonate complexation, elevated pH, and colloidal particle adsorption - on the solubility of toxic contaminants found in a typical uranium mill waste solution. Of special interest were the effects each of these possible mechanisms had on the solution concentrations of trace metals such as Cd, Co, Mo, Zn, and U after neutralization. Results indicated that the neutralization of acidic tailings to a pH of 7.3 using hydrated lime provided the highest overall waste water quality. Both the presence of a carbonate source or elevating solution pH beyond pH = 7.3 resulted in a lowering of previously achieved water quality, while adsorption of contaminants onto colloidal particles was not found to affect the solution concentration of any constituent investigated. 24 refs., 8 figs., 19 tabs

  20. Numerical study on the power extraction performance of a flapping foil with a flexible tail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J.; Shu, C.; Zhao, N.; Tian, F.-B.

    2015-01-01

    The numerical study on the power extraction performance of a flapping foil with a flexible tail is performed in this work. A NACA0015 airfoil is arranged in a two-dimensional laminar flow and imposed with a synchronous harmonic plunge and pitch rotary motion. A flat plate that is attached to the trailing edge of the foil is utilized to model a tail, and so they are viewed as a whole for the purpose of power extraction. In addition, the tail either is rigid or can deform due to the exerted hydrodynamic forces. To implement numerical simulations, an immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method is employed. At a Reynolds number of 1100 and the position of the pitching axis at third chord, the influences of the mass and flexibility of the tail as well as the frequency of motion on the power extraction are systematically examined. It is found that compared to the foil with a rigid tail, the efficiency of power extraction for the foil with a deformable tail can be improved. Based on the numerical analysis, it is indicated that the enhanced plunging component of the power extraction, which is caused by the increased lift force, directly contributes to the efficiency improvement. Since a flexible tail with medium and high masses is not beneficial to the efficiency improvement, a flexible tail with low mass together with high flexibility is recommended in the flapping foil based power extraction system.

  1. A passerine spreads its tail to facilitate a rapid recovery of its body posture during hovering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jian-Yuan; Ting, Shang-Chieh; Chang, Yu-Hung; Yang, Jing-Tang

    2012-07-07

    We demonstrate experimentally that a passerine exploits tail spreading to intercept the downward flow induced by its wings to facilitate the recovery of its posture. The periodic spreading of its tail by the White-eye bird exhibits a phase correlation with both wingstroke motion and body oscillation during hovering flight. During a downstroke, a White-eye's body undergoes a remarkable pitch-down motion, with the tail undergoing an upward swing. This pitch-down motion becomes appropriately suppressed at the end of the downstroke; the bird's body posture then recovers gradually to its original status. Employing digital particle-image velocimetry, we show that the strong downward flow induced by downstroking the wings serves as an external jet flow impinging upon the tail, providing a depressing force on the tail to counteract the pitch-down motion of the bird's body. Spreading of the tail enhances a rapid recovery of the body posture because increased forces are experienced. The maximum force experienced by a spread tail is approximately 2.6 times that of a non-spread tail.

  2. Adrenergic pathway activation enhances brown adipose tissue metabolism: A [18 F]FDG PET/CT study in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirbolooki, M. Reza; Upadhyay, Sanjeev Kumar; Constantinescu, Cristian C.; Pan, Min-Liang; Mukherjee, Jogeshwar

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Pharmacologic approaches to study brown adipocyte activation in vivo with a potential of being translational to humans are desired. The aim of this study was to examine pre- and postsynaptic targeting of adrenergic system for enhancing brown adipose tissue (BAT) metabolism quantifiable by [ 18 F]fluoro-2-deoxyglucose ([ 18 F]FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) in mice. Methods: A β 3 -adrenoreceptor selective agonist (CL 316243), an adenylyl cyclase enzyme activator (forskolin) and a potent blocker of presynaptic norepinephrine transporter (atomoxetine), were injected through the tail vein of Swiss Webster mice 30 minutes before intravenous (iv) administration of [ 18 F]FDG. The mice were placed on the PET/CT bed for 30 min PET acquisition followed by 10 min CT acquisition for attenuation correction and anatomical delineation of PET images. Results: Activated interscapular (IBAT), cervical, periaortic and intercostal BAT were observed in 3-dimentional analysis of [ 18 F]FDG PET images. CL 316243 increased the total [ 18 F]FDG standard uptake value (SUV) of IBAT 5-fold greater compared to that in placebo-treated mice. It also increased the [ 18 F]FDG SUV of white adipose tissue (2.4-fold), and muscle (2.7-fold), as compared to the control. There was no significant difference in heart, brain, spleen and liver uptakes between groups. Forskolin increased [ 18 F]FDG SUV of IBAT 1.9-fold greater than that in placebo-treated mice. It also increased the [ 18 F]FDG SUV of white adipose tissue (2.2-fold) and heart (5.4-fold) compared to control. There was no significant difference in muscle, brain, spleen, and liver uptakes between groups. Atomoxetine increased [ 18 F]FDG SUV of IBAT 1.7-fold greater than that in placebo-treated mice. There were no significant differences in all other organs compared to placebo-treated mice except liver (1.6 fold increase). A positive correlation between SUV levels of IBAT and CT Hounsfield unit (HU

  3. Subunits of ADA-two-A-containing (ATAC) or Spt-Ada-Gcn5-acetyltrasferase (SAGA) Coactivator Complexes Enhance the Acetyltransferase Activity of GCN5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riss, Anne; Scheer, Elisabeth; Joint, Mathilde; Trowitzsch, Simon; Berger, Imre; Tora, László

    2015-11-27

    Histone acetyl transferases (HATs) play a crucial role in eukaryotes by regulating chromatin architecture and locus specific transcription. GCN5 (KAT2A) is a member of the GNAT (Gcn5-related N-acetyltransferase) family of HATs. In metazoans this enzyme is found in two functionally distinct coactivator complexes, SAGA (Spt Ada Gcn5 acetyltransferase) and ATAC (Ada Two A-containing). These two multiprotein complexes comprise complex-specific and shared subunits, which are organized in functional modules. The HAT module of ATAC is composed of GCN5, ADA2a, ADA3, and SGF29, whereas in the SAGA HAT module ADA2b is present instead of ADA2a. To better understand how the activity of human (h) hGCN5 is regulated in the two related, but different, HAT complexes we carried out in vitro HAT assays. We compared the activity of hGCN5 alone with its activity when it was part of purified recombinant hATAC or hSAGA HAT modules or endogenous hATAC or hSAGA complexes using histone tail peptides and full-length histones as substrates. We demonstrated that the subunit environment of the HAT complexes into which GCN5 incorporates determines the enhancement of GCN5 activity. On histone peptides we show that all the tested GCN5-containing complexes acetylate mainly histone H3K14. Our results suggest a stronger influence of ADA2b as compared with ADA2a on the activity of GCN5. However, the lysine acetylation specificity of GCN5 on histone tails or full-length histones was not changed when incorporated in the HAT modules of ATAC or SAGA complexes. Our results thus demonstrate that the catalytic activity of GCN5 is stimulated by subunits of the ADA2a- or ADA2b-containing HAT modules and is further increased by incorporation of the distinct HAT modules in the ATAC or SAGA holo-complexes. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Anticancer and enhanced antimicrobial activity of biosynthesizd silver nanoparticles against clinical pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajeshkumar, Shanmugam; Malarkodi, Chelladurai; Vanaja, Mahendran; Annadurai, Gurusamy

    2016-07-01

    The present investigation shows the biosynthesis of eco-friendly silver nanoparticles using culture supernatant of Enterococcus sp. and study the effect of enhanced antimicrobial activity, anticancer activity against pathogenic bacteria, fungi and cancer cell lines. Silver nanoparticles was synthesized by adding 1 mM silver nitrate into the 100 ml of 24 h freshly prepared culture supernatant of Enterococcus sp. and were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), Selected Area Diffraction X-Ray (SAED), Energy Dispersive X Ray (EDX) and Fourier Transform Infra red Spectroscopy (FT-IR). The synthesized silver nanoparticles were impregnated with commercial antibiotics for evaluation of enhanced antimicrobial activity. Further these synthesized silver nanoparticles were assessed for its anticancer activity against cancer cell lines. In this study crystalline structured nanoparticles with spherical in the size ranges from 10 to 80 nm and it shows excellent enhanced antimicrobial activity than the commercial antibiotics. The in vitro assay of silver nanoparticles on anticancer have great potential to inhibit the cell viability. Amide linkages and carboxylate groups of proteins from Enterococcus sp. may bind with silver ions and convert into nanoparticles. The activities of commercial antibiotics were enhanced by coating silver nanoparticles shows significant improved antimicrobial activity. Silver nanoparticles have the great potential to inhibit the cell viability of liver cancer cells lines (HepG2) and lung cancer cell lines (A549).

  5. IL-6 Inhibition Reduces STAT3 Activation and Enhances the Antitumor Effect of Carboplatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Yong Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that tumor-associated macrophage-produced IL-6 is an important mediator within the tumor microenvironment that promotes tumor growth. The activation of IL-6/STAT3 axis has been associated with chemoresistance and poor prognosis of a variety of cancers including colorectal carcinoma and thus serves as a potential immunotherapeutic target for cancer treatment. However, it is not fully understood whether anticytokine therapy could reverse chemosensitivity and enhance the suppressive effect of chemotherapy on tumor growth. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of IL-6 inhibition therapy on the antitumor effect of carboplatin. Enhanced expression of IL-6 and activation of STAT3 were observed in human colorectal carcinoma samples compared to normal colorectal tissue, with higher levels of IL-6/STAT3 in low grade carcinomas. Treatment of carboplatin (CBP dose-dependently increased IL-6 production and STAT3 activation in human colorectal LoVo cells. Blockade of IL-6 with neutralizing antibody enhanced chemosensitivity of LoVo cells to carboplatin as evidenced by increased cell apoptosis. IL-6 blockade abolished carboplatin-induced STAT3 activation. IL-6 blockade and carboplatin synergistically reduced cyclin D1 expression and enhanced caspase-3 activity in LoVo cells. Our results suggest that inhibition of IL-6 may enhance chemosensitivity of colon cancers with overactive STAT3 to platinum agents.

  6. Remedial activities effectiveness verification in tailing areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluson, J; Thinova, L; Neznal, M; Svoboda, T

    2015-06-01

    The complex radiological study of the basin of sludge from the uranium ore mining and preprocessing was done. Air kerma rates (including its spectral analysis) at the reference height of 1 m above ground over the whole area were measured and radiation fields mapped during two measuring campaigns (years 2009 and 2014). K, U and Th concentrations in sludge and concentrations in depth profiles (including radon concentration and radon exhalation rates) in selected points were determined using gamma spectrometry for in situ as well as laboratory samples measurement. Results were used for the analysis, design evaluation and verification of the efficiency of the remediation measures. Efficiency of the sludge basin covering by the inert material was modelled using MicroShield code. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Remedial activities effectiveness verification in tailing areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kluson, J.; Thinova, L.; Svoboda, T.; Neznal, M.

    2015-01-01

    The complex radiological study of the basin of sludge from the uranium ore mining and preprocessing was done. Air kerma rates (including its spectral analysis) at the reference height of 1 m above ground over the whole area were measured and radiation fields mapped during two measuring campaigns (years 2009 and 2014). K, U and Th concentrations in sludge and concentrations in depth profiles (including radon concentration and radon exhalation rates) in selected points were determined using gamma spectrometry for in situ as well as laboratory samples measurement. Results were used for the analysis, design evaluation and verification of the efficiency of the remediation measures. Efficiency of the sludge basin covering by the inert material was modelled using MicroShield code. (authors)

  8. The kinesin spindle protein inhibitor filanesib enhances the activity of pomalidomide and dexamethasone in multiple myeloma

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández-García, Susana; San-Segundo, Laura; González-Méndez, Lorena; Corchete, Luis A; Misiewicz-Krzeminska, Irena; Martín-Sánchez, Montserrat; López-Iglesias, Ana-Alicia; Algarín, Esperanza Macarena; Mogollón, Pedro; Díaz-Tejedor, Andrea; Paíno, Teresa; Tunquist, Brian; Mateos, María-Victoria; Gutiérrez, Norma C; Díaz-Rodriguez, Elena

    2017-01-01

    [EN]Kinesin spindle protein inhibition is known to be an effective therapeutic approach in several malignancies. Filanesib (ARRY-520), an inhibitor of this protein, has demonstrated activity in heavily pre-treated multiple myeloma patients. The aim of the work herein was to investigate the activity of filanesib in combination with pomalidomide plus dexamethasone backbone, and the mechanisms underlying the potential synergistic effect. The ability of filanesib to enhance the activity of pomali...

  9. Epigenetic switch involved in activation of pioneer factor FOXA1-dependent enhancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sérandour, Aurélien A.; Avner, Stéphane; Percevault, Frédéric; Demay, Florence; Bizot, Maud; Lucchetti-Miganeh, Céline; Barloy-Hubler, Frédérique; Brown, Myles; Lupien, Mathieu; Métivier, Raphaël; Salbert, Gilles; Eeckhoute, Jérôme

    2011-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) bind specifically to discrete regions of mammalian genomes called cis-regulatory elements. Among those are enhancers, which play key roles in regulation of gene expression during development and differentiation. Despite the recognized central regulatory role exerted by chromatin in control of TF functions, much remains to be learned regarding the chromatin structure of enhancers and how it is established. Here, we have analyzed on a genomic-scale enhancers that recruit FOXA1, a pioneer transcription factor that triggers transcriptional competency of these cis-regulatory sites. Importantly, we found that FOXA1 binds to genomic regions showing local DNA hypomethylation and that its cell-type-specific recruitment to chromatin is linked to differential DNA methylation levels of its binding sites. Using neural differentiation as a model, we showed that induction of FOXA1 expression and its subsequent recruitment to enhancers is associated with DNA demethylation. Concomitantly, histone H3 lysine 4 methylation is induced at these enhancers. These epigenetic changes may both stabilize FOXA1 binding and allow for subsequent recruitment of transcriptional regulatory effectors. Interestingly, when cloned into reporter constructs, FOXA1-dependent enhancers were able to recapitulate their cell type specificity. However, their activities were inhibited by DNA methylation. Hence, these enhancers are intrinsic cell-type-specific regulatory regions of which activities have to be potentiated by FOXA1 through induction of an epigenetic switch that includes notably DNA demethylation. PMID:21233399

  10. Repeat exposure to ciguatoxin leads to enhanced and sustained thermoregulatory, pain threshold and motor activity responses in mice: relationship to blood ciguatoxin concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottein Dechraoui, Marie-Yasmine; Rezvani, Amir H; Gordon, Christopher J; Levin, Edward D; Ramsdell, John S

    2008-04-03

    Ciguatera is a common illness in tropical and subtropical regions that manifests in complex and long-lived symptoms which are more severe in subsequent exposures. This study measures central and peripheral neurologic signs, in parallel with blood toxin levels, in mice exposed once or twice (at 3 days interval) to a sublethal dose of ciguatoxin P-CTX-1 (0.26ng/g via i.p.). Mice were implanted with radiotransmitters to monitor motor activity and core temperature. A single exposure to ciguatoxin elicited an immediate and transient decrease in motor activity and temperature, and subsequent long-lasting thermoregulatory dysfunction resulting in stabilized body temperature around 36.0 degrees C with no observable circadian rhythm. The hypothermic response and the reduced activity were enhanced with a second exposure with 30% of the mice dying within 7h. Measurement of the peripheral nervous system by the tail flick assay revealed increased latency with a single ciguatoxin exposure, and a greater effect following the second exposure. Toxin was measurable in blood up to 3 days following the first exposure; at the 1h time point the concentrations were significantly elevated after a second exposure. These findings indicate an early response to ciguatoxin manifest in a central response to lower body temperature and reduce motor activity and a more persistent effect on the peripheral system leading to spinal heat antinociception and delayed fever-like response. The greater neurological response to a second ciguatoxin exposure was associated with elevated concentrations of ciguatoxin in the blood solely over the first hour of exposure. In conclusion, a single exposure to toxin exerts a significant neurological response which may be enhanced with subsequent exposure.

  11. Glass ceramic obtained by tailings and tin mine waste reprocessing from Llallagua, Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arancibia, Jony Roger Hans; Villarino, Cecilia; Alfonso, Pura; Garcia-Valles, Maite; Martinez, Salvador; Parcerisa, David

    2014-05-01

    In Bolivia Sn mining activity produces large tailings of SiO2-rich residues. These tailings contain potentially toxic elements that can be removed into the surface water and produce a high environmental pollution. This study determines the thermal behaviour and the viability of the manufacture of glass-ceramics from glass. The glass has been obtained from raw materials representative of the Sn mining activities from Llallagua (Bolivia). Temperatures of maximum nucleation rate (Tn) and crystallization (Tcr) were calculated from the differential thermal analyses. The final mineral phases were determined by X-ray diffraction and textures were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Crystalline phases are nefeline occurring with wollastonite or plagioclase. Tn for nepheline is between 680 ºC and 700 ºC, for wollastonite, 730 ºC and for plagioclase, 740 ºC. Tcr for nefeline is between 837 and 965 ºC; for wollastonite, 807 ºC and for plagioclase, 977 ºC. In order to establish the mechanical characteristics and efficiency of the vitrification process in the fixation of potentially toxic elements the resistance to leaching and micro-hardness were determined. The obtained contents of the elements leached from the glass ceramic are well below the limits established by the European legislation. So, these analyses confirm that potentially toxic elements remain fixed in the structure of mineral phases formed in the glass-ceramic process. Regarding the values of micro-hardness results show that they are above those of a commercial glass. The manufacture of glass-ceramics from mining waste reduces the volume of tailings produced for the mining industry and, in turn enhances the waste, transforming it into a product with industrial application. Acknowledgements: This work was partly financed by the project AECID: A3/042750/11, and the SGR 2009SGR-00444.

  12. Evaluation of Sulfonate-Based Collectors with Different Hydrophobic Tails for Flotation of Fluorite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renji Zheng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This investigation aims to demonstrate the effects of hydrophobic tails on the affinity and relevant flotation response of sulfonate-based collectors for fluorite. For this purpose, a series of alkyl sulfonates with different hydrophobic tails, namely sodium decanesulfonate (C10, sodium dodecylsulfate (C12, sodium hexadecanesulfonate (C16, and sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (C12B were applied. The flotation tests showed that C12 and C12B had a better collecting performance than C10 and C16 at pH < 10, and the flotation recovery of fluorite was higher when adopting C12B as a collector compared with C12 with a strong base. The adsorption behaviors of collectors on the fluorite surface were studied through zeta potential, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS analyses. It was found that the affinity of alkyl sulfonates for fluorite was enhanced with the increase of the alkyl chain length from C10 to C16. The existence of phenyl in the hydrophobic tail of sulfonates could improve its activity for fluorite by reducing its surface tension. The abnormal phenomenon C16 with a high affinity for fluorite had a low collecting performance for fluorite mainly due to its overlong alkyl chain, resulting in low solubility in pulp, which restrained its interaction with fluorite. We concluded that C12B was the most applicable collector for fluorite among these reagents due to its high activity, high solubility, and low cost, which was further substantiated by calculating their molecular frontier orbital energy.

  13. ChIP-seq Accurately Predicts Tissue-Specific Activity of Enhancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visel, Axel; Blow, Matthew J.; Li, Zirong; Zhang, Tao; Akiyama, Jennifer A.; Holt, Amy; Plajzer-Frick, Ingrid; Shoukry, Malak; Wright, Crystal; Chen, Feng; Afzal, Veena; Ren, Bing; Rubin, Edward M.; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2009-02-01

    A major yet unresolved quest in decoding the human genome is the identification of the regulatory sequences that control the spatial and temporal expression of genes. Distant-acting transcriptional enhancers are particularly challenging to uncover since they are scattered amongst the vast non-coding portion of the genome. Evolutionary sequence constraint can facilitate the discovery of enhancers, but fails to predict when and where they are active in vivo. Here, we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation with the enhancer-associated protein p300, followed by massively-parallel sequencing, to map several thousand in vivo binding sites of p300 in mouse embryonic forebrain, midbrain, and limb tissue. We tested 86 of these sequences in a transgenic mouse assay, which in nearly all cases revealed reproducible enhancer activity in those tissues predicted by p300 binding. Our results indicate that in vivo mapping of p300 binding is a highly accurate means for identifying enhancers and their associated activities and suggest that such datasets will be useful to study the role of tissue-specific enhancers in human biology and disease on a genome-wide scale.

  14. The presence of the casein kinase II phosphorylation sites of Vpu enhances the CD4+ T cell loss caused by the simian-human immunodeficiency virus SHIVKU-lbMC33 in pig-tailed macaques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Dinesh K.; Griffin, Darcy M.; Pacyniak, Erik; Jackson, Mollie; Werle, Michael J.; Wisdom, Bo; Sun, Francis; Hout, David R.; Pinson, David M.; Gunderson, Robert S.; Powers, Michael F.; Wong, Scott W.; Stephens, Edward B.

    2003-01-01

    The simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)/ macaque model for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 has become a useful tool to assess the role of Vpu in lentivirus pathogenesis. In this report, we have mutated the two phosphorylated serine residues of the HIV-1 Vpu to glycine residues and have reconstructed a SHIV expressing this nonphosphorylated Vpu (SHIV S52,56G ). Expression studies revealed that this protein was localized to the same intracellular compartment as wild-type Vpu. To determine if this virus was pathogenic, four pig-tailed macaques were inoculated with SHIV S52,56G and virus burdens and circulating CD4 + T cells monitored up to 1 year. Our results indicate that SHIV S52,56G caused rapid loss in the circulating CD4 + T cells within 3 weeks of inoculation in one macaque (CC8X), while the other three macaques developed no or gradual numbers of CD4 + T cells and a wasting syndrome. Histological examination of tissues revealed that macaque CC8X had lesions in lymphoid tissues (spleen, lymph nodes, and thymus) that were typical for macaques inoculated with pathogenic parental SHIV KU-1bMC33 and had no lesions within the CNS. To rule out that macaque CC8X had selected for a virus in which there was reversion of the glycine residues at positions 52 and 56 to serine residues and/or compensating mutations occurred in other genes associated with CD4 down-regulation, sequence analysis was performed on amplified vpu sequences isolated from PBMC and from several lymphoid tissues at necropsy. Sequence analysis revealed a reversion of the glycine residues back to serine residues in this macaque. The other macaques maintained low virus burdens, with one macaque (P003) developing a wasting syndrome between months 9 and 11. Histological examination of tissues from this macaque revealed a thymus with severe atrophy that was similar to that of a previously reported macaque inoculated with a SHIV lacking vpu (Virology 293, 2002, 252). Sequence analysis revealed no

  15. MESSENGER Observations of Extreme Magnetic Tail Loading and Unloading During its Third Flyby of Mercury: Substorms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, James A.; Anderson, Brian J.; Baker, Daniel N.; Benna, Mehdi; Gloeckler, George; Krimigis, Stamatios M.; McNutt, Ralph L., Jr.; Schriver, David; Solomon, Sean C.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.

    2010-01-01

    During MESSENGER's third flyby of Mercury on September 29, 2009, a variable interplanetary magnetic field produced a series of several minute enhancements of the tail magnetic field hy factors of approx. 2 to 3.5. The magnetic field flaring during these intervals indicates that they result from loading of the tail with magnetic flux transferred from the dayside magnetosphere. The unloading intervals were associated with plasmoids and traveling compression regions, signatures of tail reconnection. The peak tail magnetic flux during the smallest loading events equaled 30% of the magnetic flux emanating from Mercury, and may have reached 100% for the largest event. In this case the dayside magnetic shielding is reduced and solar wind flux impacting the surface may be greatly enhanced. Despite the intensity of these events and their similarity to terrestrial substorm magnetic flux dynamics, no energetic charged particles with energies greater than 36 keV were observed.

  16. Radioactivity in soil and air near the Sillamaee tailings depository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Realo, E.

    2002-01-01

    Radiological situation outside the Sillamaee plant and U/Th tailings depository is studied by soil monitoring and modelling methods. In the Sillamaee region, the reliable monitoring and assessment of the technological impact to public exposure is significantly interfered with the complex nature of natural background (e.g., elevated and variable soil concentrations of 226 Ra in the range of 40 .. 320 Bq kg -1 , high outdoor 222 Rn levels, etc.). The releases of radionuclides from the tailing depository to the ground and tap water are negligible. The major water pathway is the release to the Gulf of Finland and specifically the consumption of fish. The isotopes 234 U, 238 U (about 6.2 GBq a -1 or 0.025 % of the total U per year) and 210 Pb (∼ 0.05 GBq a -1 ) dominate in the source term. A compartmental modelling of this pathway has demonstrated a low radiological impact to the population with the individual and collective committed doses of 1 μSv and 1 manSv, respectively, for both current leakage and sudden dam collapse scenarios. We have determined the depth distribution of radionuclides in soil profiles to find an evidence for airborne radionuclide deposition. Samples collected in the Sillamaee town (up to 1 .. 2 km from the depository) have been analysed by using low background Ge(Li) and HPGe gamma spectrometry. The results demonstrate an enhanced (relative to the bottom layers) 226 Ra and 238 U content in the surface soil layers. A similar observation has been found near the oil-shale-fired power plants in NE Estonia, which we attributed to the long term deposition of fly-ash radionuclides. It should be noted that in the non-polluted locations over Estonia the 226 Ra concentration in the uppermost 0 .. 3 cm layer is about 11 % less than in the next 3 cm thick soil layers. In the ground level air, the mean dust loads of 0.23 mg m -3 (0.02 to 1.6 mg m -3 ) have been measured (V. Nossov, SILMET, 1997, private communication and [6]) with the aerosol beta

  17. Radon emanation characteristics of uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielson, K.K.; Freeman, H.D.; Hartley, J.N.; Mauch, M.L.; Rogers, V.C.

    1982-01-01

    Radon emanation from uranium mill tailings was examined with respect to the mechanisms of emanation and the physical properties of the tailings which affect emanation. Radon emanation coefficients were measured at ambient moisture on 135 samples from the 1981 field test site at the Grand Junction tailings pile. These coefficients showed a similar trend with moisture to those observed previously with uranium ores, and averaged 0.10 + or - 0.02 at dryness and 0.38 + or - 0.04 for all samples having greater than five weight-percent moisture. Small differences were noted between the maximum values of the coefficients for the sand and slime fractions of the tailings. Separate measurements on tailings from the Vitro tailings pile exhibited much lower emanation coefficients for moist samples, and similar coefficients for dry samples. Alternative emanation measurement techniques were examined and procedures are recommended for use in future work

  18. Enhanced bag of words using multilevel k-means for human activity recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motasem Elshourbagy

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to enhance the bag of features in order to improve the accuracy of human activity recognition. In this paper, human activity recognition process consists of four stages: local space time features detection, feature description, bag of features representation, and SVMs classification. The k-means step in the bag of features is enhanced by applying three levels of clustering: clustering per video, clustering per action class, and clustering for the final code book. The experimental results show that the proposed method of enhancement reduces the time and memory requirements, and enables the use of all training data in the k-means clustering algorithm. The evaluation of accuracy of action classification on two popular datasets (KTH and Weizmann has been performed. In addition, the proposed method improves the human activity recognition accuracy by 5.57% on the KTH dataset using the same detector, descriptor, and classifier.

  19. ChIP-seq Mapping of Distant-Acting Enhancers and Their In Vivo Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visel, Axel; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2011-06-01

    The genomic location and function of most distant-acting transcriptional enhancers in the human genome remains unknown We performed ChIP-seq for various transcriptional coactivator proteins (such as p300) directly from different embryonic mouse tissues, identifying thousands of binding sitesTransgenic mouse experiments show that p300 and other co-activator peaks are highly predictive of genomic location AND tissue-specific activity patterns of distant-acting enhancersMost enhancers are active only in one or very few tissues Genomic location of tissue-specific p300 peaks correlates with tissue-specific expression of nearby genes Most binding sites are conserved, but the global degree of conservation varies between tissues

  20. Molecular ions in comet tails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyckoff, S.; Wehinger, P.A.

    1976-01-01

    Band intensities of the molecular ions CH + , CO + , N 2 + , and H 2 O + have been determined on an absolute scale from tail spectra of comet Kohoutek (1973f) and comet Bradfield (1974b). Photoionization and photodissociation rates have been computed for CH, CO, and N 2 . Also emission rate excitation g-factors for (1) photoionization plus excitation and (2) resonance fluorescence have been computed for the observed ions. It is shown that resonance fluorescence is the dominant excitation mechanism for observed comet tail ions at rapprox. =1 AU. Band system luminosities and molecular ion abundances within a projected nuclear distance rho 4 km have been determined for CH + , CO + , N 2 + , and H 2 O + in comet Kohoutek, and for H 2 O + in comet Bradfield. Estimates are also given for column densities of all observed ions at rhoapprox. =10 4 km on the tailward side of the coma. The observed H 2 O + column densities were found to be roughly the same in comet Kohoutek and comet Bradfield et equal heliocentric distances, while CO + was found to be approximately 100 times more abundant than H 2 O + , N 2 + , and CH + at rhoapprox. =10 4 km in comet Kohoutek. Finally, the relative abundances of the observed ions and of the presumed parent neutral species are briefly discussed

  1. Oil sands tailings management project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godwalt, C. [Alberta WaterSMART, Calgary, AB (Canada); Kotecha, P. [Suncor Energy Inc, Calgary, AB (Canada); Aumann, C. [Alberta Innovates - Technology Futures, Alberta Governement, AB (Canada)

    2010-11-15

    The Oil sands leadership initiative (OSLI) works with the Government of Alberta on the development of the oil sands industry, considering environmental, economical and social aspects. Water management was identified as one of most important areas to focus on. Alberta WaterSMART was requested to support the development and the management of projects resulting from the work done or underway in this field. The development of a regional water management solution stood out as the most interesting solution to obtain significant results. In the Athabasca Region, oil sands producers work independently on their water sourcing and disposal with particular attention to fresh water conservation and economics. The Athabasca River represents a source for mines and distant saline aquifers are the target of steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) operators. As part of a four-phase project aiming to study the environmental and economic footprint (EEF) benefit of alternatives for Athabasca oil sands production water supply and disposal, the purpose of the tailings water management project was to identify tailings treatment technologies that are ready to be implemented, and to design and evaluate solutions in order to improve regional oil sands production water sourcing and disposal. Alternatives were evaluated based on their total EEF, applying a lifecycle assessment methodology with a particular attention on the quantification of important performance indicators. 25 refs., 8 tabs., 40 figs.

  2. Oil sands tailings management project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godwalt, C.; Kotecha, P.; Aumann, C.

    2010-11-01

    The Oil sands leadership initiative (OSLI) works with the Government of Alberta on the development of the oil sands industry, considering environmental, economical and social aspects. Water management was identified as one of most important areas to focus on. Alberta WaterSMART was requested to support the development and the management of projects resulting from the work done or underway in this field. The development of a regional water management solution stood out as the most interesting solution to obtain significant results. In the Athabasca Region, oil sands producers work independently on their water sourcing and disposal with particular attention to fresh water conservation and economics. The Athabasca River represents a source for mines and distant saline aquifers are the target of steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) operators. As part of a four-phase project aiming to study the environmental and economic footprint (EEF) benefit of alternatives for Athabasca oil sands production water supply and disposal, the purpose of the tailings water management project was to identify tailings treatment technologies that are ready to be implemented, and to design and evaluate solutions in order to improve regional oil sands production water sourcing and disposal. Alternatives were evaluated based on their total EEF, applying a lifecycle assessment methodology with a particular attention on the quantification of important performance indicators. 25 refs., 8 tabs., 40 figs.

  3. The cost of decommissioning uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lush, D.L.; Lendrum, C.; Hostovsky, C.; Eedy, W.; Ashbrook, A.

    1986-04-01

    This report identifies several key operations that are commonly carried out during decommissioning of tailings areas in the Canadian environment. These operations are unit costed for a generic site to provide a base reference case. The unit costs have also been scaled to the quantities required for the decommissioning of four Canadian sites and these scaled quantities compared with site-specific engineering cost estimates and actual costs incurred in carrying out the decommissioning activities. Variances in costing are discussed. The report also recommends a generic monitoring regime upon which both short- and longer-term environmental monitoring costs are calculated. Although every site must be addressed as a site-specific case, and monitoring programs must be tailored to fit a specific site, it would appear that for the conventional decommissioning and monitoring practices that have been employed to date, costs can be reasonably estimated when site-specific conditions are taken into account

  4. Spectral induced polarization (SIP) response of mine tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placencia-Gómez, Edmundo; Parviainen, Annika; Slater, Lee; Leveinen, Jussi

    2015-02-01

    Mine tailings impoundments are a source of leachates known as acid mine drainage (AMD) which can pose a contamination risk for surrounding surface and groundwater. Methodologies which can help management of this environmental issue are needed. We carried out a laboratory study of the spectral induced polarization (SIP) response of tailings from the Haveri Au-Cu mine, SW Finland. The primary objectives were, (1) to determine possible correlations between SIP parameters and textural properties associated with oxidative-weathering mechanisms, mineralogical composition and metallic content, and (2) to evaluate the effects of the pore water chemistry on SIP parameters associated with redox-inactive and redox-active electrolytes varying in molar concentration, conductivity and pH. The Haveri tailings exhibit well defined relaxation spectra between 100 and 10,000Hz. The relaxation magnitudes are governed by the in-situ oxidative-weathering conditions on sulphide mineral surfaces contained in the tailings, and decrease with the oxidation degree. The oxidation-driven textural variation in the tailings results in changes to the frequency peak of the phase angle, the imaginary conductivity and chargeability, when plotted versus the pore water conductivity. In contrast, the real and the formation electrical conductivity components show a single linear dependence on the pore water conductivity. The increase of the pore water conductivity (dominated by the increase of ions concentration in solution) along with a transition to acidic conditions shifts the polarization peak towards higher frequencies. These findings show the unique sensitivity of the SIP method to potentially discriminate AMD discharges from reactive oxidation zones in tailings, suggesting a significant advantage for monitoring threatened aquifers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Explaining an Unusually Fast Parasitic Enzyme: Folate Tail-Binding Residues Dictate Substrate Positioning and Catalysis in Cryptosporidium hominis Thymidylate Synthase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martucci,W.; Vargo, M.; Anderson, K.

    2008-01-01

    The essential enzyme TS-DHFR from Cryptosporidium hominis undergoes an unusually rapid rate of catalysis at the conserved TS domain, facilitated by two nonconserved residues, Ala287 and Ser290, in the folate tail-binding region. Mutation of these two residues to their conserved counterparts drastically affects multiple steps of the TS catalytic cycle. We have determined the crystal structures of all three mutants (A287F, S290G, and A287F/S290G) in complex with active site ligands dUMP and CB3717. The structural data show two effects of the mutations: an increased distance between the ligands in the active site and increased flexibility of the folate ligand in the partially open enzyme state that precedes conformational change to the active catalytic state. The latter effect is able to be rescued by the mutants containing the A287F mutation. In addition, the conserved water network of TS is altered in each of the mutants. The structural results point to a role of the folate tail-binding residues in closely positioning ChTS ligands and restricting ligand flexibility in the partially open state to allow for a rapid transition to the active closed state and enhanced rate of catalysis. These results provide an explanation on how folate tail-binding residues at one end of the active site affect long-range interactions throughout the TS active site and validate these residues as targets for species-specific drug design.

  6. Oil sands tailings treatment via surface modification of solids with polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soane, D.; Ware, W.; Mahoney, R.; Kincaid, K. [Soane Energy, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Oil sands fine tailings require large containment area and long-term storage. A recent directive has been established to reduce fluid tailings storage by 30 percent by 2012. This PowerPoint presentation described a method of treating oil sands tailings by modifying the surfaces of solids with polymers. The ATA process divided whole tailings into fines and coarse streams. The coarse stream was used to prepare anchor particles with a monolayer of tether polymers. An activator was added to the fine tailings in order to aggregate. The process cause a Velcro-like attraction between the activated fines and the tether-coated anchor particles. The solid ATA matrix trapped the fines and allowed water to drain more easily. Photographs of the process were provided. An analysis of the process demonstrated that 70 percent of the water in the tailings was recovered in less than 5 minutes. The water was clear, with less than 0.2 percent of suspended solids. The process is applicable to live tailings and mature fine tailings (MFT). tabs., figs.

  7. The Long Tail of Loyalty : Case study of Apple Premium Resellers in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Hung; Zhu, Dan; Tuya, Nyambayar

    2012-01-01

    Background: The Internet has created new efficient channels of doing business. For this nontraditional market, a business strategy that is both effective and efficient needs to be employed. The Long Tail business strategy was developed by Chris Anderson in 2006. It is possible that the Long Tail strategy not only can increase revenue by offering more “niche” products, but also can enhance customers’ loyalty toward the company. However, in order to achieve the latter, companies need to communi...

  8. Average configuration of the geomagnetic tail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairfield, D.H.

    1979-01-01

    Over 3000 hours of Imp 6 magnetic field data obtained between 20 and 33 R/sub E/ in the geomagnetic tail have been used in a statistical study of the tail configuration. A distribution of 2.5-min averages of B/sub z/ as a function of position across the tail reveals that more flux crosses the equatorial plane near the dawn and dusk flanks (B-bar/sub z/=3.γ) than near midnight (B-bar/sub z/=1.8γ). The tail field projected in the solar magnetospheric equatorial plane deviates from the x axis due to flaring and solar wind aberration by an angle α=-0.9 Y/sub SM/-2.7, where Y/sub SM/ is in earth radii and α is in degrees. After removing these effects, the B/sub y/ component of the tail field is found to depend on interplanetary sector structure. During an 'away' sector the B/sub y/ component of the tail field is on average 0.5γ greater than that during a 'toward' sector, a result that is true in both tail lobes and is independent of location across the tail. This effect means the average field reversal between northern and southern lobes of the tail is more often 178 0 rather than the 180 0 that is generally supposed

  9. Unique structural features facilitate lizard tail autotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanggaard, Kristian W; Danielsen, Carl Chr; Wogensen, Lise; Vinding, Mads S; Rydtoft, Louise M; Mortensen, Martin B; Karring, Henrik; Nielsen, Niels Chr; Wang, Tobias; Thøgersen, Ida B; Enghild, Jan J

    2012-01-01

    Autotomy refers to the voluntary shedding of a body part; a renowned example is tail loss among lizards as a response to attempted predation. Although many aspects of lizard tail autotomy have been studied, the detailed morphology and mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we showed that tail shedding by the Tokay gecko (Gekko gecko) and the associated extracellular matrix (ECM) rupture were independent of proteolysis. Instead, lizard caudal autotomy relied on biological adhesion facilitated by surface microstructures. Results based on bio-imaging techniques demonstrated that the tail of Gekko gecko was pre-severed at distinct sites and that its structural integrity depended on the adhesion between these segments.

  10. Unique structural features facilitate lizard tail autotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanggaard, Kristian W; Danielsen, Carl Chr; Wogensen, Lise

    2012-01-01

    Autotomy refers to the voluntary shedding of a body part; a renowned example is tail loss among lizards as a response to attempted predation. Although many aspects of lizard tail autotomy have been studied, the detailed morphology and mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we showed...... that tail shedding by the Tokay gecko (Gekko gecko) and the associated extracellular matrix (ECM) rupture were independent of proteolysis. Instead, lizard caudal autotomy relied on biological adhesion facilitated by surface microstructures. Results based on bio-imaging techniques demonstrated that the tail...

  11. Porous-ZnO-Nanobelt Film as Recyclable Photocatalysts with Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Min

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article, the porous-ZnO-nanobelt film was synthesized by oxidizing the ZnSe-nanobelt film in air. The experiment results show that the porous-ZnO-nanobelt film possesses enhanced photocatalytic activity compared with the ZnO-nanobelt film, and can be used as recyclable photocatalysts. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of the porous-ZnO-nanobelt film is attributed to the increased surface area. Therefore, turning the 1D-nanostructure film into porous one may be a feasible approach to meet the demand of photocatalyst application.

  12. Doses resulting from intrusion into uranium tailings areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, M.L.

    1986-02-01

    In the future, it is conceivable that institutional controls of uranium tailings areas may cease to exist and individuals may intrude into these areas unaware of the potential radiation hazards. The objective of this study was to estimate the potential doses to the intruders for a comprehensive set of intrusion scenarios. Reference tailings areas in the Elliot Lake region of northern Ontario and in northern Saskatchewan were developed to the extent required to calculate radiation exposures. The intrusion scenarios for which dose calculations were performed, were categorized into the following classes: habitation of the tailings, agricultural activities, construction activities, and recreational activities. Realistic exposure conditions were specified and annual doses were calculated by applying standard dose conversion factors. The exposure estimates demonstrated that the annual doses resulting from recreational activities and from construction activities would be generally small, less than twenty millisieverts, while the habitational and agricultural activities could hypothetically result in doses of several hundred millisieverts. However, the probability of occurrence of these latter classes of scenarios is considered to be much lower than scenarios involving either construction or recreational activities

  13. General review of the state of uranium milling tailings in Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holubiev, V.

    2002-01-01

    The mining and milling of uranium ore are produced in Ukraine since 1948. During this time eleven tailings were formed at the large territory in the region of cities Zhovty Vody and Dnepropetrovsk. One tailing is now in operation. Other ten tailings are under conservation and are producing environmental impact of different extent. Any of tailings was not subjected to recovery. By means of the enterprises, which have on their territory tailings, the monitoring is carried out for radionuclides coming in underground waters. The samples of underground water are taken from wells that are located at the tailing perimeter. The list of tailings, quantity of stored material, and radionuclides activity are submitted in the table. The supervision shows, that all tailings to some extent are the issue of radionuclides diffusion. The brief characteristic of the largest tailings is submitted. The supervision shows that all tailings to some extent are the issue of radionuclides diffusion. The brief characteristic of the largest tailings is submitted. Most of tailings are located in natural folds of a region relief, however one of them (KBG) is arranged in career with depth 60-65 m. Iron ore was mined in this career and career is located on distance 2.5 km from an inhabited zone. Career was not equipped by anti filtration barriers before it was started to fill it with sludge. In total 12.4·10 6 m 3 of tails is placed in it with general activity about 1 PBq. When tailing's filling was finished at 1991 its surface was covered by 1,7 m layer of loamy soil. The tailing creation resulted in change of hydro-geological conditions of a platform and in appearance of man-caused water-bearing horizon. The halo of pollution of underground waters is moving from the bounds of the site towards the inhabited zone of Zhovty Vody city. Now polluted by radionuclides water is detected at the distance of 1.5 km from tailing. According to forecast estimations in 15 years the pollution will move forward

  14. Enhanced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin I. Bayala

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Land Surface Temperature (LST is a key parameter in the energy balance model. However, the spatial resolution of the retrieved LST from sensors with high temporal resolution is not accurate enough to be used in local-scale studies. To explore the LST–Normalised Difference Vegetation Index relationship potential and obtain thermal images with high spatial resolution, six enhanced image sharpening techniques were assessed: the disaggregation procedure for radiometric surface temperatures (TsHARP, the Dry Edge Quadratic Function, the Difference of Edges (Ts∗DL and three models supported by the relationship of surface temperature and water stress of vegetation (Normalised Difference Water Index, Normalised Difference Infrared Index and Soil wetness index. Energy Balance Station data and in situ measurements were used to validate the enhanced LST images over a mixed agricultural landscape in the sub-humid Pampean Region of Argentina (PRA, during 2006–2010. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (EOS-MODIS thermal datasets were assessed for different spatial resolutions (e.g., 960, 720 and 240 m and the performances were compared with global and local TsHARP procedures. Results suggest that the Ts∗DL technique is the most adequate for simulating LST to high spatial resolution over the heterogeneous landscape of a sub-humid region, showing an average root mean square error of less than 1 K.

  15. Origin of Activity and Stability Enhancement for Ag3PO4 Photocatalyst after Calcination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengyu Dong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pristine Ag3PO4 microspheres were synthesized by a co-precipitation method, followed by being calcined at different temperatures to obtain a series of calcined Ag3PO4 photocatalysts. This work aims to investigate the origin of activity and stability enhancement for Ag3PO4 photocatalyst after calcination based on the systematical analyses of the structures, morphologies, chemical states of elements, oxygen defects, optical absorption properties, separation and transfer of photogenerated electron-hole pairs, and active species. The results indicate that oxygen vacancies (VO˙˙ are created and metallic silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs are formed by the reaction of partial Ag+ in Ag3PO4 semiconductor with the thermally excited electrons from Ag3PO4 and then deposited on the surface of Ag3PO4 microspheres during the calcination process. Among the calcined Ag3PO4 samples, the Ag3PO4-200 sample exhibits the best photocatalytic activity and greatly enhanced photocatalytic stability for photodegradation of methylene blue (MB solution under visible light irradiation. Oxygen vacancies play a significantly positive role in the enhancement of photocatalytic activity, while metallic Ag has a very important effect on improving the photocatalytic stability. Overall, the present work provides some powerful evidences and a deep understanding on the origin of activity and stability enhancement for the Ag3PO4 photocatalyst after calcination.

  16. Wake patterns of the wings and tail of hovering hummingbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altshuler, Douglas L.; Princevac, Marko; Pan, Hansheng; Lozano, Jesse

    The flow fields of slowly flying bats and fasterflying birds differ in that bats produce two vortex loops during each stroke, one per wing, and birds produce a single vortex loop per stroke. In addition, the circulation at stroke transition approaches zero in bats but remains strong in birds. It is unknown if these difference derive from fundamental differences in wing morphology or are a consequence of flight speed. Here, we present an analysis of the horizontal flow field underneath hovering Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna) to describe the wake of a bird flying at zero forward velocity. We also consider how the hummingbird tail interacts with the wake generated by the wings. High-speed image recording and analysis from three orthogonal perspectives revealed that the wing tips reach peak velocities in the middle of each stroke and approach zero velocity at stroke transition. Hummingbirds use complex tail kinematic patterns ranging from in phase to antiphase cycling with respect to the wings, covering several phase shifted patterns. We employed particle image velocimetry to attain detailed horizontal flow measurements at three levels with respect to the tail: in the tail, at the tail tip, and just below the tail. The velocity patterns underneath the wings indicate that flow oscillates along the ventral-dorsal axis in response to the down- and up-strokes and that the sideways flows with respect to the bird are consistently from the lateral to medial. The region around the tail is dominated by axial flows in dorsal to ventral direction. We propose that these flows are generated by interaction between the wakes of the two wings at the end of the upstroke, and that the tail actively defects flows to generate moments that contribute to pitch stability. The flow fields images also revealed distinct vortex loops underneath each wing, which were generated during each stroke. From these data, we propose a model for the primary flow structures of hummingbirds that more

  17. Comparing Phlebotomy by Tail Tip Amputation, Facial Vein Puncture, and Tail Vein Incision in C57BL/6 Mice by Using Physiologic and Behavioral Metrics of Pain and Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Elizabeth S; Cleland, Thomas A; Williams, Wendy O; Peterson, Christine M; Singh, Bhupinder; Southard, Teresa L; Pasch, Bret; Labitt, Rachael N; Daugherity, Erin K

    2017-05-01

    Tail tip amputation with minimal restraint is not widely used for mouse phlebotomy. In part, this infrequency may reflect policies influenced by tail tip amputation procedures for genotyping, which involve greater handling and tissue removal. To assess tail tip amputation with minimal restraint as a phlebotomy technique, we compared it with 2 more common methods: scruffing with facial vein puncture and lateral tail vein incision with minimal restraint. Blood glucose levels, audible and ultrasonic vocalizations, postphlebotomy activity and grooming behavior, open field and elevated plus maze behaviors, nest-building scores, and histologic changes at the phlebotomy site were evaluated. Mice in the facial vein phlebotomy group produced more audible vocalizations, exhibited lower postphlebotomy activity in the open field, and had more severe histologic changes than did mice in the tail incision and tail tip amputation groups. Facial vein phlebotomy did not affect grooming behavior relative to sham groups, whereas tail vein incision-but not tail tip amputation-increased tail grooming compared with that in control mice. Blood glucose levels, nest-building scores, and elevated plus maze behavior did not differ between groups, and no mice in any group produced ultrasonic vocalizations. Tail tip amputation mice did not perform differently than sham mice in any metric analyzed, indicating that this technique is a potentially superior method of blood collection in mice in terms of animal wellbeing.

  18. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α enhances fatty acid oxidation in human adipocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Joo-Young; Hashizaki, Hikari; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Sakamoto, Tomoya; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Kawada, Teruo

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → PPARα activation increased mRNA expression levels of adipocyte differentiation marker genes and GPDH activity in human adipocytes. → PPARα activation also increased insulin-dependent glucose uptake in human adipocytes. → PPARα activation did not affect lipid accumulation in human adipocytes. → PPARα activation increased fatty acid oxidation through induction of fatty acid oxidation-related genes in human adipocytes. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) is a key regulator for maintaining whole-body energy balance. However, the physiological functions of PPARα in adipocytes have been unclarified. We examined the functions of PPARα using human multipotent adipose tissue-derived stem cells as a human adipocyte model. Activation of PPARα by GW7647, a potent PPARα agonist, increased the mRNA expression levels of adipocyte differentiation marker genes such as PPARγ, adipocyte-specific fatty acid-binding protein, and lipoprotein lipase and increased both GPDH activity and insulin-dependent glucose uptake level. The findings indicate that PPARα activation stimulates adipocyte differentiation. However, lipid accumulation was not changed, which is usually observed when PPARγ is activated. On the other hand, PPARα activation by GW7647 treatment induced the mRNA expression of fatty acid oxidation-related genes such as CPT-1B and AOX in a PPARα-dependent manner. Moreover, PPARα activation increased the production of CO 2 and acid soluble metabolites, which are products of fatty acid oxidation, and increased oxygen consumption rate in human adipocytes. The data indicate that activation of PPARα stimulates both adipocyte differentiation and fatty acid oxidation in human adipocytes, suggesting that PPARα agonists could improve insulin resistance without lipid accumulation in adipocytes. The expected effects of PPARα activation are very valuable for managing diabetic conditions accompanied by obesity, because

  19. Lateral movements of a massive tail influence gecko locomotion: an integrative study comparing tail restriction and autotomy

    OpenAIRE

    Jagnandan, Kevin; Higham, Timothy E.

    2017-01-01

    Tails are an intricate component of the locomotor system for many vertebrates. Leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) possess a large tail that is laterally undulated during steady locomotion. However, the tail is readily shed via autotomy, resulting in the loss of tail function, loss in body mass, and a cranial shift in the center of mass. To elucidate the function of tail undulations, we investigated changes in limb kinematics after manipulating the tail artificially by restricting tail un...

  20. Enhancement of human natural cytotoxicity by Plasmodium falciparum antigen activated lymphocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theander, T G; Pedersen, B K; Bygbjerg, I C

    1987-01-01

    Mononuclear cells (MNC) isolated from malaria immune donors and from donors never exposed to malaria were stimulated in vitro with soluble purified Plasmodium falciparum antigens (SPag) or PPD. After 7 days of culture the proliferative response and the cytotoxic activity against the natural killer...... were preincubated with interleukin 2 (IL-2) for one hour before the start of the cytotoxic assay. SPag activation did not enhance the cytotoxic activity of MNC which did not respond to the antigen in the proliferation assay, and preincubation of these cells with IL-2 did not increase the activity. PPD...

  1. Enhancement of the antifungal activity of antimicrobial drugs by Eugenia uniflora L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Karla K A; Matias, Edinardo F F; Tintino, Saulo R; Souza, Celestina E S; Braga, Maria F B M; Guedes, Gláucia M M; Costa, José G M; Menezes, Irwin R A; Coutinho, Henrique Douglas Melo

    2013-07-01

    Candidiasis is the most frequent infection by opportunistic fungi such as Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, and Candida krusei. Ethanol extract from Eugenia uniflora was assayed, for its antifungal activity, either alone or combined with four selected chemotherapeutic antimicrobial agents, including anphotericin B, mebendazole, nistatin, and metronidazole against these strains. The obtained results indicated that the association of the extract of E. uniflora to metronidazole showed a potential antifungal activity against C. tropicalis. However, no synergistic activity against the other strains was observed, as observed when the extract was associated with the other, not enhancing their antifungal activity.

  2. Performance Comparison between Neutralization Tailings and Flotation Tailings Used for Backfill Mix and Mechanism Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Han

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparison test of different tailings used for underground backfill was conducted, using neutralized tailings from BIOX and flotation tailings of Jinfeng Mine. Laboratory comparison test results show that, with neutralized tailings, when the cement dosage is at 19%, backfill UCS after 7 days, 14 days, and 28 days are 105%–163%, 80%–102%, and 33%–43%, respectively, which are higher than those of flotation tailings. When the cement dosage is at 12%, backfill UCS after 7 days, 14 days, and 28 days are 58%–77%, 50%–60%, and 28%–51%, respectively, which are higher than those of flotation tailings. Slurry fluidity of neutralized tailings is lower than that of flotation tailings, while, in these two tailings, the difference of slump and diffusivity values is less than 6%, which is not a significant difference in slurry fluidity. The reason for neutralized tailings showing higher UCS is as follows: during backfill curing, neutralization tailings produce abundant crystals of CaSO4·2H2O in interlaced structure which helps in combining aggregates closely; CaSO4·2H2O hydrates with C3A C4AF contained in the cement and forms clavate cement bacillus which works as a micro reinforcing steel bar. The test proved that neutralized tailings are more optimal for backfilling.

  3. Characterization and dewatering of flotation technological tailings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigorova I.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of flotation tailings is today a subject of interest in mineral processing because of the potential of wasted materials as an actual mineral resource and because of environmental reasons. Decantation ponds are found at almost every mine in the world. They are large earth fill dams containing the residue of the milling process to extract metals from mined ores. Traditional wet tailings disposal has been problematic due to the risk of ground water contamination and the difficulty in rehabilitating storage sites. Tailings dams are at risk of failure due to leakage, instability, liquefaction, and poor design. In the last few years the use of paste technology in the disposal of mine tailings is increasingly studied as an option to conventional tailings dams. The Lucky Invest Concentrator is located in the Eastern Rhodopes Mountain of Bulgaria. Since 1959 lead-zinc ores are dressed. Finally, during the flotation cycle lead and zinc concentrates are produced. The final technological processing waste precipitates in tailing pond. Research and development program has started to established opportunities to obtain dry deposit of the ore processing residue and analyses the feature of new tailing disposal method. The tailings particle size distributions and chemical compositions were determined. The data from laboratory and pilot scale tests clearly illustrate that there are the possibilities to obtaine lead-zinc dewatered tailings. The experimental results show that new cyclone modifications have a potential in dewatering technology of flotation tailings. It appears that dewatering cyclones can be an approach on new tailings pond elimination technology.

  4. Seasonal use of conservation reserve program lands by white-tailed deer in east-central South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Jeffrey H.; Jenkins, Kurt J.

    1993-01-01

    The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP_, a provision of the 1985 Food Security Act, subsidizes landowners to take highly erodible lands out of cultivation and seed them to perennial cover for 10years. In eastern South Dakota, 0.5 million ha were enrolled in the CRP from 1985 to 1990 (Agric. Stabilization and Conserv. Serv., Brookings, S.D., unpubl. Data), which represents the largest change in conservation land-use practices in the region since the 1956 Soil Bank Program (Goetz 1987).Although the CRP is anticipated to produce substantial benefits for some wildlife species, particularly ground-nesting birds, its significance to white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in the northern Great Plains agricultural region is poorly understood. Higgins et al. (1987) speculated that proliferation of CRP grasslands may provide a missing habitat component in intensively managed farmland, thereby enhancing several species of wildlife, including white-tailed deer. Deer managers in the region have expressed concerns that improved cover associated with DRP plantings on private land could attract deer and reduce hunter success rates or lead to increased depredation of adjacent croplands or stored winter forages (L. Rice, S.D. Dep. Game, Fish, and Parks, Rapid City, pers. comm., 1989). Our objectives were to describe variation in deer use of CRP lands by season, diel period, and deer activity class as a means of assessing seasonal importance of CRP fields to white-tailed deer in agricultural Midwest.

  5. Mast cells enhance T cell activation: Importance of mast cell-derived TNF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakae, Susumu; Suto, Hajime; Kakurai, Maki; Sedgwick, Jonathon D.; Tsai, Mindy; Galli, Stephen J.

    2005-05-01

    Mast cells are not only important effector cells in immediate hypersensitivity reactions and immune responses to pathogens but also can contribute to T cell-mediated disorders. However, the mechanisms by which mast cells might influence T cells in such settings are not fully understood. We find that mast cells can enhance proliferation and cytokine production in multiple T cell subsets. Mast cell-dependent enhancement of T cell activation can be promoted by FcRI-dependent mast cell activation, TNF production by both mast cells and T cells, and mast cell-T cell contact. However, at high concentrations of cells, mast cells can promote T cell activation independent of IgE or TNF. Finally, mast cells also can promote T cell activation by means of soluble factors. These findings identify multiple mechanisms by which mast cells can influence T cell proliferation and cytokine production. allergy | asthma | autoimmunity | cytokines | immune response

  6. Enhancement of synchronized activity between hippocampal CA1 neurons during initial storage of associative fear memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Zhang; Wang, Yao; Shen, Weida; Wang, Zhiru

    2017-08-01

    Learning and memory storage requires neuronal plasticity induced in the hippocampus and other related brain areas, and this process is thought to rely on synchronized activity in neural networks. We used paired whole-cell recording in vivo to examine the synchronized activity that was induced in hippocampal CA1 neurons by associative fear learning. We found that both membrane potential synchronization and spike synchronization of CA1 neurons could be transiently enhanced after task learning, as observed on day 1 but not day 5. On day 1 after learning, CA1 neurons showed a decrease in firing threshold and rise times of suprathreshold membrane potential changes as well as an increase in spontaneous firing rates, possibly contributing to the enhancement of spike synchronization. The transient enhancement of CA1 neuronal synchronization may play important roles in the induction of neuronal plasticity for initial storage and consolidation of associative memory. The hippocampus is critical for memory acquisition and consolidation. This function requires activity- and experience-induced neuronal plasticity. It is known that neuronal plasticity is largely dependent on synchronized activity. As has been well characterized, repetitive correlated activity of presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons can lead to long-term modifications at their synapses. Studies on network activity have also suggested that memory processing in the hippocampus may involve learning-induced changes of neuronal synchronization, as observed in vivo between hippocampal CA3 and CA1 networks as well as between the rhinal cortex and the hippocampus. However, further investigation of learning-induced synchronized activity in the hippocampus is needed for a full understanding of hippocampal memory processing. In this study, by performing paired whole-cell recording in vivo on CA1 pyramidal cells (PCs) in anaesthetized adult rats, we examined CA1 neuronal synchronization before and after associative fear

  7. Identification of activated enhancers and linked transcription factors in breast, prostate, and kidney tumors by tracing enhancer networks using epigenetic traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhie, Suhn Kyong; Guo, Yu; Tak, Yu Gyoung; Yao, Lijing; Shen, Hui; Coetzee, Gerhard A; Laird, Peter W; Farnham, Peggy J

    2016-01-01

    Although technological advances now allow increased tumor profiling, a detailed understanding of the mechanisms leading to the development of different cancers remains elusive. Our approach toward understanding the molecular events that lead to cancer is to characterize changes in transcriptional regulatory networks between normal and tumor tissue. Because enhancer activity is thought to be critical in regulating cell fate decisions, we have focused our studies on distal regulatory elements and transcription factors that bind to these elements. Using DNA methylation data, we identified more than 25,000 enhancers that are differentially activated in breast, prostate, and kidney tumor tissues, as compared to normal tissues. We then developed an analytical approach called Tracing Enhancer Networks using Epigenetic Traits that correlates DNA methylation levels at enhancers with gene expression to identify more than 800,000 genome-wide links from enhancers to genes and from genes to enhancers. We found more than 1200 transcription factors to be involved in these tumor-specific enhancer networks. We further characterized several transcription factors linked to a large number of enhancers in each tumor type, including GATA3 in non-basal breast tumors, HOXC6 and DLX1 in prostate tumors, and ZNF395 in kidney tumors. We showed that HOXC6 and DLX1 are associated with different clusters of prostate tumor-specific enhancers and confer distinct transcriptomic changes upon knockdown in C42B prostate cancer cells. We also discovered de novo motifs enriched in enhancers linked to ZNF395 in kidney tumors. Our studies characterized tumor-specific enhancers and revealed key transcription factors involved in enhancer networks for specific tumor types and subgroups. Our findings, which include a large set of identified enhancers and transcription factors linked to those enhancers in breast, prostate, and kidney cancers, will facilitate understanding of enhancer networks and mechanisms

  8. Gamma radiation induced enhancement in the antioxidant and radioprotective activities of flavonoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arul Anantha Kumar, A.; Sonwani, Swetha; Bakkiam, D.

    2018-01-01

    Recently γ-radiation has been used as a tool to induce structural changes in natural biomolecules to enhance their biological and physiological properties. Flavonoids are a family of plant derived polyphenolic compounds having considerable scientific and therapeutic importance. Structurally they are the benzo-γ-pyrone derivatives containing phenolic and pyrane rings. Flavonoid radioprotection is an intense area of research thanks to features like natural origin, effectiveness at non-toxic dose levels and lack of side effects. But till date no report is available on the effect of γ-radiation mediated enhancement in radioprotection activity of flavonoids. In view of this the present study was carried out to determine the γ-radiation induced structural changes in selected flavonoids i.e. apigenin, naringenin and genistein and also to explore the possibility of enhancement in their antioxidant and radioprotective activities

  9. Making the long tail work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Christian Langhoff; Jensen, Jens Stissing; Gottlieb, Stefan Christoffer

    2009-01-01

    The paper discusses the development and impact of construction research the past 25 years. Theoretically, the paper builds on two fundamental insights: The Pareto principle (the 80-20 rule) and the Thomas theorem: "If men define situations as real, they are real in their consequences" (Thomas......’s predominant view of buildings – as unique – implies that: 1) the nature of the construction processes is chaotic, 2) the buildings are realised through onsite project work rather than through offsite production; and 3) project management is the fundamental management principle. The paper further identifies...... how attempts to develop new construction practices like partnering and lean implicitly reproduce this myth. The result is that construction research the past 25 years has been constructing the long tail in a way that hinders radical development of the construction industry. The paper concludes...

  10. Profitable tail-end production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinchbeck, R.H.

    1997-12-31

    This presentation discusses the origins of the present challenge faced in making mature oil fields profitable in the North Sea. It briefly examines the origins of these challenges, which are rooted in the industrial psychology of the North Sea. It develops a methodological formula for the successful re-engineering of inefficiently-run assets, focusing in particular on the personnel management aspects. It identifies some key areas to seek sustainable cost reductions and recognises the importance of renewing the context for investment in tail-end fields. Finally, it speculates about the way in which the learnings developed in the experiences of the last few years will influence the future of the North Sea. 2 refs.

  11. Physico chemical characterization of mill tailings and speciation studies of uranium a Jaduguda, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarjan Singh; Jha, V.N.; Sethy, N.K.; Rout, S.; Ravi, P.M.; Jha, S.K.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2018-01-01

    After recovery of economically viable portion of the ore remaining solid slurry or tailings from uranium ore processing industry is discharged into an engineered system called tailings pond. Among the radio-nuclides quantitative content of residual uranium is highest in the tailings pond and various environmental interactions such as precipitation, change in pH, redox potential, microbial activities, organic associations has a potential to fix (precipitate) or solubilise it. The chemical fractionation of 'U' in mill tailings of both operational and non operational tailing ponds of Jaduguda uranium mining and ore processing site has been part of present study. Also, the role of various physicochemical parameters (pH, Eh, TC etc) on the mobility of uranium has been investigated

  12. Synthesis of hierarchical anatase TiO 2 nanostructures with tunable morphology and enhanced photocatalytic activity

    KAUST Repository

    Rahal, Raed; Wankhade, Atul V.; Cha, Dong Kyu; Fihri, Aziz; Ould-Chikh, Samy; Patil, Umesh; Polshettiwar, Vivek

    2012-01-01

    A facile one-pot method to prepare three-dimensional hierarchical nanostructures of titania with good control over their morphologies without the use of hydrofluoric acid is developed. The reaction is performed under microwave irradiation conditions in pure water, and enables enhanced photocatalytic activity. This study indicates that photocatalytic activity depends not only on the surface area but also on the morphology of the titania. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  13. Functional morphology of the radialis muscle in shark tails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flammang, Brooke E

    2010-03-01

    The functional morphology of intrinsic caudal musculature in sharks has not been studied previously, though the kinematics and function of body musculature have been the focus of a great deal of research. In the tail, ventral to the axial myomeres, there is a thin strip of red muscle with fibers angled dorsoposteriorly, known as the radialis. This research gives the first anatomical description of the radialis muscle in sharks, and addresses the hypothesis that the radialis muscle provides postural stiffening in the tail of live swimming sharks. The radialis muscle fibers insert onto the deepest layers of the stratum compactum, the more superior layers of which are orthogonally arrayed and connect to the epidermis. The two deepest layers of the stratum compactum insert onto the proximal ends of the ceratotrichia of the caudal fin. This anatomical arrangement exists in sharks and is modified in rays, but was not found in skates or chimaeras. Electromyography of the caudal muscles of dogfish swimming steadily at 0.25 and 0.5 body lengths per second (Ls(-1)) exhibited a pattern of anterior to posterior activation of the radialis muscle, followed by activation of red axial muscle in the more anteriorly located ipsilateral myomeres of the caudal peduncle; at 0.75 L s(-1), only the anterior portion of the radialis and white axial muscle of the contralateral peduncular myomeres were active. Activity of the radialis muscle occurred during periods of the greatest drag incurred by the tail during the tail beat and preceded the activity of more anteriorly located axial myomeres. This nonconformity to the typical anterior to posterior wave of muscle activation in fish swimming, in combination with anatomical positioning of the radialis muscles and stratum compactum, suggests that radialis activity may have a postural function to stiffen the fin, and does not function as a typical myotomal muscle.

  14. Bioengineered nisin A derivatives with enhanced activity against both Gram positive and Gram negative pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Des Field

    Full Text Available Nisin is a bacteriocin widely utilized in more than 50 countries as a safe and natural antibacterial food preservative. It is the most extensively studied bacteriocin, having undergone decades of bioengineering with a view to improving function and physicochemical properties. The discovery of novel nisin variants with enhanced activity against clinical and foodborne pathogens has recently been described. We screened a randomized bank of nisin A producers and identified a variant with a serine to glycine change at position 29 (S29G, with enhanced efficacy against S. aureus SA113. Using a site-saturation mutagenesis approach we generated three more derivatives (S29A, S29D and S29E with enhanced activity against a range of Gram positive drug resistant clinical, veterinary and food pathogens. In addition, a number of the nisin S29 derivatives displayed superior antimicrobial activity to nisin A when assessed against a range of Gram negative food-associated pathogens, including E. coli, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Cronobacter sakazakii. This is the first report of derivatives of nisin, or indeed any lantibiotic, with enhanced antimicrobial activity against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria.

  15. Black ginseng activates Akt signaling, thereby enhancing myoblast differentiation and myotube growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Yeon Lee

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: BG enhances myoblast differentiation and myotube hypertrophy by activating Akt/mTOR/p70S6k axis. Thus, our study demonstrates that BG has promising potential to treat or prevent muscle loss related to aging or other pathological conditions, such as diabetes.

  16. The Effectiveness of Cooperative Learning Activities in Enhancing EFL Learners' Fluency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrayah, Hassan

    2018-01-01

    This research-paper aims at examining the effectiveness of cooperative learning activities in enhancing EFL learners' fluency. The researcher has used the descriptive approach, recorded interviews for testing fluency as tools of data collection and the software program SPSS as a tool for the statistical treatment of data. Research sample consists…

  17. Enhanced coagulation activation in preeclampsia: the role of APC resistance, microparticles and other plasma constituents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanWijk, Marja J.; Boer, Kees; Berckmans, René J.; Meijers, Joost C. M.; van der Post, Joris A. M.; Sturk, Augueste; VanBavel, Ed; Nieuwland, Rienk

    2002-01-01

    Coagulation activation in pregnancy is further enhanced in preeclampsia. We investigated whether this results from increased thrombin generation by the plasma itself or its cell-derived microparticles. Plasma samples were obtained from preeclamptic, normal pregnant and nonpregnant women (each n =

  18. Fingolimod in active multiple sclerosis: an impressive decrease in Gd-enhancing lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muris, A.H.; Rolf, L.; Damoiseaux, J.; Koeman, E.; Hupperts, R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fingolimod is a disease modifying therapy (DMT) in highly active relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), as is natalizumab. Fingolimod decreases annual relapse rates and gadolinium enhancing lesions on MRI as compared to either interferon beta (IFNβ) or placebo. The effect of

  19. Bioengineered Nisin A Derivatives with Enhanced Activity against Both Gram Positive and Gram Negative Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Des; Begley, Maire; O’Connor, Paula M.; Daly, Karen M.; Hugenholtz, Floor; Cotter, Paul D.; Hill, Colin; Ross, R. Paul

    2012-01-01

    Nisin is a bacteriocin widely utilized in more than 50 countries as a safe and natural antibacterial food preservative. It is the most extensively studied bacteriocin, having undergone decades of bioengineering with a view to improving function and physicochemical properties. The discovery of novel nisin variants with enhanced activity against clinical and foodborne pathogens has recently been described. We screened a randomized bank of nisin A producers and identified a variant with a serine to glycine change at position 29 (S29G), with enhanced efficacy against S. aureus SA113. Using a site-saturation mutagenesis approach we generated three more derivatives (S29A, S29D and S29E) with enhanced activity against a range of Gram positive drug resistant clinical, veterinary and food pathogens. In addition, a number of the nisin S29 derivatives displayed superior antimicrobial activity to nisin A when assessed against a range of Gram negative food-associated pathogens, including E. coli, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Cronobacter sakazakii. This is the first report of derivatives of nisin, or indeed any lantibiotic, with enhanced antimicrobial activity against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. PMID:23056510

  20. Cross-sector cooperation in health-enhancing physical activity policymaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hämäläinen, Riitta-Maija; Aro, Arja R.; Juel Lau, Cathrine

    2016-01-01

    in health-enhancing physical activity (HEPA) policies in six European Union (EU) member states. METHODS: Qualitative content analysis of HEPA policies and semi-structured interviews with key policymakers in six European countries. RESULTS: Cross-sector cooperation varied between EU member states within HEPA...

  1. Photon activation therapy with 127I-deoxyuridine: measurement of dose enhancement in cultured mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairchild, R.G.; Laster, B.H.; Commerford, S.L.; Furcinitti, P.S.; Sylvester, B.; Gabel, D.; Popenoe, E.; Foster, S.

    1985-01-01

    A technique for radiation enhancement of conventional photon radiotherapy is outlined which has been called photon activation therapy (PAT) (6). High linear energy transfer (LET) radiations in the form of Auger electron distributions are generated by photons of appropriate energies, through photon activation of stable iodine incorporated as an analog of thymidine (Tyd) in DNA. Of the several halogenated deoxyribonucleosides evaluated, iodinated deoxyuridine (IdUrd) has been chosen as the only Tyd analog providing effective photon activation. This mechanism is combined with radiation sensitization produced by IdUrd to produce an overall radiation enhancement. Calculations show that at 5% replacement (IdUrd for Tyd) therapeutic (TG) will vary from ∼2 (single acute dose) to ∼17 (low dose rates associated with permanent implant brachytherapy). Parameters used in the calculation of TG have been evaluated in cell culture; dose enhancements obtained with x-rays (including photon activation) were found to be significantly higher than values measured with γ-rays (no photon activation). Comparison is made between theoretical and measured values. Because of the evident lack of repair of damage produced by both sensitization and photon activation, significant gains are expected to be realized following protracted irradiations. Exchanges (IdUrd for Tyd) for 105 have been obtained in vivo (murine tumors). The authors believe that the application of PAT would be most advantageous in the treatment of brain tumors (grade IV astrocytomas) with implanted 145 Sm sources

  2. Developing design-based STEM education learning activities to enhance students' creative thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinasa, Siwa; Siripun, Kulpatsorn; Yuenyong, Chokchai

    2018-01-01

    Creative thinking on applying science and mathematics knowledge is required by the future STEM career. The STEM education should be provided for the required skills of future STEM career. This paper aimed to clarify the developing STEM education learning activities to enhance students' creative thinking. The learning activities were developed for Grade 10 students who will study in the subject of independent study (IS) of Khon Kaen Wittayayon School, Khon Kaen, Thailand. The developing STEM education learning activities for enhancing students' creative thinking was developed regarding on 6 steps including (1) providing of understanding of fundamental STEM education concept, (2) generating creative thinking from prototype, (4) revised ideas, (5) engineering ability, and (6) presentation and discussion. The paper will clarify the 18 weeks activities that will be provided based these 6 steps of developing learning activities. Then, these STEM learning activities will be discussed to provide the chance of enhancing students' creative thinking. The paper may have implication for STEM education in school setting.

  3. Does the Room Matter? Active Learning in Traditional and Enhanced Lecture Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltzfus, Jon R.; Libarkin, Julie

    2016-01-01

    SCALE-UP–type classrooms, originating with the Student-Centered Active Learning Environment with Upside-down Pedagogies project, are designed to facilitate active learning by maximizing opportunities for interactions between students and embedding technology in the classroom. Positive impacts when active learning replaces lecture are well documented, both in traditional lecture halls and SCALE-UP–type classrooms. However, few studies have carefully analyzed student outcomes when comparable active learning–based instruction takes place in a traditional lecture hall and a SCALE-UP–type classroom. Using a quasi-experimental design, we compared student perceptions and performance between sections of a nonmajors biology course, one taught in a traditional lecture hall and one taught in a SCALE-UP–type classroom. Instruction in both sections followed a flipped model that relied heavily on cooperative learning and was as identical as possible given the infrastructure differences between classrooms. Results showed that students in both sections thought that SCALE-UP infrastructure would enhance performance. However, measures of actual student performance showed no difference between the two sections. We conclude that, while SCALE-UP–type classrooms may facilitate implementation of active learning, it is the active learning and not the SCALE-UP infrastructure that enhances student performance. As a consequence, we suggest that institutions can modify existing classrooms to enhance student engagement without incorporating expensive technology. PMID:27909018

  4. Immune suppressor factor confers stromal cell line with enhanced supporting activity for hematopoietic stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Hideaki; Shibata, Fumi; Fukuchi, Yumi; Goto-Koshino, Yuko; Ito, Miyuki; Urano, Atsushi; Nakahata, Tatsutoshi; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Kitamura, Toshio

    2006-01-01

    Immune suppressor factor (ISF) is a subunit of the vacuolar ATPase proton pump. We earlier identified a short form of ISF (ShIF) as a stroma-derived factor that supports cytokine-independent growth of mutant Ba/F3 cells. Here, we report that ISF/ShIF supports self-renewal and expansion of primary hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Co-culture of murine bone marrow cells with a stromal cell line overexpressing ISF or ShIF (MS10/ISF or MS10/ShIF) not only enhanced their colony-forming activity and the numbers of long-term culture initiating cells, but also maintained the competitive repopulating activity of HSC. This stem cell supporting activity depended on the proton-transfer function of ISF/ShIF. Gene expression analysis of ISF/ShIF-transfected cell lines revealed down-regulation of secreted frizzled-related protein-1 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-3, and the restoration of their expressions in MS10/ISF cells partially reversed its enhanced LTC-IC supporting activity to a normal level. These results suggest that ISF/ShIF confers stromal cells with enhanced supporting activities for HSCs by modulating Wnt-activity and the extracellular matrix

  5. Phospholipase D2 Enhances Epidermal Growth Factor-Induced Akt Activation in EL4 Lymphoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manpreet S. Chahal

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Phospholipase D2 (PLD2 generates phosphatidic acid through hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine. PLD2 has been shown to play a role in enhancing tumorigenesis. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR can both activate and interact with PLD2. Murine lymphoma EL4 cells lacking endogenous PLD2 present a unique model to elucidate the role of PLD2 in signal transduction. In the current study, we investigated effects of PLD2 on EGF response. Western blotting and RT-PCR were used to establish that both parental cells and PLD2 transfectants express endogenous EGFR. Levels of EGFR protein are increased in cells expressing active PLD2, as compared to parental cells or cells expressing inactive PLD2. EGF stimulates proliferation of EL4 cells transfected with active PLD2, but not parental cells or cells transfected with inactive PLD2. EGF-mediated proliferation in cells expressing active PLD2 is dependent on the activities of both the EGFR and the PI3K/Akt pathway, as demonstrated by studies using protein kinase inhibitors. EGF-induced invasion through a synthetic extracellular matrix is enhanced in cells expressing active PLD2, as compared to parental cells or cells expressing inactive PLD2. Taken together, the data suggest that PLD2 acts in concert with EGFR to enhance mitogenesis and invasion in lymphoma cells.

  6. Phospholipase D2 Enhances Epidermal Growth Factor-Induced Akt Activation in EL4 Lymphoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahal, Manpreet S; Brauner, Daniel J; Meier, Kathryn E

    2010-07-02

    Phospholipase D2 (PLD2) generates phosphatidic acid through hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine. PLD2 has been shown to play a role in enhancing tumorigenesis. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) can both activate and interact with PLD2. Murine lymphoma EL4 cells lacking endogenous PLD2 present a unique model to elucidate the role of PLD2 in signal transduction. In the current study, we investigated effects of PLD2 on EGF response. Western blotting and RT-PCR were used to establish that both parental cells and PLD2 transfectants express endogenous EGFR. Levels of EGFR protein are increased in cells expressing active PLD2, as compared to parental cells or cells expressing inactive PLD2. EGF stimulates proliferation of EL4 cells transfected with active PLD2, but not parental cells or cells transfected with inactive PLD2. EGF-mediated proliferation in cells expressing active PLD2 is dependent on the activities of both the EGFR and the PI3K/Akt pathway, as demonstrated by studies using protein kinase inhibitors. EGF-induced invasion through a synthetic extracellular matrix is enhanced in cells expressing active PLD2, as compared to parental cells or cells expressing inactive PLD2. Taken together, the data suggest that PLD2 acts in concert with EGFR to enhance mitogenesis and invasion in lymphoma cells.

  7. Research on uranium tailings disposal technology at CANMET, Ottawa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skeaff, J.M.; Ritcey, G.M.; Jongejan, A.; Silver, M.

    1982-01-01

    In this paper, results from three continuing investigations at CANMET on uranium tailings management are presented. These investigations are: cleaning of tailings by flotation, conversion of municipal wastes into compost for use as topsoil on uranium tailings, methods for the chemical fixation of uranium tailings and a laboratory determination of the rate of release of environmental contaminants from uranium tailings

  8. High-energy tail distributions and resonant wave particle interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leubner, M. P.

    1983-01-01

    High-energy tail distributions (k distributions) are used as an alternative to a bi-Lorentzian distribution to study the influence of energetic protons on the right- and left-hand cyclotron modes in a hot two-temperature plasma. Although the parameters are chosen to be in a range appropriate to solar wind or magnetospheric configurations, the results apply not only to specific space plasmas. The presence of energetic particles significantly alters the behavior of the electromagnetic ion cyclotron modes, leading to a wide range of unstable frequencies and increased growth rates. From the strongly enhanced growth rates it can be concluded that high-energy tail distributions should not show major temperature anisotropies, which is consistent with observations.

  9. Microbial metabolism alters pore water chemistry and increases consolidation of oil sands tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkell, Nicholas; Kuznetsov, Petr; Kuznetsova, Alsu; Foght, Julia M; Siddique, Tariq

    2015-01-01

    Tailings produced during bitumen extraction from surface-mined oil sands ores (tar sands) comprise an aqueous suspension of clay particles that remain dispersed for decades in tailings ponds. Slow consolidation of the clays hinders water recovery for reuse and retards volume reduction, thereby increasing the environmental footprint of tailings ponds. We investigated mechanisms of tailings consolidation and revealed that indigenous anaerobic microorganisms altered porewater chemistry by producing CO and CH during metabolism of acetate added as a labile carbon amendment. Entrapped biogenic CO decreased tailings pH, thereby increasing calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) cations and bicarbonate (HCO) concentrations in the porewater through dissolution of carbonate minerals. Soluble ions increased the porewater ionic strength, which, with higher exchangeable Ca and Mg, decreased the diffuse double layer of clays and increased consolidation of tailings compared with unamended tailings in which little microbial activity was observed. These results are relevant to effective tailings pond management strategies. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  10. Remedial action at the Green River uranium mill tailings site, Green River, Utah: Environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-07-01

    The inactive Green River uranium mill tailings site is one mile southeast of Green River, Utah. The existing tailings pile is within the floodplain boundaries of the 100-year and 500-year flood events. The 48-acre designated site contains eight acres of tailings, the mill yard and ore storage area, four main buildings, a water tower, and several small buildings. Dispersion of the tailings has contaminated an additional 24 acres surrounding the designated site. Elevated concentrations of molybdenum, nitrate, selenium, uranium, and gross alpha activity exceed background levels and the proposed US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum concentration limits in the groundwater in the unconsolidated alluvium and in the shallow shales and limestones beneath the alluvium at the mill tailings site. The contamination is localized beneath, and slightly downgradient of, the tailings pile. The proposed action is to relocate the tailings and associated contaminated materials to an area 600 feet south of the existing tailings pile where they would be consolidated into one, below-grade disposal cell. A radon/infiltration barrier would be constructed to cover the stabilized pile and various erosion control measures would be taken to ensure the long-term stability of the stabilized pile. 88 refs., 12 figs., 20 tabs

  11. Heavy mineral concentration from oil sand tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chachula, F.; Erasmus, N. [Titanium Corp. Inc., Regina, SK (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This presentation described a unique technique to recover heavy minerals contained in the froth treatment tailings produced by oil sand mining extraction operations in Fort McMurray, Alberta. In an effort to process waste material into valuable products, Titanium Corporation is developing technology to recover heavy minerals, primarily zircon, and a portion of bitumen contained in the final stage of bitumen processing. The process technology is being developed to apply to all mined oil sands operations in the Fort McMurray region. In 2004, Titanium Corporation commissioned a pilot research facility at the Saskatchewan Research Council to test dry oil sands tailings. In 2005, a bulk sampling pilot plant was connected to the fresh oil sands tailings pipeline on-site in Fort McMurray, where washed sands containing heavy minerals were processed at a pilot facility. The mineral content in both deposited tailings and fresh pipeline tailings was assessed. Analysis of fresh tailings on a daily basis identified a constant proportion of zircon and higher levels of associated bitumen compared with the material in the deposited tailings. The process flow sheet design was then modified to remove bitumen from the heavy minerals and concentrate the minerals. A newly modified flotation process was shown to be a viable processing route to recover the heavy minerals from froth treatment tailings. 8 refs., 9 tabs., 12 figs.

  12. Life saving tail amputation in an African lioness (Panthera leo L) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2015-08-25

    Aug 25, 2015 ... Healing was uneventful with animal returning to normal activities. Tail amputation is an ... psychological impacts could cause anorexia, unthriftiness, irritation .... status record of extinction in North Africa, near extinction in West ...

  13. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha} enhances fatty acid oxidation in human adipocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joo-Young; Hashizaki, Hikari; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Sakamoto, Tomoya; Takahashi, Nobuyuki [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Kawada, Teruo, E-mail: fat@kais.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2011-04-22

    Highlights: {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation increased mRNA expression levels of adipocyte differentiation marker genes and GPDH activity in human adipocytes. {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation also increased insulin-dependent glucose uptake in human adipocytes. {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation did not affect lipid accumulation in human adipocytes. {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation increased fatty acid oxidation through induction of fatty acid oxidation-related genes in human adipocytes. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha} (PPAR{alpha}) is a key regulator for maintaining whole-body energy balance. However, the physiological functions of PPAR{alpha} in adipocytes have been unclarified. We examined the functions of PPAR{alpha} using human multipotent adipose tissue-derived stem cells as a human adipocyte model. Activation of PPAR{alpha} by GW7647, a potent PPAR{alpha} agonist, increased the mRNA expression levels of adipocyte differentiation marker genes such as PPAR{gamma}, adipocyte-specific fatty acid-binding protein, and lipoprotein lipase and increased both GPDH activity and insulin-dependent glucose uptake level. The findings indicate that PPAR{alpha} activation stimulates adipocyte differentiation. However, lipid accumulation was not changed, which is usually observed when PPAR{gamma} is activated. On the other hand, PPAR{alpha} activation by GW7647 treatment induced the mRNA expression of fatty acid oxidation-related genes such as CPT-1B and AOX in a PPAR{alpha}-dependent manner. Moreover, PPAR{alpha} activation increased the production of CO{sub 2} and acid soluble metabolites, which are products of fatty acid oxidation, and increased oxygen consumption rate in human adipocytes. The data indicate that activation of PPAR{alpha} stimulates both adipocyte differentiation and fatty acid oxidation in human adipocytes, suggesting that PPAR{alpha} agonists could improve insulin resistance without lipid accumulation in adipocytes. The expected

  14. Metal-chelating active packaging film enhances lysozyme inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Maxine J; Decker, Eric A; Goddard, Julie M

    2014-07-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that metal chelators enhance the antimicrobial activity of lysozyme. This study examined the effect of metal-chelating active packaging film on the antimicrobial activity of lysozyme against Listeria monocytogenes. Polypropylene films were surface modified by photoinitiated graft polymerization of acrylic acid (PP-g-PAA) from the food contact surface of the films to impart chelating activity based on electrostatic interactions. PP-g-PAA exhibited a carboxylic acid density of 113 ± 5.4 nmol cm(-2) and an iron chelating activity of 53.7 ± 9.8 nmol cm(-2). The antimicrobial interaction of lysozyme and PP-g-PAA depended on growth media composition. PP-g-PAA hindered lysozyme activity at low ionic strength (2.48-log increase at 64.4 mM total ionic strength) and enhanced lysozyme activity at moderate ionic strength (5.22-log reduction at 120 mM total ionic strength). These data support the hypothesis that at neutral pH, synergy between carboxylate metal-chelating films (pKa(bulk) 6.45) and lysozyme (pI 11.35) is optimal in solutions of moderate to high ionic strength to minimize undesirable charge interactions, such as lysozyme absorption onto film. These findings suggest that active packaging, which chelates metal ions based on ligand-specific interactions, in contrast to electrostatic interactions, may improve antimicrobial synergy. This work demonstrates the potential application of metal-chelating active packaging films to enhance the antimicrobial activity of membrane-disrupting antimicrobials, such as lysozyme.

  15. Uranium mine tailings and obligations to future generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brook, A.

    1980-01-01

    Low-level wastes from uranium mine/mill operations, because of their huge volume, are a serious problem, yet relatively little attention has been paid to them. Management of tailings piles and waste liquids in the short term is fairly effective. However these management techniques involve continuous, active treatment of the wastes, which may not continue after operations shut down, and rely on containment structures with a short effective life. Tailings can probably be rendered safe for future generations if sufficient resources are devoted to the task. The central moral question is whether we are obligated to assume the costs of tailings management, or whether it is permissible to pass them on to future generations. The basic moral principle that each person has the same value as any other implies that the generation that reaps the benefits of nuclear power must assume the costs of managing mine tailings and not discriminate in favour of one group of persons, our own generation. The argument that people who may exist in the future have intrinsically less value than people currently alive is not accepted by the author. The methodology for determining obligations to future generations which has been applied to mine/mill wastes could be applied to other nuclear issues, too. (LL)

  16. Cleaning up commingled uranium mill tailings: is Federal assistance necessary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    GAO was asked to determine whether Federal assistance should be given to operating mill owners that have processed uranium for sale to both government and industry and, thus, generated residual radioactive wastes. The wastes generated for both government and commercial use are called commingled uranium mill tailings. GAO recommends that the Congress provide assistance to active mill owners to share in the cost of cleaning up that portion of the tailings which were produced under Federal contract. Further, GAO believes that the Congress should also consider having the Federal government assist those mills who acted in good faith in meeting all legal requirements pertaining to controlling the mill tailings that were generated for commercial purposes and for which the Federal government is now requiring retroactive remedial action. At the same time, the Congress should make sure that this action establishes no precedent for the Federal government assuming the financial responsibility of cleaning up other non-Federal nuclear facilities and wastes, including those mill tailings generated after the date when the Federal government notified industry that the failings should be controlled

  17. Ileal Crohn disease: mural microvascularity quantified with contrast-enhanced US correlates with disease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Franco, Antonio; Di Veronica, Alessandra; Armuzzi, Alessandro; Roberto, Italia; Marzo, Manuela; De Pascalis, Barbara; De Vitis, Italo; Papa, Alfredo; Bock, Enrico; Danza, Francesco M; Bonomo, Lorenzo; Guidi, Luisa

    2012-02-01

    To quantitatively assess microvascular activation in the thickened ileal walls of patients with Crohn disease (CD) by using contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (US) and evaluate its correlation with widely used indexes of CD activity. This prospective study was approved by the ethics committee, and written informed consent was obtained from all patients. The authors examined 54 consecutively enrolled patients (mean age, 35.29 years; age range, 18-69 years; 39 men, 15 women) with endoscopically confirmed CD of the terminal ileum. Ileal wall segments thicker than 3 mm were examined with low-mechanical-index contrast-enhanced US and a second-generation US contrast agent. The authors analyzed software-plotted time-enhancement intensity curves to determine the maximum peak intensity (MPI) and wash-in slope coefficient (β) and evaluated their correlation with (a) the composite index of CD activity (CICDA), (b) the CD activity index (CDAI), and (c) the simplified endoscopic score for CD (SES-CD, evaluated in 37 patients) for the terminal ileum. Statistical analysis was performed with the Mann-Whitney test, Spearman rank test, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. MPI and β coefficients were significantly increased in the 36 patients with a CICDA indicative of active disease (P<.0001 for both), the 33 patients with a CDAI of at least 150 (P<.032 and P<.0074, respectively), and the 26 patients with an SES-CD of at least 1 (P<.0001 and P<.002, respectively). ROC analysis revealed accurate identification (compared with CICDA) of active CD with an MPI threshold of 24 video intensity (VI) (sensitivity, 97%; specificity, 83%) and a β coefficient of 4.5 VI/sec (sensitivity, 86%; specificity, 83%). Contrast-enhanced US of the ileal wall is a promising method for objective, reproducible assessment of disease activity in patients with ileal CD. © RSNA, 2011

  18. Performance Comparison between Neutralization Tailings and Flotation Tailings Used for Backfill Mix and Mechanism Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Bin; Sun, Wei; Yu, Shaofeng; Liu, Chao; Yao, Song; Wu, Jianxun

    2016-01-01

    A comparison test of different tailings used for underground backfill was conducted, using neutralized tailings from BIOX and flotation tailings of Jinfeng Mine. Laboratory comparison test results show that, with neutralized tailings, when the cement dosage is at 19%, backfill UCS after 7 days, 14 days, and 28 days are 105%–163%, 80%–102%, and 33%–43%, respectively, which are higher than those of flotation tailings. When the cement dosage is at 12%, backfill UCS after 7 days, 14 days, and 28 ...

  19. Monte Carlo-based tail exponent estimator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barunik, Jozef; Vacha, Lukas

    2010-11-01

    In this paper we propose a new approach to estimation of the tail exponent in financial stock markets. We begin the study with the finite sample behavior of the Hill estimator under α-stable distributions. Using large Monte Carlo simulations, we show that the Hill estimator overestimates the true tail exponent and can hardly be used on samples with small length. Utilizing our results, we introduce a Monte Carlo-based method of estimation for the tail exponent. Our proposed method is not sensitive to the choice of tail size and works well also on small data samples. The new estimator also gives unbiased results with symmetrical confidence intervals. Finally, we demonstrate the power of our estimator on the international world stock market indices. On the two separate periods of 2002-2005 and 2006-2009, we estimate the tail exponent.

  20. Uranium mill tailings remedial action technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, J.N.; Gee, G.W.

    1984-01-01

    The uranium milling process involves the hydrometallurgical extraction of uranium from ores and the resultant generation of large quantities of waste referred to as tailings. Uranium mill tailings have been identified as requiring remediation because they contain residual radioactive material that is not removed in the milling process. Potential radiation exposure can result from direct contact with the tailings, from radon gas emitted by the tailings, and from radioactive contamination of groundwater. As a result, the technology developed under the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Uranium Recovery Program have focused on radon control, groundwater contamination and the long-term protection of the containment system. This paper briefly summarizes the UMTRAP and NRC remedial action technology development. 33 references, 9 figures, 5 tables

  1. Intradermally administered TLR4 agonist GLA-SE enhances the capacity of human skin DCs to activate T cells and promotes emigration of Langerhans cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, Laura P.; Schoonderwoerd, Antoinet J.; Moutaftsi, Magdalini; Howard, Randall F.; Reed, Steven G.; de Jong, Esther C.; Teunissen, Marcel B. M.

    2012-01-01

    The natural TLR4 agonist lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has notable adjuvant activity. However, it is not useful as a vaccine adjuvant due to its toxicity. Glucopyranosyl lipid A (GLA) is a synthetic derivative of the lipid A tail of LPS with limited cytotoxicity, but strong potential to induce immune

  2. Enhancing the water oxidation activity of Ni2P nanocatalysts by iron-doping and electrochemical activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Guang; He, Dongying; Yao, Rui; Zhao, Yong; Li, Jinping

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •A sol-gel method for synthesis of Fe-doping Ni 2 P nanocatalysts was present. •Fe-doping Ni 2 P sample exhibited high OER activity after electrochemical activation. •In situ formed Fe-NiOOH layer on activated Fe-Ni 2 P provided more active OER sites. -- Abstract: In this work, we reported a facile and safe route for synthesis of Ni 2 P nanocatalysts by sol-gel method and demonstrated that the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) activity of Ni 2 P nanocatalysts can be dramatically enhanced by iron-doping and electrochemical activation. Compared with the fresh Fe-doped Ni 2 P nanocatalysts, a stable Fe-NiOOH layer was formed on the surface of Fe-doped Ni 2 P nanoparticles by electrochemical activation, thus promoting the charge transfer ability and surface electrochemically active sites generation for the electrochemical activated Fe-doped Ni 2 P nanocatalysts, ultimately accounting for the improvement of water oxidation activity, which was evidenced by cyclic voltammograms (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) as well as high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) measurements. For water oxidation reaction in 1 M KOH solution, the electrochemical activated Fe-doped Ni 2 P nanocatalysts can attain 10 mA/cm 2 at an overpotential of 292 mV with Tafel slope of 50 mV/dec, which was also much better than that of individual Ni 2 P, Fe 2 P nanocatalysts as well as commercial RuO 2 electrocatalyst. Moreover, long-term stability performance by chronoamperometric and chronopotentiometric tests for the activated Fe-doped Ni 2 P nanocatalysts exhibited no obvious decline within 56 h. It was demonstrated that modulating the OER catalytic activity for metal phosphide by iron-doping and electrochemical activation may provide new opportunities and avenues to engineer high performance electrocatalysts for water splitting.

  3. MR imaging of myxofibrosarcoma and undifferentiated sarcoma with emphasis on tail sign; diagnostic and prognostic value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Hye Jin; Hong, Sung Hwan; Kang, Yusuhn; Choi, Ja-Young; Yi, Minkyong [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Kyung Chul [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Pathology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Han-Soo; Han, Ilkyu [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Heung Sik [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seongnam-City, Gyeongi-Do (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    To assess the prevalence of the tail sign in soft tissue sarcomas and determine whether the local recurrence rate differed based on the presence of the tail sign. In our retrospective study, myxofibrosarcoma (MFS, n = 25) and undifferentiated sarcoma (US, n = 38) comprised group 1, and the remaining tumours (n = 115) were assigned to group 2. Location, size, and imaging features of the tumours were assessed on MRI. The radiological-pathological correlation of the tail sign was analysed. The tail sign, thick fascial enhancement extending from the tumour margin, was more common and significantly thicker in group 1. In the subgroup analysis between MFS and US, there was no significant difference in the presence of a tail sign. Histological examination revealed extensive tumour cell infiltrations along the deep fascia from the main mass. Patients with a tail sign had a worse local recurrence-free survival than patients without it, not only in all tumours (p < 0.01), but also in group 1 (p = 0.019) The tail sign was a common MRI feature of both MFS and US, and was also associated with worse local recurrence-free survival. Radiologists should be aware of these MRI findings and inform the surgeon preoperatively in order to obtain a sufficient surgical margin to minimise the risk of local tumour recurrence. (orig.)

  4. Dengue virus infection-enhancing antibody activities against Indonesian strains in inhabitants of central Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Atsushi; Oddgun, Duangjai; Chantawat, Nantarat; Okabayashi, Tamaki; Ramasoota, Pongrama; Churrotin, Siti; Kotaki, Tomohiro; Kameoka, Masanori; Soegijanto, Soegeng; Konishi, Eiji

    2016-04-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) infection-enhancing antibodies are a hypothetic factor to increase the dengue disease severity. In this study, we investigated the enhancing antibodies against Indonesian strains of DENV-1-4 in 50 healthy inhabitants of central Thailand (Bangkok and Uthai Thani). Indonesia and Thailand have seen the highest dengue incidence in Southeast Asia. The infection history of each subject was estimated by comparing his/her neutralizing antibody titers against prototype DENV-1-4 strains. To resolve the difficulty in obtaining foreign live viruses for use as assay antigens, we used a recombinant system to prepare single-round infectious dengue viral particles based on viral sequence information. Irrespective of the previously infecting serotype(s), most serum samples showed significantly higher enhancement titers against Indonesian DENV-2 strains than against Thai DENV-2 strains, whereas the opposite effect was observed for the DENV-3 strains. Equivalent enhancing activities were observed against both DENV-1 and DENV-4. These results suggest that the genotype has an impact on enhancing antibody activities against DENV-2 and DENV-3, because the predominant circulating genotypes of each serotype differ between Indonesia and Thailand. Copyright © 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Capacitance enhancement of polyaniline coated curved-graphene supercapacitors in a redox-active electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Rakhi, R. B.; Alshareef, H. N.

    2013-05-01

    We show, for the first time, a redox-active electrolyte in combination with a polyaniline-coated curved graphene active material to achieve significant enhancement in the capacitance (36-92% increase) compared to supercapacitors that lack the redox-active contribution from the electrolyte. The supercapacitors based on the redox-active electrolyte also exhibit excellent rate capability and very long cycling performance (>50 000 cycles).We show, for the first time, a redox-active electrolyte in combination with a polyaniline-coated curved graphene active material to achieve significant enhancement in the capacitance (36-92% increase) compared to supercapacitors that lack the redox-active contribution from the electrolyte. The supercapacitors based on the redox-active electrolyte also exhibit excellent rate capability and very long cycling performance (>50 000 cycles). Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental section, supporting figures including SEM, TEM, XPS, BET, CV and CD curves and a summary table of capacitance. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr00773a

  6. Educating Students for a Lifetime of Physical Activity: Enhancing Mindfulness, Motivation, and Meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennis, Catherine D

    2017-09-01

    For many years, pedagogical scholars and physical education (PE) teachers have worked to enhance effective teaching and learning environments. Yet for some children, youth, and young adults, many of the benefits associated with a physically active lifestyle remain elusive. Enhancing programming and performance to meet physical activity goals may require moving programs beyond "effective." It will require teachers and program leaders to focus programmatic attention on strategies to actually increase students' out-of-class physical activity behavior. Transformative PE provides physical activity content within a nurturing and motivating environment that can change students' lives. It focuses on PE students' role in cognitive decision making, self-motivation, and their search for personal meaning that can add connection and relevance to physical activities. In this SHAPE America - Society of Health and Physical Educators Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport Lecture, I have synthesized the research on these topics to emphasize useful findings applicable to teachers' everyday planning and teaching. Using sport, physical activity, dance, and adventure activities as the means to an end for personal and social growth, we can meet our commitment to effective standards-based education while preparing students for a lifetime of physical activity.

  7. Impairment of GABA transporter GAT-1 terminates cortical recurrent network activity via enhanced phasic inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Simon Razik

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the central nervous system, GABA transporters (GATs very efficiently clear synaptically released GABA from the extracellular space, and thus exert a tight control on GABAergic inhibition. In neocortex, GABAergic inhibition is heavily recruited during recurrent phases of spontaneous action potential activity which alternate with neuronally quiet periods. Therefore, such activity should be quite sensitive to minute alterations of GAT function. Here, we explored the effects of a gradual impairment of GAT-1 and GAT-2/3 on spontaneous recurrent network activity – termed network bursts and silent periods – in organotypic slice cultures of rat neocortex. The GAT-1 specific antagonist NO-711 depressed activity already at nanomolar concentrations (IC50 for depression of spontaneous multiunit firing rate of 42 nM, reaching a level of 80% at 500-1000 nM. By contrast, the GAT-2/3 preferring antagonist SNAP-5114 had weaker and less consistent effects. Several lines of evidence pointed towards an enhancement of phasic GABAergic inhibition as the dominant activity-depressing mechanism: network bursts were drastically shortened, phasic GABAergic currents decayed slower, and neuronal excitability during ongoing activity was diminished. In silent periods, NO-711 had little effect on neuronal excitability or membrane resistance, quite in contrast to the effects of muscimol, a GABA mimetic which activates GABAA receptors tonically. Our results suggest that an enhancement of phasic GABAergic inhibition efficiently curtails cortical recurrent activity and may mediate antiepileptic effects of therapeutically relevant concentrations of GAT-1 antagonists.

  8. Geo-Semantic Framework for Integrating Long-Tail Data and Model Resources for Advancing Earth System Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elag, M.; Kumar, P.

    2014-12-01

    Often, scientists and small research groups collect data, which target to address issues and have limited geographic or temporal range. A large number of such collections together constitute a large database that is of immense value to Earth Science studies. Complexity of integrating these data include heterogeneity in dimensions, coordinate systems, scales, variables, providers, users and contexts. They have been defined as long-tail data. Similarly, we use "long-tail models" to characterize a heterogeneous collection of models and/or modules developed for targeted problems by individuals and small groups, which together provide a large valuable collection. Complexity of integrating across these models include differing variable names and units for the same concept, model runs at different time steps and spatial resolution, use of differing naming and reference conventions, etc. Ability to "integrate long-tail models and data" will provide an opportunity for the interoperability and reusability of communities' resources, where not only models can be combined in a workflow, but each model will be able to discover and (re)use data in application specific context of space, time and questions. This capability is essential to represent, understand, predict, and manage heterogeneous and interconnected processes and activities by harnessing the complex, heterogeneous, and extensive set of distributed resources. Because of the staggering production rate of long-tail models and data resulting from the advances in computational, sensing, and information technologies, an important challenge arises: how can geoinformatics bring together these resources seamlessly, given the inherent complexity among model and data resources that span across various domains. We will present a semantic-based framework to support integration of "long-tail" models and data. This builds on existing technologies including: (i) SEAD (Sustainable Environmental Actionable Data) which supports curation

  9. Robust Identification of Developmentally Active Endothelial Enhancers in Zebrafish Using FANS-Assisted ATAC-Seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quillien, Aurelie; Abdalla, Mary; Yu, Jun; Ou, Jianhong; Zhu, Lihua Julie; Lawson, Nathan D

    2017-07-18

    Identification of tissue-specific and developmentally active enhancers provides insights into mechanisms that control gene expression during embryogenesis. However, robust detection of these regulatory elements remains challenging, especially in vertebrate genomes. Here, we apply fluorescent-activated nuclei sorting (FANS) followed by Assay for Transposase-Accessible Chromatin with high-throughput sequencing (ATAC-seq) to identify developmentally active endothelial enhancers in the zebrafish genome. ATAC-seq of nuclei from Tg(fli1a:egfp) y1 transgenic embryos revealed expected patterns of nucleosomal positioning at transcriptional start sites throughout the genome and association with active histone modifications. Comparison of ATAC-seq from GFP-positive and -negative nuclei identified more than 5,000 open elements specific to endothelial cells. These elements flanked genes functionally important for vascular development and that displayed endothelial-specific gene expression. Importantly, a majority of tested elements drove endothelial gene expression in zebrafish embryos. Thus, FANS-assisted ATAC-seq using transgenic zebrafish embryos provides a robust approach for genome-wide identification of active tissue-specific enhancer elements. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Investigation of repressive and enhancive effects of fruit extracts on the activity of glucose-6-phophatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahoor, Muhammad; Jan, Muhammad Rasul; Naz, Sumaira

    2016-11-01

    Glucose-6-phosphatase is a key enzyme of glucose metabolic pathways. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to glycogen storage disease. This enzyme also plays a negative role in diabetes mellitus disorder in which the catalytic activity of this enzyme increases. Thus there is need for activators to enhance the activity of glucose-6-phosphatase in glycogen storage disease of type 1b while in diabetes mellitus repressors are needed to reduce its activity. Crude extracts of apricot, fig, mulberry and apple fruits were investigated for their repressive/enhancive effects on glucose-6-phosphatase in vivo. Albino mice were used as experimental animal. All the selected extracts showed depressive effects on glucose-6-phosphatase, which shows that all these extracts can be used as antidiabetic supplement of food. The inhibitory pattern was competitive one, which was evident from the effect of increasing dose from 1g/Kg body weight to 3g/Kg body weight for all the selected fruit extracts. However fig and apple fruit extracts showed high repressive effects for high doses as compared to apricot and mulberry fruit extracts. None of these selected fruit extracts showed enhancive effect on glucose-6-phosphatase activity. All these fruits or their extracts can be used as antidiabetic dietary supplement for diabetes mellitus.

  11. Study on CO{sub 2} absorption enhancement by adding active carbon particles into MEA solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Juan; Sun, Rui; Ma, Lian; Sun, Shaozeng [Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China). School of Energy Science and Engineering

    2013-07-01

    The chemical absorption of CO{sub 2} is generally recognized as the most efficient post-combustion technology of CO{sub 2} separation at present. A study on CO{sub 2} absorption enhancement by adding small particles of active carbon into MEA solution is investigated within a self-designed glass stirring tank. Experiments of different particle loadings and different particle sizes have been conducted. When active carbon particle concentration is fewer, compared to the absorption rate of CO{sub 2} gas absorbed by MEA aqueous solution, the role of active carbon adsorption CO{sub 2} gas is negligible. The enhancement efficiency of CO{sub 2} absorption could be improved by 10% to the upmost in this liquid-particle system.

  12. Antimicrobial activity of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens LBM 5006 is enhanced in the presence of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez, Lisianne; Correa, AnaPaula; Daroit, Daniel; Brandelli, Adriano

    2011-03-01

    Increased antimicrobial activity was observed when Bacillus amyloliquefaciens LBM 5006 strain was cultivated in the presence of thermally inactivated cells of Escherichia coli, but not with Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, or Bacillus cereus. E. coli also enhanced the antimicrobial activity when it was added to the medium in the form of living cells or as cell debris after cellular fractionation. No inducing activity was observed with addition of cell-free supernatant of E. coli cultures, suggesting that inducing factor is associated to the cells. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that additional peptide bands are secreted when B. amyloliquefaciens was cultivated in the presence of cell debris of E. coli. These results suggest that the presence of intact or inactivated E. coli enhanced the synthesis of antimicrobial peptides by B. amyloliquefaciens LBM 5006.

  13. Strategies to enhance biologically active-secondary metabolites in cell cultures of Artemisia - current trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammad; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Ahmad, Nisar; Khan, Haji; Ali, Gul Shad

    2017-11-01

    The genus Artemisia has been utilized worldwide due to its immense potential for protection against various diseases, especially malaria. Artemisia absinthium, previously renowned for its utilization in the popular beverage absinthe, is gaining resurgence due to its extensive pharmacological activities. Like A. annua, this species exhibits strong biological activities like antimalarial, anticancer and antioxidant. Although artemisinin was found to be the major metabolite for its antimalarial effects, several flavonoids and terpenoids are considered to possess biological activities when used alone and also to synergistically boost the bioavailability of artemisinin. However, due to the limited quantities of these metabolites in wild plants, in vitro cultures were established and strategies have been adopted to enhance medicinally important secondary metabolites in these cultures. This review elaborates on the traditional medicinal uses of Artemisia species and explains current trends to establish cell cultures of A. annua and A. absinthium for enhanced production of medicinally important secondary metabolites.

  14. A general approach toward enhancement of pseudocapacitive performance of conducting polymers by redox-active electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Wei

    2014-12-01

    A general approach is demonstrated where the pseudocapacitive performance of different conducting polymers is enhanced in redox-active electrolytes. The concept is demonstrated using several electroactive conducting polymers, including polyaniline, polypyrrole, and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene). As compared to conventional electrolytes, the redox-active electrolytes, prepared by simply adding a redox mediator to the conventional electrolyte, can significantly improve the energy storage capacity of pseudocapacitors with different conducting polymers. The results show that the specific capacitance of conducting polymer based pseudocapacitors can be increased by a factor of two by utilization of the redox-active electrolytes. In fact, this approach gives some of the highest reported specific capacitance values for electroactive conducting polymers. Moreover, our findings present a general and effective approach for the enhancement of energy storage performance of pseudocapacitors using a variety of polymeric electrode materials. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Albumin Enhances Caspofungin Activity against Aspergillus Species by Facilitating Drug Delivery to Germinating Hyphae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannou, Petros; Andrianaki, Aggeliki; Akoumianaki, Tonia; Kyrmizi, Irene; Albert, Nathaniel; Perlin, David; Samonis, George; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P; Chamilos, Georgios

    2015-12-07

    The modest in vitro activity of echinocandins against Aspergillus implies that host-related factors augment the action of these antifungal agents in vivo. We found that, in contrast to the other antifungal agents (voriconazole, amphotericin B) tested, caspofungin exhibited a profound increase in activity against various Aspergillus species under conditions of cell culture growth, as evidenced by a ≥4-fold decrease in minimum effective concentrations (MECs) (P = 0. 0005). Importantly, the enhanced activity of caspofungin against Aspergillus spp. under cell culture conditions was strictly dependent on serum albumin and was not observed with the other two echinocandins, micafungin and anidulafungin. Of interest, fluorescently labeled albumin bound preferentially on the surface of germinating Aspergillus hyphae, and this interaction was further enhanced upon treatment with caspofungin. In addition, supplementation of cell culture medium with albumin resulted in a significant, 5-fold increase in association of fluorescently labeled caspofungin with Aspergillus hyphae (P hyphae. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Albumin Enhances Caspofungin Activity against Aspergillus Species by Facilitating Drug Delivery to Germinating Hyphae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannou, Petros; Andrianaki, Aggeliki; Akoumianaki, Tonia; Kyrmizi, Irene; Albert, Nathaniel; Perlin, David; Samonis, George

    2015-01-01

    The modest in vitro activity of echinocandins against Aspergillus implies that host-related factors augment the action of these antifungal agents in vivo. We found that, in contrast to the other antifungal agents (voriconazole, amphotericin B) tested, caspofungin exhibited a profound increase in activity against various Aspergillus species under conditions of cell culture growth, as evidenced by a ≥4-fold decrease in minimum effective concentrations (MECs) (P = 0. 0005). Importantly, the enhanced activity of caspofungin against Aspergillus spp. under cell culture conditions was strictly dependent on serum albumin and was not observed with the other two echinocandins, micafungin and anidulafungin. Of interest, fluorescently labeled albumin bound preferentially on the surface of germinating Aspergillus hyphae, and this interaction was further enhanced upon treatment with caspofungin. In addition, supplementation of cell culture medium with albumin resulted in a significant, 5-fold increase in association of fluorescently labeled caspofungin with Aspergillus hyphae (P Aspergillus hyphae. PMID:26643329

  17. Integrated oil sands tailings pond water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Z. [Saskatchewan Research Council, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed research currently being conducted to treat oil sands tailings pond water (TPW). The treatment of TPW is challenged by the high level of naphthenic acids (NAs), the slow settling rate of fine particulate materials, and the complex chemistry of the water. The treatment process consisted of bioflocculation, sludge blanket assisted clarification, ozonation, and oil sands coke assisted hybrid biodegradation. The aggregation and adsorption process bound small particles and cells together while also ensuring the passive uptake of pollutants using microbial masses. The mixed liquor then passed through a sludge blanket to ensure enhanced particle capture. An ozonation process was used to increase the biodegradability of the TPW as well as to increase the biodegradability of the residual NAs after ozonation. The process used a hybrid bioreactor that consisted of both suspended and fixed microbial communities. The coke served as a biofilm carrier for the waste. Further studies are being conducted to investigate the efficiency and capability of the process. tabs., figs.

  18. Memory-enhancing activity of Anacyclus pyrethrum in albino Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Sujith

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the potential effect of ethanolic extract of Anacyclus pyrethrum (A. pyrethrum in memory dysfunction. Methods: Memory impairment was produced by administration of scopolamine (1mg/kg i. p in rats. Passive avoidance paradigms, elevated plus maze and social learning task was used to assess learning and memory. Results: A. pyrethrum extract treated group decreased transfer latency in elevated plus maze model paradigm which is an indicative of cognition improvement. In case of passive avoidance paradigm extract treated group exhibited prounced effect in reversal of scopolamine induced amnesia which was revealed by increase in step down latency. Social learning task also revealed the memory enhancing activity of A. pyrethrum extract. Conclusions: Ethanolic extract of A. pyrethrum has been demonstrated to improve cognitive processes by enhancing memory in different experimental paradigms such as passive avoidance paradigms, elevated plus maze and social learning task when administered orallyBrain cholinesterase level was measured to assess central cholinergic activity. The treatment with drugs, which increase cholinergic neurotransmission, causes an improvement in cognitive deficits. The present study suggest that ethanolic extract of A. pyrethrum increased brain cholinesterase level and hence it possess memory enhancing activity in scopolamine induced amnesia model by enhancing central cholinergic neurotransmission.

  19. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of SrTiO3 photocatalyst by topotactic preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jiafeng; Huang, Xianshan; Liu, Yi; Wu, Jianguang; Ji, Yuexia

    2016-11-01

    Novel SrTiO3 (ST) photocatalysts with different shapes such as plates, rods and cubes were successfully synthesized based on a topotactic approach. The rod-like ST particles formed in situ at the plates show superior photocatalytic activities towards the decomposition of Rhodamine B than the plate-like and the cubic particles under visible-light irradiation, which could be attributed to the crystal orientation exposing highly active sites accompanied by the crystallite growth in molten salt. The results reveal an effective approach for fabrication of novel photocatalysts of perovskite structure with enhanced photocatalytic activities.

  20. Pim kinases are upregulated during Epstein-Barr virus infection and enhance EBNA2 activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rainio, Eeva-Marja; Ahlfors, Helena; Carter, Kara L.; Ruuska, Marja; Matikainen, Sampsa; Kieff, Elliott; Koskinen, Paeivi J.

    2005-01-01

    Latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is strongly associated with B-cell proliferative diseases such as Burkitt's lymphoma. Here we show that the oncogenic serine/threonine kinases Pim-1 and Pim-2 enhance the activity of the viral transcriptional activator EBNA2. During EBV infection of primary B-lymphocytes, the mRNA expression levels of pim genes, especially of pim-2, are upregulated and remain elevated in latently infected B-cell lines. Thus, EBV-induced upregulation of Pim kinases and Pim-stimulated EBNA2 transcriptional activity may contribute to the ability of EBV to immortalize B-cells and predispose them to malignant growth