WorldWideScience

Sample records for active space consisting

  1. Second-Order Perturbation Theory for Generalized Active Space Self-Consistent-Field Wave Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dongxia; Li Manni, Giovanni; Olsen, Jeppe; Gagliardi, Laura

    2016-07-12

    A multireference second-order perturbation theory approach based on the generalized active space self-consistent-field (GASSCF) wave function is presented. Compared with the complete active space (CAS) and restricted active space (RAS) wave functions, GAS wave functions are more flexible and can employ larger active spaces and/or different truncations of the configuration interaction expansion. With GASSCF, one can explore chemical systems that are not affordable with either CASSCF or RASSCF. Perturbation theory to second order on top of GAS wave functions (GASPT2) has been implemented to recover the remaining electron correlation. The method has been benchmarked by computing the chromium dimer ground-state potential energy curve. These calculations show that GASPT2 gives results similar to CASPT2 even with a configuration interaction expansion much smaller than the corresponding CAS expansion.

  2. Time-dependent restricted-active-space self-consistent-field theory for laser-driven many-electron dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miyagi, Haruhide; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2013-01-01

    We present the time-dependent restricted-active-space self-consistent-field (TD-RASSCF) theory as a framework for the time-dependent many-electron problem. The theory generalizes the multiconfigurational time-dependent Hartree-Fock (MCTDHF) theory by incorporating the restricted-active-space scheme...... well known in time-independent quantum chemistry. Optimization of the orbitals as well as the expansion coefficients at each time step makes it possible to construct the wave function accurately while using only a relatively small number of electronic configurations. In numerical calculations of high...

  3. Time-dependent restricted-active-space self-consistent-field theory for bosonic many-body systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lévêque, Camille; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2017-01-01

    We develop an ab initio time-dependent wavefunction based theory for the description of a many-body system of cold interacting bosons. Like the multi-configurational time-dependent Hartree method for bosons (MCTDHB), the theory is based on a configurational interaction Ansatz for the many-body wavefunction with time-dependent self-consistent-field orbitals. The theory generalizes the MCTDHB method by incorporating restrictions on the active space of the orbital excitations. The restrictions are specified based on the physical situation at hand. The equations of motion of this time-dependent restricted-active-space self-consistent-field (TD-RASSCF) theory are derived. The similarity between the formal development of the theory for bosons and fermions is discussed. The restrictions on the active space allow the theory to be evaluated under conditions where other wavefunction based methods due to exponential scaling in the numerical effort cannot, and to clearly identify the excitations that are important for an accurate description, significantly beyond the mean-field approach. For ground state calculations we find it to be important to allow a few particles to have the freedom to move in many orbitals, an insight facilitated by the flexibility of the restricted-active-space Ansatz . Moreover, we find that a high accuracy can be obtained by including only even excitations in the many-body self-consistent-field wavefunction. Time-dependent simulations of harmonically trapped bosons subject to a quenching of their noncontact interaction, show failure of the mean-field Gross-Pitaevskii approach within a fraction of a harmonic oscillation period. The TD-RASSCF theory remains accurate at much reduced computational cost compared to the MCTDHB method. Exploring the effect of changes of the restricted-active-space allows us to identify that even self-consistent-field excitations are mainly responsible for the accuracy of the method. (paper)

  4. Time-dependent restricted-active-space self-consistent eld theory: Formulation and application to laser-driven many-electron dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miyagi, Haruhide; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    We have developed a new theoretical framework for time-dependent many-electron problems named time-dependent restricted-active-space self-consistent field (TD-RASSCF) theory. The theory generalizes the multicongurational time-dependent Hartree-Fock (MCTDHF) theory by truncating the expansion...

  5. Structural dynamics of phenylisothiocyanate in the light-absorbing excited states: Resonance Raman and complete active space self-consistent field calculation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, Bing; Xue, Jia-Dan; Zheng, Xuming; Fang, Wei-Hai

    2014-01-01

    The excited state structural dynamics of phenyl isothiocyanate (PITC) after excitation to the light absorbing S 2 (A′), S 6 (A′), and S 7 (A′) excited states were studied by using the resonance Raman spectroscopy and complete active space self-consistent field method calculations. The UV absorption bands of PITC were assigned. The vibrational assignments were done on the basis of the Fourier transform (FT)-Raman and FT-infrared measurements, the density-functional theory computations, and the normal mode analysis. The A-, B-, and C-bands resonance Raman spectra in cyclohexane, acetonitrile, and methanol solvents were, respectively, obtained at 299.1, 282.4, 266.0, 252.7, 228.7, 217.8, and 208.8 nm excitation wavelengths to probe the corresponding structural dynamics of PITC. The results indicated that the structural dynamics in the S 2 (A′), S 6 (A′), and S 7 (A′) excited states were very different. The conical intersection point CI(S 2 /S 1 ) were predicted to play important role in the low-lying excited state decay dynamics. Two major decay channels were predicted for PITC upon excitation to the S 2 (A′) state: the radiative S 2,min → S 0 transition and the nonradiative S 2 → S 1 internal conversion via CI(S 2 /S 1 ). The differences in the decay dynamics between methyl isothiocyanate and PITC in the first light absorbing excited state were discussed. The role of the intersystem crossing point ISC(S 1 /T 1 ) in the excited state decay dynamics of PITC is evaluated

  6. Lagrangian space consistency relation for large scale structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, Bart; Hui, Lam; Xiao, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Consistency relations, which relate the squeezed limit of an (N+1)-point correlation function to an N-point function, are non-perturbative symmetry statements that hold even if the associated high momentum modes are deep in the nonlinear regime and astrophysically complex. Recently, Kehagias and Riotto and Peloso and Pietroni discovered a consistency relation applicable to large scale structure. We show that this can be recast into a simple physical statement in Lagrangian space: that the squeezed correlation function (suitably normalized) vanishes. This holds regardless of whether the correlation observables are at the same time or not, and regardless of whether multiple-streaming is present. The simplicity of this statement suggests that an analytic understanding of large scale structure in the nonlinear regime may be particularly promising in Lagrangian space

  7. Combining the Complete Active Space Self-Consistent Field Method and the Full Configuration Interaction Quantum Monte Carlo within a Super-CI Framework, with Application to Challenging Metal-Porphyrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li Manni, Giovanni; Smart, Simon D; Alavi, Ali

    2016-03-08

    A novel stochastic Complete Active Space Self-Consistent Field (CASSCF) method has been developed and implemented in the Molcas software package. A two-step procedure is used, in which the CAS configuration interaction secular equations are solved stochastically with the Full Configuration Interaction Quantum Monte Carlo (FCIQMC) approach, while orbital rotations are performed using an approximated form of the Super-CI method. This new method does not suffer from the strong combinatorial limitations of standard MCSCF implementations using direct schemes and can handle active spaces well in excess of those accessible to traditional CASSCF approaches. The density matrix formulation of the Super-CI method makes this step independent of the size of the CI expansion, depending exclusively on one- and two-body density matrices with indices restricted to the relatively small number of active orbitals. No sigma vectors need to be stored in memory for the FCIQMC eigensolver--a substantial gain in comparison to implementations using the Davidson method, which require three or more vectors of the size of the CI expansion. Further, no orbital Hessian is computed, circumventing limitations on basis set expansions. Like the parent FCIQMC method, the present technique is scalable on massively parallel architectures. We present in this report the method and its application to the free-base porphyrin, Mg(II) porphyrin, and Fe(II) porphyrin. In the present study, active spaces up to 32 electrons and 29 orbitals in orbital expansions containing up to 916 contracted functions are treated with modest computational resources. Results are quite promising even without accounting for the correlation outside the active space. The systems here presented clearly demonstrate that large CASSCF calculations are possible via FCIQMC-CASSCF without limitations on basis set size.

  8. Canonical-ensemble state-averaged complete active space self-consistent field (SA-CASSCF) strategy for problems with more diabatic than adiabatic states: Charge-bond resonance in monomethine cyanines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Seth, E-mail: seth.olsen@uq.edu.au [School of Mathematics and Physics, The University of Queensland, Brisbane QLD 4072 (Australia)

    2015-01-28

    This paper reviews basic results from a theory of the a priori classical probabilities (weights) in state-averaged complete active space self-consistent field (SA-CASSCF) models. It addresses how the classical probabilities limit the invariance of the self-consistency condition to transformations of the complete active space configuration interaction (CAS-CI) problem. Such transformations are of interest for choosing representations of the SA-CASSCF solution that are diabatic with respect to some interaction. I achieve the known result that a SA-CASSCF can be self-consistently transformed only within degenerate subspaces of the CAS-CI ensemble density matrix. For uniformly distributed (“microcanonical”) SA-CASSCF ensembles, self-consistency is invariant to any unitary CAS-CI transformation that acts locally on the ensemble support. Most SA-CASSCF applications in current literature are microcanonical. A problem with microcanonical SA-CASSCF models for problems with “more diabatic than adiabatic” states is described. The problem is that not all diabatic energies and couplings are self-consistently resolvable. A canonical-ensemble SA-CASSCF strategy is proposed to solve the problem. For canonical-ensemble SA-CASSCF, the equilibrated ensemble is a Boltzmann density matrix parametrized by its own CAS-CI Hamiltonian and a Lagrange multiplier acting as an inverse “temperature,” unrelated to the physical temperature. Like the convergence criterion for microcanonical-ensemble SA-CASSCF, the equilibration condition for canonical-ensemble SA-CASSCF is invariant to transformations that act locally on the ensemble CAS-CI density matrix. The advantage of a canonical-ensemble description is that more adiabatic states can be included in the support of the ensemble without running into convergence problems. The constraint on the dimensionality of the problem is relieved by the introduction of an energy constraint. The method is illustrated with a complete active space

  9. Consistent Lorentz violation in flat and curved space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvali, Gia; Pujolas, Oriol; Redi, Michele

    2007-01-01

    Motivated by the severity of the bounds on Lorentz violation in the presence of ordinary gravity, we study frameworks in which Lorentz violation does not affect the spacetime geometry. We show that there are at least two inequivalent classes of spontaneous Lorentz breaking that even in the presence of gravity result in Minkowski space. The first one generically corresponds to the condensation of tensor fields with tachyonic mass, which in turn is related to ghost condensation. In the second class, realized by the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati model or theories of massive gravitons, spontaneous Lorentz breaking is induced by the expectation value of sources. The generalization to de Sitter space is also discussed

  10. History and Evolution of Active Learning Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beichner, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter examines active learning spaces as they have developed over the years. Consistently well-designed classrooms can facilitate active learning even though the details of implementing pedagogies may differ.

  11. Strong consistency of nonparametric Bayes density estimation on compact metric spaces with applications to specific manifolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Abhishek; Dunson, David B

    2012-08-01

    This article considers a broad class of kernel mixture density models on compact metric spaces and manifolds. Following a Bayesian approach with a nonparametric prior on the location mixing distribution, sufficient conditions are obtained on the kernel, prior and the underlying space for strong posterior consistency at any continuous density. The prior is also allowed to depend on the sample size n and sufficient conditions are obtained for weak and strong consistency. These conditions are verified on compact Euclidean spaces using multivariate Gaussian kernels, on the hypersphere using a von Mises-Fisher kernel and on the planar shape space using complex Watson kernels.

  12. Composition consisting of a dendrimer and an active substance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1995-01-01

    The invention relates to a composition consisting of a dendrimer provided with blocking agents and an active substance occluded in the dendrimer. According to the invention a blocking agent is a compound which is sterically of sufficient size, which readily enters into a chemical bond with the

  13. Yearbook on space policy 2015 access to space and the evolution of space activities

    CERN Document Server

    Baranes, Blandina; Hulsroj, Peter; Lahcen, Arne

    2017-01-01

    The Yearbook on Space Policy, edited by the European Space Policy Institute (ESPI), is the reference publication analysing space policy developments. Each year it presents issues and trends in space policy and the space sector as a whole. Its scope is global and its perspective is European. The Yearbook also links space policy with other policy areas. It highlights specific events and issues, and provides useful insights, data and information on space activities. The first part of the Yearbook sets out a comprehensive overview of the economic, political, technological and institutional trends that have affected space activities. The second part of the Yearbook offers a more analytical perspective on the yearly ESPI theme and consists of external contributions written by professionals with diverse backgrounds and areas of expertise. The third part of the Yearbook carries forward the character of the Yearbook as an archive of space activities. The Yearbook is designed for government decision-makers and agencies...

  14. GPS Space Service Volume: Ensuring Consistent Utility Across GPS Design Builds for Space Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Frank H.; Parker, Joel Jefferson Konkl; Valdez, Jennifer Ellen

    2015-01-01

    GPS availability and signal strength originally specified for users on or near surface of Earth with transmitted power levels specified at edge-of-Earth, 14.3 degrees. Prior to the SSV specification, on-orbit performance of GPS varied from block build to block build (IIA, IIRM, IIF) due to antenna gain and beam width variances. Unstable on-orbit performance results in significant risk to space users. Side-lobe signals, although not specified, were expected to significantly boost GPS signal availability for users above the constellation. During GPS III Phase A, NASA noted significant discrepancies in power levels specified in GPS III specification documents, and measured on-orbit performance. To stabilize the signal for high altitude space users, NASA DoD team in 2003-2005 led the creation of new Space Service Volume (SSV) definition and specifications.

  15. China's early space activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilin, Zhu

    1994-05-01

    China's space exploration began in the late 1950s in response to the launch of the Soviet Sputnik. The Chinese Academy of Science formed a team which was responsible for establishing three design institutes. The Shanghai Institute for Machine and Electricity Design was established. When the plan for the other design institutes was abandoned, the Shanghai Institute began to develop a sounding rocket. In 1960 the liquid-propellant sounding rocket 'T-7' was launched. The T-7 was modified and improved. A series of interplanetary flight symposia were held to discuss developmental approaches to Chinese space technology. Academic research results and technical development achievements laid a solid foundation for the launch in 1970 of the first artificial satellite.

  16. IASM: Individualized activity space modeler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanzadeh, Kamyar

    2018-01-01

    Researchers from various disciplines have long been interested in analyzing and describing human mobility patterns. Activity space (AS), defined as an area encapsulating daily human mobility and activities, has been at the center of this interest. However, given the applied nature of research in this field and the complexity that advanced geographical modeling can pose to its users, the proposed models remain simplistic and inaccurate in many cases. Individualized Activity Space Modeler (IASM) is a geographic information system (GIS) toolbox, written in Python programming language using ESRI's Arcpy module, comprising four tools aiming to facilitate the use of advanced activity space models in empirical research. IASM provides individual-based and context-sensitive tools to estimate home range distances, delineate activity spaces, and model place exposures using individualized geographical data. In this paper, we describe the design and functionality of IASM, and provide an example of how it performs on a spatial dataset collected through an online map-based survey.

  17. An International Disaster Management SensorWeb Consisting of Space-based and Insitu Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandl, D.; Frye, S. W.; Policelli, F. S.; Cappelaere, P. G.

    2009-12-01

    For the past year, NASA along with partners consisting of the United Nations Space-based Information for Disaster and Emergency Response (UN-SPIDER) office, the Canadian Space Agency, the Ukraine Space Research Institute (SRI), Taiwan National Space Program Office (NSPO) and in conjunction with the Committee on Earth Observing Satellite (CEOS) Working Group on Information Systems and Services (WGISS) have been conducting a pilot project to automate the process of obtaining sensor data for the purpose of flood management and emergency response. This includes experimenting with flood prediction models based on numerous meteorological satellites and a global hydrological model and then automatically triggering follow up high resolution satellite imagery with rapid delivery of data products. This presentation will provide a overview of the effort, recent accomplishments and future plans.

  18. Is Active Tectonics on Madagascar Consistent with Somalian Plate Kinematics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamps, D. S.; Kreemer, C.; Rajaonarison, T. A.

    2017-12-01

    The East African Rift System (EARS) actively breaks apart the Nubian and Somalian tectonic plates. Madagascar finds itself at the easternmost boundary of the EARS, between the Rovuma block, Lwandle plate, and the Somalian plate. Earthquake focal mechanisms and N-S oriented fault structures on the continental island suggest that Madagascar is experiencing east-west oriented extension. However, some previous plate kinematic studies indicate minor compressional strains across Madagascar. This inconsistency may be due to uncertainties in Somalian plate rotation. Past estimates of the rotation of the Somalian plate suffered from a poor coverage of GPS stations, but some important new stations are now available for a re-evaluation. In this work, we revise the kinematics of the Somalian plate. We first calculate a new GPS velocity solution and perform block kinematic modeling to evaluate the Somalian plate rotation. We then estimate new Somalia-Rovuma and Somalia-Lwandle relative motions across Madagascar and evaluate whether they are consistent with GPS measurements made on the island itself, as well as with other kinematic indicators.

  19. Self-consistency in the phonon space of the particle-phonon coupling model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tselyaev, V.; Lyutorovich, N.; Speth, J.; Reinhard, P.-G.

    2018-04-01

    In the paper the nonlinear generalization of the time blocking approximation (TBA) is presented. The TBA is one of the versions of the extended random-phase approximation (RPA) developed within the Green-function method and the particle-phonon coupling model. In the generalized version of the TBA the self-consistency principle is extended onto the phonon space of the model. The numerical examples show that this nonlinear version of the TBA leads to the convergence of results with respect to enlarging the phonon space of the model.

  20. Self-consistent Bayesian analysis of space-time symmetry studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, E.D.

    1996-01-01

    We introduce a Bayesian method for the analysis of epithermal neutron transmission data on space-time symmetries in which unique assignment of the prior is achieved by maximisation of the cross entropy and the imposition of a self-consistency criterion. Unlike the maximum likelihood method used in previous analyses of parity-violation data, our method is freed of an ad hoc cutoff parameter. Monte Carlo studies indicate that our self-consistent Bayesian analysis is superior to the maximum likelihood method when applied to the small data samples typical of symmetry studies. (orig.)

  1. Active Space Debris Removal System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele GUERRA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the start of the space era, more than 5000 launches have been carried out, each carrying satellites for many disparate uses, such as Earth observation or communication. Thus, the space environment has become congested and the problem of space debris is now generating some concerns in the space community due to our long-lived belief that “space is big”. In the last few years, solutions to this problem have been proposed, one of those is Active Space Debris Removal: this method will reduce the increasing debris growth and permit future sustainable space activities. The main idea of the method proposed below is a drag augmentation system: use a system capable of putting an expanded foam on a debris which will increase the area-to-mass ratio to increase the natural atmospheric drag and solar pressure. The drag augmentation system proposed here requires a docking system; the debris will be pushed to its release height and then, after un-docking, an uncontrolled re-entry takes place ending with a burn up of the object and the foam in the atmosphere within a given time frame. The method requires an efficient way to change the orbit between two debris. The present paper analyses such a system in combination with an Electric Propulsion system, and emphasizes the choice of using two satellites to remove five effective rockets bodies debris within a year.

  2. 15 CFR 930.36 - Consistency determinations for proposed activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... necessity of issuing separate consistency determinations for each incremental action controlled by the major... plans), and that affect any coastal use or resource of more than one State. Many States share common...

  3. Single, Complete, Probability Spaces Consistent With EPR-Bohm-Bell Experimental Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avis, David; Fischer, Paul; Hilbert, Astrid; Khrennikov, Andrei

    2009-03-01

    We show that paradoxical consequences of violations of Bell's inequality are induced by the use of an unsuitable probabilistic description for the EPR-Bohm-Bell experiment. The conventional description (due to Bell) is based on a combination of statistical data collected for different settings of polarization beam splitters (PBSs). In fact, such data consists of some conditional probabilities which only partially define a probability space. Ignoring this conditioning leads to apparent contradictions in the classical probabilistic model (due to Kolmogorov). We show how to make a completely consistent probabilistic model by taking into account the probabilities of selecting the settings of the PBSs. Our model matches both the experimental data and is consistent with classical probability theory.

  4. A Self Consistent Multiprocessor Space Charge Algorithm that is Almost Embarrassingly Parallel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nissen, Edward; Erdelyi, B.; Manikonda, S.L.

    2012-01-01

    We present a space charge code that is self consistent, massively parallelizeable, and requires very little communication between computer nodes; making the calculation almost embarrassingly parallel. This method is implemented in the code COSY Infinity where the differential algebras used in this code are important to the algorithm's proper functioning. The method works by calculating the self consistent space charge distribution using the statistical moments of the test particles, and converting them into polynomial series coefficients. These coefficients are combined with differential algebraic integrals to form the potential, and electric fields. The result is a map which contains the effects of space charge. This method allows for massive parallelization since its statistics based solver doesn't require any binning of particles, and only requires a vector containing the partial sums of the statistical moments for the different nodes to be passed. All other calculations are done independently. The resulting maps can be used to analyze the system using normal form analysis, as well as advance particles in numbers and at speeds that were previously impossible.

  5. On the Consistency of Bootstrap Testing for a Parameter on the Boundary of the Parameter Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaliere, Giuseppe; Nielsen, Heino Bohn; Rahbek, Anders

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that with a parameter on the boundary of the parameter space, such as in the classic cases of testing for a zero location parameter or no autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (ARCH) effects, the classic nonparametric bootstrap – based on unrestricted parameter estimates...... – leads to inconsistent testing. In contrast, we show here that for the two aforementioned cases, a nonparametric bootstrap test based on parameter estimates obtained under the null – referred to as ‘restricted bootstrap’ – is indeed consistent. While the restricted bootstrap is simple to implement...... in practice, novel theoretical arguments are required in order to establish consistency. In particular, since the bootstrap is analysed both under the null hypothesis and under the alternative, non-standard asymptotic expansions are required to deal with parameters on the boundary. Detailed proofs...

  6. The International Active Learning Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2015-01-01

    -Danish students receive the basic international and intercultural skills and knowledge they need in current society. The English-language masters’ seminars I teach at the Department of Political Science are international in terms of students and teacher, but they are also Active Learning seminars......-Danish students (and sometimes teachers) rarely speak to each other or learn each other’s names. In the international AL spaces I create, students must work together on joint tasks which require interaction to address tasks and integration in order to benefit from the multinational activity groups. Planning AL...... that complete the seminar soon become vocal advocates of international AL. Ultimately, enriching student learning through immersing Danish and international students in an international AL space is, for me, the best way of ensuring an internationalised learning outcome, rather than just international mobility....

  7. Physics of Space Plasma Activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, N F

    2007-01-01

    This book provides a timely review of our present understanding of plasma phenomena in magnetized terrestrial and solar space plasmas. The author's emphasis is on the fluid and particle modeling and interpretation of observed active processes in space plasmas, i.e. 'the physical background of large plasma eruptions in space'. It is somewhat alarming for a plasma physicist to read that an emphasis on processes in spatially inhomogeneous plasmas means that the work '... excludes a considerable fraction of the available methods in space plasma physics, such as the theory of waves, instabilities and wave particle interactions on a homogeneous background', particularly in light of the fact that much of our knowledge of these plasmas is derived from observations of such waves. However, it is clear on reading the book that such a restriction is not a disadvantage, but allows the author to concentrate on the main theme of the book, namely the use of fluid and particle pictures to model the equilibrium and active states of space plasmas. There are many other books which cover the wave aspects of space plasmas, and would complement this book. The book's coverage is based on the extensive and profound research of the author and his colleagues in the area of fluid and particle modeling of space plasma structures. After an introduction to the physical setting of active plasmas, and a necessarily concise, but effective, discussion of the fluid and particle models to be used, the steady states of the magnetized plasmas of interest are treated, including the magnetosphere, solar plasmas and current sheets. Next the dynamics of unstable states is covered, including MHD and tearing instabilities, and nonlinear aspects, with a detailed discussion of magnetic reconnection. Finally, the models are applied to magnetospheric and solar observations. The book is attractively written and produced, and this reviewer managed to find a minimum number of errors. A particularly attractive

  8. Self-consistent study of space-charge-dominated beams in a misaligned transport system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sing Babu, P.; Goswami, A.; Pandit, V.S.

    2013-01-01

    A self-consistent particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation method is developed to investigate the dynamics of space-charge-dominated beams through a misaligned solenoid based transport system. Evolution of beam centroid, beam envelope and emittance is studied as a function of misalignment parameters for various types of beam distributions. Simulation results performed up to 40 mA of proton beam indicate that centroid oscillations induced by the displacement and rotational misalignments of solenoids do not depend of the beam distribution. It is shown that the beam envelope around the centroid is independent of the centroid motion for small centroid oscillation. In addition, we have estimated the loss of beam during the transport caused by the misalignment for various beam distributions

  9. Miniature Active Space Radiation Dosimeter, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space Micro will extend our Phase I R&D to develop a family of miniature, active space radiation dosimeters/particle counters, with a focus on biological/manned...

  10. Longitudinal motion in high current ion beams: a self-consistent phase space distribution with an envelope equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuffer, D.

    1979-03-01

    Many applications of particle acceleration, such as heavy ion fusion, require longitudinal bunching of a high intensity particle beam to extremely high particle currents with correspondingly high space charge forces. This requires a precise analysis of longitudinal motion including stability analysis. Previous papers have treated the longitudinal space charge force as strictly linear, and have not been self-consistent; that is, they have not displayed a phase space distribution consistent with this linear force so that the transport of the phase space distribution could be followed, and departures from linearity could be analyzed. This is unlike the situation for transverse phase space where the Kapchinskij--Vladimirskij (K--V) distribution can be used as the basis of an analysis of transverse motion. In this paper a self-consistent particle distribution in longitudinal phase space is derived which is a solution of the Vlasov equation and an envelope equation for this solution is derived

  11. Trends in space activities in 2014: The significance of the space activities of governments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paikowsky, Deganit; Baram, Gil; Ben-Israel, Isaac

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the principal events of 2014 in the field of space activities, and extrapolates from them the primary trends that can be identified in governmental space activities. In 2014, global space activities centered on two vectors. The first was geopolitical, and the second relates to the matrix between increasing commercial space activities and traditional governmental space activities. In light of these two vectors, the article outlines and analyzes trends of space exploration, human spaceflights, industry and technology, cooperation versus self-reliance, and space security and sustainability. It also reviews the space activities of the leading space-faring nations.

  12. Selection of active spaces for multiconfigurational wavefunctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Sebastian; Boguslawski, Katharina; Reiher, Markus, E-mail: markus.reiher@phys.chem.ethz.ch [Laboratorium für Physikalische Chemie, ETH Zürich, Vladimir-Prelog-Weg 2, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Janowski, Tomasz; Pulay, Peter, E-mail: pulay@uark.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Fulbright College of Arts and Sciences, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas 72701 (United States)

    2015-06-28

    The efficient and accurate description of the electronic structure of strongly correlated systems is still a largely unsolved problem. The usual procedures start with a multiconfigurational (usually a Complete Active Space, CAS) wavefunction which accounts for static correlation and add dynamical correlation by perturbation theory, configuration interaction, or coupled cluster expansion. This procedure requires the correct selection of the active space. Intuitive methods are unreliable for complex systems. The inexpensive black-box unrestricted natural orbital (UNO) criterion postulates that the Unrestricted Hartree-Fock (UHF) charge natural orbitals with fractional occupancy (e.g., between 0.02 and 1.98) constitute the active space. UNOs generally approximate the CAS orbitals so well that the orbital optimization in CAS Self-Consistent Field (CASSCF) may be omitted, resulting in the inexpensive UNO-CAS method. A rigorous testing of the UNO criterion requires comparison with approximate full configuration interaction wavefunctions. This became feasible with the advent of Density Matrix Renormalization Group (DMRG) methods which can approximate highly correlated wavefunctions at affordable cost. We have compared active orbital occupancies in UNO-CAS and CASSCF calculations with DMRG in a number of strongly correlated molecules: compounds of electronegative atoms (F{sub 2}, ozone, and NO{sub 2}), polyenes, aromatic molecules (naphthalene, azulene, anthracene, and nitrobenzene), radicals (phenoxy and benzyl), diradicals (o-, m-, and p-benzyne), and transition metal compounds (nickel-acetylene and Cr{sub 2}). The UNO criterion works well in these cases. Other symmetry breaking solutions, with the possible exception of spatial symmetry, do not appear to be essential to generate the correct active space. In the case of multiple UHF solutions, the natural orbitals of the average UHF density should be used. The problems of the UNO criterion and their potential solutions

  13. Selection of active spaces for multiconfigurational wavefunctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, Sebastian; Boguslawski, Katharina; Reiher, Markus; Janowski, Tomasz; Pulay, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The efficient and accurate description of the electronic structure of strongly correlated systems is still a largely unsolved problem. The usual procedures start with a multiconfigurational (usually a Complete Active Space, CAS) wavefunction which accounts for static correlation and add dynamical correlation by perturbation theory, configuration interaction, or coupled cluster expansion. This procedure requires the correct selection of the active space. Intuitive methods are unreliable for complex systems. The inexpensive black-box unrestricted natural orbital (UNO) criterion postulates that the Unrestricted Hartree-Fock (UHF) charge natural orbitals with fractional occupancy (e.g., between 0.02 and 1.98) constitute the active space. UNOs generally approximate the CAS orbitals so well that the orbital optimization in CAS Self-Consistent Field (CASSCF) may be omitted, resulting in the inexpensive UNO-CAS method. A rigorous testing of the UNO criterion requires comparison with approximate full configuration interaction wavefunctions. This became feasible with the advent of Density Matrix Renormalization Group (DMRG) methods which can approximate highly correlated wavefunctions at affordable cost. We have compared active orbital occupancies in UNO-CAS and CASSCF calculations with DMRG in a number of strongly correlated molecules: compounds of electronegative atoms (F 2 , ozone, and NO 2 ), polyenes, aromatic molecules (naphthalene, azulene, anthracene, and nitrobenzene), radicals (phenoxy and benzyl), diradicals (o-, m-, and p-benzyne), and transition metal compounds (nickel-acetylene and Cr 2 ). The UNO criterion works well in these cases. Other symmetry breaking solutions, with the possible exception of spatial symmetry, do not appear to be essential to generate the correct active space. In the case of multiple UHF solutions, the natural orbitals of the average UHF density should be used. The problems of the UNO criterion and their potential solutions are discussed

  14. Selection of active spaces for multiconfigurational wavefunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Sebastian; Boguslawski, Katharina; Janowski, Tomasz; Reiher, Markus; Pulay, Peter

    2015-06-01

    The efficient and accurate description of the electronic structure of strongly correlated systems is still a largely unsolved problem. The usual procedures start with a multiconfigurational (usually a Complete Active Space, CAS) wavefunction which accounts for static correlation and add dynamical correlation by perturbation theory, configuration interaction, or coupled cluster expansion. This procedure requires the correct selection of the active space. Intuitive methods are unreliable for complex systems. The inexpensive black-box unrestricted natural orbital (UNO) criterion postulates that the Unrestricted Hartree-Fock (UHF) charge natural orbitals with fractional occupancy (e.g., between 0.02 and 1.98) constitute the active space. UNOs generally approximate the CAS orbitals so well that the orbital optimization in CAS Self-Consistent Field (CASSCF) may be omitted, resulting in the inexpensive UNO-CAS method. A rigorous testing of the UNO criterion requires comparison with approximate full configuration interaction wavefunctions. This became feasible with the advent of Density Matrix Renormalization Group (DMRG) methods which can approximate highly correlated wavefunctions at affordable cost. We have compared active orbital occupancies in UNO-CAS and CASSCF calculations with DMRG in a number of strongly correlated molecules: compounds of electronegative atoms (F2, ozone, and NO2), polyenes, aromatic molecules (naphthalene, azulene, anthracene, and nitrobenzene), radicals (phenoxy and benzyl), diradicals (o-, m-, and p-benzyne), and transition metal compounds (nickel-acetylene and Cr2). The UNO criterion works well in these cases. Other symmetry breaking solutions, with the possible exception of spatial symmetry, do not appear to be essential to generate the correct active space. In the case of multiple UHF solutions, the natural orbitals of the average UHF density should be used. The problems of the UNO criterion and their potential solutions are discussed

  15. NASA Space Environments Technical Discipline Team Space Weather Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minow, J. I.; Nicholas, A. C.; Parker, L. N.; Xapsos, M.; Walker, P. W.; Stauffer, C.

    2017-12-01

    The Space Environment Technical Discipline Team (TDT) is a technical organization led by NASA's Technical Fellow for Space Environments that supports NASA's Office of the Chief Engineer through the NASA Engineering and Safety Center. The Space Environments TDT conducts independent technical assessments related to the space environment and space weather impacts on spacecraft for NASA programs and provides technical expertise to NASA management and programs where required. This presentation will highlight the status of applied space weather activities within the Space Environment TDT that support development of operational space weather applications and a better understanding of the impacts of space weather on space systems. We will first discuss a tool that has been developed for evaluating space weather launch constraints that are used to protect launch vehicles from hazardous space weather. We then describe an effort to better characterize three-dimensional radiation transport for CubeSat spacecraft and processing of micro-dosimeter data from the International Space Station which the team plans to make available to the space science community. Finally, we will conclude with a quick description of an effort to maintain access to the real-time solar wind data provided by the Advanced Composition Explorer satellite at the Sun-Earth L1 point.

  16. Space Research, Education, and Related Activities In the Space Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, David

    2002-01-01

    The mission of this activity, known as the Cooperative Program in Space Sciences (CPSS), is to conduct space science research and leading-edge instrumentation and technology development, enable research by the space sciences communities, and to expedite the effective dissemination of space science research, technology, data, and information to the educational community and the general public. To fulfill this mission, the Universities Space Research Association (USRA) recruits and maintains a staff of scientific researchers, operates a series of guest investigator facilities, organizes scientific meetings and workshops, and encourages various interactions with students and university faculty members. This paper is the final report from this now completed Cooperative Agreement.

  17. A Study to Investigate Whether Consistent Cognitive Functioning Cuts across Number, Space, and Time Conceptualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittan, Elizabeth

    1979-01-01

    Provides data incongruent with Piaget's idea of a concrete operational stage. Shows no clear-cut termination of preconceptual thinking and no simultaneous conceptual development in the three content areas (number, space, and time). (Author/RL)

  18. Stargate GTM: Bridging Descriptor and Activity Spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Héléna A; Baskin, Igor I; Marcou, Gilles; Horvath, Dragos; Varnek, Alexandre

    2015-11-23

    Predicting the activity profile of a molecule or discovering structures possessing a specific activity profile are two important goals in chemoinformatics, which could be achieved by bridging activity and molecular descriptor spaces. In this paper, we introduce the "Stargate" version of the Generative Topographic Mapping approach (S-GTM) in which two different multidimensional spaces (e.g., structural descriptor space and activity space) are linked through a common 2D latent space. In the S-GTM algorithm, the manifolds are trained simultaneously in two initial spaces using the probabilities in the 2D latent space calculated as a weighted geometric mean of probability distributions in both spaces. S-GTM has the following interesting features: (1) activities are involved during the training procedure; therefore, the method is supervised, unlike conventional GTM; (2) using molecular descriptors of a given compound as input, the model predicts a whole activity profile, and (3) using an activity profile as input, areas populated by relevant chemical structures can be detected. To assess the performance of S-GTM prediction models, a descriptor space (ISIDA descriptors) of a set of 1325 GPCR ligands was related to a B-dimensional (B = 1 or 8) activity space corresponding to pKi values for eight different targets. S-GTM outperforms conventional GTM for individual activities and performs similarly to the Lasso multitask learning algorithm, although it is still slightly less accurate than the Random Forest method.

  19. 29 CFR 779.205 - Enterprise must consist of “related activities.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Enterprise must consist of ârelated activities.â 779.205... STANDARDS ACT AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES Employment to Which the Act May Apply; Enterprise Coverage Related Activities § 779.205 Enterprise must consist of “related activities.” The enterprise must...

  20. Consistency in long-distance bird migration: contrasting patterns in time and space for two raptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vardanis, Yannis; Nilsson, Jan-Ake; Klaassen, Raymond H. G.; Strandberg, Roine; Alerstam, Thomas

    As the evolutionary responses to environmental change depend on selection acting on individual differences, disentangling within- and between-individual variation becomes imperative. In animal migration research, multiyear tracks are thus needed to estimate the individual consistency of phenotypic

  1. 'Flying markets': activating public spaces in Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, F.; Sezer, C.

    2013-01-01

    Marketplaces can be used by city planners as urban development strategies because they have the potential to turn open spaces in the city into public space, thereby improving both the social and the spatial qualities of those spaces. In Amsterdam, however, marketplaces currently fail to activate

  2. Space activities and global popular music culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessels, Allison Rae; Collins, Patrick

    During the "space age" era, space activities appear increasingly as a theme in Western popular music, as they do in popular culture generally. In combination with the electronics and tele-communications revolution, "pop/rock" music has grown explosively during the space age to become an effectively global culture. From this base a number of trends are emerging in the pattern of influences that space activities have on pop music. The paper looks at the use of themes and imagery in pop music; the role of space technology in the modern "globalization" of pop music; and current and future links between space activities and pop music culture, including how public space programmes are affected by its influence on popular attitudes.

  3. 18- and 24-month-olds' discrimination of gender-consistent and inconsistent activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Sara E; Flom, Ross

    2007-02-01

    18- and 24-month-olds' ability to discriminate gender-stereotyped activities was assessed. Using a preferential looking paradigm, toddlers viewed male and female actors performing masculine and feminine-stereotyped activities. Consistent with our predictions, and previous research, 24-month-olds, but not 18-month-olds, looked longer at the gender-inconsistent activities than the gender-consistent activities. Results are discussed in terms of toddlers emerging gender stereotypes and perception of everyday events.

  4. Real space in situ bond energies: toward a consistent energetic definition of bond strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez-Crespo, Daniel; Costales, Aurora; Francisco, Evelio; Martin Pendas, Angel

    2018-04-14

    A rigorous definition of intrinsic bond strength based on the partitioning of a molecule into real space fragments is presented. Using the domains provided by the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) together with the interacting quantum atoms (IQA) energetic decomposition, we show how an in situ bond strength, matching all the requirements of an intrinsic bond energy, can be defined between each pair of fragments. Total atomization or fragmentation energies are shown to be equal to the sum of these in situ bond energies (ISBEs) if the energies of the fragments are measured with respect to their in-the-molecule state. These energies usually lie above the ground state of the isolated fragments by quantities identified with the standard fragment relaxation or deformation energies, which are also provided by the protocol. Deformation energies bridge dissociation energies with ISBEs, and can be dissected using well-known tools of real space theories of chemical bonding. Similarly, ISBEs can be partitioned into ionic and covalent contributions, and this feature adds to the chemical appeal of the procedure. All the energetic quantities examined are observable and amenable, in principle, to experimental determination. Several systems, exemplifying the role of each energetic term herein presented are used to show the power of the approach. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Space activities in 2009/2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagkratis, Spyros

    2011-09-01

    The global financial crisis of 2008 has created an economic environment unfavourable to public and corporate economic activity alike, which could not have left space activities unaffected. However, the effects of the crisis upon the space sector have been so far less damaging than anticipated. The following paper presents recent developments in the field of space policies, institutional budgets and commercial activity worldwide, in an effort to improve the understanding of the new trends in commercial and public space activities. It particularly explores the strategies followed by space stakeholders in different countries and regions in order to pursue their planned space programmes in view of difficult financial conditions. Finally, it highlights the differences in the outlook of space activities between established and emerging space-faring nations and attempts to explore their medium-term consequences on an international level. For this purpose, it was based on research conducted in the framework of a recent ESPI report on "Space Policies, Issues and trends in 2009/2010".

  6. Testing the consistency of three-point halo clustering in Fourier and configuration space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, K.; Gaztañaga, E.; Scoccimarro, R.; Crocce, M.

    2018-05-01

    We compare reduced three-point correlations Q of matter, haloes (as proxies for galaxies) and their cross-correlations, measured in a total simulated volume of ˜100 (h-1 Gpc)3, to predictions from leading order perturbation theory on a large range of scales in configuration space. Predictions for haloes are based on the non-local bias model, employing linear (b1) and non-linear (c2, g2) bias parameters, which have been constrained previously from the bispectrum in Fourier space. We also study predictions from two other bias models, one local (g2 = 0) and one in which c2 and g2 are determined by b1 via approximately universal relations. Overall, measurements and predictions agree when Q is derived for triangles with (r1r2r3)1/3 ≳60 h-1 Mpc, where r1 - 3 are the sizes of the triangle legs. Predictions for Qmatter, based on the linear power spectrum, show significant deviations from the measurements at the BAO scale (given our small measurement errors), which strongly decrease when adding a damping term or using the non-linear power spectrum, as expected. Predictions for Qhalo agree best with measurements at large scales when considering non-local contributions. The universal bias model works well for haloes and might therefore be also useful for tightening constraints on b1 from Q in galaxy surveys. Such constraints are independent of the amplitude of matter density fluctuation (σ8) and hence break the degeneracy between b1 and σ8, present in galaxy two-point correlations.

  7. A relativistic self-consistent model for studying enhancement of space charge limited emission due to counter-streaming ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, M. C.; Verboncoeur, J.

    2016-10-01

    A maximum electron current transmitted through a planar diode gap is limited by space charge of electrons dwelling across the gap region, the so called space charge limited (SCL) emission. By introducing a counter-streaming ion flow to neutralize the electron charge density, the SCL emission can be dramatically raised, so electron current transmission gets enhanced. In this work, we have developed a relativistic self-consistent model for studying the enhancement of maximum transmission by a counter-streaming ion current. The maximum enhancement is found when the ion effect is saturated, as shown analytically. The solutions in non-relativistic, intermediate, and ultra-relativistic regimes are obtained and verified with 1-D particle-in-cell simulations. This self-consistent model is general and can also serve as a comparison for verification of simulation codes, as well as extension to higher dimensions.

  8. Automated entry technologies for confined space work activities: A survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botti, Lucia; Ferrari, Emilio; Mora, Cristina

    2017-04-01

    Work in confined spaces poses a significant risk to workers and rescuers involved in the emergency response when an accident occurs. Despite several standards and regulations define the safety requirements for such activities, injuries, and fatalities still occur. Furthermore, the on-site inspections after accidents often reveal that both employers and employees fail to implement safe entry procedures. Removing the risk is possible by avoiding the worker entry, but many activities require the presence of the operator inside the confined space to perform manual tasks. The following study investigates the available technologies for hazardous confined space work activities, e.g., cleaning, inspecting, and maintenance tasks. The aim is to provide a systematic review of the automated solutions for high-risk activities in confined spaces, considering the non-man entry as the most effective confined space safety strategy. Second, this survey aims to provide suggestions for future research addressing the design of new technologies. The survey consists of about 60 papers concerning innovative technologies for confined space work activities. The document review shows that several solutions have been developed and automation can replace the workers for a limited number of hazardous tasks. Several activities still require the manual intervention due to the complex characteristics of confined spaces, e.g., to remove the remains of the automatic cleaning process from the bottom of a tank. The results show that available technologies require more flexibility to adapt to such occupational environments and further research is needed.

  9. Activity-Based Collaboration for Interactive Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind; Esbensen, Morten; Tabard, Aurélien

    2017-01-01

    , folder, documents, etc., users are able to interact with ‘activities’ which encapsulate files and other low-level resources. In ABC an ‘activity’ can be shared between collaborating users and can be accessed on different devices. As such, ABC is a framework that suits the requirements of designing...... interactive spaces. This chapter provides an overview of ABC with a special focus on its support for collaboration (‘Activity Sharing’) and multiple devices (‘Activity Roaming’). These ABC concepts are illustrated as implemented in two different interactive spaces technologies; ReticularSpaces [1] and the e......LabBench [2, 3]. The chapter discusses the benefits of activity-based collaboration support for these interactive spaces, while also discussing limitations and challenges to be addressed in further research....

  10. The LAM space active optics facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, C.; Ferrari, M.; Hugot, E.; Escolle, C.; Bonnefois, A.; Bernot, M.; Bret-Dibat, T.; Carlavan, M.; Falzon, F.; Fusco, T.; Laubier, D.; Liotard, A.; Michau, V.; Mugnier, L.

    2017-11-01

    The next generation of large lightweight space telescopes will require the use of active optics systems to enhance the performance and increase the spatial resolution. Since almost 10 years now, LAM, CNES, THALES and ONERA conjugate their experience and efforts for the development of space active optics through the validation of key technological building blocks: correcting devices, metrology components and control strategies. This article presents the work done so far on active correcting mirrors and wave front sensing, as well as all the facilities implemented. The last part of this paper focuses on the merging of the MADRAS and RASCASSE test-set up. This unique combination will provide to the active optics community an automated, flexible and versatile facility able to feed and characterise space active optics components.

  11. Activities of NICT space weather project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Ken T.; Nagatsuma, Tsutomu; Watari, Shinichi; Shinagawa, Hiroyuki; Ishii, Mamoru

    NICT (National Institute of Information and Communications Technology) has been in charge of space weather forecast service in Japan for more than 20 years. The main target region of the space weather is the geo-space in the vicinity of the Earth where human activities are dominant. In the geo-space, serious damages of satellites, international space stations and astronauts take place caused by energetic particles or electromagnetic disturbances: the origin of the causes is dynamically changing of solar activities. Positioning systems via GPS satellites are also im-portant recently. Since the most significant effect of positioning error comes from disturbances of the ionosphere, it is crucial to estimate time-dependent modulation of the electron density profiles in the ionosphere. NICT is one of the 13 members of the ISES (International Space Environment Service), which is an international assembly of space weather forecast centers under the UNESCO. With help of geo-space environment data exchanging among the member nations, NICT operates daily space weather forecast service every day to provide informa-tion on forecasts of solar flare, geomagnetic disturbances, solar proton event, and radio-wave propagation conditions in the ionosphere. The space weather forecast at NICT is conducted based on the three methodologies: observations, simulations and informatics (OSI model). For real-time or quasi real-time reporting of space weather, we conduct our original observations: Hiraiso solar observatory to monitor the solar activity (solar flare, coronal mass ejection, and so on), domestic ionosonde network, magnetometer HF radar observations in far-east Siberia, and south-east Asia low-latitude ionosonde network (SEALION). Real-time observation data to monitor solar and solar-wind activities are obtained through antennae at NICT from ACE and STEREO satellites. We have a middle-class super-computer (NEC SX-8R) to maintain real-time computer simulations for solar and solar

  12. Economic benefits of commercial space activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Barbara A.

    Space is not only an endless frontier for exploration, but also a potentially rich arena for profitable commerce to benefit all mankind. Access to the unique environment of space provides opportunities for unprecedented kinds of research to develop new products and services. This research can lead to commercially viable enterprises, which will become permanent businesses, which will provide good jobs for workers, pay taxes to their governments, and return dividends to their investors. Seeking superior products and processes is vital if the economy is to grow and prosper. This paper discusses the current and potential impact on the economy of selected private sector space activities.

  13. Environmental Impact Assessment and Space Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viikari, L.

    these developments in way or another. In addition to national EIA regulations, there are also international agreements on EIA (i.a. the Espoo Convention) which establish their own EIA systems. In international law of outer space, environmental impact assessment is, however, not a well-established tool. The UN space treaties were drafted during a time when such consideratio ns were still not among the highest ranking items on national agendas. Therefore, these instruments fail to contain provisions regarding impact assessment, and also rest of the environmental content found in them is rather modest. The nearest equivalent to any impact assessment is contained in the Outer Space Treaty Article IX, namely the requirement of prior consultations in case of planned space activity or experiment that might cause "potentially harmful interference" with space activities of other St ates Parties. There also exist some applicable provisions on national level, such as the requirement of "formal assessment" on NASA programs of "[orbital] debris generation potential and debris mitigation options" in NASA Policy for Limiting Orbital Debris Generation (Art. 1.b). Also the national legislation of some space faring countries provides at least for the supply of some kind of information assessing the possible environmental consequences of proposed space activities. For instance, the Russian Statute on Lisencing Space Operations requires that for obtaining a license for space operation in the Russian Federation, the applicant has to supply, i.a. "documents confirming the safety of space operations (including ecological, fire and explosion safety) and the reliability of space equipment'"(Art.5.h). However, such provisions are obviously not enough for ensuring effective international regulation of the issue. The goal of this paper is to consider the usefulness of international environmental impact assessment for space activities. The space environment, however, is a unique arena in many ways

  14. Near-space airships against terrorist activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesenek, Ceylan

    2014-06-01

    Near-space is a region surrounding the earth which is too dense for a satellite to fly and also too thin for air breathing vehicles to fly. The near-space region which is located between 65,000 and 325,000 feet is really underutilized despite its unique potential. Near-Space airships can be used to exploit the potential of near space. Such a system can supply not only a great deal of information using ISR (Intelligence Surveillance Reconnaissance) sensors on board but also serve as a communication/data relay. Airships used in near space can cover a very wide footprint area for surveillance missions. Free of orbital mechanics these near-space assets can continue its mission for long period of time with a persistence of days and months. These assets can provide persistent intelligence for fight against terrorist activities. Terrorism is a non-state threat and doesn't have a static hierarchical structure. To fight against such an adversary an overwhelming intelligence activity must be applied. Therefore, intelligence collection and surveillance missions play a vital role in counter terrorism. Terrorists use asymmetric means of threat that require information superiority. In this study exploitation of near space by airships is analyzed for fight against terrorism. Near-space airships are analyzed according to the operational effectiveness, logistic structure and cost. Advantages and disadvantages of airships are argued in comparison with satellites and airplanes. As a result, by bridging the gap between the air and space, nearspace airships are considered to be the most important asset of warfighter especially with its operational effectiveness.

  15. Screen-Space Normal Distribution Function Caching for Consistent Multi-Resolution Rendering of Large Particle Data

    KAUST Repository

    Ibrahim, Mohamed; Wickenhauser, Patrick; Rautek, Peter; Reina, Guido; Hadwiger, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are crucial to investigating important processes in physics and thermodynamics. The simulated atoms are usually visualized as hard spheres with Phong shading, where individual particles and their local density can be perceived well in close-up views. However, for large-scale simulations with 10 million particles or more, the visualization of large fields-of-view usually suffers from strong aliasing artifacts, because the mismatch between data size and output resolution leads to severe under-sampling of the geometry. Excessive super-sampling can alleviate this problem, but is prohibitively expensive. This paper presents a novel visualization method for large-scale particle data that addresses aliasing while enabling interactive high-quality rendering. We introduce the novel concept of screen-space normal distribution functions (S-NDFs) for particle data. S-NDFs represent the distribution of surface normals that map to a given pixel in screen space, which enables high-quality re-lighting without re-rendering particles. In order to facilitate interactive zooming, we cache S-NDFs in a screen-space mipmap (S-MIP). Together, these two concepts enable interactive, scale-consistent re-lighting and shading changes, as well as zooming, without having to re-sample the particle data. We show how our method facilitates the interactive exploration of real-world large-scale MD simulation data in different scenarios.

  16. Screen-Space Normal Distribution Function Caching for Consistent Multi-Resolution Rendering of Large Particle Data

    KAUST Repository

    Ibrahim, Mohamed

    2017-08-28

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are crucial to investigating important processes in physics and thermodynamics. The simulated atoms are usually visualized as hard spheres with Phong shading, where individual particles and their local density can be perceived well in close-up views. However, for large-scale simulations with 10 million particles or more, the visualization of large fields-of-view usually suffers from strong aliasing artifacts, because the mismatch between data size and output resolution leads to severe under-sampling of the geometry. Excessive super-sampling can alleviate this problem, but is prohibitively expensive. This paper presents a novel visualization method for large-scale particle data that addresses aliasing while enabling interactive high-quality rendering. We introduce the novel concept of screen-space normal distribution functions (S-NDFs) for particle data. S-NDFs represent the distribution of surface normals that map to a given pixel in screen space, which enables high-quality re-lighting without re-rendering particles. In order to facilitate interactive zooming, we cache S-NDFs in a screen-space mipmap (S-MIP). Together, these two concepts enable interactive, scale-consistent re-lighting and shading changes, as well as zooming, without having to re-sample the particle data. We show how our method facilitates the interactive exploration of real-world large-scale MD simulation data in different scenarios.

  17. Self-consistent DFT +U method for real-space time-dependent density functional theory calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tancogne-Dejean, Nicolas; Oliveira, Micael J. T.; Rubio, Angel

    2017-12-01

    We implemented various DFT+U schemes, including the Agapito, Curtarolo, and Buongiorno Nardelli functional (ACBN0) self-consistent density-functional version of the DFT +U method [Phys. Rev. X 5, 011006 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevX.5.011006] within the massively parallel real-space time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) code octopus. We further extended the method to the case of the calculation of response functions with real-time TDDFT+U and to the description of noncollinear spin systems. The implementation is tested by investigating the ground-state and optical properties of various transition-metal oxides, bulk topological insulators, and molecules. Our results are found to be in good agreement with previously published results for both the electronic band structure and structural properties. The self-consistent calculated values of U and J are also in good agreement with the values commonly used in the literature. We found that the time-dependent extension of the self-consistent DFT+U method yields improved optical properties when compared to the empirical TDDFT+U scheme. This work thus opens a different theoretical framework to address the nonequilibrium properties of correlated systems.

  18. Internal consistency of the CHAMPS physical activity questionnaire for Spanish speaking older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario, Martín G; Vázquez, Jenniffer M; Cruz, Wanda I; Ortiz, Alexis

    2008-09-01

    The Community Healthy Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS) is a physical activity monitoring questionnaire for people between 65 to 90 years old. This questionnaire has been previously translated to Spanish to be used in the Latin American population. To adapt the Spanish version of the CHAMPS questionnaire to Puerto Rico and assess its internal consistency. An external review committee adapted the existent Spanish version of the CHAMPS to be used in the Puerto Rican population. Three older adults participated in a second phase with the purpose of training the research team. After the second phase, 35 older adults participated in a third content adaptation phase. During the third phase, the preliminary Spanish version for Puerto Rico of the CHAMPS was given to the 35 participants to assess for clarity, vocabulary and understandability. Interviews to each participant in the third phase were carried out to obtain feedback and create a final Spanish version of the CHAMPS for Puerto Rico. After analyses of this phase, the external review committee prepared a final Spanish version of the CHAMPS for Puerto Rico. The final version was administered to 15 older adults (76 +/- 6.5 years) to assess the internal consistency by using Cronbach's Alpha analysis. The questionnaire showed a strong internal consistency of 0.76. The total time to answer the questionnaire was 17.4 minutes. The Spanish version of the CHAMPS questionnaire for Puerto Rico suggested being an easy to administer and consistent measurement tool to assess physical activity in older adults.

  19. fMRI activation patterns in an analytic reasoning task: consistency with EEG source localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bian; Vasanta, Kalyana C.; O'Boyle, Michael; Baker, Mary C.; Nutter, Brian; Mitra, Sunanda

    2010-03-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is used to model brain activation patterns associated with various perceptual and cognitive processes as reflected by the hemodynamic (BOLD) response. While many sensory and motor tasks are associated with relatively simple activation patterns in localized regions, higher-order cognitive tasks may produce activity in many different brain areas involving complex neural circuitry. We applied a recently proposed probabilistic independent component analysis technique (PICA) to determine the true dimensionality of the fMRI data and used EEG localization to identify the common activated patterns (mapped as Brodmann areas) associated with a complex cognitive task like analytic reasoning. Our preliminary study suggests that a hybrid GLM/PICA analysis may reveal additional regions of activation (beyond simple GLM) that are consistent with electroencephalography (EEG) source localization patterns.

  20. Consistency in boldness, activity and exploration at different stages of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Animals show consistent individual behavioural patterns over time and over situations. This phenomenon has been referred to as animal personality or behavioural syndromes. Little is known about consistency of animal personalities over entire life times. We investigated the repeatability of behaviour in common voles (Microtus arvalis) at different life stages, with different time intervals, and in different situations. Animals were tested using four behavioural tests in three experimental groups: 1. before and after maturation over three months, 2. twice as adults during one week, and 3. twice as adult animals over three months, which resembles a substantial part of their entire adult life span of several months. Results Different behaviours were correlated within and between tests and a cluster analysis showed three possible behavioural syndrome-axes, which we name boldness, exploration and activity. Activity and exploration behaviour in all tests was highly repeatable in adult animals tested over one week. In animals tested over maturation, exploration behaviour was consistent whereas activity was not. Voles that were tested as adults with a three-month interval showed the opposite pattern with stable activity but unstable exploration behaviour. Conclusions The consistency in behaviour over time suggests that common voles do express stable personality over short time. Over longer periods however, behaviour is more flexible and depending on life stage (i.e. tested before/after maturation or as adults) of the tested individual. Level of boldness or activity does not differ between tested groups and maintenance of variation in behavioural traits can therefore not be explained by expected future assets as reported in other studies. PMID:24314274

  1. Theoretical study of ion bunching for pellet fusion in self-consistent time dependent space charge fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, P.C.

    1977-01-01

    The use of intense ion beams as a heating source for the fusion reaction in pellets of D-T appears to have several potential advantages over the use of electron beams. If ion bunching can be accomplished, then existing technology can be used to achieve the required power, energy and time scales for pellet fusion. A scheme to be considered is that of a pre-formed nonuniform plasma adjacent to a partially transparent anode through which a space charge limited electron beam is injected from the terminals of a convergent spherical geometry with a finite (or zero) rise-time. At the instant of beam injection, the virtual cathode is formed. Due to the space charge fields set up by the beam, the plasma ions are accelerated towards the region beyond the virtual cathode. A self-consistent transient analysis of the interactions between the electron beam and the background plasma is performed. The numerical calculations show that by specifying the target plasma for perfect bunching the ions can be made to bunch nearly perfectly. Also, by considering the depletion of initial plasma and accounting for the fact that the virtual anode-virtual cathode gap region is moving opposite to the direction of the ions, one can considerably enhance the instantaneous power delivered to the target over that which is injected at the terminals of the device, even with a finite rise-time on the current pulse

  2. Calibration and consistency of results of an ionization-chamber secondary standard measuring system for activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrader, Heinrich

    2000-01-01

    Calibration in terms of activity of the ionization-chamber secondary standard measuring systems at the PTB is described. The measurement results of a Centronic IG12/A20, a Vinten ISOCAL IV and a radionuclide calibrator chamber for nuclear medicine applications are discussed, their energy-dependent efficiency curves established and the consistency checked using recently evaluated radionuclide decay data. Criteria for evaluating and transferring calibration factors (or efficiencies) are given

  3. Consistent selection towards low activity phenotypes when catchability depends on encounters among human predators and fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Alós

    Full Text Available Together with life-history and underlying physiology, the behavioural variability among fish is one of the three main trait axes that determines the vulnerability to fishing. However, there are only a few studies that have systematically investigated the strength and direction of selection acting on behavioural traits. Using in situ fish behaviour revealed by telemetry techniques as input, we developed an individual-based model (IBM that simulated the Lagrangian trajectory of prey (fish moving within a confined home range (HR. Fishers exhibiting various prototypical fishing styles targeted these fish in the model. We initially hypothesised that more active and more explorative individuals would be systematically removed under all fished conditions, in turn creating negative selection differentials on low activity phenotypes and maybe on small HR. Our results partly supported these general predictions. Standardised selection differentials were, on average, more negative on HR than on activity. However, in many simulation runs, positive selection pressures on HR were also identified, which resulted from the stochastic properties of the fishes' movement and its interaction with the human predator. In contrast, there was a consistent negative selection on activity under all types of fishing styles. Therefore, in situations where catchability depends on spatial encounters between human predators and fish, we would predict a consistent selection towards low activity phenotypes and have less faith in the direction of the selection on HR size. Our study is the first theoretical investigation on the direction of fishery-induced selection of behaviour using passive fishing gears. The few empirical studies where catchability of fish was measured in relation to passive fishing techniques, such as gill-nets, traps or recreational fishing, support our predictions that fish in highly exploited situations are, on average, characterised by low swimming activity

  4. Edible Earth and Space Science Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubowich, D.; Shupla, C.

    2014-07-01

    In this workshop we describe using Earth and Space Science demonstrations with edible ingredients to increase student interest. We show how to use chocolate, candy, cookies, popcorn, bagels, pastries, Pringles, marshmallows, whipped cream, and Starburst candy for activities such as: plate tectonics, the interior structure of the Earth and Mars, radioactivity/radioactive dating of rocks and stars, formation of the planets, lunar phases, convection, comets, black holes, curvature of space, dark energy, and the expansion of the Universe. In addition to creating an experience that will help students remember specific concepts, edible activities can be used as a formative assessment, providing students with the opportunity to create something that demonstrates their understanding of the model. The students often eat the demonstrations. These demonstrations are an effective teaching tool for all ages, and can be adapted for cultural, culinary, and ethnic differences among the students.

  5. Childhood Sexual Violence and Consistent, Effective Contraception Use among Young, Sexually Active Urban Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Deborah B; Lepore, Stephen J; Mastrogiannis, Dimitrios S

    2015-05-22

    Unintended pregnancy (UP) is a significant public health problem. The consistent use of effective contraception is the primary method to prevent UP. We examined the role of childhood sexual and physical violence and current interpersonal violence on the risk of unintended pregnancy among young, urban, sexually active women. In particular, we were interested in examining the role of childhood violence and interpersonal violence while recognizing the psychological correlates of experiencing violence (i.e., high depressive symptoms and low self-esteem) and consistent use of contraception. For this assessment, 315 sexually active women living in Philadelphia PA were recruited from family planning clinics in 2013. A self-administered, computer-assisted interview was used to collect data on method of contraception use in the past month, consistency of use, experiences with violence, levels of depressive symptoms, self-esteem and sexual self-efficacy, substance use and health services utilization. Fifty percent of young sexually active women reported inconsistent or no contraception use in the past month. Inconsistent users were significantly more likely to report at least one prior episode of childhood sexual violence and were significantly less likely to have received a prescription for contraception from a health care provider. Inconsistent contraception users also reported significantly higher levels of depressive symptoms and significantly lower levels of self-esteem. The relation between childhood sexual violence and UP remained unchanged in the multivariate models adjusting for self-esteem or depressive symptoms. These findings highlight the long-term consequences of childhood sexual violence, independent of current depressive symptoms and low self-esteem, on consistent use of contraception.

  6. Childhood Sexual Violence and Consistent, Effective Contraception Use among Young, Sexually Active Urban Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah B. Nelson

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Unintended pregnancy (UP is a significant public health problem. The consistent use of effective contraception is the primary method to prevent UP. We examined the role of childhood sexual and physical violence and current interpersonal violence on the risk of unintended pregnancy among young, urban, sexually active women. In particular, we were interested in examining the role of childhood violence and interpersonal violence while recognizing the psychological correlates of experiencing violence (i.e., high depressive symptoms and low self-esteem and consistent use of contraception. For this assessment, 315 sexually active women living in Philadelphia PA were recruited from family planning clinics in 2013. A self-administered, computer-assisted interview was used to collect data on method of contraception use in the past month, consistency of use, experiences with violence, levels of depressive symptoms, self-esteem and sexual self-efficacy, substance use and health services utilization. Fifty percent of young sexually active women reported inconsistent or no contraception use in the past month. Inconsistent users were significantly more likely to report at least one prior episode of childhood sexual violence and were significantly less likely to have received a prescription for contraception from a health care provider. Inconsistent contraception users also reported significantly higher levels of depressive symptoms and significantly lower levels of self-esteem. The relation between childhood sexual violence and UP remained unchanged in the multivariate models adjusting for self-esteem or depressive symptoms. These findings highlight the long-term consequences of childhood sexual violence, independent of current depressive symptoms and low self-esteem, on consistent use of contraception.

  7. Auditing Consistency and Usefulness of LOINC Use among Three Large Institutions - Using Version Spaces for Grouping LOINC Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, M.C.; Vreeman, D.J.; Huff, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives We wanted to develop a method for evaluating the consistency and usefulness of LOINC code use across different institutions, and to evaluate the degree of interoperability that can be attained when using LOINC codes for laboratory data exchange. Our specific goals were to: 1) Determine if any contradictory knowledge exists in LOINC. 2) Determine how many LOINC codes were used in a truly interoperable fashion between systems. 3) Provide suggestions for improving the semantic interoperability of LOINC. Methods We collected Extensional Definitions (EDs) of LOINC usage from three institutions. The version space approach was used to divide LOINC codes into small sets, which made auditing of LOINC use across the institutions feasible. We then compared pairings of LOINC codes from the three institutions for consistency and usefulness. Results The number of LOINC codes evaluated were 1,917, 1,267 and 1,693 as obtained from ARUP, Intermountain and Regenstrief respectively. There were 2,022, 2,030, and 2,301 version spaces among ARUP & Intermountain, Intermountain & Regenstrief and ARUP & Regenstrief respectively. Using the EDs as the gold standard, there were 104, 109 and 112 pairs containing contradictory knowledge and there were 1,165, 765 and 1,121 semantically interoperable pairs. The interoperable pairs were classified into three levels: 1) Level I – No loss of meaning, complete information was exchanged by identical codes. 2) Level II – No loss of meaning, but processing of data was needed to make the data completely comparable. 3) Level III – Some loss of meaning. For example, tests with a specific ‘method’ could be rolled-up with tests that were ‘methodless’. Conclusions There are variations in the way LOINC is used for data exchange that result in some data not being truly interoperable across different enterprises. To improve its semantic interoperability, we need to detect and correct any contradictory knowledge within LOINC and add

  8. The pairwise phase consistency in cortical network and its relationship with neuronal activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Daming

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gamma-band neuronal oscillation and synchronization with the range of 30-90 Hz are ubiquitous phenomenon across numerous brain areas and various species, and correlated with plenty of cognitive functions. The phase of the oscillation, as one aspect of CTC (Communication through Coherence hypothesis, underlies various functions for feature coding, memory processing and behaviour performing. The PPC (Pairwise Phase Consistency, an improved coherence measure, statistically quantifies the strength of phase synchronization. In order to evaluate the PPC and its relationships with input stimulus, neuronal activation and firing rate, a simplified spiking neuronal network is constructed to simulate orientation columns in primary visual cortex. If the input orientation stimulus is preferred for a certain orientation column, neurons within this corresponding column will obtain higher firing rate and stronger neuronal activation, which consequently engender higher PPC values, with higher PPC corresponding to higher firing rate. In addition, we investigate the PPC in time resolved analysis with a sliding window.

  9. Factor analysis of regional brain activation in bipolar and healthy individuals reveals a consistent modular structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, David E; Welge, Jeffrey A; Eliassen, James C; Adler, Caleb M; DelBello, Melissa P; Strakowski, Stephen M

    2018-07-01

    The neurophysiological substrates of cognition and emotion, as seen with fMRI, are generally explained using modular structures. The present study was designed to probe the modular structure of cognitive-emotional processing in bipolar and healthy individuals using factor analysis and compare the results with current conceptions of the neurophysiology of bipolar disorder. Exploratory factor analysis was used to assess patterns of covariation among brain regions-of-interest activated during the Continuous Performance Task with Emotional and Neutral Distractors in healthy and bipolar individuals without a priori constraints on the number or composition of latent factors. Results indicated a common cognitive-emotional network consisting of prefrontal, medial temporal, limbic, parietal, anterior cingulate and posterior cingulate modules. However, reduced brain activation to emotional stimuli in the frontal, medial temporal and limbic modules was apparent in the bipolar relative to the healthy group, potentially accounting for emotional dysregulation in bipolar disorder. This study is limited by a relatively small sample size recruited at a single site. The results have yet to be validated on a larger independent sample. Although the modular structure of cognitive-emotional processing is similar in bipolar and healthy individuals, activation in response to emotional/neutral cues varies. These findings are not only consistent with recent conceptions of mood regulation in bipolar disorder, but also suggest that regional activation can be considered within tighter modular structures without compromising data interpretation. This demonstration may serve as a template for data reduction in future region-of-interest analyses to increase statistical power. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Latin American space activities based on different infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, Ruth

    The paper deals with recent basic space research and space applications in several Latin-American countries. It links space activities with national scientific and institutional infrastructures and stresses the importance of interdisciplinary space programs, that can play a major role in the developing countries achievement of self reliance in space matters.

  11. Correlates for Consistency of Contraceptive Use Among Sexually Active Female Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruey-Hsia Wang

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the correlates for consistency of contraceptive use among sexually active female adolescents in Kaohsiung County, Taiwan. Overall, 164 female adolescents who had engaged in sexual behavior within the last 6 months and were not pregnant at the time of the study were selected from two vocational high schools in Kaohsiung County, Taiwan. An anonymous questionnaire was used to measure demographic data, contraceptive attitudes, contraceptive knowledge, contraceptive self-efficacy, perception of peers' use of contraceptives, sexual history, and contraceptive use. The results showed that 45.7% of subjects had sex once or more per week, and that 39.6% of subjects always used contraceptives while 15.2% never used contraceptives. Condoms were the most popular contraceptives (51.2% and the withdrawal method was the second most popular (23.8%. Stepwise logistic regression showed that higher contraceptive attitudes (odds ratio, OR, 1.148 and previous contraceptive education in school (OR, 3.394 increased the probability of consistently using contraceptives, correctly classifying 67.2% of the sample.

  12. Exact self-consistent solutions to the interacting spinor and scalar field equations in Bianchi type-I space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarado, R.; Rybakov, Yu.P.; Shikin, G.N.; Saha, B.

    1995-01-01

    Self-consistent solutions to the system of spinor and scalar field equations in General Relativity are studied for the case of Bianchi type-I space-time. The absence of initial singularity should be emphasized for some types of solutions and also the isotropic mode of space-time expansion in some special cases. 3 refs

  13. NASA's current activities in free space optical communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Bernard L.

    2017-11-01

    NASA and other space agencies around the world are currently developing free space optical communication systems for both space-to-ground links and space-to-space links. This paper provides an overview of NASA's current activities in free space optical communications with a focus on Near Earth applications. Activities to be discussed include the Lunar Laser Communication Demonstration, the Laser Communications Relay Demonstration, and the commercialization of the underlying technology. The paper will also briefly discuss ongoing efforts and studies for Deep Space optical communications. Finally the paper will discuss the development of international optical communication standards within the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems.

  14. Gel/Space Ratio Evolution in Ternary Composite System Consisting of Portland Cement, Silica Fume, and Fly Ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mengxue; Li, Chen; Yao, Wu

    2017-01-11

    In cement-based pastes, the relationship between the complex phase assemblage and mechanical properties is usually described by the "gel/space ratio" descriptor. The gel/space ratio is defined as the volume ratio of the gel to the available space in the composite system, and it has been widely studied in the cement unary system. This work determines the gel/space ratio in the cement-silica fume-fly ash ternary system (C-SF-FA system) by measuring the reaction degrees of the cement, SF, and FA. The effects that the supplementary cementitious material (SCM) replacements exert on the evolution of the gel/space ratio are discussed both theoretically and practically. The relationship between the gel/space ratio and compressive strength is then explored, and the relationship disparities for different mix proportions are analyzed in detail. The results demonstrate that the SCM replacements promote the gel/space ratio evolution only when the SCM reaction degree is higher than a certain value, which is calculated and defined as the critical reaction degree (CRD). The effects of the SCM replacements can be predicted based on the CRD, and the theological predictions agree with the test results quite well. At low gel/space ratios, disparities in the relationship between the gel/space ratio and the compressive strength are caused by porosity, which has also been studied in cement unary systems. The ratio of cement-produced gel to SCM-produced gel ( G C to G S C M ratio) is introduced for use in analyzing high gel/space ratios, in which it plays a major role in creating relationship disparities.

  15. Gel/Space Ratio Evolution in Ternary Composite System Consisting of Portland Cement, Silica Fume, and Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengxue Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In cement-based pastes, the relationship between the complex phase assemblage and mechanical properties is usually described by the “gel/space ratio” descriptor. The gel/space ratio is defined as the volume ratio of the gel to the available space in the composite system, and it has been widely studied in the cement unary system. This work determines the gel/space ratio in the cement-silica fume-fly ash ternary system (C-SF-FA system by measuring the reaction degrees of the cement, SF, and FA. The effects that the supplementary cementitious material (SCM replacements exert on the evolution of the gel/space ratio are discussed both theoretically and practically. The relationship between the gel/space ratio and compressive strength is then explored, and the relationship disparities for different mix proportions are analyzed in detail. The results demonstrate that the SCM replacements promote the gel/space ratio evolution only when the SCM reaction degree is higher than a certain value, which is calculated and defined as the critical reaction degree (CRD. The effects of the SCM replacements can be predicted based on the CRD, and the theological predictions agree with the test results quite well. At low gel/space ratios, disparities in the relationship between the gel/space ratio and the compressive strength are caused by porosity, which has also been studied in cement unary systems. The ratio of cement-produced gel to SCM-produced gel ( G C to G S C M ratio is introduced for use in analyzing high gel/space ratios, in which it plays a major role in creating relationship disparities.

  16. Doses due to extra-vehicular activity on space stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deme, S.; Apathy, I.; Feher, I. [KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute, Budapest (Hungary); Akatov, Y.; Arkhanguelski, V. [Institute of Biomedical Problems, State Scientific Center, Moscow (Russian Federation); Reitz, G. [DLR Institute of Aerospace Medicine, Cologne, Linder Hohe (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    One of the many risks of long duration space flight is the dose from cosmic radiation, especially during periods of intensive solar activity. At such times, particularly during extra-vehicular activity (E.V.A.), when the astronauts are not protected by the wall of the spacecraft, cosmic radiation is a potentially serious health threat. Accurate dose measurement becomes increasingly important during the assembly of large space objects. Passive integrating detector systems such as thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) are commonly used for dosimetric mapping and personal dosimetry on space vehicles. K.F.K.I. Atomic Energy Research Institute has developed and manufactured a series of thermoluminescent dosimeter systems, called Pille, for measuring cosmic radiation doses in the 3 {mu}Gy to 10 Gy range, consisting of a set of CaSO{sub 4}:Dy bulb dosimeters and a small, compact, TLD reader suitable for on-board evaluation of the dosimeters. Such a system offers a solution for E.V.A. dosimetry as well. By means of such a system, highly accurate measurements were carried out on board the Salyut-6, -7 and Mir Space Stations, on the Space Shuttle, and most recently on several segments of the International Space Station (I.S.S.). The Pille system was used to make the first measurements of the radiation exposure of cosmonauts during E.V.A.. Such E.V.A. measurements were carried out twice (on June 12 and 16, 1987) by Y. Romanenko, the commander of the second crew of Mir. During the E.V.A. one of the dosimeters was fixed in a pocket on the outer surface of the left leg of his space-suit; a second dosimeter was located inside the station for reference measurements. The advanced TLD system Pille 96 was used during the Nasa-4 (1997) mission to monitor the cosmic radiation dose inside the Mir Space Station and to measure the exposure of two of the astronauts during their E.V.A. activities. The extra doses of two E.V.A. during the Euromir 95 and one E.V.A. during the Nasa4 experiment

  17. Doses due to extra-vehicular activity on space stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deme, S.; Apathy, I.; Feher, I.; Akatov, Y.; Arkhanguelski, V.; Reitz, G.

    2006-01-01

    One of the many risks of long duration space flight is the dose from cosmic radiation, especially during periods of intensive solar activity. At such times, particularly during extra-vehicular activity (E.V.A.), when the astronauts are not protected by the wall of the spacecraft, cosmic radiation is a potentially serious health threat. Accurate dose measurement becomes increasingly important during the assembly of large space objects. Passive integrating detector systems such as thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) are commonly used for dosimetric mapping and personal dosimetry on space vehicles. K.F.K.I. Atomic Energy Research Institute has developed and manufactured a series of thermoluminescent dosimeter systems, called Pille, for measuring cosmic radiation doses in the 3 μGy to 10 Gy range, consisting of a set of CaSO 4 :Dy bulb dosimeters and a small, compact, TLD reader suitable for on-board evaluation of the dosimeters. Such a system offers a solution for E.V.A. dosimetry as well. By means of such a system, highly accurate measurements were carried out on board the Salyut-6, -7 and Mir Space Stations, on the Space Shuttle, and most recently on several segments of the International Space Station (I.S.S.). The Pille system was used to make the first measurements of the radiation exposure of cosmonauts during E.V.A.. Such E.V.A. measurements were carried out twice (on June 12 and 16, 1987) by Y. Romanenko, the commander of the second crew of Mir. During the E.V.A. one of the dosimeters was fixed in a pocket on the outer surface of the left leg of his space-suit; a second dosimeter was located inside the station for reference measurements. The advanced TLD system Pille 96 was used during the Nasa-4 (1997) mission to monitor the cosmic radiation dose inside the Mir Space Station and to measure the exposure of two of the astronauts during their E.V.A. activities. The extra doses of two E.V.A. during the Euromir 95 and one E.V.A. during the Nasa4 experiment were

  18. Green space definition affects associations of green space with overweight and physical activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klompmaker, Jochem O.; Hoek, Gerard; Bloemsma, Lizan D.; Gehring, Ulrike; Strak, Maciej; Wijga, Alet H.; van den Brink, Carolien; Brunekreef, Bert; Lebret, Erik; Janssen, Nicole A.H.

    Introduction In epidemiological studies, exposure to green space is inconsistently associated with being overweight and physical activity, possibly because studies differ widely in their definition of green space exposure, inclusion of important confounders, study population and data

  19. Consistency of aerosols above clouds characterization from A-Train active and passive measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaconu, Lucia T.; Waquet, Fabien; Josset, Damien; Ferlay, Nicolas; Peers, Fanny; Thieuleux, François; Ducos, Fabrice; Pascal, Nicolas; Tanré, Didier; Pelon, Jacques; Goloub, Philippe

    2017-09-01

    This study presents a comparison between the retrieval of optical properties of aerosol above clouds (AAC) from different techniques developed for the A-Train sensors CALIOP/CALIPSO and POLDER/PARASOL. The main objective is to analyse the consistency between the results derived from the active and the passive measurements. We compare the aerosol optical thickness (AOT) above optically thick clouds (cloud optical thickness (COT) larger than 3) and their Ångström exponent (AE). These parameters are retrieved with the CALIOP operational method, the POLDER operational polarization method and the CALIOP-based depolarization ratio method (DRM) - for which we also propose a calibrated version (denominated DRMSODA, where SODA is the Synergized Optical Depth of Aerosols). We analyse 6 months of data over three distinctive regions characterized by different types of aerosols and clouds. Additionally, for these regions, we select three case studies: a biomass-burning event over the South Atlantic Ocean, a Saharan dust case over the North Atlantic Ocean and a Siberian biomass-burning event over the North Pacific Ocean. Four and a half years of data are studied over the entire globe for distinct situations where aerosol and cloud layers are in contact or vertically separated. Overall, the regional analysis shows a good correlation between the POLDER and the DRMSODA AOTs when the microphysics of aerosols is dominated by fine-mode particles of biomass-burning aerosols from southern Africa (correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.83) or coarse-mode aerosols of Saharan dust (R2 of 0.82). A good correlation between these methods (R2 of 0.68) is also observed in the global treatment, when the aerosol and cloud layers are separated well. The analysis of detached layers also shows a mean difference in AOT of 0.07 at 532 nm between POLDER and DRMSODA at a global scale. The correlation between the retrievals decreases when a complex mixture of aerosols is expected (R2 of 0.37) - as in the

  20. Consistent momentum space regularization/renormalization of supersymmetric quantum field theories: the three-loop β-function for the Wess-Zumino model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro, David; Sampaio, Marcos; Nemes, Maria Carolina; Scarpelli, Antonio Paulo Baeta

    2003-01-01

    We compute the three loop β function of the Wess-Zumino model to motivate implicit regularization (IR) as a consistent and practical momentum-space framework to study supersymmetric quantum field theories. In this framework which works essentially in the physical dimension of the theory we show that ultraviolet are clearly disentangled from infrared divergences. We obtain consistent results which motivate the method as a good choice to study supersymmetry anomalies in quantum field theories. (author)

  1. Activities of the Center for Space Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The Center for Space Construction (CSC) at the University of Colorado at Boulder is one of eight University Space Engineering Research Centers established by NASA in 1988. The mission of the center is to conduct research into space technology and to directly contribute to space engineering education. The center reports to the Department of Aerospace Engineering Sciences and resides in the College of Engineering and Applied Science. The college has a long and successful track record of cultivating multi-disciplinary research and education programs. The Center for Space Construction is prominent evidence of this record. At the inception of CSC, the center was primarily founded on the need for research on in-space construction of large space systems like space stations and interplanetary space vehicles. The scope of CSC's research has now evolved to include the design and construction of all spacecraft, large and small. Within this broadened scope, our research projects seek to impact the underlying technological basis for such spacecraft as remote sensing satellites, communication satellites, and other special purpose spacecraft, as well as the technological basis for large space platforms. The center's research focuses on three areas: spacecraft structures, spacecraft operations and control, and regolith and surface systems. In the area of spacecraft structures, our current emphasis is on concepts and modeling of deployable structures, analysis of inflatable structures, structural damage detection algorithms, and composite materials for lightweight structures. In the area of spacecraft operations and control, we are continuing our previous efforts in process control of in-orbit structural assembly. In addition, we have begun two new efforts in formal approach to spacecraft flight software systems design and adaptive attitude control systems. In the area of regolith and surface systems, we are continuing the work of characterizing the physical properties of lunar

  2. Allocating city space to multiple transportation modes: A new modeling approach consistent with the physics of transport

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzales, Eric J.; Geroliminis, Nikolas; Cassidy, Michael J.; Daganzo, Carlos F.

    2008-01-01

    A macroscopic modeling approach is proposed for allocating a city’s road space among competing transport modes. In this approach, a city or neighborhood street network is viewed as a reservoir with aggregated traffic. Taking the number of vehicles (accumulation) in a reservoir as input, we show how one can reliably predict system performance in terms of person and vehicle hours spent in the system and person and vehicle kilometers traveled. The approach is used here to unveil two important ...

  3. Guidance on radiation received in space activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The purposes of this report, therefore, are to: re-examine the current guidelines and the philosophy adopted by NASA, estimate the risks to both men and women exposed to radiation in space, re-examine the estimates of radiation risks in outer space with special attention to SPE and to exposure to HZE particles, and examine what information may still be required and what research is needed. This report incorporates the changes in estimates of terrestrial radiation risks made since 1970 that appear to be acceptable and appropriate to the particular case of space missions. Since plans for a space station have been established and are a priority for NASA, this space mission will be used as one example for reference. The likely altitude and orbit for the proposed space station are 450 km and 28.5 degree, respectively. Therefore, estimates of the radiation environment for this mission can be made with more confidence than for some of the other missions. In this report, we have chosen to write more fully about certain subjects, for example, the eye, because they are of concern and because they have not been dealt with in such detail in other reports on radiation risks and protection. Since this report covers a number of different disciplines and specialized areas of research, a glossary is included. Radiation protection in space is as international a task as is the protection of radiation workers and the general population on earth. Kovalev, 1983, has noted that radiation protection in space is a pressing but complex problem. The recommendations in this report will require modifications as we learn more about the radiation environment in space and how to estimate radiation risks with greater precision. 450 refs

  4. Functional and Behavioral Product Information Representation and Consistency Validation for Collaboration in Product Lifecycle Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baysal, Mehmet Murat

    2012-01-01

    Information models that represent the function, assembly and behavior of artifacts are critical in the conceptual development of a product and its evaluation. Much research has been conducted in this area; however, existing models do not relate function, behavior and structure in a comprehensive and consistent way. In this work, NIST's Core…

  5. Fast Poisson Solvers for Self-Consistent Beam-Beam and Space-Charge Field Computation in Multiparticle Tracking Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Florio, Adrien; Pieloni, Tatiana; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2015-01-01

    We present two different approaches to solve the 2-dimensional electrostatic problem with open boundary conditions to be used in fast tracking codes for beam-beam and space charge simulations in high energy accelerators. We compare a fast multipoles method with a hybrid Poisson solver based on the fast Fourier transform and finite differences in polar coordinates. We show that the latter outperforms the first in terms of execution time and precision, allowing for a reduction of the noise in the tracking simulation. Furthermore the new algorithm is shown to scale linearly on parallel architectures with shared memory. We conclude by effectively replacing the HFMM by the new Poisson solver in the COMBI code.

  6. Volume of the steady-state space of financial flows in a monetary stock-flow-consistent model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazan, Aurélien

    2017-05-01

    We show that a steady-state stock-flow consistent macro-economic model can be represented as a Constraint Satisfaction Problem (CSP). The set of solutions is a polytope, which volume depends on the constraints applied and reveals the potential fragility of the economic circuit, with no need to study the dynamics. Several methods to compute the volume are compared, inspired by operations research methods and the analysis of metabolic networks, both exact and approximate. We also introduce a random transaction matrix, and study the particular case of linear flows with respect to money stocks.

  7. Space transportation activities in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabris, Edward A.

    1994-01-01

    The status of the existing space transportation systems in the U.S. and options for increased capability is being examined in the context of mission requirements, options for new vehicles, cost to operate the existing vehicles, cost to develop new vehicles, and the capabilities and plans of other suppliers. This assessment is addressing the need to build and resupply the space station, to maintain necessary military assets in a rapidly changing world, and to continue a competitive commercial space transportation industry. The Department of Defense (DOD) and NASA each conducted an 'access to space' study using a common mission model but with the emphasis on their unique requirements. Both studies considered three options: maintain and improve the existing capability, build a new launch vehicle using contemporary technology, and build a new launch vehicle using advanced technology. While no decisions have been made on a course of action, it will be influenced by the availability of funds in the U.S. budget, the changing need for military space assets, the increasing competition among space launch suppliers, and the emerging opportunity for an advanced technology, low cost system and international partnerships to develop it.

  8. German activities in optical space instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, G.

    2018-04-01

    In the years of space exploration since the mid-sixties, a wide experience in optical space instrumentation has developed in Germany. This experience ranges from large telescopes in the 1 m and larger category with the accompanying focal plane detectors and spectrometers for all regimes of the electromagnetic spectrum (infrared, visible, ultraviolet, x-rays), to miniature cameras for cometary and planetary explorations. The technologies originally developed for space science. are now also utilized in the fields of earth observation and even optical telecommunication. The presentation will cover all these areas, with examples for specific technological or scientific highlights. Special emphasis will be given to the current state-of-the-art instrumentation technologies in scientific institutions and industry, and to the future perspective in approved and planned projects.

  9. Space, body, time and relationship experiences of recess physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Andersen, Henriette Bondo; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increasing recess physical activity has been the aim of several interventions, as this setting can provide numerous physical activity opportunities. However, it is unclear if these interventions are equally effective for all children, or if they only appeal to children who are already...... the classroom as a space for physical activity, designing schoolyards with smaller secluded spaces and varied facilities, improving children's self-esteem and body image, e.g., during physical education, and creating teacher organised play activities during recess....

  10. Active migration is associated with specific and consistent changes to gut microbiota in Calidris shorebirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risely, Alice; Waite, David W; Ujvari, Beata; Hoye, Bethany J; Klaassen, Marcel

    2018-03-01

    Gut microbes are increasingly recognised for their role in regulating an animal's metabolism and immunity. However, identifying repeatable associations between host physiological processes and their gut microbiota has proved challenging, in part because microbial communities often respond stochastically to host physiological stress (e.g. fasting, forced exercise or infection). Migratory birds provide a valuable system in which to test host-microbe interactions under physiological extremes because these hosts are adapted to predictable metabolic and immunological challenges as they undergo seasonal migrations, including temporary gut atrophy during long-distance flights. These physiological challenges may either temporarily disrupt gut microbial ecosystems, or, alternatively, promote predictable host-microbe associations during migration. To determine the relationship between migration and gut microbiota, we compared gut microbiota composition between migrating and non-migrating ("resident") conspecific shorebirds sharing a flock. We performed this across two sandpiper species, Calidris ferruginea and Calidris ruficollis, in north-western Australia, and an additional C. ruficollis population 3,000 km away in southern Australia. We found that migrants consistently had higher abundances of the bacterial genus Corynebacterium (average 28% abundance) compared to conspecific residents (average gut community variation when excluding Corynebacterium. Our findings suggest a consistent relationship between Corynebacterium and Calidris shorebirds during migration, with further research required to identify causal mechanisms behind the association, and to elucidate functionality to the host. However, outside this specific association, migrating shorebirds broadly maintained gut community structure, which may allow them to quickly recover gut function after a migratory flight. This study provides a rare example of a repeatable and specific response of the gut microbiota to a

  11. A relativistic self-consistent model for studying enhancement of space charge limited field emission due to counter-streaming ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, M. C.; Lu, P. S.; Chang, P. C.; Ragan-Kelley, B.; Verboncoeur, J. P.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, field emission has attracted increasing attention despite the practical limitation that field emitters operate below the Child-Langmuir space charge limit. By introducing counter-streaming ion flow to neutralize the electron charge density, the space charge limited field emission (SCLFE) current can be dramatically enhanced. In this work, we have developed a relativistic self-consistent model for studying the enhancement of SCLFE by a counter-streaming ion current. The maximum enhancement is found when the ion effect is saturated, as shown analytically. The solutions in non-relativistic, intermediate, and ultra-relativistic regimes are obtained and verified with 1-D particle-in-cell simulations. This self-consistent model is general and can also serve as a benchmark or comparison for verification of simulation codes, as well as extension to higher dimensions

  12. ACOSS-16 (Active Control of Space Structures)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    intensity is I. Step 7: Compute K(s) = Kc(SI - A + BKc+ KfC ) _K "Step 8: If K(s)G(s) has desired bandwidth and loop gain, quit. Otherwise, increase q...1293B M/s 230 Hampton, VA 23665 NASA Johnson Space Center ’ 39 Attn: Robert Piland Ms. EA Houston, TX 77058 McDonald Douglas CorpAttn: Mr. Read Johnson

  13. Assessing the reliability of predictive activity coefficient models for molecules consisting of several functional groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. P. Gerber

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the most successful predictive models for activity coefficients are those based on functional groups such as UNIFAC. In contrast, these models require a large amount of experimental data for the determination of their parameter matrix. A more recent alternative is the models based on COSMO, for which only a small set of universal parameters must be calibrated. In this work, a recalibrated COSMO-SAC model was compared with the UNIFAC (Do model employing experimental infinite dilution activity coefficient data for 2236 non-hydrogen-bonding binary mixtures at different temperatures. As expected, UNIFAC (Do presented better overall performance, with a mean absolute error of 0.12 ln-units against 0.22 for our COSMO-SAC implementation. However, in cases involving molecules with several functional groups or when functional groups appear in an unusual way, the deviation for UNIFAC was 0.44 as opposed to 0.20 for COSMO-SAC. These results show that COSMO-SAC provides more reliable predictions for multi-functional or more complex molecules, reaffirming its future prospects.

  14. Qualitative GIS and the Visualization of Narrative Activity Space Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennis, Jeremy; Mason, Michael J; Cao, Yinghui

    Qualitative activity space data, i.e. qualitative data associated with the routine locations and activities of individuals, are recognized as increasingly useful by researchers in the social and health sciences for investigating the influence of environment on human behavior. However, there has been little research on techniques for exploring qualitative activity space data. This research illustrates the theoretical principles of combining qualitative and quantitative data and methodologies within the context of GIS, using visualization as the means of inquiry. Through the use of a prototype implementation of a visualization system for qualitative activity space data, and its application in a case study of urban youth, we show how these theoretical methodological principles are realized in applied research. The visualization system uses a variety of visual variables to simultaneously depict multiple qualitative and quantitative attributes of individuals' activity spaces. The visualization is applied to explore the activity spaces of a sample of urban youth participating in a study on the geographic and social contexts of adolescent substance use. Examples demonstrate how the visualization may be used to explore individual activity spaces to generate hypotheses, investigate statistical outliers, and explore activity space patterns among subject subgroups.

  15. Autonomous Motion Learning for Intra-Vehicular Activity Space Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yutaka; Yairi, Takehisa; Machida, Kazuo

    Space robots will be needed in the future space missions. So far, many types of space robots have been developed, but in particular, Intra-Vehicular Activity (IVA) space robots that support human activities should be developed to reduce human-risks in space. In this paper, we study the motion learning method of an IVA space robot with the multi-link mechanism. The advantage point is that this space robot moves using reaction force of the multi-link mechanism and contact forces from the wall as space walking of an astronaut, not to use a propulsion. The control approach is determined based on a reinforcement learning with the actor-critic algorithm. We demonstrate to clear effectiveness of this approach using a 5-link space robot model by simulation. First, we simulate that a space robot learn the motion control including contact phase in two dimensional case. Next, we simulate that a space robot learn the motion control changing base attitude in three dimensional case.

  16. European activities in space radiation biology and exobiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horneck, G.

    1996-01-01

    In view of the space station era, the European Space Agency has initiated a review and planning document for space life sciences. Radiation biology includes dosimetry of the radiation field and its modification by mass shielding, studies on the biological responses to radiation in space, on the potential impact of space flight environment on radiation effects, and assessing the radiation risks and establishing radiation protection guidelines. To reach a better understanding of the processes leading to the origin, evolution and distribution of life, exobiological activities include the exploration of the solar system, the collection and analysis of extraterrestrial samples and the utilization of space as a tool for testing the impact of space environment on organics and resistant life forms. (author)

  17. Consistent Orientation of Moduli Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Daniel S.; Hopkins, Michael J.; Teleman, Constantin

    In a series of papers by Freed, Hopkins, and Teleman (2003, 2005, 2007a) the relationship between positive energy representations of the loop group of a compact Lie group G and the twisted equivariant K-theory Kτ+dimGG (G) was developed. Here G acts on itself by conjugation. The loop group representations depend on a choice of ‘level’, and the twisting τ is derived from the level. For all levels the main theorem is an isomorphism of abelian groups, and for special transgressed levels it is an isomorphism of rings: the fusion ring of the loop group andKτ+dimGG (G) as a ring. For G connected with π1G torsionfree, it has been proven that the ring Kτ+dimGG (G) is a quotient of the representation ring of G and can be calculated explicitly. In these cases it agrees with the fusion ring of the corresponding centrally extended loop group. This chapter explicates the multiplication on the twisted equivariant K-theory for an arbitrary compact Lie group G. It constructs a Frobenius ring structure on Kτ+dimGG (G). This is best expressed in the language of topological quantum field theory: a two-dimensional topological quantum field theory (TQFT) is constructed over the integers in which the abelian group attached to the circle is Kτ+dimGG (G).

  18. Green space definition affects associations of green space with overweight and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klompmaker, Jochem O; Hoek, Gerard; Bloemsma, Lizan D; Gehring, Ulrike; Strak, Maciej; Wijga, Alet H; van den Brink, Carolien; Brunekreef, Bert; Lebret, Erik; Janssen, Nicole A H

    2018-01-01

    In epidemiological studies, exposure to green space is inconsistently associated with being overweight and physical activity, possibly because studies differ widely in their definition of green space exposure, inclusion of important confounders, study population and data analysis. We evaluated whether the association of green space with being overweight and physical activity depended upon definition of greenspace. We conducted a cross-sectional study using data from a Dutch national health survey of 387,195 adults. Distance to the nearest park entrance and surrounding green space, based on the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) or a detailed Dutch land-use database (TOP10NL), was calculated for each residential address. We used logistic regression analyses to study the association of green space exposure with being overweight and being moderately or vigorously physically active outdoors at least 150min/week (self-reported). To study the shape of the association, we specified natural splines and quintiles. The distance to the nearest park entrance was not associated with being overweight or outdoor physical activity. Associations of surrounding green space with being overweight or outdoor physical activity were highly non-linear. For NDVI surrounding greenness, we observed significantly decreased odds of being overweight [300m buffer, odds ratio (OR) = 0.88; 95% CI: 0.86, 0.91] and increased odds for outdoor physical activity [300m buffer, OR = 1.14; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.17] in the highest quintile compared to the lowest quintile. For TOP10NL surrounding green space, associations were mostly non-significant. Associations were generally stronger for subjects living in less urban areas and for the smaller buffers. Associations of green space with being overweight and outdoor physical activity differed considerably between different green space definitions. Associations were strongest for NDVI surrounding greenness. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by

  19. Computer modeling of active experiments in space plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollens, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    The understanding of space plasmas is expanding rapidly. This is, in large part, due to the ambitious efforts of scientists from around the world who are performing large scale active experiments in the space plasma surrounding the earth. One such effort was designated the Active Magnetospheric Particle Tracer Explorers (AMPTE) and consisted of a series of plasma releases that were completed during 1984 and 1985. What makes the AMPTE experiments particularly interesting was the occurrence of a dramatic anomaly that was completely unpredicted. During the AMPTE experiment, three satellites traced the solar-wind flow into the earth's magnetosphere. One satellite, built by West Germany, released a series of barium and lithium canisters that were detonated and subsequently photo-ionized via solar radiation, thereby creating an artificial comet. Another satellite, built by Great Britain and in the vicinity during detonation, carried, as did the first satellite, a comprehensive set of magnetic field, particle and wave instruments. Upon detonation, what was observed by the satellites, as well as by aircraft and ground-based observers, was quite unexpected. The initial deflection of the ion clouds was not in the ambient solar wind's flow direction (rvec V) but rather in the direction transverse to the solar wind and the background magnetic field (rvec V x rvec B). This result was not predicted by any existing theories or simulation models; it is the main subject discussed in this dissertation. A large three dimensional computer simulation was produced to demonstrate that this transverse motion can be explained in terms of a rocket effect. Due to the extreme computer resources utilized in producing this work, the computer methods used to complete the calculation and the visualization techniques used to view the results are also discussed

  20. Active Affordance Learning in Continuous State and Action Spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, C.; Hindriks, K.V.; Babuska, R.

    2014-01-01

    Learning object affordances and manipulation skills is essential for developing cognitive service robots. We propose an active affordance learning approach in continuous state and action spaces without manual discretization of states or exploratory motor primitives. During exploration in the action

  1. Non-orthogonal internally contracted multi-configurational perturbation theory (NICPT): Dynamic electron correlation for large, compact active spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kähler, Sven; Olsen, Jeppe

    2017-11-01

    A computational method is presented for systems that require high-level treatments of static and dynamic electron correlation but cannot be treated using conventional complete active space self-consistent field-based methods due to the required size of the active space. Our method introduces an efficient algorithm for perturbative dynamic correlation corrections for compact non-orthogonal MCSCF calculations. In the algorithm, biorthonormal expansions of orbitals and CI-wave functions are used to reduce the scaling of the performance determining step from quadratic to linear in the number of configurations. We describe a hierarchy of configuration spaces that can be chosen for the active space. Potential curves for the nitrogen molecule and the chromium dimer are compared for different configuration spaces. Already the most compact spaces yield qualitatively correct potentials that with increasing size of configuration spaces systematically approach complete active space results.

  2. Trajectory data analyses for pedestrian space-time activity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Feng; Du, Fei

    2013-02-25

    It is well recognized that human movement in the spatial and temporal dimensions has direct influence on disease transmission(1-3). An infectious disease typically spreads via contact between infected and susceptible individuals in their overlapped activity spaces. Therefore, daily mobility-activity information can be used as an indicator to measure exposures to risk factors of infection. However, a major difficulty and thus the reason for paucity of studies of infectious disease transmission at the micro scale arise from the lack of detailed individual mobility data. Previously in transportation and tourism research detailed space-time activity data often relied on the time-space diary technique, which requires subjects to actively record their activities in time and space. This is highly demanding for the participants and collaboration from the participants greatly affects the quality of data(4). Modern technologies such as GPS and mobile communications have made possible the automatic collection of trajectory data. The data collected, however, is not ideal for modeling human space-time activities, limited by the accuracies of existing devices. There is also no readily available tool for efficient processing of the data for human behavior study. We present here a suite of methods and an integrated ArcGIS desktop-based visual interface for the pre-processing and spatiotemporal analyses of trajectory data. We provide examples of how such processing may be used to model human space-time activities, especially with error-rich pedestrian trajectory data, that could be useful in public health studies such as infectious disease transmission modeling. The procedure presented includes pre-processing, trajectory segmentation, activity space characterization, density estimation and visualization, and a few other exploratory analysis methods. Pre-processing is the cleaning of noisy raw trajectory data. We introduce an interactive visual pre-processing interface as well as an

  3. Playful Interactions Stimulating Physical Activity in Public Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Janienke; Bekker, Tilde; Vanden Abeele, Vero

    In this position paper we describe our vision on designing playful interactions to persuade people to be physically active in public spaces. Social embeddedness and playful interaction are the core elements of this vision. We illustrate how our design vision is incorporated into innovative concepts...... to motivate each other to be physically active by creating challenges for each other. Designing playful solutions for public spaces asks for low-threshold solutions that support easy stepping in and stepping out solutions....

  4. Brain in Space: A Teacher's Guide with Activities for Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Walter W., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    The lessons and activities in this guide will engage your students in the excitement of space life science investigations after the Neurolab Spacelab mission. It is the authors' goal that the information in this guide will inspire both you and your students to become interested and active participants in this space mission. Few experiences can compare with the excitement and thrill of watching a Shuttle launch. This guide provides an opportunity for you and your students to go one step further by conducting the experiments on Earth that are relevent to the research conducted in space.

  5. Multilayer active shell mirrors for space telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeves, John; Jackson, Kathryn; Pellegrino, Sergio; Redding, David; Wallace, J. Kent; Bradford, Samuel Case; Barbee, Troy

    2016-07-01

    A novel active mirror technology based on carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) substrates and replication techniques has been developed. Multiple additional layers are implemented into the design serving various functions. Nanolaminate metal films are used to provide a high quality reflective front surface. A backing layer of thin active material is implemented to provide the surface-parallel actuation scheme. Printed electronics are used to create a custom electrode pattern and flexible routing layer. Mirrors of this design are thin (traditional optics. Such mirrors could be used as lightweight primaries for small CubeSat-based telescopes or as meter-class segments for future large aperture observatories. Multiple mirrors can be produced under identical conditions enabling a substantial reduction in manufacturing cost and complexity. An overview of the mirror design and manufacturing processes is presented. Predictions on the actuation performance have been made through finite element simulations demonstrating correctabilities on the order of 250-300× for astigmatic modes with only 41 independent actuators. A description of the custom metrology system used to characterize the active mirrors is also presented. The system is based on a Reverse Hartmann test and can accommodate extremely large deviations in mirror figure (> 100 μm PV) down to sub-micron precision. The system has been validated against several traditional techniques including photogrammetry and interferometry. The mirror performance has been characterized using this system, as well as closed-loop figure correction experiments on 150 mm dia. prototypes. The mirrors have demonstrated post-correction figure accuracies of 200 nm RMS (two dead actuators limiting performance).

  6. Development of magnetostrictive active members for control of space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bruce G.; Avakian, Kevin M.; Fenn, Ralph C.; Gaffney, Monique S.; Gerver, Michael J.; Hawkey, Timothy J.; Boudreau, Donald J.

    1992-08-01

    The goal of this Phase 2 Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) project was to determine the technical feasibility of developing magnetostrictive active members for use as truss elements in space structures. Active members control elastic vibrations of truss-based space structures and integrate the functions of truss structure element, actively controlled actuator, and sensor. The active members must control structural motion to the sub-micron level and, for many proposed space applications, work at cryogenic temperatures. Under this program both room temperature and cryogenic temperature magnetostrictive active members were designed, fabricated, and tested. The results of these performance tests indicated that room temperature magnetostrictive actuators feature higher strain, stiffness, and force capability with lower amplifier requirements than similarly sized piezoelectric or electrostrictive active members, at the cost of higher mass. Two different cryogenic temperature magnetostrictive materials were tested at liquid nitrogen temperatures, both with larger strain capability than the room temperature magnetostrictive materials. The cryogenic active member development included the design and fabrication of a cryostat that allows operation of the cryogenic active member in a space structure testbed.

  7. Critical issues related to registration of space objects and transparency of space activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakhu, Ram S.; Jasani, Bhupendra; McDowell, Jonathan C.

    2018-02-01

    The main purpose of the 1975 Registration Convention is to achieve transparency in space activities and this objective is motivated by the belief that a mandatory registration system would assist in the identification of space objects launched into outer space. This would also consequently contribute to the application and development of international law governing the exploration and use of outer space. States Parties to the Convention furnish the required information to the United Nations' Register of Space Objects. However, the furnished information is often so general that it may not be as helpful in creating transparency as had been hoped by the drafters of the Convention. While registration of civil satellites has been furnished with some general details, till today, none of the Parties have described the objects as having military functions despite the fact that a large number of such objects do perform military functions as well. In some cases, the best they have done is to indicate that the space objects are for their defense establishments. Moreover, the number of registrations of space objects is declining. This paper addresses the challenges posed by the non-registration of space objects. Particularly, the paper provides some data about the registration and non-registration of satellites and the States that have and have not complied with their legal obligations. It also analyses the specific requirements of the Convention, the reasons for non-registration, new challenges posed by the registration of small satellites and the on-orbit transfer of satellites. Finally, the paper provides some recommendations on how to enhance the registration of space objects, on the monitoring of the implementation of the Registration Convention and consequently how to achieve maximum transparency in space activities.

  8. Assessing Built Environment Walkability using Activity-Space Summary Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribby, Calvin P; Miller, Harvey J; Brown, Barbara B; Werner, Carol M; Smith, Ken R

    There is increasing emphasis on active transportation, such as walking, in transportation planning as a sustainable form of mobility and in public health as a means of achieving recommended physical activity and better health outcomes. A research focus is the influence of the built environment on walking, with the ultimate goal of identifying environmental modifications that invite more walking. However, assessments of the built environment for walkability are typically at a spatially disaggregate level (such as street blocks) or at a spatially aggregate level (such as census block groups). A key issue is determining the spatial units for walkability measures so that they reflect potential walking behavior. This paper develops methods for assessing walkability within individual activity spaces : the geographic region accessible to an individual during a given walking trip. We first estimate street network-based activity spaces using the shortest path between known trip starting/ending points and a travel time budget that reflects potential alternative paths. Based on objective walkability measures of the street blocks, we use three summary measures for walkability within activity spaces: i) the average walkability score across block segments (representing the general level of walkability in the activity space); ii) the standard deviation (representing the walkability variation), and; iii) the network autocorrelation (representing the spatial coherence of the walkability pattern). We assess the method using data from an empirical study of built environment walkability and walking behavior in Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. We visualize and map these activity space summary measures to compare walkability among individuals' trips within their neighborhoods. We also compare summary measures for activity spaces versus census block groups, with the result that they agree less than half of the time.

  9. Automated Construction of Molecular Active Spaces from Atomic Valence Orbitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayfutyarova, Elvira R; Sun, Qiming; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic; Knizia, Gerald

    2017-09-12

    We introduce the atomic valence active space (AVAS), a simple and well-defined automated technique for constructing active orbital spaces for use in multiconfiguration and multireference (MR) electronic structure calculations. Concretely, the technique constructs active molecular orbitals capable of describing all relevant electronic configurations emerging from a targeted set of atomic valence orbitals (e.g., the metal d orbitals in a coordination complex). This is achieved via a linear transformation of the occupied and unoccupied orbital spaces from an easily obtainable single-reference wave function (such as from a Hartree-Fock or Kohn-Sham calculations) based on projectors to targeted atomic valence orbitals. We discuss the premises, theory, and implementation of the idea, and several of its variations are tested. To investigate the performance and accuracy, we calculate the excitation energies for various transition-metal complexes in typical application scenarios. Additionally, we follow the homolytic bond breaking process of a Fenton reaction along its reaction coordinate. While the described AVAS technique is not a universal solution to the active space problem, its premises are fulfilled in many application scenarios of transition-metal chemistry and bond dissociation processes. In these cases the technique makes MR calculations easier to execute, easier to reproduce by any user, and simplifies the determination of the appropriate size of the active space required for accurate results.

  10. European Identity through Space Space Activities and Programmes as a Tool to Reinvigorate the European Identity

    CERN Document Server

    Baranes, Blandina

    2013-01-01

    Space activities are one particularly visible area, where Europe can shape its identity. This publication investigates the effect space activities have already had on building a European “spirit” (e.g. through European missions or European astronauts). It also looks into the effects that activities labelled “national” have on the emergence of a European identity. Based on this analysis, the book's intention is to identify creative ways and means for how to further use space for shaping the European identity. For this purpose the focus is not only on policy analysis but also on expertise from the fields of cultural science and the arts in order to tap their creative potential and also their theoretical approaches to the topic. Selecting this theme provides ESPI with another opportunity to develop its trans-disciplinary approach.

  11. Interface Consistency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunstrup, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    This paper proposes that Interface Consistency is an important issue for the development of modular designs. Byproviding a precise specification of component interfaces it becomes possible to check that separately developedcomponents use a common interface in a coherent matter thus avoiding a very...... significant source of design errors. Awide range of interface specifications are possible, the simplest form is a syntactical check of parameter types.However, today it is possible to do more sophisticated forms involving semantic checks....

  12. Standardization by ISO to Ensure the Sustainability of Space Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, A.; Lazare, B.; Oltrogge, D.; Stokes, H.

    2013-08-01

    The ISO / Technical Committee 20 / Sub-committee 14 develops debris-related standards and technical reports to mitigate debris and help ensure mission and space sustainability. While UN Guidelines and the IADC Guidelines encourage national governments and agencies to promote debris mitigation design and operation, the ISO standards will help the global space industry promote and sustain its space-related business. In this paper the scope and status of each ISO standard is discussed within an overall framework. A comparison with international guidelines is also provided to demonstrate the level of consistency. Finally, as a case study, the ISO standards are applied to a CubeSat mission, thus demonstrating their usability on a relatively recent and popular class of satellite.

  13. Systematic Expansion of Active Spaces beyond the CASSCF Limit: A GASSCF/SplitGAS Benchmark Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogiatzis, Konstantinos D; Li Manni, Giovanni; Stoneburner, Samuel J; Ma, Dongxia; Gagliardi, Laura

    2015-07-14

    The applicability and accuracy of the generalized active space self-consistent field, (GASSCF), and (SplitGAS) methods are presented. The GASSCF method enables the exploration of larger active spaces than with the conventional complete active space SCF, (CASSCF), by fragmentation of a large space into subspaces and by controlling the interspace excitations. In the SplitGAS method, the GAS configuration interaction, CI, expansion is further partitioned in two parts: the principal, which includes the most important configuration state functions, and an extended, containing less relevant but not negligible ones. An effective Hamiltonian is then generated, with the extended part acting as a perturbation to the principal space. Excitation energies of ozone, furan, pyrrole, nickel dioxide, and copper tetrachloride dianion are reported. Various partitioning schemes of the GASSCF and SplitGAS CI expansions are considered and compared with the complete active space followed by second-order perturbation theory, (CASPT2), and multireference CI method, (MRCI), or available experimental data. General guidelines for the optimum applicability of these methods are discussed together with their current limitations.

  14. Collaborative Human Engineering Work in Space Exploration Extravehicular Activities (EVA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSantis, Lena; Whitmore, Mihriban

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on extravehicular activities in space exploration in collaboration with other NASA centers, industries, and universities is shown. The topics include: 1) Concept of Operations for Future EVA activities; 2) Desert Research and Technology Studies (RATS); 3) Advanced EVA Walkback Test; 4) Walkback Subjective Results; 5) Integrated Suit Test 1; 6) Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS); 7) Flex PLSS Design Process; and 8) EVA Information System; 9)

  15. Draft position paper on knowledge management in space activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Jeanne; Moura, Denis

    2003-01-01

    As other fields of industry, space activities are facing the challenge of Knowledge Management and the International Academy of Astronautics decided to settle in 2002 a Study Group to analyse the problem and issue general guidelines. This communication presents the draft position paper of this group in view to be discussed during the 2003 IAF Congress.

  16. Radiation Protection Studies of International Space Station Extravehicular Activity Space Suits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A. (Editor); Shavers, Mark R. (Editor); Saganti, Premkumar B. (Editor); Miller, Jack (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    This publication describes recent investigations that evaluate radiation shielding characteristics of NASA's and the Russian Space Agency's space suits. The introduction describes the suits and presents goals of several experiments performed with them. The first chapter provides background information about the dynamic radiation environment experienced at ISS and summarized radiation health and protection requirements for activities in low Earth orbit. Supporting studies report the development and application of a computer model of the EMU space suit and the difficulty of shielding EVA crewmembers from high-energy reentrant electrons, a previously unevaluated component of the space radiation environment. Chapters 2 through 6 describe experiments that evaluate the space suits' radiation shielding characteristics. Chapter 7 describes a study of the potential radiological health impact on EVA crewmembers of two virtually unexamined environmental sources of high-energy electrons-reentrant trapped electrons and atmospheric albedo or "splash" electrons. The radiological consequences of those sources have not been evaluated previously and, under closer scrutiny. A detailed computational model of the shielding distribution provided by components of the NASA astronauts' EMU is being developed for exposure evaluation studies. The model is introduced in Chapters 8 and 9 and used in Chapter 10 to investigate how trapped particle anisotropy impacts female organ doses during EVA. Chapter 11 presents a review of issues related to estimating skin cancer risk form space radiation. The final chapter contains conclusions about the protective qualities of the suit brought to light form these studies, as well as recommendations for future operational radiation protection.

  17. Recent Activities on the Embrace Space Weather Regional Warning Center: the New Space Weather Data Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denardini, Clezio Marcos; Dal Lago, Alisson; Mendes, Odim; Batista, Inez S.; SantAnna, Nilson; Gatto, Rubens; Takahashi, Hisao; Costa, D. Joaquim; Banik Padua, Marcelo; Campos Velho, Haroldo

    2016-07-01

    On August 2007 the National Institute for Space Research started a task force to develop and operate a space weather program, which is known by the acronyms Embrace that stands for the Portuguese statement "Estudo e Monitoramento BRAasileiro de Clima Espacial" Program (Brazilian Space Weather Study and Monitoring program). The mission of the Embrace/INPE program is to monitor the Solar-Terrestrial environment, the magnetosphere, the upper atmosphere and the ground induced currents to prevent effects on technological and economic activities. The Embrace/INPE system monitors the physical parameters of the Sun-Earth environment, such as Active Regions (AR) in the Sun and solar radiation by using radio telescope, Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) information by satellite and ground-based cosmic ray monitoring, geomagnetic activity by the magnetometer network, and ionospheric disturbance by ionospheric sounders and using data collected by four GPS receiver network, geomagnetic activity by a magnetometer network, and provides a forecasting for Total Electronic Content (TEC) - 24 hours ahead - using a version of the SUPIM model which assimilates the two latter data using nudging approach. Most of these physical parameters are daily published on the Brazilian space weather program web portal, related to the entire network sensors available. Regarding outreach, it has being published a daily bulletin in Portuguese and English with the status of the space weather environment on the Sun, the Interplanetary Medium and close to the Earth. Since December 2011, all these activities are carried out at the Embrace Headquarter, a building located at the INPE's main campus. Recently, a comprehensive data bank and an interface layer are under commissioning to allow an easy and direct access to all the space weather data collected by Embrace through the Embrace web Portal. The information being released encompasses data from: (a) the Embrace Digisonde Network (Embrace DigiNet) that monitors

  18. Legal regime of human activities in outer space law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golda, Carlo

    1994-01-01

    Current developments in space activities increasingly involve the presence of humans on board spacecraft and, in the near future, on the Moon, on Mars, on board Space Stations, etc. With respect to these challenges, the political and legal issues connected to the status of astronauts are largely unclear and require a new doctrinal attention. In the same way, many legal and political questions remain open in the structure of future space crews: the need for international standards in the definition and training of astronauts, etc.; but, first of all, an international uniform legal definition of astronauts. Moreover, the legal structure for human life and operations in outer space can be a new and relevant paradigm for the definition of similar rules in all the situations and environments in which humans are involved in extreme frontiers. The present article starts from an overview on the existing legal and political definitions of 'astronauts', moving to the search of a more useful definition. This is followed by an analysis of the concrete problems created by human space activities, and the legal and political responses to them (the need for a code of conduct; the structure of the crew and the existing rules in the US and ex-USSR; the new legal theories on the argument; the definition and structure of a code of conduct; the next legal problems in fields such as privacy law, communications law, business law, criminal law, etc.).

  19. Last results of MADRAS, a space active optics demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laslandes, Marie; Hourtoule, Claire; Hugot, Emmanuel; Ferrari, Marc; Devilliers, Christophe; Liotard, Arnaud; Lopez, Céline; Chazallet, Frédéric

    2017-11-01

    The goal of the MADRAS project (Mirror Active, Deformable and Regulated for Applications in Space) is to highlight the interest of Active Optics for the next generation of space telescope and instrumentation. Wave-front errors in future space telescopes will mainly come from thermal dilatation and zero gravity, inducing large lightweight primary mirrors deformation. To compensate for these effects, a 24 actuators, 100 mm diameter deformable mirror has been designed to be inserted in a pupil relay. Within the project, such a system has been optimized, integrated and experimentally characterized. The system is designed considering wave-front errors expected in 3m-class primary mirrors, and taking into account space constraints such as compactness, low weight, low power consumption and mechanical strength. Finite Element Analysis allowed an optimization of the system in order to reach a precision of correction better than 10 nm rms. A dedicated test-bed has been designed to fully characterize the integrated mirror performance in representative conditions. The test set up is made of three main parts: a telescope aberrations generator, a correction loop with the MADRAS mirror and a Shack-Hartman wave-front sensor, and PSF imaging. In addition, Fizeau interferometry monitors the optical surface shape. We have developed and characterized an active optics system with a limited number of actuators and a design fitting space requirements. All the conducted tests tend to demonstrate the efficiency of such a system for a real-time, in situ wave-front. It would allow a significant improvement for future space telescopes optical performance while relaxing the specifications on the others components.

  20. Effects of Solar Activity and Space Environment in 2003 Oct.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Seok Cho

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a good example of extreme solar and geomagnetic activities from October to November, 2003. These activities are characterized by very large sunspot groups, X-class solar flares, strong particle events, and huge geomagnetic storms. We discuss ground-based and space-based data in terms of space weather scales. Especially, we present several solar and geomagnetic disturbance data produced in Korea : sunspots, geo-magnetograms, aurora, Ionogram, and Total Electron Content (TEC map by GPS data. Finally, we introduce some examples of the satellite orbit and communication effects caused by these activities; e.g., the disturbances of the KOMPSAT-1 operational orbit and HF communication.

  1. Space Weather Activities of IONOLAB Group: IONOLAB-TEC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikan, F.; Sezen, U.; Arikan, O.; Ugurlu, O.; Nayir, H.

    2009-04-01

    Space Weather (SW) is the concept of changing environmental conditions in outer space and affect Earth and its technological systems. SW is a consequence of the solar activities and the coupling of solar energy on Earth's atmosphere due to the Earth's magnetic field. The monitoring and prediction of SW has utmost importance for HF communication, Satellite communication, navigation and guidance systems, Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellite systems, Space Craft exit and entry into the atmosphere. Ionosphere is the plasma layer of the atmosphere that is ionized by solar radiation and it is a key player of SW. Ionosphere is a temporally and spatially varying, dispersive, anisotropic and inhomogeneous medium that is characterized primarily by its electron density distribution. IONOLAB is a group of researchers of various disciplines, getting together to handle challenges of the Earth's ionosphere. The team has researchers from Hacettepe University and Bilkent University, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering and General Command of Mapping of Turkish Army. One of the most important contributions of IONOLAB group is the automated web-based computation service for Total Electron Content (TEC). TEC corresponds to the line integral of electron density distribution on a given path. TEC can also be expressed as the amount of free electrons within 1 m2 cross-sectional area of the cylinder on the ray path. Global Position System (GPS) provides a cost-effective medium for monitoring of ionosphere using the signals recorded by stationary GPS receivers in estimating TEC. IONOLAB group has developed IONOLAB-TEC for reliable and robust estimates for all latitudes and both calm and disturbed days by using RINEX, IONEX and satellite ephemeris data provided from the IGS centers. IONOLAB-TEC consists of a regularized signal estimation algorithm which combines signals from all GPS satellites for a given instant and a given receiver, for a desired time period or for 24 hours

  2. History of Los Alamos Participation in Active Experiments in Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pongratz, Morris B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-02-06

    Beginning with the Teak nuclear test in 1958, Los Alamos has a long history of participation in active experiments in space. The last pertinent nuclear tests were the five explosions as part of the Dominic series in 1962. The Partial Test Ban Treaty signed in August 1963 prohibited all test detonations of nuclear weapons except for those conducted underground. Beginning with the “Apple” thermite barium release in June 1968 Los Alamos has participated in nearly 100 non-nuclear experiments in space, the last being the NASA-sponsored “AA-2” strontium and europium doped barium thermite releases in the Arecibo beam in July of 1992. The rationale for these experiments ranged from studying basic plasma processes such as gradientdriven structuring and velocity-space instabilities to illuminating the convection of plasmas in the ionosphere and polar cap to ionospheric depletion experiments to the B.E.A.R. 1-MeV neutral particle beam test in 1989. This report reviews the objectives, techniques and diagnostics of Los Alamos participation in active experiments in space.

  3. A 12 years brazilian space education activity experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancato, Fernando; Gustavo Catalani Racca, João; Ballarotti, MaurícioG.

    2001-03-01

    A multidisciplinary group of students from the university and latter also from the high school was formed in 1988 with the objective to make them put in practice their knowledge in physics, chemistry and mathematics and engineering fields in experimental rocketry. The group was called "Grupo de Foguetes Experimentais", GFE. Since that time more than 150 students passed throw the group and now many of them are in the space arena. The benefits for students in a space hands-on project are many: More interest in their school subjects is gotten as they see an application for them; Interrelation attitudes are learned as space projects is a team activity; Responsibility is gained as each is responsible for a part of a critical mission project; Multidisciplinary and international experience is gotten as these are space project characteristics; Learn how to work in a high stress environment as use to be a project launch. This paper will cover the educational experiences gotten during these years and how some structured groups work. It is explained the objectives and how the group was formed. The group structure and the different phases that at each year the new team passes are described. It is shown the different activities that the group uses to do from scientific seminars, scientific club and international meetings to technical tours and assistance to rocket activities in regional schools. It is also explained the group outreach activities as some launches were covered by the media in more then 6 articles in newspaper and 7 television news. In 1999 as formed an official group called NATA, Núcleo de Atividades Aerospaciais within the Universidade Estadual de Londrina, UEL, by some GFE members and teachers from university. It is explained the first group project results.

  4. Maritime Activities: Requirements for Improving Space Based Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cragnolini, A.; Miguel-Lago, M.

    2005-03-01

    Maritime initiatives cannot be pursued only within their own perimeter. Sector endeavours and the policies which rule over them have wide range implications and several links with other sectors of activity. A well- balanced relationship of sea exploitation, maritime transportation, environmental protection and security ruled by national or international laws, will be a main issue for the future of all kind of maritime activities. Scientific research and technology development, along with enlightened and appropriate institutional regulations are relevant to ensure maritime sustainability.The use of satellite technology for monitoring international agreements should have a close co- ordination and be based on institutional consensus. Frequently, rules and new regulations set by policy makers are not demanding enough due to lack of knowledge about the possibilities offered by available technologies.Law enforcement actions could bring space technology new opportunities to offer solutions for monitoring and verification. Operators should aim at offering space data in a more operational and user-friendly way, providing them with useful and timely information.This paper will analyse the contribution of satellite technology to deal with the specificity of maritime sector, stressing the conditions for both an adequate technology improvement and an effective policy implementation.After analysing the links between maritime activities, space technologies and the institutional environment, the paper identifies some boundary conditions of the future developments. Conclusions are basically a check list for improving the present situation, while a road map is suggested as a matter of a way to proceed.

  5. NASA Aerosciences Activities to Support Human Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBeau, Gerald J.

    2011-01-01

    The Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) has been a critical element of the United State's human space flight program for over 50 years. It is the home to NASA s Mission Control Center, the astronaut corps, and many major programs and projects including the Space Shuttle Program, International Space Station Program, and the Orion Project. As part of JSC's Engineering Directorate, the Applied Aeroscience and Computational Fluid Dynamics Branch is charted to provide aerosciences support to all human spacecraft designs and missions for all phases of flight, including ascent, exo-atmospheric, and entry. The presentation will review past and current aeroscience applications and how NASA works to apply a balanced philosophy that leverages ground testing, computational modeling and simulation, and flight testing, to develop and validate related products. The speaker will address associated aspects of aerodynamics, aerothermodynamics, rarefied gas dynamics, and decelerator systems, involving both spacecraft vehicle design and analysis, and operational mission support. From these examples some of NASA leading aerosciences challenges will be identified. These challenges will be used to provide foundational motivation for the development of specific advanced modeling and simulation capabilities, and will also be used to highlight how development activities are increasing becoming more aligned with flight projects. NASA s efforts to apply principles of innovation and inclusion towards improving its ability to support the myriad of vehicle design and operational challenges will also be briefly reviewed.

  6. Activating Public Space: How to Promote Physical Activity in Urban Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostrzewska, Małgorzata

    2017-10-01

    Physical activity is an essential component of a healthy lifestyle. The quality and equipment of urban public space plays an important role in promoting physical activity among people (residents, tourists). In order for recreation and sports activities to be undertaken willingly, in a safe and comprehensive manner, certain spatial conditions and requirements must be met. The distinctive feature of contemporary large cities is the disappearance of local, neighbourly relations, and the consequent loneliness, alienation, and atomization of the residents. Thus, the design of public spaces should be an expression of the values of social inclusion and integration. A properly designed urban space would encourage people to leave their homes and integrate, also by undertaking different forms of physical activities. This, in turn, can lead to raising the quality of the space, especially in the context of its “familiarization” and “domestication”. The aim of the research was to identify the architectural and urban features of the public spaces of contemporary cities that can contribute to the promotion of physical activity. The paper presents the research results and the case studies of such spatial solutions and examples of good practices, which invite residents to undertake different forms of physical activities in public spaces. The issue of the integrating, inclusionary, and social function of physical recreation and sport is discussed as well, and so are the possibilities of translating these values into physical characteristics of an urban space. The main conclusions are that taking into account the diverse needs of different social groups, participation in the design and construction process, aesthetic and interesting design, vicinity of the residence, open access for all age groups and the disabled would be the most important spatial determinants of a properly designed, physically activating public space. Strategies of planning the sports and recreation

  7. A Heliospheric Weather Expert Service Centre for ESA's Space Situational Awareness Space Weather Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, D.; Perry, C. H.

    2017-12-01

    The Heliospheric Weather Expert Service Centre (H-ESC) is one of five thematic virtual centres that are currently being developed as part of ESA's Space Situational Awareness pre-operational Space Weather service. In this presentation we introduce the current products and service that the H-ESC is providing. The immediate and downstream user groups that the centre is aiming to support are discussed. A description is provided on how the H-ESC is largely built on adoption and tailoring of federated products from expert groups around Europe and how these can be used to add value to the overall system. Having only recently been established the H-ESC is continuing to address gaps in its capabilities. Some of the priorities for products, their assessment, validation and integration into the system are discussed together with plans for bespoke development activities tailored to specific end-user group needs.

  8. Active x-ray optics for high resolution space telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doel, Peter; Atkins, Carolyn; Brooks, D.; Feldman, Charlotte; Willingale, Richard; Button, Tim; Rodriguez Sanmartin, Daniel; Meggs, Carl; James, Ady; Willis, Graham; Smith, Andy

    2017-11-01

    The Smart X-ray Optics (SXO) Basic Technology project started in April 2006 and will end in October 2010. The aim is to develop new technologies in the field of X-ray focusing, in particular the application of active and adaptive optics. While very major advances have been made in active/adaptive astronomical optics for visible light, little was previously achieved for X-ray optics where the technological challenges differ because of the much shorter wavelengths involved. The field of X-ray astronomy has been characterized by the development and launch of ever larger observatories with the culmination in the European Space Agency's XMM-Newton and NASA's Chandra missions which are currently operational. XMM-Newton uses a multi-nested structure to provide modest angular resolution ( 10 arcsec) but large effective area, while Chandra sacrifices effective area to achieve the optical stability necessary to provide sub-arc second resolution. Currently the European Space Agency (ESA) is engaged in studies of the next generation of X-ray space observatories, with the aim of producing telescopes with increased sensitivity and resolution. To achieve these aims several telescopes have been proposed, for example ESA and NASA's combined International X-ray Observatory (IXO), aimed at spectroscopy, and NASA's Generation-X. In the field of X-ray astronomy sub 0.2 arcsecond resolution with high efficiency would be very exciting. Such resolution is unlikely to be achieved by anything other than an active system. The benefits of a such a high resolution would be important for a range of astrophysics subjects, for example the potential angular resolution offered by active X-ray optics could provide unprecedented structural imaging detail of the Solar Wind bowshock interaction of comets, planets and similar objects and auroral phenomena throughout the Solar system using an observing platform in low Earth orbit. A major aim of the SXO project was to investigate the production of thin

  9. Contamination control research activities for space optics in JAXA RANDD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimoto, Y.

    2017-11-01

    Contamination control research activities for space optics projects in JAXA R&D are described. More accurate contamination control techniques are requested because of intensified recent science mission requirements. One approach to control the contamination effects is analysis by software. JAXA has been developing a contamination analytical tool "J-SPICE" (Japanese Spacecraft Induced Contamination analysis software) as well as experiment facilities to improve the J-SPICE. A reflection model in J-SPICE has been experimentally verified and outgassing model data has been acquired by a facility. JAXA has developed a facility which could determine the influence of the contamination at a specific wavelength by combining a vacuum chamber with an I-R spectrometer and performed an experiment to inspect the effect of baking. Space material exposure experiment results reveal the actual thickness of the contamination layer in ISS orbit.

  10. Towards a Self-Consistent Physical Framework for Modeling Coupled Human and Physical Activities during the Anthropocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, T. J.

    2014-12-01

    Studies of the response of global climate to anthropogenic activities rely upon scenarios for future human activity to provide a range of possible trajectories for greenhouse gases emissions over the coming century. Sophisticated integrated models are used to explore not only what will happen, but what should happen in order to optimize societal well-being. Hundreds of equations might be used to account for the interplay between human decisions, technological change, and macroeconomic priniciples. In contrast, the model equations used to describe geophysical phenomena look very different because they are a) purely deterministic and b) consistent with basic thermodynamic laws. This inconsistency between macroeconomics and physics suggests a rather unhappy marriage. During the Anthropocene the evolution of humanity and our environment will become increasingly intertwined. Representing such a coupling suggests a need for a common theoretical basis. To this end, the approach that is described here is to treat civilization like any other physical process, that is as an open, non-equilibrium thermodynamic system that dissipates energy and diffuses matter in order to sustain existing circulations and to further its material growth. Theoretical arguments and over 40 years of measurements show that a very general representation of global economic wealth (not GDP) has been tied to rates of global primary energy consumption through a constant 7.1 ± 0.1 mW per year 2005 USD. This link between physics and economics leads to very simple expressions for how fast civilization and its rate of energy consumption grow. These are expressible as a function of rates of energy and material resource discovery and depletion, and of the magnitude of externally imposed decay. The equations are validated through hindcasts that show, for example, that economic conditions in the 1950s can be invoked to make remarkably accurate forecasts of present rates of global GDP growth and primary energy

  11. Designing flexible instructional space for teaching introductory physics with emphasis on inquiry and collaborative active learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykov, Tikhon

    2010-03-01

    In recent years McMurry University's introductory physics curriculum has gone through a series of significant changes to achieve better integration of traditional course components (lecture/lab/discussion) by means of instructional design and technology. A system of flexible curriculum modules with emphasis on inquiry-based teaching and collaborative active learning has been introduced. To unify module elements, a technology suite has been used that consists of Tablet PC's and software applications including Physlets, tablet-adapted personal response system, PASCO data acquisition systems, and MS One-note collaborative writing software. Adoption of the new teaching model resulted in reevaluation of existing instructional spaces. The new teaching space will be created during the renovation of the McMurry Science Building. This space will allow for easy transitions between lecture and laboratory modes. Movable partitions will be used to accommodate student groups of different sizes. The space will be supportive of small peer-group activities with easy-to-reconfigure furniture, multiple white and black board surfaces and multiple projection screens. The new space will be highly flexible to account for different teaching functions, different teaching modes and learning styles.

  12. MILITARY PERSONNEL: Reserve Components Need Guidance to Accurately and Consistently Account for Volunteers on Active Duty for Operational Support

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stewart, Derek B

    2006-01-01

    The reserve components have not consistently or accurately identified the number of reservists serving in an operational support capacity since this monthly reporting requirement was adopted in fiscal year 2005...

  13. Plasma Hazards and Acceptance for International Space Station Extravehicular Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Thomas

    2010-09-01

    Extravehicular activity(EVA) is accepted by NASA and other space faring agencies as a necessary risk in order to build and maintain a safe and efficient laboratory in space. EVAs are used for standard construction and as contingency operations to repair critical equipment for vehicle sustainability and safety of the entire crew in the habitable volume. There are many hazards that are assessed for even the most mundane EVA for astronauts, and the vast majority of these are adequately controlled per the rules of the International Space Station Program. The need for EVA repair and construction has driven acceptance of a possible catastrophic hazard to the EVA crewmember which cannot currently be controlled adequately. That hazard is electrical shock from the very environment in which they work. This paper describes the environment, causes and contributors to the shock of EVA crewmembers attributed to the ionospheric plasma environment in low Earth orbit. It will detail the hazard history, and acceptance process for the risk associated with these hazards that give assurance to a safe EVA. In addition to the hazard acceptance process this paper will explore other factors that go into the decision to accept a risk including criticality of task, hardware design and capability, and the probability of hazard occurrence. Also included will be the required interaction between organizations at NASA(EVA Office, Environments, Engineering, Mission Operations, Safety) in order to build and eventually gain adequate acceptance rationale for a hazard of this kind. During the course of the discussion, all current methods of mitigating the hazard will be identified. This paper will capture the history of the plasma hazard analysis and processes used by the International Space Station Program to formally assess and qualify the risk. The paper will discuss steps that have been taken to identify and perform required analysis of the floating potential shock hazard from the ISS environment

  14. COMMUNAL SPACE IN ISLAMIC ACTIVITY OF DUKUH KRAJAN, DESA KROMENGAN,KABUPATEN MALANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Winarni

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dukuh Krajan settlement is a one of the settlement that still hold and maintain the value of tradition, social and cultural  in the  daily and social life. Nowadays, the  phenomena that  happens in the  social-cultural community is the decrement of life pattern of the rural community consist of the value of togetherness and mutual cooperation. This transformation will affect changes of common space. It still needs a deeper research about the formed common spaces especially in the relation with Islamic activity in regular nor incidentally basis. With purpose so that the formed common space can be benficial to grow some communal senses and mutual cooperation in the next generation. The research using qualitative with rationalistic approach. With the data acquired from the filed observation and interview with social figure and the residence. Common space is a common area that formed from the participation of the residence. Space as a base of common life grow from the alliance by building those spaces for a joint interest. the physical room of the Islamic activity consist of two namely residence house Islamic activity and public facility Islamic activity. Those function can transform when the Islamic activity being held. Semi public spaces, semi private, and private will change into common space function. This is affected by the activity, user, time and the room atribute inside. The space application of one activity has a sequence which give the activity and the user a interpretation, in this case togetherness and communality.   Keywords:  Common Space, Islamic Activity, Rural Settlement     Abstrak Permukiman Dukuh Krajan merupakan salah satu pedesaan yang  masih memegang dan mempertahankan nilai- nilai tradisi, sosial dan budaya baik dalam kehidupan sehari-hari maupun kehidupan sosial. Dalam kehidupan sosial-budaya masyarakat  desa saat ini corak kehidupan masyarakat desa yang berupa nilai-nilai kebersamaan dan kegotong

  15. Innovative hand exoskeleton design for extravehicular activities in space

    CERN Document Server

    Freni, Pierluigi; Randazzo, Luca; Ariano, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Environmental conditions and pressurized spacesuits expose astronauts to problems of fatigue during lengthy extravehicular activities, with adverse impacts especially on the dexterity, force and endurance of the hands and arms. A state-of-the-art exploration in the field of hand exoskeletons revealed that available products are unsuitable for space applications because of their bulkiness and mass. This book proposes a novel approach to the development of hand exoskeletons, based on an innovative soft robotics concept that relies on the exploitation of electroactive polymers operating as sensors and actuators, on a combination of electromyography and mechanomyography for detection of the user’s will and on neural networks for control. The result is a design that should enhance astronauts’ performance during extravehicular activities. In summary, the advantages of the described approach are a low-weight, high-flexibility exoskeleton that allows for dexterity and compliance with the user’s will.

  16. Activism in Brazil: hacker spaces as spaces of resistance and free education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Renno

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Many emerging cultural practices assisted or constituted by digital media were fostered in Brazil by the Cultural Points Project (Pontos de Cultura, initially proposed by the former Brazilian Minister of Culture of President Lula da Silva’s, Gilberto Gil. With Dilma Rousseff, Pontos de Cultura was considered of lesser importance, but the same cannot be said of the group of activists that are working across the country disseminating and building knowledge from digital culture. Groups that were organized horizontally and composed in a large sense by youngsters, developed e-waste recovery projects and computer programming (mainly based on free software in permanent or ephemeral workshops and hackerspaces that were assembled in unique spaces such as offices in malls, classrooms, indigenous villages, Umbanda worship places (Afro-Brazilian worship houses and houses in slums (favelas. Some initiatives in different cities in Brazil (Porto Alegre, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Recife were analysed in the present paper. The selected examples show different ways of sharing knowledge that update the democratization of the education proposal based on a horizontal communication and conjoint experience. In these spaces, the hierarchical spatial structure of the typical classroom was replaced to the shared space of the workshop; the image of the teacher was replaced by the image of the colleague with whom we can learn and teach at the same time; there are no homogeneous age groups, gender or social class; activities are not conducted according to the content or skills instead of that they are based on the projects and objectives defined by the student. At the same time, a space is created in which the traditional and digital culture are not in opposite positions, but instead of that, they complement each other. The use of free software and technological waste recovery questions the relationship between the access to technology and the power consumption, the

  17. Space Human Activity and Education of Spiritual Persons of Space Other Planetary Future in the Third Millennium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Polischuk

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In clause an object of research are prospects of the further space human activity and education of spiritual persons аnother the planetary future, knowledge of the Universe and social progress of a human civilization during an anthropological space age. Proves, that only in unity of reason and spirituality of mankind probably space other planetary future of a human civilization. It is found out, that the strategic purpose of philosophy of formation – is a formation of space other planetary type of the person as image of the person of the future. The concept of the perfect high spiritual moral person as image of the person of space other planetary future which education system and philosophy of formation should bring up already today is offered. Also new anthropological space concepts which can be used in philosophy of formation and to space science are entered.

  18. Consistency in Physical Activity and Increase in Mental Health in Elderly over a Decade: Are We Achieving Better Population Health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler C. Smith

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Over the past century, advances in medicine and public health have resulted in an extraordinary increase in life expectancy. As a result, focus has shifted from infectious to chronic diseases. Though current guidelines for healthy behaviors among the elderly exist, it remains unclear whether this growing segment of the population has shifted their behaviors in response to public health campaigns. The objective of this study was to investigate mental health and physical activity trends that may be leading indicators for healthier living and increased life expectancy. Methods: Using nearly a decade of continuous serial cross-sectional data collected in the nationwide Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, this study investigated trends of health behaviors and mental health in a population of nearly 750,000 who were 65 or older from 2003 through 2011. Weighted univariate and multivariable analyses were utilized including investigation of trend analyses over the decade, producing adjusted annual odds of physical activity and mental health. Results: After controlling for demographic and other factors, higher education and income, lower BMI, and current or previous smoking was associated with higher odds of adverse mental health and lower odds of physical activity engagement. Adjusted odds of adverse mental health climbed over the decade of observation whereas the odds of physical activity remained static. Conclusions: These data, encompassing a very large population over a decade of time, suggest that physical activity is stable though mental health challenges are on the rise in this older population. Public health campaigns may face greater barriers in an elderly population due to lifelong habits, dissemination and educational approaches, or decreasing gains. Further research should be conducted to identify more effective approaches towards increasing physical activity in this important and growing subset of the population and

  19. Active and reactive power sharing and frequency restoration in a distributed power system consisting of two UPS units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parlak, Koray Sener; Oezdemir, Mehmet [Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Firat University, Elazig, 23119 (Turkey); Aydemir, M. Timur [Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Gazi University, Maltepe-Ankara 06570 (Turkey)

    2009-06-15

    A distributed power system consisting of two uninterrupted power supplies (UPS) is investigated in this paper. Parallel operation of the two sources increases the established power rating of the system. One of the sources can supply the system even when the other system is disconnected due to some faults, and this is an important feature. The control algorithm makes sure that the total load is shared between the supplies in accordance with their rated power levels, and the frequency of the supplies are restored to the rated values after the transitions. As the UPSs operate at an optimum power level, losses and faults due to overloading are prevented. The units safely operate without any means of communication between each other. The focus of the work is on the inverter stages of the UPSs. Simulations performed in Matlab Simulink environment have been verified with experimental work via DS1103 controller card. (author)

  20. Spatial Polygamy and Contextual Exposures (SPACEs): Promoting Activity Space Approaches in Research on Place and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Stephen A.; Yang, Tse-Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Exposure science has developed rapidly and there is an increasing call for greater precision in the measurement of individual exposures across space and time. Social science interest in an individual’s environmental exposure, broadly conceived, has arguably been quite limited conceptually and methodologically. Indeed, we appear to lag behind our exposure science colleagues in our theories, data, and methods. In this paper we discuss a framework based on the concept of spatial polygamy to demonstrate the need to collect new forms of data on human spatial behavior and contextual exposures across time and space. Adopting new data and methods will be essential if we want to better understand social inequality in terms of exposure to health risks and access to health resources. We discuss the opportunities and challenges focusing on the potential seemingly offered by focusing on human mobility, and specifically the utilization of activity space concepts and data. A goal of the paper is to spatialize social and health science concepts and research practice vis-a-vis the complexity of exposure. The paper concludes with some recommendations for future research focusing on theoretical and conceptual development, promoting research on new types of places and human movement, the dynamic nature of contexts, and on training. “When we elect wittingly or unwittingly, to work within a level … we tend to discern or construct – whichever emphasis you prefer – only those kinds of systems whose elements are confined to that level.”Otis Dudley Duncan (1961, p. 141). “…despite the new ranges created by improved transportation, local government units have tended to remain medieval in size.”Torsten Hägerstrand (1970, p.18) “A detective investigating a crime needs both tools and understanding. If he has no fingerprint powder, he will fail to find fingerprints on most surfaces. If he does not understand where the criminal is likely to have put his fingers, he will not

  1. Overview of global space activities in 2007/2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Nicolas; Delmotte, Raphaëlle

    2009-08-01

    The period ranging from July 2007 to June 2008 has been marked by significant trends and issues in the space sector, particularly under the impulsion of space-faring countries. The internationalisation and globalisation of the space sector which started a few years ago have been gaining momentum as well. As a consequence, the size of the space sector has been growing, as well as the global competition for market shares.

  2. Constraining slip rates and spacings for active normal faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, Patience A.; Roberts, Gerald P.

    2001-12-01

    Numerous observations of extensional provinces indicate that neighbouring faults commonly slip at different rates and, moreover, may be active over different time intervals. These published observations include variations in slip rate measured along-strike of a fault array or fault zone, as well as significant across-strike differences in the timing and rates of movement on faults that have a similar orientation with respect to the regional stress field. Here we review published examples from the western USA, the North Sea, and central Greece, and present new data from the Italian Apennines that support the idea that such variations are systematic and thus to some extent predictable. The basis for the prediction is that: (1) the way in which a fault grows is fundamentally controlled by the ratio of maximum displacement to length, and (2) the regional strain rate must remain approximately constant through time. We show how data on fault lengths and displacements can be used to model the observed patterns of long-term slip rate where measured values are sparse. Specifically, we estimate the magnitude of spatial variation in slip rate along-strike and relate it to the across-strike spacing between active faults.

  3. Consistently high sports/exercise activity is associated with better sleep quality, continuity and depth in midlife women: the SWAN sleep study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Christopher E; Irish, Leah A; Krafty, Robert T; Sternfeld, Barbara; Kravitz, Howard M; Buysse, Daniel J; Bromberger, Joyce T; Dugan, Sheila A; Hall, Martica H

    2013-09-01

    To examine relationships between different physical activity (PA) domains and sleep, and the influence of consistent PA on sleep, in midlife women. Cross-sectional. Community-based. 339 women in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation Sleep Study (52.1 ± 2.1 y). None. Sleep was examined using questionnaires, diaries and in-home polysomnography (PSG). PA was assessed in three domains (Active Living, Household/Caregiving, Sports/Exercise) using the Kaiser Physical Activity Survey (KPAS) up to 4 times over 6 years preceding the sleep assessments. The association between recent PA and sleep was evaluated using KPAS scores immediately preceding the sleep assessments. The association between the historical PA pattern and sleep was examined by categorizing PA in each KPAS domain according to its pattern over the 6 years preceding sleep assessments (consistently low, inconsistent/consistently moderate, or consistently high). Greater recent Sports/Exercise activity was associated with better sleep quality (diary "restedness" [P sleep continuity (diary sleep efficiency [SE; P = 0.02]) and depth (higher NREM delta electroencephalographic [EEG] power [P = 0.04], lower NREM beta EEG power [P Sports/Exercise activity was also associated with better Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores (P = 0.02) and higher PSG-assessed SE (P sleep and Active Living or Household/Caregiving activity (either recent or historical pattern) were noted. Consistently high levels of recreational physical activity, but not lifestyle- or household-related activity, are associated with better sleep in midlife women. Increasing recreational physical activity early in midlife may protect against sleep disturbance in this population.

  4. Utilisation of Wearable Computing for Space Programmes Test Activities Optimasation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, V.; Lazzari, D.; Alemanni, M.

    2004-08-01

    New technologies are assuming a relevant importance in the Space business domain also in the Assembly Integration and Test (AIT) activities allowing process optimization and capability that were unthinkable only few years ago. This paper has the aim to describe Alenia Spazio (ALS) gained experience on the remote interaction techniques as a results of collaborations established both on European Communities (EC) initiatives, with Alenia Aeronautica (ALA) and Politecnico of Torino (POLITO). The H/W and S/W components performances increase and costs reduction due to the home computing massive utilization (especially demanded by the games business) together with the network technology possibility (offered by the web as well as the hi-speed links and the wireless communications) allow today to re-think the traditional AIT process activities in the light of the multimedia data exchange: graphical, voice video and by sure more in the future. Aerospace business confirm its innovation vocation which in the year '80 represents the cradle of the CAD systems and today is oriented to the 3D data visualization/ interaction technologies and remote visualisation/ interaction in collaborative way on a much more user friendly bases (i.e. not for specialists). Fig. 1 collects AIT extended scenario studied and adopted by ALS in these years. ALS experimented two possibilities of remote visualization/interaction: Portable [e.g. Fig.2 Personal Digital Assistant (PDA), Wearable] and walls (e.g.VR-Lab) screens as both 2D/3D visualisation and interaction devices which could support many types of traditional (mainly based on EGSE and PDM/CAD utilisation/reports) company internal AIT applications: 1. design review support 2. facility management 3. storage management 4. personnel training 5. integration sequences definition 6. assembly and test operations follow up 7. documentation review and external access to AIT activities for remote operations (e.g. tele-testing) EGSE Portable Clean room

  5. Less is more: Sampling chemical space with active learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Justin S.; Nebgen, Ben; Lubbers, Nicholas; Isayev, Olexandr; Roitberg, Adrian E.

    2018-06-01

    The development of accurate and transferable machine learning (ML) potentials for predicting molecular energetics is a challenging task. The process of data generation to train such ML potentials is a task neither well understood nor researched in detail. In this work, we present a fully automated approach for the generation of datasets with the intent of training universal ML potentials. It is based on the concept of active learning (AL) via Query by Committee (QBC), which uses the disagreement between an ensemble of ML potentials to infer the reliability of the ensemble's prediction. QBC allows the presented AL algorithm to automatically sample regions of chemical space where the ML potential fails to accurately predict the potential energy. AL improves the overall fitness of ANAKIN-ME (ANI) deep learning potentials in rigorous test cases by mitigating human biases in deciding what new training data to use. AL also reduces the training set size to a fraction of the data required when using naive random sampling techniques. To provide validation of our AL approach, we develop the COmprehensive Machine-learning Potential (COMP6) benchmark (publicly available on GitHub) which contains a diverse set of organic molecules. Active learning-based ANI potentials outperform the original random sampled ANI-1 potential with only 10% of the data, while the final active learning-based model vastly outperforms ANI-1 on the COMP6 benchmark after training to only 25% of the data. Finally, we show that our proposed AL technique develops a universal ANI potential (ANI-1x) that provides accurate energy and force predictions on the entire COMP6 benchmark. This universal ML potential achieves a level of accuracy on par with the best ML potentials for single molecules or materials, while remaining applicable to the general class of organic molecules composed of the elements CHNO.

  6. Inhibition of NEDD8-activating enzyme induces rereplication and apoptosis in human tumor cells consistent with deregulating CDT1 turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milhollen, Michael A; Narayanan, Usha; Soucy, Teresa A; Veiby, Petter O; Smith, Peter G; Amidon, Benjamin

    2011-04-15

    Loss of NEDD8-activating enzyme (NAE) function by siRNA knockdown or inhibition by the small molecule NAE inhibitor MLN4924 leads to increased steady-state levels of direct Cullin-RING ligase (CRL) substrates by preventing their ubiquitination and proteasome-dependent degradation. Many of these CRL substrates are involved in cell cycle progression, including a critical DNA replication licensing factor CDT1. Cell cycle analysis of asynchronous and synchronous cultures after NAE inhibition revealed effects on cell cycle distribution and activation of DNA break repair signaling pathways similar to that reported for CDT1 overexpression. The siRNA knockdown of cullins critical for the turnover of CDT1 recapitulated the aberrant rereplication phenotype while CDT1 knockdown was suppressing. Although NAE inhibition leads to deregulation of many CRL substrates, these data demonstrate that CDT1 accumulation mediates the DNA rereplication phenotype resulting from loss of NAE function. DNA rereplication is an unrecoverable cellular insult and the small molecule inhibitor MLN4924, currently in phase I trials, represents an unprecedented opportunity to explore this mechanism of cytotoxicity for the treatment of cancer. ©2011 AACR.

  7. Future role and significance of space activities in reflection of global social, technological and economic trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekmann, Andreas; Richarz, Hans.-Peter

    The paper describes the interrelation of space activities and global socio-economic trends like "globalisation of markets" and "renaissance of fine arts". The interrelation reveals the economic strategic, technological and scientific dimension of space activities and their benefits to mankind. Then, the significance and perspectives of space activities in these dimensions are examined in more detail. The paper calls (1) for a more visible initiative to employ space activities to tackle urgent questions of global change and development, and (2) for a stronger impetus to secure European economic position in space sector as a key industry of the 21st century.

  8. Active living : the impact of renovating urban open spaces on increasing the level of physical activity among social groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiggers, Hiske; Shokoohi, Roya

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The provision of active parks/public open space is the key factor in promoting active living, because people and specially low-income and elderlies are being more interested in doing non-organized/informal, and no-cost sports/physical activities in outdoor spaces in recent decades

  9. Long-Term International Space Station (ISS) Risk Reduction Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodroci, M. P.; Gafka, G. K.; Lutomski, M. G.; Maher, J. S.

    2012-01-01

    As the assembly of the ISS nears completion, it is worthwhile to step back and review some of the actions pursued by the Program in recent years to reduce risk and enhance the safety and health of ISS crewmembers, visitors, and space flight participants. While the initial ISS requirements and design were intended to provide the best practicable levels of safety, it is always possible to further reduce risk - given the determination, commitment, and resources to do so. The following is a summary of some of the steps taken by the ISS Program Manager, by our International Partners, by hardware and software designers, by operational specialists, and by safety personnel to continuously enhance the safety of the ISS, and to reduce risk to all crewmembers. While years of work went into the development of ISS requirements, there are many things associated with risk reduction in a Program like the ISS that can only be learned through actual operational experience. These risk reduction activities can be divided into roughly three categories: Areas that were initially noncompliant which have subsequently been brought into compliance or near compliance (i.e., Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris [MMOD] protection, acoustics) Areas where initial design requirements were eventually considered inadequate and were subsequently augmented (i.e., Toxicity Hazard Level- 4 [THL] materials, emergency procedures, emergency equipment, control of drag-throughs) Areas where risks were initially underestimated, and have subsequently been addressed through additional mitigation (i.e., Extravehicular Activity [EVA] sharp edges, plasma shock hazards) Due to the hard work and cooperation of many parties working together across the span of more than a decade, the ISS is now a safer and healthier environment for our crew, in many cases exceeding the risk reduction targets inherent in the intent of the original design. It will provide a safe and stable platform for utilization and discovery for years

  10. The COMT Val/Met polymorphism is associated with reading related skills and consistent patterns of functional neural activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Nicole; Frost, Stephen J.; Mencl, W. Einar; Preston, Jonathan L.; Jacobsen, Leslie K.; Lee, Maria; Yrigollen, Carolyn; Pugh, Kenneth R.; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2013-01-01

    In both children and adults there is large variability in reading skill, with approximately 5–10% of individuals characterized as having reading disability; these individuals struggle to learn to read despite adequate intelligence and opportunity. Although it is well established that a substantial portion of this variability is attributed to the genetic differences between individuals, specifics of the connections between reading and the genome are not understood. This article presents data that suggest that variation in the COMT gene, which has previously been associated with variation in higher-order cognition, is associated with reading and reading-related skills, both at the level of brain and behavior. In particular, we found that the COMT Val/Met polymorphism at rs4680, which results in the substitution of the ancestral Valine (Val) by Methionine (Met), was associated with better performance on a number of critical reading measures and with patterns of functional neural activation that have been linked to better readers. We argue that this polymorphism, known for its broad effects on cognition, may modulate (likely through frontal lobe function) reading skill. PMID:23278923

  11. The COMT Val/Met polymorphism is associated with reading-related skills and consistent patterns of functional neural activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Nicole; Frost, Stephen J; Mencl, W Einar; Preston, Jonathan L; Jacobsen, Leslie K; Lee, Maria; Yrigollen, Carolyn; Pugh, Kenneth R; Grigorenko, Elena L

    2013-01-01

    In both children and adults there is large variability in reading skill, with approximately 5-10% of individuals characterized as having reading disability; these individuals struggle to learn to read despite adequate intelligence and opportunity. Although it is well established that a substantial portion of this variability is attributed to the genetic differences between individuals, specifics of the connections between reading and the genome are not understood. This article presents data that suggest that variation in the COMT gene, which has previously been associated with variation in higher-order cognition, is associated with reading and reading-related skills, at the level of both brain and behavior. In particular, we found that the COMT Val/Met polymorphism at rs4680, which results in the substitution of the ancestral Valine (Val) by Methionine (Met), was associated with better performance on a number of critical reading measures and with patterns of functional neural activation that have been linked to better readers. We argue that this polymorphism, known for its broad effects on cognition, may modulate (likely through frontal lobe function) reading skill. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Distance to green space and physical activity: a danish national representative survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftager, Mette; Ekholm, Ola; Schipperijn, Jasper

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between distance to green space and the level of physical activity among the population of Denmark. In addition, the relationship between distance to green space and obesity is investigated.......This study examines the relationship between distance to green space and the level of physical activity among the population of Denmark. In addition, the relationship between distance to green space and obesity is investigated....

  13. Space space space

    CERN Document Server

    Trembach, Vera

    2014-01-01

    Space is an introduction to the mysteries of the Universe. Included are Task Cards for independent learning, Journal Word Cards for creative writing, and Hands-On Activities for reinforcing skills in Math and Language Arts. Space is a perfect introduction to further research of the Solar System.

  14. Using spaced retrieval and Montessori-based activities in improving eating ability for residents with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li-Chan; Huang, Ya-Ju; Su, Su-Gen; Watson, Roger; Tsai, Belina W-J; Wu, Shiao-Chi

    2010-10-01

    To construct a training protocol for spaced retrieval (SR) and to investigate the effectiveness of SR and Montessori-based activities in decreasing eating difficulty in older residents with dementia. A single evaluator, blind, and randomized control trial was used. Eighty-five residents with dementia were chosen from three special care units for residents with dementia in long-term care facilities in Taiwan. To avoid any confounding of subjects, the three institutions were randomized into three groups: spaced retrieval, Montessori-based activities, and a control group. The invention consisted of three 30-40 min sessions per week, for 8 weeks. After receiving the intervention, the Edinburgh Feeding Evaluation in Dementia (EdFED) scores and assisted feeding scores for the SR and Montessori-based activity groups were significantly lower than that of the control group. However, the frequencies of physical assistance and verbal assistance for the Montessori-based activity group after intervention were significantly higher than that of the control group, which suggests that residents who received Montessori-based activity need more physical and verbal assistance during mealtimes. In terms of the effects of nutritional status after intervention, Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA) in the SR group was significantly higher than that of the control group. This study confirms the efficacy of SR and Montessori-based activities for eating difficulty and eating ability. A longitudinal study to follow the long-term effects of SR and Montessori-based activities on eating ability and nutritional status is recommended. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. The Regularity and Irregularity of Travel: an Analysis of the Consistency of Travel Times Associated with Subsistence, Maintenance and Discretionary Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Longden, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Regular and irregular travel patterns coincide with different underlying purposes of travel and days of the week. Within this paper, it is shown that the balance between subsistence (i.e. work) and discretionary (i.e. leisure) activities is related to differences in travel patterns and explains consistency across years. Using eight years of time use diary entries this paper finds that travel time related to subsistence activities tends to be regular and stable. In contrast, travel time associ...

  16. Planetary Data Archiving Activities in Indian Space Research Organisation (isro)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopala Krishna, Barla; Srivastava, Pradeep Kumar

    The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) has launched its first planetary mission to Moon viz., Chandrayaan-1 on October 22, 2008. The basic objectives of the Chandrayaan-1 mission are photoselenological and chemical mapping of the Moon with improved spatial and spectral resolution. The payloads in this mission are: (i) Terrain mapping stereo camera (TMC) with 20km swath (400-900 nm band) for 3D imaging of lunar surface at a spatial resolution of 5m (ii) Hyper Spectral Imager (HySI) in the 400-920 nm band with 64 channels and spatial resolution of 80m (20km swath) for mineralogical mapping (iii) High-energy X-ray (30-270 keV) spectrometer having a footprint of 40km for study of volatile transport on Moon and (iv) Laser ranging instrument with vertical resolution of 5m (v) Miniature imaging radar instrument (Mini-SAR) from APL, NASA to look for presence of ice in the polar region (vi) Near infrared spectrometer (SIR-2) from Max Plank Institute, Germany (vii)Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) from JPL, NASA for mineralogical mapping in the infra-red regions (0.7 -3.0 micron) (viii) Sub-keV Atom Reflecting Analyzer (SARA) from Sweden, India and Japan for detection of low energy neutral atoms emanated from the lunar surface (ix) Radiation Dose Monitor (RADOM) from Bulgaria for monitoring energetic particle flux in the lunar environment and (x) Collimated low energy (1-10keV) X-ray spectrometer (C1XS) with a field of view of 20km for chemical mapping of the lunar surface from RAL, UK. A wealth of data has been collected (November 2008 to August 2009) from the above instru-ments during the mission life of Chandrayaan-1 and the science data from these instruments is being archived at Indian Space Science Data Centre (ISSDC). ISRO Science Data Archive (ISDA) identified at ISSDC is the primary data archive for the payload data of current and future Indian space science missions. The data center (ISSDC) is responsible for the Ingest, Archive, and Dissemination of the payload

  17. Spaced sessions of avoidance extinction reduce spontaneous recovery and promote infralimbic cortex activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapias-Espinosa, Carles; Kádár, Elisabet; Segura-Torres, Pilar

    2018-01-15

    Extinction-based therapies (EBT) are the psychological treatments of choice for certain anxiety disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder. However, some patients relapse and suffer spontaneous recovery (SR) of anxiety symptoms and persistence of avoidance behaviour, which underlines the need for improving EBT. In rats, recent evidence has highlighted the relevance of the temporal distribution of extinction sessions in reducing SR of auditory fear conditioning, although it has seldom been studied in procedures involving proactive avoidance responses, such as two-way active avoidance conditioning (TWAA). We examined whether the temporal distribution of two extinction sessions separated by 24h or 7days (contiguous versus spaced extinction paradigms, respectively), influences SR after 28days of a TWAA task. c-Fos expression, as a marker of neuronal activation, was also measured by immunohistochemistry 90min after the SR test in the amygdala and the medial prefrontal cortex. The temporal distribution of extinction sessions did not affect the degree of extinction learning. However, only the rats that underwent the 7-day spaced extinction paradigm maintained the level of extinction in the long term, showing no SR in TWAA. This behavioural finding was consistent with a greater number of c-Fos-labelled neurons in the infralimbic cortex in the 7-day group, and in the Lateral and Central nuclei of the amygdala in the 24-hour group. These findings show that a time-spaced extinction paradigm reduces the spontaneous recovery of active avoidance behaviour, and that this behavioural advantage appears to be related to the activation of the infralimbic cortex. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. DISENTANGLING AGN AND STAR FORMATION ACTIVITY AT HIGH REDSHIFT USING HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE GRISM SPECTROSCOPY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bridge, Joanna S.; Zeimann, Gregory R.; Trump, Jonathan R.; Gronwall, Caryl; Ciardullo, Robin; Fox, Derek; Schneider, Donald P., E-mail: jsbridge@psu.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Differentiating between active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity and star formation in z ∼ 2 galaxies is difficult because traditional methods, such as line-ratio diagnostics, change with redshift, while multi-wavelength methods (X-ray, radio, IR) are sensitive to only the brightest AGNs. We have developed a new method for spatially resolving emission lines using the Hubble Space Telescope /Wide Field Camera 3 G141 grism spectra and quantifying AGN activity through the spatial gradient of the [O iii]/H β line ratio. Through detailed simulations, we show that our novel line-ratio gradient approach identifies ∼40% more low-mass and obscured AGNs than obtained by classical methods. Based on our simulations, we developed a relationship that maps the stellar mass, star formation rate, and measured [O iii]/H β gradient to the AGN Eddington ratio. We apply our technique to previously studied stacked samples of galaxies at z ∼ 2 and find that our results are consistent with these studies. This gradient method will also be able to inform other areas of galaxy evolution science, such as inside-out quenching and metallicity gradients, and will be widely applicable to future spatially resolved James Webb Space Telescope data.

  19. DISENTANGLING AGN AND STAR FORMATION ACTIVITY AT HIGH REDSHIFT USING HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE GRISM SPECTROSCOPY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridge, Joanna S.; Zeimann, Gregory R.; Trump, Jonathan R.; Gronwall, Caryl; Ciardullo, Robin; Fox, Derek; Schneider, Donald P.

    2016-01-01

    Differentiating between active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity and star formation in z ∼ 2 galaxies is difficult because traditional methods, such as line-ratio diagnostics, change with redshift, while multi-wavelength methods (X-ray, radio, IR) are sensitive to only the brightest AGNs. We have developed a new method for spatially resolving emission lines using the Hubble Space Telescope /Wide Field Camera 3 G141 grism spectra and quantifying AGN activity through the spatial gradient of the [O iii]/H β line ratio. Through detailed simulations, we show that our novel line-ratio gradient approach identifies ∼40% more low-mass and obscured AGNs than obtained by classical methods. Based on our simulations, we developed a relationship that maps the stellar mass, star formation rate, and measured [O iii]/H β gradient to the AGN Eddington ratio. We apply our technique to previously studied stacked samples of galaxies at z ∼ 2 and find that our results are consistent with these studies. This gradient method will also be able to inform other areas of galaxy evolution science, such as inside-out quenching and metallicity gradients, and will be widely applicable to future spatially resolved James Webb Space Telescope data.

  20. Consistency in PERT problems

    OpenAIRE

    Bergantiños, Gustavo; Valencia-Toledo, Alfredo; Vidal-Puga, Juan

    2016-01-01

    The program evaluation review technique (PERT) is a tool used to schedule and coordinate activities in a complex project. In assigning the cost of a potential delay, we characterize the Shapley rule as the only rule that satisfies consistency and other desirable properties.

  1. Public open space, physical activity, urban design and public health: Concepts, methods and research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koohsari, Mohammad Javad; Mavoa, Suzanne; Villanueva, Karen; Sugiyama, Takemi; Badland, Hannah; Kaczynski, Andrew T; Owen, Neville; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2015-05-01

    Public open spaces such as parks and green spaces are key built environment elements within neighbourhoods for encouraging a variety of physical activity behaviours. Over the past decade, there has been a burgeoning number of active living research studies examining the influence of public open space on physical activity. However, the evidence shows mixed associations between different aspects of public open space (e.g., proximity, size, quality) and physical activity. These inconsistencies hinder the development of specific evidence-based guidelines for urban designers and policy-makers for (re)designing public open space to encourage physical activity. This paper aims to move this research agenda forward, by identifying key conceptual and methodological issues that may contribute to inconsistencies in research examining relations between public open space and physical activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Update of KSC activities for the space transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, R. H.

    1979-01-01

    The paper is a status report on the facilities and planned operations at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) that will support Space Shuttle launches. The conversion of KSC facilities to support efficient and economical checkout and launch operations in the era of the Space Shuttle is nearing completion. The driving force behind the KSC effort has been the necessity of providing adequate and indispensable facilities and support systems at minimum cost. This required the optimum utilization of existing buildings, equipment and systems, both at KSC and at Air Force property on Cape Canaveral, as well as the construction of two major new facilities and several minor ones. The entirely new structures discussed are the Shuttle Landing Facility and Orbiter Processing Facility. KSC stands ready to provide the rapid reliable economical landing-to-launch processing needed to ensure the success of this new space transportation system.

  3. Structural Consistency, Consistency, and Sequential Rationality.

    OpenAIRE

    Kreps, David M; Ramey, Garey

    1987-01-01

    Sequential equilibria comprise consistent beliefs and a sequentially ra tional strategy profile. Consistent beliefs are limits of Bayes ratio nal beliefs for sequences of strategies that approach the equilibrium strategy. Beliefs are structurally consistent if they are rationaliz ed by some single conjecture concerning opponents' strategies. Consis tent beliefs are not necessarily structurally consistent, notwithstan ding a claim by Kreps and Robert Wilson (1982). Moreover, the spirit of stru...

  4. Access to public spaces and physical activity for Mexican adult women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ietza Bojorquez

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article was to explore the association between access to public spaces and physical activity for adult women, controlling and testing interactions with sociodemographic and public spaces characteristics. We combined sociodemographic data from a survey with the adult (18-65 years of age women population of Tijuana, Mexico, conducted in 2014 (N = 2,345; with data from a 2013 study on public spaces in the same city. We evaluated access to public spaces by the presence and total area of public spaces in buffers of 400, 800, 1,000 and 1,600m around the participants’ homes. We measured physical activity with the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ-short. We employed multinomial logistic models to evaluate the association between access to public spaces and physical activity, and tested for interactions between access to public spaces and public spaces quality and sociodemographic characteristics. We observed no interaction between access to public spaces and public spaces quality in their effect on physical activity. There was an association between the presence of public spaces in the 400m buffer, and higher odds of being in the low physical activity level (as opposed to being in the moderate level (coefficient: 0.50; 95%CI: 0.13; 0.87. Participants who used public transport were less likely to be in the low physical activity level (coefficient: -0.57; 95%CI: -0.97; -0.17. We suggest that, in this population, the access to public spaces might be less relevant for physical activity than other elements of the urban environment and sociodemographic characteristics.

  5. Monitoring the quality consistency of Fufang Danshen Pills using micellar electrokinetic chromatography fingerprint coupled with prediction of antioxidant activity and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zhengchao; Sun, Wanyang; Sun, Guoxiang; Zhang, Jin

    2016-08-01

    A fast micellar electrokinetic chromatography fingerprint method combined with quantification was developed and validated to evaluate the quality of Fufang Danshen Pills, a traditional Chinese Medicine, which has been used in the treatment of cardiovascular system diseases, in which the tetrahedron optimization method was first used to optimize the background electrolyte solution. Subsequently, the index of the fingerprint information amount of I was performed as an excellent objective indictor to investigate the experimental conditions. In addition, a systematical quantified fingerprint method was constructed for evaluating the quality consistency of 20 batches of test samples obtained from the same drug manufacturer. The fingerprint analysis combined with quantitative determination of two components showed that the quality consistency of the test samples was quite good within the same commercial brand. Furthermore, the partial least squares model analysis was used to explore the fingerprint-efficacy relationship between active components and antioxidant activity in vitro, which can be applied for the assessment of anti-oxidant activity of Fufang Danshen pills and provide valuable medicinal information for quality control. The result illustrated that the present study provided a reliable and reasonable method for monitoring the quality consistency of Fufang Danshen pills. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Conscientization and Third Space: A Case Study of Tunisian Activism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boumlik, Habiba; Schwartz, Joni

    2016-01-01

    This case study examines, "Al Bawsala," a nongovernmental organization and a female cyber social activist, Amira Yahyaoui, in the aftermath of Tunisia's Jasmine Revolution through the lens of adult education. The theoretical frameworks of conscientization and third space are employed to describe Yahyaoui's development of the watchdog…

  7. Detection of low-energy antinuclei in space using an active-target particle detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poeschl, Thomas; Greenwald, Daniel; Konorov, Igor; Paul, Stephan [Physics Department E18, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Losekamm, Martin [Physics Department E18, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Institute of Astronautics, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Measuring antimatter in space excellently probes various astrophysical processes. The abundances and energy spectra of antiparticles reveal a lot about the creation and propagation of cosmic-ray particles in the universe. Abnormalities in their spectra can reveal exotic sources or inaccuracies in our understanding of the involved processes. The measurement of antiprotons and the search for antideuterons and antihelium are optimal at low kinetic energies since background from high-energy cosmic-ray collisions is low. For this reason, we are developing an active-target particle detector capable of detecting ions and anti-ions in the energy range of 30-100 MeV per nucleon. The detector consists of 900 scintillating fibers coupled to silicon photomultipliers and is designed to operate on nanosatellites. The primary application of the detector will be the Antiproton Flux in Space (AFIS) mission, whose goal is the measurement of geomagnetically trapped antiprotons inside Earth's inner radiation belt. In this talk, we explain our particle identification technique and present results from first in-beam measurements with a prototype.

  8. Application of the French Space Operation Act and the Development of Space Activities in the Field of Launchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahuzac, F.; Biard, A.

    2012-01-01

    The development of space activities has led France to define a new legal framework: French Space Operation Act (FSOA). The aim of this act, is to define the conditions according to which the French government authorizes and checks the spatial operations under its jurisdiction or its international responsibility as State of launch, according to the international treaties of the UN on space, in particular the Treaty (1967) on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, the Convention ( 1972 ) on International Liability for Damage Caused by Space Objects, and the Convention (1975) on Registration of Objects Launched into Outer Space. The main European space centre is the Guiana Space Centre (CSG), settled in France. A clarification of the French legal framework was compulsory to allow the arrival of new launchers (Soyuz and Vega). This act defines the competent authority, the procedure of authorization and licenses, the regime for operations led from foreign countries, the control of spatial objects, the enabling of inspectors, the delegation of monitoring to CNES, the procedure for urgent measures necessary for the safety, the registration of spatial objects. In this framework, the operator is fully responsible of the operation that he leads. He is subjected to a regime of authorization and to governmental technical monitoring delegated to CNES. In case of litigation, the operator gets the State guarantee above a certain level of damage to third party. The introduction of FSOA has led to issue a Technical Regulation set forth, in particular for the safety of persons and property, the protection of public health and the environment. This general regulation is completed by a specific regulation applicable to CSG that covers the preparation phase of the launch, and all specificities of the launch range, as regards the beginning of the launch. The Technical Regulation is based on 30 years of Ariane's activities and on the

  9. Active charge, passive discharge floor space heating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salt, H.; Mahoney, K.J.

    1987-01-01

    This space heating system has a rockbed beneath and in contact with the floor of a dwelling, which is heated by radiation and convection from the floor. The ability of the heating system to maintain comfort conditions with no additional energy input is discussed and it is shown that the system is more suitable for use in mild climates than severe ones. Experimental work on horizontal air flow rockbeds is reported and shows that shallow beds can be designed in the same way as vertical air flow beds. The influence of natural convection on the effective thermal conductivity of the experimental rockbeds is reported.

  10. Atmospheric profiles from active space-based radio measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Kenneth R.; Hinson, David P.; Tyler, G. L.; Kursinski, E. R.

    1992-01-01

    The paper describes determinations of atmospheric profiles from space-based radio measurements and the retrieval methodology used, with special attention given to the measurement procedure and the characteristics of the soundings. It is speculated that reliable profiles of the terrestrial atmosphere can be obtained by the occultation technique from the surface to a height of about 60 km. With the full complement of 21 the Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites and one GPS receiver in sun synchronous polar orbit, a maximum of 42 soundings could be obtained for each complete orbit or about 670 per day, providing almost uniform global coverage.

  11. Money Allocation to Out-of-Home Leisure Activities and the Organization of These Activities in Time and Space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dane, Gamze; Arentze, Theo A.; Timmermans, Harry J P; Ettema, Dick

    2015-01-01

    Monetary budgets influence activity participation and related travel as they demarcate limits on how people organize their activities in time and space. In this paper, we are interested in money allocation to out-of-home leisure activities and how this is affected by duration, sociodemographics, and

  12. Virtual Reality: Developing a VR space for Academic activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaimaris, D.; Stylianidis, E.; Karanikolas, N.

    2014-05-01

    Virtual reality (VR) is extensively used in various applications; in industry, in academia, in business, and is becoming more and more affordable for end users from the financial point of view. At the same time, in academia and higher education more and more applications are developed, like in medicine, engineering, etc. and students are inquiring to be well-prepared for their professional life after their educational life cycle. Moreover, VR is providing the benefits having the possibility to improve skills but also to understand space as well. This paper presents the methodology used during a course, namely "Geoinformatics applications" at the School of Spatial Planning and Development (Eng.), Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, to create a virtual School space. The course design focuses on the methods and techniques to be used in order to develop the virtual environment. In addition the project aspires to become more and more effective for the students and provide a real virtual environment with useful information not only for the students but also for any citizen interested in the academic life at the School.

  13. Consistent inter-individual differences in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) in Boldness-Shyness, Stress-Activity, and Exploration-Avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šlipogor, Vedrana; Gunhold-de Oliveira, Tina; Tadić, Zoran; Massen, Jorg J M; Bugnyar, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    The study of animal personality, defined as consistent inter-individual differences in correlated behavioral traits stable throughout time and/or contexts, has recently become one of the fastest growing areas in animal biology, with study species ranging from insects to non-human primates. The latter have, however, only occasionally been tested with standardized experiments. Instead their personality has usually been assessed using questionnaires. Therefore, this study aimed to test 21 common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) living in three family groups, in five different experiments, and their corresponding controls. We found that behavioral differences between our animals were not only consistent over time, but also across different contexts. Moreover, the consistent behaviors formed a construct of four major non-social personality components: Boldness-Shyness in Foraging, Boldness-Shyness in Predation, Stress-Activity, and Exploration-Avoidance. We found no sex or age differences in these components, but our results did reveal differences in Exploration-Avoidance between the three family groups. As social environment can have a large influence on behavior of individuals, our results may suggest group-level similarity in personality (i.e., "group personality") in common marmosets, a species living in highly cohesive social groups. Am. J. Primatol. 78:961-973, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Microemulsion Electrokinetic Chromatography in Combination with Chemometric Methods to Evaluate the Holistic Quality Consistency and Predict the Antioxidant Activity of Ixeris sonchifolia (Bunge Hance Injection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanping Yang

    Full Text Available In this paper, microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC fingerprints combined with quantification were successfully developed to monitor the holistic quality consistency of Ixeris sonchifolia (Bge. Hance Injection (ISHI. ISHI is a Chinese traditional patent medicine used for its anti-inflammatory and hemostatic effects. The effects of five crucial experimental variables on MEEKC were optimized by the central composite design. Under the optimized conditions, the MEEKC fingerprints of 28 ISHIs were developed. Quantitative determination of seven marker compounds was employed simultaneously, then 28 batches of samples from two manufacturers were clearly divided into two clusters by the principal component analysis. In fingerprint assessments, a systematic quantitative fingerprint method was established for the holistic quality consistency evaluation of ISHI from qualitative and quantitative perspectives, by which the qualities of 28 samples were well differentiated. In addition, the fingerprint-efficacy relationship between the fingerprints and the antioxidant activities was established utilizing orthogonal projection to latent structures, which provided important medicinal efficacy information for quality control. The present study offered a powerful and holistic approach to evaluating the quality consistency of herbal medicines and their preparations.

  15. INCORPORATING ROUTINE ACTIVITIES, ACTIVITY SPACES, AND SITUATIONAL DEFINITIONS INTO THE SOCIAL SCHEMATIC THEORY OF CRIME*

    Science.gov (United States)

    BARR, ASHLEY B.; LEI, MAN-KIT; STEWART, ERIC

    2014-01-01

    Simons and Burt’s (2011) social schematic theory (SST) of crime posits that adverse social factors are associated with offending because they promote a set of social schemas (i.e., a criminogenic knowledge structure) that elevates the probability of situational definitions favorable to crime. This study extends the SST model by incorporating the role of contexts for action. Furthermore, the study advances tests of the SST by incorporating a measure of criminogenic situational definitions to assess whether such definitions mediate the effects of schemas and contexts on crime. Structural equation models using 10 years of panel data from 582 African American youth provided strong support for the expanded theory. The results suggest that childhood and adolescent social adversity fosters a criminogenic knowledge structure as well as selection into criminogenic activity spaces and risky activities, all of which increase the likelihood of offending largely through situational definitions. Additionally, evidence shows that the criminogenic knowledge structure interacts with settings to amplify the likelihood of situational definitions favorable to crime. PMID:26392633

  16. Human activity spaces and plague risks in three contrasting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since 1980 plague has been a human threat in the Western Usambara Mountains in Tanzania. However, the spatial-temporal pattern of plague occurrence remains poorly understood. The main objective of this study was to gain understanding of human activity patterns in relation to spatial distribution of fleas in Lushoto ...

  17. Emergent Public Spaces: Generative Activities on Function Interpolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, Guadalupe; Dominguez, Angeles; Krause, Gladys; Duran, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    This study highlights ways in which generative activities may be coupled with network-based technologies in the context of teacher preparation to enhance preservice teachers' cognizance of how their own experience as students provides a blueprint for the learning environments they may need to generate in their future classrooms. In this study, the…

  18. Young Scientists Explore Inner & Outer Space. Book 6--Intermediate Level. A Good Apple Activity Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBruin, Jerry

    Designed to develop creativity in young learners, this book contains interdisciplinary activities which focus on the theme of space (inner and outer). Activity pages are provided that can serve as front and back covers of a student booklet and the suggested activities can be duplicated for insertion between the covers resulting in a booklet for…

  19. Integrated Modeling for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Project: Structural Analysis Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, John; Mosier, Mark; Howard, Joe; Hyde, Tupper; Parrish, Keith; Ha, Kong; Liu, Frank; McGinnis, Mark

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs about structural analysis activities and integrated modeling for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The topics include: 1) JWST Overview; 2) Observatory Structural Models; 3) Integrated Performance Analysis; and 4) Future Work and Challenges.

  20. Active Vibration Control Method for Space Truss Using Piezoelectric Actuators and Finite Elements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pantling, Carey

    1999-01-01

    .... With the use of a dSPACE data acquisition and processing system, quartz force transducer and piezoelectric actuator, active controls using an integral plus double integral control law were used...

  1. Space, body, time and relationship experiences of recess physical activity: a qualitative case study among the least physical active schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Andersen, Henriette Bondo; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Troelsen, Jens; Schipperijn, Jasper

    2016-01-06

    Increasing recess physical activity has been the aim of several interventions, as this setting can provide numerous physical activity opportunities. However, it is unclear if these interventions are equally effective for all children, or if they only appeal to children who are already physically active. This study was conducted to explore the least physically active children's "lived experiences" within four existential lifeworlds linked to physical activity during recess: space, body, time, and relations. The study builds on ethnographic fieldwork in a public school in Denmark using a combination of participatory photo interviews and participant observation. Thirty-seven grade five children (11-12 years old) were grouped in quartiles based on their objectively measured daily physical activity levels. Eight children in the lowest activity quartile (six girls) were selected to participate in the study. To avoid stigmatising and to make generalisations more reliable we further recruited eight children from the two highest activity quartiles (four girls) to participate. An analysis of the least physically active children's "lived experiences" of space, body, time and relations revealed several key factors influencing their recess physical activity: perceived classroom safety, indoor cosiness, lack of attractive outdoor facilities, bodily dissatisfaction, bodily complaints, tiredness, feeling bored, and peer influence. We found that the four existential lifeworlds provided an in-depth understanding of the least physically active children's "lived experiences" of recess physical activity. Our findings imply that specific intervention strategies might be needed to increase the least physically active children's physical activity level. For example, rethinking the classroom as a space for physical activity, designing schoolyards with smaller secluded spaces and varied facilities, improving children's self-esteem and body image, e.g., during physical education, and

  2. Assessment of MSFCs Process for the Development and Activation of Space Act Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Space Act Agreements (SAAs) are contractual agreements that NASA utilizes to form partnerships with researchers, industry, and academia to stimulate cutting-edge innovation within the science and technology communities. center dot This study assessed the current SAA development and activation process at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to determine if improvements could be implemented to increase productivity, decrease time to activation, and improve the quality of deliverables.

  3. Exploring Association between Morphology of Tree Planting and User Activities in Urban Public Space; An opportunity of Urban Public Space Revitalisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qi; Liu, Yan

    2018-03-01

    This paper discusses the association between the morphology of tree planting in urban riverside brown field and user activities. With the growth of popularity, the revitalisation of urban public space is also promising. This research used drone photography and mapping to systematically surveys sample sites. An original observation study of user activities proceed in four sample public spaces in Sheffield. The study results found there are huge popularity and duration difference of user activities between various tree planting morphologies and typologies. The public space with lawn and rounded by mature trees attracted most users with the most activity types; the neat and silent public space is the favourite choice of lunch and reading, meanwhile it got the longest activity duration; but the space with sparse morphology and small trees are more likely be forgotten and abandoned. This finding offered a great opportunity for urban public space revitalisation in post-industrial cities.

  4. Redefining neighborhoods using common destinations: social characteristics of activity spaces and home census tracts compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Malia; Pebley, Anne R

    2014-06-01

    Research on neighborhood effects has focused largely on residential neighborhoods, but people are exposed to many other places in the course of their daily lives-at school, at work, when shopping, and so on. Thus, studies of residential neighborhoods consider only a subset of the social-spatial environment affecting individuals. In this article, we examine the characteristics of adults' "activity spaces"-spaces defined by locations that individuals visit regularly-in Los Angeles County, California. Using geographic information system (GIS) methods, we define activity spaces in two ways and estimate their socioeconomic characteristics. Our research has two goals. First, we determine whether residential neighborhoods represent the social conditions to which adults are exposed in the course of their regular activities. Second, we evaluate whether particular groups are exposed to a broader or narrower range of social contexts in the course of their daily activities. We find that activity spaces are substantially more heterogeneous in terms of key social characteristics, compared to residential neighborhoods. However, the characteristics of both home neighborhoods and activity spaces are closely associated with individual characteristics. Our results suggest that most people experience substantial segregation across the range of spaces in their daily lives, not just at home.

  5. [Obsessive-compulsive symptoms, tics, stereotypic movements or need for absolute consistency? The occurrence of repetitive activities in patients with pervasive developmental disorders--case studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryńska, Anita; Lipińska, Elzbieta; Matelska, Monika

    2011-01-01

    Repetitive and stereotyped behaviours in the form of stereotyped interests or specific routine activities are one ofthe diagnostic criteria in pervasive developmental disorders. The occurrence of repetitive behaviours in patients with pervasive developmental disorders is a starting point for questions about the type and classification criteria of such behaviours. The aim of the article is to present case studies of patients with pervasive developmental disorders and co-morbid symptoms in the form of routine activities, tics, obsessive-compulsive symptoms or stereotyped behaviours. The first case study describes a patient with Asperger's syndrome and obsessive compulsive symptoms. The diagnostic problems regarding complex motor tics are discussed in the second case study which describes a patient with Asperger's syndrome and Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. The third and fourth case study describes mono-zygotic twins with so called High Functioning Autism whose repetitive activities point to either obsessive compulsive symptoms, stereotypic movements, need for absolute consistency or echopraxia. The possible comorbidity of pervasive developmental disorders and symptoms in the form of repetitive behaviours, possible interactions as well as diagnostic challenges is discussed in the article.

  6. Successive and discrete spaced conditioning in active avoidance learning in young and aged zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peng; Kajiwara, Riki; Tonoki, Ayako; Itoh, Motoyuki

    2018-05-01

    We designed an automated device to study active avoidance learning abilities of zebrafish. Open source tools were used for the device control, statistical computing, and graphic outputs of data. Using the system, we developed active avoidance tests to examine the effects of trial spacing and aging on learning. Seven-month-old fish showed stronger avoidance behavior as measured by color preference index with discrete spaced training as compared to successive spaced training. Fifteen-month-old fish showed a similar trend, but with reduced cognitive abilities compared with 7-month-old fish. Further, in 7-month-old fish, an increase in learning ability during trials was observed with discrete, but not successive, spaced training. In contrast, 15-month-old fish did not show increase in learning ability during trials. Therefore, these data suggest that discrete spacing is more effective for learning than successive spacing, with the zebrafish active avoidance paradigm, and that the time course analysis of active avoidance using discrete spaced training is useful to detect age-related learning impairment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of the quality consistency of powdered poppy capsule extractive by an averagely linear-quantified fingerprint method in combination with antioxidant activities and two compounds analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yujing; Sun, Guoxiang; Hou, Zhifei; Yan, Bo; Zhang, Jing

    2017-12-01

    A novel averagely linear-quantified fingerprint method was proposed and successfully applied to monitor the quality consistency of alkaloids in powdered poppy capsule extractive. Averagely linear-quantified fingerprint method provided accurate qualitative and quantitative similarities for chromatographic fingerprints of Chinese herbal medicines. The stability and operability of the averagely linear-quantified fingerprint method were verified by the parameter r. The average linear qualitative similarity SL (improved based on conventional qualitative "Similarity") was used as a qualitative criterion in the averagely linear-quantified fingerprint method, and the average linear quantitative similarity PL was introduced as a quantitative one. PL was able to identify the difference in the content of all the chemical components. In addition, PL was found to be highly correlated to the contents of two alkaloid compounds (morphine and codeine). A simple flow injection analysis was developed for the determination of antioxidant capacity in Chinese Herbal Medicines, which was based on the scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical by antioxidants. The fingerprint-efficacy relationship linking chromatographic fingerprints and antioxidant activities was investigated utilizing orthogonal projection to latent structures method, which provided important pharmacodynamic information for Chinese herbal medicines quality control. In summary, quantitative fingerprinting based on averagely linear-quantified fingerprint method can be applied for monitoring the quality consistency of Chinese herbal medicines, and the constructed orthogonal projection to latent structures model is particularly suitable for investigating the fingerprint-efficacy relationship. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Incorporating activity-travel time uncertainty and stochastic space-time prisms in multistate supernetworks for activity-travel scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liao, F.; Rasouli, S.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Multistate supernetwork approach has been advanced recently to study multimodal, multi-activity travel behavior. The approach allows simultaneously modeling multiple choice facets pertaining to activity-travel scheduling behavior, subject to space-time constraints, in the context of full daily

  9. Space activity in the 21 st century forum at unispace III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doetsch, Karl H.; Zhdanovich, Olga V.

    2000-07-01

    During the 21st Century, space activity will have a profound influence on life on Earth and on the development of society. Space activity will touch ever more firmly on the provision of the necessities and qualities of life and will accelerate the movement of nations towards the concept of the global village. A study by Prospective 2100, a group identifying major global trends for the next century, ranked space activity as one of the twelve most important factors for shaping the next century, alongside such items as education, ocean cities, the planetary garden, caring and sharing. The International Space University, ISU, the International Astronautical Federation, IAF, and Prospective 2100 joined forces to study in detail how this influence of space activity would be manifested in the next century. The one-day forum at UNISPACE III was one of a number of international, intercultural and interdisciplinary fora held during the past year to consider what would be the most appropriate space activity for the next century to meet the needs of humanity. The findings and recommendations of the forum are presented in this report.

  10. A Survey of Soil Enzyme Activities along Major Roads in Beijing: The Implications for Traffic Corridor Green Space Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianxin Li

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Soil quality is critical to the management of urban green space, in particular, along traffic corridors where traffic-related air pollution is significant. Soil quality can be evaluated by soil enzyme activities, which show quick responses to both natural and anthropogenic disturbances. In this study, we investigated three soil enzyme activities (i.e., dehydrogenase, catalase and urease along the major roads in urban areas of Beijing. Results show the activities of dehydrogenase, catalase and urease in urban samples were 58.8%, 68.2% and 48.5% less than the rural sample, respectively. The content of fluorescent amino acids as indicators of microbial activities was also consistently lower in urban samples than the rural. We observed two times greater exposure of particulate material along the roadsides in urban areas than rural areas. Although traffic air pollutants provide some nutrient sources to stimulate the URE activity, the exposure to traffic-related air pollution leads to the substantial decrease in enzyme activities. There were significant negative correlations for exposure to PM10 with DHA (r = −0.8267, p = 0.0017 and CAT (r = −0.89, p = 0.0002 activities. For the urban soils URE activity increased with the increasing of PM. We conclude that the degraded soil quality can negatively affect the target of developing plants and green spaces along the traffic corridors to mitigate the traffic impact. This study suggests the investigation of integrated strategies to restore the soil quality, reinforce the ecological service functions of green spaces along the traffic corridors and reduce the traffic pollutants.

  11. A concept of active mount for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souleille, A.; Lampert, T.; Lafarga, V.; Hellegouarch, S.; Rondineau, A.; Rodrigues, G.; Collette, C.

    2018-06-01

    Sensitive payloads mounted on top of launchers are subjected to many sources of disturbances during the flight. The most severe dynamic loads arise from the ignition of the motors, gusts, pressure fluctuations in the booster and from the separation of the boosters. The transmission of these dynamic forces can be reduced by mounting payloads on passive isolators, which comes at the expense of harmful amplifications of the motion at low frequency due to suspension resonances. To bypass this shortcoming, this paper presents a novel concept of active mount for aerospace payloads, which is easy to install, and meets two objectives. The first one is a high damping authority on both suspension resonances and flexible resonances without compromising the isolation and large stability margins of the closed loop system due to the collocation of the actuator and the sensor. The second one is a broadband reduction of the dynamic force transmitted to the payload, which was achieved in terms of 16 dB. The concept is presented in the first part of the paper and studied numerically and experimentally on a single degree of freedom isolator. A commercial isolator has been chosen for the purpose of the demonstration. The second part of the paper is dedicated to experimental validations on multi-degree of freedom scaled test benches. It is shown that the force feedback allows damping of both suspension and flexible modes (first and second modes, respectively), and significantly reducing the force transmitted in some broad frequency ranges.

  12. A concept of active mount for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souleille, A.; Lampert, T.; Lafarga, V.; Hellegouarch, S.; Rondineau, A.; Rodrigues, G.; Collette, C.

    2017-10-01

    Sensitive payloads mounted on top of launchers are subjected to many sources of disturbances during the flight. The most severe dynamic loads arise from the ignition of the motors, gusts, pressure fluctuations in the booster and from the separation of the boosters. The transmission of these dynamic forces can be reduced by mounting payloads on passive isolators, which comes at the expense of harmful amplifications of the motion at low frequency due to suspension resonances. To bypass this shortcoming, this paper presents a novel concept of active mount for aerospace payloads, which is easy to install, and meets two objectives. The first one is a high damping authority on both suspension resonances and flexible resonances without compromising the isolation and large stability margins of the closed loop system due to the collocation of the actuator and the sensor. The second one is a broadband reduction of the dynamic force transmitted to the payload, which was achieved in terms of 16 dB. The concept is presented in the first part of the paper and studied numerically and experimentally on a single degree of freedom isolator. A commercial isolator has been chosen for the purpose of the demonstration. The second part of the paper is dedicated to experimental validations on multi-degree of freedom scaled test benches. It is shown that the force feedback allows damping of both suspension and flexible modes (first and second modes, respectively), and significantly reducing the force transmitted in some broad frequency ranges.

  13. Ethnographic exercises as activities in public space: Social Occupational Therapy in art, culture and politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Galvani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ethnographic exercises are discussed - as proposed by the Metuia Project/ USP between 2007 and 2013 - as an activity able to enhance the recognition of the compound, plural and sometimes contradictory knowledge, but produced creatively in the intellectual and social do, in the interaction among students, occupational therapists, researchers and homeless people. It starts from the need to develop an understanding of the significant activities of artists working in the public spaces in São Paulo, as it persists as a plurality of meanings that the street acquires amid disputes of interests and cultural tensions, but also interconnections and creativity. The itinerant life and social areas’ characteristics, combined with reflections of urban anthropology and ethnographic research favored the theoretical and practical teaching in dialogic territorial shares of social occupational therapy. This article is the result of reflections built from the research Circuits and religious practices in life trajectories of adult homeless people in city of São Paulo, associated with university extension project linked to Metuia Project/USP, called Point meeting and culture: social networks, culture and social occupational therapy. In conclusion, on the one hand, there is need for renewed reflection about the occupational therapist’s place, considering the asymmetries of the relations in the construction of knowledge. On the other hand, it indicates that the produced activities, necessarily, in dialogical relations, only share meanings when inserted into the experience of the difference in consistent proposals with its own plasticity and in the middle of specific social and cultural contexts.

  14. Rocket-Based Combined Cycle Activities in the Advanced Space Transportation Program Office

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueter, Uwe; Turner, James

    1999-01-01

    NASA's Office of Aero-Space Technology (OAST) has established three major goals, referred to as, "The Three Pillars for Success". The Advanced Space Transportation Program Office (ASTP) at the NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Ala. focuses on future space transportation technologies Under the "Access to Space" pillar. The Core Technologies Project, part of ASTP, focuses on the reusable technologies beyond those being pursued by X-33. One of the main activities over the past two and a half years has been on advancing the rocket-based combined cycle (RBCC) technologies. In June of last year, activities for reusable launch vehicle (RLV) airframe and propulsion technologies were initiated. These activities focus primarily on those technologies that support the decision to determine the path this country will take for Space Shuttle and RLV. This year, additional technology efforts in the reusable technologies will be awarded. The RBCC effort that was completed early this year was the initial step leading to flight demonstrations of the technology for space launch vehicle propulsion.

  15. Creating Inclusive Physical Activity Spaces: The Case of Body-Positive Yoga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, Andrew C; Cunningham, George B

    2017-09-01

    Within the modern cultural climate, those in larger bodies face high levels of weight stigma, particularly in sport and physical activity spaces, which serves as a strong barrier to their participation. However, given the strong link between physical activity and general health and well-being for participants, it is important to explore strategies that encourage participation of these individuals. Thus, the current research examined strategies that physical activity instructors use to develop inclusive exercise spaces for all body sizes. This study employed a series of semistructured qualitative interviews (n = 9) with instructors of body-inclusive yoga classes to explore the ways in which they encourage participation for those in larger bodies. Emergent themes from the current study suggested support for 6 factors for creating body-inclusive physical activity spaces: authentic leadership, a culture of inclusion, a focus on health, inclusive language, leader social activism, and a sense of community. This study revealed that leaders must intentionally cultivate inclusion in their spaces to encourage those in nonconforming bodies to participate. These findings have important health and management implications for the sport and physical activity context and provide a basic outline of practical strategies that practitioners can use to foster inclusion in their spaces.

  16. Meeting the Grand Challenge of Protecting Astronauts Health: Electrostatic Active Space Radiation Shielding for Deep Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Ram K.

    2016-01-01

    This report describes the research completed during 2011 for the NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) project. The research is motivated by the desire to safely send humans in deep space missions and to keep radiation exposures within permitted limits. To this end current material shielding, developed for low earth orbit missions, is not a viable option due to payload and cost penalties. The active radiation shielding is the path forward for such missions. To achieve active space radiation shielding innovative large lightweight gossamer space structures are used. The goal is to deflect enough positive ions without attracting negatively charged plasma and to investigate if a charged Gossamer structure can perform charge deflections without significant structural instabilities occurring. In this study different innovative configurations are explored to design an optimum active shielding. In addition, to establish technological feasibility experiments are performed with up to 10kV of membrane charging, and an electron flux source with up to 5keV of energy and 5mA of current. While these charge flux energy levels are much less than those encountered in space, the fundamental coupled interaction of charged Gossamer structures with the ambient charge flux can be experimentally investigated. Of interest are, will the EIMS remain inflated during the charge deflections, and are there visible charge flux interactions. Aluminum coated Mylar membrane prototype structures are created to test their inflation capability using electrostatic charging. To simulate the charge flux, a 5keV electron emitter is utilized. The remaining charge flux at the end of the test chamber is measured with a Faraday cup mounted on a movable boom. A range of experiments with this electron emitter and detector were performed within a 30x60cm vacuum chamber with vacuum environment capability of 10-7 Torr. Experiments are performed with the charge flux aimed at the electrostatically inflated

  17. Centralising Space: The Physical Education and Physical Activity Experiences of South Asian, Muslim Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stride, Annette

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the physical education (PE) and physical activity experiences of a group of South Asian, Muslim girls, a group typically marginalised in PE and physical activity research. The study responds to ongoing calls for research to explore across different spaces in young people's lives. Specifically, I draw on a…

  18. Adaptable Single Active Loop Thermal Control System (TCS) for Future Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudawar, Issam; Lee, Seunghyun; Hasan, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    This presentation will examine the development of a thermal control system (TCS) for future space missions utilizing a single active cooling loop. The system architecture enables the TCS to be reconfigured during the various mission phases to respond, not only to varying heat load, but to heat rejection temperature as well. The system will consist of an accumulator, pump, cold plates (evaporators), condenser radiator, and compressor, in addition to control, bypass and throttling valves. For cold environments, the heat will be rejected by radiation, during which the compressor will be bypassed, reducing the system to a simple pumped loop that, depending on heat load, can operate in either a single-phase liquid mode or two-phase mode. For warmer environments, the pump will be bypassed, enabling the TCS to operate as a heat pump. This presentation will focus on recent findings concerning two-phase flow regimes, pressure drop, and heat transfer coefficient trends in the cabin and avionics micro-channel heat exchangers when using the heat pump mode. Also discussed will be practical implications of using micro-channel evaporators for the heat pump.

  19. Operational support to collision avoidance activities by ESA's space debris office

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, V.; Flohrer, T.; Krag, H.; Merz, K.; Lemmens, S.; Bastida Virgili, B.; Funke, Q.

    2016-09-01

    The European Space Agency's (ESA) Space Debris Office provides a service to support operational collision avoidance activities. This support currently covers ESA's missions Cryosat-2, Sentinel-1A and -2A, the constellation of Swarm-A/B/C in low-Earth orbit (LEO), as well as missions of third-party customers. In this work, we describe the current collision avoidance process for ESA and third-party missions in LEO. We give an overview on the upgrades developed and implemented since the advent of conjunction summary messages (CSM)/conjunction data messages (CDM), addressing conjunction event detection, collision risk assessment, orbit determination, orbit and covariance propagation, process control, and data handling. We pay special attention to the effect of warning thresholds on the risk reduction and manoeuvre rates, as they are established through risk mitigation and analysis tools, such as ESA's Debris Risk Assessment and Mitigation Analysis (DRAMA) software suite. To handle the large number of CDMs and the associated risk analyses, a database-centric approach has been developed. All CDMs and risk analysis results are stored in a database. In this way, a temporary local "mini-catalogue" of objects close to our target spacecraft is obtained, which can be used, e.g., for manoeuvre screening and to update the risk analysis whenever a new ephemeris becomes available from the flight dynamics team. The database is also used as the backbone for a Web-based tool, which consists of the visualization component and a collaboration tool that facilitates the status monitoring and task allocation within the support team as well as communication with the control team. The visualization component further supports the information sharing by displaying target and chaser motion over time along with the involved uncertainties. The Web-based solution optimally meets the needs for a concise and easy-to-use way to obtain a situation picture in a very short time, and the support for

  20. Meeting at the Edges: Spaces, Places and Grassroots Governance Activism in Delhi

    OpenAIRE

    Webb, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Through ethnography of activist organisations promoting transparency, accountability and active citizenship, and comprising coalitions of the city’s middle classes and urban poor, this article explores the spaces in which activists from different social backgrounds meet and carry out their work. By locating the positions of meeting rooms, offices and activists’ homes in urban space, I open up a view of the everyday practices of grassroots governance initiatives aimed at producing shared citiz...

  1. Smart SPHERES: A Telerobotic Free-Flyer for Intravehicular Activities in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Terrence; Micire, Mark J.; Morse, Ted; Park, Eric; Provencher, Chris; To, Vinh; Wheeler, D. W.; Mittman, David; Torres, R. Jay; Smith, Ernest

    2013-01-01

    Smart SPHERES is a prototype free-flying space robot based on the SPHERES platform. Smart SPHERES can be remotely operated by astronauts inside a spacecraft, or by mission controllers on the ground. We developed Smart SPHERES to perform a variety of intravehicular activities (IVA), such as operations inside the International Space Station (ISS). These IVA tasks include environmental monitoring surveys (radiation, sound levels, etc.), inventory, and mobile camera work. In this paper, we first discuss the motivation for free-flying space robots. We then describe the development of the Smart SPHERES prototype, including avionics, software, and data communications. Finally, we present results of initial flight tests on-board the ISS.

  2. Hybrid white organic light-emitting devices consisting of a non-doped thermally activated delayed fluorescent emitter and an ultrathin phosphorescent emitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Juan; Wang, Zijun; Wang, Run; Chi, Zhenguo; Yu, Junsheng

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid white organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) are fabricated by employing non-doped emitting layers (EMLs), which are consisted of a blue thermally activated delayed fluorescent (TADF) emitter 9,9-dimethyl-9,10-dihydroacridine-diphenylsulfone (DMAC-DPS) and an ultrathin yellow iridium complex bis[2-(4-tertbutylphenyl)benzothiazolato-N,C 2′ ] iridium (acetylacetonate) [(tbt) 2 Ir(acac)]. With thickness optimization of DMAC-DPS, a white OLED achieves maximum current efficiency, power efficiency and external quantum efficiency of 34.9 cd/A, 29.2 lm/W and 11.4%, respectively, as well as warm white emission with relatively stable electroluminescence spectra. The results suggest that, bipolar charge carrier transport property and concentration independent property of DMAC-DPS, charge carrier trapping effect of the ultrathin (tbt) 2 Ir(acac), and balanced self-emission process and energy transfer process between DMAC-DPS and (tbt) 2 Ir(acac), contribute to high device performance.

  3. Hybrid white organic light-emitting devices consisting of a non-doped thermally activated delayed fluorescent emitter and an ultrathin phosphorescent emitter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Juan [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Film and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); School of Chemistry, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Wang, Zijun; Wang, Run [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Film and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Chi, Zhenguo, E-mail: chizhg@mail.sysu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Yu, Junsheng, E-mail: jsyu@uestc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Film and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)

    2017-04-15

    Hybrid white organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) are fabricated by employing non-doped emitting layers (EMLs), which are consisted of a blue thermally activated delayed fluorescent (TADF) emitter 9,9-dimethyl-9,10-dihydroacridine-diphenylsulfone (DMAC-DPS) and an ultrathin yellow iridium complex bis[2-(4-tertbutylphenyl)benzothiazolato-N,C{sup 2′}] iridium (acetylacetonate) [(tbt){sub 2}Ir(acac)]. With thickness optimization of DMAC-DPS, a white OLED achieves maximum current efficiency, power efficiency and external quantum efficiency of 34.9 cd/A, 29.2 lm/W and 11.4%, respectively, as well as warm white emission with relatively stable electroluminescence spectra. The results suggest that, bipolar charge carrier transport property and concentration independent property of DMAC-DPS, charge carrier trapping effect of the ultrathin (tbt){sub 2}Ir(acac), and balanced self-emission process and energy transfer process between DMAC-DPS and (tbt){sub 2}Ir(acac), contribute to high device performance.

  4. Propulsion/ASME Rocket-Based Combined Cycle Activities in the Advanced Space Transportation Program Office

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueter, Uwe; Turner, James

    1998-01-01

    NASA's Office Of Aeronautics and Space Transportation Technology (OASTT) has establish three major coals. "The Three Pillars for Success". The Advanced Space Transportation Program Office (ASTP) at the NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville,Ala. focuses on future space transportation technologies under the "Access to Space" pillar. The Advanced Reusable Technologies (ART) Project, part of ASTP, focuses on the reusable technologies beyond those being pursued by X-33. The main activity over the past two and a half years has been on advancing the rocket-based combined cycle (RBCC) technologies. In June of last year, activities for reusable launch vehicle (RLV) airframe and propulsion technologies were initiated. These activities focus primarily on those technologies that support the year 2000 decision to determine the path this country will take for Space Shuttle and RLV. In February of this year, additional technology efforts in the reusable technologies were awarded. The RBCC effort that was completed early this year was the initial step leading to flight demonstrations of the technology for space launch vehicle propulsion. Aerojet, Boeing-Rocketdyne and Pratt & Whitney were selected for a two-year period to design, build and ground test their RBCC engine concepts. In addition, ASTROX, Pennsylvania State University (PSU) and University of Alabama in Huntsville also conducted supporting activities. The activity included ground testing of components (e.g., injectors, thrusters, ejectors and inlets) and integrated flowpaths. An area that has caused a large amount of difficulty in the testing efforts is the means of initiating the rocket combustion process. All three of the prime contractors above were using silane (SiH4) for ignition of the thrusters. This follows from the successful use of silane in the NASP program for scramjet ignition. However, difficulties were immediately encountered when silane (an 80/20 mixture of hydrogen/silane) was used for rocket

  5. Geo-spatial Cognition on Human's Social Activity Space Based on Multi-scale Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAI Weixin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Widely applied location aware devices, including mobile phones and GPS receivers, have provided great convenience for collecting large volume individuals' geographical information. The researches on the human's society behavior space has attracts an increasingly number of researchers. In our research, based on location-based Flickr data From 2004 to May, 2014 in China, we choose five levels of spatial grids to form the multi-scale frame for investigate the correlation between the scale and the geo-spatial cognition on human's social activity space. The HT-index is selected as the fractal inspired by Alexander to estimate the maturity of the society activity on different scales. The results indicate that that the scale characteristics are related to the spatial cognition to a certain extent. It is favorable to use the spatial grid as a tool to control scales for geo-spatial cognition on human's social activity space.

  6. Interference Mitigation Technique Using Active Spaceborne Sensor Antenna in EESS (Active) and Space Research Service (Active) for Use in 500 MHz Bandwidth Near 9.6 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huneycutt, Bryan L.

    2005-01-01

    This document presents an interference mitigation technique using the active spaceborne sensor SAR3 antenna in the Earth Exploration-Satellite Service (active) and Space Research Service (active) for use in a 500 MHz bandwidth near 9.6 GHz. The purpose of the document is present antenna designs which offer lower sidelobes and faster rolloff in the sidelobes which in turn mitigates the interference to other services from the EESS (active) and SRS (active) sensors.

  7. Effects of repeated simulated removal activities on feral swine movements and space use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Justin W.; McMurtry , Dan; Blass, Chad R.; Walter, W. David; Beringer, Jeff; VerCauterren, Kurt C.

    2016-01-01

    Abundance and distribution of feral swine (Sus scrofa) in the USA have increased dramatically during the last 30 years. Effective measures are needed to control and eradicate feral swine populations without displacing animals over wider areas. Our objective was to investigate effects of repeated simulated removal activities on feral swine movements and space use. We analyzed location data from 21 feral swine that we fitted with Global Positioning System harnesses in southern MO, USA. Various removal activities were applied over time to eight feral swine before lethal removal, including trapped-and-released, chased with dogs, chased with hunter, and chased with helicopter. We found that core space-use areas were reduced following the first removal activity, whereas overall space-use areas and diurnal movement distances increased following the second removal activity. Mean geographic centroid shifts did not differ between pre- and post-periods for either the first or second removal activities. Our information on feral swine movements and space use precipitated by human removal activities, such as hunting, trapping, and chasing with dogs, helps fill a knowledge void and will aid wildlife managers. Strategies to optimize management are needed to reduce feral swine populations while preventing enlarged home ranges and displacing individuals, which could lead to increased disease transmission risk and human-feral swine conflict in adjacent areas.

  8. Space-Time Dependent Transport, Activation, and Dose Rates for Radioactivated Fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavazza, Sergio

    Two methods are developed to calculate the space - and time-dependent mass transport of radionuclides, their production and decay, and the associated dose rates generated from the radioactivated fluids flowing through pipes. The work couples space- and time-dependent phenomena, treated as only space- or time-dependent in the open literature. The transport and activation methodology (TAM) is used to numerically calculate space- and time-dependent transport and activation of radionuclides in fluids flowing through pipes exposed to radiation fields, and volumetric radioactive sources created by radionuclide motions. The computer program Radionuclide Activation and Transport in Pipe (RNATPA1) performs the numerical calculations required in TAM. The gamma ray dose methodology (GAM) is used to numerically calculate space- and time-dependent gamma ray dose equivalent rates from the volumetric radioactive sources determined by TAM. The computer program Gamma Ray Dose Equivalent Rate (GRDOSER) performs the numerical calculations required in GAM. The scope of conditions considered by TAM and GAM herein include (a) laminar flow in straight pipe, (b)recirculating flow schemes, (c) time-independent fluid velocity distributions, (d) space-dependent monoenergetic neutron flux distribution, (e) space- and time-dependent activation process of a single parent nuclide and transport and decay of a single daughter radionuclide, and (f) assessment of space- and time-dependent gamma ray dose rates, outside the pipe, generated by the space- and time-dependent source term distributions inside of it. The methodologies, however, can be easily extended to include all the situations of interest for solving the phenomena addressed in this dissertation. A comparison is made from results obtained by the described calculational procedures with analytical expressions. The physics of the problems addressed by the new technique and the increased accuracy versus non -space and time-dependent methods

  9. Density-Dependent Spacing Behaviour and Activity Budget in Pregnant, Domestic Goats (Capra hircus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vas, Judit; Andersen, Inger Lise

    2015-01-01

    Very little is known about the spacing behaviour in social groups of domestic goats (Capra hircus) in the farm environment. In this experiment, we studied interindividual distances, movement patterns and activity budgets in pregnant goats housed at three different densities. Norwegian dairy goats were kept in stable social groups of six animals throughout pregnancy at 1, 2 or 3 m2 per individual and their spacing behaviours (i.e., distance travelled, nearest and furthest neighbour distance) and activity budgets (e.g., resting, feeding, social activities) were monitored. Observations were made in the first, second and last thirds of pregnancy in the mornings, at noon and in the afternoons of each of these phases (4.5 hours per observation period). The findings show that goats held at animal densities of 2 and 3 m2 moved longer distances when they had more space per animal and kept larger nearest and furthest neighbour distances when compared to the 1 m2 per animal density. Less feeding activity was observed at the high animal density compared to the medium and low density treatments. The phase of gestation also had an impact on almost all behavioural variables. Closer to parturition, animals moved further distances and the increase in nearest and furthest neighbour distance was more pronounced at the lower animal densities. During the last period of gestation, goats spent less time feeding and more on resting, social behaviours and engaging in other various activities. Our data suggest that more space per goat is needed for goats closer to parturition than in the early gestation phase. We concluded that in goats spacing behaviour is density-dependent and changes with stages of pregnancy and activities. Finally, the lower density allowed animals to express individual preferences regarding spacing behaviour which is important in ensuring good welfare in a farming situation.

  10. Density-Dependent Spacing Behaviour and Activity Budget in Pregnant, Domestic Goats (Capra hircus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit Vas

    Full Text Available Very little is known about the spacing behaviour in social groups of domestic goats (Capra hircus in the farm environment. In this experiment, we studied interindividual distances, movement patterns and activity budgets in pregnant goats housed at three different densities. Norwegian dairy goats were kept in stable social groups of six animals throughout pregnancy at 1, 2 or 3 m2 per individual and their spacing behaviours (i.e., distance travelled, nearest and furthest neighbour distance and activity budgets (e.g., resting, feeding, social activities were monitored. Observations were made in the first, second and last thirds of pregnancy in the mornings, at noon and in the afternoons of each of these phases (4.5 hours per observation period. The findings show that goats held at animal densities of 2 and 3 m2 moved longer distances when they had more space per animal and kept larger nearest and furthest neighbour distances when compared to the 1 m2 per animal density. Less feeding activity was observed at the high animal density compared to the medium and low density treatments. The phase of gestation also had an impact on almost all behavioural variables. Closer to parturition, animals moved further distances and the increase in nearest and furthest neighbour distance was more pronounced at the lower animal densities. During the last period of gestation, goats spent less time feeding and more on resting, social behaviours and engaging in other various activities. Our data suggest that more space per goat is needed for goats closer to parturition than in the early gestation phase. We concluded that in goats spacing behaviour is density-dependent and changes with stages of pregnancy and activities. Finally, the lower density allowed animals to express individual preferences regarding spacing behaviour which is important in ensuring good welfare in a farming situation.

  11. Density-Dependent Spacing Behaviour and Activity Budget in Pregnant, Domestic Goats (Capra hircus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vas, Judit; Andersen, Inger Lise

    2015-01-01

    Very little is known about the spacing behaviour in social groups of domestic goats (Capra hircus) in the farm environment. In this experiment, we studied interindividual distances, movement patterns and activity budgets in pregnant goats housed at three different densities. Norwegian dairy goats were kept in stable social groups of six animals throughout pregnancy at 1, 2 or 3 m2 per individual and their spacing behaviours (i.e. distance travelled, nearest and furthest neighbour distance) and activity budgets (e.g. resting, feeding, social activities) were monitored. Observations were made in the first, second and last thirds of pregnancy in the mornings, at noon and in the afternoons of each of these phases (4.5 hours per observation period). The findings show that goats held at animal densities of 2 and 3 m2 moved longer distances when they had more space per animal and kept larger nearest and furthest neighbour distances when compared to the 1 m2 per animal density. Less feeding activity was observed at the high animal density compared to the medium and low density treatments. The phase of gestation also had an impact on almost all behavioural variables. Closer to parturition, animals moved further distances and the increase in nearest and furthest neighbour distance was more pronounced at the lower animal densities. During the last period of gestation, goats spent less time feeding and more on resting, social behaviours and engaging in other various activities. Our data suggest that more space per goat is needed for goats closer to parturition than in the early gestation phase. We concluded that in goats spacing behaviour is density-dependent and changes with stages of pregnancy and activities. Finally, the lower density allowed animals to express individual preferences regarding spacing behaviour which is important in ensuring good welfare in a farming situation. PMID:26657240

  12. Consistent model driven architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niepostyn, Stanisław J.

    2015-09-01

    The goal of the MDA is to produce software systems from abstract models in a way where human interaction is restricted to a minimum. These abstract models are based on the UML language. However, the semantics of UML models is defined in a natural language. Subsequently the verification of consistency of these diagrams is needed in order to identify errors in requirements at the early stage of the development process. The verification of consistency is difficult due to a semi-formal nature of UML diagrams. We propose automatic verification of consistency of the series of UML diagrams originating from abstract models implemented with our consistency rules. This Consistent Model Driven Architecture approach enables us to generate automatically complete workflow applications from consistent and complete models developed from abstract models (e.g. Business Context Diagram). Therefore, our method can be used to check practicability (feasibility) of software architecture models.

  13. Bitcoin Meets Strong Consistency

    OpenAIRE

    Decker, Christian; Seidel, Jochen; Wattenhofer, Roger

    2014-01-01

    The Bitcoin system only provides eventual consistency. For everyday life, the time to confirm a Bitcoin transaction is prohibitively slow. In this paper we propose a new system, built on the Bitcoin blockchain, which enables strong consistency. Our system, PeerCensus, acts as a certification authority, manages peer identities in a peer-to-peer network, and ultimately enhances Bitcoin and similar systems with strong consistency. Our extensive analysis shows that PeerCensus is in a secure state...

  14. Consistent classical supergravity theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, M.

    1989-01-01

    This book offers a presentation of both conformal and Poincare supergravity. The consistent four-dimensional supergravity theories are classified. The formulae needed for further modelling are included

  15. The law applicable to the use of space for commercial activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosenball, S. N.

    1983-01-01

    The general principles of space law that have an impact on commercial space activities are discussed. The Outer Space Treaty guaranteed the right of private enterprise in space, with jurisdiction over the participating parties residing in the country of origin. The liability for damages caused to a third party is also assigned to the country of origin. Government consent is necessary in the U.S. before a private firm is permitted to launch an object into space, with the relevant statute sections being part of the Arms Export Control Act; launches are legally treated as exports. FAA regulations define the safe area and flight conditions that must be satisfied for a private launch, although NASA, in the 1958 act which formed the agency, potentialy has the power to regulate space launch activities. The DoD must be notified of any launches in order to notify the U.S.S.R., filings must be made with the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms, and fees must be paid to the IRS. It is presently U.S. government policy to encourage and facilitate private sector development of commercial launch services.

  16. HFBR restart activity A2.6: Review of FSAR and 60 MW addendum to assure consistency of operation at 40 MW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, D.V.; Ross, S.B.; Darby, J.L.; Clark, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this task (HFBR Restart Activity A2.6) is to perform a review of the design basis accident (DBA) analyses sections of the 1964 HFBR-Final Safety Analysis Report; Volumes I and II, and the 1982 Addendum to the HFBR-FSAR for 60 MW operation to assure that operation at 40 MW will be consistent with these analyses. Additional documents utilized in the review included the Level 1 PRA for HFBR, HFBR-PDMs and HFBR-OPMs. The review indicates that the 1964 FSAR-DBA analysis in incomplete in the sense that it did not analyze some of the important initiators for 1-loop operation that include: Accidental throttling of primary flow control valves; seizure of primary pump; loss of secondary pump; accidental throttling of secondary flow control valves; rupture of secondary piping. The first three initiators were later studied in the 1982 addendum. The other two initiators have not been examined to-date for 1-loop operation. It is recommended that the impact of these initiators be assessed prior to the restart, if 1-loop operation is chosen for the restart. The review demonstrated that at 40 MW operation there are only a few accident initiators that will culminate in core damage (fuel melting and /or cladding failure) regardless of the availability of mitigating systems. For 1-loop Operation these accidents include: Fuel channel blockage, primary pump seizure, and large-large LOCA (a LOCA with effective break diameter > 2.81 in. is referred to as a large-large LOCA in this document as well as in PRA). Although all these accidents listed above could lead to core damage for 1-loop operation as well, the probability is expected be very low

  17. Consistency of orthodox gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellucci, S. [INFN, Frascati (Italy). Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati; Shiekh, A. [International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy)

    1997-01-01

    A recent proposal for quantizing gravity is investigated for self consistency. The existence of a fixed-point all-order solution is found, corresponding to a consistent quantum gravity. A criterion to unify couplings is suggested, by invoking an application of their argument to more complex systems.

  18. Quasiparticles and thermodynamical consistency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanenko, A.A.; Biro, T.S.; Toneev, V.D.

    2003-01-01

    A brief and simple introduction into the problem of the thermodynamical consistency is given. The thermodynamical consistency relations, which should be taken into account under constructing a quasiparticle model, are found in a general manner from the finite-temperature extension of the Hellmann-Feynman theorem. Restrictions following from these relations are illustrated by simple physical examples. (author)

  19. Compound Structure-Independent Activity Prediction in High-Dimensional Target Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfer, Jenny; Hu, Ye; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2014-08-01

    Profiling of compound libraries against arrays of targets has become an important approach in pharmaceutical research. The prediction of multi-target compound activities also represents an attractive task for machine learning with potential for drug discovery applications. Herein, we have explored activity prediction in high-dimensional target space. Different types of models were derived to predict multi-target activities. The models included naïve Bayesian (NB) and support vector machine (SVM) classifiers based upon compound structure information and NB models derived on the basis of activity profiles, without considering compound structure. Because the latter approach can be applied to incomplete training data and principally depends on the feature independence assumption, SVM modeling was not applicable in this case. Furthermore, iterative hybrid NB models making use of both activity profiles and compound structure information were built. In high-dimensional target space, NB models utilizing activity profile data were found to yield more accurate activity predictions than structure-based NB and SVM models or hybrid models. An in-depth analysis of activity profile-based models revealed the presence of correlation effects across different targets and rationalized prediction accuracy. Taken together, the results indicate that activity profile information can be effectively used to predict the activity of test compounds against novel targets. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. OCCAMS: Optically Controlled and Corrected Active Meta-material Space Structures (Ultra-Lightweight Photonic Muscle Space Structures Phase II)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Photons weigh nothing. Why must even small space telescopes have high mass? Our team has demonstrated this is not the case using a completely novel approach to...

  1. Beyond advertising : large displays for supporting people’s needs and activities in public space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanis, Marije; Groen, Maarten; Meys, Wouter; Slakhorst, Wout; Veenstra, Mettina

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores how displays can be used to support human needs and activities in public spaces rather than be employed for commercial purposes only. Based on our analysis of screen usage around the world, eight different categories of usage are described and motivated. For the purpose of

  2. Active and reactive power control of a current-source PWM-rectifier using space vectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salo, M.; Tuusa, H. [Tampere University of Technology (Finland). Department of Electrical Engineering, Power Electronics

    1997-12-31

    In this paper the current-source PWM-rectifier with active and reactive power control is presented. The control system is realized using space vector methods. Also, compensation of the reactive power drawn by the line filter is discussed. Some simulation results are shown. (orig.) 8 refs.

  3. Activities report of the National Space Research Institute Plasma Laboratory for the period 1988/1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, Gerson Otto.

    1990-11-01

    This report describes the activities performed in the period 1988/1989 by the National Space Research Institute (INPE/SCT) Plasma Laboratory (LAP). The report presents the main results in the following research lines: plasma physics, plasma technology, and controlled thermonuclear fusion. (author). 49 figs., 3 tabs

  4. Leveraging Faculty Reflective Practice to Understand Active Learning Spaces: Flashbacks and Re-Captures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Crystal M.; Guo, Xiuyan; Pursel, Barton K.

    2017-01-01

    Although learning spaces research is not new, research approaches that target the specific teaching and learning experiences of faculty and students who occupy active learning classrooms (ALCs) is nascent. We report on two novels data collection approaches: Flashbacks and Re-Captures. Both leverage faculty reflective practice and provide windows…

  5. Comparative measurement of inorganic elements in Korean space foods using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Kim, Sun Ha; Baek, Sung Ryel; Sun, Gwang Min; Moon, Jong Hwa; Choi, Jong Il; Lee, Joo Eun

    2012-01-01

    In April 2008, Korea's first astronaut became a crew member of the international space station and she brought special space versions of traditional Korean dishes such as kimchi, boiled rice, hot red pepper paste, soybean paste soup, ginseng tea, green tea, and ramyun. To date, seventy kinds of Korean space foods (KSFs) have been developed by KAERI. The information and role of trace mineral elements from an intake of created and processed foodstuff are important as a indicator of human health and nutrition, as well as a quality control of food and diet. In particular, special food created for consumption by astronauts in outer space may differ with common food on the earth to compensate a decrease in taste and nutrition by hygienic sterilization processing as well as strong cosmic rays, a state of non gravitation, low pressure, and an enclosed space environment. An accurate quantitative analysis of trace elements in various kinds of biological samples is serious work for analytical data quality. An neutron activation analysis is a sensitive, non destructive, multi elemental analytical method without loss and contamination of a sample by chemical pre treatment. The aim of this study is to identify and to compare the distribution of concentrations for essential and functional inorganic elements in six kinds of Korean space foods developed by KAERI in 2011 using INAA

  6. Comparative measurement of inorganic elements in Korean space foods using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Kim, Sun Ha; Baek, Sung Ryel; Sun, Gwang Min; Moon, Jong Hwa; Choi, Jong Il; Lee, Joo Eun [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    In April 2008, Korea's first astronaut became a crew member of the international space station and she brought special space versions of traditional Korean dishes such as kimchi, boiled rice, hot red pepper paste, soybean paste soup, ginseng tea, green tea, and ramyun. To date, seventy kinds of Korean space foods (KSFs) have been developed by KAERI. The information and role of trace mineral elements from an intake of created and processed foodstuff are important as a indicator of human health and nutrition, as well as a quality control of food and diet. In particular, special food created for consumption by astronauts in outer space may differ with common food on the earth to compensate a decrease in taste and nutrition by hygienic sterilization processing as well as strong cosmic rays, a state of non gravitation, low pressure, and an enclosed space environment. An accurate quantitative analysis of trace elements in various kinds of biological samples is serious work for analytical data quality. An neutron activation analysis is a sensitive, non destructive, multi elemental analytical method without loss and contamination of a sample by chemical pre treatment. The aim of this study is to identify and to compare the distribution of concentrations for essential and functional inorganic elements in six kinds of Korean space foods developed by KAERI in 2011 using INAA.

  7. Conceptualization and measurement of environmental exposure in epidemiology: accounting for activity space related to daily mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchoux, Camille; Chaix, Basile; Cummins, Steven; Kestens, Yan

    2013-05-01

    A considerable body of literature has investigated how environmental exposures affect health through various pathways. These studies have generally adopted a common approach to define environmental exposures, focusing on the local residential environment, using census tracts or postcodes to delimit exposures. However, use of such administrative units may not be appropriate to evaluate contextual effets on health because they are generally not a 'true' representation of the environments to which individuals are exposed. Recent work has suggested that advances may be made if an activity-space approach is adopted. The present paper investigates how various disciplines may contribute to the refinement of the concept of activity space for use in health research. In particular we draw on seminal work in time geography, which provides a framework to describe individual behavior in space and time, and can help the conceptualization of activity space. In addition we review work in environmental psychology and social networks research, which provides insights on how people and places interact and offers new theories for improving the spatial definition of contextual exposures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Earth observation space programmes, SAFISY activities, strategies of international organisations, legal aspects. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This volume is separated in four sessions. First part is on earth observation space programmes (international earth observation projects and international collaboration, the ERS-1, SPOT and PRIRODA programmes, the first ESA earth observation polar platform and its payload, the future earth observation remote sensing techniques and concepts). The second part is on SAFISY activities (ISY programmes, education and applications, demonstrations and outreach projects). The third part is on programme and strategies of international organisations with respect to earth observation from space. The fourth part is on legal aspects of the use of satellite remote sensing data in Europe. (A.B.). refs., figs., tabs

  9. Human Activity Behavior and Gesture Generation in Virtual Worlds for Long- Duration Space Missions. Chapter 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierhuis, Maarten; Clancey, William J.; Damer, Bruce; Brodsky, Boris; vanHoff, Ron

    2007-01-01

    A virtual worlds presentation technique with embodied, intelligent agents is being developed as an instructional medium suitable to present in situ training on long term space flight. The system combines a behavioral element based on finite state automata, a behavior based reactive architecture also described as subsumption architecture, and a belief-desire-intention agent structure. These three features are being integrated to describe a Brahms virtual environment model of extravehicular crew activity which could become a basis for procedure training during extended space flight.

  10. Space-Based Astronomy: An Educator Guide with Activities for Science, Mathematics, and Technology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Gregory L.

    2001-01-01

    If you go to the country, far from city lights, you can see about 3,000 stars on a clear night. If your eyes were bigger, you could see many more stars. With a pair of binoculars, an optical device that effectively enlarges the pupil of your eye by about 30 times, the number of stars you can see increases to the tens of thousands. With a medium-sized telescope with a light-collecting mirror 30 centimeters in diameter, you can see hundreds of thousands of stars. With a large observatory telescope, millions of stars become visible. This curriculum guide uses hands-on activities to help students and teachers understand the significance of space-based astronomy--astronomical observations made from outer space. It is not intended to serve as a curriculum. Instead, teachers should select activities from this guide that support and extend existing study. The guide contains few of the traditional activities found in many astronomy guides such as constellation studies, lunar phases, and planetary orbits. It tells, rather, the story of why it is important to observe celestial objects from outer space and how to study the entire electromagnetic spectrum. Teachers are encouraged to adapt these activities for the particular needs of their students. When selected activities from this guide are used in conjunction with traditional astronomy curricula, students benefit from a more complete experience.

  11. The effectiveness of spaced retrieval combined with Montessori-based activities in improving the eating ability of residents with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hua Shan; Lin, Li Chan; Wu, Shiao Chi; Lin, Ke Neng; Liu, Hsiu Chih

    2014-08-01

    To explore the long-term effects of standardized and individualized spaced retrieval combined with Montessori-based activities on the eating ability of residents with dementia. Eating difficulty is common in residents with dementia, resulting in low food intake, followed by eating dependence, weight loss and malnutrition. A single-blinded and quasi-experimental design with repeated measures. Ninety residents with dementia from four veterans' homes in Taiwan took part in this study. The intervention consisted of spaced retrieval combined with Montessori-based activities. Twenty-five participants in the standardized group received 24 intervention sessions over 8 weeks. Thirty-eight participants in the individualized group received tailored intervention sessions. The number of intervention sessions was adjusted according to the participant's recall responses in spaced retrieval. Twenty-seven participants in the control group received no treatment. The Chinese version of the Edinburgh Feeding Evaluation in Dementia was used, and eating amounts and body weight were measured pre-test, posttest and at 1-, 3- and 6-month follow-ups. Data were collected between July 2008-February 2010. Repeated measures of all dependent variables for the three groups were analysed by the linear mixed model. The standardized and individualized interventions could significantly decrease the scores for the Chinese version of the Edinburgh Feeding Evaluation in Dementia and increase the eating amount and body weight over time. Trained nurses in institutions can schedule the standardized or individualized intervention in usual activity time to ameliorate eating difficulty and its sequels. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Principles of accounting in the information space of foreign economic activity management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Yu. Gordopolov

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents scientific results confirming the influence of the external environment on the need for revision of accounting principles in accordance with the characteristics of economic activity. A model of the relationship between the management system and the subsystem of accounting of the subject of foreign economic activity was developed. The study substantiates the approach to the formation of information in accounting, which indirectly depends on how the system of management of foreign economic activity at the enterprise is constructed. The influence of accounting information support on creation of the communication space of the system of management of foreign economic activity is determined. The directions of transformation of accounting principles of foreign economic operations in the context of the influence of the management system of foreign economic activity of the enterprise are presented. The article presents the proposed changes in the part of the transformation of accounting principles of foreign economic activity.

  13. 14 CFR 1266.104 - Cross-waiver of liability for launch agreements for science or space exploration activities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... consequential damage. (4) The term “launch vehicle” means an object, or any part thereof, intended for launch... activities related to ground support, test, training, simulation, or guidance and control equipment and... different space objects, between two different locations on the same space object, or between a space object...

  14. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF ACTIVE ASTEROID 324P/La SAGRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jewitt, David; Li, Jing [Department of Earth, Planetary and Space Sciences, UCLA, 595 Charles Young Drive East, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1567 (United States); Agarwal, Jessica [Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany); Weaver, Harold [The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, Maryland 20723 (United States); Mutchler, Max [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Larson, Stephen, E-mail: jewitt@ucla.edu [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1629 E. University Boulevard, Tucson, AZ 85721-0092 (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Hubble Space Telescope observations of active asteroid 324P/La Sagra near perihelion show continued mass loss consistent with the sublimation of near-surface ice. Isophotes of the coma measured from a vantage point below the orbital plane are best matched by steady emission of particles having a nominal size  of  a  ∼ 100 μ m. The inferred rate of mass loss, dM{sub d} / dt  ∼ 0.2 kg s{sup −1}, can be supplied by sublimation of water ice in thermal equilibrium with sunlight from an area as small as 930 m{sup 2}, corresponding to about 0.2% of the nucleus surface. Observations taken from a vantage point only 0.°6 from the orbital plane of 324P set a limit to the velocity of ejection of dust in the direction perpendicular to the plane, V {sub ⊥} < 1 m s{sup −1}. Short-term photometric variations of the near-nucleus region, if related to rotation of the underlying nucleus, rule-out periods ≤3.8 hr and suggest that rotation probably does not play a central role in driving the observed mass loss. We estimate that, in the previous orbit, 324P lost about 4 × 10{sup 7} kg in dust particles, corresponding to 6 × 10{sup −5} of the mass of a 550 m spherical nucleus of assumed density ρ  = 1000 kg m{sup −3}. If continued, mass loss at this rate would limit the lifetime of 324P to ∼1.6 × 10{sup 4} orbits (about 10{sup 5} years). To survive for the 100–400 Myr timescales corresponding to dynamical and collisional stability requires a duty cycle of 2 × 10{sup −4} ≤  f{sub d}  ≤ 8 × 10{sup −4}. Unless its time in orbit is overestimated by many orders of magnitude, 324P is revealed as a briefly active member of a vast population of otherwise dormant ice-containing asteroids.

  15. Photometric Calibration of the Barium Cloud Image in a Space Active Experiment: Determining the Release Efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Liang-Hai; Li Lei; Wang Jing-Dong; Tao Ran; Cheng Bing-Jun; Zhang Yi-Teng

    2014-01-01

    The barium release experiment is an effective method to explore the near-earth environment and to study all kinds of space physics processes. The first space barium release experiment in China was successfully carried out by a sounding rocket on April 5, 2013. This work is devoted to calculating the release efficiency of the barium release by analyzing the optical image observed during the experiment. First, we present a method to calibrate the images grey value of barium cloud with the reference stars to obtain the radiant fluxes at different moments. Then the release efficiency is obtained by a curve fitting with the theoretical evolution model of barium cloud. The calculated result is basically consistent with the test value on ground

  16. Manned space activity and psychological problems and issues; Yujin uchu katsudo to shinrigakuteki shomondai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kume, M. [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-03-05

    This paper considers psychological problems and issues for crews living in a space station for an extended period of time. The problems and issues may be divided largely into decline in mental functions such as neural fatigue, sleeplessness, decreased mental work functions, and aggravation in mental state such as anxiety, weariness, hostility, and declined morale. Factors for causing psychological problems may include zero gravity environment, radiation, limited space, vibration, being present under all eyes fixed on oneself, physical restrictions, space-sickness, living in a group, and work contents. These are classified into problems of mental functions that occur from situations specific to space and problems of metal state that come from inner part of the individuals. Life under space environment has neither been studied systematically nor organizationally. The following new criteria for human factors would be required: personality factors that demand individual`s natural gifts, crew factors that view group activities of crews importantly, operation factors that consider quality and amount of operations, and check of mental soundness of the crews. Themes that require further studies would include establishment of psychological aptitude selection criteria and development of psychological group training programs. 7 refs.

  17. Active learning in the space engineering education at Technical University of Madrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Jacobo; Laverón-Simavilla, Ana; Lapuerta, Victoria; Ezquerro Navarro, Jose Miguel; Cordero-Gracia, Marta

    This work describes the innovative activities performed in the field of space education at the Technical University of Madrid (UPM), in collaboration with the center engaged by the European Space Agency (ESA) in Spain to support the operations for scientific experiments on board the International Space Station (E-USOC). These activities have been integrated along the last academic year of the Aerospatiale Engineering degree. A laboratory has been created, where the students have to validate and integrate the subsystems of a microsatellite by using demonstrator satellites. With the acquired skills, the students participate in a training process centered on Project Based Learning, where the students work in groups to perform the conceptual design of a space mission, being each student responsible for the design of a subsystem of the satellite and another one responsible of the mission design. In parallel, the students perform a training using a ground station, installed at the E-USOC building, which allow them to learn how to communicate with satellites, how to download telemetry and how to process the data. This also allows students to learn how the E-USOC works. Two surveys have been conducted to evaluate the impact of these techniques in the student engineering skills and to know the degree of satisfaction of students with respect to the use of these learning methodologies.

  18. Reporting consistently on CSR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Christa; Nielsen, Anne Ellerup

    2006-01-01

    This chapter first outlines theory and literature on CSR and Stakeholder Relations focusing on the different perspectives and the contextual and dynamic character of the CSR concept. CSR reporting challenges are discussed and a model of analysis is proposed. Next, our paper presents the results...... of a case study showing that companies use different and not necessarily consistent strategies for reporting on CSR. Finally, the implications for managerial practice are discussed. The chapter concludes by highlighting the value and awareness of the discourse and the discourse types adopted...... in the reporting material. By implementing consistent discourse strategies that interact according to a well-defined pattern or order, it is possible to communicate a strong social commitment on the one hand, and to take into consideration the expectations of the shareholders and the other stakeholders...

  19. Geometrically Consistent Mesh Modification

    KAUST Repository

    Bonito, A.

    2010-01-01

    A new paradigm of adaptivity is to execute refinement, coarsening, and smoothing of meshes on manifolds with incomplete information about their geometry and yet preserve position and curvature accuracy. We refer to this collectively as geometrically consistent (GC) mesh modification. We discuss the concept of discrete GC, show the failure of naive approaches, and propose and analyze a simple algorithm that is GC and accuracy preserving. © 2010 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  20. Effect of major school playground reconstruction on physical activity and sedentary behaviour: Camden active spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Hamer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The physical school environment is a promising setting to increase children’s physical activity although robust evidence is sparse. We examined the effects of major playground reconstruction on physical activity and sedentary time in primary schools using a quasi-experimental design (comparison group pre-test/post-test design. Methods Five experimental and two control schools from deprived areas of inner city London were recruited at baseline. Main outcome was physical activity and sedentary time measured from objective monitoring (Actigraph accelerometer at one year follow up. Pupils’ impressions of the new playground were qualitatively assessed post construction. Results A total of 347 pupils (mean age = 8 years, 55% boys; 36% Caucasian were recruited into the study at baseline; 303 provided valid baseline Actigraph data. Of those, 231 (76% completed follow-up (n = 169 intervention; n = 62 control and 77.4% of the sample recorded at least 4 days of Actigraph wear. In mixed models adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, ratio activity or sedentary/wear time at baseline, wear time at follow up, and school, no differences were observed in total moderate – vigorous activity (B = −1.4, 95% CI, −7.1, 4.2 min/d, light activity (B = 4.1, 95% CI, −17.9, 26.1, or sedentary time (B = −3.8, 95% CI, −29.2, 21.6 min/d between groups. There were significant age interactions for sedentary (p = 0.002 and light intensity physical activity (p = 0.008. We observed significant reductions in total sedentary (−28.0, 95% CI, −1.9, −54.1 min/d, p = 0.037 and increases in total light intensity activity (24.6, 95% CI, 0.3, 48.9 min/d, p = 0.047 for children aged under 9 yrs. old in the intervention. Conclusion Major playground reconstruction had limited effects on physical activity, but reduced sedentary time was observed in younger children. Qualitative data suggested that the children enjoyed the new

  1. Novel strategy to implement active-space coupled-cluster methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolik, Zoltán; Kállay, Mihály

    2018-03-01

    A new approach is presented for the efficient implementation of coupled-cluster (CC) methods including higher excitations based on a molecular orbital space partitioned into active and inactive orbitals. In the new framework, the string representation of amplitudes and intermediates is used as long as it is beneficial, but the contractions are evaluated as matrix products. Using a new diagrammatic technique, the CC equations are represented in a compact form due to the string notations we introduced. As an application of these ideas, a new automated implementation of the single-reference-based multi-reference CC equations is presented for arbitrary excitation levels. The new program can be considered as an improvement over the previous implementations in many respects; e.g., diagram contributions are evaluated by efficient vectorized subroutines. Timings for test calculations for various complete active-space problems are presented. As an application of the new code, the weak interactions in the Be dimer were studied.

  2. A Space Weather mission concept: Observatories of the Solar Corona and Active Regions (OSCAR)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strugarek, Antoine; Janitzek, Nils; Lee, Arrow

    2015-01-01

    advancements in the field of solar physics, improvements of the current CME prediction models, and provide data for reliable space weather forecasting. These objectives are achieved by utilising two spacecraft with identical instrumentation, located at a heliocentric orbital distance of 1 AU from the Sun......Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) and Corotating Interaction Regions (CIRs) are major sources of magnetic storms on Earth and are therefore considered to be the most dangerous space weather events. The Observatories of Solar Corona and Active Regions (OSCAR) mission is designed to identify the 3D...... structure of coronal loops and to study the trigger mechanisms of CMEs in solar Active Regions (ARs) as well as their evolution and propagation processes in the inner heliosphere. It also aims to provide monitoring and forecasting of geo-effective CMEs and CIRs. OSCAR would contribute to significant...

  3. Features of public open spaces and physical activity among children: findings from the CLAN study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timperio, Anna; Giles-Corti, Billie; Crawford, David; Andrianopoulos, Nick; Ball, Kylie; Salmon, Jo; Hume, Clare

    2008-11-01

    To examine associations between features of public open spaces, and children's physical activity. 163 children aged 8-9 years and 334 adolescents aged 13-15 years from Melbourne, Australia participated in 2004. A Geographic Information System was used to identify all public open spaces (POS) within 800 m of participants' homes and their closest POS. The features of all POS identified were audited in 2004/5. Accelerometers measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) after school and on weekends. Linear regression analyses examined associations between features of the closest POS and participants' MVPA. Most participants had a POS within 800 m of their home. The presence of playgrounds was positively associated with younger boys' weekend MVPA (B=24.9 min/day; pPOS were associated with participants' MVPA, although mixed associations were evident. Further research is required to clarify these complex relationships.

  4. Adolescents who engage in active school transport are also more active in other contexts: A space-time investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Tom; Duncan, Scott; Schipperijn, Jasper

    2017-01-01

    Although active school travel (AST) is important for increasing moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), it is unclear how AST is related to context-specific physical activity and non-school travel. This study investigated how school travel is related to physical activity and travel behaviours across time- and space-classified domains. A total of 196 adolescents wore a Global Positioning System receiver and an accelerometer for 7 days. All data were classified into one of four domains: home, school, transport, or leisure. Generalized linear mixed models were used to compare domain-specific PA and non-school trips between active and passive school travellers. Active travellers accumulated 13 and 14 more min of MVPA on weekdays and weekend days, respectively. They also spent 15min less time in vehicular travel during non-school trips, and accrued an additional 9min of MVPA while walking on weekend days. However, those with no AST still achieved most of their MVPA in the transport domain. AST is related to out-of-school physical activity and transportation, but transport is also important for those who do not use AST. As such, future studies should consider overall mobility and destinations other than school when assessing travel and physical activity behaviours. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Activity of Antifungal Organobismuth(III Compounds Derived from Alkyl Aryl Ketones against S. cerevisiae: Comparison with a Heterocyclic Bismuth Scaffold Consisting of a Diphenyl Sulfone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihiro Murafuji

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A series of hypervalent organobismuth(III compounds derived from alkyl aryl ketones [XBi(5-R'C6H3-2-COR(Ar] was synthesized to investigate the effect of the compounds’ structural features on their antifungal activity against the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In contrast to bismuth heterocycles [XBi(5-RC6H3-2-SO2C6H4-1'-] derived from diphenyl sulfones, a systematic quantitative structure-activity relationship study was possible. The activity depended on the Ar group and increased for heavier X atoms, whereas lengthening the alkyl chain (R or introducing a substituent (R' reduced the activity. IBi(C6H4-2-COCH3(4-FC6H4 was the most active. Its activity was superior to that of the related acyclic analogues ClBi[C6H4-2-CH2N(CH32](Ar and ClBi(C6H4-2-SO2 tert-Bu(Ar and also comparable to that of heterocyclic ClBi(C6H4-2-SO2C6H4-1'-, which was the most active compound in our previous studies. Density function theory calculations suggested that hypervalent bismuthanes undergo nucleophilic addition with a biomolecule at the bismuth atom to give an intermediate ate complex. For higher antifungal activity, adjusting the lipophilicity-hydrophilicity balance, modeling the three-dimensional molecular structure around the bismuth atom, and stabilizing the ate complex appear to be more important than tuning the Lewis acidity at the bismuth atom.

  6. Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on the International Space Station (ISS): Launch, Installation, Activation, and First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeslee, R. J.; Christian, H. J., Jr.; Mach, D. M.; Buechler, D. E.; Koshak, W. J.; Walker, T. D.; Bateman, M. G.; Stewart, M. F.; O'Brien, S.; Wilson, T. O.; Pavelitz, S. D.; Coker, C.

    2016-12-01

    Over the past 20 years, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, the University of Alabama in Huntsville, and their partners developed and demonstrated the effectiveness and value of space-based lightning observations as a remote sensing tool for Earth science research and applications, and, in the process, established a robust global lightning climatology. The observations included measurements from the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and its Optical Transient Detector (OTD) predecessor that acquired global observations of total lightning (i.e., intracloud and cloud-to-ground discharges) spanning a period from May 1995 through April 2015. As an exciting follow-on to these prior missions, a space-qualified LIS built as a flight-spare for TRMM will be delivered to the International Space Station (ISS) for a 2 year or longer mission, flown as a hosted payload on the Department of Defense (DoD) Space Test Program-Houston 5 (STP-H5) mission. The STP-H5 payload containing LIS is scheduled launch from NASA's Kennedy Space Center to the ISS in November 2016, aboard the SpaceX Cargo Resupply Services-10 (SpaceX-10) mission, installed in the unpressurized "trunk" of the Dragon spacecraft. After the Dragon is berth to ISS Node 2, the payload will be removed from the trunk and robotically installed in a nadir-viewing location on the external truss of the ISS. Following installation on the ISS, the LIS Operations Team will work with the STP-H5 and ISS Operations Teams to power-on LIS and begin instrument checkout and commissioning. Following successful activation, LIS orbital operations will commence, managed from the newly established LIS Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) located at the National Space Science Technology Center (NSSTC) in Huntsville, AL. The well-established and robust processing, archival, and distribution infrastructure used for TRMM was easily adapted to the ISS mission, assuring that lightning

  7. The Rucio Consistency Service

    CERN Document Server

    Serfon, Cedric; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    One of the biggest challenge with Large scale data management system is to ensure the consistency between the global file catalog and what is physically on all storage elements. To tackle this issue, the Rucio software which is used by the ATLAS Distributed Data Management system has been extended to automatically handle lost or unregistered files (aka Dark Data). This system automatically detects these inconsistencies and take actions like recovery or deletion of unneeded files in a central manner. In this talk, we will present this system, explain the internals and give some results.

  8. Anti-hierarchical evolution of the active galactic nucleus space density in a hierarchical universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enoki, Motohiro; Ishiyama, Tomoaki; Kobayashi, Masakazu A. R.; Nagashima, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    Recent observations show that the space density of luminous active galactic nuclei (AGNs) peaks at higher redshifts than that of faint AGNs. This downsizing trend in the AGN evolution seems to be contradictory to the hierarchical structure formation scenario. In this study, we present the AGN space density evolution predicted by a semi-analytic model of galaxy and AGN formation based on the hierarchical structure formation scenario. We demonstrate that our model can reproduce the downsizing trend of the AGN space density evolution. The reason for the downsizing trend in our model is a combination of the cold gas depletion as a consequence of star formation, the gas cooling suppression in massive halos, and the AGN lifetime scaling with the dynamical timescale. We assume that a major merger of galaxies causes a starburst, spheroid formation, and cold gas accretion onto a supermassive black hole (SMBH). We also assume that this cold gas accretion triggers AGN activity. Since the cold gas is mainly depleted by star formation and gas cooling is suppressed in massive dark halos, the amount of cold gas accreted onto SMBHs decreases with cosmic time. Moreover, AGN lifetime increases with cosmic time. Thus, at low redshifts, major mergers do not always lead to luminous AGNs. Because the luminosity of AGNs is correlated with the mass of accreted gas onto SMBHs, the space density of luminous AGNs decreases more quickly than that of faint AGNs. We conclude that the anti-hierarchical evolution of the AGN space density is not contradictory to the hierarchical structure formation scenario.

  9. Anti-hierarchical evolution of the active galactic nucleus space density in a hierarchical universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enoki, Motohiro [Faculty of Business Administration, Tokyo Keizai University, Kokubunji, Tokyo 185-8502 (Japan); Ishiyama, Tomoaki [Center for Computational Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Kobayashi, Masakazu A. R. [Research Center for Space and Cosmic Evolution, Ehime University, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8577 (Japan); Nagashima, Masahiro, E-mail: enokimt@tku.ac.jp [Faculty of Education, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Nagasaki 852-8521 (Japan)

    2014-10-10

    Recent observations show that the space density of luminous active galactic nuclei (AGNs) peaks at higher redshifts than that of faint AGNs. This downsizing trend in the AGN evolution seems to be contradictory to the hierarchical structure formation scenario. In this study, we present the AGN space density evolution predicted by a semi-analytic model of galaxy and AGN formation based on the hierarchical structure formation scenario. We demonstrate that our model can reproduce the downsizing trend of the AGN space density evolution. The reason for the downsizing trend in our model is a combination of the cold gas depletion as a consequence of star formation, the gas cooling suppression in massive halos, and the AGN lifetime scaling with the dynamical timescale. We assume that a major merger of galaxies causes a starburst, spheroid formation, and cold gas accretion onto a supermassive black hole (SMBH). We also assume that this cold gas accretion triggers AGN activity. Since the cold gas is mainly depleted by star formation and gas cooling is suppressed in massive dark halos, the amount of cold gas accreted onto SMBHs decreases with cosmic time. Moreover, AGN lifetime increases with cosmic time. Thus, at low redshifts, major mergers do not always lead to luminous AGNs. Because the luminosity of AGNs is correlated with the mass of accreted gas onto SMBHs, the space density of luminous AGNs decreases more quickly than that of faint AGNs. We conclude that the anti-hierarchical evolution of the AGN space density is not contradictory to the hierarchical structure formation scenario.

  10. Three typical examples of activation of the international charter space and major disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessis, J.; Bequignon, J.; Mahmood, A.

    The purpose of the International Charter is to provide a unified system of space data acquisition and delivery for users affected by disasters, to promote co - operation between space agencies and space system operators and to allow participation in the organisation of emergency assistance or subsequent operations. The Charter which is officially in operation since November 1, 2000 was signed on June 20, 2000 by CNES (1) and ESA (2) and enlarged later on with the membership of the CSA (3) in October 2000 and of the NOAA (4) and the ISRO (5), both in September 2001. All Partner agencies undertake to co-operate on a voluntary basis with no exchange of funds between them in the event of a major natural or man-induced disaster. This paper, after a brief description of the Charter organisation and of its implementation procedures, addresses three typical cases of Charter activation and the lessons learned to date. The first example will deal with the major earthquakes in January and February 2001 in El Salvador for the benefit of the Salvadorian National Register Centre, the second concerning flooding in the North East of France early 2002 with quick delivery of flood maps to the French Civil Protection Authority and the last one will focus on the Nyiragongo volcanic eruption near the town of Goma in the Democratic Republic of Congo. It will include feedback from the Authorised Users concerning the usefulness of the Charter and the suggested improvements in terms of response time, sensors capability and resolution, delivered products (scale and ease of operational utilisation) and adapted scenarios.(1) Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales, (2) European Space Agency, (3) Canadian Space Agency, (4) National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration , (5) Indian Space Research Organisation

  11. Is cosmology consistent?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaomin; Tegmark, Max; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2002-01-01

    We perform a detailed analysis of the latest cosmic microwave background (CMB) measurements (including BOOMERaNG, DASI, Maxima and CBI), both alone and jointly with other cosmological data sets involving, e.g., galaxy clustering and the Lyman Alpha Forest. We first address the question of whether the CMB data are internally consistent once calibration and beam uncertainties are taken into account, performing a series of statistical tests. With a few minor caveats, our answer is yes, and we compress all data into a single set of 24 bandpowers with associated covariance matrix and window functions. We then compute joint constraints on the 11 parameters of the 'standard' adiabatic inflationary cosmological model. Our best fit model passes a series of physical consistency checks and agrees with essentially all currently available cosmological data. In addition to sharp constraints on the cosmic matter budget in good agreement with those of the BOOMERaNG, DASI and Maxima teams, we obtain a heaviest neutrino mass range 0.04-4.2 eV and the sharpest constraints to date on gravity waves which (together with preference for a slight red-tilt) favor 'small-field' inflation models

  12. Consistent Quantum Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Robert B.

    2001-11-01

    Quantum mechanics is one of the most fundamental yet difficult subjects in physics. Nonrelativistic quantum theory is presented here in a clear and systematic fashion, integrating Born's probabilistic interpretation with Schrödinger dynamics. Basic quantum principles are illustrated with simple examples requiring no mathematics beyond linear algebra and elementary probability theory. The quantum measurement process is consistently analyzed using fundamental quantum principles without referring to measurement. These same principles are used to resolve several of the paradoxes that have long perplexed physicists, including the double slit and Schrödinger's cat. The consistent histories formalism used here was first introduced by the author, and extended by M. Gell-Mann, J. Hartle and R. Omnès. Essential for researchers yet accessible to advanced undergraduate students in physics, chemistry, mathematics, and computer science, this book is supplementary to standard textbooks. It will also be of interest to physicists and philosophers working on the foundations of quantum mechanics. Comprehensive account Written by one of the main figures in the field Paperback edition of successful work on philosophy of quantum mechanics

  13. Infusion of low dose glyceryl trinitrate has no consistent effect on burrowing behavior, running wheel activity and light sensitivity in female rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Sarah Louise T; Petersen, Steffen; Sørensen, Dorte Bratbo

    2016-01-01

    . In the current paper we have studied the effect of glyceryl trinitrate infusion on three different rat behaviors. Methods: The stability of burrowing behavior, running wheel activity and light sensitivity towards repeated testing was evaluated also with respect to estrous cycle. Finally, the effect of glyceryl...... trinitrate on these behaviors in female rats was observed. Results: Burrowing behavior and running wheel activity were stable in the individual rat between experiments. The burrowing behavior was significantly affected by the stage of estrous cycle. The other assays were stable throughout the cycle. None...

  14. Meeting the Grand Challenge of Protecting Astronaut's Health: Electrostatic Active Space Radiation Shielding for Deep Space Missions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This study will seek to test and validate an electrostatic gossamer structure to provide radiation shielding. It will provide guidelines for energy requirements,...

  15. Nucleophilic behavior of lysine-501 of the alpha-polypeptide of sodium and potassium ion activated adenosinetriphosphatase consistent with a role in binding adenosine triphosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, K.Y.; Kyte, J.

    1989-01-01

    An immunoadsorbent specific for the carboxy-terminal sequence -GAPER, which comprises residues 502-506 of the alpha-polypeptide of ovine sodium and potassium ion activated adenosinetriphosphatase [(Na+ + K+)-ATPase], was used to isolate the products of the reaction between the lysine immediately preceding this sequence in the intact protein and either [3H]acetic anhydride or fluorescein 5'-isothiocyanate. Changes in the apparent nucleophilicity of this lysine, Lys501, were observed with both reagents when ATP was bound by the intact, native enzyme poised in the E1 conformation or when the structure of the enzyme was changed from the E1 conformation into the E2-P conformation. With both reagents, a decrease of more than 4-fold in the yield of incorporation occurred during the former change, but a decrease of only 2-fold occurred during the latter. Because a much larger decrease occurred when ATP was bound in the absence of a conformational change than occurred when a major conformational change took place in the absence of the occupation of the active site, these changes in the incorporation of [3H]acetyl suggest that Lys501 from the alpha polypeptide is directly involved in binding ATP within the active site of (Na+ + K+)-ATPase. The immunochemical reactions between the specific polyclonal antibodies raised against the sequence-GAPER and denatured or enzymically active (Na+ + K+)-ATPase were also investigated. Western blots and the inhibition of enzymic activity caused by the antibody have shown that it can bind to both the denatured and the native form of the alpha-polypeptide, respectively

  16. Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on the International Space Station (ISS): Launch, Installation, Activation, and First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeslee, R. J.; Christian, H. J., Jr.; Mach, D. M.; Buechler, D. E.; Wharton, N. A.; Stewart, M. F.; Ellett, W. T.; Koshak, W. J.; Walker, T. D.

    2017-12-01

    Over two decades, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, the University of Alabama in Huntsville, and their partners developed and demonstrated the effectiveness and value of space-based lightning observations as a remote sensing tool for Earth science research and applications, and, in the process, established a robust global lightning climatology. The Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) provided global observations of tropical lightning for an impressive 17 years before that mission came to a close in April 2015. Now a space-qualified LIS, built as the flight spare for TRMM, has been installed on the International Space Station (ISS) for a minimum two year mission following its SpaceX launch on February 19, 2017. The LIS, flown as a hosted payload on the Department of Defense Space Test Program-Houston 5 (STP-H5) mission, was robotically installed in an Earth-viewing position on the outside of the ISS, providing a great opportunity to not only extend the 17-year TRMM LIS record of tropical lightning measurements but also to expand that coverage to higher latitudes missed by the TRMM mission. Since its activation, LIS has continuously observed the amount, rate, and radiant energy lightning within its field-of-view as it orbits the Earth. A major focus of this mission is to better understand the processes which cause lightning, as well as the connections between lightning and subsequent severe weather events. This understanding is a key to improving weather predictions and saving lives and property here in the United States and around the world. The LIS measurements will also help cross-validate observations from the new Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) operating on NOAA's newest weather satellite GOES-16. An especially unique contribution from the ISS platform will be the availability of real-time lightning data, especially valuable for operational forecasting and warning applications over data sparse regions such

  17. Indicaxanthin from Opuntia ficus-indica Crosses the Blood-Brain Barrier and Modulates Neuronal Bioelectric Activity in Rat Hippocampus at Dietary-Consistent Amounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegra, Mario; Carletti, Fabio; Gambino, Giuditta; Tutone, Marco; Attanzio, Alessandro; Tesoriere, Luisa; Ferraro, Giuseppe; Sardo, Pierangelo; Almerico, Anna Maria; Livrea, Maria Antonia

    2015-08-26

    Indicaxanthin is a bioactive and bioavailable betalain pigment from the Opuntia ficus-indica fruits. In this in vivo study, kinetic measurements showed that indicaxanthin is revealed in the rat brain within 1 h from oral administration of 2 μmol/kg, an amount compatible with a dietary consumption of cactus pear fruits in humans. A peak (20 ± 2.4 ng of indicaxanthin per whole brain) was measured after 2.5 h; thereafter the molecule disappeared with first order kinetics within 4 h. The potential of indicaxanthin to affect neural activities was in vivo investigated by a microiontophoretic approach. Indicaxanthin, administered in a range between 0.085 ng and 0.34 ng per neuron, dose-dependently modulated the rate of discharge of spontaneously active neurons of the hippocampus, with reduction of the discharge and related changes of latency and duration of the effect. Indicaxanthin (0.34 ng/neuron) showed inhibitory effects on glutamate-induced excitation, indicating activity at the level of glutamatergic synapses. A molecular target of indicaxanthin is suggested by in silico molecular modeling of indicaxanthin with N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), the most represented of the glutamate receptor family in hippocampus. Therefore, at nutritionally compatible amounts indicaxanthin (i) crosses the rat BBB and accumulates in brain; (ii) can affect the bioelectric activity of hippocampal neurons locally treated with amounts comparable with those measured in the brain; and (iii) modulates glutamate-induced neuronal excitation. The potential of dietary indicaxanthin as a natural neuromodulatory agent deserves further mechanistic and neurophysiologic investigation.

  18. Intervention Effects on Adolescent Physical Activity in the Multicomponent SPACE Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftager, Mette; Christiansen, Lars B; Ersbøll, Annette K

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Multicomponent school-based interventions have the potential to reduce the age-related decline in adolescents' physical activity (PA), yet there is not consistent evidence to guide non-curricular and school environment interventions. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness......-up. A total of 1,348 students (11-13 years, in grade 5 and 6) enrolled in the study at baseline. The 14 schools included in the study were located in the Region of Southern Denmark. The intervention consisted of organizational and physical changes in the school environment with a total of 11 intervention...

  19. Space suit bioenergetics: framework and analysis of unsuited and suited activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Christopher E; Newman, Dava J

    2007-11-01

    Metabolic costs limit the duration and intensity of extravehicular activity (EVA), an essential component of future human missions to the Moon and Mars. Energetics Framework: We present a framework for comparison of energetics data across and between studies. This framework, applied to locomotion, differentiates between muscle efficiency and energy recovery, two concepts often confused in the literature. The human run-walk transition in Earth gravity occurs at the point for which energy recovery is approximately the same for walking and running, suggesting a possible role for recovery in gait transitions. Muscular Energetics: Muscle physiology limits the overall efficiency by which chemical energy is converted through metabolism to useful work. Unsuited Locomotion: Walking and running use different methods of energy storage and release. These differences contribute to the relative changes in the metabolic cost of walking and running as gravity is varied, with the metabolic cost of locomoting at a given velocity changing in proportion to gravity for running and less than in proportion for walking. Space Suits: Major factors affecting the energetic cost of suited movement include suit pressurization, gravity, velocity, surface slope, and space suit configuration. Apollo lunar surface EVA traverse metabolic rates, while unexpectedly low, were higher than other activity categories. The Lunar Roving Vehicle facilitated even lower metabolic rates, thus longer duration EVAs. Muscles and tendons act like springs during running; similarly, longitudinal pressure forces in gas pressure space suits allow spring-like storage and release of energy when suits are self-supporting.

  20. Active pore space utilization in nanoporous carbon-based supercapacitors: Effects of conductivity and pore accessibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seredych, Mykola; Koscinski, Mikolaj; Sliwinska-Bartkowiak, Malgorzata; Bandosz, Teresa J.

    2012-12-01

    Composites of commercial graphene and nanoporous sodium-salt-polymer-derived carbons were prepared with 5 or 20 weight% graphene. The materials were characterized using the adsorption of nitrogen, SEM/EDX, thermal analysis, Raman spectroscopy and potentiometric titration. The samples' conductivity was also measured. The performance of the carbon composites in energy storage was linked to their porosity and electronic conductivity. The small pores (<0.7) were found as very active for double layer capacitance. It was demonstrated that when double layer capacitance is a predominant mechanism of charge storage, the degree of the pore space utilization for that storage can be increased by increasing the conductivity of the carbons. That active pore space utilization is defined as gravimetric capacitance per unit pore volume in pores smaller than 0.7 nm. Its magnitude is affected by conductivity of the carbon materials. The functional groups, besides pseudocapacitive contribution, increased the wettability and thus the degree of the pore space utilization. Graphene phase, owing to its conductivity, also took part in an insitu increase of the small pore accessibility and thus the capacitance of the composites via enhancing an electron transfer to small pores and thus imposing the reduction of groups blocking the pores for electrolyte ions.

  1. Using observational methods to evaluate public open spaces and physical activity in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hino A A, F; Reis, Rodrigo S; Ribeiro, Isabela C; Parra, Diana C; Brownson, Ross C; Fermino, Rogerio C

    2010-07-01

    Open public spaces have been identified as important facilities to promote physical activity (PA) at the community level. The main goals of this study are to describe open public spaces user's characteristics and to explore to what extent these characteristics are associated with PA behavior. A system of direct observation was used to evaluate the PA levels on parks and squares (smaller parks) and users's characteristics (gender and age). The 4 parks and 4 squares observed were selected from neighborhoods with different socioeconomic status and environmental characteristics. The settings were observed 3 times a day, 6 days per week, during 2 weeks. More men than women were observed in parks (63.1%) and squares (70.0%) as well as more adults and adolescents than older adults and children. Users were more physically active in parks (men = 34.1%, women = 36.1%) than in squares (men = 25.5%, women 22.8%). The characteristics of public open spaces may affect PA in the observed places. Initiatives to improve PA levels in community settings should consider users' characteristics and preferences to be more effective and reach a larger number of people.

  2. Large aperture telescope technology: a design for an active lightweight multi-segmented fold-out space mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, S. J.; Doel, A. P.; Whalley, M.; Edeson, R.; Edeson, R.; Tosh, I.; Poyntz-Wright, O.; Atad-Ettedgui, E.; Montgomery, D.; Nawasra, J.

    2017-11-01

    Large aperture telescope technology (LATT) is a design study for a differential lidar (DIAL) system; the main investigation being into suitable methods, technologies and materials for a 4-metre diameter active mirror that can be stowed to fit into a typical launch vehicle (e.g. ROKOT launcher with 2.1-metre diameter cargo) and can self-deploy - in terms of both leaving the space vehicle and that the mirrors unfold and self-align to the correct optical form within the tolerances specified. The primary mirror requirements are: main wavelength of 935.5 nm, RMS corrected wavefront error of λ/6, optical surface roughness better than 5 nm, areal density of less than 16 kg/m2 and 1-2 mirror shape corrections per orbit. The primary mirror consists of 7 segments - a central hexagonal mirror and 6 square mirror petals which unfold to form the 4-meter diameter aperture. The focus of the UK LATT consortium for this European Space Agency (ESA) funded project is on using lightweighted aluminium or carbon-fibre-composite materials for the mirror substrate in preference to more traditional materials such as glass and ceramics; these materials have a high strength and stiffness to weight ratio, significantly reducing risk of damage due to launch forces and subsequent deployment in orbit. We present an overview of the design, which includes suitable actuators for wavefront correction, petal deployment mechanisms and lightweight mirror technologies. Preliminary testing results from manufactured lightweight mirror samples will also be summarised.

  3. Space potential fluctuations during MHD activities in the Compact Helical System (CHS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iguchi, H.; Fujisawa, A.; Crowley, T.P.

    1998-02-01

    Local space potential fluctuations have been measured during MHD activities in a low-beta NBI heated plasma in the Compact Helical System (CHS) by the use of a heavy ion beam probe (HIBP). Two types of MHD modes with accompanying potential oscillations are observed. One appears in periodic bursts with relatively low frequency (< 40 kHz) and large amplitude (20-40 volts), and is localized around the q=2 surface (average minor radius ρ ∼ 0.7). The other appears in continuous and coherent oscillation with higher frequency (105-125 kHz) and smaller amplitude (∼5 volts). This oscillation also has spatial structure. Possible interpretation for the space potential oscillations is presented. (author)

  4. Comparison of elemental contents of Korean space foods using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong Sam Chung; Sun Ha Kim; Gwang Min Sun; Jong Myoung Lim; Jong Hwa Moon; Kye Hong Lee; Young Jin Kim; Jong Il Choi; Ju Woon Lee

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of mineral contents in space foods is needed to obtain an information on a comprehensive elemental composition as well as the investigation on the effects of human nutrition and health based on the dietary intake of mineral elements. Recently, six items of new Korean space foods (KSFs) such as kimchi, bibimbap, bulgogi, a ramen, a mulberry beverage and a fruit punch which was developed by the KAERI, and the contents of more than 15 elements in the samples were examined by using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Five biological certified reference materials, NIST SRM were used for analytical quality control. The results were compared with those of common Korean foods reported, and these results will be applied toward the identification of irradiated foods. (author)

  5. Understanding the distribution of activities of urban dwellers using the Space Time Cube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kveladze, Irma; Kraak, Menno-Jan; Ahas, Rein

    2012-01-01

    Urban geographers study the development of cities, and seek to understand the fac-tors that influence human movements over space and time. New communication tech-nologies are significantly impacting these studies, especially in field of data collec-tion. The use case presented here is based...... with a typical temporal nature: ‘Is there a difference in distribution of activi-ties between weekdays and weekends?’ and ‘Are there differences during the day?’ To answer these questions a visual problem solving approach was followed where different graphic representations of the data were used. The choice...... of the maps and diagrams is based on the questions to be answered, for instance a map for the domi-nant where-questions, and the Space Time Cube (STC) for the dominant when-questions. All graphics were integrated in a single multiple coordinated view envi-ronment which allows one to see the impact...

  6. What can the annual 10Be solar activity reconstructions tell us about historic space weather?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Luke; McCracken, Ken G.; Owens, Mat J.; Lockwood, Mike

    2018-04-01

    Context: Cosmogenic isotopes provide useful estimates of past solar magnetic activity, constraining past space climate with reasonable uncertainty. Much less is known about past space weather conditions. Recent advances in the analysis of 10Be by McCracken & Beer (2015, Sol Phys 290: 305-3069) (MB15) suggest that annually resolved 10Be can be significantly affected by solar energetic particle (SEP) fluxes. This poses a problem, and presents an opportunity, as the accurate quantification of past solar magnetic activity requires the SEP effects to be determined and isolated, whilst doing so might provide a valuable record of past SEP fluxes. Aims: We compare the MB15 reconstruction of the heliospheric magnetic field (HMF), with two independent estimates of the HMF derived from sunspot records and geomagnetic variability. We aim to quantify the differences between the HMF reconstructions, and speculate on the origin of these differences. We test whether the differences between the reconstructions appear to depend on known significant space weather events. Methods: We analyse the distributions of the differences between the HMF reconstructions. We consider how the differences vary as a function of solar cycle phase, and, using a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, we compare the distributions under the two conditions of whether or not large space weather events were known to have occurred. Results: We find that the MB15 reconstructions are generally marginally smaller in magnitude than the sunspot and geomagnetic HMF reconstructions. This bias varies as a function of solar cycle phase, and is largest in the declining phase of the solar cycle. We find that MB15's excision of the years with very large ground level enhancement (GLE) improves the agreement of the 10Be HMF estimate with the sunspot and geomagnetic reconstructions. We find no statistical evidence that GLEs, in general, affect the MB15 reconstruction, but this analysis is limited by having too few samples. We do find

  7. Socioeconomic Segregation of Activity Spaces in Urban Neighborhoods: Does Shared Residence Mean Shared Routines?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Browning

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Residential segregation by income and education is increasing alongside slowly declining black-white segregation. Segregation in urban neighborhood residents’ nonhome activity spaces has not been explored. How integrated are the daily routines of people who live in the same neighborhood? Are people with different socioeconomic backgrounds that live near one another less likely to share routine activity locations than those of similar education or income? Do these patterns vary across the socioeconomic continuum or by neighborhood structure? The analyses draw on unique data from the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey that identify the location where residents engage in routine activities. Using multilevel p2 (network models, we analyze pairs of households in the same neighborhood and examine whether the dyad combinations across three levels of SES conduct routine activities in the same location, and whether neighbor socioeconomic similarity in the co-location of routine activities is dependent on the level of neighborhood socioeconomic inequality and trust. Results indicate that, on average, increasing SES diminishes the likelihood of sharing activity locations with any SES group. This pattern is most pronounced in neighborhoods characterized by high levels of socioeconomic inequality. Neighborhood trust explains a nontrivial proportion of the inequality effect on the extent of routine activity sorting by SES. Thus stark, visible neighborhood-level inequality by SES may lead to enhanced effects of distrust on the willingness to share routines across class.

  8. Exploring sets of molecules from patents and relationships to other active compounds in chemical space networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunimoto, Ryo; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2017-09-01

    Patents from medicinal chemistry represent a rich source of novel compounds and activity data that appear only infrequently in the scientific literature. Moreover, patent information provides a primary focal point for drug discovery. Accordingly, text mining and image extraction approaches have become hot topics in patent analysis and repositories of patent data are being established. In this work, we have generated network representations using alternative similarity measures to systematically compare molecules from patents with other bioactive compounds, visualize similarity relationships, explore the chemical neighbourhood of patent molecules, and identify closely related compounds with different activities. The design of network representations that combine patent molecules and other bioactive compounds and view patent information in the context of current bioactive chemical space aids in the analysis of patents and further extends the use of molecular networks to explore structure-activity relationships.

  9. Utilizing Participatory Mapping and GIS to Examine the Activity Spaces of Homeless Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townley, Greg; Pearson, L; Lehrwyn, Josephine M; Prophet, Nicole T; Trauernicht, Mareike

    2016-06-01

    Although previous studies have informed our understanding of certain aspects of youth homelessness, few studies have critically examined the spatial and social environments utilized by youth as they navigate life on the streets. This study employed participatory mapping and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to examine the activity spaces of homeless youth as they relate to sense of community and psychological well-being. Participants were 28 youth experiencing homelessness in Portland, Oregon, USA. Results suggest that youth engage most frequently in service-related activities, and their activity participation is significantly associated with sense of community and psychological well-being. The utility of innovative participatory methods for better understanding the diverse experiences of homeless youth is discussed alongside examination of their practical implications. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.

  10. Tracking and visualization of space-time activities for a micro-scale flu transmission study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Feng; Du, Fei

    2013-02-07

    Infectious diseases pose increasing threats to public health with increasing population density and more and more sophisticated social networks. While efforts continue in studying the large scale dissemination of contagious diseases, individual-based activity and behaviour study benefits not only disease transmission modelling but also the control, containment, and prevention decision making at the local scale. The potential for using tracking technologies to capture detailed space-time trajectories and model individual behaviour is increasing rapidly, as technological advances enable the manufacture of small, lightweight, highly sensitive, and affordable receivers and the routine use of location-aware devices has become widespread (e.g., smart cellular phones). The use of low-cost tracking devices in medical research has also been proved effective by more and more studies. This study describes the use of tracking devices to collect data of space-time trajectories and the spatiotemporal processing of such data to facilitate micro-scale flu transmission study. We also reports preliminary findings on activity patterns related to chances of influenza infection in a pilot study. Specifically, this study employed A-GPS tracking devices to collect data on a university campus. Spatiotemporal processing was conducted for data cleaning and segmentation. Processed data was validated with traditional activity diaries. The A-GPS data set was then used for visual explorations including density surface visualization and connection analysis to examine space-time activity patterns in relation to chances of influenza infection. When compared to diary data, the segmented tracking data demonstrated to be an effective alternative and showed greater accuracies in time as well as the details of routes taken by participants. A comparison of space-time activity patterns between participants who caught seasonal influenza and those who did not revealed interesting patterns. This study

  11. A framework for consistent estimation of leaf area index, fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation, and surface albedo from MODIS time-series data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Zhiqiang; Liang, Shunlin; Wang, Jindi

    2015-01-01

    -series MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) surface reflectance data. If the reflectance data showed snow-free areas, an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) technique was used to estimate leaf area index (LAI) for a two-layer canopy reflectance model (ACRM) by combining predictions from a phenology...... model and the MODIS surface reflectance data. The estimated LAI values were then input into the ACRM to calculate the surface albedo and the fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FAPAR). For snow-covered areas, the surface albedo was calculated as the underlying vegetation canopy...... albedo plus the weighted distance between the underlying vegetation canopy albedo and the albedo over deep snow. The LAI/FAPAR and surface albedo values estimated using this framework were compared with MODIS collection 5 eight-day 1-km LAI/FAPAR products (MOD15A2) and 500-m surface albedo product (MCD43...

  12. Development of a thinned back-illuminated CMOS active pixel sensor for extreme ultraviolet spectroscopy and imaging in space science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waltham, N.R.; Prydderch, M.; Mapson-Menard, H.; Pool, P.; Harris, A.

    2007-01-01

    We describe our programme to develop a large-format, science-grade, monolithic CMOS active pixel sensor for future space science missions, and in particular an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrograph for solar physics studies on ESA's Solar Orbiter. Our route to EUV sensitivity relies on adapting the back-thinning and rear-illumination techniques first developed for CCD sensors. Our first large-format sensor consists of 4kx3k 5 μm pixels fabricated on a 0.25 μm CMOS imager process. Wafer samples of these sensors have been thinned by e2v technologies with the aim of obtaining good sensitivity at EUV wavelengths. We present results from both front- and back-illuminated versions of this sensor. We also present our plans to develop a new sensor of 2kx2k 10 μm pixels, which will be fabricated on a 0.35 μm CMOS process. In progress towards this goal, we have designed a test-structure consisting of six arrays of 512x512 10 μm pixels. Each of the arrays has been given a different pixel design to allow verification of our models, and our progress towards optimizing a design for minimal system readout noise and maximum dynamic range. These sensors will also be back-thinned for characterization at EUV wavelengths

  13. Space Active Optics: toward optimized correcting mirrors for future large spaceborne observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laslandes, Marie; Hugot, Emmanuel; Ferrari, Marc; Lemaitre, Gérard; Liotard, Arnaud

    2011-10-01

    Wave-front correction in optical instruments is often needed, either to compensate Optical Path Differences, off-axis aberrations or mirrors deformations. Active optics techniques are developed to allow efficient corrections with deformable mirrors. In this paper, we will present the conception of particular deformation systems which could be used in space telescopes and instruments in order to improve their performances while allowing relaxing specifications on the global system stability. A first section will be dedicated to the design and performance analysis of an active mirror specifically designed to compensate for aberrations that might appear in future 3m-class space telescopes, due to lightweight primary mirrors, thermal variations or weightless conditions. A second section will be dedicated to a brand new design of active mirror, able to compensate for given combinations of aberrations with a single actuator. If the aberrations to be corrected in an instrument and their evolutions are known in advance, an optimal system geometry can be determined thanks to the elasticity theory and Finite Element Analysis.

  14. Actively mode-locked diode laser with a mode spacing stability of ∼6 × 10{sup -14}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakharyash, V F; Kashirsky, A V; Klementyev, V M [Institute of Laser Physics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-31

    We have studied mode spacing stability in an actively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser. It has been shown that, in the case of mode spacing pulling to the frequency of a highly stable external microwave signal produced by a hydrogen standard (stability of 4 × 10{sup -14} over an averaging period τ = 10 s), this configuration ensures a mode spacing stability of 5.92 × 10{sup -14} (τ = 10 s). (control of radiation parameters)

  15. Active pixel sensors: The sensor of choice for future space applications

    OpenAIRE

    Leijtens, J.; Theuwissen, A.; Rao, P.R.; Wang, X.; Xie, N.

    2007-01-01

    It is generally known that active pixel sensors (APS) have a number of advantages over CCD detectors if it comes to cost for mass production, power consumption and ease of integration. Nevertheless, most space applications still use CCD detectors because they tend to give better performance and have a successful heritage. To this respect a change may be at hand with the advent of deep sub-micron processed APS imagers (< 0.25-micron feature size). Measurements performed on test structures at t...

  16. Measurement of activity coefficients of mixtures by head-space gas chromatography: general procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis, Patricia; Wouters, Christine; Van der Bruggen, Bart; Sandler, Stanley I

    2013-08-09

    Head-space gas chromatography (HS-GC) is an applicable method to perform vapor-liquid equilibrium measurements and determine activity coefficients. However, the reproducibility of the data may be conditioned by the experimental procedure concerning to the automated pressure-balanced system. The study developed in this work shows that a minimum volume of liquid in the vial is necessary to ensure the reliability of the activity coefficients since it may become a parameter that influences the magnitude of the peak areas: the helium introduced during the pressurization step may produce significant variations of the results when too small volume of liquid is selected. The minimum volume required should thus be evaluated prior to obtain experimentally the concentration in the vapor phase and the activity coefficients. In this work, the mixture acetonitrile-toluene is taken as example, requiring a sample volume of more than 5mL (about more than 25% of the vial volume). The vapor-liquid equilibrium and activity coefficients of mixtures at different concentrations (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9 molar fraction) and four temperatures (35, 45, 55 and 70°C) have been determined. Relative standard deviations (RSD) lower than 5% have been obtained, indicating the good reproducibility of the method when a sample volume larger than 5mL is used. Finally, a general procedure to measure activity coefficients by means of pressure-balanced head-space gas chromatography is proposed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Multifunctional spaces in slum settlements and their relation to activity pattern case study of Kampung Sangkrah, Surakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobirin, Abyzhar; Ramadhanty, Almira Husna; Hardiana, Ana

    2018-02-01

    Surakarta is a rapidly urbanized city and it causes the limitation of the availability of land within its urban area. This entangled problem is resulting in the development of slum settlements that spread across the city. One of the slum concentration areas is located on Pepe riverbanks downstream area that belongs to Kampung Sangkrah administrative boundaries. Slum settlements are characterized as a densely-populated area lacking of, or absence of, open space. This condition forces slum inhabitants to effectively use their available spaces, even multi-functionally. This research aims to observe how slum inhabitants multi-functionally use the spaces around their houses and determine the typology of multifunctional space and also the factors that influence it. To understand this phenomenon, this research used activity pattern perspectives. The scope of observation covers in-house (internal) space utilizations and neighborhood-level (external) space utilization. The data used for this research were collected primarily through site observations and interviews, using sampling to conduct data collection for in-house activities and space utilization. The analysis was conducted using descriptive method qualitatively. The research concluded that there are three types of multifunctional space utilization within slum settlements, and the utilization of spaces, whether internal or external utilization also varies depending on the inhabitants' economic-related activities.

  18. Phenobarbital and propiconazole toxicogenomic profiles in mice show major similarities consistent with the key role that constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) activation plays in their mode of action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Richard A.; Peffer, Richard C.; Goetz, Amber K.; Omiecinski, Curtis J.; Goodman, Jay I.

    2014-01-01

    Toxicogenomics (TGx) is employed frequently to investigate underlying molecular mechanisms of the compound of interest and, thus, has become an aid to mode of action determination. However, the results and interpretation of a TGx dataset are influenced by the experimental design and methods of analysis employed. This article describes an evaluation and reanalysis, by two independent laboratories, of previously published TGx mouse liver microarray data for a triazole fungicide, propiconazole (PPZ), and the anticonvulsant drug phenobarbital (PB). Propiconazole produced an increase incidence of liver tumors in male CD-1 mice only at a dose that exceeded the maximum tolerated dose (2500 ppm). Firstly, we illustrate how experimental design differences between two in vivo studies with PPZ and PB may impact the comparisons of TGx results. Secondly, we demonstrate that different researchers using different pathway analysis tools can come to different conclusions on specific mechanistic pathways, even when using the same datasets. Finally, despite these differences the results across three different analyses also show a striking degree of similarity observed for PPZ and PB treated livers when the expression data are viewed as major signaling pathways and cell processes affected. Additional studies described here show that the postulated key event of hepatocellular proliferation was observed in CD-1 mice for both PPZ and PB, and that PPZ is also a potent activator of the mouse CAR nuclear receptor. Thus, with regard to the events which are hallmarks of CAR-induced effects that are key events in the mode of action (MOA) of mouse liver carcinogenesis with PB, PPZ-induced tumors can be viewed as being promoted by a similar PB-like CAR-dependent MOA. PMID:24675475

  19. Phenobarbital and propiconazole toxicogenomic profiles in mice show major similarities consistent with the key role that constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) activation plays in their mode of action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currie, Richard A.; Peffer, Richard C.; Goetz, Amber K.; Omiecinski, Curtis J.; Goodman, Jay I.

    2014-01-01

    Toxicogenomics (TGx) is employed frequently to investigate underlying molecular mechanisms of the compound of interest and, thus, has become an aid to mode of action determination. However, the results and interpretation of a TGx dataset are influenced by the experimental design and methods of analysis employed. This article describes an evaluation and reanalysis, by two independent laboratories, of previously published TGx mouse liver microarray data for a triazole fungicide, propiconazole (PPZ), and the anticonvulsant drug phenobarbital (PB). Propiconazole produced an increase incidence of liver tumors in male CD-1 mice only at a dose that exceeded the maximum tolerated dose (2500 ppm). Firstly, we illustrate how experimental design differences between two in vivo studies with PPZ and PB may impact the comparisons of TGx results. Secondly, we demonstrate that different researchers using different pathway analysis tools can come to different conclusions on specific mechanistic pathways, even when using the same datasets. Finally, despite these differences the results across three different analyses also show a striking degree of similarity observed for PPZ and PB treated livers when the expression data are viewed as major signaling pathways and cell processes affected. Additional studies described here show that the postulated key event of hepatocellular proliferation was observed in CD-1 mice for both PPZ and PB, and that PPZ is also a potent activator of the mouse CAR nuclear receptor. Thus, with regard to the events which are hallmarks of CAR-induced effects that are key events in the mode of action (MOA) of mouse liver carcinogenesis with PB, PPZ-induced tumors can be viewed as being promoted by a similar PB-like CAR-dependent MOA

  20. State of Art in space weather observational activities and data management in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanislawska, Iwona

    One of the primary scientific and technical goals of space weather is to produce data in order to investigate the Sun impact on the Earth and its environment. Studies based on data mining philosophy yield increase the knowledge of space weather physical properties, modelling capabilities and gain applications of various procedures in space weather monitoring and forecasting. Exchanging tailored individually and/or jointly data between different entities, storing of the databases and making data accessible for the users is the most important task undertaken by investigators. National activities spread over Europe is currently consolidated pursuant to the terms of effectiveness and individual contributions embedded in joint integrated efforts. The role of COST 724 Action in animation of such a movement is essential. The paper focuses on the analysis of the European availability in the Internet near-real time and historical collections of the European ground based and satellite observations, operational indices and parameters. A detailed description of data delivered is included. The structure of the content is supplied according to the following selection: (1) observations, raw and/or corrected, updated data, (2) resolution, availability of real-time and historical data, (3) products, as the results of models and theory including (a) maps, forecasts and alerts, (b) resolution, availability of real-time and historical data, (4) platforms to deliver data. Characterization of the networking of stations, observatories and space related monitoring systems of data collections is integrated part of the paper. According to these provisions operational systems developed for these purposes is presented and analysed. It concerns measurements, observations and parameters from the theory and models referred to local, regional collections, European and worldwide networks. Techniques used by these organizations to generate the digital content are identified. As the reference pan

  1. 14 CFR 1266.102 - Cross-waiver of liability for agreements for activities related to the International Space Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... “launch vehicle” means an object, or any part thereof, intended for launch, launched from Earth, or... services; and (ii) All activities related to ground support, test, training, simulation, or guidance and... persons or both between two different space objects, between two different locations on the same space...

  2. Participation in the scientific activities of the Waves in Space Plasma (WISP) project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpert, Yakov L.; Grossi, Mario D.

    1994-01-01

    This is the Final Report for Contract NAG5-1925, that consisted of experiment design, for possible use by the space science mission called WISP (Waves in Space Plasma). This mission is under study by the Canadian Space Agency and by NASA. Two WISP configurations are contemplated, under the name of BICEPS: one is called BOLAS, and the other WISPRS. Both these configurations are meant to perform bistatic sounding of the ionosphere, at a height close to F(sub 2) H(sub max) (about 350 Km), with a pair of satellites, either tethered or in free flight. Investigation A (with Y.L. Alpert as P.I.) addresses the subject of parametric decay effects, expected to arise in a magnetoplasma under the influence of high-intensity HF fields. Criteria were formulated that could be used in searching for parametric instabilities and of electric fields in the ionosphere and magnetosphere, by in-situ satellites, such as the BICEPS Pair. Investigation B (with M.D.Grossi as P.I.) addressed the bistatic measurement, by the BICEPS pair,of ionospheric features, such as large-scale and small-scale disturbances, travelling ionospheric disturbances, electron density irregularities, spread-F phenomena, etc. These measurements by BICEPS could be correlated with the waveform distortion and degradation experienced by microwave links from geosynchronous height to ground, such as the ACTS satellite, expected to radiate pulses as short as 1 nanosecond in the band 20 to 30 GHz. These links are transionospheric and propagate e.m. waves in the volume of the ionosphere where BICEPS operates. It will be possible, therefore, to correlate the two classes of measurements, and learn the causative mechanisms that are responsible for the time-spread and frequency-spread nature of communications waveforms at microwave, in geosynchronous height to ground paths.

  3. Design and performance of an integrated ground and space sensor web for monitoring active volcanoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahusen, Richard; Song, Wenzhan; Kedar, Sharon; Shirazi, Behrooz; Chien, Steve; Doubleday, Joshua; Davies, Ashley; Webb, Frank; Dzurisin, Dan; Pallister, John

    2010-05-01

    An interdisciplinary team of computer, earth and space scientists collaborated to develop a sensor web system for rapid deployment at active volcanoes. The primary goals of this Optimized Autonomous Space In situ Sensorweb (OASIS) are to: 1) integrate complementary space and in situ (ground-based) elements into an interactive, autonomous sensor web; 2) advance sensor web power and communication resource management technology; and 3) enable scalability for seamless addition sensors and other satellites into the sensor web. This three-year project began with a rigorous multidisciplinary interchange that resulted in definition of system requirements to guide the design of the OASIS network and to achieve the stated project goals. Based on those guidelines, we have developed fully self-contained in situ nodes that integrate GPS, seismic, infrasonic and lightning (ash) detection sensors. The nodes in the wireless sensor network are linked to the ground control center through a mesh network that is highly optimized for remote geophysical monitoring. OASIS also features an autonomous bidirectional interaction between ground nodes and instruments on the EO-1 space platform through continuous analysis and messaging capabilities at the command and control center. Data from both the in situ sensors and satellite-borne hyperspectral imaging sensors stream into a common database for real-time visualization and analysis by earth scientists. We have successfully completed a field deployment of 15 nodes within the crater and on the flanks of Mount St. Helens, Washington. The demonstration that sensor web technology facilitates rapid network deployments and that we can achieve real-time continuous data acquisition. We are now optimizing component performance and improving user interaction for additional deployments at erupting volcanoes in 2010.

  4. The added value of accounting for activity space when examining the association between tobacco retailer availability and smoking among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shareck, Martine; Kestens, Yan; Vallée, Julie; Datta, Geetanjali; Frohlich, Katherine L

    2016-07-01

    Despite a declining prevalence in many countries, smoking rates remain consistently high among young adults. Targeting contextual influences on smoking, such as the availability of tobacco retailers, is one promising avenue of intervention. Most studies have focused on residential or school neighbourhoods, without accounting for other settings where individuals spend time, that is, their activity space. We investigated the association between tobacco retailer availability in the residential neighbourhood and in the activity space, and smoking status. Cross-sectional baseline data from 1994 young adults (aged 18-25) participating in the Interdisciplinary Study of Inequalities in Smoking (Montreal, Canada, 2011-2012) were analysed. Residential and activity locations served to derive two measures of tobacco retailer availability: counts within 500 m buffers and proximity to the nearest retailer. Prevalence ratios for the association between each tobacco retailer measure and smoking status were estimated using log-binomial regression. Participants encountering high numbers of tobacco retailers in their residential neighbourhood, and both medium and high retailer counts in their activity space, were more likely to smoke compared to those exposed to fewer retailers. While residential proximity was not associated with smoking, we found 36% and 42% higher smoking prevalence among participants conducting activities within medium and high proximity to tobacco retailers compared to those conducting activities further from such outlets. This study adds to the sparse literature on contextual correlates of smoking among young adults, and illustrates the added value of considering individuals' activity space in contextual studies of smoking. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. Blood troponin levels in acute cardiac events depends on space weather activity components (a correlative study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoupel, Eliiyahu; Radishauskas, Richardas; Bernotiene, Gailute; Tamoshiunas, Abdonas; Virvichiute, Daiva

    2018-02-05

    Many biological processes are influenced by space weather activity components such as solar activity (SA), geomagnetic activity (GMA) and cosmic ray activity (CRA). Examples are total mortality, acute myocardial infarction (AMI), stroke (cerebrovascular accident), sudden cardiac death, some congenital maladies (congenital heart disease and Down syndrome), many events in neonatology, ophtalmology, blood pressure regulation, blood coagulation, inflammation, etc. The aim of this study was to check if the level of blood troponins (Tns) - markers of myocardial damage and recognized components of modern description of AMI - is connected with the mentioned space weather parameters. Patients admitted to a 3000-bed tertiary university hospital in Kaunas, Lithuania, with suspected AMI were the object of the study. Data for the time between 2008 and 2013 - 72 consecutive months - were studied. Of the patients, 1896 (1398 male, 498 female) had elevated troponin I (Tn I) or troponin T (Tn T, sensitive Tn) levels. Normal values were 0.00-0.03 ng/mL for Tn I and 0.00-14.00 ng/mL for Tn T. Monthly means and standard deviation of Tn I and Tn T were compared with monthly markers of SA, GMA and CRA. Pearson correlation coefficients and their probabilities were established (in addition to the consecutive graphs of both comparing physical and biological data). The cosmophysical data came from space service institutions in the United States, Russia and Finland. AMI was diagnosed in 1188 patients (62.66%), and intermediate coronary syndrome in 698 patients (36.81%). There were significant links of the Tn blood levels with four SA indices and CRA (neutron activity in imp/min); there was no significant correlation with GMA indices Ap and Cp (p=0.27 and p=0.235). Tn T levels significantly correlated with the GMA indices and not with the SA and CRA levels (Ap: r=0.77, p=0.0021; Cp: r=0.729, p=0.0047). First, the monthly level of blood Tn I in ACS is significantly correlated with the indices

  6. CREAM - a Cosmic Radiation Effects and Activation Monitor for space experiments: Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mapper, D.; Stephen, J.H.; Farren, J.; Stimpson, B.P.; Bolus, D.J.; Ellaway, A.M.

    1987-12-01

    A detailed account is given of the design and construction of the experimental CREAM packages, intended for flight in the mid-deck area of the Space Transport System (Shuttle) Mission in 1986. The complete experiment involved; 1) a self-contained and battery powered activation monitor for measuring energy losses of charged particles; 2) CR-39 and Kapton polymer solid state nuclear track detectors for the detection of ionising particles; 3) metal foils of nickel, titanium and gold for neutron monitoring; and 4) thermoluminescent detectors for dosimetry measurements of the radiation background. The circuit design and detailed functioning of the active monitor is fully described, together with a complete discussion of the principles and operation of the passive monitors. (author)

  7. Source-space EEG neurofeedback links subjective experience with brain activity during effortless awareness meditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lutterveld, Remko; Houlihan, Sean D; Pal, Prasanta; Sacchet, Matthew D; McFarlane-Blake, Cinque; Patel, Payal R; Sullivan, John S; Ossadtchi, Alex; Druker, Susan; Bauer, Clemens; Brewer, Judson A

    2017-05-01

    Meditation is increasingly showing beneficial effects for psychiatric disorders. However, learning to meditate is not straightforward as there are no easily discernible outward signs of performance and thus no direct feedback is possible. As meditation has been found to correlate with posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) activity, we tested whether source-space EEG neurofeedback from the PCC followed the subjective experience of effortless awareness (a major component of meditation), and whether participants could volitionally control the signal. Sixteen novice meditators and sixteen experienced meditators participated in the study. Novice meditators were briefly trained to perform a basic meditation practice to induce the subjective experience of effortless awareness in a progressively more challenging neurofeedback test-battery. Experienced meditators performed a self-selected meditation practice to induce this state in the same test-battery. Neurofeedback was provided based on gamma-band (40-57Hz) PCC activity extracted using a beamformer algorithm. Associations between PCC activity and the subjective experience of effortless awareness were assessed by verbal probes. Both groups reported that decreased PCC activity corresponded with effortless awareness (Pneurofeedback to link an objective measure of brain activity with the subjective experience of effortless awareness, and suggest potential utility of this paradigm as a tool for meditation training. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Examples of learning activities for Earth and Space Sciences in the new Italian National curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macario, Maddalena

    2016-04-01

    In the last few years, starting from 2010, science curricula were changed dramatically in the secondary Italian school as consequence of a radical law reform. In particular, Earth Science and Astronomy subjects have been shifted from the last to the previous school years; in addition, these subjects have been integrated with other natural sciences learning, such as biology and chemistry. As a consequence, Italian teachers felt forced to totally revise their teaching methods for all of these disciplines. The most demanding need was adapting content to younger learners, as those of the first years are, who usually do have neither pre-knowledge in physics nor high level maths skills. Secondly, content learning was progressively driven toward a greater attention to environmental issues in order to raise more awareness in learners about global changes as examples of fragile equilibrium of our planet. In this work some examples of activities are shown, to introduce students to some astronomical phenomena in a simpler way, which play a key role in influencing other Earth's events, in order to make pupils more conscious about how and to what extent our planet depends on space, at different time scales. The activities range from moon motions affecting tides, to secondary Earth motions, which are responsible for climate changes, to the possibility to find life forms in other parts of the Universe, to the possibility for humans to live in the space for future space missions. Students are involved in hands-on inquiry-based laboratories that scaffold both theoretic knowledge and practical skills for a deeper understanding of cause-effect relationships existing in the Earth.

  9. Long-term dim light during nighttime changes activity patterns and space use in experimental small mammal populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Julia; Palme, Rupert; Eccard, Jana Anja

    2018-07-01

    Artificial light at night (ALAN) is spreading worldwide and thereby is increasingly interfering with natural dark-light cycles. Meanwhile, effects of very low intensities of light pollution on animals have rarely been investigated. We explored the effects of low intensity ALAN over seven months in eight experimental bank vole (Myodes glareolus) populations in large grassland enclosures over winter and early breeding season, using LED garden lamps. Initial populations consisted of eight individuals (32 animals per hectare) in enclosures with or without ALAN. We found that bank voles under ALAN experienced changes in daily activity patterns and space use behavior, measured by automated radiotelemetry. There were no differences in survival and body mass, measured with live trapping, and none in levels of fecal glucocorticoid metabolites. Voles in the ALAN treatment showed higher activity at night during half moon, and had larger day ranges during new moon. Thus, even low levels of light pollution as experienced in remote areas or by sky glow can lead to changes in animal behavior and could have consequences for species interactions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Start small, dream big: Experiences of physical activity in public spaces in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Del Castillo, Adriana; González, Silvia Alejandra; Ríos, Ana Paola; Páez, Diana C; Torres, Andrea; Díaz, María Paula; Pratt, Michael; Sarmiento, Olga L

    2017-10-01

    Multi-sectoral strategies to promote active recreation and physical activity in public spaces are crucial to building a "culture of health". However, studies on the sustainability and scalability of these strategies are limited. This paper identifies the factors related to the sustainability and scaling up of two community-based programs offering physical activity classes in public spaces in Colombia: Bogotá's Recreovía and Colombia's "Healthy Habits and Lifestyles Program-HEVS". Both programs have been sustained for more than 10years, and have benefited 1455 communities. We used a mixed-methods approach including semi-structured interviews, document review and an analysis of data regarding the programs' history, characteristics, funding, capacity building and challenges. Interviews were conducted between May-October 2015. Based on the sustainability frameworks of Shediac-Rizkallah and Bone and Scheirer, we developed categories to independently code each interview. All information was independently analyzed by four of the authors and cross-compared between programs. Findings showed that these programs underwent adaptation processes to address the challenges that threatened their continuation and growth. The primary strategies included flexibility/adaptability, investing in the working conditions and training of instructors, allocating public funds and requesting accountability, diversifying resources, having community support and champions at different levels and positions, and carrying out continuous advocacy to include physical activity in public policies. Recreovía and HEVS illustrate sustainability as an incremental, multi-level process at different levels. Lessons learned for similar initiatives include the importance of individual actions and small events, a willingness to start small while dreaming big, being flexible, and prioritizing the human factor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessment of MSFCs Process for the Development and Activation of Space Act Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Rachel A.

    2014-01-01

    A Space Act Agreement (SAA) is a contractual vehicle that NASA utilizes to form partnerships with non-NASA entities to stimulate cutting-edge innovation within the science and technology communities while concurrently supporting the NASA missions. SAAs are similar to traditional contracts in that they involve the commitment of Agency resources but allow more flexibility and are more cost effective to implement than traditional contracts. Consequently, the use of SAAs to develop partnerships has greatly increased over the past several years. To facilitate this influx of SAAs, Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed a process during a kaizen event to streamline and improve the quality of SAAs developed at the Center level. This study assessed the current SAA process to determine if improvements could be implemented to increase productivity, decrease time to activation, and improve the quality of deliverables. Using a combination of direct procedural observation, personnel interviews, and statistical analysis, elements of the process in need of remediation were identified and potential solutions developed. The findings focus primarily on the difficulties surrounding tracking and enforcing process adherence and communication issues among stakeholders. Potential solutions include utilizing customer relationship management (CRM) software to facilitate process coordination and co-locating or potentially merging the two separate organizations involved in SAA development and activation at MSFC.

  12. The effect of space microgravity on the physiological activity of mammalian resident cardiac stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belostotskaya, Galina; Zakharov, Eugeny

    Prolonged exposure to weightlessness during space flights is known to cause depression of heart function in mammals. The decrease in heart weight and its remodeling under the influence of prolonged weightlessness (or space microgravity) is assumed to be due to both morphological changes of working cardiomyocytes and their progressive loss, as well as to possible depletion of resident cardiac stem cells (CSCs) population, or their inability to self-renewal and regeneration of muscle tissue under conditions of weightlessness. We have previously shown that the presence of different maturity clones formed by resident CSCs not only in culture but also in the mammalian myocardium can be used as an indicator of the regenerative activity of myocardial cells [Belostotskaya, et al., 2013: 2014]. In this study, we were interested to investigate whether the 30-day near-Earth space flight on the spacecraft BION-M1 affects the regenerative potential of resident CSCs. Immediately after landing of the spacecraft, we had examined the presence of resident c-kit+, Sca-1+ and Isl1+ CSCs and their development in suspension of freshly isolated myocardial cells of C57BL mice in comparison to controls. Cardiac cell suspension was obtained by enzymatic digestion of the heart [Belostotskaya and Golovanova, 2014]. Immunocytochemically stained preparations of fixed cells were analyzed with confocal microscope Leica TCS SP5 (Germany) in the Resource Center of St-Petersburg State University. CSCs were labeled with appropriate antibodies. CSCs differentiation into mature cardiomyocytes was verified using antibodies to Sarcomeric α-Actinin and Cardiac Troponin T. Antibodies to Connexin43 were used to detect cell-cell contacts. All antibodies were conjugated with Alexa fluorochromes (488, 532, 546, 568, 594 and/or 647 nm), according to Zenon-technology (Invitrogen). It has been shown that, under identical conditions of cell isolation, more complete digestion of heart muscle was observed in

  13. Association between activity space exposure to food establishments and individual risk of overweight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Kestens

    Full Text Available Environmental exposure to food sources may underpin area level differences in individual risk for overweight. Place of residence is generally used to assess neighbourhood exposure. Yet, because people are mobile, multiple exposures should be accounted for to assess the relation between food environments and overweight. Unfortunately, mobility data is often missing from health surveys. We hereby test the feasibility of linking travel survey data with food listings to derive food store exposure predictors of overweight among health survey participants.Food environment exposure measures accounting for non-residential activity places (activity spaces were computed and modelled in Montreal and Quebec City, Canada, using travel surveys and food store listings. Models were then used to predict activity space food exposures for 5,578 participants of the Canadian Community Health Survey. These food exposure estimates, accounting for daily mobility, were used to model self-reported overweight in a multilevel framework. Median Odd Ratios were used to assess the proportion of between-neighborhood variance explained by such food exposure predictors.Estimates of food environment exposure accounting for both residential and non-residential destinations were significantly and more strongly associated with overweight than residential-only measures of exposure for men. For women, residential exposures were more strongly associated with overweight than non-residential exposures. In Montreal, adjusted models showed men in the highest quartile of exposure to food stores were at lesser risk of being overweight considering exposure to restaurants (OR = 0.36 [0.21-0.62], fast food outlets (0.48 [0.30-0.79], or corner stores (0.52 [0.35-0.78]. Conversely, men experiencing the highest proportion of restaurants being fast-food outlets were at higher risk of being overweight (2.07 [1.25-3.42]. Women experiencing higher residential exposures were at lower risk of overweight

  14. The Canadian Space Agency, Space Station, Strategic Technologies for Automation and Robotics Program technology development activity in protection of materials from the low Earth orbit space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francoeur, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    The Strategic Technologies in Automation and Robotics (STEAR) program is managing a number of development contracts to improve the protection of spacecraft materials from the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) space environment. The project is structured in two phases over a 3 to 4 year period with a budget of 3 to 4 million dollars. Phase 1 is designed to demonstrate the technical feasibility and commercial potential of a coating/substrate system and its associated application process. The objective is to demonstrate a prototype fabrication capability using a full scale component of a commercially viable process for the protection of materials and surface finishes from the LEO space environment, and to demonstrate compliance with a set of performance requirements. Only phase 1 will be discussed in this paper.

  15. The Convergence of U.S. Military and Commercial Space Activities: Self-Defense and Cyber-Attack, 'Peace Use' and the Space Station, and the Need for Legal Reform

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Petras, Christopher

    2001-01-01

    The ever-increasing convergence of U.S. military and commercial space activities poses new challenges to the viability of the legal concepts that have traditionally governed the use of outer space, and particularly the military use...

  16. Promoting physical activity through the shared use of school recreational spaces: a policy statement from the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Deborah R; Spengler, John O; Frost, Natasha; Evenson, Kelly R; Vincent, Jeffrey M; Whitsel, Laurie

    2014-09-01

    Most Americans are not sufficiently physically active, even though regular physical activity improves health and reduces the risk of many chronic diseases. Those living in rural, non-White, and lower-income communities often have insufficient access to places to be active, which can contribute to their lower level of physical activity. The shared use of school recreational facilities can provide safe and affordable places for communities. Studies suggest that challenges to shared use include additional cost, liability protection, communication among constituencies interested in sharing space, and decision-making about scheduling and space allocation. This American Heart Association policy statement has provided recommendations for federal, state, and local decision-makers to support and expand opportunities for physical activity in communities through the shared use of school spaces.

  17. Effects of Repetitive Shoulder Activity on the Subacromial Space in Manual Wheelchair Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Sheng Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated (1 the effect of repetitive weight-relief raises (WR and shoulder external rotation (ER on the acromiohumeral distance (AHD among manual wheelchair users (MWUs and (2 the relationship between shoulder pain, subject characteristics, and AHD changes. Twenty-three MWUs underwent ultrasound imaging of the nondominant shoulder in an unloaded baseline position and while holding a WR position before and after the WR/ER tasks. Paired t-tests and Spearman correlational analysis were used to assess differences in the AHD before and after each task and the relationships between pain, subject characteristics, and the AHD measures. A significant reduction in the subacromial space (P<0.01 occurred when subjects performed a WR position compared to baseline. Individuals with increased years of disability had greater AHD percentage narrowing after WR (P=0.008. Increased shoulder pain was associated with AHD percentage narrowing after ER (P≤0.007. The results support clinical practice guidelines that recommend MWUs limit WR to preserve shoulder function. The isolated repetitive shoulder activity did not contribute to the changes of subacromial space in MWUs. The ultrasonographic measurement of the AHD may be a target for identifying future interventions that prevent pain.

  18. Solar activity during the space weather incident of Nov 4., 2015 - Complex data and lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opgenoorth, Hermann; Pulkkinen, Antti; Buchert, Stephan; Monstein, Christian; Klein, Karl Ludwig; Marqué, Christophe; Krucker, Säm

    2016-04-01

    During the afternoon of November 4, 2015 most southern Swedish aviation radar systems experienced heavy disturbances, which eventually forced an outing of the majority of the radars. In consequence the entire southern Swedish aerospace had to be closed for incoming and leaving air traffic for about 2 hours. Immediately after the incident space weather anomalies were made responsible for the radar disturbances, but it took a very thorough investigation to differentiate disturbances from an ongoing magnetic storm caused by earlier solar activity, which had no disturbing effects on the flight radars, from a new and, indeed, extreme radio-burst on the Sun, which caused the Swedish radar anomalies. Other systems in various European countries also experienced major radio-disturbances during this extreme event, but they were not of the gravity as experienced in Sweden, or at least not causing a similar damage. One of the problems in reaching the right conclusions about the incident was that the extreme radio-burst around 1400 UT on Nov 4 (more than 50000 SFU at GHz frequencies), emerged from a medium size M3.7 Flare on the Sun, which did not trigger any immediate warnings. We will report about the analysis leading to the improved understanding of this extreme space weather event, evaluate the importance of solar radio observations, and discuss possible mitigation strategies for future events of similar nature.

  19. Active pixel sensors: the sensor of choice for future space applications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leijtens, Johan; Theuwissen, Albert; Rao, Padmakumar R.; Wang, Xinyang; Xie, Ning

    2007-10-01

    It is generally known that active pixel sensors (APS) have a number of advantages over CCD detectors if it comes to cost for mass production, power consumption and ease of integration. Nevertheless, most space applications still use CCD detectors because they tend to give better performance and have a successful heritage. To this respect a change may be at hand with the advent of deep sub-micron processed APS imagers (< 0.25-micron feature size). Measurements performed on test structures at the University of Delft have shown that the imagers are very radiation tolerant even if made in a standard process without the use of special design rules. Furthermore it was shown that the 1/f noise associated with deep sub-micron imagers is reduced as compared to previous generations APS imagers due to the improved quality of the gate oxides. Considering that end of life performance will have to be guaranteed, limited budget for adding shielding metal will be available for most applications and lower power operations is always seen as a positive characteristic in space applications, deep sub-micron APS imagers seem to have a number of advantages over CCD's that will probably cause them to replace CCD's in those applications where radiation tolerance and low power operation are important

  20. Study of magnetic field expansion using a plasma generator for space radiation active protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Xianghong; Jia Shaoxia; Wan Jun; Wang Shouguo; Xu Feng; Bai Yanqiang; Liu Hongtao; Jiang Rui; Ma Hongbo

    2013-01-01

    There are many active protecting methods including Electrostatic Fields, Confined Magnetic Field, Unconfined Magnetic Field and Plasma Shielding etc. for defending the high-energy solar particle events (SPE) and Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) in deep space exploration. The concept of using cold plasma to expand a magnetic field is the best one of all possible methods so far. The magnetic field expansion caused by plasma can improve its protective efficiency of space particles. One kind of plasma generator has been developed and installed into the cylindrical permanent magnet in the eccentric. A plasma stream is produced using a helical-shaped antenna driven by a radio-frequency (RF) power supply of 13.56 MHz, which exits from both sides of the magnet and makes the magnetic field expand on one side. The discharging belts phenomenon is similar to the Earth's radiation belt, but the mechanism has yet to be understood. A magnetic probe is used to measure the magnetic field expansion distributions, and the results indicate that the magnetic field intensity increases under higher increments of the discharge power. (authors)

  1. Consistency of color representation in smart phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dain, Stephen J; Kwan, Benjamin; Wong, Leslie

    2016-03-01

    One of the barriers to the construction of consistent computer-based color vision tests has been the variety of monitors and computers. Consistency of color on a variety of screens has necessitated calibration of each setup individually. Color vision examination with a carefully controlled display has, as a consequence, been a laboratory rather than a clinical activity. Inevitably, smart phones have become a vehicle for color vision tests. They have the advantage that the processor and screen are associated and there are fewer models of smart phones than permutations of computers and monitors. Colorimetric consistency of display within a model may be a given. It may extend across models from the same manufacturer but is unlikely to extend between manufacturers especially where technologies vary. In this study, we measured the same set of colors in a JPEG file displayed on 11 samples of each of four models of smart phone (iPhone 4s, iPhone5, Samsung Galaxy S3, and Samsung Galaxy S4) using a Photo Research PR-730. The iPhones are white LED backlit LCD and the Samsung are OLEDs. The color gamut varies between models and comparison with sRGB space shows 61%, 85%, 117%, and 110%, respectively. The iPhones differ markedly from the Samsungs and from one another. This indicates that model-specific color lookup tables will be needed. Within each model, the primaries were quite consistent (despite the age of phone varying within each sample). The worst case in each model was the blue primary; the 95th percentile limits in the v' coordinate were ±0.008 for the iPhone 4 and ±0.004 for the other three models. The u'v' variation in white points was ±0.004 for the iPhone4 and ±0.002 for the others, although the spread of white points between models was u'v'±0.007. The differences are essentially the same for primaries at low luminance. The variation of colors intermediate between the primaries (e.g., red-purple, orange) mirror the variation in the primaries. The variation in

  2. Self-consistent areas law in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makeenko, Yu.M.; Migdal, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    The problem of obtaining the self-consistent areas law in quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is considered from the point of view of the quark confinement. The exact equation for the loop average in multicolor QCD is reduced to a bootstrap form. Its iterations yield new manifestly gauge invariant perturbation theory in the loop space, reproducing asymptotic freedom. For large loops, the areas law apprears to be a self-consistent solution

  3. Active space debris removal—A preliminary mission analysis and design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castronuovo, Marco M.

    2011-11-01

    The active removal of five to ten large objects per year from the low Earth orbit (LEO) region is the only way to prevent the debris collisions from cascading. Among the three orbital regions near the Earth where most catastrophic collisions are predicted to occur, the one corresponding to a sun-synchronous condition is considered the most relevant. Forty-one large rocket bodies orbiting in this belt have been identified as the priority targets for removal. As part of a more comprehensive system engineering solution, a space mission dedicated to the de-orbiting of five rocket bodies per year from this orbital regime has been designed. The selected concept of operations envisages the launch of a satellite carrying a number of de-orbiting devices, such as solid propellant kits. The satellite performs a rendezvous with an identified object and mates with it by means of a robotic arm. A de-orbiting device is attached to the object by means of a second robotic arm, the object is released and the device is activated. The spacecraft travels then to the next target. The present paper shows that an active debris removal mission capable of de-orbiting 35 large objects in 7 years is technically feasible, and the resulting propellant mass budget is compatible with many existing platforms.

  4. The impact of interventions to promote physical activity in urban green space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunter, Ruth F; Christian, Hayley; Veitch, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    positive effect) to support built environment only interventions for encouraging use and increasing PA in urban green space. There was more promising evidence (3/3 studies showed positive effect) to support PAprograms or PA programs combined with a physical change to the built environment, for increasing...... in this area. Interventions that involve the use of PA programs combined with a physical change to the built environment are likely to have a positive effect on PA. Robust evaluations of such interventions are urgently required. The findings provide a platform to inform the design, implementation......Evidence is mounting on the association between the built environment and physical activity (PA) with a call for intervention research. A broader approach which recognizes the role of supportive environments that can make healthy choices easier is required. A systematic review was undertaken...

  5. Electric space heating scheduling for real-time explicit power control in active distribution networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costanzo, Giuseppe Tommaso; Bernstein, Andrey; Chamorro, Lorenzo Reyes

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic approach for abstracting the flexibility of a building space heating system and using it within a composable framework for real-time explicit power control of microgrids and, more in general, active distribution networks. In particular, the proposed approach...... is developed within the context of a previously defined microgrid control framework, called COMMELEC, conceived for the explicit and real-time control of these specific networks. The designed control algorithm is totally independent from the need of a building model and allows exploiting the intrinsic thermal...... inertia for real-time control. The paper first discusses the general approach, then it proves its validity via dedicated simulations performed on specific case study composed by the CIGRE LV microgrid benchmark proposed by the Cigré TF C6.04.02....

  6. Comparison and determination of elemental composition in Korean space foods using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong-Sam Chung; Sun-Ha Kim; Gwang-Min Sun; Jong-Hwa Moon; Jong-Il Choi; Beom-Seok Song; Jae-Hun Kim

    2013-01-01

    A quantitative analysis of mineral contents in several kinds of foods is needed to obtain information on a comprehensive elemental composition as well as an investigation on the effects of human health and nutrition based on the dietary intake of mineral elements. In 2012, six kinds of new Korean space foods (KSF) such as sweet pumpkin porridge, dakgalbi (spicy grilled chicken), Manila clam porridge, ox leg bone-cabbage soup, ginseng-chicken porridge, and chicken curry rice were developed by KAERI, and the contents of more than 15 elements in the samples were determined using an instrumental neutron activation analysis. A certified reference material associated with a biological food sample was used for analytical quality control. The analytical results were evaluated according to the elemental concentrations with KSF samples and compared with the reported values. These results will be applied toward the identification of gamma-irradiated foods. (author)

  7. Entering the urban frame: early lesbian activism and public space in Montréal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podmore, Julie A; Chamberland, Line

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the spatial strategies used by Montréal lesbian activists in the 1970s and 1980s to fight for the lesbian "right to the city." After situating lesbian public activism within Henri Lefebvre's ideal of spatial justice, this article provides case studies of four moments during which Montréal lesbian activists joined or initiated public demonstrations as lesbians. The focus is on the multiple ways in which lesbian activists performed politicized lesbian identities in urban public spaces. Their spatial strategies in this first era of the lesbian and gay rights movement provide an alternative account of claiming lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer rights to the heterosexual city.

  8. Real space mapping of ionic diffusion and electrochemical activity in energy storage and conversion materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinin, Sergei V; Balke, Nina; Kumar, Amit; Dudney, Nancy J; Jesse, Stephen

    2014-05-06

    A method and system for probing mobile ion diffusivity and electrochemical reactivity on a nanometer length scale of a free electrochemically active surface includes a control module that biases the surface of the material. An electrical excitation signal is applied to the material and induces the movement of mobile ions. An SPM probe in contact with the surface of the material detects the displacement of mobile ions at the surface of the material. A detector measures an electromechanical strain response at the surface of the material based on the movement and reactions of the mobile ions. The use of an SPM tip to detect local deformations allows highly reproducible measurements in an ambient environment without visible changes in surface structure. The measurements illustrate effective spatial resolution comparable with defect spacing and well below characteristic grain sizes of the material.

  9. Irregular Polyomino-Shaped Subarrays for Space-Based Active Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Mailloux

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents new results showing the application of polyomino-based subarrays to limited field of view and wideband, wide-angle scanning. This technology can reduce the number of phase controls in arrays used for limited sector coverage or the number of time delay devices for wideband radar or communications, and so can reduce the cost of space-based active arrays. We concentrate on the wideband application. Results are presented by comparing the gain and peak sidelobe results of irregular polyomino subarray-based arrays with those of rectangular subarrays. It is shown that using irregular polyomino subarrays can result in a major decrease in sidelobes while presenting, in most cases, only a few tenths of a dB gain reduction compared to rectangular subarrays.

  10. Spots and activity of Pleiades stars from observations with the Kepler Space Telescope (K2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savanov, I. S.; Dmitrienko, E. S.

    2017-11-01

    Observations of the K2 continuation of Kepler Space Telescope program are used to estimate the spot coverage S (the fractional spotted area on the surface of an active star) for stars of the Pleiades cluster. The analysis is based on data on photometric variations of 759 confirmed clustermembers, together with their atmospheric parameters, masses, and rotation periods. The relationship between the activity ( S) of these Pleiades stars and their effective temperatures shows considerable change in S for stars with temperatures T eff less than 6100 K (this can be considered the limiting value for which spot formation activity begins) and a monotonic increase in S for cooler objects (a change in the slope for stars with Teff 3700 K). The scatter in this parameter ΔS about its mean dependence on the (V -Ks)0 color index remains approximately the same over the entire ( V- K s )0 range, including cool, fully convective dwarfs. The computated S values do not indicate differences between slowly rotating and rapidly rotating stars with color indices 1.1 Pleiades cluster), resulting in the first determination of the relationship between the spot-forming activity and masses of stars. For 27 stars with masses differing from the solarmass by nomore than 0.1 M⊙, themean spot coverage is S = 0.031±0.003, suggesting that the activity of candidate young Suns is more pronounced than that of the present-day Sun. These stars rotate considerably faster than the Sun, with an average rotation period of 4.3d. The results of this study of cool, low-mass dwarfs of the Pleiades cluster are compared to results from an earlier study of 1570 M stars.

  11. Temperature dependence of active photonic band gap in bragg-spaced quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Zhiqiang; Wang Tao; Yu Chunchao; Xu Wei

    2011-01-01

    A novel all-optical polarization switch of active photonic band gap structure based on non-resonant optical Stark effect bragg-spaced quantum wells was investigated and it could be compatible with the optical communication system. The theory is based on InGaAsP/InP Bragg-spaced quantum wells (BSQWs). Mainly through the design of the InGaAsP well layer component and InP barrier thickness to make the quantum-period cycle meet the bragg condition and the bragg frequency is equal to re-hole exciton resonance frequency. When a spectrally narrow control pulse is tuned within the forbidden gap, such BSQWs have been shown to exhibit large optical nonlinearities and ps recovery times, which can form T hz switch. However, the exciton binding energy of InGaAsP will be automatically separate at room temperature, so the effect of all-optical polarization switching of active photonic band gap bragg structure quantum wells can only be studied at low temperature. By a large number of experiments, we tested part of the material parameters of BSQWs in the temperature range 10-300K. On this basis, the InGaAsP and InP refractive index changes with wavelength, InP thermal expansion coefficient are studied and a relationship equation is established. Experimental results show that the bragg reflection spectra with temperature mainly is effected by InP refractive index changes with temperature. Our theoretical study and experiment are an instruction as a reference in the designs and experiments of future practical optical switches.

  12. Temperature dependence of active photonic band gap in bragg-spaced quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu Zhiqiang; Wang Tao; Yu Chunchao; Xu Wei, E-mail: huzhiqianghzq@163.com [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, College of Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, Hubei (China)

    2011-02-01

    A novel all-optical polarization switch of active photonic band gap structure based on non-resonant optical Stark effect bragg-spaced quantum wells was investigated and it could be compatible with the optical communication system. The theory is based on InGaAsP/InP Bragg-spaced quantum wells (BSQWs). Mainly through the design of the InGaAsP well layer component and InP barrier thickness to make the quantum-period cycle meet the bragg condition and the bragg frequency is equal to re-hole exciton resonance frequency. When a spectrally narrow control pulse is tuned within the forbidden gap, such BSQWs have been shown to exhibit large optical nonlinearities and ps recovery times, which can form T hz switch. However, the exciton binding energy of InGaAsP will be automatically separate at room temperature, so the effect of all-optical polarization switching of active photonic band gap bragg structure quantum wells can only be studied at low temperature. By a large number of experiments, we tested part of the material parameters of BSQWs in the temperature range 10-300K. On this basis, the InGaAsP and InP refractive index changes with wavelength, InP thermal expansion coefficient are studied and a relationship equation is established. Experimental results show that the bragg reflection spectra with temperature mainly is effected by InP refractive index changes with temperature. Our theoretical study and experiment are an instruction as a reference in the designs and experiments of future practical optical switches.

  13. Physical activity as a possible mechanism behind the relationship between green space and health: A multilevel analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spreeuwenberg Peter

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate whether physical activity (in general, and more specifically, walking and cycling during leisure time and for commuting purposes, sports and gardening is an underlying mechanism in the relationship between the amount of green space in people's direct living environment and self-perceived health. To study this, we first investigated whether the amount of green space in the living environment is related to the level of physical activity. When an association between green space and physical activity was found, we analysed whether this could explain the relationship between green space and health. Methods The study includes 4.899 Dutch people who were interviewed about physical activity, self-perceived health and demographic and socioeconomic background. The amount of green space within a one-kilometre and a three-kilometre radius around the postal code coordinates was calculated for each individual. Multivariate multilevel analyses and multilevel logistic regression analyses were performed at two levels and with controls for socio-demographic characteristics and urbanicity. Results No relationship was found between the amount of green space in the living environment and whether or not people meet the Dutch public health recommendations for physical activity, sports and walking for commuting purposes. People with more green space in their living environment walked and cycled less often and fewer minutes during leisure time; people with more green space garden more often and spend more time on gardening. Furthermore, if people cycle for commuting purposes they spend more time on this if they live in a greener living environment. Whether or not people garden, the time spent on gardening and time spent on cycling for commuting purposes did not explain the relationship between green space and health. Conclusion Our study indicates that the amount of green space in the living environment is

  14. Internal consistency, concurrent validity, and discriminant validity of a measure of public support for policies for active living in transportation (PAL-T) in a population-based sample of adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Daniel; Gauvin, Lise; Fournier, Michel; Kestens, Yan; Daniel, Mark; Morency, Patrick; Drouin, Louis

    2012-04-01

    Active living is a broad conceptualization of physical activity that incorporates domains of exercise; recreational, household, and occupational activities; and active transportation. Policy makers develop and implement a variety of transportation policies that can influence choices about how to travel from one location to another. In making such decisions, policy makers act in part in response to public opinion or support for proposed policies. Measures of the public's support for policies aimed at promoting active transportation can inform researchers and policy makers. This study examined the internal consistency, and concurrent and discriminant validity of a newly developed measure of the public's support for policies for active living in transportation (PAL-T). A series of 17 items representing potential policies for promoting active transportation was generated. Two samples of participants (n = 2,001 and n = 2,502) from Montreal, Canada, were recruited via random digit dialling. Analyses were conducted on the combined data set (n = 4,503). Participants were aged 18 through 94 years (58% female). The concurrent and discriminant validity of the PAL-T was assessed by examining relationships with physical activity and smoking. To explore the usability of the PAL-T, predicted scale scores were compared to the summed values of responses. Results showed that the internal consistency of the PAL-T was 0.70. Multilevel regression demonstrated no relationship between the PAL-T and smoking status (p > 0.05) but significant relationships with utilitarian walking (p public opinion can inform policy makers and support advocacy efforts aimed at making built environments more suitable for active transportation while allowing researchers to examine the antecedents and consequences of public support for policies.

  15. Assessing the Associations Between Types of Green Space, Physical Activity, and Health Indicators Using GIS and Participatory Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpinar, A.

    2017-11-01

    This study explores whether specific types of green spaces (i.e. urban green spaces, forests, agricultural lands, rangelands, and wetlands) are associated with physical activity, quality of life, and cardiovascular disease prevalence. A sample of 8,976 respondents from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, conducted in 2006 in Washington State across 291 zip-codes, was analyzed. Measures included physical activity status, quality of life, and cardiovascular disease prevalence (i.e. heart attack, angina, and stroke). Percentage of green spaces was derived from the National Land Cover Dataset and measured with Geographical Information System. Multilevel regression analyses were conducted to analyze the data while controlling for age, sex, race, weight, marital status, occupation, income, education level, and zip-code population and socio-economic situation. Regression results reveal that no green space types were associated with physical activity, quality of life, and cardiovascular disease prevalence. On the other hand, the analysis shows that physical activity was associated with general health, quality of life, and cardiovascular disease prevalence. The findings suggest that other factors such as size, structure and distribution (sprawled or concentrated, large or small), quality, and characteristics of green space might be important in general health, quality of life, and cardiovascular disease prevalence rather than green space types. Therefore, further investigations are needed.

  16. ASSESSING THE ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN TYPES OF GREEN SPACE, PHYSICAL ACTIVITY, AND HEALTH INDICATORS USING GIS AND PARTICIPATORY SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Akpinar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study explores whether specific types of green spaces (i.e. urban green spaces, forests, agricultural lands, rangelands, and wetlands are associated with physical activity, quality of life, and cardiovascular disease prevalence. A sample of 8,976 respondents from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, conducted in 2006 in Washington State across 291 zip-codes, was analyzed. Measures included physical activity status, quality of life, and cardiovascular disease prevalence (i.e. heart attack, angina, and stroke. Percentage of green spaces was derived from the National Land Cover Dataset and measured with Geographical Information System. Multilevel regression analyses were conducted to analyze the data while controlling for age, sex, race, weight, marital status, occupation, income, education level, and zip-code population and socio-economic situation. Regression results reveal that no green space types were associated with physical activity, quality of life, and cardiovascular disease prevalence. On the other hand, the analysis shows that physical activity was associated with general health, quality of life, and cardiovascular disease prevalence. The findings suggest that other factors such as size, structure and distribution (sprawled or concentrated, large or small, quality, and characteristics of green space might be important in general health, quality of life, and cardiovascular disease prevalence rather than green space types. Therefore, further investigations are needed.

  17. A neural model for temporal order judgments and their active recalibration: a common mechanism for space and time?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingbo eCai

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available When observers experience a constant delay between their motor actions and sensory feedback, their perception of the temporal order between actions and sensations adapt (Stetson et al., 2006a. We present here a novel neural model that can explain temporal order judgments (TOJs and their recalibration. Our model employs three ubiquitous features of neural systems: 1 information pooling, 2 opponent processing, and 3 synaptic scaling. Specifically, the model proposes that different populations of neurons encode different delays between motor-sensory events, the outputs of these populations feed into rivaling neural populations (encoding before and after, and the activity difference between these populations determines the perceptual judgment. As a consequence of synaptic scaling of input weights, motor acts which are consistently followed by delayed sensory feedback will cause the network to recalibrate its point of subjective simultaneity. The structure of our model raises the possibility that recalibration of TOJs is a temporal analogue to the motion aftereffect. In other words, identical neural mechanisms may be used to make perceptual determinations about both space and time. Our model captures behavioral recalibration results for different numbers of adapting trials and different adapting delays. In line with predictions of the model, we additionally demonstrate that temporal recalibration can last through time, in analogy to storage of the motion aftereffect.

  18. Evaluation of force-torque displays for use with space station telerobotic activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrich, Robert C.; Bierschwale, John M.; Manahan, Meera K.; Stuart, Mark A.; Legendre, A. Jay

    1992-01-01

    Recent experiments which addressed Space Station remote manipulation tasks found that tactile force feedback (reflecting forces and torques encountered at the end-effector through the manipulator hand controller) does not improve performance significantly. Subjective response from astronaut and non-astronaut test subjects indicated that force information, provided visually, could be useful. No research exists which specifically investigates methods of presenting force-torque information visually. This experiment was designed to evaluate seven different visual force-torque displays which were found in an informal telephone survey. The displays were prototyped in the HyperCard programming environment. In a within-subjects experiment, 14 subjects nullified forces and torques presented statically, using response buttons located at the bottom of the screen. Dependent measures included questionnaire data, errors, and response time. Subjective data generally demonstrate that subjects rated variations of pseudo-perspective displays consistently better than bar graph and digital displays. Subjects commented that the bar graph and digital displays could be used, but were not compatible with using hand controllers. Quantitative data show similar trends to the subjective data, except that the bar graph and digital displays both provided good performance, perhaps do to the mapping of response buttons to display elements. Results indicate that for this set of displays, the pseudo-perspective displays generally represent a more intuitive format for presenting force-torque information.

  19. Fishing for space: fine-scale multi-sector maritime activities influence fisher location choice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex N Tidd

    Full Text Available The European Union and other states are moving towards Ecosystem Based Fisheries Management to balance food production and security with wider ecosystem concerns. Fishing is only one of several sectors operating within the ocean environment, competing for renewable and non-renewable resources that overlap in a limited space. Other sectors include marine mining, energy generation, recreation, transport and conservation. Trade-offs of these competing sectors are already part of the process but attempts to detail how the seas are being utilised have been primarily based on compilations of data on human activity at large spatial scales. Advances including satellite and shipping automatic tracking enable investigation of factors influencing fishers' choice of fishing grounds at spatial scales relevant to decision-making, including the presence or avoidance of activities by other sectors. We analyse the determinants of English and Welsh scallop-dredging fleet behaviour, including competing sectors, operating in the eastern English Channel. Results indicate aggregate mining activity, maritime traffic, increased fishing costs, and the English inshore 6 and French 12 nautical mile limits negatively impact fishers' likelihood of fishing in otherwise suitable areas. Past success, net-benefits and fishing within the 12 NM predispose fishers to use areas. Systematic conservation planning has yet to be widely applied in marine systems, and the dynamics of spatial overlap of fishing with other activities have not been studied at scales relevant to fisher decision-making. This study demonstrates fisher decision-making is indeed affected by the real-time presence of other sectors in an area, and therefore trade-offs which need to be accounted for in marine planning. As marine resource extraction demands intensify, governments will need to take a more proactive approach to resolving these trade-offs, and studies such as this will be required as the evidential

  20. Fishing for space: fine-scale multi-sector maritime activities influence fisher location choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidd, Alex N; Vermard, Youen; Marchal, Paul; Pinnegar, John; Blanchard, Julia L; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2015-01-01

    The European Union and other states are moving towards Ecosystem Based Fisheries Management to balance food production and security with wider ecosystem concerns. Fishing is only one of several sectors operating within the ocean environment, competing for renewable and non-renewable resources that overlap in a limited space. Other sectors include marine mining, energy generation, recreation, transport and conservation. Trade-offs of these competing sectors are already part of the process but attempts to detail how the seas are being utilised have been primarily based on compilations of data on human activity at large spatial scales. Advances including satellite and shipping automatic tracking enable investigation of factors influencing fishers' choice of fishing grounds at spatial scales relevant to decision-making, including the presence or avoidance of activities by other sectors. We analyse the determinants of English and Welsh scallop-dredging fleet behaviour, including competing sectors, operating in the eastern English Channel. Results indicate aggregate mining activity, maritime traffic, increased fishing costs, and the English inshore 6 and French 12 nautical mile limits negatively impact fishers' likelihood of fishing in otherwise suitable areas. Past success, net-benefits and fishing within the 12 NM predispose fishers to use areas. Systematic conservation planning has yet to be widely applied in marine systems, and the dynamics of spatial overlap of fishing with other activities have not been studied at scales relevant to fisher decision-making. This study demonstrates fisher decision-making is indeed affected by the real-time presence of other sectors in an area, and therefore trade-offs which need to be accounted for in marine planning. As marine resource extraction demands intensify, governments will need to take a more proactive approach to resolving these trade-offs, and studies such as this will be required as the evidential foundation for future

  1. Historic Frontier Processes active in Future Space-Based Mineral Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, D. M.

    2000-01-01

    The forces that shaped historic mining frontiers are in many cases not bound by geographic or temporal limits. The forces that helped define historic frontiers are active in today's physical and virtual frontiers, and will be present in future space-based frontiers. While frontiers derived from position and technology are primarily economic in nature, non-economic conditions affect the success or failure of individual frontier endeavors, local "mining camps" and even entire frontiers. Frontiers can be defined as the line of activity that divides the established markets and infrastructure of civilization from the unclaimed resources and potential wealth of a wilderness. At the frontier line, ownership of resources is established. The resource can then be developed using capital, energy and information. In a mining setting, the resource is concentrated for economic shipment to the markets of civilization. Profits from the sale of the resource are then used to fund further development of the resource and/or pay investors. Both positional and technical frontiers develop as a series of generations. The profits from each generation of development provides the capital and/or investment incentive for the next round of development. Without profit, the self-replicating process of frontiers stops.

  2. Space Food and Nutrition: An Educator's Guide with Activities in Science and Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casaburri, Angelo A.; Gardner, Cathy A.

    From John Glenn's mission to orbit Earth to the International Space Station program, space food research has met the challenge of providing food that tastes good and travels well in space. Early food dehydration was achieved by cutting meat, fish, and certain fruits into thin strips and drying them in sunlight. Rubbing food with salt or soaking it…

  3. Nuclear energy for space: Past CEA activities and ongoing OPUS studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raepsaet, Xavier; Marion, Denis; Valentian, Dominique

    2006-01-01

    Since the beginning of space activities, solar and nuclear energy have been identified as the only available options for extended missions according to present knowledge. Both types have been used extensively for missions on Earth orbit, interplanetary space and planetary/lunar surface. However, the intensity of solar irradiation decreases with the square of the distance from the Sun. Future scientific and human explorations will take benefits of using a safe in-space nuclear reactor for providing both sufficient electric energy and efficient performance for a space propulsion. The first part of the paper presents a brief status of the different types of nuclear power sources, their characteristics and their field of applications. Previous CEA's projects of space nuclear fission reactors that have been studied in the past will also be discussed; the ERATO project in the 80's (design of a Nuclear Electric Propulsion system of 20 to 200 kWe) and the MAPS project in the 90's (definition of a Nuclear Thermal Propulsion system of 300 MWth for 72 kN of thrust). According to the recent road-maps, CEA decided to maintain a waking state in its spatial nuclear activities by carrying out some conceptual design studies of Nuclear Electric Power systems in the range of 100-500 kWe. The second part of the paper describes the main characteristics of this Optimized Propulsion Unit System (OPUS studies) and its different components. These characteristics, the basic options of the OPUS system that have been selected and the reasons associated to those choices are examined. Especially, the nuclear reactor has been defined considering the possible synergies with the next generation of terrestrial nuclear reactor (International Generation IV Forum). After two successive sets of studies, two different versions of this nuclear system have emerged. The first one is a fast, high-temperature helium cooled reactor, coupled to a direct reheated Brayton cycle. This version is technically the

  4. Activity of aminotransferases in organs of rats during hypoxia of enclosed space of the action of thiamine bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Сніжана Сергіївна Чернадчук

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available It is studied an aminotransferase activity during injection of thiamin bromide in rat tissues in normal and hypoxic enclosed space. After injection of thiamine bromide we have set reduction of AST and ALT activity, relative to control, except by the brain tissue, where there was an increase of investigated indicators. The decrease of activity of the investigated elements is occurred in animals which before hypoxia were injection of thiamine bromide

  5. Space dosimetry measurements in the stratosphere using different active and passive dosimetry systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zabori, Balazs; Hirn, Attila; Deme, Sandor; Apathy, Istvan; Csoke, Antal; Pazmandi, Tamas; Szanto, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Several measurements have been performed on the cosmic radiation field from the surface of the Earth up to the maximum altitudes of research aeroplanes. However, there is only limited information about that between 15 and 30 km altitudes. In order to study the radiation environment in the stratosphere, an experiment was built by students from Hungarian universities that flew on board the BEXUS (Balloon Experiments for University Students) stratospheric balloon in Northern Sweden, from the ESRANGE Space Center. The main technical goals of the experiment were to test at the first time the TRITEL 3D silicon detector telescope system in close to space conditions and to develop a balloon technology platform for advanced cosmic radiation and dosimetric measurements. The main scientific goals were to give an assessment of the cosmic radiation field at the altitude of the BEXUS balloons, to use the TRITEL system to determine dosimetric and radiation quantities during the balloon flight and to intercompare the TRITEL and Pille results to provide a correction factor for the Pille measurements. To fulfil the scientific and technological objectives, several different dosimeter systems were included in the experiment: an advanced version of the TRITEL silicon detector telescope, Geiger-Mueller (GM) counters and Pille thermoluminescent dosimeters. The float altitude of the BEXUS balloon was ∼28.6 km; the total flight time was ∼4 h. Measurement data from the active instruments were received in real time by the ground team during the mission. There were no failures in the operation of the system; everything worked as expected. This article presents the scientific goals and results in detail. From the TRITEL measurements, the linear energy transfer spectra, the average quality factor of the cosmic radiation as well as the absorbed dose and the dose equivalent were determined. Estimations for the uncertainty in the TRITEL measurements were given. The deposited energy spectra

  6. Mapping membrane activity in undiscovered peptide sequence space using machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ernest Y; Fulan, Benjamin M; Wong, Gerard C L; Ferguson, Andrew L

    2016-11-29

    There are some ∼1,100 known antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which permeabilize microbial membranes but have diverse sequences. Here, we develop a support vector machine (SVM)-based classifier to investigate ⍺-helical AMPs and the interrelated nature of their functional commonality and sequence homology. SVM is used to search the undiscovered peptide sequence space and identify Pareto-optimal candidates that simultaneously maximize the distance σ from the SVM hyperplane (thus maximize its "antimicrobialness") and its ⍺-helicity, but minimize mutational distance to known AMPs. By calibrating SVM machine learning results with killing assays and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), we find that the SVM metric σ correlates not with a peptide's minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), but rather its ability to generate negative Gaussian membrane curvature. This surprising result provides a topological basis for membrane activity common to AMPs. Moreover, we highlight an important distinction between the maximal recognizability of a sequence to a trained AMP classifier (its ability to generate membrane curvature) and its maximal antimicrobial efficacy. As mutational distances are increased from known AMPs, we find AMP-like sequences that are increasingly difficult for nature to discover via simple mutation. Using the sequence map as a discovery tool, we find a unexpectedly diverse taxonomy of sequences that are just as membrane-active as known AMPs, but with a broad range of primary functions distinct from AMP functions, including endogenous neuropeptides, viral fusion proteins, topogenic peptides, and amyloids. The SVM classifier is useful as a general detector of membrane activity in peptide sequences.

  7. Active space of pheromone plume and its relationship to effective attraction radius in applied models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, John A

    2008-09-01

    The release rate of a semiochemical lure that attracts flying insects has a specific effective attraction radius (EAR) that corresponds to the lure's orientation response strength. EAR is defined as the radius of a passive sphere that intercepts the same number of insects as a semiochemical-baited trap. It is estimated by calculating the ratio of trap catches in the field in baited and unbaited traps and the interception area of the unbaited trap. EAR serves as a standardized method for comparing the attractive strengths of lures that is independent of population density. In two-dimensional encounter rate models that are used to describe insect mass trapping and mating disruption, a circular EAR (EAR(c)) describes a key parameter that affects catch or influence by pheromone in the models. However, the spherical EAR, as measured in the field, should be transformed to an EAR(c) for appropriate predictions in such models. The EAR(c) is calculated as (pi/2EAR(2))/F (L), where F (L) is the effective thickness of the flight layer where the insect searches. F (L) was estimated from catches of insects (42 species in the orders Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera, and Thysanoptera) on traps at various heights as reported in the literature. The EAR(c) was proposed further as a simple but equivalent alternative to simulations of highly complex active-space plumes with variable response surfaces that have proven exceedingly difficult to quantify in nature. This hypothesis was explored in simulations where flying insects, represented as coordinate points, moved about in a correlated random walk in an area that contained a pheromone plume, represented as a sector of active space composed of a capture probability surface of variable complexity. In this plume model, catch was monitored at a constant density of flying insects and then compared to simulations in which a circular EAR(c) was enlarged until an equivalent rate was caught. This demonstrated that there is a

  8. Space Educational Opportunities and Outreach Activities at the Dawn of the 21st Century. A European Students Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, S.; Robinson, D.; Manfletti, C.; Amadori, K.; Boccalatte, A.; Alessandrini, M.; Bedogna, P.; Corradi, P.; Marcuccio, M.

    2002-01-01

    Taking part in space activities and participating in the development and growth of space project has now become an undeniable reality. Thanks to academic institutions and outreach activities space enthusiasts can engage in numerous and diverse yet unique opportunities. The ESA Outreach Office sees students of every background taking part in its activities. This unique mixture of students of diverse nationalities enthusiastically co-operating ensures the program's interdisciplinarity. The added value of such an environment to the programs is significant and must not be forgotten. The friendship that blossom, and lose with which cultural and language barriers are overcome during the time spent working on the projects offered to university student and young professionals are invaluable. The purpose of this abstract is to give our perspective to the space community and to the general public on the importance of developing a space culture. The academic value of the space research projects mainly in which the authors have participated, the importance of such projects for the future of European relations and personal and social development through experience of international teams are topics that will be addressed. The activities discussed are : Attending sessions of congresses around the world, making contacts of major companies and players in the space sector, dealing of topics such as space engineering, policy and law, life sciences, business and finance, satellite applications, the exhilaration of floating in zero-g, the interdisciplinary, international and intercultural approach, the chance of quickly learning about many new concepts are just some of the marvellous experiences and opportunities that these programs offer. Reaching out to the general public is the second purpose of these unique activities.Images, photos and reports can seep into every house thanks to the great instrument that is the media, thus informing almost everyone about the activities and

  9. Mainstream Issues of Education and Public Awareness of Space Activities and Sciences among universities and Scientific Institutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Balbir

    This paper is an effort to study and analyze several constraints and issues of space technology and education that organizations other than governmental organizations face in awareness program. In recent years, advancements in technologies have made it possible for Volunteer and Technical Communities, non-government organizations, private agencies and academic research institutions to provide increasing support to space education management and emphasis on response efforts. Important cornerstones of this effort and support are the possibility to access and take advantage of satellite imagery as well as the use of other space-based technologies such as telecommunications satellites and global navigation satellite systems included in main curriculum plus the implementation of programs for use of high class sophisticated technologies used by industries to the students and researchers of non-space faring nations. The authors recognize the importance of such new methodologies for education and public Awareness. This paper demonstrates many hurdles universities and scientific institutions face including lack of access in terms of financial and technical resources for better support. A new model for coordinated private sector partnership in response to space sciences and education has been discussed. In depth analysis and techniques need to connect these pioneering communities with the space industry as well as the space governmental agencies, with special emphasis on financial constraints. The paper mandates its role to promote the use of space-based information; its established networks bringing together national institutions responsible for these space based activities, as well as other end users, and space solution experts; and its technical foundation, particularly in the area of information technologies. To help building a tighter cooperation and further understanding among all these communities, paper delivers an intensive report and solutions for future

  10. P/2006 HR30 (Siding Spring): A Low-activity Comet in Near-Earth Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Michael D.; Bauer, James M.

    2007-01-01

    The low cometary activity of P/2006 HR30 (Siding Spring) allowed a unique opportunity to study the nucleus of a periodic comet while near perihelion. P/2006 HR30 was originally targeted as a potential extinct comet, and we measured spectral reflectance and dust production using long-slit CCD spectroscopy and wide-field imaging obtained at the Palomar Mountain 200 inch telescope on 2006 August 3 and 4. The dust production Afp = 19.7 +/- 0.4 cm and mass-loss rate Q(dust) 4.1 +/- 0.1 kg/sec of the comet were approximately 2 orders of magnitude dust less than 1P/Halley at similar heliocentric distance. The VRI colors derived from the spectral reflectance were compared to Kuiper Belt objects, Centaurs, and other cometary nuclei. We found that the spectrum of P/2006 HR30 was consistent with other comets. However, the outer solar system bodies have a color distribution statistically distinct from cometary nuclei. It is our conjecture that cometary activity, most likely the reaccretion of ejected cometary dust, tends to moderate and mute the visible colors of the surface of cometary nuclei.

  11. Nuclear Energy Gradients for Internally Contracted Complete Active Space Second-Order Perturbation Theory: Multistate Extensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaisavljevich, Bess; Shiozaki, Toru

    2016-08-09

    We report the development of the theory and computer program for analytical nuclear energy gradients for (extended) multistate complete active space perturbation theory (CASPT2) with full internal contraction. The vertical shifts are also considered in this work. This is an extension of the fully internally contracted CASPT2 nuclear gradient program recently developed for a state-specific variant by us [MacLeod and Shiozaki, J. Chem. Phys. 2015, 142, 051103]; in this extension, the so-called λ equation is solved to account for the variation of the multistate CASPT2 energies with respect to the change in the amplitudes obtained in the preceding state-specific CASPT2 calculations, and the Z vector equations are modified accordingly. The program is parallelized using the MPI3 remote memory access protocol that allows us to perform efficient one-sided communication. The optimized geometries of the ground and excited states of a copper corrole and benzophenone are presented as numerical examples. The code is publicly available under the GNU General Public License.

  12. The NASA Heliophysics Active Final Archive at the Space Physics Data Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    The 2009 NASA Heliophysics Science Data Management Policy re-defined and extended the responsibilities of the Space Physics Data Facility (SPDF) project. Building on SPDF's established capabilities, the new policy assigned the role of active "Final Archive" for non-solar NASA Heliophysics data to SPDF. The policy also recognized and formalized the responsibilities of SPDF as a source for critical infrastructure services such as VSPO to the overall Heliophysics Data Environment (HpDE) and as a Center of Excellence for existing SPDF science-enabling services and software including CDAWeb, SSCWeb/4D Orbit Viewer, OMNIweb and CDF. We will focus this talk to the principles, strategies and planned SPDF architecture to effectively and efficiently perform these roles, with special emphasis on how SPDF will ensure the long-term preservation and ongoing online community access to all the data entrusted to SPDF. We will layout our archival philosophy and what we are advocating in our work with NASA missions both current and future, with potential providers of NASA and NASA-relevant archival data, and to make the data and metadata held by SPDF accessible to other systems and services within the overall HpOE. We will also briefly review our current services, their metrics and our current plans and priorities for their evolution.

  13. Scientific Considerations for Future Spectroscopic Measurements from Space of Activity on the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Gordon D.

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution UV and X-ray spectroscopy are important to understanding the origin and evolution of magnetic energy release in the solar atmosphere, as well as the subsequent evolution of heated plasma and accelerated particles. Electromagnetic radiation is observed from plasma heated to temperatures ranging from about 10 k K to above 10 MK, from accelerated electrons emitting photons primarily at X-ray energies, and from ions emitting in gamma rays. These observations require space-based instruments sensitive to emissions at wavelengths shorter than the near UV. This article reviews some recent observations with emphasis on solar eruptive events, the models that describe them, and the measurements they indicate are needed for substantial progress in the future. Specific examples are discussed demonstrating that imaging spectroscopy with a cadence of seconds or better is needed to follow, understand, and predict the evolution of solar activity. Critical to substantial progress is the combination of a judicious choice of UV, EUV, and soft X-ray imaging spectroscopy sensitive to the evolution of this thermal plasma combined with hard X-ray imaging spectroscopy sensitive to suprathermal electrons. The major challenge will be to conceive instruments that, within the bounds of possible technologies and funding, have the flexibility and field of view to obtain spectroscopic observations where and when events occur while providing an optimum balance of dynamic range, spectral resolution and range, and spatial resolution.

  14. Report on the activities of Space Science Department in 1978/1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, D.E.; Fitton, B.; Pedersen, A.; Taylor, B.G.; Wenzel, K.-P.

    1980-09-01

    In the chapters which follow each of the four Divisions, (Cosmic Ray Div., Space Plasma Div., Astronomy Div., and High Energy Astrophysic Div.) has described its work in the sequence: 'Support given to projects', 'Support given to studies', and 'Research activities'. The effort and time devoted to each area of work is by no means proportional to the length of text appearing in each area. Any attempt to fully describe support given to a project tends to result in what is merely a diary of meetings, tests, failures, re-scheduling efforts, repair of experiments, re-tests, compromise negotiation, inter-experimenter refereeing etc., and such diaries, although instructive, seemed inappropriate in this report. Reports on projects and studies therefore in general simply describe the project and say that it was supported. It should be mentioned, however, that major efforts, outside the normal role of SSD, have gone into the IUE and Exosat projects. The scientific operations of IUE were planned and are directed from the Astronomy Division to which the visiting scientists at Villafranca report. The design and production of the Exosat payload is being managed from the High Energy Astrophysics Division and plans are now being made for the operation of the Exosat Observatory and the distribution of the data

  15. Systematic design of active spaces for multi-reference calculations of singlet-triplet gaps of organic diradicals, with benchmarks against doubly electron-attached coupled-cluster data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoneburner, Samuel J.; Shen, Jun; Ajala, Adeayo O.; Piecuch, Piotr; Truhlar, Donald G.; Gagliardi, Laura

    2017-10-01

    Singlet-triplet gaps in diradical organic π-systems are of interest in many applications. In this study, we calculate them in a series of molecules, including cyclobutadiene and its derivatives and cyclopentadienyl cation, by using correlated participating orbitals within the complete active space (CAS) and restricted active space (RAS) self-consistent field frameworks, followed by second-order perturbation theory (CASPT2 and RASPT2). These calculations are evaluated by comparison with the results of doubly electron-attached (DEA) equation-of-motion (EOM) coupled-cluster (CC) calculations with up to 4-particle-2-hole (4p-2h) excitations. We find active spaces that can accurately reproduce the DEA-EOMCC(4p-2h) data while being small enough to be applicable to larger organic diradicals.

  16. Green Urban Space Utilization for Mild ICT-Based Touristic Activities: The Case of Pafsilipo Park in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanos KARAGIANNIS

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the issue of mild touristic activities in green urban landscapes. More specifically, it uses the case of Pasfilipo Park in the city of Karditsa, Greece, where a green urban landscape has been utilized for local life improvement and illustrates existing touristic activities in this area. For the purposes of strengthening landscape’s role, various touristic activities are proposed accompanied by Information and Communications Technologies (ICT. Moreover, this paper queries scientific issues with regard to the capitalization of green urban spaces for small scale touristic and ecological activities, which support local life and local economic growth. This study addresses the above modern requirements for urban development with respect to existing natural and human resources. It attempts to answer the following question: can green open spaces in cities be capitalized for touristic activities that support sustainable growth? In this order, green spaces in cities are recognized as areas for smart growth, where mild touristic activities can be undertaken without ecologic damages and can result in simultaneous economic activities that can lead to local development.

  17. The impact of interventions to promote physical activity in urban green space: a systematic review and recommendations for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Ruth F; Christian, Hayley; Veitch, Jenny; Astell-Burt, Thomas; Hipp, J Aaron; Schipperijn, Jasper

    2015-01-01

    Evidence is mounting on the association between the built environment and physical activity (PA) with a call for intervention research. A broader approach which recognizes the role of supportive environments that can make healthy choices easier is required. A systematic review was undertaken to assess the effectiveness of interventions to encourage PA in urban green space. Five databases were searched independently by two reviewers using search terms relating to 'physical activity', 'urban green space' and 'intervention' in July 2014. Eligibility criteria included: (i) intervention to encourage PA in urban green space which involved either a physical change to the urban green space or a PA intervention to promote use of urban green space or a combination of both; and (ii) primary outcome of PA. Of the 2405 studies identified, 12 were included. There was some evidence (4/9 studies showed positive effect) to support built environment only interventions for encouraging use and increasing PA in urban green space. There was more promising evidence (3/3 studies showed positive effect) to support PAprograms or PA programs combined with a physical change to the built environment, for increasing urban green space use and PA of users. Recommendations for future research include the need for longer term follow-up post-intervention, adequate control groups, sufficiently powered studies, and consideration of the social environment, which was identified as a significantly under-utilized resource in this area. Interventions that involve the use of PA programs combined with a physical change to the built environment are likely to have a positive effect on PA. Robust evaluations of such interventions are urgently required. The findings provide a platform to inform the design, implementation and evaluation of future urban green space and PAintervention research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. International Space Station Active Thermal Control Sub-System On-Orbit Pump Performance and Reliability Using Liquid Ammonia as a Coolant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Richard D.; Jurick, Matthew; Roman, Ruben; Adamson, Gary; Bui, Chinh T.; Laliberte, Yvon J.

    2011-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) contains two Active Thermal Control Sub-systems (ATCS) that function by using a liquid ammonia cooling system collecting waste heat and rejecting it using radiators. These subsystems consist of a number of heat exchangers, cold plates, radiators, the Pump and Flow Control Subassembly (PFCS), and the Pump Module (PM), all of which are Orbital Replaceable Units (ORU's). The PFCS provides the motive force to circulate the ammonia coolant in the Photovoltaic Thermal Control Subsystem (PVTCS) and has been in operation since December, 2000. The Pump Module (PM) circulates liquid ammonia coolant within the External Active Thermal Control Subsystem (EATCS) cooling the ISS internal coolant (water) loops collecting waste heat and rejecting it through the ISS radiators. These PM loops have been in operation since December, 2006. This paper will discuss the original reliability analysis approach of the PFCS and Pump Module, comparing them against the current operational performance data for the ISS External Thermal Control Loops.

  19. Active galactic nucleus and quasar science with aperture masking interferometry on the James Webb Space Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, K. E. Saavik; McKernan, Barry [Department of Science, Borough of Manhattan Community College, City University of New York, New York, NY 10007 (United States); Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Martel, André R.; Koekemoer, Anton [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Lafrenière, David [Département de Physique, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128 Succ. Centre-ville, QC H3C 3J7 (Canada); Parmentier, Sébastien [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States)

    2014-03-10

    Due to feedback from accretion onto supermassive black holes (SMBHs), active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are believed to play a key role in ΛCDM cosmology and galaxy formation. However, AGNs extreme luminosities and the small angular size of their accretion flows create a challenging imaging problem. We show that the James Webb Space Telescope's Near Infrared Imager and Slitless Spectrograph (JWST-NIRISS) Aperture Masking Interferometry (AMI) mode will enable true imaging (i.e., without any requirement of prior assumptions on source geometry) at ∼65 mas angular resolution at the centers of AGNs. This is advantageous for studying complex extended accretion flows around SMBHs and in other areas of angular-resolution-limited astrophysics. By simulating data sequences incorporating expected sources of noise, we demonstrate that JWST-NIRISS AMI mode can map extended structure at a pixel-to-pixel contrast of ∼10{sup –2} around an L = 7.5 point source, using short exposure times (minutes). Such images will test models of AGN feedback, fueling, and structure (complementary with ALMA observations), and are not currently supported by any ground-based IR interferometer or telescope. Binary point source contrast with NIRISS is ∼10{sup –4} (for observing binary nuclei in merging galaxies), significantly better than current ground-based optical or IR interferometry. JWST-NIRISS's seven-hole non-redundant mask has a throughput of 15%, and utilizes NIRISS's F277W (2.77 μm), F380M (3.8 μm), F430M (4.3 μm), and F480M (4.8 μm) filters. NIRISS's square pixels are 65 mas per side, with a field of view ∼2' × 2'. We also extrapolate our results to AGN science enabled by non-redundant masking on future 2.4 m and 16 m space telescopes working at long-UV to near-IR wavelengths.

  20. Measuring process and knowledge consistency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Jensen, Klaes Ladeby; Haug, Anders

    2007-01-01

    When implementing configuration systems, knowledge about products and processes are documented and replicated in the configuration system. This practice assumes that products are specified consistently i.e. on the same rule base and likewise for processes. However, consistency cannot be taken...... for granted; rather the contrary, and attempting to implement a configuration system may easily ignite a political battle. This is because stakes are high in the sense that the rules and processes chosen may only reflect one part of the practice, ignoring a majority of the employees. To avoid this situation......, this paper presents a methodology for measuring product and process consistency prior to implementing a configuration system. The methodology consists of two parts: 1) measuring knowledge consistency and 2) measuring process consistency. Knowledge consistency is measured by developing a questionnaire...

  1. SE83-9 'Chix in Space' student experimenter monitors STS-29 onboard activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Student experimenter John C. Vellinger watches monitor in the JSC Mission Control Center (MCC) Bldg 30 Customer Support Room (CSR) during the STS-29 mission. Crewmembers are working with his Student Experiment (SE) 83-9 Chicken Embryo Development in Space or 'Chix in Space' onboard Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103. The student's sponsor is Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC).

  2. Large-scale parallel configuration interaction. I. Nonrelativisticand scalar-relativistic general active space implementationwith application to (Rb-Ba)+

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knecht, Stefan; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aagaard; Fleig, Timo

    2008-01-01

    We present a parallel implementation of a string-driven general active space configuration interaction program for nonrelativistic and scalar-relativistic electronic-structure calculations. The code has been modularly incorporated in the DIRAC quantum chemistry program package. The implementation...

  3. Physical activity as a possible mechanism behind the relationship between green space and health: a multilevel analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, J.; Verheij, R.A.; Spreeuwenberg, P.; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to investigate whether physical activity (in general, and more specifically, walking and cycling during leisure time and for commuting purposes, sports and gardening) is an underlying mechanism in the relationship between the amount of green space in people's

  4. Dualgrid : a closed representation space for consistent spatial databases

    OpenAIRE

    Cotelo Lema, José Antonio

    2013-01-01

    [Resumen] En las últimas décadas se ha dedicado un significativo esfuerzo a la integración de las tecnologías de Sistemas de Información Geográfica (SIG) con sistemas de información más tradicionales. Para dar soporte a esa integración la tecnología de representación de datos espaciales ha sido mejorada en múltiples aspectos, desde los modelos (conceptuales y discretos) de representación de datos y lenguajes de consulta a las tecnologías de indexación y visualización y a los estándares de int...

  5. Consistent Estimation of Partition Markov Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús E. García

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Partition Markov Model characterizes the process by a partition L of the state space, where the elements in each part of L share the same transition probability to an arbitrary element in the alphabet. This model aims to answer the following questions: what is the minimal number of parameters needed to specify a Markov chain and how to estimate these parameters. In order to answer these questions, we build a consistent strategy for model selection which consist of: giving a size n realization of the process, finding a model within the Partition Markov class, with a minimal number of parts to represent the process law. From the strategy, we derive a measure that establishes a metric in the state space. In addition, we show that if the law of the process is Markovian, then, eventually, when n goes to infinity, L will be retrieved. We show an application to model internet navigation patterns.

  6. A High-Performance Deformable Mirror with Integrated Driver ASIC for Space Based Active Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Chris

    Direct imaging of exoplanets is key to fully understanding these systems through spectroscopy and astrometry. The primary impediment to direct imaging of exoplanets is the extremely high brightness ratio between the planet and its parent star. Direct imaging requires a technique for contrast suppression, which include coronagraphs, and nulling interferometers. Deformable mirrors (DMs) are essential to both of these techniques. With space missions in mind, Microscale is developing a novel DM with direct integration of DM and its electronic control functions in a single small envelope. The Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) is key to the shrinking of the electronic control functions to a size compatible with direct integration with the DM. Through a NASA SBIR project, Microscale, with JPL oversight, has successfully demonstrated a unique deformable mirror (DM) driver ASIC prototype based on an ultra-low power switch architecture. Microscale calls this the Switch-Mode ASIC, or SM-ASIC, and has characterized it for a key set of performance parameters, and has tested its operation with a variety of actuator loads, such as piezo stack and unimorph, and over a wide temperature range. These tests show the SM-ASIC's capability of supporting active optics in correcting aberrations of a telescope in space. Microscale has also developed DMs to go with the SM-ASIC driver. The latest DM version produced uses small piezo stack elements in an 8x8 array, bonded to a novel silicon facesheet structure fabricated monolithically into a polished mirror on one side and mechanical linkage posts that connect to the piezoelectric stack actuators on the other. In this Supporting Technology proposal we propose to further develop the ASIC-DM and have assembled a very capable team to do so. It will be led by JPL, which has considerable expertise with DMs used in Adaptive Optics systems, with high-contrast imaging systems for exoplanet missions, and with designing DM driver

  7. Active shield technology for space craft protection revisited in new laboratory results and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamford, R.; Gibson, K. J.; Thornton, A. T.; Bradford, J.; Bingham, R.; Gargate, L.; Silva, L. O.; Fonseca, R. A.; Hapgood, M.; Norberg, C.; Todd, T.; Stamper, R.

    2009-04-01

    Energetic ions in the solar wind plasma are a known hazard to both spacecraft electronics and to astronaut's health. Of primary concern is the exposure to keV--MeV protons on manned space flights to the Moon and Mars that extend over long periods of time. Attempts to protect the spacecraft include active shields that are reminiscent of Star Trek "deflector" shields. Here we describe a new experiment to test the shielding concept of a dipole-like magnetic field and plasma, surrounding the spacecraft forming a "mini magnetosphere". Initial laboratory experiments have been conducted to determine the effectiveness of a magnetized plasma barrier to be able to expel an impacting, low beta, supersonic flowing energetic plasma representing the Solar Wind. Optical and Langmuir probe data of the plasma density, the plasma flow velocity, and the intensity of the dipole field clearly show the creation of a narrow transport barrier region and diamagnetic cavity virtually devoid of energetic plasma particles. This demonstrates the potential viability of being able to create a small "hole" in a Solar Wind plasma, of the order of the ion Larmor orbit width, in which an inhabited spacecraft could reside in relative safety. The experimental results have been quantitatively compared to a 3D particle-in-cell ‘hybrid' code simulation that uses kinetic ions and fluid electrons, showing good qualitative agreement and excellent quantitative agreement. Together the results demonstrate the pivotal role of particle kinetics in determining generic plasma transport barriers. [1] [1] R Bamford et al., "The interaction of a flowing plasma with a dipole magnetic field: measurements and modelling of a diamagnetic cavity relevant to spacecraft protection." 2008 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 50 124025 (11pp) doi: 10.1088/0741-3335/50/12/124025

  8. Cloud Computing Applications in Support of Earth Science Activities at Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molthan, Andrew L.; Limaye, Ashutosh S.; Srikishen, Jayanthi

    2011-01-01

    Currently, the NASA Nebula Cloud Computing Platform is available to Agency personnel in a pre-release status as the system undergoes a formal operational readiness review. Over the past year, two projects within the Earth Science Office at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center have been investigating the performance and value of Nebula s "Infrastructure as a Service", or "IaaS" concept and applying cloud computing concepts to advance their respective mission goals. The Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center focuses on the transition of unique NASA satellite observations and weather forecasting capabilities for use within the operational forecasting community through partnerships with NOAA s National Weather Service (NWS). SPoRT has evaluated the performance of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model on virtual machines deployed within Nebula and used Nebula instances to simulate local forecasts in support of regional forecast studies of interest to select NWS forecast offices. In addition to weather forecasting applications, rapidly deployable Nebula virtual machines have supported the processing of high resolution NASA satellite imagery to support disaster assessment following the historic severe weather and tornado outbreak of April 27, 2011. Other modeling and satellite analysis activities are underway in support of NASA s SERVIR program, which integrates satellite observations, ground-based data and forecast models to monitor environmental change and improve disaster response in Central America, the Caribbean, Africa, and the Himalayas. Leveraging SPoRT s experience, SERVIR is working to establish a real-time weather forecasting model for Central America. Other modeling efforts include hydrologic forecasts for Kenya, driven by NASA satellite observations and reanalysis data sets provided by the broader meteorological community. Forecast modeling efforts are supplemented by short-term forecasts of convective initiation, determined by

  9. International Space Station (ISS) Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) New Biocide Selection, Qualification and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark E.; Cole, Harold E.; Rector, Tony; Steele, John; Varsik, Jerry

    2011-01-01

    The Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) aboard the International Space Station (ISS) is primarily responsible for the removal of heat loads from payload and system racks. The IATCS is a water based system which works in conjunction with the EATCS (External ATCS), an ammonia based system, which are interfaced through a heat exchanger to facilitate heat transfer. On-orbit issues associated with the aqueous coolant chemistry began to occur with unexpected increases in CO2 levels in the cabin. This caused an increase in total inorganic carbon (TIC), a reduction in coolant pH, increased corrosion, and precipitation of nickel phosphate. These chemical changes were also accompanied by the growth of heterotrophic bacteria that increased risk to the system and could potentially impact crew health and safety. Studies were conducted to select a biocide to control microbial growth in the system based on requirements for disinfection at low chemical concentration (effectiveness), solubility and stability, material compatibility, low toxicity to humans, compatibility with vehicle environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS), ease of application, rapid on-orbit measurement, and removal capability. Based on these requirements, ortho-phthalaldehyde (OPA), an aromatic dialdehyde compound, was selected for qualification testing. This paper presents the OPA qualification test results, development of hardware and methodology to safely apply OPA to the system, development of a means to remove OPA, development of a rapid colorimetric test for measurement of OPA, and the OPA on-orbit performance for controlling the growth of microorganisms in the ISS IATCS since November 3, 2007.

  10. Freight from Space: Evaluating Freight Activity and Emissions Trends from Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickford, E.; Holloway, T.; Oberman, J.; Janssen, M.

    2012-12-01

    Heavy duty diesel freight trucks are the fastest growing source of highway emissions in the U.S., with domestic freight tonnage projected to double by 2050. Highway diesel vehicles currently account for 42% of on-road emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), 58% of on-road fine particulate (PM2.5) emissions, and 21% of on-road carbon dioxide emissions. Because most surface air quality monitors are located in densely populated areas and not rural highways, it is difficult to use ground-based observations to validate spatial trends in transportation emissions. Therefore, we have employed satellite retrievals from the OMI instrument to inform surface freight transportation inventory estimates by validating modeled tropospheric vertical column total nitrogen dioxide (NO2) against satellite observations. For this research we built a roadway-by-roadway bottom-up diesel truck emissions inventory using GIS, the U.S. Federal Highway Administration's Freight Analysis Framework (FAF) activity dataset, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's MOVES emissions model. We use freight rail emissions from the Eastern Regional Technical Advisory Committee (ERTAC), inventory emissions from the Lake Michigan's Air Directors Consortium (LADCO) and the EPA's Community Multiscale Air Qualiy (CMAQ) model to simulate ground-level and tropospheric column concentrations of NO2. We also use the combination of models and satellite data to evaluate weekday-weekend patterns of NO2 concentrations and the relative contributions of highway diesel vehicles, highway gasoline vehicles, and freight rail to transportation-related pollution. This research presents the first evaluation of surface freight transport from space-based observations. We find satellite retrievals of surface pollutants provide a useful data tool for evaluating air quality models and constraining emissions sources.

  11. Aural localization of silent objects by active human biosonar: neural representations of virtual echo-acoustic space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallmeier, Ludwig; Kish, Daniel; Wiegrebe, Lutz; Flanagin, Virginia L

    2015-03-01

    Some blind humans have developed the remarkable ability to detect and localize objects through the auditory analysis of self-generated tongue clicks. These echolocation experts show a corresponding increase in 'visual' cortex activity when listening to echo-acoustic sounds. Echolocation in real-life settings involves multiple reflections as well as active sound production, neither of which has been systematically addressed. We developed a virtualization technique that allows participants to actively perform such biosonar tasks in virtual echo-acoustic space during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Tongue clicks, emitted in the MRI scanner, are picked up by a microphone, convolved in real time with the binaural impulse responses of a virtual space, and presented via headphones as virtual echoes. In this manner, we investigated the brain activity during active echo-acoustic localization tasks. Our data show that, in blind echolocation experts, activations in the calcarine cortex are dramatically enhanced when a single reflector is introduced into otherwise anechoic virtual space. A pattern-classification analysis revealed that, in the blind, calcarine cortex activation patterns could discriminate left-side from right-side reflectors. This was found in both blind experts, but the effect was significant for only one of them. In sighted controls, 'visual' cortex activations were insignificant, but activation patterns in the planum temporale were sufficient to discriminate left-side from right-side reflectors. Our data suggest that blind and echolocation-trained, sighted subjects may recruit different neural substrates for the same active-echolocation task. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Cloud Computing Applications in Support of Earth Science Activities at Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molthan, A.; Limaye, A. S.

    2011-12-01

    Currently, the NASA Nebula Cloud Computing Platform is available to Agency personnel in a pre-release status as the system undergoes a formal operational readiness review. Over the past year, two projects within the Earth Science Office at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center have been investigating the performance and value of Nebula's "Infrastructure as a Service", or "IaaS" concept and applying cloud computing concepts to advance their respective mission goals. The Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center focuses on the transition of unique NASA satellite observations and weather forecasting capabilities for use within the operational forecasting community through partnerships with NOAA's National Weather Service (NWS). SPoRT has evaluated the performance of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model on virtual machines deployed within Nebula and used Nebula instances to simulate local forecasts in support of regional forecast studies of interest to select NWS forecast offices. In addition to weather forecasting applications, rapidly deployable Nebula virtual machines have supported the processing of high resolution NASA satellite imagery to support disaster assessment following the historic severe weather and tornado outbreak of April 27, 2011. Other modeling and satellite analysis activities are underway in support of NASA's SERVIR program, which integrates satellite observations, ground-based data and forecast models to monitor environmental change and improve disaster response in Central America, the Caribbean, Africa, and the Himalayas. Leveraging SPoRT's experience, SERVIR is working to establish a real-time weather forecasting model for Central America. Other modeling efforts include hydrologic forecasts for Kenya, driven by NASA satellite observations and reanalysis data sets provided by the broader meteorological community. Forecast modeling efforts are supplemented by short-term forecasts of convective initiation, determined by

  13. Investigation of unstable periodic space-time states in distributed active system with supercritical current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koronovskij, A.A.; Rempen, I.S.; Khramov, A.E.

    2003-01-01

    The set of the unstable periodic space-time states, characterizing the chaotic space-time dynamics of the electron beam with the supercritical current in the Pierce diode is discussed. The Lyapunov indicators of the revealed instable space-time states of the chaotic dynamics of the distributed self-excited system are calculated. It is shown that change in the set of the unstable periodic states in dependence on the Pierce parameter is determined by change in the various orbits stability, which is demonstrated by the values of senior Lyapunov unstable state index [ru

  14. Consistency argued students of fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viyanti; Cari; Suparmi; Winarti; Slamet Budiarti, Indah; Handika, Jeffry; Widyastuti, Fatma

    2017-01-01

    Problem solving for physics concepts through consistency arguments can improve thinking skills of students and it is an important thing in science. The study aims to assess the consistency of the material Fluid student argmentation. The population of this study are College students PGRI Madiun, UIN Sunan Kalijaga Yogyakarta and Lampung University. Samples using cluster random sampling, 145 samples obtained by the number of students. The study used a descriptive survey method. Data obtained through multiple-choice test and interview reasoned. Problem fluid modified from [9] and [1]. The results of the study gained an average consistency argmentation for the right consistency, consistency is wrong, and inconsistent respectively 4.85%; 29.93%; and 65.23%. Data from the study have an impact on the lack of understanding of the fluid material which is ideally in full consistency argued affect the expansion of understanding of the concept. The results of the study as a reference in making improvements in future studies is to obtain a positive change in the consistency of argumentations.

  15. Impact of Location of the Central Activities on Development of Open Public Space in the City Centers of Small Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volgemut, Mateja

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Urban areas of the central activities with mixed land use are crucial for the development of city center, even in small cities. In the last decades or two the attention is drawn on the retail and service activities that are usually located outside of cities near main roads. Municipalities had already detected this problem, but they are not implementing any of the measures (Rebernik, 2010. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that the central activities in small cities in Slovenia are located in freestanding buildings, which is most appropriate in terms of forming the open public space in the city center. In this research we compared ten central activities (Vrišer, 1988, 1990, Kokole, 1971 in 34 small cities. We selected only those small cities (Prosen et al, 2008 which have among other activities a county court. The results showed the differences and commonalities of the central activities in selected small cities according to the indicators. Litija, Domžale and Sevnica are small cities, where activities that could articulate open public space are located in the larger building complexes. The phenomenon is similar to a modern machine, where action in it and indirectly the insight into the functioning of the society is invisible to the observer (Kos, 2008. We found out that in these tree cities the central activities are not forming the open public spaces in front of the public buildings (Vertelj Nared, 2014. The result is problematic image of the city and changed forces of the city life.

  16. Moving targets: Promoting physical activity in public spaces via open streets in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipp, J Aaron; Bird, Alyssa; van Bakergem, Margaret; Yarnall, Elizabeth

    2017-10-01

    Popularity of Open Streets, temporarily opening streets to communities and closing streets to vehicles, in the US has recently surged. As of January 2016, 122 cities have hosted an Open Streets program. Even with this great expansion, the sustainability of Open Streets remains a challenge in many cities and overall Open Streets in the US differ from their successful counterparts in Central and South America. Between summer 2015 and winter 2016, we reviewed the websites and social media of the 122 identified programs and interviewed 32 unique Open Streets programs. Websites and social media were reviewed for program initiation, number of Open Streets days, length of routes, duration of program, and reported participation. Interview questions focused on barriers and facilitators of expanding Open Streets and specific questioning regarding local evaluation activities. All interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed with constant comparative methodology. Over three-quarters of US Open Streets programs have been initiated since 2010, with median frequency of one time per year, 4h per date, and 5000-9999 participants. Seventy-seven percent of program routes are under 5km in length. Success of programs was measured by enthusiasm, attendance, social media, survey metrics, and sustainability. Thirteen of 32 program organizers expressed interest in expanding their programs to 12 dates per year, but noted consistent barriers to expansion including funding, permitting, and branding. Though many cities now host Open Streets programs, their ability to effect public health remains limited with few program dates per year. Coordinated efforts, especially around funding, permitting, and branding may assist in expanding program dates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Coordinating user interfaces for consistency

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, Jakob

    2001-01-01

    In the years since Jakob Nielsen's classic collection on interface consistency first appeared, much has changed, and much has stayed the same. On the one hand, there's been exponential growth in the opportunities for following or disregarding the principles of interface consistency-more computers, more applications, more users, and of course the vast expanse of the Web. On the other, there are the principles themselves, as persistent and as valuable as ever. In these contributed chapters, you'll find details on many methods for seeking and enforcing consistency, along with bottom-line analys

  18. Update on Risk Reduction Activities for a Liquid Advanced Booster for NASA's Space Launch System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Andrew M.; Greene, William D.

    2017-01-01

    The stated goals of NASA's Research Announcement for the Space Launch System (SLS) Advanced Booster Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction (ABEDRR) are to reduce risks leading to an affordable Advanced Booster that meets the evolved capabilities of SLS and enable competition by mitigating targeted Advanced Booster risks to enhance SLS affordability. Dynetics, Inc. and Aerojet Rocketdyne (AR) formed a team to offer a wide-ranging set of risk reduction activities and full-scale, system-level demonstrations that support NASA's ABEDRR goals. During the ABEDRR effort, the Dynetics Team has modified flight-proven Apollo-Saturn F-1 engine components and subsystems to improve affordability and reliability (e.g., reduce parts counts, touch labor, or use lower cost manufacturing processes and materials). The team has built hardware to validate production costs and completed tests to demonstrate it can meet performance requirements. State-of-the-art manufacturing and processing techniques have been applied to the heritage F-1, resulting in a low recurring cost engine while retaining the benefits of Apollo-era experience. NASA test facilities have been used to perform low-cost risk-reduction engine testing. In early 2014, NASA and the Dynetics Team agreed to move additional large liquid oxygen/kerosene engine work under Dynetics' ABEDRR contract. Also led by AR, the objectives of this work are to demonstrate combustion stability and measure performance of a 500,000 lbf class Oxidizer-Rich Staged Combustion (ORSC) cycle main injector. A trade study was completed to investigate the feasibility, cost effectiveness, and technical maturity of a domestically-produced engine that could potentially both replace the RD-180 on Atlas V and satisfy NASA SLS payload-to-orbit requirements via an advanced booster application. Engine physical dimensions and performance parameters resulting from this study provide the system level requirements for the ORSC risk reduction test article

  19. PET quantification with a histogram derived total activity metric: Superior quantitative consistency compared to total lesion glycolysis with absolute or relative SUV thresholds in phantoms and lung cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, Irene A.; Vargas, Hebert Alberto; Apte, Aditya; Beattie, Bradley J.; Humm, John L.; Gonen, Mithat; Larson, Steven M.; Ross Schmidtlein, C.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The increasing use of molecular imaging probes as biomarkers in oncology emphasizes the need for robust and stable methods for quantifying tracer uptake in PET imaging. The primary motivation for this research was to find an accurate method to quantify the total tumor uptake. Therefore we developed a histogram-based method to calculate the background subtracted lesion (BSL) activity and validated BSL by comparing the quantitative consistency with the total lesion glycolysis (TLG) in phantom and patient studies. Methods: A thorax phantom and a PET-ACR quality assurance phantom were scanned with increasing FDG concentrations. Volumes of interest (VOIs) were placed over each chamber. TLG was calculated with a fixed threshold at SUV 2.5 (TLG 2.5 ) and a relative threshold at 42% of SUV max (TLG 42% ). The histogram for each VOI was built and BSL was calculated. Comparison with the total injected FDG activity (TIA) was performed using concordance correlation coefficients (CCC) and the slope (a). Fifty consecutive patients with FDG-avid lung tumors were selected under an IRB waiver. TLG 42% , TLG 2.5 and BSL were compared to the reference standard calculating CCC and the slope. Results: In both phantoms, the CCC for lesions with a TIA ≤ 50 ml*SUV between TIA and BSL was higher and the slope closer to 1 (CCC = 0.933, a = 1.189), than for TLG 42% (CCC = 0.350, a = 0.731) or TLG 2.5 (CCC = 0.761, a = 0.727). In 50 lung lesions BSL had a slope closer to 1 compared to the reference activity than TLG 42% (a = 1.084 vs 0.618 – for high activity lesions) and also closer to 1 than TLG 2.5 (a = 1.117 vs 0.548 – for low activity lesions). Conclusion: The histogram based BSL correlated better with TIA in both phantom studies than TLG 2.5 or TLG 42% . Also in lung tumors, the BSL activity is overall more accurate in quantifying the lesion activity compared to the two most commonly applied TLG quantification methods

  20. A summary of activities of the US/Soviet-Russian joint working group on space biology and medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doarn, Charles R.; Nicogossian, Arnauld E.; Grigoriev, Anatoly I.; Tverskaya, Galina; Orlov, Oleg I.; Ilyin, Eugene A.; Souza, Kenneth A.

    2010-10-01

    The very foundation of cooperation between the United States (US) and Russia (former Soviet Union) in space exploration is a direct result of the mutual desire for scientific understanding and the creation of a collaborative mechanism—the Joint Working Group (JWG) on Space Biology and Medicine. From the dawn of the space age, it has been the quest of humankind to understand its place in the universe. While nations can and do solve problems independently, it takes nations, working together, to accomplish great things. The formation of the JWG provided an opportunity for the opening of a series of productive relationships between the superpowers, the US and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR); and served as a justification for continued relationship for medical assistance in spaceflight, and to showcase Earth benefits from space medicine research. This relationship has been played out on an international scale with the construction and operation of the International Space Station. The fundamental reason for this successful endeavor is a direct result of the spirit and perseverance of the men and women who have worked diligently side-by-side to promote science and move our understanding of space forward. This manuscript provides a historical perspective of the JWG; how it came about; its evolution; what it accomplished; and what impact it has had and continues to have in the 21st century with regard to human spaceflight and space life sciences research. It captures the spirit of this group, which has been in continuous existence for over 40 years, and provides a never before reported summary of its activities.

  1. Preface: Terrestrial Fieldwork to Support in situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) and Robotic Resource Prospecting for Future Activities in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Gerald B.

    2015-05-01

    Finding, extracting, and using resources at the site of robotic and human exploration activities holds the promise of enabling sustainable and affordable exploration of the Moon, Mars, and asteroids, and eventually allow humans to expand their economy and habitation beyond the surface of the Earth. Commonly referred to as in situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), mineral and volatile resources found in space can be converted into oxygen, water, metals, fuels, and manufacturing and construction materials (such as plastics and concrete) for transportation, power, life support, habitation construction, and part/logistics manufacturing applications. For every kilogram of payload landed on the surface of the Moon or Mars, 7.5-11 kg of payload (mostly propellant) needs to be launched into low Earth orbit. Therefore, besides promising long-term self-sufficiency and infrastructure growth, ISRU can provide significant reductions in launch costs and the number of launches required. Key to being able to use space resources is knowing where they are located, how much is there, and how the resources are distributed. While ISRU holds great promise, it has also never been demonstrated in an actual space mission. Therefore, operations and hardware associated with each ISRU prospecting, excavation, transportation, and processing step must be examined, tested, and finally integrated to enable the end goal of using space resources in future human space missions.

  2. Choice, internal consistency, and rationality

    OpenAIRE

    Aditi Bhattacharyya; Prasanta K. Pattanaik; Yongsheng Xu

    2010-01-01

    The classical theory of rational choice is built on several important internal consistency conditions. In recent years, the reasonableness of those internal consistency conditions has been questioned and criticized, and several responses to accommodate such criticisms have been proposed in the literature. This paper develops a general framework to accommodate the issues raised by the criticisms of classical rational choice theory, and examines the broad impact of these criticisms from both no...

  3. Self-consistent quark bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafelski, J.

    1979-01-01

    After an introductory overview of the bag model the author uses the self-consistent solution of the coupled Dirac-meson fields to represent a bound state of strongly ineteracting fermions. In this framework he discusses the vivial approach to classical field equations. After a short description of the used numerical methods the properties of bound states of scalar self-consistent Fields and the solutions of a self-coupled Dirac field are considered. (HSI) [de

  4. Update on Risk Reduction Activities for a Liquid Advanced Booster for NASA's Space Launch System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Andrew M.; Doering, Kimberly B; Meadows, Robert G.; Lariviere, Brian W.; Graham, Jerry B.

    2015-01-01

    The stated goals of NASA's Research Announcement for the Space Launch System (SLS) Advanced Booster Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction (ABEDRR) are to reduce risks leading to an affordable Advanced Booster that meets the evolved capabilities of SLS; and enable competition by mitigating targeted Advanced Booster risks to enhance SLS affordability. Dynetics, Inc. and Aerojet Rocketdyne (AR) formed a team to offer a wide-ranging set of risk reduction activities and full-scale, system-level demonstrations that support NASA's ABEDRR goals. For NASA's SLS ABEDRR procurement, Dynetics and AR formed a team to offer a series of full-scale risk mitigation hardware demonstrations for an affordable booster approach that meets the evolved capabilities of the SLS. To establish a basis for the risk reduction activities, the Dynetics Team developed a booster design that takes advantage of the flight-proven Apollo-Saturn F-1. Using NASA's vehicle assumptions for the SLS Block 2, a two-engine, F-1-based booster design delivers 150 mT (331 klbm) payload to LEO, 20 mT (44 klbm) above NASA's requirements. This enables a low-cost, robust approach to structural design. During the ABEDRR effort, the Dynetics Team has modified proven Apollo-Saturn components and subsystems to improve affordability and reliability (e.g., reduce parts counts, touch labor, or use lower cost manufacturing processes and materials). The team has built hardware to validate production costs and completed tests to demonstrate it can meet performance requirements. State-of-the-art manufacturing and processing techniques have been applied to the heritage F-1, resulting in a low recurring cost engine while retaining the benefits of Apollo-era experience. NASA test facilities have been used to perform low-cost risk-reduction engine testing. In early 2014, NASA and the Dynetics Team agreed to move additional large liquid oxygen/kerosene engine work under Dynetics' ABEDRR contract. Also led by AR, the

  5. Leisure time activities in space: A survey of astronauts and cosmonauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Alan D.; Kanas, Nick

    Questionnaires were returned from 54 astronauts and cosmonauts which addressed preferences for media and media-generated subjects that could be used to occupy leisure time in space. Ninety-three percent of the respondents had access to records or audio cassettes, and cosmonauts had greater access than astronauts to multiple media. Cosmonauts and long-duration space travelers reported that they missed various media more than their astronaut and short-duration counterparts. Media subjects that related to international events, national events and historical topics were rated as most preferable by all respondents and by several of the respondent groups. The findings are discussed in terms of their relevance for occupying free time during future long-duration manned space missions.

  6. Evaluation and Certification of Ambersorb 4652 for use in Activated Carbon Ion Exchange Filters for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Niklas; Cox, Trey; Larner, Katherine; Carter, Donald; Kouba, Coy

    2017-01-01

    In order to reduce the infiltration of dimethylsilanediol (DMSD) and other organosilicon containing species through the Multifiltration Beds (MF Beds), an alternate activated carbon was found to replace the obsolete Barnabey Cheney 580-26 activated carbon. The carbon that removed the most organosilicon compounds in testing1 was a synthetic activated carbon named Schunk 4652 which later became Ambersorb 4652. Since activated carbon has a large capacity for iodine (I2), and is used in the Activated Carbon Ion Exchange (ACTEX) filters on the International Space Station (ISS), testing was performed on the Ambersorb 4652 carbon to determine the effectiveness of the material for use in ACTEX filters to remove iodine. This work summarizes the testing and the certification of Ambersorb 4652 for use in the ACTEX filters for the ISS.

  7. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) Development Activities at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center - 2006 Accomplishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Richard O.

    2007-01-01

    In 2005-06, the Prometheus program funded a number of tasks at the NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to support development of a Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) system for future manned exploration missions. These tasks include the following: 1. NTP Design Develop Test & Evaluate (DDT&E) Planning 2. NTP Mission & Systems Analysis / Stage Concepts & Engine Requirements 3. NTP Engine System Trade Space Analysis and Studies 4. NTP Engine Ground Test Facility Assessment 5. Non-Nuclear Environmental Simulator (NTREES) 6. Non-Nuclear Materials Fabrication & Evaluation 7. Multi-Physics TCA Modeling. This presentation is a overview of these tasks and their accomplishments

  8. Time-consistent and market-consistent evaluations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelsser, A.; Stadje, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    We consider evaluation methods for payoffs with an inherent financial risk as encountered for instance for portfolios held by pension funds and insurance companies. Pricing such payoffs in a way consistent to market prices typically involves combining actuarial techniques with methods from

  9. Second space Christmas for ESA: Huygens to begin its final journey to Titan/ Media activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    , designed, developed and assembled the Cassini orbiter. NASA's Deep Space Network, also managed by JPL, will be providing communications support via the Cassini orbiter and relaying it to ESA’s control centre in Darmstadt for processing. The Italian Space Agency provided the high-gain antenna on the Cassini orbiter, much of the radio system and elements of several of Cassini's science instruments. The Huygens payload has been provided by teams including from CNES, DLR, ASI and PPARC, and outside Europe, from NASA. Practical arrangements for the Media wishing to cover the event These dramatic events marking the first attempt ever to unveil the mysteries of Titan in-situ, a distant world bigger than Mercury and Pluto which may hold clues to the early days of our own planet, will be marked by several media activities not to be missed. Pencil them into your diary. Saturday 25 December Spacecraft operations will be run at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, California. The ESA Media Relations Office in Paris will be operational from 04:00 hrs to 12:00 CET. ESA specialists can be reached for interviews and comments via the ESA News Desk on +33(0)1.53.69.71.55. Contacts: Franco Bonacina, Anne-Marie Rémondin, Roberto Lo Verde. Interviews from JPL can also be arranged by calling the JPL media relations office at + 1. 818-354-5011. ESA specialists at JPL: Jean-Pierre Lebreton, Claudio Sollazzo. 05:08 CET - Expected separation of the Huygens probe from the Cassini orbiter ~07:00 CET - Status report upon successful separation from NASA/JPL 10:00 CET at the latest : ESA press release assessing the separation of the Huygens probe ~10:00 CET - ESA TV Video News Release produced at JPL during separation (contact for TVs: Claus Habfast: + 31(0)6.51.18.14.96, claus.habfast@esa.int) Transmission details will be on http://television.esa.int 12:00 CET - Replay of ESA TV Video News Release on separation Thursday 13 January ESA’s ESOC establishment in Darmstadt, Germany

  10. Restricted active space spin-flip configuration interaction: theory and examples for multiple spin flips with odd numbers of electrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Paul M; Bell, Franziska; Goldey, Matthew; Bell, Alexis T; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2012-10-28

    The restricted active space spin flip (RAS-SF) method is extended to allow ground and excited states of molecular radicals to be described at low cost (for small numbers of spin flips). RAS-SF allows for any number of spin flips and a flexible active space while maintaining pure spin eigenfunctions for all states by maintaining a spin complete set of determinants and using spin-restricted orbitals. The implementation supports both even and odd numbers of electrons, while use of resolution of the identity integrals and a shared memory parallel implementation allow for fast computation. Examples of multiple-bond dissociation, excited states in triradicals, spin conversions in organic multi-radicals, and mixed-valence metal coordination complexes demonstrate the broad usefulness of RAS-SF.

  11. Space Commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    A robust and competitive commercial space sector is vital to continued progress in space. The United States is committed to encouraging and facilitating the growth of a U.S. commercial space sector that supports U.S. needs, is globally competitive, and advances U.S. leadership in the generation of new markets and innovation-driven entrepreneurship. Energize competitive domestic industries to participate in global markets and advance the development of: satellite manufacturing; satellite-based services; space launch; terrestrial applications; and increased entrepreneurship. Purchase and use commercial space capabilities and services to the maximum practical extent Actively explore the use of inventive, nontraditional arrangements for acquiring commercial space goods and services to meet United States Government requirements, including measures such as public-private partnerships, . Refrain from conducting United States Government space activities that preclude, discourage, or compete with U.S. commercial space activities. Pursue potential opportunities for transferring routine, operational space functions to the commercial space sector where beneficial and cost-effective.

  12. Detection of Tuberculosis Infection Hotspots Using Activity Spaces Based Spatial Approach in an Urban Tokyo, from 2003 to 2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyohiko Izumi

    Full Text Available Identifying ongoing tuberculosis infection sites is crucial for breaking chains of transmission in tuberculosis-prevalent urban areas. Previous studies have pointed out that detection of local accumulation of tuberculosis patients based on their residential addresses may be limited by a lack of matching between residences and tuberculosis infection sites. This study aimed to identify possible tuberculosis hotspots using TB genotype clustering statuses and a concept of "activity space", a place where patients spend most of their waking hours. We further compared the spatial distribution by different residential statuses and describe urban environmental features of the detected hotspots.Culture-positive tuberculosis patients notified to Shinjuku city from 2003 to 2011 were enrolled in this case-based cross-sectional study, and their demographic and clinical information, TB genotype clustering statuses, and activity space were collected. Spatial statistics (Global Moran's I and Getis-Ord Gi* statistics identified significant hotspots in 152 census tracts, and urban environmental features and tuberculosis patients' characteristics in these hotspots were assessed.Of the enrolled 643 culture-positive tuberculosis patients, 416 (64.2% were general inhabitants, 42 (6.5% were foreign-born people, and 184 were homeless people (28.6%. The percentage of overall genotype clustering was 43.7%. Genotype-clustered general inhabitants and homeless people formed significant hotspots around a major railway station, whereas the non-clustered general inhabitants formed no hotspots. This suggested the detected hotspots of activity spaces may reflect ongoing tuberculosis transmission sites and were characterized by smaller residential floor size and a higher proportion of non-working households.Activity space-based spatial analysis suggested possible TB transmission sites around the major railway station and it can assist in further comprehension of TB transmission

  13. Detection of Tuberculosis Infection Hotspots Using Activity Spaces Based Spatial Approach in an Urban Tokyo, from 2003 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Kiyohiko; Ohkado, Akihiro; Uchimura, Kazuhiro; Murase, Yoshiro; Tatsumi, Yuriko; Kayebeta, Aya; Watanabe, Yu; Ishikawa, Nobukatsu

    2015-01-01

    Identifying ongoing tuberculosis infection sites is crucial for breaking chains of transmission in tuberculosis-prevalent urban areas. Previous studies have pointed out that detection of local accumulation of tuberculosis patients based on their residential addresses may be limited by a lack of matching between residences and tuberculosis infection sites. This study aimed to identify possible tuberculosis hotspots using TB genotype clustering statuses and a concept of "activity space", a place where patients spend most of their waking hours. We further compared the spatial distribution by different residential statuses and describe urban environmental features of the detected hotspots. Culture-positive tuberculosis patients notified to Shinjuku city from 2003 to 2011 were enrolled in this case-based cross-sectional study, and their demographic and clinical information, TB genotype clustering statuses, and activity space were collected. Spatial statistics (Global Moran's I and Getis-Ord Gi* statistics) identified significant hotspots in 152 census tracts, and urban environmental features and tuberculosis patients' characteristics in these hotspots were assessed. Of the enrolled 643 culture-positive tuberculosis patients, 416 (64.2%) were general inhabitants, 42 (6.5%) were foreign-born people, and 184 were homeless people (28.6%). The percentage of overall genotype clustering was 43.7%. Genotype-clustered general inhabitants and homeless people formed significant hotspots around a major railway station, whereas the non-clustered general inhabitants formed no hotspots. This suggested the detected hotspots of activity spaces may reflect ongoing tuberculosis transmission sites and were characterized by smaller residential floor size and a higher proportion of non-working households. Activity space-based spatial analysis suggested possible TB transmission sites around the major railway station and it can assist in further comprehension of TB transmission dynamics in an

  14. Consistent-handed individuals are more authoritarian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyle, Keith B; Grillo, Michael C

    2014-01-01

    Individuals differ in the consistency with which they use one hand over the other to perform everyday activities. Some individuals are very consistent, habitually using a single hand to perform most tasks. Others are relatively inconsistent, and hence make greater use of both hands. More- versus less-consistent individuals have been shown to differ in numerous aspects of personality and cognition. In several respects consistent-handed individuals resemble authoritarian individuals. For example, both consistent-handedness and authoritarianism have been linked to cognitive inflexibility. Therefore we hypothesised that consistent-handedness is an external marker for authoritarianism. Confirming our hypothesis, we found that consistent-handers scored higher than inconsistent-handers on a measure of submission to authority, were more likely to identify with a conservative political party (Republican), and expressed less-positive attitudes towards out-groups. We propose that authoritarianism may be influenced by the degree of interaction between the left and right brain hemispheres, which has been found to differ between consistent- and inconsistent-handed individuals.

  15. Activity markers and household space in Swahili urban contexts: An integrated geoarchaeological approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wynne-Jones, Stephanie; Sulas, Federica

    , this paper draws from recent work at a Swahili urban site to illustrate the potential and challenges of an integrated geoarchaeological approach to the study of household space. The site of Songo Mnara (14th–16thc. AD) thrived as a Swahili stonetown off the coast of Tanzania. Here, our work has concentrated...

  16. Sporadic radio emission connected with a definite manifestation of solar activity in the near Earth space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudnic, A. V.; Zaljubovski, I. I.; Kartashev, V. M.; Shmatko, E. S.

    1985-01-01

    Sporadic radio emission of near Earth space at the frequency of 38 MHz is shown to appear in the event of a rapid development of instabilities in the ionospheric plasma. The instabilities are generated due to primary ionospheric disturbances occurring under the influence of solar chromospheric flares.

  17. Usurping Public Leisure Space for Protest. Social Activism in the digital and material commons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Arora (Payal)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis paper draws parallels between the use of public leisure spaces in the city such as parks and squares, and the use of certain forms of digital networks. Similarities between these two sorts of social contexts are worth considering, particularly their political dimension. This

  18. Crossing Boundaries in Facebook: Students' Framing of Language Learning Activities as Extended Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz-Andersson, Annika; Vigmo, Sylvi; Bowen, Rhonwen

    2013-01-01

    Young people's interaction online is rapidly increasing, which enables new spaces for communication; the impact on learning, however, is not yet acknowledged in education. The aim of this exploratory case study is to scrutinize how students frame their interaction in social networking sites (SNS) in school practices and what that implies for…

  19. Move the Neighbourhood: Study design of a community-based participatory public open space intervention in a Danish deprived neighbourhood to promote active living

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Skau Pawlowski

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A limited amount of research has examined the effect of changing public open spaces on active living. This paper will present the study protocol of a community-based intervention study co-designed in an interdisciplinary collaboration with community members to develop urban installations highly tailored to promote active living among children (10–13-years-old and seniors (>60-years-old in a deprived neighbourhood in Copenhagen. Methods The study builds on a quasi-experimental study design with two sub-studies: 1 a children study and 2 a senior study. The interventions will be developed, designed and implemented in collaboration with local children and seniors, respectively, using different co-design tools and methods. We will evaluate the effect of the interventions on children’s and senior’s use of the new-built urban installations using accelerometers in combination with GPS as well as systematic observation using the System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC. A process evaluation with focus groups consisting of the various stakeholders in the two sub-studies will be used to gain knowledge of the intervention processes. Discussion The paper presents new approaches in the field of public open space interventions through interdisciplinary collaboration, participatory co-design approach and combination of measurements. Using both effect and process evaluations the study will provide unique insights in the role and importance of the interdisciplinary collaboration, participatory processes, and tailoring changes in public open space to local needs and wishes. These results can be used to guide urban renewal projects in deprived neighbourhoods in the future. Trial registration Retrospectively registered with study ID ISRCTN50036837 . Date of registration: 16 December 2016.

  20. Move the Neighbourhood: Study design of a community-based participatory public open space intervention in a Danish deprived neighbourhood to promote active living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Winge, Laura; Carroll, Sidse; Schmidt, Tanja; Wagner, Anne Margrethe; Nørtoft, Kamilla Pernille Johansen; Lamm, Bettina; Kural, René; Schipperijn, Jasper; Troelsen, Jens

    2017-05-19

    A limited amount of research has examined the effect of changing public open spaces on active living. This paper will present the study protocol of a community-based intervention study co-designed in an interdisciplinary collaboration with community members to develop urban installations highly tailored to promote active living among children (10-13-years-old) and seniors (>60-years-old) in a deprived neighbourhood in Copenhagen. The study builds on a quasi-experimental study design with two sub-studies: 1) a children study and 2) a senior study. The interventions will be developed, designed and implemented in collaboration with local children and seniors, respectively, using different co-design tools and methods. We will evaluate the effect of the interventions on children's and senior's use of the new-built urban installations using accelerometers in combination with GPS as well as systematic observation using the System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC). A process evaluation with focus groups consisting of the various stakeholders in the two sub-studies will be used to gain knowledge of the intervention processes. The paper presents new approaches in the field of public open space interventions through interdisciplinary collaboration, participatory co-design approach and combination of measurements. Using both effect and process evaluations the study will provide unique insights in the role and importance of the interdisciplinary collaboration, participatory processes, and tailoring changes in public open space to local needs and wishes. These results can be used to guide urban renewal projects in deprived neighbourhoods in the future. Retrospectively registered with study ID ISRCTN50036837 . Date of registration: 16 December 2016.

  1. An analysis of the suitability of public spaces to physical activity practice in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Marcelo Carvalho; Sperandei, Sandro; Reis, Arianne; da Silva, Cláudia Gonçalves Thaumaturgo

    2013-09-01

    To assess the physical characteristics of public spaces designed for sport/physical activity/leisure in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and their relationship to the socioeconomic indicators. Public spaces (n = 38) spread across the city were evaluated between December 2011 and January 2012 using the Physical Activity Resource Assessment (PARA) instrument. Based on PARA results, a Quality Indicator (QI) was prepared and the sample was grouped into "High QI" and "Low QI" using a k-means clustering algorithm. The association between QI and the local Social Development Index (SDI) was tested using a Chi-square test. The average QI was 13.6 ± 4.91 and the median was equal to 13 points. The High QI group, composed of sites with a QI above median, reached 17.9 ± 2.35 points, while the Low QI group reached 9.3 ± 2.16 points. Pearson's Chi-square tests identified a significant association between QI and SDI when the value of SDI 0.7 was used as a criterion for separation (χ(2) = 17.84, p public spaces usually had a lower QI. Policies to encourage physical activity need to focus attention on the built environment also, particularly in socially vulnerable areas. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Market-consistent actuarial valuation

    CERN Document Server

    Wüthrich, Mario V

    2016-01-01

    This is the third edition of this well-received textbook, presenting powerful methods for measuring insurance liabilities and assets in a consistent way, with detailed mathematical frameworks that lead to market-consistent values for liabilities. Topics covered are stochastic discounting with deflators, valuation portfolio in life and non-life insurance, probability distortions, asset and liability management, financial risks, insurance technical risks, and solvency. Including updates on recent developments and regulatory changes under Solvency II, this new edition of Market-Consistent Actuarial Valuation also elaborates on different risk measures, providing a revised definition of solvency based on industry practice, and presents an adapted valuation framework which takes a dynamic view of non-life insurance reserving risk.

  3. The Principle of Energetic Consistency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Stephen E.

    2009-01-01

    A basic result in estimation theory is that the minimum variance estimate of the dynamical state, given the observations, is the conditional mean estimate. This result holds independently of the specifics of any dynamical or observation nonlinearity or stochasticity, requiring only that the probability density function of the state, conditioned on the observations, has two moments. For nonlinear dynamics that conserve a total energy, this general result implies the principle of energetic consistency: if the dynamical variables are taken to be the natural energy variables, then the sum of the total energy of the conditional mean and the trace of the conditional covariance matrix (the total variance) is constant between observations. Ensemble Kalman filtering methods are designed to approximate the evolution of the conditional mean and covariance matrix. For them the principle of energetic consistency holds independently of ensemble size, even with covariance localization. However, full Kalman filter experiments with advection dynamics have shown that a small amount of numerical dissipation can cause a large, state-dependent loss of total variance, to the detriment of filter performance. The principle of energetic consistency offers a simple way to test whether this spurious loss of variance limits ensemble filter performance in full-blown applications. The classical second-moment closure (third-moment discard) equations also satisfy the principle of energetic consistency, independently of the rank of the conditional covariance matrix. Low-rank approximation of these equations offers an energetically consistent, computationally viable alternative to ensemble filtering. Current formulations of long-window, weak-constraint, four-dimensional variational methods are designed to approximate the conditional mode rather than the conditional mean. Thus they neglect the nonlinear bias term in the second-moment closure equation for the conditional mean. The principle of

  4. Consistent guiding center drift theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wimmel, H.K.

    1982-04-01

    Various guiding-center drift theories are presented that are optimized in respect of consistency. They satisfy exact energy conservation theorems (in time-independent fields), Liouville's theorems, and appropriate power balance equations. A theoretical framework is given that allows direct and exact derivation of associated drift-kinetic equations from the respective guiding-center drift-orbit theories. These drift-kinetic equations are listed. Northrop's non-optimized theory is discussed for reference, and internal consistency relations of G.C. drift theories are presented. (orig.)

  5. Weak consistency and strong paraconsistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Robles

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In a standard sense, consistency and paraconsistency are understood as, respectively, the absence of any contradiction and as the absence of the ECQ (“E contradictione quodlibet” rule that allows us to conclude any well formed formula from any contradiction. The aim of this paper is to explain the concepts of weak consistency alternative to the standard one, the concepts of paraconsistency related to them and the concept of strong paraconsistency, all of which have been defined by the author together with José M. Méndez.

  6. Consistent force fields for saccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kjeld

    1999-01-01

    Consistent force fields for carbohydrates were hitherto developed by extensive optimization ofpotential energy function parameters on experimental data and on ab initio results. A wide range of experimental data is used: internal structures obtained from gas phase electron diffraction and from x......-anomeric effects are accounted for without addition of specific terms. The work is done in the framework of the Consistent Force Field which originatedin Israel and was further developed in Denmark. The actual methods and strategies employed havebeen described previously. Extensive testing of the force field...

  7. Glass consistency and glass performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plodinec, M.J.; Ramsey, W.G.

    1994-01-01

    Glass produced by the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will have to consistently be more durable than a benchmark glass (evaluated using a short-term leach test), with high confidence. The DWPF has developed a Glass Product Control Program to comply with this specification. However, it is not clear what relevance product consistency has on long-term glass performance. In this report, the authors show that DWPF glass, produced in compliance with this specification, can be expected to effectively limit the release of soluble radionuclides to natural environments. However, the release of insoluble radionuclides to the environment will be limited by their solubility, and not glass durability

  8. A monograph of the National Space Transportation System Office (NSTSO) integration activities conducted at the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center for the EASE/ACCESS payload flown on STS 61-B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassay, Charles

    1987-01-01

    The integration process of activities conducted at the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) for the Experimental Assembly of Structures in Extravehicular activity (EASE)/Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structures (ACCESS) payload is provided as a subset to the standard payload integration process used by the NASA Space Transportation System (STS) to fly payloads on the Space Shuttle. The EASE/ACCESS payload integration activities are chronologically reviewed beginning with the initiation of the flight manifesting and integration process. The development and documentation of the EASE/ACCESS integration requirements are also discussed along with the implementation of the mission integration activities and the engineering assessments supporting the flight integration process. In addition, the STS management support organizations, the payload safety process leading to the STS 61-B flight certification, and the overall EASE/ACCESS integration schedule are presented.

  9. Spots and the Activity of Stars in the Hyades Cluster from Observations with the Kepler Space Telescope (K2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savanov, I. S.; Dmitrienko, E. S.

    2018-03-01

    Observations of the K2 mission (continuing the program of the Kepler Space Telescope) are used to estimate the spot coverage S (the fractional area of spots on the surface of an active star) for stars of the Hyades cluster. The analysis is based on data on the photometric variations of 47 confirmed single cluster members, together with their atmospheric parameters, masses, and rotation periods. The resulting values of S for these Hyades objects are lower than those stars of the Pleiades cluster (on average, by Δ S 0.05-0.06). A comparison of the results of studies of cool, low-mass dwarfs in the Hyades and Pleiades clusters, as well as the results of a study of 1570 M stars from the main field observed in the Kepler SpaceMission, indicates that the Hyades stars are more evolved than the Pleiades stars, and demonstrate lower activity. The activity of seven solar-type Hyades stars ( S = 0.013 ± 0.006) almost approaches the activity level of the present-day Sun, and is lower than the activity of solar-mass stars in the Pleiades ( S = 0.031 ± 0.003). Solar-type stars in the Hyades rotate faster than the Sun ( = 8.6 d ), but slower than similar Pleiades stars.

  10. Time-consistent actuarial valuations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelsser, A.A.J.; Salahnejhad Ghalehjooghi, A.

    2016-01-01

    Time-consistent valuations (i.e. pricing operators) can be created by backward iteration of one-period valuations. In this paper we investigate the continuous-time limits of well-known actuarial premium principles when such backward iteration procedures are applied. This method is applied to an

  11. Dynamically consistent oil import tariffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karp, L.; Newbery, D.M.

    1992-01-01

    The standard theory of optimal tariffs considers tariffs on perishable goods produced abroad under static conditions, in which tariffs affect prices only in that period. Oil and other exhaustable resources do not fit this model, for current tariffs affect the amount of oil imported, which will affect the remaining stock and hence its future price. The problem of choosing a dynamically consistent oil import tariff when suppliers are competitive but importers have market power is considered. The open-loop Nash tariff is solved for the standard competitive case in which the oil price is arbitraged, and it was found that the resulting tariff rises at the rate of interest. This tariff was found to have an equilibrium that in general is dynamically inconsistent. Nevertheless, it is shown that necessary and sufficient conditions exist under which the tariff satisfies the weaker condition of time consistency. A dynamically consistent tariff is obtained by assuming that all agents condition their current decisions on the remaining stock of the resource, in contrast to open-loop strategies. For the natural case in which all agents choose their actions simultaneously in each period, the dynamically consistent tariff was characterized, and found to differ markedly from the time-inconsistent open-loop tariff. It was shown that if importers do not have overwhelming market power, then the time path of the world price is insensitive to the ability to commit, as is the level of wealth achieved by the importer. 26 refs., 4 figs

  12. ‘Walled’ activism: transnational social movements and the politics of Chinese cyber-public space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyiri, P.D.; Zhang, J.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines China's cyber-activism in relation to the politics of making a transnational, Chinese public sphere in both the virtual world and real-life locations. By conceptualising Chinese cyber-activism as 'walled' activism, this article describes an invisible yet effective 'wall'

  13. Does the Room Matter? Active Learning in Traditional and Enhanced Lecture Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltzfus, Jon R.; Libarkin, Julie

    2016-01-01

    SCALE-UP-type classrooms, originating with the Student-Centered Active Learning Environment with Upside-down Pedagogies project, are designed to facilitate active learning by maximizing opportunities for interactions between students and embedding technology in the classroom. Positive impacts when active learning replaces lecture are well…

  14. Two consistent calculations of the Weinberg angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairlie, D.B.

    1979-01-01

    The Weinberg-Salam theory is reformulated as a pure Yang-Mills theory in a six-dimensional space, the Higgs field being interpreted as gauge potentials in the additional dimensions. Viewed in this way, the condition that the Higgs field transforms as a U(1) representation of charge one is equivalent to requiring a value of 30 0 C for the Weinberg angle. A second consistent determination comes from the idea borrowed from monopole theory that the electromagnetic field is in the direction of the Higgs field. (Author)

  15. Space Law and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronchetti, Fabio

    2017-08-01

    Over the past few years, China has made remarkable achievements in the space sector and become one of the most relevant players in the outer space domain. Highlights of this process have been the deployment in orbit of the first Chinese space station, Tiangong-1, on September 29, 2011; and the landing of the Yutu rover on the lunar surface on December 14, 2013. While technological developments have occurred at such a rapid pace, the same cannot be said of the regulatory framework governing Chinese space activities, which still lays at its infant stage. Indeed, unlike other major space-faring countries, China lacks comprehensive and uniform national space legislation; as of now, China has enacted two low-level administrative regulations addressing the issues of launching and registration of space objects. With the growth of the Chinese space program, such a lack of a structured national space law is beginning to show its limits and to create concerns about its negative impact on business opportunities and the ability of China to fully comply with international obligations. One should keep in mind that the international space treaties (China is part to four international space law treaties) are not self-executing, thus requiring States to adopt domestic measures to ensure their effective implementation. Importantly, Chinese authorities appear to be aware of these issues; as stated by the secretary-general of the Chinese National Space Administration (CNSA) in 2014, national space law has been listed in the national legislation plan and the CNSA is directly engaged in such a process. However, questions remain as to how this drafting process will be conducted and what legal form and content the law will have. For example, China could either decide to proceed with a gradual approach, consisting in the adoption of laws addressing selected issues to be eventually assembled into one single law; or to directly move to the adoption of one comprehensive law. In any case, if

  16. SPACE for physical activity - a multicomponent intervention study: study design and baseline findings from a cluster randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristensen Peter L

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the School site, Play Spot, Active transport, Club fitness and Environment (SPACE Study was to develop, document, and assess a comprehensive intervention in local school districts that promote everyday physical activity (PA among 11-15-year-old adolescents. The study is based on a social ecological framework, and is designed to implement organizational and structural changes in the physical environment. Methods/design The SPACE Study used a cluster randomized controlled study design. Twenty-one eligible schools in the Region of Southern Denmark were matched and randomized in seven pairs according to eight matching variables summarized in an audit tool (crow-fly distance from residence to school for 5-6th graders; area household income; area education level; area ethnicity distribution; school district urbanity; condition and characteristics of school outdoor areas; school health policy; and active transport in the local area. Baseline measurements with accelerometers, questionnaires, diaries, and physical fitness tests were obtained in Spring 2010 in 5-6th grade in 7 intervention and 7 control schools, with follow-up measurements to be taken in Spring 2012 in 7-8th grade. The primary outcome measure is objective average daily physical activity and will be supported by analyses of time spent in moderate to vigorous activity and time spent sedentary. Other secondary outcome measures will be obtained, such as, overweight, physical fitness, active commuting to/from school and physical activity in recess periods. Discussion A total of 1348 adolescents in 5-6th grade in the Region of Southern Denmark participated at baseline (n = 14 schools. The response rate was high in all type of measurements (72.6-97.4%. There were no significant differences between intervention and control groups at baseline according to selected background variables and outcome measures: gender (p = .54, age (p = .17, BMI (p = .59, waist

  17. RECENT ACTIVITIES AT THE CENTER FOR SPACE NUCLEAR RESEARCH FOR DEVELOPING NUCLEAR THERMAL ROCKETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, Robert C.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear power has been considered for space applications since the 1960s. Between 1955 and 1972 the US built and tested over twenty nuclear reactors/ rocket-engines in the Rover/NERVA programs. However, changes in environmental laws may make the redevelopment of the nuclear rocket more difficult. Recent advances in fuel fabrication and testing options indicate that a nuclear rocket with a fuel form significantly different from NERVA may be needed to ensure public support. The Center for Space Nuclear Research (CSNR) is pursuing development of tungsten based fuels for use in a NTR, for a surface power reactor, and to encapsulate radioisotope power sources. The CSNR Summer Fellows program has investigated the feasibility of several missions enabled by the NTR. The potential mission benefits of a nuclear rocket, historical achievements of the previous programs, and recent investigations into alternatives in design and materials for future systems will be discussed.

  18. Astrocytic mechanisms explaining neural-activity-induced shrinkage of extraneuronal space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østby, Ivar; Øyehaug, Leiv; Einevoll, Gaute T

    2009-01-01

    Neuronal stimulation causes approximately 30% shrinkage of the extracellular space (ECS) between neurons and surrounding astrocytes in grey and white matter under experimental conditions. Despite its possible implications for a proper understanding of basic aspects of potassium clearance and astr......Neuronal stimulation causes approximately 30% shrinkage of the extracellular space (ECS) between neurons and surrounding astrocytes in grey and white matter under experimental conditions. Despite its possible implications for a proper understanding of basic aspects of potassium clearance...... concentrations observed in connection with neuronal stimulation, the actions of the Na(+)/K(+)/Cl(-) (NKCC1) and the Na(+)/HCO(3) (-) (NBC) cotransporters appear to be critical determinants for achieving observed quantitative levels of ECS shrinkage. Considering the current state of knowledge, the model...

  19. Use of TV in space science activities - Some considerations. [onboard primary experimental data recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannister, T. C.

    1977-01-01

    Advantages in the use of TV on board satellites as the primary data-recording system in a manned space laboratory when certain types of experiments are flown are indicated. Real-time or near-real-time validation, elimination of film weight, improved depth of field and low-light sensitivity, and better adaptability to computer and electronic processing of data are spelled out as advantages of TV over photographic techniques, say, in fluid dynamics experiments, and weightlessness studies.

  20. Estimating the active space of male koala bellows: propagation of cues to size and identity in a Eucalyptus forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin D Charlton

    Full Text Available Examining how increasing distance affects the information content of vocal signals is fundamental for determining the active space of a given species' vocal communication system. In the current study we played back male koala bellows in a Eucalyptus forest to determine the extent that individual classification of male koala bellows becomes less accurate over distance, and also to quantify how individually distinctive acoustic features of bellows and size-related information degrade over distance. Our results show that the formant frequencies of bellows derived from Linear Predictive Coding can be used to classify calls to male koalas over distances of 1-50 m. Further analysis revealed that the upper formant frequencies and formant frequency spacing were the most stable acoustic features of male bellows as they propagated through the Eucalyptus canopy. Taken together these findings suggest that koalas could recognise known individuals at distances of up to 50 m and indicate that they should attend to variation in the upper formant frequencies and formant frequency spacing when assessing the identity of callers. Furthermore, since the formant frequency spacing is also a cue to male body size in this species and its variation over distance remained very low compared to documented inter-individual variation, we suggest that male koalas would still be reliably classified as small, medium or large by receivers at distances of up to 150 m.

  1. Estimating the Active Space of Male Koala Bellows: Propagation of Cues to Size and Identity in a Eucalyptus Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Benjamin D.; Reby, David; Ellis, William A. H.; Brumm, Jacqui; Fitch, W. Tecumseh

    2012-01-01

    Examining how increasing distance affects the information content of vocal signals is fundamental for determining the active space of a given species’ vocal communication system. In the current study we played back male koala bellows in a Eucalyptus forest to determine the extent that individual classification of male koala bellows becomes less accurate over distance, and also to quantify how individually distinctive acoustic features of bellows and size-related information degrade over distance. Our results show that the formant frequencies of bellows derived from Linear Predictive Coding can be used to classify calls to male koalas over distances of 1–50 m. Further analysis revealed that the upper formant frequencies and formant frequency spacing were the most stable acoustic features of male bellows as they propagated through the Eucalyptus canopy. Taken together these findings suggest that koalas could recognise known individuals at distances of up to 50 m and indicate that they should attend to variation in the upper formant frequencies and formant frequency spacing when assessing the identity of callers. Furthermore, since the formant frequency spacing is also a cue to male body size in this species and its variation over distance remained very low compared to documented inter-individual variation, we suggest that male koalas would still be reliably classified as small, medium or large by receivers at distances of up to 150 m. PMID:23028996

  2. Consistently violating the non-Gaussian consistency relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mooij, Sander; Palma, Gonzalo A.

    2015-01-01

    Non-attractor models of inflation are characterized by the super-horizon evolution of curvature perturbations, introducing a violation of the non-Gaussian consistency relation between the bispectrum's squeezed limit and the power spectrum's spectral index. In this work we show that the bispectrum's squeezed limit of non-attractor models continues to respect a relation dictated by the evolution of the background. We show how to derive this relation using only symmetry arguments, without ever needing to solve the equations of motion for the perturbations

  3. Low-latitude active longitudes on the Sun and in interplanetary space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bumba, V.; Hejna, L.

    1991-01-01

    Following a short review of the history of the development of the active longitude concept, several graphs are given of the longitudinal distribution of various low-latitude phenomena of solar activity published by various authors. The inclinations of the active longitudes found were calculated. A summary picture of all these inclinations demonstrates the concentration of such active longitudes into two main directions. Two values of synodic rotation: 26.77 days and 27.16 days, correspond to these two types of low-latitude active longitudes, rotating faster than Carrington's rotation. The summary graph of all active longitudes belonging to these two types shows that active longitudes of different activity phenomena and from different authors overlap to a relatively high degree and that they run at least through three eleven-year cycles. The first of these active longitudes moves around the whole Sun in about 45-55 rotations and the second one in about 200 Carrington's rotations. It is believed that both these low-latitude active longitudes have their reflections in the two main inclinations of the interplanetary magnetic field sector boundaries demonstrated by Svalgaard and Wilcox (1975), their synodic rotations being 26.84 days and 27.14 days. (author). 9 figs., 25 refs

  4. Consistence of Network Filtering Rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHE Kun; WU Yuancheng; HUANG Juncai; ZHOU Mingtian

    2004-01-01

    The inconsistence of firewall/VPN(Virtual Private Network) rule makes a huge maintainable cost.With development of Multinational Company,SOHO office,E-government the number of firewalls/VPN will increase rapidly.Rule table in stand-alone or network will be increased in geometric series accordingly.Checking the consistence of rule table manually is inadequate.A formal approach can define semantic consistence,make a theoretic foundation of intelligent management about rule tables.In this paper,a kind of formalization of host rules and network ones for auto rule-validation based on SET theory were proporsed and a rule validation scheme was defined.The analysis results show the superior performance of the methods and demonstrate its potential for the intelligent management based on rule tables.

  5. Self-consistent radial sheath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazeltine, R.D.

    1988-12-01

    The boundary layer arising in the radial vicinity of a tokamak limiter is examined, with special reference to the TEXT tokamak. It is shown that sheath structure depends upon the self-consistent effects of ion guiding-center orbit modification, as well as the radial variation of E /times/ B-induced toroidal rotation. Reasonable agreement with experiment is obtained from an idealized model which, however simplified, preserves such self-consistent effects. It is argued that the radial sheath, which occurs whenever confining magnetic field-lines lie in the plasma boundary surface, is an object of some intrinsic interest. It differs from the more familiar axial sheath because magnetized charges respond very differently to parallel and perpendicular electric fields. 11 refs., 1 fig

  6. Lagrangian multiforms and multidimensional consistency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobb, Sarah; Nijhoff, Frank [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-30

    We show that well-chosen Lagrangians for a class of two-dimensional integrable lattice equations obey a closure relation when embedded in a higher dimensional lattice. On the basis of this property we formulate a Lagrangian description for such systems in terms of Lagrangian multiforms. We discuss the connection of this formalism with the notion of multidimensional consistency, and the role of the lattice from the point of view of the relevant variational principle.

  7. Consistency and Communication in Committees

    OpenAIRE

    Inga Deimen; Felix Ketelaar; Mark T. Le Quement

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes truthtelling incentives in pre-vote communication in heterogeneous committees. We generalize the classical Condorcet jury model by introducing a new informational structure that captures consistency of information. In contrast to the impossibility result shown by Coughlan (2000) for the classical model, full pooling of information followed by sincere voting is an equilibrium outcome of our model for a large set of parameter values implying the possibility of ex post confli...

  8. Deep Feature Consistent Variational Autoencoder

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Xianxu; Shen, Linlin; Sun, Ke; Qiu, Guoping

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel method for constructing Variational Autoencoder (VAE). Instead of using pixel-by-pixel loss, we enforce deep feature consistency between the input and the output of a VAE, which ensures the VAE's output to preserve the spatial correlation characteristics of the input, thus leading the output to have a more natural visual appearance and better perceptual quality. Based on recent deep learning works such as style transfer, we employ a pre-trained deep convolutional neural net...

  9. Overview of NASA Lewis Research Center free-piston Stirling engine technology activities applicable to space power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaby, Jack G.

    1987-01-01

    A brief overview is presented of the development and technological activities of the free-piston Stirling engine. The engine started as a small scale fractional horsepower engine which demonstrated basic engine operating principles and the advantages of being hermetically sealed, highly efficient, and simple. It eventually developed into the free piston Stirling engine driven heat pump, and then into the SP-100 Space Reactor Power Program from which came the Space Power Demonstrator Engine (SPDE). The SPDE successfully operated for over 300 hr and delivered 20 kW of PV power to an alternator plunger. The SPDE demonstrated that a dynamic power conversion system can, with proper design, be balanced; and the engine performed well with externally pumped hydrostatic gas bearings.

  10. Sympathetic activity of S-(+-ketamine low doses in the epidural space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Mihaljevic

    2014-07-01

    ística. Conclusões: dose baixa de cetamina S-(+ administrada por via epidural não teve efeitos simpaticomiméticos; não alterou a pressão arterial, o pulso, os hormônios séricos ou o tempo de transição de pulso. Dose baixa de cetamina S-(+ administrada por via epidural não aprofundou o bloqueio simpático. A adição de 25 mg de cetamina S-(+ à bupivacaína a 0,5% não deprimiu o tônus simpático abaixo do nível do bloqueio peridural no momento máximo de bloqueio simpático e não tem efeito sobre o tônus simpático acima do nível do bloqueio. Keywords: S-(+-ketamine, Epidural space, Low doses, Sympathetic activity, Palavras-chave: Cetamina S-(+, Espaço epidural, Doses baixas, Atividade simpática

  11. Electrodynamic Tethers and E-Sails as Active Experiment Testbeds and Technologies in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, B. E.; Wiegmann, B.; Johnson, L.; Bilen, S. G.; Habash Krause, L.; Miars, G.; Leon, O.

    2017-12-01

    The use of small-to-large flexible structures in space such as tethers continues to be studied for scientific and technology applications. Here we will consider tether electrodynamic and electrostatic interactions with magneto-plasmas in ionospheres, magnetospheres, and interplanetary space. These systems are enabling fundamental studies of basic plasma physics phenomena, allowing direct studies of the space environment, and generating technological applications beneficial for science missions. Electrodynamic tethers can drive current through the tether based on the Lorenz force adding or extracting energy from its orbit allowing for the study of charged bodies or plasma plumes moving through meso-sonic magnetoplasmas [1]. Technologically, this also generates propulsive forces requiring no propellant and little or no consumables in any planetary system with a magnetic field and ionosphere, e.g., Jupiter [2]. Further, so called electric sails (E-sails) are being studied to provide thrust through momentum exchange with the hypersonic solar wind. The E-sail uses multiple, very long (10s of km) charged, mostly bare rotating conducting tethers to deflect solar wind protons. It is estimated that a spacecraft could achieve a velocity over 100 km/s with time [3,4]. 1. Banks, P.M., "Review of electrodynamic tethers for space plasma science," J. Spacecraft and Rockets, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 234-239, 1989. 2. Talley, C., J. Moore, D. Gallagher, and L. Johnson, "Propulsion and power from a rotating electrodynamic tether at Jupiter," 38th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, January 2000. 3. Janhunen, P., "The electric sail—A new propulsion method which may enable fast missions to the outer solar system," J. British Interpl. Soc., vol. 61, no. 8, pp. 322-325, 2008. 4. Wiegman, B., T. Scheider, A. Heaton, J. Vaughn, N. Stone, and K. Wright, "The Heliopause Electrostatic Rapid Transit System (HERTS)—Design, trades, and analyses performed in a two-year NASA investigation

  12. Civic activation, vulnerable subjects and public space: the case of the park of Rione Traiano in Naples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Esposito

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The woman, in every kind of human settlement, culture as well a time, plays a peculiar role in terms of active observation and multitasking actor of the urban form and their organization model. Studying urban phenomena through the filter of the gender interpretation and fostering a proactive participation of women in the process of urban planning could provide added value in terms of feasibility, effectiveness and efficiency. In this paper it was decided to dealing with this issue in the framework of public spaces through the construction of a case study centered on women-mothers and their contribution for interpreting and being proactive in a participatory process of urban regeneration. The expected result of this interactive process is twofold: developing a generalized methodology of interaction with communities for interpreting, in terms of space organization, the demand they express on the one hand as well as for dealing with specific context, with the involvement of activists and associations to define and share possible trajectories of transformation of public spaces, on the other hand. To pursue this goal we have chosen to deal with the specificities of a complex environment such as Naples and with a CEP district, the largest in Italy, whose construction was initiated in 1960: Rione Traiano. In this area has started a dialogue, with non-profit organizations operating in the area first and then with women in the community, in order to address the relationship between vulnerable people and public spaces, testing a methodology for interaction and civic activation finalized to collect, prioritize and translate into proposals instances as expressed by these subjects. The disciplinary horizon selected is the integration between established tools of community planning and project strategies typical of urban design.

  13. Design and implementation of a novel modal space active force control concept for spatial multi-DOF parallel robotic manipulators actuated by electrical actuators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chifu; Zhao, Jinsong; Li, Liyi; Agrawal, Sunil K

    2018-01-01

    Robotic spine brace based on parallel-actuated robotic system is a new device for treatment and sensing of scoliosis, however, the strong dynamic coupling and anisotropy problem of parallel manipulators result in accuracy loss of rehabilitation force control, including big error in direction and value of force. A novel active force control strategy named modal space force control is proposed to solve these problems. Considering the electrical driven system and contact environment, the mathematical model of spatial parallel manipulator is built. The strong dynamic coupling problem in force field is described via experiments as well as the anisotropy problem of work space of parallel manipulators. The effects of dynamic coupling on control design and performances are discussed, and the influences of anisotropy on accuracy are also addressed. With mass/inertia matrix and stiffness matrix of parallel manipulators, a modal matrix can be calculated by using eigenvalue decomposition. Making use of the orthogonality of modal matrix with mass matrix of parallel manipulators, the strong coupled dynamic equations expressed in work space or joint space of parallel manipulator may be transformed into decoupled equations formulated in modal space. According to this property, each force control channel is independent of others in the modal space, thus we proposed modal space force control concept which means the force controller is designed in modal space. A modal space active force control is designed and implemented with only a simple PID controller employed as exampled control method to show the differences, uniqueness, and benefits of modal space force control. Simulation and experimental results show that the proposed modal space force control concept can effectively overcome the effects of the strong dynamic coupling and anisotropy problem in the physical space, and modal space force control is thus a very useful control framework, which is better than the current joint

  14. Large space antenna communications systems: Integrated Langley Research Center/Jet Propulsion Laboratory development activities. 2: Langley Research Center activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambell, T. G.; Bailey, M. C.; Cockrell, C. R.; Beck, F. B.

    1983-01-01

    The electromagnetic analysis activities at the Langley Research Center are resulting in efficient and accurate analytical methods for predicting both far- and near-field radiation characteristics of large offset multiple-beam multiple-aperture mesh reflector antennas. The utilization of aperture integration augmented with Geometrical Theory of Diffraction in analyzing the large reflector antenna system is emphasized.

  15. Social Justice Teacher Activism and Social Movement Unionism: Tensions, Synergies, and Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lois Weiner

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Though the titles and acronyms of policies differ from one country to another, throughout the world a political project has taken root with the assumption that to reduce poverty and inequality, governments should privatize school systems, alter teaching from a career to contract labor, use standardized tests to make students and teachers accountable, and curtail the power and legal rights of teachers unions. This article explores how teacher activists might help reverse neoliberal educational politics by developing mutually-respectful collaborations among teachers, parents and youth in poor communities, in school-based and system-wide partnerships that involve teachers unions. Analyzing events as they were experienced and influenced by a New York City-based NGO of teachers committed to educational justice, the author examines the landscape of educational reform politics and the creation of new spaces and organizational forms not confined by collective bargaining jurisdictions and traditional bargaining demands. The study suggests that development of a social movement of teachers that might edge teachers unions in the direction of social movement teacher unionism may not occur in a linear fashion. Rather, a complex push-pull dynamic occurs with each change, opening and retracting space, remaking networks and influencing longstanding personal ties among activists.

  16. Driver ASIC Environmental Testing and Performance Optimization for SpaceBased Active Mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia Prada, Camilo

    Direct imaging of Earth-like planets requires techniques for light suppression, such as coronagraphs or nulling interferometers, in which deformable mirrors (DM) are a principal component. On ground-based systems, DMs are used to correct for turbulence in the Earth’s atmosphere in addition to static aberrations in the optics. For space-based observations, DMs are used to correct for static and quasi- static aberrations in the optical train. State-of-the-art, high-actuator count deformable mirrors suffer from external heavy and bulky electronics in which electrical connections are made through thousands of wires. We are instead developing Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) capable of direct integration with the DM in a single small package. This integrated ASIC-DM is ideal for space missions, where it offers significant reduction in mass, power and complexity, and performance compatible with high-contrast observations of exoplanets. We have successfully prototyped and tested a 32x32 format Switch-Mode (SM) ASIC which consumes only 2mW static power (total, not per-actuator). A number of constraints were imposed on key parameters of this ASIC design, including sub-picoamp levels of leakage across turned-off switches and from switch-to-substrate, control resolution of 0.04 mV, satisfactory rise/fall times, and a near-zero on-chip crosstalk over a useful range of operating temperatures. This driver ASIC technology is currently at TRL 4. This Supporting Technology proposal will further develop the ASIC technology to TRL 5 by carrying on environmental tests and further optimizing performance, with the end goal of making ASICs suitable for space-based deployment. The effort will be led by JPL, which has considerable expertise with DMs used in highcontrast imaging systems for exoplanet missions and in adaptive optic systems, and in design of DM driver electronics. Microscale, which developed the prototype of the ASICDM, will continue its development. We

  17. Space Guiding Us

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primikiri, Athina

    2016-04-01

    Taking into consideration the fact that general education provides the passport for a successful career the charting of Space consists of a constructive instrument available to every single teacher. Activities touching directly upon Space comprise a source of inspiration that encourages pupils to get acquainted with natural sciences and technology while consolidating their cross-curriculum knowledge. The applications and endeavors arising out of Space play a vital role for the further development and growth of our societies. Moreover, the prosperity of people is inextricably bound up with the implementation of Space policies adapted to different sectors such as the Environment, the phenomenon of climate change, matters affecting public or private safety, humanitarian aid and other technological issues. Therefore, the thorough analysis of Space endows us with insights about new products and innovative forms of industrial collaboration. As a teacher, I have consciously chosen to utilize the topic of Space in class as an instructive tool during the last 4 years. The lure of Space combined with the fascination provided by Space flights contributes to the enrichment of children's knowledge in the field of STEM. Space consists of the perfect cross-curriculum tool for the teaching of distinct subjects such as History, Geography, Science, Environment, Literature, Music, Religion and Physical Education. Following the Curriculum for pupils aged 9-10 I opted to teach the topic of Space under the title 'Space Guiding Us' as well as its subunits: • International Space Station • Cassini/Huygens, Mission to Titan • Rosetta & Philae • European Union and Space • Mission X: Train like an Astronaut The main purpose of choosing the module of 'Space' is to stimulate the scientific and critical thought of the pupils, to foster the co-operative spirit among them and to make them aware of how the application of Science affects their everyday lives. Aims • To incite pupils

  18. Safety and Efficacy of Intrapleural Tissue Plasminogen Activator and DNase during Extended Use in Complicated Pleural Space Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason R. McClune

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of intrapleural therapy with tissue plasminogen activator and DNase improves outcomes in patients with complicated pleural space infections. However, little data exists for the use of combination intrapleural therapy after the initial dosing period of six doses. We sought to describe the safety profile and outcomes of intrapleural therapy beyond this standard dosing. A retrospective review of patients receiving intrapleural therapy with tissue plasminogen activator and DNase was performed at two institutions. We identified 101 patients from January 2013 to August 2015 receiving intrapleural therapy for complicated pleural space infection. The extended use of intrapleural tissue plasminogen activator and DNase therapy beyond six doses was utilized in 20% (20/101 of patients. The mean number of doses in those undergoing extended dosing was 9.8 (range of 7–16. Within the population studied there appears to be no statistically significant increased risk of complications, need for surgical referral, or outcome differences when comparing those receiving standard or extended dosing intrapleural therapy. Future prospective study of intrapleural therapy as an alternative option for patients who fail initial pleural drainage and are unable to tolerate/accept a surgical intervention appears a potential area of study.

  19. Space and Time Resolved Detection of Platelet Activation and von Willebrand Factor Conformational Changes in Deep Suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasetti, Jacopo; Sampath, Kaushik; Cortez, Angel; Azhir, Alaleh; Gilad, Assaf A; Kickler, Thomas S; Obser, Tobias; Ruggeri, Zaverio M; Katz, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Tracking cells and proteins' phenotypic changes in deep suspensions is critical for the direct imaging of blood-related phenomena in in vitro replica of cardiovascular systems and blood-handling devices. This paper introduces fluorescence imaging techniques for space and time resolved detection of platelet activation, von Willebrand factor (VWF) conformational changes, and VWF-platelet interaction in deep suspensions. Labeled VWF, platelets, and VWF-platelet strands are suspended in deep cuvettes, illuminated, and imaged with a high-sensitivity EM-CCD camera, allowing detection using an exposure time of 1 ms. In-house postprocessing algorithms identify and track the moving signals. Recombinant VWF-eGFP (rVWF-eGFP) and VWF labeled with an FITC-conjugated polyclonal antibody are employed. Anti-P-Selectin FITC-conjugated antibodies and the calcium-sensitive probe Indo-1 are used to detect activated platelets. A positive correlation between the mean number of platelets detected per image and the percentage of activated platelets determined through flow cytometry is obtained, validating the technique. An increase in the number of rVWF-eGFP signals upon exposure to shear stress demonstrates the technique's ability to detect breakup of self-aggregates. VWF globular and unfolded conformations and self-aggregation are also observed. The ability to track the size and shape of VWF-platelet strands in space and time provides means to detect pro- and antithrombotic processes.

  20. A Cluster Of Activities On Coma From The Hubble Space Telescope, StarDate, And McDonald Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemenway, Mary Kay; Jogee, S.; Fricke, K.; Preston, S.

    2011-01-01

    With a goal of providing a vast audience of students, teachers, the general public, and Spanish-speakers with activities to learn about research on the Coma cluster of galaxies based on the HST ACS Treasury survey of Coma, McDonald Observatory used a many-faceted approach. Since this research offered an unprecedented legacy dataset, part of the challenge was to convey the importance of this project to a diverse audience. The methodology was to create different products for different (overlapping) audiences. Five radio programs were produced in English and Spanish for distribution on over 500 radio stations in the US and Mexico with a listening audience of over 2 million; in addition to the radio listeners, there were over 13,000 downloads of the English scripts and almost 6000 of the Spanish. Images were prepared for use in the StarDate Online Astronomy Picture of the Week, for ViewSpace (used in museums), and for the StarDate/Universo Teacher Guide. A high-school level activity on the Coma Cluster was prepared and distributed both on-line and in an upgraded printed version of the StarDate/Universo Teacher Guide. This guide has been distributed to over 1700 teachers nationally. A YouTube video about careers and research in astronomy using the Coma cluster as an example was produced. Just as the activities were varied, so were the evaluation methods. This material is based upon work supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Grant/Contract/Agreement No. HST-EO-10861.35-A issued through the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  1. Production of activation products in space-craft components by protons in low earth orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normand, E.; Johnson, M.L.

    1986-01-01

    A spacecraft orbiting the Earth through trapped radiation belts will be subject to an induced effect as well as to the direct irradiation by the protons and electrons of the trapped belts. This induced effect is activation of the spacecraft materials by the trapped belt protons. This activation will produce many radioisotopes having half-lives ranging from seconds to millions of years, and emitting various types of radiation. Of primary concern are radioisotopes that emit gamma rays and have half-lives of several years or less. Cross-section data sets are currently being compiled for proton-induced activation products by the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Despite uncertainties in cross-section data, it is instructive to illustrate the magnitude of activation levels and the resulting dose rates calculated in an approximate manner. A number of simplifying assumptions are made

  2. Brain activation related to the representations of external space and body scheme in visuomotor control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, BM; van der Graaf, FHCE; Paans, AMJ

    2001-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow was assessed during reaching movements with either target or finger selection. Measurements were performed with positron emission tomography in normal subjects. We thus identified two patterns of cerebral activation representing parietal command functions based on either

  3. Does the Room Matter? Active Learning in Traditional and Enhanced Lecture Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltzfus, Jon R.; Libarkin, Julie

    2016-01-01

    SCALE-UP–type classrooms, originating with the Student-Centered Active Learning Environment with Upside-down Pedagogies project, are designed to facilitate active learning by maximizing opportunities for interactions between students and embedding technology in the classroom. Positive impacts when active learning replaces lecture are well documented, both in traditional lecture halls and SCALE-UP–type classrooms. However, few studies have carefully analyzed student outcomes when comparable active learning–based instruction takes place in a traditional lecture hall and a SCALE-UP–type classroom. Using a quasi-experimental design, we compared student perceptions and performance between sections of a nonmajors biology course, one taught in a traditional lecture hall and one taught in a SCALE-UP–type classroom. Instruction in both sections followed a flipped model that relied heavily on cooperative learning and was as identical as possible given the infrastructure differences between classrooms. Results showed that students in both sections thought that SCALE-UP infrastructure would enhance performance. However, measures of actual student performance showed no difference between the two sections. We conclude that, while SCALE-UP–type classrooms may facilitate implementation of active learning, it is the active learning and not the SCALE-UP infrastructure that enhances student performance. As a consequence, we suggest that institutions can modify existing classrooms to enhance student engagement without incorporating expensive technology. PMID:27909018

  4. Living in Space. Book II. Levels D, E, F for Grades 4, 5, 6. Operation Liftoff: Elementary School Space Program. A Resource Guide with Activities for Elementary School Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Sheila Briskin; Kirschenbaum, Audrey

    This guide contains teacher background information and activities for students which deal with space travel and is designed to encourage elementary school students to take a greater interest in mathematics and science. The activities in this guide are to be used with grades 4 to 6 and cover the topics of food, clothing, health, housing,…

  5. Living in Space. Book 1. Levels A, B, C for Grades 1, 2, 3. Operation Liftoff: Elementary School Space Program. A Resource Guide with Activities for Elementary School Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Sheila Briskin; Kirschenbaum, Audrey

    This guide contains teacher background information and activities for students that relate to space travel and is designed to encourage elementary school students to take a greater interest in mathematics and science. The activities in this guide are to be used with grades 1 to 3 and cover the topics of food, clothing, health, housing,…

  6. The Black Hole Mass-Bulge Luminosity Relationship for Active Galactic Nuclei From Reverberation Mapping and Hubble Space Telescope Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentz, Misty C.; Peterson, Bradley M.; Pogge, Richard W.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between black hole mass and bulge luminosity for active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with reverberation-based black hole mass measurements and bulge luminosities from two-dimensional decompositions of Hubble Space Telescope host galaxy images. We find that the slope...... of the relationship for AGNs is 0.76-0.85 with an uncertainty of ~0.1, somewhat shallower than the M BH vprop L 1.0±0.1 relationship that has been fit to nearby quiescent galaxies with dynamical black hole mass measurements. This difference is somewhat perplexing, as the AGN black hole masses include an overall...

  7. Public open space characteristics influencing adolescents' use and physical activity: A systematic literature review of qualitative and quantitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hecke, Linde; Ghekiere, Ariane; Veitch, Jenny; Van Dyck, Delfien; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; Clarys, Peter; Deforche, Benedicte

    2018-04-06

    The objective of this systematic review was to provide insight into the specific characteristics of public open spaces (POS) associated with adolescents' POS visitation and physical activity (PA). Qualitative research suggests many characteristics to be associated with POS visitation and PA. Quantitative evidence confirmed a positive association between presence of trails, playgrounds and specific types of sports fields (e.g. basketball) with POS visitation and PA, whereas safety and aesthetics seemed subordinate. Suggestions for future research, as well as some methodological recommendations are provided. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Mental health benefits of neighbourhood green space are stronger among physically active adults in middle-to-older age: evidence from 260,061 Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astell-Burt, Thomas; Feng, Xiaoqi; Kolt, Gregory S

    2013-11-01

    While many studies report that green spaces promote mental health, some suggest the psychological benefits of physical activity are amplified if participation occurs within greener environs. We investigated whether this relationship could be observed among adults in middle-to-older age. Multilevel logit regression was used to investigate association between green space and psychological distress (Kessler scores of 22+) among 260,061 Australians over 45 years old living in New South Wales (2006-2009). Physical activity was measured using the Active Australia survey. Percentage green space was estimated within a 1-kilometre of residence. In comparison to residents of the least green areas, those in the greenest neighbourhoods were at a lower risk of psychological distress (Odds Ratio 0.83, 95% CI: 0.76, 0.92) and were less sedentary (0.81: 0.77, 0.87). An interaction was observed between physical activity and green space (p=0.0028). More green space did not appear to benefit mental health among the least active (0.99: 0.85, 1.15), but there was a protective association for the more physically active (0.82: 0.67, 0.99). For adults in middle-to-older age, green spaces are not only important for promoting physical activity, but the mental health benefits of greener environs appear contingent upon those active lifestyles. © 2013.

  9. AQUARIUS: A Passive/Active Microwave Sensor to Monitor Sea Surface Salinity Globally from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeVine, David; Lagerloef, Gary S. E.; Colomb, F. Raul; Chao, Yi

    2004-01-01

    Salinity is important for understanding ocean dynamics, energy exchange with the atmosphere and the global water cycle. Existing data is limited and much of the ocean has never even been sampled. Sea surface salinity can be measured remotely by satellite and a three year mission for this purpose called AquariudSAC-D has recently been selected by NASA's Earth System Science Pathfinder (ESSP) program. The objective is to map the salinity field globally with a spatial resolution of 100 km and a monthly average accuracy of 0.2 psu. The mission, scheduled for launch in 2008, is a partnership of the United States National Aeronautics and Space Agency (NASA) and the Argentine Comision National de Actividades Epaciales (CONAE).

  10. Technology development activities for housing research animals on Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenner, Jeffrey W.; Garin, Vladimir M.; Nguyen, Frank D.

    1991-01-01

    The development and design of animal facilities are described in terms of the technological needs for NASA's Biological Flight Research Laboratory. Animal habitats are presented with illustrations which encompass waste-collection techniques for microgravity conditions that reduce the need for crew participation. The technology is intended to be highly compatible with animal morphology, and airflow is employed as the primary mechanism of waste control. The airflow can be utilized in the form of localized high-speed directed flow that simultaneously provides a clean animal habitat and low airflow rates. The design of an animal-habitat testbed is presented which capitalizes on contamination-control mechanisms and suitable materials for microgravity conditions. The developments in materials and technologies represent significant contributions for the design of the centrifuge facilities for the Space Station Freedom.

  11. History of the development of radiation protection standards for space activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, W.K.

    1997-01-01

    Initial recommendations for limitations on radiation exposures in space were made in 1970 by the Radiobiological Advisory Panel of the Committee on Space Medicine, National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council (NAS/NRC). Using a risk-based approach and taking into consideration a range of factors, the Panel recommended an overall career limit of 4 Sv. Because it was assumed that only small numbers of people would be involved, most of whom would be in excess of 30 y of age, the question of genetic effects did not appear to be of concern. On the basis of subsequent epidemiological findings, the values of the risk coefficients were increased. As a result of this and other considerations, NASA in the early 1980s asked the NCRP to re-examine both the risks and the philosophy for protecting astronauts. In undertaking this task, the NCRP decided to treat the radiation exposures of crew members and payload specialists as an occupational hazard and to evaluate their risks in terms of those to radiation workers and to workers in other industries. Noting that in the less safe but not the most hazardous occupations, workers had an average lifetime risk of mortality of about three percent, the NCRP concluded that a reasonable career limit for astronauts should be based on a lifetime absolute excess risk of mortality of three percent. Using this as a base, the NCRP recommended a career limit for 25 y olds of 1 Sv for females and 1.5 Sv for males. Since the risk decreases the older the age at which the exposures begin, the limits culminated with a career limit of 3 Sv for females and 4 Sv for males whose initial exposure occurred at age 55. These recommendations were based on an assumed nominal value of a lifetime risk of fatal cancers for all ages of about 2 x 10 -2 Sv -1

  12. Maintaining consistency in distributed systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birman, Kenneth P.

    1991-01-01

    In systems designed as assemblies of independently developed components, concurrent access to data or data structures normally arises within individual programs, and is controlled using mutual exclusion constructs, such as semaphores and monitors. Where data is persistent and/or sets of operation are related to one another, transactions or linearizability may be more appropriate. Systems that incorporate cooperative styles of distributed execution often replicate or distribute data within groups of components. In these cases, group oriented consistency properties must be maintained, and tools based on the virtual synchrony execution model greatly simplify the task confronting an application developer. All three styles of distributed computing are likely to be seen in future systems - often, within the same application. This leads us to propose an integrated approach that permits applications that use virtual synchrony with concurrent objects that respect a linearizability constraint, and vice versa. Transactional subsystems are treated as a special case of linearizability.

  13. Manned space flight activities and sensory-motor coordinations; Yujin uchu katsudo tono hito no kankaku undokei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koga, K. [Nagoya Univ., Nagoya (Japan). Research Inst. of Environmental Medicine

    1996-03-05

    With an objective to elucidate relationship between human functions related to gravity in space and the gravity, simultaneous measurement was carried out on impulsive eyeball motions and antigravity muscles. The measurement used a non-polarized electrode mounted on a prescribed position on skin. The subject is a spacecraft crew who was subjected to an experiment in space in 1992. Data obtained during the flight were analyzed, and the following findings were obtained: the eyeball motions are performed accurately in terms of space and time; potential time relative to the target appearance time showed greater variation than in control conditions on the ground; activities of trapezius muscle as an antigravity muscle were suppressed, and electric discharge from the muscle was small even if the head is moved; the eyeballs move in coordination with the head when viewing an object; microgravity environment showed a head motion with very little muscle discharge possible as in the case where the head is held unmoved; and difference in motion patterns between the antigravity muscles and non-antigravity muscles may exist as a possible cause of spacesickness in addition to the conventional sensory disagreement theory. 32 refs., 6 figs.

  14. Two- and four-component relativistic generalized-active-space coupled cluster method: implementation and application to BiH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Lasse K; Olsen, Jeppe; Fleig, Timo

    2011-06-07

    A string-based coupled-cluster method of general excitation rank and with optimal scaling which accounts for special relativity within the four-component framework is presented. The method opens the way for the treatment of multi-reference problems through an active-space inspired single-reference based state-selective expansion of the model space. The evaluation of the coupled-cluster vector function is implemented by considering contractions of elementary second-quantized operators without setting up the amplitude equations explicitly. The capabilities of the new method are demonstrated in application to the electronic ground state of the bismuth monohydride molecule. In these calculations simulated multi-reference expansions with both doubles and triples excitations into the external space as well as the regular coupled-cluster hierarchy up to full quadruples excitations are compared. The importance of atomic outer core-correlation for obtaining accurate results is shown. Comparison to the non-relativistic framework is performed throughout to illustrate the additional work of the transition to the four-component relativistic framework both in implementation and application. Furthermore, an evaluation of the highest order scaling for general-order expansions is presented. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  15. Consistency relations in effective field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munshi, Dipak; Regan, Donough, E-mail: D.Munshi@sussex.ac.uk, E-mail: D.Regan@sussex.ac.uk [Astronomy Centre, School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom)

    2017-06-01

    The consistency relations in large scale structure relate the lower-order correlation functions with their higher-order counterparts. They are direct outcome of the underlying symmetries of a dynamical system and can be tested using data from future surveys such as Euclid. Using techniques from standard perturbation theory (SPT), previous studies of consistency relation have concentrated on continuity-momentum (Euler)-Poisson system of an ideal fluid. We investigate the consistency relations in effective field theory (EFT) which adjusts the SPT predictions to account for the departure from the ideal fluid description on small scales. We provide detailed results for the 3D density contrast δ as well as the scaled divergence of velocity θ-bar . Assuming a ΛCDM background cosmology, we find the correction to SPT results becomes important at k ∼> 0.05 h/Mpc and that the suppression from EFT to SPT results that scales as square of the wave number k , can reach 40% of the total at k ≈ 0.25 h/Mpc at z = 0. We have also investigated whether effective field theory corrections to models of primordial non-Gaussianity can alter the squeezed limit behaviour, finding the results to be rather insensitive to these counterterms. In addition, we present the EFT corrections to the squeezed limit of the bispectrum in redshift space which may be of interest for tests of theories of modified gravity.

  16. A Statistical Test of the Relationship Between Chorus Wave Activation and Anisotropy of Electron Phase Space Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hee Lee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Whistler mode chorus wave is considered to play a critical role in accelerating and precipitating the electrons in the outer radiation belt. In this paper we test a conventional scenario of triggering chorus using THEMIS satellite observations of waves and particles. Specifically, we test if the chorus onset is consistent with development of anisotropy in the electron phase space density (PSD. After analyzing electron PSD for 73 chorus events, we find that, for ~80 % of them, their onsets are indeed associated with development of the positive anisotropy in PSD where the pitch angle distribution of electron velocity peaks at 90 degrees. This PSD anisotropy is prominent mainly at the electron energy range of ≤ ~20 keV. Interestingly, we further find that there is sometimes a time delay among energies in the increases of the anisotropy: A development of the positive anisotropy occurs earlier by several minutes for lower energy than for an adjacent higher energy.

  17. Space-Based CO2 Active Optical Remote Sensing using 2-μm Triple-Pulse IPDA Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Upendra; Refaat, Tamer; Ismail, Syed; Petros, Mulugeta

    2017-04-01

    Sustained high-quality column CO2 measurements from space are required to improve estimates of regional and global scale sources and sinks to attribute them to specific biogeochemical processes for improving models of carbon-climate interactions and to reduce uncertainties in projecting future change. Several studies show that space-borne CO2 measurements offer many advantages particularly over high altitudes, tropics and southern oceans. Current satellite-based sensing provides rapid CO2 monitoring with global-scale coverage and high spatial resolution. However, these sensors are based on passive remote sensing, which involves limitations such as full seasonal and high latitude coverage, poor sensitivity to the lower atmosphere, retrieval complexities and radiation path length uncertainties. CO2 active optical remote sensing is an alternative technique that has the potential to overcome these limitations. The need for space-based CO2 active optical remote sensing using the Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) lidar has been advocated by the Advanced Space Carbon and Climate Observation of Planet Earth (A-Scope) and Active Sensing of CO2 Emission over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) studies in Europe and the USA. Space-based IPDA systems can provide sustained, high precision and low-bias column CO2 in presence of thin clouds and aerosols while covering critical regions such as high latitude ecosystems, tropical ecosystems, southern ocean, managed ecosystems, urban and industrial systems and coastal systems. At NASA Langley Research Center, technology developments are in progress to provide high pulse energy 2-μm IPDA that enables optimum, lower troposphere weighted column CO2 measurements from space. This system provides simultaneous ranging; information on aerosol and cloud distributions; measurements over region of broken clouds; and reduces influences of surface complexities. Through the continual support from NASA Earth Science Technology Office

  18. Bayesian screening for active compounds in high-dimensional chemical spaces combining property descriptors and molecular fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Martin; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2008-01-01

    Bayesian classifiers are increasingly being used to distinguish active from inactive compounds and search large databases for novel active molecules. We introduce an approach to directly combine the contributions of property descriptors and molecular fingerprints in the search for active compounds that is based on a Bayesian framework. Conventionally, property descriptors and fingerprints are used as alternative features for virtual screening methods. Following the approach introduced here, probability distributions of descriptor values and fingerprint bit settings are calculated for active and database molecules and the divergence between the resulting combined distributions is determined as a measure of biological activity. In test calculations on a large number of compound activity classes, this methodology was found to consistently perform better than similarity searching using fingerprints and multiple reference compounds or Bayesian screening calculations using probability distributions calculated only from property descriptors. These findings demonstrate that there is considerable synergy between different types of property descriptors and fingerprints in recognizing diverse structure-activity relationships, at least in the context of Bayesian modeling.

  19. Miguel Sánchez Peña (1925-2009) organizer of the space activities in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    de León, Pablo; Sánchez Peña, Miguel Alejandro

    2011-11-01

    One of the most important and active pioneers of the space activities in Argentina was Miguel Sánchez Peña, an aeronautical engineer and an officer of the Argentine Air Force. Sánchez Peña was the organizer of Argentina's governmental space program in the 1970s and part of the 80s, and contributed immeasurably to the Nation's sounding rocket program. Born in Mendoza, Argentina in 1925, Sánchez Peña attended the Military Aviation School (Escuela de Aviación Militar) in Córdoba, and later the Air Force Engineering School. Graduated as an engineer in 1959 he was sent to the University of Michigan in the United States to complete his graduate studies earning a Masters of Science degree in Aerospace Engineering. There he had the opportunity to study with several future NASA astronauts such as Theodore Freeman, Edward White and James McDivitt. After his return to Argentina in 1961 he was put in charge of the Space Development Group (Grupo de Desarrollos Espaciales) of the Air Force in Córdoba. While with the Air Force he managed the development of a family of various sounding rockets for high altitude research. Sánchez Peña was also in charge of the first Argentine rockets launched from Antarctica in 1965, as well as the first tests on an Argentine-fabricated rocket (Orión) from Wallops Island in the United States, in 1966. The Orion was the first operational sounding rocket constructed in South America. In the middle of the 1970s Miguel Sánchez Peña was named president of the CNIE (National Space Research Commission). Starting with just a modest one-desk office at the Argentine Air Force headquarters, in only a few years he turned CNIE into a multi-center organization with several hundred employees, three operational launch centers across the country and a family of research rockets open to the international scientific community. He was also actively representing Argentina in many IAF congresses, and was a member of the International Academy of

  20. Exploiting different active silicon detectors in the International Space Station: ALTEA and DOSTEL galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narici, Livo; Berger, Thomas; Burmeister, Sönke; Di Fino, Luca; Rizzo, Alessandro; Matthiä, Daniel; Reitz, Günther

    2017-08-01

    The solar system exploration by humans requires to successfully deal with the radiation exposition issue. The scientific aspect of this issue is twofold: knowing the radiation environment the astronauts are going to face and linking radiation exposure to health risks. Here we focus on the first issue. It is generally agreed that the final tool to describe the radiation environment in a space habitat will be a model featuring the needed amount of details to perform a meaningful risk assessment. The model should also take into account the shield changes due to the movement of materials inside the habitat, which in turn produce changes in the radiation environment. This model will have to undergo a final validation with a radiation field of similar complexity. The International Space Station (ISS) is a space habitat that features a radiation environment inside which is similar to what will be found in habitats in deep space, if we use measurements acquired only during high latitude passages (where the effects of the Earth magnetic field are reduced). Active detectors, providing time information, that can easily select data from different orbital sections, are the ones best fulfilling the requirements for these kinds of measurements. The exploitation of the radiation measurements performed in the ISS by all the available instruments is therefore mandatory to provide the largest possible database to the scientific community, to be merged with detailed Computer Aided Design (CAD) models, in the quest for a full model validation. While some efforts in comparing results from multiple active detectors have been attempted, a thorough study of a procedure to merge data in a single data matrix in order to provide the best validation set for radiation environment models has never been attempted. The aim of this paper is to provide such a procedure, to apply it to two of the most performing active detector systems in the ISS: the Anomalous Long Term Effects in Astronauts (ALTEA

  1. Determinants of activity-friendly neighborhoods for children: Results from the SPACE study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, S.I. de; Bakker, I.; Mechelen, W. van; Hopman-Rock, M.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose. To examine the association between children's physical activity and factors of the built environment. Design. Cross-sectional study. Setting. Ten neighborhoods in six cities in the Netherlands. Subjects. Four hundred twenty-two children (age range, 6-11 years; 49% male). Measures. Physical

  2. Monitoring of zwitterionic proline and alanine conformational space by raman optical activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kapitán, Josef; Bouř, Petr; Baumruk, V.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 1 (2005), s. 30 ISSN 1211-5894. [Meeting of Structural Biologists /4./. 10.03.2005-21.03.2005, Nové Hrady] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : proline * Raman optical activity Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  3. Short-term 222Rn activity concentration changes in underground spaces with limited air exchange with the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fijałkowska-Lichwa, L.; Przylibski, T. A.

    2011-04-01

    The authors investigated short-time changes in 222Rn activity concentration occurring yearly in two underground tourist facilities with limited air exchange with the atmosphere. One of them is Niedźwiedzia (Bear) Cave in Kletno, Poland - a natural space equipped with locks ensuring isolation from the atmosphere. The other site is Fluorite Adit in Kletno, a section of a disused uranium mine. This adit is equipped with a mechanical ventilation system, operated periodically outside the opening times (at night). Both sites are situated within the same metamorphic rock complex, at similar altitudes, about 2 km apart. The measurements conducted revealed spring and autumn occurrence of convective air movements. In Bear Cave, this process causes a reduction in 222Rn activity concentration in the daytime, i.e. when tourists, guides and other staff are present in the cave. From the point of view of radiation protection, this is the best situation. For the rest of the year, daily concentrations of 222Rn activity in the cave are very stable. In Fluorite Adit, on the other hand, significant variations in daily 222Rn activity concentrations are recorded almost all year round. These changes are determined by the periods of activity and inactivity of mechanical ventilation. Unfortunately this is inactive in the daytime, which results in the highest values of 222Rn activity concentration at the times when tourists and staff are present in the adit. Slightly lower concentrations of radon in Fluorite Adit are recorded in the winter season, when convective air movements carry a substantial amount of radon out into the atmosphere. The incorrect usage of mechanical ventilation in Fluorite Adit results in the most unfavourable conditions in terms of radiation protection. The staff working in that facility are exposed practically throughout the year to the highest 222Rn activity concentrations, both at work (in the adit) and at home (outside their working hours). Therefore, not very well

  4. Consistent biokinetic models for the actinide elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leggett, R.W.

    2001-01-01

    The biokinetic models for Th, Np, Pu, Am and Cm currently recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) were developed within a generic framework that depicts gradual burial of skeletal activity in bone volume, depicts recycling of activity released to blood and links excretion to retention and translocation of activity. For other actinide elements such as Ac, Pa, Bk, Cf and Es, the ICRP still uses simplistic retention models that assign all skeletal activity to bone surface and depicts one-directional flow of activity from blood to long-term depositories to excreta. This mixture of updated and older models in ICRP documents has led to inconsistencies in dose estimates and interpretation of bioassay for radionuclides with reasonably similar biokinetics. This paper proposes new biokinetic models for Ac, Pa, Bk, Cf and Es that are consistent with the updated models for Th, Np, Pu, Am and Cm. The proposed models are developed within the ICRP's generic model framework for bone-surface-seeking radionuclides, and an effort has been made to develop parameter values that are consistent with results of comparative biokinetic data on the different actinide elements. (author)

  5. Decentralized Consistent Updates in SDN

    KAUST Repository

    Nguyen, Thanh Dang

    2017-04-10

    We present ez-Segway, a decentralized mechanism to consistently and quickly update the network state while preventing forwarding anomalies (loops and blackholes) and avoiding link congestion. In our design, the centralized SDN controller only pre-computes information needed by the switches during the update execution. This information is distributed to the switches, which use partial knowledge and direct message passing to efficiently realize the update. This separation of concerns has the key benefit of improving update performance as the communication and computation bottlenecks at the controller are removed. Our evaluations via network emulations and large-scale simulations demonstrate the efficiency of ez-Segway, which compared to a centralized approach, improves network update times by up to 45% and 57% at the median and the 99th percentile, respectively. A deployment of a system prototype in a real OpenFlow switch and an implementation in P4 demonstrate the feasibility and low overhead of implementing simple network update functionality within switches.

  6. Development of a Large-Format Science-Grade CMOS Active Pixel Sensor, for Extreme Ultra Violet Spectroscopy and Imaging in Space Science

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Waltham, N. R; Prydderch, M; Mapson-Menard, H; Morrissey, Q; Turchetta, R; Pool, P; Harris, A

    2005-01-01

    We describe our programme to develop a large-format science-grade CMOS active pixel sensor for future space science missions, and in particular an extreme ultra-violet spectrograph for solar physics...

  7. Oh, What a Pane! An Inquiry Based on Activity with a Mathematical Approach to Investigation Windows on Earth...and in Space. Teacher Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Marshalyn; Mailhot, Michele; Graff, Paige Valderrama

    2010-01-01

    This is a teacher's guide to assist teachers in developing modules on windows for use in both earth and space and astronaut photographs. Activities incorporating mathematical exercises are suggested for grades five through ten.

  8. First results of registering ionospheric disturbances obtained with SibNet network of GNSS receivers in active space experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishin, Artem; Perevalova, Natalia; Voeykov, Sergey; Khakhinov, Vitaliy

    2017-12-01

    Global and regional networks of GNSS receivers have been successfully used for geophysical research for many years; the number of continuous GNSS stations in the world is steadily growing. The article presents the first results of the use of a new regional network of GNSS stations (SibNet) in active space experiments. The Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics of Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences (ISTP SB RAS) has established this network in the South Baikal region. We describe in detail SibNet, characteristics of receivers in use, parameters of antennas and methods of their installation. We also present the general structure of observation site and the plot of coverage of the receiver operating zone at 50-55° latitudes by radio paths. It is shown that the selected location of receivers allows us to detect ionospheric irregularities of various scales. The purpose of the active space experiments was to reveal and record parameters of the ionospheric irregu larities caused by effects from jet streams of Progress cargo spacecraft. The mapping technique enabled us to identify weak, vertically localized ionospheric irregularities and associate them with the Progress spacecraft engine impact. Thus, it has been shown that SibNet deployed in the Southern Baikal region is an effective instrument for monitoring ionospheric conditions.

  9. Cost and sensitivity of restricted active-space calculations of metal L-edge X-ray absorption spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinjari, Rahul V; Delcey, Mickaël G; Guo, Meiyuan; Odelius, Michael; Lundberg, Marcus

    2016-02-15

    The restricted active-space (RAS) approach can accurately simulate metal L-edge X-ray absorption spectra of first-row transition metal complexes without the use of any fitting parameters. These characteristics provide a unique capability to identify unknown chemical species and to analyze their electronic structure. To find the best balance between cost and accuracy, the sensitivity of the simulated spectra with respect to the method variables has been tested for two models, [FeCl6 ](3-) and [Fe(CN)6 ](3-) . For these systems, the reference calculations give deviations, when compared with experiment, of ≤1 eV in peak positions, ≤30% for the relative intensity of major peaks, and ≤50% for minor peaks. When compared with these deviations, the simulated spectra are sensitive to the number of final states, the inclusion of dynamical correlation, and the ionization potential electron affinity shift, in addition to the selection of the active space. The spectra are less sensitive to the quality of the basis set and even a double-ζ basis gives reasonable results. The inclusion of dynamical correlation through second-order perturbation theory can be done efficiently using the state-specific formalism without correlating the core orbitals. Although these observations are not directly transferable to other systems, they can, together with a cost analysis, aid in the design of RAS models and help to extend the use of this powerful approach to a wider range of transition metal systems. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Restricted active space calculations of L-edge X-ray absorption spectra: from molecular orbitals to multiplet states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinjari, Rahul V; Delcey, Mickaël G; Guo, Meiyuan; Odelius, Michael; Lundberg, Marcus

    2014-09-28

    The metal L-edge (2p → 3d) X-ray absorption spectra are affected by a number of different interactions: electron-electron repulsion, spin-orbit coupling, and charge transfer between metal and ligands, which makes the simulation of spectra challenging. The core restricted active space (RAS) method is an accurate and flexible approach that can be used to calculate X-ray spectra of a wide range of medium-sized systems without any symmetry constraints. Here, the applicability of the method is tested in detail by simulating three ferric (3d(5)) model systems with well-known electronic structure, viz., atomic Fe(3+), high-spin [FeCl6](3-) with ligand donor bonding, and low-spin [Fe(CN)6](3-) that also has metal backbonding. For these systems, the performance of the core RAS method, which does not require any system-dependent parameters, is comparable to that of the commonly used semi-empirical charge-transfer multiplet model. It handles orbitally degenerate ground states, accurately describes metal-ligand interactions, and includes both single and multiple excitations. The results are sensitive to the choice of orbitals in the active space and this sensitivity can be used to assign spectral features. A method has also been developed to analyze the calculated X-ray spectra using a chemically intuitive molecular orbital picture.

  11. Co/N–C nanotubes with increased coupling sites by space-confined pyrolysis for high electrocatalytic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Searching low cost and non-precious metal catalysts for high-performance oxygen reduction reaction is highly desired. Herein, Co nanoparticles embedded in nitrogen-doped carbon (Co/N–C nanotubes with internal void space are successfully synthesized by space-confined pyrolysis, which effectively improve the cobalt loading content and restrict the encapsulated particles down to nanometer. Different from the typical conformal carbon encapsulation, the resulting Co/N–C nanotubes possess more cobalt nanoparticles embedded in the nanotubes, which can provide more coupling sites and active sites in the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR. Moreover, the one-dimensional and porous structure provides a high surface area and a fast electron transfer pathway for the ORR. And the Co/N–C electrode presents excellent electrocatalytic ORR activity in terms of low onset potential (30 mV lower than that of Pt/C, small Tafel slop (45.5 mV dec−1 and good durability (88.5% retention after 10,000 s. Keywords: Co nanoparticles, Nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes, Oxygen reduction reaction

  12. Playing Reading, Using Hands: Which Activities are Linked to Number-Space Processing in Preschool Children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patro Katarzyna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Literate subjects from Western cultures form spatial-numerical associations (SNA in left-to-right direction, which follows their reading habits. In preliterate children, sources of SNA directionality are more disputable. One possibility is that SNA follows children's early knowledge about text orientation. It could also reflect ipsilateral/contralateral tendencies in manual task execution. Furthermore, SNA's characteristics could differ depending on the evaluation method used. In this study, we test SNA in preliterate preschoolers using object counting, finger counting, and numerosity arrangement tasks. We examined the relations of SNA to children's directional reading knowledge and their manual response tendencies. Left-to-right SNA was pronounced for object counting, disappeared for the numerosity task, and was reversed for finger counting. In all tasks, left-to-right SNA dominated in children who responded contralaterally with their hand. Reading knowledge was partially related to numerosity-based SNA, but not to other SNAs. Based on these findings, we discuss developmental characteristics of different forms of number-space associations.

  13. Astrocytic mechanisms explaining neural-activity-induced shrinkage of extraneuronal space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivar Østby

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal stimulation causes approximately 30% shrinkage of the extracellular space (ECS between neurons and surrounding astrocytes in grey and white matter under experimental conditions. Despite its possible implications for a proper understanding of basic aspects of potassium clearance and astrocyte function, the phenomenon remains unexplained. Here we present a dynamic model that accounts for current experimental data related to the shrinkage phenomenon in wild-type as well as in gene knockout individuals. We find that neuronal release of potassium and uptake of sodium during stimulation, astrocyte uptake of potassium, sodium, and chloride in passive channels, action of the Na/K/ATPase pump, and osmotically driven transport of water through the astrocyte membrane together seem sufficient for generating ECS shrinkage as such. However, when taking into account ECS and astrocyte ion concentrations observed in connection with neuronal stimulation, the actions of the Na(+/K(+/Cl(- (NKCC1 and the Na(+/HCO(3 (- (NBC cotransporters appear to be critical determinants for achieving observed quantitative levels of ECS shrinkage. Considering the current state of knowledge, the model framework appears sufficiently detailed and constrained to guide future key experiments and pave the way for more comprehensive astroglia-neuron interaction models for normal as well as pathophysiological situations.

  14. The influence of neighbourhood green space on children's physical activity and screen time : findings from the longitudinal study of Australian children

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, Taren; Feng, Xiaoqi; Fahey, Paul P.; Lonsdale, Chris; Astell-Burt, Thomas Edward

    2015-01-01

    TS is supported by an Australian Postgraduate Award. TAB is supported by a Fellowship with the National Heart Foundation of Australia (No. 100161). Objective: It is often hypothesised that neighbourhood green space may help prevent well-known declines in physical activity and increases in sedentary behaviour that occur across childhood. As most studies in this regard are cross-sectional, the purpose of our study was to use longitudinal data to examine whether green space promotes active li...

  15. Evolution of fractality in space plasmas of interest to geomagnetic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Víctor; Domínguez, Macarena; Alejandro Valdivia, Juan; Good, Simon; Nigro, Giuseppina; Carbone, Vincenzo

    2018-03-01

    We studied the temporal evolution of fractality for geomagnetic activity, by calculating fractal dimensions from the Dst data and from a magnetohydrodynamic shell model for turbulent magnetized plasma, which may be a useful model to study geomagnetic activity under solar wind forcing. We show that the shell model is able to reproduce the relationship between the fractal dimension and the occurrence of dissipative events, but only in a certain region of viscosity and resistivity values. We also present preliminary results of the application of these ideas to the study of the magnetic field time series in the solar wind during magnetic clouds, which suggest that it is possible, by means of the fractal dimension, to characterize the complexity of the magnetic cloud structure.

  16. Active vibration control using state space LQG and internal model control methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkholt, Jakob; Elliott, S.J.

    1998-01-01

    Two ways of designing discrete time robust H2-controllers for feedback broadband active vibration control are compared through computer simulations. The methods are based on different models of disturbance and plant transfer functions, but yield controllers with identical properties. Two simple...... ways of introducing robustness into the H2-design are compared, and finally an efficient way of designing a practical IIR-controller is proposed....

  17. Climate Change Adaptation Activities at the NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center, FL., USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Carlton; Phillips, Lynne

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, the Office of Strategic Infrastructure and Earth Sciences established the Climate Adaptation Science Investigators (CASI) program to integrate climate change forecasts and knowledge into sustainable management of infrastructure and operations needed for the NASA mission. NASA operates 10 field centers valued at $32 billion dollars, occupies 191,000 acres and employs 58,000 people. CASI climate change and sea-level rise forecasts focus on the 2050 and 2080 time periods. At the 140,000 acre Kennedy Space Center (KSC) data are used to simulate impacts on infrastructure, operations, and unique natural resources. KSC launch and processing facilities represent a valued national asset located in an area with high biodiversity including 33 species of special management concern. Numerical and advanced Bayesian and Monte Carlo statistical modeling is being conducted using LiDAR digital elevation models coupled with relevant GIS layers to assess potential future conditions. Results are provided to the Environmental Management Branch, Master Planning, Construction of Facilities, Engineering Construction Innovation Committee and our regional partners to support Spaceport development, management, and adaptation planning and design. Potential impacts to natural resources include conversion of 50% of the Center to open water, elevation of the surficial aquifer, alterations of rainfall and evapotranspiration patterns, conversion of salt marsh to mangrove forest, reductions in distribution and extent of upland habitats, overwash of the barrier island dune system, increases in heat stress days, and releases of chemicals from legacy contamination sites. CASI has proven successful in bringing climate change planning to KSC including recognition of the need to increase resiliency and development of a green managed shoreline retreat approach to maintain coastal ecosystem services while maximizing life expectancy of Center launch and payload processing resources.

  18. Climate Change Adaptation Activities at the NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center, Fl., USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, C. R.; Phillips, L. V.; Foster, T.; Stolen, E.; Duncan, B.; Hunt, D.; Schaub, R.

    2016-12-01

    In 2010, the Office of Strategic Infrastructure and Earth Sciences established the Climate Adaptation Science Investigators (CASI) program to integrate climate change forecasts and knowledge into sustainable management of infrastructure and operations needed for the NASA mission. NASA operates 10 field centers valued at $32 billion dollars, occupies 191,000 acres and employs 58,000 people. CASI climate change and sea-level rise forecasts focus on the 2050 and 2080 time periods. At the 140,000 acre Kennedy Space Center (KSC) data are used to simulate impacts on infrastructure, operations, and unique natural resources. KSC launch and processing facilities represent a valued national asset located in an area with high biodiversity including 33 species of special management concern. Numerical and advanced Bayesian and Monte Carlo statistical modeling is being conducted using LiDAR digital elevation models coupled with relevant GIS layers to assess potential future conditions. Results are provided to the Environmental Management Branch, Master Planning, Construction of Facilities, Engineering Construction Innovation Committee and our regional partners to support Spaceport development, management, and adaptation planning and design. Potential impacts to natural resources include conversion of 50% of the Center to open water, elevation of the surficial aquifer, alterations of rainfall and evapotranspiration patterns, conversion of salt marsh to mangrove forest, reductions in distribution and extent of upland habitats, overwash of the barrier island dune system, increases in heat stress days, and releases of chemicals from legacy contamination sites. CASI has proven successful in bringing climate change planning to KSC including recognition of the need to increase resiliency and development of a green managed shoreline retreat approach to maintain coastal ecosystem services while maximizing life expectancy of Center launch and payload processing resources.

  19. Sonic versus ultrasonic activation for the cleaning of the root canal after post space preparation: an in vitro study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Carrasco

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the efficacy of 3 intracanal cleaning protocols used before cementation of prosthetic posts. Material and Methods: 40 anterior teeth received endodontic treatment in hand, using lateral condensation technique. After two weeks, gutta-percha was appropriately removed from the teeth to get the necessary space to install a post. Then, teeth were randomly divided into groups; root surface was treated with chlorhexidine (CHX activated by ultrasound (US (group I, with chlorhexidine activated by sonic instrumentation (S (group II, chlorhexidine without activation (group III and without treatment (group IV. All teeth were fractured longitudinally getting 2 sections. The middle third of the root canal was microphotographed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM and the contaminated surface was measured using detritus with ImageJ 1.47. It was analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis-test using GraphPad Prism 5.01. Results: The median percentage of contaminated area of Group I was 20.06%, Group II, 19.3%; Group III, 36.05%; and Group IV, 56.45%. Conclusion: There are significant differences among different intracanal cleaning protocols in the removal efficiency of detritus from the root canal, being the activated protocols the most effective ones.

  20. Three typical examples of activation of the International Charter ``space and major disasters''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessis, J.-L.; Bequignon, J.; Mahmood, A.

    This paper, after a brief description of the Charter organisation and of its implementation procedures, addresses three typical cases of Charter activation and the lessons learned to date. The first example will deal with the major earthquakes in January and February 2001 in El Salvador for the benefit of the Salvadorian National Register Centre, the second concerning flooding in the North-East and South of France in January and September 2002 with quick delivery of flood maps to the French Civil Protection Authority and the last one will focus on the Nyiragongo volcanic eruption near the town of Goma in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

  1. The influence of neighbourhood green space on children's physical activity and screen time: findings from the longitudinal study of Australian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Taren; Feng, Xiaoqi; Fahey, Paul P; Lonsdale, Chris; Astell-Burt, Thomas

    2015-09-30

    It is often hypothesised that neighbourhood green space may help prevent well-known declines in physical activity and increases in sedentary behaviour that occur across childhood. As most studies in this regard are cross-sectional, the purpose of our study was to use longitudinal data to examine whether green space promotes active lifestyles as children grow older. Data came from participants (n = 4983; age = 4-5) of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children, a nationally representative study on health and child development. Physical activity and screen time were measured biennially (2004-2012) using questionnaires and time use diaries. Quantity of neighbourhood green space was objectively measured using Australian Bureau of Statistics mesh block data for each participant's statistical area level 2. Multilevel regression was used to test for associations between physical activity and screen time with green space quantity, adjusting for socio-economic confounders. Boys living in areas with 10% more neighbourhood green space had a: 7% (95% CI = 1.02, 1.13) greater odds of choosing physically active pastimes; 8% (95 % CI = 0.85, 1.00) lower odds of not enjoying physical activity; 2.3 min reduction in weekend television viewing (95% CI = -4.00, -0.69); and 7% (95% CI = 1.02; 1.12) and 9% (95% CI = 1.03; 1.15) greater odds of meeting physical activity guidelines on weekdays and weekends, respectively. No statistically (or practically) significant results were observed for girls. Current provisions of neighbourhood green space may be more amenable to promoting active lifestyles among boys than girls. Research is needed to explore what types of green space promote active lifestyles in all children.

  2. Avoided crossings, conical intersections, and low-lying excited states with a single reference method: the restricted active space spin-flip configuration interaction approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, David

    2012-08-28

    The restricted active space spin-flip CI (RASCI-SF) performance is tested in the electronic structure computation of the ground and the lowest electronically excited states in the presence of near-degeneracies. The feasibility of the method is demonstrated by analyzing the avoided crossing between the ionic and neutral singlet states of LiF along the molecular dissociation. The two potential energy surfaces (PESs) are explored by means of the energies of computed adiabatic and approximated diabatic states, dipole moments, and natural orbital electronic occupancies of both states. The RASCI-SF methodology is also used to study the ground and first excited singlet surface crossing involved in the double bond isomerization of ethylene, as a model case. The two-dimensional PESs of the ground (S(0)) and excited (S(1)) states are calculated for the complete configuration space of torsion and pyramidalization molecular distortions. The parameters that define the state energetics in the vicinity of the S(0)/S(1) conical intersection region are compared to complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) results. These examples show that it is possible to describe strongly correlated electronic states using a single reference methodology without the need to expand the wavefunction to high levels of collective excitations. Finally, RASCI is also examined in the electronic structure characterization of the ground and 2(1)A(g)(-), 1(1)B(u)(+), 1(1)B(u)(-), and 1(3)B(u)(-) states of all-trans polyenes with two to seven double bonds and beyond. Transition energies are compared to configuration interaction singles, time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT), CASSCF, and its second-order perturbation correction calculations, and to experimental data. The capability of RASCI-SF to describe the nature and properties of each electronic state is discussed in detail. This example is also used to expose the properties of different truncations of the RASCI wavefunction and to

  3. Vibrational multiconfiguration self-consistent field theory: implementation and test calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heislbetz, Sandra; Rauhut, Guntram

    2010-03-28

    A state-specific vibrational multiconfiguration self-consistent field (VMCSCF) approach based on a multimode expansion of the potential energy surface is presented for the accurate calculation of anharmonic vibrational spectra. As a special case of this general approach vibrational complete active space self-consistent field calculations will be discussed. The latter method shows better convergence than the general VMCSCF approach and must be considered the preferred choice within the multiconfigurational framework. Benchmark calculations are provided for a small set of test molecules.

  4. Historical space weather monitoring of prolonged aurora activities in Japan and in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Ryuho; Isobe, Hiroaki; Hayakawa, Hisashi; Tamazawa, Harufumi; Kawamura, Akito Davis; Miyahara, Hiroko; Iwahashi, Kiyomi; Yamamoto, Kazuaki; Takei, Masako; Terashima, Tsuneyo; Suzuki, Hidehiko; Fujiwara, Yasunori; Nakamura, Takuji

    2017-02-01

    Great magnetic storms are recorded as aurora sightings in historical documents. The earliest known example of "prolonged" aurora sightings, with aurora persistent for two or more nights within a 7 day interval at low latitudes, in Japan was documented on 21-23 February 1204 in Meigetsuki, when a big sunspot was also recorded in China. We have searched for prolonged events over the 600 year interval since 620 in Japan based on the catalogue of Kanda and over the 700 year interval since 581 in China based on the catalogues of Tamazawa et al. (2017) and Hayakawa et al. (2015). Before the Meigetsuki event, a significant fraction of the 200 possible aurora sightings in Sòng dynasty (960-1279) of China was detected at least twice within a 7 day interval and sometimes recurred with approximately the solar rotation period of 27 days. The majority of prolonged aurora activity events occurred around the maximum phase of solar cycles rather than around the minimum, as estimated from the 14C analysis of tree rings. They were not reported during the Oort Minimum (1010-1050). We hypothesize that the prolonged aurora sightings are associated with great magnetic storms resulting from multiple coronal mass ejections from the same active region. The historical documents therefore provide useful information to support estimation of great magnetic storm frequency, which are often associated with power outages and other societal concerns.

  5. Human activity spaces and plague risks in three contrasting landscapes in Lushoto District, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieronimo, Proches; Gulinck, Hubert; Kimaro, Didas N; Mulungu, Loth S; Kihupi, Nganga I; Msanya, Balthazar M; Leirs, Herwig; Deckers, Jozef A

    2014-07-01

    Since 1980 plague has been a human threat in the Western Usambara Mountains in Tanzania. However, the spatial-temporal pattern of plague occurrence remains poorly understood. The main objective of this study was to gain understanding of human activity patterns in relation to spatial distribution of fleas in Lushoto District. Data were collected in three landscapes differing in plague incidence. Field survey coupled with Geographic Information System (GIS) and physical sample collections were used to collect data in wet (April to June 2012) and dry (August to October 2012) seasons. Data analysis was done using GIS, one-way ANOVA and nonparametric statistical tools. The degree of spatial co-occurrence of potential disease vectors (fleas) and humans in Lushoto focus differs significantly (p ≤ 0.05) among the selected landscapes, and in both seasons. This trend gives a coarse indication of the possible association of the plague outbreaks and the human frequencies of contacting environments with fleas. The study suggests that plague surveillance and control programmes at landscape scale should consider the existence of plague vector contagion risk gradient from high to low incidence landscapes due to human presence and intensity of activities.

  6. The Dynamic Family Home: a qualitative exploration of physical environmental influences on children's sedentary behaviour and physical activity within the home space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitland, Clover; Stratton, Gareth; Foster, Sarah; Braham, Rebecca; Rosenberg, Michael

    2014-12-24

    Recent changes in home physical environments, such as decreasing outdoor space and increasing electronic media, may negatively affect health by facilitating sedentariness and reducing physical activity. As children spend much of their time at home they are particularly vulnerable. This study qualitatively explored family perceptions of physical environmental influences on sedentary behaviour and physical activity within the home space. Home based interviews were conducted with 28 families with children aged 9-13 years (total n = 74 individuals), living in Perth, Australia. Families were stratified by socioeconomic status and selected to provide variation in housing. Qualitative methods included a family interview, observation and home tour where families guided the researcher through their home, enabling discussion while in the physical home space. Audio recordings were transcribed verbatim and thematically analysed. Emergent themes related to children's sedentariness and physical activity included overall size, space and design of the home; allocation of home space; equipment within the home space; perceived safety of the home space; and the changing nature of the home space. Families reported that children's activity options were limited when houses and yards were small. In larger homes, multiple indoor living rooms usually housed additional sedentary entertainment options, although parents reported that open plan home layouts could facilitate monitoring of children's electronic media use. Most families reported changing the allocation and contents of their home space in response to changing priorities and circumstances. The physical home environment can enhance or limit opportunities for children's sedentary behaviour and physical activity. However, the home space is a dynamic ecological setting that is amenable to change and is largely shaped by the family living within it, thus differentiating it from other settings. While size and space were considered

  7. Archaeology of Void Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Look, Cory

    The overall goal of this research is to evaluate the efficacy of pXRF for the identification of ancient activity areas at Pre-Columbian sites in Antigua that range across time periods, geographic regions, site types with a variety of features, and various states of preservation. These findings have important implications for identifying and reconstructing places full of human activity but void of material remains. A synthesis for an archaeology of void spaces requires the construction of new ways of testing anthrosols, and identifying elemental patterns that can be used to connect people with their places and objects. This research begins with an exploration of rich middens in order to study void spaces. Midden archaeology has been a central focus in Caribbean research, and consists of an accumulation of discarded remnants from past human activities that can be tested against anthrosols. The archaeological collections visited for this research project involved creating new databases to generate a comprehensive inventory of sites, materials excavated, and assemblages available for study. Of the more than 129 Pre-Columbian sites documented in Antigua, few sites have been thoroughly surveyed or excavated. Twelve Pre-Columbian sites, consisting of thirty-six excavated units were selected for study; all of which contained complete assemblages for comparison and soil samples for testing. These excavations consisted almost entirely of midden excavations, requiring new archaeological investigations to be carried out in spaces primarily void of material remains but within the village context. Over the course of three seasons excavations, shovel test pits, and soil augers were used to obtain a variety of anthrosols and archaeological assemblages in order to generate new datasets to study Pre-Columbian activity areas. The selection of two primary case study sites were used for comparison: Indian Creek and Doigs. Findings from this research indicate that accounting for the

  8. Interaction Design Beyond the Product : Creating Technology-Enhanced Activity Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaptelinin, Victor; Bannon, Liam J.

    2012-01-01

    The field of interaction design to date has been predominantly concerned with designing products, that is, devices, systems, and more recently services. A growing body of theoretical and empirical analyses suggests that the scope of interaction design needs to be expanded: An explicit concern...... of the field should include not only helping designers create better products but also helping people themselves create better environments for their work, learning, and leisure activities. In this article we argue that expanding the scope of interaction design beyond products requires a revision of some...... of the most central concepts in interaction design, including the notion of “the object of design” and our understanding of the impact of technologies on human practices. The aim of the article is to explore some of these conceptual challenges and discuss possible ways of dealing with them. We differentiate...

  9. Cryogenic liquid resettlement activated by impulsive thrust in space-based propulsion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, R. J.; Shyu, K. L.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of present study is to investigate the most efficient technique for propellant resettling through the minimization of propellant usage and weight penalties. Comparison between the constant reverse gravity acceleration and impulsive reverse gravity acceleration to be used for the activation of propellant resettlement shows that impulsive reverse gravity thrust is superior to constant reverse gravity thrust for liquid reorientation in a reduced gravity environment. Comparison among impulsive reverse gravity thrust with 0.1, 1.0, and 10 Hz frequencies for liquid-filled level in the range between 30 to 80 percent shows that the selection of a medium frequency of 1.0 Hz impulsive thrust over the other frequency ranges of impulsive thrust is the most proper.

  10. Evaluation of the JPL X-band 32 element active array. [for deep space communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boreham, J. F.; Postal, R. B.; Conroy, B. L.

    1979-01-01

    Tests performed on an X-band 32-element active array are described. Antenna pattern characteristics of the array were tested in its standard operating mode as well as several degraded performance modes, including failures of 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 16, and 31 elements. Additionally, the array was characterized with the addition of a metallic shroud, and also characterized versus rf drive level and at a single off-axis electronic beamsteered position. Characterization was performed on several of the 3/4-watt, three-stage, X-band solid-state power amplifier modules. The characterization included swept amplitude response, amplitude and phase versus temperature from -20 to +60 C, and intermodulation distortion of selected modules. The array is described and conclusions and recommendations based upon the experience and results achieved are included.

  11. Some analyses on the plasma motion in the space active region of the axial symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhongyuan; Hu Wenrui.

    1986-04-01

    In general, the potential magnetic field may gradually be twisted into the force-free magnetic field with the current produced by plasma rotation. In this paper, it is pointed out that if the magnetic field has no singularity on the symmetric axis, then the potential magnetic field cannot be twisted into the force-free magnetic field. Namely, it is not a perfect approach that the energy storage is only caused by the pure azimuthal motion in the active region. Besides the pure spiral motion, the unsteady coupling process between the magnetic field and both the toroidal and the poloidal velocity components should be analyzed. Finally, in the present note, some features of the kinematical force-free magnetic field of the axial symmetry are presented by the authors. (author)

  12. An Innovative Context-Based Crystal-Growth Activity Space Method for Environmental Exposure Assessment: A Study Using GIS and GPS Trajectory Data Collected in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jue; Kwan, Mei-Po; Chai, Yanwei

    2018-04-09

    Scholars in the fields of health geography, urban planning, and transportation studies have long attempted to understand the relationships among human movement, environmental context, and accessibility. One fundamental question for this research area is how to measure individual activity space, which is an indicator of where and how people have contact with their social and physical environments. Conventionally, standard deviational ellipses, road network buffers, minimum convex polygons, and kernel density surfaces have been used to represent people's activity space, but they all have shortcomings. Inconsistent findings of the effects of environmental exposures on health behaviors/outcomes suggest that the reliability of existing studies may be affected by the uncertain geographic context problem (UGCoP). This paper proposes the context-based crystal-growth activity space as an innovative method for generating individual activity space based on both GPS trajectories and the environmental context. This method not only considers people's actual daily activity patterns based on GPS tracks but also takes into account the environmental context which either constrains or encourages people's daily activity. Using GPS trajectory data collected in Chicago, the results indicate that the proposed new method generates more reasonable activity space when compared to other existing methods. This can help mitigate the UGCoP in environmental health studies.

  13. Self-consistent gravitational self-force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pound, Adam

    2010-01-01

    I review the problem of motion for small bodies in general relativity, with an emphasis on developing a self-consistent treatment of the gravitational self-force. An analysis of the various derivations extant in the literature leads me to formulate an asymptotic expansion in which the metric is expanded while a representative worldline is held fixed. I discuss the utility of this expansion for both exact point particles and asymptotically small bodies, contrasting it with a regular expansion in which both the metric and the worldline are expanded. Based on these preliminary analyses, I present a general method of deriving self-consistent equations of motion for arbitrarily structured (sufficiently compact) small bodies. My method utilizes two expansions: an inner expansion that keeps the size of the body fixed, and an outer expansion that lets the body shrink while holding its worldline fixed. By imposing the Lorenz gauge, I express the global solution to the Einstein equation in the outer expansion in terms of an integral over a worldtube of small radius surrounding the body. Appropriate boundary data on the tube are determined from a local-in-space expansion in a buffer region where both the inner and outer expansions are valid. This buffer-region expansion also results in an expression for the self-force in terms of irreducible pieces of the metric perturbation on the worldline. Based on the global solution, these pieces of the perturbation can be written in terms of a tail integral over the body's past history. This approach can be applied at any order to obtain a self-consistent approximation that is valid on long time scales, both near and far from the small body. I conclude by discussing possible extensions of my method and comparing it to alternative approaches.

  14. Self-consistent chaos in the beam-plasma instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tennyson, J.L.; Meiss, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of self-consistency on Hamiltonian systems with a large number of degrees-of-freedom is investigated for the beam-plasma instability using the single-wave model of O'Neil, Winfrey, and Malmberg.The single-wave model is reviewed and then rederived within the Hamiltonian context, which leads naturally to canonical action- angle variables. Simulations are performed with a large (10 4 ) number of beam particles interacting with the single wave. It is observed that the system relaxes into a time asymptotic periodic state where only a few collective degrees are active; namely, a clump of trapped particles oscillating in a modulated wave, within a uniform chaotic sea with oscillating phase space boundaries. Thus self-consistency is seen to effectively reduce the number of degrees- of-freedom. A simple low degree-of-freedom model is derived that treats the clump as a single macroparticle, interacting with the wave and chaotic sea. The uniform chaotic sea is modeled by a fluid waterbag, where the waterbag boundaries correspond approximately to invariant tori. This low degree-of-freedom model is seen to compare well with the simulation

  15. Heliophysics: Evolving Solar Activity and the Climates of Space and Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrijver, Carolus J.; Siscoe, George L.

    2012-01-01

    Preface; 1. Interconnectedness in heliophysics Carolus J. Schrijver and George L. Siscoe; 2. Long-term evolution of magnetic activity of Sun-like stars Carolus J. Schrijver; 3. Formation and early evolution of stars and proto-planetary disks Lee W. Hartmann; 4. Planetary habitability on astronomical time scales Donald E. Brownlee; 5. Solar internal flows and dynamo action Mark S. Miesch; 6. Modeling solar and stellar dynamos Paul Charbonneau; 7. Planetary fields and dynamos Ulrich R. Christensen; 8. The structure and evolution of the 3D solar wind John T. Gosling; 9. The heliosphere and cosmic rays J. Randy Jokipii; 10. Solar spectral irradiance: measurements and models Judith L. Lean and Thomas N. Woods; 11. Astrophysical influences on planetary climate systems Juerg Beer; 12. Evaluating the drivers of Earth's climate system Thomas J. Crowley; 13. Ionospheres of the terrestrial planets Stanley C. Solomon; 14. Long-term evolution of the geospace climate Jan J. Sojka; 15. Waves and transport processes in atmospheres and oceans Richard L. Walterscheid; 16. Solar variability, climate, and atmospheric photochemistry Guy P. Brasseur, Daniel Marsch and Hauke Schmidt; Appendix I. Authors and editors; List of illustrations; List of tables; Bibliography; Index.

  16. Communication: Extended multi-state complete active space second-order perturbation theory: Energy and nuclear gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiozaki, Toru; Győrffy, Werner; Celani, Paolo; Werner, Hans-Joachim

    2011-08-01

    The extended multireference quasi-degenerate perturbation theory, proposed by Granovsky [J. Chem. Phys. 134, 214113 (2011)], is combined with internally contracted multi-state complete active space second-order perturbation theory (XMS-CASPT2). The first-order wavefunction is expanded in terms of the union of internally contracted basis functions generated from all the reference functions, which guarantees invariance of the theory with respect to unitary rotations of the reference functions. The method yields improved potentials in the vicinity of avoided crossings and conical intersections. The theory for computing nuclear energy gradients for MS-CASPT2 and XMS-CASPT2 is also presented and the first implementation of these gradient methods is reported. A number of illustrative applications of the new methods are presented.

  17. Intersecting Spaces and Species: Women´s Bodies and the Domestic Sphere in Animal Rights Activism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Alonso Recarte

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The object of this article is to explore how current animal rights activism draws on images of women-animal corporeal hybrids to articulate a plight for animals, and how the domestic setting used in such campaigns is strategically conveyed to either instill sympathy or abhorrence at the ‘miscegenation’ of species within a single bodily space. I begin with a few observations on the matter of animal ontology in accordance with the muchdebated notion of commonness with humans (and in particular women. I then make a comparative analysis between video campaigns by two major animal rights organizations, the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA and People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA to evaluate how their rhetoric of species hybridism conveys different assumptions regarding womanhood, and how domestic settings serve as instrumental tools through which to strengthen their rhetoric of animal liberation.

  18. Multimegawatt Space Reactor Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanley, M.L.

    1989-01-01

    The Multimegawatt (MMW) Space Reactor Project supports the Strategic Defense Initiative Office requirement to provide reliable, safe, cost-effective, electrical power in the MMW range. Specifically, power may be used for neutral particle beams, free electron lasers, electromagnetic launchers, and orbital transfer vehicles. This power plant technology may also apply to the electrical power required for other uses such as deep-space probes and planetary exploration. The Multimegawatt Space Reactor Project, the Thermionic Fuel Element Verification Program, and Centaurus Program all support the Multimegawatt Space Nuclear Power Program and form an important part of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) space and defense power systems activities. A major objective of the MMW project is the development of a reference flight system design that provides the desired levels of public safety, health protection, and special nuclear material (SNM) protection when used during its designated missions. The safety requirements for the MMW project are a hierarchy of requirements that consist of safety requirements/regulations, a safety policy, general safety criteria, safety technical specifications, safety design specifications, and the system design. This paper describes the strategy and philosophy behind the development of the safety requirements imposed upon the MMW concept developers. The safety organization, safety policy, generic safety issues, general safety criteria, and the safety technical specifications are discussed

  19. Constraint based scheduling for the Goddard Space Flight Center distributed Active Archive Center's data archive and distribution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Nick, Jr.; Bedet, Jean-Jacques; Bodden, Lee; Boddy, Mark; White, Jim; Beane, John

    1994-01-01

    The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) has been operational since October 1, 1993. Its mission is to support the Earth Observing System (EOS) by providing rapid access to EOS data and analysis products, and to test Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) design concepts. One of the challenges is to ensure quick and easy retrieval of any data archived within the DAAC's Data Archive and Distributed System (DADS). Over the 15-year life of EOS project, an estimated several Petabytes (10(exp 15)) of data will be permanently stored. Accessing that amount of information is a formidable task that will require innovative approaches. As a precursor of the full EOS system, the GSFC DAAC with a few Terabits of storage, has implemented a prototype of a constraint-based task and resource scheduler to improve the performance of the DADS. This Honeywell Task and Resource Scheduler (HTRS), developed by Honeywell Technology Center in cooperation the Information Science and Technology Branch/935, the Code X Operations Technology Program, and the GSFC DAAC, makes better use of limited resources, prevents backlog of data, provides information about resources bottlenecks and performance characteristics. The prototype which is developed concurrently with the GSFC Version 0 (V0) DADS, models DADS activities such as ingestion and distribution with priority, precedence, resource requirements (disk and network bandwidth) and temporal constraints. HTRS supports schedule updates, insertions, and retrieval of task information via an Application Program Interface (API). The prototype has demonstrated with a few examples, the substantial advantages of using HTRS over scheduling algorithms such as a First In First Out (FIFO) queue. The kernel scheduling engine for HTRS, called Kronos, has been successfully applied to several other domains such as space shuttle mission scheduling, demand flow manufacturing, and avionics communications

  20. Stocking activities for the Arctic charr in Lake Geneva: Genetic effects in space and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savary, Romain; Dufresnes, Christophe; Champigneulle, Alexis; Caudron, Arnaud; Dubey, Sylvain; Perrin, Nicolas; Fumagalli, Luca

    2017-07-01

    Artificial stocking practices are widely used by resource managers worldwide, in order to sustain fish populations exploited by both recreational and commercial activities, but their benefits are controversial. Former practices involved exotic strains, although current programs rather consider artificial breeding of local fishes (supportive breeding). Understanding the complex genetic effects of these management strategies is an important challenge with economic and conservation implications, especially in the context of population declines. In this study, we focus on the declining Arctic charr ( Salvelinus alpinus ) population from Lake Geneva (Switzerland and France), which has initially been restocked with allochtonous fishes in the early eighties, followed by supportive breeding. In this context, we conducted a genetic survey to document the evolution of the genetic diversity and structure throughout the last 50 years, before and after the initiation of hatchery supplementation, using contemporary and historical samples. We show that the introduction of exotic fishes was associated with a genetic bottleneck in the 1980-1990s, a break of Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE), a reduction in genetic diversity, an increase in genetic structure among spawning sites, and a change in their genetic composition. Together with better environmental conditions, three decades of subsequent supportive breeding using local fishes allowed to re-establish HWE and the initial levels of genetic variation. However, current spawning sites have not fully recovered their original genetic composition and were extensively homogenized across the lake. Our study demonstrates the drastic genetic consequences of different restocking tactics in a comprehensive spatiotemporal framework and suggests that genetic alteration by nonlocal stocking may be partly reversible through supportive breeding. We recommend that conservation-based programs consider local diversity and implement adequate

  1. Antibiotics and activity spaces: protocol of an exploratory study of behaviour, marginalisation and knowledge diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoenboon, Nutcha; Zanello, Giacomo; Mayxay, Mayfong; Reed-Tsochas, Felix; Jones, Caroline O H; Kosaikanont, Romyen; Praphattong, Pollavat; Manohan, Pathompong; Lubell, Yoel; Newton, Paul N; Keomany, Sommay; Wertheim, Heiman F L; Lienert, Jeffrey; Xayavong, Thipphaphone; Warapikuptanun, Penporn; Khine Zaw, Yuzana; U-Thong, Patchapoom; Benjaroon, Patipat; Sangkham, Narinnira; Wibunjak, Kanokporn; Chai-In, Poowadon; Chailert, Sirirat; Thavethanutthanawin, Patthanan; Promsutt, Krittanon; Thepkhamkong, Amphayvone; Sithongdeng, Nicksan; Keovilayvanh, Maipheth; Khamsoukthavong, Nid; Phanthasomchit, Phaengnitta; Phanthavong, Chanthasone; Boualaiseng, Somsanith; Vongsavang, Souksakhone; Greer, Rachel C; Althaus, Thomas; Nedsuwan, Supalert; Intralawan, Daranee; Wangrangsimakul, Tri; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Ariana, Proochista

    2018-01-01

    Background Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global health priority. Leading UK and global strategy papers to fight AMR recognise its social and behavioural dimensions, but current policy responses to improve the popular use of antimicrobials (eg, antibiotics) are limited to education and awareness-raising campaigns. In response to conceptual, methodological and empirical weaknesses of this approach, we study people’s antibiotic-related health behaviour through three research questions. RQ1: What are the manifestations and determinants of problematic antibiotic use in patients’ healthcare-seeking pathways? RQ2: Will people’s exposure to antibiotic awareness activities entail changed behaviours that diffuse or dissipate within a network of competing healthcare practices? RQ3: Which proxy indicators facilitate the detection of problematic antibiotic behaviours across and within communities? Methods We apply an interdisciplinary analytical framework that draws on the public health, medical anthropology, sociology and development economics literature. Our research involves social surveys of treatment-seeking behaviour among rural dwellers in northern Thailand (Chiang Rai) and southern Lao PDR (Salavan). We sample approximately 4800 adults to produce district-level representative and social network data. Additional 60 cognitive interviews facilitate survey instrument development and data interpretation. Our survey data analysis techniques include event sequence analysis (RQ1), multilevel regression (RQ1–3), social network analysis (RQ2) and latent class analysis (RQ3). Discussion Social research in AMR is nascent, but our unprecedentedly detailed data on microlevel treatment-seeking behaviour can contribute an understanding of behaviour beyond awareness and free choice, highlighting, for example, decision-making constraints, problems of marginalisation and lacking access to healthcare and competing ideas about desirable behaviour. Trial registration number NCT

  2. Self-consistent approximations beyond the CPA: Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, T.; Gray, L.J.

    1982-01-01

    This paper concentrates on a self-consistent approximation for random alloys developed by Kaplan, Leath, Gray, and Diehl. The construction of the augmented space formalism for a binary alloy is sketched, and the notation to be used derived. Using the operator methods of the augmented space, the self-consistent approximation is derived for the average Green's function, and for evaluating the self-energy, taking into account the scattering by clusters of excitations. The particular cluster approximation desired is derived by treating the scattering by the excitations with S /SUB T/ exactly. Fourier transforms on the disorder-space clustersite labels solve the self-consistent set of equations. Expansion to short range order in the alloy is also discussed. A method to reduce the problem to a computationally tractable form is described

  3. Self-consistency and coherent effects in nonlinear resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, I.; Franchetti, G.; Qiang, J.; Ryne, R. D.

    2003-01-01

    The influence of space charge on emittance growth is studied in simulations of a coasting beam exposed to a strong octupolar perturbation in an otherwise linear lattice, and under stationary parameters. We explore the importance of self-consistency by comparing results with a non-self-consistent model, where the space charge electric field is kept 'frozen-in' to its initial values. For Gaussian distribution functions we find that the 'frozen-in' model results in a good approximation of the self-consistent model, hence coherent response is practically absent and the emittance growth is self-limiting due to space charge de-tuning. For KV or waterbag distributions, instead, strong coherent response is found, which we explain in terms of absence of Landau damping

  4. Fault-tolerant feature-based estimation of space debris rotational motion during active removal missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondi, Gabriele; Mauro, Stefano; Pastorelli, Stefano; Sorli, Massimo

    2018-05-01

    One of the key functionalities required by an Active Debris Removal mission is the assessment of the target kinematics and inertial properties. Passive sensors, such as stereo cameras, are often included in the onboard instrumentation of a chaser spacecraft for capturing sequential photographs and for tracking features of the target surface. A plenty of methods, based on Kalman filtering, are available for the estimation of the target's state from feature positions; however, to guarantee the filter convergence, they typically require continuity of measurements and the capability of tracking a fixed set of pre-defined features of the object. These requirements clash with the actual tracking conditions: failures in feature detection often occur and the assumption of having some a-priori knowledge about the shape of the target could be restrictive in certain cases. The aim of the presented work is to propose a fault-tolerant alternative method for estimating the angular velocity and the relative magnitudes of the principal moments of inertia of the target. Raw data regarding the positions of the tracked features are processed to evaluate corrupted values of a 3-dimentional parameter which entirely describes the finite screw motion of the debris and which primarily is invariant on the particular set of considered features of the object. Missing values of the parameter are completely restored exploiting the typical periodicity of the rotational motion of an uncontrolled satellite: compressed sensing techniques, typically adopted for recovering images or for prognostic applications, are herein used in a completely original fashion for retrieving a kinematic signal that appears sparse in the frequency domain. Due to its invariance about the features, no assumptions are needed about the target's shape and continuity of the tracking. The obtained signal is useful for the indirect evaluation of an attitude signal that feeds an unscented Kalman filter for the estimation of

  5. Evaluation of glymphatic system activity with the diffusion MR technique: diffusion tensor image analysis along the perivascular space (DTI-ALPS) in Alzheimer's disease cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taoka, Toshiaki; Masutani, Yoshitaka; Kawai, Hisashi; Nakane, Toshiki; Matsuoka, Kiwamu; Yasuno, Fumihiko; Kishimoto, Toshifumi; Naganawa, Shinji

    2017-04-01

    The activity of the glymphatic system is impaired in animal models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We evaluated the activity of the human glymphatic system in cases of AD with a diffusion-based technique called diffusion tensor image analysis along the perivascular space (DTI-ALPS). Diffusion tensor images were acquired to calculate diffusivities in the x, y, and z axes of the plane of the lateral ventricle body in 31 patients. We evaluated the diffusivity along the perivascular spaces as well as projection fibers and association fibers separately, to acquire an index for diffusivity along the perivascular space (ALPS-index) and correlated them with the mini mental state examinations (MMSE) score. We found a significant negative correlation between diffusivity along the projection fibers and association fibers. We also observed a significant positive correlation between diffusivity along perivascular spaces shown as ALPS-index and the MMSE score, indicating lower water diffusivity along the perivascular space in relation to AD severity. Activity of the glymphatic system may be evaluated with diffusion images. Lower diffusivity along the perivascular space on DTI-APLS seems to reflect impairment of the glymphatic system. This method may be useful for evaluating the activity of the glymphatic system.

  6. A Study on the Relationship between Design Elements of Outdoor Leisure Spaces and Types of Leisure Activities in Sustainable Community Development - A Case Study on Tainan, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J. H.; Zhang, H.

    2018-01-01

    Sustainable community development encompasses three aspects: “Lifestyle”, “Production” and “Ecology”. Among them, “Lifestyle” is closest to people and reflects basic human needs. Creating outdoor spaces that encourage residents to engage in leisure activities will not only provide them with spiritual sustenance but also fulfil one of the key criteria in sustainable community development. This study explores the relationship between design elements of outdoor leisure spaces and types of leisure activities from residents' perspective with the goal to inform future spatial planning. The study collected 365 valid questionnaires from Tainan residents. Factor analysis was used to extract factors from design elements of outdoor leisure spaces, and regression analysis was applied to understand the effect level. The result shows design elements have positive effect on the types of leisure activities. In addition, different elements exert different influences on the choice of activities.

  7. Comparing forest measurements from tree rings and a space-based index of vegetation activity in Siberia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunn, Andrew G; Hughes, Malcolm K; Losleben, Mark; Kirdyanov, Alexander V; Shishov, Vladimir V; Vaganov, Eugene A; Berner, Logan T; Oltchev, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Different methods have been developed for measuring carbon stocks and fluxes in the northern high latitudes, ranging from intensively measured small plots to space-based methods that use reflectance data to drive production efficiency models. The field of dendroecology has used samples of tree growth from radial increments to quantify long-term variability in ecosystem productivity, but these have very limited spatial domains. Since the cambium material in tree cores is itself a product of photosynthesis in the canopy, it would be ideal to link these two approaches. We examine the associations between the normalized differenced vegetation index (NDVI) and tree growth using 19 pairs of tree-ring widths (TRW) and maximum latewood density (MXD) across much of Siberia. We find consistent correlations between NDVI and both measures of tree growth and no systematic difference between MXD and TRW. At the regional level we note strong correspondence between the first principal component of tree growth and NDVI for MXD and TRW in a temperature-limited bioregion, indicating that canopy reflectance and cambial production are broadly linked. Using a network of 21 TRW chronologies from south of Lake Baikal, we find a similarly strong regional correspondence with NDVI in a markedly drier region. We show that tree growth is dominated by variation at decadal and multidecadal time periods, which the satellite record is incapable of recording given its relatively short record. (letter)

  8. Global integration of the Schrödinger equation within the wave operator formalism: the role of the effective Hamiltonian in multidimensional active spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolicard, Georges; Viennot, David; Leclerc, Arnaud; Killingbeck, John P

    2016-01-01

    A global solution of the Schrödinger equation, obtained recently within the wave operator formalism for explicitly time-dependent Hamiltonians (Leclerc and Jolicard 2015 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 48 225205), is generalized to take into account the case of multidimensional active spaces. An iterative algorithm is derived to obtain the Fourier series of the evolution operator issuing from a given multidimensional active subspace and then the effective Hamiltonian corresponding to the model space is computed and analysed as a measure of the cyclic character of the dynamics. Studies of the laser controlled dynamics of diatomic models clearly show that a multidimensional active space is required if the wavefunction escapes too far from the initial subspace. A suitable choice of the multidimensional active space, including the initial and target states, increases the cyclic character and avoids divergences occuring when one-dimensional active spaces are used. The method is also proven to be efficient in describing dissipative processes such as photodissociation. (paper)

  9. A Skew-t space-varying regression model for the spectral analysis of resting state brain activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Salimah; Sun, Wenqi; Nathoo, Farouk S; Babul, Arif; Moiseev, Alexader; Beg, Mirza Faisal; Virji-Babul, Naznin

    2013-08-01

    It is known that in many neurological disorders such as Down syndrome, main brain rhythms shift their frequencies slightly, and characterizing the spatial distribution of these shifts is of interest. This article reports on the development of a Skew-t mixed model for the spatial analysis of resting state brain activity in healthy controls and individuals with Down syndrome. Time series of oscillatory brain activity are recorded using magnetoencephalography, and spectral summaries are examined at multiple sensor locations across the scalp. We focus on the mean frequency of the power spectral density, and use space-varying regression to examine associations with age, gender and Down syndrome across several scalp regions. Spatial smoothing priors are incorporated based on a multivariate Markov random field, and the markedly non-Gaussian nature of the spectral response variable is accommodated by the use of a Skew-t distribution. A range of models representing different assumptions on the association structure and response distribution are examined, and we conduct model selection using the deviance information criterion. (1) Our analysis suggests region-specific differences between healthy controls and individuals with Down syndrome, particularly in the left and right temporal regions, and produces smoothed maps indicating the scalp topography of the estimated differences.

  10. A cross-sectional study examining predictors of visit frequency to local green space and the impact this has on physical activity levels