WorldWideScience

Sample records for active suicidal ideation-as

  1. Does every allusion to possible suicide require the same response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raue, Patrick J; Brown, Ellen L; Meyers, Barnett S; Schulberg, Herbert C; Bruce, Martha L

    2006-07-01

    Assess patients with major depression or substance abuse for suicide ideation, as they are at elevated risk for self-harm. Severity of suicide ideation is associated with suicide risk. Its assessment, therefore, should proceed sequentially from passive to active suicide ideation, to a specific detailed plan, including intention to harm oneself, reasons for living, and impulse control. Primary care patients at mild to moderate risk for suicide can be effectively treated in primary care settings; however, patients at high risk should be referred to mental health specialists given their need for intensive treatments and frequent monitoring.

  2. Blunted HPA Axis Activity in Suicide Attempters Compared to those at High Risk for Suicidal Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melhem, Nadine M; Keilp, John G; Porta, Giovanna; Oquendo, Maria A; Burke, Ainsley; Stanley, Barbara; Cooper, Thomas B; Mann, J John; Brent, David A

    2016-05-01

    Studies looking at the relationship of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to suicidal behavior and its risk factors, such as depression, childhood abuse, and impulsive aggression, report inconsistent results. These studies also do not always differentiate between subjects who go on to attempt suicide, suicidal subjects who never attempted suicide, and non-suicidal subjects with psychiatric disorders. In this study, we examined cortisol responses to an experimental stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), in 208 offspring of parents with mood disorder. Offspring suicide attempters showed lower total cortisol output (β=-0.47, 95% CI (-0.83, -0.11), p=0.01) compared with offspring with suicide-related behavior (SRB) but never attempted, non-suicidal offspring, and a healthy control group. The result remained significant even after controlling for sex, age, race, ethnicity, site, socio-economic status, and hour of the day when the TSST was conducted. Suicide attempters also showed lower baseline cortisol before the TSST (β=-0.45, 95% CI (-0.74, -0.17), p=0.002). However, there were no significant differences between the groups on cortisol reactivity to stress (β=4.5, 95% CI (-12.9, 22), p=0.61). Although subjects with suicide attempt and SRB have similar clinical and psychosocial characteristics, this is the first study to differentiate them biologically on HPA axis indices. Blunted HPA axis activity may increase risk for suicide attempt among individuals with psychopathology by reducing their ability to respond adaptively to ongoing stressors. These results may help better identify subjects at high risk for suicidal behavior for targeted prevention and intervention efforts.

  3. Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suicide is the tenth most common cause of death in the United States. People may consider suicide when they are hopeless and can't see ... event. People who have the highest risk of suicide are white men. But women and teens report ...

  4. 76 FR 27384 - Agency Information Collection Activity (Veteran Suicide Prevention Online Quantitative Surveys...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection Activity (Veteran Suicide Prevention Online Quantitative Surveys...). Type of Review: New collection. Abstract: VA's top priority is the prevention of Veterans suicide. It... better understand Veterans and their families' awareness of VA's suicide prevention and mental...

  5. Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and act with good judgment. previous continue Substance Abuse Teens with alcohol and drug problems are also ... a school counselor, a religious leader, or a teacher. Call a suicide crisis line (such as 1- ...

  6. Suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Lynge, Inge

    2006-01-01

    The incidence of youth suicides has increased dramatically among the Inuit in Greenland since the modernization started in the 1950s. Suicides currently peak at age 15-24 Men: 400-500, Women: 100-150 per 100,000 person-years. The methods are drastic: shooting or hanging. An early peak was seen...... in the capital, a later peak in the rest of West Greenland, and high and increasing rates in remote East Greenland. Suicidal thoughts occur more often in young people who grew up in homes with a poor emotional environment, alcohol problems and violence. There is a definite correlation with several aspects...... of the modernization process but it is hard to pinpoint causal relationships. It is rather the "modernization package" that should be regarded as risk factors for suicides....

  7. Thyroid axis activity and suicidal behavior in depressed patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Fabrice; Mokrani, Marie-Claude; Lopera, Felix Gonzalez; Diep, Thanh Son; Rabia, Hassen; Fattah, Saïd

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between suicidal behavior and hypothalamic-pituitary thyroid (HPT) axis activity in depressed patients. The serum levels of thyrotropin (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), and free triiodothyronine (FT3) were evaluated before and after 0800 and 2300 h thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) challenges, on the same day, in 95 medication-free DSM-IV euthyroid major depressed inpatients and 44 healthy hospitalized controls. Compared to controls: (1) patients with a positive suicide history (PSH; n=53) showed lower basal FT4 (at 0800 h: p<0.005; at 2300 h: p<0.03), but normal FT3 levels, while patients with a negative suicide history (NSH; n=42) showed normal FT4 and FT3 levels; (2) TSH responses to TRH (DeltaTSH) were blunted in NSHs (at 0800 h: p<0.03; at 2300 h: p<0.00001), but not in PSHs; (3) both NSHs and PSHs showed lower DeltaDeltaTSH values (differences between 2300 h-DeltaTSH and 0800 h-DeltaTSH) (p<0.000001 and p<0.003, respectively). Compared to NSHs, basal FT4 levels were reduced in PSHs (at 0800 h: p<0.002; at 2300h: p<0.006). HPT parameters were not significantly different between recent suicide attempters (n=32) and past suicide attempters (n=21). However, compared to controls, recent suicide attempters showed lower 2300 h-DeltaTSH (p<0.04) and DeltaDeltaTSH (p<0.002) values, and lower basal FT4 values (at 0800 h: p<0.006; at 2300 h: p<0.02). Our results, obtained in a large sample of depressed inpatients, indicate that various degrees of HPT axis dysregulation are associated with the history of suicide. PMID:20129737

  8. Non-suicidal self-injury as a predictor of active and passive suicidal ideation among Iraq/Afghanistan war veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbrel, Nathan A; Gratz, Kim L; Tull, Matthew T; Morissette, Sandra B; Meyer, Eric C; DeBeer, Bryann B; Silvia, Paul J; Calhoun, Patrick C; Beckham, Jean C

    2015-06-30

    The present study examined the association between lifetime non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and current suicidal ideation among Iraq/Afghanistan veterans. NSSI was positively associated with passive, active, and concurrent active-passive suicidal ideation at the bivariate level. NSSI remained a predictor of active, OR=5.15, and concurrent active-passive suicidal ideation, OR=7.01, when other risk factors were considered. These findings suggest that NSSI may be a particularly useful marker of active suicidal ideation among veterans.

  9. 76 FR 9637 - Proposed Information Collection (Veteran Suicide Prevention Online Quantitative Surveys) Activity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Veteran Suicide Prevention Online Quantitative Surveys) Activity... outreach efforts on the prevention of suicide among Veterans and their families. DATES: Written comments...). Type of Review: New collection. Abstract: VA's top priority is the prevention of Veterans suicide....

  10. [Active euthanasia in Colombia and assisted suicide in California].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julesz, Máté

    2016-01-31

    The institution of active euthanasia has been legal in Colombia since 2015. In California, the regulation on physician-assisted suicide will come into effect on January 1, 2016. The legal institution of active euthanasia is not accepted under the law of the United States of America, however, physician-assisted suicide is accepted in an increasing number of member states. The related regulation in Oregon is imitated in other member states. In South America, Colombia is not the first country to legalize active euthanasia: active euthanasia has been legal in Uruguay since 1932. The North American legal tradition markedly differs from the South American one and both are incompatible with the Central European rule of law. In Hungary and in most European Union countries, solely the passive form of euthanasia is legal. In the Benelux countries, the active form of euthanasia is legal because the supranational law of the European Union does not prohibit it. Notwithstanding, European Union law does not prescribe legalization of either the active form of euthanasia, or the physician-assisted suicide. PMID:26801362

  11. [Active euthanasia in Colombia and assisted suicide in California].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julesz, Máté

    2016-01-31

    The institution of active euthanasia has been legal in Colombia since 2015. In California, the regulation on physician-assisted suicide will come into effect on January 1, 2016. The legal institution of active euthanasia is not accepted under the law of the United States of America, however, physician-assisted suicide is accepted in an increasing number of member states. The related regulation in Oregon is imitated in other member states. In South America, Colombia is not the first country to legalize active euthanasia: active euthanasia has been legal in Uruguay since 1932. The North American legal tradition markedly differs from the South American one and both are incompatible with the Central European rule of law. In Hungary and in most European Union countries, solely the passive form of euthanasia is legal. In the Benelux countries, the active form of euthanasia is legal because the supranational law of the European Union does not prohibit it. Notwithstanding, European Union law does not prescribe legalization of either the active form of euthanasia, or the physician-assisted suicide.

  12. Suicide Risk by Military Occupation in the DoD Active Component Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofimovich, Lily; Reger, Mark A.; Luxton, David D.; Oetjen-Gerdes, Lynne A.

    2013-01-01

    Suicide risk based on occupational cohorts within the U.S. military was investigated. Rates of suicide based on military occupational categories were computed for the Department of Defense (DoD) active component population between 2001 and 2010. The combined infantry, gun crews, and seamanship specialist group was at increased risk of suicide…

  13. Suicidal ideation and its determinants in Korean adults: The role of physical activity and functional limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S M

    2015-01-01

    The recognition of suicide as a major public health problem has suggested the need to identify risk factors that have implications for preventive intervention. In the suicidal process, suicidal ideation is a key stage in the pathway leading to eventual suicide. This study investigated the influence of physical activity and functional limitations on suicidal ideation among young and middle-aged adults in a high suicidal society. Data for the current study were obtained from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2009 (KNHANES), a cross-sectional study conducted by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The survey conducted face-to-face interviews with young adults (n = 2326) and middle-aged adults (n = 3396). Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, the relationship of physical activity and functional limitations with suicidal ideation in young and middle-aged adults was assessed. A notable outcome was that the absence of a regular walking was correlated with increased suicidal ideation in middle-aged women. The other major finding was that young women and middle-aged adults with functional limitations had a high rate of suicidal thoughts. Multiple intervention approaches, including informational, social and behavioural approaches, are needed to promote regular walking in middle-aged women. For instance, mass media campaigns, community walking groups and individually adapted health behaviour modification may provide opportunities for positive intervention. Additionally, another important public health implication from these findings is the need for a suicide-intervention support system that includes screening for suicide risk in healthcare settings, especially among young women with physical limitations. PMID:25434531

  14. The Impact of Habit of Eating Breakfast and Physical Activity on Children Suicidal Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, WHS; Chiu, IWS

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Youth suicide is one of the top three causes of death among age group between 15 and 24 years old. The known risk factors include depression, hopelessness, dysfunctional families, substance abuse, school failure and harassment. However, research reports in relation to the protective factors to prevent adolescent from suicidal attempts are still lacking. The purpose of this study is to detect (if any) the protective effect of physical activity and the habit of eating breakfast on...

  15. Temporal patterns of charcoal burning suicides among the working age population in Hong Kong SAR: the influence of economic activity status and sex

    OpenAIRE

    Law Chi-kin; Leung Candi MC

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Charcoal burning in a sealed room has recently emerged as the second most common suicide means in Hong Kong, causing approximately 200 deaths each year. As charcoal burning suicide victims have a unique sociodemographic profile (i.e., predominantly economically active men), they may commit suicide at specific times. However, little is known about the temporal patterns of charcoal burning suicides. Methods Suicide data from 2001 to 2008 on victims of usual working age (20–5...

  16. Suicide and suicidal behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... communities where there have been recent outbreaks of suicide in young people Romantic breakup While men are more likely than women to die by suicide, women are twice as likely to attempt suicide. ...

  17. Effect of active vs. passive recovery on repeat suicide run time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, James E; Douglas Boatwright, J; Hunskor, Martha J; Howell, Dan C

    2003-05-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the difference between active and passive recovery methods during successive suicide runs by Division I women's collegiate basketball athletes (n = 14). Testing consisted of sprinting suicides on the basketball court using both traditional (short) and reverse-sequence (long) protocols. Two 90-second recovery methods were used, passive (standing still) and active (slow self-paced jogging). Although successive run time was reduced by a mean of 0.55 seconds after passive recovery relative to active, it did not reach significance (p = 0.09). Likewise, the difference between long and short line versions was nonsignificant (p = 0.41). Therefore, neither line sequence nor 90-second recovery technique appears to influence subsequent run time when performing 2 maximal-effort suicides. PMID:12741874

  18. Active multimodal psychotherapy in children and adolescents with suicidality: description, evaluation and clinical profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Högberg, Goran; Hällström, Tore

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to describe and evaluate the clinical pattern of 14 youths with presenting suicidality, to describe an integrative treatment approach, and to estimate therapy effectiveness. Fourteen patients aged 10 to 18 years from a child and adolescent outpatient clinic in Stockholm were followed in a case series. The patients were treated with active multimodal psychotherapy. This consisted of mood charting by mood-maps, psycho-education, wellbeing practice and trauma resolution. Active techniques were psychodrama and body-mind focused techniques including eye movement desensitization and reprocessing. The patients were assessed before treatment, immediately after treatment and at 22 months post treatment with the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale. The clinical pattern of the group was observed. After treatment there was a significant change towards normality in the Global Assessment of Functioning scale both immediately post-treatment and at 22 months. A clinical pattern, post trauma suicidal reaction, was observed with a combination of suicidality, insomnia, bodily symptoms and disturbed mood regulation. We conclude that in the post trauma reaction suicidality might be a presenting symptom in young people. Despite the shortcomings of a case series the results of this study suggest that a mood-map-based multimodal treatment approach with active techniques might be of value in the treatment of children and youth with suicidality.

  19. Are There Gender-Specific Risk Factors for Suicidal Activity among Patients with Schizophrenia and Depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Kalman J.; Harrow, Martin; Faull, Robert N.

    2012-01-01

    Are there gender-specific risk factors for suicidal activity among patients with schizophrenia and depression? A total of 74 schizophrenia patients (51 men, 23 women) and 77 unipolar nonpsychotic depressed patients (26 men, 51 women) from the Chicago Follow-up Study were studied prospectively at 2 years posthospitalization and again at 7.5 years.…

  20. Associations between Physical Activity and Reduced Rates of Hopelessness, Depression, and Suicidal Behavior among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taliaferro, Lindsay A.; Rienzo, Barbara A.; Pigg, R. Morgan; Miller, M. David; Dodd, Virginia J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors explored associations among types of physical activity and hopelessness, depression, and suicidal behavior among college students. Participants: Participants included 43,499 college students aged 18 to 25 who completed the 2005 National College Health Assessment conducted by the American College Health Association. Methods:…

  1. Suicide and suicidal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turecki, Gustavo; Brent, David A

    2016-03-19

    Suicide is a complex public health problem of global importance. Suicidal behaviour differs between sexes, age groups, geographic regions, and sociopolitical settings, and variably associates with different risk factors, suggesting aetiological heterogeneity. Although there is no effective algorithm to predict suicide in clinical practice, improved recognition and understanding of clinical, psychological, sociological, and biological factors might help the detection of high-risk individuals and assist in treatment selection. Psychotherapeutic, pharmacological, or neuromodulatory treatments of mental disorders can often prevent suicidal behaviour; additionally, regular follow-up of people who attempt suicide by mental health services is key to prevent future suicidal behaviour.

  2. Suicide and suicidal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turecki, Gustavo; Brent, David A

    2016-03-19

    Suicide is a complex public health problem of global importance. Suicidal behaviour differs between sexes, age groups, geographic regions, and sociopolitical settings, and variably associates with different risk factors, suggesting aetiological heterogeneity. Although there is no effective algorithm to predict suicide in clinical practice, improved recognition and understanding of clinical, psychological, sociological, and biological factors might help the detection of high-risk individuals and assist in treatment selection. Psychotherapeutic, pharmacological, or neuromodulatory treatments of mental disorders can often prevent suicidal behaviour; additionally, regular follow-up of people who attempt suicide by mental health services is key to prevent future suicidal behaviour. PMID:26385066

  3. Air Pollution and Emergency Department Visits for Suicide Attempts in Vancouver, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Mieczysław Szyszkowicz; Willey, Jeff B.; Eric Grafstein; Rowe, Brian H; Ian Colman

    2010-01-01

    Background: Comorbidity of depression, heart disease, and migraine has been observed in clinical practice, while ambient air pollution has been identified among different risk factors for these health conditions. Suicide attempts and ideations as the result of depression may be linked to air pollution exposure. Therefore the effects of ambient air pollution on emergency department (ED) visits for suicide attempts were investigated. Methods: Emergency visit data were collected in a hospital in...

  4. Suicide Terrorists: Are They Suicidal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Ellen

    2007-01-01

    Are suicide terrorists suicidal? A review of the worldwide literature on suicide terrorism uncovered five published empirical studies describing data collected from potential suicide terrorists or the surviving friends and families of deceased terrorists. The many discrepancies uncovered between suicide terrorists and other suicides on key factors…

  5. Elderly Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elderly Suicide Fact Sheet Based on 2012 Data (2014) Overview • The elderly (ages 65 and older) made up 13. ... population; they accounted for 16.37% of all suicides in the US. • The rate of suicides for ...

  6. Dissociable Patterns of Neural Activity during Response Inhibition in Depressed Adolescents with and without Suicidal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Lisa A.; Batezati-Alves, Silvia C.; Almeida, Jorge R. C.; Segreti, AnnaMaria; Akkal, Dalila; Hassel, Stefanie; Lakdawala, Sara; Brent, David A.; Phillips, Mary L.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Impaired attentional control and behavioral control are implicated in adult suicidal behavior. Little is known about the functional integrity of neural circuitry supporting these processes in suicidal behavior in adolescence. Method: Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used in 15 adolescent suicide attempters with a history of…

  7. [Biological review of completed suicide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Ikuo; Sora, Ichiro; Hishimoto, Akitoyo

    2016-06-01

    Family, twin and adoption studies have revealed genetic factors involved in suicide, while the accumulation of stress and mental illnesses are major contributing factors of suicide. Since higher lethality of suicidal behavior is considered to increase familial liability to suicidal behavior, we believe biological research of completed suicide is most important for a better understanding of the pathophysiology in suicide. Dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis has gained a special interest in the neurobiology of suicide, mostly because of the findings using a dexamethasone suppression test (DST), in which DST non-suppressors show a nearly 10-fold higher risk of completed suicide than DST suppressors in a depressed cohort. Other data mainly from postmortem brain studies indicate abnormalities of the noradrenergic-locus coeruleus system, serotonergic system, endogenous opioid system, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, inflammatory cytokines and omega-3 fatty acid in completed suicide. However, genetic research of complete suicide is behind other mental problems because it is extremely difficult to obtain tissue samples of completed suicide. Under the difficult situation, we now retain over 800 blood samples of suicide completers thanks to bereaved families' cooperation. We are actively working on the research of suicide, for instance, by performing a GWAS using 500 samples of suicide completers.

  8. [Biological review of completed suicide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Ikuo; Sora, Ichiro; Hishimoto, Akitoyo

    2016-06-01

    Family, twin and adoption studies have revealed genetic factors involved in suicide, while the accumulation of stress and mental illnesses are major contributing factors of suicide. Since higher lethality of suicidal behavior is considered to increase familial liability to suicidal behavior, we believe biological research of completed suicide is most important for a better understanding of the pathophysiology in suicide. Dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis has gained a special interest in the neurobiology of suicide, mostly because of the findings using a dexamethasone suppression test (DST), in which DST non-suppressors show a nearly 10-fold higher risk of completed suicide than DST suppressors in a depressed cohort. Other data mainly from postmortem brain studies indicate abnormalities of the noradrenergic-locus coeruleus system, serotonergic system, endogenous opioid system, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, inflammatory cytokines and omega-3 fatty acid in completed suicide. However, genetic research of complete suicide is behind other mental problems because it is extremely difficult to obtain tissue samples of completed suicide. Under the difficult situation, we now retain over 800 blood samples of suicide completers thanks to bereaved families' cooperation. We are actively working on the research of suicide, for instance, by performing a GWAS using 500 samples of suicide completers. PMID:27506081

  9. Suicide with cesium 137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Report on first case of suicide with radioactive substance in Bulgaria is given. A defectoscopist with cyclothymic structure of character and psychotraumatic family environment made a second and successful attempt at suicide, this time by means of external irradiation with 137Cs with an activity of 5.3 C in the course of two hours. He irradiated his heart region and the first three fingers of his right hand. A grave picture of acute, local irradiation injury lasting four months with lethal outcome. The authors treat the psychological motives in the behaviour of these suicides and the reasons which determine the small number of suicide carried out with radioactive substance. (author)

  10. Rational Suicide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, David J.

    1998-01-01

    The rational suicide paradigm is contrasted with the traditional view of the mental health professions. Historical background on suicide in western civilization is supplied and the concept of rationality elucidated. Parallels between the questions of refusing life-prolonging therapy and rational suicide are discussed, as are reasons for suicide.…

  11. The Association between Sexual Assault and Suicidal Activity in a National Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasula, Jessica L.; Anderson, Laura M.; Littleton, Heather L.; Riley-Tillman, T. Chris

    2012-01-01

    Sexual violence is a potential key risk factor for adolescent suicidal behavior but has not been studied extensively. Thus, the current study examined the extent to which sexual assault predicted suicide attempts among adolescent students in the national Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System survey (2007 data). Gender differences in suicidal…

  12. Family and individual factors of suicidal ideation in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srdanović-Maraš Jelena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to better understand the phenomenon of suicidal behavior of adolescents by establishing relations between characteristics of a family system and suicidal ideation, as well as determining the influence of family and individual factors on suicidal ideation in adolescents. The systemic family therapy was used as the theoretical framework for this investigation. The study sample included 96 adolescents, aged 14-21 years, who assessed the functionality of their own families that were in the adolescent phase of a family life cycle at the time of the study. Participants were assigned to one of the three groups: the first consisted of adolescents who had previously attempted suicide, the second of adolescents who had another psychiatric problem at the time of the study, and the third was made up of adolescents who had never had psychiatric or psychological problems. The following instruments were used: Self-report Family Inventory (SFI, Beck’s Depression Inventory (BDI, Rosenberg’s Self-Esteem Scale, and Beck’s Suicidal Ideation Scale (SIS. The results suggest that family has a significant, but indirect influence on suicidal ideation in adolescents. Suicidal ideation is primarily related to adolescents’ individual characteristics, which are indeed strongly influenced by family functionality.

  13. Risk factors and reporting status for attempted Suicide: A hospital-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punithakumary Purushothaman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Suicide is a major public health problem and ranks second among the leading causes of death in both genders in 15-34 years. Suicidal attempts are 20 times higher than the completed suicides. Aims: The aim was to identify background risk factors and precipitating factors for suicide attempts in Pondicherry district and to find out the reporting status of suicide attempts. Settings and Design: Hospital-based descriptive study. Subjects and Methods: 200 subjects who have attempted suicide from JIPMER and Indira Gandhi Government Hospital and Post Graduate Institute Pondicherry were interviewed. Monthly data on attempted suicide were collected from Crime Record Bureau of Pondicherry and Villupuram district and Medical Records Department of these two hospitals was collected. Statistical Analysis Used: SPSS version 16.0 was used. Chi-square test was used to test the significance of the difference between two proportions. Results: Most common precipitating factor found among those who attempted suicide was verbal abuse, most often by parents (31.9%. The most common mode of suicide attempt was consumption of chemical poison in 56% of subjects followed by plant poison 41.5%. The suicide intention was high in 81.5% of subjects. No significant difference in risk factors could be found between subjects from Pondicherry and villupuram district. It was found that there was gross under-reporting of attempted suicides to Crime Records Bureau. Conclusions: Measurement of suicide intention enables us to predict the future suicidal behavior in adults; individuals with a high suicide intent index pose a major public health problem. Hence, there is a need for opportunistic screening of those with suicidal ideations as well as counseling and follow-up of those with suicide attempts to prevent further attempts.

  14. Effect of hopelessness on the links between psychiatric symptoms and suicidality in a vulnerable population at risk of suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, Patricia; Tarrier, Nicholas; Dunn, Graham; Shaw, Jennifer; Awenat, Yvonne; Ulph, Fiona; Pratt, Daniel

    2015-12-15

    The aim of this study was to examine the impact of two risk factors working together on a measure of suicide probability in a highly vulnerable group who were male prisoners identified as being at risk of self harm. The first risk factor was psychiatric symptoms, including general psychiatric symptoms and symptoms of personality disorder. The second risk factor was psychological precursors of suicidal thoughts and behaviours which were defeat, entrapment, and hopelessness. Sixty-five male prisoners from a high secure prison in NW England, UK, were recruited, all of whom were considered at risk of suicide by prison staff. General psychiatric symptoms and symptoms of personality disorders predicted the probability of suicide. Hopelessness amplified the strength of the positive relationship between general psychiatric symptoms and suicide probability. These amplification effects acted most strongly on suicidal ideation as opposed to negative self evaluations or hostility. In contrast, defeat, entrapment and hopelessness did not affect the relationship between personality disorders and suicide probability. Clinical assessments of highly vulnerable individuals, as exemplified by prisoners, should include measures of a range of general psychiatric symptoms, together with measures of psychological components, in particular perceptions of hopelessness.

  15. Suicidal mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Salvatore Gentile

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Epidemiological research has demonstrated that suicidal ideation is a relatively frequent complication of pregnancy in both developed and developing countries. Hence, the aims of this study are: to assess whether or not pregnancy may be considered a period highly susceptible to suicidal acts; to recognize potential contributing factors to suicidal behaviors; to describe the repercussions of suicide attempts on maternal, fetal, and neonatal outcome; to identify a typical ...

  16. Suicidal behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neeleman, J

    2001-01-01

    -Prevention of suicidal behaviour remains difficult, despite increasing knowledge of its determinants. Health service efforts hardly affect suicide rates. -Recent shifts in the epidemiology of suicidal behaviour are rising rates among the young and increasing use of violent methods. these can be lin

  17. Calcium-activated butyrylcholinesterase in human skin protects acetylcholinesterase against suicide inhibition by neurotoxic organophosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The human epidermis holds an autocrine acetylcholine production and degradation including functioning membrane integrated and cytosolic butyrylcholinesterase (BuchE). Here we show that BuchE activities increase 9-fold in the presence of calcium (0.5 x 10-3M) via a specific EF-hand calcium binding site, whereas acetylcholinesterase (AchE) is not affected. 45Calcium labelling and computer simulation confirmed the presence of one EF-hand binding site per subunit which is disrupted by H2O2-mediated oxidation. Moreover, we confirmed the faster hydrolysis by calcium-activated BuchE using the neurotoxic organophosphate O-ethyl-O-(4-nitrophenyl)-phenylphosphonothioate (EPN). Considering the large size of the human skin with 1.8 m2 surface area with its calcium gradient in the 10-3M range, our results implicate calcium-activated BuchE as a major protective mechanism against suicide inhibition of AchE by organophosphates in this non-neuronal tissue

  18. SUICIDE IN RURAL COMMUNITY

    OpenAIRE

    Hedge, R. S.

    1980-01-01

    SUMMARY 51 suicides in a rural community of Northern Karnataka were studied for incidence, age and sex distribution, methods adopted for suicides, and causes of suicides. Suicides in rural area did not show any difference from urban suicide pattern.

  19. Doxycycline and suicidality

    OpenAIRE

    Atigari, Onome Victor; Hogan, Carys; Healy, David

    2013-01-01

    A case series outlining three young individuals with no history of mental disorder who were treated for skin conditions with doxycycline, but developed suicidal ideation with an outcome of suicide in two of the cases. One of these individuals had CYP2C19*2 heterozygote genotype associated with a diminished cytochrome p450 enzyme activity and two of his siblings had developed severe anxiety previously while on doxycycline. Another had previously developed mood difficulties on a lower dose of d...

  20. Suicidal mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Gentile

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epidemiological research has demonstrated that suicidal ideation is a relatively frequent complication of pregnancy in both developed and developing countries. Hence, the aims of this study are: to assess whether or not pregnancy may be considered a period highly susceptible to suicidal acts; to recognize potential contributing factors to suicidal behaviors; to describe therepercussions of suicide attempts on maternal, fetal, and neonatal outcome; to identify a typical profile of women at high risk of suicide during pregnancy.Methods: Medical literature information published in any language since 1950 was identified using MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases. Search terms were: “pregnancy”,(antenatal “depression”, “suicide”. Searches were last updated on 28 September 2010. Forty-six articles assessing the suicidal risk during pregnancy and obstetrical outcome of pregnancies complicated by suicide attempts were analyzed, without methodological limitations.Results: Worldwide, frequency of suicidal attempts and the rate of death by suicidal acts are low. Although this clinical event is rare, the consequences of a suicidal attempt are medically andpsychologically devastating for the mother-infant pair. We also found that common behaviors exist in women at high risk for suicide during pregnancy. Review data indeed suggest that a characteristicprofile can prenatally identify those at highest risk for gestational suicide attempts.Conclusions: Social and health organizations should make all possible efforts to identify women at high suicidal risk, in order to establish specific programs to prevent this tragic event. The available data informs health policy makers with a typical profile to screen women at high risk ofsuicide during pregnancy. Those women who have a current or past history of psychiatric disorders,are young, unmarried, unemployed, have incurred an unplanned pregnancy (eventually terminated with an

  1. Risk factors for suicidal behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonova A.A.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

     

    The article presents data on risk factors that contribute to the development of suicidal behavior. The development of suicidal behavior is infuenced by a number of factors. These include — gender, age, residence, occupation, marital status, health status, etc. A number of studies indicated the impact of economic and social factors on the level of suicidal activity of the population. Observed relationship between mental disorders, substance abuse (particularly alcohol and suicide. In this case, the presence of numerous investigations in the feld of Suicidology, a number of problems still remains unsolved. Further study of issues relating to risk factors that infuence the development of suicidal behavior. Of particular note is the importance of “regional” risk factors that most infuence on the formation of suicidal behavior in a particular region.

  2. Suicide policy in Canada: lessons from history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiwak, Rae; Elias, Brenda; Bolton, James M; Martens, Patricia J; Sareen, Jitender

    2012-07-18

    In Canada, suicide has transitioned from being a criminal activity with much associated stigma, to being a public health concern that needs to be managed by governments and clinicians in a culturally sensitive manner. In Canada and worldwide, the social attitudes toward and legal interpretation of suicide have been dynamic. Much has been proposed in the development of suicide policy in Canada, however Canada is unique in that it remains one of the only industrialized countries without a national suicide prevention strategy. The current article provides a critical review of the history of suicide in Canada, as well as an appraisal of Canadian suicide prevention policies and key government and political milestones that have impacted suicide policy. Current activity regarding a national suicide prevention strategy in Canada is discussed, as well as potential options for clinician involvement.

  3. Youth Suicide Risk: Evaluation and Crisis Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Catarina Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Suicide attempts and suicidal behaviours represent a complex problem, with high prevalence in adolescence. The management of youth suicidal behaviour may occur in diverse contexts of child and adolescent psychiatric activity, not only in the emergency room, but also in liaison work and ambulatory consultation. In suicidal crisis intervention it ́s fundamental to involve the youth and the family as this represents a crucial moment for clinical assessment and treatment compliance. This review o...

  4. Cognitive vulnerabilities and development of suicidal thinking in children of depressed mothers: A longitudinal investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsypes, Aliona; Gibb, Brandon E

    2016-05-30

    Although children of depressed parents are at heightened risk for suicidal ideation, little is known about specific risk factors. This study focused on the relation between a broad range of cognitive vulnerabilities proposed by the leading cognitive theories and the development of suicidal ideation in children. Participants were 209 mothers (aged 24-55) and their 8-14 year old children. Children of depressed mothers who had previously experienced suicidal ideation themselves reported higher levels of brooding rumination than children of depressed mothers who had not experienced suicidal ideation as well as children of never depressed mothers who had not experienced suicidal ideation. Further, among children of depressed mothers with no prior history of suicidal ideation, higher levels of hopelessness and lower global self-worth predicted first onset of suicidal ideation over a 2-year follow-up. Importantly, these results were maintained even after taking the occurrence of major depressive disorder in children during the follow-up into account. The findings highlight specific cognitive vulnerabilities that could be targeted in early suicide prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:27137968

  5. Management of suicidal and self-harming behaviors in prisons: systematic literature review of evidence-based activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Emma; Kõlves, Kairi; De Leo, Diego

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to systematically analyze existing literature testing the effectiveness of programs involving the management of suicidal and self-harming behaviors in prisons. For the study, 545 English-language articles published in peer reviewed journals were retrieved using the terms "suicid*," "prevent*," "prison," or "correctional facility" in SCOPUS, MEDLINE, PROQUEST, and Web of Knowledge. In total, 12 articles were relevant, with 6 involving multi-factored suicide prevention programs, and 2 involving peer focused programs. Others included changes to the referral and care of suicidal inmates, staff training, legislation changes, and a suicide prevention program for inmates with Borderline Personality Disorder. Multi-factored suicide prevention programs appear most effective in the prison environment. Using trained inmates to provide social support to suicidal inmates is promising. Staff attitudes toward training programs were generally positive. PMID:24611725

  6. Subtypes of psychotic-like experiences are differentially associated with suicidal ideation, plans and attempts in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capra, Carina; Kavanagh, David J; Hides, Leanne; Scott, James G

    2015-08-30

    Psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) have been associated with increased risk of suicidality, but it is unclear whether the level of risk varies with different types of PLE. A cross-sectional online survey was completed by 1610 university students. Respondents completed the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences-15 (CAPE-P15) assessing PLEs on three subscales: Perceptual Abnormalities (PA), Persecutory Ideation (PI) and Bizarre Experiences (BE). Lifetime suicidal ideation, plans and attempts, cannabis, ecstasy and methamphetamine use and family history of mental disorder were also assessed. Multinomal logistic regression was used to examine unique determinants of lifetime suicidality, defined as any history of (i) suicidal ideation or plans and (ii) any attempt, relative to no lifetime history of suicidality. A lifetime history of PA and PI provided significant unique contributions to the prediction of suicide risk, after control for other significant predictors. BE were not associated with any suicide variable demonstrating the variation in risk of suicidality with different types of PLEs. Perceptual abnormalities and persecutory ideation as measured by the CAPE-P15 are the PLEs associated with a higher risk of lifetime suicidality. PMID:26050011

  7. Musical creativity and suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preti, A; De Biasi, F; Miotto, P

    2001-12-01

    The different abilities involved in artistic creativity may be mirrored by differences among mental disorders prevalent in each artistic profession, taking poets, painters, and composers as examples. Using suicide rates as a proxy for the prevalence of mental disorders in groups of artists, we investigated the percentage of deaths by suicide in a sample of 4,564 eminent artists who died in the 19th and 20th centuries. Of the sample, 2,259 were primarily involved in activities of a linguistic nature, e.g., poets and writers; 834 were primarily visual artists, such as painters and sculptors; and 1,471 were musicians (composers and instrumentalists). There were 63 suicides in the sample (1.3% of total deaths). Musicians as a group had lower suicide rates than literary and visual artists. Beyond socioeconomic reasons, which might favour interpretations based on effects of health selection, the lower rate of suicides among musicians may reflect some protective effect arising from music. PMID:11824743

  8. [Psychotherapy of suicidality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, R; Schneider, B

    2016-05-01

    Psychotherapy is an important therapeutic option in the treatment of suicidality. Irrespective of the different treatment settings the psychotherapeutic attitudes, strategies and techniques are presented as they were developed on the basis of cognitive behavioral therapy and psychoanalysis. Starting from the common basic attitude of an active, approachable and for the patient recognizable therapist, the cognitive behavioral attitude is defined by the concept of a "team" involving patient and therapist, which fights against suicidality. The problems that led to suicidal ideation have to be exactly defined and specific behavioral strategies should aim at a modification of the behavioral repertoire and of cognitive strategies. A psychodynamic strategy starting from the analysis of the therapist's inner reaction, the countertransference comes from a primary involvement of both patient and therapist, which the therapist has to recognize and interpret to the patient in a "digestible" way. The experience of an approachable therapist who unexpectedly behaves differently than usual or feared, enables the patient to come to insights and new relational patterns which make suicidal destruction unnecessary. Finally, empirical evidence for the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral and psychodynamic treatment of suicidality is presented. PMID:27056189

  9. "Suicide Machine" Seekers: Transgressing Suicidal Taboos Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seko, Yukari

    2008-01-01

    Internet-mediated joint suicides or "Net group suicides" ("Net shinju") has become a significant social problem in Japan since 2002. Despite a privileged view of suicide-related cyberspaces as a murky underworld, there has been little study about how the participants of such spaces interact and perform their "suicidal" identity. Viewing cyberspace…

  10. Do the Five Combinations of Suicidal Ideation in the FDA 2012 Draft Guidance Document and the C–SSRS Adequately Cover All Suicidal Ideation Combinations in Practice? A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Giddens, Jennifer M.; Sheehan, David V.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The United States Food and Drug Administration’s newest classification system for suicidality assessment anchors suicidal ideation to various combinations of passive suicidal ideation, active suicidal ideation, method, intent, and plan. This is based upon the suicidal ideation categories in the Columbia–Suicide Severity Rating Scale. Although there are 32 possible combinations of these suicidal ideation phenomena, the Food and Drug Administration’s 2012 system and the Columbia–Suic...

  11. Cell suicide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the fight of the cell against the damages caused to its DNA by genotoxic agents and specially by ionizing radiations, the p53 protein plays a central part. It intervenes in the proliferation control and the differentiation but also in the keeping of genome integrity. It can direct the damages cells toward suicide, or apoptosis, to avoid the risk of tumor appearance that would be fatal to the whole organism. That is by the disordered state of cells suicide programs that the tumor cells are going to develop. The knowledge of apoptosis mechanisms, to eventually start them on demand, rises up broad hopes in the cancer therapy. (N.C.)

  12. Suicide among Secondary Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coder, Tamara L.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Investigated incidence of adolescent suicide in Kansas and assessed prevention guidelines and services dealing with adolescent suicide, and perceived needs of Kansas secondary school counselors in the area of teenage suicide. Findings from 484 school counselors indicated increase in suicide rates with age and need for suicide prevention programing…

  13. The Newsworthiness of Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirkis, Jane; Burgess, Philip; Blood, R. Warwick; Francis, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    There is a paucity of studies examining which suicides are considered newsworthy. By combining data on media reports of individuals' suicides with routinely collected suicide data, it was found that 1% of Australian suicides were reported over a 1-year period. There was evidence of over-reporting of suicides by older people and females, and those…

  14. Suicide Awareness Voices of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... suicide never seek professional care. New Suicide Prevention Awareness Ribbon For this year's World Suicide Prevention (WSPD), ... Suicide Prevention has launched a universal suicide prevention awareness ribbon. The ribbon colors - yellow and orange - were ...

  15. Suicidal Erythrocyte Death in Malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Koka, Sai Sudha

    2008-01-01

    Malaria is one of the most devastating diseases with lethal outcome in more than 1 million humans per year. The course of the disease is not only a function of the pathogen but is heavily influenced by properties of the host. Mechanisms possibly conferring protection against a severe course of malaria include suicidal death of the infected cell. A particular form of suicidal erythrocyte death is eryptosis, which is characterized by Ca2+-entry with subsequent activation of Ca2+-sensitive K+ ch...

  16. Suicide and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sign-Up Save. Suicide Awareness Voices of Education Suicide and Depression Q&A Why do people kill ... does not become an option. Do people attempt suicide to prove something or to get sympathy? No. ...

  17. Attempted suicide, suicidal intent, and alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, A S; Stenager, E; Brahe, U B

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to relate suicidal intent to the suicide method chosen and the medical lethality of the suicidal act, and to discuss how ingestion of alcohol impacts these three factors. The study was based upon interviews with 139 suicidal patients admitted to the Department of Psychiatry of Odense University Hospital. The results indicated a tendency for suicide attempters using wrist-cutting to score low on the Suicidal Intent Scale. Patients using kinds of self-injury other than self-poisoning or wrist-cutting scored high. In the case of self-poisoning, suicidal intent did not influence the choice of toxic agent, nor was the choice of method and/or choice of toxic agent affected by alcohol ingestion. A correlation between suicidal intent and the lethality of the suicide attempt was seen only among patients without a diagnosis of alcohol dependence. Alcohol-dependent patients who made highly lethal attempts scored relatively low on the Suicidal Intent Scale. The results indicate that the lethality of the suicidal act is only an incomplete guide to a patient's suicidal intent. However, it should be stressed that, despite the fact that alcohol-dependent suicide attempters may not strongly wish to die, they are nonetheless at high risk for making fatal suicide attempts.

  18. Youth Suicide Risk: Evaluation and Crisis Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Pereira

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Suicide attempts and suicidal behaviours represent a complex problem, with high prevalence in adolescence. The management of youth suicidal behaviour may occur in diverse contexts of child and adolescent psychiatric activity, not only in the emergency room, but also in liaison work and ambulatory consultation. In suicidal crisis intervention it ́s fundamental to involve the youth and the family as this represents a crucial moment for clinical assessment and treatment compliance. This review on child and adolescent suicidal behaviour focuses on characterizing and understanding the developmental features of these behaviours, risk and protection factors and it offers orientations about assessment and acute management of children and adolescents who present with suicidal behaviour.

  19. Adolescent Suicide: Character Traits of High-Risk Teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiger, Brad L.; Hopkins, Rodney W.

    1988-01-01

    Examines personality traits and life circumstances which place adolescents at higher risk for suicide. Discusses depression, acute suicidal behavior, poor family relationships, alcohol and drug use, recent loss, failure in school, and other characteristics. Urges parents and professionals to know suicide signs and be active in prevention and…

  20. The Ethics of Suicide and Suicide Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David; Leenaars, Antoon A.

    1996-01-01

    Debates the question of suicide as a defensible choice, particularly for the terminally ill, examining the relevance of such issues as the mortality, rationality, and dynamics of the suicidal act, and the legitimacy of physician-assisted suicide. Contrasting perspectives are articulated by two prominent suicidologists as a spur to the reader's…

  1. Victimization and Suicidality among Dutch Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youth

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This study among 274 Dutch lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youth showed that victimization at school was associated with suicidal ideation and actual suicide attempts. Homophobic rejection by parents was also associated with actual suicide attempts. Suicidality in this population could be reduced by supporting coping strategies of LGB youth who are confronted with stigmatization by peers and parents, and by schools actively promoting acceptance of same-sex sexuality.

  2. Suicide and Emo Youth Subculture – A Case Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Definis-Gojanović, Marija; Gugić, Dijana; Sutlović, Davorka

    2009-01-01

    Depression and suicide present a serious health problem especially for teenagers as they are increasingly diagnosed with mood disorders of different severity, possibly leading to suicidal activity. Reported here is a misfortunate young girl who committed suicide by jumping from high altitude. She left a suicide note which, together with her behavior in the death-preceding period, pointed to her apparently belonging to an Emo subculture. Although few and scarce, most existing articles and repo...

  3. Suicide and Personality

    OpenAIRE

    Ak, Mehmet; Gülsün, Murat; Özmenler, K. Nahit

    2009-01-01

    Many factors may play role in the emergence of suicidal behavior. Familial tendency including some features of personality structure, hopelessness, affective disorder, and suicide behavior have attracted close attention recently. Personality disorders seem to be prevalent in individuals who attempt suicide. Beside it has been reported that personality disorders and other psychiatric disorder comorbidity increase the risk of suicide. To present the relationship between suicide and personalit...

  4. [Suicide and suicide tendencies in adolescent detainees].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radeloff, Daniel; Lempp, Thomas; Rauf, Amna; Bennefeld-Kersten, Katharina; Kettner, Mattias; Freitag, Christine M

    2016-01-01

    Following accidents, suicide is the second leading cause of death in adolescence. This stage of life has the most suicide attempts of all age groups. In addition to mentally ill juveniles, adolescent delinquents represent a high-risk group for suicidal behavior and completed suicide. In particular, the population of detainees, an extreme form of juvenile delinquency, have a 16- to 18-fold higher risk of suicidal behavior and suicide compared to the general population. Because the composition of juvenile detainees differs greatly from that of detained adults, age-specific scientific approaches and prevention programs are needed. This task cannot be addressed by juvenile detention staff alone, but rather demands close cooperation between adolescent psychiatrists, psychologists, prison medical staff, legal experts and prison officers to use the opportunity for suicide prevention in juvenile detention facilities.

  5. About Teen Suicide (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy About Teen Suicide KidsHealth > For Parents > About Teen Suicide Print ... take action to help a troubled teenager. About Teen Suicide The reasons behind a teen's suicide or ...

  6. Suicide in the Middle Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, David W.; Hodges, Debra K.; Kohler, Connie

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an overview of adult suicide in the United States and Alabama. This includes the latest available information on the prevalence of suicide in the US and Alabama, demographic characteristics of suicide victims, trends in suicide, and known reasons behind adult suicide. With respect to adult suicide in Alabama, it focuses on…

  7. Suicide attempts, platelet monoamine oxidase and the average evoked response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship between suicides and suicide attempts and two biological measures, platelet monoamine oxidase levels (MAO) and average evoked response (AER) augmenting was examined in 79 off-medication psychiatric patients and in 68 college student volunteers chosen from the upper and lower deciles of MAO activity levels. In the patient sample, male individuals with low MAO and AER augmenting, a pattern previously associated with bipolar affective disorders, showed a significantly increased incidence of suicide attempts in comparison with either non-augmenting low MAO or high MAO patients. Within the normal volunteer group, all male low MAO probands with a family history of suicide or suicide attempts were AER augmenters themselves. Four completed suicides were found among relatives of low MAO probands whereas no high MAO proband had a relative who committed suicide. These findings suggest that the combination of low platelet MAO activity and AER augmenting may be associated with a possible genetic vulnerability to psychiatric disorders. (author)

  8. Suicide and Suicide Attempts in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shain, Benjamin

    2016-07-01

    Suicide is the second leading cause of death for adolescents 15 to 19 years old. This report updates the previous statement of the American Academy of Pediatrics and is intended to assist pediatricians, in collaboration with other child and adolescent health care professionals, in the identification and management of the adolescent at risk for suicide. Suicide risk can only be reduced, not eliminated, and risk factors provide no more than guidance. Nonetheless, care for suicidal adolescents may be improved with the pediatrician's knowledge, skill, and comfort with the topic, as well as ready access to appropriate community resources and mental health professionals. PMID:27354459

  9. Teen Suicide and Guns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Issues Listen Text Size Email Print Share Teen Suicide and Guns Page Content Article Body Protect ... thinking of a passing problem, not the outcome! Teen Suicide—A Big Problem Suicide is one of ...

  10. Schizophrenia and Suicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Cetin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is one of the major causes of premature death among patients with schizophrenia. Follow-up studies have estimated that 4-5% of these patients die by suicide. Reducing the high rates of suicide in schizophrenia is possible with understanding of predictive risk factors. Various studies have identified risk factors for suicide in schizophrenia patients. Clinical risk factors include previous suicide attempts, comorbid depression, feelings of hopelessness, concept of insight and substance abuse. Biopsychosocial factors, such as a high intelligence quotient and high level of premorbid functioning, have also been associated with an increased risk of suicide in patients with schizophrenia. The risk of suicide is considered to be highest in the early course of illness. Antipsychotic drugs, in particular clozapine and antidepressants may be helpful in reducing the risk of suicide in schizophrenia.

  11. Attempted suicide and shame

    OpenAIRE

    Wiklander, Maria

    2012-01-01

    A suicide attempt constitutes not only a risk factor for suicide, but also an expression of human suffering. As therapists, physicians and caring personnel we have an opportunity to reach out to this suffering individual and offer help. However, suicidal individuals often decline psychiatric follow-up or drop out of treatment prematurely. An improved understanding of these patients’ needs and problems may enhance our capability to treat them. This thesis is focusing on attempted suicide...

  12. Editorial: Reducing adolescent suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Michael H

    2016-07-01

    Suicide is currently the second leading cause of death in young people ages 10-19 (CDC, 2015). Current statistics suggest that in the US one in every seven youths has seriously considered or made a plan to commit suicide and one in every 13 youths has attempted suicide in the previous year (CDC, 2015). Suicide represents a - if not the - major public health problem in adolescents. PMID:27320365

  13. Targets of polyamine dysregulation in major depression and suicide: Activity-dependent feedback, excitability, and neurotransmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limon, Agenor; Mamdani, Firoza; Hjelm, Brooke E; Vawter, Marquis P; Sequeira, Adolfo

    2016-07-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a leading cause of disability worldwide characterized by altered neuronal activity in brain regions involved in the control of stress and emotion. Although multiple lines of evidence suggest that altered stress-coping mechanisms underlie the etiology of MDD, the homeostatic control of neuronal excitability in MDD at the molecular level is not well established. In this review, we examine past and current evidence implicating dysregulation of the polyamine system as a central factor in the homeostatic response to stress and the etiology of MDD. We discuss the cellular effects of abnormal metabolism of polyamines in the context of their role in sensing and modulation of neuronal, electrical, and synaptic activity. Finally, we discuss evidence supporting an allostatic model of depression based on a chronic elevation in polyamine levels resulting in self-sustained stress response mechanisms maintained by maladaptive homeostatic mechanisms. PMID:27108532

  14. Suicide and Emo youth subculture--a case analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Definis-Gojanović, Marija; Gugić, Dijana; Sutlović, Davorka

    2009-12-01

    Depression and suicide present a serious health problem especially for teenagers as they are increasingly diagnosed with mood disorders of different severity, possibly leading to suicidal activity. Reported here is a misfortunate young girl who committed suicide by jumping from high altitude. She left a suicide note which, together with her behavior in the death-preceding period, pointed to her apparently belonging to an Emo subculture. Although few and scarce, most existing articles and reports on Emo subculture found that its members like to focus on negative things, dark premonitions and deprivation of enjoyment, like self harm and suicide but no scientific information are available about the characteristics, trends and possible suicidal tendencies of children and adolescents who belong to this subgroup. It is for the future researches to answer whether this type of behavior and music preference are causal factors for increased suicidal vulnerability, or personal characteristics and anamnesis, upbringing and mental health status are actual sources of the problem.

  15. African American Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    African American Suicide Fact Sheet Based on 2012 Data (2014) Overview • In 2012, 2,357 African Americans completed suicide in the U.S. Of these, ... 46 per 100,000. • The suicide rate for African Americans ages 10-19 was 2.98 per ...

  16. School and Teenage Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duraj, Liba

    1984-01-01

    Reports figures indicating a rise in teenage suicide in Canada. Shows how the problem is compounded by silence resulting from official and parent reactions and social taboo. Discusses some of the causes of teenage suicide and explains the role of the school and family in suicide intervention and prevention. (SB)

  17. College Student Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taub, Deborah J.; Thompson, Jalonda

    2013-01-01

    Suicide is the second-leading cause of death among college students, and it is estimated that 1,088 college students die by suicide each year (National Mental Health Association and the Jed Foundation, 2002). This chapter presents the context of college student mental health within which the problem of college student suicide is situated. Because…

  18. Suicide Clusters and Contagion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenere, Frank J.

    2009-01-01

    Youth suicide is one of the most serious preventable health problems in the United States. It is the third leading cause of death among adolescents. According to a recent national survey of students in grades 9-12, nearly 15% of respondents had seriously considered suicide and 7% actually had attempted suicide in the previous 12 months. Moreover,…

  19. Preventing Adolescent Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuzzi, David

    The adolescent at risk for suicidal preoccupation and behavior has become an increasing concern for schools and communities. This paper presents some of the causes of teen suicide, things adults should know about adolescent suicide prevention, and what can be done to help such youth. The transition to adolescence is a complex time when many values…

  20. Suicide and Personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nahit Ozmenler

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Many factors may play role in the emergence of suicidal behavior. Familial tendency including some features of personality structure, hopelessness, affective disorder, and suicide behavior have attracted close attention recently. Personality disorders seem to be prevalent in individuals who attempt suicide. Beside it has been reported that personality disorders and other psychiatric disorder comorbidity increase the risk of suicide. To present the relationship between suicide and personality is quite important for developing strategies in order to prevent suicide attempt. In this field, the data show variability based on scales used for the evaluation of personality, its definition and classification in the research. For example, while some authors used DSM criteria or ICD criteria, others preferred to focus on the temperament and character dimensions of personality. In studies based on diagnostic criteria; B group personality disorders, such as antisocial and borderline personality disorders were found to be most common comorbid personality disorder diagnosis. In studies aiming to investigate the relationship among suicide attempt, temperament and character features, the suicide attempters were found to have lower levels of self directedness, cooperativeness, and higher scores for self transcendence. Suicidal patients were inclined to have higher scores in several temperament groups like harm avoidance, novelty seeking, and reward dependence. Tendency to impulsive behavior is reported as a common denominator for suicidal patients. Individuals, who have familial or acquired tendency of impulsivity, could react more dramatically and present with depressive and pessimistic mood when they have difficulties and encounter stress factors in their daily routine and could easily develop depressive disorders. These factors as a whole could lead to self destructive actions like suicide. Individual or familial history of suicide attempts or completed

  1. Personal Suicidality in Reception and Identification with Suicidal Film Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, Benedikt; Vitouch, Peter; Herberth, Arno; Sonneck, Gernot; Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The authors investigated the impact of suicidality on identity work during film exposure. Adults with low suicidality ("n" = 150) watched either "It's My Party" or "The Fire Within," censored versions of these films not depicting the suicide, or the control film that concluded with a non-suicidal death. Baseline suicidality was measured with…

  2. Suicide and Suicide Prevention: Greek versus Biblical Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Kalman J.

    1992-01-01

    Compares suicide in Greek tragedy and Hebrew Bible, concentrating on life situations portrayed in two sets of narratives promoting or preventing suicide. Notes frequency of suicides in Greek tragedy and infrequency of suicides in Bible. Compares stories of Narcissus and Jonah in attempt to pinpoint what is suicide-promoting in Greek narratives and…

  3. Comparative Validation of the S-STS, the ISST-Plus, and the C–SSRS for Assessing the Suicidal Thinking and Behavior FDA 2012 Suicidality Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alphs, Larry D.; Mao, Lian; Li, Qin; May, Roberta S.; Bruer, Emily H.; Mccullumsmith, Cheryl B.; Gray, Christopher R.; Li, Xiaohua; Williamson, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This exploratory study examines the concurrent validity for mapping symptoms of suicidal ideation, self-harm, and suicidal behavior as recorded on the InterSePT Scale for Suicidal Thinking-Plus, the Sheehan-Suicidality Tracking Scale (clinician- and patient-rated and reconciled patient/clinician versions), and the Columbia–Suicide Severity Rating Scale to the 11 United States Food and Drug Administration-Classification Algorithm of Suicide Assessment (September 2012) categories. Method: Forty subjects with varying degrees of suicidal ideation and behavior severity (from not present to extremely severe) were recruited from inpatient, outpatient, and emergency room settings. Each patient was interviewed using all three scales (InterSePT Scale for Suicidal Thinking-Plus, the Sheehan-Suicidality Tracking Scale, and the Columbia–Suicide Severity Rating Scale) on the same day. The scales were administered in a random sequence by three independent raters who were blind to the ratings on the other scales. Results: The Sheehan-Suicidality Tracking Scale and the InterSePT Scale for Suicidal Thinking-Plus show acceptable agreement with the Columbia–Suicide Severity Rating Scale in detecting the presence or absence of the 2012 Food and Drug Administration-Classification Algorithm of Suicide Assessment categories 1, 5, 6, 10, and 11 (passive ideation; active ideation with method, intent, and plan; completed suicide; preparatory actions; and self-injurious behavior) but not of categories 2, 3, and 4 (3 other active suicidal ideation combination categories) or to 8 and 9 (aborted and interrupted attempt). Despite the significant disagreement between the Columbia–Suicide Severity Rating Scale on the one side and the InterSePT Scale for Suicidal Thinking-Plus and the Sheehan-Suicidality Tracking Scale on the other in the ability to accurately map to the 2012 Food and Drug Administration-Classification Algorithm of Suicide Assessment categories on some items

  4. Suicidal behavior: measurement and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oquendo, Maria A

    2015-12-01

    This issue of Focus on Suicide brings us new data about risk assessment, with 2 articles examining the utility of rating scales for assessment of suicidal behavior. Youngstrom et al conduct a careful comparison of 3 suicide rating scales: the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS), the Suicide Tracking Scale (STS), and the Sheehan Suicidality Tracking Scale (S-STS). While the scales did comparably in 2 broad categories, suicidal ideation and suicide attempts, the study suggests that some subtypes of suicidal behavior/ideation are not captured as well by the S-STS. PMID:26717527

  5. Surviving relatives after suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørrelykke, Helle; Cohrt, Pernille

    2008-01-01

    We would like to focus on the surviving relatives after suicides, because it is generally accepted that it is especially difficult to recover after the loss from suicide and because we know as a fact that one suicide affects five persons on average. Every year approximately 700 people commit...... suicide in Denmark. This means that at least 400 people undergo the trauma it is when one of their near relatives commits suicide. We also know that the loss from suicide involves a lot of conflicting feelings - like anger, shame, guilt and loss and that the lack of therapy/treatment of these difficult...... and conflicting feelings may result in pathological expansion of grief characterized by extremely reduced quality of life involving severe psychical and social consequences. Suicide a subject of taboo In the 1980s WHO drafted a health policy document (‘Health for all year 2000’) with 38 targets for attaining...

  6. Transgenerational Patterns of Suicide Attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Susan B.; Rutter, Carolyn M.

    1991-01-01

    Using data from 2,304 community residents, found self-reports of suicide attempts were more common among persons with than without family history of suicide. Nearly one in four suicide attempters reported family history of suicide. Being female and unmarried, respondent mental disorder, parent mental disorder, and parent suicide attempt exerted…

  7. [Suicide Prevention and Mental Health Measures for Japanese University Students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Masaru; Koyama, Shihomi; Senoo, Akiko; Kawahara, Hiroko; Shimizu, Yukito

    2016-01-01

    According to the nationwide survey of the National University students in Japan, the annual suicide rate in 2012 was 15.7 per 100,000 undergraduate students. In many universities, suicide prevention is an important issue regarding mental health measures, and each university is actively examining this. The current situation concerning measures for suicide prevention in the Japanese National Universities was investigated in 2009. In 2010, the "college student's suicide prevention measures guideline, 2010" was established based on the results of this investigation. This guideline refers to the basic philosophy of suicide prevention in Chapter 1, risk factors for suicide in Chapter 2, and systems and activities for suicide prevention in Chapter 3. The Health Service Center, Okayama University plays central roles in mental health and suicide prevention measures on the Medical Campus. The primary prevention includes a mini-lecture on mental health, classes on mental health, and periodic workshops and lectures for freshmen. The secondary prevention includes interviews with students with mental health disorders by a psychiatrist during periodic health check-ups and introducing them to a hospital outside the university. The tertiary prevention includes support for students taking a leave of absence to return to school, periodic consultation with such students with mental disorders, and postvention following a suicide. We believe that for mental health measures on the university campus, it is important to efficiently make use of limited resources, and that these efforts will eventually lead to suicide prevention.

  8. Rational suicide, assisted suicide, and indirect legal paternalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramme, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This article argues in favour of three related claims: First, suicide is not an immoral act. If people autonomously choose to kill themselves, this ought to be respected. Second, we can deem the desire to die comprehensible, and even rational, when the person contemplating suicide does not see a meaning in her life. This assessment is not based on a metaphysically dubious comparison between the actual life of a person and the supposed state of being dead. Third, from the first two theses it does not automatically follow that we should allow other people to help someone who autonomously and rationally chooses to die to pursue this plan. To argue against indirect legal paternalism, the practice of legally preventing someone else to assist a person to perform a suicide or to be killed on request, needs additional reasons. It is argued that assisted suicide and voluntary active euthanasia can indeed be justified by establishing a claim of persons who want to die but are not able to kill themselves. This mainly means that being really free to die should be interpreted as involving the means to fulfil one's desire to die.

  9. A possible case of natalizumab-dependent suicide attempt: A brief review about drugs and suicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Mumoli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available β-Interferon therapy is known to be a potential trigger of suicidal behavior, but this effect has not been previously reported for other multiple sclerosis (MS treatments, such as, natalizumab. Here we report the case history of a 32-year-old woman affected by relapsing-remitting MS, who attempted suicide during natalizumab treatment. This case suggests that a suicidal ideation might be a rare side effect of natalizumab. Nevertheless, this case represents the first evidence of the new adverse drug reaction related to natalizumab treatment. We should alert clinicians to be aware of the possibility of paradoxical activation of suicidality during its therapeutic use. The main purpose of the present article is to use this case to review the possible relationship between suicidal behavior and drugs.

  10. Suicide methods in Asia: Implications in suicide prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Yip, Paul S. F.; Kevin Chien-Chang Wu; Ying-Yeh Chen

    2012-01-01

    As the largest continent in the World, Asia accounts for about 60% of World suicides. Preventing suicide by restricting access to suicide methods is one of the few evidence-based suicide prevention strategies. However, there has been a lack of systematic exploration of suicide methods in Asian countries. To amend this shortage, the current review examines the leading suicide methods in different Asian countries, their trend, their age- and sex- specific characteristics, and their implications...

  11. The association of lifetime suicidal ideation with perceived parental love and family structure in childhood in a nationally representative adult sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susukida, Ryoko; Wilcox, Holly C; Mendelson, Tamar

    2016-03-30

    While perceived support from caregivers in the early stages of life is an aspect of family environment that is increasingly recognized as important for understanding lifetime suicidal behaviors, it is not well understood whether the relationship between perceived support from caregivers during childhood and lifetime suicidal behaviors holds regardless of family structure. This study examined the association between perceived love from caregivers in childhood and lifetime suicidal ideation in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (N=5,692, 2001-2003). Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the association between lifetime suicidal ideation and retrospectively ascertained data on perceived love from caregivers during childhood as well as clinical and sociodemographic characteristics of study participants. Regression analyses were stratified by family structure, namely, whether or not study participants lived with two biological parents during childhood. Regardless of whether or not they lived with two biological parents during childhood, individuals who perceived love from caregivers during childhood had significantly 42-43% lower odds of lifetime suicide ideation as compared with those who did not perceive love from caregivers. Results suggest that perceived support from caregivers during childhood is an important correlate of lifetime suicidal ideation, regardless of family structure.

  12. Among U.S. Military, Army Members Face Highest Suicide Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159213.html Among U.S. Military, Army Members Face Highest Suicide Risk Firearms ... Suicide rates have been increasing among all active U.S. Navy, Air Force and Army personnel, but those ...

  13. Suicide: an existentialist reconceptualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, M; Lamont, E

    2014-12-01

    The phenomenon of suicide is one of the primary concerns for mental health professions. The health-care literature is dominated by discussions that focus variously on local and national suicide prevention policies, on the assessment of those individuals judged to be at risk of committing suicide as well as the appropriateness and efficacy of interventions for those who express suicidal ideation and display suicidal behaviours. What appear less frequently in the literature, however, are critical analyses of the concept of suicide and, in particular, critical reflections on the manner in which the concept of suicide has been, and continues to be, understood or 'framed'. In an attempt to respond to this apparent omission, this paper will suggest that the work of Albert Camus, and his philosophical work The Myth of Sisyphus in particular, can be understood as providing a significant reconceptualization and reframing of suicide. In doing so, it will be suggested that Camus's work not only challenges how the concept of suicide has traditionally been situated within the context of mental illness, but can also be understood as challenging the efficacy of the interventions that have been associated with an understanding of suicide within that context.

  14. Cortisol levels and suicidal behavior: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Daryl B; Ferguson, Eamonn; Green, Jessica A; O'Carroll, Ronan E; O'Connor, Rory C

    2016-01-01

    Suicide is a major cause of death worldwide, responsible for 1.5% of all mortality. The causes of suicidal behavior are not fully understood. Dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, as measured by cortisol levels, is one potential risk factor. This meta-analytic review aimed (i) to estimate the strength and variability of the association between naturally fluctuating cortisol levels and suicidal behavior and (ii) to identify moderators of this relationship. A systematic literature search identified 27 studies (N=2226; 779 suicide attempters and 1447 non-attempters) that met the study eligibility criteria from a total of 417 unique records initially examined. Estimates of effect sizes (r) obtained from these studies were analysed using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis. In these analyses, we compared participants identified as having a past history of suicide attempt(s) to those with no such history. Study quality, mean age of sample and percentage of male participants were examined as potential moderators. Overall, there was no significant effect of suicide group on cortisol. However, significant associations between cortisol and suicide attempts were observed as a function of age. In studies where the mean age of the sample was below 40 years the association was positive (i.e., higher cortisol was associated with suicide attempts; r=.234, pcortisol was associated with suicide attempts; r=-.129, pcortisol levels, is associated with suicidal behavior. The challenge for theory and clinical practice is to explain the complete reversal of the association with age and to identify its clinical implications.

  15. Is Suicide Predictable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Asmaee

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background:The current study aimed to test the hypothesis: Is suicide predictable? And try to classify the predictive factors in multiple suicide attempts.Methods:A cross-sectional study was administered to 223 multiple attempters, women who came to a medical poison centre after a suicide attempt.The participants were young, poor, and single.A Logistic Regression Analiysis was used to classify the predictive factors of suicide.Results:Women who had multiple suicide attempts exhibited a significant tendency to attempt suicide again. They had a history for more than two years of multiple suicide attempts, from three to as many as 18 times, plus mental illnesses such as depression and substance abuse.They also had a positive history of mental illnesses.Conclusion:Results indicate that contributing factors for another suicide attempt include previous suicide attempts, mental illness (depression,or a positive history of mental illnesses in the family affecting them at a young age, and substance abuse.

  16. Altruistic cell suicide in relation to radiation hormesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high radiosensitivity to killing of undifferentiated primordial cells (Bergonie and Tribondeau 1906) can be described as a manifestation of the suicide of injured cells for the benefit of an organism as a whole if their suicide stimulates proliferation of healthy cells to replace them, resulting in complete elimination of injury. This process is called cell-replacement repair, to distinguish it from DNA repair which is rarely complete. 'Cell suicide', 'programmed death' and 'apoptosis' are terms used for the same type of active cell death. Cell suicide is not always altruistic. Altruistic suicide in Drosophila, mice, humans, plants, and E. coli is reviewed in this paper to illustrate its widely different facets. The hypothesis that in animals, radiation hormesis results from altruistic cell suicide is proposed. This hypothesis can explain the hormetic effect of low doses of radiation on the immune system in mice. In contrast, in plants, radiation hormesis seems to be mainly due to non-altruistic cell death. (author)

  17. Rapid Resolution of Intense Suicidal Ideation after Treatment of Severe Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    OpenAIRE

    Krahn, Lois E.; Miller, Bernard W.; Bergstrom, Larry R.

    2008-01-01

    Patients with insomnia may develop suicidal ideation; however, we know of no reports of suicidal ideation associated with obstructive sleep apnea. We report on a 74-year-old man who presented to his primary care physician with excessive daytime sleepiness, poor quality nocturnal sleep, depressed mood, and suicidal ideation with active suicide plans. An emergency outpatient psychiatry consultation was arranged. The patient declined psychiatric hospitalization. He agreed to a trial of continuou...

  18. Suicide and religion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Christopher C H

    2014-01-01

    Much of the evidence that religion provides a protective factor against completed suicide comes from cross-sectional studies. This issue of the Journal includes a report of a new prospective study. An understanding of the relationship between spirituality, religion and suicide is important in assessing and caring for those at risk.

  19. Teenage Suicide in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David; Wilson, C.

    1990-01-01

    The teenage suicide rate in Zimbabwe did not change much during the 1970s, though the rate rose for female teenagers. Female teenagers used poison as a method of suicide more often than did adults, and self-immolation had increased in frequency among young women by the mid-1980s. (Author)

  20. Endocrinology and Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Charles L

    1986-01-01

    Concludes that thyroid and adrenal gland disease unquestionably can produce severe mental disturbances. Most of these are "organic" in nature, but depressive symptoms are common as well. Cautions that a connection between these diseases and suicide has not been established. Advises treating all depressed, suicidal persons with the same caution.…

  1. Register for Suicide Attempts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Erik; Jensen, Børge Frank

    2004-01-01

    The Register for Suicide Attempts (RSA) is a product of the WHO research project "WHO/Euro Multicentre Study on Parasuicide", which, among other things, had the purpose of collecting data on suicide attempts from 13 European countries. Data is collected in order to calculate trends and identify...

  2. Diabetes mellitus and suicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Sarkar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Relationship of diabetes mellitus (DM with metal health disorders such as depression has been explored extensively in the published literatures. However, association of diabetes mellitus with suicidal tendencies has been evaluated less extensively. The present narrative review aimed to assess the literature relating to diabetes mellitus and suicide. As a part of the review, Pubmed and Google Scholar databases were searched for English language peer reviewed published studies with keywords relating to diabetes and suicide. Additional references were identified using cross-references. The available literature suggests that suicidal ideas and attempts are more frequent in patients with diabetes mellitus than healthy or medically ill controls. Although, a few studies report evidence to the contrary. Suicide accounts for a large proportion of deaths in patients with diabetes mellitus type I (T1DM, and their mortality rate is higher than that of age matched control population. Psychological morbidity, including depression, precedes suicidal ideas and attempts; though many other factors can be hypothesized to impact and modulate this association. A common method of suicide attempt in patients with diabetes includes uses of high doses of insulin and its congeners or medications to treat the disease. Regular screening and prompt treatment of depression and suicidality is suggested for patients with DM.

  3. Suicide and Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battin, Margaret P., Ed.; Maris, Ronald W., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Presents five articles by philosophers and a psychiatrist on the ethics of suicide, as well as comments and a literature review. Discusses the rationality and morality of suicide from several philosophical viewpoints including self-ownership, Kant's theories, and a libertarian perspective. (JAC)

  4. Suicide and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, William C.; Waldhart-Letzel, Edith

    1981-01-01

    Presents statistics on the extent of child and adolescent suicide. Symptoms and causes are suggested including ego weakness, child rearing attitudes and practices, and social influences. Considers the ethics of interfering with the attempt to commit suicide and makes recommendations for prevention. (RC)

  5. Establishing a Suicide Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, John A.

    1986-01-01

    Outlines important considerations for establishing suicide prevention programs in high schools. Teenage suicide rate has doubled since 1970. To deal with this crisis schools must develop procedures for detecting potential victims and for helping students and staff cope after a suicide. Schools must not be afraid to talk about suicide; avoiding the…

  6. Suicide in Relation to AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckerman, Nancy L.

    1995-01-01

    Explores many dimensions of suicide among the terminally ill, including preemptive, surcease, and rational suicide. The critical issues addressed are the incidence of suicide in HIV-positive individuals, contributing factors associated with the risk of suicide among people with HIV/AIDS, and the clinical and ethical implications of this issue for…

  7. Suicide and multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E N; Stenager, Egon; Koch-Henriksen, Nils;

    1992-01-01

    In a nationwide investigation the risk of death by suicide for patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) was assessed using records kept at the Danish Multiple Sclerosis Registry (DMSR) and the Danish National Register of Cause of Death. The investigation covers all MS patients registered with DSMR...... with an onset of the disease within the period 1953-85, or for whom MS was diagnosed in the same period. Fifty three of the 5525 cases in the onset cohort group committed suicide. Using the figures from the population death statistics by adjustment to number of subjects, duration of observation, sex, age......, and calendar year at the start of observation, the expected number of suicides was calculated to be nearly 29. The cumulative lifetime risk of suicide from onset of MS, using an actuarial method of calculation, was 1.95%. The standard mortality ratio (SMR) of suicide in MS was 1.83. It was highest for males...

  8. Manifest dream content as a possible predictor of suicidality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glucksman, Myron L

    2014-12-01

    The prediction of suicidal intent remains a clinical problem. This presentation illustrates that a distinction may be made between the manifest dream reports of patients who are potentially or acutely suicidal and those who are not. A review of the literature reveals that the manifest dream reports of clinically depressed, non-suicidal individuals differ from those who are depressed and acutely suicidal. The former contain themes of loss, disappointment, rejection, helplessness, hopelessness, failure, and death. The latter contain themes of dying, death, destruction, and violence directed toward the dreamer or others, as well as hopelessness and helplessness. The author collected manifest dream reports from three clinically depressed, non-suicidal patients and three clinically depressed, potentially or acutely suicidal patients. There are apparent differences between the themes of manifest dream reports in the clinically depressed, non-suicidal patients and the clinically depressed, potentially or acutely suicidal patients. The former contain themes of death, loss, rejection, vulnerability, hopelessness, and helplessness. The latter contain themes of active harm or violence (specifically toward the dreamer), dying or being dead, aloneness, vulnerability, hopelessness, and helplessness. Clinical cases and corresponding manifest dream reports are presented. Although this is a preliminary study, it is possible that manifest dream content may be used as one of the predictors of suicidality, in conjunction with latent dream content, diagnosis, life circumstance, and clinical status. PMID:25494585

  9. Suicide in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Shahtahmasebi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores and questions some of the notions associated with suicide including mental illness. On average, about two-thirds of suicide cases do not come into contact with mental health services, therefore, we have no objective assessment of their mental status or their life events. One method of improving our objective understanding of suicide would be to use data mining techniques in order to build life event histories on all deaths due to suicide. Although such an exercise would require major funding, partial case histories became publicly available from a coroner's inquest on cases of suicide during a period of three months in Christchurch, New Zealand. The case histories were accompanied by a newspaper article reporting comments from some of the families involved. A straightforward contextual analysis of this information suggests that (i only five cases had contact with mental health services, in two of the cases this was due to a previous suicide attempt and in the other three it was due to drug and alcohol dependency; (ii mental illness as the cause of suicide is fixed in the public mindset, (iii this in turn makes psychological autopsy type studies that seek information from families and friends questionable; (iv proportionally more females attempt, but more men tend to complete suicide; and (v not only is the mental health-suicide relationship tenuous, but suicide also appears to be a process outcome. It is hoped that this will stimulate debate and the collaboration of international experts regardless of their school of thought.

  10. Suicidal Behavior and Alcohol Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Maurizio Pompili; Gianluca Serafini; Marco Innamorati; Giovanni Dominici; Stefano Ferracuti; Kotzalidis, Giorgio D.; Giulia Serra; Paolo Girardi; Luigi Janiri; Roberto Tatarelli; Leo Sher; David Lester

    2010-01-01

    Suicide is an escalating public health problem, and alcohol use has consistently been implicated in the precipitation of suicidal behavior. Alcohol abuse may lead to suicidality through disinhibition, impulsiveness and impaired judgment, but it may also be used as a means to ease the distress associated with committing an act of suicide. We reviewed evidence of the relationship between alcohol use and suicide through a search of MedLine and PsychInfo electronic databases. Multiple genetically...

  11. Suicide attempts and suicides in Bolivia from 2007 to 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørs, Erik; Christoffersen, Mette; Veirum, Nikoline Høgsgaard;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Suicide attempts and suicides constitute a significant burden on communities and health systems, especially in low income countries. However, many low income countries lack epidemiological information on which to base future preventive strategies. This study reports on gender and age...... profiles as well as the likely background and means used for suicide attempts and suicides in Bolivia. METHOD: This study presents 1124 cases from four different sources of information: (i) emergency ward data with suicide attempts by poisoning from the year 2007, (ii) psychiatric ward data including...... suicide attempts from July 2011 to July 2012, (iii) newspaper articles reporting attempted suicides and suicides from 2009 to 2011, and (iv) the National Statistics on Crime reporting suicides from the years 2010-2011. Data on age was stratified into three age groups: adolescents aged 10-19 years, young...

  12. Surviving a Suicide Attempt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Al Maqbali, Mandhar; Al-Sinawi, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Suicide is a global phenomenon in all regions of the world affecting people of all age groups. It has detrimental consequences on patients, their families, and the community as a whole. There have been numerous risk factors described for suicide including mental illness, stressful life situations, loss of social support, and general despair. The association of suicide with Islam has not been extensively studied. The common impression from clinical practice is that being a practicing Muslim reduces the risk of suicide. Another factor associated with suicide is starting a patient on antidepressants. However, this has been questioned recently. This report describes a middle-aged man with depression and multiple social stressors who survived a serious suicide attempt. The discussion will focus on the factors that lead him to want to end his life and the impact of the assumed protective factors such as religious belief and family support on this act of self-harm. Such patients can be on the edge when there is an imbalance between risk factors (such as depression, insomnia, and psychosocial stressors) and protective factors (like religious affiliation and family support). All physicians are advised to assess the suicide risk thoroughly in patients with depression regardless of any presumed protective factor. PMID:27602193

  13. Surviving a Suicide Attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Al Maqbali, Mandhar; Al-Sinawi, Hamed

    2016-09-01

    Suicide is a global phenomenon in all regions of the world affecting people of all age groups. It has detrimental consequences on patients, their families, and the community as a whole. There have been numerous risk factors described for suicide including mental illness, stressful life situations, loss of social support, and general despair. The association of suicide with Islam has not been extensively studied. The common impression from clinical practice is that being a practicing Muslim reduces the risk of suicide. Another factor associated with suicide is starting a patient on antidepressants. However, this has been questioned recently. This report describes a middle-aged man with depression and multiple social stressors who survived a serious suicide attempt. The discussion will focus on the factors that lead him to want to end his life and the impact of the assumed protective factors such as religious belief and family support on this act of self-harm. Such patients can be on the edge when there is an imbalance between risk factors (such as depression, insomnia, and psychosocial stressors) and protective factors (like religious affiliation and family support). All physicians are advised to assess the suicide risk thoroughly in patients with depression regardless of any presumed protective factor. PMID:27602193

  14. Surviving a Suicide Attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Al-Harrasi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is a global phenomenon in all regions of the world affecting people of all age groups. It has detrimental consequences on patients, their families, and the community as a whole. There have been numerous risk factors described for suicide including mental illness, stressful life situations, loss of social support, and general despair. The association of suicide with Islam has not been extensively studied. The common impression from clinical practice is that being a practicing Muslim reduces the risk of suicide. Another factor associated with suicide is starting a patient on antidepressants. However, this has been questioned recently. This report describes a middle-aged man with depression and multiple social stressors who survived a serious suicide attempt. The discussion will focus on the factors that lead him to want to end his life and the impact of the assumed protective factors such as religious belief and family support on this act of self-harm. Such patients can be on the edge when there is an imbalance between risk factors (such as depression, insomnia, and psychosocial stressors and protective factors (like religious affiliation and family support. All physicians are advised to assess the suicide risk thoroughly in patients with depression regardless of any presumed protective factor.

  15. Cultural Aspects of Suicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari D. Maharajh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Undefined cultural factors cannot be dismissed and significantly contribute to the worldwide incidence of death by suicide. Culture is an all embracing term and defines the relationship of an individual to his environment. This study seeks to investigate the effect of culture on suicide both regionally and internationally. Culture-bound syndrome with suicidal behaviours specific to a particular culture or geographical region are discussed. Opinions are divided as to the status of religious martyrs. The law itself is silent on many aspects of suicidal behaviour and despite decriminalization of suicide as self-murder, the latter remains on the statutes of many developing countries. The Caribbean region is of concern due to its steady rise in mean suicide rate, especially in Trinidad and Tobago where socio-cultural factors are instrumental in influencing suicidal behaviour. These include transgenerational cultural conflicts, psycho-social problems, media exposure, unemployment, social distress, religion and family structure. The methods used are attributed to accessibility and lethality. Ingestion of poisonous substances is most popular followed by hanging. The gender differences seen with regard to suicidality can also be attributed to gender related psychopathology and psychosocial differences in help-seeking behaviour. These are influenced by the cultural environment to which the individual is exposed. Culture provides coping strategies to individuals; as civilization advances many of these coping mechanisms are lost unclothing the genetic predisposition of vulnerable groups. In the management of suicidal behaviour, a system of therapeutic re-culturation is needed with an emphasis on relevant culture- based therapies.

  16. Suicide Methods in Asia: Implications in Suicide Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul S. F. Yip

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available As the largest continent in the World, Asia accounts for about 60% of World suicides. Preventing suicide by restricting access to suicide methods is one of the few evidence-based suicide prevention strategies. However, there has been a lack of systematic exploration of suicide methods in Asian countries. To amend this shortage, the current review examines the leading suicide methods in different Asian countries, their trend, their age- and sex- specific characteristics, and their implications for suicide prevention. In total, 42 articles with leading suicide methods data in 17 Asian countries/regions were retrieved. The epidemiologic characteristics and recent trends of common suicide methods reflect specific socio-cultural, economic, and religious situations in the region. Common suicide methods shift with the introduction of technologies and constructions, and have specific age- or sex-characteristics that may render the restriction of suicide methods not equally effective for all sex and age sub-groups. Charcoal burning, pesticide poisoning, native plant poisoning, self-immolation, and jumping are all prominent examples. In the information society, suicide prevention that focuses on suicide methods must monitor and control the innovation and spread of knowledge and practices of suicide “technologies”. It may be more cost-effective to design safety into technologies as a way of suicide prevention while there is no rash of suicides yet by the new technologies. Further research on suicide methods is important for public health approaches to suicide prevention with sensitivity to socio-cultural, economic, and religious factors in different countries.

  17. Samomorilnost v Sloveniji: Suicidal behaviour in Slovenia:

    OpenAIRE

    Pregelj, Peter; Ziherl, Slavko

    2010-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of suicide is increasing worldwide and nowadays approximately one million people commit suicide every year. In Slovenia, suicide is a major public health and social problem. Suicide rate in Slovenia is among the highest in Europe. Despite intensive research work on suicide in the countries with high suicide rates and despite all new data on risk factors, the suicide rates do not decline (with few exceptions). Nevertheless,suicide prevention is possible if it is base...

  18. Teenage suicide cluster formation and contagion: implications for primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriksson Anders

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously studied unintentional as well as intentional injury deaths among teenagers living in the four northernmost counties, forming approximately 55% of Sweden with 908,000 inhabitants in 1991. During this work, we found what we suspected to be a suicide cluster among teenagers and we also suspected contagion since there were links between these cases. In this present study, we investigate the occurrence of suicide clustering among teenagers, analyze cluster definitions, and suggest preventive measures. Methods A retrospective study of teenager suicides autopsied at the Department of Forensic Medicine in Umeå, Sweden, during 1981 through 2000. Police reports, autopsy protocols, and medical records were studied in all cases, and the police officers that conducted the investigation at the scene were interviewed in all cluster cases. Parents of the suicide victims of the first cluster were also interviewed. Two aggregations of teenager suicides were detected and evaluated as possible suicide clusters using the US Centers for Disease Control definition of a suicide cluster. Results Two clusters including six teenagers were confirmed, and contagion was established within each cluster. Conclusion The general practitioner is identified as a key person in the aftermath of a teenage suicide since the general practitioner often meet the family, friends of the deceased, and other acquaintances early in the process after a suicide. This makes the general practitioner suitable to initiate contacts with others involved in the well-being of the young, in order to prevent suicide cluster formation and para-suicidal activities.

  19. A Neural Basis for the Acquired Capability for Suicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopikrishna Deshpande

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The high rate of fatal suicidal behavior in men is an urgent issue as highlighted in the public eye via news sources and media outlets. In this study, we have attempted to address this issue and understand the neural substrates underlying the gender differences in the rate of fatal suicidal behavior. The Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide (IPTS has proposed an explanation for the seemingly paradoxical relationship between gender and suicidal behavior, i.e. greater non-fatal suicide attempts by women but higher number of deaths by suicide in men. This theory states that possessing suicidal desire (due to conditions such as depression alone is not sufficient for a lethal suicide attempt. It is imperative for an individual to have acquired the capability for suicide (ACS along with suicidal desire in order to die by suicide. Therefore, higher levels of ACS in men may explain why men are more likely to die by suicide than women, despite being less likely to experience suicidal ideation or depression. In this study, we used activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis to investigate a potential ACS network that involves neural substrates underlying emotional stoicism, sensation seeking, pain tolerance, and fearlessness of death along with a potential depression network that involves neural substrates that underlie clinical depression. Brain regions commonly found in ACS and depression networks for males and females were further used as seeds to obtain regions functionally and structurally connected to them. We found that the male-specific networks were more widespread and diverse than the female-specific ones. Also, while the former involved motor regions such as the premotor cortex and cerebellum, the latter was dominated by limbic regions. This may support the fact that suicidal desire generally leads to fatal/decisive action in males while in females, it manifests as depression, ideation and generally non-fatal actions. The proposed

  20. Depression and Suicide Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depression and Suicide Risk (2014) Definition: A mood disorder that causes a persistent feeling of sadness and ... i Prevalence: 1. Ranges of lifetime risk for depression: from 6.7% overall to 40% in men, ...

  1. The Suicided Voice, Etch

    OpenAIRE

    Bokowiec, Mark; Wilson-Bokowiec, Julie

    2007-01-01

    The Suicided Voice (for performer/vocalist, the Bodycoder System, live MSP, video streaming & computer graphics) The Suicided Voice is the second piece in the Vox Circuit Trilogy, a series of interactive vocal works completed in 2007. In this piece the acoustic voice of the performer is “suicided” and given up to digital processing and physical re-embodiment. Dialogues are created between acoustic and digital voices. Gender specific registers are willfully subverted and fractured...

  2. Review of Suicide Prevention Programs: Massachusetts, United States, in Comparison with Seoul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Ji Hyun; Park, Jong-Ik; Ahn, Jeonghoon; Roh, Sung-Won; Heo, Jung-Yoon; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Jeon, Hong Jin

    2015-07-01

    Suicide is a tragedy that has massive impact on society. In order to prevent suicide, active government intervention is necessary. The suicide rate in Seoul is rapidly increasing and is more than five times higher than that in the state of Massachusetts (MA) during the last decade, especially in the elderly. The suicide prevention program of MA is one of the most effective suicide prevention programs in the United States. The program views suicide as a preventable public health problem, and emphasizes treatment of depression and de-stigmatization of mental health illnesses to prevent suicide. Also, through active collaboration with mental health professionals, they try to identify at-risk populations and help them to get medical interventions. The program also actively collaborates with the regional coalition program and the Samaritans in taking care of the elderly, and supports the elderly in feeling worthwhile after retirement by helping them to work for communities as volunteers. For its part, the Seoul suicide prevention program puts more emphasis on "life respect culture" and "emotional support to high risk individuals by regular visiting". The annual budget of the Seoul suicide prevention program is one-quarter and that for mental health is about one-twentieth that of MA. Considering the high suicide rate and lower mental health service usage in Seoul, it is crucial to raise awareness of depression and decrease the stigma on mental illnesses. Furthermore, educational efforts with long-term investment in research on suicide are necessary. PMID:26207119

  3. Factors That Affect Adolescent Drug Users' Suicide Attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Song, Hokwang

    2016-05-01

    Drug abuse has been widely linked to suicide risk. We examined the factors that affect adolescent drug users' suicide attempts in South Korea. This study analyzed the data of 311 adolescents who had used drugs such as inhalants, psychotropic drugs, and marijuana (195 males and 116 females). Among 311 subjects, 109 (35.0%) had attempted suicide during the last 12 months. After adjusting for other variables, depressive mood (OR=19.79) and poly-drug use (OR=2.79), and low/middle levels of academic achievement compared with a high level (OR=3.72 and 4.38) were independently associated with increased odds of a suicide attempt, while better perceived health (OR=0.32) was independently associated with reduced odds of a suicide attempt. For adolescent drug users, preventive work should be directed toward the active treatment of drug use, depression, and physical health and reinforcing proper coping strategies for academic and other stress. PMID:27247604

  4. Are Smoking Cessation Treatments Associated with Suicidality Risk? An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penberthy, J. Kim; Penberthy, J. Morgan; Harris, Marcus R.; Nanda, Sonali; Ahn, Jennifer; Ponce Martinez, Caridad; Osika, Apule O.; Slepian, Zoe A.; Forsyth, Justin C.; Starr, J. Andrew; Farrell, Jennifer E.; Hook, Joshua N.

    2016-01-01

    Risk of suicidality during smoking cessation treatment is an important, but often overlooked, aspect of nicotine addiction research and treatment. We explore the relationship between smoking cessation interventions and suicidality and explore common treatments, their associated risks, and effectiveness in promoting smoking reduction and abstinence. Although active smokers have been reported to have twofold to threefold increased risk of suicidality when compared to nonsmokers,1–4 research regarding the safest way to stop smoking does not always provide clear guidelines for practitioners wishing to advise their patients regarding smoking cessation strategies. In this article, we review pharmacological and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) options that are available for people seeking to quit smoking, focusing on the relationship between the ability of these therapies to reduce smoking behavior and promote abstinence and suicidality risks as assessed by reported suicidality on validated measures, reports of suicidal ideation, behaviors, actual attempts, or completed suicides. Pharmacotherapies such as varenicline, bupropion, and nicotine replacement, and CBTs, including contextual CBT interventions, have been found to help reduce smoking rates and promote and maintain abstinence. Suicidality risks, while present when trying to quit smoking, do not appear to demonstrate a consistent or significant rise associated with use of any particular smoking cessation pharmacotherapy or CBT/contextual CBT intervention reviewed. PMID:27081311

  5. Suicidal intent among young suicides in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Jia, Cunxian

    2011-01-01

    To understand psychometric characteristics of Beck Suicide Intent Scale (SIS) and different characteristics of suicides between high and low intent in Chinese culture. Data of 386 suicides and 416 living controls aged 15-34 years were used to analyze psychometric characteristics of SIS with 6 items. SIS with 6 items had high reliability and validity. Different characteristics were found between suicides with high intent and low intent. Hopelessness, depression, impulsivity, and approach coping skill were common factors of suicide with high and low intent. Education years, marriage, social support, and mental disorders were specific factors of suicide with low intent. High intent suicides had different characteristics from low intent suicides. SIS with 6 items is suitable for use in young rural China. PMID:21541859

  6. Cyclicity of Suicides May Be Modulated by Internal or External - 11-Year Cycles: An Example of Suicide Rates in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, B. D.; Atanassova, P. A.; Rachkova, M. I.

    2009-12-01

    Multicomponent cyclicity in monthly suicides (periods T = 18, 46 and 198 months) was found and close similarity with heliogeophysical activity (HGA) suggested by Dimitrov in 1999. The current report aimed at scrutinizing the results on suicide annual cyclicity (seasonality) in Slovenia as reported by Oravecz et al in 2007 as well as at analyzing suicide data from Finland in this regard. We postulated that: (i) trans-year (12-24 months) or far-trans-year long-term cycles of suicides might interfere with their seasonality; and (ii) associations to environmental factors with alike cyclicity (e.g. HGA, temperature) could exist. Annual suicide incidence from Oulu, Finland over years 1987-1999 was analyzed. Annual data on solar activity (sunspot index Rz or Wolf number), planetary geomagnetic activity (aa-index) and local daily mean temperatures were used. The exploration of underlying chronomes (time structures) was done by periodogram regression analysis with trigonometric approximation. We analyzed temporal dynamics, revealed cyclicity, decomposed and reconstructed significant cycles and correlated the time series data. Suicide seasonality in Slovenia during the years 1971-2002 (n=384 months, peak May-June) was considered and, although some discrepancies and methodological weaknesses were suspected, we further hypothesized about trans-year and/or longer (far-transyear) cyclic components. Suicide incidence data from Finland indicated that the 12.5-year cyclic component (or trend) was almost parallel (coherent) to the cyclic heliogeophysical parameters and similar to local decreasing temperature dynamics. Also, 8-year and 24.5-year cycles were revealed. A correlation between the 12.5-year suicide cycle and 11-year solar cycle was found (R=0.919, p=0.000009). Above findings on cyclicity and temporal correlations of suicides with cyclic environmental factors, even being still preliminary, might not only allow for further more specific analyses. They might also corroborate

  7. Suicide in ancient Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laios, K; Tsoukalas, G; Kontaxaki, M-I; Karamanou, M; Androutsos, G

    2014-01-01

    The theme of suicide appears several times in ancient Greek literature. However, each such reference acquires special significance depending on the field from which it originates. Most of the information found in mythology, but the suicide in a mythological tale, although in terms of motivation and mental situation of heroes may be in imitation of similar incidents of real life, in fact is linked with the principles of the ancient Greek religion. In ancient drama and mainly in tragedies suicide conduces to the tragic hypostasis of the heroes and to the evolution of the plot and also is a tool in order to be presented the ideas of poets for the relations of the gods, the relation among gods and men and the relation among the men. In ancient Greek philosophy there were the deniers of suicide, who were more concerned about the impact of suicide on society and also these who accepted it, recognizing the right of the individual to put an end to his life, in order to avoid personal misfortunes. Real suicides will be found mostly from historical sources, but most of them concern leading figures of the ancient world. Closer to the problem of suicide in the everyday life of antiquity are ancient Greek medicines, who studied the phenomenon more general without references to specific incidents. Doctors did not approve in principal the suicide and dealt with it as insane behavior in the development of the mental diseases, of melancholia and mania. They considered that the discrepancy of humors in the organ of logic in the human body will cause malfunction, which will lead to the absurdity and consequently to suicide, either due to excessive concentration of black bile in melancholia or due to yellow bile in mania. They believed that greater risk to commit suicide had women, young people and the elderly. As therapy they used the drugs of their time with the intention to induce calm and repression in the ill person, therefore they mainly used mandragora. In general, we would say

  8. Suicide in ancient Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laios, K; Tsoukalas, G; Kontaxaki, M-I; Karamanou, M; Androutsos, G

    2014-01-01

    The theme of suicide appears several times in ancient Greek literature. However, each such reference acquires special significance depending on the field from which it originates. Most of the information found in mythology, but the suicide in a mythological tale, although in terms of motivation and mental situation of heroes may be in imitation of similar incidents of real life, in fact is linked with the principles of the ancient Greek religion. In ancient drama and mainly in tragedies suicide conduces to the tragic hypostasis of the heroes and to the evolution of the plot and also is a tool in order to be presented the ideas of poets for the relations of the gods, the relation among gods and men and the relation among the men. In ancient Greek philosophy there were the deniers of suicide, who were more concerned about the impact of suicide on society and also these who accepted it, recognizing the right of the individual to put an end to his life, in order to avoid personal misfortunes. Real suicides will be found mostly from historical sources, but most of them concern leading figures of the ancient world. Closer to the problem of suicide in the everyday life of antiquity are ancient Greek medicines, who studied the phenomenon more general without references to specific incidents. Doctors did not approve in principal the suicide and dealt with it as insane behavior in the development of the mental diseases, of melancholia and mania. They considered that the discrepancy of humors in the organ of logic in the human body will cause malfunction, which will lead to the absurdity and consequently to suicide, either due to excessive concentration of black bile in melancholia or due to yellow bile in mania. They believed that greater risk to commit suicide had women, young people and the elderly. As therapy they used the drugs of their time with the intention to induce calm and repression in the ill person, therefore they mainly used mandragora. In general, we would say

  9. Non-Suicidal Self-Injury and Interpersonal Violence in Suicide Attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlin, Hanna; Moberg, Tomas; Hirvikoski, Tatja; Jokinen, Jussi

    2015-01-01

    The current study compared characteristics of suicidal behavior and interpersonal violence in suicide attempters with and without a history of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). A total of 100 suicide attempters were assessed with Karolinska Interpersonal Violence Scale (KIVS) and Karolinska Suicide History Interview concerning interpersonal violence and NSSI. There was a high degree of comorbid NSSI in suicide attempters (44%). Suicide attempters with NSSI-history reported more interpersonal violence as adults and more severe suicidal behavior compared to suicide attempters without NSSI. Comorbid NSSI was related to severity of suicidal behavior in a gender specific manner. Comorbid NSSI in suicide attempters may increase suicide and violence risk.

  10. Copycat Suicide Induced by Entertainment Celebrity Suicides in South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Soo Ah; Sung, Ji Min; Park, Jin Young; Jeon, Woo Taek

    2015-01-01

    Objective Throughout the past several years, there have been a number of entertainment celebrity suicides in South Korea. The aim of this study was to investigate the clustering of suicides following celebrities' suicides in South Korea from 2005 to 2008, particularly according to certain characteristics. Methods Seven celebrity suicides were examined and defined using the Korean Integrated Newspaper Database System (KINDS) and from these, we considered four affected periods occurring 28 days...

  11. Homicide Followed by Suicide: A Comparison with Homicide and Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, Marieke; Nieuwbeerta, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Homicide-suicides are a rare yet very serious form of lethal violence which mainly occurs in partnerships and families. The extent to which homicide-suicide can be understood as being primarily a homicide or a suicide event, or rather a category of its own is examined. In total, 103 homicide-suicides were compared to 3,203 homicides and 17,751…

  12. [Autotelic activities aimed at the alteration of the human body from socially accepted to pathological forms: about non-suicidal self-injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmar, Sandor

    2016-03-01

    The author lays down that non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) constitutes an increasingly more common and serious public health problem, especially during the age of adolescence. In spite of the fact that the phenomenon has been known since the beginning of human mankind even in animals, we have not been able to either give a clear explanation or prevent its spreading yet. The author reviews the conceptual disturbances, behavioural phenotypes, cultural-historical and mythological antecedents related to self-injury, just as the controversial concepts, reasons of unclearness of the concepts, and clinical classification of self-injuries, and he outlines a new categorisation/ classification of the explanation of autotelic activities aimed at the alteration of the human body. He reviews the relationship between self-injuries and other psychological signs and symptoms and psychiatric illnesses, the explanations of developing self-injurious behaviour and further research directions. Besides the different models of self-injury he presents a holistic model. Besides the therapeutic guidelines of self-injurious behaviour, he calls the attention to the importance of genetic and nervous system researches, psychological and spiritual research, the importance of mental education and prevention, and he also lists some more essential questions future researchers have to find the answers for if we would like all children to be allowed to enter the adults' world in a healthy and sound state.

  13. Evolution of Bacterial Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchernookov, Martin; Nemenman, Ilya

    2013-03-01

    While active, controlled cellular suicide (autolysis) in bacteria is commonly observed, it has been hard to argue that autolysis can be beneficial to an individual who commits it. We propose a theoretical model that predicts that bacterial autolysis is evolutionarily advantageous to an individualand would fixate in physically structured environments for stationary phase colonies. We perform spatially resolved agent-based simulations of the model, which predict that lower mixing in the environment results in fixation of a higher autolysis rate from a single mutated cell, regardless of the colony's genetic diversity. We argue that quorum sensing will fixate as well, even if initially rare, if it is coupled to controlling the autolysis rate. The model does not predict a strong additional competitive advantage for cells where autolysis is controlled by quorum sensing systems that distinguish self from nonself. These predictions are broadly supported by recent experimental results in B. subtilisand S. pneumoniae. Research partially supported by the James S McDonnell Foundation grant No. 220020321 and by HFSP grant No. RGY0084/2011.

  14. Reading Sri Lanka's suicide rate.

    OpenAIRE

    Widger, Tom

    2014-01-01

    By the final decade of the twentieth century, rates of suicide in Sri Lanka ranked among the highest in the world. However, in 1996 the suicide rate began to fall and was soon at its lowest level in almost 30 years. This decline poses problems for classic sociological theories of suicide and forces us to question some fundamental assumptions underlying social scientific approaches to the suicide rate. Drawing from sociological, medical epidemiological, historical, and anthropological secondar...

  15. Youth Suicide: An Intervention Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, James L.

    1987-01-01

    Suggests school and university intervention strategies for preventing suicides among youths, proposed following a series of teenage suicides in Minnesota: closer liaison and backup for the school counselor, peer counseling services, in-school support groups, faculty in-service on suicide, curricular introduction to coping skills and identification…

  16. Suicidal Behavior among Early Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gover, F. Jill

    There is a great deal of concern about teenage suicide. This study obtained a prevalence rate of suicidal behaviors among non-psychiatric early adolescents (ages 11-16) and investigated personal and family variables that may characterize the young teenagers who report varying degrees of suicidal behavior. A self-report questionnaire was…

  17. Attempted Suicide among Iranian Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikholeslami, Homayoun; Kani, Camellia; Ziaee, Amir

    2008-01-01

    Predictors of suicide attempts in Iran, to distinguish any similarities and differences of these predictors between suicide attempts in Iran and other developed and developing countries and to investigate the relation between general psychiatric symptoms and repetition of suicidal attempts were assessed. The validated Farsi version of the General…

  18. Teenage Suicide: A Critical Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NJEA Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Suicide and attempted suicide among teenagers has risen dramatically since 1960, especially among girls. Three theories of the causes of suicide (emotional crises, brain chemistry and nonexpression of grief) are discussed. Depression and other first stage warning signals, and the nature of second stage "cries for help," are considered. (CM)

  19. Suicide Prevention for LGBT Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. Bradley; Oxendine, Symphony; Taub, Deborah J.; Robertson, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Extensive media coverage of the suicide deaths of several gay and lesbian youth has highlighted lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth as a population at-risk for suicide. In addition, it has caused colleges and universities to address mental health and suicide behavior among this very diverse college population. One issue that…

  20. The Ethics of Assisted Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Jay

    1994-01-01

    From social work perspective, considers ethics of assisted suicide. Discusses traditional social work value of client self-determination and identifies tensions in this ideal and conflicts with value of client well-being. Finds assisted suicide unethical, arguing that studies have shown judgment of most suicidal people to be impaired as result of…

  1. Hume on suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, R G

    1999-08-01

    Anyone interested in the morality of suicide reads David Hume's essay on the subject even today. There are numerous reasons for this, but the central one is that it sets up the starting point for contemporary debate about the morality of suicide, namely, the debate about whether some condition of life could present one with a morally acceptable reason for autonomously deciding to end one's life. We shall only be able to have this debate if we think that at least some acts of suicide can be moral, and we shall only be able to think this if we give up the blanket condemnation of suicide that theology has put in place. I look at this strategy of argument in the context of the wider eighteenth-century attempt to develop a non-theologically based ethic. The result in Hume's case is a very modern tract on suicide, with voluntariness and autonomy to the fore and with reflection on the condition of one's life and one's desire to carry on living a life in that condition the motivating circumstance.

  2. Adolescent suicide: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudak, H S; Ford, A B; Rushforth, N B

    1984-07-01

    Etiological theories of suicide are reviewed from epidemiological, individual (both biological and psychological), and psychosocial perspectives. Cohort and population-model approaches as explanations for the two- to three-fold increase in completed suicide rates observed in adolescents and young adults over the past 25 years are presented. The results of the authors' study of suicides in adolescents and young adults in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, to test these hypotheses are summarized. This study revealed marked cohort differences in suicide rates and provided partial support for the "population-model" approach. Differences between suicide rates in adolescents and other age groups are discussed, as are data from some minority groups. The role of depression in adolescents and various studies of diagnostic approaches (e.g., structured diagnostic assessments, biological markers, clues during intensive psychotherapy or psychoanalysis, studies of high-risk diagnostic groups) are reviewed. Lastly, treatment employing individual, family, and group approaches to classical psychoanalytic or cognitive psychotherapy as well as the role of pharmacological treatments are considered. PMID:6385734

  3. Difference in suicide methods used between suicide attempters and suicide completers

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Meerae; Lee, Sang Uk; Park, Jong-Ik

    2014-01-01

    Background In light of the increased suicide rate in Korea, it has become important for researchers to examine the various factors associated with it. The purpose of this study is to compare and analyze the difference between suicide attempters and completers in terms of the suicide methods used and the lethality of these methods. In addition, we investigated certain demographic factors that are associated with the choice of suicide method by evaluating their lethality. Finding The most frequ...

  4. Risk of repetition of suicide attempt, suicide or all deaths after an episode of attempted suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Erik; Jensen, Børge Frank

    2007-01-01

    This study was undertaken in order to estimate the incidence of repetition of suicide attempt, suicide and all deaths, and to analyse the influence of psychiatric illness and socio-demographic factors on these.......This study was undertaken in order to estimate the incidence of repetition of suicide attempt, suicide and all deaths, and to analyse the influence of psychiatric illness and socio-demographic factors on these....

  5. Gaps in Crisis Mental Health: Suicide and Homicide-Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretta, Carrie M; Burgess, Ann W; Welner, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Gaps in crises of mental health emerge from poor distinction between the qualities of people who suicide and those who murder and then kill themselves. The role, if any, that substance use has in such lethal violence is an example of such a lack of distinction. In this study, a sample of medical examiner investigative and toxicology reports from Los Angeles and Orange counties in California were available for analysis for 432 suicide cases and 193 homicide-suicide cases. This informed clearer toxicological and pharmacological distinction of suicide from homicide-suicide. Blood alcohol levels were higher in persons committing suicide than in homicide-suicide perpetrators (p=.004). Homicide-suicide perpetrators had almost twice the level of stimulants in their system than people who suicide (p=.022) but did not have comparatively elevated levels of drugs or alcohol. Predictors of suicide included the following: substance abuse history, high number of drugs in system, death inside a house, and legal impairment by alcohol. Predictors of homicide-suicide included gunshot as the cause of death, female gender, domestic conflict, children living in the home, and prior arrest for substance abuse. PMID:26397439

  6. Cerebrospinal fluid monoamine metabolites and suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokinen, Jussi; Nordström, Anna-Lena; Nordström, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Prospective studies of the serotonergic system and suicide report that low 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and a history of attempted suicide predict suicide risk. Low CSF homovanillic acid (HVA) is reported to be associated with past and future lethality of suicide attempts but not with suicide. The interrelationships between monoamine metabolites, violent method, suicide intent and lethality of suicidal behaviour are complex. We hypothesized that CSF 5-HIAA and HVA levels are related to suicide intent, violence and lethality of suicidal behaviour. Fifteen male suicide attempters admitted to a psychiatric ward at the Karolinska University Hospital and eight healthy male volunteers were submitted to lumbar puncture and CSF 5-HIAA and HVA were assayed. Suicide intent with the Beck Suicide Intent Scale (SIS), lethality and violence of suicidal behaviour were assessed. All patients were followed up for causes of death. Six suicides and one fatal accident were identified with death certificates. Mean CSF 5-HIAA but not CSF HVA differed between suicides and survivors. Violent suicides had higher suicide intent and CSF 5-HIAA than non-violent suicides. In violent suicides, CSF 5-HIAA levels were negatively correlated with SIS. Greater suicide intent may be associated with greater aggressive intent and predicts a violent suicide method. PMID:19034712

  7. Attempted suicide in Denmark. III. Assessment of repeated suicidal behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, A G; Nielsen, B; Bille-Brahe, U;

    1985-01-01

    features for the repeaters were previous suicidal behaviour and suicidal behaviour among relatives. Many had a psychiatric record and expressed chronic somatic complaints. Around the time of the attempt, many expressed hopelessness, isolation and suicidal ideation. Pierce's Suicide Intent Scale performed......Ninety-nine patients, randomly chosen among hospital admitted suicide attempters, were initially interviewed at the Department of Psychiatry, Odense University Hospital, Denmark, and then followed up for a period of about 3 years. Half of the patients repeated the attempt in the follow-up period......, mostly in the first year. Ten patients committed suicide, half of them in the first 3 months after the interview, shortly after discharge from hospital. The majority of the repeaters were living alone, while those that committed suicide were mostly married women aged 50-60 years. Other characteristic...

  8. Controlling Access to Suicide Means

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Iosue

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Restricting access to common means of suicide, such as firearms, toxic gas, pesticides and other, has been shown to be effective in reducing rates of death in suicide. In the present review we aimed to summarize the empirical and clinical literature on controlling the access to means of suicide. Methods: This review made use of both MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science and the Cochrane library databases, identifying all English articles with the keywords “suicide means”, “suicide method”, “suicide prediction” or “suicide prevention” and other relevant keywords. Results: A number of factors may influence an individual’s decision regarding method in a suicide act, but there is substantial support that easy access influences the choice of method. In many countries, restrictions of access to common means of suicide has lead to lower overall suicide rates, particularly regarding suicide by firearms in USA, detoxification of domestic and motor vehicle gas in England and other countries, toxic pesticides in rural areas, barriers at jumping sites and hanging, by introducing “safe rooms” in prisons and hospitals. Moreover, decline in prescription of barbiturates and tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs, as well as limitation of drugs pack size for paracetamol and salicylate has reduced suicides by overdose, while increased prescription of SSRIs seems to have lowered suicidal rates. Conclusions: Restriction to means of suicide may be particularly effective in contexts where the method is popular, highly lethal, widely available, and/or not easily substituted by other similar methods. However, since there is some risk of means substitution, restriction of access should be implemented in conjunction with other suicide prevention strategies.

  9. The Relationship between Attitudes toward Suicide and Family History of Suicide in Nagano Prefecture, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    TSUKAHARA, Teruomi; Arai, Hiroaki; Kamijo, Tomoko; Kobayashi, Yoshikiyo; Washizuka, Shinsuke; Arito, Heihachiro; Nomiyama, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    Certain attitudes toward suicide may be a risk factor for suicide among the bereaved. To explore this possibility, we examined the relationship between attitudes toward suicide and family history of suicide. We focused on two specific attitudes indicating resignation in a survey: #1 “When a person chooses to die by suicide, the suicide is inevitable” (i.e., inevitability belief); and #2 “A suicide cannot be stopped by any person, because suicide is unpreventable” (i.e., unpreventable belief)....

  10. Suicide: Across the Life Span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Jeffery

    2016-06-01

    Suicide remains a major public health issue. There have been more than 40,000 deaths by suicide in 2014. Understanding both the neuroscience and psychological development is key for nursing care so adequate interventions and treatment strategies are developed when working with people thinking about suicide. It is critical to assess and recognize risk and protective factors to ensure patient safety. The older adult, children, and adolescent populations remain vulnerable to suicide. A discussion regarding the psychiatric, psychosocial, and treatment considerations for these populations is included. An overview of communication, suicide assessment, and safety planning is discussed.

  11. Suicide in centenarians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Ajit; Zarate-Escudero, Sofia; Bhat, Ravi;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The elderly population size is growing worldwide due increased life expectancy and decreased mortality in the elderly. This has lead to an increase in the number of centenarians, and their numbers are predicted to increase further. Little is known about suicide rates in centenarians....... METHODS: Data on the number of suicides (ICD-10 codes, X60-84) in entenarians of both gender for as many years as possible from 2000 were ascertained from three sources: colleagues, national statisics office websites and e-mail contact with the national statistics offices of as many countries as possible....... The number of centernarians for the corresponding years was estimated for each country using data provided by the United Nations website. RESULTS: Data were available from 17 countries. The suicide rate was 57 (95% confidence interval 45-69) per 100, 000 person years in men and 6.8 (95% confidence interval 5...

  12. Suicide bomber detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Naomi; Callejero, Carlos; Fiore, Franco; Gómez, Ignacio; Gonzalo, Ramón; Enríquez de Luna, Álvaro; Ederra, Iñigo; Palacios, Inés

    2009-05-01

    The chance of suicide bomber attacks against troops in the Theatre of Operations is currently quite high. Most of the time checkpoints and compound gates are not equipped with the appropriate equipment to screen for potential suicide bombers. The ultimate solution would be to be able to perform stand-off screening under various weather conditions whilst avoiding contact between Force Protection personnel and potential suicide bombers. Radiation in the millimeterwave and the lower Terahertz range, having the useful property of being able to penetrate clothing in addition to fog and rain, makes it a clear candidate for imaging in this situation. A study has been made simulating real case scenarios to test practical detection performance and stand-off distances at a range of frequencies in this band, the results of which will be presented.

  13. Sexual Self-Concept Ambiguity and the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Talley, Amelia E.; Brown, Sarah L.; Cukrowicz, Kelly; Bagge, Courtney L.

    2015-01-01

    Mechanisms (i.e., thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, hopelessness) derived from the interpersonal theory of suicide which are hypothesized to account for the relation between sexual orientation self-concept ambiguity and active suicide ideation were examined. Participants included 349 women, among whom 42% currently self-ascribed a non-exclusively heterosexual sexual identity. Among women reporting higher levels of sexual self-concept ambiguity, greater risk for active suicide ...

  14. Suicide in later life: failed treatment or rational choice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Whitney L; Ong, Thuan D

    2014-08-01

    Suicide is the deliberate act of causing death by self-directed injurious behavior with intent to die. Assisted dying, also known as assisted suicide, involves others to help hasten death. Physician-assisted dying specifically refers to the participation of a physician in facilitating one's death by providing a lethal means. Any decision to actively end a life has profound emotional and psychological effects on survivors. The article discusses the effects that older adults' deaths through suicide, assisted dying, and physician-assisted dying have on survivors and the implications for clinical practice.

  15. Suicides in men with IDDM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyvik, K O; Stenager, E N; Green, A;

    1994-01-01

    .1); as for the age-group of 20-24 years, SMR was 2.98, P causes (n = 28) and accidents (n = 22) were reviewed with respect to unrecognized suicides; as for deaths of unknown causes, three could be reclassified as probable suicides...... and two as possible suicides, whereas one of the deaths caused by accident could be reclassified as possible suicide. CONCLUSIONS: Young men with IDDM may confer a higher risk of suicide than expected. Furthermore, suicide may represent an underestimated cause of death among patients with IDDM.......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the occurrence of suicide in men with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A cohort of all Danish men born between 1949 and 1964 (including 1964) who were diagnosed with IDDM before age 20 (n = 1,682) was ascertained earlier. Follow...

  16. Suicidal ideation among Malaysian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, NoorAni; Cheong, Siew Man; Ibrahim, Nurashikin; Rosman, Azriman

    2014-09-01

    Adolescence is the time of greatest risk for the first onset of suicidal behaviors. This study aimed to identify the risk and protective factors associated with suicidal ideation among Malaysian adolescents. Data from the 2012 Malaysia Global School-based Student Health Survey, a nationwide study using a 2-stage cluster sampling design, were analyzed. The survey used a self-administered validated bilingual questionnaire and the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale. The prevalence of suicidal ideation was 7.9%. Analysis revealed that suicidal ideation was positively associated with depression, anxiety, stress, substance use, being bullied, and being abused at home, either physically or verbally. In addition, suicidal ideation was significantly higher among females and among the Indians and Chinese. Having close friends and married parents were strongly protective against suicidal ideation. Understanding the risk and protective factors is important in providing comprehensive management for suicidal ideation. PMID:25005932

  17. Detecting suicidality on Twitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridianne O'Dea

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Twitter is increasingly investigated as a means of detecting mental health status, including depression and suicidality, in the population. However, validated and reliable methods are not yet fully established. This study aimed to examine whether the level of concern for a suicide-related post on Twitter could be determined based solely on the content of the post, as judged by human coders and then replicated by machine learning. From 18th February 2014 to 23rd April 2014, Twitter was monitored for a series of suicide-related phrases and terms using the public Application Program Interface (API. Matching tweets were stored in a data annotation tool developed by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO. During this time, 14,701 suicide-related tweets were collected: 14% were randomly (n = 2000 selected and divided into two equal sets (Set A and B for coding by human researchers. Overall, 14% of suicide-related tweets were classified as ‘strongly concerning’, with the majority coded as ‘possibly concerning’ (56% and the remainder (29% considered ‘safe to ignore’. The overall agreement rate among the human coders was 76% (average κ = 0.55. Machine learning processes were subsequently applied to assess whether a ‘strongly concerning’ tweet could be identified automatically. The computer classifier correctly identified 80% of ‘strongly concerning’ tweets and showed increasing gains in accuracy; however, future improvements are necessary as a plateau was not reached as the amount of data increased. The current study demonstrated that it is possible to distinguish the level of concern among suicide-related tweets, using both human coders and an automatic machine classifier. Importantly, the machine classifier replicated the accuracy of the human coders. The findings confirmed that Twitter is used by individuals to express suicidality and that such posts evoked a level of concern that warranted

  18. Military veteran mortality following a survived suicide attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conigliaro Joseph

    2011-05-01

    .0%, which was 3.0 times greater than expected. The leading causes overall were heart disease (20.2%, suicide (13.1%, and unintentional injury (12.7%. Whereas suicide was the ninth leading cause of death in the U.S. population overall (1.8% during the study period, suicide was the leading and second leading cause among women (25.0% and men (12.7% in the cohort, respectively. Conclusions Veterans who have attempted suicide face elevated risks of all-cause mortality with suicide being prominent. This represents an important population for prevention activities.

  19. Two models of suicide treatment: evaluation and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulakos, J

    1993-01-01

    Treating suicidal patients is one of the most stressful aspects of psychotherapeutic work. This paper describes and evaluates two models of therapy with suicidal patients. The crisis-intervention model, which assumes suicidal feelings are acute and suicide is preventable; and the continuing-therapy model, which emphasizes chronic suicidal feelings and posits that suicide is not preventable. Ethical and legal issues as well as treatment strategies from each model are described. Both therapy models stress the importance of assessing, understanding, and validating the patient's feelings as well as establishing a good therapeutic relationship. The crisis intervention model recommends an active, directive intervention while the continuing therapy model emphasizes ongoing therapy principles. After reviewing the different models, this article concludes that the assumptions of the crisis-intervention model are not supported while those of the continuing-therapy model are. In addition, it is concluded that there are more therapeutic advantages to employing the continuing-therapy model. These include taking short-term risks to acquire long-term gain, treating the patient as a responsible adult and seeing the suicidal behavior in the context of the total personality.

  20. Pharmacotherapy of suicidal behaviour in major depression, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filaković, Pavo; Erić, Anamarija Petek

    2013-09-01

    The psychopathological dynamics in suicidality overcomes actual diagnostic distribution therefore pharmacotherapy has restricted role in overall prevention of suicidal behaviour among mentally ill and is demanding for clinician. This role is achieved through reduction and alleviation of suicidal risk with rational and individual pharmacotherapeutic approach emphasising effective, safe and tolerable treatment. The genetic and epigenetic factors, dysfunction of neurotransmitter, neuroendocrine system and stress response system has been determining for neurobiology of suicidality. Therefore, pharmacotherapeutic approach should be focused, not only on prevention and reduction of suicidality, but adjusted for general and diagnosis-specific risk factors. Suicidality represents trans-diagnostic issue, however making the correct diagnosis is of great importance. Identical group of psychiatric medications or even the same drug, could be palliating for suicidal behaviour in one diagnostic category and in other aggravating concerning suicidal ideations. Clinician should be reserved towards epidemiological studies about reducing suicidal rate due to increased consumption of antidepressants. Detailed data analysis showed there is no relevancy which antidepressants were given to specific patient, in what age and phase of illness. The FDA has issued warnings about possible increased risk of suicidal behaviour in children and adolescents when given antidepressant therapy. In general, serotoninergic drugs have neutral or mildly protective effect on potential suicidal behaviour while noradrenergic drugs may have activating effect or could even worsen suicidal ideation in certain phase of the illness. When given in appropriate dose and the right time, dual or noradrenergic antidepressants, could also have good protective impact on specific patient. In patients with bipolar disorder, antidepressive drug could be trigger for suicidal behaviour. Greater susceptibility when diagnosing

  1. Suicidality: risk factors and the effects of antidepressants. The example of parallel reduction of suicidality and other depressive symptoms during treatment with the SNRI, milnacipran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Courtet

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Philippe CourtetCHRU Montpellier, Inserm U888, University of Montpellier I, Montpellier, FranceAbstract: Suicidal behavior (SB represents a major public health issue. Clinical and basic research suggests that SB is a specific entity in psychiatric nosology involving a combination of personality traits, genetic factors, childhood abuse and neuroanatomical abnormalities. The principal risk factor for suicide is depression. More than 60% of patients who complete suicide are depressed at the time of suicide, most of them untreated. There has been a controversy concerning a possible increased risk of SB in some depressed patients treated with antidepressants. Most recent evidence suggests, however, that treatment of depressed patients is associated with a favorable benefit-risk ratio. A recent study has determined the effects of 6 weeks of antidepressant treatment with the serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, milnacipran, on suicidality in a cohort of 30 patients with mild to moderate depression. At baseline, mild suicidal thoughts were present in 46.7% of patients. Suicidal thoughts decreased progressively throughout the study in parallel with other depressive symptoms and were essentially absent at the end of the study. At no time during treatment was there any indication of an increased suicidal risk. Retardation and psychic anxiety decreased in parallel possibly explaining the lack of any “activation syndrome” in this study.Keywords: suicide, milnacipran, SNRI, activation syndrome

  2. Suicide and multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E N; Stenager, Egon; Koch-Henriksen, N;

    1992-01-01

    In a nationwide investigation the risk of death by suicide for patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) was assessed using records kept at the Danish Multiple Sclerosis Registry (DMSR) and the Danish National Register of Cause of Death. The investigation covers all MS patients registered with DSMR...

  3. Coping with Suicidal Thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... friends, family, and social situations Say goodbyes to family and friends, as if they don’t expect to see them again Abuse alcohol or drugs, or engage in other risky behaviors Have personality changes or mood swings What causes suicidal thoughts? ...

  4. Psychotherapy for Suicidal Clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David

    1994-01-01

    Reviews various systems of psychotherapy for suitability for suicidal clients. Discusses psychoanalysis, cognitive therapy, primal therapy, transactional analysis, Gestalt therapy, reality therapy, person-centered therapy, existential analysis, and Jungian analysis in light of available treatment options. Includes 36 citations. (Author/CRR)

  5. Suicide in serial killers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David; White, John

    2010-02-01

    In a sample of 248 killers of two victims in America from 1900 to 2005, obtained from an encyclopedia of serial killers by Newton (2006), those completing suicide did not differ in sex, race, or the motive for the killing from those who were arrested. PMID:20402450

  6. PSYCHOBIOLOGY OF SUICIDE BEHAVIOUR*

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, A. Venkoba; Devi, S. Parvathi

    1987-01-01

    SUMMARY Evidence from genetic research, monoamine studies and psychopharmacological trials points towards a possible biological predisposition and precipitant for suicidal behaviour. The implications for early detection and management based on a biological model have been discussed. The limitations of the model have been discussed.

  7. Is Hamlet Contemplating Suicide?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚皓然

    2014-01-01

    Does the question to be or not to be for Hamlet is whether to continue to exist or not? Is Hamlet contemplating sui-cide? The meaning of this famous speech in Shakespeare’s Hamlet has been given numerous interpretations. This essay focuses on the paradoxical emotion of Hamlet and intends to make a comprehensive analysis of this soliloquy.

  8. Physician-Assisted Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Module fourteen of the EPEC-O Self-Study Original Version focuses on the skills that the physician can use to respond both compassionately and confidently to a request, not on the merits of arguments for or against legalizing physician-assisted suicide (PAS) or euthanasia.

  9. Suicide in serial killers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David; White, John

    2010-02-01

    In a sample of 248 killers of two victims in America from 1900 to 2005, obtained from an encyclopedia of serial killers by Newton (2006), those completing suicide did not differ in sex, race, or the motive for the killing from those who were arrested.

  10. Written in Skin: SuicideGirls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steen Christiansen

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Suicidegirls.com is a website which is both an online community, but also a softcore pin-up site, where the models feature extensive body modifications in the form of tattoos and piercings. The website promotes a democratic approach to the photo shoots, as the models remain in control, not the photographer. Marked by their body modifications, the Suicide Girls (as they call themselves, they actively attempt to subvert the typical pin-up conventions, by transgressing mainstream standards of beauty. In what seems remarkably similar to Judith Butler's account of subversive bodily acts, the pin-up shoots of the Suicide Girls mount a critique of a culture's view of the body as a natural entity. Cultural borders are crossed, as the bodies of the Suicide Girls embed ink into their bodies in the form of tattoos, and gender is played as a subversive game against the expectations of pin-up conventions. Acting as different and impure bodies, the Suicide Girls represent a threat to conventional conceptions of the body.

  11. Effects of suicide bereavement on mental health and suicide risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pitman, Alexandra; Osborn, David; King, Michael;

    2014-01-01

    Between 48 million and 500 million people are thought to experience suicide bereavement every year. Over the past decade, increased policy attention has been directed towards suicide bereavement, but with little evidence to describe the effect of exposure or to provide appropriate responses. We...... used a systematic approach to carry out a narrative review of studies of the effect of suicide bereavement on mortality, mental health, and social functioning, and compared them with effects from other bereavements. We found 57 studies that satisfied strict inclusion criteria. Results from...... these studies suggested that exposure to suicide of a close contact is associated with several negative health and social outcomes, depending on an individual's relationship to the deceased. These effects included an increased risk of suicide in partners bereaved by suicide, increased risk of required admission...

  12. Ethnic Differences in Suicidal Ideation and Attempts

    OpenAIRE

    Perez-Rodriguez, M Mercedes; Baca-Garcia, Enrique; Oquendo, Maria A.; Blanco, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    Suicide is one of the leading causes of death, and suicidal ideation and attempts are a major public health problem. However, little is known about the relationship between ethnicity and suicidal behaviors.

  13. Suicide Research and Adolescent Suicide Trends in New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Said Shahtahmasebi

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, there have been a number of claims and counterclaims from suicide research using time series and longitudinal data; in particular, the linkage of increased antidepressant prescriptions to a decrease in suicide rates. Suicide time series appear to have a memory compounded with seasonal and cyclic effects. Failure to take into account these properties may lead to misleading conclusions, e.g., a downward blip is interpreted as the result of current knowledge and public health po...

  14. Suicidal changes in patients with first episode psychosis: clinical predictors of increasing suicidal tendency in the early treatment phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Trine; Nordentoft, Merete

    2012-01-01

    in the first year of treatment of psychosis. Patients were grouped and ranked according to their highest suicidal tendency in the year before treatment: not suicidal, suicidal thoughts, suicidal plans or suicide attempt(s). Predictors for becoming more suicidal in the first year of treatment were examined...... with suicidal thoughts, plans or suicide attempt. In first year of treatment of psychosis, hallucinations increased the risk for becoming more suicidal, whereas delusions reduced this risk in already suicidal patients....

  15. Suicidal ideation in patients with fibromyalgia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calandre, Elena P; Navajas-Rojas, M Angustias; Ballesteros, Javier; Garcia-Carrillo, Jocelyne; Garcia-Leiva, Juan M; Rico-Villademoros, Fernando

    2015-02-01

    Chronic pain, sleep disturbances, and depression, which are relevant symptoms of fibromyalgia syndrome, have been demonstrated to be associated with an increased likelihood of suicidal behaviors. Mortality from suicide has been shown to be greater among patients with fibromyalgia. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of suicidal ideation among a sample of patients with fibromyalgia and to evaluate its relationship with the clinical symptomatology of fibromyalgia. Baseline data from fibromyalgia patients willing to participate in different clinical studies were collected. Outcome measures included the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the Brief Pain Inventory, and the SF-12 Health Survey. The scores for these scales were compared between patients with and without suicidal ideation. The presence of suicidal ideation was assessed using the answer provided to item 9 of the Beck Depression Inventory. The results were adjusted by age, sex, total comorbidity, and time since diagnosis with multiple linear regression. The sample comprised 373 patients of whom one hundred and seventy-nine (48%) reported suicidal ideation: 148 (39.7%) reported passive suicidal ideation and 31 (8.3%) active suicidal ideation. Suicidal ideation was markedly associated with depression, anxiety, sleep quality, and global mental health, whereas only weak relationships were observed between suicidal ideation and both pain and general physical health.

  16. Bullying and suicidal behavior in jails.

    OpenAIRE

    Blaauw, E.; Winkel, F.W.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.

    2001-01-01

    Relationships between bullying features and suicidal behavior of inmates were examined. The files of 95 suicide victims in jails and prisons in the Netherlands were examined for reports of bullying. In addition, 221 nonsuicidal jail inmates and 53 suicidal jail inmates were interviewed. The files of 34% of the suicide victims noted that the suicide victim had felt bullied. Bullying, especially serious bullying, was relatively often reported by suicidal inmates and by vulnerable inmates. Diffe...

  17. Shame-proneness in attempted suicide patients

    OpenAIRE

    Wiklander Maria; Samuelsson Mats; Jokinen Jussi; Nilsonne Åsa; Wilczek Alexander; Rylander Gunnar; Åsberg Marie

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background It has been suggested that shame may be an important feature in suicidal behaviors. The disposition to react with shame, “shame-proneness”, has previously not been investigated in groups of attempted suicide patients. We examined shame-proneness in two groups of attempted suicide patients, one group of non-suicidal patients and one group of healthy controls. We hypothesized that the attempted suicide patients would be more shame-prone than non-suicidal patients and healthy...

  18. Nurses' Psychosocial Barriers to Suicide Risk Management

    OpenAIRE

    Sharon Valente

    2011-01-01

    Suicide remains a serious health care problem and a sentinel event tracked by The Joint Commission. Nurses are pivotal in evaluating risk and preventing suicide. Analysis of nurses' barriers to risk management may lead to interventions to improve management of suicidal patients. These data emerged from a random survey of 454 oncology nurses' attitudes, knowledge of suicide, and justifications for euthanasia. Instruments included a vignette of a suicidal patient and a suicide attitude question...

  19. Suicide and suicide attempts in the lesbian and gay community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, J

    1995-12-01

    The most common suicide theories share a widely recognized set of social factors that contribute to suicide and suicide attempts. This paper discusses additional suicide risk factors that affect the gay and lesbian community such as: discrimination, gay adolescence, coming out, establishment of a gay identity, HIV/AIDS, intrapersonal stressors, drugs and alcohol, racial/ethnic factors and limited support structures. Poor awareness of these additional risks, both within mainstream society and within the gay and lesbian community, is also discussed. A review of the literature is conducted that examines the impact of these risk factors and the implications of these issues to mental health nursing. PMID:9086933

  20. A Neural Basis for the Acquired Capability for Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Gopikrishna; Baxi, Madhura; Witte, Tracy; Robinson, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    The high rate of fatal suicidal behavior (SB) in men is an urgent issue as highlighted in the public eye via news sources and media outlets. In this study, we have attempted to address this issue and understand the neural substrates underlying the gender differences in the rate of fatal SB. The Interpersonal–Psychological Theory of Suicide has proposed an explanation for the seemingly paradoxical relationship between gender and SB, i.e., greater non-fatal suicide attempts by women but higher number of deaths by suicide in men. This theory states that possessing suicidal desire (due to conditions such as depression) alone is not sufficient for a lethal suicide attempt. It is imperative for an individual to have the acquired capability for suicide (ACS) along with suicidal desire in order to die by suicide. Therefore, higher levels of ACS in men may explain why men are more likely to die by suicide than women, despite being less likely to experience suicidal ideation or depression. In this study, we used activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis to investigate a potential ACS network that involves neural substrates underlying emotional stoicism, sensation-seeking, pain tolerance, and fearlessness of death, along with a potential depression network that involves neural substrates that underlie clinical depression. Brain regions commonly found in ACS and depression networks for males and females were further used as seeds to obtain regions functionally and structurally connected to them. We found that the male-specific networks were more widespread and diverse than the female-specific ones. Also, while the former involved motor regions, such as the premotor cortex and cerebellum, the latter was dominated by limbic regions. This may support the fact that suicidal desire generally leads to fatal/decisive action in males, while, in females, it manifests as depression, ideation, and generally non-fatal actions. The proposed model is a first attempt to characterize

  1. A Neural Basis for the Acquired Capability for Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Gopikrishna; Baxi, Madhura; Witte, Tracy; Robinson, Jennifer L

    2016-01-01

    The high rate of fatal suicidal behavior (SB) in men is an urgent issue as highlighted in the public eye via news sources and media outlets. In this study, we have attempted to address this issue and understand the neural substrates underlying the gender differences in the rate of fatal SB. The Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide has proposed an explanation for the seemingly paradoxical relationship between gender and SB, i.e., greater non-fatal suicide attempts by women but higher number of deaths by suicide in men. This theory states that possessing suicidal desire (due to conditions such as depression) alone is not sufficient for a lethal suicide attempt. It is imperative for an individual to have the acquired capability for suicide (ACS) along with suicidal desire in order to die by suicide. Therefore, higher levels of ACS in men may explain why men are more likely to die by suicide than women, despite being less likely to experience suicidal ideation or depression. In this study, we used activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis to investigate a potential ACS network that involves neural substrates underlying emotional stoicism, sensation-seeking, pain tolerance, and fearlessness of death, along with a potential depression network that involves neural substrates that underlie clinical depression. Brain regions commonly found in ACS and depression networks for males and females were further used as seeds to obtain regions functionally and structurally connected to them. We found that the male-specific networks were more widespread and diverse than the female-specific ones. Also, while the former involved motor regions, such as the premotor cortex and cerebellum, the latter was dominated by limbic regions. This may support the fact that suicidal desire generally leads to fatal/decisive action in males, while, in females, it manifests as depression, ideation, and generally non-fatal actions. The proposed model is a first attempt to characterize the

  2. The psychology of suicidal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Rory C; Nock, Matthew K

    2014-06-01

    The causes of suicidal behaviour are not fully understood; however, this behaviour clearly results from the complex interaction of many factors. Although many risk factors have been identified, they mostly do not account for why people try to end their lives. In this Review, we describe key recent developments in theoretical, clinical, and empirical psychological science about the emergence of suicidal thoughts and behaviours, and emphasise the central importance of psychological factors. Personality and individual differences, cognitive factors, social aspects, and negative life events are key contributors to suicidal behaviour. Most people struggling with suicidal thoughts and behaviours do not receive treatment. Some evidence suggests that different forms of cognitive and behavioural therapies can reduce the risk of suicide reattempt, but hardly any evidence about factors that protect against suicide is available. The development of innovative psychological and psychosocial treatments needs urgent attention. PMID:26360404

  3. Suicide attempts in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, Elsebeth Nylev; Jensen, Børge; Stenager, Maria;

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of the study were (1) to estimate the risk of suicide attempts in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients in Denmark and compare the risk to the background population in the County of Funen, Denmark; (2) to estimate the risk of suicide attempts in MS patients receiving immunomodulating...... therapy compared with untreated patients. The Danish MS Registry, the Danish MS Treatment Registry and the Suicide Attempt Registry are linked and merged together using a person identification number given to all persons residing in Denmark. Among 404 MS patients, 15 patients had attempted suicide......, although no increased risk for suicide attempts was found in MS patients. No difference in number of suicide attempts in treated and untreated patients was found....

  4. Suicide among Arab-Americans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman M El-Sayed

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Arab-American (AA populations in the US are exposed to discrimination and acculturative stress-two factors that have been associated with higher suicide risk. However, prior work suggests that socially oriented norms and behaviors, which characterize recent immigrant ethnic groups, may be protective against suicide risk. Here we explored suicide rates and their determinants among AAs in Michigan, the state with the largest proportion of AAs in the US. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: ICD-9/10 underlying cause of death codes were used to identify suicide deaths from among all deaths in Michigan between 1990 and 2007. Data from the 2000 U.S. Census were collected for population denominators. Age-adjusted suicide rates among AAs and non-ethnic whites were calculated by gender using the direct method of standardization. We also stratified by residence inside or outside of Wayne County (WC, the county with the largest AA population in the state. Suicide rates were 25.10 per 100,000 per year among men and 6.40 per 100,000 per year among women in Michigan from 1990 to 2007. AA men had a 51% lower suicide rate and AA women had a 33% lower rate than non-ethnic white men and women, respectively. The suicide rate among AA men in WC was 29% lower than in all other counties, while the rate among AA women in WC was 20% lower than in all other counties. Among non-ethnic whites, the suicide rate in WC was higher compared to all other counties among both men (12% and women (16%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Suicide rates were higher among non-ethnic white men and women compared to AA men and women in both contexts. Arab ethnicity may protect against suicide in both sexes, but more so among men. Additionally, ethnic density may protect against suicide among Arab-Americans.

  5. [Suicide - ethical and juridical aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Paul

    2015-10-01

    This paper discusses the phenomenon of suicidality with regard to patient autonomy on the one hand and the obligation of medical professionals to provide support and treatment on the other hand. The continuation of a broad debate on these issues within the whole of society is mandatory also in the future. Suicide and assisted suicide are topics with high relevance for medicine in general and for psychiatry in particular. They can, however, not be handled by medical specialists alone.

  6. Psychoanalytic perspectives on adolescent suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, R A; Apter, A

    1996-01-01

    From the beginning of the twentieth century, youthful suicide has posed both a clinical and a theoretical challenge for psychoanalysis. This paper examines several paradigmatic cases of completed suicide in order to illustrate important psychodynamic aspects of adolescent suicide. The contributions of the developmental psychoanalytic perspective to our understanding of adolescent self-destructiveness are discussed, with particular emphasis on Anna Freud's concept of developmental lines toward self-care and self-regulation. The applications of this developmental psychoanalytic perspective to clinical research on vulnerability to adolescent suicide are reviewed. PMID:9029973

  7. HOMICIDE FOLLOWED BY SUICIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAMANTHA DUBUGRAS

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Homicide followed by suicide (H/S is a complex and poorly studied phenomenon. This research aims at identifyingH/S cases occurred in Porto Alegre from 1996 throughout 2004. Information on H/S was extracted from newspapers,police reports and interviews with the informants. From the 14 identified cases, men were the killers/suicides andwomen and children their victims. The most frequently used weapons were firearms. In general, the aggressor was animpulsive, aggressive individual showing problems within its primary supporting group, possibly suffering depressionand alcohol-addicted with criminal backgrounds (violence against the family. Events were mainly triggered by jealousy,threats or the end of a love relationship.

  8. [EUTHANASIA AND ASSISTED SUICIDE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantero, Caroline

    2015-07-01

    Euthanasia and assisted suicide are not part of French laws of bioethics and lack, for the time being, definition and normative framework other than their criminal prosecution. To transform them into a right, these concepts certainly call for an ethical and legal debate. This paper aims to question the ideas to be considered, the conceptual bases and normative tools that may be useful to the discussion.

  9. [EUTHANASIA AND ASSISTED SUICIDE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantero, Caroline

    2015-07-01

    Euthanasia and assisted suicide are not part of French laws of bioethics and lack, for the time being, definition and normative framework other than their criminal prosecution. To transform them into a right, these concepts certainly call for an ethical and legal debate. This paper aims to question the ideas to be considered, the conceptual bases and normative tools that may be useful to the discussion. PMID:27356358

  10. Non-suicidal self-injury, attempted suicide, and suicidal intent among psychiatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andover, Margaret S; Gibb, Brandon E

    2010-06-30

    Although attempted suicide and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) differ in several important ways, a significant number of individuals report histories of both behaviors. The current study further examined the relations between NSSI and attempted suicide among psychiatric inpatients. Self-report questionnaires were administered to 117 psychiatric inpatients at a general hospital (M=39.45 years old, S.D.=12.84 years, range=17-73 years). We found that presence and number of NSSI episodes were significantly related to presence and number of suicide attempts. Supporting the importance of NSSI assessment, patients' history of NSSI (presence and frequency) was more strongly associated with history of suicide attempts than were patients' depressive symptoms, hopelessness, and symptoms of borderline personality disorder, and as strongly associated with suicide attempt history as current levels of suicidal ideation. Finally, among patients with a history of suicide attempts, those with an NSSI history reported significantly greater lethal intent for their most severe attempt, and patients' number of prior NSSI episodes was positively correlated with the level of lethal intent associated with their most severe suicide attempt.

  11. Hamlet's Suicide Soliloquy: A Case Study in Suicide Ideology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Andrew P.

    This paper presents a secondary-level teaching technique that can be used in an integrated English and health education curriculum. The exercise provides students and teachers with a case study of a suicidal person for the purpose of teaching the warning signs of suicide, appropriate questioning, and referral skills. The case study uses Hamlet's…

  12. Estudo de ideação suicida em adolescentes de 15 a 19 anos Study of suicide ideation in adolescents from 15 to 19 years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Roxo Borges

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou identificar a presença de ideação suicida em adolescentes da população geral, da cidade de Porto Alegre, com idades entre 15 e 19 anos; caracterizar os adolescentes com e sem ideação suicida quanto à intensidade de depressão/desesperança; identificar, nos adolescentes com ideação suicida, o nível de associação entre ideação suicida e depressão/desesperança e identificar, nos adolescentes com ideação suicida, quais variáveis foram encontradas como mais associadas à ideação suicida. Utilizou-se uma ficha de dados sócio-demográficos, Escala de Ideação Suicida de Beck, Inventário de Depressão de Beck e Escala de Desesperança de Beck. Os dados foram analisados através do cálculo de freqüências, pelo teste qui-quadrado e regressão logística. Dos 526 adolescentes da amostra, 36% apresentaram ideação suicida. Destes, 36% apresentaram sintomas de depressão e 28,6% de desesperança (moderada e/ou grave. As variáveis mais associadas à ideação suicida foram: sexo feminino, tentativa de suicídio de amigo, depressão e desesperança.This study aimed at identifying suicide ideation among adolescents aged 15 to 19 years old within the general population of Porto Alegre city, Brazil; characterizing adolescents with and without suicide ideation as to depression/hopelessness intensity; identifying suicide ideation, association level between suicide ideation and depression/hopelessness in those youngsters; as well as identifying the variables most associated to suicide ideation in those adolescents showing this behavior. A social-demographic datasheet, Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation, Beck Depression Inventory and Beck Hopelessness Scale were used. Data were submitted to frequency calculation, chi-square test and logistic regression analysis. From the 526 adolescents in the sample, 36% presented suicide ideation. Out of them, 36% showed depression symptoms and 28,6% hopelessness (moderate and

  13. Studying survivors of near-lethal suicide attempts as a proxy for completed suicide in prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivlin, Adrienne; Fazel, Seena; Marzano, Lisa; Hawton, Keith

    2012-07-10

    Suicides in prisons are common. There is a pressing need to understand more about the causes and prevention of prisoner suicides. A particularly informative approach is through studying survivors of near-lethal suicide attempts. However, the extent to which this approach is a good proxy for completed suicide requires verification. In this article we aimed to assess (1) the extent to which male and female prisoners who made near-lethal suicide attempts in prison are similar to prisoners who die by suicide; (2) the suicidal intent of those making near-lethal suicide attempts; and (3) the applicability of the Suicide Intent Scale in prisons. Survivors of near-lethal suicide attempts and prisoners who died by suicide were compared on sociodemographic and criminological characteristics. The suicidal intent of prisoners engaging in near-lethal self-harm was assessed using Beck's Suicide Intent Scale. There were no significant differences when the sociodemographic and criminological profiles of prisoners who made near-lethal suicide attempts and those who died by suicide were compared, except that male prisoners who made near-lethal suicide attempts were somewhat younger. Most prisoners carrying out near-lethal acts had high suicidal intent. However, some questions in the Suicide Intent Scale were inappropriate for assessing intent in prisoners. Prisoners who survive near-lethal self-harm would appear to be a valid proxy for those who die by suicide in prison. The Suicide Intent Scale requires some modifications for use in prisons.

  14. Pathways for Preparation: Locating Suicide Education in Preparing Professionals for Encounters with Suicidal Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranahan, Patti

    2013-01-01

    Current suicide prevention strategies often include suicide education based on the premise that education can lead to recognition of those at risk of suicide and others who are prepared can respond and potentially save lives. As suicide is a leading cause of death for young people, it is relevant to explore how suicide education is made available…

  15. Suicide Method Runs in Families: A Birth Certificate Cohort Study of Adolescent Suicide in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tsung-Hsueh; Chang, Wan-Ting; Lin, Jin-Jia; Li, Chung-Yi

    2011-01-01

    Suicide method used by adolescents was examined to determine if it was the same as that employed by their suicidal parents. Six hundred eighty adolescents completed suicide between 1997 and 2007, of whom 12 had parents who had previously died by suicide. The suicide method used by these adolescents was compared with that employed by their suicidal…

  16. [Are near-death experiences following attempted suicide important for suicide risk assessment? A case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kralovec, Karl; Plöderl, Martin; Aistleiner, Ursula; Fartacek, Clemens; Fartacek, Reinhold

    2009-01-01

    We describe a 59-year old patient who reported a near-death experience following attempted suicide. The near-death experience induced reduction of suicidality. Previous studies suggested a high prevalence of near-death experiences following attempted suicide and that near-death experiences may decrease rather than increase subsequent suicide risk. Implications for suicide risk assessment are discussed.

  17. Suicidal Behavior in Mood Disorders: Response to Pharmacological Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tondo, Leonardo; Baldessarini, Ross J

    2016-09-01

    Suicidal behavior is strongly associated with depression, especially if accompanied by behavioral activation, dysphoria, or agitation. It may respond to some treatments, but the design of scientifically sound, ethical trials to test for therapeutic effects on suicidal behavior is highly challenging. In bipolar disorder, and possibly also unipolar major depression, an underprescribed medical intervention with substantial evidence of preventive effects on suicidal behavior is long-term treatment with lithium. It is unclear whether this effect is specifically antisuicidal or reflects beneficial effects of lithium on depression, mood instability, and perhaps aggression and impulsivity. Antisuicidal effects of anticonvulsant mood stabilizers (carbamazepine, lamotrigine, valproate) appear to be less than with lithium. Further evaluation is needed for potential antisuicidal effects of atypical antipsychotics with growing evidence of efficacy in depression, particularly acute bipolar depression, while generally lacking risk of inducing agitation, mania, or mood instability. Short-term and long-term value and safety of antidepressants are relatively secure for unipolar depression but uncertain and poorly tested for bipolar depression; their effects on suicidal risk in unipolar depression may be age-dependent. Sedative anxiolytics are virtually unstudied as regards suicidal risks. Adequate management of suicidal risks in mood disorder patients requires comprehensive, clinically skillful monitoring and timely interventions. PMID:27542851

  18. Associated Factors of Suicidal Thoughts in HIV-Positive Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Dabaghzadeh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available  Objective: As a first study, suicidal ideation and its correlates have been evaluated in Iranian HIV positive population .  Methods:One hundred and fifty HIV-positive individuals were recruited in this cross-sectional study. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, Positive and Negative Suicide Ideation (PANSI, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory (PSQI and Somatization subscale of Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL 90 as self- reported questionnaires were used to assess the patients’ anxiety and depression status, suicidal thoughts, sleep quality and physiological factors, respectively . Results:Antiretroviral therapy and efavirenz intake did not show any significant effects on the patients’ suicidal ideation. Anxiety (p<0.001, depression (p<0.001, poor physical activity (P<0.001 and sleep quality (p<0.001 were significantly associated with the patients’ negative suicidal ideation. From the patients’ demographic data, unemployment (p = 0.04, living alone (p = 0.01, and lack of family support (p = 0.01 were correlated with the patients’ negative suicidal thoughts . Conclusion:Although hospitals are the main referral centers for providing care for HIV-positive individuals in Tehran, Iran, conducting a multi-center study with sufficient sample size from different areas of our country that include individuals with different behaviors and cultures is essential to confirm the results of this study.

  19. Rx for the Suicide Epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupple, Donna-Marie

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the gradual rise in teenage suicides since the 1950s, and offers some pointers for using writing (with "Romeo and Juliet" as source literature) as a basis for group discussion. Adds that suicide is a theme and a reality that can be addressed in the English classroom. (NKA)

  20. Latina Teen Suicide and Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Andrea J.; Wiggs, Christine Bracamonte; Valencia, Celina; Bauman, Sheri

    2013-01-01

    Latina adolescents experience depression and suicidal ideations in a disproportionate manner compared to their non-Latina counterparts. We investigate suicide and depressive symptoms among a state-wide sample (N = 650) of adolescent Latina girls with a focus on bullying as a predictor. Bullying rates are higher than previous studies have found for…

  1. Suicide in University and College

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹妙景

    2005-01-01

    @@ It is reported that suicide is the second leading cause of death among university and college students. People wonder why there are1 so many people die from2 suicide. As far as I am concerned, it is the pressure that mostly attribute to it3, including pressure from severe depression, from inability to deal with difficulties, from love and so on4.

  2. The Teen Suicide Research Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Barbara L.; Everall, Robin D.

    2001-01-01

    Reports preliminary findings from ongoing interviews with youth who had experienced suicidal thoughts or behaviors. Suicide risk was associated with negative life events or extreme difficulty in school, overwhelming daily stresses, and absence of support. Teachers had a huge impact on the psychological functioning of troubled adolescents. (SV)

  3. Personal Autonomy and Rational Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, May A.; Shulman, Ernest

    That certain suicides (which can be designated as rational) ought not to be interfered with is closely tied to the notion of the "right to autonomy." Specifically it is because the individual in question has this right that interference is prohibited. A proper understanding of the right to autonomy, while essential to understanding why suicide is…

  4. Parents' Perspectives on Young Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Nicky

    2005-01-01

    Strategies for the prevention of adolescent suicide are frequently designed to identify those young people who represent a high risk in order that services and support can be effectively targeted. This study explored the experiences of parents who had lost a child through suicide. The findings suggest that the range of behaviours perceived by…

  5. Female Suicide Rates in Ghizer, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Murad M.; Ahmed, Aziz; Khan, Sultan R.

    2009-01-01

    Suicide is an understudied subject in Pakistan. There are many social, legal, and religious sanctions against it. National rates of suicides are not known. We calculated suicide rates of women in the Ghizer District of the remote Northern Areas of Pakistan. During years 2000 to 2004, 49 women committed suicide. Taking average mean population for…

  6. Preventing the Spread of Suicide among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, William

    1985-01-01

    Communities across the country are having to deal with teenage suicide--a tragedy because it is preventable in many situations. Characteristics of a suicidal person are discussed. Recommendations for intervening with students after the suicide death of a peer in order to help prevent subsequent suicide deaths are made. (RM)

  7. Can Suicide Be a Good Death?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David

    2006-01-01

    The issue of whether suicide can be a good death was separated into two different questions: (1) can suicide be an appropriate death, and (2) can suicide be a rational death? Several definitions of an "appropriate" death were proposed, and suicide was seen as potentially appropriate. Similarly, several criteria for rationality were proposed and…

  8. African American College Women's Suicide Buffers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, Michelle S.; Range, Lillian M.

    2003-01-01

    To examine the relationships buffers may have with suicide ideation, 300 African American female college students completed measures of suicide ideation and buffers. Three variables accounted for a significant and unique portion of the variance in suicide ideation: family support, a view that suicide is unacceptable, and a collaborative religious…

  9. Suicide and Its Prevention on College Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Lee

    2012-01-01

    Suicide is a significant issue facing higher education institutions. Many campuses are involved in a variety of procedures, programs, and initiatives that seek to reduce or prevent suicide and the impact of suicide-related behavior. This article offers examples of campus prevention efforts, important resources on suicide prevention for college…

  10. Grief Experiences and Expectance of Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtkowiak, Joanna; Wild, Verena; Egger, Jos

    2012-01-01

    Suicide is generally viewed as an unexpected cause of death. However, some suicides might be expected to a certain extent, which needs to be further studied. The relationships between expecting suicide, feeling understanding for the suicide, and later grief experiences were explored. In total, 142 bereaved participants completed the Grief…

  11. Grief Experiences and Expectance of Suicide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wojtkowiak, J.; Wild, V.; Egger, J.I.M.

    2012-01-01

    Suicide is generally viewed as an unexpected cause of death. However, some suicides might be expected to a certain extent, which needs to be further studied. The relationships between expecting suicide, feeling understanding for the suicide, and later grief experiences were explored. In total, 142 b

  12. Last Suicide Attempt before Completed Suicide in Severe Depression: An Extended Suicidal Process May Be Found in Men Rather Than Women.

    OpenAIRE

    Brådvik, Louise

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the time from last suicide attempt to suicide in men and women with major depressive disorder with melancholic and/or psychotic features. The case records of 100 suicide victims with severe depression were evaluated. All suicide attempts during the course of depression were noted. The time from last suicide attempt to suicide was compared as well as the occurrence of suicide attempt during the last depressive episode, by gender. Male suicide attempte...

  13. Suicide among older psychiatric inpatients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erlangsen, Annette; Zarit, Steven H; Tu, Xin;

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Older adults have elevated suicide rates, especially in the presence of a psychiatric disorder, yet not much is known about predictors for suicide within this high-risk group. The current study examines the characteristics associated with suicide among older adults who are admitted...... to a psychiatric hospital. METHOD: All persons aged 60 and older living in Denmark who were hospitalized with psychiatric disorders during 1990-2000 were included in the study. Using a case-control design and logistic regression analysis, the authors calculated the suicide risk associated with specific patient...... characteristics. RESULTS: Affective disorders were found to be associated with an almost twofold higher risk of suicide among psychiatric inpatients than other types of disorders (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.5-2.6). Patients with dementia had a significantly lower risk ratio of 0.2 (95% CI: 0...

  14. A Medical Interviewing Curriculum Intervention for Medical Students' Assessment of Suicide Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedorowicz, Jess G.; Tate, Jodi; Miller, Anthony C.; Franklin, Ellen M.; Gourley, Ryan; Rosenbaum, Marcy

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Effective communication strategies are required to assess suicide risk. The authors determined whether a 2-hour simulated-patient activity during a psychiatry clerkship improved self-assessment of medical interviewing skills relevant to suicide risk-assessment. Methods: In the 2-hour simulated-patient intervention, at least one…

  15. First Report to the General Assembly of the Rhode Island Task Force on Teenage Suicide Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhode Island Office of the Lieutenant Governor, Providence.

    This document reports on the activities of the Rhode Island Task Force on Teenage Suicide Prevention which held its first meeting in September 1985. The function, progress, membership, and meetings of the three committees (public relations, resource, and research) are discussed. A pilot program on suicide prevention is described which provided…

  16. Suicide in Obsessive Compulsive and Related Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonca Karakus

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is a complex term. Suicide attempts are common in women, but completed suicide rates are higher in men. Several demographic factors, stressful life events, previous suicide attempts, childhood abuse, physical or psychiatric disorders are risk factors for suicide. Suicide rates in a variety of mental disorders is more than the normal population. Data on rates and risk factors of suicide in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and related disorders are limited. Present data are often associated with patients with obsessive compulsive disorder and body dysmorphic disorder. Lifetime suicidal ideation rates in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder is within a range of 36-63%. Any comorbid psychiatric diagnosis is an important risk factor for suicide in this disorder. This article aims to review the relationship between suicide and obsessive compulsive and related disorders [Archives Medical Review Journal 2015; 24(3.000: 402-413

  17. Religion and Suicide Risk: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Ryan E; Oquendo, Maria A; Stanley, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Although religion is reported to be protective against suicide, the empirical evidence is inconsistent. Research is complicated by the fact that there are many dimensions to religion (affiliation, participation, doctrine) and suicide (ideation, attempt, completion). We systematically reviewed the literature on religion and suicide over the last 10 years (89 articles) with a goal of identifying what specific dimensions of religion are associated with specific aspects of suicide. We found that religious affiliation does not necessarily protect against suicidal ideation, but does protect against suicide attempts. Whether religious affiliation protects against suicide attempts may depend on the culture-specific implications of affiliating with a particular religion, since minority religious groups can feel socially isolated. After adjusting for social support measures, religious service attendance is not especially protective against suicidal ideation, but does protect against suicide attempts, and possibly protects against suicide. Future qualitative studies might further clarify these associations.

  18. A Novel Brief Therapy for Patients Who Attempt Suicide: A 24-months Follow-Up Randomized Controlled Study of the Attempted Suicide Short Intervention Program (ASSIP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Gysin-Maillart

    2016-03-01

    .001. ASSIP participants spent 72% fewer days in the hospital during follow-up (ASSIP: 29 d; control group: 105 d; W = 94.5, p = 0.038. Higher scores of patient-rated therapeutic alliance in the ASSIP group were associated with a lower rate of repeat suicide attempts. Prior suicide attempts, depression, and a diagnosis of personality disorder at baseline did not significantly affect outcome. Participants with a diagnosis of borderline personality disorder (n = 20 had more previous suicide attempts and a higher number of reattempts. Key study limitations were missing data and dropout rates. Although both were generally low, they increased during follow-up. At 24 months, the group difference in dropout rate was significant: ASSIP, 7% (n = 4; control, 22% (n = 13. A further limitation is that we do not have detailed information of the co-active follow-up treatment apart from participant self-reports every 6 months on the setting and the duration of the co-active treatment.ASSIP, a manual-based brief therapy for patients who have recently attempted suicide, administered in addition to the usual clinical treatment, was efficacious in reducing suicidal behavior in a real-world clinical setting. ASSIP fulfills the need for an easy-to-administer low-cost intervention. Large pragmatic trials will be needed to conclusively establish the efficacy of ASSIP and replicate our findings in other clinical settings.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02505373.

  19. Derivation of a proxy measure of suicidal ideation from the Suicide Opinion Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David

    2004-12-01

    Scores for a 13-item scale, derived from Domino's Suicide Opinion Questionnaire correlated with scores from Reynolds' Suicide Ideation Questionnaire for 81 undergraduates and may be useful as a proxy measure of suicidal ideation.

  20. Examining suicide-risk individuals who go online for suicide-related purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Keith M; McLean, John P; Sheffield, Jeanie

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to better help those in suicidal crisis by examining the types of suicide-risk individuals who make use of the Internet in relation to their suicidal problems. An anonymous online survey examined suicide-risk individuals who went online for suicide-related purposes (n = 165) and a reference group of suicide-risk individuals with no such experience (n = 125). Suicide-risk individuals who went online for suicide-related purposes, compared with online users who did not, reported greater suicide-risk symptoms, were less likely to seek help, and perceived less social support. Online, many reported more support, felt less alienated, believed they reduced their suicidality, but also sought suicide methods and were likely to visit "pro suicide" sites. Implications include designing help sites that allow peer-to-peer communications and anonymous professional support.

  1. Clinical studies of biomarkers in suicide prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Jokinen, Jussi

    2007-01-01

    Suicide is a major clinical problem in psychiatry and suicidal behaviours can be seen as a nosological entity per se. Predicting suicide is difficult due to its low base-rate and the limited specificity of clinical predictors. Prospective biological studies suggest that dysfunctions in the hypothalamo pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis and the serotonergic system have predictive power for suicide in mood disorders. Suicide attempt is the most robust clinical predictor making suici...

  2. Attempted suicide and pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew E. Czeizel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of the Budapest Monitoring System of Self-Poisoning Pregnant Women was to evaluate the potential congenital abnormality inducing effect of extremely large doses of drugs among pregnant women who attempted suicide. This system was appropriate to describe the characteristics of these pregnant women as a secondary finding from this model. METHODS: All self-poisoned patients were cared for at a toxicological inpatient clinic in Budapest, between 1960 and 1993. Of a total of 1,044 pregnant women identified from the three different periods of the project, only 19 (1.8% died. Women who survived were visited at home to reveal birth outcomes, and their exposed children were examined medically to identify congenital abnormalities and tested to estimate their cognitive-behavioral status. The previous or subsequent children of these pregnant women were used as controls with a similar examination protocol. RESULTS: In general, self-poisoned pregnant women were young (peak age was between 18 and 20 years, 62% had their first pregnancy, 55% were unmarried, they had lower socioeconomic status, 46% were smokers and 22.5% drinkers, but depression/panic disorder occurred only among 17 pregnant women. Suicide attempts with drugs were most frequent in the fourth post-conceptional week and second month of pregnancy. In general they used smaller doses of drugs for suicide than non-pregnant age-matched women. Of 1,044 self-poisoned pregnant women, 926 had known pregnancy outcomes and 411 (44.4% delivered live-born babies. CONCLUSIONS: The self-poisoning model appears to have several benefits (e.g., dose-response estimation of drugs in comparison with other methods when evaluating teratogenic/fetotoxic effect of drugs. It is suggested that an international monitoring system of self-poisoned pregnant women should be established to provide a larger data base.

  3. Assisted suicide and euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heide, Agnes

    2013-01-01

    Several countries have adopted laws that regulate physician assistance in dying. Such assistance may consist of providing a patient with a prescription of lethal medication that is self-administered by the patient, which is usually referred to as (physician) assistance in suicide, or of administering lethal medication to a patient, which is referred to as euthanasia. The main aim of regulating physician assistance in dying is to bring these practices into the open and to provide physicians with legal certainty. A key condition in all jurisdictions that have regulated either assistance in suicide or euthanasia is that physicians are only allowed to engage in these acts upon the explicit and voluntary request of the patient. All systems that allow physician assistance in dying have also in some way included the notion that physician assistance in dying is only accepted when it is the only means to address severe suffering from an incurable medical condition. Arguments against the legal regulation of physician assistance in dying include principled arguments, such as the wrongness of hastening death, and arguments that emphasize the negative consequences of allowing physician assistance in dying, such as a devaluation of the lives of older people, or people with chronic disease or disabilities. Opinion polls show that some form of accepting and regulating euthanasia and physician assistance in suicide is increasingly supported by the general population in most western countries. Studies in countries where physician assistance in dying is regulated suggest that practices have remained rather stable in most jurisdictions and that physicians adhere to the legal criteria in the vast majority of cases.

  4. Towards A Suicide Free Society: Identify Suicide Prevention As Public Health Policy*

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Ajai R.; Singh, Shakuntala A.

    2004-01-01

    Suicide is amongst the top ten causes of death for all age groups in most countries of the world. It is the second most important cause of death in the younger age group (15-19 yrs.) , second only to vehicular accidents.Attempted suicides are ten times the successful suicide figures, and 1-2% attempted suicides become successful suicides every year. Male sex, widowhood, single or divorced marital status, addiction to alcohol ordrugs, concomitant chronic physical or mental illness, past suicid...

  5. Insights into the processes of suicide contagion: Narratives from young people bereaved by suicide

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Jo; Stanley, Nicky; Mallon, Sharon; Manthorpe, Jill

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Death by suicide can have a profound and long lasting impact on the people left behind. Research has demonstrated that, in comparison to the general population, those bereaved by suicide, particularly young people, are at increased risk for suicide. However, the process of suicide contagion, as it has now become widely known, is poorly understood. This paper examines the phenomenon of suicide contagion amongst young people who have been bereaved by suicide with data from research...

  6. Relation between attempted suicide and suicide rates among young people in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Hawton, K.; Arensman, E.; Wasserman, D.; Hulten, A.; Bille-Brahe, U.; Bjerke, T.; Crepet, P.; Deisenhammer, E; Kerkhof, A.; De Leo, D; Michel, K.; Ostamo, A.; Philippe, A.; I. Querejeta; Salander-Renberg, E.

    1998-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine if there are associations between rates of suicide and attempted suicide in 15-24 year olds in different countries in Europe. DESIGN: Attempted suicide rates were based on data collected in centres in Europe between 1989 and 1992 as part of the WHO/EURO Multicentre Study of Parasuicide. Comparison was made with both national suicide rates and local suicide rates for the areas in which the attempted suicide monitoring centres are based. SETTING: 15 centres i...

  7. Social modeling in the transmission of suicidality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leo, Diego; Heller, Travis

    2008-01-01

    Evidence from twin, adoption, and family studies suggests that there is strong aggregation of suicidal behaviors in some families. By comparison, the role of social modeling through peers has yet to be convincingly established. This paper uses data from four large studies (the WHO/EURO Multicentre Study on Suicidal Behaviour, the WHO/SUPRE-MISS, the CASE study, and the Queensland Suicide Register) to compare the effects of exposure to fatal and nonfatal suicidal behavior in family members and nonfamilial associates on the subsequent suicidal behavior of male and female respondents of different ages. Across all studies, we found that prior suicidal behaviors among respondents' social groups were more important predictors of suicidal behavior in the respondents themselves than previous research had indicated. Community-based suicide attempters in the WHO SUPRE-MISS had higher rates of exposure to prior suicide in nonfamilial associates than in family members. In an adolescent population, exposure to prior fatal suicidal behavior did not predict deliberate self-harm when exposure to nonfatal suicidal behavior (both familial and social) were controlled for, but exposure to nonfatal suicidal behaviors in family and friends was predictive of deliberate self-harm and suicide ideation, even after controlling for exposure to fatal suicidal behavior. The potential impact of "containment" of information regarding suicidal behaviors as a prevention initiative is discussed, in light of information behavior principles of social marketing.

  8. Social modeling in the transmission of suicidality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leo, Diego; Heller, Travis

    2008-01-01

    Evidence from twin, adoption, and family studies suggests that there is strong aggregation of suicidal behaviors in some families. By comparison, the role of social modeling through peers has yet to be convincingly established. This paper uses data from four large studies (the WHO/EURO Multicentre Study on Suicidal Behaviour, the WHO/SUPRE-MISS, the CASE study, and the Queensland Suicide Register) to compare the effects of exposure to fatal and nonfatal suicidal behavior in family members and nonfamilial associates on the subsequent suicidal behavior of male and female respondents of different ages. Across all studies, we found that prior suicidal behaviors among respondents' social groups were more important predictors of suicidal behavior in the respondents themselves than previous research had indicated. Community-based suicide attempters in the WHO SUPRE-MISS had higher rates of exposure to prior suicide in nonfamilial associates than in family members. In an adolescent population, exposure to prior fatal suicidal behavior did not predict deliberate self-harm when exposure to nonfatal suicidal behavior (both familial and social) were controlled for, but exposure to nonfatal suicidal behaviors in family and friends was predictive of deliberate self-harm and suicide ideation, even after controlling for exposure to fatal suicidal behavior. The potential impact of "containment" of information regarding suicidal behaviors as a prevention initiative is discussed, in light of information behavior principles of social marketing. PMID:18389641

  9. The Extrinsic Coagulation Pathway: a Biomarker for Suicidal Behavior in Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongtao; Chen, Jin; Liu, Chengyu; Fang, Liang; Liu, Zhao; Guo, Jing; Cheng, Ke; Zhou, Chanjuan; Zhan, Yuan; Melgiri, Narayan D.; Zhang, Liang; Zhong, Jiaju; Chen, Jianjun; Rao, Chenglong; Xie, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Although an association between major depressive disorder (MDD) and suicide exists, most depressed patients never attempt suicide. An improved understanding of the factors contributing to suicidal risk in MDD can provide direction for suicide predictor development. In MDD suicide attempters (MDD-SA), MDD non-attempters (MDD-NA), and healthy controls (HC) (n = 12 each group), complementary plasma proteomics identified 45 differential proteins mapped to coagulation and inflammation, 25 of which underwent Western blotting. In another cohort including antidepressant-treated patients (n = 49 each group), seven additional extrinsic pathway proteins were selected for ELISA. Two inflammatory proteins and eight coagulatory proteins demonstrated alterations in MDD-SA relative to MDD-NA and HC. Applying a relative mass-action ratio, MDD-SA subjects displayed a higher relative prothrombinase activity than MDD-NA subjects, while healthy controls displayed higher relative prothrombinase activity than both MDD-SA and MDD-NA subjects. Consistent with our human findings, we found that heparin treatment significantly increased forced swimming test (FST) immobility time in rodents. MDD, independent of suicidality, is associated with a proinflammatory state accompanied by a hypothrombotic state. Suicidal behavior in MDD is associated with a more pronounced proinflammatory and prothrombotic phenotype accompanied by extrinsic pathway activation, revealing an extrinsic pathway biomarker that can be applied in predicting and monitoring suicidal risk. PMID:27605454

  10. Suicidal behavior in Indian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Diana; Sher, Leo

    2013-01-01

    Suicide is both a public and mental health problem, and is a leading cause of deaths, especially among adolescents. Two factors that contribute to the decision of adolescents to commit suicide are having a primary mood disorder and/or substance use. In the Indian culture, the family unit has both a positive and negative impact on suicide. The family serves as a protective factor that provides a strong support for the individual, but alternately creates an inseparable individual when seeking mental health care, which often complicates the situation. Due to the stigma, Indians typically perceive having a mental illness as shameful. Religion is integral to the Indian culture so much so that individuals often use herbal remedies, seek help from religious leaders, and attend religious establishments prior to obtaining a mental health evaluation in those that are subsequently deemed as mentally ill. Despite the fact that suicides are underreported and misdiagnosed in India, it is known that the highest rates are among those immigrating, Indians tend to switch the methods they use to commit suicide from ingestion of poison to hanging, which may reflect a lack of available poisonous substances or the influence of the host culture. Considering the high suicide rates in adolescents, the importance of providing psychoeducation, restricting access to lethal means, and promoting social integration in immigrants are various ways by which suicides in Indian adolescents can be avoided. PMID:24006319

  11. Characterization of the gunshot suicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balci, Y; Canogullari, G; Ulupinar, E

    2007-05-01

    The aim of this study is to present the characteristics of gunshot suicides by highlighting the ones with multiple entrance wounds. The criminal investigation reports of suicides (n=318) during the period 1991-2000, in the central judicial district of Eskisehir were investigated. 20.4% of all suicide cases (n=65) used firearms. Firearm suicides were more common in males and their frequency decreased as age increased. The usage of long-barrelled weapons was 47.7%. Among the long-barrelled gunshots, twelve were shotguns and the remaining were military riffles. Forty-five weapons were legal. Thirty-four out of 45 gunshot suicide victims had licensed weapons because of their occupations. In the majority of cases, (72.3%) the shooting distance was contact or near contact. Most of the entrance wounds (75.0%) were located in the head and neck region and the direction of the bullet path was upward and front-to-back. Of all the gunshot suicides, 6.1% (n=4) had multiple entrance and exit wounds. All of the victims were soldiers. In suicide cases using long-barrelled weapons (3/4), military rifles were set on automatic mode. In our study, at least eight of the victims survived for a period. To be able to increase the survival rate of the victims or improve the outcomes, intensive pre- and post-operative care is critical. PMID:17321192

  12. Suicide ideation, plans, and attempts among general practice patients with chronic health conditions in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Huertas

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Mildred Vera2,4, María L Reyes-Rabanillo1, Sarah Huertas3, Deborah Juarbe4, Coralee Pérez-Pedrogo4, Aracelis Huertas5, Marisol Peña61Veterans Affairs Caribbean Healthcare System, San Juan, Puerto Rico; 2Department of Health Services Administration, School of Public Health; 3Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine; 4Center for Evaluation and Sociomedical Research, School of Public Health; 5School of Health Professions; 6Center for Preparedness in Public Health, School of Public Health, Medical Sciences Campus, University of Puerto Rico San Juan, Puerto Rico.Background: Little is known about suicidal ideation among general practice patients in Puerto Rico. In this study we examined the rates, severity, and correlates of suicidal ideation, plans, and attempts among general practice patients with chronic illnesses. This is important in targeting appropriate interventions and management approaches to minimize and prevent suicide.Methods: We screened patients with chronic physical conditions at general practices. Suicidal ideation was assessed with the suicidality module of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Major depression was assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire depression module. The relationship between sociodemographic factors, depression and suicidal ideation was examined with multiple logistic regression analysis. Among the subgroup that acknowledged suicidal ideation, we used multinomial logistic regression analysis to estimate simultaneously the multivariate associations of depression and sociodemographic factors with suicidality risk levels.Results: Of the 2068 patients screened, 15.4% acknowledged recent suicidal ideation. Among this group, 8.6% reported passive ideation, 3.7% active ideation without a plan, and 3.1% active ideation with a plan or attempt. According to multivariate logistic regression, suicidal ideation was higher among patients with moderately severe depression and severe depression than

  13. Suicide with 137 cesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case report is presented of suicide by radiation exposure after a preceding attempt with potassium ferrocyanide. The subject, a 30-year-old nondestructive-testing technician, held with his right fingers and then placed in his left shirt pocket a metal-canned 5,3-Ci 137Cs source. Despite appearance of signs of severe topical injury by day 3 after the incident and development of systemic toxicity symptoms with indications of affection of internal organs by day 16, medical aid was not sought until day 21 when efforts at management proved unable to prevent fatal outcome. A prominent distinguishing characteristic of this mode of suicide is that the deed's sequelae are delayed in coming into effect. Cases known to have occurred are extremely rare (only two have been described in the literature). This is likely to be related to a distinct unpopularity of radioactive materials as well as their limited availability to the general public. The subjects that did use them were radiation workers having access to such substances; being acquainted with the biological effects of radiation, they, nevertheless, have chosen this protracted and distressful way of taking their lives. (A.B.)

  14. Suicidal ideation and associated factors among community-dwelling elders in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Yung-Chieh; Yang, Ming-Jen; Yang, Mei-Sang; Lung, For-Wey; Shih, Chun-Hua; Hahn, Cheng-Yi; Lo, Hsin-Yi

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore the suicidal ideation of community-dwelling elderly and the factors associated with their intention to commit suicide. Using a multilevel stratified sampling strategy, 1000 elderly subjects were recruited (aged 65-74 years old) in Taiwan during the year 2001. The degree of depression and its correlates were assessed. Suicidal ideation was measured by asking respondents if they had had any suicidal thoughts in the previous week. In all, 16.7% of respondents reported suicidal ideation within the past week; its occurrence was related to sex, religious belief, employment status, marital status, average family monthly income, physical health status, depressive symptoms, and community activity participation. Further multivariate logistic regression revealed that, aside from depressive symptoms and a lower level of education, no community participation in the past 6 months was significantly associated with the appearance of suicidal ideation. The prevalence of suicidal ideation among the elderly in Taiwan is higher than in Western countries. Participation in social activities is negatively associated with elderly suicidal ideation. The dimension of social participation deserves further exploration and should be considered in community mental health promotion interventions for elderly people. PMID:16048440

  15. Parental bonding in severely suicidal adolescent inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenstein, O; Zohar, A; Apter, A; Shoval, G; Weizman, A; Zalsman, G

    2011-11-01

    Family environment has a clear role in suicidal behavior of adolescents. We assessed the relationship between parental bonding and suicidal behavior in suicidal (n=53) and non-suicidal (n=47) adolescent inpatients. Two dimensions of parental bonding: care and overprotection, were assessed with the Parental Bonding Instrument. Results showed that adolescents with severe suicidal behavior tended to perceive their mothers as less caring and more overprotective compared to those with mild or no suicidal behavior. A discriminant analysis distinguished significantly between adolescents with high suicidality and those with low suicidality [χ2 (5) = 15.54; p=0.01] in 71% of the cases. The perception of the quality of maternal bonding may be an important correlate of suicidal behavior in adolescence and may guide therapeutic strategies and prevention. PMID:21398097

  16. Nursing students′ attitude toward suicide prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh Nebhinani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preventing suicide depends upon different health professionals′ knowledge regarding suicide, attitude toward suicide attempters, skills to assess and manage suicidal risk. Objectives: This study was aimed to assess the attitude of nursing students toward suicide prevention. Materials and Methods: 308 nursing students were recruited from the two institutions through total enumeration method. Attitude toward suicide prevention scale was administered. Study design was cross-sectional. Results: Majority were single females, from urban locality, who were pursuing BSc Nursing with the mean age of 20 years. Only minority had previous exposure to suicide prevention programs or workshops. Nearly half of the subjects had positive attitude toward working with suicidal patients. Again half of the subjects considered unemployment and poverty as main causes of suicide and were quite hopeless about it and they also perceived that most of the suicidal people would not reveal their suicidal plans to others. Conclusions: Merely half of the students had positive attitude toward working with suicidal patients. Hence, there is strong need to organize more educational and training programs on suicide prevention so that these budding health professionals could be more equipped and trained to manage these suicidal patients.

  17. Why not Commercial Assistance for Suicide? On the Question of Argumentative Coherence of Endorsing Assisted Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipke, Roland

    2015-09-01

    Most people who endorse physician-assisted suicide are against commercially assisted suicide - a suicide assisted by professional non-medical providers against payment. The article questions if this position - endorsement of physician-assisted suicide on the one hand and rejection of commercially assisted suicide on the other hand - is a coherent ethical position. To this end the article first discusses some obvious advantages of commercially assisted suicide and then scrutinizes six types of argument about whether they can justify the rejection of commercially assisted suicide while simultaneously endorsing physician-assisted suicide. The conclusion is that they cannot provide this justification and that the mentioned position is not coherent. People who endorse physician-assisted suicide have to endorse commercially assisted suicide as well, or they have to revise their endorsement of physician-assisted suicide.

  18. Prediction and prevention of suicide in patients with unipolar depression and anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaprinis George

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Epidemiological data suggest that between 59 and 87% of suicide victims suffered from major depression while up to 15% of these patients will eventually commit suicide. Male gender, previous suicide attempt(s, comorbid mental disorders, adverse life-situations, acute psycho-social stressors etc. also constitute robust risk factors. Anxiety and minor depression present with a low to moderate increase in suicide risk but anxiety-depression comorbidity increases this risk dramatically Contrary to the traditional psychoanalytic approach which considers suicide as a retrospective murder or an aggression turned in-wards, more recent studies suggest that the motivations to commit suicide may vary and are often too obscure. Neurobiological data suggest that low brain serotonin activity might play a key role along with the tryptophan hydroxylase gene. Social factors include social support networks, religion etc. It is proven that most suicide victims had asked for professional help just before committing suicide, however they were either not diagnosed (particularly males or the treatment they received was inappropriate or inadequate. The conclusion is that promoting suicide prevention requires the improving of training and skills of both psychiatrists and many non-psychiatrists and especially GPs in recognizing and treating depression and anxiety. A shift of focus of attention is required in primary care to detect potentially suicidal patients presenting with psychological problems. The proper use of antidepressants, after a careful diagnostic evaluation, is important and recent studies suggest that successful acute and long-term antidepressant pharmacotherapy reduces suicide morbidity and mortality.

  19. Coming out to talk about suicide: gay men and suicidality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAndrew, Sue; Warne, Tony

    2010-04-01

    International studies report increased rates of mental health problems and subsequent suicidality among homosexual populations. While international health-care policy is concerned with reducing suicide among young people, important research findings relating to gay people and suicidality remain unacknowledged in the Suicide Prevention Strategy for England. This qualitative study, utilizing single case studies, was used to gain an in-depth understanding of the life experiences contributing to the suicidality of four gay men. The methodology was psychoanalytically informed, using free association narrative interviewing. The initial data analysis involved interpretation of each of the case studies and a subsequent analysis exploring the shared experiences found in each of the individual narratives. Thematically, these are described as 'knowing and not knowing', 'the centrality of the father-son relationship', 'the loneliness of outsiderness', 'leading a double life', and 'crime and punishment'. The significance of the life experiences these themes illustrate reveal why some gay men might not only experience long-term mental health problems, but also engage in suicidality. Individually and collectively, the analyses provide important insights for mental health nurses becoming more attuned to provide sensitive mental health care to those who have a gay sexual orientation. PMID:20367646

  20. The Impact of Celebrity Suicide on Subsequent Suicide Rates in the General Population of Korea from 1990 to 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Juhyun; Choi, Nari; Kim, Seog Ju; Kim, Soohyun; An, Hyonggin; Lee, Heon-Jeong; Lee, Yu Jin

    2016-01-01

    The association between celebrity suicide and subsequent increase in suicide rates among the general population has been suggested. Previous studies primarily focused on celebrity suicides in the 2000s. To better understand the association, this study examined the impacts of celebrity suicides on subsequent suicide rates using the data of Korean celebrity suicides between 1990 and 2010. Nine celebrity suicides were selected by an investigation of media reports of suicide deaths published in t...

  1. VA telemental health: suicide assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godleski, Linda; Nieves, J Edwin; Darkins, Adam; Lehmann, Laurent

    2008-01-01

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) encompasses one of the largest telemental health networks in the world, with over 45,000 videoconferencing and over 5,000 home telemental health encounters annually. Recently, the VA designated suicide prevention as a major priority, with telehealth modalities providing opportunities for remote interventions. Suicide risk assessments, using videoconferencing, are now documented in the literature, as are current studies that find telemental health to be equivalent to face-to-face treatment. Remote assessment of suicidality, however, involves complex legal issues: licensing requirements for remote delivery of care, legal procedures for involuntary detainment and commitment of potentially harmful patients, and liability questions related to the remote nature of the mental health service. VA best practices for remote suicide risk assessment include paradigms for establishing procedures in the context of legal challenges (licensing and involuntary detainment/commitment), for utilizing clinical assessment and triage decision protocols, and for contingency planning to optimize patient care and reduce liability.

  2. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... abused and controlling for other adversities. 1 o Victims of child sexual abuse were more likely to report having a psychiatric disorder in the last 12 months, which puts victims at a higher risk of a suicide attempt ...

  3. Parents bereaved by offspring suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolton, James M; Au, Wendy; Leslie, William D;

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT Suicide bereavement remains understudied and poorly understood. OBJECTIVES To examine outcomes of parents bereaved by the suicide death of their offspring and to compare these with both nonbereaved parent controls and parents who had offspring die in a motor vehicle crash (MVC). DESIGN...... Population-based case-control study. Suicide-bereaved parents were compared with nonbereaved matched control parents in the general population (n = 1415) and with MVC-bereaved parents (n = 1132) on the rates of physician-diagnosed mental and physical disorders, social factors, and treatment use in the 2...... years after death of the offspring. Adjusted relative rates (ARRs) were generated by generalized estimating equation models and adjusted for confounding factors. SETTING Manitoba, Canada. PARTICIPANTS All identifiable parents who had an offspring die by suicide between 1996 and 2007 (n = 1415). MAIN...

  4. Suicide by self-incineration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Peter Mygind; Hardt-Madsen, Michael

    1997-01-01

    was 43 years, with a broad age range (20-87). Many incidents of self-incineration as a form of political protest were reported in the press especially during the 1960s and 1970s, and the press reports often inspired others to commit suicide in the same way. None of the cases in our investigation were...... victims were of Danish origin, and a religious motive played no significant role. Most of the victims were suffering from mental illness, and a majority had tried to commit suicide before. None of the victims left a suicide note. The scene was most often at home and indoors--only a minority committed...... suicide in remote areas of the countryside. Most were found dead at the scene, and the cause of death was usually heat exposure. Only a minority had a lethal carboxy-hemoglobin (CO-Hb) concentration. It is concluded that close cooperation between police, fire experts, and the forensic pathologist...

  5. The psychology of suicide terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Jerrold M; Ali, Farhana; Henderson, Schuyler W; Shanfield, Steven; Victoroff, Jeff; Weine, Stevan

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews current understandings of the psychology of suicide terrorism for psychiatrists and other mental health professionals to help them better understand this terrifying phenomenon. After discussing key concepts and definitions, the paper reviews both group and individual models for explaining the development of suicide terrorists, with an emphasis on "collective identity." Stressing the importance of social psychology, it emphasizes the "normality" and absence of individual psychopathology of the suicide bombers. It will discuss the broad range of terrorisms, but will particularly emphasize terrorism associated with militant Islam. The article emphasizes that comprehending suicide terrorism requires a multidisciplinary approach that includes anthropological, economic, historical, and political factors as well as psychological ones. The paper concludes with a discussion of implications for research, policy, and prevention, reviewing the manner in which social psychiatric knowledge and understandings applied to this phenomenon in an interdisciplinary framework can assist in developing approaches to counter this deadly strategy.

  6. [The suicide assessment in the psychiatric emergencies: A semi-structured interview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandevoorde, Jérémie; Baudoin, Thierry; Chabert, Béatrice; Baudoin, Emmanuelle; Sanchez Valero, Ambre

    2015-09-01

    The epidemiological literature shows that the population going through general or psychiatric emergencies indicates a high suicide risk. Suicide is classified as an avoidable mortality by the WHO. Therefore, suicidal potential must be assessed at different stages of hospitalization: when the patient comes to the emergency, during hospitalization, after hospitalization in the context of prevention and regularly monitoring. The authors present a simple approach to the investigation of suicidal activity through a semi-structured clinical interview and propose a fast and convenient grid report, experienced at psychiatric emergencies. A real and concrete case illustrates the method whereas are reminded the suicide warning signs and indices of increase about risk of acting out at the hospital.

  7. Extended suicide with a pet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Brian K

    2013-01-01

    The combination of the killing of a pet and a suicide is a perplexing scenario that is largely unexplored in the literature. Many forensic psychiatrists and psychologists may be unaccustomed to considering the significance of the killing of a pet. The subject is important, however, because many people regard their pets as members of their family. A case is presented of a woman who killed her pet dog and herself by carbon monoxide poisoning. The purpose of this article is to provide an initial exploration of the topic of extended suicide with a pet. Forensic mental health evaluations may have a role in understanding the etiology of this event and in opining as to the culpability of individuals who attempt to or successfully kill a pet and then commit suicide. Because the scientific literature is lacking, there is a need to understand this act from a variety of perspectives. First, a social and anthropological perspective will be presented that summarizes the history of the practice of killing of one's pet, with a focus on the ancient Egyptians. A clinical context will examine what relationship animals have to mental illness. A vast body of existing scientific data showing the relevance of human attachment to pets suggests that conclusions from the phenomena of homicide-suicide and filicide-suicide are applicable to extended suicide with a pet. Finally, recommendations will be proposed for both clinical and forensic psychiatrists faced with similar cases. PMID:24051598

  8. Reahorcamiento suicida Suicidal Rehanging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AM. Vaquero

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available La investigación detallada del lugar de los hechos, el examen de la cuerda y de los nudos, así como de los puntos de suspensión, aportan una información complementaria de gran interés en casos de ahorcamiento de etiología dudosa. Presentamos la imagen de un "reahorcamiento suicida" en el que dicha información fue relevante para la resolución del caso.The thorough investigation of the scene, the examination of the noose and Knots as well as the suspension points contribute important information concerning hangings of doubtful etiology. We are displaying the picture of a "suicidal rehanging" in which the mentioned information was important in the resolution of the case.

  9. Predictors of Suicide Attempts in Clinically Depressed Korean Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ahye; Song, Jungeun; Yook, Ki-Hwan; Jon, Duk-In; Jung, Myung Hun; Hong, Narei; Hong, Hyun Ju

    2016-01-01

    We examined predictors of suicide attempts in clinically depressed adolescents in Korea and gender differences in suicidal behavior. In total, 106 adolescents diagnosed with depressive disorder were recruited in South Korea. We assessed various variables that might affect suicide attempts, and used a structured interview for the diagnosis of depression and comorbidities and to evaluate suicidality. Demographic and clinical characteristics of the subjects were compared between suicide attempt and non-suicide attempt groups and we examined significant predictors of suicide attempts. Gender differences in suicidal ideation and suicidal behavior were also analyzed. Among 106 depressed participants, 50 (47.2%) adolescents were classified in the suicide attempt group. Generally, the suicide attempt and non-suicide attempt group shared similar clinical characteristics. The suicide attempt group had more females, more major depressive disorder diagnoses, more depressive episodes, and higher suicidal ideation than the non-suicide attempt group. Suicidal ideation was the only significant predictor of suicidal attempt, regardless of gender. Higher suicidal ideation frequency scores and more non-suicidal self-injurious behaviors were shown in the female suicide attempt group than the male suicide attempt group. It is recommended that suicidal ideation be assessed regularly and managed rigorously to decrease suicide risks in depressive adolescents. PMID:27776392

  10. Linguistic analysis of suicide notes in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Fernández-Cabana

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Text analysis software like "Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count" (LIWC has been used for the analysis of suicide notes and suicidal texts in English. This is the first analysis of suicide notes using this method in Spanish and, as far as we know, its first application to suicide notes in Europe. To compare the sociodemographic and forensic characteristics of a consecutive sample of suicide victims studying the differences between those who left suicidal note and those who did not. To study a sample of suicidal notes from Spain using LIWC, comparing it's linguistic features by gender, age and environment. Methods: 144 consecutive suicide cases were analyzed. 23 suicide notes obtained from this sample were processed using LIWC, the results were compared by gender, age and environment of the author. Results: People who left suicide notes were younger than non- writers; more frequently single, divorced or widowed and emotional troubles were reported as frequent triggers. Suicide notes written by women were significantly longer, had more emotional content, tentative expressions, denials, pronouns in first person plural and verbs in past and future tenses. Urban cases showed higher emotional expression and word complexity whereas rural cases showed a higher use of social words. Conclusions: Our study shows some differences between people who left suicide note and those who didn't and confirms the LIWC ability to detect differences in suicidal speech by gender and by the rural/ urban background of its authors.

  11. Antidepressants and Suicide Risk: A Comprehensive Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Tatarelli

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The annual worldwide suicide rate currently averages approximately 13 per 100,000 individuals per year (0.013% per year, with higher average rates for men than for women in all but a few countries, very low rates in children, and relatively high rates in elderly men. Suicide rates vary markedly between countries, reflecting in part differences in case-identification and reporting procedures. Rates of attempted suicide in the general population average 20–30 times higher than rates of completed suicide, but are probably under-reported. Research on the relationship between pharmacotherapy and suicidal behavior was rare until a decade ago. Most ecological studies and large clinical studies have found that a general reduction in suicide rates is significantly correlated with higher rates of prescribing modern antidepressants. However, ecological, cohort and case-control studies and data from brief, randomized, controlled trials in patients with acute affective disorders have found increases, particularly in young patients and particularly for the risk of suicide attempts, as well as increases in suicidal ideation in young patients. whether antidepressants are associated with specific aspects of suicidality (e.g., higher rates of completed suicide, attempted suicide and suicidal ideation in younger patients with major affective disorders remains a highly controversial question. In light of this gap this paper analyzes research on the relationship between suicidality and antidepressant treatment.

  12. Suicides and Suicide Attempts in the U.S. Military, 2008-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Nigel E.; Reger, Mark A.; Luxton, David D.; Skopp, Nancy A.; Kinn, Julie; Smolenski, Derek; Gahm, Gregory A.

    2013-01-01

    The Department of Defense Suicide Event Report Program collects extensive information on suicides and suicide attempts from the U.S. Air Force, Army, Marine Corps, and Navy. Data are compiled on demographics, suicide event details, behavioral health treatment history, military history, and information about other potential risk factors such as…

  13. Gratitude and Suicidal Ideation and Suicide Attempts among Chinese Adolescents: Direct, Mediated, and Moderated Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongping; Zhang, Wei; Li, Xian; Li, Nini; Ye, Baojuan

    2012-01-01

    In a sample of 1252 Chinese adolescents (mean age = 15.00 years), this study examined the direct relations between gratitude and adolescents' suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. This study also examined indirect relations between gratitude and suicidal ideation and suicide attempts via two self-system beliefs--coping efficacy and self-esteem.…

  14. Youth Suicide: A School Approach for the Prevention of Youth Suicide in Indiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Josephine N.

    This manual was written to help schools address the problem of youth suicide. The introduction presents a teenager's and a parent's perspective of youth suicide, discusses the problem of youth suicide, and develops a hypothesis of why the problem exists. Section 1 describes the contributing factors involved with adolescent suicide and provides…

  15. The Impact of Rock Videos and Music with Suicidal Content on Thoughts and Attitudes about Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustad, Robin A.; Small, Jacob E.; Jobes, David A.; Safer, Martin A.; Peterson, Rebecca J.

    2003-01-01

    Two experiments exposed college student volunteers to rock music with or without suicidal content. Music and videos with suicide content appeared to prime implicit cognitions related to suicide but did not affect variables associated with increased suicide risk. (Contains 60 references and 3 tables.) (Author/JBJ)

  16. Suicide in Texas: A Cohort Analysis of Trends in Suicide Rates, 1945-1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Linda; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Used cohort method of analysis to examine teenage suicide in Texas. Beginning with suicide rates for white males aged 15-19 in 1945, suicide rates were calculated and plotted for five-year age cohorts entering late teenage years. Analysis confirmed rising risk factor associated with age group. Cohort patterns for suicide revealed recent…

  17. Tolerance of suicide, religion and suicide rates : an ecological and individual study in 19 Western countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neeleman, J; Halpern, D; Leon, D; Lewis, G

    1997-01-01

    Background. Negative associations between religion and suicide, in individuals and countries, may be mediated by the degree to which suicide is tolerated. Methods. Linear regression was used to examine ecological associations between suicide tolerance, religion and suicide rates in 19 Western countr

  18. Suicide Postvention as Suicide Prevention: Improvement and Expansion in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Regina T. P.; Slater, Holli

    2010-01-01

    The authors asserted the need for increased postvention efforts for suicide survivors, individuals left behind to grieve the loss of a loved one by suicide, because they have an increased risk for suicide. Indeed, Shneidman (1972) asserted that suicide postvention efforts serve the dual purpose of assisting survivors through the grief process and…

  19. Untangling a Complex Web: How Non-Suicidal Self-Injury and Suicide Attempts Differ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlenkamp, Jennifer J.; Kerr, Patrick L.

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidal behavior is complex and often difficult to untangle. While most self-injurers never exhibit suicidality, there is evidence of a correlation between suicidality and NSSI, and a clear overlap of risk between the two behaviors. Therefore, it is important to both prevention and…

  20. Suicidal gene therapy with rabbit cytochrome P450 4B1/4-ipomeanol, 2-aminoanthracene system in glioma cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Su Jin; Kang, Joo Hyun; Kim, Kwang Il; Lee, Tae Sup; Lee, Yong Jin; Woo, Kwang Sun; Chung, Wee Sup; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, Sang Moo [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    Suicidal gene therapy is based on the transduction of tumor cells with 'suicide' genes encoding for prodrugactivating enzymes that render target cells susceptible to prodrug treatment. Suicidal gene therapy results in the death of tumor with the expression of gene encoding enzyme that converts non-toxic prodrug into cytotoxic product. Cytochrome P450 4B1 (CYP4B1) activates 4- ipomeanol (4-ipo) and 2-aminoanthracene (2-AA) to cytotoxic furane epoxide and unsaturated dialdehyde intermediate. In this study, therapeutic effects of suicidal gene therapy with rabbit CYP4B1/4-ipo or CYP4B1/2-AA system

  1. Preventing Suicide in Prisons, Part I Recommendations fromthe International Association for Suicide Prevention Task Force on Suicide in Prisons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konrad, N.; Daigle, M.S.; Daniel, A.E.; Dear, G.E.; Frottier, P.; Hayes, L.M.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.; Liebling, A.; Sarchiapone, M.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract. In 2000 the Department of Mental Health of the World Health Organization (WHO) published a guide named Preventing Suicide. A Resource for Prison Officers as part of the WHO worldwide initiative for the prevention of suicide. In 2007 there are new epidemiological data on prison suicide, a m

  2. My Friend Is Talking about Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Friend Who Cuts? My Friend Is Talking About Suicide. What Should I Do? KidsHealth > For Teens > My ... sobre suicidio. ¿Qué debo hacer? Warning Signs of Suicide Everyone feels sad, depressed, or angry sometimes — especially ...

  3. Contemplated Suicide Among Voluntary and Involuntary Retirees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretti, Peter O.; Wilson, Cedric

    1978-01-01

    This study explored anomic and egoistic dimensions of contemplated suicide among voluntary and involuntary retired males. Results indicated a direct relationship between anomie and egoism on the one hand, and contemplation of suicide on the other. (Author)

  4. Suicide in a spinal cord injured population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartkopp, A; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Seidenschnur, A M;

    1998-01-01

    To determine the relation between functional status and risk of suicide among individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI).......To determine the relation between functional status and risk of suicide among individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI)....

  5. Risk factors for suicide in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E N; Koch-Henriksen, N; Stenager, E

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of the present study was to identify risk factors for suicide in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: The study is based on available information about MS patients identified in the Danish MS Registry (DMSR) with onset in the period 1950-1985. We compared the MS...... suicides with the 1950-1985 onset cohort patients in the DSMR as to distribution of age at onset, presenting symptoms, and time from onset to diagnosis. We reviewed sociodemographic data, age of onset, the course of the disease, recent deterioration, type of deterioration, Kurtzke Disability Status Scale...... (DSS) score, previous mental disorder, type of mental disorder, previous suicide attempts, expression of suicidal intentions, circumstances at suicide, and suicide method for all MS patients who had committed suicide. In order to characterize MS suicides with respect to risk factors, comparisons were...

  6. Suicides on a Southwestern American Indian Reservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Marv

    1979-01-01

    Results showed suicides clustered by day of the week, season, and reservation location, and typical victims as young, unmarried males holding unskilled or semiskilled jobs. Suggested are strategies maximizing suicide prevention efforts. Journal availability: see RC 503 481. (DS)

  7. Quantifying gunshot residues in cases of suicide: Implications for evaluation of suicides and criminal shootings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Nick; Cook, Michael; Wallace, James; Kirkbride, K Paul; Kobus, Hilton

    2016-09-01

    Gunshot residue (GSR) is a valuable form of forensic trace evidence in the investigation of firearms-related suicide and crime. In order to ensure that such evidence is given appropriate evidential weighting when it comes to case investigations, the dynamics of the deposition and distribution of GSR must be understood. As the activity of the subject after firing is a major factor in the retention of GSR, cases of suicide involving a firearm provide an opportunity to assess GSR distribution where post-shooting activity is not an issue, assuming the subject had not been moved. Seventy-one cases of suicide by gunshot in South Australia between 1998 and 2014 were examined to collect data on firearm type, calibre, and gunshot residue test results. Overall, 47% of cases were found to produce GSR results that were not of high probative value, even though it was known that the shooter had fired a firearm. Of particular interest were cases involving 0.22 rimfire ammunition, for which characteristic particles are not expected due to lack of antimony present in the primer. Despite this, 64% of these cases resulted in the detection of antimony-containing, three-component particles. PMID:27348466

  8. Coping Strategies in People Attempting Suicide

    OpenAIRE

    Bazrafshan, Mohammad-Rafi; Jahangir, Fereidun; Mansouri, Amir; Kashfi, Seyyed Hannan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Having a set of effective coping skills can prevent suicidal behavior by increasing self-control and self-direction. This study examines coping styles used by suicidal patients. Objectives: The researchers in this study try to identify coping strategies used by suicide attempters admitted to Shiraz Shahid Faghihi Hospital emergency room. Materials and Methods: This is a analytical cross-sectional study. Participants consisted of 50 suicide-attempted people admitted to Shiraz Faghi...

  9. Suicide in the early stage of schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Ventriglio; Alessandro Gentile; Iris Bonfitto; Eleonora Stella; Massimo Mari; Luca Steardo; Antonello Bellomo

    2016-01-01

    Suicide is a relevant leading cause of death among patients affected by schizophrenia. Even if suicidal ideation may be present in different stages of disease, some differences have been described between the risk of suicide in patients experiencing first-episode of psychosis and those with long-term schizophrenia. It is particularly higher during the first year of illness and reaches a steady decline over the following years. Suicidal ideation and attempts may also be common among subjec...

  10. Drug Addiction as Risk for Suicide Attempts

    OpenAIRE

    Dragisic, Tatjana; Dickov, Aleksandra; Dickov, Veselin; Mijatovic, Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Suicide is closely linked to the substances use. Therefore it is very important to confirm the factors that affect the possibility of suicidal behavior. Methodology: The survey included 200 respondents; 100 heroin addicts on the substitution program that attempted suicide and 100 opiate addicts who have not attempted suicide. The evaluation included a questionnaire with socio-demographic, hereditary and addiction data, legal problems and then the Minnesota Multiphasic Personalit...

  11. Gender differences in suicide and suicide attempts among US Army soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguen, Shira; Skopp, Nancy A; Zhang, Ying; Smolenski, Derek J

    2015-02-28

    In order to best tailor suicide prevention initiatives and programs, it is critical to gain an understanding of how service members׳ suicide risk factors may differ by gender. We aimed to better understand gender differences in suicide and suicide attempts among soldiers, including demographic, military, mental health, and other risk factors. We also examined risk factors uniquely associated with suicide and suicide attempts. We conducted a retrospective study of 1857 US Army soldiers who died by suicide or attempted suicide between 2008 and 2010 and had a Department of Defense Suicide Event Report. Female and male soldiers had more similarities than differences when examining risk factors associated with suicide. The only gender difference approaching significance was workplace difficulties, which was more strongly associated with suicide for female soldiers, compared to their male counterparts. Among suicide decedents, the most common risk factor was having a failed intimate relationship in the 90 days prior to suicide. Among those who attempted suicide, the most common risk factor was a major psychiatric diagnosis. Better understanding both gender differences and risk factors uniquely associated with suicide has critical prevention and public health implications as we work to better understand preventable mortality in our youngest generation of service members. PMID:25530416

  12. Predicting future suicide attempts among depressed suicide ideators: a 10-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Alexis M; Klonsky, E David; Klein, Daniel N

    2012-07-01

    Suicidal ideation and attempts are a major public health problem. Research has identified many risk factors for suicidality; however, most fail to identify which suicide ideators are at greatest risk of progressing to a suicide attempt. Thus, the present study identified predictors of future suicide attempts in a sample of psychiatric patients reporting suicidal ideation. The sample comprised 49 individuals who met full DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder and/or dysthymic disorder and reported suicidal ideation at baseline. Participants were followed for 10 years. Demographic, psychological, personality, and psychosocial risk factors were assessed using validated questionnaires and structured interviews. Phi coefficients and point-biserial correlations were used to identify prospective predictors of attempts, and logistic regressions were used to identify which variables predicted future attempts over and above past suicide attempts. Six significant predictors of future suicide attempts were identified - cluster A personality disorder, cluster B personality disorder, lifetime substance abuse, baseline anxiety disorder, poor maternal relationship, and poor social adjustment. Finally, exploratory logistic regressions were used to examine the unique contribution of each significant predictor controlling for the others. Comorbid cluster B personality disorder emerged as the only robust, unique predictor of future suicide attempts among depressed suicide ideators. Future research should continue to identify variables that predict transition from suicidal thoughts to suicide attempts, as such work will enhance clinical assessment of suicide risk as well as theoretical models of suicide. PMID:22575331

  13. The Relationship between Attitudes toward Suicide and Family History of Suicide in Nagano Prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukahara, Teruomi; Arai, Hiroaki; Kamijo, Tomoko; Kobayashi, Yoshikiyo; Washizuka, Shinsuke; Arito, Heihachiro; Nomiyama, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    Certain attitudes toward suicide may be a risk factor for suicide among the bereaved. To explore this possibility, we examined the relationship between attitudes toward suicide and family history of suicide. We focused on two specific attitudes indicating resignation in a survey: #1 "When a person chooses to die by suicide, the suicide is inevitable" (i.e., inevitability belief); and #2 "A suicide cannot be stopped by any person, because suicide is unpreventable" (i.e., unpreventable belief). The data of 5117 fully completed questionnaires were analyzed. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the two attitudes of resignation were significantly associated with a family history of suicide. The adjusted odds ratio for #1 was 1.39 (95% CI, 1.07-1.79) for individuals having experienced suicide by a family member or relative, while that for #2 was 1.57 (95% CI, 1.27-1.95) for experiencing a suicide by a family member or relative and 1.25 (95% CI, 1.05-1.49) for experiencing a suicide by a friend, business associate, partner or other. These two attitudes of resignation toward suicide were significantly associated with a family history of suicide. These attitudes might increase suicide risk among the bereaved. PMID:27338441

  14. The Relationship between Attitudes toward Suicide and Family History of Suicide in Nagano Prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukahara, Teruomi; Arai, Hiroaki; Kamijo, Tomoko; Kobayashi, Yoshikiyo; Washizuka, Shinsuke; Arito, Heihachiro; Nomiyama, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    Certain attitudes toward suicide may be a risk factor for suicide among the bereaved. To explore this possibility, we examined the relationship between attitudes toward suicide and family history of suicide. We focused on two specific attitudes indicating resignation in a survey: #1 "When a person chooses to die by suicide, the suicide is inevitable" (i.e., inevitability belief); and #2 "A suicide cannot be stopped by any person, because suicide is unpreventable" (i.e., unpreventable belief). The data of 5117 fully completed questionnaires were analyzed. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the two attitudes of resignation were significantly associated with a family history of suicide. The adjusted odds ratio for #1 was 1.39 (95% CI, 1.07-1.79) for individuals having experienced suicide by a family member or relative, while that for #2 was 1.57 (95% CI, 1.27-1.95) for experiencing a suicide by a family member or relative and 1.25 (95% CI, 1.05-1.49) for experiencing a suicide by a friend, business associate, partner or other. These two attitudes of resignation toward suicide were significantly associated with a family history of suicide. These attitudes might increase suicide risk among the bereaved.

  15. The Relationship between Attitudes toward Suicide and Family History of Suicide in Nagano Prefecture, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukahara, Teruomi; Arai, Hiroaki; Kamijo, Tomoko; Kobayashi, Yoshikiyo; Washizuka, Shinsuke; Arito, Heihachiro; Nomiyama, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    Certain attitudes toward suicide may be a risk factor for suicide among the bereaved. To explore this possibility, we examined the relationship between attitudes toward suicide and family history of suicide. We focused on two specific attitudes indicating resignation in a survey: #1 “When a person chooses to die by suicide, the suicide is inevitable” (i.e., inevitability belief); and #2 “A suicide cannot be stopped by any person, because suicide is unpreventable” (i.e., unpreventable belief). The data of 5117 fully completed questionnaires were analyzed. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the two attitudes of resignation were significantly associated with a family history of suicide. The adjusted odds ratio for #1 was 1.39 (95% CI, 1.07–1.79) for individuals having experienced suicide by a family member or relative, while that for #2 was 1.57 (95% CI, 1.27–1.95) for experiencing a suicide by a family member or relative and 1.25 (95% CI, 1.05–1.49) for experiencing a suicide by a friend, business associate, partner or other. These two attitudes of resignation toward suicide were significantly associated with a family history of suicide. These attitudes might increase suicide risk among the bereaved. PMID:27338441

  16. Bullying and suicidal behavior in jails.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauw, E.; Winkel, F.W.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.

    2001-01-01

    Relationships between bullying features and suicidal behavior of inmates were examined. The files of 95 suicide victims in jails and prisons in the Netherlands were examined for reports of bullying. In addition, 221 nonsuicidal jail inmates and 53 suicidal jail inmates were interviewed. The files of

  17. Factor Composition of the Suicide Intent Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieczkowski, Tammy A.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Analyzed Suicide Intent Scale using data from 98 psychiatric inpatients who had attempted suicide. Analysis resulted in two-factor solution: Lethal Intent factor contained items pertaining to subjective level of lethal intent; Planning factor contained items related to objective planning for attempt. Findings suggest that Suicide Intent Scale can…

  18. Continuing Bonds after Suicide Bereavement in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Lindsey; Byram, Victoria; Gosling, A. Sophie; Stokes, Julie

    2012-01-01

    It has been argued that the grieving process after suicide bereavement has unique properties (e.g., J. R. Jordan, 2001). A qualitative study was conducted to explore one aspect of the grieving process--continuing bonds--after suicide bereavement in childhood. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 10 suicide-bereaved children…

  19. Suicide among Elementary School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Richard E; Crawford, Beth

    1990-01-01

    Questionnaires completed by approximately 125 counselors revealed contact with 187 students considering suicide during 1 academic year, 26 of whom had attempted suicide, and 1 of whom committed suicide. Critical concerns of elementary students identified by counselors included parent divorce, appearance/self-esteem, peer pressure, remarriage,…

  20. Sexual Orientation in Adolescents Who Commit Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, David; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined relationship between suicidal behavior and homosexuality in adolescence in an unselected, matched sample. Found no evidence that suicide is a common characteristic of gay youth, or that when suicide does occur among gay teenagers, that it is a direct consequence of stigmatization or lack of support. (JBJ)

  1. An Inquiry into Relationship Suicides and Reciprocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Mark S.; Callanan, Valerie J.; Lester, David; Haines, Janet

    2009-01-01

    Few theories on suicide have been grounded in the norm of reciprocity. There is literature on suicide, however, describing motivations such as retaliation and retreat which can be interpreted as modes of adaptation to the norm of reciprocity. We propose a reciprocity-based theory to explain suicides associated with relationship problems. Employing…

  2. Youth Suicide: A Cross-Cultural Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David

    1988-01-01

    Examined changes in the suicide rate of teenagers and young adults internationally from 1970 to 1980. Twenty-three nations experienced increases (with Norway experiencing the largest percentage increase), while six experienced decreases. Unlike general suicide rates, teenage suicide rates were not related to the quality of life in the nations…

  3. Suicide Notes in Hong Kong in 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Paul W. C.; Yeung, April W. M.; Chan, Wincy S. C.; Yip, Paul S. F.; Tang, Arthur K. H.

    2009-01-01

    Suicide notes have been regarded as one of the most informative data sources to understand the reasons why people commit suicide. However, there is a paucity of suicide note studies, leaving researchers with an assumption that this phenomenon remains static over time. This study examines this assumption by comparing the characteristics of…

  4. Suicidal Ideation in Anxiety-Disordered Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Kelly A.; Puleo, Connor M.; Benjamin, Courtney L.; Podell, Jennifer L.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2012-01-01

    Evidence is mixed regarding an independent association between anxiety and suicidality in youth. Study 1 examined suicidal ideation in treatment-referred, anxiety-disordered youth (N = 312, aged 7-17). Forty-one percent of anxiety-disordered youth endorsed suicidal ideation. Anxiety disorder severity, global impairment, and current depressive…

  5. A specific attentional bias in suicide attempters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, E.S.; Strohbach, D.; Rinck, M.

    1999-01-01

    Selective attention in patients after an attempted suicide was investigated to find out whether a specific attentional bias for suicide-related materials exists and to clarify the possible role of emotions in the bias. Thirty-one patients who had previously attempted to commit suicide and 31 control

  6. Suicide Prevention with Diverse College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadick, Richard; Akhter, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Because of a dearth of experience in preventing suicide in diverse student populations, Pace University developed a multicultural suicide prevention kit. This article details the process used to develop the kit. The rationale for approaching suicide prevention in a culturally competent manner is presented, and methods used to gain culture-specific…

  7. Suicide in South Asia: a scoping review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jordans, Mark J D; Kaufman, Anne; Brenman, Natassia; Adhikar, Ramesh; Luitel, Nagendra; Tol, Wietse; Komproe, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Background Globally, suicide is an important cause of mortality. In low- and middle income settings, it is difficult to find unequivocal data to establish suicide rates. The objective of this review is to synthesize the reporting of suicide incidence in six south Asian countries. Methods We conducte

  8. Reflections on Jokes and Cartoons about Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David

    2012-01-01

    This article is intended to engage others in a dialogue about the role and meaning of jokes about suicide. Types of jokes involving suicide are examined to distinguish the different types of humor involved. A sample of 118 recent political cartoons in an online website was downloaded, of which 73 concerned suicide bombers. Examples of suicide…

  9. Suicide: Bad Act or Good Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Collen D.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Develops a different perspective on the ethics of suicide, based on theoretical and clinical grounds. Suggests the need to shift from a search for an ethical statement about suicide (e.g., "rational suicide") to the ethical justification for intervention based on the needs and interests of an affirming therapeutic profession. (JAC)

  10. The broken heart : suicidal ideation in bereavement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroebe, Margaret; Stroebe, Wolfgang; Abakoumkin, Georgios

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This report examined suicidal behavior during bereavement. METHOD: Suicidal ideation was examined in a group of 60 recently bereaved widows and widowers compared to 60 individually matched married comparison subjects. RESULTS: Suicidal ideation was higher among widowed people than married

  11. Duloxetine and suicide attempts: a possible relation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salem Bilal A

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The possible increase of suicidal ideation with some antidepressants is still a matter of debate. We are reporting two cases of suicidal attempt that occurred concomitantly with the use of Duloxetine. To our knowledge there is no prior publication about a possible Duloxetine related increase in the risk of suicidality.

  12. Crucial elements in suicide prevention strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete

    2011-01-01

    on restrictions in firearms and carbon monoxide gas. At the selective prevention level, a review of risk of suicide in homelessness and schizophrenia and risk factors for suicide in schizophrenia is conducted and possible interventions are mentioned together with the evidence for their effect. Suicide rate...

  13. Proneness to Suicide: Does It Exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovuga, Emilio B. L.; Mugisha, Xavier R.

    Although no specific personality disorder seems responsible for suicide behavior, it has been suggested that hysterical personality could predispose to suicide behavior. Schizoid, anti-social and obsessoid rigid personalities have been linked to high risk suicide attempts. This study elicited response patterns and attitudes of South African…

  14. Preliminary Examination of the Interpersonal Psychological Theory of Suicide in an Adolescent Clinical Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Sarah E; Hughes, Jennifer L; King, Jessica D; Kennard, Betsy D; Westers, Nicholas J; Mayes, Taryn L; Stewart, Sunita M

    2016-08-01

    This study offers a preliminary examination of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide (IPTS; Joiner 2005) in an adolescent clinical sample. The IPTS offers a nuanced framework that has many conceptual and practical merits. Although this theory has a growing base of evidence among adults, it has yet to be tested in adolescents using direct measures of its central constructs. Participants were 147 adolescents (76.2 % girls) on an inpatient psychiatric unit, who completed measures of key IPTS constructs of thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, acquired capability for suicide, as well as depression severity, hopelessness, and severity of suicidal symptoms. Our findings were largely consistent with hypotheses derived from the IPTS: perceived burdensomeness, and at a marginal level, thwarted belongingness, were independently associated with current suicidal ideation. The thwarted belongingness by perceived burdensomeness interaction marginally distinguished between adolescents with passive and active suicidal ideation. Acquired capability for suicide was associated with recent suicidal intent. Examination of all three IPTS constructs simultaneously revealed main effects of each construct (with a marginal effect of thwarted belongingness), and interaction effects for thwarted belongingness by perceived burdensomeness, and thwarted belongingness by perceived burdensomeness by acquired capability for suicide in association with suicidal symptom severity. Sex, age, depression severity, and hopelessness were controlled in all analyses. This study offers strong, albeit preliminary, support of the IPTS in a clinical adolescent sample. Assessment of IPTS constructs may be useful in determining persistent risk for suicide attempt. Prospective tests of the theory, and extensions to intervention and prevention should be considered in future IPTS research. PMID:26667025

  15. The Evolutionary Puzzle of Suicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri-Jean Aubin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mechanisms of self-destruction are difficult to reconcile with evolution’s first rule of thumb: survive and reproduce. However, evolutionary success ultimately depends on inclusive fitness. The altruistic suicide hypothesis posits that the presence of low reproductive potential and burdensomeness toward kin can increase the inclusive fitness payoff of self-removal. The bargaining hypothesis assumes that suicide attempts could function as an honest signal of need. The payoff may be positive if the suicidal person has a low reproductive potential. The parasite manipulation hypothesis is founded on the rodent—Toxoplasma gondii host-parasite model, in which the parasite induces a “suicidal” feline attraction that allows the parasite to complete its life cycle. Interestingly, latent infection by T. gondii has been shown to cause behavioral alterations in humans, including increased suicide attempts. Finally, we discuss how suicide risk factors can be understood as nonadaptive byproducts of evolved mechanisms that malfunction. Although most of the mechanisms proposed in this article are largely speculative, the hypotheses that we raise accept self-destructive behavior within the framework of evolutionary theory.

  16. Suicide Triggers Described by Herodotus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auchincloss, Stephane; Ahmadi, Jamshid

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to better understand the triggers of suicide, particularly among the ancient Greek and Persian soldiers and commanders. Method: ‘Herodotus:TheHistories’ is a history of the rulers and soldiery who participated in the Greco-Persian wars (492-449 BCE). A new translation (2013) of this manuscript was studied. Accounts of suicide were collected and collated, with descriptions of circumstances, methods, and probable triggers. Results: Nine accounts of suicide were identified. Eight of these were named individuals (4 Greeks and 4 Persians); of whom, seven were male. Only one (not the female) appeared to act in response to a mental disorder. Other triggers of suicide included guilt, avoidance of dishonour/punishment and altruism. Cutting/ stabbing was the most common method; others included hanging, jumping, poison, and burning (the single female). Conclusion: While soldiers at a time of war do not reflect the general community, they are nevertheless members of their society. Thus, this evidence demonstrates that suicide triggered by burdensome circumstances (in addition to mental disorder) was known to the Greek and Persian people more than two millennia ago. PMID:27437010

  17. Drugs associated with more suicidal ideations are also associated with more suicide attempts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry T Robertson

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: In randomized controlled trials (RCTs, some drugs, including CB1 antagonists for obesity treatment, have been shown to cause increased suicidal ideation. A key question is whether drugs that increase or are associated with increased suicidal ideations are also associated with suicidal behavior, or whether drug-induced suicidal ideations are unlinked epiphenomena that do not presage the more troubling and potentially irrevocable outcome of suicidal behavior. This is difficult to determine in RCTs because of the rarity of suicidal attempts and completions. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether drugs associated with more suicidal ideations are also associated with more suicide attempts in large spontaneous adverse event (AE report databases. METHODOLOGY: Generalized linear models with negative binomial distribution were fitted to Food and Drug Administration (FDA Adverse Event (AE Reporting System (AERS data from 2004 to 2008. A total of 1,404,470 AEs from 832 drugs were analyzed as a function of reports of suicidal ideations; other non-suicidal adverse reactions; drug class; proportion of reports from males; and average age of subject for which AE was filed. Drug was treated as the unit of analysis, thus the statistical models effectively had 832 observations. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Reported suicide attempts and completed suicides per drug. RESULTS: 832 drugs, ranging from abacavir to zopiclone, were evaluated. The 832 drugs, as primary suspect drugs in a given adverse event, accounted for over 99.9% of recorded AERS. Suicidal ideations had a significant positive association with suicide attempts (p<.0001 and had an approximately 131-fold stronger magnitude of association than non-suicidal AERs, after adjusting for drug class, gender, and age. CONCLUSIONS: In AE reports, drugs that are associated with increased suicidal ideations are also associated with increased suicidal attempts or completions. This association suggests that drug

  18. A fluorescent, genetically engineered microorganism that degrades organophosphates and commits suicide when required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qin; Wu, Yi-Jun

    2009-03-01

    One way to reduce the potential risk of genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs) to the environment is to use a containment system that does not interfere with the performance of the GEM until activated. Such a system can be created by inserting a suicide cassette consisting of a toxin-encoding gene controlled by an inducible promoter. We constructed a GEM that can degrade organophosphorus compounds, emit green fluorescence, and commit suicide when required by putting the genes that control these different functions under different promoters. The genes for enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) were cloned downstream of the lambda PL promoter in the plasmid pBV220. These genes could be expressed freely as long as the GEM was metabolizing because the repressor sequence cIts857 had been deleted. The extracellular nuclease gene of Serratia marcescens, without its leader-coding sequence, provided the suicide mechanism. This was put under the control of the T7 promoter to form a suicide cassette activated by the presence of an environmental signal, in this case, arabinose. To improve the reliability of this containment system, the suicide cassette was duplicated within the conditional suicide plasmid. The plasmid carrying the EGFP and OPH fusion genes and that containing the suicide cassette were compatible and coexisted in the same host. PMID:19183984

  19. Efficiency of diagnostic model to predict recurrent suicidal incidents in diverse world communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatsalya, Vatsalya; Chandras, Kan; Srivastava, Shweta; Karch, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Suicidal attempts have a very significant effect on the society, and they also reflect on the efforts of the supporting health care and counseling facilities; and the mental health professionals involved. The impact of suicide is further magnified by the needs of persons who attempt suicide multiple times, requiring emergency health care and rehabilitation. Preventing such activities becomes a major task for the support providing agencies as soon as patient with such tendencies are identified. There are repetitive traits that can be observed during the entire therapeutic program among the high-risk group individuals, who are susceptible to this kind of activity and such traits indicate for specific profiling. The aim of the instrument is to prevent the occurrence of the repetitive suicidal attempts of the patients in various world regions, which may have significantly higher and concerning suicide rates. This profile has been constructed on the various parameters recognized in the statistical analysis of the patient population, which have been identified or can be under treatment for their suicidal behavior. This instrument is developed to predict the probability of population segments who may attempt suicide and repetitively, by matching the parameters of the profile with that of the patient pool. Building a profile for the purpose of predicting behavior of this kind can strengthen the intervention strategies more comprehensively and reduce such incidents and health care requirements and expenses. PMID:25237407

  20. Understanding the elevated suicide risk of female soldiers during deployments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, A. E.; Gilman, S. E.; Rosellini, A. J.; Stein, M. B.; Bromet, E. J.; Cox, K. L.; Colpe, L. J.; Fullerton, C. S.; Gruber, M. J.; Heeringa, S. G.; Lewandowski-Romps, L.; Little, R. J. A.; Naifeh, J. A.; Nock, M. K.; Sampson, N. A.; Schoenbaum, M.; Ursano, R. J.; Zaslavsky, A. M.; Kessler, R. C.

    2016-01-01

    Background The Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS) has found that the proportional elevation in the US Army enlisted soldier suicide rate during deployment (compared with the never-deployed or previously deployed) is significantly higher among women than men, raising the possibility of gender differences in the adverse psychological effects of deployment. Method Person-month survival models based on a consolidated administrative database for active duty enlisted Regular Army soldiers in 2004–2009 (n = 975 057) were used to characterize the gender × deployment interaction predicting suicide. Four explanatory hypotheses were explored involving the proportion of females in each soldier’s occupation, the proportion of same-gender soldiers in each soldier’s unit, whether the soldier reported sexual assault victimization in the previous 12 months, and the soldier’s pre-deployment history of treated mental/behavioral disorders. Results The suicide rate of currently deployed women (14.0/100 000 person-years) was 3.1–3.5 times the rates of other (i.e. never-deployed/previously deployed) women. The suicide rate of currently deployed men (22.6/100 000 person-years) was 0.9–1.2 times the rates of other men. The adjusted (for time trends, sociodemographics, and Army career variables) female:male odds ratio comparing the suicide rates of currently deployed v. other women v. men was 2.8 (95% confidence interval 1.1–6.8), became 2.4 after excluding soldiers with Direct Combat Arms occupations, and remained elevated (in the range 1.9–2.8) after adjusting for the hypothesized explanatory variables. Conclusions These results are valuable in excluding otherwise plausible hypotheses for the elevated suicide rate of deployed women and point to the importance of expanding future research on the psychological challenges of deployment for women. PMID:25359554

  1. Increased mRNA expression of cytochrome oxidase in dorsal raphe nucleus of depressive suicide victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sanchez-Bahillo

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A Sanchez-Bahillo1, V Bautista-Hernandez1, Carlos Barcia Gonzalez1, R Bañon2, A Luna2, EC Hirsch3, Maria-Trinidad Herrero11Clinical and Experimental Neuroscience, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED; 2Department of Legal Medicine, Department of Human Anatomy, School of Medicine, University of Murcia, Campus de Espinardo, Murcia 30100, Spain; 3INSERM U679 Hôpital de la Salpêtrière, Boulevard de l’Hôpital, Paris, FranceAbstract: Suicidal behavior is a problem with important social repercussions. Some groups of the population show a higher risk of suicide; for example, depression, alcoholism, psychosis or drug abuse frequently precedes suicidal behavior. However, the relationship between metabolic alterations in the brain and premorbid clinical symptoms of suicide remains uncertain. The serotonergic and noradrenergic systems have frequently been, implicated in suicidal behavior and the amount of serotonin in the brain and CSF of suicide victims has been found to be low compared with normal subjects. However, there are contradictory results regarding the role of noradrenergic neurons in the mediation of suicide attempts, possibly reflecting the heterogeneity of conditions that lead to a common outcome. In the present work we focus on the subgroup of suicide victims that share a common diagnosis of major depression. Based on post-mortem studies analyzing mRNA expression by in situ hybridization, serotonergic neurons from the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN from depressive suicide victims are seen to over-express cytochrome oxidase mRNA. However, no corresponding changes were found in the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH mRNA in the noradrenergic neurons of the Locus Coeruleus (LC. These results suggest that, despite of the low levels of serotonin described in suicide victims, the activity of DRN neurons could increase in the suicidally depressed, probably due to the over activation of

  2. [Suicide and euthanasia : Discourse on physician-assisted suicide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewitzka, Dr U; Bauer, R

    2016-05-01

    Suicidal thoughts and behavior have been a part of human nature since the beginning of mankind. In his autobiographical work From my Life: Poetry and Truth Goethe summarized two important aspects: "Suicide is an event of human nature which, whatever may be said and done with respect to it, demands the sympathy of every man, and in every epoch must be discussed anew". The authors of this article aim to motivate the readership to question and analyze this complex topic and the accompanying multifaceted positions with a summarized presentation of historical aspects and the more recent political developments. PMID:27119531

  3. [Suicide and euthanasia : Discourse on physician-assisted suicide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewitzka, Dr U; Bauer, R

    2016-05-01

    Suicidal thoughts and behavior have been a part of human nature since the beginning of mankind. In his autobiographical work From my Life: Poetry and Truth Goethe summarized two important aspects: "Suicide is an event of human nature which, whatever may be said and done with respect to it, demands the sympathy of every man, and in every epoch must be discussed anew". The authors of this article aim to motivate the readership to question and analyze this complex topic and the accompanying multifaceted positions with a summarized presentation of historical aspects and the more recent political developments.

  4. Long-term impact of celebrity suicide on suicidal ideation: Results from a population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, KW; Yip, PSF

    2007-01-01

    Background: The short-term effect of celebrity suicide on the overall suicide rate is widely known, but long-term effects remain unclear. Objective: To examine whether celebrity suicide is associated with suicidal ideation over a longer period. Design: This is a study on the effect of the suicide of a famous Hong Kong entertainment celebrity, who committed suicide on 1 April 2003, on suicide thoughts of the community. A population-based survey was conducted between December 2003 and July 2004...

  5. Predictive Validity of the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale for Short-Term Suicidal Behavior: A Danish Study of Adolescents at a High Risk of Suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conway, Paul Maurice; Erlangsen, Annette; Teasdale, Thomas William;

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Using the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS), we examined the predictive and incremental predictive validity of past-month suicidal behavior and ideation for short-term suicidal behavior among adolescents at a high risk of suicide. Methods: The study was conducted in 2014...... behavior predicted subsequent suicidal behavior (actual attempts and suicidal behavior of any type, including preparatory acts, aborted, interrupted and actual attempts; mean follow-up of 80.8 days, SD = 52.4). Furthermore, we examined whether suicidal ideation severity and intensity incrementally...... predicted suicidal behavior at follow-up over and above suicidal behavior at baseline. Results: Actual suicide attempts at baseline strongly predicted suicide attempts at follow-up. Baseline suicidal ideation severity and intensity did not significantly predict future actual attempts over and above baseline...

  6. Predictive Validity of the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale for Short-Term Suicidal Behavior: A Danish Study of Adolescents at a High Risk of Suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conway, Paul Maurice; Erlangsen, Annette; Teasdale, Thomas William;

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Using the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS), we examined the predictive and incremental predictive validity of past-month suicidal behavior and ideation for 2 short-term suicidal behavior among adolescents at a high risk of suicide. Methods: The study was conducted in 2014...... behavior predicted subsequent suicidal behavior (actual attempts and suicidal behavior of any type, including preparatory acts, aborted, interrupted and actual attempts; mean follow-up of 80.8 days, SD = 52.4). Furthermore, we examined whether suicidal ideation severity and intensity incrementally...... predicted suicidal behavior at follow-up over and above suicidal behavior at baseline. Results: Actual suicide attempts at baseline strongly predicted suicide attempts at follow-up. Baseline suicidal ideation severity and intensity did not significantly predict future actual attempts over and above baseline...

  7. Correlates of suicide ideation among LGBT Nebraskans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Jay A; Coleman, Jason D; Fisher, Christopher M; Marasco, Vincent M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this investigation is to outline correlates of suicide ideation among LGBT individuals living in Nebraska. A community-based participatory research approach was utilized to develop a 30-minute, online anonymous survey. Almost half of the sample had seriously considered suicide at some point in their lives. Significant correlates of increased likelihood of suicide ideation are age, gender, transgender identity, income, depression, and discrimination. Suicide ideation is a serious concern for the health of LGBT Nebraskans. Steps should be taken to incorporate individuals who fall into these high-risk categories in suicide outreach programs. PMID:24344775

  8. EPILEPSY AND RISK OF SUICIDE (A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Pylaeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors propose a fundamental review, devoted to the factors, wich increase the risk of suicidal behavior (suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in patients with epilepsy. It is known, that suicidal risk is increased 5 times more in patients with epilepsy, and 25 times more in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and complex focal seizures, than in general population. The main factors, increasing suicidal risk in epilepsy, are comorbid affective disorders (depression, and psychosis. The authors also describe the role of antiepileptic drugs.

  9. Restrictions in means for suicide: an effective tool in preventing suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete; Qin, Ping; Helweg-Larsen, Karin;

    2007-01-01

    Restriction of means for suicide is an important part of suicide preventive strategies in different countries. The effect on method-specific suicide rate and overall suicide rate of restrictions on availability of carbon monoxide, barbiturates, and dextropropoxyphene was examined. From 1970 to 2000......, overall suicide mortality and method-specific suicide mortality in Denmark were compared with official information about availability of barbiturates and analgesics and carbon monoxide in vehicle exhaust and household gas. Restrictions on availability of household gas with carbon monoxide content...... and barbiturates was associated with a decline in the number of suicides and suicides by self-poisoning with these compounds after controlling for the effect of calender year. Restricted access occurred concomittantly with a 55 percent decrease in suicide rate....

  10. Risk factors and characteristics of suicide attempts among 381 suicidal adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedeland, Rikke Lindgaard; Teilmann, Grete; Jørgensen, Marianne Hørby;

    2016-01-01

    AIM: This study explored the relationships between suicidal adolescents and their parents, siblings, and friends. It examined how much adolescents talked to their parents before suicide attempts, the frequency of self-mutilation, the extent of suicidal ideation, previous suicide attempts...... this feeling and the duration of suicidal ideation (p=0.01) and self-mutilation (p=0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Early risk factors for suicide were dissociated relationships with parents, siblings and friends, feeling unheard, self-mutilation and extended suicidal ideation. This article is protected by copyright. All...... and suicide attempts in the adolescent's surroundings. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional case-control study that focused on 381 adolescents aged 10-17 years who were admitted to hospitals across Denmark after suicide attempts with acetaminophen and 296 age and gender-matched controls recruited from...

  11. [Non-suicidal self-injury and suicide attempts: grounding of differential diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitkowski, D; Petermann, F

    2010-01-01

    Three criteria for differential diagnosis of non-suicidal self-injury and suicide attempts were validated by means of more recent empirical studies. Criteria concerning motives (functions), methods of self-injury (medical severity), lifetime frequency and lifetime number of episodes were investigated. Literature research showed only a few studies concentrated on a direct comparison of non-suicidal self-injury and suicide attempts. Therefore, studies examing the relationship of suicide intent to the relevant features, are considered, too. Empirical results concerning motives (functions), methods (medical severity), lifetime frequency and number of episodes were compared to the three criteria. Except for lifetime frequency, studies support the criteria. However, in the case of motives, a more differentiated examination is needed to distinguish between non-suicidal self-injury and suicide attempts. To optimize the assessment, guidelines should be slightly modified. Because of the phenomenological overlap of non-suicidal self-injury and suicide attempts, a dimensional assessment can be helpful.

  12. Firearms and suicide in the United States: is risk independent of underlying suicidal behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew; Barber, Catherine; White, Richard A; Azrael, Deborah

    2013-09-15

    On an average day in the United States, more than 100 Americans die by suicide; half of these suicides involve the use of firearms. In this ecological study, we used linear regression techniques and recently available state-level measures of suicide attempt rates to assess whether, and if so, to what extent, the well-established relationship between household firearm ownership rates and suicide mortality persists after accounting for rates of underlying suicidal behavior. After controlling for state-level suicide attempt rates (2008-2009), higher rates of firearm ownership (assessed in 2004) were strongly associated with higher rates of overall suicide and firearm suicide, but not with nonfirearm suicide (2008-2009). Furthermore, suicide attempt rates were not significantly related to gun ownership levels. These findings suggest that firearm ownership rates, independent of underlying rates of suicidal behavior, largely determine variations in suicide mortality across the 50 states. Our results support the hypothesis that firearms in the home impose suicide risk above and beyond the baseline risk and help explain why, year after year, several thousand more Americans die by suicide in states with higher than average household firearm ownership compared with states with lower than average firearm ownership. PMID:23975641

  13. Suicide in older people: Revisioning new approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuter, Kate; Procter, Nicholas; Evans, David; Jaworski, Katrina

    2016-03-01

    This discussion paper identifies and examines several tensions inherent in traditional approaches to understanding older people's suicide. Predicted future increases in the absolute number of elderly suicides are subject to careful interpretation due to the underreporting of suicides in older age groups. Furthermore, a significant number of studies of older people's death by suicide examine risk factors or a combination of risk factors in retrospect only, while current approaches to suicide prevention in the elderly place disproportionate emphasis on the identification and treatment of depression. Taken together, such tensions give rise to a monologic view of research and practice, ultimately limiting our potential for understanding older people's experience of suicide and suicidal behaviour. New approaches are necessary if we are to move beyond the current narrow focus that prevails. Fresh thinking, which draws on older people's experience of attempting to die by suicide, might offer critical insight into socially-constructed meanings attributed to suicide and suicidal behaviour by older people. Specifically, identification through research into the protective mechanisms that are relevant and available to older people who have been suicidal is urgently needed to effectively guide mental health nurses and health-care professionals in therapeutic engagement and intervention. PMID:26762697

  14. Suicide Attempts in the Adolescent

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, Elliott; Wolfish, Martin G.

    1982-01-01

    Suicide is a leading cause of death among North American adolescents. Drugs are the commonest method used, and are most frequently those found in the home. Common factors such as frequent moves, marital difficulties of the parents, and a family history of depression occur in these patients. In 47 cases seen at a Toronto hospital, 22 patients were admitted. Of these, 20 had made suicidal gestures; two had made serious attempts. Most were of lower or middle class background. There is often a lo...

  15. Counselors Can Make a Difference in Preventing Adolescent Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peach, Larry; Reddick, Thomas L.

    1991-01-01

    Asserts that school counselors can play vital role in the prevention of adolescent suicide. Lists warning signs of suicide risk and characteristics of at-risk students. Presents set of guidelines for helping potential suicide victims. Sees key to teenage suicide prevention to be communication skills. Identifies components for suicide prevention…

  16. Suicide Ideation among College Students Evidencing Subclinical Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukrowicz, Kelly C.; Schlegel, Erin F.; Smith, Phillip N.; Jacobs, Matthew P.; Van Orden, Kimberly A.; Paukert, Ambert L.; Pettit, Jeremy W.; Joiner, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    Identifying elevated suicide ideation in college students is a critical step in preventing suicide attempts and deaths by suicide on college campuses. Although suicide ideation may be most prominent in students with severe depression, this should not suggest that only students with severe depression experience significant risk factors for suicide.…

  17. Suicidal ideation in pregnancy: an epidemiologic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelaye, Bizu; Kajeepeta, Sandhya; Williams, Michelle A

    2016-10-01

    Suicidal behaviors are the leading causes of injury and death worldwide, and are leading causes of maternal deaths in some countries. One of the strongest risk factors, suicidal ideation, is considered a harbinger and distal predictor of later suicide attempt and completion, and also presents an opportunity for interventions prior to physical self-harm. The purpose of this systematic epidemiologic review is to synthesize available research on antepartum suicidal ideation. Original publications were identified through searches of the electronic databases using the search terms pregnancy, pregnant women, suicidal ideation, and pregnan* and suicid* as root searches. We also reviewed references of published articles. We identified a total of 2626 articles through the electronic database search. After irrelevant and redundant articles were excluded, 57 articles were selected. The selected articles were original articles that focused on pregnancy and suicidal ideation. Of the 57 included articles, 20 reported prevalence, 26 reported risk factors, 21 reported consequences of antepartum suicidal ideation, and 5 reported on screening measures. Available evidence indicates that pregnant women are more likely than the general population to endorse suicidal ideation. Additionally, a number of risk factors for antepartum suicidal ideation were identified including intimate partner violence, suicidal ideation. The few screening instruments that exist are limited as they were primarily developed to measure antepartum and postpartum depression. Given a substantial proportion of women with suicidal ideation that does not meet clinical thresholds of depression and given the stress-diathesis model that shows susceptibility to suicidal behavior independent of depressive disorders, innovative approaches to improve screening and detection of antepartum suicidal ideation are urgently needed. PMID:27324912

  18. Gender differences in suicidal intent and choice of method among suicide attempters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete; Branner, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    The objective was to examine gender differences in choice of method and suicidal intent among persons referred to a suicide prevention center. A total of 351 consecutive patients who had attempted suicide were interviewed using the European Parasuicide Study Interview Schedule I (EPSIS I) while......, but they were not more likely to use violent methods. Neither use of violent method nor dangerousness of the attempt was associated with suicidal intention. Although men had higher suicide intent scores than women, there were no significant gender differences in the number of repeat suicide attempts during a 1...

  19. The impact of suicide on morbidity and mortality in the population of Itabira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edinilsa Ramos de Souza

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The suicide rates in Itabira, a city with 100,000 inhabitants, are higher than those of the Brazilian population. To understand the phenomenon we investigated morbidity and mortality through a descriptive epidemiological study, with emphasis to external causes and specific subgroups. Suicide was studied according to the characteristics of victims and events. The period studied was 1990-2001. Mortality data were collected from the Mortality Information System and morbidity data for the year 2000 from the Hospital Admission Authorization System. An active data search on suicide over the period 1996-2001 based on sex, age and occupation of the victim, month of occurrence and method used in completed and attempted suicides was conducted at the local notary's office and at the state police headquarters. Based on these data we calculated proportions, rates and mean values. The populations used for calculating the rates were extracted from the DATASUS base. Results indicated an increasing tendency to suicide among men, coinciding with the economical crisis caused by the reorganization of the iron production process in this mono-industrial city. Suicide attempts were more frequent among housewives, housekeepers and students. The mostly used methods were hanging and firearms. Relevant means used in suicide attempts were nonmedicinal substances, drugs and medicaments.

  20. School personnel perspectives on their school's implementation of a school-based suicide prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Bradley D; Kataoka, Sheryl H; Hamilton, Alison B; Schultz, Dana; Ryan, Gery; Vona, Pamela; Wong, Marleen

    2010-07-01

    Youth suicide is a national public health priority, with policymakers highlighting schools as an ideal setting in which to deliver suicide prevention programs. Over the past decade, the number of schools implementing such programs has grown substantially, yet little is known about how successfully such programs are being implemented. This study examines the implementation of a district-wide suicide prevention program through key informant interviews with school personnel. Schools with higher rates of implementing district protocols for at-risk students had an organized system to respond to at-risk students, a process for effectively responding to students who were at-risk for suicide, and strong administrative support. In contrast, schools that had lower rates of implementing district protocols relied on a handful of individuals for suicide prevention activities and had limited administrative support. Attention to organizational factors leading to successful implementation of school-based suicide prevention programs may enhance the role of schools in national adolescent suicide prevention efforts.

  1. Sexual Self-Concept Ambiguity and the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talley, Amelia E; Brown, Sarah L; Cukrowicz, Kelly; Bagge, Courtney L

    2016-04-01

    Mechanisms (i.e., thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, hopelessness) derived from the interpersonal theory of suicide which are hypothesized to account for the relation between sexual orientation self-concept ambiguity and active suicide ideation were examined. Participants included 349 women, among whom 42% currently self-ascribed a non-exclusively heterosexual sexual identity. Among women reporting higher levels of sexual self-concept ambiguity, greater risk for active suicide ideation is found when perceptions of burden and feelings of thwarted belonging co-occur with feelings of hopelessness. Results support relevant theory useful for understanding suicide risk among sexual minority women who acknowledge ambiguity with regard to their sexual orientation. PMID:26190166

  2. The Opinions of GP's Patients About Suicide, Assisted Suicide, Euthanasia, and Suicide Prevention: An Italian Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poma, Stefano Zanone; Vicentini, Silvia; Siviero, Francesca; Grossi, Antonello; Toniolo, Emanuele; Baldo, Vincenzo; De Leo, Diego

    2015-08-01

    A survey about opinions on end-of-life issues of a population represented by 1,171 people in the waiting room of general practitioners' surgeries was conducted in a province of northern Italy. Most subjects did not consider suicide as a reasonable option even in cases of a serious and incurable disease. Moreover, subjects did not consider euthanasia as a possible option either; however, they did express an opposite attitude when considering euthanasia in a third-person perspective. People with a personal history of suicidal behavior appear to present as a different population, overall expressing more open attitudes.

  3. The impact of pesticide suicide on the geographic distribution of suicide in Taiwan: a spatial analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Shu-Sen

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pesticide self-poisoning is the most commonly used suicide method worldwide, but few studies have investigated the national epidemiology of pesticide suicide in countries where it is a major public health problem. This study aims to investigate geographic variations in pesticide suicide and their impact on the spatial distribution of suicide in Taiwan. Methods Smoothed standardized mortality ratios for pesticide suicide (2002-2009 were mapped across Taiwan's 358 districts (median population aged 15 or above = 27 000, and their associations with the size of agricultural workforce were investigated using Bayesian hierarchical models. Results In 2002-2009 pesticide poisoning was the third most common suicide method in Taiwan, accounting for 13.6% (4913/36 110 of all suicides. Rates were higher in agricultural East and Central Taiwan and lower in major cities. Almost half (47% of all pesticide suicides occurred in areas where only 13% of Taiwan's population lived. The geographic distribution of overall suicides was more similar to that of pesticide suicides than non-pesticide suicides. Rural-urban differences in suicide were mostly due to pesticide suicide. Areas where a higher proportion of people worked in agriculture showed higher pesticide suicide rates (adjusted rate ratio [ARR] per standard deviation increase in the proportion of agricultural workers = 1.58, 95% Credible Interval [CrI] 1.44-1.74 and overall suicide rates (ARR = 1.06, 95% CrI 1.03-1.10 but lower non-pesticide suicide rates (ARR = 0.91, 95% CrI 0.87-0.95. Conclusion Easy access to pesticides appears to influence the geographic distribution of suicide in Taiwan, highlighting the potential benefits of targeted prevention strategies such as restricting access to highly toxic pesticides.

  4. Communication of suicide intent by schizophrenic subjects: data from the Queensland Suicide Register

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Leo Diego

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suicide in mentally ill subjects, like schizophrenics, remains unbearably frequent in Australia and elsewhere. Since these patients are known to constitute a high-risk group, suicide in them should be amongst the most preventable ones. The objective of this study is to investigate the frequency of suicide communication in subjects with reported history of schizophrenia who completed suicide. Method The Queensland Suicide Register (QSR was utilised to identify suicide cases. Frequency of suicide communication was examined in subjects with schizophrenia, and compared with persons with other psychiatric conditions and with subjects with no reported diagnosis. Socio-demographic variables, history of suicidal behaviour, pharmacological treatment and mental health service utilisation were also compared among the three groups. Results and discussion Subjects with a reported diagnosis of schizophrenia comprised 7.2% (n = 135 of the 1,863 suicides included in this study. Subjects with schizophrenia and those with other psychiatric disorders communicated their suicide intent more frequently than those with no psychiatric diagnosis, and persons with schizophrenia communicated their intent more than those with other psychiatric diagnoses. Seventy one per cent of schizophrenia subjects had contact with a mental health professional within the three months prior to suicide. Conclusion The fact that subjects with schizophrenia had the highest prevalence of suicide intent communication could offer concrete opportunities for suicide prevention.

  5. Teenage Suicide: The Final Cry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Philip N.; Morse, Maria

    To learn more about the services available to youth at suicide prevention centers in North Carolina, a survey was conducted with 86 mental health and crisis prevention centers. The 16-item questionnaire examined the availability and extent of services offered by the centers, staffing patterns, sources of funding, and percentage of clientele…

  6. Homicidal hanging masquerading as suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Peter Mygind; Charles, Annie Vesterby

    1997-01-01

    Homicidal hanging is rare and presents special problems for the forensic pathologist. We report a case of homicide by hanging masquerading as suicide, in which the forensic evidence was of crucial importance. The victim was a 61 years old man, who was found in his house suspended by a rope around...

  7. Age as a risk factor for suicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocić Sanja S.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. World Health Organization (WHO in its plan for health policy until the year 2010, has taken reduction of risk factors of suicide as its 12th aim. Because of the fact that the problem of suicide is also significant health problem in our society, the aim of this study was to examine the influence of life period as a risk factor for suicide in the area of the town of Kragujevac. Methods. In total 211 persons, both sexes, aged between 17 and 91 years, from the area of the town of Kragujevac, who had been committed a suicide during the period from 1996 to 2005, were included in a retrospective study. This study included the analysis of: conditions prior to suicide, locations of suicide, motives for suicide, the ways of committing suicide. For statistical analysis χ2 test and univariante regression model were used. Results. Average rate of suicide, in analyzed period, moved from 8.7 to 27 with a mean value of 14.6± 6.9. Suicide rates were the lowest in the age group from 15 to 24 years and the highest in the age group above 65 years (p < 0.05. Among the presuicidal conditions, within any age groups the presence of mental disease dominated as a factor for suicide, but within the oldest one in which organic diseases prevailed as a factor for suicide (p < 0.05. Statistically significant fact is that a house (flat was the main location for committing suicide in any age groups. Motives for suicide were significantly different within the groups and they were mostly unknown. Committing suicide by hanging was the most frequent way of suicide among any age groups. Univariant regression analysis failed to show any impact of age on the analyzed factors. Conclusion. Because of the fact that an average rate of suicide in elderly increases it is obligatory to primarily determine risk factors for suicide among people more than 65 years of age. Physicians should play the most important role in that.

  8. Child and adolescent suicide deaths in New Mexico, 1990-1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werenko, D D; Olson, L M; Fullerton-Gleason, L; Lynch, A W; Zumwalt, R E; Sklar, D P

    2000-01-01

    The suicide death rate in New Mexico is consistently higher than the national rate. Among adolescents, suicide is the third leading cause of death nationally, but in New Mexico it is the second leading cause of death. This study describes the pattern of adolescent suicide deaths in New Mexico. We conducted a retrospective review of all medical examiner autopsies for adolescent suicides (ages 20 years and younger) in New Mexico from 1990-1994. Records were reviewed for demographics and possible contributing factors such as depression, previous attempts, and alcohol and drug use. We identified 184 suicide deaths among children and adolescents ages 9-20 years for an overall rate of 12.9 per 100,000. Our rates for ages 5-9 years (0.2), 10-14 years (3.8), and 15-19 years (22.3) are over twice the U. S. rates. Suicide deaths resulted primarily from firearms (67%), hanging (16%), poisoning (6%), inhalation (4%), and other methods (7%). Method varied by ethnicity (p = .01) and gender (p = .03); males and non-Hispanic Whites were overrepresented among firearm deaths. Firearm ownership was known in 60 (48%) of the firearm deaths. Of these, 53% of the firearms belonged to a family member, 25% to the decedent, and 22% to a friend. Over one-third of decedents (41%) experienced mental disorders, primarily depressed mood and clinical depression. Previous suicide attempts were noted for 15% of the decedents. Some 50% of the decedents had alcohol or drugs present at the time of death; among American Indians/Alaska Natives, 74% had drugs or alcohol present (p = .003). Targeted interventions are needed to reduce adolescent suicide in New Mexico. We suggest raising awareness about acute and chronic contributing factors to suicide; training physicians to look for behavioral manifestations of depression; and involving physicians, teachers, and youth activity leaders in efforts to limit firearm accessibility, such as advising parents to remove firearms from their households.

  9. A Human Systems Integration analysis of the Army suicide prevention program

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Bridgette R.

    2013-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited A Human Systems Integration (HSI) analysis of the Army Suicide Prevention Program (ASPP) was conducted to gain feedback from soldiers and leaders. The scope of this study limited analysis to the prevention activities associated with the ASPP system. A retrospective analysis of Army suicide statistics from 20082011 was conducted prior to data collection. During 24 in-person interviews, soldiers assessed the importance of the four user n...

  10. Suicide in the Early Stage of Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventriglio, Antonio; Gentile, Alessandro; Bonfitto, Iris; Stella, Eleonora; Mari, Massimo; Steardo, Luca; Bellomo, Antonello

    2016-01-01

    Suicide is a relevant leading cause of death among patients affected by schizophrenia. Even if suicidal ideation may be present in different stages of disease, some differences have been described between the risk of suicide in patients experiencing first episode of psychosis and those with long-term schizophrenia. It is particularly higher during the first year of illness and reaches a steady decline over the following years. Suicidal ideation and attempts may also be common among subjects with subthreshold psychotic experiences. Factors associated with the risk of suicide in the early phase of schizophrenia are previous suicidal attempts and social aspects: the lack of social support and stable relationships, social drift after the first episode, and social impairment. Also, several psychotic symptoms (suspiciousness, paranoid delusions, mental disintegration and agitation, negative symptoms, depression and hopelessness, and command hallucinations) and substance abuse are associated with higher risk of suicide. It has been described that perfectionism and good levels of insight among individuals who have recently developed psychotic symptoms are significantly associated with higher numbers of suicidal attempts. Moreover, recent evidences show that prefrontal cortex-based circuit dysfunction may be related to suicide in the early stage of schizophrenia. This narrative review summarizes available evidences on suicide in the early stage of schizophrenia and deals with issues to be further studied and discussed. PMID:27445872

  11. Smoking and Suicide: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorolajal, Jalal; Darvishi, Nahid

    2016-01-01

    Background Many studies have reported a positive association between smoking and suicide, but the results are inconsistent. This meta-analysis was carried out to estimate the association between smoking and suicidal ideation, suicide plan, suicide attempt, and suicide death. Methods Major electronic databases including PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and ScienceDirect were searched until May 2015. The reference lists of included studies were screened too. Epidemiological studies addressing the association between smoking and suicidal behaviors were enrolled. The heterogeneity across studies was explored by Q-test and I2 statistic. The possibility of publication bias was assessed using Begg's and Egger's tests and Trim & Fill analysis. The results were reported based on risk ratio (RR) and odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) using a random-effects model. Results We identified a total of 8062 references and included 63 studies with 8,063,634 participants. Compared to nonsmokers, the current smokers were at higher risk of suicidal ideation (OR = 2.05; 95% CI: 1.53, 2.58; 8 studies; I2 = 80.8%; P<0.001), suicide plan (OR = 2.36; 95% CI: 1.69, 3.02; 6 studies; I2 = 85.2%; P<0.001), suicide attempt (OR = 2.84; 95% CI: 1.49, 4.19; 5 studies; I2 = 89.6%; (P<0.001), and suicide death (RR = 1.83; 95% CI: 1.64, 2.02; 14 studies; I2 = 49.7%; P = 0.018). Conclusions There is sufficient evidence that smoking is associated with an increased risk of suicidal behaviors. Therefore, smoking is a contributing factor for suicide. Although this association does not imply causation, however, smoking prevention and cessation should be the target of suicide prevention programs. PMID:27391330

  12. Active site directed irreversible inactivation of brewers' yeast pyruvate decarboxylase by the conjugated substrate analogue (E)-4-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-oxo-3-butenoic acid: development of a suicide substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, D J; Jordan, F

    1983-08-01

    (E)-4-(4-Chlorophenyl)-2-oxo-3-butenoic acid (CPB) was found to irreversibly inactivate brewers' yeast pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC, EC 4.1.1.1) in a biphasic, sigmoidal manner, as is found for the kinetic behavior of substrate. An expression was derived for two-site irreversible inhibition of allosteric enzymes, and the kinetic behavior of CPB fit the expression for two-site binding. The calculated Ki's of 0.7 mM and 0.3 mM for CPB were assigned to the catalytic site and the regulatory site, respectively. The presence of pyruvic acid at high concentrations protected PDC from inactivation, whereas low concentrations of pyruvic acid accelerated inactivation by CPB. Pyruvamide, a known allosteric activator of PDC, was found to enhance inactivation by CPB. The results can be explained if pyruvamide binds only to a regulatory site, but CPB and pyruvic acid compete for both the regulatory and the catalytic centers. [1-14C]CPB was found to lose 14CO2 concurrently with the inactivation of the enzyme. Therefore, CPB was being turned over by PDC, in addition to inactivating it. CPB can be labeled a suicide-type inactivator for PDC.

  13. Hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis and prolactin abnormalities in suicidal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompili, Maurizio; Serafini, Gianluca; Palermo, Mario; Seretti, Maria Elena; Stefani, Henry; Angeletti, Gloria; Lester, David; Amore, Mario; Girardi, Paolo

    2013-11-01

    Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity measured with the dexamethasone suppression test and the dexamethesone/CRH test may have some predictive power for suicidal behavior in patients with mood disorders. Increased prolactin (PRL) levels may be related both to physiological and pathological conditions. HPA-axis abnormalities and increased levels of PRL may coexist, and common neuroendocrine changes may activate both HPA axis and PRL release. HPA-axis hyperactivity is presumably present in a large subpopulation of depressed subjects. Suicidal behavior is considered to be a form of inward-directed aggression, and aggressive behavior has been connected to high androgen levels. However, lower plasma total testosterone levels have also been reported in subjects with depression and higher suicidality. Lipid/immune dysregulations, the increased ratio of blood fatty acids, and increased PRL levels may each be associated with the increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which have been reported in patients with major depression and patients engaging in suicidal behavior. Although no studies have been done to determine whether ante-mortem physical stress may be detected by raised post-mortem PRL, this would be of great interest for physicians.

  14. Theories of suicidal behavior applied to Sylvia Plath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, D

    1998-01-01

    The suicide of Sylvia Plath is examined from the perspective of 15 theories of suicidal behavior and is found to fit best with psychoanalytic and cognitive theories of suicide, in particular those of Aaron Beck, Henry Murray, and Edwin Shneidman.

  15. Time trend by region of suicides and suicidal thoughts among Greenland Inuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Larsen, Christina Viskum Lytken

    2015-01-01

    and suicidal thoughts among the Inuit in Greenland. DESIGN: Data included the Greenland registry of causes of death for 1970-2011 and 2 cross-sectional health surveys carried out in 1993-1994 and 2005-2010 with 1,580 and 3,102 Inuit participants, respectively. RESULTS: Suicide rates were higher among men than......BACKGROUND: Suicides remain a major public health problem in Greenland. Their increase coincides with the modernization since 1950. Serious suicidal thoughts are reported by a significant proportion of participants in countrywide surveys. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the time trend by region of suicides...... women while the prevalence of suicidal thoughts was higher among women. Suicide rates for men and women together increased from 1960 to 1980 and have remained around 100 per 100,000 person-years since then. The regional pattern of time trend for suicide rates varied with an early peak in the capital...

  16. Suicide and mental illness in parents and risk of suicide in offspring: a birth cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik L; Wang, August G;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A family history of completed suicide and psychiatric illness has been identified as risk factors for suicide. AIMS: To examine the risk of offspring suicide in relation to parental history of suicide and other parental risk factors. METHOD: The study population consisted of 7,177 adult...... offspring born 1959-1961 and their parents from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort. Cohort members and their parents who had committed suicide were identified in the Danish Causes of Death Registry (follow-up until December 31, 2005), while information on psychiatric hospitalisation history was obtained from...... the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register. RESULTS: Forty-eight cohort members, 77 mothers and 133 fathers had committed suicide during the follow-up. Independent of parental psychiatric illness and social status, parental suicide significantly increased suicide risk in offspring (hazard ratio 4...

  17. Epidemiology, neurobiology and pharmacological interventions related to suicide deaths and suicide attempts in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaffer, Ayal; Isometsä, Erkki T; Tondo, Leonardo;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Bipolar disorder is associated with elevated risk of suicide attempts and deaths. Key aims of the International Society for Bipolar Disorders Task Force on Suicide included examining the extant literature on epidemiology, neurobiology and pharmacotherapy related to suicide attempts...... and deaths in bipolar disorder. METHODS: Systematic review of studies from 1 January 1980 to 30 May 2014 examining suicide attempts or deaths in bipolar disorder, with a specific focus on the incidence and characterization of suicide attempts and deaths, genetic and non-genetic biological studies...... and pharmacotherapy studies specific to bipolar disorder. We conducted pooled, weighted analyses of suicide rates. RESULTS: The pooled suicide rate in bipolar disorder is 164 per 100,000 person-years (95% confidence interval = [5, 324]). Sex-specific data on suicide rates identified a 1.7:1 ratio in men compared...

  18. Suicide and mental illness in parents and risk of suicide in offspring : A birth cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Wang, August;

    2009-01-01

    the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register. RESULTS: Forty-eight cohort members, 77 mothers and 133 fathers had committed suicide during the follow-up. Independent of parental psychiatric illness and social status, parental suicide significantly increased suicide risk in offspring (hazard ratio 4......BACKGROUND: A family history of completed suicide and psychiatric illness has been identified as risk factors for suicide. AIMS: To examine the risk of offspring suicide in relation to parental history of suicide and other parental risk factors. METHOD: The study population consisted of 7,177 adult...... offspring born 1959-1961 and their parents from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort. Cohort members and their parents who had committed suicide were identified in the Danish Causes of Death Registry (follow-up until December 31, 2005), while information on psychiatric hospitalisation history was obtained from...

  19. Psychological Strains and Youth Suicide in Rural China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jie; Wieczorek, William F.; Conwell, Yeates; Tu, Xin Ming

    2011-01-01

    The strain theory of suicide postulates that suicide is usually preceded by psychological strains. A strain can be a consequence of any of four conflicts: differential values, aspiration and reality, relative deprivation, and lack of coping skills for a crisis. This study, with a blend of psychiatric and social predictors of suicide, identified correlates of suicide that are relevant to Chinese culture and tested the strain theory of suicide with Chinese data. We sampled 392 suicides and 416 ...

  20. Candidate Endophenotypes for Genetic Studies of Suicidal Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Mann, J. John; Arango, Victoria A.; Avenevoli, Shelli; Brent, David A.; Champagne, Frances A.; Clayton, Paula; Currier, Dianne; Dougherty, Donald M.; Haghighi, Fatemah; Hodge, Susan E.; Kleinman, Joel; Lehner, Thomas; McMahon, Francis,; Mościcki, Eve K.; OQUENDO, MARIA A.

    2009-01-01

    Twin, adoption, and family studies have established the heritability of suicide attempts and suicide. Identifying specific suicide diathesis-related genes has proven more difficult. As with psychiatric disorders in general, methodological difficulties include complexity of the phenotype for suicidal behavior and distinguishing suicide diathesis-related genes from genes associated with mood disorders and other suicide-associated psychiatric illness. Adopting an endophenotype approach involving...

  1. National Office of Suicide Prevention Annual Report 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Department of Health

    2007-01-01

    National Office of Suicide Prevention Annual Report 2006 Suicidal behaviour is a major public health problem in Ireland. In particular it is a significant cause of death among young men aged 18 â?" 35, while overall suicide rates in Ireland are lower than the EU average, youth suicide rates are fifth highest. Risk factors for suicide include depression, schizophrenia and alcohol but suicide trends over time in many countries are influenced by major social changes especially those which re...

  2. Understanding Bhutanese Refugee Suicide Through the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, B. Heidi; Lankau, Emily W; Ao, Trong; Benson, Molly A.; Miller, Alisa B.; Shetty, Sharmila; Cardozo, Barbara Lopes; Geltman, Paul L.; Cochran, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Attention has been drawn to high rates of suicide among refugees after resettlement and in particular among the Bhutanese refugees. This study sought to understand the apparent high rates of suicide among resettled Bhutanese refugees in the context of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior (IPTS). Expanding on a larger investigation of suicide in a randomly selected sample of Bhutanese men and women resettled in Arizona, Georgia, New York, and Texas (Ao et al., 2012), the...

  3. Suicide and Suicide Risk in Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Populations: Review and Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Haas, Ann P.; Eliason, Mickey; Mays, Vickie M; Mathy, Robin M.; Cochran, Susan D.; D'Augelli, Anthony R; Silverman, Morton M.; Fisher, Prudence W.; Hughes, Tonda; Rosario, Margaret; Russell, Stephen T.; Malley, Effie; Reed, Jerry; Litts, David A.; Haller, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Despite strong indications of elevated risk of suicidal behavior in lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people, limited attention has been given to research, interventions or suicide prevention programs targeting these populations. This article is a culmination of a three-year effort by an expert panel to address the need for better understanding of suicidal behavior and suicide risk in sexual minority populations, and stimulate the development of needed prevention strategies, interventio...

  4. Suicide and attempted suicide: epidemiological surveillance as a crucial means of a local suicide prevention project in Trento's Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Napoli, Wilma Angela; Della Rosa, Alberto

    2015-09-01

    The World Health Organization identifies suicide among the top 10 causes of death in many countries with an overall mortality rate of 16 per 100,000 inhabitants. Furthermore suicide attempts present a frequency 4-10 times greater than the suicidal events, representing also one of the main risk factors to lead to recurrent attempts of suicide. In 2008 the Autonomous Province of Trento launched a suicide prevention pogram called "Invitation to Life" which includes various interventions intended to counter the phenomenon of suicide in the region. Actually the epidemiological research upon the phenomenon of suicide in Trentino region is one of the main pillars of the project: it represents a fundamental requirement to identify risk and protective factors in the population in order to adopt more specific and effective preventive strategies. This article aims to present methods and instruments for epidemiological monitoring of suicide and attempted suicide which are applied in Trentino and to describe results after seven years from the beginning of the local prevention program "Invitation to life".

  5. Sexually Active Teenagers Are More Likely To Be Depressed and To Attempt Suicide. A Report of the Heritage Center for Data Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rector, Robert E.; Johnson, Kirk A.; Noyes, Lauren R.

    Although teen sexual activity has declined in recent years, the overall rate is still high. The problems associated with teen sexual activity are well known. Less widely known are the psychological and emotional problems associated with this activity. The present study examines the linkage between teenage sexual activity and emotional health. The…

  6. Suicidal Ideation Induced by Episodic Cannabis Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Raja

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The report describes a patient who presented suicidal ideation only in two different occasions, immediately after acute cannabis intoxication. He used cannabis only in these two circumstances. Although a definite association between cannabis use and suicidal ideation or behavior has been already reported in the literature, the described case presents two original clinical aspects that deserve consideration. First, episodic assumption of cannabis induced suicidal ideation abruptly. Second, suicidal ideation appeared independent of mood depression, stressors, or life events, suggesting that suicidality may be not a direct consequence of depression and appears to be a relatively independent psychopathological dimension. There seems to be no linear relation between the severity of depression and the risk of suicide.

  7. Childhood suicide attempts with acetaminophen in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedeland, Rikke; Jørgensen, Marianne H; Teilmann, Grete;

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To explore: (1) The relationship between children admitted to our paediatric department as a result of suicide attempts with acetaminophen and their parents and friends. (2) The extent to which the children had attempted to speak to their parents about their problems before their suicide...... attempts. (3) The frequency of self-mutilation among children with suicidal behaviour. (4) The purposes and reasons for childhood suicide attempts. Methods: A retrospective case-control study based on medical records and in-hospital child psychiatric assessments at the Paediatric Department, Hillerød....... There was a significant association between a dissociated parental relationship and 'the feeling of not being heard' (p = 0.004), the discovery of the suicide attempt (p = 0.008), the reasons for the suicide attempt (p = 0.006), academic school problems (p = 0.03), and the child's relationships with friends (p = 0...

  8. Mediating Tragedy: Facebook, Aboriginal Peoples and Suicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronwyn Lee Carlson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Some Australian Aboriginal communities experience suicide rates that are among the highest in the world. They are also, however, avid social media users—approximately 20% higher than the national average. This article presents some preliminary findings from a current national study, funded by the Australian Research Council, titled Aboriginal identity and community online: a sociological exploration of Aboriginal peoples’ use of online social media. The purpose of the study is to gain insights into how Aboriginal peoples utilise and interact on social media, and how these technologies can assist with suicide prevention strategies. It found that Aboriginal people are engaging with Facebook to both seek and offer help for issues relating to suicide and self-harm. An existing continuum of suicide prevention strategies was evident—from light emotional support to direct suicide intervention involving health services. These strategies can be leveraged to implement effective and appropriate suicide prevention programs.

  9. Attitudes and Perceptions of Suicide and Suicide Prevention Messages for Asian Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyata Thapa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the context of suicidal behaviors is critical for effective suicide prevention strategies. Although suicide is an important topic for Asian Americans, there is limited information about what Asian Americans’ attitudes are towards suicide and their perceptions about the effectiveness of prevention efforts. These questions are critical to examine to provide foundational knowledge for determining how best to intervene. In this study, Asian American (n = 87 and White (n = 87 participants completed self-report indexes on their knowledge of depression and suicide (e.g., estimates of suicide rates, coping attitudes (e.g., help-seeking and suicide prevention attitudes (e.g., usefulness of PSAs. The results indicate that in comparison to Whites, Asian Americans perceived suicidal behavior to be more common, perceived a stronger link between depression and suicide, less frequently endorsed help-seeking strategies, and reported more concern or distress after viewing a suicide prevention PSA. These preliminary results also suggest the possibility of cultural differences in perceptions of suicide prevention messages. The implications of these findings are discussed with a focus on providing recommendations for exploring suicide prevention efforts for Asian Americans.

  10. Suicide Intent and Accurate Expectations of Lethality: Predictors of Medical Lethality of Suicide Attempts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gregory K.; Henriques, Gregg R.; Sosdjan, Daniella; Beck, Aaron T.

    2004-01-01

    The degree of intent to commit suicide and the severity of self-injury were examined in individuals (N = 180) who had recently attempted suicide. Although a minimal association was found between the degree of suicide intent and the degree of lethality of the attempt, the accuracy of expectations about the likelihood of dying was found to moderate…

  11. Perceived Stressors of Suicide and Potential Prevention Strategies for Suicide among Youths in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Jin Kuan; van Schalkwyk, Gertina J.; Chan, Andrea Huan Wen

    2015-01-01

    The suicide rate among youths in Malaysia has increased over the years, giving rise to considerable public concern. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe potential stressors of suicide and suicide prevention strategies as perceived by youths in Malaysia aged 15-25 years. A qualitative approach was adopted and 625 students from…

  12. Attitudes and Perceptions of Suicide and Suicide Prevention Messages for Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Priyata; Sung, Yoonhee; Klingbeil, David A; Lee, Chih-Yuan Steven; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the context of suicidal behaviors is critical for effective suicide prevention strategies. Although suicide is an important topic for Asian Americans, there is limited information about what Asian Americans' attitudes are towards suicide and their perceptions about the effectiveness of prevention efforts. These questions are critical to examine to provide foundational knowledge for determining how best to intervene. In this study, Asian American (n = 87) and White (n = 87) participants completed self-report indexes on their knowledge of depression and suicide (e.g., estimates of suicide rates), coping attitudes (e.g., help-seeking) and suicide prevention attitudes (e.g., usefulness of PSAs). The results indicate that in comparison to Whites, Asian Americans perceived suicidal behavior to be more common, perceived a stronger link between depression and suicide, less frequently endorsed help-seeking strategies, and reported more concern or distress after viewing a suicide prevention PSA. These preliminary results also suggest the possibility of cultural differences in perceptions of suicide prevention messages. The implications of these findings are discussed with a focus on providing recommendations for exploring suicide prevention efforts for Asian Americans. PMID:26690227

  13. Discussion of Late-Life Suicide: How Social Workers Perceive and Intervene in Elderly Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yujin

    2013-01-01

    As the prevalence of suicide among the elderly has developed in recent years into one of the more serious social problems in South Korea, preventing these elderly suicides has emerged as a national priority. Korean social workers play a major role in the recent elderly suicide prevention efforts that were implemented starting in 2007. The purpose…

  14. Exposure to Suicide: Incidence and Association with Suicidal Ideation and Behavior: United States, 1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Alex E.; Sacks, Jeffrey J.

    2002-01-01

    From a national random telephone survey of U.S. adults, estimates the 12-month incidence of exposure to suicide and its association with suicidal ideation, planning, and behavior. Of 5,238 respondents, 342 reported knowing a suicide decedent from the previous year. Univariate analysis showed persons reporting such exposure were significantly more…

  15. Addressing Peer Death by Suicide: The School's Role in the Aftermath of Student Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxson, Sarah A.

    2008-01-01

    Adolescent suicide devastates family, friends, and the larger community of the deceased. This dissertation seeks to explore the impact of peer death by suicide on students in the school system, and the policies that schools have put in place to address these effects. This work will critically evaluate current suicide bereavement interventions, and…

  16. Suicide Attempts and Suicide among Marines: A Decade of Follow-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradus, Jaimie L.; Shipherd, Jillian C.; Suvak, Michael K.; Giasson, Hannah L.; Miller, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Suicidal behavior among military personnel is of paramount public health importance because of the increased risk of death from suicide in this population. Pre- and post-Marine recruit training risk factors for suicide attempts among current and former Marines were examined in 10 years following recruit training. The characteristics of the…

  17. Is Suicide Training Sufficient for Psychology Trainees to Respond Appropriately to Suicidal Clients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromley, Nicole M.

    2012-01-01

    This study reports the frequency of suicide training for current psychology trainees. Additionally, the research uses the Suicide Intervention Response Inventory-Second Edition (SIRI-2) to assess psychology trainees' ability to respond appropriately to suicidal clients. This study compares scores on the SIRI-2 between participants who are in…

  18. Suicide and Attempted Suicide in Young People. Report on a Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974

    Suicide and attempted suicide are problems which continue to occupy the world-wide attention of both health service administrators and research workers. National statistics of completed suicides have shown an increase in rates among people aged 15-24 years and even among children below the age of 15. Conference discussions were based on working…

  19. The Significance of Nico Speijer's Suicide: How and When Should Suicide Be Prevented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekstra, Rene F. W.

    1986-01-01

    Recounts the suicide of Nico Speijer, the "grand old man" of suicidology in the Netherlands. Contends that his case is related to ethical issues in suicide prevention. Offers a set of criteria by which to decide when suicide should not necessarily be prevented, nor its helpers punished by law. (Author/ABB)

  20. Does asking about suicide and related behaviours induce suicidal ideation? What is the evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dazzi, T; Gribble, R; Wessely, S; Fear, N T

    2014-12-01

    There is a commonly held perception in psychology that enquiring about suicidality, either in research or clinical settings, can increase suicidal tendencies. While the potential vulnerability of participants involved in psychological research must be addressed, apprehensions about conducting studies of suicidality create a Catch-22 situation for researchers. Ethics committees require evidence that proposed studies will not cause distress or suicidal ideation, yet a lack of published research can mean allaying these fears is difficult. Concerns also exist in psychiatric settings where risk assessments are important for ensuring patient safety. But are these concerns based on evidence? We conducted a review of the published literature examining whether enquiring about suicide induces suicidal ideation in adults and adolescents, and general and at-risk populations. None found a statistically significant increase in suicidal ideation among participants asked about suicidal thoughts. Our findings suggest acknowledging and talking about suicide may in fact reduce, rather than increase suicidal ideation, and may lead to improvements in mental health in treatment-seeking populations. Recurring ethical concerns about asking about suicidality could be relaxed to encourage and improve research into suicidal ideation and related behaviours without negatively affecting the well-being of participants.

  1. Doctor-assisted suicide: What is the present legal position in South Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuoid-Mason, David J

    2015-09-21

    In the recent case of Stransham-Ford v. the Minister of Justice and Correctional Services, the North Gauteng High Court held that a terminally ill patient who was experiencing intractable suffering was entitled to commit suicide with the assistance of his doctor and that the doctor's conduct would not be unlawful. The court was careful to state that it was not making a general rule about doctor-assisted suicide. The latter should be left to the Parliament, the Constitutional Court and 'future courts'. The judge dealt specifically with the facts of the case at hand. In order to understand the basis of the decision it is necessary to consider: (i) the facts of the case; (ii) the question of causation; (iii) the paradox of 'passive' and 'active' euthanasia; (iv) the test for unlawfulness in euthanasia cases; and (v) the meaning of doctor-assisted suicide. It is also necessary to clarify the present legal position regarding doctor-assisted suicide.

  2. Suicide Mortality of Suicide Attempt Patients Discharged from Emergency Room, Nonsuicidal Psychiatric Patients Discharged from Emergency Room, Admitted Suicide Attempt Patients, and Admitted Nonsuicidal Psychiatric Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae W.; Park, Subin; Yi, Ki K.; Hong, Jin P.

    2012-01-01

    The suicide mortality rate and risk factors for suicide completion of patients who presented to an emergency room (ER) for suicide attempt and were discharged without psychiatric admission, patients who presented to an ER for psychiatric problems other than suicide attempt and were discharged without psychiatric admission, psychiatric inpatients…

  3. Changing rates of suicide ideation and attempts among Inuit youth: a gender-based analysis of risk and protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Sarah L; Geoffroy, Dominique; Chachamovich, Eduardo; Kirmayer, Laurence J

    2015-04-01

    Inuit in Canada currently suffer from one of the highest rates of suicide in the world. The objective of this study was to explore the prevalence of suicide ideations and attempts among 15-24 year olds living in Nunavik, Québec, and to explore risk and protective factors of suicide attempts as a function of gender. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2004 across Nunavik. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were conducted. A total of 22% of young males and 39% of females adults reported past suicidal attempts. Gender differences were observed in relation to associated risk and protective factors as well as degree of exposure to risk factors. Suicide prevention must include alcohol and drug prevention programs and rehabilitation services, interventions to reduce physical and sexual violence and their long-term impacts on Inuit youth, as well as exposure to culturally meaningful activities. PMID:25255825

  4. Suicide Among Farmers in France: Occupational Factors and Recent Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossard, Claire; Santin, Gaëlle; Guseva Canu, Irina

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have found agricultural workers, including farmers, at elevated risk of suicide, and socioeconomic conditions have been suggested as one of the important determinants of this mortality cause. The real agricultural income per worker in Europe increased steadily from 2005 to 2007 and then fell by 1.8% in 2008 and by 11.6% in 2009. This drop was particularly pronounced in France. Repeated cross-sectional studies were conducted to investigate suicide mortality rates among French farmers in 2007-2009. The study population included all French farmers enrolled yearly in the compulsory Agricultural Social Security and Health Insurance (CCMSA). Most of the mean of 500,164 subjects per year were men (68%). National cause-specific mortality rates were used to calculate standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and associated 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for both genders and for each of the 3 years. During the 3-year study period, 2,769 men and 997 women died. Suicide accounted for 417 of the men's (15%) and 68 of the women's (6.8%) deaths. Hanging was the most frequent method of suicide for both. Compared with the general population, the increased rate of suicide deaths among male farmers was 28% in 2008 and 22% in 2009. This increased rate was particularly high among those aged 45-54 years (31%) and 55-64 years (47%) in 2008 (and in the 55-64-year-old group in 2009 (64%). Two specific types of farming activity were associated with increased suicide mortality rates in both 2008 and 2009: dairy cattle farming (SMR = 1.56 [95% CI: 1.09-2.15] and SMR=1.47 [95% CI: 1.01-2.04]) and beef cattle farming (SMR = 2.27 [95% CI: 1.59-3.10] and SMR = 1.57 [95% CI: 1.01-2.27]). These results may be useful for a better understanding of the situation from an epidemiological standpoint and for improving suicide prevention policies in this particular population.

  5. Suicide Among Farmers in France: Occupational Factors and Recent Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossard, Claire; Santin, Gaëlle; Guseva Canu, Irina

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have found agricultural workers, including farmers, at elevated risk of suicide, and socioeconomic conditions have been suggested as one of the important determinants of this mortality cause. The real agricultural income per worker in Europe increased steadily from 2005 to 2007 and then fell by 1.8% in 2008 and by 11.6% in 2009. This drop was particularly pronounced in France. Repeated cross-sectional studies were conducted to investigate suicide mortality rates among French farmers in 2007-2009. The study population included all French farmers enrolled yearly in the compulsory Agricultural Social Security and Health Insurance (CCMSA). Most of the mean of 500,164 subjects per year were men (68%). National cause-specific mortality rates were used to calculate standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and associated 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for both genders and for each of the 3 years. During the 3-year study period, 2,769 men and 997 women died. Suicide accounted for 417 of the men's (15%) and 68 of the women's (6.8%) deaths. Hanging was the most frequent method of suicide for both. Compared with the general population, the increased rate of suicide deaths among male farmers was 28% in 2008 and 22% in 2009. This increased rate was particularly high among those aged 45-54 years (31%) and 55-64 years (47%) in 2008 (and in the 55-64-year-old group in 2009 (64%). Two specific types of farming activity were associated with increased suicide mortality rates in both 2008 and 2009: dairy cattle farming (SMR = 1.56 [95% CI: 1.09-2.15] and SMR=1.47 [95% CI: 1.01-2.04]) and beef cattle farming (SMR = 2.27 [95% CI: 1.59-3.10] and SMR = 1.57 [95% CI: 1.01-2.27]). These results may be useful for a better understanding of the situation from an epidemiological standpoint and for improving suicide prevention policies in this particular population. PMID:27409004

  6. Early childhood sexual abuse increases suicidal intent

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez-Castroman, Jorge; Melhem, Nadine; Birmaher, Boris; Greenhill, Laurence; Kolko, David; Stanley, Barbara; Zelazny, Jamie; Brodsky, Beth; Garcia-Nieto, Rebeca; Burke, Ainsley K.; Mann, J. John; Brent, David A.; Oquendo, Maria A.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse has been consistently associated with suicidal behavior. We studied suicide attempt features in depressed individuals sexually abused as children. On average, sexual abuse started before age 9. It frequently coexisted with physical abuse. Suicide attempters more often had personality disorders and had endured abuse for longer, but did not differ in terms of other clinical characteristics from non-attempters. Earlier onset of sexual abuse and its duration were associated...

  7. Correlates of Suicidal Behaviors Among Asian Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Duldulao, Aileen Alfonso; Takeuchi, David T.; Hong, Seunghye

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the correlates of suicidal ideation, suicide plan and suicide attempt among Asian Americans focusing on nativity and gender. Analyses are performed on data from the National Latino and Asian American Study (N=2095), the first ever study conducted on the mental health of a national sample of Asian Americans. The sample is comprised of adults with 998 men (47%) and 1,097 (53%) women. Weighted logistic regression analyses reveal that US-born women have a higher percentage tha...

  8. STUDY OF SUICIDE ATTEMPTS IN SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagadeesan Madras Sundararajan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Schizophrenia is a major mental illness whose sufferers have been found to have lesser longevity than general population. The most common cause for premature death in schizophrenia is suicide. There are very few Indian studies on suicide in persons suffering from schizophrenia. OBJECTIVES The objectives were to study the frequency of suicide attempt in schizophrenia to compare and study the clinical and sociodemographic profile of suicide attempters and non-attempters in schizophrenia and to analyse and study the various risk factors of suicide attempts in persons suffering from schizophrenia. METHODS A sample of 100 consecutive patients attending review OPD of a government tertiary care hospital in Chennai were selected. Those who had a diagnosis of schizophrenia were screened for past suicide attempts. They were divided into two groups as suicide attempters and non-attempters and analysed using the SAPS (Scale for Assessment of Positive Symptoms, SANS (Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms, Calgary depression scale, and Beck’s suicide intent scale. RESULTS People suffering from schizophrenia are at a high risk for making suicidal attempts (27% especially when the illness is acute and severe in early stages when accompanied by depressive symptoms. Demographic profile such as age, sex, education, occupation, socio-economic status, marital status, and family type were not significantly related to suicide attempts. Family history of suicide was a significant factor in patients with suicide attempts. Majority of the attempts were of medium-to-high intent, hanging being the commonest method, and were attributed to most commonly delusions and depressive symptoms.

  9. Suicide terrorism and post-mortem benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Jacqueline M; Dickins, Thomas E

    2014-08-01

    Lankford claims that suicide terrorists are suicidal, but that their suicidal tendencies are often frustrated by injunctive social norms. Martyrdom represents a solution, and terrorist organizations exploit this. In this commentary, we claim that this argument has not been fully made and that such ideation in itself does not explain a willingness to engage in punitive actions against an enemy. We suggest the psychology of kinship as a possible missing factor.

  10. Predictive Factors of Suicide Attempt and Non-Suicidal Self-Harm in Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Salman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Suicide is the third cause of mortality in America, second leading cause of death in developed countries, and one of the major health problems. Self-harm is self-inflicted damage to one’s self with or without suicidal intent. In the present study, the predictive factors of suicide attempt and non-suicidal self-harm were evaluated in patients referred to emergency department (ED with these problem. Methods: The total number of 45 patients with suicide attempt or self-harm admitted to ED were included. Clinical symptoms, thoughts and behaviors of suicidal, and non-suicidal self-harm in these patients were evaluated at baseline. Suicidality, suicidal intent and ideation, non-suicidal self-injury, social withdrawal, disruptive behavior, and poor family functions were evaluated at admission time. Brief clinical visits were scheduled for the twelfth weeks. In the twelfth week, patients returned for their final visit to determine their maintenance treatment. Finally data were analyzed using chi-squared and multiple logistic regression. Results: Forty five patients were included in the study (56.1% female. The mean age of patients was 23.3±10.2 years (range: 15-75; 33.3% married. Significant association of suicide and self-injury was presented at the baseline and in the month before attempting (p=0.001. The most important predictive factors of suicide and self-harm based on univariate analysis were depression (suicidal and non-suicidal items of Hamilton depression rating scale, anxiety, hopelessness, younger age, history of non-suicidal self-harm and female gender (p<0.05. The participants’ quality of life analysis showed a significant higher quality in physical component summary (p=0.002, mental component summary (p=0.001, and general health (p=0.001 at follow up period. Conclusion: At the time of admission in ED, suicide attempt and non-suicidal self-harm are subsequent clinical markers for the patient attempting suicide again. The

  11. Attempted suicide in Denmark. III. Assessment of repeated suicidal behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, A G; Bille-Brahe, U; Hansen, W;

    1985-01-01

    Ninety-nine patients, randomly chosen among hospital admitted suicide attempters, were initially interviewed at the Department of Psychiatry, Odense University Hospital, Denmark, and then followed up for a period of about 3 years. Half of the patients repeated the attempt in the follow-up period,...... poorly due, in particular, to low specificity. Future work will focus on objective risk factors, those indicated here and others, in order to establish an up-to-date background for assessment and management....

  12. Attitudes on euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide among medical students in Athens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontaxakis, Vp; Paplos, K G; Havaki-Kontaxaki, B J; Ferentinos, P; Kontaxaki, M-I V; Kollias, C T; Lykouras, E

    2009-10-01

    Attitudes towards assisted death activities among medical students, the future health gatekeepers, are scarce and controversial. The aims of this study were to explore attitudes on euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide among final year medical students in Athens, to investigate potential differences in attitudes between male and female medical students and to review worldwide attitudes of medical students regarding assisted death activities. A 20- item questionnaire was used. The total number of participants was 251 (mean age 24.7±1.8 years). 52.0% and 69.7% of the respondents were for the acceptance of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide, respectively. Women's attitudes were more often influenced by religious convictions as well as by the fact that there is a risk that physician-assisted suicide might be misused with certain disadvantaged groups. On the other hand, men more often believed that a request for physician-assisted suicide from a terminally ill patient is prima-facie evidence of a mental disorder, usually depression. Concerning attitudes towards euthanasia among medical students in various countries there are contradictory results. In USA, the Netherlands, Hungary and Switzerland most of the students supported euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide. However, in many other countries such as Norway, Sweden, Yugoslavia, Italy, Germany, Sudan, Malaysia and Puerto Rico most students expressed negative positions regarding euthanasia and physician assisted suicide. PMID:22218231

  13. SUICIDAL BEHAVIOR IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim AKTEPE

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Suicide is a complex phenomenon associated with pyschological, biological and social factors. Suicide has been reported as the second or third most common cause of death in children and adolescents worldwide. Suicidal behaviour in children and adolescents will be discussed in the frame of motivational definition. Method: Published research studies and reviews on children and adolescent suicides have been reviewed. Furthermore, classical papers have been searched to obtain knowledge about suicide behavior. Results: It is reported that firearms have been the most important effect in adolescent suicide. Both fatal and nonfatal suicidal behaviors have been linked consistently to negative parent-child relationships, depression, substance use, overall number of life stressors, gender and impulsive behaviors. Discussion: Future efforts to investigate suicidal behavior should use new research methodologies that may lead to identification of the interactions between environmental factors and constitutional and biological factors that are associated with risk for suicidal behavior. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2005; 4(2.000: 88-97

  14. Psychological Autopsy: A Psychobiographical Exploration of Suicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alonso Andrade Salazar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work is a conceptual approach on psychosocial factors related to suicidal psychobiography from the exploration of the lives of people who self-eliminate, for which there will be a review of the literature, based on input from journal articles and books published in various sources of documentation. Autopsy psychology is a data collection method that provides light on the psychosocial motivations that drive and reinforce the act of suicide, and is currently used by professionals responsible for investigating the causes of suicide while contributing data produced in the developing programs to promote mental health and prevention of suicidal ideation and behavior.

  15. Suicidal ligature strangulation using gymnastics bands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzimas, Iliana; Bajanowski, Thomas; Pollak, Stefan; Trübner, Kurt; Thierauf, Annette

    2014-03-01

    Suicidal ligature strangulation is a rare event. The most important issue to solve in the investigation is whether it is a case of homicide or suicide. The characteristics of suicidal ligature strangulation are summarized by Koops and Brinkmann with the emphasis on the nature of the ligature instrument(s). In this article, we present two cases of self-strangulation with an almost identical modus operandi using gymnastics bands. The autopsy findings and the nature of the ligature in these cases are depicted and in good accordance with the described typical observations in suicidal cases. The importance of a broad medico-legal investigation is demonstrated. PMID:24429766

  16. Body mass index and suicide methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingren, Carl Johan; Ottosson, Anders

    2016-08-01

    Overweight and obesity is associated with lower rates of suicide. However, little is known about the association with different suicide methods. We studied the association between groups of body mass index and suicide methods. We identified all medicolegal autopsy cases with a cause of death due to external causes in Sweden during 1999-2013 (N = 39,368) and included 11,715 suicides and 13,316 accidents or homicides as controls. We applied multinomial regression models adjusted for age, sex, year and season of death. Obesity was associated with suicidal intoxication, OR 1.15 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02, 1.30] and negatively associated with all other suicide methods studied. Underweight showed a negative association with suicidal drowning and there was an indication towards a negative association with hanging in men OR 0.81 (95% CI 0.65, 1.01). We conclude that body mass index (BMI) is associated with the choice of suicide method. This may be of importance in a public health perspective, e.g. potential for prevention of intoxications. In the practice of forensic medicine, the physician's level of suspicion may rise if the apparent suicidal method is less common for the individual characteristics of the deceased, such as BMI. PMID:27239953

  17. Nurses' Psychosocial Barriers to Suicide Risk Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Valente

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Suicide remains a serious health care problem and a sentinel event tracked by The Joint Commission. Nurses are pivotal in evaluating risk and preventing suicide. Analysis of nurses' barriers to risk management may lead to interventions to improve management of suicidal patients. These data emerged from a random survey of 454 oncology nurses' attitudes, knowledge of suicide, and justifications for euthanasia. Instruments included a vignette of a suicidal patient and a suicide attitude questionnaire. Results. Psychological factors (emotions, unresolved grief, communication, and negative judgments about suicide complicate the nurse's assessment and treatment of suicidal patients. Some nurses (=122 indicated that euthanasia was never justified and 11 were unsure of justifications and evaluated each case on its merits. Justifications for euthanasia included poor symptom control, poor quality of life, incurable illness or permanent disability, terminal illness, and terminal illness with inadequate symptom control or impending death, patient autonomy, and clinical organ death. The nurses indicated some confusion and misconceptions about definitions and examples of euthanasia, assisted suicide, and double effect. Strategies for interdisciplinary clinical intervention are suggested to identify and resolve these psychosocial barriers.

  18. Complex suicide with homemade nicotine patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardi, C; Vogt, S; Pollak, S; Thierauf, A

    2014-03-01

    Suicide by self-poisoning is rather common around the world. This paper presents an exceptional complex suicide in which nicotine was applied in the form of self-made patches soaked with an extraction from fine-cut tobacco. In addition, the 51-year-old suicide victim took a lethal dose of diphenhydramine. Toxicological analysis also revealed the presence of tetrazepam in subtherapeutic concentrations. The scene of death suggested an autoerotic accident at first, as the body was tied with tapes, cables and handcuffs. As a result of the entire investigations, the fatality had to be classified as a suicidal intoxication by nicotine and diphenhydramine. PMID:24439154

  19. Veterans Affairs Suicide Prevention Synthetic Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The VA's Veteran Health Administration, in support of the Open Data Initiative, is providing the Veterans Affairs Suicide Prevention Synthetic Dataset (VASPSD). The...

  20. Veterans Affairs Suicide Prevention Synthetic Dataset Metadata

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The VA's Veteran Health Administration, in support of the Open Data Initiative, is providing the Veterans Affairs Suicide Prevention Synthetic Dataset (VASPSD). The...

  1. Suicide in patients with motor neuron disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Søren; Stenager, E N; Stenager, Egon;

    1994-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess, through an epidemiological study, whether suicide risk is increased in patients with motor neuron disease (MND). The study involved 116 patients with MND. In the study period 92 patients died, 47 males and 45 females. No patients committed suicide....... The number of expected suicides was 0.27 for males and 0.12 for females, a total of 0.38. The difference between observed and expected suicides was not statistically significant for males and females....

  2. A very unusual case of attempted suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misiak, Piotr; Jabłoński, Sławomir; Dziwińska, Katarzyna; Terlecki, Artur

    2016-06-01

    We would like to present a case report of a very unusual suicide attempt. A 48-year-old female patient tried to commit suicide by stabbing herself with a kitchen knife into her neck. Suicide by self-stabbing is uncommon, constituting only 1-3% of suicide attempts. Patients with self-inflicted stab wounds may have a higher incidence of surgical interventions based on the stab location. Surprisingly, the mortality associated with this kind of wound is low. Most medical centers have very limited experience with this infrequent injury. There are only a few case reports and small series published in the literature of the subject. PMID:27516789

  3. Nursing advocacy for women veterans and suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conard, Patricia L; Armstrong, Myrna L; Young, Cathy; Hogan, La Micha

    2015-03-01

    Little is known about suicide variables in women Veterans. The authors reviewed numerous applicable health care and military literary sources regarding suicide in this population. The current article describes the surrounding circumstances, military war/conflict culture, and potential effects on women Veterans, including major collection problems with current Veteran data. Women Veterans are increasingly reporting more behavioral health issues (e.g., posttraumatic stress disorder) and attempting suicide upon civilian reintegration. Outcomes from this literature review suggest the importance of nursing advocacy to create better rapport and communication with women Veterans from Vietnam, Gulf I, Iraq, and Afghanistan wars seeking care at civilian health facilities, as some may present with suicidal ideologies.

  4. The Impact of Celebrity Suicide on Subsequent Suicide Rates in the General Population of Korea from 1990 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Juhyun; Choi, Nari; Kim, Seog Ju; Kim, Soohyun; An, Hyonggin; Lee, Heon-Jeong; Lee, Yu Jin

    2016-04-01

    The association between celebrity suicide and subsequent increase in suicide rates among the general population has been suggested. Previous studies primarily focused on celebrity suicides in the 2000s. To better understand the association, this study examined the impacts of celebrity suicides on subsequent suicide rates using the data of Korean celebrity suicides between 1990 and 2010. Nine celebrity suicides were selected by an investigation of media reports of suicide deaths published in three major newspapers in Korea between 1990 and 2010. Suicide mortality data were obtained from the National Statistical Office of Korea. Seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average models with intervention analysis were used to test the impacts of celebrity suicides, controlling for seasonality. Six of the 9 celebrity suicides had significant impacts on suicide rates both in the total population and in the same gender- or the same age-subgroups. The incident that occurred in the 1990s had no significant impact on the overall suicide rates, whereas the majority of the incidents in the 2000s had significant influences for 30 or 60 days following each incident. The influence of celebrity suicide was shown to reach its peak following the suicide death of a renowned actress in 2008. The findings may suggest a link between media coverage and the impact of celebrity suicide. Future studies should focus more on the underlying processes and confounding factors that may contribute to the impact of celebrity suicide on subsequent suicide rates. PMID:27051245

  5. Fats and factors: lipid profiles associate with personality factors and suicidal history in bipolar subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon J Evans

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA have shown efficacy in the treatment of bipolar disorder, however their specific role in treating the illness is unclear. Serum PUFA and dietary intakes of PUFA associate with suicidal behavior in epidemiological studies. The objective of this study was to assess serum n-3 and n-6 PUFA levels in bipolar subjects and determine possible associations with suicidal risk, including suicidal history and relevant personality factors that have been associated with suicidality. We studied 27 bipolar subjects using the NEO-PI to assess the big five personality factors, structured interviews to verify diagnosis and assess suicidal history, and lipomics to quantify n-3 and n-6 PUFA in serum. We found positive associations between personality factors and ratios of n-3 PUFA, suggesting that conversion of short chain to long chain n-3s and the activity of enzymes in this pathway may associate with measures of personality. Thus, ratios of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA to alpha linolenic acid (ALA and the activity of fatty acid desaturase 2 (FADS2 involved in the conversion of ALA to DHA were positively associated with openness factor scores. Ratios of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA to ALA and ratios of EPA to DHA were positively associated with agreeableness factor scores. Finally, serum concentrations of the n-6, arachidonic acid (AA, were significantly lower in subjects with a history of suicide attempt compared to non-attempters. The data suggest that specific lipid profiles, which are controlled by an interaction between diet and genetics, correlate with suicidal history and personality factors related to suicidal risk. This study provides preliminary data for future studies to determine whether manipulation of PUFA profiles (through diet or supplementation can affect personality measures and disease outcome in bipolar subjects and supports the need for further investigations into individualized specific modulations of lipid

  6. Fats and factors: lipid profiles associate with personality factors and suicidal history in bipolar subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Simon J; Prossin, Alan R; Harrington, Gloria J; Kamali, Masoud; Ellingrod, Vicki L; Burant, Charles F; McInnis, Melvin G

    2012-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have shown efficacy in the treatment of bipolar disorder, however their specific role in treating the illness is unclear. Serum PUFA and dietary intakes of PUFA associate with suicidal behavior in epidemiological studies. The objective of this study was to assess serum n-3 and n-6 PUFA levels in bipolar subjects and determine possible associations with suicidal risk, including suicidal history and relevant personality factors that have been associated with suicidality. We studied 27 bipolar subjects using the NEO-PI to assess the big five personality factors, structured interviews to verify diagnosis and assess suicidal history, and lipomics to quantify n-3 and n-6 PUFA in serum. We found positive associations between personality factors and ratios of n-3 PUFA, suggesting that conversion of short chain to long chain n-3s and the activity of enzymes in this pathway may associate with measures of personality. Thus, ratios of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) to alpha linolenic acid (ALA) and the activity of fatty acid desaturase 2 (FADS2) involved in the conversion of ALA to DHA were positively associated with openness factor scores. Ratios of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) to ALA and ratios of EPA to DHA were positively associated with agreeableness factor scores. Finally, serum concentrations of the n-6, arachidonic acid (AA), were significantly lower in subjects with a history of suicide attempt compared to non-attempters. The data suggest that specific lipid profiles, which are controlled by an interaction between diet and genetics, correlate with suicidal history and personality factors related to suicidal risk. This study provides preliminary data for future studies to determine whether manipulation of PUFA profiles (through diet or supplementation) can affect personality measures and disease outcome in bipolar subjects and supports the need for further investigations into individualized specific modulations of lipid profiles to add

  7. Psychological aspects of suicide and possibilities of its interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farinovich V.V.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The term “suicidal behavior” is a relatively new one. It was coined in 1947 to define suicide as an act of performance, an act of behavior, as one of the fully developed form with its special motivation (like any other behavioral act. The suicidal behavior is treated as any kind of internal and external form of psychic act, directed by ideas of putting oneself to death. Internal suicidal behavior includes suicidal thoughts, ideas, emotions and suicidal tendencies, among which one can detect plots and intentions. External forms of suicidal behavior include suicidal attempts, suicidal threats and completed suicides. The suicide is introduced in the article as an anthropological phenomenon.

  8. Does diurnal temperature range influence seasonal suicide mortality? Assessment of daily data of the Helsinki metropolitan area from 1973 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holopainen, Jari; Helama, Samuli; Partonen, Timo

    2014-08-01

    Several studies show a peak in suicide rates during springtime and suggest differences in the seasonal variation of suicides. However, the seasonal distribution of the temperature impact on suicide is less clear. This study investigated the relationship between diurnal temperature range (DTR) on suicide mortality. Daily temperature and suicide data for Helsinki were analyzed for the period of 1973-2010 inclusive. Overall, DTR reached its maximum during the spring from mid-April to mid-June, which is also the season with highest suicide mortality in the study region. Specifically, the seasonal timing and maxima for both DTR and suicides vary from year to year. Time series analysis of DTR and suicide records revealed a significant ( P BAT) over-activity. Activation of BAT through the winter improves cold tolerance at the cost of heat tolerance. This might trigger anxiety and psychomotor agitation, affecting mood in a negative way. As a hypothesis, the compromised heat tolerance is suggested to increase the risk of death from suicide.

  9. Factors Associated with Suicidal Ideation and Suicide Attempt among School-Going Urban Adolescents in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bimala; Nam, Eun Woo; Kim, Ha Yun; Kim, Jong Koo

    2015-11-20

    The study examines the prevalence of suicidal ideation and suicide attempt, and associated factors among school-going urban adolescents in Peru. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a sample of 916 secondary school adolescents in 2014. A structured questionnaire adapted from Global School-based Student Health Survey was used to obtain information. Data were analyzed using logistic regression models at 5% level of significance. Overall, 26.3% reported having suicidal ideation, and 17.5% reported having attempted suicide during the past 12 months. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that female sex, being in a fight, being insulted, being attacked, perceived unhappiness, smoking and sexual intercourse initiation were significantly associated with increased risk of suicidal ideation, while female sex, being in a fight, being insulted, being attacked, perceived unhappiness, alcohol and illicit drug use were related to suicide attempt. The prevalence of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts observed in the survey area is relatively high. Female adolescents are particularly vulnerable to report suicidal ideation and suicide attempt. Interventions that address the issue of violence against adolescents, fighting with peers, health risk behaviors particularly initiation of smoking, alcohol and illicit drug use and encourage supportive role of parents may reduce the risk of suicidal behaviors.

  10. Factors Associated with Suicidal Ideation and Suicide Attempt among School-Going Urban Adolescents in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bimala; Nam, Eun Woo; Kim, Ha Yun; Kim, Jong Koo

    2015-11-01

    The study examines the prevalence of suicidal ideation and suicide attempt, and associated factors among school-going urban adolescents in Peru. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a sample of 916 secondary school adolescents in 2014. A structured questionnaire adapted from Global School-based Student Health Survey was used to obtain information. Data were analyzed using logistic regression models at 5% level of significance. Overall, 26.3% reported having suicidal ideation, and 17.5% reported having attempted suicide during the past 12 months. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that female sex, being in a fight, being insulted, being attacked, perceived unhappiness, smoking and sexual intercourse initiation were significantly associated with increased risk of suicidal ideation, while female sex, being in a fight, being insulted, being attacked, perceived unhappiness, alcohol and illicit drug use were related to suicide attempt. The prevalence of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts observed in the survey area is relatively high. Female adolescents are particularly vulnerable to report suicidal ideation and suicide attempt. Interventions that address the issue of violence against adolescents, fighting with peers, health risk behaviors particularly initiation of smoking, alcohol and illicit drug use and encourage supportive role of parents may reduce the risk of suicidal behaviors. PMID:26610536

  11. Factors Associated with Suicidal Ideation and Suicide Attempt among School-Going Urban Adolescents in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bimala Sharma

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the prevalence of suicidal ideation and suicide attempt, and associated factors among school-going urban adolescents in Peru. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a sample of 916 secondary school adolescents in 2014. A structured questionnaire adapted from Global School-based Student Health Survey was used to obtain information. Data were analyzed using logistic regression models at 5% level of significance. Overall, 26.3% reported having suicidal ideation, and 17.5% reported having attempted suicide during the past 12 months. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that female sex, being in a fight, being insulted, being attacked, perceived unhappiness, smoking and sexual intercourse initiation were significantly associated with increased risk of suicidal ideation, while female sex, being in a fight, being insulted, being attacked, perceived unhappiness, alcohol and illicit drug use were related to suicide attempt. The prevalence of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts observed in the survey area is relatively high. Female adolescents are particularly vulnerable to report suicidal ideation and suicide attempt. Interventions that address the issue of violence against adolescents, fighting with peers, health risk behaviors particularly initiation of smoking, alcohol and illicit drug use and encourage supportive role of parents may reduce the risk of suicidal behaviors.

  12. Sounding the alarm about suicide risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The Joint Commission (TJC) issued a Sentinel Event Alert, noting that in too many instances healthcare providers are not recognizing signs of suicide risk in patients who present for care. While the agency calls on all frontline providers to screen for suicide risk, experts note the issue is of particular importance to EDs because this is one of the most likely places for patients at high risk for suicide to present. Beyond identifying risk, experts note emergency providers and staff must receive training to effectively manage patients at risk for suicide. Further, TJC calls for the development of appropriate referral sources and mechanisms for follow-up contact. TJC reports that between 2010 and 2014, its Sentinel Event Database received 1,089 reports of suicides. The most common root cause was inadequate assessment. According to TJC, in 2014 more than 21% of accredited behavioral health organizations and 5% of accredited hospitals were non-compliant with conducting a risk assessment to identify patient characteristics or environmental factors related to suicide risk. Beyond instances of obvious risk, strong tipoffs that suicide is a concern include signs of hopelessness or evidence that the patient has no sense of the future. Further, experts note the strongest indicator of a future suicide attempt is a past attempt, so evidence in the record of a past suicide attempt, or a family history of suicide, should be taken very seriously. Researchers found that a three-item instrument, dubbed the Patient Safety Screener-3, can double the number of patients identified as at risk for suicide over usual care in a busy emergency setting. Experts recommend asking screening questions during the primary nursing assessment for most patients, and at triage for patients who present with a primary psychiatric complaint. Some experts suggest regionalizing mental health care, much like the country does with trauma care. However, communities must ensure they maintain adequate funding

  13. Sounding the alarm about suicide risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The Joint Commission (TJC) issued a Sentinel Event Alert, noting that in too many instances healthcare providers are not recognizing signs of suicide risk in patients who present for care. While the agency calls on all frontline providers to screen for suicide risk, experts note the issue is of particular importance to EDs because this is one of the most likely places for patients at high risk for suicide to present. Beyond identifying risk, experts note emergency providers and staff must receive training to effectively manage patients at risk for suicide. Further, TJC calls for the development of appropriate referral sources and mechanisms for follow-up contact. TJC reports that between 2010 and 2014, its Sentinel Event Database received 1,089 reports of suicides. The most common root cause was inadequate assessment. According to TJC, in 2014 more than 21% of accredited behavioral health organizations and 5% of accredited hospitals were non-compliant with conducting a risk assessment to identify patient characteristics or environmental factors related to suicide risk. Beyond instances of obvious risk, strong tipoffs that suicide is a concern include signs of hopelessness or evidence that the patient has no sense of the future. Further, experts note the strongest indicator of a future suicide attempt is a past attempt, so evidence in the record of a past suicide attempt, or a family history of suicide, should be taken very seriously. Researchers found that a three-item instrument, dubbed the Patient Safety Screener-3, can double the number of patients identified as at risk for suicide over usual care in a busy emergency setting. Experts recommend asking screening questions during the primary nursing assessment for most patients, and at triage for patients who present with a primary psychiatric complaint. Some experts suggest regionalizing mental health care, much like the country does with trauma care. However, communities must ensure they maintain adequate funding

  14. Towards understanding and predicting suicidality in women: biomarkers and clinical risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levey, D F; Niculescu, E M; Le-Niculescu, H; Dainton, H L; Phalen, P L; Ladd, T B; Weber, H; Belanger, E; Graham, D L; Khan, F N; Vanipenta, N P; Stage, E C; Ballew, A; Yard, M; Gelbart, T; Shekhar, A; Schork, N J; Kurian, S M; Sandusky, G E; Salomon, D R; Niculescu, A B

    2016-06-01

    then showed how the clinical information apps combined with the 50 validated biomarkers into a broad predictor (UP-Suicide), our apriori primary end point, predicts suicidality in women. UP-Suicide had a receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) area under the curve (AUC) of 82% for predicting SI and an AUC of 78% for predicting future hospitalizations for suicidality. Some of the individual components of the UP-Suicide showed even better results. SASS had an AUC of 81% for predicting SI, CFI-S had an AUC of 84% and the combination of the two apps had an AUC of 87%. The top biomarker from our sequential discovery, prioritization and validation steps, BCL2, predicted future hospitalizations due to suicidality with an AUC of 89%, and the panel of 50 validated biomarkers (BioM-50) predicted future hospitalizations due to suicidality with an AUC of 94%. The best overall single blood biomarker for predictions was PIK3C3 with an AUC of 65% for SI and an AUC of 90% for future hospitalizations. Finally, we sought to understand the biology of the biomarkers. BCL2 and GSK3B, the top CFG scoring validated biomarkers, as well as PIK3C3, have anti-apoptotic and neurotrophic effects, are decreased in expression in suicidality and are known targets of the anti-suicidal mood stabilizer drug lithium, which increases their expression and/or activity. Circadian clock genes were overrepresented among the top markers. Notably, PER1, increased in expression in suicidality, had an AUC of 84% for predicting future hospitalizations, and CSNK1A1, decreased in expression, had an AUC of 96% for predicting future hospitalizations. Circadian clock abnormalities are related to mood disorder, and sleep abnormalities have been implicated in suicide. Docosahexaenoic acid signaling was one of the top biological pathways overrepresented in validated biomarkers, which is of interest given the potential therapeutic and prophylactic benefits of omega-3 fatty acids. Some of the top biomarkers from the current

  15. Lapatinib Induced Suicidal Death of Human Erythrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Zierle

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The human epidermal growth factor receptors tyrosine kinase inhibitor lapatinib has been shown to trigger suicidal death or apoptosis of tumor cells and is thus used for the treatment of malignancy. Side effects of lapatinib include anemia, which could, at least in theory, result from stimulation of eryptosis, the suicidal death of erythrocytes which is characterized by cell shrinkage and phospholipid scrambling of the cell membrane leading to phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. Mechanisms involved in the triggering of eryptosis include oxidative stress, increase of cytosolic Ca2+ activity ([Ca2+]i, and ceramide. The present study explored, whether lapatinib induces eryptosis. Methods: Phosphatidylserine exposure at the cell surface was estimated from annexin-V-binding, cell volume from forward scatter, [Ca2+]i from Fluo3-fluorescence, abundance of reactive oxygen species (ROS from DCFDA dependent fluorescence, and ceramide abundance utilizing labelled specific antibodies. Results: A 48 hours exposure of human erythrocytes to lapatinib (≥ 1 µg/ml significantly increased the percentage of annexin-V-binding cells, and significantly decreased forward scatter. Lapatinib (7.5 µg/ml did not significantly modify DCFDA fluorescence and ceramide abundance. Lapatinib slightly, but significantly decreased Fluo3-fluorescence (≥ 5 µg/ml. Lapatinib (7.5 µg/ml enhanced the annexin-V-binding in the presence of the Ca2+ ionophore ionomycin (1 µM without significantly modifying Fluo3 fluorescence in the presence of ionomycin. The effect of lapatinib on forward scatter but not on annexin-V-binding was significantly blunted by removal of extracellular Ca2+. Conclusion: Lapatinib triggers cell shrinkage and phospholipid scrambling of the erythrocyte cell membrane, an effect occurring despite decrease of cytosolic Ca2+ activity.

  16. Sociodemographic and career history predictors of suicide mortality in the United States Army 2004–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, S. E.; Bromet, E. J.; Cox, K. L.; Colpe, L. J.; Fullerton, C. S.; Gruber, M. J.; Heeringa, S.G.; Lewandowski-Romps, L.; Millikan-Bell, A.M.; Naifeh, J. A.; Nock, M. K.; Petukhova, M. V.; Sampson, N. A.; Schoenbaum, M.; Stein, M. B.; Ursano, R. J.; Wessely, S.; Zaslavsky, A.M.; Kessler, R. C.

    2014-01-01

    Background The US Army suicide rate has increased sharply in recent years. Identifying significant predictors of Army suicides in Army and Department of Defense (DoD) administrative records might help focus prevention efforts and guide intervention content. Previous studies of administrative data, although documenting significant predictors, were based on limited samples and models. A career history perspective is used here to develop more textured models. Method The analysis was carried out as part of the Historical Administrative Data Study (HADS) of the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS). De-identified data were combined across numerous Army and DoD administrative data systems for all Regular Army soldiers on active duty in 2004–2009. Multivariate associations of sociodemographics and Army career variables with suicide were examined in subgroups defined by time in service, rank and deployment history. Results Several novel results were found that could have intervention implications. The most notable of these were significantly elevated suicide rates (69.6–80.0 suicides per 100000 person-years compared with 18.5 suicides per 100000 person-years in the total Army) among enlisted soldiers deployed either during their first year of service or with less than expected (based on time in service) junior enlisted rank; a substantially greater rise in suicide among women than men during deployment; and a protective effect of marriage against suicide only during deployment. Conclusions A career history approach produces several actionable insights missed in less textured analyses of administrative data predictors. Expansion of analyses to a richer set of predictors might help refine understanding of intervention implications. PMID:25055175

  17. Suicide Ideations, Suicide Attempts, and Completed Suicide in Persons with Pathological Gambling and Their First-Degree Relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Donald W; Coryell, William; Crowe, Raymond; McCormick, Brett; Shaw, Martha; Allen, Jeff

    2015-12-01

    We examined the relationship between suicidal ideations and attempts in 95 probands with pathological gambling (PG), 91 controls, and 1075 first-degree relatives. The results were analyzed using logistic regression with generalized estimating equations. Thirty-four PG probands (35.8%) and 4 controls (4.4%) had attempted suicide (OR = 12.12, p suicidal ideations occurred in 60 PG probands (63.2%) and 12 controls (13.2%) (OR = 11.29, p Suicidality in PG probands is a marker of PG severity and is associated with greater psychiatric comorbidity. Offspring of PG probands had significantly higher rates of suicide attempts than control offspring.

  18. A Novel Brief Therapy for Patients Who Attempt Suicide: A 24-months Follow-Up Randomized Controlled Study of the Attempted Suicide Short Intervention Program (ASSIP)

    OpenAIRE

    Anja Gysin-Maillart; Simon Schwab; Leila Soravia; Millie Megert; Konrad Michel

    2016-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background Suicide is a serious public health problem. Over 800,000 people worldwide die by suicide every year. In the US, one suicide death occurs approximately every 12 minutes. While the causes of suicide are complex, the goals of suicide prevention are simple—reduce factors that increase risk, and increase factors that promote resilience or coping. Factors that increase suicide risk include family history of suicide, family history of child abuse, previous suicide attempt...

  19. Development of a treatment protocol for Puerto Rican adolescents with suicidal behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarté-Vélez, Yovanska; Torres-Dávila, Paloma; Spirito, Anthony; Polanco, Norka; Bernal, Guillermo

    2016-03-01

    Adolescents in Puerto Rico are at an increased risk for suicide attempts, though evidence-based treatments specifically for this group have not been tested. The current study was designed to develop and pilot test a culturally sensitive, manualized outpatient treatment for Puerto Rican adolescents who have experienced a suicidal crisis. The study was divided into phases. Phase 1 consisted of developing a socio-cognitive behavioral treatment for suicidal behavior. Phase 2 tested the treatment protocol in an open trial with 11 (6 male and 5 female) Puerto Rican adolescents. Active treatment had an approximate duration of 3-6 months. An initial assessment, process measures, and posttreatment assessment were completed with each participant to measure treatment feasibility as well as suicidality, symptoms, and risk factors. Participants were very satisfied with treatment and reported relevant clinical benefits. The retention rate was 73% (8 out of 11). For those who completed the treatment protocol, the goal of reducing further suicide risk was achieved; 2 showed reliable clinical changes in suicidal ideation, while 6 maintained low levels during treatment. All treatment completers had either a partial or total remission of their pretreatment diagnosis and half had reliable improvements in at least 1 risk factor. A theory-driven treatment protocol was developed according to patient's needs, but further research is needed to continue its development and to explore its efficacy. PMID:26928136

  20. Covert Suicidal Impulses in Maternally Deprived Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliman, Gilbert; Lubin, Harriet

    This paper discusses the development of suicidal impulses in children who have lost their mothers due to abandonment or death. The paper is based on two psychoanalytic case studies, in which the children were in therapy when the first suicidal impulses emerged. A pattern is described in which bereaved children's intense wishes to have their…

  1. Suicide Intervention Skills among Japanese Medical Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Daisuke; Suzuki, Yuriko; Kato, Takahiro A.; Hashimoto, Naoki; Sato, Ryoko; Aoyama-Uehara, Kumi; Fukasawa, Maiko; Tomita, Masayuki; Watanabe, Koichiro; Kashima, Haruo; Otsuka, Kotaro

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Patient suicide is a tragic occurrence, and it can be a demoralizing experience for medical residents. Few studies, however, have assessed suicide management skills among these front-line healthcare professionals. This study evaluated the self-assessed competence and confidence of medical residents with regard to the management of…

  2. Homicide followed by Suicide : An empirical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liem, M.C.A.

    2010-01-01

    Homicide followed by suicide constitutes a severe form of lethal violence that mainly occurs within the family. These events lead to shock and incomprehension. In spite of the turmoil that homicide-suicide causes, so far this topic has been neglected within the scientific realm. This study aims to i

  3. Suicide prevention for men - using the internet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anneberg, Inger; Madsen, Bente Hjorth

      In most countries men have a higher suicide rate than women. In Denmark suicide among men is almost three times as frequent as among women. For this reason we wanted to ask the following question: Is there any way to facilitate mens' access to help, when they are in a crisis? Could men be better...

  4. E-health interventions for suicide prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Helen; Batterham, Philip J; O'Dea, Bridianne

    2014-08-12

    Many people at risk of suicide do not seek help before an attempt, and do not remain connected to health services following an attempt. E-health interventions are now being considered as a means to identify at-risk individuals, offer self-help through web interventions or to deliver proactive interventions in response to individuals' posts on social media. In this article, we examine research studies which focus on these three aspects of suicide and the internet: the use of online screening for suicide, the effectiveness of e-health interventions aimed to manage suicidal thoughts, and newer studies which aim to proactively intervene when individuals at risk of suicide are identified by their social media postings. We conclude that online screening may have a role, although there is a need for additional robust controlled research to establish whether suicide screening can effectively reduce suicide-related outcomes, and in what settings online screening might be most effective. The effectiveness of Internet interventions may be increased if these interventions are designed to specifically target suicidal thoughts, rather than associated conditions such as depression. The evidence for the use of intervention practices using social media is possible, although validity, feasibility and implementation remains highly uncertain.

  5. [Suicide prevention - current practice and theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlmeier, H

    1979-02-01

    The present situation of suicide prevention is portrayed by an historical outline, and the description of the practice and the theoretical foundations. It is established that suicide prevention was intensified after 1948 through the fundamental practical and theoretical works of Erwin Ringel. The present situation is characterized by the fact that after the initial recovery of desperate persons as patients for medicine, the defamation of the suicidal act by society could be avoided in another manner than by merely classifying it as a sickness. Increasing interest is being granted to political and other suicides who depict suicide as a possibility of mankind. The practical application of suicide prevention consists in the organization of rest-centres, the interdisciplinary participation of various professional groups and the application of various medical, psychological and social therapies. The theoretical foundation includes the theories of early and present psychoanalysis, social science and theoretical learn-oriented psychology. This formation and this global view of suicide prevention-practice and theory today, allow us to draw the conclusion that every physician, psychologist, social worker or other human being who comes into contact with desperate persons applies the most effective suicide prevention when he behaves in a straight forward manner, and is interested unreservedly in a candid, unforced way in the psychic and social conflict situation of the other, allthewhile respecting that person's freedom. PMID:371243

  6. Attempted suicide, depression and physical diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E N; Stenager, Egon; Jensen, Knud

    1994-01-01

    analgesics for pain. Patients that suffered from a somatic disease differed from other suicide attempters in depression score, age, pain and the presence of psychosis. Fewer of the somatically ill suicide attempters had a psychosis. Patients complaining of pain were more often depressed and abused medicine...

  7. Sleep Disturbance Preceding Completed Suicide in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Tina R.; Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Brent, David A.

    2008-01-01

    We examined sleep difficulties preceding death in a sample of adolescent suicide completers as compared with a matched sample of community control adolescents. Sleep disturbances were assessed in 140 adolescent suicide victims with a psychological autopsy protocol and in 131 controls with a similar semistructured psychiatric interview. Rates of…

  8. The Maryland Youth Suicide Prevention School Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore.

    The Maryland State Department of Education developed this framework for a suicide prevention program. The program framework addresses the following goals: (1) increase awareness among school personnel and community awareness among school personnel and community leaders of the incidence of teenage suicide; (2) train school personnel in individual…

  9. Postvention after Teenage Suicide: An Australian Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazell, Philip

    1991-01-01

    Describes interventions with students perceived to be at high risk for imitative suicidal behavior in three secondary schools where there had been a completed suicide of a student. Discusses method used to gain access to the students and the form of intervention used, along with implications for the future evaluation of postvention techniques…

  10. Family Dysfunction and Teenage Suicide Attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmans, Matthijs

    One of the most persistent findings in the literature on suicidal behavior in adolescence is its association with the characteristics of the adolescent's family. Although empirical work clearly indicates that the family is a critical variable to consider in the study of teenage suicidal behavior, it is less clear how particular family features…

  11. Teenage Suicide in Oregon 1983-1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon State Dept. of Human Resources, Portland.

    During the 3-year period from 1983 through 1985, 80 Oregon teenagers intentionally took their own lives, making suicide second only to accidents as the leading cause of death among Oregon teenagers. Data on suicides committed by individuals between the ages of 10 and 19 were retrieved from death certificates on file with the Oregon Health Division…

  12. Heavy Metal Music and Adolescent Suicidal Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacourse, Eric; Claes, Michel; Villeneuve, Martine

    2001-01-01

    Studied differentiating characteristics of youth who prefer heavy metal music, worship music, and use music for vicarious release. Data for 275 secondary school students suggest that heavy metal music preference and worshipping is not related to suicidal risk when controlling for other suicide factors. Discusses findings in the context of…

  13. E-health interventions for suicide prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Helen; Batterham, Philip J; O'Dea, Bridianne

    2014-08-01

    Many people at risk of suicide do not seek help before an attempt, and do not remain connected to health services following an attempt. E-health interventions are now being considered as a means to identify at-risk individuals, offer self-help through web interventions or to deliver proactive interventions in response to individuals' posts on social media. In this article, we examine research studies which focus on these three aspects of suicide and the internet: the use of online screening for suicide, the effectiveness of e-health interventions aimed to manage suicidal thoughts, and newer studies which aim to proactively intervene when individuals at risk of suicide are identified by their social media postings. We conclude that online screening may have a role, although there is a need for additional robust controlled research to establish whether suicide screening can effectively reduce suicide-related outcomes, and in what settings online screening might be most effective. The effectiveness of Internet interventions may be increased if these interventions are designed to specifically target suicidal thoughts, rather than associated conditions such as depression. The evidence for the use of intervention practices using social media is possible, although validity, feasibility and implementation remains highly uncertain. PMID:25119698

  14. A Subcultural Theory of Teenage Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David

    1987-01-01

    The concept of "subcultures" is applied to depressed and suicidal teenagers. A case example is presented of a group of five teenagers, three of whom killed themseles. The characteristics of the group members are described in order to pinpoint the defining values of a teenage suicidal subculture. (Author)

  15. Autobiographical Memory and Suicide Attempts in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersen, Kenneth; Rydningen, Nora Nord; Christensen, Tore Buer; Walby, Fredrik A.

    2010-01-01

    According to the cry of pain model of suicidal behavior, an over-general autobiographical memory function is often found in suicide attempters. The model has received empirical support in several studies, mainly of depressed patients. The present study investigated whether deficits in autobiographical memory may be associated with an increased…

  16. Opera subculture and suicide for honor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, Steven

    2002-06-01

    The influence of music-based subcultures on suicidality has been the subject of much debate but little scholarly research. While previous work has documented that suicide is a remarkably frequent cause of death in opera, it has not explored the related consequences on opera's audience. In particular, the possible influence of the opera subculture on suicide acceptability has been largely unexplored. Suicide in the case of life without honor, the "Madame Butterfly Effect," is a theme in opera. Persons who are drawn into and/or influenced by the opera subculture of honor are hypothesized to be more accepting of suicide in the case of dishonor to one's family. Data are from the national general social surveys (N = 845). A multivariate logistic regression analysis finds that opera fans are 2.37 times more accepting of suicide because of dishonor than nonfans. Only two variables, religiosity and education, are more closely related to suicide acceptability than opera fanship. These are the first empirical results on the subject of opera and suicide acceptability.

  17. Virtual Suicide as Decisive Political Act

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    of Facebook by Les Liens Invisibles, provided an example where users were able to commit virtual suicide in a ritualistic removal of their virtual identity. Virtual suicide stands as the stubborn refusal to operate under intolerable conditions of service and affirms the possibility of creative autonomy over...

  18. Suicide by drowning: A forensic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todt, Melanie; Ast, Friedrich; Wolff-Maras, Roman; Roesler, Birte; Germerott, Tanja

    2014-07-01

    In the case of suicidal drowning forensic examination is difficult, particularly with regard to differentiating between suicide, accident, homicide and natural death. Bondage and weighting with objects, putrescence and attendant lesions aggravate interpretation and investigation of postmortal forensic findings. In this respect, two cases of seemingly homicidal drowning with leg and arm bondage and weighting, to prevent resurfacing, are presented and discussed. PMID:24793320

  19. Gun Control, Gun Ownership, and Suicide Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David

    1988-01-01

    Explored relationship between the extent of gun ownership and the strictness of gun control laws to suicide and homicide rates in the nine major geographic regions of the United States. Found gun ownership, rather than the strictness of gun control laws, was the strongest correlate of the rates of suicide and homicide by guns. (Author)

  20. Practical Strategies for Preventing Adolescent Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Keith

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive approach to suicide prevention is needed to effectively address the problem of teen suicide. This article describes three levels of prevention (primary prevention, intervention, and postvention) and provides practical strategies that community, mental, and social health professionals can use within each level to help prevent…

  1. Coping and Suicidality among Homeless Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Sean A.; Carroll, Michelle R.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the impact of coping strategies employed by homeless youth upon suicidal ideation, suicide attempts on the streets, and feeling trapped/helpless. Coping strategies examined in the analysis included problem-focused and avoidant coping, along with several coping strategies identified in previous exploratory qualitative studies.…

  2. E-Health Interventions for Suicide Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Christensen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Many people at risk of suicide do not seek help before an attempt, and do not remain connected to health services following an attempt. E-health interventions are now being considered as a means to identify at-risk individuals, offer self-help through web interventions or to deliver proactive interventions in response to individuals’ posts on social media. In this article, we examine research studies which focus on these three aspects of suicide and the internet: the use of online screening for suicide, the effectiveness of e-health interventions aimed to manage suicidal thoughts, and newer studies which aim to proactively intervene when individuals at risk of suicide are identified by their social media postings. We conclude that online screening may have a role, although there is a need for additional robust controlled research to establish whether suicide screening can effectively reduce suicide-related outcomes, and in what settings online screening might be most effective. The effectiveness of Internet interventions may be increased if these interventions are designed to specifically target suicidal thoughts, rather than associated conditions such as depression. The evidence for the use of intervention practices using social media is possible, although validity, feasibility and implementation remains highly uncertain.

  3. Rational suicide: philosophical perspectives on schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Jeanette

    2010-02-01

    Suicide prevention is a National Health Service priority in the United Kingdom. People with mental illness are seen to represent one of the most vulnerable groups for suicide and recent British Government policy has focused on prevention and management of perceived risk. This approach to suicide prevention is constructed under a biomedical model of psychiatry, which maintains that suicidal persons suffer from some form of disease or irrational drive towards self-destruction. Many react to the idea of self-inflicted death with instinctive revulsion, which has prevented serious discussion of the concept of rational suicide, particularly in relation to those with schizophrenia. The idea that there may be circumstances in which suicide can be viewed as rational is discussed within the biomedical approach to ethics and wider literature primarily in relation to physical disease, terminal states and chronic pain. It is not deemed a viable choice for those who are considered 'non-autonomous' due to the controlling forces of mental illness. I propose that suicide is not a consequence of mental illness per se, and that it may be seen as a rational response to a realistic perspective on the course and consequences of living with schizophrenia. The denial of dialogue about the validity of suicidal ideation for people with schizophrenia has led to negative consequences for people with serious mental illness in terms of justice and recognition of person-hood.

  4. Predicting Suicide: Issues, Methods and Constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettieri, Dan J.

    With the proliferation of suicide prevention centers in the United States, the task of rapidly and effectively assessing an individual caller's suicide potential has become an important research problem. However, the social science researcher is often confronted with an ethical problem when the results of his predictive equations can be used to…

  5. Debates about assisted suicide in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Sandra; La Harpe, Romano

    2012-12-01

    Assisted suicide is allowed in 3 states of the United States (Oregon, Washington, Montana) but only if performed by a physician.On the opposite, in Switzerland, at the beginning of the 20th century, the Swiss Penal Code referred to assisted suicide in the context of honor or an unhappy love affair. It was only in 1985 that Exit Deutsche Schweiz (Exit for German-speaking Switzerland) "medically" assisted the first patient to end his life.Even if authorized by the Swiss law upon certain conditions, assisted suicide is subject to debates for ethical reasons. The Swiss Academy of Medical Sciences described directives to guide physicians on this difficult subject.Different studies showed an increase in the number of medical-assisted suicide in Switzerland since the 1990s. Now, this number seems to be quite stable. Assisted suicide is authorized in a few hospitals under strict conditions (especially when returning home is impossible).Thus, according to the Swiss law, any person could perform assisted suicide; this is essentially performed by 3 main associations, using pentobarbital on medical prescription as lethal substance.Generally speaking, the Swiss population is rather in favor of assisted suicide. Among politics, the debate has been tough until 2010, when the Federal Council decided not to modify the Swiss Penal Code concerning assisted suicide.

  6. Suicides in Adolescents: Benefit/Harm Balance of Antidepressants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saz, Ulas Eylem; Arslan, Mehmet Tayyip; Egemen, Ayten

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Depression is an important cause of suicide in adolescents. It has been speculated that antidepressants themselves can increase the risk of suicide. Method: Cases of adolescents admitted to the Ege University Pediatric Emergency Department in Turkey due to suicide attempt were assessed. Results: Nine of 13 suicide attempts during…

  7. Gender Issues in the Treatment of Suicidal Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canetto, Silvia S.

    1994-01-01

    Suggests that gender issues necessitate considering gender in treatment planning for suicidal individuals. Focuses on gender dynamics relevant to psychotherapy with suicidal adults. Reviews literature on relationships between gender and epidemiology of suicidal ideation and behaviors, reasons for suicidal behavior, and initiation and goals of…

  8. Suicidal behavior and mortality in first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete; Madsen, Trine; Fedyszyn, Izabela

    2015-01-01

    different studies indicate that the risk of suicide attempt during the first year of treatment is as high as 10%. The most important risk factors for attempted suicide after the first contact are young age, female sex, suicidal plans, and a history of suicide attempt. Early intervention services are helpful...

  9. The Tree of Life: A Response to Teen Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Claire Y.

    This document presents guidelines for school staff to use in responding to an adolescent suicide. It gives statistics on teenage suicides and suicide attempts and examines characteristics of high-risk adolescents. Behavior patterns associated with adolescent suicide are described, paying close attention to the patterns of depression, substance…

  10. Psychosocial Risk Factors for Future Adolescent Suicide Attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewinsohn, Peter M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined psychosocial risk factors for attempting suicide in 1,508 high school students, 26 of whom attempted suicide during year following entry into study. Strongest predictors of future suicide attempt were history of past attempt, current suicidal ideation and depression, recent attempt by friend, low self-esteem, and having been born to…

  11. Pathological Gambling and Suicidality: An Analysis of Severity and Lethality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccallum, Fiona; Blaszczynski, Alex

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the nature of suicidal behavior among treatment-seeking pathological gamblers and its relationship to gambling characteristics and depression. High rates of suicidal ideation, suicidal plans, and attempts were found; however, no clear relationship was observed between suicidality and indices of gambling behavior. (Contains 37…

  12. Suicide Risk at Young Adulthood: Continuities and Discontinuities from Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooven, Carole; Snedker, Karen A.; Thompson, Elaine Adams

    2012-01-01

    Young adult suicide is an important social problem, yet little is known about how risk for young adult suicide develops from earlier life stages. In this study the authors report on 759 young adults who were potential high school dropouts as youth. At both adolescence and young adulthood, measures of suicide risk status and related suicide risk…

  13. Suicide Interventions Targeted toward At-Risk Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Lamis, Dorian A.; McCullars, Adrianne

    2012-01-01

    Suicide is currently the third leading cause of death among youth; it has been named a public health concern. A number of programs have been developed to prevent suicide; many of these involve intervening with youth who are known to be at-risk because of their depression, expressed suicide ideation, or previous suicide attempts. This paper serves…

  14. Youth Suicide Trends in Finland, 1969-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahti, Anniina; Rasanen, Pirkko; Riala, Kaisa; Keranen, Sirpa; Hakko, Helina

    2011-01-01

    Background: There are only a few recent studies on secular trends in child and adolescent suicides. We examine here trends in rates and methods of suicide among young people in Finland, where suicide rates at these ages are among the highest in the world. Methods: The data, obtained from Statistics Finland, consisted of all suicides (n = 901)…

  15. Rational Suicide and the Crisis of Terminal Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokhandwala, Tasneem M.; Westefeld, John S.

    1998-01-01

    Whether or not suicide may be considered a rational choice for clients with terminal illness is controversial. Rational suicide and the literature and statistics pertaining to suicide and terminal illness are reviewed. Implications of accepting rational suicide as a treatment option, including moral and ethical issues, are addressed. (Author/EMK)

  16. Marriage and Suicide among Chinese Rural Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie

    2010-01-01

    Suicides by young females in rural China contribute substantially to the high rate of suicide and the total number of suicides in China. Given the traditional familial structure that remains largely intact in rural China, this research focuses on whether being married is a risk or protective factor for suicide by young women. I examined 168 rural…

  17. [Suicidality and musical preferences: a possible link?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikolajczak, Gladys; Desseilles, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Music is an important part of young people's lives. In this article, we attempt to answer two questions on the links between music et suicide. First, we examine if certain types of music favor suicidal process (ideation and acting out); and, secondly, we examine if music can constitute a tool to reduce the risk of suicide. Several factors possibly involved in links between musical preferences and the suicidal process are developed: the Velten effect and the musical mood induction procedure, the identification and the learning by imitation, the media influence as well as the individual characteristics. A multifactor approach is necessary to understand the complex and birectional links that unite musical preferences and suicide risk. PMID:23666285

  18. Suicide rate among former Swedish peacekeeping personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Per-Olof; Lundin, Tom; Larsson, Gerry

    2007-03-01

    Increased suicide rates for military personnel suffering from post-traumatic stress disorders have been reported in various countries. Although it is known that some peacekeepers are exposed to potentially traumatic events and are thus at risk of suffering from post-traumatic stress reactions, only a few studies have examined suicide rates in this group. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the suicide rate among former Swedish peacekeeping personnel. We compared 39,768 former Swedish peacekeepers to the general population in the National General Population Registry and the Cause-of-Death Registry. A lower number of suicides was found among former Swedish peacekeepers than in the general population. In conclusion, Swedish personnel serving in international peace-keeping operations do not show a higher suicide rate than the general population. Unique problems associated with this research area are discussed. PMID:17436772

  19. Re-moralizing the suicide debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Scott J

    2014-06-01

    Contemporary approaches to the study of suicide tend to examine suicide as a medical or public health problem rather than a moral problem, avoiding the kinds of judgements that have historically characterised discussions of the phenomenon. But morality entails more than judgement about action or behaviour, and our understanding of suicide can be enhanced by attending to its cultural, social, and linguistic connotations. In this work, I offer a theoretical reconstruction of suicide as a form of moral experience that delineates five distinct, yet interrelated domains of understanding: the temporal, the relational, the existential, the ontological, and the linguistic. Attention to each of these domains, I argue, not only enriches our understanding of the moral realm but also provides a heuristic for examining the moral traditions and practices that constitute contemporary understandings of suicide. PMID:24752522

  20. Suicide after a stroke: a population study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teasdale, T W; Engberg, A W

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To establish whether there are increased rates of suicide after a stroke and the degree to which any increase is related to gender, age at stroke, diagnosis, duration of hospitalisation, and time since stroke. DESIGN: Cross linkage of national registers for hospitalisations...... cases of suicide were identified. MAIN RESULTS: Annual incidence rates, both observed and expected, together with standardised mortality ratios (SMR) were computed based on annual population and suicide statistics, stratified by age and gender. The overall annual incidence rate of suicide in the cohort.......76) for patients under 50 years of age group and were least for patients 80 years or older (1.3; 0.95, 1.79). There was no clear relation to stroke diagnosis. Suicides were negatively related to duration of hospitalisation, being lowest for those hospitalised for more than three months (0.88; 0.65, 1...

  1. Suicide in Sri Lanka 1975-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knipe, Duleeka W; Metcalfe, Chris; Fernando, Ravindra;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sri Lanka has experienced major changes in its suicide rates since the 1970s, and in 1995 it had one of the highest rates in the world. Subsequent reductions in Sri Lanka's suicide rates have been attributed to the introduction of restrictions on the availability of highly toxic...... pesticides. We investigate these changes in suicide rates in relation to age, gender, method specific trends and birth-cohort and period effects, with the aim of informing preventative strategies. METHODS: Secular trends of suicide in relation to age, sex, method, birth-cohort and period effects were...... investigated graphically using police data (1975-2012). Poisoning case-fatality was investigated using national hospital admission data (2004-2010). RESULTS: There were marked changes to the age-, gender- and method-specific incidence of suicide over the study period. Year on year declines in rates began in 17...

  2. Crucial elements in suicide prevention strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete

    2011-01-01

    Ways of conceptualizing suicide prevention are reviewed briefly, and the preventive model: Universal, Selected, and Indicated prevention (USI) is chosen as the structure for the literature review, and the discussion. Universal preventive interventions are directed toward entire population......; selective interventions are directed toward individuals who are at greater risk for suicidal behaviour; and indicated preventions are targeted at individuals who have already begun self-destructive behaviour. On the universal prevention level, an overview of the literature is presented with focus...... on restrictions in firearms and carbon monoxide gas. At the selective prevention level, a review of risk of suicide in homelessness and schizophrenia and risk factors for suicide in schizophrenia is conducted and possible interventions are mentioned together with the evidence for their effect. Suicide rate...

  3. Impact of sudden mass mortality on suicides

    CERN Document Server

    Roehner, Bertrand M

    2009-01-01

    We show that a large scale mass mortality results in increased numbers of suicides. As a case in point, we consider the influenza epidemic of October 1918 in the United States. In this month, suicides peaked at a level of over 4s (where s denotes the desaisonalized standard deviation of the suicide rate) which means that one would expect such a jump to occur merely by chance only once in several centuries. The mechanism that we propose to explain this effect relies on two steps (i) Mass mortalities break family bonds for instance between parents and children or husbands and wives. (ii) Increased numbers of suicides then result from the well known fact that the severance of family bonds invariably produces more suicides.

  4. Subjective experience and suicidal ideation in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skodlar, Borut; Tomori, Martina; Parnas, Josef

    2008-01-01

    Suicidal ideation and behavior are a frequent complication of schizophrenia. Although a number of risk factors have been identified, specific features of suicidality in schizophrenia remain poorly understood. In this study, 19 patients with schizophrenia were interviewed in depth on their suicidal...... ideation and intentions, followed by a qualitative phenomenological analysis of the material. Solitude with inability to participate in human interactions and feelings of inferiority were found to be the main sources of suicidal ideation. These experiences seem to resemble ordinary depressive reactions......, yet we found them to be reflective of a more basic self-alienation and incapacity for immersion in the shared world. Ignoring this experiential level of patients' disturbances may lead to trivialization (and misjudgment) of the experiences at the root of suicidality in schizophrenia....

  5. Suicide Behavior in Persons with Intellectual Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joav Merrick

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is today in the Western world one of the leading causes of death and most people have had suicidal ideation at some time during their life. In the population of persons with intellectual disability some researchers have thought that impaired intellectual capacity could act as a buffer to suicidal behavior, but the fact is that the few studies conducted in that population contest this assumption and showed that the characteristics of suicidality in this population are very similar to persons without intellectual disability. This paper reviews the studies conducted and describe the symptomatology in this population. Professionals working with this population should therefore be aware of and assess for this behavior. Sadness or depression are symptoms that could indicate later suicidal behavior.

  6. Suicide in elderly people: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza; Cavalcante, Fátima Gonçalves

    2010-08-01

    A literature review was carried out focusing on the main factors associated with suicidal ideation, attempts and completed suicide in elders. The following databases were searched: MEDLINE, PsychINFO, SciELO and Biblioteca Virtual em Violência e Saúde da BIREME (BIREME's Violence and Health Virtual Library), referring to the period from 1980 to 2008. Fifty-two references were selected and analyzed. They showed a strong relationship among suicide ideation, attempt and completion in elderly individuals, which results from the interaction of complex physical, mental, neurobiological and social factors. Suicide associated with depression in the elderly can be prevented, provided the person is properly treated. In Brazil, it is necessary to invest in research, given the persistent increase in suicide rates among aged people, especially among males.

  7. Treating PTSD Within the Context of Heightened Suicide Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Craig J

    2016-08-01

    Because posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is one of the few psychological conditions that predict suicidal behavior among those who think about suicide, many patients with PTSD present clinically with elevated suicide risk. Expert consensus and practice guidelines recommend against trauma-focused treatments for patients with elevated suicide risk, however. Research aimed at understanding the common mechanisms that underlie the association of PTSD and suicide risk has led to several advances in the effective care of suicidal patients diagnosed with PTSD. Based on these results, various combinations and sequences of suicide-focused treatments, risk management procedures, and trauma-focused treatments are implicated. PMID:27314245

  8. The epidemiology of suicide and attempted suicide in Dutch general practice 1983–2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schellevis François G

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many patients attempting or committing suicide consult their general practitioner (GP in the preceding period, indicating that GPs might play an important role in prevention. The aim of the present study was to analyse the epidemiology of suicidal behaviour in Dutch General Practice in order to find possible clues for prevention. Method Description of trends in suicide and suicide attempts occurring from 1983–2003 in the Dutch General Practice Sentinel Network, representing 1% of the Dutch population. The data were analysed with regard to: 1 suicidal behaviour trends and their association with household situation; 2 presence of depression, treatment of depression and referral rate by GPs; 3 contact with GP before suicide or suicide attempt and discussion of suicidal ideation. Results Between 1983 and 2003 the annual number of suicide and suicide attempts decreased by 50%. Sixty percent of the patients who committed or attempted suicide were diagnosed as depressed, of whom 91% were treated by their GP with an antidepressant. Living alone was a risk factor for suicide (odds ratio 1.99; 95% CI 1.50 to 2.64, whereas living in a household of 3 or more persons was a relative risk for a suicide attempt (odds ratio 1.81; 95% CI 1.34 to 2.46. Referral to a psychiatrist or other mental health professionals occurred in 65% of the cases. GPs recalled having discussed suicidal ideation in only 7% of the cases, and in retrospect estimated that they had foreseen suicide or suicide attempts in 31% and 22% of the cases, respectively, if there had been contact in the preceding month. Conclusion With regard to the prescription of antidepressants and referral of suicidal patients to a psychiatrist, Dutch GPs fulfil their role as gatekeeper satisfactorily. However, since few patients discuss their suicidal ideation with their GP, there is room for improvement. GPs should take the lead to make this subject debatable. It may improve early

  9. Triggering of Suicidal Erythrocyte Death by Regorafenib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Zierle

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The multikinase inhibitor regorafenib is utilized for the treatment of malignancy. The substance is effective in part by triggering suicidal death or apoptosis of tumor cells. Side effects of regorafenib include anemia. At least in theory, regorafenib induced anemia could result from stimulated suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis, characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. Triggers of eryptosis include increase of cytosolic Ca2+ activity ([Ca2+]i, oxidative stress and ceramide. The present study explored, whether regorafenib induces eryptosis and, if so, whether it is effective up- and/or downstream of Ca2+. Methods: To this end, phosphatidylserine exposure at the cell surface was estimated from annexin-V-binding, cell volume from forward scatter, [Ca2+]i from Fluo3-fluorescence, ROS formation from DCFDA dependent fluorescence, and ceramide abundance utilizing specific antibodies. Results: A 48 hours exposure of human erythrocytes to regorafenib (≥ 0.5 µg/ml significantly increased the percentage of annexin-V-binding cells, significantly decreased forward scatter (≥ 1.25 µg/ml, but did not significantly increase Fluo3-fluorescence, DCFDA fluorescence or ceramide abundance. The effect of regorafenib on annexin-V-binding and forward scatter was not significantly blunted by removal of extracellular Ca2+. Regorafenib (5 µg/ml significantly augmented the increase of annexin-V-binding, but significantly blunted the decrease of forward scatter following treatment with the Ca2+ ionophore ionomycin. Conclusions: Regorafenib triggers cell shrinkage and phospholipid scrambling of the erythrocyte cell membrane, an effect at least in part downstream of Ca2+.

  10. Characteristics of suicide hotspots on the Belgian railway network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debbaut, Kevin; Krysinska, Karolina; Andriessen, Karl

    2014-01-01

    In 2004, railway suicide accounted for 5.3% of all suicides in Belgium. In 2008, Infrabel (Manager of the Belgian Railway Infrastructure) introduced a railway suicide prevention programme, including identification of suicide hotspots, i.e., areas of the railway network with an elevated incidence of suicide. The study presents an analysis of 43 suicide hotspots based on Infrabel data collected during field visits and semi-structured interviews conducted in mental health facilities in the vicinity of the hotspots. Three major characteristics of the hotspots were accessibility, anonymity, and vicinity of a mental health institution. The interviews identified several risk and protective factors for railway suicide, including the training of staff, introduction of a suicide prevention policy, and the role of the media. In conclusion, a comprehensive railway suicide prevention programme should continuously safeguard and monitor hotspots, and should be embedded in a comprehensive suicide prevention programme in the community.

  11. Characteristics of suicide hotspots on the Belgian railway network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debbaut, Kevin; Krysinska, Karolina; Andriessen, Karl

    2014-01-01

    In 2004, railway suicide accounted for 5.3% of all suicides in Belgium. In 2008, Infrabel (Manager of the Belgian Railway Infrastructure) introduced a railway suicide prevention programme, including identification of suicide hotspots, i.e., areas of the railway network with an elevated incidence of suicide. The study presents an analysis of 43 suicide hotspots based on Infrabel data collected during field visits and semi-structured interviews conducted in mental health facilities in the vicinity of the hotspots. Three major characteristics of the hotspots were accessibility, anonymity, and vicinity of a mental health institution. The interviews identified several risk and protective factors for railway suicide, including the training of staff, introduction of a suicide prevention policy, and the role of the media. In conclusion, a comprehensive railway suicide prevention programme should continuously safeguard and monitor hotspots, and should be embedded in a comprehensive suicide prevention programme in the community. PMID:24020492

  12. Homicide-suicides compared to homicides and suicides: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panczak, Radoslaw; Geissbühler, Michael; Zwahlen, Marcel; Killias, Martin; Tal, Kali; Egger, Matthias

    2013-12-10

    Homicide-suicides, the murder of one or several individuals followed by the suicide of the perpetrator, are rare but have devastating effects on families and communities. We did a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies comparing perpetrators of homicide-suicides with perpetrators of simple homicides and suicides and examined the proportion of firearm use and its correlation with firearm availability. We searched Medline and Embase from inception to July 2012 and identified 27 eligible studies. Perpetrators of homicide-suicides were older and more likely to be male and married to or separated from their victims than perpetrator of simple homicides or suicides. Influence of alcohol and a history of domestic violence or unemployment were less prevalent in homicide-suicides than in homicides. The proportion of firearm use in homicide-suicides varied across countries and was highest in the USA, Switzerland and South Africa, followed by Australia, Canada, The Netherlands and England and Wales, with a strong correlation between the use of firearms and the level of civilian gun ownership in the country. Our results indicate that homicide-suicides represent a distinct entity, with characteristics distinguishing them both from homicides and suicides. PMID:24314498

  13. Investigating Correlates of Suicide Among Male Youth: Questioning the Close Affinity Between Suicide Attempts and Deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigelman, William; Joiner, Thomas; Rosen, Zohn; Silva, Caroline

    2016-04-01

    This study was based on a sample of male high school students who completed National Longitudinal Adolescent Health Surveys in 1994, 1995, and 2001. We studied these students prospectively, comparing those who later died by suicide (n = 21) with those who were still living (n = 10,101). We employed chi-square and analysis of variance tests for statistical significance between suicide decedents and living respondents. Results showed suicide decedents were more likely to have experienced the suicide loss of another family member, to have been expelled from school, to have engaged in more delinquent actions including fighting, and to have greater involvement with the criminal justice system. Although one might have expected suicide casualties to have exhibited a greater amount of suicidal thoughts, attempts, and higher incidences of suicidality among their friends, our analyses did not find that these factors were associated with actual suicides. Should these findings be replicated, this would point to a need to refine youth suicide risk assessments. Collecting life histories, as well as identifying patterns of delinquency and fighting, may serve as more potentially fruitful means for assessing genuine suicide risk than some traditional risk assessment methods.z. PMID:26247908

  14. Suicidal Ideation and Suicidal Behaviour in Delusional Disorder: A Clinical Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre González-Rodríguez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Most of the existing studies suggest that suicide is one of the leading causes of premature death in patients with chronic psychotic disorders. However, very few studies have specifically investigated suicidal behaviour in patients with delusional disorder. Thus, our objective was to review the literature regarding the percentage of lifetime ideation and suicidal behaviour in delusional disorder in order to provide suggestions for clinical practice. Methods. MEDLINE and PsycINFO were searched from January 1980 to September 2012 using the following keywords: delusional disorder, paranoia, suicidal ideation, and suicidal behaviour. Results. A total of 10 studies were identified and included in the review. The percentage of suicidal behaviour in delusional disorder was established between 8 and 21%, which is similar to schizophrenia. Suicidal ideation and suicide attempts were more frequent in patients showing persecutory and somatic delusions in the reviewed studies. Conclusions. To the best of our knowledge this is the first attempt to specifically review the suicide phenomenon in patients with delusional disorder. Interestingly, our results support the notion that percentages of both suicidal ideation and behaviour in delusional disorder are similar to patients with schizophrenia.

  15. Suicide in children and young adolescents: a 25-year database on suicides from Northern Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahti, Anniina; Harju, Aleksi; Hakko, Helinä; Riala, Kaisa; Räsänen, Pirkko

    2014-11-01

    Despite the large amount of research on adolescent suicidality, there are few detailed studies illustrating the characteristics of child and adolescent completed suicide. Our study presents the characteristics of child and adolescent suicides occurring over a period of 25 years within a large geographical area in Northern Finland, with a special focus on gender differences. The study sample included all 58 suicides among children and adolescents (suicide victims were male. Violent suicide methods predominated in both genders (males 98%, females 83%). While symptoms of mental illness were common, only a minority (15% of males and 17% of females) had a previous history of psychiatric hospitalization. 17% of females but none of the males had been hospitalized previously due to self-poisoning. A greater proportion of females than males had a history of self-cutting (33% vs. 7%) and previous suicide attempts (25% vs. 4%). 48% of males and 58% of females were under the influence of alcohol at the time of their suicide, and alcohol intoxication was related to suicides during the night. One fifth of the adolescents screened positive for substances other than alcohol. The results of this study indicate that there are similarities but also some differences in the characteristics of male and female suicides in adolescents.

  16. Perceived School Climate and Chinese Adolescents' Suicidal Ideation and Suicide Attempts: The Mediating Role of Sleep Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongping; Bao, Zhenzhou; Li, Xian; Wang, Yanhui

    2016-01-01

    Background: School factors play important roles in adolescent suicide. However, little is known about how school climate is associated with adolescent suicide. This study examined the relationship between perceived school climate and adolescent suicidal ideation and suicide attempts, and whether these relations were explained by adolescent sleep…

  17. Where Do Youth Learn about Suicides on the Internet, and What Influence Does This Have on Suicidal Ideation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Sally M.; More, Eian; Romer, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Background: Young people are susceptible to suicidal behavior as a result of learning about the suicidal behavior of others. This study was designed to determine whether Internet sites, such as online news and social networking websites, expose young people to suicide stories that might increase suicide ideation. Method: We reinterviewed 719 young…

  18. Differential Effects of Executive Functioning on Suicide Attempts

    OpenAIRE

    Burton, Cynthia Z.; Vella, Lea; Weller, Jennifer A.; Twamley, Elizabeth W.

    2011-01-01

    Suicide is common among individuals with psychiatric illness; executive functioning may be associated with suicide risk. The authors examined demographic, clinical, and executive-functioning variables in suicide ideators and suicide attempters, hypothesizing that attempters would demonstrate poorer executive-functioning skills. Seventy-seven participants with psychiatric illness completed a neuropsychological battery while hospitalized or residing in crisis-houses after expressing suicidal id...

  19. Social media and suicide prevention: findings from a stakeholder survey

    OpenAIRE

    ROBINSON, Jo; RODRIGUES, Maria; Fisher, Steve; Bailey, Eleanor; HERRMAN, HELEN

    2015-01-01

    Background Suicide is a leading cause of death, particularly among young adults. The rapid growth of social media and its heavy use by young adults presents new challenges and opportunities for suicide prevention. Social media sites are commonly used for communicating about suicide-related behavior with others, which raises the possibility of using social media to help prevent suicide. However, the use of social media varies widely between different suicide prevention advocates. The role this...

  20. Attempted suicide and contact with the primary health authorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E N; Jensen, Knud

    1994-01-01

    In a study describing suicide attempters' approach to the health and social welfare authorities prior to a suicide attempt, it was found that one-fourth of the patients seeking help requested therapeutic consultations and only a few asked for medicinal treatment. Forty-four percent had taken newly...... with their general practitioner prior to the suicide attempt. Postgraduate courses for practitioners on depression diagnostics and suicidal behaviour are proposed as a measure in suicide prevention....

  1. Borderline Personality Disorder Diagnostic Criteria as Risk Factors for Suicidal Behavior Through the Lens of the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Megan L; Joiner, Thomas E

    2016-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder diagnostic criteria, particularly affective dysregulation and behavioral dysregulation, are avenues through which suicide risk is conferred, though pathways are not well understood. The interpersonal theory of suicide may help elucidate these associations. The current study examined indirect relationships between affective and behavioral dysregulation and suicidal ideation through perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, and the acquired capability for suicide. 169 outpatients completed measures prior to their intake assessment. Perceived burdensomeness accounted for the relationship between affective dysregulation and suicidal ideation. The acquired capability did not explain the association between behavioral dysregulation and suicide attempt history. Affective and behavioral dysregulation may be key targets in treatment for reducing suicide risk.

  2. Suicide Attacks on the Rise

    OpenAIRE

    CCS Research Staff

    2008-01-01

    This article was published in Culture and Conflict Review (March 2008), v.2 no.2 "The last six weeks has brought some of the worst violence in Afghanistan since 2001. In 2007, there were more than 230 Improvised Explosive Device (IED) attacks and 145 suicide attacks. Casualty rates were at least 25 percent higher in 2007 than the previous year. In the past 18 months, IED attacks have targeted numerous police and army busses, a group of legislators outside a factory at Baghlan, a five-star ...

  3. Suicide Mistaken for Art Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳亿春

    2003-01-01

    选注者言:故事虽然荒诞,却留给读者几分哀怨。文章出现了They tried to talkher out of it一句,如何理解?talk sb.out of是英语一个常用成语,意思是:劝说,或说服某人放弃……。They tried to talk her out of it 表达精练,要我们写起来,兴许会写成:They tried to persuade her not to commit suicide.

  4. CYP2D6 polymorphism and mental and personality disorders in suicide attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco-Fontecilla, Hilario; Peñas-Lledó, Eva; Vaquero-Lorenzo, Concepción; Dorado, Pedro; Saiz-Ruiz, Jerónimo; Llerena, Adrián; Baca-García, Enrique

    2014-12-01

    Prior studies on the association between the CYP2D6 polymorphism and suicide did not explore whether mental and personality disorders mediate this association. The main objective of the present study was to test an association between CYP2D6 polymorphism and mental and personality disorders among suicide attempters. The MINI and the DSM-IV version of the International Personality Disorder Examination Screening Questionnaire were used to diagnose mental and personality disorders, respectively, in 342 suicide attempters. Suicide attempters were divided into four groups according to their number of CYP2D6 active genes (zero, one, and two or more). Differences in mental and personality disorders across the four groups were measured using linear-by-linear association, chi square-test, and 95% confidence intervals. Suicide attempters carrying two or more active CYP2D6 genes were more likely to be diagnosed with at least one personality disorder than those with one or zero CYP2D6 active genes.

  5. Processing of decision-making and social threat in patients with history of suicidal attempt: A neuroimaging replication study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olié, Emilie; Ding, Yang; Le Bars, Emmanuelle; de Champfleur, Nicolas Menjot; Mura, Thibault; Bonafé, Alain; Courtet, Philippe; Jollant, Fabrice

    2015-12-30

    Suicidal vulnerability has been related to impaired value-based decision-making and increased sensitivity to social threat, mediated by the prefrontal cortex. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we aimed at replicating these previous findings by measuring brain activation during the Iowa Gambling Task and an emotional faces viewing task. Participants comprised 15 euthymic suicide attempters (history of depression and suicidal behavior) who were compared with 23 euthymic patient controls (history of depression without suicidal history) and 35 healthy controls. The following five model-based regions of interest were investigated: the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), medial (MPFC) and dorsal prefrontal cortex (DPFC). Suicide attempters relative to patient controls showed (1) increased response to angry vs. neutral faces in the left OFC and the VLPFC, as previously reported; (2) increased response to wins vs. losses in the right OFC, DPFC and ACC; (3) decreased response to risky vs. safe choices in the left DPFC; and (4) decreased response to sad vs. neutral faces in the right ACC. This study links impaired valuation processing (here for signals of social threat, sadness and reward) to prefrontal cortex dysfunction in suicide attempters. These long-term deficits may underlie the impaired decision-making and social difficulties found in suicide attempters. PMID:26483212

  6. Depression and suicide are natural kinds: implications for physician-assisted suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsou, Jonathan Y

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I argue that depression and suicide are natural kinds insofar as they are classes of abnormal behavior underwritten by sets of stable biological mechanisms. In particular, depression and suicide are neurobiological kinds characterized by disturbances in serotonin functioning that affect various brain areas (i.e., the amygdala, anterior cingulate, prefrontal cortex, and hippocampus). The significance of this argument is that the natural (biological) basis of depression and suicide allows for reliable projectable inferences (i.e., predictions) to be made about individual members of a kind. In the context of assisted suicide, inferences about the decision-making capacity of depressed individuals seeking physician-assisted suicide are of special interest. I examine evidence that depression can hamper the decision-making capacity of individuals seeking assisted suicide and discuss some implications.

  7. Risk of self-harm and nonfatal suicide attempts, and completed suicide in patients with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg, A; Hansen, P R; Gislason, G H;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a common inflammatory skin disease, and inflammation may affect suicidal behaviour. Current data on the incidence and risk of suicidal behaviour in patients with psoriasis are scarce. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the association between psoriasis and the risk of self......-harm and suicide attempts and suicides. METHODS: All Danish patients aged ≥ 18 years with mild or severe psoriasis (cases) from 1 January 1997 to 31 December 2011 were matched on age, sex and calendar time 1 : 5 with healthy controls. The outcome was a diagnosis of self-harm or a nonfatal suicide attempt......, or completed suicide. Incidence rates per 10 000 person-years were calculated, and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by Poisson regression models. RESULTS: The study cohort comprised 408 663 individuals, including 57 502 and 11 009 patients with mild and severe...

  8. Risk factors for suicidal behavior in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkcaldy, B D; Siefen, G R; Urkin, J; Merrick, J

    2006-10-01

    Adolescent suicide is today a public health problem among the leading cause of mortality among adolescents and young adults. There seems to be many reasons for this increase (which has different trends in different populations), but associations have been found with increased substance abuse, television and video violence, socio-economic status and easy access to firearms. Gender differences have also been observed with crime, suicide and substance abuse higher among males, while eating disorder, depression and suicidal behavior more prevalent among females. This paper will review prevalence and incidence of adolescent suicidal behavior, socio-demographic and psychological risk factors, associated cognitive factors and socio-economic factors. Risk factors include previous suicide attempts, a history of others in the family who have been suicidal, mental illness, alcohol and drug use, and other self-destructive behaviors as well as consideration being given to hopelessness, hostility, negative self-concept and isolation. At the individual difference level, factors such as trait depression, anger and hostility, perfectionism and social sensitivity would seem critical variables, as would age, gender and intellectual functioning. Sociological and family-related factors may also be implicated including dysfunctional family organizations, a history of physical or psychological abuse (sexual abuse) and limited extent of social support networks. A frequently reported precipitating event of suicidal behavior is family adversity including rejection, separation and interpersonal conflict. At a socio-economic level it would seem essential to provide comprehensive document about the social and economic conditions from which the adolescent comes. PMID:17008855

  9. Early childhood sexual abuse increases suicidal intent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Castroman, Jorge; Melhem, Nadine; Birmaher, Boris; Greenhill, Laurence; Kolko, David; Stanley, Barbara; Zelazny, Jamie; Brodsky, Beth; Garcia-Nieto, Rebeca; Burke, Ainsley K; Mann, J John; Brent, David A; Oquendo, Maria A

    2013-06-01

    Childhood sexual abuse has been consistently associated with suicidal behavior. We studied suicide attempt features in depressed individuals sexually abused as children. On average, sexual abuse started before age 9. It frequently coexisted with physical abuse. Suicide attempters more often had personality disorders and had endured abuse for longer, but did not differ in terms of other clinical characteristics from non-attempters. Earlier onset of sexual abuse and its duration were associated with more suicide attempts. However, when personality disorders were included in the regression model, only these disorders predicted number of attempts. The severity of sexual abuse and the coexistence of physical abuse were correlated with age at first suicide attempt. However, only severity of sexual abuse was marginally associated with age at first suicide attempt in the regression model. Finally, the earlier the age of onset of sexual abuse, the higher the intent, even after controlling for age, sex and personality disorders. This suggests that the characteristics of childhood sexual abuse, especially age of onset, should be considered when studying the risk for suicidal behavior in abused populations. PMID:23737424

  10. Recurrent suicide attempt and female hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ghafur Mousavi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Because of more frequency of suicidal attempts in females, we need to study about its relationship with the female hormones. The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum estrogen and progesterone concentration and their relationship with suicidal attempt ranking in the attempted females. Materials and Methods: The studied cases chose from patients who had referred to clinical toxicology emergency of Noor Hospital (Isfahan, Iran, during 2012, because of suicidal attempt. The estrogen and progesterone serum level of the 111 females were measured during 24 hours after suicidal attempt. The rank of their suicide, the demographic properties, and the menstrual cycle phase of them were also registered, as the patient′s statement. The results were analyzed by ANCOVA and Kruscal-Wallis under SPSS16. Results: Mean serum concentration of the estrogen was 76.8 pg/mL, and the mean serum concentration of progesterone was 2.99 ng/mL. Of them, 62.2% were in the luteal phase, and 37.8% were in the follicular phase, as they said. The serum progesterone concentration of the patients with more than two times suicidal attempts was significantly higher than the others. Conclusion: The suicidal attempt ranks significantly related to the serum progesterone concentration and the luteal phase.

  11. Inevitable suicide: a new paradigm in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadock, Benjamin J

    2012-05-01

    The author suggests that a new paradigm may be needed which holds that some suicides may be inevitable. The goal of this paradigm would be to diminish the sense of failure and inadequacy felt by many psychiatrists who experience the suicide of a patient and to increase understanding of the unique biopsychosocial profile of those whose suicides appear to be inevitable. The author stresses that this proposed paradigm should not be misconstrued as therapeutic nihilism but rather should serve to stimulate efforts to treat this patient population more effectively. Risk factors that place individuals at high risk for suicide are reviewed, including presence of a mental illness, genetic predisposition, and factors such as a history of abuse, divorce, unemployment, male gender, recent discharge from a psychiatric hospital, prior suicide attempts, alcohol or other substance abuse, a history of panic attacks, and persistent suicidal thoughts, especially if coupled with a plan. The author notes that, in those suicides that appear to have been inevitable, risk factors are not only numerous but at the extreme end of profound pathology. The example of Ernest Hemingway is used to illustrate how such a combination of risk factors may have contributed to his eventual suicide. Psychiatrists, like other doctors, may have to acknowledge that some psychiatric disorders are associated with a high mortality rate as a natural outcome. This could lead to heightened vigilance, a more realistic view of what can and cannot be achieved with therapy, and efforts to improve the quality of life of patients at high risk for suicide with the goal of reducing this risk and prolonging their lives. (Journal of Psychiatric Practice 2012;18:221-224). PMID:22617088

  12. Natural disasters and suicide: evidence from Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubayashi, Tetsuya; Sawada, Yasuyuki; Ueda, Michiko

    2013-04-01

    Previous research shows no consensus as to whether and how natural disasters affect suicide rates in their aftermath. Using prefecture-level panel data of natural disasters and suicide in Japan between 1982 and 2010, we estimate both contemporaneous and lagged effects of natural disasters on the suicide rates of various demographic groups. We find that when the damage caused by natural disasters is extremely large, as in the case of the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake in 1995, suicide rates tend to increase in the immediate aftermath of the disaster and several years later. However, when the damage by natural disasters is less severe, suicide rates tend to decrease after the disasters, especially one or two years later. Thus, natural disasters affect the suicide rates of affected populations in a complicated way, depending on the severity of damages as well as on how many years have passed since the disaster. We also find that the effects of natural disasters on suicide rates vary considerably across demographic groups, which suggests that some population subgroups are more vulnerable to the impact of natural disasters than others. We then test the possibility that natural disasters enhance people's willingness to help others in society, an effect that may work as a protective factor against disaster victims' suicidal risks. We find that natural disasters increase the level of social ties in affected communities, which may mitigate some of the adverse consequence of natural disasters, resulting in a decline in suicide rates. Our findings also indicate that when natural disasters are highly destructive and disruptive, such protective features of social connectedness are unlikely to be enough to compensate for the severe negative impact of disasters on health outcomes.

  13. When Suicide Is Not Suicide: Self-induced Morbidity and Mortality in the General Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    J. Michael Bostwick

    2015-01-01

    Suicidal phenomena in the general hospital can take a variety of forms that can be parsed by taking into account whether or not the patient 1) intended to hasten death, and 2) included collaborators, including family and health care providers, in the decision to act. These two criteria can be used to distinguish entities as diverse as true suicide, non-compliance, euthanasia/physician-assisted suicide, and hospice/palliative care. Characterizing the nature of “suicide” events facilitates appr...

  14. Suicide prevention as a community development process: understanding circumpolar youth suicide prevention through community level outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, James; Mohatt, Gerald; Fok, Carlotta Ching Ting; Henry, David

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. Community-based models have become increasingly prominent in prevention, and have special relevance for suicide prevention in circumpolar Indigenous communities. It follows that outcomes from circumpolar suicide prevention programs might be more completely understood at the community level. We present here a methodology for analysis at this level. This paper seeks to understand a cultural prevention program for rural Yup’ik youth in Alaska targeting suicide and co-occurring alcoho...

  15. Anhedonia, suicide ideation and dexamethasone nonsuppression in depressed patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oei, T I; Verhoeven, W M; Westenberg, H G; Zwart, F M; van Ree, J M

    1990-01-01

    In the search for a valid analysis of a number of operationalised symptoms common to depressive behaviour, a study was performed comprising 46 patients showing depressive symptoms, according to operationalised criteria and as part of which all agreed to undergo the following tests: (a) psychiatric: Present State Examination; (b) psychological: Hamilton Rating Scale, Montgomery-Asberg Rating Scale, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Beck Suicide Ideation Scale, Chapman Anhedonia Scale, Mood Scale, Sleep Quality Scale, Activities Scale, Social Support Scale, Questionnaire on Recently Experienced Events and the Paykel Life Events Interview; and (c) biochemical: Dexamethasone Suppression (DEX) Test. After gathering different depressive subgroups, based on operationalised symptoms, a dichotomy was made in the distributions of the (an)hedonia, suicide ideation and DEX-(non) suppression scores. This study may indicate that anhedonia, suicide ideation and DEX-nonsuppression are the opening to the identification of a subgroup of depressed patients. This symptom complex could not definitely be identified on the basis of existing DSM-III diagnostic entities, because of the known fact that this method of classification is not appropriate for our purposes in revealing pathophysiological processes. It is suggested, therefore, that these symptoms might prove to be the anchor-point from which to reach a better insight into the aetiology and pathogenesis (i.e. the final common pathway) of depression. PMID:2366212

  16. Suicidal hanging in Istanbul, Turkey: 1979-2012 Autopsy results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taktak, Safak; Kumral, Bahadir; Unsal, Ayla; Ozdes, Taskin; Buyuk, Yalcin; Celik, Safa

    2015-07-01

    A retrospective study was carried out on 4549 which is the total number of hanging cases autopsied at Forensic Medicine Institute in Istanbul, Turkey. 4502 hanging cases of suicidal origin were detected and evaluated in terms of demographic features, the type of hanging material used for ligature, internal findings in neck organs, toxicological findings and microscopic findings. Of these suicides, 3295 (73.2%) were males and 1207 (26.8%) were females. The average age of the victims was 37.8 (SD 1.6). Crude suicidal hanging rate is approximately two-fold increase in women, while it is about five-to six-fold increase in men during 33 years. 1424 of the victims committed suicide by hanging themselves at home, and 441 of them in prison and indoor areas. The alcohol in the blood of all autopsy victims was tested and results were positive for 687 people. A drug active agent was detected in 108 (2.4%) victims: 70 (1.5%) of them were antidepressants, 20 (0.5%) of them were analgesic/anti-inflammatory/anti-histaminic and 18 (0.4%) of them were antipsychotic. In the examination of the psychoactive substances in blood and urine, any of such substances was not detected in 4146 of the victims. However, victims' blood and urine contained a sedative-hypnotic-anxiolytic with 74 (1.6%), a cannabinoid with 16 (0.4%) and an opioid with 12 (0.3%). Psychoactive substance examination was not carried out for 243 victims. Of these cases, 4060 (90.2%), ecchymosis in soft tissues and 2800 (62.1%) fracture in neck organs was found.

  17. SUICIDAL IDEATION AND BIOGENIC AMINES IN DEPRESSION*

    OpenAIRE

    Palaniappan, V.; V. Ramachandran; Somasundaram, O.

    1983-01-01

    SUMMARY This report is based on the study of 40 depressives in an attempt to explore the possible association between the suicidal ideas and the biogenic amines. The severity of suicidal ideas was measured on Hamilton Depressive Rating Scale and their amine metabolites were measured (MHFG, HVA and 5 HIAA) in urine and C.S.F. It was observed that the level of 5 HIAA, and Serotonin (5 HT) was more related to suicidal ideas and was inversely related. The probable associations between these are d...

  18. Suicide as escape from psychotic panic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldblatt, Mark J; Ronningstam, Elsa; Schechter, Mark; Herbstman, Benjamin; Maltsberger, John T

    2016-01-01

    Suicides of patients in states of acute persecutory panic may be provoked by a subjective experience of helpless terror threatening imminent annihilation or dismemberment. These patients are literally scared to death and try to run away. They imagine suicide is survivable and desperately attempt to escape from imaginary enemies. These states of terror occur in a wide range of psychotic illnesses and are often associated with command hallucinations and delusions. In this article, the authors consider the subjective experience of persecutory panic and the suicide response as an attempt to flee from danger. PMID:27294586

  19. [Fluctuations and seasonality in suicidal attempts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polewka, Andrzej; Szkolnicka, Beata; Targosz, Dorota; Groszek, Barbara; Kroch, Stanisław; Chrostek Maj, Jan; Zieba, Andrzej

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze seasonality and temporal fluctuations in suicide attempts by persons living in Krakow and hospitalized in the Department of Clinical Toxicology CMUJ in the years 2000-2002. The research focussed on the frequency of suicide attempts in relation to the time of the day, day of the week, and month of the year. Temporal fluctuations in the frequency of suicide attempts have been assessed on the basis of the data from medical documentation concerning 2757 suicide attempts by individuals ranging in age from 14 to 90 years. The group consisted of 1607 females and 1150 males. According to the results of the research, seasonality and temporal fluctuations in the frequency of suicide attempts is different for males and females. In the case of the males examined, no dependence between the frequency of suicide attempts and a particular month or season has been observed. In the case of females, on the contrary, the data indicate the existence of a seasonal pattern with the peak in the spring (or early part of the summer), and in the autumn--in October and November. In males, the peak day for attempted suicide was Monday, whereas in females--Sunday and Monday. As regards the time of the day, both the results of the present research and data collected by WHO/EURO indicate that suicide attempts occurred most frequently in the evening, late in the evening or in the early part the night. In conclusion, it has been emphasized that the majority of suicide attempts, especially by females, occurs late in the evening or early in the night. This finding seems to be of particular importance for suicide prevention--it can contribute to the increase in the effectiveness of the organization of work in the Crisis Intervention Centres and make therapists and patients' families aware of the existence of periods of an increased suicide risk. The research has been conducted owing to the cooperation between the department of Clinical Toxicology, CMUJ and the

  20. Strangulation--Suicide at the wheel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madea, Burkhard; Schmidt, Peter; Kernbach-Wighton, Gerhard; Doberentz, Elke

    2015-11-01

    In cases of suicide at the wheel mostly velocity is used to cause death by a single occupant vehicle crash against a fixed roadside object or collision with other vehicles. A further well known mode of death is e.g. carbon monoxide poisoning. In the recent years several cases of vehicle assisted ligature strangulation resulting even in decapitation have been reported. However, cars are also used in rare cases just as places for a suicide by hanging or ligature strangulation. Not only forensic pathologists but also police officers have to be aware of this rare type of suicide to avoid unnecessary investigations.

  1. Suicide among immigrant psychiatric patients in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasena, R; Beddage, V; Fernando, M L

    1991-11-01

    Ninety-four Canadian-born psychiatric patients who committed suicide were compared with 23 foreign-born patients committing suicide in Canada. East Europeans were over-represented, and significant differences were found in the age distribution, stress, level of education, social isolation, and methods of suicide. Most foreign-born patients had come to Canada for family or economic reasons but were unemployed, with poor social integration. Employment, housing, education, social integration and a support network seem to be important in preventing these deaths. Cultural evaluation of the patient and early intervention is recommended. PMID:1756350

  2. Effects of Suicide Awareness Material on Implicit Suicide Cognition: A Laboratory Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Florian; Till, Benedikt; Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In spite of the increasing adoption of suicide awareness campaigns to prevent suicide, little is known about the effective construction of awareness messages used and on their impact on suicidal cognition. We hypothesized that media reporting on an individual overcoming a suicidal crisis increases the automatic association between "life" and self. University students (N = 112) were randomly allocated to one of three groups in a laboratory experiment. Participants allocated to treatment group 1 or group 2 read awareness material about a person coping with suicidal ideation by getting professional help. The only difference between the two groups was the amount of social similarity (low vs. high) between the protagonist and the participants. The control group read an article unrelated to suicide. Awareness material increased implicit cognition in terms of a strengthening of self-life associations. This effect was restricted to participants scoring low on wishful identification with the suicidal protagonist. This finding suggests that only individuals who do not wishfully identify with a protagonist going through difficult life circumstances benefit from the awareness material in terms of suicidal cognition. These findings provide a rich basis for further research and have potentially high relevance to the construction of suicide-awareness messages. PMID:26529239

  3. When Suicide Is Not Suicide: Self-induced Morbidity and Mortality in the General Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostwick, J Michael

    2015-04-01

    Suicidal phenomena in the general hospital can take a variety of forms that can be parsed by taking into account whether or not the patient 1) intended to hasten death, and 2) included collaborators, including family and health care providers, in the decision to act. These two criteria can be used to distinguish entities as diverse as true suicide, non-compliance, euthanasia/physician-assisted suicide, and hospice/palliative care. Characterizing the nature of "suicide" events facilitates appropriate decision-making around management and disposition. PMID:25973265

  4. Analysis of Kinase Gene Expression in the Frontal Cortex of Suicide Victims: Implications of Fear and Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang eChoi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is a serious public health issue that results from an interaction between multiple risk factors including individual vulnerabilities to complex feelings of hopelessness, fear and stress. Although kinase genes have been implicated in fear and stress, including the consolidation and extinction of fearful memories, expression profiles of those genes in the brain of suicide victims are less clear. Using gene expression microarray data from the Online Stanley Genomics Database (www.stanleygenomics.org and a quantitative PCR, we investigated the expression profiles of multiple kinase genes including the calcium calmodulin-dependent kinase (CAMK, the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK, and the protein kinase C (PKC in the prefrontal cortex (PFC of mood disorder patients died with suicide (n=45 and without suicide (N=38. We also investigated the expression pattern of the same genes in the PFC of developing humans ranging in age from birth to 49 year (n=46. The expression levels of CAMK2B, CDK5, MAPK9, and PRKCI were increased in the PFC of suicide victims as compared to non-suicide controls (FDR-adjusted p < 0.05, fold change > 1.1. Those genes also showed changes in expression pattern during the postnatal development (FDR-adjusted p < 0.05. These results suggest that multiple kinase genes undergo age-dependent changes in normal brains as well as pathological changes in suicide brains. These findings may provide an important link to protein kinases known to be important for the development of fear memory, stress-associated neural plasticity and up-regulation in the PFC of suicide victims. More research is needed to better understand the functional role of these kinase genes that may be associated with the pathophysiology of suicide.

  5. Time-trends in method-specific suicide rates compared with the availability of specific compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete; Qin, Ping; Helweg-Larsen, Karin;

    2006-01-01

    Restriction of means for suicide is an important part of suicide preventive strategies in different countries. All suicides in Denmark between 1970 and 2000 were examined with regard to method used for suicide. Overall suicide mortality and method-specific suicide mortality was compared...... in the number of suicides by self-poisoning with these compounds. Restricted access occurred concomittantly with a 55% decrease in suicide rate....

  6. Genetic and familial environmental effects on suicide attempts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Liselotte; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Andersen, Per Kragh;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Genetic factors have been found to influence the risk of suicide. It is less clear if this also applies to attempted suicide. We have investigated genetic and familial environmental factors by studying the occurrence of suicide attempts in biological and adoptive siblings of adoptees...... were conducted on incidence rates of attempted suicide in biological and adoptive siblings given occurrence of attempted suicide in the adoptees while also taking into account psychiatric disorders. Information about suicidal attempt and history of psychiatric disorder was based on hospital admissions....... RESULTS: The rate of attempted suicide in full siblings of adoptees who attempted suicide before age 60 years was higher than in full siblings of adoptees who had not attempted suicide (incidence rate ratios (IRR)=3.45; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.94-12.7). After adjustment for history of psychiatric...

  7. Qualitative content analysis of suicidal ideation in Korean college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Kae-Hwa; An, Gyeong Ju; Sohn, Ki-Cheul

    2011-01-01

    The suicide rate for ages 15-24 increased recently in South Korea. The purpose of this study was to understand the suicidal ideation using the qualitative content analysis in South Korean college students. The data were collected with non-structured open questions in 134 college students and were analyzed with qualitative content analysis. The collected materials were classified 2 categories, 6 themes, and 21 theme clusters. Two categories are emerged: (1) facilitators of suicidal ideation, and (2) inhibitors of suicidal ideation. This study identified that the facilitators of suicidal ideation are physical, psychological and societal concerns, and suggested that the inhibitors of suicidal ideation are influenced by religious and cultural context. These results presented that Buddhism and Confucianism had influence on reasons to not attempting suicide behavior as the inhibitor of suicidal ideation. In conclusion, cultural context should be considered to develop strategies for the suicide prevention in South Korean college student. PMID:21706996

  8. [The contagion of adolescent suicide: cultural, ethical and psychosocial aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gérard, N; Delvenne, V; Nicolis, H

    2012-01-01

    Suicide is the second leading cause of death among adolescents. The risk factors are many and varied. The contagion of suicide was raised as a potential cause of youth suicide. In support of this argument, we did a review of the literature on the possible contagion of adolescent suicide. Several types of situations can support this hypothesis : when a youth is faced with the suicide of a relative or close friend, when he lived in a community, through the media or via the Internet. The way suicide is reported in the press shows a correlation with increased incidence of suicide among adolescents. In summary, there is evidence increasingly obvious that the contagion is the source of some youth suicides. For this reason, it seems important that preventive measures are in place. However, although this mechanism has been instrumental in initiating the act, it is important to note that suicide is always the result of several factors including the personal history of the subject.

  9. [Rebuilding post-suicide interventions from a caring ethics perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Wen-Chii

    2006-12-01

    Suicide has become a critical mental health problem in Taiwan. Most studies on the issue are related to suicide rates and risk factors, and their relationships with mental illnesses. These findings help health professionals to understand what life might have been like for a suicide victim before the suicide, but not what life is like after a suicide attempt; how to detect the possibility of a subsequent suicide attempt, rather than how to help people who have attempted suicide to construct a good life. The purpose of this article is to encourage nurses to engage in dialogue with suicidal patients by understanding their explanatory models and by self-reflection. This not only enables suicidal patients to move from shame toward taking responsibility for themselves and others, but also enables nurses to rebuild their experiential knowledge.

  10. Association of sedative-hypnotic medications with suicidality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pae, Chi-Un; Koh, Jun Sung; Lee, Soo-Jung; Han, Changsu; Patkar, Ashwin A; Masand, Prakash S

    2011-03-01

    Evaluation of: Brower KJ, McCammon RJ, Wojnar M, Ilgen MA, Wojnar J, Valenstein M. Prescription sleeping pills, insomnia, and suicidality in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. J. Clin. Psychiatry DOI: 10.4088/JCP.09m05484gry (2010) (Epub ahead of print). Several studies have investigated the association between sedative-hypnotics and suicidality, as such medications not only serve as a method for suicide, but are also involved in the usual options for treating psychiatric and medico-surgical disorders. According to population-based studies in Europe, Asia and the USA, sedative-hypnotic medications were significantly associated with suicide. However, these studies failed to address psychiatric comorbidities, new hypnotic medications, such as zolpidem, and the specific times at which such medications were used. Recently, Brower and colleagues have investigated the association of the prescription of sedative-hypnotic drugs with suicidality, to determine whether such medications were associated with suicidal ideation, suicide plans and suicide attempts in a large-cohort sample. They found that the use of sedative-hypnotic medications was significantly associated with suicidal ideation, suicide plans and suicide attempts. In addition, the use of sedative-hypnotic medications was a stronger predictor than insomnia of both suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. This article will discuss the relationship between prescription of sedative-hypnotic medications and suicide in the context of the potential limitations and significance of this recent research. PMID:21375440

  11. Associations between cyberbullying and school bullying victimization and suicidal ideation, plans and attempts among Canadian schoolchildren.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugues Sampasa-Kanyinga

    Full Text Available The negative effects of peer aggression on mental health are key issues for public health. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between cyberbullying and school bullying victimization with suicidal ideation, plans and attempts among middle and high school students, and to test whether these relationships were mediated by reports of depression.Data for this study are from the 2011 Eastern Ontario Youth Risk Behaviour Survey, which is a cross-sectional regional school-based survey that was conducted among students in selected Grade 7 to 12 classes (1658 girls, 1341 boys; mean ± SD age: 14.3 ± 1.8 years.Victims of cyberbullying and school bullying incurred a significantly higher risk of suicidal ideation (cyberbullying: crude odds ratio, 95% confidence interval  = 3.31, 2.16-5.07; school bullying: 3.48, 2.48-4.89, plans (cyberbullying: 2.79, 1.63-4.77; school bullying: 2.76, 2.20-3.45 and attempts (cyberbullying: 1.73, 1.26-2.38; school bullying: 1.64, 1.18-2.27 compared to those who had not encountered such threats. Results were similar when adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, substance use, and sedentary activities. Mediation analyses indicated that depression fully mediated the relationship between cyberbullying victimization and each of the outcomes of suicidal ideation, plans and attempts. Depression also fully mediated the relationship between school bullying victimization and suicide attempts, but partially mediated the relationship between school bullying victimization and both suicidal ideation and plans.These findings support an association between both cyberbullying and school bullying victimization and risk of suicidal ideation, plans and attempts. The mediating role of depression on these links justifies the need for addressing depression among victims of both forms of bullying to prevent the risk of subsequent suicidal behaviours.

  12. Matrix analysis and risk management to avert depression and suicide among workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeuchi Takeaki

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Suicide is among the most tragic outcomes of all mental disorders, and the prevalence of suicide has risen dramatically during the last decade, particularly among workers. This paper reviews and proposes strategies to avert suicide and depression with regard to the mind body medicine equation hypothesis, metrics analysis of mental health problems from a public health and clinical medicine view. In occupational fields, the mind body medicine hypothesis has to deal with working environment, working condition, and workers' health. These three factors chosen in this paper were based on the concept of risk control, called San-kanri, which has traditionally been used in Japanese companies, and the causation concepts of host, agent, and environment. Working environment and working condition were given special focus with regard to tackling suicide problems. Matrix analysis was conducted by dividing the problem of working conditions into nine cells: three prevention levels (primary, secondary, and tertiary were proposed for each of the three factors of the mind body medicine hypothesis (working environment, working condition, and workers' health. After using these main strategies (mind body medicine analysis and matrix analysis to tackle suicide problems, the paper talks about the versatility of case-method teaching, "Hiyari-Hat activity," routine inspections by professionals, risk assessment analysis, and mandatory health check-up focusing on sleep and depression. In the risk assessment analysis, an exact assessment model was suggested using a formula based on multiplication of the following three factors: (1 severity, (2 frequency, and (3 possibility. Mental health problems, including suicide, are rather tricky to deal with because they involve evaluation of individual cases. The mind body medicine hypothesis and matrix analysis would be appropriate tactics for suicide prevention because they would help the evaluation of this issue as a

  13. Possible impact of microglial cells and the monocyte-macrophage system on suicidal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Johann; Gos, Tomasz; Bogerts, Bernhard; Bielau, Hendrik; Drexhage, Hemmo A; Bernstein, Hans-Gert

    2013-11-01

    Immune dysfunction, including monocytosis, increased blood levels of interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL- 6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), as well as an increased microglial density in certain brain areas, have been described in schizophrenia and depression. Interestingly, similar immune alterations have been observed in suicide patients regardless of their underlying psychiatric diagnosis. This review summarizes relevant data from previous studies that have examined peripheral blood, cerebrospinal fluid and human brains (using postmortem histology and in vivo positron emission tomography) to investigate immune mechanisms in suicidal patients. We discuss whether the observed findings indicate that microgliosis and monocyte-macrophage system activation may be a useful marker of disease acuity/severity or whether they instead indicate a distinct neurobiology of suicide. Notably, pathophysiological mechanisms could change during the long-term course of psychiatric diseases. Therefore, different patterns of immune activation may be observed when comparing newly diseased patients with those who are chronically ill.

  14. Media suicide-reports, Internet use and the occurrence of suicides between 1987 and 2005 in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abe Takeru

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous investigations regarding the effects of suicide reports in the media on suicide incidence in Japan have been limited and inconclusive and, although Internet use has greatly increased, its influence on suicide is completely unknown. Thus, the relationship between newspaper articles about suicide, Internet use, and the incidence of suicide in Japan was examined. Methods A linear model was fitted to time series data from January 1987 to March 2005 (218 months. Results Consistent with previous findings, the number of newspaper articles about suicide was a predictor of suicide among both male and female subjects. Internet use was also a predictor of suicide among males, probably because males spent more time online than females. Conclusion Because this is the first, preliminary study examining the association between Internet use and suicide, further research is required to verify the present findings.

  15. Predicting U.S. Army suicides after hospitalizations with psychiatric diagnoses in the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Ronald C.; Warner, LTC Christopher H.; Ivany, LTC Christopher; Petukhova, Maria V.; Rose, Sherri; Bromet, Evelyn J.; Brown, LTC Millard; Cai, Tianxi; Colpe, Lisa J.; Cox, Kenneth L.; Fullerton, Carol S.; Gilman, Stephen E.; Gruber, Michael J.; Heeringa, Steven G.; Lewandowski-Romps, Lisa; Li, Junlong; Millikan-Bell, Amy M.; Naifeh, James A.; Nock, Matthew K.; Rosellini, Anthony J.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Schoenbaum, Michael; Stein, Murray B.; Wessely, Simon; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Ursano, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE The U.S. Army experienced a sharp rise in suicides beginning in 2004. Administrative data show that among those at highest risk are soldiers in the 12 months after inpatient treatment of a psychiatric disorder. OBJECTIVE To develop an actuarial risk algorithm predicting suicide in the 12 months after US Army soldier inpatient treatment of a psychiatric disorder to target expanded post-hospital care. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS There were 53,769 hospitalizations of active duty soldiers in 2004–2009 with ICD-9-CM psychiatric admission diagnoses. Administrative data available prior to hospital discharge abstracted from a wide range of data systems (socio81 demographic, Army career, criminal justice, medical/pharmacy) were used to predict suicides in the subsequent 12 months using machine learning methods (regression trees, penalized regressions) designed to evaluate cross-validated linear, nonlinear, and interactive predictive associations. MAIN OUTCOME Suicides of soldiers hospitalized with psychiatric disorders in the 12 months after hospital discharge. RESULTS 68 soldiers died by suicide within 12 months of hospital discharge (12.0% of all Army suicides), equivalent to 263.9 suicides/100,000 person-years compared to 18.5 suicides/100,000 person-years in the total Army. Strongest predictors included socio-demographics (male, late age of enlistment), criminal offenses (verbal violence, weapons possession), prior suicidality, aspects of prior psychiatric inpatient and outpatient treatment, and disorders diagnosed during the focal hospitalizations. 52.9% of post-hospital suicides occurred after the 5% of hospitalizations with highest predicted suicide risk (3,824.1 suicides/100,000 person years). These highest-risk hospitalizations also accounted for significantly elevated proportions of several other adverse post-hospital outcomes (unintentional injury deaths, suicide attempts, re-hospitalizations). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE The high concentration

  16. Suicide awareness of japanese family descendants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Tiemi Kawaziri Diogo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to comprehend the meaning of suicide for Japanese descendants. This was a qualitative study, based on Grounded Theory, using a structured interview with sixteen questions, digitally recorded. Subjects were ten descendants who were interviewed in 2011. The opinions of the interviewed showed factors of psychological, social and cultural origin involved in suicide, such as: heredity, religion, mental health, personality characteristics and interpersonal relationships, pleasure and pain at work, stigma and consequences of the act on the family. Family without case of suicide showed attitudes of prejudice and judgment, while those with case displayed feelings of pain in their reports. It was concluded that the Japanese rigid culture, personality, interpersonal communication and the way family and work have effects on their behavior are predisposing factors to suicide, as well as the identification of these factors contributes to a better performance of the nurse.

  17. Suicide in America: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... make decisions. There are differences in aspects of memory, attention, planning, and emotion, for example. These differences often occur along with disorders like depression, substance use, anxiety, and ... What about gender? Men are more likely to die by suicide ...

  18. Suicide risk and exposure to mobbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompili, Maurizio; Lester, David; Innamorati, Marco; De Pisa, Eleonora; Iliceto, Paolo; Puccinno, Marianna; Fiori Nastro, Paolo; Tatarelli, Roberto; Girardi, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to study suicide risk in subjects exposed to mobbing, that is, systematic psychological harassment in the workplace. Such psychological harassment, unique to the workplace, threatens both the emotional well-being and professional ability of its victims. The items of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) that assess suicide risk were studied in 102 individuals who were exposed to mobbing. The results indicated that individuals exposed to mobbing had clear differences on the MMPI-2 from normative samples. In addition, those who appeared to be at risk for suicide differed in their scores from those not at risk. Implications for psychopathology and suicide preventions are discussed. PMID:18957741

  19. Jobs with the Highest Suicide Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... had the highest rates of suicide for their gender. Among women, the highest rate was seen in ... overburdened, which can lead to depression," Manevitz added. Companies need assistance programs that look for work stresses ...

  20. Suicide: A Major, Preventable Mental Health Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for suicide? A: Risk factors vary with age, gender, or ethnic group. They may occur in combination ... these warning signs is the first step in helping yourself or someone you care about. **If you ...