This paper presents an integrative approach to suicidal behavior in terms of search activity concept. Search activity concept displays a broad and holistic approach to behavior, adaptation to environment, body resistance, brain amine metabolism, and REM-sleep functions. Search activity is defined as activity that is oriented to change the situation (or at least the subject's attitude to it) in the absence of a precise prediction of the outcome of such activity, but taking into consideration outcomes at all previous stages of activity. According to the proposed hypothesis, renunciation of search (a state opposed to search activity) leads to a feeling of helplessness, problem-solution deficits, inefficient coping, dreams that represent renunciation of search, and a drop in the activity of amines. All these factors further exacerbate the state of renunciation of search and elevate suicidal risk. In addition, the remnants of search activity are misdirected to self-defeating behaviors that increase mental pain and contribute to renunciation of search. This hypothesis integrates findings from a number of fields of study of suicidal behavior, resolves some paradoxes, suggests new lines of research, and raises suggestions for assessment and treatment of suicidal behavior. PMID:10940437
... a person's risk. Suicide attempts are not harmless bids for attention. A person who seems suicidal should not be left alone and needs immediate mental health treatment. You can call the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline , or call 911. ...
Melhem, Nadine M; Keilp, John G; Porta, Giovanna; Oquendo, Maria A; Burke, Ainsley; Stanley, Barbara; Cooper, Thomas B; Mann, J John; Brent, David A
Studies looking at the relationship of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to suicidal behavior and its risk factors, such as depression, childhood abuse, and impulsive aggression, report inconsistent results. These studies also do not always differentiate between subjects who go on to attempt suicide, suicidal subjects who never attempted suicide, and non-suicidal subjects with psychiatric disorders. In this study, we examined cortisol responses to an experimental stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), in 208 offspring of parents with mood disorder. Offspring suicide attempters showed lower total cortisol output (β=-0.47, 95% CI (-0.83, -0.11), p=0.01) compared with offspring with suicide-related behavior (SRB) but never attempted, non-suicidal offspring, and a healthy control group. The result remained significant even after controlling for sex, age, race, ethnicity, site, socio-economic status, and hour of the day when the TSST was conducted. Suicide attempters also showed lower baseline cortisol before the TSST (β=-0.45, 95% CI (-0.74, -0.17), p=0.002). However, there were no significant differences between the groups on cortisol reactivity to stress (β=4.5, 95% CI (-12.9, 22), p=0.61). Although subjects with suicide attempt and SRB have similar clinical and psychosocial characteristics, this is the first study to differentiate them biologically on HPA axis indices. Blunted HPA axis activity may increase risk for suicide attempt among individuals with psychopathology by reducing their ability to respond adaptively to ongoing stressors. These results may help better identify subjects at high risk for suicidal behavior for targeted prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:26450815
... their problems. Often it's related to serious depression, alcohol or substance abuse, or a major stressful event. People who have the highest risk of suicide are white men. But women and teens report more suicide attempts. If someone ...
Suicide is the tenth most common cause of death in the United States. People may consider suicide when they are hopeless and can't see ... event. People who have the highest risk of suicide are white men. But women and teens report ...
... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection Activity (Veteran Suicide Prevention Online Quantitative Surveys...). Type of Review: New collection. Abstract: VA's top priority is the prevention of Veterans suicide. It... better understand Veterans and their families' awareness of VA's suicide prevention and mental...
... and act with good judgment. previous continue Substance Abuse Teens with alcohol and drug problems are also ... a school counselor, a religious leader, or a teacher. Call a suicide crisis line (such as 1- ...
Bjerregaard, Peter; Lynge, Inge
the capital, a later peak in the rest of West Greenland, and high and increasing rates in remote East Greenland. Suicidal thoughts occur more often in young people who grew up in homes with a poor emotional environment, alcohol problems and violence. There is a definite correlation with several...
Duval, Fabrice; Mokrani, Marie-Claude; Lopera, Felix Gonzalez; Diep, Thanh Son; Rabia, Hassen; Fattah, Saïd
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between suicidal behavior and hypothalamic-pituitary thyroid (HPT) axis activity in depressed patients. The serum levels of thyrotropin (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), and free triiodothyronine (FT3) were evaluated before and after 0800 and 2300 h thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) challenges, on the same day, in 95 medication-free DSM-IV euthyroid major depressed inpatients and 44 healthy hospitalized controls. Compared to controls: (1) patients with a positive suicide history (PSH; n=53) showed lower basal FT4 (at 0800 h: p<0.005; at 2300 h: p<0.03), but normal FT3 levels, while patients with a negative suicide history (NSH; n=42) showed normal FT4 and FT3 levels; (2) TSH responses to TRH (DeltaTSH) were blunted in NSHs (at 0800 h: p<0.03; at 2300 h: p<0.00001), but not in PSHs; (3) both NSHs and PSHs showed lower DeltaDeltaTSH values (differences between 2300 h-DeltaTSH and 0800 h-DeltaTSH) (p<0.000001 and p<0.003, respectively). Compared to NSHs, basal FT4 levels were reduced in PSHs (at 0800 h: p<0.002; at 2300h: p<0.006). HPT parameters were not significantly different between recent suicide attempters (n=32) and past suicide attempters (n=21). However, compared to controls, recent suicide attempters showed lower 2300 h-DeltaTSH (p<0.04) and DeltaDeltaTSH (p<0.002) values, and lower basal FT4 values (at 0800 h: p<0.006; at 2300 h: p<0.02). Our results, obtained in a large sample of depressed inpatients, indicate that various degrees of HPT axis dysregulation are associated with the history of suicide. PMID:20129737
... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Veteran Suicide Prevention Online Quantitative Surveys) Activity... outreach efforts on the prevention of suicide among Veterans and their families. DATES: Written comments...). Type of Review: New collection. Abstract: VA's top priority is the prevention of Veterans suicide....
Villatte, Jennifer L.; O’Connor, Stephen S.; Leitner, Rebecca; Kerbrat, Amanda H.; Johnson, Lora L.; Gutierrez, Peter M.
Past suicidal behaviors are among the strongest and most consistent predictors of eventual suicide and may be particularly salient in military suicide. The current study compared characteristics of suicide attempts in veterans (N = 746) and active-duty service members (N = 1,013) receiving treatment for acute suicide risk. Baseline data from six randomized controlled trials were pooled and analyzed using robust regression. Service members had greater odds of having attempted suicide relative ...
The institution of active euthanasia has been legal in Colombia since 2015. In California, the regulation on physician-assisted suicide will come into effect on January 1, 2016. The legal institution of active euthanasia is not accepted under the law of the United States of America, however, physician-assisted suicide is accepted in an increasing number of member states. The related regulation in Oregon is imitated in other member states. In South America, Colombia is not the first country to legalize active euthanasia: active euthanasia has been legal in Uruguay since 1932. The North American legal tradition markedly differs from the South American one and both are incompatible with the Central European rule of law. In Hungary and in most European Union countries, solely the passive form of euthanasia is legal. In the Benelux countries, the active form of euthanasia is legal because the supranational law of the European Union does not prohibit it. Notwithstanding, European Union law does not prescribe legalization of either the active form of euthanasia, or the physician-assisted suicide. PMID:26801362
Trofimovich, Lily; Reger, Mark A.; Luxton, David D.; Oetjen-Gerdes, Lynne A.
Suicide risk based on occupational cohorts within the U.S. military was investigated. Rates of suicide based on military occupational categories were computed for the Department of Defense (DoD) active component population between 2001 and 2010. The combined infantry, gun crews, and seamanship specialist group was at increased risk of suicide…
Park, S M
The recognition of suicide as a major public health problem has suggested the need to identify risk factors that have implications for preventive intervention. In the suicidal process, suicidal ideation is a key stage in the pathway leading to eventual suicide. This study investigated the influence of physical activity and functional limitations on suicidal ideation among young and middle-aged adults in a high suicidal society. Data for the current study were obtained from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2009 (KNHANES), a cross-sectional study conducted by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The survey conducted face-to-face interviews with young adults (n = 2326) and middle-aged adults (n = 3396). Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, the relationship of physical activity and functional limitations with suicidal ideation in young and middle-aged adults was assessed. A notable outcome was that the absence of a regular walking was correlated with increased suicidal ideation in middle-aged women. The other major finding was that young women and middle-aged adults with functional limitations had a high rate of suicidal thoughts. Multiple intervention approaches, including informational, social and behavioural approaches, are needed to promote regular walking in middle-aged women. For instance, mass media campaigns, community walking groups and individually adapted health behaviour modification may provide opportunities for positive intervention. Additionally, another important public health implication from these findings is the need for a suicide-intervention support system that includes screening for suicide risk in healthcare settings, especially among young women with physical limitations. PMID:25434531
Haußmann, R; Bauer, M; Lewitzka, U; Müller-Oerlinghausen, B
Suicidality represents a frequent phenomenon in affective and psychotic disorders but the treatment of acute and chronic suicidality is still a controversial issue. Especially the efficacy of antidepressant and neuroleptic drugs for prevention of suicide continues to be debated. There is a lack of evidence due to limitations of methodological studies and ethical concerns are a major issue. Considering methodological problems in the conducted studies the often insufficiently valued differentiation between suicidal thoughts and actual suicidal behavior has to be emphasized. With the exception of lithium and clozapine suicide-preventing effects of antidepressants and neuroleptics could not yet be demonstrated. Regarding new antidepressant drugs, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRI) even the possible new onset of suicidal thoughts and ideations as an adverse effect needs to be stressed. Considering the frequent occurrence of suicidality the currently available evidence is undoubtedly insufficient. The improvement of study concepts and especially a more differentiated consideration of the vague term "suicidality" seems to be essential. An underrepresentation of the evidence-based therapeutic options with lithium and clozapine in the treatment of suicidal patients needs to be avoided. PMID:26952239
Wong, WHS; Chiu, IWS
Introduction: Youth suicide is one of the top three causes of death among age group between 15 and 24 years old. The known risk factors include depression, hopelessness, dysfunctional families, substance abuse, school failure and harassment. However, research reports in relation to the protective factors to prevent adolescent from suicidal attempts are still lacking. The purpose of this study is to detect (if any) the protective effect of physical activity and the habit of eating breakfast on...
Law Chi-kin; Leung Candi MC
Abstract Background Charcoal burning in a sealed room has recently emerged as the second most common suicide means in Hong Kong, causing approximately 200 deaths each year. As charcoal burning suicide victims have a unique sociodemographic profile (i.e., predominantly economically active men), they may commit suicide at specific times. However, little is known about the temporal patterns of charcoal burning suicides. Methods Suicide data from 2001 to 2008 on victims of usual working age (20–5...
... of taking one's own life on purpose. Suicidal behavior is any action that could cause a person ... Suicide and suicidal behaviors usually occur in people with one or more of the following: Bipolar disorder Borderline personality disorder Depression Drug or ...
Kaplan, Kalman J.; Harrow, Martin; Faull, Robert N.
Are there gender-specific risk factors for suicidal activity among patients with schizophrenia and depression? A total of 74 schizophrenia patients (51 men, 23 women) and 77 unipolar nonpsychotic depressed patients (26 men, 51 women) from the Chicago Follow-up Study were studied prospectively at 2 years posthospitalization and again at 7.5 years.…
Taliaferro, Lindsay A.; Rienzo, Barbara A.; Pigg, R. Morgan; Miller, M. David; Dodd, Virginia J.
Objective: The authors explored associations among types of physical activity and hopelessness, depression, and suicidal behavior among college students. Participants: Participants included 43,499 college students aged 18 to 25 who completed the 2005 National College Health Assessment conducted by the American College Health Association. Methods:…
Mieczysław Szyszkowicz; Willey, Jeff B.; Eric Grafstein; Rowe, Brian H; Ian Colman
Background: Comorbidity of depression, heart disease, and migraine has been observed in clinical practice, while ambient air pollution has been identified among different risk factors for these health conditions. Suicide attempts and ideations as the result of depression may be linked to air pollution exposure. Therefore the effects of ambient air pollution on emergency department (ED) visits for suicide attempts were investigated. Methods: Emergency visit data were collected in a hospital in...
Turecki, Gustavo; Brent, David A
Suicide is a complex public health problem of global importance. Suicidal behaviour differs between sexes, age groups, geographic regions, and sociopolitical settings, and variably associates with different risk factors, suggesting aetiological heterogeneity. Although there is no effective algorithm to predict suicide in clinical practice, improved recognition and understanding of clinical, psychological, sociological, and biological factors might help the detection of high-risk individuals and assist in treatment selection. Psychotherapeutic, pharmacological, or neuromodulatory treatments of mental disorders can often prevent suicidal behaviour; additionally, regular follow-up of people who attempt suicide by mental health services is key to prevent future suicidal behaviour. PMID:26385066
Suicide is the leading cause of death among South Korean adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between suicidal thoughts (ST) and suicidal attempts (SA) with the level of physical activity (PA) among South Korean adolescents. Based on data from the eighth Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-Based Survey, 74,186 South Korean adolescents were evaluated in terms of their relationship between meeting guidelines for vigorous PA (VPA), moderate PA (MPA), and low PA (LPA)...
Pan, Lisa A.; Batezati-Alves, Silvia C.; Almeida, Jorge R. C.; Segreti, AnnaMaria; Akkal, Dalila; Hassel, Stefanie; Lakdawala, Sara; Brent, David A.; Phillips, Mary L.
Objectives: Impaired attentional control and behavioral control are implicated in adult suicidal behavior. Little is known about the functional integrity of neural circuitry supporting these processes in suicidal behavior in adolescence. Method: Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used in 15 adolescent suicide attempters with a history of…
Taliaferro, Lindsay A.; Rienzo, Barbara A.; Miller, M. David; Pigg, R. Morgan, Jr.; Dodd, Virginia J.
Background: Suicide ranks as the third leading cause of death for adolescents. Recent data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) indicate that the adolescent suicide rate increased 18% between 2003 and 2004. Sport may represent a promising protective factor against adolescent suicide. This study examined the relative risk of…
Helping callers to the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline who are at imminent risk of suicide: the importance of active engagement, active rescue, and collaboration between crisis and emergency services.
Draper, John; Murphy, Gillian; Vega, Eduardo; Covington, David W; McKeon, Richard
In 2012, the SAMHSA-funded National Suicide Prevention Lifeline (Lifeline) completed implementation of the first national Policy for Helping Callers at Imminent Risk of Suicide across its network of crisis centers. The policy sought to: (1) provide a clear definition of imminent risk; (2) reflect the state of evidence, field experience, and promising practices related to reducing imminent risk through hotline interventions; and (3) provide a uniform policy and approach that could be applied across crisis center settings. The resulting policy established three essential principles: active engagement, active rescue, and collaboration between crisis and emergency services. A sample of the research and rationale that underpinned the development of this policy is provided here. In addition, policy implementation, challenges and successes, and implications for interventions to help Lifeline callers at imminent risk of suicide are detailed. PMID:25270689
Elderly Suicide Fact Sheet Based on 2012 Data (2014) Overview • The elderly (ages 65 and older) made up 13. ... population; they accounted for 16.37% of all suicides in the US. • The rate of suicides for ...
Suicidal behaviour is a serious public health issue. Suicidal behaviour includes completed suicide, suicide attempts, suicidal intent and/or plans and suicide ideation. Two prominent mechanisms, behavioural deficits, in particular poor problem-solving skills, and a certain cognitive style with overgeneralization, distortion and lack of positive expectations, have been identified in suicidal patients so far. Besides general therapy strategies, including the diagnostic process and a collaborative, confident relationship and strengthening of protective factors, specific behavioural strategies should aim at the modification of the behavioural repertoire and of cognitive strategies. The modification of the behavioural repertoire includes the direct modification of the behaviour, acquiring techniques for stress reduction and learning problem-solving strategies. Applied cognitive techniques comprise such as thought-stopping, examining options and alternatives, fantasizing consequences, externalizing inner voices, and reattribution. Psychotherapy with suicidal patients has a specific feature: It requires high activity of the therapist in terms of motivation and guidance of the patient. Regular assessment of the suicide risk at every session is a must. Nevertheless, the therapist should always be aware that it is impossible to prevent all suicidal acts. PMID:22926057
Henry, Kimberly L; Lovegrove, Peter J; Steger, Michael F; Chen, Peter Y; Cigularov, Konstantin P; Tomazic, Rocco G
Adolescent bullying is a common problem in schools across America. The consequences of bullying are significant, and can include severe psychological trauma and suicide. A better understanding of the mechanisms that link bullying and suicidal ideation is needed in order to develop effective prevention and intervention initiatives. Meaning in life is a potential mechanism that has not been studied in this context. It was hypothesized that meaning in life could serve as both a mediator and a moderator of the relationship between bullying victimization and suicidal ideation. As a mediator, meaning in life is considered to explain why bullying victimization leads to suicidal ideation. As a moderator, meaning in life is considered to buffer the ill effect of bullying victimization on suicidal ideation. Data collected from an ethnically diverse sample of 2,936 (50% female), 6th-12th grade students from one urban school district in the Northeastern US were used to examine the hypotheses. The model for girls was consistent with mediation (i.e., meaning in life may explain how victimization leads to suicidal ideation). The model for boys was consistent with moderation (i.e., the ill effect of victimization on suicidal ideation was attenuated as meaning in life increased). Implications for prevention are discussed. PMID:23695412
Report on first case of suicide with radioactive substance in Bulgaria is given. A defectoscopist with cyclothymic structure of character and psychotraumatic family environment made a second and successful attempt at suicide, this time by means of external irradiation with 137Cs with an activity of 5.3 C in the course of two hours. He irradiated his heart region and the first three fingers of his right hand. A grave picture of acute, local irradiation injury lasting four months with lethal outcome. The authors treat the psychological motives in the behaviour of these suicides and the reasons which determine the small number of suicide carried out with radioactive substance. (author)
Suicide is the leading cause of death among South Korean adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between suicidal thoughts (ST) and suicidal attempts (SA) with the level of physical activity (PA) among South Korean adolescents. Based on data from the eighth Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-Based Survey, 74,186 South Korean adolescents were evaluated in terms of their relationship between meeting guidelines for vigorous PA (VPA), moderate PA (MPA), and low PA (LPA) and in respect of ST and SA status. The adjusted odds ratio in adolescents who thought about suicide increased significantly with PA levels (1.02 in males, 1.21 in females with VPA, 1.10 in males, 1.18 in females with MPA, and 1.16 in males, 1.20 in females with LPA) compared to participants who did not think about suicide. In addition, the AOR in adolescents who attempted suicide increased significantly with PA levels (1.16 in males, 1.36 in females with VPA, 1.13 in males, 1.15 in females with MPA, and 1.26 in males, 1.15 in females with LPA) compared to participants who did not attempt suicide. These results show that VPA, MPA, and LPA are positively associated with ST and SA prevention in South Korean adolescents. Therefore, to prevent suicide of South Korean adolescents, we support public health program including PA participation. Key PointsSouth Korean male adolescents, compared to female adolescents, showed relatively high values for physical activity-related variables such as vigorous, moderate, and low PA.Regardless of gender, more physical activity participation is positively associated with prevention of suicidal thought and attempts of South Korean adolescents.To prevent suicide of South Korean adolescents, we support public health program including meeting guidelines for vigorous, moderate, and low physical activity. PMID:25435782
Tomasula, Jessica L.; Anderson, Laura M.; Littleton, Heather L.; Riley-Tillman, T. Chris
Sexual violence is a potential key risk factor for adolescent suicidal behavior but has not been studied extensively. Thus, the current study examined the extent to which sexual assault predicted suicide attempts among adolescent students in the national Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System survey (2007 data). Gender differences in suicidal…
Full Text Available Suicide is the leading cause of death among South Korean adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between suicidal thoughts (ST and suicidal attempts (SA with the level of physical activity (PA among South Korean adolescents. Based on data from the eighth Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-Based Survey, 74,186 South Korean adolescents were evaluated in terms of their relationship between meeting guidelines for vigorous PA (VPA, moderate PA (MPA, and low PA (LPA and in respect of ST and SA status. The adjusted odds ratio in adolescents who thought about suicide increased significantly with PA levels (1.02 in males, 1.21 in females with VPA, 1.10 in males, 1.18 in females with MPA, and 1.16 in males, 1.20 in females with LPA compared to participants who did not think about suicide. In addition, the AOR in adolescents who attempted suicide increased significantly with PA levels (1.16 in males, 1.36 in females with VPA, 1.13 in males, 1.15 in females with MPA, and 1.26 in males, 1.15 in females with LPA compared to participants who did not attempt suicide. These results show that VPA, MPA, and LPA are positively associated with ST and SA prevention in South Korean adolescents. Therefore, to prevent suicide of South Korean adolescents, we support public health program including PA participation.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to better understand the phenomenon of suicidal behavior of adolescents by establishing relations between characteristics of a family system and suicidal ideation, as well as determining the influence of family and individual factors on suicidal ideation in adolescents. The systemic family therapy was used as the theoretical framework for this investigation. The study sample included 96 adolescents, aged 14-21 years, who assessed the functionality of their own families that were in the adolescent phase of a family life cycle at the time of the study. Participants were assigned to one of the three groups: the first consisted of adolescents who had previously attempted suicide, the second of adolescents who had another psychiatric problem at the time of the study, and the third was made up of adolescents who had never had psychiatric or psychological problems. The following instruments were used: Self-report Family Inventory (SFI, Beck’s Depression Inventory (BDI, Rosenberg’s Self-Esteem Scale, and Beck’s Suicidal Ideation Scale (SIS. The results suggest that family has a significant, but indirect influence on suicidal ideation in adolescents. Suicidal ideation is primarily related to adolescents’ individual characteristics, which are indeed strongly influenced by family functionality.
Full Text Available Context: Suicide is a major public health problem and ranks second among the leading causes of death in both genders in 15-34 years. Suicidal attempts are 20 times higher than the completed suicides. Aims: The aim was to identify background risk factors and precipitating factors for suicide attempts in Pondicherry district and to find out the reporting status of suicide attempts. Settings and Design: Hospital-based descriptive study. Subjects and Methods: 200 subjects who have attempted suicide from JIPMER and Indira Gandhi Government Hospital and Post Graduate Institute Pondicherry were interviewed. Monthly data on attempted suicide were collected from Crime Record Bureau of Pondicherry and Villupuram district and Medical Records Department of these two hospitals was collected. Statistical Analysis Used: SPSS version 16.0 was used. Chi-square test was used to test the significance of the difference between two proportions. Results: Most common precipitating factor found among those who attempted suicide was verbal abuse, most often by parents (31.9%. The most common mode of suicide attempt was consumption of chemical poison in 56% of subjects followed by plant poison 41.5%. The suicide intention was high in 81.5% of subjects. No significant difference in risk factors could be found between subjects from Pondicherry and villupuram district. It was found that there was gross under-reporting of attempted suicides to Crime Records Bureau. Conclusions: Measurement of suicide intention enables us to predict the future suicidal behavior in adults; individuals with a high suicide intent index pose a major public health problem. Hence, there is a need for opportunistic screening of those with suicidal ideations as well as counseling and follow-up of those with suicide attempts to prevent further attempts.
Gooding, Patricia; Tarrier, Nicholas; Dunn, Graham; Shaw, Jennifer; Awenat, Yvonne; Ulph, Fiona; Pratt, Daniel
The aim of this study was to examine the impact of two risk factors working together on a measure of suicide probability in a highly vulnerable group who were male prisoners identified as being at risk of self harm. The first risk factor was psychiatric symptoms, including general psychiatric symptoms and symptoms of personality disorder. The second risk factor was psychological precursors of suicidal thoughts and behaviours which were defeat, entrapment, and hopelessness. Sixty-five male prisoners from a high secure prison in NW England, UK, were recruited, all of whom were considered at risk of suicide by prison staff. General psychiatric symptoms and symptoms of personality disorders predicted the probability of suicide. Hopelessness amplified the strength of the positive relationship between general psychiatric symptoms and suicide probability. These amplification effects acted most strongly on suicidal ideation as opposed to negative self evaluations or hostility. In contrast, defeat, entrapment and hopelessness did not affect the relationship between personality disorders and suicide probability. Clinical assessments of highly vulnerable individuals, as exemplified by prisoners, should include measures of a range of general psychiatric symptoms, together with measures of psychological components, in particular perceptions of hopelessness. PMID:26429147
Abstract: Background: Epidemiological research has demonstrated that suicidal ideation is a relatively frequent complication of pregnancy in both developed and developing countries. Hence, the aims of this study are: to assess whether or not pregnancy may be considered a period highly susceptible to suicidal acts; to recognize potential contributing factors to suicidal behaviors; to describe the repercussions of suicide attempts on maternal, fetal, and neonatal outcome; to identify a typical ...
The human epidermis holds an autocrine acetylcholine production and degradation including functioning membrane integrated and cytosolic butyrylcholinesterase (BuchE). Here we show that BuchE activities increase 9-fold in the presence of calcium (0.5 x 10-3M) via a specific EF-hand calcium binding site, whereas acetylcholinesterase (AchE) is not affected. 45Calcium labelling and computer simulation confirmed the presence of one EF-hand binding site per subunit which is disrupted by H2O2-mediated oxidation. Moreover, we confirmed the faster hydrolysis by calcium-activated BuchE using the neurotoxic organophosphate O-ethyl-O-(4-nitrophenyl)-phenylphosphonothioate (EPN). Considering the large size of the human skin with 1.8 m2 surface area with its calcium gradient in the 10-3M range, our results implicate calcium-activated BuchE as a major protective mechanism against suicide inhibition of AchE by organophosphates in this non-neuronal tissue
-Prevention of suicidal behaviour remains difficult, despite increasing knowledge of its determinants. Health service efforts hardly affect suicide rates. -Recent shifts in the epidemiology of suicidal behaviour are rising rates among the young and increasing use of violent methods. these can be lin
Hedge, R. S.
SUMMARY 51 suicides in a rural community of Northern Karnataka were studied for incidence, age and sex distribution, methods adopted for suicides, and causes of suicides. Suicides in rural area did not show any difference from urban suicide pattern.
Atigari, Onome Victor; Hogan, Carys; Healy, David
A case series outlining three young individuals with no history of mental disorder who were treated for skin conditions with doxycycline, but developed suicidal ideation with an outcome of suicide in two of the cases. One of these individuals had CYP2C19*2 heterozygote genotype associated with a diminished cytochrome p450 enzyme activity and two of his siblings had developed severe anxiety previously while on doxycycline. Another had previously developed mood difficulties on a lower dose of d...
Full Text Available Background: Epidemiological research has demonstrated that suicidal ideation is a relatively frequent complication of pregnancy in both developed and developing countries. Hence, the aims of this study are: to assess whether or not pregnancy may be considered a period highly susceptible to suicidal acts; to recognize potential contributing factors to suicidal behaviors; to describe therepercussions of suicide attempts on maternal, fetal, and neonatal outcome; to identify a typical profile of women at high risk of suicide during pregnancy.Methods: Medical literature information published in any language since 1950 was identified using MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases. Search terms were: “pregnancy”,(antenatal “depression”, “suicide”. Searches were last updated on 28 September 2010. Forty-six articles assessing the suicidal risk during pregnancy and obstetrical outcome of pregnancies complicated by suicide attempts were analyzed, without methodological limitations.Results: Worldwide, frequency of suicidal attempts and the rate of death by suicidal acts are low. Although this clinical event is rare, the consequences of a suicidal attempt are medically andpsychologically devastating for the mother-infant pair. We also found that common behaviors exist in women at high risk for suicide during pregnancy. Review data indeed suggest that a characteristicprofile can prenatally identify those at highest risk for gestational suicide attempts.Conclusions: Social and health organizations should make all possible efforts to identify women at high suicidal risk, in order to establish specific programs to prevent this tragic event. The available data informs health policy makers with a typical profile to screen women at high risk ofsuicide during pregnancy. Those women who have a current or past history of psychiatric disorders,are young, unmarried, unemployed, have incurred an unplanned pregnancy (eventually terminated with an
Ammerman, Brooke A; Burke, Taylor A; Alloy, Lauren B; McCloskey, Michael S
Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) has been identified as a correlate and predictor of suicidal ideation and attempts. Given the high-rates of NSSI presence among adolescents and young adults, it is important to identify specific characteristics of NSSI that might place individuals who engage in this behavior at highest risk for suicidal behavior. NSSI is thought to increase the acquired capability for suicide via habituation to self-harm, though the NSSI characteristics most responsible for this relationship are unclear. The current study examined three characteristics of NSSI (frequency, number of methods, and subjective pain) that may help to elucidate this risk relationship. University students (N=997) with a history of NSSI completed measures assessing lifetime NSSI frequency, number of NSSI methods employed, and subjective experience of pain during NSSI, as well as suicide attempt (SA) history. Results indicated that NSSI frequency, number of NSSI methods, and subjective pain experienced during NSSI were each positively associated with SA history. Further, subjective pain experienced during NSSI moderated the relationship between NSSI frequency and SA history, such that the association between NSSI frequency and SA history was stronger for individuals who experienced lower levels of subjective pain. PMID:26747213
Full Text Available
The article presents data on risk factors that contribute to the development of suicidal behavior. The development of suicidal behavior is infuenced by a number of factors. These include — gender, age, residence, occupation, marital status, health status, etc. A number of studies indicated the impact of economic and social factors on the level of suicidal activity of the population. Observed relationship between mental disorders, substance abuse (particularly alcohol and suicide. In this case, the presence of numerous investigations in the feld of Suicidology, a number of problems still remains unsolved. Further study of issues relating to risk factors that infuence the development of suicidal behavior. Of particular note is the importance of “regional” risk factors that most infuence on the formation of suicidal behavior in a particular region.
Jollant, Fabrice; Lawrence, Natalia S; Olie, Emilie; O'Daly, Owen; Malafosse, Alain; Courtet, Philippe; Phillips, Mary L
Decision-making impairment has been linked to orbitofrontal cortex lesions and to different disorders including substance abuse, aggression and suicidal behavior. Understanding the neurocognitive mechanisms of these impairments could facilitate the development of effective treatments. In the current study, we aimed to explore the neural and cognitive basis of poor decision-making ability associated with the vulnerability to suicidal behavior, a public health issue in most western countries. Twenty-five not currently depressed male patients, 13 of whom had a history of suicidal acts (suicide attempters) and 12 of whom had none (affective controls), performed an adapted version of the Iowa Gambling Task during functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Task-related functional Regions-of-Interest were independently defined in 15 male healthy controls performing the same task (Lawrence et al., 2009). In comparison to affective controls, suicide attempters showed 1) poorer performance on the gambling task 2) decreased activation during risky relative to safe choices in left lateral orbitofrontal and occipital cortices 3) no difference for the contrast between wins and losses. Altered processing of risk under conditions of uncertainty, associated with left lateral orbitofrontal cortex dysfunction, could explain the decision-making deficits observed in suicide attempters. These impaired cognitive and neural processes may represent future predictive markers and therapeutic targets in a field where identification of those at risk is poor and specific treatments are lacking. These results also add to our growing understanding of the role of the orbitofrontal cortex in decision-making and psychopathology. PMID:20302946
Qi Xin; Hu Wenbiao; Page Andrew; Tong Shilu
Abstract Background Understanding the spatial distribution of suicide can inform the planning, implementation and evaluation of suicide prevention activity. This study explored spatial clusters of suicide in Australia, and investigated likely socio-demographic determinants of these clusters. Methods National suicide and population data at a statistical local area (SLA) level were obtained from the Australian Bureau of Statistics for the period of 1999 to 2003. Standardised mortality ratios (S...
Suicide attempts and suicidal behaviours represent a complex problem, with high prevalence in adolescence. The management of youth suicidal behaviour may occur in diverse contexts of child and adolescent psychiatric activity, not only in the emergency room, but also in liaison work and ambulatory consultation. In suicidal crisis intervention it ́s fundamental to involve the youth and the family as this represents a crucial moment for clinical assessment and treatment compliance. This review o...
Researchers say the best way to prevent suicide is to find and treat kids with depression and substance-abuse problems. Schools should also develop a suicide-prevention policy, make curriculum decisions wisely, train staff as detectives, notify parents, make sure affected children get help, and attend to survivors. (Contains 13 references.) (MLH)
Ray, Lynda Y.; Johnson, Norbert
Explores the causes and symptoms of adolescent suicide including depression, loss of parent, alienation from family, and a mystical concept of death. Treatment procedures with unsuccessful suicide attempters and their parents are described and prevention strategies are discussed which involve teachers and counselors as well as parents. (JAC)
Perry, Yael; Werner-Seidler, Aliza; Calear, Alison L.; Christensen, Helen
Objective: Suicide is a significant public health issue, and is especially concerning in adolescents and young adults, who are over-represented both in attempts and completed suicide. Emerging technologies represent a promising new approach to deliver suicide prevention interventions to these populations. The current systematic review aims to identify online and mobile psychosocial suicide prevention interventions for young people, and evaluate the effectiveness of these interventions. Method: PsycINFO, Medline, Embase and The Cochrane Library were electronically searched for all articles published between January, 2000 and May, 2015. Peer-reviewed journal articles reporting on interventions for young people aged 12–25 years with suicidality as a primary outcome were eligible for inclusion. No exclusions were placed on study design. Results: One study met inclusion criteria, and found significant reductions in the primary outcome of suicidal ideation, as well as depression and hopelessness. Two relevant protocol papers of studies currently underway were also identified. Conclusions: There is a paucity of current evidence for online and mobile interventions for suicide prevention in youth. More high quality empirical evidence is required to determine the effectiveness of these novel approaches to improving suicide outcomes in young people.
Tsypes, Aliona; Gibb, Brandon E
Although children of depressed parents are at heightened risk for suicidal ideation, little is known about specific risk factors. This study focused on the relation between a broad range of cognitive vulnerabilities proposed by the leading cognitive theories and the development of suicidal ideation in children. Participants were 209 mothers (aged 24-55) and their 8-14 year old children. Children of depressed mothers who had previously experienced suicidal ideation themselves reported higher levels of brooding rumination than children of depressed mothers who had not experienced suicidal ideation as well as children of never depressed mothers who had not experienced suicidal ideation. Further, among children of depressed mothers with no prior history of suicidal ideation, higher levels of hopelessness and lower global self-worth predicted first onset of suicidal ideation over a 2-year follow-up. Importantly, these results were maintained even after taking the occurrence of major depressive disorder in children during the follow-up into account. The findings highlight specific cognitive vulnerabilities that could be targeted in early suicide prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:27137968
Barker, Emma; Kõlves, Kairi; De Leo, Diego
The purpose of this study was to systematically analyze existing literature testing the effectiveness of programs involving the management of suicidal and self-harming behaviors in prisons. For the study, 545 English-language articles published in peer reviewed journals were retrieved using the terms "suicid*," "prevent*," "prison," or "correctional facility" in SCOPUS, MEDLINE, PROQUEST, and Web of Knowledge. In total, 12 articles were relevant, with 6 involving multi-factored suicide prevention programs, and 2 involving peer focused programs. Others included changes to the referral and care of suicidal inmates, staff training, legislation changes, and a suicide prevention program for inmates with Borderline Personality Disorder. Multi-factored suicide prevention programs appear most effective in the prison environment. Using trained inmates to provide social support to suicidal inmates is promising. Staff attitudes toward training programs were generally positive. PMID:24611725
Capra, Carina; Kavanagh, David J; Hides, Leanne; Scott, James G
Psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) have been associated with increased risk of suicidality, but it is unclear whether the level of risk varies with different types of PLE. A cross-sectional online survey was completed by 1610 university students. Respondents completed the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences-15 (CAPE-P15) assessing PLEs on three subscales: Perceptual Abnormalities (PA), Persecutory Ideation (PI) and Bizarre Experiences (BE). Lifetime suicidal ideation, plans and attempts, cannabis, ecstasy and methamphetamine use and family history of mental disorder were also assessed. Multinomal logistic regression was used to examine unique determinants of lifetime suicidality, defined as any history of (i) suicidal ideation or plans and (ii) any attempt, relative to no lifetime history of suicidality. A lifetime history of PA and PI provided significant unique contributions to the prediction of suicide risk, after control for other significant predictors. BE were not associated with any suicide variable demonstrating the variation in risk of suicidality with different types of PLEs. Perceptual abnormalities and persecutory ideation as measured by the CAPE-P15 are the PLEs associated with a higher risk of lifetime suicidality. PMID:26050011
Preti, A; De Biasi, F; Miotto, P
The different abilities involved in artistic creativity may be mirrored by differences among mental disorders prevalent in each artistic profession, taking poets, painters, and composers as examples. Using suicide rates as a proxy for the prevalence of mental disorders in groups of artists, we investigated the percentage of deaths by suicide in a sample of 4,564 eminent artists who died in the 19th and 20th centuries. Of the sample, 2,259 were primarily involved in activities of a linguistic nature, e.g., poets and writers; 834 were primarily visual artists, such as painters and sculptors; and 1,471 were musicians (composers and instrumentalists). There were 63 suicides in the sample (1.3% of total deaths). Musicians as a group had lower suicide rates than literary and visual artists. Beyond socioeconomic reasons, which might favour interpretations based on effects of health selection, the lower rate of suicides among musicians may reflect some protective effect arising from music. PMID:11824743
Lindner, R; Schneider, B
Psychotherapy is an important therapeutic option in the treatment of suicidality. Irrespective of the different treatment settings the psychotherapeutic attitudes, strategies and techniques are presented as they were developed on the basis of cognitive behavioral therapy and psychoanalysis. Starting from the common basic attitude of an active, approachable and for the patient recognizable therapist, the cognitive behavioral attitude is defined by the concept of a "team" involving patient and therapist, which fights against suicidality. The problems that led to suicidal ideation have to be exactly defined and specific behavioral strategies should aim at a modification of the behavioral repertoire and of cognitive strategies. A psychodynamic strategy starting from the analysis of the therapist's inner reaction, the countertransference comes from a primary involvement of both patient and therapist, which the therapist has to recognize and interpret to the patient in a "digestible" way. The experience of an approachable therapist who unexpectedly behaves differently than usual or feared, enables the patient to come to insights and new relational patterns which make suicidal destruction unnecessary. Finally, empirical evidence for the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral and psychodynamic treatment of suicidality is presented. PMID:27056189
Fortuna, Lisa R.; Perez, Debra Joy; Canino, Glorisa; Sribney, William; Alegria, Margarita
Objective Limited data is available to understand the prevalence and correlates of suicidal behavior among U.S. Latino subgroups. This paper compares the prevalence of lifetime suicide ideation and suicide attempts among major U.S. Latino ethnic subgroups and identifies psycho-sociocultural factors associated with suicidal behaviors. Method The National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS) includes Spanish and English speaking Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, Cubans and other Latinos. Descriptive statistics and logistic models were used to determine demographic, clinical, cultural and social correlates of lifetime suicide ideation and attempts. Results The lifetime prevalence of suicidal ideation and attempts among Latinos was 10.2% and 4.4%, respectively. Puerto Ricans were more likely to report ideation as compared to other Latino subgroups but this difference was eliminated after adjustments for psychiatric and sociocultural factors. Most lifetime suicidal attempts described by Latinos were reported as occurring when they were under the age of 18 years. Any lifetime DSM-IV diagnoses, including dual diagnoses, were associated with an increased risk of lifetime suicidal ideation and attempts among Latinos. In addition, female gender, acculturation (born in U.S. and English speaking) and high levels of family conflict were independently and positively correlated with suicide attempts among Latinos, even among those without any psychiatric disorder. Conclusions These findings reinforce the importance of understanding the process of acculturation, the role of family and sociocultural context for suicide risk among Latinos. These should be considered in addition to psychiatric diagnoses and symptoms in Latino suicide research, treatment and prevention, especially among young individuals. PMID:17474813
Although apparently easy to define, the suicidal act or attempt raises complex and difficult problems due to the multitude of conditions and situations that can lead to it. In all cases the suicide's definition has always centred on the intention of one person to deliberately cause his or her death in an active manner. Defining suicide has been consecutively the temptation of philosophers, sociologists, theologians, psychologists and psychiatrists. From an epistemological point of view the suicide is an open concept without precise borders, yet not incoherent. Scientists have constantly tried to establish evaluation criteria of suicidal acts but these are variable. One can even assume that there is an infinity of combinations of characteristics that would legit- imize the label of suicide, although none of them can be particularized in any way. Not even death itself represents a necessary condition for the evaluation of an act as suicide. PMID:27125089
Giddens, Jennifer M.; Sheehan, David V.
Objective: The United States Food and Drug Administration’s newest classification system for suicidality assessment anchors suicidal ideation to various combinations of passive suicidal ideation, active suicidal ideation, method, intent, and plan. This is based upon the suicidal ideation categories in the Columbia–Suicide Severity Rating Scale. Although there are 32 possible combinations of these suicidal ideation phenomena, the Food and Drug Administration’s 2012 system and the Columbia–Suic...
In the fight of the cell against the damages caused to its DNA by genotoxic agents and specially by ionizing radiations, the p53 protein plays a central part. It intervenes in the proliferation control and the differentiation but also in the keeping of genome integrity. It can direct the damages cells toward suicide, or apoptosis, to avoid the risk of tumor appearance that would be fatal to the whole organism. That is by the disordered state of cells suicide programs that the tumor cells are going to develop. The knowledge of apoptosis mechanisms, to eventually start them on demand, rises up broad hopes in the cancer therapy. (N.C.)
Pirkis, Jane; Burgess, Philip; Blood, R. Warwick; Francis, Catherine
There is a paucity of studies examining which suicides are considered newsworthy. By combining data on media reports of individuals' suicides with routinely collected suicide data, it was found that 1% of Australian suicides were reported over a 1-year period. There was evidence of over-reporting of suicides by older people and females, and those…
Coder, Tamara L.; And Others
Investigated incidence of adolescent suicide in Kansas and assessed prevention guidelines and services dealing with adolescent suicide, and perceived needs of Kansas secondary school counselors in the area of teenage suicide. Findings from 484 school counselors indicated increase in suicide rates with age and need for suicide prevention programing…
Vannoy, Steven D; Robins, Lynne S
Objective To characterise suicide-risk discussions in depressed primary-care patients. Design Secondary analysis of recordings and self reports by physicians and patients. Descriptive statistics of depression and suicide-related discussion, with qualitative extraction of disclosure, enquiry and physician response. Setting 12 primary-care clinics between July 2003 and March 2005. Participants 48 primary-care physicians and 1776 adult patients. Measures Presence of depression or suicide-related discussions during the encounter; patient and physician demographics; depression symptom severity and suicide ideation as measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ9); physician's decision-making style as measured by the Medical Outcomes Study Participatory Decision-Making Scale; support for autonomy as measured by the Health Care Climate Questionnaire; trust in their physician as measured by the Primary Care Assessment Survey; physician response to suicide-related enquiry or disclosure. Results Of the 1776 encounters, 128 involved patients scoring >14 on the PHQ9. These patients were seen by 43 of the 48 physicians. Suicide ideation was endorsed by 59% (n=75). Depression was discussed in 52% of the encounters (n=66). Suicide-related discussion occurred in only 11% (n=13) of encounters. 92% (n=12) of the suicide discussions occurred with patients scoring strategies. Conclusions Suicide ideation is present in a significant proportion of depressed primary care patients but rarely discussed. Men, who carry the highest risk for suicide, are unlikely to disclose their ideation or be asked about it. Patient-centred communication and positive healthcare climate do not appear to increase the likelihood of suicide related discussion. Physicians should be encouraged to ask about suicide ideation in their depressed patients and, when disclosure occurs, facilitate discussion and develop targeted treatment plans. PMID:22021884
Baek, Ji Hyun; Park, Jong-Ik; Ahn, Jeonghoon; Roh, Sung-won; Heo, Jung-Yoon; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Jeon, Hong Jin
Suicide is a tragedy that has massive impact on society. In order to prevent suicide, active government intervention is necessary. The suicide rate in Seoul is rapidly increasing and is more than five times higher than that in the state of Massachusetts (MA) during the last decade, especially in the elderly. The suicide prevention program of MA is one of the most effective suicide prevention programs in the United States. The program views suicide as a preventable public health problem, and e...
... suicide never seek professional care. New Suicide Prevention Awareness Ribbon For this year's World Suicide Prevention (WSPD), ... Suicide Prevention has launched a universal suicide prevention awareness ribbon. The ribbon colors - yellow and orange - were ...
Koka, Sai Sudha
Malaria is one of the most devastating diseases with lethal outcome in more than 1 million humans per year. The course of the disease is not only a function of the pathogen but is heavily influenced by properties of the host. Mechanisms possibly conferring protection against a severe course of malaria include suicidal death of the infected cell. A particular form of suicidal erythrocyte death is eryptosis, which is characterized by Ca2+-entry with subsequent activation of Ca2+-sensitive K+ ch...
... Sign-Up Save. Suicide Awareness Voices of Education Suicide and Depression Q&A Why do people kill ... does not become an option. Do people attempt suicide to prove something or to get sympathy? No. ...
Tran Thi Thanh, Huong
Suicide and attempted suicide is currently a major public health problem in rapidly developing countries but there are limited studies on this field in Asian countries. These are the first studies on suicidal behavior in Vietnam. The aim of the studies was to: 1) investigate the prevalence of suicide attempts, plans, ideation and medical attention following a suicide attempt in Vietnam and in nine other countries, 2) investigate the relation between lifetime suicidal tho...
Helping Callers to the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline Who Are at Imminent Risk of Suicide: The Importance of Active Engagement, Active Rescue, and Collaboration Between Crisis and Emergency Services
Draper, John; Murphy, Gillian; Vega, Eduardo; Covington, David W; McKeon, Richard
In 2012, the SAMHSA-funded National Suicide Prevention Lifeline (Lifeline) completed implementation of the first national Policy for Helping Callers at Imminent Risk of Suicide across its network of crisis centers. The policy sought to: (1) provide a clear definition of imminent risk; (2) reflect the state of evidence, field experience, and promising practices related to reducing imminent risk through hotline interventions; and (3) provide a uniform policy and approach that could be applied a...
Full Text Available Suicide attempts and suicidal behaviours represent a complex problem, with high prevalence in adolescence. The management of youth suicidal behaviour may occur in diverse contexts of child and adolescent psychiatric activity, not only in the emergency room, but also in liaison work and ambulatory consultation. In suicidal crisis intervention it ́s fundamental to involve the youth and the family as this represents a crucial moment for clinical assessment and treatment compliance. This review on child and adolescent suicidal behaviour focuses on characterizing and understanding the developmental features of these behaviours, risk and protection factors and it offers orientations about assessment and acute management of children and adolescents who present with suicidal behaviour.
Neiger, Brad L.; Hopkins, Rodney W.
Examines personality traits and life circumstances which place adolescents at higher risk for suicide. Discusses depression, acute suicidal behavior, poor family relationships, alcohol and drug use, recent loss, failure in school, and other characteristics. Urges parents and professionals to know suicide signs and be active in prevention and…
Goldston, David B.; Walrath, Christine M.; McKeon, Richard; Puddy, Richard W.; Lubell, Keri M.; Potter, Lloyd B.; Rodi, Michael S.
In response to calls for greater efforts to reduce youth suicide, the Garrett Lee Smith (GLS) Memorial Act has provided funding for 68 state, territory, and tribal community grants, and 74 college campus grants for suicide prevention efforts. Suicide prevention activities supported by GLS grantees have included education, training programs…
This study among 274 Dutch lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youth showed that victimization at school was associated with suicidal ideation and actual suicide attempts. Homophobic rejection by parents was also associated with actual suicide attempts. Suicidality in this population could be reduced by supporting coping strategies of LGB youth who are confronted with stigmatization by peers and parents, and by schools actively promoting acceptance of same-sex sexuality.
Definis-Gojanović, Marija; Gugić, Dijana; Sutlović, Davorka
Depression and suicide present a serious health problem especially for teenagers as they are increasingly diagnosed with mood disorders of different severity, possibly leading to suicidal activity. Reported here is a misfortunate young girl who committed suicide by jumping from high altitude. She left a suicide note which, together with her behavior in the death-preceding period, pointed to her apparently belonging to an Emo subculture. Although few and scarce, most existing articles and repo...
Lester, David; Leenaars, Antoon A.
Debates the question of suicide as a defensible choice, particularly for the terminally ill, examining the relevance of such issues as the mortality, rationality, and dynamics of the suicidal act, and the legitimacy of physician-assisted suicide. Contrasting perspectives are articulated by two prominent suicidologists as a spur to the reader's…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the spatial distribution of suicide can inform the planning, implementation and evaluation of suicide prevention activity. This study explored spatial clusters of suicide in Australia, and investigated likely socio-demographic determinants of these clusters. Methods National suicide and population data at a statistical local area (SLA level were obtained from the Australian Bureau of Statistics for the period of 1999 to 2003. Standardised mortality ratios (SMR were calculated at the SLA level, and Geographic Information System (GIS techniques were applied to investigate the geographical distribution of suicides and detect clusters of high risk in Australia. Results Male suicide incidence was relatively high in the northeast of Australia, and parts of the east coast, central and southeast inland, compared with the national average. Among the total male population and males aged 15 to 34, Mornington Shire had the whole or a part of primary high risk cluster for suicide, followed by the Bathurst-Melville area, one of the secondary clusters in the north coastal area of the Northern Territory. Other secondary clusters changed with the selection of cluster radius and age group. For males aged 35 to 54 years, only one cluster in the east of the country was identified. There was only one significant female suicide cluster near Melbourne while other SLAs had very few female suicide cases and were not identified as clusters. Male suicide clusters had a higher proportion of Indigenous population and lower median socio-economic index for area (SEIFA than the national average, but their shapes changed with selection of maximum cluster radii setting. Conclusion This study found high suicide risk clusters at the SLA level in Australia, which appeared to be associated with lower median socio-economic status and higher proportion of Indigenous population. Future suicide prevention programs should focus on these high risk areas.
The concept of memes is analyzed, and its applicability to suicidology explored. Proposals are made for possible memes implicated in suicidal behavior. A classification of suicidal memes is proposed and the relationship between memes and archetypes of suicide is discussed. It is suggested that the terminology of meme theory can sharpen research into imitation effects in suicide. PMID:19810429
Wortzel, Hal S; Binswanger, Ingrid A; Anderson, C Alan; Adler, Lawrence E
Both veterans and jail/prison inmates face an increased risk of suicide. The incarcerated veteran sits at the intersection of these two groups, yet little is known about this subpopulation, particularly its risk of suicide. A Pubmed/Medline/PsycINFO search anchored to incarcerated veteran suicide, veteran suicide, suicide in jails/prisons, and veterans incarcerated from 2000 to the present was performed. The currently available literature does not reveal the suicide risk of incarcerated veterans, nor does it enable meaningful estimates. However, striking similarities and overlapping characteristics link the data on veteran suicide, inmate suicide, and incarcerated veterans, suggesting that the veteran in jail or prison faces a level of suicide risk beyond that conferred by either veteran status or incarceration alone. There is a clear need for a better characterization of the incarcerated veteran population and the suicide rate faced by this group. Implications for clinical practice and future research are offered. PMID:19297638
Ak, Mehmet; Gülsün, Murat; Özmenler, K. Nahit
Many factors may play role in the emergence of suicidal behavior. Familial tendency including some features of personality structure, hopelessness, affective disorder, and suicide behavior have attracted close attention recently. Personality disorders seem to be prevalent in individuals who attempt suicide. Beside it has been reported that personality disorders and other psychiatric disorder comorbidity increase the risk of suicide. To present the relationship between suicide and personalit...
The suicide prevention continuum illustrates a practical approach to the complex issue of suicide prevention. The continuum evolved from discussions with two Aboriginal communities in Atlantic Canada about suicide and the different types of interventions available. The continuum offers a framework and reference tool to differentiate between the different stages of suicide risk. It illustrates where the Aboriginal Community Youth Resilience Network (ACYRN) fits into suicide prevention and how ...
Ozlem Cetin; Salih Saygin Eker
Suicide is one of the major causes of premature death among patients with schizophrenia. Follow-up studies have estimated that 4-5% of these patients die by suicide. Reducing the high rates of suicide in schizophrenia is possible with understanding of predictive risk factors. Various studies have identified risk factors for suicide in schizophrenia patients. Clinical risk factors include previous suicide attempts, comorbid depression, feelings of hopelessness, concept of insight and substance...
Çetin, Özlem; Eker, Salih Saygın
Suicide is one of the major causes of premature death among patients with schizophrenia. Follow-up studies have estimated that 4-5% of these patients die by suicide. Reducing the high rates of suicide in schizophrenia is possible with understanding of predictive risk factors. Various studies have identified risk factors for suicide in schizophrenia patients. Clinical risk factors include previous suicide attempts, comorbid depression, feelings of hopelessness, concept of insight and substanc...
Asmaee, S; Mosavi, N; R Abdul Rashid; H Habi; Seghatoleslam, T; Naseri, A.
Background: The current study aimed to test the hypothesis: Is suicide predictable? And try to classify the predictive factors in multiple suicide attempts. Methods: A cross-sectional study was administered to 223 multiple attempters, women who came to a medical poison centre after a suicide attempt. The participants were young, poor, and single. A Logistic Regression Analiysis was used to classify the predictive factors of suicide. Results: Women who had multiple suicide attempts exhibited a...
Radeloff, Daniel; Lempp, Thomas; Rauf, Amna; Bennefeld-Kersten, Katharina; Kettner, Mattias; Freitag, Christine M
Following accidents, suicide is the second leading cause of death in adolescence. This stage of life has the most suicide attempts of all age groups. In addition to mentally ill juveniles, adolescent delinquents represent a high-risk group for suicidal behavior and completed suicide. In particular, the population of detainees, an extreme form of juvenile delinquency, have a 16- to 18-fold higher risk of suicidal behavior and suicide compared to the general population. Because the composition of juvenile detainees differs greatly from that of detained adults, age-specific scientific approaches and prevention programs are needed. This task cannot be addressed by juvenile detention staff alone, but rather demands close cooperation between adolescent psychiatrists, psychologists, prison medical staff, legal experts and prison officers to use the opportunity for suicide prevention in juvenile detention facilities. PMID:26864223
recommended to pay attention to escorting patients to psychiatric emergency in order to ensure that the patient actually attends the planned consultation. We found that patients who were referred after psychiatric evaluation to psychiatric treatment at outpatient facilities only received the planned treatment in approximately two-thirds of the cases; therefore, like Hawton et al. [Hawton et al., 1998; Hawton et al., 1999], we recommend that outpatient facilities adopt an assertive approach to patients who have attempted suicide. Danish suicide research is strong, primarily due to the possibilities for linking complete national registers providing detailed data and large sample sizes for suicide research, which is so far unique for the Nordic countries. This, combined with skilful use of epidemiological methods, had resulted in a remarkable series of papers highlighting risk of suicide in different risk groups, risk factors and protective factors. This activity must continue. In this work it is important to be aware of limitations in naturalistic studies such as the risk of interchanging cause and effect and the necessity to carry out control for confounders. Meta-analysis is a strong tool for summing up results of previous research. Meta-analyses can be used in reporting the evidence for effectiveness of interventions, but also for determining risk or identifying risk factors. A meta-analysis of risk factors of repetition of suicide attempt has not been carried out, and the quality of the identified studies did not allow a formal meta-analysis. Large randomised clinical trials examining the effectiveness of interventions on reducing rate of suicide attempt and suicide should have high priority. Suicide is a major public health problem and should be given high priority with regard to prevention and research. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED) PMID:18208680
... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy About Teen Suicide KidsHealth > For Parents > About Teen Suicide Print ... take action to help a troubled teenager. About Teen Suicide The reasons behind a teen's suicide or ...
Beautrais, Annette L.
Analysis of rates of further suicidal behavior among individuals making medically serious suicide attempts may help to predict suicide and suicide attempt from baseline characteristics of the individual and the index suicide attempt. Data are drawn from a 5-year study of 302 individuals making medically serious suicide attempts with information…
Kim, Su Hyun
This study aimed to examine the associations between suicidal behavior in older Korean adults and chronic illnesses, functional limitations, and pain. Data were obtained and analyzed for 8500 adults over 65 years of age from the 2007-2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV and V. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the associations between suicidal behavior, chronic illness, functional limitations, and pain. The presence of arthritis and renal failure were significantly associated with a higher risk of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Moderate limitation in usual activities and extreme pain significantly increased the risk of both suicidal ideation and suicide attempts, over and above the existence of chronic illnesses and depression status. PMID:26318163
Coombs, David W.; Hodges, Debra K.; Kohler, Connie
This article presents an overview of adult suicide in the United States and Alabama. This includes the latest available information on the prevalence of suicide in the US and Alabama, demographic characteristics of suicide victims, trends in suicide, and known reasons behind adult suicide. With respect to adult suicide in Alabama, it focuses on…
The relationship between suicides and suicide attempts and two biological measures, platelet monoamine oxidase levels (MAO) and average evoked response (AER) augmenting was examined in 79 off-medication psychiatric patients and in 68 college student volunteers chosen from the upper and lower deciles of MAO activity levels. In the patient sample, male individuals with low MAO and AER augmenting, a pattern previously associated with bipolar affective disorders, showed a significantly increased incidence of suicide attempts in comparison with either non-augmenting low MAO or high MAO patients. Within the normal volunteer group, all male low MAO probands with a family history of suicide or suicide attempts were AER augmenters themselves. Four completed suicides were found among relatives of low MAO probands whereas no high MAO proband had a relative who committed suicide. These findings suggest that the combination of low platelet MAO activity and AER augmenting may be associated with a possible genetic vulnerability to psychiatric disorders. (author)
Limon, Agenor; Mamdani, Firoza; Hjelm, Brooke E; Vawter, Marquis P; Sequeira, Adolfo
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a leading cause of disability worldwide characterized by altered neuronal activity in brain regions involved in the control of stress and emotion. Although multiple lines of evidence suggest that altered stress-coping mechanisms underlie the etiology of MDD, the homeostatic control of neuronal excitability in MDD at the molecular level is not well established. In this review, we examine past and current evidence implicating dysregulation of the polyamine system as a central factor in the homeostatic response to stress and the etiology of MDD. We discuss the cellular effects of abnormal metabolism of polyamines in the context of their role in sensing and modulation of neuronal, electrical, and synaptic activity. Finally, we discuss evidence supporting an allostatic model of depression based on a chronic elevation in polyamine levels resulting in self-sustained stress response mechanisms maintained by maladaptive homeostatic mechanisms. PMID:27108532
Full Text Available Suicide is one of the major causes of premature death among patients with schizophrenia. Follow-up studies have estimated that 4-5% of these patients die by suicide. Reducing the high rates of suicide in schizophrenia is possible with understanding of predictive risk factors. Various studies have identified risk factors for suicide in schizophrenia patients. Clinical risk factors include previous suicide attempts, comorbid depression, feelings of hopelessness, concept of insight and substance abuse. Biopsychosocial factors, such as a high intelligence quotient and high level of premorbid functioning, have also been associated with an increased risk of suicide in patients with schizophrenia. The risk of suicide is considered to be highest in the early course of illness. Antipsychotic drugs, in particular clozapine and antidepressants may be helpful in reducing the risk of suicide in schizophrenia.
Research on suicide by jumping is summarized. The incidence of suicide by this method varies but tends to be higher in cities, city states, or countries that have extensive high-rise housing. Most suicides by jumping occur from high-rise residential housing units. However, our knowledge about suicide by jumping tends to be limited to a small number of reports from sites, often bridges, which become well-known as places from which to take one's life. Media reports of newsworthy suicides from these sites appear to encourage imitative behavior. Prevention strategies have focused upon limiting suicides from iconic sites by surveillance, barriers, muted media reporting, and signage offering help and telephone hotlines. A small number of studies provides evidence that installing barriers at popular jumping sites reduces suicides from those sites. There are few reports of efforts to reduce suicides from high-rise residential buildings. PMID:26212196
... Health Issues Listen Text Size Email Print Share Teen Suicide and Guns Page Content Article Body Protect ... thinking of a passing problem, not the outcome! Teen Suicide—A Big Problem Suicide is one of ...
Suicidal behavior is a leading cause of injury and death worldwide. Suicide has been associated with psychiatric illnesses such as depression and schizophrenia, as well as economic uncertainty, and social/cultural factors. This study proposes a neuroeconomic framework of suicide. Neuroeconomic parameters (e.g., risk-attitude, probability weighting, time discounting in intertemporal choice, and loss aversion) are predicted to be related to suicidal behavior. Neurobiological and neuroendocrinol...
Sheikhmoonesi, Fatemeh; Zarghami, Mehran
Suicide rate in physicians has been reported to be higher than general population or other academics. Previous studies found that 85-90% of people who commit suicide had been suffering from some type of psychiatric disorder. Suicide prevention is the key element in lowering the numbers of physicians who destroy themselves and end their lives each year. It is needed to provide some educational programs to increase physicians’ awareness of warning signs of suicidal ideation such as observable s...
A suicide attempt constitutes not only a risk factor for suicide, but also an expression of human suffering. As therapists, physicians and caring personnel we have an opportunity to reach out to this suffering individual and offer help. However, suicidal individuals often decline psychiatric follow-up or drop out of treatment prematurely. An improved understanding of these patients’ needs and problems may enhance our capability to treat them. This thesis is focusing on attempted suicide...
Zenere, Frank J.
Youth suicide is one of the most serious preventable health problems in the United States. It is the third leading cause of death among adolescents. According to a recent national survey of students in grades 9-12, nearly 15% of respondents had seriously considered suicide and 7% actually had attempted suicide in the previous 12 months. Moreover,…
Taub, Deborah J.; Thompson, Jalonda
Suicide is the second-leading cause of death among college students, and it is estimated that 1,088 college students die by suicide each year (National Mental Health Association and the Jed Foundation, 2002). This chapter presents the context of college student mental health within which the problem of college student suicide is situated. Because…
Sudak, Howard S.; Sudak, Donna M.
Objective: The authors aim to inform readers of the theory that when newspapers, film, and television describe suicidal deaths, additional suicides may result by virtue of contagion or copy-cat effects; to review data that support and refute this theory; to present some promising and recommended ways to prevent copy-cat suicide; and to cite…
African American Suicide Fact Sheet Based on 2012 Data (2014) Overview • In 2012, 2,357 African Americans completed suicide in the U.S. Of these, ... 46 per 100,000. • The suicide rate for African Americans ages 10-19 was 2.98 per ...
Reports figures indicating a rise in teenage suicide in Canada. Shows how the problem is compounded by silence resulting from official and parent reactions and social taboo. Discusses some of the causes of teenage suicide and explains the role of the school and family in suicide intervention and prevention. (SB)
Moore, Pamela S.
This document presents information on suicide intended for a general audience who want to understand and prevent suicide. The history of suicide in ancient cultures and its incidence in industrialized countries is discussed first. Especially concerned people, i.e, survivors, families at risk, individuals at risk, and caregivers, are defined.…
Explores relationships among culture, character, and suicide, drawing on author's research in Scandinavia and his studies of suicide among United States urban blacks and college students. Varying psychodynamic ways suicidal individuals in differing cultures and subcultures conceive of, use, and absorb death tell us much about how we live. (Author)
K. Nahit Ozmenler
Full Text Available Many factors may play role in the emergence of suicidal behavior. Familial tendency including some features of personality structure, hopelessness, affective disorder, and suicide behavior have attracted close attention recently. Personality disorders seem to be prevalent in individuals who attempt suicide. Beside it has been reported that personality disorders and other psychiatric disorder comorbidity increase the risk of suicide. To present the relationship between suicide and personality is quite important for developing strategies in order to prevent suicide attempt. In this field, the data show variability based on scales used for the evaluation of personality, its definition and classification in the research. For example, while some authors used DSM criteria or ICD criteria, others preferred to focus on the temperament and character dimensions of personality. In studies based on diagnostic criteria; B group personality disorders, such as antisocial and borderline personality disorders were found to be most common comorbid personality disorder diagnosis. In studies aiming to investigate the relationship among suicide attempt, temperament and character features, the suicide attempters were found to have lower levels of self directedness, cooperativeness, and higher scores for self transcendence. Suicidal patients were inclined to have higher scores in several temperament groups like harm avoidance, novelty seeking, and reward dependence. Tendency to impulsive behavior is reported as a common denominator for suicidal patients. Individuals, who have familial or acquired tendency of impulsivity, could react more dramatically and present with depressive and pessimistic mood when they have difficulties and encounter stress factors in their daily routine and could easily develop depressive disorders. These factors as a whole could lead to self destructive actions like suicide. Individual or familial history of suicide attempts or completed
Werth, James L., Jr.
Reviews the concept of rational suicide and compares it with one researcher's list of commonalities of suicide. Claims that the list cannot accommodate rational suicide. Suggests that the list is biased against rational suicide and should be renamed so it cannot be maintained that suicide must be irrational. (RJM)
Goldston, David B.; Walrath, Christine M.; McKeon, Richard; Puddy, Richard W.; Lubell, Keri M; Potter, Lloyd B.; Rodi, Michael S.
Responding to calls for greater efforts to reduce youth suicide, the Garrett Lee Smith (GLS) Memorial Act to date has provided funding for 68 state, territory, and tribal community grants, and 74 college campus grants for suicide prevention efforts. Suicide prevention activities supported by GLS grantees have included education, training programs including gatekeeper training, screening activities, infrastructure for improved linkages to services, crisis hotlines, and community partnerships. ...
Alphs, Larry D.; Mao, Lian; Li, Qin; May, Roberta S.; Bruer, Emily H.; Mccullumsmith, Cheryl B.; Gray, Christopher R.; Li, Xiaohua; Williamson, David J.
Objective: This exploratory study examines the concurrent validity for mapping symptoms of suicidal ideation, self-harm, and suicidal behavior as recorded on the InterSePT Scale for Suicidal Thinking-Plus, the Sheehan-Suicidality Tracking Scale (clinician- and patient-rated and reconciled patient/clinician versions), and the Columbia–Suicide Severity Rating Scale to the 11 United States Food and Drug Administration-Classification Algorithm of Suicide Assessment (September 2012) categories. Method: Forty subjects with varying degrees of suicidal ideation and behavior severity (from not present to extremely severe) were recruited from inpatient, outpatient, and emergency room settings. Each patient was interviewed using all three scales (InterSePT Scale for Suicidal Thinking-Plus, the Sheehan-Suicidality Tracking Scale, and the Columbia–Suicide Severity Rating Scale) on the same day. The scales were administered in a random sequence by three independent raters who were blind to the ratings on the other scales. Results: The Sheehan-Suicidality Tracking Scale and the InterSePT Scale for Suicidal Thinking-Plus show acceptable agreement with the Columbia–Suicide Severity Rating Scale in detecting the presence or absence of the 2012 Food and Drug Administration-Classification Algorithm of Suicide Assessment categories 1, 5, 6, 10, and 11 (passive ideation; active ideation with method, intent, and plan; completed suicide; preparatory actions; and self-injurious behavior) but not of categories 2, 3, and 4 (3 other active suicidal ideation combination categories) or to 8 and 9 (aborted and interrupted attempt). Despite the significant disagreement between the Columbia–Suicide Severity Rating Scale on the one side and the InterSePT Scale for Suicidal Thinking-Plus and the Sheehan-Suicidality Tracking Scale on the other in the ability to accurately map to the 2012 Food and Drug Administration-Classification Algorithm of Suicide Assessment categories on some items
Oquendo, Maria A
This issue of Focus on Suicide brings us new data about risk assessment, with 2 articles examining the utility of rating scales for assessment of suicidal behavior. Youngstrom et al conduct a careful comparison of 3 suicide rating scales: the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS), the Suicide Tracking Scale (STS), and the Sheehan Suicidality Tracking Scale (S-STS). While the scales did comparably in 2 broad categories, suicidal ideation and suicide attempts, the study suggests that some subtypes of suicidal behavior/ideation are not captured as well by the S-STS. PMID:26717527
Teodor T. Postolache
Full Text Available A seasonal suicide peak in spring is highly replicated, but its specific cause is unknown. We reviewed the literature on suicide risk factors which can be associated with seasonal variation of suicide rates, assessing published articles from 1979 to 2011. Such risk factors include environmental determinants, including physical, chemical, and biological factors. We also summarized the influence of potential demographic and clinical characteristics such as age, gender, month of birth, socioeconomic status, methods of prior suicide attempt, and comorbid psychiatric and medical diseases. Comprehensive evaluation of risk factors which could be linked to the seasonal variation in suicide is important, not only to identify the major driving force for the seasonality of suicide, but also could lead to better suicide prevention in general.
Ohnishi, Masaru; Koyama, Shihomi; Senoo, Akiko; Kawahara, Hiroko; Shimizu, Yukito
According to the nationwide survey of the National University students in Japan, the annual suicide rate in 2012 was 15.7 per 100,000 undergraduate students. In many universities, suicide prevention is an important issue regarding mental health measures, and each university is actively examining this. The current situation concerning measures for suicide prevention in the Japanese National Universities was investigated in 2009. In 2010, the "college student's suicide prevention measures guideline, 2010" was established based on the results of this investigation. This guideline refers to the basic philosophy of suicide prevention in Chapter 1, risk factors for suicide in Chapter 2, and systems and activities for suicide prevention in Chapter 3. The Health Service Center, Okayama University plays central roles in mental health and suicide prevention measures on the Medical Campus. The primary prevention includes a mini-lecture on mental health, classes on mental health, and periodic workshops and lectures for freshmen. The secondary prevention includes interviews with students with mental health disorders by a psychiatrist during periodic health check-ups and introducing them to a hospital outside the university. The tertiary prevention includes support for students taking a leave of absence to return to school, periodic consultation with such students with mental disorders, and postvention following a suicide. We believe that for mental health measures on the university campus, it is important to efficiently make use of limited resources, and that these efforts will eventually lead to suicide prevention. PMID:27192788
Susukida, Ryoko; Wilcox, Holly C; Mendelson, Tamar
While perceived support from caregivers in the early stages of life is an aspect of family environment that is increasingly recognized as important for understanding lifetime suicidal behaviors, it is not well understood whether the relationship between perceived support from caregivers during childhood and lifetime suicidal behaviors holds regardless of family structure. This study examined the association between perceived love from caregivers in childhood and lifetime suicidal ideation in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (N=5,692, 2001-2003). Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the association between lifetime suicidal ideation and retrospectively ascertained data on perceived love from caregivers during childhood as well as clinical and sociodemographic characteristics of study participants. Regression analyses were stratified by family structure, namely, whether or not study participants lived with two biological parents during childhood. Regardless of whether or not they lived with two biological parents during childhood, individuals who perceived love from caregivers during childhood had significantly 42-43% lower odds of lifetime suicide ideation as compared with those who did not perceive love from caregivers. Results suggest that perceived support from caregivers during childhood is an important correlate of lifetime suicidal ideation, regardless of family structure. PMID:26803361
... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159213.html Among U.S. Military, Army Members Face Highest Suicide Risk Firearms ... Suicide rates have been increasing among all active U.S. Navy, Air Force and Army personnel, but those ...
Yip, Paul S. F.; Kevin Chien-Chang Wu; Ying-Yeh Chen
As the largest continent in the World, Asia accounts for about 60% of World suicides. Preventing suicide by restricting access to suicide methods is one of the few evidence-based suicide prevention strategies. However, there has been a lack of systematic exploration of suicide methods in Asian countries. To amend this shortage, the current review examines the leading suicide methods in different Asian countries, their trend, their age- and sex- specific characteristics, and their implications...
Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Horowitz, Lisa M.; Fontanella, Cynthia A.; Grupp-Phelan, Jackie; Campo, John V.
The goal of the National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention (Action Alliance) is to reduce suicide and suicide attempts in the U.S. by 40% in the next decade. In this paper, a public health approach is applied to suicide prevention to illustrate how reductions in youth suicide and suicidal behavior might be achieved by prioritizing research in two areas: (1) increasing access to primary care–based behavioral health interventions for depressed youth; and (2) improving continuity of care fo...
Teodor T. Postolache; Komarow, Hirsh; Tonelli, Leonardo H.
The rates of depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbance (suicide risk factors) are greater in patients with allergic rhinitis than in the general population. The rate of allergy is also greater in patients with depression. Preliminary data suggest that patients with a history of allergy may have an increased rate of suicide. Clinicians should actively inquire to diagnose allergy in patients with depression and depression in patients with allergy.
Korczak, Daphne J
Suicide is a leading cause of death among Canadian adolescents. The present practice point provides paediatricians and child health professionals with a framework for assessing the adolescent with suicidal thoughts and/or behaviours. The epidemiological context, general considerations and practical suggestions for how to approach the suicidal adolescent are reviewed. Paediatricians can and should screen youth for mental illness and significant psychosocial stressors. Early identification and ...
Hari D. Maharajh; Abdool, Petal S.
Undefined cultural factors cannot be dismissed and significantly contribute to the worldwide incidence of death by suicide. Culture is an all embracing term and defines the relationship of an individual to his environment. This study seeks to investigate the effect of culture on suicide both regionally and internationally. Culture-bound syndrome with suicidal behaviours specific to a particular culture or geographical region are discussed. Opinions are divided as to the status of religious ma...
The high radiosensitivity to killing of undifferentiated primordial cells (Bergonie and Tribondeau 1906) can be described as a manifestation of the suicide of injured cells for the benefit of an organism as a whole if their suicide stimulates proliferation of healthy cells to replace them, resulting in complete elimination of injury. This process is called cell-replacement repair, to distinguish it from DNA repair which is rarely complete. 'Cell suicide', 'programmed death' and 'apoptosis' are terms used for the same type of active cell death. Cell suicide is not always altruistic. Altruistic suicide in Drosophila, mice, humans, plants, and E. coli is reviewed in this paper to illustrate its widely different facets. The hypothesis that in animals, radiation hormesis results from altruistic cell suicide is proposed. This hypothesis can explain the hormetic effect of low doses of radiation on the immune system in mice. In contrast, in plants, radiation hormesis seems to be mainly due to non-altruistic cell death. (author)
Stenager, E N; Stenager, Egon; Koch-Henriksen, N;
with an onset of the disease within the period 1953-85, or for whom MS was diagnosed in the same period. Fifty three of the 5525 cases in the onset cohort group committed suicide. Using the figures from the population death statistics by adjustment to number of subjects, duration of observation, sex......, age, and calendar year at the start of observation, the expected number of suicides was calculated to be nearly 29. The cumulative lifetime risk of suicide from onset of MS, using an actuarial method of calculation, was 1.95%. The standard mortality ratio (SMR) of suicide in MS was 1.83. It was...
Full Text Available Background:The current study aimed to test the hypothesis: Is suicide predictable? And try to classify the predictive factors in multiple suicide attempts.Methods:A cross-sectional study was administered to 223 multiple attempters, women who came to a medical poison centre after a suicide attempt.The participants were young, poor, and single.A Logistic Regression Analiysis was used to classify the predictive factors of suicide.Results:Women who had multiple suicide attempts exhibited a significant tendency to attempt suicide again. They had a history for more than two years of multiple suicide attempts, from three to as many as 18 times, plus mental illnesses such as depression and substance abuse.They also had a positive history of mental illnesses.Conclusion:Results indicate that contributing factors for another suicide attempt include previous suicide attempts, mental illness (depression,or a positive history of mental illnesses in the family affecting them at a young age, and substance abuse.
Linnoila, V M; Virkkunen, M
Studies from several countries, representing diverse cultures, have reported an association between violent suicide attempts by patients with unipolar depression and personality disorders and low concentrations of the major serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Related investigations have documented a similar inverse correlation between impulsive, externally directed aggressive behavior and CSF 5-HIAA in a subgroup of violent offenders. In these individuals, low CSF 5-HIAA concentrations are also associated with a predisposition to mild hypoglycemia, a history of early-onset alcohol and substance abuse, a family history of type II alcoholism, and disturbances in diurnal activity rhythm. These data are discussed in the context of a proposed model for the pathophysiology of a postulated "low serotonin syndrome." PMID:1385390
Wang, A G; Nielsen, B; Bille-Brahe, U;
features for the repeaters were previous suicidal behaviour and suicidal behaviour among relatives. Many had a psychiatric record and expressed chronic somatic complaints. Around the time of the attempt, many expressed hopelessness, isolation and suicidal ideation. Pierce's Suicide Intent Scale performed...
Krahn, Lois E.; Miller, Bernard W.; Bergstrom, Larry R.
Patients with insomnia may develop suicidal ideation; however, we know of no reports of suicidal ideation associated with obstructive sleep apnea. We report on a 74-year-old man who presented to his primary care physician with excessive daytime sleepiness, poor quality nocturnal sleep, depressed mood, and suicidal ideation with active suicide plans. An emergency outpatient psychiatry consultation was arranged. The patient declined psychiatric hospitalization. He agreed to a trial of continuou...
Weisse, Dan E.
Begins by presenting definitions of adolescence, suicide, and gifted, then goes on to examine issues related to suicide among gifted adolescents. Precipitating events for the gifted adolescent are identified, including perfectionism, disappointments, insecurities, career identity issues, and depression. Outlines warning signs and risk factors to…
Shipman, Fred C.
Suicide is the second (behind accidents) leading cause of death for 15- to 24-year-olds. Schools are in a unique position to make a difference in suicide prevention by addressing three distinct phases of the problem: prevention, intervention, and post factum. Factors are identified that have a direct bearing on level of risk and should be…
... in a variety of roles take action to prevent suicide. These resources are available free of charge for you to reproduce and distribute in your workplace or community. The Role of High School Teachers in Preventing Suicide The Role of High ...
Lester, David; Wilson, C.
The teenage suicide rate in Zimbabwe did not change much during the 1970s, though the rate rose for female teenagers. Female teenagers used poison as a method of suicide more often than did adults, and self-immolation had increased in frequency among young women by the mid-1980s. (Author)
Christiansen, Erik; Jensen, Børge Frank
The Register for Suicide Attempts (RSA) is a product of the WHO research project "WHO/Euro Multicentre Study on Parasuicide", which, among other things, had the purpose of collecting data on suicide attempts from 13 European countries. Data is collected in order to calculate trends and identify...... high-risk groups. Data collection for the RSA started in 1989....
Kral, Michael J.
Argues that suicide is an idea, having much in common with societal beliefs/norms. Discusses evidence supportive of suicide as idea, based on knowledge from study of history and culture, and about contagion/cluster phenomena, media/communication, and choice of method. Suggests that certain individuals are more vulnerable to incorporate idea/act of…
Full Text Available Relationship of diabetes mellitus (DM with metal health disorders such as depression has been explored extensively in the published literatures. However, association of diabetes mellitus with suicidal tendencies has been evaluated less extensively. The present narrative review aimed to assess the literature relating to diabetes mellitus and suicide. As a part of the review, Pubmed and Google Scholar databases were searched for English language peer reviewed published studies with keywords relating to diabetes and suicide. Additional references were identified using cross-references. The available literature suggests that suicidal ideas and attempts are more frequent in patients with diabetes mellitus than healthy or medically ill controls. Although, a few studies report evidence to the contrary. Suicide accounts for a large proportion of deaths in patients with diabetes mellitus type I (T1DM, and their mortality rate is higher than that of age matched control population. Psychological morbidity, including depression, precedes suicidal ideas and attempts; though many other factors can be hypothesized to impact and modulate this association. A common method of suicide attempt in patients with diabetes includes uses of high doses of insulin and its congeners or medications to treat the disease. Regular screening and prompt treatment of depression and suicidality is suggested for patients with DM.
AAS 2011 Youth Suicidal Behavior Fact Sheet 4,822 youth age 15-24 died by suicide. i We want to change that. Su icid eRat ... death in 2011. The 2011 Youth Risk and Behavior Survey found that in the previous 12 months ...
Perrone, Philip A.
Summarizes major research findings on adolescent suicide, presents a suicide chronology developed by Hawton (1986), and provides a selected list of references. Discusses five goals for counselor intervention with students at risk for suicide and explains how school personnel can work to prevent adolescent suicide. (NB)
Altindag, Abdurrahman; Ozkan, Mustafa; Oto, Remzi
The southeastern part of Turkey has comparatively high female suicide rates. We aimed to research social, economic, cultural, and psychiatric reasons of suicides in Batman in a case-controlled psychological autopsy study comparing suicides with matched community controls. The female suicide rate was 9.3 per 100.000 and the female/male ratio was…
Vidal, John A.
Outlines important considerations for establishing suicide prevention programs in high schools. Teenage suicide rate has doubled since 1970. To deal with this crisis schools must develop procedures for detecting potential victims and for helping students and staff cope after a suicide. Schools must not be afraid to talk about suicide; avoiding the…
Cha, Christine B.; Najmi, Sadia; Park, Jennifer M.; Finn, Christine T.; Nock, Matthew K.
A long-standing challenge for scientific and clinical work on suicidal behavior is that people often are motivated to deny or conceal suicidal thoughts. We proposed that people considering suicide would possess an objectively measurable attentional bias toward suicide-related stimuli, and that this bias would predict future suicidal behavior. Participants were 124 adults presenting to a psychiatric emergency department who were administered a modified emotional Stroop task and followed for si...
Ram, Dushad; Darshan, M. S.; Rao, T S S; Honagodu, Abhijit R.
Background: Suicide is a preventable cause of death, inspite of which its incidence is increasing worldwide. Very few studies are done to know the perception of suicide attempters regarding prevention of their suicide attempt. Such information may be helpful in implementing preventive strategies. This study was done to find out whether those who attempted suicide and recovered perceived that their suicide attempt could have been prevented or not. Materials and Methods: Fifty consecutive subje...
Full Text Available Introduction. The risk of suicide among war veterans is a controversial issue, where findings so far have been contradictory. Objective. This study focusses on suicide in Serbian veterans from the wars in former Yugoslavia in the 1990s in order to create appropriate preventive measures and reduce the number of these fatal cases. Methods. The autopsy protocols of all 44 suicides committed by war veterans in the Belgrade District population over a period between 1992 and 2000 were investigated. Data were obtained from autopsy records, results of toxicological investigations and psychological autopsy protocols. Results. Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder were present in 27.3%, major depression in 9.1% and schizophrenia in 6.8% of veterans. The majority of suicides (84.1% were committed by recruits in the Yugoslav National Army, spending between three and eight months in the zone of war operations. Six committed suicide during the first 30 days after their war activities, while the majority of suicides occurred between five and six years after combat. The most frequent manner of suicide was the use of handguns (56.8% and bombs (18.2%. Conclusion. The results of this research may give useful information about the individuals with the highest suicidal risk in order to alleviate the consequences of war psychotraumas in veterans and prevent their growth into a permanent handicap or suicide. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI 175093
Bolton, James M; Gunnell, David; Turecki, Gustavo
Suicide is the 15th most common cause of death worldwide. Although relatively uncommon in the general population, suicide rates are much higher in people with mental health problems. Clinicians often have to assess and manage suicide risk. Risk assessment is challenging for several reasons, not least because conventional approaches to risk assessment rely on patient self reporting and suicidal patients may wish to conceal their plans. Accurate methods of predicting suicide therefore remain elusive and are actively being studied. Novel approaches to risk assessment have shown promise, including empirically derived tools and implicit association tests. Service provision for suicidal patients is often substandard, particularly at times of highest need, such as after discharge from hospital or the emergency department. Although several drug based and psychotherapy based treatments exist, the best approaches to reducing the risk of suicide are still unclear. Some of the most compelling evidence supports long established treatments such as lithium and cognitive behavioral therapy. Emerging options include ketamine and internet based psychotherapies. This review summarizes the current science in suicide risk assessment and provides an overview of the interventions shown to reduce the risk of suicide, with a focus on the clinical management of people with mental disorders. PMID:26552947
Glucksman, Myron L
The prediction of suicidal intent remains a clinical problem. This presentation illustrates that a distinction may be made between the manifest dream reports of patients who are potentially or acutely suicidal and those who are not. A review of the literature reveals that the manifest dream reports of clinically depressed, non-suicidal individuals differ from those who are depressed and acutely suicidal. The former contain themes of loss, disappointment, rejection, helplessness, hopelessness, failure, and death. The latter contain themes of dying, death, destruction, and violence directed toward the dreamer or others, as well as hopelessness and helplessness. The author collected manifest dream reports from three clinically depressed, non-suicidal patients and three clinically depressed, potentially or acutely suicidal patients. There are apparent differences between the themes of manifest dream reports in the clinically depressed, non-suicidal patients and the clinically depressed, potentially or acutely suicidal patients. The former contain themes of death, loss, rejection, vulnerability, hopelessness, and helplessness. The latter contain themes of active harm or violence (specifically toward the dreamer), dying or being dead, aloneness, vulnerability, hopelessness, and helplessness. Clinical cases and corresponding manifest dream reports are presented. Although this is a preliminary study, it is possible that manifest dream content may be used as one of the predictors of suicidality, in conjunction with latent dream content, diagnosis, life circumstance, and clinical status. PMID:25494585
Conclusions: Suicidal ideation severity is higher on students who are far from home and living alone; students with weak social/familiar support networks (less involvement on social activities and intimate relationships. These results allow us to conclude that a frail social support network positively associates with ideation and suicidal risk.
Full Text Available This paper explores and questions some of the notions associated with suicide including mental illness. On average, about two-thirds of suicide cases do not come into contact with mental health services, therefore, we have no objective assessment of their mental status or their life events. One method of improving our objective understanding of suicide would be to use data mining techniques in order to build life event histories on all deaths due to suicide. Although such an exercise would require major funding, partial case histories became publicly available from a coroner's inquest on cases of suicide during a period of three months in Christchurch, New Zealand. The case histories were accompanied by a newspaper article reporting comments from some of the families involved. A straightforward contextual analysis of this information suggests that (i only five cases had contact with mental health services, in two of the cases this was due to a previous suicide attempt and in the other three it was due to drug and alcohol dependency; (ii mental illness as the cause of suicide is fixed in the public mindset, (iii this in turn makes psychological autopsy type studies that seek information from families and friends questionable; (iv proportionally more females attempt, but more men tend to complete suicide; and (v not only is the mental health-suicide relationship tenuous, but suicide also appears to be a process outcome. It is hoped that this will stimulate debate and the collaboration of international experts regardless of their school of thought.
Bryan, Craig J.; Dhillon-Davis, Luther E.; Dhillon-Davis, Kieran K.
In light of continuing concerns about iatrogenic effects associated with suicide prevention efforts utilizing video-based media, the impact of emotionally-charged videos on two vulnerable subgroups--suicidal viewers and suicide survivors--was explored. Following participation in routine suicide education as a part of the U.S. Air Force Suicide…
Maurizio Pompili; Gianluca Serafini; Marco Innamorati; Giovanni Dominici; Stefano Ferracuti; Kotzalidis, Giorgio D.; Giulia Serra; Paolo Girardi; Luigi Janiri; Roberto Tatarelli; Leo Sher; David Lester
Suicide is an escalating public health problem, and alcohol use has consistently been implicated in the precipitation of suicidal behavior. Alcohol abuse may lead to suicidality through disinhibition, impulsiveness and impaired judgment, but it may also be used as a means to ease the distress associated with committing an act of suicide. We reviewed evidence of the relationship between alcohol use and suicide through a search of MedLine and PsychInfo electronic databases. Multiple genetically...
Jørs, Erik; Christoffersen, Mette; Veirum, Nikoline Høgsgaard;
. RESULTS: Hospital data showed that more females (403/657, 61%) than males (254/657, 39%) attempted suicide, and females attempted suicide at a younger age than males (p<0.05). In contrast to this, more males (208/293, 70.5%) than females (85/293, 29.5%) committed suicide, and furthermore it was most...... seemed to be hidden due to cultural and religious reasons. CONCLUSION: More females attempted suicide, whereas more males realized suicide. Suicide attempts were most numerous among adolescents in contrast to suicides being most prevalent in the older age groups. Self-poisoning with pesticides was the......BACKGROUND: Suicide attempts and suicides constitute a significant burden on communities and health systems, especially in low income countries. However, many low income countries lack epidemiological information on which to base future preventive strategies. This study reports on gender and age...
Kral, M J
Although suicide is not viewed as a mental disorder per se, it is viewed by many if not most clinicians, researchers, and lay people as a real or natural symptom of depression. It is at least most typically seen as the unfortunate, severe, yet logical end result of a chain of negative self-appraisals, negative events, and hopelessness. Extending an approach articulated by the early French sociologist Gabriel Tarde, in this paper I argue that suicide is merely an idea, albeit a very bad one, having more in common with societal beliefs and norms regarding such things as divorce, abortion, sex, politics, consumer behavior, and fashion. I make a sharp contrast between perturbation and lethality, concepts central to Edwin S. Shneidman's theory of suicide. Evidence supportive of suicide as an idea is discussed based on what we are learning from the study of history and culture, and about contagion/cluster phenomena, media/communication, and choice of method. It is suggested that certain individuals are more vulnerable to incorporate the idea and act of suicide into their concepts of self, based on the same principles by which ideas are spread throughout society. Just as suicide impacts on society, so does society impact on suicide. PMID:7825197
Full Text Available Studies aiming to identify if war veterans are at higher risk of suicide have often produced inconsistent results; this could be due to the complexity of comparisons and different methodological approaches. It should be noted that this contingent has many risk factors, such as stressful exposures, wounds, brain trauma and pain syndrome. Most recent observations confirm that veterans are really more likely to die of suicide as compared to the general population; they are also more likely to experience suicidal ideation and suffer from mental health problems. Suicides are more frequent in those who develop PTSD, depression and comorbid states due to war exposure. Combat stress and its’ frequency may be an important factor leading to suicide within the frame of the stress-vulnerability model. According to this model, the effects of stress may interact with social factors, interpersonal relations and psychological variables producing suicidal tendencies. Modern understanding of stress-vulnerability mechanisms based on genetic predispositions, early life development, level of exposure to stress and stress-reactivity together with interpersonal aspects may help to build more effective suicide prevention programs based on universal/selective/indicated prevention principles.
Paul S. F. Yip
Full Text Available As the largest continent in the World, Asia accounts for about 60% of World suicides. Preventing suicide by restricting access to suicide methods is one of the few evidence-based suicide prevention strategies. However, there has been a lack of systematic exploration of suicide methods in Asian countries. To amend this shortage, the current review examines the leading suicide methods in different Asian countries, their trend, their age- and sex- specific characteristics, and their implications for suicide prevention. In total, 42 articles with leading suicide methods data in 17 Asian countries/regions were retrieved. The epidemiologic characteristics and recent trends of common suicide methods reflect specific socio-cultural, economic, and religious situations in the region. Common suicide methods shift with the introduction of technologies and constructions, and have specific age- or sex-characteristics that may render the restriction of suicide methods not equally effective for all sex and age sub-groups. Charcoal burning, pesticide poisoning, native plant poisoning, self-immolation, and jumping are all prominent examples. In the information society, suicide prevention that focuses on suicide methods must monitor and control the innovation and spread of knowledge and practices of suicide “technologies”. It may be more cost-effective to design safety into technologies as a way of suicide prevention while there is no rash of suicides yet by the new technologies. Further research on suicide methods is important for public health approaches to suicide prevention with sensitivity to socio-cultural, economic, and religious factors in different countries.
Ahuja, Amir Kumar; Biesaga, Krystine; Sudak, Donna M; Draper, John; Womble, Ashley
Current suicide assessment relies primarily on the patient's oral history. This article describes the case of a patient who was hospitalized after making an impulsive suicide attempt. Subsequently, social media was used to identify the events leading up to the attempt and to reconstruct a timeline. This evidence helped the patient gain more insight into the severity of his condition and agree to participate in treatment. Facebook and other social media may prove to be helpful adjuncts to suicide prevention efforts both in treatment and in screening for high-risk individuals who may not voluntarily come to clinical attention. PMID:24638049
Kantha, S S
2400 years have passed since the occurrence in Athens, Greece of one of the famous suicides recorded in human history. This autobiographical essay provides a montage on the history of suicide, with snippets from the final hours of Socrates, as described by Plato. Suicide in contemporary Japanese culture is also explored briefly, with reference to the deaths of internationally acclaimed movie directors Akira Kurosawa and Juzo Itami. The author also questions why no researcher has yet been honoured for the past 99 years with a Medicine Nobel prize for his or her work on suicidology or thanatology. PMID:11006616
Full Text Available Introduction: Over the past 20 years the WHO has considerably improved world mortality data. There are still shortcomings but more countries now report data and world-wide estimates are regularly made. Methods: Data about mortality have been retrieved from the WHO world database. Worldwide injury mortality estimates for 2008 as well as trends of the suicide rate from 1950 to 2009 were analysed. Results: Suicides in the world amount to 782 thousand in 2008 according to the WHO estimate, which is 1.4% of total mortality and 15% of injury mortality. The suicide rate for the world as a whole is estimated at 11.6 per 100,000 inhabitants. The male–female rate ratio of suicide is estimated to be highest in the European Region (4.0 and the lowest in the Eastern Mediterranean region (1.1. Among males the highest suicide rate in the 15–29 age group is in the SE Asian region, in the 45–59 age group in European males and for ages above 60 in the Western Pacific region. Females from SE Asia have a remarkably high suicide rate among 15–29-year-olds and from age 45 in the Western Pacific region. The leading country is currently Lithuania, with a suicide rate of 34.1 per 100,000 inhabitants. Also among males the suicide rate is the highest in Lithuania at 61.2. Among females South Korea with 22.1 is at the top of world suicide rates. Conclusions: During the past six decades, according to the WHO Japan, Hungary, and Lithuania have topped the list of world countries by suicide rate, but if the current trends continue South Korea will overtake all others in a few years. The heart of the problem of suicide mortality has shifted from Western Europe to Eastern Europe and now seems to be shifting to Asia. China and India are the biggest contributors to the absolute number of suicides in the world.
Pregelj, Peter; Ziherl, Slavko
Background: The prevalence of suicide is increasing worldwide and nowadays approximately one million people commit suicide every year. In Slovenia, suicide is a major public health and social problem. Suicide rate in Slovenia is among the highest in Europe. Despite intensive research work on suicide in the countries with high suicide rates and despite all new data on risk factors, the suicide rates do not decline (with few exceptions). Nevertheless,suicide prevention is possible if it is base...
Jager-Hyman, Shari; Cunningham, Amy; Wenzel, Amy; Mattei, Stephanie; Brown, Gregory K; Beck, Aaron T
Although theorists have posited that suicidal individuals are more likely than non-suicidal individuals to experience cognitive distortions, little empirical work has examined whether those who recently attempted suicide are more likely to engage in cognitive distortions than those who have not recently attempted suicide. In the present study, 111 participants who attempted suicide in the 30 days prior to participation and 57 psychiatric control participants completed measures of cognitive distortions, depression, and hopelessness. Findings support the hypothesis that individuals who recently attempted suicide are more likely than psychiatric controls to experience cognitive distortions, even when controlling for depression and hopelessness. Fortune telling was the only cognitive distortion uniquely associated with suicide attempt status. However, fortune telling was no longer significantly associated with suicide attempt status when controlling for hopelessness. Findings underscore the importance of directly targeting cognitive distortions when treating individuals at risk for suicide. PMID:25294949
Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously studied unintentional as well as intentional injury deaths among teenagers living in the four northernmost counties, forming approximately 55% of Sweden with 908,000 inhabitants in 1991. During this work, we found what we suspected to be a suicide cluster among teenagers and we also suspected contagion since there were links between these cases. In this present study, we investigate the occurrence of suicide clustering among teenagers, analyze cluster definitions, and suggest preventive measures. Methods A retrospective study of teenager suicides autopsied at the Department of Forensic Medicine in Umeå, Sweden, during 1981 through 2000. Police reports, autopsy protocols, and medical records were studied in all cases, and the police officers that conducted the investigation at the scene were interviewed in all cluster cases. Parents of the suicide victims of the first cluster were also interviewed. Two aggregations of teenager suicides were detected and evaluated as possible suicide clusters using the US Centers for Disease Control definition of a suicide cluster. Results Two clusters including six teenagers were confirmed, and contagion was established within each cluster. Conclusion The general practitioner is identified as a key person in the aftermath of a teenage suicide since the general practitioner often meet the family, friends of the deceased, and other acquaintances early in the process after a suicide. This makes the general practitioner suitable to initiate contacts with others involved in the well-being of the young, in order to prevent suicide cluster formation and para-suicidal activities.
Baek, Ji Hyun; Park, Jong-Ik; Ahn, Jeonghoon; Roh, Sung-Won; Heo, Jung-Yoon; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Jeon, Hong Jin
Suicide is a tragedy that has massive impact on society. In order to prevent suicide, active government intervention is necessary. The suicide rate in Seoul is rapidly increasing and is more than five times higher than that in the state of Massachusetts (MA) during the last decade, especially in the elderly. The suicide prevention program of MA is one of the most effective suicide prevention programs in the United States. The program views suicide as a preventable public health problem, and emphasizes treatment of depression and de-stigmatization of mental health illnesses to prevent suicide. Also, through active collaboration with mental health professionals, they try to identify at-risk populations and help them to get medical interventions. The program also actively collaborates with the regional coalition program and the Samaritans in taking care of the elderly, and supports the elderly in feeling worthwhile after retirement by helping them to work for communities as volunteers. For its part, the Seoul suicide prevention program puts more emphasis on "life respect culture" and "emotional support to high risk individuals by regular visiting". The annual budget of the Seoul suicide prevention program is one-quarter and that for mental health is about one-twentieth that of MA. Considering the high suicide rate and lower mental health service usage in Seoul, it is crucial to raise awareness of depression and decrease the stigma on mental illnesses. Furthermore, educational efforts with long-term investment in research on suicide are necessary. PMID:26207119
Shah, Ajit; Zarate-Escudero, Sofia; Bhat, Ravi;
interval 5.1-8.5) per 100,000 person years in women. CONCLUSIONS: Suicide rates were sufficiently large amongst centenarians for there to constitute a public health concern given the anticipated rise in the centenarian population and the paucity of data on risk and protective factors for suicide in this....... The number of centernarians for the corresponding years was estimated for each country using data provided by the United Nations website. RESULTS: Data were available from 17 countries. The suicide rate was 57 (95% confidence interval 45-69) per 100, 000 person years in men and 6.8 (95% confidence....... METHODS: Data on the number of suicides (ICD-10 codes, X60-84) in entenarians of both gender for as many years as possible from 2000 were ascertained from three sources: colleagues, national statisics office websites and e-mail contact with the national statistics offices of as many countries as possible...
Youth suicide prevention programs are described that promote the identification and referral of at-risk youth, address risk factors, and promote protective factors. Emphasis is on programs that are both effective and sustainable in applied settings.
Depression and Suicide Risk (2014) Definition: A mood disorder that causes a persistent feeling of sadness and ... i Prevalence: 1. Ranges of lifetime risk for depression: from 6.7% overall to 40% in men, ...
Drug abuse has been widely linked to suicide risk. We examined the factors that affect adolescent drug users' suicide attempts in South Korea. This study analyzed the data of 311 adolescents who had used drugs such as inhalants, psychotropic drugs, and marijuana (195 males and 116 females). Among 311 subjects, 109 (35.0%) had attempted suicide during the last 12 months. After adjusting for other variables, depressive mood (OR=19.79) and poly-drug use (OR=2.79), and low/middle levels of academic achievement compared with a high level (OR=3.72 and 4.38) were independently associated with increased odds of a suicide attempt, while better perceived health (OR=0.32) was independently associated with reduced odds of a suicide attempt. For adolescent drug users, preventive work should be directed toward the active treatment of drug use, depression, and physical health and reinforcing proper coping strategies for academic and other stress. PMID:27247604
Park, Subin; Song, Hokwang
Drug abuse has been widely linked to suicide risk. We examined the factors that affect adolescent drug users' suicide attempts in South Korea. This study analyzed the data of 311 adolescents who had used drugs such as inhalants, psychotropic drugs, and marijuana (195 males and 116 females). Among 311 subjects, 109 (35.0%) had attempted suicide during the last 12 months. After adjusting for other variables, depressive mood (OR=19.79) and poly-drug use (OR=2.79), and low/middle levels of academic achievement compared with a high level (OR=3.72 and 4.38) were independently associated with increased odds of a suicide attempt, while better perceived health (OR=0.32) was independently associated with reduced odds of a suicide attempt. For adolescent drug users, preventive work should be directed toward the active treatment of drug use, depression, and physical health and reinforcing proper coping strategies for academic and other stress. PMID:27247604
Vsevolod Rozanov; Vladimir Carli
Studies aiming to identify if war veterans are at higher risk of suicide have often produced inconsistent results; this could be due to the complexity of comparisons and different methodological approaches. It should be noted that this contingent has many risk factors, such as stressful exposures, wounds, brain trauma and pain syndrome. Most recent observations confirm that veterans are really more likely to die of suicide as compared to the general population; they are also more likely to ex...
Bokowiec, Mark; Wilson-Bokowiec, Julie
The Suicided Voice (for performer/vocalist, the Bodycoder System, live MSP, video streaming & computer graphics) The Suicided Voice is the second piece in the Vox Circuit Trilogy, a series of interactive vocal works completed in 2007. In this piece the acoustic voice of the performer is “suicided” and given up to digital processing and physical re-embodiment. Dialogues are created between acoustic and digital voices. Gender specific registers are willfully subverted and fractured...
Narang, R.L.; Mishra, B.P.; Nitesh, Mohan
This study assesses the various socio-demographic correlates, the method adopted and the psychiatric disorders in patients with attempted suicide. Out of 208 cases presented to the hospital, one hundred individuals with suicide attempt were included in the present study. They were evaluated for socio-demographic profile and psychiatric illness on the basis of ICD-10 criteria. Analysis of the results showed that single males outnumbered single females, whereas married females outnumbered marri...
Introduction: Over the past 20 years the WHO has considerably improved world mortality data. There are still shortcomings but more countries now report data and world-wide estimates are regularly made. Methods: Data about mortality have been retrieved from the WHO world database. Worldwide injury mortality estimates for 2008 as well as trends of the suicide rate from 1950 to 2009 were analysed. Results: Suicides in the world amount to 782 thousand in 2008 according to the WHO estimate, which ...
Penberthy, J Kim; Penberthy, J Morgan; Harris, Marcus R; Nanda, Sonali; Ahn, Jennifer; Martinez, Caridad Ponce; Osika, Apule O; Slepian, Zoe A; Forsyth, Justin C; Starr, J Andrew; Farrell, Jennifer E; Hook, Joshua N
Risk of suicidality during smoking cessation treatment is an important, but often overlooked, aspect of nicotine addiction research and treatment. We explore the relationship between smoking cessation interventions and suicidality and explore common treatments, their associated risks, and effectiveness in promoting smoking reduction and abstinence. Although active smokers have been reported to have twofold to threefold increased risk of suicidality when compared to nonsmokers,1-4 research regarding the safest way to stop smoking does not always provide clear guidelines for practitioners wishing to advise their patients regarding smoking cessation strategies. In this article, we review pharmacological and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) options that are available for people seeking to quit smoking, focusing on the relationship between the ability of these therapies to reduce smoking behavior and promote abstinence and suicidality risks as assessed by reported suicidality on validated measures, reports of suicidal ideation, behaviors, actual attempts, or completed suicides. Pharmacotherapies such as varenicline, bupropion, and nicotine replacement, and CBTs, including contextual CBT interventions, have been found to help reduce smoking rates and promote and maintain abstinence. Suicidality risks, while present when trying to quit smoking, do not appear to demonstrate a consistent or significant rise associated with use of any particular smoking cessation pharmacotherapy or CBT/contextual CBT intervention reviewed. PMID:27081311
O'Connor, Daryl B; Ferguson, Eamonn; Green, Jessica A; O'Carroll, Ronan E; O'Connor, Rory C
Suicide is a major cause of death worldwide, responsible for 1.5% of all mortality. The causes of suicidal behavior are not fully understood. Dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, as measured by cortisol levels, is one potential risk factor. This meta-analytic review aimed (i) to estimate the strength and variability of the association between naturally fluctuating cortisol levels and suicidal behavior and (ii) to identify moderators of this relationship. A systematic literature search identified 27 studies (N=2226; 779 suicide attempters and 1447 non-attempters) that met the study eligibility criteria from a total of 417 unique records initially examined. Estimates of effect sizes (r) obtained from these studies were analysed using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis. In these analyses, we compared participants identified as having a past history of suicide attempt(s) to those with no such history. Study quality, mean age of sample and percentage of male participants were examined as potential moderators. Overall, there was no significant effect of suicide group on cortisol. However, significant associations between cortisol and suicide attempts were observed as a function of age. In studies where the mean age of the sample was below 40 years the association was positive (i.e., higher cortisol was associated with suicide attempts; r=.234, psuicide attempts; r=-.129, psuicidal behavior. The challenge for theory and clinical practice is to explain the complete reversal of the association with age and to identify its clinical implications. PMID:26555430
Penberthy, J. Kim; Penberthy, J. Morgan; Harris, Marcus R.; Nanda, Sonali; Ahn, Jennifer; Martinez, Caridad Ponce; Osika, Apule O.; Slepian, Zoe A.; Forsyth, Justin C.; Starr, J. Andrew; Farrell, Jennifer E.; Hook, Joshua N.
Risk of suicidality during smoking cessation treatment is an important, but often overlooked, aspect of nicotine addiction research and treatment. We explore the relationship between smoking cessation interventions and suicidality and explore common treatments, their associated risks, and effectiveness in promoting smoking reduction and abstinence. Although active smokers have been reported to have twofold to threefold increased risk of suicidality when compared to nonsmokers,1–4 research regarding the safest way to stop smoking does not always provide clear guidelines for practitioners wishing to advise their patients regarding smoking cessation strategies. In this article, we review pharmacological and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) options that are available for people seeking to quit smoking, focusing on the relationship between the ability of these therapies to reduce smoking behavior and promote abstinence and suicidality risks as assessed by reported suicidality on validated measures, reports of suicidal ideation, behaviors, actual attempts, or completed suicides. Pharmacotherapies such as varenicline, bupropion, and nicotine replacement, and CBTs, including contextual CBT interventions, have been found to help reduce smoking rates and promote and maintain abstinence. Suicidality risks, while present when trying to quit smoking, do not appear to demonstrate a consistent or significant rise associated with use of any particular smoking cessation pharmacotherapy or CBT/contextual CBT intervention reviewed. PMID:27081311
Walter, Garry; Pridmore, Saxby
Background: Current clinical wisdom is that the vast majority of those who complete suicide suffer from a mental disorder. Uncritical adherence to this belief may limit our understanding and restrict the full range of prevention activities. We aimed to examine the public record for accounts of suicide by men who had been, or were about to be, investigated or apprehended for “sex only” child sex offences, with a view to presenting a collection of case histories, and identifying examples of suicide in the apparent absence of mental disorder other than pedophilia. Methods: The public record (hard and electronic copy) was examined. Results: Twenty case histories were identified of men with no apparent mental disorder (other than pedophilia) who completed suicide shortly after exposure or threatened public exposure and/or early or potential legal punishment. Conclusion: This evidence strongly suggests that exposure or threatened public exposure of pedophilia and/or early or potential legal punishment creates a predicament, which may lead to completed suicide. PMID:23613648
Dimitrov, B. D.; Atanassova, P. A.; Rachkova, M. I.
Multicomponent cyclicity in monthly suicides (periods T = 18, 46 and 198 months) was found and close similarity with heliogeophysical activity (HGA) suggested by Dimitrov in 1999. The current report aimed at scrutinizing the results on suicide annual cyclicity (seasonality) in Slovenia as reported by Oravecz et al in 2007 as well as at analyzing suicide data from Finland in this regard. We postulated that: (i) trans-year (12-24 months) or far-trans-year long-term cycles of suicides might interfere with their seasonality; and (ii) associations to environmental factors with alike cyclicity (e.g. HGA, temperature) could exist. Annual suicide incidence from Oulu, Finland over years 1987-1999 was analyzed. Annual data on solar activity (sunspot index Rz or Wolf number), planetary geomagnetic activity (aa-index) and local daily mean temperatures were used. The exploration of underlying chronomes (time structures) was done by periodogram regression analysis with trigonometric approximation. We analyzed temporal dynamics, revealed cyclicity, decomposed and reconstructed significant cycles and correlated the time series data. Suicide seasonality in Slovenia during the years 1971-2002 (n=384 months, peak May-June) was considered and, although some discrepancies and methodological weaknesses were suspected, we further hypothesized about trans-year and/or longer (far-transyear) cyclic components. Suicide incidence data from Finland indicated that the 12.5-year cyclic component (or trend) was almost parallel (coherent) to the cyclic heliogeophysical parameters and similar to local decreasing temperature dynamics. Also, 8-year and 24.5-year cycles were revealed. A correlation between the 12.5-year suicide cycle and 11-year solar cycle was found (R=0.919, p=0.000009). Above findings on cyclicity and temporal correlations of suicides with cyclic environmental factors, even being still preliminary, might not only allow for further more specific analyses. They might also corroborate
This article reviews research into suicide in women during the last 25 years. National rates vary between the extremes of 19/10(5) per year in Sri Lanka and China, which report higher rates in young married women. The reproductive process has some influence. While menstruation, hormonal treatment, pregnancy and the puerperium have no major effect, unwanted pregnancy may still lead to suicide under certain circumstances, and severe labour can occasionally do so. Having children protects, but the relative risk is no more than 2.0 in nulliparous women. Social factors also have a limited effect. There are higher rates of suicide in divorced women, but the evidence on widowhood is equivocal. Prosperity and employment have no effect. Sexual abuse, rape and domestic violence undoubtedly lead to suicide attempts, but the evidence on completed suicide is lacking. There are many unanswered questions, especially why rates of completed suicide for women (with a greater prevalence of overt depression) are lower than for men, and why Chinese and Indian women have higher rates. More research is required, especially from developing nations. PMID:11349759
Hinduja, Sameer; Patchin, Justin W
Empirical studies and some high-profile anecdotal cases have demonstrated a link between suicidal ideation and experiences with bullying victimization or offending. The current study examines the extent to which a nontraditional form of peer aggression--cyberbullying--is also related to suicidal ideation among adolescents. In 2007, a random sample of 1,963 middle-schoolers from one of the largest school districts in the United States completed a survey of Internet use and experiences. Youth who experienced traditional bullying or cyberbullying, as either an offender or a victim, had more suicidal thoughts and were more likely to attempt suicide than those who had not experienced such forms of peer aggression. Also, victimization was more strongly related to suicidal thoughts and behaviors than offending. The findings provide further evidence that adolescent peer aggression must be taken seriously both at school and at home, and suggest that a suicide prevention and intervention component is essential within comprehensive bullying response programs implemented in schools. PMID:20658375
Zhang, Jie; Jia, Cunxian
To understand psychometric characteristics of Beck Suicide Intent Scale (SIS) and different characteristics of suicides between high and low intent in Chinese culture. Data of 386 suicides and 416 living controls aged 15-34 years were used to analyze psychometric characteristics of SIS with 6 items. SIS with 6 items had high reliability and validity. Different characteristics were found between suicides with high intent and low intent. Hopelessness, depression, impulsivity, and approach coping skill were common factors of suicide with high and low intent. Education years, marriage, social support, and mental disorders were specific factors of suicide with low intent. High intent suicides had different characteristics from low intent suicides. SIS with 6 items is suitable for use in young rural China. PMID:21541859
Laios, K; Tsoukalas, G; Kontaxaki, M-I; Karamanou, M; Androutsos, G
The theme of suicide appears several times in ancient Greek literature. However, each such reference acquires special significance depending on the field from which it originates. Most of the information found in mythology, but the suicide in a mythological tale, although in terms of motivation and mental situation of heroes may be in imitation of similar incidents of real life, in fact is linked with the principles of the ancient Greek religion. In ancient drama and mainly in tragedies suicide conduces to the tragic hypostasis of the heroes and to the evolution of the plot and also is a tool in order to be presented the ideas of poets for the relations of the gods, the relation among gods and men and the relation among the men. In ancient Greek philosophy there were the deniers of suicide, who were more concerned about the impact of suicide on society and also these who accepted it, recognizing the right of the individual to put an end to his life, in order to avoid personal misfortunes. Real suicides will be found mostly from historical sources, but most of them concern leading figures of the ancient world. Closer to the problem of suicide in the everyday life of antiquity are ancient Greek medicines, who studied the phenomenon more general without references to specific incidents. Doctors did not approve in principal the suicide and dealt with it as insane behavior in the development of the mental diseases, of melancholia and mania. They considered that the discrepancy of humors in the organ of logic in the human body will cause malfunction, which will lead to the absurdity and consequently to suicide, either due to excessive concentration of black bile in melancholia or due to yellow bile in mania. They believed that greater risk to commit suicide had women, young people and the elderly. As therapy they used the drugs of their time with the intention to induce calm and repression in the ill person, therefore they mainly used mandragora. In general, we would say
Liem, Marieke; Nieuwbeerta, Paul
Homicide-suicides are a rare yet very serious form of lethal violence which mainly occurs in partnerships and families. The extent to which homicide-suicide can be understood as being primarily a homicide or a suicide event, or rather a category of its own is examined. In total, 103 homicide-suicides were compared to 3,203 homicides and 17,751…
Zhang, Jie; Jia, Cunxian
To understand psychometric characteristics of Beck Suicide Intent Scale (SIS) and different characteristics of suicides between high and low intent in Chinese culture. Data of 386 suicides and 416 living controls aged 15–34 years were used to analyze psychometric characteristics of SIS with 6 items. SIS with 6 items had high reliability and validity. Different characteristics were found between suicides with high intent and low intent. Hopelessness, depression, impulsivity, and approach copin...
Jang, Soo Ah; Sung, Ji Min; Park, Jin Young; Jeon, Woo Taek
Objective Throughout the past several years, there have been a number of entertainment celebrity suicides in South Korea. The aim of this study was to investigate the clustering of suicides following celebrities' suicides in South Korea from 2005 to 2008, particularly according to certain characteristics. Methods Seven celebrity suicides were examined and defined using the Korean Integrated Newspaper Database System (KINDS) and from these, we considered four affected periods occurring 28 days...
Tchernookov, Martin; Nemenman, Ilya
While active, controlled cellular suicide (autolysis) in bacteria is commonly observed, it has been hard to argue that autolysis can be beneficial to an individual who commits it. We propose a theoretical model that predicts that bacterial autolysis is evolutionarily advantageous to an individualand would fixate in physically structured environments for stationary phase colonies. We perform spatially resolved agent-based simulations of the model, which predict that lower mixing in the environment results in fixation of a higher autolysis rate from a single mutated cell, regardless of the colony's genetic diversity. We argue that quorum sensing will fixate as well, even if initially rare, if it is coupled to controlling the autolysis rate. The model does not predict a strong additional competitive advantage for cells where autolysis is controlled by quorum sensing systems that distinguish self from nonself. These predictions are broadly supported by recent experimental results in B. subtilisand S. pneumoniae. Research partially supported by the James S McDonnell Foundation grant No. 220020321 and by HFSP grant No. RGY0084/2011.
Walker Rheeda L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Suicide officially kills approximately 30,000 annually in the United States. Analysis of this leading public health problem is complicated by undercounting. Despite persisting socioeconomic and health disparities, non-Hispanic Blacks and Hispanics register suicide rates less than half that of non-Hispanic Whites. Methods This cross-sectional study uses multiple cause-of-death data from the US National Center for Health Statistics to assess whether race/ethnicity, psychiatric comorbidity documentation, and other decedent characteristics were associated with differential potential for suicide misclassification. Subjects were 105,946 White, Black, and Hispanic residents aged 15 years and older, dying in the US between 2003 and 2005, whose manner of death was recorded as suicide or injury of undetermined intent. The main outcome measure was the relative odds of potential suicide misclassification, a binary measure of manner of death: injury of undetermined intent (includes misclassified suicides versus suicide. Results Blacks (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.22-2.57 and Hispanics (1.17, 1.07-1.28 manifested excess potential suicide misclassification relative to Whites. Decedents aged 35-54 (AOR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.84-0.93, 55-74 (0.52, 0.49-0.57, and 75+ years (0.51, 0.46-0.57 showed diminished misclassification potential relative to decedents aged 15-34, while decedents with 0-8 years (1.82, 1.75-1.90 and 9-12 years of education (1.43, 1.40-1.46 showed excess potential relative to the most educated (13+ years. Excess potential suicide misclassification was also apparent for decedents without (AOR, 3.12; 95% CI, 2.78-3.51 versus those with psychiatric comorbidity documented on their death certificates, and for decedents whose mode of injury was "less active" (46.33; 43.32-49.55 versus "more active." Conclusions Data disparities might explain much of the Black-White suicide rate gap, if not the
Bedriye Oncu; Direnc Sakarya
Suicide associated mortality rates are notable for eating disorders. Crude mortality rate associated with suicide, varies between 0% and 5.3% in patients with eating disorders. Prominent risk factors for suicidal behavior among these patients are subtype of the eating disorders, comorbid psychiatric diagnosis (e.g. depression, alcohol and substance abuse, personality disorders), ultrarapid drug metabolism, history of childhood abuse and particular family dynamics. In this article, suicidal be...
Full Text Available Suicide associated mortality rates are notable for eating disorders. Crude mortality rate associated with suicide, varies between 0% and 5.3% in patients with eating disorders. Prominent risk factors for suicidal behavior among these patients are subtype of the eating disorders, comorbid psychiatric diagnosis (e.g. depression, alcohol and substance abuse, personality disorders, ultrarapid drug metabolism, history of childhood abuse and particular family dynamics. In this article, suicidal behavior and associated factors in eating disorders are briefly reviewed.
Bogdanović Ljiljana; Savić Slobodan; Basta-Jovanović Gordana
Introduction Suicide is a conscious and intentional destruction of one’s own life, which occurs as a result of mutual influence of a person’s disposition and motives (facts inspiring the commitment of suicide). It is well known that various diseases, including malignancies, could be important and in some cases the only motive for committing suicide. Objective The purpose of the study was to analyze in detail suicides of persons whose only motive was an established malignant disease. Method Th...
Schwartz-Lifshitz, Maya; Zalsman, Gil; Giner, Lucas; Oquendo, Maria A
Every year, suicide is among the top 20 leading causes of death globally for all ages. Unfortunately, suicide is difficult to prevent, in large part because the prevalence of risk factors is high among the general population. In this review, clinical and psychological risk factors are examined and methods for suicide prevention are discussed. Prevention strategies found to be effective in suicide prevention include means restriction, responsible media coverage, and general public education, a...
By the final decade of the twentieth century, rates of suicide in Sri Lanka ranked among the highest in the world. However, in 1996 the suicide rate began to fall and was soon at its lowest level in almost 30 years. This decline poses problems for classic sociological theories of suicide and forces us to question some fundamental assumptions underlying social scientific approaches to the suicide rate. Drawing from sociological, medical epidemiological, historical, and anthropological secondar...
Full Text Available Suicide is the second most common cause of death in young adults worldwide. Teens in Southern India have the world's highest suicide rates. Suicide is often committed out of despair, or attributed to some underlying mental disorder which includes depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and alcoholism and drug abuse.
This article reviews the prevalence of suicide and suicidal ideation among American Indian adolescents. Unique risk and protective factors, and historical trauma and associated symptoms, are explored in the context of American Indian adolescent suicide. The need for culturally-sensitive interventions are necessary, and an example of a…
Morrison, James L.
Suggests school and university intervention strategies for preventing suicides among youths, proposed following a series of teenage suicides in Minnesota: closer liaison and backup for the school counselor, peer counseling services, in-school support groups, faculty in-service on suicide, curricular introduction to coping skills and identification…
Gover, F. Jill
There is a great deal of concern about teenage suicide. This study obtained a prevalence rate of suicidal behaviors among non-psychiatric early adolescents (ages 11-16) and investigated personal and family variables that may characterize the young teenagers who report varying degrees of suicidal behavior. A self-report questionnaire was…
NJEA Review, 1982
Suicide and attempted suicide among teenagers has risen dramatically since 1960, especially among girls. Three theories of the causes of suicide (emotional crises, brain chemistry and nonexpression of grief) are discussed. Depression and other first stage warning signals, and the nature of second stage "cries for help," are considered. (CM)
Draws on studies in different cultures and subcultures and in different age groups to develop a psychosocial perspective for viewing youthful suicide. Uses disciplines ranging from demography to psychodynamics to discuss relationship of violence to suicide; role of families in producing youngsters who become preoccupied with death and suicide; and…
Canino, Glorisa; Roberts, Robert E.
Reviews the scientific literature related to suicidal behavior among Latino youth. Discusses the conceptualizations of culture, and how culture may influence behavior and psychopathology, in particular, suicidal behavior. Reviews the literature that discusses rates of suicidal behavior, risk, and protective factors associated with this behavior…
Mehrabian, Albert; Weinstein, Lisa
In a preliminary study of a single group of suicide attempters, male and female subjects did not differ in temperament characteristics. Data from both sexes indicated that suicide-prone individuals have unpleasant, arousable, and submissive temperaments, with arousability a strong discriminator of suicide attempters relative to the general…
Johnson, R. Bradley; Oxendine, Symphony; Taub, Deborah J.; Robertson, Jason
Extensive media coverage of the suicide deaths of several gay and lesbian youth has highlighted lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth as a population at-risk for suicide. In addition, it has caused colleges and universities to address mental health and suicide behavior among this very diverse college population. One issue that…
Baby, Sanjush; P, Manju; KF, Yesudas
This is a retrospective study which assesses the various socio-demographic correlates, the methods adopted to commit suicide and the psychiatric disorders in patients attempting suicide. The most common psychiatric diagnosis was found to be Adjustment disorder followed by Depressive disorder. Organo-phosphorous compounds were the most frequent agent used among suicide attempt patients.
Phenomenology studies conscious experience as experienced from the subjective or first-person point of view. This paper was developed with the aim of shedding light on the phenomenology of suicide; that is, to focus on suicide as a phenomenon affecting a unique individual with unique motives for the suicidal act. To explore this topic, the author…
Sheikholeslami, Homayoun; Kani, Camellia; Ziaee, Amir
Predictors of suicide attempts in Iran, to distinguish any similarities and differences of these predictors between suicide attempts in Iran and other developed and developing countries and to investigate the relation between general psychiatric symptoms and repetition of suicidal attempts were assessed. The validated Farsi version of the General…
From social work perspective, considers ethics of assisted suicide. Discusses traditional social work value of client self-determination and identifies tensions in this ideal and conflicts with value of client well-being. Finds assisted suicide unethical, arguing that studies have shown judgment of most suicidal people to be impaired as result of…
Contends that old age, in and of itself, should never need to be a cause for self-destruction. Further argues that suicide and assisted suicide carried out in the face of terminal illness causing unbearable suffering should be ethically and legally acceptable. Outlines a perspective on rational suicide among the elderly. (Author/NB)
Jena, S.; Sidhartha, T.
In the USA, suicide ranked as the third leading cause of death for adolescents in 1999. Non-fatal suicidal behaviours are suicidal thought, specific suicidal plan and suicide attempt. Prospective studies have emphasized the high subsequent suicide rates in clinically presenting suicide attempters. This study was planned to critically review the existing international literature on this area, and compare, if possible, with the Indian data. Both electronic and manual search for published and un...
Namratha, P.; Kishor, M.; Sathyanarayana Rao, T. S.; Raman, Rajesh
Background: Suicide is one of the leading causes of preventable deaths. Recent data suggest South India as one of the regions with highest suicide rates in the world. In 2013, 134,799 people committed suicide in India according to the statistics released by the National Crime Records Bureau. Suicide note is one of the most important sources to understand suicide, which may be beneficial in suicide prevention. Studies on suicidal notes from this part of the world are sparse. Objective: The aim...
Suicide and attempted suicide are major health problems. Approximately 1400 people die from suicide every year in Sweden and ten times more attempt suicide. Patients with schizophrenia spectrum psychosis have an increased risk of suicide and suicide rates have been suggested to be as high as 10%. Important risk factors include a prior suicide attempt and depressive disorder. Low concentrations of monoamine metabolites in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) have been related to suicida...
Objective The aims of this study were to determine whether childhood maltreatment contributes to the occurrence of major depressive disorder (MDD) with bipolarity, and whether there is a relationship between central serotonergic activity, as assessed using loudness dependence of auditory evoked potentials (LDAEP), and childhood maltreatment. Methods Thirty-five MDD patients were stratified according to the presence or absence of childhood trauma into two subgroups, childhood trauma (CT) and no childhood trauma (NCT), using the Korean version of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (K-CTQ). The CT group was subjected to further analysis. Several psychometric ratings were also applied. In addition, auditory processing for the loudness dependence of auditory evoked potentials (LDAEP), which was used as a marker of serotonergic activity, was measured before beginning medication. Results There was a significant difference in total Korean Bipolar Spectrum Disorder Scale score between the CT and NCT groups (t=-2.14, p=0.04). The total K-CTQ score was positively correlated with the total Beck Scale for Suicidal Ideation (BSS) score (r=0.36, p=0.036). In particular, emotional abuse was positively correlated with the total Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (r=0.38, p=0.026), BSS (r=0.38, p=0.025), and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) (r=0.36, p=0.035) scores. There was also a positive correlation between LDAEP and total Hypomania Personality Scale (r=0.49, p=0.02) and HAMD (r=0.58, p=0.004) scores within CT group. Conclusion The findings of this study support that there is a relationship between childhood maltreatment and bipolarity in patients with MDD. PMID:27081379
Lim, Meerae; Lee, Sang Uk; Park, Jong-Ik
Background In light of the increased suicide rate in Korea, it has become important for researchers to examine the various factors associated with it. The purpose of this study is to compare and analyze the difference between suicide attempters and completers in terms of the suicide methods used and the lethality of these methods. In addition, we investigated certain demographic factors that are associated with the choice of suicide method by evaluating their lethality. Finding The most frequ...
Christiansen, Erik; Jensen, Børge Frank
This study was undertaken in order to estimate the incidence of repetition of suicide attempt, suicide and all deaths, and to analyse the influence of psychiatric illness and socio-demographic factors on these.......This study was undertaken in order to estimate the incidence of repetition of suicide attempt, suicide and all deaths, and to analyse the influence of psychiatric illness and socio-demographic factors on these....
Jokinen, Jussi; Nordström, Anna-Lena; Nordström, Peter
Prospective studies of the serotonergic system and suicide report that low 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and a history of attempted suicide predict suicide risk. Low CSF homovanillic acid (HVA) is reported to be associated with past and future lethality of suicide attempts but not with suicide. The interrelationships between monoamine metabolites, violent method, suicide intent and lethality of suicidal behaviour are complex. We hypothesized that CSF 5-HIAA and HVA levels are related to suicide intent, violence and lethality of suicidal behaviour. Fifteen male suicide attempters admitted to a psychiatric ward at the Karolinska University Hospital and eight healthy male volunteers were submitted to lumbar puncture and CSF 5-HIAA and HVA were assayed. Suicide intent with the Beck Suicide Intent Scale (SIS), lethality and violence of suicidal behaviour were assessed. All patients were followed up for causes of death. Six suicides and one fatal accident were identified with death certificates. Mean CSF 5-HIAA but not CSF HVA differed between suicides and survivors. Violent suicides had higher suicide intent and CSF 5-HIAA than non-violent suicides. In violent suicides, CSF 5-HIAA levels were negatively correlated with SIS. Greater suicide intent may be associated with greater aggressive intent and predicts a violent suicide method. PMID:19034712
Carretta, Carrie M; Burgess, Ann W; Welner, Michael
Gaps in crises of mental health emerge from poor distinction between the qualities of people who suicide and those who murder and then kill themselves. The role, if any, that substance use has in such lethal violence is an example of such a lack of distinction. In this study, a sample of medical examiner investigative and toxicology reports from Los Angeles and Orange counties in California were available for analysis for 432 suicide cases and 193 homicide-suicide cases. This informed clearer toxicological and pharmacological distinction of suicide from homicide-suicide. Blood alcohol levels were higher in persons committing suicide than in homicide-suicide perpetrators (p=.004). Homicide-suicide perpetrators had almost twice the level of stimulants in their system than people who suicide (p=.022) but did not have comparatively elevated levels of drugs or alcohol. Predictors of suicide included the following: substance abuse history, high number of drugs in system, death inside a house, and legal impairment by alcohol. Predictors of homicide-suicide included gunshot as the cause of death, female gender, domestic conflict, children living in the home, and prior arrest for substance abuse. PMID:26397439
Wang, A G; Bille-Brahe, U; Hansen, W;
Ninety-nine patients, randomly chosen among hospital admitted suicide attempters, were initially interviewed at the Department of Psychiatry, Odense University Hospital, Denmark, and then followed up for a period of about 3 years. Half of the patients repeated the attempt in the follow-up period......, mostly in the first year. Ten patients committed suicide, half of them in the first 3 months after the interview, shortly after discharge from hospital. The majority of the repeaters were living alone, while those that committed suicide were mostly married women aged 50-60 years. Other characteristic...... features for the repeaters were previous suicidal behaviour and suicidal behaviour among relatives. Many had a psychiatric record and expressed chronic somatic complaints. Around the time of the attempt, many expressed hopelessness, isolation and suicidal ideation. Pierce's Suicide Intent Scale performed...
Full Text Available Background: Restricting access to common means of suicide, such as firearms, toxic gas, pesticides and other, has been shown to be effective in reducing rates of death in suicide. In the present review we aimed to summarize the empirical and clinical literature on controlling the access to means of suicide. Methods: This review made use of both MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science and the Cochrane library databases, identifying all English articles with the keywords “suicide means”, “suicide method”, “suicide prediction” or “suicide prevention” and other relevant keywords. Results: A number of factors may influence an individual’s decision regarding method in a suicide act, but there is substantial support that easy access influences the choice of method. In many countries, restrictions of access to common means of suicide has lead to lower overall suicide rates, particularly regarding suicide by firearms in USA, detoxification of domestic and motor vehicle gas in England and other countries, toxic pesticides in rural areas, barriers at jumping sites and hanging, by introducing “safe rooms” in prisons and hospitals. Moreover, decline in prescription of barbiturates and tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs, as well as limitation of drugs pack size for paracetamol and salicylate has reduced suicides by overdose, while increased prescription of SSRIs seems to have lowered suicidal rates. Conclusions: Restriction to means of suicide may be particularly effective in contexts where the method is popular, highly lethal, widely available, and/or not easily substituted by other similar methods. However, since there is some risk of means substitution, restriction of access should be implemented in conjunction with other suicide prevention strategies.
Wong, Paul W. C.; Liu, Patricia M. Y.; Chan, Wincy S. C.; Law, Y. W.; Law, Steven C. K.; Fu, King-Wa; Li, Hana S. H.; Tso, M. K.; Beautrais, Annette L.; Yip, Paul S. F.
An integrative suicide prevention program was implemented to tackle an outbreak of visitor charcoal burning suicides in Cheung Chau, an island in Hong Kong, in 2002. This study evaluated the effectiveness of the program. The numbers of visitor suicides reduced from 37 deaths in the 51 months prior to program implementation to 6 deaths in the 42…
Talley, Amelia E.; Brown, Sarah L.; Cukrowicz, Kelly; Bagge, Courtney L.
Mechanisms (i.e., thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, hopelessness) derived from the interpersonal theory of suicide which are hypothesized to account for the relation between sexual orientation self-concept ambiguity and active suicide ideation were examined. Participants included 349 women, among whom 42% currently self-ascribed a non-exclusively heterosexual sexual identity. Among women reporting higher levels of sexual self-concept ambiguity, greater risk for active suicide ...
TSUKAHARA, Teruomi; Arai, Hiroaki; Kamijo, Tomoko; Kobayashi, Yoshikiyo; Washizuka, Shinsuke; Arito, Heihachiro; Nomiyama, Tetsuo
Certain attitudes toward suicide may be a risk factor for suicide among the bereaved. To explore this possibility, we examined the relationship between attitudes toward suicide and family history of suicide. We focused on two specific attitudes indicating resignation in a survey: #1 “When a person chooses to die by suicide, the suicide is inevitable” (i.e., inevitability belief); and #2 “A suicide cannot be stopped by any person, because suicide is unpreventable” (i.e., unpreventable belief)....
Röcker, Sabine; Bachmann, Silke
The great majority of suicides and suicide attempts are related to mental illness. Special risk has been attributed to depression, psychosis, substance use, personality, and trauma-related disorders. Many affected persons seek medical attention prior to taking action. Primary care therefor plays an outstanding role in suicide prevention. Doctors should pay attention to potential risk constellations and actively address the issue. This paper presents possibly helpful models and instruments for everyday use. Most importantly, however, professionals’ empathy and time are required as well as appropriate decisions concerning a referral to a psychiatrist or psychiatric inpatient treatment. PMID:26423879
Alexander, Naomi; Callejero, Carlos; Fiore, Franco; Gómez, Ignacio; Gonzalo, Ramón; Enríquez de Luna, Álvaro; Ederra, Iñigo; Palacios, Inés
The chance of suicide bomber attacks against troops in the Theatre of Operations is currently quite high. Most of the time checkpoints and compound gates are not equipped with the appropriate equipment to screen for potential suicide bombers. The ultimate solution would be to be able to perform stand-off screening under various weather conditions whilst avoiding contact between Force Protection personnel and potential suicide bombers. Radiation in the millimeterwave and the lower Terahertz range, having the useful property of being able to penetrate clothing in addition to fog and rain, makes it a clear candidate for imaging in this situation. A study has been made simulating real case scenarios to test practical detection performance and stand-off distances at a range of frequencies in this band, the results of which will be presented.
Richardson-Vejlgaard, Randall; Sher, Leo; Oquendo, Maria A; Lizardi, Dana; Stanley, Barbara
Understanding the beliefs that protect individuals against suicide can help to enhance suicide prevention strategies. One measure of suicide non-acceptability is the Moral Objections to Suicide (MOS) subscale of the Reasons for Living Inventory (RFLI). This study examined the MOS and suicidal ideation of White, Black, and Hispanic individuals with mood disorders. We expected minority individuals to have stronger objections to suicide.
Ahmad, NoorAni; Cheong, Siew Man; Ibrahim, Nurashikin; Rosman, Azriman
Adolescence is the time of greatest risk for the first onset of suicidal behaviors. This study aimed to identify the risk and protective factors associated with suicidal ideation among Malaysian adolescents. Data from the 2012 Malaysia Global School-based Student Health Survey, a nationwide study using a 2-stage cluster sampling design, were analyzed. The survey used a self-administered validated bilingual questionnaire and the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale. The prevalence of suicidal ideation was 7.9%. Analysis revealed that suicidal ideation was positively associated with depression, anxiety, stress, substance use, being bullied, and being abused at home, either physically or verbally. In addition, suicidal ideation was significantly higher among females and among the Indians and Chinese. Having close friends and married parents were strongly protective against suicidal ideation. Understanding the risk and protective factors is important in providing comprehensive management for suicidal ideation. PMID:25005932
.0%, which was 3.0 times greater than expected. The leading causes overall were heart disease (20.2%, suicide (13.1%, and unintentional injury (12.7%. Whereas suicide was the ninth leading cause of death in the U.S. population overall (1.8% during the study period, suicide was the leading and second leading cause among women (25.0% and men (12.7% in the cohort, respectively. Conclusions Veterans who have attempted suicide face elevated risks of all-cause mortality with suicide being prominent. This represents an important population for prevention activities.
Full Text Available Twitter is increasingly investigated as a means of detecting mental health status, including depression and suicidality, in the population. However, validated and reliable methods are not yet fully established. This study aimed to examine whether the level of concern for a suicide-related post on Twitter could be determined based solely on the content of the post, as judged by human coders and then replicated by machine learning. From 18th February 2014 to 23rd April 2014, Twitter was monitored for a series of suicide-related phrases and terms using the public Application Program Interface (API. Matching tweets were stored in a data annotation tool developed by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO. During this time, 14,701 suicide-related tweets were collected: 14% were randomly (n = 2000 selected and divided into two equal sets (Set A and B for coding by human researchers. Overall, 14% of suicide-related tweets were classified as ‘strongly concerning’, with the majority coded as ‘possibly concerning’ (56% and the remainder (29% considered ‘safe to ignore’. The overall agreement rate among the human coders was 76% (average κ = 0.55. Machine learning processes were subsequently applied to assess whether a ‘strongly concerning’ tweet could be identified automatically. The computer classifier correctly identified 80% of ‘strongly concerning’ tweets and showed increasing gains in accuracy; however, future improvements are necessary as a plateau was not reached as the amount of data increased. The current study demonstrated that it is possible to distinguish the level of concern among suicide-related tweets, using both human coders and an automatic machine classifier. Importantly, the machine classifier replicated the accuracy of the human coders. The findings confirmed that Twitter is used by individuals to express suicidality and that such posts evoked a level of concern that warranted
Popenhagen, Mark P.; Qualley, Roxanne M.
Presents six myths of suicide are discussed. Risk factors, methods of detection of suicidal behavior, intervention techniques, and prevention of adolescent suicide. Characteristics of school-based suicide-prevention programs and appropriate teacher interventions are presented. A list of warning signs and two "no suicide" contracts are appended.…
Full Text Available Philippe CourtetCHRU Montpellier, Inserm U888, University of Montpellier I, Montpellier, FranceAbstract: Suicidal behavior (SB represents a major public health issue. Clinical and basic research suggests that SB is a specific entity in psychiatric nosology involving a combination of personality traits, genetic factors, childhood abuse and neuroanatomical abnormalities. The principal risk factor for suicide is depression. More than 60% of patients who complete suicide are depressed at the time of suicide, most of them untreated. There has been a controversy concerning a possible increased risk of SB in some depressed patients treated with antidepressants. Most recent evidence suggests, however, that treatment of depressed patients is associated with a favorable benefit-risk ratio. A recent study has determined the effects of 6 weeks of antidepressant treatment with the serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, milnacipran, on suicidality in a cohort of 30 patients with mild to moderate depression. At baseline, mild suicidal thoughts were present in 46.7% of patients. Suicidal thoughts decreased progressively throughout the study in parallel with other depressive symptoms and were essentially absent at the end of the study. At no time during treatment was there any indication of an increased suicidal risk. Retardation and psychic anxiety decreased in parallel possibly explaining the lack of any “activation syndrome” in this study.Keywords: suicide, milnacipran, SNRI, activation syndrome
Module fourteen of the EPEC-O Self-Study Original Version focuses on the skills that the physician can use to respond both compassionately and confidently to a request, not on the merits of arguments for or against legalizing physician-assisted suicide (PAS) or euthanasia.
... friends, family, and social situations Say goodbyes to family and friends, as if they don’t expect to see them again Abuse alcohol or drugs, or engage in other risky behaviors Have personality changes or mood swings What causes suicidal thoughts? ...
Nørrelykke, Helle; Cohrt, Pernille
and conflicting feelings may result in pathological expansion of grief characterized by extremely reduced quality of life involving severe psychical and social consequences. Suicide a subject of taboo In the 1980s WHO drafted a health policy document (‘Health for all year 2000’) with 38 targets for...
This article briefly outlines possible causes for the prevalence of suicide attempts among college students and then discusses various options for handling such crises: whether to notify the students' closest relatives, whether to obtain medical evaluation and treatment (as opposed to psychological counseling), and whether to allow the student to…
Does the question to be or not to be for Hamlet is whether to continue to exist or not? Is Hamlet contemplating sui-cide? The meaning of this famous speech in Shakespeare’s Hamlet has been given numerous interpretations. This essay focuses on the paradoxical emotion of Hamlet and intends to make a comprehensive analysis of this soliloquy.
Stenager, E N; Stenager, Egon; Koch-Henriksen, Nils;
In a nationwide investigation the risk of death by suicide for patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) was assessed using records kept at the Danish Multiple Sclerosis Registry (DMSR) and the Danish National Register of Cause of Death. The investigation covers all MS patients registered with DSMR...
Rao, A. Venkoba; Devi, S. Parvathi
SUMMARY Evidence from genetic research, monoamine studies and psychopharmacological trials points towards a possible biological predisposition and precipitant for suicidal behaviour. The implications for early detection and management based on a biological model have been discussed. The limitations of the model have been discussed.
Full Text Available Suicide is an escalating public health problem, and alcohol use has consistently been implicated in the precipitation of suicidal behavior. Alcohol abuse may lead to suicidality through disinhibition, impulsiveness and impaired judgment, but it may also be used as a means to ease the distress associated with committing an act of suicide. We reviewed evidence of the relationship between alcohol use and suicide through a search of MedLine and PsychInfo electronic databases. Multiple genetically-related intermediate phenotypes might influence the relationship between alcohol and suicide. Psychiatric disorders, including psychosis, mood disorders and anxiety disorders, as well as susceptibility to stress, might increase the risk of suicidal behavior, but may also have reciprocal influences with alcohol drinking patterns. Increased suicide risk may be heralded by social withdrawal, breakdown of social bonds, and social marginalization, which are common outcomes of untreated alcohol abuse and dependence. People with alcohol dependence or depression should be screened for other psychiatric symptoms and for suicidality. Programs for suicide prevention must take into account drinking habits and should reinforce healthy behavioral patterns.
Full Text Available Suicidegirls.com is a website which is both an online community, but also a softcore pin-up site, where the models feature extensive body modifications in the form of tattoos and piercings. The website promotes a democratic approach to the photo shoots, as the models remain in control, not the photographer. Marked by their body modifications, the Suicide Girls (as they call themselves, they actively attempt to subvert the typical pin-up conventions, by transgressing mainstream standards of beauty. In what seems remarkably similar to Judith Butler's account of subversive bodily acts, the pin-up shoots of the Suicide Girls mount a critique of a culture's view of the body as a natural entity. Cultural borders are crossed, as the bodies of the Suicide Girls embed ink into their bodies in the form of tattoos, and gender is played as a subversive game against the expectations of pin-up conventions. Acting as different and impure bodies, the Suicide Girls represent a threat to conventional conceptions of the body.
Perez-Rodriguez, M Mercedes; Baca-Garcia, Enrique; Oquendo, Maria A.; Blanco, Carlos
Suicide is one of the leading causes of death, and suicidal ideation and attempts are a major public health problem. However, little is known about the relationship between ethnicity and suicidal behaviors.
Pitman, Alexandra; Osborn, David; King, Michael;
Between 48 million and 500 million people are thought to experience suicide bereavement every year. Over the past decade, increased policy attention has been directed towards suicide bereavement, but with little evidence to describe the effect of exposure or to provide appropriate responses. We...... used a systematic approach to carry out a narrative review of studies of the effect of suicide bereavement on mortality, mental health, and social functioning, and compared them with effects from other bereavements. We found 57 studies that satisfied strict inclusion criteria. Results from these...... studies suggested that exposure to suicide of a close contact is associated with several negative health and social outcomes, depending on an individual's relationship to the deceased. These effects included an increased risk of suicide in partners bereaved by suicide, increased risk of required admission...
In recent years, there have been a number of claims and counterclaims from suicide research using time series and longitudinal data; in particular, the linkage of increased antidepressant prescriptions to a decrease in suicide rates. Suicide time series appear to have a memory compounded with seasonal and cyclic effects. Failure to take into account these properties may lead to misleading conclusions, e.g., a downward blip is interpreted as the result of current knowledge and public health po...
Blaauw, E.; Winkel, F.W.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.
Relationships between bullying features and suicidal behavior of inmates were examined. The files of 95 suicide victims in jails and prisons in the Netherlands were examined for reports of bullying. In addition, 221 nonsuicidal jail inmates and 53 suicidal jail inmates were interviewed. The files of 34% of the suicide victims noted that the suicide victim had felt bullied. Bullying, especially serious bullying, was relatively often reported by suicidal inmates and by vulnerable inmates. Diffe...
Suicide is a socio-cultural phenomenon. Reports about suicide from different cultures and eras support the opinion that suicide can be a cultivated and normatively recognized act. International educated and scientific use of the term suicide produces, conveys and suggests a narrowing of reflection. A medical deficit viewpoint has been established, and corresponding theories constructed and ‘verified’ to justify the paternalistic interaction with suicidal people. The suicidal person is discrim...
Suicide remains a serious health care problem and a sentinel event tracked by The Joint Commission. Nurses are pivotal in evaluating risk and preventing suicide. Analysis of nurses' barriers to risk management may lead to interventions to improve management of suicidal patients. These data emerged from a random survey of 454 oncology nurses' attitudes, knowledge of suicide, and justifications for euthanasia. Instruments included a vignette of a suicidal patient and a suicide attitude question...
Naresh Nebhinani; Mamta; Achla D Gaikwad; Tamphasana, L.
Background: Preventing suicide depends upon different health professionals’ knowledge regarding suicide, attitude toward suicide attempters, skills to assess and manage suicidal risk. Objectives: This study was aimed to assess the attitude of nursing students toward suicide prevention. Materials and Methods: 308 nursing students were recruited from the two institutions through total enumeration method. Attitude toward suicide prevention scale was administered. Study design was cross-sectional...
Wiklander Maria; Samuelsson Mats; Jokinen Jussi; Nilsonne Åsa; Wilczek Alexander; Rylander Gunnar; Åsberg Marie
Abstract Background It has been suggested that shame may be an important feature in suicidal behaviors. The disposition to react with shame, “shame-proneness”, has previously not been investigated in groups of attempted suicide patients. We examined shame-proneness in two groups of attempted suicide patients, one group of non-suicidal patients and one group of healthy controls. We hypothesized that the attempted suicide patients would be more shame-prone than non-suicidal patients and healthy...
Deshpande, Gopikrishna; Baxi, Madhura; Witte, Tracy; Robinson, Jennifer L.
The high rate of fatal suicidal behavior (SB) in men is an urgent issue as highlighted in the public eye via news sources and media outlets. In this study, we have attempted to address this issue and understand the neural substrates underlying the gender differences in the rate of fatal SB. The Interpersonal–Psychological Theory of Suicide has proposed an explanation for the seemingly paradoxical relationship between gender and SB, i.e., greater non-fatal suicide attempts by women but higher number of deaths by suicide in men. This theory states that possessing suicidal desire (due to conditions such as depression) alone is not sufficient for a lethal suicide attempt. It is imperative for an individual to have the acquired capability for suicide (ACS) along with suicidal desire in order to die by suicide. Therefore, higher levels of ACS in men may explain why men are more likely to die by suicide than women, despite being less likely to experience suicidal ideation or depression. In this study, we used activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis to investigate a potential ACS network that involves neural substrates underlying emotional stoicism, sensation-seeking, pain tolerance, and fearlessness of death, along with a potential depression network that involves neural substrates that underlie clinical depression. Brain regions commonly found in ACS and depression networks for males and females were further used as seeds to obtain regions functionally and structurally connected to them. We found that the male-specific networks were more widespread and diverse than the female-specific ones. Also, while the former involved motor regions, such as the premotor cortex and cerebellum, the latter was dominated by limbic regions. This may support the fact that suicidal desire generally leads to fatal/decisive action in males, while, in females, it manifests as depression, ideation, and generally non-fatal actions. The proposed model is a first attempt to characterize
Snarr, Jeffery D.; Heyman, Richard E.; Slep, Amy M. Smith
One-year prevalences of self-reported noteworthy suicidal ideation and nonfatal suicide attempts were assessed in a large sample of U.S. Air Force active duty members (N = 52,780). Participants completed the 2006 Community Assessment, which was conducted online. Over 3% of male and 5.5% of female participants reported having experienced noteworthy…
Bryan, Craig J.; McNaugton-Cassill, Mary; Osman, Augustine; Hernandez, Ann Marie
The associations of various forms of sexual and physical assault with a history of suicide attempts and recent suicide ideation were studied in two distinct samples: active duty military and undergraduate students. A total of 273 active duty Air Force personnel and 309 undergraduate students anonymously completed self-report surveys of assault…
The most common suicide theories share a widely recognized set of social factors that contribute to suicide and suicide attempts. This paper discusses additional suicide risk factors that affect the gay and lesbian community such as: discrimination, gay adolescence, coming out, establishment of a gay identity, HIV/AIDS, intrapersonal stressors, drugs and alcohol, racial/ethnic factors and limited support structures. Poor awareness of these additional risks, both within mainstream society and within the gay and lesbian community, is also discussed. A review of the literature is conducted that examines the impact of these risk factors and the implications of these issues to mental health nursing. PMID:9086933
Darvishi, Nahid; Farhadi, Mehran; Haghtalab, Tahereh; Poorolajal, Jalal
Background Several original studies have investigated the effect of alcohol use disorder (AUD) on suicidal thought and behavior, but there are serious discrepancies across the studies. Thus, a systematic assessment of the association between AUD and suicide is required. Methods We searched PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus until February 2015. We also searched the Psycinfo web site and journals and contacted authors. We included observational (cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional) studies addressing the association between AUD and suicide. The exposure of interest was AUD. The primary outcomes were suicidal ideation, suicide attempt, and completed suicide. We assessed heterogeneity using Q-test and I2 statistic. We explored publication bias using the Egger's and Begg's tests and funnel plot. We meta-analyzed the data with the random-effects models. For each outcome we calculated the overall odds ratio (OR) or risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results We included 31 out of 8548 retrieved studies, with 420,732 participants. There was a significant association between AUD and suicidal ideation (OR=1.86; 95% CI: 1.38, 2.35), suicide attempt (OR=3.13; 95% CI: 2.45, 3.81); and completed suicide (OR=2.59; 95% CI: 1.95, 3.23 and RR=1.74; 95% CI: 1.26, 2.21). There was a significant heterogeneity among the studies, but little concern to the presence of publication bias. Conclusions There is sufficient evidence that AUD significantly increases the risk of suicidal ideation, suicide attempt, and completed suicide. Therefore, AUD can be considered an important predictor of suicide and a great source of premature death. PMID:25993344
Clark, Luke; Dombrovski, Alexander Y; Siegle, Greg J; Butters, Meryl A; Shollenberger, Cori L; Sahakian, Barbara J; Szanto, Katalin
Suicidal behavior is a potentially lethal complication of late-life depression. In younger adults, suicide has been linked to abnormal decision-making ability. Given that there are substantial age-related decreases in decision-making ability, and that older adults experience environmental stressors that require effective decision-making, we reasoned that impaired decision-making may be particularly relevant to suicidal behavior in the elderly. We thus compared performance on a probabilistic decision-making task that does not involve working memory ("Cambridge Gamble Task") in four groups of older adults: (1) individuals with major depression and a history of suicide attempt (n = 25), (2) individuals with major depression with active suicidal ideation but no suicide attempt (n = 13), (3) individuals with major depression without suicidality (n = 35), and (4) nondepressed control subjects (n = 22). There was a significant effect of group on quality of decision-making, whereby the suicide attempters exhibited poorer ability to choose the likely outcome, compared with the nonsuicidal depressed and nondepressed comparison subjects. There were no group differences in betting behavior. The suicide attempters differed in several aspects of social problem-solving on a self-report scale. Quality of decision-making was negatively correlated with the score on the impulsive/careless problem-solving subscale. These data suggest that older suicide attempters have a deficit in risk-sensitive decision-making, extending observations in younger adults. More specifically, older suicide attempters seem to neglect outcome probability and make poor choices. These impairments may precipitate and perpetuate suicidal crisis in depressed elders. Identification of decision-making impairment in suicidal elders may help with designing effective interventions. PMID:21443349
Stenager, Elsebeth Nylev; Jensen, Børge; Stenager, Maria;
The purposes of the study were (1) to estimate the risk of suicide attempts in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients in Denmark and compare the risk to the background population in the County of Funen, Denmark; (2) to estimate the risk of suicide attempts in MS patients receiving immunomodulating...... therapy compared with untreated patients. The Danish MS Registry, the Danish MS Treatment Registry and the Suicide Attempt Registry are linked and merged together using a person identification number given to all persons residing in Denmark. Among 404 MS patients, 15 patients had attempted suicide......, although no increased risk for suicide attempts was found in MS patients. No difference in number of suicide attempts in treated and untreated patients was found....
O'Connor, Rory C; Nock, Matthew K
The causes of suicidal behaviour are not fully understood; however, this behaviour clearly results from the complex interaction of many factors. Although many risk factors have been identified, they mostly do not account for why people try to end their lives. In this Review, we describe key recent developments in theoretical, clinical, and empirical psychological science about the emergence of suicidal thoughts and behaviours, and emphasise the central importance of psychological factors. Personality and individual differences, cognitive factors, social aspects, and negative life events are key contributors to suicidal behaviour. Most people struggling with suicidal thoughts and behaviours do not receive treatment. Some evidence suggests that different forms of cognitive and behavioural therapies can reduce the risk of suicide reattempt, but hardly any evidence about factors that protect against suicide is available. The development of innovative psychological and psychosocial treatments needs urgent attention. PMID:26360404
Lv, Meizhen; Li, Ang; Liu, Tianli; Zhu, Tingshao
Introduction. Suicide has become a serious worldwide epidemic. Early detection of individual suicide risk in population is important for reducing suicide rates. Traditional methods are ineffective in identifying suicide risk in time, suggesting a need for novel techniques. This paper proposes to detect suicide risk on social media using a Chinese suicide dictionary. Methods. To build the Chinese suicide dictionary, eight researchers were recruited to select initial words from 4,653 posts publ...
This paper discusses the phenomenon of suicidality with regard to patient autonomy on the one hand and the obligation of medical professionals to provide support and treatment on the other hand. The continuation of a broad debate on these issues within the whole of society is mandatory also in the future. Suicide and assisted suicide are topics with high relevance for medicine in general and for psychiatry in particular. They can, however, not be handled by medical specialists alone. PMID:26423877
Öncü, Bedriye; Sakarya, Direnç
Suicide associated mortality rates are notable for eating disorders. Crude mortality rate associated with suicide, varies within %0 and %5.3 in eating disorder patients. Prominent risk factors for suicidal behavior among patients with eating disorder are subtype of the eating disorder, comorbid psychiatric diagnoses (e.g. depression, alcohol and substabce abuse, personality disorders), ultrarapid drug metabolism, history of childhood abuse and particular family dynamics. In this article, sui...
Vivian Roxo Borges
Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou identificar a presença de ideação suicida em adolescentes da população geral, da cidade de Porto Alegre, com idades entre 15 e 19 anos; caracterizar os adolescentes com e sem ideação suicida quanto à intensidade de depressão/desesperança; identificar, nos adolescentes com ideação suicida, o nível de associação entre ideação suicida e depressão/desesperança e identificar, nos adolescentes com ideação suicida, quais variáveis foram encontradas como mais associadas à ideação suicida. Utilizou-se uma ficha de dados sócio-demográficos, Escala de Ideação Suicida de Beck, Inventário de Depressão de Beck e Escala de Desesperança de Beck. Os dados foram analisados através do cálculo de freqüências, pelo teste qui-quadrado e regressão logística. Dos 526 adolescentes da amostra, 36% apresentaram ideação suicida. Destes, 36% apresentaram sintomas de depressão e 28,6% de desesperança (moderada e/ou grave. As variáveis mais associadas à ideação suicida foram: sexo feminino, tentativa de suicídio de amigo, depressão e desesperança.This study aimed at identifying suicide ideation among adolescents aged 15 to 19 years old within the general population of Porto Alegre city, Brazil; characterizing adolescents with and without suicide ideation as to depression/hopelessness intensity; identifying suicide ideation, association level between suicide ideation and depression/hopelessness in those youngsters; as well as identifying the variables most associated to suicide ideation in those adolescents showing this behavior. A social-demographic datasheet, Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation, Beck Depression Inventory and Beck Hopelessness Scale were used. Data were submitted to frequency calculation, chi-square test and logistic regression analysis. From the 526 adolescents in the sample, 36% presented suicide ideation. Out of them, 36% showed depression symptoms and 28,6% hopelessness (moderate and
Full Text Available Homicide followed by suicide (H/S is a complex and poorly studied phenomenon. This research aims at identifyingH/S cases occurred in Porto Alegre from 1996 throughout 2004. Information on H/S was extracted from newspapers,police reports and interviews with the informants. From the 14 identified cases, men were the killers/suicides andwomen and children their victims. The most frequently used weapons were firearms. In general, the aggressor was animpulsive, aggressive individual showing problems within its primary supporting group, possibly suffering depressionand alcohol-addicted with criminal backgrounds (violence against the family. Events were mainly triggered by jealousy,threats or the end of a love relationship.
Euthanasia and assisted suicide are not part of French laws of bioethics and lack, for the time being, definition and normative framework other than their criminal prosecution. To transform them into a right, these concepts certainly call for an ethical and legal debate. This paper aims to question the ideas to be considered, the conceptual bases and normative tools that may be useful to the discussion. PMID:27356358
Jenkins, Andrew P.
This paper presents a secondary-level teaching technique that can be used in an integrated English and health education curriculum. The exercise provides students and teachers with a case study of a suicidal person for the purpose of teaching the warning signs of suicide, appropriate questioning, and referral skills. The case study uses Hamlet's…
Merchant, Christopher; Kramer, Anne; Joe, Sean; Venkataraman, Sanjeev; King, Cheryl A.
Psychopathology, social support, and interpersonal orientation were studied in relation to suicide attempt status in acutely suicidal, psychiatrically hospitalized Black adolescents and a matched sample of White adolescents. In the total sample, multiple attempters were differentiated by lower perceived support. Within the Black youth subsample,…
Full Text Available Introduction. Having a relatively high suicide rate of 19.5 per 100.000 inhabitants, the Republic of Serbia is in the first half on the list of the European countries concerning the number of suicides. However, the situation is particularly alarming in Vojvodina, which has been one of the areas with a very high population mortality rate caused by suicide for a long period of time not only in Serbia of nowadays, but also in former Yugoslavia. The number of suicides has increased by almost 50% over the last five and a half decades, and every eighth suicide was committed by a young person. The aim of this paper was to explore adolescents’ attitudes towards suicide and to find out whether the difference in age affects changes in attitudes regarding suicide. Material and Methods. The George Domino’s Suicide Opinion Questionnaire was completed by 254 adolescents divided into two age groups - 124 respondents were in the age group 13 to 15 and 130 of them in the age group 18 to 19. Results. The results of this study suggest that the attitudes of younger and older group of adolescents towards suicide mostly coincide and there is no statistically significant difference in the answers according to the analyzed clusters. Conclusion. This research shows that the attitudes of respondents of both age groups indicate a lack of awareness about suicide, its causes and dynamics of development of this public health problem. This leaves space for more intensive educational work in the mental health of the population, especially young people and for further research of the suicide problem as a basis for developing strategies.
Current suicide prevention strategies often include suicide education based on the premise that education can lead to recognition of those at risk of suicide and others who are prepared can respond and potentially save lives. As suicide is a leading cause of death for young people, it is relevant to explore how suicide education is made available…
Lu, Tsung-Hsueh; Chang, Wan-Ting; Lin, Jin-Jia; Li, Chung-Yi
Suicide method used by adolescents was examined to determine if it was the same as that employed by their suicidal parents. Six hundred eighty adolescents completed suicide between 1997 and 2007, of whom 12 had parents who had previously died by suicide. The suicide method used by these adolescents was compared with that employed by their suicidal…
Tondo, Leonardo; Baldessarini, Ross J
Suicidal behavior is strongly associated with depression, especially if accompanied by behavioral activation, dysphoria, or agitation. It may respond to some treatments, but the design of scientifically sound, ethical trials to test for therapeutic effects on suicidal behavior is highly challenging. In bipolar disorder, and possibly also unipolar major depression, an underprescribed medical intervention with substantial evidence of preventive effects on suicidal behavior is long-term treatment with lithium. It is unclear whether this effect is specifically antisuicidal or reflects beneficial effects of lithium on depression, mood instability, and perhaps aggression and impulsivity. Antisuicidal effects of anticonvulsant mood stabilizers (carbamazepine, lamotrigine, valproate) appear to be less than with lithium. Further evaluation is needed for potential antisuicidal effects of atypical antipsychotics with growing evidence of efficacy in depression, particularly acute bipolar depression, while generally lacking risk of inducing agitation, mania, or mood instability. Short-term and long-term value and safety of antidepressants are relatively secure for unipolar depression but uncertain and poorly tested for bipolar depression; their effects on suicidal risk in unipolar depression may be age-dependent. Sedative anxiolytics are virtually unstudied as regards suicidal risks. Adequate management of suicidal risks in mood disorder patients requires comprehensive, clinically skillful monitoring and timely interventions. PMID:27542851
Full Text Available Objective: As a first study, suicidal ideation and its correlates have been evaluated in Iranian HIV positive population . Methods:One hundred and fifty HIV-positive individuals were recruited in this cross-sectional study. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, Positive and Negative Suicide Ideation (PANSI, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory (PSQI and Somatization subscale of Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL 90 as self- reported questionnaires were used to assess the patients’ anxiety and depression status, suicidal thoughts, sleep quality and physiological factors, respectively . Results:Antiretroviral therapy and efavirenz intake did not show any significant effects on the patients’ suicidal ideation. Anxiety (p<0.001, depression (p<0.001, poor physical activity (P<0.001 and sleep quality (p<0.001 were significantly associated with the patients’ negative suicidal ideation. From the patients’ demographic data, unemployment (p = 0.04, living alone (p = 0.01, and lack of family support (p = 0.01 were correlated with the patients’ negative suicidal thoughts . Conclusion:Although hospitals are the main referral centers for providing care for HIV-positive individuals in Tehran, Iran, conducting a multi-center study with sufficient sample size from different areas of our country that include individuals with different behaviors and cultures is essential to confirm the results of this study.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to comprehensively examine clinical risk factors, including suicide intent and hopelessness, for suicide and risk of death from all causes after attempted suicide over a 12-year follow-up period. Methods A systematic sample of 224 patients from consecutive cases of attempted suicide referred to health care in four Finnish cities between 1 January and 31 July 1990 was interviewed. Results After 12 years of follow-up 22% of these patients had died, 8% by committing suicide. The only statistically significant risk factor for eventual suicide was high scores on Beck's Suicidal Intention Scale. Male gender, older age, physical illness or disability and high scores on Beck's Suicidal Intention Scale predicted death overall. Conclusions Following attempted suicide, high intention to kill oneself is a significant risk factor for both death from all causes and suicide.
@@ It is reported that suicide is the second leading cause of death among university and college students. People wonder why there are1 so many people die from2 suicide. As far as I am concerned, it is the pressure that mostly attribute to it3, including pressure from severe depression, from inability to deal with difficulties, from love and so on4.
Presents an overview of cultural, historical, sociological, and psychological aspects of suicide, and indicates that a comprehensive definition of this phenomenon does not exist. Further emphasis on gathering detailed case studies of suicides is recommended. Contributions from other fields can provide a better picture of actual causative factors.…
Romero, Andrea J.; Wiggs, Christine Bracamonte; Valencia, Celina; Bauman, Sheri
Latina adolescents experience depression and suicidal ideations in a disproportionate manner compared to their non-Latina counterparts. We investigate suicide and depressive symptoms among a state-wide sample (N = 650) of adolescent Latina girls with a focus on bullying as a predictor. Bullying rates are higher than previous studies have found for…
Miller, Mary Susan
In order to understand the emotional state that leads a young person to self-destruction, it is important to look at what is considered a normal adolescence. Lists four factors that explain why adolescence is a time of great depression, four myths associated with the reasons for suicide, some factors that create situations for which suicide is the…
Wortzel, Hal S.; Gutierrez, Peter M.; Homaifar, Beeta Y.; Breshears, Ryan E.; Harwood, Jeri E.
Surrogate endpoints frequently substitute for rare outcomes in research. The ability to learn about completed suicides by investigating more readily available and proximate outcomes, such as suicide attempts, has obvious appeal. However, concerns with surrogates from the statistical science perspective exist, and mounting evidence from…
Strategies for the prevention of adolescent suicide are frequently designed to identify those young people who represent a high risk in order that services and support can be effectively targeted. This study explored the experiences of parents who had lost a child through suicide. The findings suggest that the range of behaviours perceived by…
Bjorklun, Eugene C.
Schools and school personnel have moral and ethical responsibilities to take reasonable action to prevent suicides by students. Liability could be imposed if school personnel had knowledge of a student's suicidal intent and failed to take action based on that knowledge. (75 footnotes) (MLF)
Discusses the gradual rise in teenage suicides since the 1950s, and offers some pointers for using writing (with "Romeo and Juliet" as source literature) as a basis for group discussion. Adds that suicide is a theme and a reality that can be addressed in the English classroom. (NKA)
Smith, Robert B.; Fleming, Dana L.
Virginia recently became the first state to pass legislation that bars public colleges and universities from punishing or expelling students "solely for attempting to commit suicide, or seeking mental-health treatment for suicidal thoughts or behaviors." While well intentioned, the law adds nothing to current law and will, in fact, make a bad…
... and 10.3% of males). • 8.0% of students attempted suicide one or more times in the previous 12 ... and 5.4% of males). • 2.7% of students made a suicide attempt that resulted in an injury, poisoning, or ...
The objective of this study was to compare the time from last suicide attempt to suicide in men and women with major depressive disorder with melancholic and/or psychotic features. The case records of 100 suicide victims with severe depression were evaluated. All suicide attempts during the course of depression were noted. The time from last suicide attempt to suicide was compared as well as the occurrence of suicide attempt during the last depressive episode, by gender. Male suicide attempte...
Wojtkowiak, J.; Wild, V.; Egger, J.I.M.
Suicide is generally viewed as an unexpected cause of death. However, some suicides might be expected to a certain extent, which needs to be further studied. The relationships between expecting suicide, feeling understanding for the suicide, and later grief experiences were explored. In total, 142 b
Suicide is a significant issue facing higher education institutions. Many campuses are involved in a variety of procedures, programs, and initiatives that seek to reduce or prevent suicide and the impact of suicide-related behavior. This article offers examples of campus prevention efforts, important resources on suicide prevention for college…
The issue of whether suicide can be a good death was separated into two different questions: (1) can suicide be an appropriate death, and (2) can suicide be a rational death? Several definitions of an "appropriate" death were proposed, and suicide was seen as potentially appropriate. Similarly, several criteria for rationality were proposed and…
Fruehwald, Stefan; Frottier, Patrick; Eher, Reinhard; Gutierrez, Karin; Ritter, Kristina
Examines the prison suicide phenomenon by evaluating all suicides occurring in Austrian prisons between 1975 and 1997 (N=220). Results reveal suicide rates for prisoners on remand and mentally ill prisoners are 8 times higher than that of the general population. Recommends that psychologists concentrate on the suicide prevention of high-risk…
Marion, Michelle S.; Range, Lillian M.
To examine the relationships buffers may have with suicide ideation, 300 African American female college students completed measures of suicide ideation and buffers. Three variables accounted for a significant and unique portion of the variance in suicide ideation: family support, a view that suicide is unacceptable, and a collaborative religious…
Wojtkowiak, Joanna; Wild, Verena; Egger, Jos
Suicide is generally viewed as an unexpected cause of death. However, some suicides might be expected to a certain extent, which needs to be further studied. The relationships between expecting suicide, feeling understanding for the suicide, and later grief experiences were explored. In total, 142 bereaved participants completed the Grief…
Communities across the country are having to deal with teenage suicide--a tragedy because it is preventable in many situations. Characteristics of a suicidal person are discussed. Recommendations for intervening with students after the suicide death of a peer in order to help prevent subsequent suicide deaths are made. (RM)
Khan, Murad M.; Ahmed, Aziz; Khan, Sultan R.
Suicide is an understudied subject in Pakistan. There are many social, legal, and religious sanctions against it. National rates of suicides are not known. We calculated suicide rates of women in the Ghizer District of the remote Northern Areas of Pakistan. During years 2000 to 2004, 49 women committed suicide. Taking average mean population for…
Ingram, Ellen; Ellis, Jon B.
College students (n=228) completed a suicide ideation questionnaire and read one of 4 scenarios: cancer, AIDS, schizophrenia, and depression. People in the cancer and AIDS scenario were viewed as the most justified in committing suicide. Suicide ideators saw the people in the scenarios as justified in committing suicide more often than did…
Lande, Raymond G.
Notes that U.S. military policies emphasize humanitarian approach to issue of suicide, yet military law may view suicidal behavior as deviant and may prosecute suicide attempters. Cites convictions of soldiers for attempted and assisted suicides. Reviews recent court decisions and suggests revisions in military law. (Author/NB)
Full Text Available Introduction Suicide is a conscious and intentional destruction of one’s own life, which occurs as a result of mutual influence of a person’s disposition and motives (facts inspiring the commitment of suicide. It is well known that various diseases, including malignancies, could be important and in some cases the only motive for committing suicide. Objective The purpose of the study was to analyze in detail suicides of persons whose only motive was an established malignant disease. Method The analysis was performed using the autopsy material of the Institute of Forensic Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Belgrade, during the period from 1990 to 2004. The reports on performed medico-legal autopsies were used, as well as history data obtained from the family members of suicidal persons, investigation reports and the available medical documents. Results In 1931 cases there was established suicidal nature of a violent death. Neoplasms were the suicidal motive in 37 persons (1.9%. The basic characteristics of the analyzed sample were predominance of males (26:11, ratio 2.4:1, the age of over 70 years and the highest incidence of malignant lung and breast tumors. Almost all cases were the persons who underwent treatment for malignant neoplasms over a longer period of time. During 19 autopsies (51.3% out of 37, a progressive phase of malignancy was established, i.e. metastases. The data on prior oral announcement of suicide intention were obtained for 70.3% (26 cases, and on previous suicidal attempts only for 13.5% (5 cases. In the majority of cases (78.4% the place of committed suicide was the person’s home. In 16 cases (43.2% the suicide was committed with a firearm. Hanging as a manner of destroying one’s own life was chosen by 12 persons (32.4%, while other ways were less frequently used. Conclusion Although malignancies were not present with high incidence as a suicidal motive in our analyzed sample, such cases require particular
Fiedorowicz, Jess G.; Tate, Jodi; Miller, Anthony C.; Franklin, Ellen M.; Gourley, Ryan; Rosenbaum, Marcy
Objective: Effective communication strategies are required to assess suicide risk. The authors determined whether a 2-hour simulated-patient activity during a psychiatry clerkship improved self-assessment of medical interviewing skills relevant to suicide risk-assessment. Methods: In the 2-hour simulated-patient intervention, at least one…
Ramey, Heather L.; Busseri, Michael A.; Khanna, Nishad; Rose-Krasnor, Linda
Suicide is a leading cause of death among adolescents in many industrialized countries. We report evidence from a mediation model linking greater youth activity engagement, spanning behavioral and psychological components, with lower suicide risk through five hypothesized intrapersonal and interpersonal mediating factors. Self-report survey data…
Rhode Island Office of the Lieutenant Governor, Providence.
This document reports on the activities of the Rhode Island Task Force on Teenage Suicide Prevention which held its first meeting in September 1985. The function, progress, membership, and meetings of the three committees (public relations, resource, and research) are discussed. A pilot program on suicide prevention is described which provided…
Erlangsen, Annette; Zarit, Steven H; Tu, Xin;
OBJECTIVE: Older adults have elevated suicide rates, especially in the presence of a psychiatric disorder, yet not much is known about predictors for suicide within this high-risk group. The current study examines the characteristics associated with suicide among older adults who are admitted to a...... psychiatric hospital. METHOD: All persons aged 60 and older living in Denmark who were hospitalized with psychiatric disorders during 1990-2000 were included in the study. Using a case-control design and logistic regression analysis, the authors calculated the suicide risk associated with specific patient...... characteristics. RESULTS: Affective disorders were found to be associated with an almost twofold higher risk of suicide among psychiatric inpatients than other types of disorders (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.5-2.6). Patients with dementia had a significantly lower risk ratio of 0.2 (95% CI: 0.1-0.3). In...
Schwartz-Lifshitz, Maya; Zalsman, Gil; Giner, Lucas; Oquendo, Maria A
Every year, suicide is among the top 20 leading causes of death globally for all ages. Unfortunately, suicide is difficult to prevent, in large part because the prevalence of risk factors is high among the general population. In this review, clinical and psychological risk factors are examined and methods for suicide prevention are discussed. Prevention strategies found to be effective in suicide prevention include means restriction, responsible media coverage, and general public education, as well identification methods such as screening, gatekeeper training, and primary care physician education. Although the treatment for preventing suicide is difficult, follow-up that includes pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, or both may be useful. However, prevention methods cannot be restricted to the individual. Community, social, and policy interventions will also be essential. PMID:22996297
Lawrence, Ryan E; Oquendo, Maria A; Stanley, Barbara
Although religion is reported to be protective against suicide, the empirical evidence is inconsistent. Research is complicated by the fact that there are many dimensions to religion (affiliation, participation, doctrine) and suicide (ideation, attempt, completion). We systematically reviewed the literature on religion and suicide over the last 10 years (89 articles) with a goal of identifying what specific dimensions of religion are associated with specific aspects of suicide. We found that religious affiliation does not necessarily protect against suicidal ideation, but does protect against suicide attempts. Whether religious affiliation protects against suicide attempts may depend on the culture-specific implications of affiliating with a particular religion, since minority religious groups can feel socially isolated. After adjusting for social support measures, religious service attendance is not especially protective against suicidal ideation, but does protect against suicide attempts, and possibly protects against suicide. Future qualitative studies might further clarify these associations. PMID:26192968
Full Text Available Suicide is a complex term. Suicide attempts are common in women, but completed suicide rates are higher in men. Several demographic factors, stressful life events, previous suicide attempts, childhood abuse, physical or psychiatric disorders are risk factors for suicide. Suicide rates in a variety of mental disorders is more than the normal population. Data on rates and risk factors of suicide in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and related disorders are limited. Present data are often associated with patients with obsessive compulsive disorder and body dysmorphic disorder. Lifetime suicidal ideation rates in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder is within a range of 36-63%. Any comorbid psychiatric diagnosis is an important risk factor for suicide in this disorder. This article aims to review the relationship between suicide and obsessive compulsive and related disorders [Archives Medical Review Journal 2015; 24(3.000: 402-413
Suicide is a major clinical problem in psychiatry and suicidal behaviours can be seen as a nosological entity per se. Predicting suicide is difficult due to its low base-rate and the limited specificity of clinical predictors. Prospective biological studies suggest that dysfunctions in the hypothalamo pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis and the serotonergic system have predictive power for suicide in mood disorders. Suicide attempt is the most robust clinical predictor making suici...
Background: Millions of people die from suicide globally every year. Suicide is strongly associated with mental disorders. More than 90% of those who die by suicide have at least one diagnosable mental disorder at the time of their death. Attempted suicide is also a major public health concern since it is an important predictor of subsequent completed suicide and an indicator of mental health problems. Aims: There are four aims which correspond to four papers. First, we validated the Vietn...
Wang, Sheng-Min; Hwang, Sunyoung; Yeon, Bora; Choi, Kyoung Ho; Oh, Youngmin; Lee, Hae-Kook; Kweon, Yong-Sil; Lee, Chung Tai; Lee, Kyoung-Uk
Objective Patients visiting the emergency department (ED) after a suicide attempt are generally assessed for suicide risk by psychiatric residents. Psychiatric residents' competence in evaluating the risk posed by the patients who attempted suicide is critical to preventing suicide. Methods We investigated factors considered important by psychiatric residents when evaluating suicide risk. This study included 140 patients admitted to the ED after attempting suicide. Psychiatric residents rated...
Schlimme, Jann E; Uwe Gonther; Borut Škodlar
In this paper the experience of another person's suicide is addressed. Clinical and sociological observations attest the fact that witnessing another person's suicide as an imminent or immediately completed event may influence one's own suicidal ideation. Our thesis is that prereflective, intersubjective experience of other person's suicide raises explicit retrospective questions about the meaning of suicide for the other and provokes explicit questions about the potential meaning of suicide...
Graafsma, T.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.; Gibson, D; Badloe, R.; Beek, van der, A.J.
Suicide and attempted suicide are identified as a serious mental health problem in Suriname, especially in the district of Nickerie. An epidemiological study in the Nickerie catchment area revealed high rates of suicide (48 per 100,000) and attempted suicide (207 per 100,000) on average in the years 2000–2004. Particularly remarkable is the high number of attempted suicides among males (49%), and the use of pesticides in both fatal (55%) and nonfatal suicidal behavior (44%). Probably this hig...
Cultural context of every suicidal act exerts influence on what the act represents. Suicide has thus been described as a cultural artifact (Boldt, 1988).The meaning of suicide has become an important area of suicide research because when the meaning of the act is understood from a cultural context, it could inform sensitive suicide intervention programs. This thesis set out to understand suicide from the Ghanaian cultural context using a qualitative approach. Various groups of informants were...
Singh, Ajai R.; Singh, Shakuntala A.
Suicide is amongst the top ten causes of death for all age groups in most countries of the world. It is the second most important cause of death in the younger age group (15-19 yrs.) , second only to vehicular accidents.Attempted suicides are ten times the successful suicide figures, and 1-2% attempted suicides become successful suicides every year. Male sex, widowhood, single or divorced marital status, addiction to alcohol ordrugs, concomitant chronic physical or mental illness, past suicid...
Bell, Jo; Stanley, Nicky; Mallon, Sharon; Manthorpe, Jill
Abstract: Death by suicide can have a profound and long lasting impact on the people left behind. Research has demonstrated that, in comparison to the general population, those bereaved by suicide, particularly young people, are at increased risk for suicide. However, the process of suicide contagion, as it has now become widely known, is poorly understood. This paper examines the phenomenon of suicide contagion amongst young people who have been bereaved by suicide with data from research...
Nakagawa Makiko; Kawanishi Chiaki; Yamada Tomoki; Iwamoto Yoko; Sato Ryoko; Hasegawa Hana; Morita Satoshi; Odawara Toshinari; Hirayasu Yoshio
Abstract Background Family history of suicide attempt is one of the risks of suicide. We aimed at exploring the characteristics of Japanese suicide attempters with and without a family history of suicide attempt. Methods Suicide attempters admitted to an urban emergency department from 2003 to 2008 were interviewed by two attending psychiatrists on items concerning family history of suicide attempt and other sociodemographic and clinical information. Subjects were divided into two groups base...
Hultcrantz, Malin; Svensson, Tobias; Derolf, Åsa R.; Kristinsson, Sigurdur Y.; Lindqvist, Ebba K; Ekbom, Anders; Granath, Fredrik; Björkholm, Magnus
Solid tumors are associated with an increased risk of suicide, however, there is limited detailed information on the risk of suicide in patients with hematological malignancies. Therefore, we conducted a population-based study including 47,220 patients with hematological malignancies (diagnosed 1992–2006) and their 235,868 matched controls to define the incidence and risk factors for suicide and suicide attempt. Information on suicides, suicide attempts, and preexisting psychiatric disorders ...
Andrew E. Czeizel
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of the Budapest Monitoring System of Self-Poisoning Pregnant Women was to evaluate the potential congenital abnormality inducing effect of extremely large doses of drugs among pregnant women who attempted suicide. This system was appropriate to describe the characteristics of these pregnant women as a secondary finding from this model. METHODS: All self-poisoned patients were cared for at a toxicological inpatient clinic in Budapest, between 1960 and 1993. Of a total of 1,044 pregnant women identified from the three different periods of the project, only 19 (1.8% died. Women who survived were visited at home to reveal birth outcomes, and their exposed children were examined medically to identify congenital abnormalities and tested to estimate their cognitive-behavioral status. The previous or subsequent children of these pregnant women were used as controls with a similar examination protocol. RESULTS: In general, self-poisoned pregnant women were young (peak age was between 18 and 20 years, 62% had their first pregnancy, 55% were unmarried, they had lower socioeconomic status, 46% were smokers and 22.5% drinkers, but depression/panic disorder occurred only among 17 pregnant women. Suicide attempts with drugs were most frequent in the fourth post-conceptional week and second month of pregnancy. In general they used smaller doses of drugs for suicide than non-pregnant age-matched women. Of 1,044 self-poisoned pregnant women, 926 had known pregnancy outcomes and 411 (44.4% delivered live-born babies. CONCLUSIONS: The self-poisoning model appears to have several benefits (e.g., dose-response estimation of drugs in comparison with other methods when evaluating teratogenic/fetotoxic effect of drugs. It is suggested that an international monitoring system of self-poisoned pregnant women should be established to provide a larger data base.
de Leo, Diego; Heller, Travis
Evidence from twin, adoption, and family studies suggests that there is strong aggregation of suicidal behaviors in some families. By comparison, the role of social modeling through peers has yet to be convincingly established. This paper uses data from four large studies (the WHO/EURO Multicentre Study on Suicidal Behaviour, the WHO/SUPRE-MISS, the CASE study, and the Queensland Suicide Register) to compare the effects of exposure to fatal and nonfatal suicidal behavior in family members and nonfamilial associates on the subsequent suicidal behavior of male and female respondents of different ages. Across all studies, we found that prior suicidal behaviors among respondents' social groups were more important predictors of suicidal behavior in the respondents themselves than previous research had indicated. Community-based suicide attempters in the WHO SUPRE-MISS had higher rates of exposure to prior suicide in nonfamilial associates than in family members. In an adolescent population, exposure to prior fatal suicidal behavior did not predict deliberate self-harm when exposure to nonfatal suicidal behavior (both familial and social) were controlled for, but exposure to nonfatal suicidal behaviors in family and friends was predictive of deliberate self-harm and suicide ideation, even after controlling for exposure to fatal suicidal behavior. The potential impact of "containment" of information regarding suicidal behaviors as a prevention initiative is discussed, in light of information behavior principles of social marketing. PMID:18389641
Samuel, Diana; Sher, Leo
Suicide is both a public and mental health problem, and is a leading cause of deaths, especially among adolescents. Two factors that contribute to the decision of adolescents to commit suicide are having a primary mood disorder and/or substance use. In the Indian culture, the family unit has both a positive and negative impact on suicide. The family serves as a protective factor that provides a strong support for the individual, but alternately creates an inseparable individual when seeking mental health care, which often complicates the situation. Due to the stigma, Indians typically perceive having a mental illness as shameful. Religion is integral to the Indian culture so much so that individuals often use herbal remedies, seek help from religious leaders, and attend religious establishments prior to obtaining a mental health evaluation in those that are subsequently deemed as mentally ill. Despite the fact that suicides are underreported and misdiagnosed in India, it is known that the highest rates are among those immigrating, Indians tend to switch the methods they use to commit suicide from ingestion of poison to hanging, which may reflect a lack of available poisonous substances or the influence of the host culture. Considering the high suicide rates in adolescents, the importance of providing psychoeducation, restricting access to lethal means, and promoting social integration in immigrants are various ways by which suicides in Indian adolescents can be avoided. PMID:24006319
Balci, Y; Canogullari, G; Ulupinar, E
The aim of this study is to present the characteristics of gunshot suicides by highlighting the ones with multiple entrance wounds. The criminal investigation reports of suicides (n=318) during the period 1991-2000, in the central judicial district of Eskisehir were investigated. 20.4% of all suicide cases (n=65) used firearms. Firearm suicides were more common in males and their frequency decreased as age increased. The usage of long-barrelled weapons was 47.7%. Among the long-barrelled gunshots, twelve were shotguns and the remaining were military riffles. Forty-five weapons were legal. Thirty-four out of 45 gunshot suicide victims had licensed weapons because of their occupations. In the majority of cases, (72.3%) the shooting distance was contact or near contact. Most of the entrance wounds (75.0%) were located in the head and neck region and the direction of the bullet path was upward and front-to-back. Of all the gunshot suicides, 6.1% (n=4) had multiple entrance and exit wounds. All of the victims were soldiers. In suicide cases using long-barrelled weapons (3/4), military rifles were set on automatic mode. In our study, at least eight of the victims survived for a period. To be able to increase the survival rate of the victims or improve the outcomes, intensive pre- and post-operative care is critical. PMID:17321192
Full Text Available Mildred Vera2,4, María L Reyes-Rabanillo1, Sarah Huertas3, Deborah Juarbe4, Coralee Pérez-Pedrogo4, Aracelis Huertas5, Marisol Peña61Veterans Affairs Caribbean Healthcare System, San Juan, Puerto Rico; 2Department of Health Services Administration, School of Public Health; 3Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine; 4Center for Evaluation and Sociomedical Research, School of Public Health; 5School of Health Professions; 6Center for Preparedness in Public Health, School of Public Health, Medical Sciences Campus, University of Puerto Rico San Juan, Puerto Rico.Background: Little is known about suicidal ideation among general practice patients in Puerto Rico. In this study we examined the rates, severity, and correlates of suicidal ideation, plans, and attempts among general practice patients with chronic illnesses. This is important in targeting appropriate interventions and management approaches to minimize and prevent suicide.Methods: We screened patients with chronic physical conditions at general practices. Suicidal ideation was assessed with the suicidality module of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Major depression was assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire depression module. The relationship between sociodemographic factors, depression and suicidal ideation was examined with multiple logistic regression analysis. Among the subgroup that acknowledged suicidal ideation, we used multinomial logistic regression analysis to estimate simultaneously the multivariate associations of depression and sociodemographic factors with suicidality risk levels.Results: Of the 2068 patients screened, 15.4% acknowledged recent suicidal ideation. Among this group, 8.6% reported passive ideation, 3.7% active ideation without a plan, and 3.1% active ideation with a plan or attempt. According to multivariate logistic regression, suicidal ideation was higher among patients with moderately severe depression and severe depression than
Yen, Yung-Chieh; Yang, Ming-Jen; Yang, Mei-Sang; Lung, For-Wey; Shih, Chun-Hua; Hahn, Cheng-Yi; Lo, Hsin-Yi
The purpose of the present study was to explore the suicidal ideation of community-dwelling elderly and the factors associated with their intention to commit suicide. Using a multilevel stratified sampling strategy, 1000 elderly subjects were recruited (aged 65-74 years old) in Taiwan during the year 2001. The degree of depression and its correlates were assessed. Suicidal ideation was measured by asking respondents if they had had any suicidal thoughts in the previous week. In all, 16.7% of respondents reported suicidal ideation within the past week; its occurrence was related to sex, religious belief, employment status, marital status, average family monthly income, physical health status, depressive symptoms, and community activity participation. Further multivariate logistic regression revealed that, aside from depressive symptoms and a lower level of education, no community participation in the past 6 months was significantly associated with the appearance of suicidal ideation. The prevalence of suicidal ideation among the elderly in Taiwan is higher than in Western countries. Participation in social activities is negatively associated with elderly suicidal ideation. The dimension of social participation deserves further exploration and should be considered in community mental health promotion interventions for elderly people. PMID:16048440
Lee, Hwa-Young; Kim, Yong-Ku
Genetic factors and catecholaminergic dysfunction have been suggested as the etiology of suicide. The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) 158Val/Met polymorphism affects COMT activity; that is, the alleles encoding Val and Met are associated with relatively high and relatively low COMT activity, respectively. We aimed to identify the role of the COMT Val158Met polymorphism in suicidal attempt behavior. The COMT 158Val/Met polymorphisms were analyzed in 197 suicide attempters (male/female: 70/127), 170 control subjects (male/female: 85/85). All subjects were ethnic Korean. The Lethality Suicide Attempt Rating Scale (LSARS) and risk-rescue rating (RRR) system were explored. For the male subjects, there was a significant difference in genotype distributions and allele frequencies between control subjects and suicide attempters. That is, Val/Val genotype and Val carriers were more frequent in suicide attempters than in control subjects. For the female subjects, however, no significant difference was shown in genotype distributions and allele frequencies between control subjects and suicide attempters. There were no significant differences in LSARS and RRR according to the genotypes. The distribution of the COMT 158Val/Met polymorphism showed a biologically meaningful difference between control subjects and suicide attempters among the male subjects although selection bias should be considered. PMID:21304229
Evans, A L
Oneirology, the study and interpretation of dream content, has been part of human experience throughout recorded history. In modern times, the interpretation of dreams has been used as a tool in the practice of psychotherapy for the purpose of developing insight into the individual's intrapsychic and interpersonal relationships. Ringel, Jung, and others have noted that the content of dreams may be used to assess the individual's state of mind with regard to suicidal intent. Litman has noted the difference between dreams related to suicide and dreams expressing the presence of a clinical depression. Death dreams of the elderly may be considered expressions of depressive symptoms, although this conclusion should be approached with caution. Taylor, Sanford, and others have noted that death dreams generally may be considered as the need for transformation within the individual's personality. The author's impressions taken from clinical experience as well as his experience in teaching university-level courses both in dream interpretation and suicidology are also included in this paper. PMID:2198129
A case report is presented of suicide by radiation exposure after a preceding attempt with potassium ferrocyanide. The subject, a 30-year-old nondestructive-testing technician, held with his right fingers and then placed in his left shirt pocket a metal-canned 5,3-Ci 137Cs source. Despite appearance of signs of severe topical injury by day 3 after the incident and development of systemic toxicity symptoms with indications of affection of internal organs by day 16, medical aid was not sought until day 21 when efforts at management proved unable to prevent fatal outcome. A prominent distinguishing characteristic of this mode of suicide is that the deed's sequelae are delayed in coming into effect. Cases known to have occurred are extremely rare (only two have been described in the literature). This is likely to be related to a distinct unpopularity of radioactive materials as well as their limited availability to the general public. The subjects that did use them were radiation workers having access to such substances; being acquainted with the biological effects of radiation, they, nevertheless, have chosen this protracted and distressful way of taking their lives. (A.B.)
Freudenstein, O; Zohar, A; Apter, A; Shoval, G; Weizman, A; Zalsman, G
Family environment has a clear role in suicidal behavior of adolescents. We assessed the relationship between parental bonding and suicidal behavior in suicidal (n=53) and non-suicidal (n=47) adolescent inpatients. Two dimensions of parental bonding: care and overprotection, were assessed with the Parental Bonding Instrument. Results showed that adolescents with severe suicidal behavior tended to perceive their mothers as less caring and more overprotective compared to those with mild or no suicidal behavior. A discriminant analysis distinguished significantly between adolescents with high suicidality and those with low suicidality [χ2 (5) = 15.54; p=0.01] in 71% of the cases. The perception of the quality of maternal bonding may be an important correlate of suicidal behavior in adolescence and may guide therapeutic strategies and prevention. PMID:21398097
Full Text Available Abstract Epidemiological data suggest that between 59 and 87% of suicide victims suffered from major depression while up to 15% of these patients will eventually commit suicide. Male gender, previous suicide attempt(s, comorbid mental disorders, adverse life-situations, acute psycho-social stressors etc. also constitute robust risk factors. Anxiety and minor depression present with a low to moderate increase in suicide risk but anxiety-depression comorbidity increases this risk dramatically Contrary to the traditional psychoanalytic approach which considers suicide as a retrospective murder or an aggression turned in-wards, more recent studies suggest that the motivations to commit suicide may vary and are often too obscure. Neurobiological data suggest that low brain serotonin activity might play a key role along with the tryptophan hydroxylase gene. Social factors include social support networks, religion etc. It is proven that most suicide victims had asked for professional help just before committing suicide, however they were either not diagnosed (particularly males or the treatment they received was inappropriate or inadequate. The conclusion is that promoting suicide prevention requires the improving of training and skills of both psychiatrists and many non-psychiatrists and especially GPs in recognizing and treating depression and anxiety. A shift of focus of attention is required in primary care to detect potentially suicidal patients presenting with psychological problems. The proper use of antidepressants, after a careful diagnostic evaluation, is important and recent studies suggest that successful acute and long-term antidepressant pharmacotherapy reduces suicide morbidity and mortality.
Full Text Available Background: Preventing suicide depends upon different health professionals′ knowledge regarding suicide, attitude toward suicide attempters, skills to assess and manage suicidal risk. Objectives: This study was aimed to assess the attitude of nursing students toward suicide prevention. Materials and Methods: 308 nursing students were recruited from the two institutions through total enumeration method. Attitude toward suicide prevention scale was administered. Study design was cross-sectional. Results: Majority were single females, from urban locality, who were pursuing BSc Nursing with the mean age of 20 years. Only minority had previous exposure to suicide prevention programs or workshops. Nearly half of the subjects had positive attitude toward working with suicidal patients. Again half of the subjects considered unemployment and poverty as main causes of suicide and were quite hopeless about it and they also perceived that most of the suicidal people would not reveal their suicidal plans to others. Conclusions: Merely half of the students had positive attitude toward working with suicidal patients. Hence, there is strong need to organize more educational and training programs on suicide prevention so that these budding health professionals could be more equipped and trained to manage these suicidal patients.
Nordentoft, Merete; Qin, Ping; Helweg-Larsen, Karin;
Restriction of means for suicide is an important part of suicide preventive strategies in different countries. The effect on method-specific suicide rate and overall suicide rate of restrictions on availability of carbon monoxide, barbiturates, and dextropropoxyphene was examined. From 1970 to 20...... barbiturates was associated with a decline in the number of suicides and suicides by self-poisoning with these compounds after controlling for the effect of calender year. Restricted access occurred concomittantly with a 55 percent decrease in suicide rate.......Restriction of means for suicide is an important part of suicide preventive strategies in different countries. The effect on method-specific suicide rate and overall suicide rate of restrictions on availability of carbon monoxide, barbiturates, and dextropropoxyphene was examined. From 1970 to 2000...
Most people who endorse physician-assisted suicide are against commercially assisted suicide - a suicide assisted by professional non-medical providers against payment. The article questions if this position - endorsement of physician-assisted suicide on the one hand and rejection of commercially assisted suicide on the other hand - is a coherent ethical position. To this end the article first discusses some obvious advantages of commercially assisted suicide and then scrutinizes six types of argument about whether they can justify the rejection of commercially assisted suicide while simultaneously endorsing physician-assisted suicide. The conclusion is that they cannot provide this justification and that the mentioned position is not coherent. People who endorse physician-assisted suicide have to endorse commercially assisted suicide as well, or they have to revise their endorsement of physician-assisted suicide. PMID:25425401
Chung, Sung Suk; Joung, Kyoung Hwa
Suicidal trends and related characteristics such as sociodemographic factors, psychological factors, and health behaviors can differ between countries. This study investigated the predictors of suicidal ideation and attempted suicide including health behaviors among American and Korean youth from two national representative data sets. In both countries, depression was the most predominant predictor to suicidal ideation and attempted suicide. Unique predictors of suicidal youth in each country were also found. In America, attempted suicide was predicted by poor body image, whereas in Korea attempted suicide was predicted by medical diagnosis such as asthma, concern about weight, and alcohol consumption. The value of our approach lies in the comparative analysis of analogous and unique characteristics of suicidal youths in these two huge data sets from different countries. These results should be helpful for school and mental health care providers to plan interventions for youth at risk of suicide to prevent suicidal completion in these nations. PMID:22554898
Weissman, Myrna M.; Bland, Roger C.; Canino, Glorisa J.; Greenwald, Steven; Hwu, Hai-Gwo; Joyce, Peter R.; Elie G. Karam; Lee, Chung-Kyoon; Lellouch, Joseph; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Newman, Stephen C.; Rubio-Stipec, Maritza; Wells, J. Elizabeth; Wickramaratne, Priya J.; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich
Background. There are few cross-national comparisons of the rates of suicide ideation and attempts across diverse countries. Nine independently conducted epidemiological surveys using similar diagnostic assessment and criteria provided an opportunity to obtain that data. Methods. Suicide ideation and attempts were assessed on the Diagnostic Interview Schedule in over 40000 subjects drawn from the United States, Canada, Puerto Rico, France, West Germany, Lebanon, Taiwan, Korea and New Zeala...
Considered influence of social contexts in examining the impact of publicized suicide stories on suicide by collecting data on widely publicized suicide stories during the World War I decade. Results showed that publicized suicide stories during war time had no impact on suicide while peacetime suicide stories were associated with an increase in…
McAndrew, Sue; Warne, Tony
International studies report increased rates of mental health problems and subsequent suicidality among homosexual populations. While international health-care policy is concerned with reducing suicide among young people, important research findings relating to gay people and suicidality remain unacknowledged in the Suicide Prevention Strategy for England. This qualitative study, utilizing single case studies, was used to gain an in-depth understanding of the life experiences contributing to the suicidality of four gay men. The methodology was psychoanalytically informed, using free association narrative interviewing. The initial data analysis involved interpretation of each of the case studies and a subsequent analysis exploring the shared experiences found in each of the individual narratives. Thematically, these are described as 'knowing and not knowing', 'the centrality of the father-son relationship', 'the loneliness of outsiderness', 'leading a double life', and 'crime and punishment'. The significance of the life experiences these themes illustrate reveal why some gay men might not only experience long-term mental health problems, but also engage in suicidality. Individually and collectively, the analyses provide important insights for mental health nurses becoming more attuned to provide sensitive mental health care to those who have a gay sexual orientation. PMID:20367646
Poreddi, Vijayalakshmi; Thimmaiah, Rohini; Ramu, Rajalakshmi; Selvi, Sugavana; Gandhi, Sailaxmi; Ramachandra; Math, Suresh Bada
This descriptive study examined gender differences related to attitudes toward suicide among randomly selected urban residents. Data was collected using a standardized questionnaire through face-to-face interview. Our findings revealed that men hold more pro preventive attitudes to help persons with suicidal thoughts (80.3 %, p = 0.05) and agreed that suicidal attempts are impulsive (78.6 %, p = 0.01). However, they hold permissive attitude to help persons with incurable diseases and expressing death wishes to die (66 %, p = 0.05). A majority of men (78.6 %) than women agreed that "suicidal attempt is essentially a cry for help" (χ (2) = 11.798, p = 0.05). These gender differences need to be taken into consideration when developing appropriate programs to prevent suicide. Further, decriminalizing the law, high-quality research and raising awareness about suicide prevention among the general population is crucial in developing countries like India. PMID:26293749
Park, Juhyun; Choi, Nari; Kim, Seog Ju; Kim, Soohyun; An, Hyonggin; Lee, Heon-Jeong; Lee, Yu Jin
The association between celebrity suicide and subsequent increase in suicide rates among the general population has been suggested. Previous studies primarily focused on celebrity suicides in the 2000s. To better understand the association, this study examined the impacts of celebrity suicides on subsequent suicide rates using the data of Korean celebrity suicides between 1990 and 2010. Nine celebrity suicides were selected by an investigation of media reports of suicide deaths published in t...
Madsen, Trine; Nordentoft, Merete
significantly predicted developing a higher suicidal tendency, whereas a one-point increase score on delusions was preventive of this. Feeling hopeless was highly associated with suicide attempt in those with earlier suicide attempt. Conclusion: The risk of suicide attempt did not differ between patient groups...... with suicidal thoughts, plans or suicide attempt. In first year of treatment of psychosis, hallucinations increased the risk for becoming more suicidal, whereas delusions reduced this risk in already suicidal patients....
... abused and controlling for other adversities. 1 o Victims of child sexual abuse were more likely to report having a psychiatric disorder in the last 12 months, which puts victims at a higher risk of a suicide attempt ...
Baumeister, Roy F.
Suicide is analyzed as a motivation to escape from adversive self-awareness. The causal chain is traced from initial failures that are attributed internally because of a cognitively deconstructed state. (SLD)
Bolton, James M; Au, Wendy; Leslie, William D;
CONTEXT Suicide bereavement remains understudied and poorly understood. OBJECTIVES To examine outcomes of parents bereaved by the suicide death of their offspring and to compare these with both nonbereaved parent controls and parents who had offspring die in a motor vehicle crash (MVC). DESIGN...... Population-based case-control study. Suicide-bereaved parents were compared with nonbereaved matched control parents in the general population (n = 1415) and with MVC-bereaved parents (n = 1132) on the rates of physician-diagnosed mental and physical disorders, social factors, and treatment use in the 2...... years after death of the offspring. Adjusted relative rates (ARRs) were generated by generalized estimating equation models and adjusted for confounding factors. SETTING Manitoba, Canada. PARTICIPANTS All identifiable parents who had an offspring die by suicide between 1996 and 2007 (n = 1415). MAIN...
Lawrence, R D; Spitz, W U; Taff, M L
A case of suicidal electrocution in a filled bathtub is presented with a discussion of the mechanism of electrocution in water. A modern safety device, the Ground Fault Interruptor Circuit, is also described. PMID:3870683
Wilcox, Holly C; Wyman, Peter A
Suicide is a public health problem that accounts for more than 1 million deaths annually worldwide. This article addresses evidence-based and promising youth suicide prevention approaches at the primary, secondary, and tertiary levels. Coordinated, developmentally timed, evidence-based suicide prevention approaches at all intervention levels are likely to reduce youth suicide. For most youth who die by suicide, there are opportunities for intervention before imminent risk develops. Current research in suicide prevention points to the value of investing in "upstream" universal interventions that build skills and resilience as well as policies that enable access to care and protection from lethal means. PMID:26980125
Jo, Sun-Jin; Ko, Jung-A; Park, Jung-Suk; Yim, Hyeon Woo; Lee, Kyung-Min; Lee, Myung-Soo
Suicide re-attempters are clinically different from single-episode attempters and are at higher risk of completed suicide. This study explored psychosocial risk factors and modifiable factors related to suicide re-attempt in a representative sample of 441 chronic mentally disabled individuals in Seoul, Korea. The participants were listed on the public sector registry based on the Act for the Welfare of Disabled Persons. Individualized interviews were conducted, and the authors analyzed the data via multiple logistic regression analysis. The results showed that physical illness (under treatment OR 1.7; left untreated OR 4.2) and no leisure activities (OR 1.9) were factors related to a higher risk of re-attempted suicide. Unmet and modifiable needs in addition to mental health services should be considered to prevent suicide re-attempts in the chronic mentally disabled. PMID:27154333
Chan, R C; Burd, A
The aim of our study is to review our experience in the management of patients who sustained burns associated with suicidal attempts over a 10-year period. In particular, we look into the outcome and incidence of self-harm/suicide after discharge among the survivors. Thirty-one patients with median age 36 years, ranging from 10 to 74, were included. Twenty-three (74%) were males and eight (26%) were females. Nearly three quarters (74%) of our patients had a known history of psychiatric illness: 11 had known history of substance abuse; 3 of them had drug-induced psychosis; 6 had schizophrenia; 5 had depression; 4 had personality disorders; 1 had pathological gambling and another one had adjustment disorder. Relationship problems and work/financial difficulties were the commonest reason for the suicidal attempts. Self-inflicted flame burn was the most frequent (39%; 12 patients) method of burning. Six patients (19%) died. The remaining 25 patients healed and were discharged. Seventeen patients required ICU care. The median length of stay in ICU was 7 days. The overall median length of stay was 35 days. The median follow up time for those survived is 63 months. Only 4 of these patients had further suicidal/parasuicidal attempts. Despite the high mortality, once these patients survived the initial injury, they are unlikely to commit suicide again. Thus, we believe that aggressive resuscitation should therefore be advocated for all suicidal burn patients. PMID:22360959
Cooke, Brian K
The combination of the killing of a pet and a suicide is a perplexing scenario that is largely unexplored in the literature. Many forensic psychiatrists and psychologists may be unaccustomed to considering the significance of the killing of a pet. The subject is important, however, because many people regard their pets as members of their family. A case is presented of a woman who killed her pet dog and herself by carbon monoxide poisoning. The purpose of this article is to provide an initial exploration of the topic of extended suicide with a pet. Forensic mental health evaluations may have a role in understanding the etiology of this event and in opining as to the culpability of individuals who attempt to or successfully kill a pet and then commit suicide. Because the scientific literature is lacking, there is a need to understand this act from a variety of perspectives. First, a social and anthropological perspective will be presented that summarizes the history of the practice of killing of one's pet, with a focus on the ancient Egyptians. A clinical context will examine what relationship animals have to mental illness. A vast body of existing scientific data showing the relevance of human attachment to pets suggests that conclusions from the phenomena of homicide-suicide and filicide-suicide are applicable to extended suicide with a pet. Finally, recommendations will be proposed for both clinical and forensic psychiatrists faced with similar cases. PMID:24051598
Full Text Available La investigación detallada del lugar de los hechos, el examen de la cuerda y de los nudos, así como de los puntos de suspensión, aportan una información complementaria de gran interés en casos de ahorcamiento de etiología dudosa. Presentamos la imagen de un "reahorcamiento suicida" en el que dicha información fue relevante para la resolución del caso.The thorough investigation of the scene, the examination of the noose and Knots as well as the suspension points contribute important information concerning hangings of doubtful etiology. We are displaying the picture of a "suicidal rehanging" in which the mentioned information was important in the resolution of the case.
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Text analysis software like "Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count" (LIWC has been used for the analysis of suicide notes and suicidal texts in English. This is the first analysis of suicide notes using this method in Spanish and, as far as we know, its first application to suicide notes in Europe. To compare the sociodemographic and forensic characteristics of a consecutive sample of suicide victims studying the differences between those who left suicidal note and those who did not. To study a sample of suicidal notes from Spain using LIWC, comparing it's linguistic features by gender, age and environment. Methods: 144 consecutive suicide cases were analyzed. 23 suicide notes obtained from this sample were processed using LIWC, the results were compared by gender, age and environment of the author. Results: People who left suicide notes were younger than non- writers; more frequently single, divorced or widowed and emotional troubles were reported as frequent triggers. Suicide notes written by women were significantly longer, had more emotional content, tentative expressions, denials, pronouns in first person plural and verbs in past and future tenses. Urban cases showed higher emotional expression and word complexity whereas rural cases showed a higher use of social words. Conclusions: Our study shows some differences between people who left suicide note and those who didn't and confirms the LIWC ability to detect differences in suicidal speech by gender and by the rural/ urban background of its authors.
Full Text Available The annual worldwide suicide rate currently averages approximately 13 per 100,000 individuals per year (0.013% per year, with higher average rates for men than for women in all but a few countries, very low rates in children, and relatively high rates in elderly men. Suicide rates vary markedly between countries, reflecting in part differences in case-identification and reporting procedures. Rates of attempted suicide in the general population average 20–30 times higher than rates of completed suicide, but are probably under-reported. Research on the relationship between pharmacotherapy and suicidal behavior was rare until a decade ago. Most ecological studies and large clinical studies have found that a general reduction in suicide rates is significantly correlated with higher rates of prescribing modern antidepressants. However, ecological, cohort and case-control studies and data from brief, randomized, controlled trials in patients with acute affective disorders have found increases, particularly in young patients and particularly for the risk of suicide attempts, as well as increases in suicidal ideation in young patients. whether antidepressants are associated with specific aspects of suicidality (e.g., higher rates of completed suicide, attempted suicide and suicidal ideation in younger patients with major affective disorders remains a highly controversial question. In light of this gap this paper analyzes research on the relationship between suicidality and antidepressant treatment.
Bush, Nigel E.; Reger, Mark A.; Luxton, David D.; Skopp, Nancy A.; Kinn, Julie; Smolenski, Derek; Gahm, Gregory A.
The Department of Defense Suicide Event Report Program collects extensive information on suicides and suicide attempts from the U.S. Air Force, Army, Marine Corps, and Navy. Data are compiled on demographics, suicide event details, behavioral health treatment history, military history, and information about other potential risk factors such as…
Neeleman, J; Halpern, D; Leon, D; Lewis, G
Background. Negative associations between religion and suicide, in individuals and countries, may be mediated by the degree to which suicide is tolerated. Methods. Linear regression was used to examine ecological associations between suicide tolerance, religion and suicide rates in 19 Western countr
Aguirre, Regina T. P.; Slater, Holli
The authors asserted the need for increased postvention efforts for suicide survivors, individuals left behind to grieve the loss of a loved one by suicide, because they have an increased risk for suicide. Indeed, Shneidman (1972) asserted that suicide postvention efforts serve the dual purpose of assisting survivors through the grief process and…
Li, Dongping; Zhang, Wei; Li, Xian; Li, Nini; Ye, Baojuan
In a sample of 1252 Chinese adolescents (mean age = 15.00 years), this study examined the direct relations between gratitude and adolescents' suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. This study also examined indirect relations between gratitude and suicidal ideation and suicide attempts via two self-system beliefs--coping efficacy and self-esteem.…
Tartaro, Christine; Lester, David
E. Durkheim (1897) suggested that the societal rate of suicide might be explained by societal factors, such as marriage, divorce, and birth rates. The current study examined male prison suicide rates and suicide rates for men in the total population in the United States and found that variables based on Durkheim's theory of suicide explained…
Rustad, Robin A.; Small, Jacob E.; Jobes, David A.; Safer, Martin A.; Peterson, Rebecca J.
Two experiments exposed college student volunteers to rock music with or without suicidal content. Music and videos with suicide content appeared to prime implicit cognitions related to suicide but did not affect variables associated with increased suicide risk. (Contains 60 references and 3 tables.) (Author/JBJ)
Osborne, Josephine N.
This manual was written to help schools address the problem of youth suicide. The introduction presents a teenager's and a parent's perspective of youth suicide, discusses the problem of youth suicide, and develops a hypothesis of why the problem exists. Section 1 describes the contributing factors involved with adolescent suicide and provides…
Lloyd, Linda; And Others
Used cohort method of analysis to examine teenage suicide in Texas. Beginning with suicide rates for white males aged 15-19 in 1945, suicide rates were calculated and plotted for five-year age cohorts entering late teenage years. Analysis confirmed rising risk factor associated with age group. Cohort patterns for suicide revealed recent…
Sørensen, Holger; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Wang, August;
BACKGROUND: A family history of completed suicide and psychiatric illness has been identified as risk factors for suicide. AIMS: To examine the risk of offspring suicide in relation to parental history of suicide and other parental risk factors. METHOD: The study population consisted of 7,177 adult...
Darvishi, Nahid; Farhadi, Mehran; Haghtalab, Tahereh; POOROLAJAL, Jalal
Background Several original studies have investigated the effect of alcohol use disorder (AUD) on suicidal thought and behavior, but there are serious discrepancies across the studies. Thus, a systematic assessment of the association between AUD and suicide is required. Methods We searched PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus until February 2015. We also searched the Psycinfo web site and journals and contacted authors. We included observational (cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional) studi...
Schäfer, Markus; Quiring, Oliver
The existence of the so-called "Werther effect" is well confirmed, and there are several recommendations on how the media should (not) report suicide to minimize the risk of copycat behavior. Unfortunately, very little is known about how suicide is actually reported. The article examines the German press coverage of six celebrity suicides with respect to compliance with guidelines on suicide reporting and analyzes changes in suicides in the wake of the reporting. It concludes that German media do not respect the recommendations in a substantial number of their articles. In addition, a significant increase in suicides and similar suicides is found. PMID:25365759
Jang, Su Jin; Kang, Joo Hyun; Kim, Kwang Il; Lee, Tae Sup; Lee, Yong Jin; Woo, Kwang Sun; Chung, Wee Sup; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, Sang Moo [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
Suicidal gene therapy is based on the transduction of tumor cells with 'suicide' genes encoding for prodrugactivating enzymes that render target cells susceptible to prodrug treatment. Suicidal gene therapy results in the death of tumor with the expression of gene encoding enzyme that converts non-toxic prodrug into cytotoxic product. Cytochrome P450 4B1 (CYP4B1) activates 4- ipomeanol (4-ipo) and 2-aminoanthracene (2-AA) to cytotoxic furane epoxide and unsaturated dialdehyde intermediate. In this study, therapeutic effects of suicidal gene therapy with rabbit CYP4B1/4-ipo or CYP4B1/2-AA system
Suicidal gene therapy is based on the transduction of tumor cells with 'suicide' genes encoding for prodrugactivating enzymes that render target cells susceptible to prodrug treatment. Suicidal gene therapy results in the death of tumor with the expression of gene encoding enzyme that converts non-toxic prodrug into cytotoxic product. Cytochrome P450 4B1 (CYP4B1) activates 4- ipomeanol (4-ipo) and 2-aminoanthracene (2-AA) to cytotoxic furane epoxide and unsaturated dialdehyde intermediate. In this study, therapeutic effects of suicidal gene therapy with rabbit CYP4B1/4-ipo or CYP4B1/2-AA system
Winer, E Samuel; Drapeau, Christopher W; Veilleux, Jennifer C; Nadorff, Michael R
Depression is a significant risk factor for suicide. Evidence suggests that anhedonia may be a symptom of depression that is uniquely associated with suicidality. However, exactly how anhedonia is related to suicide is unclear. To provide more specific evidence regarding this association, we investigated relationships between anhedonia, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts. A large combined undergraduate sample completed the novel Specific Loss of Interest and Pleasure Scale (SLIPS), the Center of Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and the Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R). Anhedonia was associated with suicidal ideation, even when accounting for depressive symptoms. Additionally, anhedonia was not associated with suicide attempts when symptoms of depression were held constant. The current study provides novel evidence regarding the relationship between anhedonia and risk of attempting suicide. Future research can examine the role anhedonia plays in the unfolding of suicidal behavior over time. PMID:26214573
Konrad, N.; Daigle, M.S.; Daniel, A.E.; Dear, G.E.; Frottier, P.; Hayes, L.M.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.; Liebling, A.; Sarchiapone, M.
Abstract. In 2000 the Department of Mental Health of the World Health Organization (WHO) published a guide named Preventing Suicide. A Resource for Prison Officers as part of the WHO worldwide initiative for the prevention of suicide. In 2007 there are new epidemiological data on prison suicide, a m
Van Orden, Kimberly A.; Witte, Tracy K.; Gordon, Kathryn H.; Bender, Theodore W.; Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.
The interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior (T. E. Joiner, 2005) proposes that an individual will not die by suicide unless he or she has both the desire to die by suicide and the ability to do so. Three studies test the theory's hypotheses. In Study 1, the interaction of thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness…
Gould, Madelyn S.; Cross, Wendi; Pisani, Anthony R.; Munfakh, Jimmie Lou; Kleinman, Marjorie
We examined the impact of the implementation of Applied Suicide Intervention Skills Training (ASIST) across the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline's national network of crisis hotlines. Data was derived from 1,507 monitored calls from 1,410 suicidal individuals to 17 Lifeline centers in 2008–2009.
Lee, Jeane B.; Bartlett, Mary L.
Despite its entrenchment as a standard of practice, no-suicide contracts fail to achieve their purpose as an effective part of treatment or as an effective method of inoculating counselors against potential lawsuits should a client commit suicide. Critical elements for managing suicidal clients and counselor liability without reliance on the…
... Friend Who Cuts? My Friend Is Talking About Suicide. What Should I Do? KidsHealth > For Teens > My ... sobre suicidio. ¿Qué debo hacer? Warning Signs of Suicide Everyone feels sad, depressed, or angry sometimes — especially ...
Hartkopp, A; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Seidenschnur, A M;
To determine the relation between functional status and risk of suicide among individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI).......To determine the relation between functional status and risk of suicide among individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI)....
Stenager, E N; Koch-Henriksen, N; Stenager, E
BACKGROUND: The purpose of the present study was to identify risk factors for suicide in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: The study is based on available information about MS patients identified in the Danish MS Registry (DMSR) with onset in the period 1950-1985. We compared the MS...... suicides with the 1950-1985 onset cohort patients in the DSMR as to distribution of age at onset, presenting symptoms, and time from onset to diagnosis. We reviewed sociodemographic data, age of onset, the course of the disease, recent deterioration, type of deterioration, Kurtzke Disability Status Scale...... (DSS) score, previous mental disorder, type of mental disorder, previous suicide attempts, expression of suicidal intentions, circumstances at suicide, and suicide method for all MS patients who had committed suicide. In order to characterize MS suicides with respect to risk factors, comparisons were...
Lester, David; Saito, Yukio; Ben Park, B C
The suicide rate of Koreans living in Japan is twice as high as that of Koreans in South Korea. Reasons for this high suicide rate are discussed, including effects of economic crises and discrimination. PMID:21526599
Hodgman, Christopher H.
The review cites research on adolescent depression (definitions, prevalence, diagnosis, etiology, associated clinical conditions, and treatment) and suicide (prevalence, classification, prediction and etiology, suicide prevention, and treatment). (Author/CL)
... fullstory_159029.html Predeployment Riskiest Time for Military Suicide Attempts Two months into service is a pivotal period, ... 25, 2016 WEDNESDAY, May 25, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Suicide attempts in the military aren't necessarily combat-driven. ...
Peretti, Peter O.; Wilson, Cedric
This study explored anomic and egoistic dimensions of contemplated suicide among voluntary and involuntary retired males. Results indicated a direct relationship between anomie and egoism on the one hand, and contemplation of suicide on the other. (Author)
Petry, Nancy M.; Kiluk, Brian D.
This study assessed rates and correlates of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in individuals seeking treatment for pathological gambling. At intake to gambling treatment programs, 342 pathological gamblers completed the Addiction Severity Index and the South Oaks Gambling Screen. Participants were categorized into three groups: no suicidal ideation (N = 175, 51%), suicidal ideation alone (N = 109, 32%), and suicide attempters (N = 58, 17%). After controlling for gender, age, treatment si...
Full Text Available Throughout history, the social convictions and norms have influenced the recognition and presence of suicidal behaviour in different ways. However, previous research findings regarding the connection between suicidal behaviour and attitudes towards suicide have not arrived at a clear conclusion. The present research explores adolescents' attitudes toward suicide. The aim was to examine the relation between the permissive attitude toward suicide on one side and certain suicide risk factors and satisfaction in different domains of psychical functioning on the other side. Data was collected on 423high school students in three Slovenian cities, chosen on the basis of different regional suicide rates, with an Attitudes towards Suicide Questionnaire ATTS, Psychological Well-Being Scales PWBS, and questions about suicidal behaviour of adolescents and their surroundings. The results showed that the acceptance of suicide is proportional to the suicide rates of different regions. We concluded that permissive attitudes towards suicide could potentially lead to the increased risk of suicidal behaviour. Furthermore, the acceptance of suicide was, inter alia, significantly positively related to the self-reported probability of committing suicide, the presence of suicidal behaviour of the adolescent and his/her friends or other people he/she knows, while the connection with the subjective life satisfaction was negative. Considering the fact that there has been a trend of growing permissiveness towards suicide in society in the last few decades, the findings raise a question regarding the positive effects of such tolerance on suicide rates and support the justification of restrictive attitudes towards suicide as a protective factor of suicidal behaviour.
Dogan, Kamil Hakan; Demirci, Serafettin; Deniz, Idris
Hanging is the most common method of suicide in the world, and many public places offer a means or opportunity to carry out the activity. Of 4,452 death examinations and autopsies, there were 378 (8.5%) suicides and suicide method was hanging in 185 (48.9%) cases. In 20 of these (10.8%), the suspension point was the branch of a tree. The incident location was the garden of the victim's house in nine cases, the woodlands in seven cases. The suicides were attributed to psychiatric disorders in nine cases, economic problems in six cases, and family problems in five cases. It is concluded that hanging on a tree as a suicide method is often committed by males and the underlying motive may be different in suicidal hangings on trees occurring at daytime and night. For preventional purposes, the reporting of such suicides in public places by the media may be restricted by local authorities. PMID:25088533
Evrim AKTEPE; Kandil, Sema; Topbas, Murat
Objective: Suicide is a complex phenomenon associated with pyschological, biological and social factors. Suicide has been reported as the second or third most common cause of death in children and adolescents worldwide. Suicidal behaviour in children and adolescents will be discussed in the frame of motivational definition. Method: Published research studies and reviews on children and adolescent suicides have been reviewed. Furthermore, classical papers have been searched to obtain knowledge...
Voss, William D.; Kaufman, Erin; O’Connor, Stephen S.; Comtois, Katherine Anne; Connor, Kenneth R.; Ries, Richard K.
Persons addicted to alcohol and drugs are at 5–10 times higher risk for suicide as compared to the general population. To address the need for improved suicide prevention strategies in this population, the Preventing Addiction Related Suicide (PARS) module was developed. Pilot testing of 78 patients demonstrated significant post-treatment changes in knowledge (t (66) = 12.07, p= .000) and attitudes (t (75) = 6.82, p = .000) toward suicide prevention issues. Significant gains were maintained a...
Bazrafshan, Mohammad-Rafi; Jahangir, Fereidun; Mansouri, Amir; Kashfi, Seyyed Hannan
Background: Having a set of effective coping skills can prevent suicidal behavior by increasing self-control and self-direction. This study examines coping styles used by suicidal patients. Objectives: The researchers in this study try to identify coping strategies used by suicide attempters admitted to Shiraz Shahid Faghihi Hospital emergency room. Materials and Methods: This is a analytical cross-sectional study. Participants consisted of 50 suicide-attempted people admitted to Shiraz Faghi...
Moody, Chérie; Smith, Nathan Grant
A recent study indicated a suicide attempt rate of 41 % among trans (e.g., trans, transgender, transexual/transsexual, genderqueer, two-spirit) individuals. Although this rate is alarming, there is a dearth of literature regarding suicide prevention for trans individuals. A vital step in developing suicide prevention models is the identification of protective factors. It was hypothesized that social support from friends, social support from family, optimism, reasons for living, and suicide re...
Søren Ventegodt; Joav Merrick
Suicide has been honoured and respected in the eastern culture, especially in Japan with the famous tradition of Hara-kiri, or seppuku, while in most western societies suicide has been seen negatively and many contemporary physicians tend to consider suicide the most self-destructive and evil thing a human being can do and something that should be avoided at all cost. Religions also have different viewpoints on suicide, but from a philosophical point of view we believe that considering the ch...
Smith, Rebecca M.
In 1976, suicides in the 15-24 year-old group (N=4,747) made up over 17% of all suicides in all age groups (N=26,750). In 1968, adolescent suicides (N=2,591) were only 12% of the total (N=21,000). Adolescent suicide rate is alarming unless put into perspective with the accident rate and the cultural belief in individual rights, responsibility, and…
Kral, Michael J.; Wiebe, Patricia K.; Nisbet, Kari; Dallas, Catherine; Okalik, Looee; Enuaraq, Nubiya; Cinotta, James
Objectives. To review suicide patterns among Inuit in Canada and highlight new developments inInuit-driven and community-based suicide prevention.Study design. Narrative overview of suicide among Inuit in Canada, strides towards Inuitautonomy, and community and government action towards suicide prevention.Methods. Review of Inuit meanings of mental health, movements towards Inuit control acrossInuit Nunaat (the 4 Inuit regions) of Canada, and of community and government action towardssuicide ...
Antonio Ventriglio; Alessandro Gentile; Iris Bonfitto; Eleonora Stella; Massimo Mari; Luca Steardo; Antonello Bellomo
Suicide is a relevant leading cause of death among patients affected by schizophrenia. Even if suicidal ideation may be present in different stages of disease, some differences have been described between the risk of suicide in patients experiencing first-episode of psychosis and those with long-term schizophrenia. It is particularly higher during the first year of illness and reaches a steady decline over the following years. Suicidal ideation and attempts may also be common among subjec...
Dragisic, Tatjana; Dickov, Aleksandra; Dickov, Veselin; Mijatovic, Vesna
Introduction: Suicide is closely linked to the substances use. Therefore it is very important to confirm the factors that affect the possibility of suicidal behavior. Methodology: The survey included 200 respondents; 100 heroin addicts on the substitution program that attempted suicide and 100 opiate addicts who have not attempted suicide. The evaluation included a questionnaire with socio-demographic, hereditary and addiction data, legal problems and then the Minnesota Multiphasic Personalit...
Christopher R. DeCou
Full Text Available Introduction. Native peoples living in Alaska have one of the highest rates of suicide in the world. This represents a significant health disparity for indigenous populations living in Alaska. This research was part of a larger study that explored qualitatively the perceptions of Alaska Native university students from rural communities regarding suicide. This analysis explored the resilience that arose from participants’ experiences of traditional ways, including subsistence activities. Previous research has indicated the importance of traditional ways in preventing suicide and strengthening communities. Method. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 25 university students who had migrated to Fairbanks, Alaska, from rural Alaskan communities. An interview protocol was developed in collaboration with cultural and community advisors. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed. Participants were asked specific questions concerning the strengthening of traditional practices towards the prevention of suicide. Transcripts were analysed using the techniques of grounded theory. Findings. Participants identified several resilience factors against suicide, including traditional practices and subsistence activities, meaningful community involvement and an active lifestyle. Traditional practices and subsistence activities were perceived to create the context for important relationships, promote healthy living to prevent suicide, contrast with current challenges and transmit important cultural values. Participants considered the strengthening of these traditional ways as important in suicide prevention efforts. However, subsistence and traditional practices were viewed as a diminishing aspect of daily living in rural Alaska. Conclusions. Many college students from rural Alaska have been affected by suicide but are strong enough to cope with such tragic events. Subsistence living and traditional practices were perceived as important social and
Horton, Sarah E; Hughes, Jennifer L; King, Jessica D; Kennard, Betsy D; Westers, Nicholas J; Mayes, Taryn L; Stewart, Sunita M
This study offers a preliminary examination of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide (IPTS; Joiner 2005) in an adolescent clinical sample. The IPTS offers a nuanced framework that has many conceptual and practical merits. Although this theory has a growing base of evidence among adults, it has yet to be tested in adolescents using direct measures of its central constructs. Participants were 147 adolescents (76.2 % girls) on an inpatient psychiatric unit, who completed measures of key IPTS constructs of thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, acquired capability for suicide, as well as depression severity, hopelessness, and severity of suicidal symptoms. Our findings were largely consistent with hypotheses derived from the IPTS: perceived burdensomeness, and at a marginal level, thwarted belongingness, were independently associated with current suicidal ideation. The thwarted belongingness by perceived burdensomeness interaction marginally distinguished between adolescents with passive and active suicidal ideation. Acquired capability for suicide was associated with recent suicidal intent. Examination of all three IPTS constructs simultaneously revealed main effects of each construct (with a marginal effect of thwarted belongingness), and interaction effects for thwarted belongingness by perceived burdensomeness, and thwarted belongingness by perceived burdensomeness by acquired capability for suicide in association with suicidal symptom severity. Sex, age, depression severity, and hopelessness were controlled in all analyses. This study offers strong, albeit preliminary, support of the IPTS in a clinical adolescent sample. Assessment of IPTS constructs may be useful in determining persistent risk for suicide attempt. Prospective tests of the theory, and extensions to intervention and prevention should be considered in future IPTS research. PMID:26667025
Tsukahara, Teruomi; Arai, Hiroaki; Kamijo, Tomoko; Kobayashi, Yoshikiyo; Washizuka, Shinsuke; Arito, Heihachiro; Nomiyama, Tetsuo
Certain attitudes toward suicide may be a risk factor for suicide among the bereaved. To explore this possibility, we examined the relationship between attitudes toward suicide and family history of suicide. We focused on two specific attitudes indicating resignation in a survey: #1 “When a person chooses to die by suicide, the suicide is inevitable” (i.e., inevitability belief); and #2 “A suicide cannot be stopped by any person, because suicide is unpreventable” (i.e., unpreventable belief). The data of 5117 fully completed questionnaires were analyzed. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the two attitudes of resignation were significantly associated with a family history of suicide. The adjusted odds ratio for #1 was 1.39 (95% CI, 1.07–1.79) for individuals having experienced suicide by a family member or relative, while that for #2 was 1.57 (95% CI, 1.27–1.95) for experiencing a suicide by a family member or relative and 1.25 (95% CI, 1.05–1.49) for experiencing a suicide by a friend, business associate, partner or other. These two attitudes of resignation toward suicide were significantly associated with a family history of suicide. These attitudes might increase suicide risk among the bereaved. PMID:27338441
Maguen, Shira; Skopp, Nancy A; Zhang, Ying; Smolenski, Derek J
In order to best tailor suicide prevention initiatives and programs, it is critical to gain an understanding of how service members׳ suicide risk factors may differ by gender. We aimed to better understand gender differences in suicide and suicide attempts among soldiers, including demographic, military, mental health, and other risk factors. We also examined risk factors uniquely associated with suicide and suicide attempts. We conducted a retrospective study of 1857 US Army soldiers who died by suicide or attempted suicide between 2008 and 2010 and had a Department of Defense Suicide Event Report. Female and male soldiers had more similarities than differences when examining risk factors associated with suicide. The only gender difference approaching significance was workplace difficulties, which was more strongly associated with suicide for female soldiers, compared to their male counterparts. Among suicide decedents, the most common risk factor was having a failed intimate relationship in the 90 days prior to suicide. Among those who attempted suicide, the most common risk factor was a major psychiatric diagnosis. Better understanding both gender differences and risk factors uniquely associated with suicide has critical prevention and public health implications as we work to better understand preventable mortality in our youngest generation of service members. PMID:25530416
Tsukahara, Teruomi; Arai, Hiroaki; Kamijo, Tomoko; Kobayashi, Yoshikiyo; Washizuka, Shinsuke; Arito, Heihachiro; Nomiyama, Tetsuo
Certain attitudes toward suicide may be a risk factor for suicide among the bereaved. To explore this possibility, we examined the relationship between attitudes toward suicide and family history of suicide. We focused on two specific attitudes indicating resignation in a survey: #1 "When a person chooses to die by suicide, the suicide is inevitable" (i.e., inevitability belief); and #2 "A suicide cannot be stopped by any person, because suicide is unpreventable" (i.e., unpreventable belief). The data of 5117 fully completed questionnaires were analyzed. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the two attitudes of resignation were significantly associated with a family history of suicide. The adjusted odds ratio for #1 was 1.39 (95% CI, 1.07-1.79) for individuals having experienced suicide by a family member or relative, while that for #2 was 1.57 (95% CI, 1.27-1.95) for experiencing a suicide by a family member or relative and 1.25 (95% CI, 1.05-1.49) for experiencing a suicide by a friend, business associate, partner or other. These two attitudes of resignation toward suicide were significantly associated with a family history of suicide. These attitudes might increase suicide risk among the bereaved. PMID:27338441
Jordans, Mark J D; Kaufman, Anne; Brenman, Natassia; Adhikar, Ramesh; Luitel, Nagendra; Tol, Wietse; Komproe, Ivan
Background Globally, suicide is an important cause of mortality. In low- and middle income settings, it is difficult to find unequivocal data to establish suicide rates. The objective of this review is to synthesize the reporting of suicide incidence in six south Asian countries. Methods We conducte
This article is intended to engage others in a dialogue about the role and meaning of jokes about suicide. Types of jokes involving suicide are examined to distinguish the different types of humor involved. A sample of 118 recent political cartoons in an online website was downloaded, of which 73 concerned suicide bombers. Examples of suicide…
Blaauw, E.; Winkel, F.W.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.
Relationships between bullying features and suicidal behavior of inmates were examined. The files of 95 suicide victims in jails and prisons in the Netherlands were examined for reports of bullying. In addition, 221 nonsuicidal jail inmates and 53 suicidal jail inmates were interviewed. The files of
Miller, Michael L.; And Others
Contrasted 30 delinquent adolescents who had attempted suicide with 120 delinquent controls. Suicidal ideation, depression, gender, a tendency to act out, conflict with parents, childhood hyperactivity, and the interactions of gender with depression and with acting out accounted for 49 percent of the variance in suicide attempts. (Author)
O'Neil, Kelly A.; Puleo, Connor M.; Benjamin, Courtney L.; Podell, Jennifer L.; Kendall, Philip C.
Evidence is mixed regarding an independent association between anxiety and suicidality in youth. Study 1 examined suicidal ideation in treatment-referred, anxiety-disordered youth (N = 312, aged 7-17). Forty-one percent of anxiety-disordered youth endorsed suicidal ideation. Anxiety disorder severity, global impairment, and current depressive…
Shaffer, David; And Others
Examined relationship between suicidal behavior and homosexuality in adolescence in an unselected, matched sample. Found no evidence that suicide is a common characteristic of gay youth, or that when suicide does occur among gay teenagers, that it is a direct consequence of stigmatization or lack of support. (JBJ)
restrictions in firearms and carbon monoxide gas. At the selective prevention level, a review of risk of suicide in homelessness and schizophrenia and risk factors for suicide in schizophrenia is conducted and possible interventions are mentioned together with the evidence for their effect. Suicide rate and...
McIntosh, John L.; Kelly, Leah D.
The literature on suicide survivors suggests that suicide grief is different than the grief associated with survivorship from other causes. The few studies that have compared groups of survivors from other causes, however, have often not observed as many differences as expected based on the suicide survivors literature. In this study, 230 college…
Rutter, Philip A.; Behrendt, Andrew E.
Suicide is a leading cause of death among adolescents. This study examined the suicidal ideation, behavior, and attempt history of 100 adolescents ages seventeen to nineteen. Four psychosocial factors were found to be important for overall suicide risk: hopelessness, hostility, negative self-concept, and isolation. It is suggested that focusing on…
King, Keith A.
Discusses the primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention components of suicide prevention education, offering practical steps for incorporating each component within a school system and exploring: what school professionals can do to help prevent adolescent suicide; what school professionals should do when a student threatens suicide; and what…
Suicide is the second leading cause of death among adolescents and young adults between the ages of 15-25. Every day, over 1,000 young adults attempt to destroy themselves. Although adolescents contemplate suicide for many reasons, research suggests that depression is the number one risk factor in suicide. Accordingly, this paper describes many of…
Examined changes in the suicide rate of teenagers and young adults internationally from 1970 to 1980. Twenty-three nations experienced increases (with Norway experiencing the largest percentage increase), while six experienced decreases. Unlike general suicide rates, teenage suicide rates were not related to the quality of life in the nations…
Discusses suicide prevention programs administered in United States, noting that treatment for suicidal patients is conducted in terms of basic tenets of Western culture. Cautions American therapists treating Asian patients, especially suicidal individuals who are regressed and show cultural characteristics, to consider importance of cultural…
Todd, Sherry Malana
Suicide is a deliberate act of annihilation against one's self due to a crisis of problem solving. Far too many youth are dying by their own hands resulting in suicide being the third leading cause of death for 10-19 year olds (CDC, 2005). Suicide is particularly problematic for adolescents due to the impulsivity inherent in adolescent…
Nelson, Richard E; Crawford, Beth
Questionnaires completed by approximately 125 counselors revealed contact with 187 students considering suicide during 1 academic year, 26 of whom had attempted suicide, and 1 of whom committed suicide. Critical concerns of elementary students identified by counselors included parent divorce, appearance/self-esteem, peer pressure, remarriage,…
Ying, Yung-hsiang; Chang, Koyin
The topic of suicide has long been an important socioeconomic issue studied in many countries. Suicides inject an atmosphere of unrest into society, and media attention furthers that social uneasiness. From the viewpoint of economics and management, suicide is a waste of human resource: it decreases the labor force in society and deteriorates…
Sarchiapone, Marco; Carli, Vladimir; Di Giannantonio, Massimo; Roy, Alec
We wished to examine determinants of suicidal behavior in prisoners. 903 male prisoners had a psychiatric interview which included various psychometric tests. Suicide attempters were compared with prisoners who had never attempted suicide. Significantly more of the attempters had a history of psychiatric disorder, substance abuse, a family history…
Shadick, Richard; Akhter, Sarah
Because of a dearth of experience in preventing suicide in diverse student populations, Pace University developed a multicultural suicide prevention kit. This article details the process used to develop the kit. The rationale for approaching suicide prevention in a culturally competent manner is presented, and methods used to gain culture-specific…
Salem Bilal A
Full Text Available Abstract The possible increase of suicidal ideation with some antidepressants is still a matter of debate. We are reporting two cases of suicidal attempt that occurred concomitantly with the use of Duloxetine. To our knowledge there is no prior publication about a possible Duloxetine related increase in the risk of suicidality.
Duker, Laurie, Ed.
Whether or not a suicide attempt results in death depends in large part on the method chosen. If a teenager attempts suicide with a gun, his or her death is nearly guaranteed. This brief fact sheet presents data on firearms and suicide, the third leading cause of death for adolescents and young adults in the United States. Any number of societal…
Suicide, the second leading cause of death for adolescents in the United States, is preventable. Nearly 80% of individuals who commit suicide have demonstrated signs well in advance. Adolescent suicide prevention efforts require collaboration with teachers--individuals who know students well. Literacy educators have a role in suicide…
Burton Denmark, Adryon; Hess, Elaine; Becker, Martin Swanbrow
Self-reported reasons for concealing suicidal ideation were explored using data from a national survey of undergraduate and graduate students: 558 students indicated that they seriously considered attempting suicide during the previous year and did not tell anyone about their suicidal thoughts. Content analysis of students' qualitative responses…
Martin Anderson; Rachel Jenkins
Suicide is a global phenomenon. It is estimated that 0.5-1.2 million people worldwide die by suicide each year. Taking into account the global epidemiologic data concerning suicide and the economic impact of this phenomenon on diverse societies, this review aims to examine national suicide prevention strategies. Recognition of suicide as an international public health problem, increased reporting by countries on suicide rates to the WHO, and recognition of the costs (associated with suicide) ...
Wu, Lun; Zhou, Wen-Bo; Shen, Feng; Liu, Wei; Wu, Hong-Wei; Zhou, Shi-Ji; Li, Sheng-Wei
Normal hepatocytes express connexin32 (Cx32), which forms gap junctions at cell‑cell contact areas. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether Cx32 mediates the cell death‑inducing effects of ultrasound microbubbles carrying the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV‑TK) suicide gene against hepatocellular carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo. HepG2 cells were exposed to different concentrations of trans‑retinoic acid (ATRA) in culture, to evaluate the intrinsic antitumor effect of ATRA. Detailed in‑vitro and in‑vivo investigations on the antitumor effects of ATRA via Cx32 mediation were performed, and the possible underlying mechanisms of action of the compound were then examined. The gene expression of HSV‑TK transfected by ultrasound wave irradiation in the HepG2 cells was quantified using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis. The effects on cell death were assessed using an MTT assay. The protein expression levels of Cx32 in ATRA‑untreated or ATRA‑treated tissues were quantified by immunohistochemical analysis and Western blot assays. The HSV‑TK gene was successfully transfected into the HepG2 cell using ultrasound wave irradiation, and was stably expressed. Compared with the other groups, the HSV‑TK gene group treated with ATRA exhibited an increased number of apoptotic cells (Psuicide gene therapy system, which may provide a potential strategy for hepatocellular carcinoma treatment. PMID:26935255
Full Text Available Mechanisms of self-destruction are difficult to reconcile with evolution’s first rule of thumb: survive and reproduce. However, evolutionary success ultimately depends on inclusive fitness. The altruistic suicide hypothesis posits that the presence of low reproductive potential and burdensomeness toward kin can increase the inclusive fitness payoff of self-removal. The bargaining hypothesis assumes that suicide attempts could function as an honest signal of need. The payoff may be positive if the suicidal person has a low reproductive potential. The parasite manipulation hypothesis is founded on the rodent—Toxoplasma gondii host-parasite model, in which the parasite induces a “suicidal” feline attraction that allows the parasite to complete its life cycle. Interestingly, latent infection by T. gondii has been shown to cause behavioral alterations in humans, including increased suicide attempts. Finally, we discuss how suicide risk factors can be understood as nonadaptive byproducts of evolved mechanisms that malfunction. Although most of the mechanisms proposed in this article are largely speculative, the hypotheses that we raise accept self-destructive behavior within the framework of evolutionary theory.
Li, Qin; Wu, Yi-Jun
One way to reduce the potential risk of genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs) to the environment is to use a containment system that does not interfere with the performance of the GEM until activated. Such a system can be created by inserting a suicide cassette consisting of a toxin-encoding gene controlled by an inducible promoter. We constructed a GEM that can degrade organophosphorus compounds, emit green fluorescence, and commit suicide when required by putting the genes that control these different functions under different promoters. The genes for enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) were cloned downstream of the lambda PL promoter in the plasmid pBV220. These genes could be expressed freely as long as the GEM was metabolizing because the repressor sequence cIts857 had been deleted. The extracellular nuclease gene of Serratia marcescens, without its leader-coding sequence, provided the suicide mechanism. This was put under the control of the T7 promoter to form a suicide cassette activated by the presence of an environmental signal, in this case, arabinose. To improve the reliability of this containment system, the suicide cassette was duplicated within the conditional suicide plasmid. The plasmid carrying the EGFP and OPH fusion genes and that containing the suicide cassette were compatible and coexisted in the same host. PMID:19183984
Full Text Available A Sanchez-Bahillo1, V Bautista-Hernandez1, Carlos Barcia Gonzalez1, R Bañon2, A Luna2, EC Hirsch3, Maria-Trinidad Herrero11Clinical and Experimental Neuroscience, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED; 2Department of Legal Medicine, Department of Human Anatomy, School of Medicine, University of Murcia, Campus de Espinardo, Murcia 30100, Spain; 3INSERM U679 Hôpital de la Salpêtrière, Boulevard de l’Hôpital, Paris, FranceAbstract: Suicidal behavior is a problem with important social repercussions. Some groups of the population show a higher risk of suicide; for example, depression, alcoholism, psychosis or drug abuse frequently precedes suicidal behavior. However, the relationship between metabolic alterations in the brain and premorbid clinical symptoms of suicide remains uncertain. The serotonergic and noradrenergic systems have frequently been, implicated in suicidal behavior and the amount of serotonin in the brain and CSF of suicide victims has been found to be low compared with normal subjects. However, there are contradictory results regarding the role of noradrenergic neurons in the mediation of suicide attempts, possibly reflecting the heterogeneity of conditions that lead to a common outcome. In the present work we focus on the subgroup of suicide victims that share a common diagnosis of major depression. Based on post-mortem studies analyzing mRNA expression by in situ hybridization, serotonergic neurons from the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN from depressive suicide victims are seen to over-express cytochrome oxidase mRNA. However, no corresponding changes were found in the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH mRNA in the noradrenergic neurons of the Locus Coeruleus (LC. These results suggest that, despite of the low levels of serotonin described in suicide victims, the activity of DRN neurons could increase in the suicidally depressed, probably due to the over activation of
Henry T Robertson
Full Text Available CONTEXT: In randomized controlled trials (RCTs, some drugs, including CB1 antagonists for obesity treatment, have been shown to cause increased suicidal ideation. A key question is whether drugs that increase or are associated with increased suicidal ideations are also associated with suicidal behavior, or whether drug-induced suicidal ideations are unlinked epiphenomena that do not presage the more troubling and potentially irrevocable outcome of suicidal behavior. This is difficult to determine in RCTs because of the rarity of suicidal attempts and completions. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether drugs associated with more suicidal ideations are also associated with more suicide attempts in large spontaneous adverse event (AE report databases. METHODOLOGY: Generalized linear models with negative binomial distribution were fitted to Food and Drug Administration (FDA Adverse Event (AE Reporting System (AERS data from 2004 to 2008. A total of 1,404,470 AEs from 832 drugs were analyzed as a function of reports of suicidal ideations; other non-suicidal adverse reactions; drug class; proportion of reports from males; and average age of subject for which AE was filed. Drug was treated as the unit of analysis, thus the statistical models effectively had 832 observations. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Reported suicide attempts and completed suicides per drug. RESULTS: 832 drugs, ranging from abacavir to zopiclone, were evaluated. The 832 drugs, as primary suspect drugs in a given adverse event, accounted for over 99.9% of recorded AERS. Suicidal ideations had a significant positive association with suicide attempts (p<.0001 and had an approximately 131-fold stronger magnitude of association than non-suicidal AERs, after adjusting for drug class, gender, and age. CONCLUSIONS: In AE reports, drugs that are associated with increased suicidal ideations are also associated with increased suicidal attempts or completions. This association suggests that drug
Full Text Available Suicide attacks are a subject that has been studied and researched extensively, with the primary emphasis on the phenomenon of suicide as a terrorist weapon. Yet although it has been nearly a decade since the outbreak of the violent Palestinian uprising, the combat features used by the IDF and the security services against terrorism in general and suicide terrorism in particular, the most lethal form of terrorism, have not been studied in depth. The purpose of this essay is to attempt to understand the major components of activity that resulted in the near eradication of the phenomenon. The focus of this paper is the war on terrorism in Judea and Samaria without dealing with terrorism from the Gaza Strip, which has developed and assumed different forms over the years and is beyond the scope of this essay. This paper seeks to provide an historical picture of the processes employed by Israel in an attempt to foil suicide terrorism. The ﬁrst part of the essay examines the political directives issued by the Israeli government to the IDF from 2000, when the ﬁghting erupted, until the government decision that led to Operation Defensive Shield. The second part examines the implementation of the directives and the development of the military and security response to suicide terrorism. This part of the essay also analyzes the process of formulating the military strategy for ﬁghting terrorism in Judea and Samaria. The last part of the essay analyzes the ethical components of ﬁghting a war on suicide terrorism that had the potential of being highly detrimental to the values of the IDF.
Street, A. E.; Gilman, S. E.; Rosellini, A. J.; Stein, M. B.; Bromet, E. J.; Cox, K. L.; Colpe, L. J.; Fullerton, C. S.; Gruber, M. J.; Heeringa, S. G.; Lewandowski-Romps, L.; Little, R. J. A.; Naifeh, J. A.; Nock, M. K.; Sampson, N. A.; Schoenbaum, M.; Ursano, R. J.; Zaslavsky, A. M.; Kessler, R. C.
Background The Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS) has found that the proportional elevation in the US Army enlisted soldier suicide rate during deployment (compared with the never-deployed or previously deployed) is significantly higher among women than men, raising the possibility of gender differences in the adverse psychological effects of deployment. Method Person-month survival models based on a consolidated administrative database for active duty enlisted Regular Army soldiers in 2004–2009 (n = 975 057) were used to characterize the gender × deployment interaction predicting suicide. Four explanatory hypotheses were explored involving the proportion of females in each soldier’s occupation, the proportion of same-gender soldiers in each soldier’s unit, whether the soldier reported sexual assault victimization in the previous 12 months, and the soldier’s pre-deployment history of treated mental/behavioral disorders. Results The suicide rate of currently deployed women (14.0/100 000 person-years) was 3.1–3.5 times the rates of other (i.e. never-deployed/previously deployed) women. The suicide rate of currently deployed men (22.6/100 000 person-years) was 0.9–1.2 times the rates of other men. The adjusted (for time trends, sociodemographics, and Army career variables) female:male odds ratio comparing the suicide rates of currently deployed v. other women v. men was 2.8 (95% confidence interval 1.1–6.8), became 2.4 after excluding soldiers with Direct Combat Arms occupations, and remained elevated (in the range 1.9–2.8) after adjusting for the hypothesized explanatory variables. Conclusions These results are valuable in excluding otherwise plausible hypotheses for the elevated suicide rate of deployed women and point to the importance of expanding future research on the psychological challenges of deployment for women. PMID:25359554
Fu, KW; Yip, PSF
Background: The short-term effect of celebrity suicide on the overall suicide rate is widely known, but long-term effects remain unclear. Objective: To examine whether celebrity suicide is associated with suicidal ideation over a longer period. Design: This is a study on the effect of the suicide of a famous Hong Kong entertainment celebrity, who committed suicide on 1 April 2003, on suicide thoughts of the community. A population-based survey was conducted between December 2003 and July 2004...
Im, Jeong-Soo; Choi, Soon Ho; Hong, Duho; Seo, Hwa Jeong; Park, Subin; Hong, Jin Pyo
This study was conducted to examine differences in proximal risk factors and suicide methods by sex and age in the national suicide mortality data in Korea. Data were collected from the National Police Agency and the National Statistical Office of Korea on suicide completers from 2004 to 2006. The 31,711 suicide case records were used to analyze suicide rates, methods, and proximal risk factors by sex and age. Suicide rate increased with age, especially in men. The most common proximal risk factor for suicide was medical illness in both sexes. The most common proximal risk factor for subjects younger than 30 years was found to be a conflict in relationships with family members, partner, or friends. Medical illness was found to increase in prevalence as a risk factor with age. Hanging/Suffocation was the most common suicide method used by both sexes. The use of drug/pesticide poisoning to suicide increased with age. A fall from height or hanging/suffocation was more popular in the younger age groups. Because proximal risk factors and suicide methods varied with sex and age, different suicide prevention measures are required after consideration of both of these parameters. PMID:21497215
Lewitzka, Dr U; Bauer, R
Suicidal thoughts and behavior have been a part of human nature since the beginning of mankind. In his autobiographical work From my Life: Poetry and Truth Goethe summarized two important aspects: "Suicide is an event of human nature which, whatever may be said and done with respect to it, demands the sympathy of every man, and in every epoch must be discussed anew". The authors of this article aim to motivate the readership to question and analyze this complex topic and the accompanying multifaceted positions with a summarized presentation of historical aspects and the more recent political developments. PMID:27119531
The need for a comprehensive nomenclature in suicidology is now well recognized. In this paper the focus is on the issue of intention, which is identified as an essential aspect of any definition of suicide and suicidal behavior primarily because of its distinction from accidental behavior. The distinction between the retrospective perspective of motives versus the prospective perspective of intentions is highlighted, and I argue that the latter is more closely related to suicidal behavior. Finally, while motives and intentions tend to be used together in research, there is a need for sound research to clarify the roles of intentions in order to better understand suicide and attempted suicide. PMID:17087632
Irwin, Jay A; Coleman, Jason D; Fisher, Christopher M; Marasco, Vincent M
The aim of this investigation is to outline correlates of suicide ideation among LGBT individuals living in Nebraska. A community-based participatory research approach was utilized to develop a 30-minute, online anonymous survey. Almost half of the sample had seriously considered suicide at some point in their lives. Significant correlates of increased likelihood of suicide ideation are age, gender, transgender identity, income, depression, and discrimination. Suicide ideation is a serious concern for the health of LGBT Nebraskans. Steps should be taken to incorporate individuals who fall into these high-risk categories in suicide outreach programs. PMID:24344775
Sukhawaha, Supattra; Arunpongpaisal, Suwanna; Rungreangkulkij, Somporn
The study goal was to describe attempted suicide triggers in Thai adolescents. A descriptive exploratory qualitative study approach was used utilizing in-depth interviews with twelve adolescents who had attempted suicide and six of their parents. Content analysis was conducted. Attempted suicide triggers were (1) severe verbal criticisms and expulsion to die by a significant family member, (2) disappointed and unwanted by boyfriend in first serious relationship, (3) unwanted pregnancy, and (4) mental illness leading to intense emotions and irresistible impulses. These attempted suicide triggers should be of concern and brought into suicide prevention management programs such as emotional management, effective communication for adolescents and family. PMID:27256938
Cutler, David M.; Edward Glaeser; Karen Norberg
Suicide rates among youths aged 15-24 have tripled in the past half-century, even as rates for adults and the elderly have declined. And for every youth suicide completion, there are nearly 400 suicide attempts. This paper examines the dynamics of youth suicide attempts and completions, and reaches three conclusions. First, we suggest that many suicide attempts by youths can be viewed as a strategic action on the part of the youth to resolve conflicts within oneself or with others. Youths hav...
Juon, H S; Nam, J J; Ensminger, M E
The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of suicidal behaviors and their relation to background characteristics, social integration, academic stress, psychological distress, and substance use in a stratified random sample of 9886 high school students in Korea. In a multiple logistic regression, we found that depression was the strongest predictor of suicidal behaviors. The other factors significantly associated with suicidal behaviors were gender, academic stress, hostility and substance use. These results indicate that early identification of risk factors for suicidal behaviors may have potential for reducing possible future suicides. PMID:8040219
Arun, M; Palimar, Vikram; Kumar, Pramod G N; Menezes, Ritesh G
Differentiation between suicide and homicide often becomes difficult owing to the unusual methods of suicide used by the victim and the complexities thus posed. Investigating the cases of unusual suicides provides a considerable challenge to the authorities concerned. The issue of homicide should often be ruled out in such cases, which require careful evaluation. This is best done by correlating the morbid anatomical findings at autopsy with the death scene analysis coupled with psychological autopsy. Many forensic practitioners have reported unusual methods of suicide at their respective workplaces. Various types of unusual methods of suicide and the complexities involved in their investigation are presented and discussed. PMID:21133267
Kim, Young Shin; Leventhal, Bennett
Being a victim or perpetrator of school bullying, the most common type of school violence, has been frequently associated with a broad spectrum of behavioral, emotional, and social problems. Suicide is third leading cause of mortality in children and adolescent in the United States of America and around the world. This paper provides a systematic review of the previous 37 studies conducted in children and adolescents from communities, as well as in special populations that examined the association between bullying experiences and suicide, with an emphasis on the strengths and limitations of the study designs. Despite methodological and other differences and limitations, it is increasingly clear that any participation in bullying increases the risk of suicidal ideations and/or behaviors in a broad spectrum of youth. PMID:18714552
Schaffer, Ayal; Isometsä, Erkki T; Tondo, Leonardo;
pharmacotherapy studies specific to bipolar disorder. We conducted pooled, weighted analyses of suicide rates. RESULTS: The pooled suicide rate in bipolar disorder is 164 per 100,000 person-years (95% confidence interval = [5, 324]). Sex-specific data on suicide rates identified a 1.7:1 ratio in men compared to...... associations with suicide attempts and deaths in bipolar disorder, but few replication studies. Data on treatment with lithium or anticonvulsants are strongly suggestive for prevention of suicide attempts and deaths, but additional data are required before relative anti-suicide effects can be confirmed. There...... were limited data on potential anti-suicide effects of treatment with antipsychotics or antidepressants. CONCLUSION: This analysis identified a lower estimated suicide rate in bipolar disorder than what was previously published. Understanding the overall risk of suicide deaths and attempts, and the...
Miller, Matthew; Barber, Catherine; White, Richard A; Azrael, Deborah
On an average day in the United States, more than 100 Americans die by suicide; half of these suicides involve the use of firearms. In this ecological study, we used linear regression techniques and recently available state-level measures of suicide attempt rates to assess whether, and if so, to what extent, the well-established relationship between household firearm ownership rates and suicide mortality persists after accounting for rates of underlying suicidal behavior. After controlling for state-level suicide attempt rates (2008-2009), higher rates of firearm ownership (assessed in 2004) were strongly associated with higher rates of overall suicide and firearm suicide, but not with nonfirearm suicide (2008-2009). Furthermore, suicide attempt rates were not significantly related to gun ownership levels. These findings suggest that firearm ownership rates, independent of underlying rates of suicidal behavior, largely determine variations in suicide mortality across the 50 states. Our results support the hypothesis that firearms in the home impose suicide risk above and beyond the baseline risk and help explain why, year after year, several thousand more Americans die by suicide in states with higher than average household firearm ownership compared with states with lower than average firearm ownership. PMID:23975641
Full Text Available Background: Suicide is a serious public health challenge in circumpolar regions, especially among Indigenous youth. Indigenous communities, government agencies and health care providers are making concerted efforts to reduce the burden of suicide and strengthen protective factors for individuals, families and communities. The persistence of suicide has made it clear that more needs to be done. Objective: Our aim was to undertake a scoping review of the peer-reviewed literature on suicide prevention and interventions in Indigenous communities across the circumpolar north. Our objective was to determine the extent and types of interventions that have been reported during past decade. We want to use this knowledge to support community initiative and inform intervention development and evaluation. Design: We conducted a scoping review of online databases to identify studies published between 2004 and 2014. We included articles that described interventions in differentiated circumpolar Indigenous populations and provided evaluation data. We retained grey literature publications for comparative reference. Results: Our search identified 95 articles that focused on suicide in distinct circumpolar Indigenous populations; 19 articles discussed specific suicide-related interventions and 7 of these described program evaluation methods and results in detail. The majority of publications on specific interventions were found in North American countries. The majority of prevention or intervention documentation was found in supporting grey literature sources. Conclusion: Despite widespread concern about suicide in the circumpolar world and active community efforts to promote resilience and mental well-being, we found few recorded programs or initiatives documented in the peer-reviewed literature, and even fewer focusing specifically on youth intervention. The interventions described in the studies we found had diverse program designs and content, and used varied
Moody, Chérie; Smith, Nathan Grant
A recent study indicated a suicide attempt rate of 41 % among trans (e.g., trans, transgender, transexual/transsexual, genderqueer, two-spirit) individuals. Although this rate is alarming, there is a dearth of literature regarding suicide prevention for trans individuals. A vital step in developing suicide prevention models is the identification of protective factors. It was hypothesized that social support from friends, social support from family, optimism, reasons for living, and suicide resilience, which are known to protect cis (non-trans) individuals, also protect trans individuals. A sample of self-identified trans Canadian adults (N = 133) was recruited from LGBT and trans LISTSERVs. Data were collected online using a secure survey platform. A three block hierarchical multiple regression model was used to predict suicidal behavior from protective factors. Social support from friends, social support from family, and optimism significantly and negatively predicted 33 % of variance in participants' suicidal behavior after controlling for age. Reasons for living and suicide resilience accounted for an additional 19 % of the variance in participants' suicidal behavior after controlling for age, social support from friends, social support from family, and optimism. Of the factors mentioned above, perceived social support from family, one of three suicide resilience factors (emotional stability), and one of six reasons for living (child-related concerns) significantly and negatively predicted participants' suicidal behavior. Overall, these findings can be used to inform the practices of mental health workers, medical doctors, and suicide prevention workers working with trans clients. PMID:23613139
Deuter, Kate; Procter, Nicholas; Evans, David; Jaworski, Katrina
This discussion paper identifies and examines several tensions inherent in traditional approaches to understanding older people's suicide. Predicted future increases in the absolute number of elderly suicides are subject to careful interpretation due to the underreporting of suicides in older age groups. Furthermore, a significant number of studies of older people's death by suicide examine risk factors or a combination of risk factors in retrospect only, while current approaches to suicide prevention in the elderly place disproportionate emphasis on the identification and treatment of depression. Taken together, such tensions give rise to a monologic view of research and practice, ultimately limiting our potential for understanding older people's experience of suicide and suicidal behaviour. New approaches are necessary if we are to move beyond the current narrow focus that prevails. Fresh thinking, which draws on older people's experience of attempting to die by suicide, might offer critical insight into socially-constructed meanings attributed to suicide and suicidal behaviour by older people. Specifically, identification through research into the protective mechanisms that are relevant and available to older people who have been suicidal is urgently needed to effectively guide mental health nurses and health-care professionals in therapeutic engagement and intervention. PMID:26762697
Larsen, Mark E; Cummins, Nicholas; Boonstra, Tjeerd W; O'Dea, Bridianne; Tighe, Joe; Nicholas, Jennifer; Shand, Fiona; Epps, Julien; Christensen, Helen
Suicide is one of the leading causes of death globally, and is notably a significant cause of death amongst young people. A suicide outcome is a complex combination of personal, social, and health factors, and therefore suicide prevention is a challenge, requiring a systems approach incorporating public health strategies, screening at-risk individuals, targeted interventions, and follow-up for suicide survivors and those bereaved by suicide. Engineering practice has been implicated in the hindrance of the adoption of suicide prevention strategies, such as installing safety barriers at the Golden Gate Bridge, however technological developments offer new opportunities in suicide prevention, and the potential to reduce the number of deaths by suicide. We present an overview of current technological developments which are facilitating research in the field of suicide prevention, including multiple modes of screening such as network analysis of mobile-phone collected connectivity data, automatic detection of suicidality from social media content, and crisis detection from acoustic variability in speech patterns. The current field of mhealth apps for suicide prevention is assessed, and an innovative app for an Indigenous population is presented. From this overview, future challenges - technical and ethical - are discussed. PMID:26737981
Weiss, Elliott; Wolfish, Martin G.
Suicide is a leading cause of death among North American adolescents. Drugs are the commonest method used, and are most frequently those found in the home. Common factors such as frequent moves, marital difficulties of the parents, and a family history of depression occur in these patients. In 47 cases seen at a Toronto hospital, 22 patients were admitted. Of these, 20 had made suicidal gestures; two had made serious attempts. Most were of lower or middle class background. There is often a lo...
Cukrowicz, Kelly C.; Schlegel, Erin F.; Smith, Phillip N.; Jacobs, Matthew P.; Van Orden, Kimberly A.; Paukert, Ambert L.; Pettit, Jeremy W.; Joiner, Thomas E.
Identifying elevated suicide ideation in college students is a critical step in preventing suicide attempts and deaths by suicide on college campuses. Although suicide ideation may be most prominent in students with severe depression, this should not suggest that only students with severe depression experience significant risk factors for suicide.…
Peach, Larry; Reddick, Thomas L.
Asserts that school counselors can play vital role in the prevention of adolescent suicide. Lists warning signs of suicide risk and characteristics of at-risk students. Presents set of guidelines for helping potential suicide victims. Sees key to teenage suicide prevention to be communication skills. Identifies components for suicide prevention…
Paladino, Derrick; Minton, Casey A. Barrio
Whether one knows someone who is thinking of suicide, has attempted suicide, or has completed suicide, nearly all individuals who encounter suicide are affected. The influence and residual affects of suicide are further amplified as the issue reaches across communities such as college or university campuses. College and university staff must…
Pettit, Jeremy W.; Green, Kelly L.; Grover, Kelly E.; Schatte, Dawnelle J.; Morgan, Sharon T.
Little is known about the role of chronic stress in youth suicidal behaviors. This study examined the relations between specific domains of chronic stress and suicidal behaviors among 131 inpatient youth (M age = 15.02 years) who completed measures of stress, suicidal ideation, suicide attempt, and suicide intent. After controlling for…
Facioli, Adriano Machado; Amorim, Fábio Ferreira; de Almeida, Karlo Jozefo Quadros; Trindade, Eliana Mendonça Vilar
Like the baobab, when suicide or a suicide attempt occurs, suicidal ideations are well cultivated and have often already been repeatedly planted. Consequently, suicide is often difficult to prevent: once the death seed is planted; it is difficult to recreate life. Every year, more than 800,000 people die by suicide worldwide.
Edinilsa Ramos de Souza
Full Text Available The suicide rates in Itabira, a city with 100,000 inhabitants, are higher than those of the Brazilian population. To understand the phenomenon we investigated morbidity and mortality through a descriptive epidemiological study, with emphasis to external causes and specific subgroups. Suicide was studied according to the characteristics of victims and events. The period studied was 1990-2001. Mortality data were collected from the Mortality Information System and morbidity data for the year 2000 from the Hospital Admission Authorization System. An active data search on suicide over the period 1996-2001 based on sex, age and occupation of the victim, month of occurrence and method used in completed and attempted suicides was conducted at the local notary's office and at the state police headquarters. Based on these data we calculated proportions, rates and mean values. The populations used for calculating the rates were extracted from the DATASUS base. Results indicated an increasing tendency to suicide among men, coinciding with the economical crisis caused by the reorganization of the iron production process in this mono-industrial city. Suicide attempts were more frequent among housewives, housekeepers and students. The mostly used methods were hanging and firearms. Relevant means used in suicide attempts were nonmedicinal substances, drugs and medicaments.
Krzyżanowska, Marta; Steiner, Johann; Brisch, Ralf; Mawrin, Christian; Busse, Stefan; Karnecki, Karol; Jankowski, Zbigniew; Gos, Tomasz
The dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) is the main source of serotonergic innervation of forebrain limbic structures disturbed in suicidal behaviour. We have evaluated the transcriptional activity of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) in DRN neurons by AgNOR silver staining method. The cohort (containing 24 suicidal and 20 non-suicidal patients, and 28 controls) was previously analysed regarding diagnosis-related differences between schizophrenia and affective disorders. Significant decreases in both AgNOR and nuclear areas suggestive of attenuated rDNA activity were currently found in suicidal versus non-suicidal patients. This effect, which was more accentuated in affective disorders patients, was not explained by antidepressant and antipsychotic medication. PMID:27155286
Talley, Amelia E; Brown, Sarah L; Cukrowicz, Kelly; Bagge, Courtney L
Mechanisms (i.e., thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, hopelessness) derived from the interpersonal theory of suicide which are hypothesized to account for the relation between sexual orientation self-concept ambiguity and active suicide ideation were examined. Participants included 349 women, among whom 42% currently self-ascribed a non-exclusively heterosexual sexual identity. Among women reporting higher levels of sexual self-concept ambiguity, greater risk for active suicide ideation is found when perceptions of burden and feelings of thwarted belonging co-occur with feelings of hopelessness. Results support relevant theory useful for understanding suicide risk among sexual minority women who acknowledge ambiguity with regard to their sexual orientation. PMID:26190166
Raper, James D.
This study explored the relationships between counseling students' past experiences with suicide and suicide intervention skill. Specific past experiences included personal thoughts of suicide, exposure to others' suicidal thoughts and behaviors, and exposure to suicide as a counselor or counselor in training. The amount and type of educational…
Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Baraff, Larry J.; Berk, Michele; Grob, Charles; Devich-Navarro, Mona; Suddath, Robert; Piacentini, John; Tang, Lingqi
The study examines ideators, single attempters, and repeats attempters of suicide to clarify optimal strategies for emergency department management and risk assessment to help them in reducing youth suicide and suicide attempts. Depression was found to be a strong predictor of suicide/suicide attempts along with substance use, externalizing…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Pesticide self-poisoning is the most commonly used suicide method worldwide, but few studies have investigated the national epidemiology of pesticide suicide in countries where it is a major public health problem. This study aims to investigate geographic variations in pesticide suicide and their impact on the spatial distribution of suicide in Taiwan. Methods Smoothed standardized mortality ratios for pesticide suicide (2002-2009 were mapped across Taiwan's 358 districts (median population aged 15 or above = 27 000, and their associations with the size of agricultural workforce were investigated using Bayesian hierarchical models. Results In 2002-2009 pesticide poisoning was the third most common suicide method in Taiwan, accounting for 13.6% (4913/36 110 of all suicides. Rates were higher in agricultural East and Central Taiwan and lower in major cities. Almost half (47% of all pesticide suicides occurred in areas where only 13% of Taiwan's population lived. The geographic distribution of overall suicides was more similar to that of pesticide suicides than non-pesticide suicides. Rural-urban differences in suicide were mostly due to pesticide suicide. Areas where a higher proportion of people worked in agriculture showed higher pesticide suicide rates (adjusted rate ratio [ARR] per standard deviation increase in the proportion of agricultural workers = 1.58, 95% Credible Interval [CrI] 1.44-1.74 and overall suicide rates (ARR = 1.06, 95% CrI 1.03-1.10 but lower non-pesticide suicide rates (ARR = 0.91, 95% CrI 0.87-0.95. Conclusion Easy access to pesticides appears to influence the geographic distribution of suicide in Taiwan, highlighting the potential benefits of targeted prevention strategies such as restricting access to highly toxic pesticides.
De Leo Diego
Full Text Available Abstract Background Suicide in mentally ill subjects, like schizophrenics, remains unbearably frequent in Australia and elsewhere. Since these patients are known to constitute a high-risk group, suicide in them should be amongst the most preventable ones. The objective of this study is to investigate the frequency of suicide communication in subjects with reported history of schizophrenia who completed suicide. Method The Queensland Suicide Register (QSR was utilised to identify suicide cases. Frequency of suicide communication was examined in subjects with schizophrenia, and compared with persons with other psychiatric conditions and with subjects with no reported diagnosis. Socio-demographic variables, history of suicidal behaviour, pharmacological treatment and mental health service utilisation were also compared among the three groups. Results and discussion Subjects with a reported diagnosis of schizophrenia comprised 7.2% (n = 135 of the 1,863 suicides included in this study. Subjects with schizophrenia and those with other psychiatric disorders communicated their suicide intent more frequently than those with no psychiatric diagnosis, and persons with schizophrenia communicated their intent more than those with other psychiatric diagnoses. Seventy one per cent of schizophrenia subjects had contact with a mental health professional within the three months prior to suicide. Conclusion The fact that subjects with schizophrenia had the highest prevalence of suicide intent communication could offer concrete opportunities for suicide prevention.
Kreitman, N; Carstairs, V.; Duffy, J.
STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to investigate suicide and "undetermined" deaths by age, economic activity status, and social class in Great Britain among males of working age. DESIGN--The study was a cross sectional analysis of Registrar General's data for England and Wales around 1981, repeated for around 1971, and for Scotland around 1971 and 1981. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--For England and Wales around 1971, suicide and undetermined death rates showed a progressive increase with age and ...
Bell, Bridgette R.
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited A Human Systems Integration (HSI) analysis of the Army Suicide Prevention Program (ASPP) was conducted to gain feedback from soldiers and leaders. The scope of this study limited analysis to the prevention activities associated with the ASPP system. A retrospective analysis of Army suicide statistics from 20082011 was conducted prior to data collection. During 24 in-person interviews, soldiers assessed the importance of the four user n...
Under the presumption of having promoted some young people's suicides by publishing his novel "Werther", Goethe was deeply affected by the suicide of Christiane von Lassberg, the 28-year old daughter of a Weimarian officer. The subject of this essay is to investigate how Goethe worked on the mental conflict of guilt and grief and how he counteracted the danger of paralysing depressions by active intervention and which form of literary expressions he chose. PMID:9600009
Kocić Sanja S.
Full Text Available Background/Aim. World Health Organization (WHO in its plan for health policy until the year 2010, has taken reduction of risk factors of suicide as its 12th aim. Because of the fact that the problem of suicide is also significant health problem in our society, the aim of this study was to examine the influence of life period as a risk factor for suicide in the area of the town of Kragujevac. Methods. In total 211 persons, both sexes, aged between 17 and 91 years, from the area of the town of Kragujevac, who had been committed a suicide during the period from 1996 to 2005, were included in a retrospective study. This study included the analysis of: conditions prior to suicide, locations of suicide, motives for suicide, the ways of committing suicide. For statistical analysis χ2 test and univariante regression model were used. Results. Average rate of suicide, in analyzed period, moved from 8.7 to 27 with a mean value of 14.6± 6.9. Suicide rates were the lowest in the age group from 15 to 24 years and the highest in the age group above 65 years (p < 0.05. Among the presuicidal conditions, within any age groups the presence of mental disease dominated as a factor for suicide, but within the oldest one in which organic diseases prevailed as a factor for suicide (p < 0.05. Statistically significant fact is that a house (flat was the main location for committing suicide in any age groups. Motives for suicide were significantly different within the groups and they were mostly unknown. Committing suicide by hanging was the most frequent way of suicide among any age groups. Univariant regression analysis failed to show any impact of age on the analyzed factors. Conclusion. Because of the fact that an average rate of suicide in elderly increases it is obligatory to primarily determine risk factors for suicide among people more than 65 years of age. Physicians should play the most important role in that.
Henry, Philip N.; Morse, Maria
To learn more about the services available to youth at suicide prevention centers in North Carolina, a survey was conducted with 86 mental health and crisis prevention centers. The 16-item questionnaire examined the availability and extent of services offered by the centers, staffing patterns, sources of funding, and percentage of clientele…
Fang, Fang; Valdimarsdóttir, Unnur; Fürst, Carl Johan; Hultman, Christina; Fall, Katja; Sparén, Pär; Ye, Weimin
Studies on the suicide risk among patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in countries without legalized euthanasia or assisted suicide are important additions to data on the wish to die of these patients. We conducted a population-based cohort study in Sweden between 1965 and 2004, which comprised of 6,642 patients with incident ALS identified from the Swedish Inpatient Register. We calculated the standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) of suicide among the patients using the suicide rates of the general Swedish population as a reference. In total, 21 patients committed suicide during follow-up, compared to the predicted 3.6 suicides. Thus, we noted an almost 6-fold increased risk for suicide among ALS patients [SMR 5.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.6-8.8]. Patients who committed suicide were, on average, around 7 years younger at the time of their first period of hospitalization than patients who did not commit suicide. The highest relative risk for suicide was observed within the first year after the patient's first period of hospitalization (SMR 11.2, 95% CI 5.8-19.6). After that, the relative risks decreased with time after hospitalization (P-value for trend = 0.006), but remained elevated 3 years later. The relative risks of suicide among ALS patients did not show a clear trend over time in contrast to the decreasing trend of relative risks for suicide among patients with cancer during the same period. Patients with ALS are at excess risk of suicide in Sweden and the relative risk is higher during the earlier stage of the disease. PMID:18669498
Racette, Stéphanie; Sauvageau, Anny
The notion of planned and unplanned complex suicides first appeared in 1974 by Marcinkowski and, since then, no systematic study of complex suicides has been published in the English forensic literature. Here, the authors present a 5-year retrospective study of complex suicides. Nineteen complex suicides were reviewed: five unplanned and 14 planned, including the first case of an unplanned complex suicide in a woman. All cases were analyzed in terms of gender, age, methods of suicide, the presence of a suicide note, and past suicide attempts, and statistically compared with a 50-case sample of simple suicides. A further comparison was established with compiled data from the literature. Similarities were revealed regarding incidence of complex suicides, male gender predominance, and types of methods used. In contrast, results showed a higher average age for planned complex suicide victims. Finally, the authors discuss the application of the complex suicide definition. PMID:17316249
Johnson, Wanda Y.
Teachers can play a significant role in adolescent suicide prevention by encouraging classroom discussion on depression and self-destructive behavior. Effectiveness of suicide prevention programs are discussed. Myths and signs of impending suicide are listed. (DF)
Sørensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik L; Wang, August G;
BACKGROUND: A family history of completed suicide and psychiatric illness has been identified as risk factors for suicide. AIMS: To examine the risk of offspring suicide in relation to parental history of suicide and other parental risk factors. METHOD: The study population consisted of 7,177 adult...... offspring born 1959-1961 and their parents from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort. Cohort members and their parents who had committed suicide were identified in the Danish Causes of Death Registry (follow-up until December 31, 2005), while information on psychiatric hospitalisation history was obtained from...... the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register. RESULTS: Forty-eight cohort members, 77 mothers and 133 fathers had committed suicide during the follow-up. Independent of parental psychiatric illness and social status, parental suicide significantly increased suicide risk in offspring (hazard ratio...
Hedeland, Rikke Lindgaard; Teilmann, Grete; Jørgensen, Marianne Hørby;
AIM: This study explored the relationships between suicidal adolescents and their parents, siblings, and friends. It examined how much adolescents talked to their parents before suicide attempts, the frequency of self-mutilation, the extent of suicidal ideation, previous suicide attempts and...... heard (p<0.0001), dissociated relationships with friends (p<0.0001) and siblings (p<0.0001) and self-mutilation (p=0.009). Almost two-thirds (62.5%) of the suicidal adolescents who tried to talk to their parents about their problems felt unheard and there was a significant relationship between this...... feeling and the duration of suicidal ideation (p=0.01) and self-mutilation (p=0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Early risk factors for suicide were dissociated relationships with parents, siblings and friends, feeling unheard, self-mutilation and extended suicidal ideation. This article is protected by copyright. All...
Bjerregaard, Peter; Larsen, Christina Viskum Lytken
BACKGROUND: Suicides remain a major public health problem in Greenland. Their increase coincides with the modernization since 1950. Serious suicidal thoughts are reported by a significant proportion of participants in countrywide surveys. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the time trend by region of suicides...... and suicidal thoughts among the Inuit in Greenland. DESIGN: Data included the Greenland registry of causes of death for 1970-2011 and 2 cross-sectional health surveys carried out in 1993-1994 and 2005-2010 with 1,580 and 3,102 Inuit participants, respectively. RESULTS: Suicide rates were higher among...... men than women while the prevalence of suicidal thoughts was higher among women. Suicide rates for men and women together increased from 1960 to 1980 and have remained around 100 per 100,000 person-years since then. The regional pattern of time trend for suicide rates varied with an early peak in the...
Rector, Robert E.; Johnson, Kirk A.; Noyes, Lauren R.
Although teen sexual activity has declined in recent years, the overall rate is still high. The problems associated with teen sexual activity are well known. Less widely known are the psychological and emotional problems associated with this activity. The present study examines the linkage between teenage sexual activity and emotional health. The…
Kasckow, John; Liu, Nancy; Phillips, Michael R
Suicide is a leading cause of premature death among people with schizophrenia. Some studies indicate that increased difficulties in functioning are associated with suicidality in persons with schizophrenia. We conducted a secondary analysis of 74 suicides (cases) and 24 accidental deaths (controls) among persons with schizophrenia identified in a national psychological autopsy study in China. Between cases and controls, we compared the effect of schizophrenia on work, daily activities, emotio...
Zhang, Jie; Wieczorek, William F.; Conwell, Yeates; Tu, Xin Ming
The strain theory of suicide postulates that suicide is usually preceded by psychological strains. A strain can be a consequence of any of four conflicts: differential values, aspiration and reality, relative deprivation, and lack of coping skills for a crisis. This study, with a blend of psychiatric and social predictors of suicide, identified correlates of suicide that are relevant to Chinese culture and tested the strain theory of suicide with Chinese data. We sampled 392 suicides and 416 ...
Vladimir Carli; Michael Westerlund; Gergo Hadlaczky; Tony Durkee
The general aim of this study was to review the scientific literature concerning the Internet and suicidality and to examine the different pathways by which suicidal risks and prevention efforts are facilitated through the Internet. An online literature search was conducted using the MEDLINE and Google Scholar databases. The main themes that were investigated included pathological Internet use and suicidality, pro-suicide websites, suicide pacts on the Internet, and suicide prevention via the...
Department of Health
National Office of Suicide Prevention Annual Report 2006 Suicidal behaviour is a major public health problem in Ireland. In particular it is a significant cause of death among young men aged 18 Ã¢?" 35, while overall suicide rates in Ireland are lower than the EU average, youth suicide rates are fifth highest. Risk factors for suicide include depression, schizophrenia and alcohol but suicide trends over time in many countries are influenced by major social changes especially those which re...
Mann, J. John; Arango, Victoria A.; Avenevoli, Shelli; Brent, David A.; Champagne, Frances A.; Clayton, Paula; Currier, Dianne; Dougherty, Donald M.; Haghighi, Fatemah; Hodge, Susan E.; Kleinman, Joel; Lehner, Thomas; McMahon, Francis,; Mościcki, Eve K.; OQUENDO, MARIA A.
Twin, adoption, and family studies have established the heritability of suicide attempts and suicide. Identifying specific suicide diathesis-related genes has proven more difficult. As with psychiatric disorders in general, methodological difficulties include complexity of the phenotype for suicidal behavior and distinguishing suicide diathesis-related genes from genes associated with mood disorders and other suicide-associated psychiatric illness. Adopting an endophenotype approach involving...
Airi Värnik; Merike Sisask
The aim of the current systematic review was to monitor and provide an overview of the research performed about the roles of media in suicide prevention in order to find out possible effects media reporting on suicidal behaviours might have on actual suicidality (completed suicides, attempted suicides, suicidal ideation). The systematic review was performed following the principles of the PRISMA statement and includes 56 articles. Most of the studies support the idea that media reporting and ...
Pierre, Joseph M
Suicide is one of the greatest concerns in psychiatric practice, with considerable efforts devoted to prevention. The psychiatric view of suicide tends to equate it with depression or other forms of mental illness. However, some forms of suicide occur independently of mental illness and within a framework of cultural sanctioning such that they aren’t regarded as suicide at all. Despite persistent taboos against suicide, euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide in the context of terminal illn...
Niculescu, A B; Levey, D F; Phalen, P L; Le-Niculescu, H; Dainton, H D; Jain, N; Belanger, E; James, A; George, S; Weber, H; Graham, D L; Schweitzer, R; Ladd, T B; Learman, R; Niculescu, E M; Vanipenta, N P; Khan, F N; Mullen, J; Shankar, G; Cook, S; Humbert, C; Ballew, A; Yard, M; Gelbart, T; Shekhar, A; Schork, N J; Kurian, S M; Sandusky, G E; Salomon, D R
Worldwide, one person dies every 40 seconds by suicide, a potentially preventable tragedy. A limiting step in our ability to intervene is the lack of objective, reliable predictors. We have previously provided proof of principle for the use of blood gene expression biomarkers to predict future hospitalizations due to suicidality, in male bipolar disorder participants. We now generalize the discovery, prioritization, validation, and testing of such markers across major psychiatric disorders (bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, schizoaffective disorder, and schizophrenia) in male participants, to understand commonalities and differences. We used a powerful within-participant discovery approach to identify genes that change in expression between no suicidal ideation and high suicidal ideation states (n=37 participants out of a cohort of 217 psychiatric participants followed longitudinally). We then used a convergent functional genomics (CFG) approach with existing prior evidence in the field to prioritize the candidate biomarkers identified in the discovery step. Next, we validated the top biomarkers from the prioritization step for relevance to suicidal behavior, in a demographically matched cohort of suicide completers from the coroner's office (n=26). The biomarkers for suicidal ideation only are enriched for genes involved in neuronal connectivity and schizophrenia, the biomarkers also validated for suicidal behavior are enriched for genes involved in neuronal activity and mood. The 76 biomarkers that survived Bonferroni correction after validation for suicidal behavior map to biological pathways involved in immune and inflammatory response, mTOR signaling and growth factor regulation. mTOR signaling is necessary for the effects of the rapid-acting antidepressant agent ketamine, providing a novel biological rationale for its possible use in treating acute suicidality. Similarly, MAOB, a target of antidepressant inhibitors, was one of the increased
Hughes, Jennifer L.; Asarnow, Joan R.
Suicide is the third leading cause of death in adolescents, and often youths with suicidal behavior or ideation present to the emergency department (ED) for care. Many suicidal youths do not receive mental health care after discharge from the ED, and interventions are needed to enhance linkage to outpatient intervention. This paper describes the Family Intervention for Suicide Prevention (FISP). Designed for use in emergency settings, the FISP is a family-based cognitive-behavior therapy sess...
Kim, Hyun-Soo; Lee, Moo-Sik; Hong, Jee-Young
Objectives: The suicide rate in Korea is increasing every year, and is the highest among the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development countries. Psychiatric patients in particular have a higher risk of suicide than other patients. This study was performed to evaluate determinants of mental health care utilization among individuals at high risk for suicide. Methods: Korea Health Panel data from 2009 to 2011 were used. Subjects were individuals at high risk of suicide who had suici...
Priyata Thapa; Yoonhee Sung; Klingbeil, David A.; Chih-Yuan Steven Lee; Bonnie Klimes-Dougan
Understanding the context of suicidal behaviors is critical for effective suicide prevention strategies. Although suicide is an important topic for Asian Americans, there is limited information about what Asian Americans’ attitudes are towards suicide and their perceptions about the effectiveness of prevention efforts. These questions are critical to examine to provide foundational knowledge for determining how best to intervene. In this study, Asian American (n = 87) and White (n = 87)...
Haas, Ann P.; Eliason, Mickey; Mays, Vickie M; Mathy, Robin M.; Cochran, Susan D.; D'Augelli, Anthony R; Silverman, Morton M.; Fisher, Prudence W.; Hughes, Tonda; Rosario, Margaret; Russell, Stephen T.; Malley, Effie; Reed, Jerry; Litts, David A.; Haller, Ellen
Despite strong indications of elevated risk of suicidal behavior in lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people, limited attention has been given to research, interventions or suicide prevention programs targeting these populations. This article is a culmination of a three-year effort by an expert panel to address the need for better understanding of suicidal behavior and suicide risk in sexual minority populations, and stimulate the development of needed prevention strategies, interventio...
Runeson, Bo; Tidemalm, Dag; Dahlin, Marie; Lichtenstein, Paul; Långström, Niklas
Objective To study the association between method of attempted suicide and risk of subsequent successful suicide. Design Cohort study with follow-up for 21-31 years. Setting Swedish national register linkage study. Participants 48 649 individuals admitted to hospital in 1973-82 after attempted suicide. Main outcome measure Completed suicide, 1973-2003. Multiple Cox regression modelling was conducted for each method at the index (first) attempt, with poisoning as the reference category. Relati...
Schellevis François G; Kerkhof Ad JFM; Bartelds Aad IM; Marquet Richard L; van der Zee Jouke
Abstract Background Many patients attempting or committing suicide consult their general practitioner (GP) in the preceding period, indicating that GPs might play an important role in prevention. The aim of the present study was to analyse the epidemiology of suicidal behaviour in Dutch General Practice in order to find possible clues for prevention. Method Description of trends in suicide and suicide attempts occurring from 1983–2003 in the Dutch General Practice Sentinel Network, representi...
Ellis, B. Heidi; Lankau, Emily W; Ao, Trong; Benson, Molly A.; Miller, Alisa B.; Shetty, Sharmila; Cardozo, Barbara Lopes; Geltman, Paul L.; Cochran, Jennifer
Attention has been drawn to high rates of suicide among refugees after resettlement and in particular among the Bhutanese refugees. This study sought to understand the apparent high rates of suicide among resettled Bhutanese refugees in the context of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior (IPTS). Expanding on a larger investigation of suicide in a randomly selected sample of Bhutanese men and women resettled in Arizona, Georgia, New York, and Texas (Ao et al., 2012), the...
Maund, Emma; Tendal, Britta; Hróbjartsson, Asbjørn; Lundh, Andreas; Gøtzsche, Peter C
identifiable in all formats of adverse event data in clinical study reports. Suicide attempts presented in tables included both definitive and provisional diagnoses. Suicidal ideation and preparatory behaviour were obscured in some tables owing to the lack of specificity of the medical coding dictionary......OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of coding and coding conventions on summaries and tabulations of adverse events data on suicidality within clinical study reports. DESIGN: Systematic electronic search for adverse events of suicidality in tables, narratives, and listings of adverse events in...... marketing approval. DATA SOURCES: Clinical study reports obtained from the EMA in 2011. RESULTS: Six trials used the medical coding dictionary COSTART (Coding Symbols for a Thesaurus of Adverse Reaction Terms) and three used MedDRA (Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities). Suicides were clearly...
Fraser, Sarah L; Geoffroy, Dominique; Chachamovich, Eduardo; Kirmayer, Laurence J
Inuit in Canada currently suffer from one of the highest rates of suicide in the world. The objective of this study was to explore the prevalence of suicide ideations and attempts among 15-24 year olds living in Nunavik, Québec, and to explore risk and protective factors of suicide attempts as a function of gender. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2004 across Nunavik. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were conducted. A total of 22% of young males and 39% of females adults reported past suicidal attempts. Gender differences were observed in relation to associated risk and protective factors as well as degree of exposure to risk factors. Suicide prevention must include alcohol and drug prevention programs and rehabilitation services, interventions to reduce physical and sexual violence and their long-term impacts on Inuit youth, as well as exposure to culturally meaningful activities. PMID:25255825
Hedeland, Rikke; Jørgensen, Marianne H; Teilmann, Grete;
Aims: To explore: (1) The relationship between children admitted to our paediatric department as a result of suicide attempts with acetaminophen and their parents and friends. (2) The extent to which the children had attempted to speak to their parents about their problems before their suicide...... attempts. (3) The frequency of self-mutilation among children with suicidal behaviour. (4) The purposes and reasons for childhood suicide attempts. Methods: A retrospective case-control study based on medical records and in-hospital child psychiatric assessments at the Paediatric Department, Hillerød....... There was a significant association between a dissociated parental relationship and 'the feeling of not being heard' (p = 0.004), the discovery of the suicide attempt (p = 0.008), the reasons for the suicide attempt (p = 0.006), academic school problems (p = 0.03), and the child's relationships with...
Bronwyn Lee Carlson
Full Text Available Some Australian Aboriginal communities experience suicide rates that are among the highest in the world. They are also, however, avid social media users—approximately 20% higher than the national average. This article presents some preliminary findings from a current national study, funded by the Australian Research Council, titled Aboriginal identity and community online: a sociological exploration of Aboriginal peoples’ use of online social media. The purpose of the study is to gain insights into how Aboriginal peoples utilise and interact on social media, and how these technologies can assist with suicide prevention strategies. It found that Aboriginal people are engaging with Facebook to both seek and offer help for issues relating to suicide and self-harm. An existing continuum of suicide prevention strategies was evident—from light emotional support to direct suicide intervention involving health services. These strategies can be leveraged to implement effective and appropriate suicide prevention programs.
Full Text Available The report describes a patient who presented suicidal ideation only in two different occasions, immediately after acute cannabis intoxication. He used cannabis only in these two circumstances. Although a definite association between cannabis use and suicidal ideation or behavior has been already reported in the literature, the described case presents two original clinical aspects that deserve consideration. First, episodic assumption of cannabis induced suicidal ideation abruptly. Second, suicidal ideation appeared independent of mood depression, stressors, or life events, suggesting that suicidality may be not a direct consequence of depression and appears to be a relatively independent psychopathological dimension. There seems to be no linear relation between the severity of depression and the risk of suicide.
As the prevalence of suicide among the elderly has developed in recent years into one of the more serious social problems in South Korea, preventing these elderly suicides has emerged as a national priority. Korean social workers play a major role in the recent elderly suicide prevention efforts that were implemented starting in 2007. The purpose…
Full Text Available Understanding the context of suicidal behaviors is critical for effective suicide prevention strategies. Although suicide is an important topic for Asian Americans, there is limited information about what Asian Americans’ attitudes are towards suicide and their perceptions about the effectiveness of prevention efforts. These questions are critical to examine to provide foundational knowledge for determining how best to intervene. In this study, Asian American (n = 87 and White (n = 87 participants completed self-report indexes on their knowledge of depression and suicide (e.g., estimates of suicide rates, coping attitudes (e.g., help-seeking and suicide prevention attitudes (e.g., usefulness of PSAs. The results indicate that in comparison to Whites, Asian Americans perceived suicidal behavior to be more common, perceived a stronger link between depression and suicide, less frequently endorsed help-seeking strategies, and reported more concern or distress after viewing a suicide prevention PSA. These preliminary results also suggest the possibility of cultural differences in perceptions of suicide prevention messages. The implications of these findings are discussed with a focus on providing recommendations for exploring suicide prevention efforts for Asian Americans.
Thapa, Priyata; Sung, Yoonhee; Klingbeil, David A; Lee, Chih-Yuan Steven; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie
Understanding the context of suicidal behaviors is critical for effective suicide prevention strategies. Although suicide is an important topic for Asian Americans, there is limited information about what Asian Americans' attitudes are towards suicide and their perceptions about the effectiveness of prevention efforts. These questions are critical to examine to provide foundational knowledge for determining how best to intervene. In this study, Asian American (n = 87) and White (n = 87) participants completed self-report indexes on their knowledge of depression and suicide (e.g., estimates of suicide rates), coping attitudes (e.g., help-seeking) and suicide prevention attitudes (e.g., usefulness of PSAs). The results indicate that in comparison to Whites, Asian Americans perceived suicidal behavior to be more common, perceived a stronger link between depression and suicide, less frequently endorsed help-seeking strategies, and reported more concern or distress after viewing a suicide prevention PSA. These preliminary results also suggest the possibility of cultural differences in perceptions of suicide prevention messages. The implications of these findings are discussed with a focus on providing recommendations for exploring suicide prevention efforts for Asian Americans. PMID:26690227
Bromley, Nicole M.
This study reports the frequency of suicide training for current psychology trainees. Additionally, the research uses the Suicide Intervention Response Inventory-Second Edition (SIRI-2) to assess psychology trainees' ability to respond appropriately to suicidal clients. This study compares scores on the SIRI-2 between participants who are in…
Allan, Nicholas P; Norr, Aaron M; Boffa, Jay W; Durmaz, Daphne; Raines, Amanda M; Schmidt, Norman B
Anxiety sensitivity (AS) has recently been linked to suicidality. Specifically, AS cognitive concerns has been implicated as a risk factor, and AS physical concerns as a protective factor, for suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. However, no studies have used structural equation modeling (SEM) to address issues of skewed suicide variables and bifactor modeling of AS to address the high degree of overlap between the lower-order dimensions of AS that limit interpretation of these past findings. AS, suicidal ideation, past suicide attempts, and depression were assessed in a clinical sample of 267 individuals (M age=35.45 years, SD=16.53; 52.1% female). The global AS and AS cognitive concerns factors were positively, significantly associated with suicidal ideation, though these effects were nonsignificant controlling for depression. The global AS factor was positively, significantly associated with suicide attempts, controlling for depression. The current study demonstrated that the relations between AS and suicidal ideation are not maintained when accounting for depression, suggesting that the relation between AS and suicidal ideation may be mediated by depression. The positive relation between global AS and suicide attempts is consistent with theories positing suicide attempts as a consequence of an inability to cope with intolerable distress. PMID:26154817
Chung, Sung Suk; Joung, Kyoung Hwa
Suicidal trends and related characteristics such as sociodemographic factors, psychological factors, and health behaviors can differ between countries. This study investigated the predictors of suicidal ideation and attempted suicide including health behaviors among American and Korean youth from two national representative data sets. In both…
Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.
The author has proposed a new theory of suicidal behavior--the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior (Joiner, 2005)--which attempts to answer the question "Why do people die by suicide?" In this commentary, he briefly describes the theory, and then argues that the theory's constructs may allow a new level of focus and specificity…
Paxson, Sarah A.
Adolescent suicide devastates family, friends, and the larger community of the deceased. This dissertation seeks to explore the impact of peer death by suicide on students in the school system, and the policies that schools have put in place to address these effects. This work will critically evaluate current suicide bereavement interventions, and…
Kok, Jin Kuan; van Schalkwyk, Gertina J.; Chan, Andrea Huan Wen
The suicide rate among youths in Malaysia has increased over the years, giving rise to considerable public concern. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe potential stressors of suicide and suicide prevention strategies as perceived by youths in Malaysia aged 15-25 years. A qualitative approach was adopted and 625 students from…
Gradus, Jaimie L.; Shipherd, Jillian C.; Suvak, Michael K.; Giasson, Hannah L.; Miller, Matthew
Suicidal behavior among military personnel is of paramount public health importance because of the increased risk of death from suicide in this population. Pre- and post-Marine recruit training risk factors for suicide attempts among current and former Marines were examined in 10 years following recruit training. The characteristics of the…
Chessick, Cheryl A.; Perlick, Deborah A.; Miklowitz, David J.; Kaczynski, Richard; Allen, Michael H.; Morris, Chad D.; Marangell, Lauren B.
We examined whether caregivers of bipolar patients reporting current suicidal ideation and/or a history of a suicide attempt reported higher levels of burden and/or poorer health compared to caregivers of patients without these suicidality indices. In a cross-sectional design, caregivers (N = 480) associated with (a) patients with current suicidal…
Tremeau, Fabien; Staner, Luc; Duval, Fabrice; Correa, Humberto; Crocq, Marc-Antoine; Darreye, Angelina; Czobor, Pal; Dessoubrais, Cecile; Macher, Jean-Paul
The influence of a family history of suicide on suicide attempt rate and characteristics in depression, schizophrenia, and opioid dependence was examined. One hundred sixty inpatients with unipolar depression, 160 inpatients with schizophrenia, and 160 opioid-dependent patients were interviewed. Overall, a family history of suicide was associated…
Suicide Mortality of Suicide Attempt Patients Discharged from Emergency Room, Nonsuicidal Psychiatric Patients Discharged from Emergency Room, Admitted Suicide Attempt Patients, and Admitted Nonsuicidal Psychiatric Patients
Choi, Jae W.; Park, Subin; Yi, Ki K.; Hong, Jin P.
The suicide mortality rate and risk factors for suicide completion of patients who presented to an emergency room (ER) for suicide attempt and were discharged without psychiatric admission, patients who presented to an ER for psychiatric problems other than suicide attempt and were discharged without psychiatric admission, psychiatric inpatients…
Srinivasagopalan, Nappinnai, Solayappan
Background It is unclear whether any particular time of the day is Vulnerable for suicide attempts. Suicide attempt is a known risk factor for future completed suicide. Aim To investigate the relationship between the time of suicide attempt and the sociodemograpic and illness characteristics of suicide attempters. Method Time of attempt, clinical and demographic data and illness variables of 74 patients presenting to hospital following suicide attempt were analyzed. Results Our results showed...
Park, Boyoung; Kim, So Young; Shin, Ji-Yeon; Sanson-Fisher, Robert W; Shin, Dong Wook; Cho, Juhee; Park, Jong Hyock
Purpose To describe the prevalence of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in family caregivers (FCs) of patients with cancer and to identify the factors associated with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in FCs with anxiety or depression. Methods A national, multicenter survey administered to 897 FCs asked questions concerning suicidal ideation and suicide attempts during the previous year and assessed anxiety, depression, socio–demographic factors, caregiving burden, patient factors, ...
Full Text Available Introduction: Suicide is the third cause of mortality in America, second leading cause of death in developed countries, and one of the major health problems. Self-harm is self-inflicted damage to one’s self with or without suicidal intent. In the present study, the predictive factors of suicide attempt and non-suicidal self-harm were evaluated in patients referred to emergency department (ED with these problem. Methods: The total number of 45 patients with suicide attempt or self-harm admitted to ED were included. Clinical symptoms, thoughts and behaviors of suicidal, and non-suicidal self-harm in these patients were evaluated at baseline. Suicidality, suicidal intent and ideation, non-suicidal self-injury, social withdrawal, disruptive behavior, and poor family functions were evaluated at admission time. Brief clinical visits were scheduled for the twelfth weeks. In the twelfth week, patients returned for their final visit to determine their maintenance treatment. Finally data were analyzed using chi-squared and multiple logistic regression. Results: Forty five patients were included in the study (56.1% female. The mean age of patients was 23.3±10.2 years (range: 15-75; 33.3% married. Significant association of suicide and self-injury was presented at the baseline and in the month before attempting (p=0.001. The most important predictive factors of suicide and self-harm based on univariate analysis were depression (suicidal and non-suicidal items of Hamilton depression rating scale, anxiety, hopelessness, younger age, history of non-suicidal self-harm and female gender (p<0.05. The participants’ quality of life analysis showed a significant higher quality in physical component summary (p=0.002, mental component summary (p=0.001, and general health (p=0.001 at follow up period. Conclusion: At the time of admission in ED, suicide attempt and non-suicidal self-harm are subsequent clinical markers for the patient attempting suicide again. The
Anil Nischal; Adarsh Tripathi; Anuradha Nischal; Trivedi, J.K.
The documented efficacy and long-term benefit of antidepressants in patients with recurrent forms of severe anxiety or depressive disorders support their use in those individuals with these disorders, who experience suicidal thoughts or behavior. In general, it is assumed that antidepressants are beneficial for all symptoms of depression, including suicidality. However, some evidence suggests that Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors [SSRIs] may cause worsening of suicidal ideas in vulnera...
Duldulao, Aileen Alfonso; Takeuchi, David T.; Hong, Seunghye
This study examines the correlates of suicidal ideation, suicide plan and suicide attempt among Asian Americans focusing on nativity and gender. Analyses are performed on data from the National Latino and Asian American Study (N=2095), the first ever study conducted on the mental health of a national sample of Asian Americans. The sample is comprised of adults with 998 men (47%) and 1,097 (53%) women. Weighted logistic regression analyses reveal that US-born women have a higher percentage tha...
Goldstein, Tina R.; Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Brent, David A.
We examined sleep difficulties preceding death in a sample of adolescent suicide completers as compared with a matched sample of community control adolescents. Sleep disturbances were assessed in 140 adolescent suicide victims with a psychological autopsy protocol and in 131 controls with a similar semistructured psychiatric interview. Rates of sleep disturbances were compared between groups. Findings indicate suicide completers had higher rates of overall sleep disturbance, insomnia, and hyp...
Hur, Ji-Won; Lee, Bun-Hee; Lee, Sung-Woo; Shim, Se-Hoon; Han, Sang-Woo; Kim, Yong-Ku
Objective To examine gender differences in the characteristics of suicidal behavior in South Korea. Methods Between August 2003 and December 2006, 344 suicide attempters (116 men, 228 women) participated in this study. The attempters were interviewed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I), and the lethality of the attempt was measured using the Lethality Suicide Attempt Rating Scale-II (LSARS-II) and Risk-Rescue Rating Scale (RRRS). Results Significantly ...
The past three years saw more suicide attacks than the last quarter century. Most of these were religiously motivated. While most Westerners have imagined a tightly coordinated transnational terrorist organization headed by Al Qaeda, it seems more likely that nations under attack face a set of largely autonomous groups and cells pursuing their own regional aims. Repeated suicide actions show that massive counterforce alone does not diminish the frequency or intensity of suicide attack. Like p...
Bursztein Lipsicas, Cendrine
Introduction and Aims: Immigrants comprise about 10% of the total population of Europe, but our knowledge about their suicidal behaviour is still insufficient. This study presents an overview of suicidal behaviour of immigrants in Europe compared to host populations focusing on: (I) The frequencies of attempted suicide, compared between immigrants and their hosts, between different immigrant groups, and between immigrants and their countries of origin, (II) the variations of these frequencies...
Kapur Navneet; Windfuhr Kirsten; Turner Oliver
Abstract Background Studies have found that deaf individuals have higher rates of psychiatric disorder than those who are hearing, while at the same time encountering difficulties in accessing mental health services. These factors might increase the risk of suicide. However, the burden of suicidal behaviour in deaf people is currently unknown. The aim of the present review was to provide a summary of literature on suicidal behaviour with specific reference to deaf individuals. The objectives ...
Public Health Agency
Work to help communities prevent suicide has taken a further step forward with over 50 ASIST Trainers from across Northern Ireland completing the new ASIST 11 upgrader trainer course.The Applied Suicide Intervention Skills Training (ASIST) enables people in a position of trust to recognise risk and learn how to intervene to prevent the immediate risk of suicide.The Public Health Agency (PHA) funded the upgrading training as part of their ongoing commitment to supporting quality training for a...
Despite a large volume of research literature on suicide, the approach to suicide prevention is still firmly based on a medical model. Recently, the Chief Coroner in New Zealand expressed the view that current techniques have failed to reduce the suicide rate and a new approach is needed. However, the call for a new approach is often interpreted as disparities in access to mental health services so resources are directed to increase public access to them. Current evidence suggests that persis...
Moqaddasi Amiri, Mohammad; Ahmadi Livani, Abdolkarim; Moosazadeh, Mahmood; Mirzajani, Mohammadreza; Dehghan, Azizallah
Background: Various studies have shown a seasonal pattern in suicide in the developed societies; however, this pattern is not taken into consideration in most countries including Iran. Objectives: The current paper studied the seasonal pattern of committing suicide in Northern Iran. Materials and Methods: The present study was a longitudinal study with time series features. Subject included suicide attempts recorded by emergency wards of all hospitals in Mazandaran province, Iran. The variabl...
Lopez-Castroman, Jorge; Melhem, Nadine; Birmaher, Boris; Greenhill, Laurence; Kolko, David; Stanley, Barbara; Zelazny, Jamie; Brodsky, Beth; Garcia-Nieto, Rebeca; Burke, Ainsley K.; Mann, J. John; Brent, David A.; Oquendo, Maria A.
Childhood sexual abuse has been consistently associated with suicidal behavior. We studied suicide attempt features in depressed individuals sexually abused as children. On average, sexual abuse started before age 9. It frequently coexisted with physical abuse. Suicide attempters more often had personality disorders and had endured abuse for longer, but did not differ in terms of other clinical characteristics from non-attempters. Earlier onset of sexual abuse and its duration were associated...
Kontaxakis, Vp; Paplos, K G; Havaki-Kontaxaki, B J; Ferentinos, P; Kontaxaki, M-I V; Kollias, C T; Lykouras, E
Attitudes towards assisted death activities among medical students, the future health gatekeepers, are scarce and controversial. The aims of this study were to explore attitudes on euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide among final year medical students in Athens, to investigate potential differences in attitudes between male and female medical students and to review worldwide attitudes of medical students regarding assisted death activities. A 20- item questionnaire was used. The total number of participants was 251 (mean age 24.7±1.8 years). 52.0% and 69.7% of the respondents were for the acceptance of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide, respectively. Women's attitudes were more often influenced by religious convictions as well as by the fact that there is a risk that physician-assisted suicide might be misused with certain disadvantaged groups. On the other hand, men more often believed that a request for physician-assisted suicide from a terminally ill patient is prima-facie evidence of a mental disorder, usually depression. Concerning attitudes towards euthanasia among medical students in various countries there are contradictory results. In USA, the Netherlands, Hungary and Switzerland most of the students supported euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide. However, in many other countries such as Norway, Sweden, Yugoslavia, Italy, Germany, Sudan, Malaysia and Puerto Rico most students expressed negative positions regarding euthanasia and physician assisted suicide. PMID:22218231
Simon J Evans
Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA have shown efficacy in the treatment of bipolar disorder, however their specific role in treating the illness is unclear. Serum PUFA and dietary intakes of PUFA associate with suicidal behavior in epidemiological studies. The objective of this study was to assess serum n-3 and n-6 PUFA levels in bipolar subjects and determine possible associations with suicidal risk, including suicidal history and relevant personality factors that have been associated with suicidality. We studied 27 bipolar subjects using the NEO-PI to assess the big five personality factors, structured interviews to verify diagnosis and assess suicidal history, and lipomics to quantify n-3 and n-6 PUFA in serum. We found positive associations between personality factors and ratios of n-3 PUFA, suggesting that conversion of short chain to long chain n-3s and the activity of enzymes in this pathway may associate with measures of personality. Thus, ratios of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA to alpha linolenic acid (ALA and the activity of fatty acid desaturase 2 (FADS2 involved in the conversion of ALA to DHA were positively associated with openness factor scores. Ratios of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA to ALA and ratios of EPA to DHA were positively associated with agreeableness factor scores. Finally, serum concentrations of the n-6, arachidonic acid (AA, were significantly lower in subjects with a history of suicide attempt compared to non-attempters. The data suggest that specific lipid profiles, which are controlled by an interaction between diet and genetics, correlate with suicidal history and personality factors related to suicidal risk. This study provides preliminary data for future studies to determine whether manipulation of PUFA profiles (through diet or supplementation can affect personality measures and disease outcome in bipolar subjects and supports the need for further investigations into individualized specific modulations of lipid
Evans, Simon J; Prossin, Alan R; Harrington, Gloria J; Kamali, Masoud; Ellingrod, Vicki L; Burant, Charles F; McInnis, Melvin G
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have shown efficacy in the treatment of bipolar disorder, however their specific role in treating the illness is unclear. Serum PUFA and dietary intakes of PUFA associate with suicidal behavior in epidemiological studies. The objective of this study was to assess serum n-3 and n-6 PUFA levels in bipolar subjects and determine possible associations with suicidal risk, including suicidal history and relevant personality factors that have been associated with suicidality. We studied 27 bipolar subjects using the NEO-PI to assess the big five personality factors, structured interviews to verify diagnosis and assess suicidal history, and lipomics to quantify n-3 and n-6 PUFA in serum. We found positive associations between personality factors and ratios of n-3 PUFA, suggesting that conversion of short chain to long chain n-3s and the activity of enzymes in this pathway may associate with measures of personality. Thus, ratios of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) to alpha linolenic acid (ALA) and the activity of fatty acid desaturase 2 (FADS2) involved in the conversion of ALA to DHA were positively associated with openness factor scores. Ratios of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) to ALA and ratios of EPA to DHA were positively associated with agreeableness factor scores. Finally, serum concentrations of the n-6, arachidonic acid (AA), were significantly lower in subjects with a history of suicide attempt compared to non-attempters. The data suggest that specific lipid profiles, which are controlled by an interaction between diet and genetics, correlate with suicidal history and personality factors related to suicidal risk. This study provides preliminary data for future studies to determine whether manipulation of PUFA profiles (through diet or supplementation) can affect personality measures and disease outcome in bipolar subjects and supports the need for further investigations into individualized specific modulations of lipid profiles to add
Park, Juhyun; Choi, Nari; Kim, Seog Ju; Kim, Soohyun; An, Hyonggin; Lee, Heon-Jeong; Lee, Yu Jin
The association between celebrity suicide and subsequent increase in suicide rates among the general population has been suggested. Previous studies primarily focused on celebrity suicides in the 2000s. To better understand the association, this study examined the impacts of celebrity suicides on subsequent suicide rates using the data of Korean celebrity suicides between 1990 and 2010. Nine celebrity suicides were selected by an investigation of media reports of suicide deaths published in three major newspapers in Korea between 1990 and 2010. Suicide mortality data were obtained from the National Statistical Office of Korea. Seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average models with intervention analysis were used to test the impacts of celebrity suicides, controlling for seasonality. Six of the 9 celebrity suicides had significant impacts on suicide rates both in the total population and in the same gender- or the same age-subgroups. The incident that occurred in the 1990s had no significant impact on the overall suicide rates, whereas the majority of the incidents in the 2000s had significant influences for 30 or 60 days following each incident. The influence of celebrity suicide was shown to reach its peak following the suicide death of a renowned actress in 2008. The findings may suggest a link between media coverage and the impact of celebrity suicide. Future studies should focus more on the underlying processes and confounding factors that may contribute to the impact of celebrity suicide on subsequent suicide rates. PMID:27051245
Full Text Available Objective: Suicide is a complex phenomenon associated with pyschological, biological and social factors. Suicide has been reported as the second or third most common cause of death in children and adolescents worldwide. Suicidal behaviour in children and adolescents will be discussed in the frame of motivational definition. Method: Published research studies and reviews on children and adolescent suicides have been reviewed. Furthermore, classical papers have been searched to obtain knowledge about suicide behavior. Results: It is reported that firearms have been the most important effect in adolescent suicide. Both fatal and nonfatal suicidal behaviors have been linked consistently to negative parent-child relationships, depression, substance use, overall number of life stressors, gender and impulsive behaviors. Discussion: Future efforts to investigate suicidal behavior should use new research methodologies that may lead to identification of the interactions between environmental factors and constitutional and biological factors that are associated with risk for suicidal behavior. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2005; 4(2.000: 88-97
Lardi, C; Vogt, S; Pollak, S; Thierauf, A
Suicide by self-poisoning is rather common around the world. This paper presents an exceptional complex suicide in which nicotine was applied in the form of self-made patches soaked with an extraction from fine-cut tobacco. In addition, the 51-year-old suicide victim took a lethal dose of diphenhydramine. Toxicological analysis also revealed the presence of tetrazepam in subtherapeutic concentrations. The scene of death suggested an autoerotic accident at first, as the body was tied with tapes, cables and handcuffs. As a result of the entire investigations, the fatality had to be classified as a suicidal intoxication by nicotine and diphenhydramine. PMID:24439154
Department of Veterans Affairs — The VA's Veteran Health Administration, in support of the Open Data Initiative, is providing the Veterans Affairs Suicide Prevention Synthetic Dataset (VASPSD). The...
Tzimas, Iliana; Bajanowski, Thomas; Pollak, Stefan; Trübner, Kurt; Thierauf, Annette
Suicidal ligature strangulation is a rare event. The most important issue to solve in the investigation is whether it is a case of homicide or suicide. The characteristics of suicidal ligature strangulation are summarized by Koops and Brinkmann with the emphasis on the nature of the ligature instrument(s). In this article, we present two cases of self-strangulation with an almost identical modus operandi using gymnastics bands. The autopsy findings and the nature of the ligature in these cases are depicted and in good accordance with the described typical observations in suicidal cases. The importance of a broad medico-legal investigation is demonstrated. PMID:24429766
Full Text Available Suicide remains a serious health care problem and a sentinel event tracked by The Joint Commission. Nurses are pivotal in evaluating risk and preventing suicide. Analysis of nurses' barriers to risk management may lead to interventions to improve management of suicidal patients. These data emerged from a random survey of 454 oncology nurses' attitudes, knowledge of suicide, and justifications for euthanasia. Instruments included a vignette of a suicidal patient and a suicide attitude questionnaire. Results. Psychological factors (emotions, unresolved grief, communication, and negative judgments about suicide complicate the nurse's assessment and treatment of suicidal patients. Some nurses (=122 indicated that euthanasia was never justified and 11 were unsure of justifications and evaluated each case on its merits. Justifications for euthanasia included poor symptom control, poor quality of life, incurable illness or permanent disability, terminal illness, and terminal illness with inadequate symptom control or impending death, patient autonomy, and clinical organ death. The nurses indicated some confusion and misconceptions about definitions and examples of euthanasia, assisted suicide, and double effect. Strategies for interdisciplinary clinical intervention are suggested to identify and resolve these psychosocial barriers.
Department of Veterans Affairs — The VA's Veteran Health Administration, in support of the Open Data Initiative, is providing the Veterans Affairs Suicide Prevention Synthetic Dataset (VASPSD). The...
José Alonso Andrade Salazar
Full Text Available The present work is a conceptual approach on psychosocial factors related to suicidal psychobiography from the exploration of the lives of people who self-eliminate, for which there will be a review of the literature, based on input from journal articles and books published in various sources of documentation. Autopsy psychology is a data collection method that provides light on the psychosocial motivations that drive and reinforce the act of suicide, and is currently used by professionals responsible for investigating the causes of suicide while contributing data produced in the developing programs to promote mental health and prevention of suicidal ideation and behavior.
Skodlar, Borut; Tomori, Martina; Parnas, Josef
Suicidal ideation and behavior are a frequent complication of schizophrenia. Although a number of risk factors have been identified, specific features of suicidality in schizophrenia remain poorly understood. In this study, 19 patients with schizophrenia were interviewed in depth on their suicidal...... ideation and intentions, followed by a qualitative phenomenological analysis of the material. Solitude with inability to participate in human interactions and feelings of inferiority were found to be the main sources of suicidal ideation. These experiences seem to resemble ordinary depressive reactions...