WorldWideScience

Sample records for active solar water

  1. Parametric studies of an active solar water heating system with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    overall photovoltaic thermal efficiency will increase and also will save valuable space. ... sumption of RM95 per month for a medium cost house (Faridah 2003). ..... Hence, the use of solar water heater shall improve public awareness in.

  2. Feasibility of active solar water heating systems with evacuated tube collector at different operational water temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazarrón, Fernando R.; Porras-Prieto, Carlos Javier; García, José Luis; Benavente, Rosa María

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Analysis of the feasibility of an active solar water-heating system. • Profitability decreases as the required water temperature increases. • The number of collectors that maximizes profitability depends on the required temperature. • Investment in a properly sized system generates savings between 23% and 15%. • Fuel consumption can be reduced by 70%. - Abstract: With rapid advancements in society, higher water temperatures are needed in a number of applications. The demand for hot water presents a great variability with water required at different temperatures. In this study, the design, installation, and evaluation of a solar water heating system with evacuated tube collector and active circulation has been carried out. The main objective is to analyze how the required tank water temperature affects the useful energy that the system is capable of delivering, and consequently its profitability. The results show how the energy that is collected and delivered to the tank decreases with increasing the required temperature due to a lower performance of the collector and losses in the pipes. The annual system efficiency reaches average values of 66%, 64%, 61%, 56%, and 55% for required temperatures of 40 °C, 50 °C, 60 °C, 70 °C, and 80 °C. As a result, profitability decreases as temperature increases. The useful energy, and therefore the profitability, will decrease if the demand is not distributed throughout the day or focused on the end of the day. The system’s profitability was determined in two cases: considering maximum profitability of the system, assuming 100% utilization of useful energy (scenario 1); assuming a particular demand, considering that on many days all the useful energy the system can supply is not used (scenario 2). The analysis shows that through proper sizing of the system, optimizing the number of solar collectors, the investment in the solar system can be profitable with similar profitability values in the two

  3. Study of solar activity by measuring cosmic rays with a water Cherenkov detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahena Bias, Angelica; Villasenor, Luis

    2011-01-01

    We report on an indirect study of solar activity by using the Forbush effect which consists on the anti-correlation between the intensity of solar activity and the intensity of secondary cosmic radiation detected at ground level at the Earth. We have used a cylindrical water Cherenkov detector to measure the rate of arrival of secondary cosmic rays in Morelia Mich., Mexico, at 1950 m.a.s.l. We describe the analysis required to unfold the effect of atmospheric pressure and the search for Forbush decreases in our data, the latter correspond to more than one year of continuous data collection.

  4. Combined Active and Passive Solar Space Heating and Solar Hot Water Systems for an Elementary School in Boise, Idaho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smull, Neil A.; Armstrong, Gerald L.

    1979-01-01

    Amity Elementary School in Boise, Idaho, features a solar space heating and domestic hot water system along with an earth covering to accommodate the passive aspects of energy conservation. (Author/MLF)

  5. Solar Water Heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    As a Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) scientist Dr. Eldon Haines studied the solar energy source and solar water heating. He concluded he could build a superior solar water heating system using the geyser pumping principle. He resigned from JPL to develop his system and later form Sage Advance Corporation to market the technology. Haines' Copper Cricket residential system has no moving parts, is immune to freeze damage, needs no roof-mounted tanks, and features low maintenance. It provides 50-90 percent of average hot water requirements. A larger system, the Copper Dragon, has been developed for commercial installations.

  6. Solar Hot Water Heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The solar panels pictured below, mounted on a Moscow, Idaho home, are part of a domestic hot water heating system capable of providing up to 100 percent of home or small business hot water needs. Produced by Lennox Industries Inc., Marshalltown, Iowa, the panels are commercial versions of a collector co-developed by NASA. In an effort to conserve energy, NASA has installed solar collectors at a number of its own facilities and is conducting research to develop the most efficient systems. Lewis Research Center teamed with Honeywell Inc., Minneapolis, Minnesota to develop the flat plate collector shown. Key to the collector's efficiency is black chrome coating on the plate developed for use on spacecraft solar cells, the coating prevents sun heat from "reradiating," or escaping outward. The design proved the most effective heat absorber among 23 different types of collectors evaluated in a Lewis test program. The Lennox solar domestic hot water heating system has three main components: the array of collectors, a "solar module" (blue unit pictured) and a conventional water heater. A fluid-ethylene glycol and water-is circulated through the collectors to absorb solar heat. The fluid is then piped to a double-walled jacket around a water tank within the solar module.

  7. Solar water lifter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazarov, B A; Gonchar, V I; Maymerdangulyyev, G; Orekhova, N P; Ryabikov, S V; Strevkov, D S; Tereshin, V D; Yurin, Ye M

    1982-01-01

    A water lifter is described which contains a pump, whose piston is kinematically connected to the drive element made of material with thermal-mechanical memory of the shape in the hot state, and a solar heater.

  8. Exergy and economic analysis of a pyramid-shaped solar water purification system: Active and passive cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kianifar, Ali; Zeinali Heris, Saeed; Mahian, Omid

    2012-01-01

    An exergy analysis has been conducted to show the effect of a small fan on the exergy efficiency in a pyramid-shaped solar still. The tests were carried out in Mashhad (36° 36′ N), for two solar still systems. One of them was equipped with a small fan (active system), to enhance the evaporation rate while the other one was tested in passive condition (no fan). To examine the effects of radiation and water depth on exergy efficiency, experiments in two seasons and two different depths of water in the solar still basin were performed. The results show that during summer, active unit has higher exergy efficiency than passive one while in winter there is no considerable difference between the exergy efficiency of the units. Results also reveal that the exergy efficiency is higher when the water depth in the basin is lower. Finally, the economic analysis shows a considerable reduction in production cost of the water (8–9%) when the active system is used. -- Highlights: ► Using a small fan in the solar still; reduces the productive cost of fresh water up to 9%. ► Effects of the fan and basin depth on the exergy efficiency during summer and winter were examined. ► Utilizing an active system will increase the daily productivity of fresh water by 20%.

  9. Solar Water Heater Installation Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    A 48-page report describes water-heating system, installation (covering collector orientation, mounting, plumbing and wiring), operating instructions and maintenance procedures. Commercial solar-powered water heater system consists of a solar collector, solar-heated-water tank, electrically heated water tank and controls. Analysis of possible hazards from pressure, electricity, toxicity, flammability, gas, hot water and steam are also included.

  10. Residential solar hot water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-06-01

    This report examines the feasibility of using solar energy to preheat domestic water coming from the city supply at a temperature of approximately 4{degree}C. Four solar collectors totalling 7 m{sup 2} were installed on a support structure facing south at an angle of 60{degree} from the horizontal. The system worked most efficiently in the spring and early summer when the combination of long hours of sunshine, clean air and clear skies allowed for maximum availability of solar radiation. Performance dropped in late summer and fall mainly due to cloudier weather conditions. The average temperature in the storage tank over the 10 months of operation was 42{degree}C, ranging from a high of 83{degree}C in July to a low of 6{degree}C in November. The system provided a total of 7.1 GJ, which is approximately one-third the annual requirement for domestic hot water heating. At the present time domestic use of solar energy to heat water does not appear to be economically viable. High capital costs are the main problem. As a solar system with present day technology can only be expected to meet half to two-thirds of the hot water energy demand the savings are not sufficient for the system to pay for itself within a few years. 5 figs.

  11. Solar water lifter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khandurdyyev, A; Daykhanov, S; Itayev, K I; Kurbanov, N

    1982-01-01

    A water lifter is described which contains a diaphram pump with working cavity and inlet and outlet valves and solar energy collector filled with easily boiling fluid. In order to improve the degree of use of the solar energy and output, the water lifter additionally contains a bellows arranged in the working cavity of the pump and connected to it and the collector, and a cylinder made of magnetic-soft material with a magnetic valve arranged in it with a rod connected to the bellows, a seat for the valve on the upper end and contact plate interacting with the valve in its lower position.

  12. Influence of orbital forcing and solar activity on water isotopes in precipitation during the mid- and late Holocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dietrich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigate the impact of mid- and late Holocene orbital forcing and solar activity on variations of the oxygen isotopic composition in precipitation. The investigation is motivated by a recently published speleothem δ18O record from the well-monitored Bunker Cave in Germany. The record reveals some high variability on multi-centennial to millennial scales that does not linearly correspond to orbital forcing. Our model study is based on a set of novel climate simulations performed with the atmosphere general circulation model ECHAM5-wiso enhanced by explicit water isotope diagnostics. From the performed model experiments, we derive the following major results: (1 the response of both orbital and solar forcing lead to changes in surface temperatures and δ18O in precipitation with similar magnitudes during the mid- and late Holocene. (2 Past δ18O anomalies correspond to changing temperatures in the orbital driven simulations. This does not hold true if an additional solar forcing is added. (3 Two orbital driven mid-Holocene experiments, simulating the mean climate state approximately 5000 and 6000 yr ago, yield very similar results. However, if an identical additional solar activity-induced forcing is added, the simulated changes of surface temperatures as well as δ18O between both periods differ. We conclude from our simulation results that non-linear effects and feedbacks of the orbital and solar activity forcing substantially alter the δ18O in precipitation pattern and its relation to temperature change.

  13. Solar power water distillation unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hameed, Kamran; Khan, Muhammad Muzammil; Ateeq, Ijlal Shahrukh; Omair, Syed Muhammad; Ahmer, Muhammad; Wajid, Abdul

    2013-01-01

    Clean drinking water is the basic necessity for every human being, but about 1.1 billion people in the world lacked proper drinking water. There are many different types of water purification processes such as filtration, reverse osmosis, ultraviolet radiation, carbon absorption, but the most reliable processes are distillation and boiling. Water purification, such as distillation, is especially important in regions where water resources or tap water is not suitable for ingesting without boiling or chemical treatment. In design project It treats the water by combining different methods such as Filtration, Distillation and a technique called concentrated solar power (CSP). Distillation is literally the method seen in nature, whereby: the sun heats the water on the earth's surface, the water is turned into a vapor (evaporation) and rises, leaving contaminants behind, to form clouds. As the upper atmosphere drops in temperature the vapors cool and convert back to water to form water. In this project distillation is achieved by using a parabolic mirror which boils water at high temperature. Filtration is done by sand filter and carbon filter. First sand filter catches the sand particles and the carbon filter which has granules of active carbon is used to remove odor dissolved gases from water. This is the Pre-treatment of water. The filtered water is then collected in a water container at a focus of parabolic mirror where distillation process is done. Another important feature of designed project is the solar tracking of a parabolic mirror which increases the efficiency of a parabolic mirror [1],[2].

  14. Molded polymer solar water heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Richard C.; Lee, Brian E.

    2004-11-09

    A solar water heater has a rotationally-molded water box and a glazing subassembly disposed over the water box that enhances solar gain and provides an insulating air space between the outside environment and the water box. When used with a pressurized water system, an internal heat exchanger is integrally molded within the water box. Mounting and connection hardware is included to provide a rapid and secure method of installation.

  15. Solar water lifter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khandurdyyev, A; Daykhanov, S

    1982-01-01

    A water lifter is proposed which contains a piston pump, whose rod of the piston is connected to the drive element having periodic contact with the solar heater storage battery. In order to expand the range of operation and to simplify design, the drive element is made in the form of a hollow tube with closed ends equipped with mobile supports, and a ridged HE attached to its middle part, hydraulically connected to the cavity of the tube, and the latter is made of material which has the memory of the shape in the hot state.

  16. Solar water heaters in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, K.; Lee, T.; Chung, K.

    2006-01-01

    Solar water heater has been commercialized during the last two decades in Taiwan. The government initiated the incentive programs during 1986-1991 and 2000-2004. This created an economic incentive for the end-users. The total area of solar collectors installed was more than one million square meters. The data also show that most of the solar water heaters are mainly used by the domestic sector for hot water production (about 97%). The regional popularization analysis indicates limited installation of solar water heaters in the northern district. In the eastern district and remote islands, the problems of climatic conditions and availability of localized installers/dealers are addressed. (author)

  17. Sustainable Buildings. Using Active Solar Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, M. Keith [Univ. of Louisville, KY (United States); Barnett, Russell [Univ. of Louisville, KY (United States)

    2015-04-20

    The objective of this project is to promote awareness and knowledge of active solar energy technologies by installing and monitoring the following demonstration systems in Kentucky: 1) Pool heating system, Churchill Park School, 2) Water heating and daylighting systems, Middletown and Aiken Road Elementary Schools, 3) Photovoltaic street light comparison, Louisville Metro, 4) up to 25 domestic water heating systems across Kentucky. These tasks will be supported by outreach activities, including a solar energy installer training workshop and a Kentucky Solar Energy Conference.

  18. Physics of solar activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturrock, Peter A.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the research activity was to increase our understanding of solar activity through data analysis, theoretical analysis, and computer modeling. Because the research subjects were diverse and many researchers were supported by this grant, a select few key areas of research are described in detail. Areas of research include: (1) energy storage and force-free magnetic field; (2) energy release and particle acceleration; (3) radiation by nonthermal electrons; (4) coronal loops; (5) flare classification; (6) longitude distributions of flares; (7) periodicities detected in the solar activity; (8) coronal heating and related problems; and (9) plasma processes.

  19. Active solar information dissemination activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The principal objective of the project has been the development of an information dissemination strategy for the UK active solar heating industry. The project has also aimed to prepare the industry for the implementation of such a strategy and to produce initial information materials to support the early stages of the implementation process. (author)

  20. Solar based water treatment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.; Hyder, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    In developing countries, the quality of drinking water is so poor that reports of 80% diseases from water-related causes is no surprise (Tebbet, 90). Frequently, there are reports in press of outbreak of epidemics in cities due to the unhygienic drinking-water. The state of affairs in the rural areas can be well imagined, where majority of the people live with no piped water. This paper describes the solar-based methods of removing organic pollutants from waste-water (also called Advanced Oxidation Technologies) and solar desalination. Experimental results of a simple solar water-sterilization technique have been discussed, along with suggestions to enhance the performance of this technique. (author)

  1. Performance comparison between ethanol phase-change immersion and active water cooling for solar cells in high concentrating photovoltaic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yiping; Wen, Chen; Huang, Qunwu; Kang, Xue; Chen, Miao; Wang, Huilin

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal performances of ethanol phase-change immersion and active water cooling are compared. • Effects of operation parameters on ethanol phase-change immersion are studied. • Optimum filling ratio is 30% for ethanol phase-change immersion cooling system. • Exergy efficiency of ethanol phase-change immersion method increases by 57%. - Abstract: This paper presents an optimized ethanol phase-change immersion cooling method to obtain lower temperature of dense-array solar cells in high concentrating photovoltaic system. The thermal performances of this system were compared with a conventional active water cooling system with minichannels from the perspectives of start-up characteristic, temperature uniformity, thermal resistance and heat transfer coefficient. This paper also explored the influences of liquid filling ratio, absolute pressure and water flow rate on thermal performances. Dense-array LEDs were used to simulate heat power of solar cells worked under high concentration ratios. It can be observed that the optimal filling ratio was 30% in which the thermal resistance was 0.479 °C/W and the heat transfer coefficient was 9726.21 W/(m 2 ·°C). To quantify the quality of energy output of two cooling systems, exergy analysis are conducted and maximum exergy efficiencies were 17.70% and 11.27%, respectively. The experimental results represent an improvement towards thermal performances of ethanol phase-change immersion cooling system due to the reduction in contact thermal resistance. This study improves the operation control and applications for ethanol phase-change immersion cooling technology.

  2. Solar irridiance variations and solar activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willson, R.C.

    1982-01-01

    A mean value for the 1 AU total solar irradiance of 1368.2 W/m 2 and a downward trend of 0.05% per year were derived from measurements by the Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor (ACRIM) experiment on the Solar Maximum Mission during 1980. Distinct temporary solar irradiance decreases associated with solar activity maxima were observed with a series of nine dips from April to October recurring at fairly regular intervals averaging 24 days. The decreases correlate inversely with sunspot area, 2800-MHz flux, and Zurich sunspot number. Dominant periods common to the irradiance and sunspot area power spectra link the irradiance decreases to sunspot flux deficit in solar active regions. Evidence of significant total irradiance modulation by facular flux excess is cited. A persistent radiative cycle of active regions consistent with the ACRIM irradiance results and the morphology of solar active regions was found. The pattern of regularly recurrent active region maxima between April and October suggests an asymmetry in solar activity generation during this period

  3. Performances of solar water pumping station with solar tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buniatyan, V.V.; Vardanyan, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    For the solar water pumping stations ? solar tracking system with phototransistor is developed. On the basis of the experimental investigations the utility and efficiency of the PV water pumping station with solar tracker under different conditions of varying solar radiation in Armenia is shown

  4. Magnetohydrodynamic process in solar activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxiu Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetohydrodynamics is one of the major disciplines in solar physics. Vigorous magnetohydrodynamic process is taking place in the solar convection zone and atmosphere. It controls the generating and structuring of the solar magnetic fields, causes the accumulation of magnetic non-potential energy in the solar atmosphere and triggers the explosive magnetic energy release, manifested as violent solar flares and coronal mass ejections. Nowadays detailed observations in solar astrophysics from space and on the ground urge a great need for the studies of magnetohydrodynamics and plasma physics to achieve better understanding of the mechanism or mechanisms of solar activity. On the other hand, the spectacular solar activity always serves as a great laboratory of magnetohydrodynamics. In this article, we reviewed a few key unresolved problems in solar activity studies and discussed the relevant issues in solar magnetohydrodynamics.

  5. Solar water heater design package

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Package describes commercial domestic-hot-water heater with roof or rack mounted solar collectors. System is adjustable to pre-existing gas or electric hot-water house units. Design package includes drawings, description of automatic control logic, evaluation measurements, possible design variations, list of materials and installation tools, and trouble-shooting guide and manual.

  6. Space Station solar water heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horan, D. C.; Somers, Richard E.; Haynes, R. D.

    1990-01-01

    The feasibility of directly converting solar energy for crew water heating on the Space Station Freedom (SSF) and other human-tended missions such as a geosynchronous space station, lunar base, or Mars spacecraft was investigated. Computer codes were developed to model the systems, and a proof-of-concept thermal vacuum test was conducted to evaluate system performance in an environment simulating the SSF. The results indicate that a solar water heater is feasible. It could provide up to 100 percent of the design heating load without a significant configuration change to the SSF or other missions. The solar heater system requires only 15 percent of the electricity that an all-electric system on the SSF would require. This allows a reduction in the solar array or a surplus of electricity for onboard experiments.

  7. TiO2-SnS2 nanocomposites: solar-active photocatalytic materials for water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacic, Marin; Kusic, Hrvoje; Fanetti, Mattia; Stangar, Urska Lavrencic; Valant, Matjaz; Dionysiou, Dionysios D; Bozic, Ana Loncaric

    2017-08-01

    The study is aimed at evaluating TiO 2 -SnS 2 composites as effective solar-active photocatalysts for water treatment. Two strategies for the preparation of TiO 2 -SnS 2 composites were examined: (i) in-situ chemical synthesis followed by immobilization on glass plates and (ii) binding of two components (TiO 2 and SnS 2 ) within the immobilization step. The as-prepared TiO 2 -SnS 2 composites and their sole components (TiO 2 or SnS 2 ) were inspected for composition, crystallinity, and morphology using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX) analyses. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) was used to determine band gaps of immobilized TiO 2 -SnS 2 and to establish the changes in comparison to respective sole components. The activity of immobilized TiO 2 -SnS 2 composites was tested for the removal of diclofenac (DCF) in aqueous solution under simulated solar irradiation and compared with that of single component photocatalysts. In situ chemical synthesis yielded materials of high crystallinity, while their morphology and composition strongly depended on synthesis conditions applied. TiO 2 -SnS 2 composites exhibited higher activity toward DCF removal and conversion in comparison to their sole components at acidic pH, while only in situ synthesized TiO 2 -SnS 2 composites showed higher activity at neutral pH.

  8. Solar Water Splitting Using Semiconductor Photocatalyst Powders

    KAUST Repository

    Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Solar energy conversion is essential to address the gap between energy production and increasing demand. Large scale energy generation from solar energy can only be achieved through equally large scale collection of the solar spectrum. Overall water

  9. A High Rated Solar Water Distillation Unit for Solar Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Saxena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available India is presently focusing on complete utilization of solar energy and saving fossil fuels, which are limited. Various solar energy systems like solar cookers, solar water heaters, solar lanterns, solar PV lights, and solar lamps are continuously availing by the people of India at a low cost and on good subsidies. Apart from this, India is a solar energy promising country with a good number of solar homes (carrying solar energy systems in its various locations. The present paper focuses on a unique combination of solar dish cooker (SDC and solar water heater (SWH to produce distilled water with a high distillate and a high daily productivity. The procedure has been discussed on the basis of experimental testing to produce distilled water by combining an evacuated type SWH and a SDC. Experimentation has been carried out in MIT, Moradabad (longitude, 28.83°N, and latitude, 78.78°E by developing the same experimental setup on behalf of solar homes. The daily productivity of distilled water was found around 3.66 litres per day in full sunshine hours for an approximated pH value of 7.7 and a ppm value of 21. The payback period (PBP has been estimated around 1.16 years of the present system.

  10. Solar water lifter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seyitkurbanov, S; Kerimov, E

    1982-01-01

    A water lifter is described which contains a steam generator with easily boiling fluid and capacitor connected to the working chamber equipped with an elastic container and connected to the pumping chamber having a pressure pipeline. In order to improve efficiency, the capacitor is arranged on the pressure pipeline.

  11. Solar collector manufacturing activity, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Solar Collector Manufacturing Activity 1990 report prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) presents summary and detailed data provided by domestic manufacturers on shipments of solar thermal collectors and photovoltaic cells and modules. Summary data on solar thermal collector shipments are presented for the period 1974 through 1990. Summary data on photovoltaic cell and module shipments are presented for the period 1982 through 1990. Detailed information for solar thermal collectors and photovoltaic cells and modules are presented for 1990

  12. Annual DOE active solar heating and cooling contractors' review meeting. Premeeting proceedings and project summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1981-09-01

    Ninety-three project summaries are presented which discuss the following aspects of active solar heating and cooling: Rankine solar cooling systems; absorption solar cooling systems; desiccant solar cooling systems; solar heat pump systems; solar hot water systems; special projects (such as the National Solar Data Network, hybrid solar thermal/photovoltaic applications, and heat transfer and water migration in soils); administrative/management support; and solar collector, storage, controls, analysis, and materials technology. (LEW)

  13. Active solar distillation - A detailed review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampathkumar, K.; Pitchandi, P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tamilnadu College of Engineering, Coimbatore 641659, Tamilnadu (India); Arjunan, T.V. [Department of Automobile Engineering, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore 641004, Tamilnadu (India); Senthilkumar, P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, KSR College of Engineering, Tiruchengode 637215, Tamilnadu (India)

    2010-08-15

    All over the world, access to potable water to the people are narrowing down day by day. Most of the human diseases are due to polluted or non-purified water resources. Even today, under developed countries and developing countries face a huge water scarcity because of unplanned mechanism and pollution created by manmade activities. Water purification without affecting the ecosystem is the need of the hour. In this context, many conventional and non-conventional techniques have been developed for purification of saline water. Among these, solar distillation proves to be both economical and eco-friendly technique particularly in rural areas. Many active distillation systems have been developed to overcome the problem of lower distillate output in passive solar stills. This article provides a detailed review of different studies on active solar distillation system over the years. Thermal modelling was done for various types of active single slope solar distillation system. This review would also throw light on the scope for further research and recommendations in active solar distillation system. (author)

  14. Basics of Solar Heating & Hot Water Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Inst. of Architects, Washington, DC.

    In presenting the basics of solar heating and hot water systems, this publication is organized from the general to the specific. It begins by presenting functional and operational descriptions of solar heating and domestic hot water systems, outlining the basic concepts and terminology. This is followed by a description of solar energy utilization…

  15. Solar Water-Heater Design and Installation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlamert, P.; Kennard, J.; Ciriunas, J.

    1982-01-01

    Solar/Water heater system works as follows: Solar--heated air is pumped from collectors through rock bin from top to bottom. Air handler circulates heated air through an air-to-water heat exchanger, which transfers heat to incoming well water. In one application, it may reduce oil use by 40 percent.

  16. Smart solar tanks for small solar domestic hot water systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Andersen, Elsa; Knudsen, Søren

    2005-01-01

    Investigation of small SDHW systems based on smart solar tanks are presented. The domestic water in a smart solar tank can be heated both by solar collectors and by means of an auxiliary energy supply system. The auxiliary energy supply system – in this study electric heating elements – heats up...... systems, based on differently designed smart solar tanks and a traditional SDHW system were investigated by means of laboratory experiments and theoretical calculations. The investigations showed that the yearly thermal performance of SDHW systems with smart solar tanks is 5-35% higher than the thermal...... performance of traditional SDHW systems. Estimates indicate that the performance/cost ratio can be improved by up to 25% by using a smart solar tank instead of a traditional tank when the backup energy system is electric heating elements. Further, smart solar tanks are suitable for unknown, variable, large...

  17. Solar Water-Heater Design Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Information on a solar domestic-hot water heater is contained in 146 page design package. System consists of solar collector, storage tanks, automatic control circuitry and auxiliary heater. Data-acquisition equipment at sites monitors day-by-day performance. Includes performance specifications, schematics, solar-collector drawings and drawings of control parts.

  18. Solar action: solar hot water in The Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van de Water, Adrie

    2001-01-01

    This paper focuses on the use of solar hot water systems in the Netherlands, and reports on the Dutch Solar Domestic Hot Water System agreement signed in 1999 and set up to enhance the development of the market for solar domestic hot water (SDHW) systems and their application as a sustainable energy source. The Dutch Thermal Solar Energy Programme's objectives and goals, the subsidy schemes for thermal solar energy administered by Senter - an agency of the Ministry of Economic Affairs (MEA), and the project-based and individual approaches to boosting the sales of SDHW systems are examined. Large system sales, the targeting of consumers via a national campaign, and national publicity using the slogan 'Sustainable energy. Goes without saying' commissioned by the MEA are discussed along with the support shown by the Dutch power distribution companies for SDHW systems, marketing aspects, and the outlook for sales of SDHW systems

  19. Deciphering solar magnetic activity: on grand minima in solar activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIntosh, Scott W. [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Leamon, Robert J., E-mail: mscott@ucar.edu [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT (United States)

    2015-07-08

    The Sun provides the energy necessary to sustain our existence. While the Sun provides for us, it is also capable of taking away. The weather and climatic scales of solar evolution and the Sun-Earth connection are not well- understood. There has been tremendous progress in the century since the discovery of solar magnetism—magnetism that ultimately drives the electromagnetic, particulate, and eruptive forcing of our planetary system. There is contemporary evidence of a decrease in solar magnetism, perhaps even indicators of a significant downward trend, over recent decades. Are we entering a minimum in solar activity that is deeper and longer than a typical solar minimum, a “grand minimum”? How could we tell if we are? What is a grand minimum and how does the Sun recover? These are very pertinent questions for modern civilization. In this paper we present a hypothetical demonstration of entry and exit from grand minimum conditions based on a recent analysis of solar features over the past 20 years and their possible connection to the origins of the 11(&ish) year solar activity cycle.

  20. Deciphering Solar Magnetic Activity: On Grand Minima in Solar Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott William Mcintosh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Sun provides the energy necessary to sustain our existence. While the Sun provides for us, it is also capable of taking away. The weather and climatic scales of solar evolution and the Sun-Earth connection are not well understood. There has been tremendous progress in the century since the discovery of solar magnetism - magnetism that ultimately drives the electromagnetic, particulate and eruptive forcing of our planetary system. There is contemporary evidence of a decrease in solar magnetism, perhaps even indicators of a significant downward trend, over recent decades. Are we entering a minimum in solar activity that is deeper and longer than a typical solar minimum, a grand minimum? How could we tell if we are? What is a grand minimum and how does the Sun recover? These are very pertinent questions for modern civilization. In this paper we present a hypothetical demonstration of entry and exit from grand minimum conditions based on a recent analysis of solar features over the past 20 years and their possible connection to the origins of the 11(-ish year solar activity cycle.

  1. Deciphering Solar Magnetic Activity: On Grand Minima in Solar Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcintosh, Scott; Leamon, Robert

    2015-07-01

    The Sun provides the energy necessary to sustain our existence. While the Sun provides for us, it is also capable of taking away. The weather and climatic scales of solar evolution and the Sun-Earth connection are not well understood. There has been tremendous progress in the century since the discovery of solar magnetism - magnetism that ultimately drives the electromagnetic, particulate and eruptive forcing of our planetary system. There is contemporary evidence of a decrease in solar magnetism, perhaps even indicators of a significant downward trend, over recent decades. Are we entering a minimum in solar activity that is deeper and longer than a typical solar minimum, a "grand minimum"? How could we tell if we are? What is a grand minimum and how does the Sun recover? These are very pertinent questions for modern civilization. In this paper we present a hypothetical demonstration of entry and exit from grand minimum conditions based on a recent analysis of solar features over the past 20 years and their possible connection to the origins of the 11(-ish) year solar activity cycle.

  2. Heat exchanger for solar water heaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash, M.; Krupnick, A. C.

    1977-01-01

    Proposed efficient double-walled heat exchanger prevents contamination of domestic water supply lines and indicates leakage automatically in solar as well as nonsolar heat sources using water as heat transfer medium.

  3. Design data brochure: Solar hot water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    A design calculation is detailed for a single-family residence housing a family of four in a nonspecific geographical area. The solar water heater system is designed to provide 80 gallons of 140 F hot water per day.

  4. Solar Energy for Space Heating & Hot Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC. Div. of Solar Energy.

    This pamphlet reviews the direct transfer of solar energy into heat, particularly for the purpose of providing space and hot water heating needs. Owners of buildings and homes are provided with a basic understanding of solar heating and hot water systems: what they are, how they perform, the energy savings possible, and the cost factors involved.…

  5. OUT Success Stories: Solar Hot Water Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clyne, R.

    2000-01-01

    Solar hot water technology was made great strides in the past two decades. Every home, commercial building, and industrial facility requires hot water. DOE has helped to develop reliable and durable solar hot water systems. For industrial applications, the growth potential lies in large-scale systems, using flat-plate and trough-type collectors. Flat-plate collectors are commonly used in residential hot water systems and can be integrated into the architectural design of the building

  6. OUT Success Stories: Solar Hot Water Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clyne, R.

    2000-08-01

    Solar hot water technology was made great strides in the past two decades. Every home, commercial building, and industrial facility requires hot water. DOE has helped to develop reliable and durable solar hot water systems. For industrial applications, the growth potential lies in large-scale systems, using flat-plate and trough-type collectors. Flat-plate collectors are commonly used in residential hot water systems and can be integrated into the architectural design of the building.

  7. Outlook for solar water heaters in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Keh-Chin [Department of Aeronautical and Astronautical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Kueijen, Tainan, Taiwan 711 (China); Lee, Tsong-Sheng; Chung, Kung-Ming [Aerospace Science and Technology Research Center, National Cheng Kung University, Kueijen, Tainan, Taiwan 711 (China); Lin, Wei-Min [Tainan University of Technology (China)

    2008-01-15

    The share of indigenous energy supply continuously decreases over the last two decades in Taiwan. The development and use of renewable energy sources and technologies are becoming vital for the management of energy supply and demand. For promotion of solar water heaters, the incentive programs were firstly initiated in the period of 1986-1991 and re-initiated from 2000 to the present. These programs create an economic incentive for the end users and have a drastic effect on the popularization of solar water heaters. To further promote solar water heaters during the current incentive program period, several key factors are addressed. In addition to the cost of solar water heaters and energy price index, the potential market of solar water heaters in Taiwan is associated with the climatic conditions, population structure, urbanization, building type of housing and status of new construction. (author)

  8. Outlook for solar water heaters in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Keh-Chin; Lee, Tsong-Sheng; Chung, Kung-Ming; Lin, Wei-Min

    2008-01-01

    The share of indigenous energy supply continuously decreases over the last two decades in Taiwan. The development and use of renewable energy sources and technologies are becoming vital for the management of energy supply and demand. For promotion of solar water heaters, the incentive programs were firstly initiated in the period of 1986-1991 and re-initiated from 2000 to the present. These programs create an economic incentive for the end users and have a drastic effect on the popularization of solar water heaters. To further promote solar water heaters during the current incentive program period, several key factors are addressed. In addition to the cost of solar water heaters and energy price index, the potential market of solar water heaters in Taiwan is associated with the climatic conditions, population structure, urbanization, building type of housing and status of new construction. (author)

  9. Intracellular mechanisms of solar water disinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Alférez, María; Polo-López, María Inmaculada; Fernández-Ibáñez, Pilar

    2016-12-01

    Solar water disinfection (SODIS) is a zero-cost intervention measure to disinfect drinking water in areas of poor access to improved water sources, used by more than 6 million people in the world. The bactericidal action of solar radiation in water has been widely proven, nevertheless the causes for this remain still unclear. Scientific literature points out that generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) inside microorganisms promoted by solar light absorption is the main reason. For the first time, this work reports on the experimental measurement of accumulated intracellular ROS in E. coli during solar irradiation. For this experimental achievement, a modified protocol based on the fluorescent probe dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA), widely used for oxidative stress in eukaryotic cells, has been tested and validated for E. coli. Our results demonstrate that ROS and their accumulated oxidative damages at intracellular level are key in solar water disinfection.

  10. Collective solar hot water: best practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beutin, Philippe; Grouzard, Patrice; Coroller, Francoise

    2005-10-01

    This brochure, edited by ADEME, the French office for energy management and sustainable development, gives a collection of good practices concerning the selection and installation of collective solar water heating systems in France. A first note presents the Garantie de Resultats solaires (GRS - Guarantee of Solar Results), a kind of certification that gives a long term guarantee of the annual solar energy produced quantity as a function of the hot water consumption. An overview of the collective solar market is given, followed by informations on the financial incentives for feasibility studies and installations, the technical design and optimization of a collective solar project, its economic assessment, etc. Numerous examples of collective of solar heating operations in collective buildings are presented, in various regions of France, in the east (Alsace), the center (Auvergne, Ile de France (Paris region)), and the south (Languedoc-Roussillon, Midi-Pyrennes, PACA), giving technical data, financing, partnerships, etc

  11. BC SEA Solar Hot Water Acceleration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, N.C. [BC Sustainable Energy Association, Victoria, BC (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Although solar hot water heating is an environmentally responsible technology that reduces fossil fuel consumption and helps mitigate global climate change, there are many barriers to its widespread use. Each year, domestic water heating contributes nearly 6 million tonnes of carbon dioxide towards Canada's greenhouse gas emissions. The installation of solar water heaters can eliminate up to 2 tonnes of carbon dioxide emissions per household. The BC SEA Solar Hot Water Acceleration project was launched in an effort to demonstrate that the technology has the potential to be widely used in homes and businesses across British Columbia. One of the main barriers to the widespread use of solar hot water heating is the initial cost of the system. Lack of public awareness and understanding of the technology are other barriers. However, other jurisdictions around the world have demonstrated that the use of renewables are the product of conscious policy decisions, including low-cost financing and other subsidies that have created demand for these technologies. To this end, the BC SEA Solar Hot Water Acceleration project will test the potential for the rapid acceleration of solar water heating in pilot communities where barriers are removed. The objective of the project is to install 100 solar water systems in homes and 25 in businesses and institutions in communities in British Columbia by July 2007. The project will explore the financial barriers to the installation of solar hot water systems and produce an action plan to reduce these barriers. In addition to leading by example, the project will help the solar energy marketplace, mitigate climate change and improve energy efficiency.

  12. Water purification using solar radiation in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udounwa, A.E.; Osuji, R.U.

    2005-12-01

    In developing countries, lack of safe and reliable drinking water constitutes a major problem. Contaminated water is the major cause of most water borne diseases like diarrhoea. Disinfection of water is accomplished by a number of different physical - chemical treatments including boiling, application of chlorine and filtration techniques. Solar energy, which is universally available, can also be used effectively in this process, that is, to deactivate the micro-organisms present in this contaminated water thereby improving its microbiological quality. This treatment process is called solar water disinfection. This paper therefore appraises the extent to which research work has been done as regards purification of water using solar radiation in Nigeria vis-a-vis outside the country. It is hoped that it will serve as a wake-up-call for Nigerians especially those in remote areas with no treated pipe borne water supply. The problems and prospects of this technology as well as the policy implications are presented. (author)

  13. Tantalum-based semiconductors for solar water splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Jijie; Gong, Jinlong

    2014-07-07

    Solar energy utilization is one of the most promising solutions for the energy crises. Among all the possible means to make use of solar energy, solar water splitting is remarkable since it can accomplish the conversion of solar energy into chemical energy. The produced hydrogen is clean and sustainable which could be used in various areas. For the past decades, numerous efforts have been put into this research area with many important achievements. Improving the overall efficiency and stability of semiconductor photocatalysts are the research focuses for the solar water splitting. Tantalum-based semiconductors, including tantalum oxide, tantalate and tantalum (oxy)nitride, are among the most important photocatalysts. Tantalum oxide has the band gap energy that is suitable for the overall solar water splitting. The more negative conduction band minimum of tantalum oxide provides photogenerated electrons with higher potential for the hydrogen generation reaction. Tantalates, with tunable compositions, show high activities owning to their layered perovskite structure. (Oxy)nitrides, especially TaON and Ta3N5, have small band gaps to respond to visible-light, whereas they can still realize overall solar water splitting with the proper positions of conduction band minimum and valence band maximum. This review describes recent progress regarding the improvement of photocatalytic activities of tantalum-based semiconductors. Basic concepts and principles of solar water splitting will be discussed in the introduction section, followed by the three main categories regarding to the different types of tantalum-based semiconductors. In each category, synthetic methodologies, influencing factors on the photocatalytic activities, strategies to enhance the efficiencies of photocatalysts and morphology control of tantalum-based materials will be discussed in detail. Future directions to further explore the research area of tantalum-based semiconductors for solar water splitting

  14. Performance test for a solar water heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Two reports describe procedures and results of performance tests on domestic solar powered hot water system. Performance tests determine amount of energy collected by system, amount of energy delivered to solar source, power required to operate system and maintain proper tank temperature, overall system efficiency, and temperature distribution in tank.

  15. Prototype solar heating and hot water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Progress is reported in the development of a solar heating and hot water system which uses a pyramidal optics solar concentrator for heating, and consists of the following subsystems: collector, control, transport, and site data acquisition. Improvements made in the components and subsystems are discussed.

  16. Solar active region display system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golightly, M.; Raben, V.; Weyland, M.

    2003-04-01

    The Solar Active Region Display System (SARDS) is a client-server application that automatically collects a wide range of solar data and displays it in a format easy for users to assimilate and interpret. Users can rapidly identify active regions of interest or concern from color-coded indicators that visually summarize each region's size, magnetic configuration, recent growth history, and recent flare and CME production. The active region information can be overlaid onto solar maps, multiple solar images, and solar difference images in orthographic, Mercator or cylindrical equidistant projections. Near real-time graphs display the GOES soft and hard x-ray flux, flare events, and daily F10.7 value as a function of time; color-coded indicators show current trends in soft x-ray flux, flare temperature, daily F10.7 flux, and x-ray flare occurrence. Through a separate window up to 4 real-time or static graphs can simultaneously display values of KP, AP, daily F10.7 flux, GOES soft and hard x-ray flux, GOES >10 and >100 MeV proton flux, and Thule neutron monitor count rate. Climatologic displays use color-valued cells to show F10.7 and AP values as a function of Carrington/Bartel's rotation sequences - this format allows users to detect recurrent patterns in solar and geomagnetic activity as well as variations in activity levels over multiple solar cycles. Users can customize many of the display and graph features; all displays can be printed or copied to the system's clipboard for "pasting" into other applications. The system obtains and stores space weather data and images from sources such as the NOAA Space Environment Center, NOAA National Geophysical Data Center, the joint ESA/NASA SOHO spacecraft, and the Kitt Peak National Solar Observatory, and can be extended to include other data series and image sources. Data and images retrieved from the system's database are converted to XML and transported from a central server using HTTP and SOAP protocols, allowing

  17. Study of non-domestic applications for active solar heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stammers, J.R.

    1997-11-01

    The UK Department of Trade and Industry (through ETSU) commissioned this study as part of its active solar programme. It was carried out from October 1996 to June 1997. The objective was to assess the potential for the use of active solar heating in non-domestic applications. The study was carried out by searching the literature, carrying out case studies and interviewing members of the solar industry and experts in other fields. There are currently about 45-50 active solar non-domestic schemes in operation in the UK, mostly for heating tap water in buildings of different types. The biggest potential for future non-domestic sales also lies in solar water heating for buildings. Most of the opportunities seem to be in the following building types: ablutions blocks in caravan and holiday camps, sheltered flats and hostels, nursing homes, office buildings, hotels and guest houses, and schools occupied during the summer. There are some other building types which might present niche markets for solar water heating. The market for active solar systems in space heating and cooling appears to be negligible. There is one other market for active solar heating in the non-domestic building sector. This is for warming water used to maintain stand-by generators at a temperature which allows them to kick in without delay in the event of a mains power failure. The main market is in buildings housing computers which control the provision of vital services, e.g. electricity, water and gas. (author)

  18. Active solar heating industry development study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Despite the fact that solar water heating systems are technologically viable and commercially available, this Energy Technology Support Unit report shows that there is no established market in the United Kingdom. The Solar Trade Association (STA) has undertaken an Active Solar Heating Industry Development Study which is reported here. The data is derived from a questionnaire survey completed by companies, organizations and individuals operating within the industry. Information was also gathered from utility companies, and STAs elsewhere in Europe. Barriers which need to be overcome include lack of public awareness, especially in the construction industry, lack of capital investment and other financial disincentives, little or no government support, and lack of organization and quality monitoring and assurance within the industry itself. (UK)

  19. Basic principles of solar water heating

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Page-Shipp, RJ

    1980-09-10

    Full Text Available This article correctly reflects the principles of Solar Water Heating as they pertain to South African conditions. However, it was written in 1980 and the global energy situation has changed considerably. Furthermore, modern commercial units...

  20. Enhancement of Solar Water Pasteurization with Reflectors

    OpenAIRE

    Safapour, Negar; Metcalf, Robert H.

    1999-01-01

    A simple and reliable method that could be used in developing countries to pasteurize milk and water with solar energy is described. A cardboard reflector directs sunshine onto a black jar, heating water to pasteurizing temperatures in several hours. A reusable water pasteurization indicator verifies that pasteurization temperatures have been reached.

  1. Enhancement of solar water pasteurization with reflectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safapour, N; Metcalf, R H

    1999-02-01

    A simple and reliable method that could be used in developing countries to pasteurize milk and water with solar energy is described. A cardboard reflector directs sunshine onto a black jar, heating water to pasteurizing temperatures in several hours. A reusable water pasteurization indicator verifies that pasteurization temperatures have been reached.

  2. Enhancement of Solar Water Pasteurization with Reflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safapour, Negar; Metcalf, Robert H.

    1999-01-01

    A simple and reliable method that could be used in developing countries to pasteurize milk and water with solar energy is described. A cardboard reflector directs sunshine onto a black jar, heating water to pasteurizing temperatures in several hours. A reusable water pasteurization indicator verifies that pasteurization temperatures have been reached. PMID:9925631

  3. Integrated solar water-heater and solar water cooler performance during winter time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, N.U.; Siddiqui, M.A

    2012-01-01

    Solar powered water heater and water cooler is an important contribution for the reduction of fossil fuel consumptions and harmful emissions to the environment. This study aims to harness the available solar potential of Pakistan and provide an option fulfilling the domestic hot and cold water demands during winter and summer seasons respectively. The system was designed for the tap-water temperature of 65 degree C (149 degree F) and the chilled drinking-water temperature of 14 degree C (57 degree F) that are the recommended temperatures by World Health Organization (WHO). The solar water heater serves one of the facilities of the Department of Mechanical Engineering at NED University of Engineering and Technology whereas, the solar water cooler will provide drinking water to approximately 50 people including both faculty and students. A pair of single glazed flat plate solar collector was installed to convert solar radiations to heat. Hot water storage and supply system was carefully designed and fabricated to obtain the designed tap-water temperature. Vapour-absorption refrigeration system was designed to chill drinking water. Intensity of solar radiations falling on the solar collector, water temperatures at the inlet and outlet of the solar collectors and the tap water temperature were measured and analyzed at different hours of the day and at different days of the month. The results show that the installed solar collector system has potential to feed hot water of temperatures ranging from 65 degree C (149 degree F) to 70 Degree C (158 degree F), that is the required hot water temperature to operate a vapour absorption chilled water production system. (author)

  4. Monitoring of the solar activity and solar energetic particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akioka, Maki; Kubo, Yuki; Nagatsuma, Tsutomu; Ohtaka, Kazuhiro

    2009-01-01

    Solar activity is the source of various space weather phenomena in geospace and deep space. Solar X-ray radiation in flare, energetic particles, coronal mass ejection (CME) can cause various kind of disturbance near earth space. Therefore, detailed monitoring of the solar activity and its propagation in the interplanetary space is essential task for space weather. For example, solar energetic particle which sometimes affect spacecraft operation and manned space flight, is considered to be produced by solar flares and travelling shockwave caused by flares and CME. The research and development of monitoring technique and system for various solar activity has been an important topic of space weather forecast program in NICT. In this article, we will introduce the real time data acquisitions of STEREO and optical and radio observations of the Sun at Hiraiso Solar Observatory. (author)

  5. Solar photocatalytic cleaning of polluted water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bockelmann, D.

    1994-01-01

    Alternatively to biological, physical and chemical methods of waste water cleaning, photocatalysis can be employed. In this residue-free method, titanium dioxide particles are brought into contact with polluted water as photocatalysts. Under UV irradiation at wave-lengths below 400 nm, change carriers are generated in the semiconductor particles that act so intensely oxidizing as to completely degrade almost all organic pollutants in waste water. In this process, the ultra-violet part of the solar spectrum can be harnessed to generate oxidation equivalents. Thus, solar photocatalytic waste water cleaning is excellently suited for developing countries. (BWI) [de

  6. Solar Water Heater Systems for Building Trades Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Milton; And Others

    This teaching unit serves as a guide for the installation of active solar water heating systems. It contains a project designed for use with secondary level students of a building trades class. Students typically would meet 2 to 3 hours per day and would be able to complete the activity within a 1-week time period. Objectives of this unit include:…

  7. Geophysical and solar activity indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossy, L.; Lemaire, J.

    1984-04-01

    A large number of geophysicists try to correlate their observations with one or even a series of different geophysical or solar activity indices. Yet the right choice of the most appropriate index with which to correlate depends mainly on our understanding of the physical cause-effect relationship between the new set of observations and the index chosen. This best choice will therefore depend on our good understanding of the methods of measurement and derivation of the adopted index in such correlative studies. It relies also on our awareness of the range of applicability of the indices presently available as well as on our understanding of their limitations. It was to achieve these goals that a series of general lectures on geophysical and solar activity indices was organized by L. Bossy and J. Lemaire (Institut d'Aeronomie Spatiale de Belgique (IASB), Brussels), March 26-29, 1984 at Han-sur-Lesse, Belgium.

  8. Solar Water Heating System for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syaifurrahman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, electricity become very expensive thing in some remote areas. Energy from solar panels give the solution as renewable energy that is environment friendly. West Borneo is located on the equator where the sun shines for almost 10-15 hours/day. Solar water heating system which is includes storage tank and solar collections becomes a cost-effective way to generate the energy. Solar panel heat water is delivered to water in storage tank. Hot water is used as hot fluid in biodiesel jacked reactor. The purposes of this research are to design Solar Water Heating System for Biodiesel Production and measure the rate of heat-transfer water in storage tank. This test has done for 6 days, every day from 8.30 am until 2.30 pm. Storage tank and collection are made from stainless steel and polystyrene a well-insulated. The results show that the heater can be reach at 50ºC for ±2.5 hours and the maximum temperature is 62ºC where the average of light intensity is 1280 lux.

  9. Solar Water Heating System for Biodiesel Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syaifurrahman; Usman, A. Gani; Rinjani, Rakasiwi

    2018-02-01

    Nowadays, electricity become very expensive thing in some remote areas. Energy from solar panels give the solution as renewable energy that is environment friendly. West Borneo is located on the equator where the sun shines for almost 10-15 hours/day. Solar water heating system which is includes storage tank and solar collections becomes a cost-effective way to generate the energy. Solar panel heat water is delivered to water in storage tank. Hot water is used as hot fluid in biodiesel jacked reactor. The purposes of this research are to design Solar Water Heating System for Biodiesel Production and measure the rate of heat-transfer water in storage tank. This test has done for 6 days, every day from 8.30 am until 2.30 pm. Storage tank and collection are made from stainless steel and polystyrene a well-insulated. The results show that the heater can be reach at 50ºC for ±2.5 hours and the maximum temperature is 62ºC where the average of light intensity is 1280 lux.

  10. Solar photovoltaic power for water desalination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, J. R.; Crutcher, J. L.; Norbedo, A. J.; Cummings, A. B.

    1980-07-01

    There is a considerable global need for systems which can meet the drinking water requirements of small communities (7000 people or less) from brackish water or from seawater. Solar photovoltaic panels are an ideal source of power for the purpose, primarily because they produce electricity, which can be used to power a membrane type desalting unit, i.e., either a reverse osmosis plant or an electrodialysis unit. In addition, electricity is most convenient for feedwater pumping. This paper addresses considerations which arise in the design and construction of a complete solar powered water desalination system which requires no supply of fuel nor any form of backup power (grid connection or engine generator).

  11. Potential for solar water heating in Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batidzirai, B.; Lysen, E.H.; van Egmond, S.; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the economic, social and environmental benefits from using solar water heating (SWH) in Zimbabwe. By comparing different water heating technology usage in three sectors over a 25-year period, the potential of SWH is demonstrated in alleviating energy and economic problems that

  12. Solar Water Splitting Using Semiconductor Photocatalyst Powders

    KAUST Repository

    Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2015-07-01

    Solar energy conversion is essential to address the gap between energy production and increasing demand. Large scale energy generation from solar energy can only be achieved through equally large scale collection of the solar spectrum. Overall water splitting using heterogeneous photocatalysts with a single semiconductor enables the direct generation of H from photoreactors and is one of the most economical technologies for large-scale production of solar fuels. Efficient photocatalyst materials are essential to make this process feasible for future technologies. To achieve efficient photocatalysis for overall water splitting, all of the parameters involved at different time scales should be improved because the overall efficiency is obtained by the multiplication of all these fundamental efficiencies. Accumulation of knowledge ranging from solid-state physics to electrochemistry and a multidisciplinary approach to conduct various measurements are inevitable to be able to understand photocatalysis fully and to improve its efficiency.

  13. Solar photovoltaic water pumping for remote locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meah, Kala; Fletcher, Steven; Ula, Sadrul

    2008-01-01

    Many parts of the world as well as the western US are rural in nature and consequently do not have electrical distribution lines in many parts of villages, farms, and ranches. Distribution line extension costs can run from USD 10,000 to USD 16,000/km, thereby making availability of electricity to small water pumping projects economically unattractive. But, ground water and sunlight are available, which make solar photovoltaic (SPV) powered water pumping more cost effective in these areas' small scale applications. Many western states including Wyoming are passing through the sixth year of drought with the consequent shortages of water for many applications. The Wyoming State Climatologist is predicting a possible 5-10 years of drought. Drought impacts the surface water right away, while it takes much longer to impact the underground aquifers. To mitigate the effect on the livestock and wildlife, Wyoming Governor Dave Freudenthal initiated a solar water pumping initiative in cooperation with the University of Wyoming, County Conservation Districts, Rural Electric Cooperatives, and ranching organizations. Solar water pumping has several advantages over traditional systems; for example, diesel or propane engines require not only expensive fuels, they also create noise and air pollution in many remote pristine areas. Solar systems are environment friendly, low maintenance, and have no fuel cost. In this paper the design, installation, site selection, and performance monitoring of the solar system for small-scale remote water pumping will be presented. This paper also presents technical, environmental, and economic benefits of the SPV water pumping system compared to stand alone generator and electric utility. (author)

  14. Research programme 'Active Solar Energy Use - Solar Heating and Heat Storage'. Activities and projects 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadorn, J.-C.; Renaud, P.

    2003-01-01

    In this report by the research, development and demonstration (RD+D) programme coordinators the objectives, activities and main results in the area of solar heating and heat storage in Switzerland are presented for 2003. In a stagnating market environment the strategy of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy mainly consists in improving the quality and durability of solar collectors and materials, optimizing combisystems for space heating and domestic hot water preparation, searching for storage systems with a higher energy storage density than in the case of sensible heat storage in water, developing coloured solar collectors for more architectonic freedom, and finalizing a seasonal heat storage project for 100 dwellings to demonstrate the feasibility of solar fractions larger than 50% in apartment houses. Support was granted to the Swiss Testing Facility SPF in Rapperswil as in previous years; SPF was the first European testing institute to perform solar collector labeling according to the new rules of the 'Solar Keymark', introduced in cooperation with the European Committee for Standardization CEN. Several 2003 projects were conducted within the framework of the Solar Heating and Cooling Programme of the International Energy Agency IEA. Computerized simulation tools were improved. With the aim of jointly producing high-temperature heat and electric power a solar installation including a concentrating collector and a thermodynamic machine based on a Rankine cycle is still being developed. Seasonal underground heat storage was studied in detail by means of a validated computer simulation programme. Design guidelines were obtained for such a storage used in the summer time for cooling and in the winter time for space heating via a heat pump: depending on the ratio 'summer cooling / winter heating', cooling requires a cooling machine, or direct cooling without such a machine is possible. The report ends up with the list of all supported RD+D projects

  15. Solar system for domestic hot water and space heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, W. [Arbeitsgemeinschaf Erneubare Energie, Gleisdorf (Austria)

    1997-12-31

    The solar thermal markets, different types of solar systems for hot water and space heating, the dimensioning and the components of solar heating systems, the properties of the systems are reviewed in this presentation

  16. Solar system for domestic hot water and space heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, W [Arbeitsgemeinschaf Erneubare Energie, Gleisdorf (Austria)

    1998-12-31

    The solar thermal markets, different types of solar systems for hot water and space heating, the dimensioning and the components of solar heating systems, the properties of the systems are reviewed in this presentation

  17. Water jacket for solid particle solar receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasyluk, David T.

    2018-03-20

    A solar receiver includes: water jacket panels each having a light-receiving side and a back side with a watertight sealed plenum defined in-between; light apertures passing through the watertight sealed plenums to receive light from the light-receiving sides of the water jacket panels; a heat transfer medium gap defined between the back sides of the water jacket panels and a cylindrical back plate; and light channeling tubes optically coupled with the light apertures and extending into the heat transfer medium gap. In some embodiments ends of the light apertures at the light receiving side of the water jacket panel are welded together to define at least a portion of the light-receiving side. A cylindrical solar receiver may be constructed using a plurality of such water jacket panels arranged with their light-receiving sides facing outward.

  18. Cyprus solar water heating cluster: A missed opportunity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxoulis, Christos N.; Charalampous, Harris P.; Kalogirou, Soteris A.

    2007-01-01

    Cyprus is often called the 'sun island' because of the amount of sunshine received all year round. The abundance of solar radiation together with a good technological base has created favourable conditions for the exploitation of solar energy on the island. This led to the development of a pioneering solar collector industry in Cyprus, which in the mid-1980s was flourishing. The result was an outstanding figure of installed solar collector area per inhabitant. Nowadays, Cyprus is cited as the country with the highest solar collector area installed per inhabitant, worldwide. This means that the local market for solar thermal collectors (for domestic applications) is now rather saturated. It was only rational to assume that Cypriot firms equipped with their gained expertise and leading edge would have safeguarded a sustainable growth and have an international orientation, focusing on exports in an emerging European and eastern Mediterranean thermal solar market. Unfortunately, this is not the case today. This paper reviews the economic performance and the competitiveness of Cyprus and the evolution of the solar water heating (SWH) industry using the cluster theory of Michael Porter. Its aim is to give insight and explanations for the success of the sector domestically, its failure with regards to exporting activity, pinpoint the industry in the European map and finally give recommendations for the cross the boarders commercial success of the industry

  19. The role of solar ultraviolet radiation in 'natural' water purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calkins, J.; Buckles, J.D.; Moeller, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    The concentration of Eschericia coli in the input and output of a tertiary wastewater system (4 lagoons) has been monitored over an 11 month period. The integrated flux of biologically active solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation was measured during this period. By also determining (1) the effective temperature in the system, (2) the growth rate of E.coli at the effective temperature, (3) the penetration of the solar UV into the lagoons, (4) the dose-response relation for killing of E.coli by UV and (5) the retention time of water in the system, it is possible to compare the 'die off' expected from solar UV exposure to the actual 'die off' observed for different batches of water. The observed killing of E.coli was quite close to the values calculated, considering the numerous factors involved. Solar UV light would thus seem to be a very important factor in the natural purification of water. Because each successful species must possess characteristics (physiological or behavioral) which provide adequate resistance to solar UV, the ecological role of solar UV radiation has not been widely appreciated. (author)

  20. Role of solar ultraviolet radiation in 'natural' water purification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calkins, J; Buckles, J D; Moeller, J R [Kentucky Univ., Lexington (USA)

    1976-07-01

    The concentration of Eschericia coli in the input and output of a tertiary wastewater system (4 lagoons) has been monitored over an 11 month period. The integrated flux of biologically active solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation was measured during this period. By also determining (1) the effective temperature in the system, (2) the growth rate of E.coli at the effective temperature, (3) the penetration of the solar UV into the lagoons, (4) the dose-response relation for killing of E.coli by UV and (5) the retention time of water in the system, it is possible to compare the 'die off' expected from solar UV exposure to the actual 'die off' observed for different batches of water. The observed killing of E.coli was quite close to the values calculated, considering the numerous factors involved. Solar UV light would thus seem to be a very important factor in the natural purification of water. Because each successful species must possess characteristics (physiological or behavioral) which provide adequate resistance to solar UV, the ecological role of solar UV radiation has not been widely appreciated.

  1. Deciphering Solar Magnetic Activity: Spotting Solar Cycle 25

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIntosh, Scott W. [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Leamon, Robert J., E-mail: mscott@ucar.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2017-06-26

    We present observational signatures of solar cycle 25 onset. Those signatures are visibly following a migratory path from high to low latitudes. They had starting points that are asymmetrically offset in each hemisphere at times that are 21–22 years after the corresponding, same polarity, activity bands of solar cycle 23 started their migration. Those bands define the so-called “extended solar cycle.” The four magnetic bands currently present in the system are approaching a mutually cancelling configuration, and solar minimum conditions are imminent. Further, using a tuned analysis of the daily band latitude-time diagnostics, we are able to utilize the longitudinal wave number (m = 1) variation in the data to more clearly reveal the presence of the solar cycle 25 bands. This clarification illustrates that prevalently active longitudes (different in each hemisphere) exist at mid-latitudes presently, lasting many solar rotations, that can be used for detailed study over the next several years with instruments like the Spectrograph on IRIS, the Spectropolarimeter on Hinode, and, when they come online, similar instruments on the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST) as we watch those bands evolve following the cancellation of the solar cycle 24 activity bands at the equator late in 2019.

  2. Preheating of tap water with solar collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granum, H; Raaen, H

    1992-05-05

    In 1991 SINTEF Architecture and Building Technology won the second prize in 'The Nordic Competition for Low Energy Buildings' with a project proposal named 'LOWe'. The paper gives a description of the energy-saving features of this project, particularly the use of a solar collector for preheating of tap water. Compared with the economic profitability of other saving efforts in the project, such as good thermal insulation and efficient heat recovering system, the system for solar preheating of tap water does not seem very attractive for the time being. Loose estimates indicate a cost of close of NOK 1.00 per kWh for the produced energy in the solar collector, while the present price for electricity in Norway is about NOK 0.50 per kWh. Compared with a heat pump solution however the energy cost is not unreasonable.

  3. Preheating Water In The Covers Of Solar Water Heaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Pradeep

    1995-01-01

    Solar water heaters that include glass covers over absorber plates redesigned to increase efficiencies according to proposal. Redesign includes modification of single-layer glass cover into double-layer glass cover and addition of plumbing so cool water to be heated made to flow between layers of cover before entering absorber plate.

  4. Solar water heater for NASA's Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, Richard E.; Haynes, R. Daniel

    1988-01-01

    The feasibility of using a solar water heater for NASA's Space Station is investigated using computer codes developed to model the Space Station configuration, orbit, and heating systems. Numerous orbit variations, system options, and geometries for the collector were analyzed. Results show that a solar water heater, which would provide 100 percent of the design heating load and would not impose a significant impact on the Space Station overall design is feasible. A heat pipe or pumped fluid radial plate collector of about 10-sq m, placed on top of the habitat module was found to be well suited for satisfying water demand of the Space Station. Due to the relatively small area required by a radial plate, a concentrator is unnecessary. The system would use only 7 to 10 percent as much electricity as an electric water-heating system.

  5. Energy Primer: Solar, Water, Wind, and Biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portola Inst., Inc., Menlo Park, CA.

    This is a comprehensive, fairly technical book about renewable forms of energy--solar, water, wind, and biofuels. The biofuels section covers biomass energy, agriculture, aquaculture, alcohol, methane, and wood. The focus is on small-scale systems which can be applied to the needs of the individual, small group, or community. More than one-fourth…

  6. Solar water heating in the hotel industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbanek, A

    1981-01-01

    There is an increasing number of hotels, pensions, guest-houses and boarding-houses whose owners attempt to lower their energy cost - especially for water heating in summer - by installing solar systems. The article presents some examples of buildings in West Germany.

  7. Solar Hot Water Heating by Natural Convection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Richard D.

    1983-01-01

    Presents an undergraduate laboratory experiment in which a solar collector is used to heat water for domestic use. The working fluid is moved by natural convection so no pumps are required. Experimental apparatus is simple in design and operation so that data can be collected quickly and easily. (Author/JN)

  8. SOLAR/VISIBLE LIGHT-ACTIVATED TIO2 PHOTOCATALYST FOR THE DEGRADATION OF CONTAMINANTS OF EMERGING CONCERN IN WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many kinds of water contaminants, including pesticides, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), and naturally occurring toxins (e.g., cyanotoxins) have been found in the environment [1-3]. Due to their adverse effects (toxicity, endocrine disruption, growth problems, ...

  9. Obtaining drinking water using solar electrodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro César Silveira Jucá

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the main worldwide experiments in PV powered electrodialysis plants and analyses possible applications of such systems in the Brazilian Northeast region. The use of PV arrays to power electrodialysis plants for desalination of brackish water from deep wells makes sense in arid and semiarid regions. In such areas there is often an inadequate water and energy supply infrastructure along with favorable levels of solar radiation for electric generation, as is the case of the Brazilian Northeast region.

  10. The origin of inner Solar System water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Conel M O'D

    2017-05-28

    Of the potential volatile sources for the terrestrial planets, the CI and CM carbonaceous chondrites are closest to the planets' bulk H and N isotopic compositions. For the Earth, the addition of approximately 2-4 wt% of CI/CM material to a volatile-depleted proto-Earth can explain the abundances of many of the most volatile elements, although some solar-like material is also required. Two dynamical models of terrestrial planet formation predict that the carbonaceous chondrites formed either in the asteroid belt ('classical' model) or in the outer Solar System (5-15 AU in the Grand Tack model). To test these models, at present the H isotopes of water are the most promising indicators of formation location because they should have become increasingly D-rich with distance from the Sun. The estimated initial H isotopic compositions of water accreted by the CI, CM, CR and Tagish Lake carbonaceous chondrites were much more D-poor than measured outer Solar System objects. A similar pattern is seen for N isotopes. The D-poor compositions reflect incomplete re-equilibration with H 2 in the inner Solar System, which is also consistent with the O isotopes of chondritic water. On balance, it seems that the carbonaceous chondrites and their water did not form very far out in the disc, almost certainly not beyond the orbit of Saturn when its moons formed (approx. 3-7 AU in the Grand Tack model) and possibly close to where they are found today.This article is part of the themed issue 'The origin, history and role of water in the evolution of the inner Solar System'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  11. Solar Water Heating with Low-Cost Plastic Systems (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-01-01

    Newly developed solar water heating technology can help Federal agencies cost effectively meet the EISA requirements for solar water heating in new construction and major renovations. This document provides design considerations, application, economics, and maintenance information and resources.

  12. Entrance Effects in Solar Hot Water Stores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Louise Jivan; Furbo, Simon

    2003-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental analysis of water jets entering a solar storage tank is performed. CFD calculations of three inlet designs with different inlet flow rates were carried out to illustrate the varying behaviour of the thermal conditions in a solar store. The results showed the impact ...... in an analysis using the first and second law of thermodynamics. The results showed how the entropy changes and the exergy changes in the storage during the draw-offs influenced by the Richardson number, the volume draw-off and the initial tank conditions....

  13. Large Bandgap Semiconductors for Solar Water Splitting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malizia, Mauro

    Photoelectrochemical water splitting represents an eco-friendly technology that could enable the production of hydrogen using water as reactant and solar energy as primary energy source. The exploitation of solar energy for the production of hydrogen would help modern society to reduce the reliance...... on fossil fuels as primary feedstock for hydrogen production and diminish the emission of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, weakening the global warming phenomenon.The dissertation reports the development of GaP (gallium phosphide) photocathodes as a large bandgap semiconductor for photoelectrochemical...... water splitting devices having tandem design. The increase of the photovoltage produced by GaP under illumination was the main goal of this work. GaP has a bandgap of 2.25 eV and could in theory produce a photovoltage of approximately 1.7 V. Instead, the photovoltage produced by the semiconductor...

  14. Installation package for a sunspot cascade solar water heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Solar water heating systems installed at Tempe, Arizona and San Diego, California are described. The systems consist of the following: collector, collector-tank water loop, solar tank, conventional tank, and controls. General guidelines which may be utilized in development of detailed installation plans and specifications are provided along with instruction on operation, maintenance, and installation of solar hot water systems.

  15. Study of an active wall solar heating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassem, Talal

    2006-01-01

    An active wall solar heating system was built and tested. In the same time a compatible computer program has been according to set the recommended dimensions for the solar collectors where (F-Chart) method used to set the ratio of monthly solar sharing average for the examined heating system. Some parameters, such as collectors' areas, its tilt angle and near earth reflecting were experimentally investigated, affecting the executed active solar heating system performance. The study explain the ability of using this system which is simple, Low coast and high performance in heating residential and public buildings and heating water with ratio of yearly solar sharing achieves the needed saving of using this system.(Author)

  16. Solar Spots - Activities to Introduce Solar Energy into the K-8 Curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longe, Karen M.; McClelland, Michael J.

    Following an introduction to solar technology which reviews solar heating and cooling, passive solar systems (direct gain systems, thermal storage walls, sun spaces, roof ponds, and convection loops), active solar systems, solar electricity (photovoltaic and solar thermal conversion systems), wind energy, and biomass, activities to introduce solar…

  17. Manifestation of solar activity in solar wind particle flux density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalenko, V.A.

    1988-01-01

    An analysis has been made of the origin of long-term variations in flux density of solar wind particles (nv) for different velocity regimes. The study revealed a relationship of these variations to the area of the polar coronal holes (CH). It is shown that within the framework of the model under development, the main longterm variations of nv are a result of the latitude redistribution of the solar wind mass flux in the heliosphere and are due to changes in the large-scale geometry of the solar plasma flow in the corona. A study has been made of the variations of nv for high speed solar wind streams. It is found that nv in high speed streams which are formed in CH, decreases from minimum to maximum solar activity. The analysis indicates that this decrease is attributable to the magnetic field strength increase in coronal holes. It has been found that periods of rapid global changes of background magnetic fields on the Sun are accompanied by a reconfiguration of coronal magnetic fields, rapid changes in the length of quiescent filaments, and by an increase in the density of the particle flux of a high speed solar wind. It has been established that these periods precede the formation of CH, corresponding to the increase in solar wind velocity near the Earth and to enhancement of the level of geomagnetic disturbance. (author)

  18. Water decontamination by solar photocatalysis. Descontaminacion de aguas residuales mediante fotocatalisis solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco Galvez, J; Malato Rodriguez, S

    1993-01-01

    A solar photocatalytic system is being developed at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria to destroy organic contaminants in water. Test with common water contaminants were conducted at the Solar Detoxification Loop with real sunlight and large quantities of water flowing through glass tubes were the solar UV light is concentrated. Experiments at this scale provide verification of laboratory studies and allow the design and operation of real preindustrial detoxification systems. (Author)

  19. Design, fabrication and performance of a hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) active solar still

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Shiv; Tiwari, Arvind

    2010-01-01

    Two solar stills (single slope passive and single slope photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) active solar still) were fabricated and tested at solar energy park, IIT New Delhi (India) for composite climate. Photovoltaic operated DC water pump was used between solar still and photovoltaic (PV) integrated flat plate collector to re-circulate the water through the collectors and transfer it to the solar still. The newly designed hybrid (PV/T) active solar still is self-sustainable and can be used in remote areas, need to transport distilled water from a distance and not connected to grid, but blessed with ample solar energy. Experiments were performed for 0.05, 0.10, and 0.15 m water depth, round the year 2006-2007 for both the stills. It has been observed that maximum daily yield of 2.26 kg and 7.22 kg were obtained from passive and hybrid active solar still, respectively at 0.05 m water depth. The daily yield from hybrid active solar still is around 3.2 and 5.5 times higher than the passive solar still in summer and winter month, respectively. The study has shown that this design of the hybrid active solar still also provides higher electrical and overall thermal efficiency, which is about 20% higher than the passive solar still.

  20. Water solar distiller productivity enhancement using concentrating solar water heater and phase change material (PCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miqdam T. Chaichan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates usage of thermal energy storage extracted from concentrating solar heater for water distillation. Paraffin wax selected as a suitable phase change material, and it was used for storing thermal energy in two different insulated treasurers. The paraffin wax is receiving hot water from concentrating solar dish. This solar energy stored in PCM as latent heat energy. Solar energy stored in a day time with a large quantity, and some heat retrieved for later use. Water’s temperature measured in a definite interval of time. Four cases were studied: using water as storage material with and without solar tracker. Also, PCM was as thermal storage material with and without solar tracker.The system working time was increased to about 5 h with sun tracker by concentrating dish and adding PCM to the system. The system concentrating efficiency, heating efficiency, and system productivity, has increased by about 64.07%, 112.87%, and 307.54%, respectively. The system working time increased to 3 h when PCM added without sun tracker. Also, the system concentrating efficiency increased by about 50.47%, and the system heating efficiency increased by about 41.63%. Moreover, the system productivity increased by about 180%.

  1. Hybrid bio-photo-electro-chemical cells for solar water splitting

    OpenAIRE

    Pinhassi, Roy I.; Kallmann, Dan; Saper, Gadiel; Dotan, Hen; Linkov, Artyom; Kay, Asaf; Liveanu, Varda; Schuster, Gadi; Adir, Noam; Rothschild, Avner

    2016-01-01

    Photoelectrochemical water splitting uses solar power to decompose water to hydrogen and oxygen. Here we show how the photocatalytic activity of thylakoid membranes leads to overall water splitting in a bio-photo-electro-chemical (BPEC) cell via a simple process. Thylakoids extracted from spinach are introduced into a BPEC cell containing buffer solution with ferricyanide. Upon solar-simulated illumination, water oxidation takes place and electrons are shuttled by the ferri/ferrocyanide redox...

  2. Solar water heating: The making of a simple, standard appliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, D.L.

    1993-01-01

    Within the solar community we have carried on never-ending discussions about the performance of solar water heaters. As a long-time solar advocate and researcher, I am continually asked, open-quotes When will solar usage become widespread?close quotes We who are in the solar business all face this question, and we must respond. Our answers usually take the form of some discussion on efficiency improvements, life-cycle costs, level playing field or environmental factors. But the only real way to answer this question is: Use of solar will be widewspread when a solar water heater is considered to be just another standard appliance. Increased installations is the key, and the solar technology with the greatest near-term potential for increased installation is solar water heating

  3. Solar Hot Water System Matter in Turkey (Mersin Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müjgan ŞEREFHANOĞLU SÖZEN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available When the effects of sustainability on the construction sector have been taken into consideration, solar active systems on buildings emerge as an important design issue in the context of renewal energy usage. Solar hot water systems such as those widely used in Turkey are inefficient and have a negative effect on a building’s aesthetic and the urban view in general because of the poor quality of installation. Natural circulated open loop systems are commonly used, particularly in the south of Turkey, as they are highly economical and require no regulation to install. Solar hot water systems tend to be clustered together on the roofs, causing visual pollution, and this situation arises largely because are not considered part of the architectural design. It is therefore important to consider the negative effects of such systems in the form of treatment studies. This study aims to determine the positive effects that will be gained by the renovation of solar hot water systems in Mersin, a city in the southern region of Turkey.

  4. Solar water heating for aquaculture : optimizing design for sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, M.; Thwaites, J. [Taylor Munro Energy Systems Inc., Delta, BC (Canada)

    2003-08-01

    This paper presents the results of a solar water heating project at Redfish Ranch, the first Tilapia tropical fish farm in British Columbia. The fish are raised in land-based tanks, eliminating the risk of contamination of local ecosystems. As a tropical species, they requires warm water. Natural gas or propane boilers are typically used to maintain tank temperatures at 26 to 28 degrees C. Redfish Ranch uses solar energy to add heat to the fish tanks, thereby reducing fossil-fuel combustion and greenhouse gas emissions. This unique building-integrated solar system is improving the environmental status of of this progressive industrial operation by offsetting fossil-fuel consumption. The system was relatively low cost, although substantial changes had to be made to the roof of the main building. The building-integrated design of the solar water heating system has reduced operating costs, generated local employment, and shows promise of future activity. As such, it satisfies the main criteria for sustainability. 7 refs.

  5. Solar power from the supermarket. Water heating, space heating and air conditioning with solar collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-08-01

    The different ways of utilizing solar energy are discussed. So far, top water heating is still the most practicable and most economical solution. Model houses with solar collectors, built by BBC and Philips, are dealt with in particular.

  6. Packaged solar water heating technology: twenty years of progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, Graham; Wood, Byard

    2000-01-01

    The world market for packaged solar water heaters is reviewed, and descriptions are given of the different types of solar domestic water heaters (SDWH), design concepts for packaged SDWH, thermosyphon SDWH, evacuated insulation and excavated tube collectors, seasonally biased solar collectors, heat pump water heaters, and photovoltaic water heaters. The consumer market value for SDWHs is explained, and the results of a survey of solar water heating are summarised covering advantages, perceived disadvantages, the relative importance of purchase decision factors, experience with system components, and the most frequent maintenance problems. The durability, reliability, and performance of SDWHs are discussed

  7. Water in the Solar System: The Development of Science Education Curriculum Focused on Planetary Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, L. A.; Anderson, R. B.; Gaither, T. A.; Milazzo, M. P.; Vaughan, R. G.; Rubino-Hare, L.; Clark, J.; Ryan, S.

    2017-12-01

    "Water in the Solar System" is an out-of-school time (OST) science education activity for middle school students that was developed as part of the Planetary Learning that Advances the Nexus of Engineering, Technology, and Science (PLANETS) project. The PLANETS project was selected in support of the NASA Science Mission Directorate's Science Education Cooperative Agreement Notice, with the goal of developing and disseminating OST curriculum and related professional development modules that integrate planetary science, technology, and engineering. "Water in the Solar System" is a science activity that addresses the abundance and availability of water in the solar system. The activity consists of three exercises based on the following guiding questions: 1) How much water is there on the Earth? 2) Where can you find water in the solar system? and 3) What properties affect whether or not water can be used by astronauts? The three exercises involve a scaling relationship demonstration about the abundance of useable water on Earth, a card game to explore where water is found in the solar system, and a hands-on exercise to investigate pH and salinity. Through these activities students learn that although there is a lot of water on Earth, most of it is not in a form that is accessible for humans to use. They also learn that most water in the solar system is actually farther from the sun, and that properties such as salinity and pH affect whether water can be used by humans. In addition to content for students, the activity includes background information for educators, and links to in-depth descriptions of the science content. "Water in the Solar System" was developed through collaboration between subject matter experts at the USGS Astrogeology Science Center, and curriculum and professional development experts in the Center for Science Teaching and Learning at Northern Arizona University. Here we describe our process of curriculum development, education objectives of

  8. Thermal solar energy. Collective domestic hot water installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnier, Cedric; Chauvet, Chrystele; Fourrier, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    This brochure, edited by ADEME, the French office for energy management and sustainable development, gives a basic outlook on the way to complete the installation of a collective domestic water solar heating system. After some recall of what is solar energy, the thermal solar technology and the energy savings it may induce, this document presents the main hydraulic configurations of a solar heating system with water storage, the dimensioning of a solar water heating system and its cost estimation, the installation and the commissioning of the system, the monitoring and maintenance operations

  9. Volcanic eruptions and solar activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stothers, Richard B.

    1989-01-01

    The historical record of large volcanic eruptions from 1500 to 1980 is subjected to detailed time series analysis. In two weak but probably statistically significant periodicities of about 11 and 80 yr, the frequency of volcanic eruptions increases (decreases) slightly around the times of solar minimum (maximum). Time series analysis of the volcanogenic acidities in a deep ice core from Greenland reveals several very long periods ranging from about 80 to about 350 yr which are similar to the very slow solar cycles previously detected in auroral and C-14 records. Solar flares may cause changes in atmospheric circulation patterns that abruptly alter the earth's spin. The resulting jolt probably triggers small earthquakes which affect volcanism.

  10. Installation package for a solar heating and hot water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Development and installation of two commercial solar heating and hot water systems are reported. The systems consist of the following subsystems: collector, storage, transport, hot water, auxiliary energy and controls. General guidelines are provided which may be utilized in development of detailed installation plans and specifications. In addition, operation, maintenance and repair of a solar heating and hot water system instructions are included.

  11. A pilot solar water disinfecting system: performance analysis and testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saitoh, T.S.; El-Ghetany, H.H. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Aeronautics and Space Engineering

    2002-07-01

    In most countries, contaminated water is the major cause of most water-borne diseases. Disinfection of water may be accomplished by a number of different physical-chemical treatments including direct application of thermal energy, chemical and filtration techniques. Solar energy also can be used effectively in this field because inactivation of microorganisms is done either by heating water to a disinfecting temperature or by exposing it to ultraviolet solar radiation. A pilot solar system for disinfecting contaminated water is designed, constructed and tested. Investigations are carried out to evaluate the performance of a wooden hot box solar facility as a solar disinfectant. Experimental data show that solar energy is viable for the disinfection process. A solar radiation model is presented and compared with the experimental data. A mathematical model of the solar disinfectant is also presented. The governing equations are solved numerically via the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. The effects of environmental conditions (ambient temperature, wind speed, solar radiation, etc.) on the performance of the solar disinfectant are examined. Results showed that the system is affected by ambient temperature, wind speed, ultraviolet solar radiation intensity, the turbidity of the water, the quantity of water exposed, the contact area between the transparent water container in the solar disinfectant and the absorber plate as well as the geometrical parameters of the system. It is pointed out that for partially cloudy conditions with a low ambient temperature and high wind speeds, the thermal efficiency of the solar disinfectant is at a minimum. The use of solar energy for the disinfection process will increase the productivity of the system while completely eliminating the coliform group bacteria at the same time. (author)

  12. Geographic variation of solar water performance in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yohanis, Y. [University of Ulster (United Kingdom). Faculty of Engineering; Popel, O.; Frid, S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Institute for High Temperatures; Norton, B. [Dublin Institute of Technology (Ireland)

    2006-07-01

    Solar water heater (SWH) performance has been analysed using the 'number of days' method for 147 different sites in all European countries. The total number of days that the temperature of delivered solar heated water reaches or exceeds specified demand temperatures is correlated with solar radiation on a horizontal surface for summer, warm half-year, and whole year periods. Maps are presented and discussed showing the contours for the number of days that an illustrative SWH met different hot water demand temperatures. Correlations between number of days water is provided at a specified temperature and solar fractions for the same periods are determined. (author)

  13. Solar water heaters in China. A new day dawning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Jingyi; Mol, Arthur P.J.; Lu, Yonglong

    2010-01-01

    Solar thermal utilization, especially the application of solar water heater technology, has developed rapidly in China in recent decades. Manufacturing and marketing developments have been especially strong in provinces such as Zhejiang, Shandong and Jiangsu. This paper takes Zhejiang, a relatively affluent province, as a case study area to assess the performance of solar water heater utilization in China. The study will focus on institutional setting, economic and technological performance, energy performance, and environmental and social impact. Results show that China has greatly increased solar water heater utilization, which has brought China great economic, environmental and social benefits. However, China is confronted with malfeasant market competition, technical flaws in solar water heater products and social conflict concerning solar water heater installation. For further development of the solar water heater, China should clarify the compulsory installation policy and include solar water heaters into the current 'Home Appliances Going to the Countryside' project; most of the widely used vacuum tube products should be replaced by flat plate products, and the technology improvement should focus on anti-freezing and water saving; the resources of solar water heater market should be consolidated and most of the OEM manufacturers should evolve to ODM and OBM enterprises. (author)

  14. Different parameter and technique affecting the rate of evaporation on active solar still -a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    A, Muthu Manokar; D, Prince Winston; A. E, Kabeel; Sathyamurthy, Ravishankar; T, Arunkumar

    2018-03-01

    Water is one of the essential sources for the endurance of human on the earth. As earth having only a small amount of water resources for consumption purpose people in rural and urban areas are getting affected by consuming dirty water that leads to water-borne diseases. Even though ground water is available in small quantity, it has to be treated properly before its use for internal consumption. Brackish water contains dissolve and undissolved contents, and hence it is not suitable for the household purpose. Nowadays, distillation process is done by using passive and active solar stills. The major problem in using passive solar still is meeting higher demand for fresh water. The fresh water production from passive solar still is critically low to meet the demand. To improve the productivity of conventional solar still, input feed water is preheated by integrating the solar still to different collector panels. In this review article, the different parameters that affect the rate of evaporation in an active solar still and the different methods incorporated has been presented. In addition to active distillation system, forced convection technique can be incorporated to increase the yield of fresh water by decreasing the temperature of cover. Furthermore, it is identified that the yield of fresh water from the active desalination system can be improved by sensible and latent heat energy storage. This review will motivate the researchers to decide appropriate active solar still technology for promoting development.

  15. Highly active GaN-stabilized Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5} thin-film photoanode for solar water oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Miao; Hisatomi, Takashi; Sasaki, Yutaka; Nakabayashi, Mamiko; Shibata, Naoya; Nishiyama, Hiroshi; Katayama, Masao; Yamada, Taro; Domen, Kazunari [School of Engineering, the University of Tokyo (Japan); Japan Technological Research Association of Artificial Photosynthetic Chemical Process, Tokyo (Japan); Suzuki, Sayaka; Teshima, Katsuya [Faculty of Engineering, Shinshu University, Nagano (Japan)

    2017-04-18

    Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5} is a very promising photocatalyst for solar water splitting because of its wide spectrum solar energy utilization up to 600 nm and suitable energy band position straddling the water splitting redox reactions. However, its development has long been impeded by poor compatibility with electrolytes. Herein, we demonstrate a simple sputtering-nitridation process to fabricate high-performance Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5} film photoanodes owing to successful synthesis of the vital TaO{sub δ} precursors. An effective GaN coating strategy is developed to remarkably stabilize Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5} by forming a crystalline nitride-on-nitride structure with an improved nitride/electrolyte interface. A stable, high photocurrent density of 8 mA cm{sup -2} was obtained with a CoPi/GaN/Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5} photoanode at 1.2 V{sub RHE} under simulated sunlight, with O{sub 2} and H{sub 2} generated at a Faraday efficiency of unity over 12 h. Our vapor-phase deposition method can be used to fabricate high-performance (oxy)nitrides for practical photoelectrochemical applications. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Solar system design for water pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelkader, Hadidi; Mohammed, Yaichi

    2018-05-01

    In our days, it seems to us that nobody can suspect it on the importance of water and energy for the human needs. With technological advances, the energy need does not cease increasing. This problem of energy is even more sensitive in the isolated sites where the use of the traditional resources proves often very expensive. Indeed, several constraints, like the transport of fuel and the routine maintenances of the diesel engines, return the search for an essential alternative energy source for this type of sites. It summer necessary to seek other resources of energy of replacement. Renewable energies, like photovoltaic energy, wind or hydraulic, represent a replacement solution par excellence and they are used more and more in our days more especially as the national territory has one of the solar layers highest with the world. The duration of insolation can reach the 3900 hours/year on the Sahara. The energy acquired daily on a horizontal surface of 1m2 is about 5kWh, that is to say meadows of 2263kWh/m2/year in the south of the country. The photovoltaic energy utilization for pumping of water is well adapted for more the share of the arid and semi-arid areas because of the existence in these areas of an underground hydraulic potential not very major. Another very important coincidence supports the use of this type of energy for the water pumping is that the demand for water, especially in agriculture, reached its maximum in hot weather and dryness where it is precisely the moment when one has access to the maximum of solar energy. The goal to see an outline on the general composition of a photovoltaic system of pumping, as well as the theoretical elements making it possible to dimension the current pumping stations.

  17. Solar system design for water pumping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelkader Hadidi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In our days, it seems to us that nobody can suspect it on the importance of water and energy for the human needs. With technological advances, the energy need does not cease increasing. This problem of energy is even more sensitive in the isolated sites where the use of the traditional resources proves often very expensive. Indeed, several constraints, like the transport of fuel and the routine maintenances of the diesel engines, return the search for an essential alternative energy source for this type of sites. It summer necessary to seek other resources of energy of replacement. Renewable energies, like photovoltaic energy, wind or hydraulic, represent a replacement solution par excellence and they are used more and more in our days more especially as the national territory has one of the solar layers highest with the world. The duration of insolation can reach the 3900 hours/year on the Sahara. The energy acquired daily on a horizontal surface of 1m2 is about 5kWh, that is to say meadows of 2263kWh/m2/year in the south of the country. The photovoltaic energy utilization for pumping of water is well adapted for more the share of the arid and semi-arid areas because of the existence in these areas of an underground hydraulic potential not very major. Another very important coincidence supports the use of this type of energy for the water pumping is that the demand for water, especially in agriculture, reached its maximum in hot weather and dryness where it is precisely the moment when one has access to the maximum of solar energy. The goal to see an outline on the general composition of a photovoltaic system of pumping, as well as the theoretical elements making it possible to dimension the current pumping stations.

  18. Performance Improvement of Solar Water Stills by Using Reflectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humphrey Hamusonde Maambo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The lack of safe and clean drinking water sources is one of the problems faced in most rural communities in Zambia. Water in these communities is mostly obtained from shallow wells and rivers. However, this water might be potentially contaminated with harmful substances such as pathogenic bacteria and therefore, unsafe for drinking. Solar water distillation represents an important alternative to palliate problems of fresh water shortages. Solar water stills can be used to eliminate harmful substances from contaminated water by treating it using free solar energy before it can be consumed. Therefore, there is a need to improve solar still performance to produce a greater quantity of safe drinking water. One possible method to improve performance is through adding reflectors to solar stills. Reflectors improve performance by increasing the quantity of distillate by about 22.3 % at a water depth of 15 mm and about 2 9% at a water depth of 10 mm when compared to the distillate produced from a still without reflectors. The water produced using solar stills with reflectors was tested and adhered to World Health Organization (WHO drinking water standards. This implies that solar distillation with reflectors could be adopted at a larger scale to produce safer drinking water at a reduced cost.

  19. Ten cycles of solar and geomagnetic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legrand, J.P.

    1981-01-01

    Series of 110 years of sunspot numbers and indices of geomagnetic activity are used with 17 years of solar wind data in order to study through solar cycles both stream and shock event solar activity. According to their patterns on Bartels diagrams of geomagnetic indices, stable wind streams and transient solar activities are separated from each other. Two classes of stable streams are identified: equatorial streams occurring sporadically, for several months, during the main phase of sunspot cycles and both polar streams established, for several years, at each cycle, before sunspot minimum. Polar streams are the first activity of solar cycles. For study of the relationship between transient geomagnetic phenomena and sunspot activity, we raise the importance of the contribution, at high spot number, of severe storms and, at low spot number, of short lived and unstable streams. Solar wind data are used to check and complete the above results. As a conclusion, we suggest a unified scheme of solar activity evolution with a starting point every eleventh year, a total duration of 17 years and an overlapping of 6 years between the first and the last phase of both successive series of phenomena: first, from polar field reversal to sunspot minimum, a phase of polar wind activity of the beginning cycle is superimposed on the weak contribution of shock events of the ending cycle; secondly, an equatorial phase mostly of shock events is superimposed on a variable contribution of short lived and sporadic stable equatorial stream activities; and thirdly a phase of low latitude shock events is superimposed on the polar stream interval of the following cycle. (orig.)

  20. Prediciting Solar Activity: Today, Tomorrow, Next Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesnell, William Dean

    2008-01-01

    Fleets of satellites circle the Earth collecting science data, protecting astronauts, and relaying information. All of these satellites are sensitive at some level to space weather effects. Predictions of drag on LEO spacecraft are one of the most important. Launching a satellite with less fuel can mean a higher orbit, but unanticipated solar activity and increased drag can make that a Pyrrhic victory. Energetic events at the Sun can produce crippling radiation storms. Predicting those events that will affect our assets in space includes a solar prediction and how the radiation will propagate through the solar system. I will talk our need for solar activity predictions and anticipate how those predictions could be made more accurate in the future.

  1. Thermo-economic performance of inclined solar water distillation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agboola Phillips O.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the thermo-economic performance of different configurations of inclined solar water desalination for parameters such as daily production, efficiency, system cost and distilled water production cost. The four different configurations considered for this study are as follows; 1. Inclined solar water distillation with bare absorber plate (IISWD with daily production of 5.46 kg/m2 day and daily efficiency of 48.3%. 2. Inclined solar water distillation with wick on absorber plate (IISWDW with daily production of 6.41kg/m2 day and daily efficiency 50.3%. 3. Inclined solar water distillation with wire mesh on absorber plate (IISWDWM with daily production n of 3.03 kg/m2 day and daily efficiency 32.6%. 4. Inclined solar water distillation with bare absorber plate (ISWD. (Control System with daily production of 3.25 kg/m2 day and daily efficiency of 40.1%. The systems potable water cost price ranges from 0.03 $/L for IISWDW to 0.06$/L for IISWDWM System. All the systems are economically and technically feasible as a solar distillation system for potable water in Northern Cyprus. The price of potable water from water vendors/hawkers ranges from 0.11-0.16 $/L. It is more economically viable to have the rooftop inclined solar water desalination system than procuring potable water from vendors.`

  2. Experimental study on a new solar boiling water system with holistic track solar funnel concentrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiaodi, Xue; Hongfei, Zheng; Kaiyan, He; Zhili, Chen; Tao, Tao; Guo, Xie

    2010-01-01

    A new solar boiling water system with conventional vacuum-tube solar collector as primary heater and the holistic solar funnel concentrator as secondary heater had been designed. In this paper, the system was measured out door and its performance was analyzed. The configuration and operation principle of the system are described. Variations of the boiled water yield, the temperature of the stove and the solar irradiance with local time have been measured. Main factors affecting the system performance have been analyzed. The experimental results indicate that the system produced large amount of boiled water. And the performance of the system has been found closely related to the solar radiance. When the solar radiance is above 600 W/m 2 , the boiled water yield rate of the system has reached 20 kg/h and its total energy efficiency has exceeded 40%.

  3. Disinfection of contaminated water by using solar irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caslake, Laurie F; Connolly, Daniel J; Menon, Vilas; Duncanson, Catriona M; Rojas, Ricardo; Tavakoli, Javad

    2004-02-01

    Contaminated water causes an estimated 6 to 60 billion cases of gastrointestinal illness annually. The majority of these cases occur in rural areas of developing nations where the water supply remains polluted and adequate sanitation is unavailable. A portable, low-cost, and low-maintenance solar unit to disinfect unpotable water has been designed and tested. The solar disinfection unit was tested with both river water and partially processed water from two wastewater treatment plants. In less than 30 min in midday sunlight, the unit eradicated more than 4 log10 U (99.99%) of bacteria contained in highly contaminated water samples. The solar disinfection unit has been field tested by Centro Panamericano de Ingenieria Sanitaria y Ciencias del Ambiente in Lima, Peru. At moderate light intensity, the solar disinfection unit was capable of reducing the bacterial load in a controlled contaminated water sample by 4 log10 U and disinfected approximately 1 liter of water in 30 min.

  4. Field solar degradation of pesticides and emerging water contaminants mediated by polymer films containing titanium and iron oxide with synergistic heterogeneous photocatalytic activity at neutral pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazille, F; Schoettl, T; Klamerth, N; Malato, S; Pulgarin, C

    2010-05-01

    Photocatalytic degradation of phenol, nalidixic acid, mixture of pesticides, and another of emerging contaminants in water was mediated by TiO(2) and iron oxide immobilized on functionalized polyvinyl fluoride films (PVF(f)-TiO(2)-Fe oxide) in a compound parabolic collector (CPC) solar photoreactor. During degradation, little iron leaching (compounds and less efficient for six other compounds. The significant reactivity differences between tested compounds were assigned to the differences in structure namely that the presence of complexing or chelating groups enhanced the rates. PVF(f)-TiO(2)-Fe oxide photoactivity gradually increased during 20 days of experiments. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements revealed significant changes on the catalyst surface. These analyses confirm that during photocatalysis mediated by PVF(f)-TiO(2)-Fe oxide, some iron leaching led to enlargement of the TiO(2) surface exposed to light, increasing its synergy with iron oxides and leading to enhanced pollutant degradation.

  5. Novel configurations of solar distillation system for potable water production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riahi, A.; Yusof, K. W.; Sapari, N.; Singh, B. S.; Hashim, A. M.

    2013-06-01

    More and more surface water are polluted with toxic chemicals. Alternatively brackish and saline water are used as feed water to water treatment plants. Expensive desalination process via reverse osmosis or distillation is used in the plants. Thus, this conventional desalination is not suitable for low and medium income countries. A cheaper method is by solar distillation. However the rate of water production by this method is generally considered low. This research attempts to enhance water production of solar distillation by optimizing solar capture, evaporation and condensation processes. Solar radiation data was captured in several days in Perak, Malaysia. Three kinds of experiments were done by fabricating triangular solar distillation systems. First type was conventional solar still, second type was combined with 50 Watt solar photovoltaic panel and 40 Watt Dc heater, while third type was integrated with 12 Volt Solar battery and 40 Watt Dc heater. The present investigation showed that the productivity of second and third systems were 150% and 480% of the conventional still type, respectively. The finding of this research can be expected to have wide application in water supply particularly in areas where fresh surface water is limited.

  6. Novel configurations of solar distillation system for potable water production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riahi, A; Yusof, K W; Sapari, N; Hashim, A M; Singh, B S

    2013-01-01

    More and more surface water are polluted with toxic chemicals. Alternatively brackish and saline water are used as feed water to water treatment plants. Expensive desalination process via reverse osmosis or distillation is used in the plants. Thus, this conventional desalination is not suitable for low and medium income countries. A cheaper method is by solar distillation. However the rate of water production by this method is generally considered low. This research attempts to enhance water production of solar distillation by optimizing solar capture, evaporation and condensation processes. Solar radiation data was captured in several days in Perak, Malaysia. Three kinds of experiments were done by fabricating triangular solar distillation systems. First type was conventional solar still, second type was combined with 50 Watt solar photovoltaic panel and 40 Watt Dc heater, while third type was integrated with 12 Volt Solar battery and 40 Watt Dc heater. The present investigation showed that the productivity of second and third systems were 150% and 480% of the conventional still type, respectively. The finding of this research can be expected to have wide application in water supply particularly in areas where fresh surface water is limited.

  7. South Africa. Fertile ground for solar water heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oirere, Shem

    2012-07-01

    The national solar water heating plan, launched by South Africa's state power utility Eskom, seems to be making good progress with the power generator saying at least 215,000 solar water heater (SWH) systems had been installed by February this year. (orig.)

  8. Towards Highly Efficient Bias-Free Solar Water Splitting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdi, F.F.

    2013-01-01

    Solar water splitting has attracted significant attention due to its potential of converting solar to chemical energy. It uses semiconductor to convert sunlight into electron-hole pairs, which then split water into hydrogen and oxygen. The hydrogen can be used as a renewable fuel, or it can serve as

  9. Solar heating of the produced water of petroleum; Aquecimento solar da agua produzida de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Rogerio Pitanga; Chiavone-Filho, Osvaldo; Bezerra, Magna A. Santos; Melo, Josette Lourdes Sousa de; Oliveira, Jackson Araujo de; Ramos, Rafael E. Moura [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Schuhli, Juliana Bregenski; Andrade, Vivian Tavares de [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    In this work, experimental data of solar heating for common water and saline solution were measured. The solar heater is formed by a flat-plane collector and a thermal reservoir ('boiler'). The objective is to quantify the variation of fluids' temperature, and correlate it to environment variables, especially solar irradiation. Thereby, it is possible to estimate the solar heating of produced water of petroleum. The solar heater is part of a system of treatment of produced water, and its function is to pre-heat the fluid that enters into the solar distiller, increasing the productivity of distilled water. A saline solution that represents produced water was used in the experiments, using sodium chloride (1000 ppm). The experimental data demonstrates that the solar heater is capable to heat the fluid to temperatures close to 70 deg C, reaching temperatures close to 50 deg C even during cloudy days with low solar radiation. Furthermore, the solar collector energy system provides a higher rate of heating and trough of the thermal reservoir the temperature can remain longer. These are important aspects to the integration with solar distillation. (author)

  10. Solar heating of the produced water of petroleum; Aquecimento solar da agua produzida de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Rogerio Pitanga; Chiavone-Filho, Osvaldo; Bezerra, Magna A. Santos; Melo, Josette Lourdes Sousa de; Oliveira, Jackson Araujo de; Ramos, Rafael E. Moura [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Schuhli, Juliana Bregenski; Andrade, Vivian Tavares de [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    In this work, experimental data of solar heating for common water and saline solution were measured. The solar heater is formed by a flat-plane collector and a thermal reservoir ('boiler'). The objective is to quantify the variation of fluids' temperature, and correlate it to environment variables, especially solar irradiation. Thereby, it is possible to estimate the solar heating of produced water of petroleum. The solar heater is part of a system of treatment of produced water, and its function is to pre-heat the fluid that enters into the solar distiller, increasing the productivity of distilled water. A saline solution that represents produced water was used in the experiments, using sodium chloride (1000 ppm). The experimental data demonstrates that the solar heater is capable to heat the fluid to temperatures close to 70 deg C, reaching temperatures close to 50 deg C even during cloudy days with low solar radiation. Furthermore, the solar collector energy system provides a higher rate of heating and trough of the thermal reservoir the temperature can remain longer. These are important aspects to the integration with solar distillation. (author)

  11. Use of solar energy for disinfection of polluted water

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Jamil; M.R. Ahmad; K. Ali; A. Habeeb; M. Hassan

    2009-01-01

    Polluted water is causing serious health problems especially in the rural areas of Pakistan. People have limited access to safe water supply and many diseases like diarrhea and gastrointestinal diseases are transmitted by consumption of polluted water. We have investigated the potential of using solar energy to pasteurize water. Low cost indigenously available materials have been utilized to design and fabricate a solar box type pasteurizer having a capacity of three liters. The p...

  12. Solar Energy Education. Home economics: student activities. Field test edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    A view of solar energy from the standpoint of home economics is taken in this book of activities. Students are provided information on solar energy resources while performing these classroom activities. Instructions for the construction of a solar food dryer and a solar cooker are provided. Topics for study include window treatments, clothing, the history of solar energy, vitamins from the sun, and how to choose the correct solar home. (BCS)

  13. Effect of Installation of Solar Collector on Performance of Balcony Split Type Solar Water Heaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Ji

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The influences of surface orientation and slope of solar collectors on solar radiation collection of balcony split type solar water heaters for six cities in China were analyzed by employing software TRNSYS. The surface azimuth had greater effect on solar radiation collection in high latitude regions. For deviation of the surface slope angle within ±20° around the optimized angle, the variation of the total annual collecting solar radiation was less than 5%. However, with deviation of 70° to 90°, the variation was up to 20%. The effects of water cycle mode, reverse slope placement of solar collector, and water tank installation height on system efficiency were experimentally studied. The thermal efficiencies of solar water heater with single row horizontal arrangement all-glass evacuated tubular collector were higher than those with vertical arrangement at the fixed surface slope angle of 90°. Compared with solar water heaters with flat-plate collector under natural circulation, the system thermal efficiency was raised up to 63% under forced circulation. For collector at reverse slope placement, the temperature-based water stratification in water tank deteriorated, and thus the thermal efficiency became low. For improving the system efficiency, an appropriate installation height of the water tank was suggested.

  14. Radar meteor rates and solar activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prikryl, P.

    1983-01-01

    The short-term variation of diurnal radar meteor rates with solar activity represented by solar microwave flux Fsub(10.7), and sunspots relative number Rsub(z), is investigated. Applying the superposed-epoch analysis to the observational material of radar meteor rates from Christchurch (1960-61 and 1963-65), a decrease in the recorded radar rates is found during days of enhanced solar activity. No effect of geomagnetic activity similar to the one reported for the Swedish and Canadian radar meteor data was found by the author in the Christchurch data. A possible explanation of the absence of the geomagnetic effect on radar meteor rates from New Zealand due to a lower echo ceiling height of the Christchurch radar is suggested. The variation of the atmospheric parameters as a possible cause of the observed variation in radar meteor rates is also discussed. (author)

  15. Solar Distillation Practice For Water Desalination Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mahian, Omid; Kianifar, Ali; Jumpholkul, Chaiwat; Thiangtham, Phubate; Wongwises, Somchai; Srisomba, Raviwat

    2015-01-01

    references, it is suggested to add a chapter concerning CFD simulations of solar stills. In addition, a part can be devoted to using novel technologies such as nanotechnology for productivity enhancement of solar stills

  16. The run for solar water heater subsidies in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerards, J.

    1998-01-01

    Subsidies for the use of solar boilers in the Netherlands are very popular, both from local funds and national funds. A third tender for large-scale solar boiler projects in existing houses has been issued. A brief overview is given of local activities in some Dutch municipalities to stimulate the use of solar boilers

  17. Solar optics-based active panel for solar energy storage and disinfection of greywater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, W; Song, J; Son, J H; Gutierrez, M P; Kang, T; Kim, D; Lee, L P

    2016-09-01

    Smart city and innovative building strategies are becoming increasingly more necessary because advancing a sustainable building system is regarded as a promising solution to overcome the depleting water and energy. However, current sustainable building systems mainly focus on energy saving and miss a holistic integration of water regeneration and energy generation. Here, we present a theoretical study of a solar optics-based active panel (SOAP) that enables both solar energy storage and photothermal disinfection of greywater simultaneously. Solar collector efficiency of energy storage and disinfection rate of greywater have been investigated. Due to the light focusing by microlens, the solar collector efficiency is enhanced from 25% to 65%, compared to that without the microlens. The simulation of greywater sterilization shows that 100% disinfection can be accomplished by our SOAP for different types of bacteria including Escherichia coli . Numerical simulation reveals that our SOAP as a lab-on-a-wall system can resolve the water and energy problem in future sustainable building systems.

  18. Seismic Holography of Solar Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Charles

    2000-01-01

    The basic goal of the project was to extend holographic seismic imaging techniques developed under a previous NASA contract, and to incorporate phase diagnostics. Phase-sensitive imaging gives us a powerful probe of local thermal and Doppler perturbations in active region subphotospheres, allowing us to map thermal structure and flows associated with "acoustic moats" and "acoustic glories". These remarkable features were discovered during our work, by applying simple acoustic power holography to active regions. Included in the original project statement was an effort to obtain the first seismic images of active regions on the Sun's far surface.

  19. Solar water disinfecting system using compound parabolic concentrating collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Ghetany, H.H.; Saitoh, T.S. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan)

    2000-05-31

    Solar water disinfection is an alternative technology using solar radiation and thermal treatment to inactivate and destroy pathogenic microorganisms present in water. The Compound Parabolic Concentrating, (CPC) collector can be used as an efficient key component for solar disinfectanting system. Two types of the CPC collectors are studied, namely the transparent-tube and the Copper-tube CPC collector. It is found that after 30 minutes of exposing the water sample to solar radiation or heating it up to 65 degree C for a few minuets all the coliform bacterial present in the contaminated water sample were completely eliminated. In this article, the effect of water temperature on the disinfecting process was presented. Thermal and micro-biological measurements were also made to evaluate the system performance. (author)

  20. Measurement of atmospheric precipitable water using a solar radiometer. [water vapor absorption effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, D. E.; Dillinger, A. E.; Mcallum, W. E.

    1974-01-01

    A technique is described and tested that allows the determination of atmospheric precipitable water from two measurements of solar intensity: one in a water-vapor absorption band and another in a nearby spectral region unaffected by water vapor.

  1. Economic feasibility of solar water and space heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezdek, R H; Hirshberg, A S; Babcock, W H

    1979-03-23

    The economic feasibility in 1977 and 1978 of solar water and combined water and space heating is analyzed for single-family detached residences and multi-family apartment buildings in four representative U.S. cities: Boston, Massachusetts; Washington, D.C.; Grand Junction, Colorado; and Los Angeles, California. Three economic decision criteria are utilized: payback period, years to recovery of down payment, and years to net positive cash flow. The cost competitiveness of the solar systems compared to heating systems based on electricity, fuel oil, and natural gas is then discussed for each city, and the impact of the federal tax credit for solar energy systems is assessed. It is found that even without federal incentives some solar water and space heating systems are competitive. Enactment of the solar tax credit, however, greatly enhances their competitiveness. The implications of these findings for government tax and energy pricing policies are discussed.

  2. Economical investigation of solar water distillation in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakr, I A; Khalil, M A; Delyannis, A; Delyannis, E [eds.

    1976-01-01

    Many ways of solar water distillation have been suggested but most of them are either too expensive or only a practical solution to different processes under investigation. Solar heat distillation has a bright future because the greatest potential needs appear to be in those sections where the availability of solar energy is high and the availability of potable water is low as in our Egyptian deserts where the solar intensity has a yearly mean value of about 6000 kcal/(m/sup 2/day). The solar distillation method has a number of economic characteristics which are different from other sea water conversion methods, including: The processing equipment is very simple and results in low equipment costs. No special skills are required for both erection and operation. It can be used with saline water of wide range of salt concentration. The still design is essentially modular, and can be made to meet any desired capacity. Scale formation and corrosion are minor problems as compared with other methods. Power requirements are negligible. The cost of unit construction is not markedly influenced by the size of the still. The lack of quantitative and operative data of solar water distillation techniques with respect to their cost needs in investigation from the economical standpoint of view in Egypt. The subject of this work is to find the order of magnitude of the fresh water cost by solar distillation.

  3. Consumer impacts on dividends from solar water heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, F.; Levermore, G. [University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Lynch, H. [Centre for Alternative Technology, Machynlleth, University of East London, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    Common domestic solar water heating system usage patterns were investigated by a survey of 55 installations. These usage patterns were modelled by simulation based on the actual occupants' use of boiler or other auxiliary heating control strategies. These strategies were not optimal, as often assumed. The effectiveness of the technology was found to be highly sensitive to the time settings used for auxiliary water heating, and the 65% of solar householders using their boilers in the mornings were found to be forgoing 75% of their potential savings. Additionally, 92% of consumers were found to be small households, whose potential savings were only 23% of those of larger households, which use more hot water. Overall the majority (at least 60%) of the systems surveyed were found to be achieving no more than 6% of their potential savings. Incorporating consideration of Legionella issues, results indicate that if solar thermal technology is to deliver its potential to CO2 reduction targets: solar householders must avoid any use of their auxiliary water heating systems before the end of the main warmth of the day, grants for solar technology should be focused on households with higher hot water demands, and particularly on those that are dependent on electricity for water heating, health and safety requirements for hot water storage must be reviewed and, if possible, required temperatures should be set at a lower level, so that carbon savings from solar water heating may be optimized.

  4. Solar warming systems of water installed in Colombia. Photovoltaic solar systems installed in the Country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez P, F.

    1995-01-01

    Between the systems that operate as of solar energy, the solar collectors to heat water have had wide use and application in the Country. Basically, a solar collector is constituted by: Box, thermal insulator, ducts and transparent roof. Generally, the used materials are the following: As thermal insulator: Polyurethane or glass fiber; as absorbent plate: Copper or aluminum, painting in dull black or selective surfaces; for the ducts: Generally it is used copper pipeline; and for the cover: Common glass or temperate glass

  5. Active Longitude and Solar Flare Occurrences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyenge, N.; Ludmány, A.; Baranyi, T.

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present work is to specify the spatio-temporal characteristics of flare activity observed by the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) and the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) in connection with the behavior of the longitudinal domain of enhanced sunspot activity known as active longitude (AL). By using our method developed for this purpose, we identified the AL in every Carrington Rotation provided by the Debrecen Photoheliographic Data. The spatial probability of flare occurrence has been estimated depending on the longitudinal distance from AL in the northern and southern hemispheres separately. We have found that more than 60% of the RHESSI and GOES flares is located within +/- 36^\\circ from the AL. Hence, the most flare-productive active regions tend to be located in or close to the active longitudinal belt. This observed feature may allow for the prediction of the geo-effective position of the domain of enhanced flaring probability. Furthermore, we studied the temporal properties of flare occurrence near the AL and several significant fluctuations were found. More precisely, the results of the method are the following fluctuations: 0.8, 1.3, and 1.8 years. These temporal and spatial properties of the solar flare occurrence within the active longitudinal belts could provide us with an enhanced solar flare forecasting opportunity.

  6. Solar High Temperature Water-Splitting Cycle with Quantum Boost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Robin [SAIC; Davenport, Roger [SAIC; Talbot, Jan [UCSD; Herz, Richard [UCSD; Genders, David [Electrosynthesis Co.; Symons, Peter [Electrosynthesis Co.; Brown, Lloyd [TChemE

    2014-04-25

    A sulfur family chemical cycle having ammonia as the working fluid and reagent was developed as a cost-effective and efficient hydrogen production technology based on a solar thermochemical water-splitting cycle. The sulfur ammonia (SA) cycle is a renewable and sustainable process that is unique in that it is an all-fluid cycle (i.e., with no solids handling). It uses a moderate temperature solar plant with the solar receiver operating at 800°C. All electricity needed is generated internally from recovered heat. The plant would operate continuously with low cost storage and it is a good potential solar thermochemical hydrogen production cycle for reaching the DOE cost goals. Two approaches were considered for the hydrogen production step of the SA cycle: (1) photocatalytic, and (2) electrolytic oxidation of ammonium sulfite to ammonium sulfate in aqueous solutions. Also, two sub-cycles were evaluated for the oxygen evolution side of the SA cycle: (1) zinc sulfate/zinc oxide, and (2) potassium sulfate/potassium pyrosulfate. The laboratory testing and optimization of all the process steps for each version of the SA cycle were proven in the laboratory or have been fully demonstrated by others, but further optimization is still possible and needed. The solar configuration evolved to a 50 MW(thermal) central receiver system with a North heliostat field, a cavity receiver, and NaCl molten salt storage to allow continuous operation. The H2A economic model was used to optimize and trade-off SA cycle configurations. Parametric studies of chemical plant performance have indicated process efficiencies of ~20%. Although the current process efficiency is technically acceptable, an increased efficiency is needed if the DOE cost targets are to be reached. There are two interrelated areas in which there is the potential for significant efficiency improvements: electrolysis cell voltage and excessive water vaporization. Methods to significantly reduce water evaporation are

  7. Fabrication and characterization of a slanting-type solar water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The system includes four major components; a wooden basin of surface area 0.16 m2, an absorber surface, a slanting glass roof and a condensate channel. Very cheap locally available materials were used to fabricate the solar still. The solar still produced an average of 0.09 m3 of distilled water per day, and this study was ...

  8. Solar water heaters in China: A new day dawning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, Jingyi; Mol, A.P.J.; Lu, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Solar thermal utilization, especially the application of solar water heater technology, has developed rapidly in China in recent decades. Manufacturing and marketing developments have been especially strong in provinces such as Zhejiang, Shandong and Jiangsu. This paper takes Zhejiang, a relatively

  9. Triple junction polymer solar cells for photoelectrochemical water splitting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esiner, S.; Eersel, van H.; Wienk, M.M.; Janssen, R.A.J.

    2013-01-01

    A triple junction polymer solar cell in a novel 1 + 2 type configuration provides photoelectrochemical water splitting in its maximum power point at V ˜ 1.70 V with an estimated solar to hydrogen energy conversion efficiency of 3.1%. The triple junction cell consists of a wide bandgap front cell and

  10. Optimal design of solar water heating systems | Alemu | Zede Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solar water heating systems are usually designed using simplified equation of annual efficiency of the heating system from solar radiation incident on the collector during the year and empirical values of annual efficiency. The pe1formance of the preliminary design is predicted by using either/chart method or by translate it ...

  11. Pasteurization of naturally contaminated water with solar energy.

    OpenAIRE

    Ciochetti, D A; Metcalf, R H

    1984-01-01

    A solar box cooker (SBC) was constructed with a cooking area deep enough to hold several 3.7-liter jugs of water, and this was used to investigate the potential of using solar energy to pasteurize naturally contaminated water. When river water was heated either in the SBC or on a hot plate, coliform bacteria were inactivated at temperatures of 60 degrees C or greater. Heating water in an SBC to at least 65 degrees C ensures that the water will be above the milk pasteurization temperature of 6...

  12. A simple high efficiency solar water purification system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duff, W.S.; Hodgson, D.A. [Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2005-07-01

    A new passive solar water pasteurization system based on density difference flow principles has been designed, built and tested. The system contains no valves and regulates flow based on the density difference between two columns of water. The new system eliminates boiling problems encountered in previous designs. Boiling is undesirable because it may contaminate treated water. The system with a total absorber area of 0.45 m2 has achieved a peak flow rate of 19.3 kg/h of treated water. Experiments with the prototype systems presented in this paper show that density driven systems are an attractive option to existing solar water pasteurization approaches. (author)

  13. New Home Buyer Solar Water Heater Trade-Off Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Symmetrics Marketing Corporation

    1999-01-01

    This report details the results of a research conducted in 1998 and 1999 and outlines a marketing deployment plan designed for businesses interested in marketing solar water heaters in the new home industry

  14. The ancient heritage of water ice in the solar system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleeves, L Ilsedore; Bergin, Edwin A; Alexander, Conel M O'D; Du, Fujun; Graninger, Dawn; Öberg, Karin I; Harries, Tim J

    2014-09-26

    Identifying the source of Earth's water is central to understanding the origins of life-fostering environments and to assessing the prevalence of such environments in space. Water throughout the solar system exhibits deuterium-to-hydrogen enrichments, a fossil relic of low-temperature, ion-derived chemistry within either (i) the parent molecular cloud or (ii) the solar nebula protoplanetary disk. Using a comprehensive treatment of disk ionization, we find that ion-driven deuterium pathways are inefficient, which curtails the disk's deuterated water formation and its viability as the sole source for the solar system's water. This finding implies that, if the solar system's formation was typical, abundant interstellar ices are available to all nascent planetary systems. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  15. Creating a Comprehensive Solar Water Heating Deployment Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Focus Marketing Services

    1999-08-18

    This report details the results of a research conducted in 1998 and 1999 and outlines a marketing deployment plan designed for businesses interested in marketing solar water heaters in the new home industry.

  16. Creating a Comprehensive Solar Water Heating Deployment Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Focus Marketing Services

    1999-01-01

    This report details the results of a research conducted in 1998 and 1999 and outlines a marketing deployment plan designed for businesses interested in marketing solar water heaters in the new home industry

  17. Photoanodic Hybrid Semiconductor–Molecular Heterojunction for Solar Water Oxidation

    KAUST Repository

    Joya, Khurram Saleem; Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic photo-responsive semiconducting materials have been employed in photoelectrochemical(PEC) water oxidation devicesin pursuit of solar to fuel conversion.[1]The reaction kinetics in semiconductors is limited by poor contact at the interfaces

  18. Actual performance and economic feasibility of residential solar water heaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anhalt, J.

    1987-01-01

    Four residential solar water heaters currently available on the Brazilian market have been evaluated to their possible use for substituting the common electric shower head. The tests were carried out with the solar systems mounted side by side on an artificial roof. The hot water demand was simulated following a consumer profile which represents a Brazilian family with an income of seven minimum salaries. The data, which was collected automatically and presented in the form of graphs and tables, shows that an optimized solar water heater could save as much as 65% of the energy demand for residential water heating in the state of Sao Paulo. An economical study concludes that the installation and maintenance of such a solar system is feasible if long term financing is available. (author)

  19. Solar photocatalysis - a possible step in drinking water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ljubas, Davor

    2005-01-01

    Possibility of the use of solar radiation for reduction of Natural Organic Matter (NOM) content in natural lake water, as a source for drinking water preparation, was the topic of this research. Solar radiation alone does not have enough energy for sufficient degradation of NOM, but in combination with heterogeneous photocatalyst-titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ), with or without other chemicals, the degradation potential could increase. In specific geographical conditions in Republic of Croatia, e.g. Adriatic islands or Dalmatia, solar radiation could be used for photocatalytic degradation of natural organic matter (NOM) in surface waters and therewith lighten the process of preparing them to the potable water. Specific quality of the geographical locality appears in fact that it is a very attractive tourist destination, especially in period June-September. In this period the drinking water demand is the biggest and, fortunately, the intensity of the solar radiation, too. So, there is a proportion between the drinking water demand and solar radiation available for the use in drinking water treatment. A number of tests with lake water exposed to solar radiation in non-concentrating reactors were performed and photodegradation of NOM for various combinations of doses and crystal forms of TiO 2 with H 2 O 2 was studied. Irradiation intensity was estimated from global solar radiation measurements. The best performance for the NOM degradation had combination of 1 g/L TiO 2 both anatase and rutile+solar radiation+H 2 O 2 , but - economically - it was not the best combination. An estimation of the biodegradation potential of dissolved organic matter after the photocatalytic step is given, too

  20. Solar space and water heating system installed at Charlottesville, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The solar energy system located at David C. Wilson Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Charlottesville, Virginia, is described. The solar energy system consists of 88 single glazed, Sunworks 'Solector' copper base plate collector modules, hot water coils in the hot air ducts, a Domestic Hot Water (DHW) preheat tank, a 3,000 gallon concrete urethane insulated storage tank and other miscellaneous components. Extracts from the site files, specifications, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  1. Frontier of solar observation. Solar activity observed by 'HINODE' mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Tetsuya

    2008-01-01

    After launched in September 2006, solar observation satellite 'HINODE' has been a solar observatory on orbit with the scientific instruments well operated and its continuous observation was conducted steadily on almost all solar atmospheres from photosphere to corona. 'HINODE' was equipped with the solar optical telescope, extreme-ultraviolet imaging spectrometer and x-ray telescope and aimed at clarifying the mystery of solar physics related with coronal heating and magnetic reconnection. Present state of 'HINODE' was described from observations made in initial observation results, which have made several discoveries, such as Alfven waves in the corona, unexpected dynamics in the chromosphere and photosphere, continuous outflowing plasma as a possible source of solar wind, and fine structures of magnetic field in sunspots and solar surface. (T. Tanaka)

  2. Cosmic rays, solar activity and the climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sloan, T; Wolfendale, A W

    2013-01-01

    Although it is generally believed that the increase in the mean global surface temperature since industrialization is caused by the increase in green house gases in the atmosphere, some people cite solar activity, either directly or through its effect on cosmic rays, as an underestimated contributor to such global warming. In this letter a simplified version of the standard picture of the role of greenhouse gases in causing the global warming since industrialization is described. The conditions necessary for this picture to be wholly or partially wrong are then introduced. Evidence is presented from which the contributions of either cosmic rays or solar activity to this warming is deduced. The contribution is shown to be less than 10% of the warming seen in the twentieth century. (letter)

  3. Does solar activity affect human happiness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristoufek, Ladislav

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the direct influence of solar activity (represented by sunspot numbers) on human happiness (represented by the Twitter-based Happiness Index). We construct four models controlling for various statistical and dynamic effects of the analyzed series. The final model gives promising results. First, there is a statistically significant negative influence of solar activity on happiness which holds even after controlling for the other factors. Second, the final model, which is still rather simple, explains around 75% of variance of the Happiness Index. Third, our control variables contribute significantly as well: happiness is higher in no sunspots days, happiness is strongly persistent, there are strong intra-week cycles and happiness peaks during holidays. Our results strongly contribute to the topical literature and they provide evidence of unique utility of the online data.

  4. Weather-power station. Solar energy, wind energy, water energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schatta, M

    1975-10-02

    A combined power station is described, which enables one to convert solar energy and wind energy into other forms of energy. The plant consists of a water-filled boiler, in which solar energy heats the water by concentration, solar cells, and finally wind rotors, which transform wind energy into electrical energy. The transformed energy is partly available as steam heat, partly as mechanical or electrical energy. The plant can be used for supplying heating systems or electrolysis equipment. Finally, by incorporating suitable motors, a mobile version of the system can be produced.

  5. Energy efficiency of a solar domestic hot water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukowski, Miroslaw

    2017-11-01

    The solar domestic hot water (SDHW) system located on the campus of Bialystok University of Technology is the object of the research described in the current paper. The solar thermal system is composed of 35 flat plate collectors, 21 evacuated tube collectors and eight hot water tanks with the capacity of 1 m3 of each. Solar facility is equipped with hardware for automatic data collection. Additionally, the weather station located on the roof of the building provides measurements of basic parameters of ambient air and solar radiation. The main objective of Regional Operational Program was the assessment of the effectiveness of this solar energy technology in the climatic conditions of the north-eastern Poland. Energy efficiency of SDHW system was defined in this research as the ratio between the useful heat energy supplied to the domestic hot water system and solar energy incident on the surface of solar panels. Heat loss from water storage tanks, and from the pipe network to the surrounding air, as well as the electrical energy consumed by the pumps have been included in the calculations. The paper presents the detailed results and conclusions obtained from this energy analysis.

  6. The annual number of days that solar heated water satisfies a specified demand temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yohanis, Y.G. [Thermal Systems Engineering Group, Faculty of Engineering, University of Ulster, BT37 0QB Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Popel, O.; Frid, S.E. [Non-traditional Renewable Energy Sources, Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, 13/19 Izhorskaya str., IVTAN, Moscow 127412 (Russian Federation); Norton, B. [Dublin Institute of Technology, Aungier Street, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2006-08-15

    An analysis of solar water heating systems determines the number of days in each month when solar heated water wholly meets demand above a set temperature. The approach has been used to investigate the potential contribution to water heating loads of solar water heating in two UK locations. Correlations between the approach developed and the use of solar fractions are discussed. (author)

  7. Solar heating and hot water system installed at office building, One Solar Place, Dallas, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    A solar heating on cooling system is described which is designed to provide 87 percent of the space heating needs, 100 percent of the potable hot water needs and is sized for future absorption cooling. The collection subsystem consists of 28 solargenics, series 76, flat plate collectors with a total area of 1,596 square feet. The solar loop circulates an ethylene glyco water solution through the collectors into a hot water system exchanger. The water storage subsystem consists of a heat exchanger, two 2,300 gallon concrete hot water storage tanks with built in heat exchangers and a back-up electric boiler. The domestic hot water subsystem sends hot water to the 10,200 square feet floor area office building hot water water fixtures. The building cold water system provides make up to the solar loop, the heating loop, and the hot water concrete storage tanks. The design, construction, cost analysis, operation and maintenance of the solar system are described.

  8. Water and Volatiles in the Outer Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasset, O.; Castillo-Rogez, J.; Guillot, T.; Fletcher, L. N.; Tosi, F.

    2017-10-01

    Space exploration and ground-based observations have provided outstanding evidence of the diversity and the complexity of the outer solar system. This work presents our current understanding of the nature and distribution of water and water-rich materials from the water snow line to the Kuiper Belt. This synthesis is timely, since a thorough exploration of at least one object in each region of the outer solar system has now been achieved. Next steps, starting with the Juno mission now in orbit around Jupiter, will be more focused on understanding the processes at work than on describing the general characteristics of each giant planet systems. This review is organized in three parts. First, the nature and the distribution of water and volatiles in giant and intermediary planets are described from their inner core to their outer envelopes. A special focus is given to Jupiter and Saturn, which are much better understood than the two ice giants (Uranus and Neptune) thanks to the Galileo and Cassini missions. Second, the icy moons will be discussed. Space missions and ground-based observations have revealed the variety of icy surfaces in the outer system. While Europa, Enceladus, and maybe Titan present past or even active tectonic and volcanic activities, many other moons have been dead worlds for more than 3 billion years. Ice compositions found at these bodies are also complex and it is now commonly admitted that icy surfaces are never composed of pure ices. A detailed review of the distribution of non-ice materials on the surfaces and in the tenuous atmospheres of the moons is proposed, followed by a more focused discussion on the nature and the characteristics of the liquid layers trapped below the cold icy crusts that have been suggested in the icy Galilean moons, and in Enceladus, Dione, and Titan at Saturn. Finally, the recent observations collected by Dawn at Ceres and New Horizons at Pluto, as well as the state of knowledge of other transneptunian objects

  9. Solar photocatalytic cleaning of polluted water. Solare Reinigung verschmutzter Waesser mittels Photokatalyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bockelmann, D

    1994-01-01

    Alternatively to biological, physical and chemical methods of waste water cleaning, photocatalysis can be employed. In this residue-free method, titanium dioxide particles are brought into contact with polluted water as photocatalysts. Under UV irradiation at wave-lengths below 400 nm, change carriers are generated in the semiconductor particles that act so intensely oxidizing as to completely degrade almost all organic pollutants in waste water. In this process, the ultra-violet part of the solar spectrum can be harnessed to generate oxidation equivalents. Thus, solar photocatalytic waste water cleaning is excellently suited for developing countries. (BWI)

  10. Experimental investigation of stepped solar still with continuous water circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Agouz, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Comparison between modified stepped and conventional solar still was carried out. • Effect of storage tank and cotton absorber on productivity was investigated. • Efficiency for modified stepped still is higher than conventional still by 20%. • The day and night efficiency increases by 5% and 3.5% for salt and sea water. - Abstract: This paper presents a modification of stepped solar still with continuous water circulation using a storage tank for sea and salt water. Total dissolved solids (TDS) of seawater and salt water before desalination is 57,100 and 2370 mg/l. A comparison study between modified stepped and conventional solar still was carried out to evaluate the developed desalination system performance under the same climate conditions. The effect of installing a storage tank and cotton black absorber for modified stepped solar still on the distillate productivity was investigated. The results indicate that, the productivity of the modified stepped still is higher than that for conventional still approximately by 43% and 48% for sea and salt water with black absorber respectively, while 53% and 47% of sea and salt water, respectively with cotton absorber. Also, the daily efficiency for modified stepped still is higher than that for conventional still approximately by 20%. The maximum efficiency of modified stepped still is occurring at a feed water flow rate of 1 LPM for sea water and 3 LPM for salt water. Total dissolved solids (TDS) of seawater and salt water after desalination is 41, and 27 mg/l

  11. Performance of commercially available solar and heat pump water heaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, C.R.; Kerr, A.S.D.

    2008-01-01

    Many countries are using policy incentives to encourage the adoption of energy-efficient hot water heating as a means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Such policies rely heavily on assumed performance factors for such systems. In-situ performance data for solar and heat pump hot water systems, however, are not copious in the literature. Otago University has been testing some systems available in New Zealand for a number of years. The results obtained are compared to international studies of in-situ performance of solar hot water systems and heat pump hot water systems, by converting the results from the international studies into a single index suitable for both solar and heat pump systems (COP). Variability in the international data is investigated as well as comparisons to model results. The conclusions suggest that there is not too much difference in performance between solar systems that have a permanently connected electric boost backup and heat pump systems over a wide range of environmental temperatures. The energy payback time was also calculated for electric boost solar flat plate systems as a function of both COP and hot water usage for a given value of embodied energy. The calculations generally bode well for solar systems but ensuring adequate system performance is paramount. In addition, such systems generally favour high usage rates to obtain good energy payback times

  12. Transient flows of the solar wind associated with small-scale solar activity in solar minimum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slemzin, Vladimir; Veselovsky, Igor; Kuzin, Sergey; Gburek, Szymon; Ulyanov, Artyom; Kirichenko, Alexey; Shugay, Yulia; Goryaev, Farid

    The data obtained by the modern high sensitive EUV-XUV telescopes and photometers such as CORONAS-Photon/TESIS and SPHINX, STEREO/EUVI, PROBA2/SWAP, SDO/AIA provide good possibilities for studying small-scale solar activity (SSA), which is supposed to play an important role in heating of the corona and producing transient flows of the solar wind. During the recent unusually weak solar minimum, a large number of SSA events, such as week solar flares, small CMEs and CME-like flows were observed and recorded in the databases of flares (STEREO, SWAP, SPHINX) and CMEs (LASCO, CACTUS). On the other hand, the solar wind data obtained in this period by ACE, Wind, STEREO contain signatures of transient ICME-like structures which have shorter duration (<10h), weaker magnetic field strength (<10 nT) and lower proton temperature than usual ICMEs. To verify the assumption that ICME-like transients may be associated with the SSA events we investigated the number of weak flares of C-class and lower detected by SPHINX in 2009 and STEREO/EUVI in 2010. The flares were classified on temperature and emission measure using the diagnostic means of SPHINX and Hinode/EIS and were confronted with the parameters of the solar wind (velocity, density, ion composition and temperature, magnetic field, pitch angle distribution of the suprathermal electrons). The outflows of plasma associated with the flares were identified by their coronal signatures - CMEs (only in few cases) and dimmings. It was found that the mean parameters of the solar wind projected to the source surface for the times of the studied flares were typical for the ICME-like transients. The results support the suggestion that weak flares can be indicators of sources of transient plasma flows contributing to the slow solar wind at solar minimum, although these flows may be too weak to be considered as separate CMEs and ICMEs. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Programme

  13. Pasteurization of naturally contaminated water with solar energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciochetti, D A; Metcalf, R H

    1984-02-01

    A solar box cooker (SBC) was constructed with a cooking area deep enough to hold several 3.7-liter jugs of water, and this was used to investigate the potential of using solar energy to pasteurize naturally contaminated water. When river water was heated either in the SBC or on a hot plate, coliform bacteria were inactivated at temperatures of 60 degrees C or greater. Heating water in an SBC to at least 65 degrees C ensures that the water will be above the milk pasteurization temperature of 62.8 degrees C for at least an hour, which appears sufficient to pasteurize contaminated water. On clear or partly cloudy days, with the SBC facing magnetic south in Sacramento, bottom water temperatures of at least 65 degrees C could be obtained in 11.1 liters of water during the 6 weeks on either side of the summer solstice, in 7.4 liters of water from mid-March through mid-September, and in 3.7 liters of water an additional 2 to 3 weeks at the beginning and end of the solar season. Periodic repositioning of the SBC towards the sun, adjusting the back reflective lid, and preheating water in a simple reflective device increased final water temperatures. Simultaneous cooking and heating water to pasteurizing temperatures was possible. Additional uses of the SBC to pasteurize soil and to decontaminate hospital materials before disposal in remote areas are suggested.

  14. The Heliosphere through the Solar Activity Cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Balogh, André; Suess, Steven T

    2008-01-01

    Understanding how the Sun changes though its 11-year sunspot cycle and how these changes affect the vast space around the Sun – the heliosphere – has been one of the principal objectives of space research since the advent of the space age. This book presents the evolution of the heliosphere through an entire solar activity cycle. The last solar cycle (cycle 23) has been the best observed from both the Earth and from a fleet of spacecraft. Of these, the joint ESA-NASA Ulysses probe has provided continuous observations of the state of the heliosphere since 1990 from a unique vantage point, that of a nearly polar orbit around the Sun. Ulysses’ results affect our understanding of the heliosphere from the interior of the Sun to the interstellar medium - beyond the outer boundary of the heliosphere. Written by scientists closely associated with the Ulysses mission, the book describes and explains the many different aspects of changes in the heliosphere in response to solar activity. In particular, the authors...

  15. Great red spot dependence on solar activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schatten, K.H.

    1979-01-01

    A new inquiry has been made into the question of whether Jupiter's Great Red Spot shows a solar activity dependence. From 1892 to 1947 a clear correlation was present. A dearth of sightings in the seventeenth century, along with the Maunder Minimum, further supports the relation. An anticorrelation, however, from l948 to l967 removed support for such an effect. The old observations have reexamined and recent observations have also been studied. The author reexamines this difficult question and suggests a possible physical mechanism for a Sun-Jovian weather relation. Prinn and Lewis' conversion reaction of Phosphine gas to triclinic red phosphorous crystals is a reaction dependent upon solar radiation. It may explain the dependence found, as well as the striking appearance of the Great Red Spot in the UV

  16. Solar radiation for sea-water desalination and electric power generation via vacuum solar collectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottinelli, L.; Reali, M.; El-Nashar, A.M.; Giusiano, F.; Vigotti, R.

    1996-01-01

    The present report concerns the energetic potential of vacuum solar which are rather versatile and efficient devices for converting solar energy into thermal energy. Two main energetic applications have been analysed: the first one for a solar sea water desalination plant which has been operated in Abu Dhabi for the past ten years, the other for a conceptual solar thermoelectric-power plant having a fair thermodynamic efficiency (15-20%). A simple technology for the manufacture of vacuum solar collectors in a standard mechanical shop is being developed in collaboration between ENEL Sp A (DSR-CRIS, Milano) and WED (Abu Dhabi). Such technology should have an important economy-saving potential per se and would also make repair and substitution operations simple enough for the actual operators of the vacuum solar collector system without any need of external assistance. The technic-operative-economical features of the Abu Dhabi solar desalination plant suggest that the use novel simplified vacuum solar collectors could have a considerable technic economical potential. The analysis of the conceptual solar thermo-electric-power plant focuses on its general layout and singles out key technological issues which ought to be addressed in an overall feasibility study. 5 figs., 3 tabs

  17. Performance of Thermosyphon Solar Water Heaters in Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsong-Sheng Lee

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available More than a single thermosyphon solar water heater may be employed in applications when considerable hot water consumption is required. In this experimental investigation, eight typical Taiwanese solar water heaters were connected in series. Degree of temperature stratification and thermosyphon flow rate in a horizontal tank were evaluated. The system was tested under no-load, intermittent and continuous load conditions. Results showed that there was stratification in tanks under the no-load condition. Temperature stratification also redeveloped after the draw-off. Analysis of thermal performance of the system was conducted for each condition.

  18. Preliminary design package for solar heating and hot water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Two prototype solar heating and hot water systems for use in single-family dwellings or commercial buildings were designed. Subsystems included are: collector, storage, transport, hot water, auxiliary energy, and government-furnished site data acquisition. The systems are designed for Yosemite, California, and Pueblo, Colorado. The necessary information to evaluate the preliminary design for these solar heating and hot water systems is presented. Included are a proposed instrumentation plan, a training program, hazard analysis, preliminary design drawings, and other information about the design of the system.

  19. Performance of solar photovoltaic array fed water pumping system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the design and performance analysis of a solar photovoltaic (SPV) array fed water pumping system utilizing a special class of highly rugged machine with simple drive system called switched reluctance motor (SRM) drive. The proposed method of water pumping system also provides the cost effective ...

  20. Investigation and Construction of a Thermosyphoning Solar Hot Water System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Harvey

    1978-01-01

    Describes how a thermosyphoning solar water heater capable of heating 110 kilogram of water to 80 degree Celsius and maintaining this temperature for 24 hours was constructed by four students in the fifth form of Sekolah Date Abdul Razak, Seremban, Malaysia in 1976. (HM)

  1. Prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Progress is reviewed in the development, delivery, and support of two prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water. The system consisted of the following subsystems: collector, auxiliary heating, potable hot water, storage, control, transport, and government-furnished site data acquisition.

  2. Solar Space and Water Heating for Hospital --Charlottesville, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Solar heating system described in an 86-page report consists of 88 single-glazed selectively-coated baseplate collector modules, hot-water coils in air ducts, domestic-hot-water preheat tank, 3,000 Gallon (11,350-1) concrete urethane-insulated storage tank and other components.

  3. Recent developments in solar H 2 generation from water splitting

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hydrogen production from water and sunlight through photocatalysis could become one of the channels, in the not-so-distant future, to meet a part of ever growing energy demands. However, accomplishing solar water splitting through semiconductor particulate photocatalysis seems to be the 'Holy Grail' problem of science.

  4. Economics of residential solar hot water heating systems in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdulmula, Ahmed Mohamed Omer; Sopian, Kamaruzzaman; Haj Othman, Mohd Yosof

    2006-01-01

    Malaysia has favorable climatic conditions for the development of solar energy due to the abundant sunshine and is considered good for harnessing energy from the sun. This is because solar hot water can represent the large energy consumer in Malaysian households but, because of the high initial cost of Solar Water Heating Systems (SWHSs) and easily to install and relatively inexpensive to purchase electric water heaters, many Malyaysian families are still using Electric Water Heaters to hot their water needs. This paper is presented the comparing of techno-economic feasibility of some models of SWHS from Malaysian's market with the Electric Water Heaters )EWH) by study the annual cost of operation for both systems. The result shows that the annual cost of the electrical water heater becomes greater than than the annual cost of the SWHS for all models in long-team run so it is advantageous for the family to use the solar water heater, at least after 4 years. In addition with installation SWHS the families can get long-term economical benefits, environment friendly and also can doing its part to reduce this country's dependence on foreign oil that is price increase day after day.(Author)

  5. Two different sources of water for the early solar nebula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupper, Stefan; Tornow, Carmen; Gast, Philipp

    2012-06-01

    Water is essential for life. This is a trivial fact but has profound implications since the forming of life on the early Earth required water. The sources of water and the related amount of delivery depend not only on the conditions on the early Earth itself but also on the evolutionary history of the solar system. Thus we ask where and when water formed in the solar nebula-the precursor of the solar system. In this paper we explore the chemical mechanics for water formation and its expected abundance. This is achieved by studying the parental cloud core of the solar nebula and its gravitational collapse. We have identified two different sources of water for the region of Earth's accretion. The first being the sublimation of the icy mantles of dust grains formed in the parental cloud. The second source is located in the inner region of the collapsing cloud core - the so-called hot corino with a temperature of several hundred Kelvin. There, water is produced efficiently in the gas phase by reactions between neutral molecules. Additionally, we analyse the dependence of the production of water on the initial abundance ratio between carbon and oxygen.

  6. A completely passive continuous flow solar water purification system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duff, William S.; Hodgson, David A. [Dept. of Mechanical Enginnering, Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Water-borne pathogens in developing countries cause several billion cases of disease and up to 10 million deaths each year, at least half of which are children. Solar water pasteurization is a potentially cost-effective, robust and reliable solution to these problems. A completely passively controlled solar water pasteurization system with a total collector area of 0.45 m{sup 2} has been constructed. The system most recently tested produced 337 litres per m{sup 2} of collector area of treated water on a sunny day. We developed our completely passive density-driven solar water pasteurization system over a five year span so that it now achieves reliable control for all possible variations in solar conditions. We have also substantially increased its daily pure water production efficiency over the same period. We will discuss the performance of our water purification system and provide an analyses that demonstrates that the system insures safe purified water production at all times. (orig.)

  7. The Character of the Solar Wind, Surface Interactions, and Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, William M.

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the key characteristics of the proton-rich solar wind and describe how it may interact with the lunar surface. We suggest that solar wind can be both a source and loss of water/OH related volatiles, and review models showing both possibilities. Energy from the Sun in the form of radiation and solar wind plasma are in constant interaction with the lunar surface. As such, there is a solar-lunar energy connection, where solar energy and matter are continually bombarding the lunar surface, acting at the largest scale to erode the surface at 0.2 Angstroms per year via ion sputtering [1]. Figure 1 illustrates this dynamically Sun-Moon system.

  8. MASC: Magnetic Activity of the Solar Corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auchere, Frederic; Fineschi, Silvano; Gan, Weiqun; Peter, Hardi; Vial, Jean-Claude; Zhukov, Andrei; Parenti, Susanna; Li, Hui; Romoli, Marco

    We present MASC, an innovative payload designed to explore the magnetic activity of the solar corona. It is composed of three complementary instruments: a Hard-X-ray spectrometer, a UV / EUV imager, and a Visible Light / UV polarimetric coronagraph able to measure the coronal magnetic field. The solar corona is structured in magnetically closed and open structures from which slow and fast solar winds are respectively released. In spite of much progress brought by two decades of almost uninterrupted observations from several space missions, the sources and acceleration mechanisms of both types are still not understood. This continuous expansion of the solar atmosphere is disturbed by sporadic but frequent and violent events. Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are large-scale massive eruptions of magnetic structures out of the corona, while solar flares trace the sudden heating of coronal plasma and the acceleration of electrons and ions to high, sometimes relativistic, energies. Both phenomena are most probably driven by instabilities of the magnetic field in the corona. The relations between flares and CMEs are still not understood in terms of initiation and energy partition between large-scale motions, small-scale heating and particle acceleration. The initiation is probably related to magnetic reconnection which itself results magnetic topological changes due to e.g. flux emergence, footpoints motions, etc. Acceleration and heating are also strongly coupled since the atmospheric heating is thought to result from the impact of accelerated particles. The measurement of both physical processes and their outputs is consequently of major importance. However, despite its fundamental importance as a driver for the physics of the Sun and of the heliosphere, the magnetic field of our star’s outer atmosphere remains poorly understood. This is due in large part to the fact that the magnetic field is a very difficult quantity to measure. Our knowledge of its strength and

  9. Variations of Solar Non-axisymmetric Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyenge, N.; Baranyi, T.; Ludmány, A.

    The temporal behaviour of solar active longitudes has been examined by using two sunspot catalogues, the Greenwich Photoheliographic Results (GPR) and the Debrecen Photoheliographic Data (DPD). The time-longitude diagrams of the activity distribution reveal the preferred longitudinal zones and their migration with respect to the Carrington frame. The migration paths outline a set of patterns in which the activity zone has alternating prograde/retrograde angular velocities with respect to the Carrington rotation rate. The time profiles of these variations can be described by a set of successive parabolae. Two similar migration paths have been selected from these datasets, one northern path during cycles 21 - 22 and one southern path during cycles 13 - 14, for closer examination and comparison of their dynamical behaviours. The rates of sunspot emergence exhibited in both migration paths similar periodicities, close to 1.3 years. This behaviour may imply that the active longitude is connected to the bottom of convection zone.

  10. The active thermal solar; Le solaire thermique actif

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedel, St.; Salomon, Th.

    2000-05-01

    This information paper recalls the different types of solar cells and their operating. It presents the possible utilizations for the buildings heating (air and water systems) and for the water heating in the residential houses (also for the heating of swimming pools) and the collective buildings. The drying of agricultural products and the solar cooling are also discussed. (A.L.B.)

  11. Installation package for a domestic solar heating and hot water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The installation of two prototype solar heating and hot water systems is described. The systems consists of the following subsystems: solar collector, storage, control, transport, and auxiliary energy.

  12. Solar water-heating performance evaluation-San Diego, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Report describes energy saved by replacing domestic, conventional natural gas heater with solar-energy subsystem in single-family residence near San Diego, California. Energy savings for 6 month test period averaged 1.089 million Btu. Collector array covered 65 square feet and supplied hot water to both 66-gallon solar storage tank and 40-gallon tank for domestic use. Natural gas supplied house's auxiliary energy.

  13. Preliminary design package for solar hot water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogle, Val; Aspinwall, David B.

    1977-12-01

    The information necessary to evaluate the preliminary design of the Solar Engineering and Manufacturing Company's (SEMCO) solar hot water system is presented. This package includes technical information, schematics, drawings and brochures. This system, being developed by SEMCO, consists of the following subsystems: collector, storage, transport, control, auxiliary energy, and Government-furnished site data acquisition. The two units being manufactured will be installed at Loxahatchee, Florida, and Macon, Georgia.

  14. Water recovery in a concentrated solar power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Aikifa; Higgo, Alex R.; Alobaidli, Abdulaziz; Zhang, TieJun

    2016-05-01

    For CSP plants, water consumption is undergoing increasing scrutiny particularly in dry and arid regions with water scarcity conditions. Significant amount of water has to be used for parabolic trough mirror cleaning to maintain high mirror reflectance and optical efficiency in sandy environment. For this specific purpose, solar collectors are washed once or twice every week at Shams 1, one of the largest CSP plant in the Middle East, and about 5 million gallons of demineralized water is utilized every year without further recovery. The produced waste water from a CSP plant contains the soiling i.e. accumulated dust and some amount of organic contaminants, as indicated by our analysis of waste water samples from the solar field. We thus need to develop a membrane based system to filter fine dust particulates and to degrade organic contaminant simultaneously. Membrane filtration technology is considered to be cost-effective way to address the emerging problem of a clean water shortage, and to reuse the filtered water after cleaning solar collectors. But there are some major technical barriers to improve the robustness and energy efficiency of filtration membranes especially when dealing with the removal of ultra-small particles and oil traces. Herein, we proposed a robust and scalable nanostructured inorganic microporous filtration copper mesh. The inorganic membrane surface wettability is tailored to enhance the water permeability and filtration flux by creating nanostructures. These nanostructured membranes were successfully employed to recover water collected after cleaning the reflectors of solar field of Shams 1. Another achievement was to remove the traces of heat transfer fluid (HTF) from run-off water which was collected after accidental leakage in some of the heat exchangers during the commissioning of the Shams 1 for safe disposal into the main stream. We hope, by controlling the water recovery factor and membrane reusability performance, the membrane

  15. Abundance variations in solar active regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, K. T.; Lemen, J. R.; Linford, G. A.

    1991-01-01

    The diversity in the published values of coronal abundances is unsettling, especially as the range of results seems to be beyond the quoted uncertainties. Measurements of the relative abundance of iron and neon derived from soft X-ray spectra of active regions are presented. From a data base of over 200 spectra taken by the Solar Maximum Mission Flat Crystal Spectrometer, it is found that the relative abundance can vary by as much as a factor of about 7 and can change on timescales of less than 1 h.

  16. Application of Solar Photovoltaic Water Pumping System in Hainan Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiangchun; YU; Qingqing; LIN; Xuedong; ZHOU; Zhibin; YANG

    2013-01-01

    With radical socio-economic development and strengthening of regulation of agricultural industrial structure in Hainan Province,fresh water resource becomes increasingly insufficient.Existing water-saving facilities and measures are unable to promote sustainable and stable development of local economy.This needs modern irrigation method.Solar photovoltaic water pumping system is necessary and feasible in Hainan agriculture,and will have directive significance for Hainan Province developing photovoltaic agriculture.

  17. Application of Solar Photovoltaic Water Pumping System in Hainan Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Xiangchun; Lin, Qingqing; Zhou, Xuedong; Yang, Zhibin

    2013-01-01

    With radical socio-economic development and strengthening of regulation of agricultural industrial structure in Hainan Province, fresh water resource becomes increasingly insufficient. Existing water-saving facilities and measures are unable to promote sustainable and stable development of local economy. This needs modern irrigation method. Solar photovoltaic water pumping system is necessary and feasible in Hainan agriculture, and will have directive significance for Hainan Province developi...

  18. Optimization of a PV/T (photovoltaic/thermal) active solar still

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeedi, F.; Sarhaddi, F.; Behzadmehr, A.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the optimization of a PV/T (photovoltaic/thermal) active solar still is carried out. Analytical expressions for glass cover temperature, basin temperature, brackish water temperature and fresh water productivity are obtained by writing energy balance for different components of PV/T active solar still. The output electrical power of PV/T active solar still is calculated by four-parameter I–V (current–voltage) model. Objective function in present study is the energy efficiency of PV/T active solar still. A computer simulation program has been developed in order to obtain thermal and electrical parameters, respectively. The simulation results of the present study are in fair agreement with the experimental data of previous literatures. Finally, the optimization of PV/T active solar still has been carried out and the optimized value of mass flow rate, number of PV/T collector and the objective function have been obtained. Furthermore, the effect of various operating parameters on energy efficiency have been investigated. - Highlights: • The comprehensive optimization of a PV/T active solar still is carried out. • Present study is based on numerical simulation. • A modified energy efficiency for PV/T active solar still is obtained. • The effect of design and operating parameters is investigated on energy efficiency

  19. Water Vapor Remote Sensing Techniques: Radiometry and Solar Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somieski, A.; Buerki, B.; Cocard, M.; Geiger, A.; Kahle, H.-G.

    The high variability of atmospheric water vapor content plays an important role in space geodesy, climatology and meteorology. Water vapor has a strong influence on transatmospheric satellite signals, the Earth's climate and thus the weather forecasting. Several remote sensing techniques have been developed for the determination of inte- grated precipitable water vapor (IPWV). The Geodesy and Geodynamics Lab (GGL) utilizes the methods of Water Vapor Radiometry and Solar Spectrometry to quantify the amount of tropospheric water vapor and its temporal variations. The Water Vapor Radiometer (WVR) measures the radiation intensity of the atmosphere in a frequency band ranging from 20 to 32 GHz. The Solar Atmospheric MOnitoring Spectrome- ter (SAMOS) of GGL is designed for high-resolution measurements of water vapor absorption lines using solar radiation. In the framework of the ESCOMPTE (ExpÊrience sur Site pour COntraindre les Mod- Éles de Pollution atmosphÊrique et de Transport d'Emissions) field campaign these instruments have been operated near Marseille in 2001. They have aquired a long time series of integrated precipitable water vapor content (IPWV). The accuracy of IPWV measured by WVR and SAMOS is 1 kg/m2. Furthermore meteorological data from radiosondes were used to calculate the IPWV in order to provide comparisons with the results of WVR and SAMOS. The methods of Water Vapor Radiometry and So- lar Spectrometry will be discussed and first preliminary results retrieved from WVR, SAMOS and radiosondes during the ESCOMPTE field campaign will be presented.

  20. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Listerhill, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The Solar system was installed into a new building and was designed to provide 79% of the estimated annual space heating load and 59% of the estimated annual potable hot water requirement. The collectors are flat plate, liquid manufactured by Reynolds Metals Company and cover a total area of 2344 square feet. The storage medium is water inhibited with NALCO 2755 and the container is an underground, unpressurized steel tank with a capacity of 5000 gallons. This report describes in considerable detail the solar heating facility and contains detailed drawings of the completed system.

  1. Low-Cost Solar Water Heating Research and Development Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudon, K.; Merrigan, T.; Burch, J.; Maguire, J.

    2012-08-01

    The market environment for solar water heating technology has changed substantially with the successful introduction of heat pump water heaters (HPWHs). The addition of this energy-efficient technology to the market increases direct competition with solar water heaters (SWHs) for available energy savings. It is therefore essential to understand which segment of the market is best suited for HPWHs and focus the development of innovative, low-cost SWHs in the market segment where the largest opportunities exist. To evaluate cost and performance tradeoffs between high performance hot water heating systems, annual energy simulations were run using the program, TRNSYS, and analysis was performed to compare the energy savings associated with HPWH and SWH technologies to conventional methods of water heating.

  2. Innovative Sustainable Water Management Practices in Solar Residential Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Jason Mabry

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper communicates the results of an architectural research project which sought innovative design strategies for achieving energy and resource efficiencies in water management systems traditionally used in single-family housing. It describes the engineering of an efficient, multifaceted, and fully integrated water management system for a domesticenvironment of 800 sq. ft., entirely powered by solar energy. The four innovations whose details are conveyed include the use of alternate materials for piping distribution and collection, the use of water in solar energy generation, the design of a building skin which capitalizes on water’s capacity to store heat as well as the design of a ecological groundscape which re-usesand filters waste water and rain water.Keywords: energy, plumbing, home design

  3. Synergistic effect of solar radiation and solar heating to disinfect drinking water sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijal, G K; Fujioka, R S

    2001-01-01

    Waterborne diseases are still common in developing countries as drinking water sources are contaminated and feasible means to reliably treat and disinfect these waters are not available. Many of these developing countries are in the tropical regions of the world where sunlight is plentiful. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of combining solar radiation and solar heating to disinfect contaminated water using a modified Family Sol*Saver System (FSP). The non-UV transmittable cover sheet of the former FSP system was replaced with an UV transmittable plastic cover sheet to enable more wavelengths of sunlight to treat the water. Disinfection efficiency of both systems was evaluated based on reduction of the natural populations of faecal coliform, E. coli, enterococci, C. perfringens, total heterotrophic bacteria, hydrogen sulphide producing bacteria and FRNA virus. The results showed that under sunny and partly sunny conditions, water was heated to critical temperature (60 degrees C) in both the FSP systems inactivating more than 3 log (99.9%) of the concentrations of faecal coliform and E. coli to undetectable levels of heat worked synergistically to enhance the inactivation of faecal indicator bacteria. The relative log removal of indicator microorganism in the FSP treated water was total heterotrophic bacteria heat and radiation effects of sunlight were important in disinfecting water by solar units. The data indicated that direct radiation of sunlight worked synergistically with solar heating of the water to disinfect the water. Thus, effective disinfection was observed even when the water temperature did not reach 60 degrees C. Finally, the hydrogen sulphide test is a simple and reliable test that householders can use to determine whether their water had been sufficiently disinfected.

  4. Feasibility analysis of domestic solar water heating systems in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaldellis, J.K.; El Samani, K.; Koronakis, P.

    2005-01-01

    The excessive usage of fossil fuels has world-widely caused chain environmental consequences. An interesting solution to this problem is the systematic exploitation of available renewable energy sources, including solar energy. Greece is located in a major geographical region with an abundant and reliable supply of solar energy, even during the winter. In as much, one cannot disregard the significant dependency of the country on imported fuels, since almost 70% of its domestic energy consumption is covered by oil and natural gas imports. Despite the relative local sun abundance, during the last 10 years the local solar collectors market illustrates a sluggish behaviour, in comparison with the impressive numbers of sales during the 1980-1990 decade. At a first glance, such an occurrence characterizes a controversy. In an attempt to find a rational explanation of this peculiar situation, an integrated cost-benefit analysis is carried out taking into consideration the vast majority of the parameters affecting solar thermal energy production cost. The resulting numerical values are then compared with the corresponding ones coming from alternative hot-water production techniques. Accordingly, a quite extensive sensitivity analysis is carried out, in order to demonstrate the impact of the main techno-economic parameters on the fiscal behaviour of contemporary solar hot water production systems. The results obtained not only explain with sufficient accuracy the current local market situation but also demonstrate the specific actions that if realized they may boost solar collector sales in the corresponding local market. (author)

  5. Forced-circulation solar water heater using a solar battery; Taiyo denchi wo mochiita kyosei junkahshiki taiyonetsu onsuiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asai, S; Mizuno, T [Yazaki Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Optimal operation control was discussed on a forced-circulation solar water heater using solar cells not only as the power supply of a heat collecting pump, but also for controlling operation of the heat collecting pump. With this system, when the amount of power generated by solar cells reaches a sufficient level for operating the heat collecting pump, the heat collecting pump starts operation, wherein the heat collecting medium circulates in the system. The discussion was given by using simulation based on experimental expressions such as the relation expression between insolation and heat collecting medium flow rate as derived from the result of the system`s heat collecting performance test. As a result, the following conclusions were obtained: optimal insolation for activating the discussed system is from 50 to 100 W/m {sup 2}, and the heat collected within this range is within -1.5% of the collected heat amount at an optimum value; optimal activating insolation for the case of 1000 to 2000 W/m {sup 2} with low daily cumulative insolation is from 0 to 50 W/m {sup 2}, whereas the optimal activating insolation amount increases as the daily cumulative insolation amount increases; and the optimal activating insolation amount increases as water to be supplied requires higher temperature. 1 ref., 17 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Analysis of a solar collector field water flow network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, J. E.; Knoll, R. H.

    1976-01-01

    A number of methods are presented for minimizing the water flow variation in the solar collector field for the Solar Building Test Facility at the Langley Research Center. The solar collector field investigated consisted of collector panels connected in parallel between inlet and exit collector manifolds to form 12 rows. The rows were in turn connected in parallel between the main inlet and exit field manifolds to complete the field. The various solutions considered included various size manifolds, manifold area change, different locations for the inlets and exits to the manifolds, and orifices or flow control valves. Calculations showed that flow variations of less than 5 percent were obtainable both inside a row between solar collector panels and between various rows.

  7. Energy behavior of solar hot water systems under different conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuentes Lombá, Osmanys; Torres Ten, Alonso; Arzuaga Machado, Yusnel; Hernández, Massipe J. Raúl; Cueva Gonzales, Wagner

    2017-01-01

    By means of numerical simulations in TRNSYS v14 the influence of the solar absorption area of a system for heating water with solar energy, composed by a flat solar collector and a tank thermo-accumulator, on its energy efficiency. For the study, the solar collectors EDWARDS, ISOFOTÓN 1, ISOFOTÓN 2, MADE, ROLDAN and IBERSOLAR of absorption area 2, 1,9, 1,88, 2, 1,9 and 2,3 m2 respectively were chosen. For each collector, the energy performance was simulated for one year, setting 200 L for the accumulation volume and 50 °C for the intake temperature. Despite the different characteristics of each collector, their behavior is quite similar showing a very mature technology. (author)

  8. Continuous-flow solar UVB disinfection reactor for drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbonimpa, Eric Gentil; Vadheim, Bryan; Blatchley, Ernest R

    2012-05-01

    Access to safe, reliable sources of drinking water is a long-standing problem among people in developing countries. Sustainable solutions to these problems often involve point-of-use or community-scale water treatment systems that rely on locally-available resources and expertise. This philosophy was used in the development of a continuous-flow, solar UVB disinfection system. Numerical modeling of solar UVB spectral irradiance was used to define temporal variations in spectral irradiance at several geographically-distinct locations. The results of these simulations indicated that a solar UVB system would benefit from incorporation of a device to amplify ambient UVB fluence rate. A compound parabolic collector (CPC) was selected for this purpose. Design of the CPC was based on numerical simulations that accounted for the shape of the collector and reflectance. Based on these simulations, a prototype CPC was constructed using materials that would be available and inexpensive in many developing countries. A UVB-transparent pipe was positioned in the focal area of the CPC; water was pumped through the pipe to allow exposure of waterborne microbes to germicidal solar UVB radiation. The system was demonstrated to be effective for inactivation of Escherichia coli, and DNA-weighted UV dose was shown to govern reactor performance. The design of the reactor is expected to scale linearly, and improvements in process performance (relative to results from the prototype) can be expected by use of larger CPC geometry, inclusion of better reflective materials, and application in areas with greater ambient solar UV spectral irradiance than the location of the prototype tests. The system is expected to have application for water treatment among communities in (developing) countries in near-equatorial and tropical locations. It may also have application for disaster relief or military field operations, as well as in water treatment in areas of developed countries that receive

  9. Study Design And Realization Of Solar Water Heater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lounis, M.; Boudjemaa, F.; Akil, S. Kouider

    2011-01-01

    Solar is one of the most easily exploitable energy, it is moreover inexhaustible. His applications are many and are varied. The heating of the domestic water is one of the most immediate, simplest and also of most widespread exploitation of the solar energy. Algeria, from its geographical situation, it deposits one of the largest high sun surface expositions in the world. The exposition duration of the almost territory exceeds 2000 hours annually and can reach the 3900 hours (high plateaus and Sahara). By knowing the daily energy received by 1 m 2 of a horizontal surface of the solar thermal panel is nearly around 1700 KWh/m 2 a year in the north and 2263 KWh/m 2 a year in the south of the country, we release the most important and strategic place of the solar technologies in the present and in the future for Algeria. This work consists to study, conceive and manufacture solar water heating with the available local materials so, this type of the energy will be profitable for all, particularly the poor countries. If we consider the illumination duration of the panel around 6 hours a day, the water heat panel manufactured in our laboratory produce an equivalent energy of 11.615 KWh a day so, 4239 KWh a year. These values of energy can be easily increased with performing the panel manufacture.

  10. Renewable water: Direct contact membrane distillation coupled with solar ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suárez, Francisco; Ruskowitz, Jeffrey A.; Tyler, Scott W.; Childress, Amy E.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Experimental investigation of direct contact membrane distillation driven by solar ponds. • The DCMD/SGSP system treats ∼6 times the water flow treated by an AGMD/SGSP system. • Half of the energy extracted from the SGSP was used to transport water across the membrane. • Reducing heat losses through the DCMD/SGSP system would yield higher water fluxes. - Abstract: Desalination powered by renewable energy sources is an attractive solution to address the worldwide water-shortage problem without contributing significant to greenhouse gas emissions. A promising system for renewable energy desalination is the utilization of low-temperature direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) driven by a thermal solar energy system, such as a salt-gradient solar pond (SGSP). This investigation presents the first experimental study of fresh water production in a coupled DCMD/SGSP system. The objectives of this work are to determine the experimental fresh water production rates and the energetic requirements of the different components of the system. From the laboratory results, it was found that the coupled DCMD/SGSP system treats approximately six times the water flow treated by a similar system that consisted of an air–gap membrane distillation unit driven by an SGSP. In terms of the energetic requirements, approximately 70% of the heat extracted from the SGSP was utilized to drive thermal desalination and the rest was lost in different locations of the system. In the membrane module, only half of the useful heat was actually used to transport water across the membrane and the remainder was lost by conduction in the membrane. It was also found that by reducing heat losses throughout the system would yield higher water fluxes, pointing out the need to improve the efficiency throughout the DCMD/SGSP coupled system. Therefore, further investigation of membrane properties, insulation of the system, or optimal design of the solar pond must be addressed in

  11. Solar water splitting by photovoltaic-electrolysis with a solar-to-hydrogen efficiency over 30%

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jieyang; Seitz, Linsey C.; Benck, Jesse D.; Huo, Yijie; Chen, Yusi; Ng, Jia Wei Desmond; Bilir, Taner; Harris, James S.; Jaramillo, Thomas F.

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen production via electrochemical water splitting is a promising approach for storing solar energy. For this technology to be economically competitive, it is critical to develop water splitting systems with high solar-to-hydrogen (STH) efficiencies. Here we report a photovoltaic-electrolysis system with the highest STH efficiency for any water splitting technology to date, to the best of our knowledge. Our system consists of two polymer electrolyte membrane electrolysers in series with one InGaP/GaAs/GaInNAsSb triple-junction solar cell, which produces a large-enough voltage to drive both electrolysers with no additional energy input. The solar concentration is adjusted such that the maximum power point of the photovoltaic is well matched to the operating capacity of the electrolysers to optimize the system efficiency. The system achieves a 48-h average STH efficiency of 30%. These results demonstrate the potential of photovoltaic-electrolysis systems for cost-effective solar energy storage. PMID:27796309

  12. Apparent Relations Between Solar Activity and Solar Tides Caused by the Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Ching-Cheh

    2007-01-01

    A solar storm is a storm of ions and electrons from the Sun. Large solar storms are usually preceded by solar flares, phenomena that can be characterized quantitatively from Earth. Twenty-five of the thirty-eight largest known solar flares were observed to start when one or more tide-producing planets (Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Jupiter) were either nearly above the event positions (less than 10 deg. longitude) or at the opposing side of the Sun. The probability for this to happen at random is 0.039 percent. This supports the hypothesis that the force or momentum balance (between the solar atmospheric pressure, the gravity field, and magnetic field) on plasma in the looping magnetic field lines in solar corona could be disturbed by tides, resulting in magnetic field reconnection, solar flares, and solar storms. Separately, from the daily position data of Venus, Earth, and Jupiter, an 11-year planet alignment cycle is observed to approximately match the sunspot cycle. This observation supports the hypothesis that the resonance and beat between the solar tide cycle and nontidal solar activity cycle influences the sunspot cycle and its varying magnitudes. The above relations between the unpredictable solar flares and the predictable solar tidal effects could be used and further developed to forecast the dangerous space weather and therefore reduce its destructive power against the humans in space and satellites controlling mobile phones and global positioning satellite (GPS) systems.

  13. Domestic hot water and solar energy in Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hand, F; Asare, B; Haslett, J

    1977-01-01

    Two systems are discussed which involve the use of solar energy to supply domestic hot-water requirements and their usefulness in Ireland is examined. The systems are evaluated for thermal performance and cost-effectiveness by the use of a computer simulation model of a system involving a typical commercially available solar panel. It is shown that such systems may be economically justified when compared with electricity, but only if the water supply is directly heated by solar panels and only if the installed cost of such panels is low. Further, it appears that the system performance is relatively insensitive to the panel orientation and consequently that retro-fit installations on existing houses are unlikely to cause difficulties.

  14. Numerical study of a water distillation system using solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarzoum, K.; Zhani, K.; Bacha, H. Ben

    2016-01-01

    This paper tackles an optimization approach in order to boost the fresh water production of a new design of a solar still which is located at Sfax engineering national school in Tunisia. This optimization approach is based upon the above mentioned design's improvement by coupling the conventional solar still into at a condenser, solar air and water collector and humidifier. This new concept of a distiller solar still using humidification- dehumidification processes (HD) is exploited for the desalination purpose. As a result of this work, the humidification- dehumidification processes have an essential effect in improving the solar still performance. Performance has been predicted theoretically in terms of water and inner glass cover temperatures, the inlet temperature of air and water of the new concept of distiller on water condensation rate and fresh water production. A general model based on heat and mass transfers in each component of the unit has been developed in steady dynamic regime. The developed model is used, simulating the HD system, to investigate the influence of the meteorological and operating parameters on the system productivity. The obtained set of ordinary differential equations has been converted to a set of algebraic system of equations by the functional approximation method of orthogonal collocation. The developed model is used to simulate the HD system in order to investigate the steady state behavior of each component of the unit and the entire system exposed to a variation of the entrance parameters and meteorological conditions. The obtained results were compared with those of other studies and the comparison gives a good validity of the present results

  15. Federal technology alert. Parabolic-trough solar water heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    Parabolic-trough solar water heating is a well-proven renewable energy technology with considerable potential for application at Federal facilities. For the US, parabolic-trough water-heating systems are most cost effective in the Southwest where direct solar radiation is high. Jails, hospitals, barracks, and other facilities that consistently use large volumes of hot water are particularly good candidates, as are facilities with central plants for district heating. As with any renewable energy or energy efficiency technology requiring significant initial capital investment, the primary condition that will make a parabolic-trough system economically viable is if it is replacing expensive conventional water heating. In combination with absorption cooling systems, parabolic-trough collectors can also be used for air-conditioning. Industrial Solar Technology (IST) of Golden, Colorado, is the sole current manufacturer of parabolic-trough solar water heating systems. IST has an Indefinite Delivery/Indefinite Quantity (IDIQ) contract with the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) to finance and install parabolic-trough solar water heating on an Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC) basis for any Federal facility that requests it and for which it proves viable. For an ESPC project, the facility does not pay for design, capital equipment, or installation. Instead, it pays only for guaranteed energy savings. Preparing and implementing delivery or task orders against the IDIQ is much simpler than the standard procurement process. This Federal Technology Alert (FTA) of the New Technology Demonstration Program is one of a series of guides to renewable energy and new energy-efficient technologies.

  16. Numerical study of a water distillation system using solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarzoum, K.; Zhani, K. [Sfax University, (Turkey); Bacha, H. Ben [Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Alkharj (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-02-15

    This paper tackles an optimization approach in order to boost the fresh water production of a new design of a solar still which is located at Sfax engineering national school in Tunisia. This optimization approach is based upon the above mentioned design's improvement by coupling the conventional solar still into at a condenser, solar air and water collector and humidifier. This new concept of a distiller solar still using humidification- dehumidification processes (HD) is exploited for the desalination purpose. As a result of this work, the humidification- dehumidification processes have an essential effect in improving the solar still performance. Performance has been predicted theoretically in terms of water and inner glass cover temperatures, the inlet temperature of air and water of the new concept of distiller on water condensation rate and fresh water production. A general model based on heat and mass transfers in each component of the unit has been developed in steady dynamic regime. The developed model is used, simulating the HD system, to investigate the influence of the meteorological and operating parameters on the system productivity. The obtained set of ordinary differential equations has been converted to a set of algebraic system of equations by the functional approximation method of orthogonal collocation. The developed model is used to simulate the HD system in order to investigate the steady state behavior of each component of the unit and the entire system exposed to a variation of the entrance parameters and meteorological conditions. The obtained results were compared with those of other studies and the comparison gives a good validity of the present results.

  17. Thermodynamic solar water pump with multifunction and uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Slama, R. [Gabes Univ. (Tunisia). Dept. of Electromechanics

    2009-07-01

    This paper discussed a thermodynamic solar water pump design. Reflectors were used on the pump in order to ensure that water evaporation was conducted at the highest possible temperature. A vacuum was created by steam condensation in a closed container. The influence of heating and cooling temperatures on pump vacuum performance was studied experimentally. Water and ambient temperatures were measured along with pressure drop. Incidental solar radiation on the tilted plane of the collector was measured with a pyranometer. The pumping cycle was characterized by measuring the temperature reached during heating before spontaneous cooling occurred. Results of the study were used to obtain curves corresponding to the cooling temperatures. The curves showed that pressure drop is higher when heating temperatures reached 100 degrees C. A cooling device system was included in order to increase the number of potential pumping cycles per day. It was concluded that the pump can also be used to create hot water. 11 refs., 11 figs.

  18. Solar hot water systems application to the solar building test facility and the Tech House

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goble, R. L.; Jensen, R. N.; Basford, R. C.

    1976-01-01

    Projects which relate to the current national thrust toward demonstrating applied solar energy are discussed. The first project has as its primary objective the application of a system comprised of a flat plate collector field, an absorption air conditioning system, and a hot water heating system to satisfy most of the annual cooling and heating requirements of a large commercial office building. The other project addresses the application of solar collector technology to the heating and hot water requirements of a domestic residence. In this case, however, the solar system represents only one of several important technology items, the primary objective for the project being the application of space technology to the American home.

  19. Observations of Warm Water in Young Solar-System Analogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Magnus Vilhelm

    dioxide). The amount of warm water is deduced and its origin is observationally constrained. With both isotopologues observed, the HDO/H2O ratio is deduced. This ratio is then compared to other sources, e.g., comets and the Earth’s ocean, to gain understanding of the origin of the water in our own solar...... system. The emission line fluxes are modeled with radiative transfer tools and compared to other results of water abundances in the same source. The observed water emission, both H18(2 O and HDO is compact for all observed sources and traces the emission on R 150 AU scales or less. In one source...

  20. Preliminary design package for solar heating and hot water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    The preliminary design review on the development of a multi-family solar heating and domestic hot water prototype system is presented. The report contains the necessary information to evaluate the system. The system consists of the following subsystems: collector, storage, transport, control and Government-furnished site data acquisition.

  1. Solar Space and Water Heating for School -- Dallas, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    90 page report gives overview of retrofitted solar space-heating and hot-water system installation for 61-year-old high school. Description, specifications, modifications, plan drawings for roof, three floors, basement, correspondence, and documents are part of report.

  2. Marketing and promoting solar water heaters to home builders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, C.; Ghent, P.

    1999-12-06

    This is the final report of a four-task project to develop a marketing plan designed for businesses interested in marketing solar water heaters in the new home industry. This report outlines suggested marketing communication materials and other promotional tools focused on selling products to the new home builder. Information relevant to promoting products to the new home buyer is also included.

  3. Solar PV energy for water pumping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahar, F.

    1997-01-01

    The paper provides an introduction into understanding the relative merits, characteristics, including economics, of photovoltically powered water pumping systems. Although more than 10,000 photovoltaic pumping systems are known to be operating through out the world, many potential users do not know how to decide weather feasibility assessment, and system procurement so that the reader can made an informed decision about water pumping systems, especially those powered with photovoltaics. (author)

  4. Solar Energy in China: Development Trends for Solar Water Heaters and Photovoltaics in the Urban Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, William; Wang, Zhongying

    2006-01-01

    China is the world's largest market for solar water heating systems, installing 13 million square meters of new systems in 2004, mostly in large cities. Municipal authorities, however, are sensitive to quality and visual impact issues created by this technology deployment. Therefore, there is currently a trend toward developing building integrated…

  5. Application of solar radiation for heating and preparation of warm water in an individual house

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozak, Tadeeusz; Majchrzycka, Anna

    2009-01-01

    The paper is aimed at analysis of application of the solar collectors array for preparing of warm water and space heating in an individual house. Keywords: application of solar radiation, preparation of warm water, heating

  6. Flat plate solar collector for water pre-heating using concentrated solar power (CSP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peris, Leonard Sunny; Shekh, Md. Al Amin; Sarker, Imran

    2017-12-01

    Numerous attempt and experimental conduction on different methods to harness energy from renewable sources are being conducted. This study is a contribution to the purpose of harnessing solar energy as a renewable source by using flat plate solar collector medium to preheat water. Basic theory of solar radiation and heat convection in water (working fluid) has been combined with heat conduction process by using copper tubes and aluminum absorber plate in a closed conduit, covered with a glazed through glass medium. By this experimental conduction, a temperature elevation of 35°C in 10 minutes duration which is of 61.58% efficiency range (maximum) has been achieved. The obtained data and experimental findings are validated with the theoretical formulation and an experimental demonstration model. A cost effective and simple form of heat energy extraction method for space heating/power generation has been thoroughly discussed with possible industrial implementation possibilities. Under-developed and developing countries can take this work as an illustration for renewable energy utilization for sustainable energy prospect. Also a full structure based data to derive concentrated solar energy in any geographical location of Bangladesh has been outlined in this study. These research findings can contribute to a large extent for setting up any solar based power plant in Bangladesh irrespective of its installation type.

  7. Water heating solar system for popular houses; Sistema solar de aquecimento de agua para residencias populares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mogawer, Tamer; Souza, Teofilo Miguel de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Centro de Energias Renovaveis], e-mail: teofilo@feg.unesp.br

    2004-07-01

    In this paper we present a case study for the design of a low cost solar heating system for a popular residence in an isolated rural community in the state of Rio Grande do Norte. This scaling can be extended to several rural communities that are in the same situation in Brazil as well as the wider use of solar power between the low-income people who do not have the benefits of electricity in their homes or want to have a lower cost of electricity. In this context, there are very interesting alternatives, among which is the replacement of electric heating bath water by heating by solar energy. According to several sources the electric shower, as it is now simple and extremely cheap, is the villain of the national electrical system. It is used in peak hours of consumption, something like 10% of electric generating capacity installed in Brazil, forcing many industries to switch off the machines because of the high cost of electricity during this period. Using the heating by solar energy, we can reduce consumption of electric shower and also increase the use of clean energy in popular homes and in isolated rural communities. This paper will address the use of solar energy with the basic purpose of heating water for bathing in popular residences and in isolated rural areas, using low cost systems, built with easily materials that is found in any area of the country. (author)

  8. An overview of water disinfection in developing countries and the potential for solar thermal water pasteurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burch, J.; Thomas, K.E.

    1998-01-01

    This study originated within the Solar Buildings Program at the U.S. Department of Energy. Its goal is to assess the potential for solar thermal water disinfection in developing countries. In order to assess solar thermal potential, the alternatives must be clearly understood and compared. The objectives of the study are to: (a) characterize the developing world disinfection needs and market; (b) identify competing technologies, both traditional and emerging; (c) analyze and characterize solar thermal pasteurization; (d) compare technologies on cost-effectiveness and appropriateness; and (e) identify research opportunities. Natural consequences of the study beyond these objectives include a broad knowledge of water disinfection problems and technologies, introduction of solar thermal pasteurization technologies to a broad audience, and general identification of disinfection opportunities for renewable technologies.

  9. Can origin of the 2400-year cycle of solar activity be caused by solar inertial motion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Charvátová

    Full Text Available A solar activity cycle of about 2400 years has until now been of uncertain origin. Recent results indicate it is caused by solar inertial motion. First we describe the 178.7-year basic cycle of solar motion. The longer cycle, over an 8000 year interval, is found to average 2402.2 years. This corresponds to the Jupiter/Heliocentre/Barycentre alignments (9.8855 × 243. Within each cycle an exceptional segment of 370 years has been found characterized by a looping pattern by a trefoil or quasitrefoil geometry. Solar activity, evidenced by 14C tree-ring proxies, shows the same pattern. Solar motion is computable in advance, so this provides a basis for future predictive assessments. The next 370-year segment will occur between AD 2240 and 2610.

    Key words: Solar physics (celestial mechanics

  10. Cold water inlet in solar tanks - valuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the project is to make a proposal for how to value a storage tank with a poor design of the cold water inlet. Based on measurements and calculations a number of curves, which are valid for this valuation, are worked out. Based on a simple test with a uniform heated storage tank the rat...

  11. TRNSYS coupled with previs for simulation and sizing of solar water heating system: University Campus as case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dkiouak, R.; Ahachad, M.

    2006-01-01

    A solar plant for hot-water production was investigated by the dynamic simulation code TRNSYS coupled with PREVIS code. Typical daily university campus consumption for a 240 students was considered. The hot-water demand temperature (45 degree centigrade) is controlled by a conventional fuel auxiliary heater and a tempering valve. The fluids circulate by pumps activated by electricity. Annual energy performance, in terms of solar fraction, was calculated for Tangier.(Author)

  12. Solar energy conversion by photocatalytic overall water splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2015-07-04

    Summary: Solar energy is abundant and renewable energy: however, extensive conversion of the solar energy can only be achieved by large-scale collection of solar flux. The technology that satisfies this requirement must be as simple as possible to reduce capital cost. Overall water splitting (OWS) by powder-form photocatalysts directly produces H2 as a chemical energy in a single reactor, which does not require any complicated parabolic mirrors and electronic devices. Because of its simplicity and low capital cost, it has tremendous potential to become the major technology of solar energy conversion. To achieve the OWS efficiently, the development of efficient photocatalysts is mandatory. The OWS hotocatalysis involves the electrocatalys is for both water reduction and oxidation on the surafce of photocatalysts, which is driven by particular semiconductors that absorb photons to generate excited carriers. Such photocatalysts must be designed to maximize the charge separation efficiency at the catalyst-semiconductor and semiconductor-electrolyte interface. In addition the low-overpotential electrocatalyts towards water redox reactions should be insensitive to the back-reaction of the produced H2 and O2 that produces H2O. In this presentation, some recent progress on the topic of the OWS in our group will be discussed.

  13. Numerical Simulation of a Solar Domestic Hot Water System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mongibello, L; Graditi, G; Bianco, N; Di Somma, M; Naso, V

    2014-01-01

    An innovative transient numerical model is presented for the simulation of a solar Domestic Hot Water (DHW) system. The solar collectors have been simulated by using a zerodimensional analytical model. The temperature distributions in the heat transfer fluid and in the water inside the tank have been evaluated by one-dimensional models. The reversion elimination algorithm has been used to include the effects of natural convection among the water layers at different heights in the tank on the thermal stratification. A finite difference implicit scheme has been implemented to solve the energy conservation equation in the coil heat exchanger, and the energy conservation equation in the tank has been solved by using the finite difference Euler implicit scheme. Energy conservation equations for the solar DHW components models have been coupled by means of a home-made implicit algorithm. Results of the simulation performed using as input data the experimental values of the ambient temperature and the solar irradiance in a summer day are presented and discussed

  14. Numerical Simulation of a Solar Domestic Hot Water System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongibello, L.; Bianco, N.; Di Somma, M.; Graditi, G.; Naso, V.

    2014-11-01

    An innovative transient numerical model is presented for the simulation of a solar Domestic Hot Water (DHW) system. The solar collectors have been simulated by using a zerodimensional analytical model. The temperature distributions in the heat transfer fluid and in the water inside the tank have been evaluated by one-dimensional models. The reversion elimination algorithm has been used to include the effects of natural convection among the water layers at different heights in the tank on the thermal stratification. A finite difference implicit scheme has been implemented to solve the energy conservation equation in the coil heat exchanger, and the energy conservation equation in the tank has been solved by using the finite difference Euler implicit scheme. Energy conservation equations for the solar DHW components models have been coupled by means of a home-made implicit algorithm. Results of the simulation performed using as input data the experimental values of the ambient temperature and the solar irradiance in a summer day are presented and discussed.

  15. Integrated collector storage solar water heater: Temperature stratification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnier, C.; Currie, J.; Muneer, T.

    2009-01-01

    An analysis of the temperature stratification inside an Integrated Collector Storage Solar Water Heater (ICS-SWH) was carried out. The system takes the form of a rectangular-shaped box incorporating the solar collector and storage tank into a single unit and was optimised for simulation in Scottish weather conditions. A 3-month experimental study on the ICS-SWH was undertaken in order to provide empirical data for comparison with the computed results. Using a previously developed macro model; a number of improvements were made. The initial macro model was able to generate corresponding water bulk temperature in the collector with a given hourly incident solar radiation, ambient temperature and inlet water temperature and therefore able to predict ICS-SWH performance. The new model was able to compute the bulk water temperature variation in different SWH collectors for a given aspect ratio and the water temperature along the height of the collector (temperature stratification). Computed longitudinal temperature stratification results obtained were found to be in close agreement with the experimental data.

  16. Solar water heating system for a lunar base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, Richard E.; Haynes, R. Daniel

    1992-01-01

    An investigation of the feasibility of using a solar water heater for a lunar base is described. During the investigation, computer codes were developed to model the lunar base configuration, lunar orbit, and heating systems. Numerous collector geometries, orientation variations, and system options were identified and analyzed. The results indicate that the recommended solar water heater could provide 88 percent of the design load and would not require changes in the overall lunar base design. The system would give a 'safe-haven' water heating capability and use only 7 percent to 10 percent as much electricity as an electric heating system. As a result, a fixed position photovoltaic array can be reduced by 21 sq m.

  17. Water heating solar system using collector with polycarbonate absorber surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Luiz Guilherme Meira de; Sodre, Dilton; Cavalcanti, Eduardo Jose Cidade; Souza, Luiz Guilherme Vieira Meira de; Mendes, Jose Ubiragi de Lima [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)], e-mails: lguilherme@dem.ufrn.br, diltonsodre@ifba.edu.br, ubiragi@ct.ufrn.br

    2010-07-01

    It is presented s solar collector to be used in a heating water for bath system, whose main characteristics are low cost and easy fabrication and assembly processes. The collector absorber surface consists of a polycarbonate plate with an area of 1.5 m{sup 2}. The water inlet and outlet are made of PVC 50mm, and were coupled to a 6mm thick polycarbonate plate using fiberglass resin. A 200 liters thermal reservoir will be used. This reservoir is also alternative. The absorber heating system works under thermo-siphon regimen. Thermal parameters will be evaluated to prove the feasibility of the studied solar heating system to obtain bath water for a four people family. (author)

  18. Nocturnal reverse flow in water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Runsheng; Yang, Yuqin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Performance of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters (SWH) at night was studied. • Experimental measurements showed that reverse flow occurred in SWHs at night. • Reverse flow in SWHs was very high but the heat loss due to reverse flow was very low. • Reverse flow seemed not sensitive to atmospheric clearness but sensitive to collector tilt-angle. - Abstract: In this work, the thermal performance of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters (SWH) at nights was experimentally investigated. Measurements at nights showed that the water temperature in solar tubes was always lower than that in the water tank but higher than the ambient air temperature and T exp , the temperature of water inside tubes predicted in the case of the water in tubes being naturally cooled without reverse flow. This signified that the reverse flow in the system occurred at nights, making the water in solar tubes higher than T exp . It is found that the reverse flow rate in the SWH, estimated based on temperature measurements of water in solar tubes, seemed not sensitive to the atmospheric clearness but sensitive to the collector tilt-angle, the larger the tilt-angle of the collector, the higher the reverse flow rate. Experimental results also showed that, the reverse flow in the SWH was much higher as compared to that in a thermosyphonic domestic solar water heater with flat-plate collectors, but the heat loss from collectors to the air due to reverse flow in SWHs was very small and only took about 8–10% of total heat loss of systems

  19. Hybrid bio-photo-electro-chemical cells for solar water splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinhassi, Roy I; Kallmann, Dan; Saper, Gadiel; Dotan, Hen; Linkov, Artyom; Kay, Asaf; Liveanu, Varda; Schuster, Gadi; Adir, Noam; Rothschild, Avner

    2016-08-23

    Photoelectrochemical water splitting uses solar power to decompose water to hydrogen and oxygen. Here we show how the photocatalytic activity of thylakoid membranes leads to overall water splitting in a bio-photo-electro-chemical (BPEC) cell via a simple process. Thylakoids extracted from spinach are introduced into a BPEC cell containing buffer solution with ferricyanide. Upon solar-simulated illumination, water oxidation takes place and electrons are shuttled by the ferri/ferrocyanide redox couple from the thylakoids to a transparent electrode serving as the anode, yielding a photocurrent density of 0.5 mA cm(-2). Hydrogen evolution occurs at the cathode at a bias as low as 0.8 V. A tandem cell comprising the BPEC cell and a Si photovoltaic module achieves overall water splitting with solar to hydrogen efficiency of 0.3%. These results demonstrate the promise of combining natural photosynthetic membranes and man-made photovoltaic cells in order to convert solar power into hydrogen fuel.

  20. Solar hot-water generation and heating - Kombi-Kompakt+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haller, M.; Vogelsanger, P.

    2005-01-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes new testing facilities at the Institute for Solar Technology in Rapperswil, Switzerland, that allow the testing of solar systems the whole year through. The systems tested feature the combined generation of heat for hot water storage vessels and heat for space heating. The test method used, the Concise Cycle Test (CCT) is described. The results of tests made on a large number of systems demonstrate that it is especially important to have a test system that allows the solar market to be protected from unsatisfactory systems. Good co-operation with manufactures is noted. As the test method includes tests with secondary energy sources such as oil or gas, certain problems in this area were discovered and corrected. Further tests are to be made with systems using biomass as a secondary source of heat

  1. Recent perspectives in solar physics - Elemental composition, coronal structure and magnetic fields, solar activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newkirk, G., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Elemental abundances in the solar corona are studied. Abundances in the corona, solar wind and solar cosmic rays are compared to those in the photosphere. The variation in silicon and iron abundance in the solar wind as compared to helium is studied. The coronal small and large scale structure is investigated, emphasizing magnetic field activity and examining cosmic ray generation mechanisms. The corona is observed in the X-ray and EUV regions. The nature of coronal transients is discussed with emphasis on solar-wind modulation of galactic cosmic rays. A schematic plan view of the interplanetary magnetic field during sunspot minimum is given showing the presence of magnetic bubbles and their concentration in the region around 4-5 AU by a fast solar wind stream.

  2. Solar Radius at Subterahertz Frequencies and Its Relation to Solar Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Fabian; Valio, Adriana

    2017-12-01

    The Sun emits radiation at several wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum. In the optical band, the solar radius is 695 700 km, and this defines the photosphere, which is the visible surface of the Sun. However, as the altitude increases, the electromagnetic radiation is produced at other frequencies, causing the solar radius to change as a function of wavelength. These measurements enable a better understanding of the solar atmosphere, and the radius dependence on the solar cycle is a good indicator of the changes that occur in the atmospheric structure. We measure the solar radius at the subterahertz frequencies of 0.212 and 0.405 THz, which is the altitude at which these emissions are primarily generated, and also analyze the radius variation over the 11-year solar activity cycle. For this, we used radio maps of the solar disk for the period between 1999 and 2017, reconstructed from daily scans made by the Solar Submillimeter-wave Telescope (SST), installed at El Leoncito Astronomical Complex (CASLEO) in the Argentinean Andes. Our measurements yield radii of 966.5'' ±2.8'' for 0.2 THz and 966.5'' ±2.7'' for 0.4 THz. This implies a height of 5.0 ±2.0 ×106 m above the photosphere. Furthermore, we also observed a strong anticorrelation between the radius variation and the solar activity at both frequencies.

  3. The 3-D solar radioastronomy and the structure of the corona and the solar wind. [solar probes of solar activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, J. L.; Caroubalos, C.

    1976-01-01

    The mechanism causing solar radio bursts (1 and 111) is examined. It is proposed that a nonthermal energy source is responsible for the bursts; nonthermal energy is converted into electromagnetic energy. The advantages are examined for an out-of-the-ecliptic solar probe mission, which is proposed as a means of stereoscopically viewing solar radio bursts, solar magnetic fields, coronal structure, and the solar wind.

  4. Solar heating and hot water system installed at office building, One Solar Place, Dallas, Texas. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    This document is the Final Report of the Solar Energy System Installed at the First Solar Heated Office Building, One Solar Place, Dallas, Texas. The Solar System was designed to provide 87 percent of the space heating needs, 100 percent of the potable hot water needs and is sized for future absorption cooling. The collection subsystem consists of 28 Solargenics, series 76, flat plate collectors with a total area of 1596 square feet. The solar loop circulates an ethylene glycol-water solution through the collectors into a hot water system heat exchanger. The hot water storage subsystem consists of a heat exchanger, two 2300 gallon concrete hot water storage tanks with built in heat exchangers and a back-up electric boiler. The domestic hot water subsystem sends hot water to the 10,200 square feet floor area office building hot water fixtures. The building cold water system provides make-up to the solar loop, the heating loop, and the hot water concrete storage tanks. The design, construction, cost analysis, operation and maintenance of the solar system are described. The system became operational July 11, 1979.

  5. A hybrid desalination system using humidification-dehumidification and solar stills integrated with evacuated solar water heater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharshir, S.W.; Peng, Guilong; Yang, Nuo; Eltawil, Mohamed A.; Ali, Mohamed Kamal Ahmed; Kabeel, A.E.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Evacuated solar water heater integrated with humidification-dehumidification system. • Reuse of warm water drained from humidification-dehumidification to feed solar stills. • The thermal performance of hybrid system is increased by 50% and maximum yield is 63.3 kg/day. • The estimated price of the freshwater produced from the hybrid system is $0.034/L. - Abstract: This paper offers a hybrid solar desalination system comprising a humidification-dehumidification and four solar stills. The developed hybrid desalination system reuses the drain warm water from humidification-dehumidification to feed solar stills to stop the massive warm water loss during desalination. Reusing the drain warm water increases the gain output ratio of the system by 50% and also increased the efficiency of single solar still to about 90%. Furthermore, the production of a single solar still as a part of the hybrid system was more than that of the conventional one by approximately 200%. The daily water production of the conventional one, single solar still, four solar still, humidification- dehumidification and hybrid system were 3.2, 10.5, 42, 24.3 and 66.3 kg/day, respectively. Furthermore, the cost per unit liter of distillate from conventional one, humidification- dehumidification and hybrid system were around $0.049, $0.058 and $0.034, respectively.

  6. Greenhouse heating with a fresh water floating collector solar pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbel, A.; Sokolov, M.

    1991-01-01

    The fresh water floating collector solar pond was investigated both experimentally and theoretically in a previous work, and it is now matched, by simulation, with the heat load requirements of a greenhouse. Results of the simulation indicate that such a pond is a potential energy source for greenhouse heating. This is especially true when the material properties are such that solar absorption and storage are enhanced. This paper reports that to demonstrate this point, three sets of collectors constructed with materials of different physical (radiation) properties were tested. One set is constructed of common materials which are readily available and are normally used as covers for greenhouses. The second set made of improved materials which are also available but have a smaller long-wave transmittance. The last set made of ideal material which additionally possesses selective radiation absorption properties. Collectors made of ideal materials make a superior solar pond; thus, manufacturing films with improved properties should become a worthwhile challenge for the agricultural polyethylene-films industry. Preliminary economic studies indicate that even with the low oil (<$20/Bbl) prices which exist between 1986-1989, the fresh water floating collectors solar pond provides an economically attractive alternative to the conventional oil-burning heating system. This is especially true in mild climate areas and when the large initial investment is justified by long-term greenhouse utilization planning

  7. Activation analysis in water chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, A.; Toth, A.

    1978-01-01

    The potential applications of activation analysis in water chemistry are discussed. The principle, unit operations, the radiation sources and measuring instruments of activation analysis are described. The sensitivity of activation analysis is given in tabulated form for some elements of major importance in water chemistry and the elements readily accessible to determination by measurement of the spontaneous gamma radiation are listed. A few papers selected from the recent international professional literature are finally reviewed, in which the authors report on the results obtained by activation analysis applied to water chemistry. (author)

  8. Self-propagating solar light reduction of graphite oxide in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todorova, N.; Giannakopoulou, T.; Boukos, N.; Vermisoglou, E. [Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, NCSR “Demokritos”, 153 41 Attikis (Greece); Lekakou, C. [Division of Mechanical, Medical, and Aerospace Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford (United Kingdom); Trapalis, C., E-mail: c.trapalis@inn.demokritos.gr [Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, NCSR “Demokritos”, 153 41 Attikis (Greece)

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Graphite oxide was partially reduced by solar light irradiation in water media. • No addition of catalysts nor reductive agent were used for the reduction. • Specific capacitance increased stepwise with increase of irradiation time. • Self-propagating reduction of graphene oxide by solar light is suggested. - Abstract: Graphite Oxide (GtO) is commonly used as an intermediate material for preparation of graphene in the form of reduced graphene oxide (rGO). Being a semiconductor with tunable band gap rGO is often coupled with various photocatalysts to enhance their visible light activity. The behavior of such rGO-based composites could be affected after prolonged exposure to solar light. In the present work, the alteration of the GtO properties under solar light irradiation is investigated. Water dispersions of GtO manufactured by oxidation of natural graphite via Hummers method were irradiated into solar light simulator for different periods of time without addition of catalysts or reductive agent. The FT-IR analysis of the treated dispersions revealed gradual reduction of the GtO with the increase of the irradiation time. The XRD, FT-IR and XPS analyses of the obtained solid materials confirmed the transition of GtO to rGO under solar light irradiation. The reduction of the GtO was also manifested by the CV measurements that revealed stepwise increase of the specific capacitance connected with the restoration of the sp{sup 2} domains. Photothermal self-propagating reduction of graphene oxide in aqueous media under solar light irradiation is suggested as a possible mechanism. The self-photoreduction of GtO utilizing solar light provides a green, sustainable route towards preparation of reduced graphene oxide. However, the instability of the GtO and partially reduced GO under irradiation should be considered when choosing the field of its application.

  9. Application of solar energy in water reuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, G.

    1987-01-01

    The application of photocatalysed oxidation in water reuse technology is described. Results with a sequencing batch reactor showed that 4 hours contact of the raw sewage with 0.5 mg dye sorbed g/sup -1/ fly ash in sunlight, under experimental conditions, significantly reduced the organic and bacteriological load and rendered it fit for use in irrigation or for discharge. The effect of variables such as contact time or amount of dye sorbed on COD, MBAS and MPN counts were investigated and the results interpreted in terms of enhanced photoactivity and biodegradation in the sorbed state. The process appears to be well suited to commercial exploitation as it is safe, quick and economical.

  10. A mathematical procedure to estimate solar absorptance of shallow water ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Hongbo; Tang Runsheng; Li Zhimin; Zhong Hao

    2009-01-01

    In this article, a mathematical procedure is developed for estimating solar absorption of shallow water ponds with different pond floor based on the fact that the solar radiation trapped inside the water layer undergoes multiplicative reflection and absorption and on that the solar absorption of water is selective. Theoretical model indicates that the solar absorption of a water pond is related to the reflectivity of the pond floor, the solar spectrum and the water depth. To validate the mathematical model, a concrete water pond measuring 3 x 3 x 0.24 m was constructed. Experimental results indicate that solar reflectivity calculated based on the mathematical model proposed in this work were in good agreement with those measured. For water ponds with a water-permeable floor, such as concrete floor, theoretical calculations of the solar absorptance of a water pond should be done based on the reflectivity of full wet floor, whereas for water ponds with a non-water-permeable floor, theoretical calculations should be done based on the fact that solar reflection on the floor is neither perfect specular reflection nor prefect isotropic diffuse reflection. Results of numerical calculation show that theoretical calculations of solar absorption of a water pond by dividing solar spectrum into six bands were pretty agreement with those by dividing solar spectrum into 20 bands.

  11. An overview of the development of solar water heater industry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runqing, Hu; Peijun, Sun; Zhongying, Wang

    2012-01-01

    This article introduce the development of China solar water heater industry .Gives an overview of stages, market, manufacturing, application and testing about China solar water heater industry. Show the market data from 1998 to 2009. Analyze the experiences and features about the industry. The article also introduces the policy for solar hot water industry in China. These policies have accelerated the development of industry in which the main two incentive policies have the greatest influence on solar water heater industry. First one is the policy of mandatory installation of solar water heater implemented since 2007 by some local governments at provincial and municipal levels. Second is the subsidy policy for solar water heaters in the household appliances going to the countryside scheme implemented since 2009. At last the article gives the reason why China solar water heater industry have so rapid growth. From technology research, industrialization, prices and policy environment gives analysis. - Highlights: ► We compared International and China market about solar thermal products. ► The reason for rapid development of China solar water heater is explained. ► The experience of China solar water heater industry would give reference to other develop country. ► “Meet the demands of customer” is the main driver for the solar water heater industry development. ► The policy framework about China solar thermal industry was introduced. The industry achieved commercial operation without subsidy.

  12. MAGNETIC ENERGY SPECTRA IN SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramenko, Valentyna; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl

    2010-01-01

    Line-of-sight magnetograms for 217 active regions (ARs) with different flare rates observed at the solar disk center from 1997 January until 2006 December are utilized to study the turbulence regime and its relationship to flare productivity. Data from the SOHO/MDI instrument recorded in the high-resolution mode and data from the BBSO magnetograph were used. The turbulence regime was probed via magnetic energy spectra and magnetic dissipation spectra. We found steeper energy spectra for ARs with higher flare productivity. We also report that both the power index, α, of the energy spectrum, E(k) ∼ k -α , and the total spectral energy, W = ∫E(k)dk, are comparably correlated with the flare index, A, of an AR. The correlations are found to be stronger than those found between the flare index and the total unsigned flux. The flare index for an AR can be estimated based on measurements of α and W as A = 10 b (αW) c , with b = -7.92 ± 0.58 and c = 1.85 ± 0.13. We found that the regime of the fully developed turbulence occurs in decaying ARs and in emerging ARs (at the very early stage of emergence). Well-developed ARs display underdeveloped turbulence with strong magnetic dissipation at all scales.

  13. Construction of a century solar chromosphere data set for solar activity related research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ganghua; Wang, Xiao Fan; Yang, Xiao; Liu, Suo; Zhang, Mei; Wang, Haimin; Liu, Chang; Xu, Yan; Tlatov, Andrey; Demidov, Mihail; Borovik, Aleksandr; Golovko, Aleksey

    2017-06-01

    This article introduces our ongoing project "Construction of a Century Solar Chromosphere Data Set for Solar Activity Related Research". Solar activities are the major sources of space weather that affects human lives. Some of the serious space weather consequences, for instance, include interruption of space communication and navigation, compromising the safety of astronauts and satellites, and damaging power grids. Therefore, the solar activity research has both scientific and social impacts. The major database is built up from digitized and standardized film data obtained by several observatories around the world and covers a time span of more than 100 years. After careful calibration, we will develop feature extraction and data mining tools and provide them together with the comprehensive database for the astronomical community. Our final goal is to address several physical issues: filament behavior in solar cycles, abnormal behavior of solar cycle 24, large-scale solar eruptions, and sympathetic remote brightenings. Significant signs of progress are expected in data mining algorithms and software development, which will benefit the scientific analysis and eventually advance our understanding of solar cycles.

  14. Construction of a century solar chromosphere data set for solar activity related research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganghua Lin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces our ongoing project “Construction of a Century Solar Chromosphere Data Set for Solar Activity Related Research”. Solar activities are the major sources of space weather that affects human lives. Some of the serious space weather consequences, for instance, include interruption of space communication and navigation, compromising the safety of astronauts and satellites, and damaging power grids. Therefore, the solar activity research has both scientific and social impacts. The major database is built up from digitized and standardized film data obtained by several observatories around the world and covers a timespan more than 100 years. After careful calibration, we will develop feature extraction and data mining tools and provide them together with the comprehensive database for the astronomical community. Our final goal is to address several physical issues: filament behavior in solar cycles, abnormal behavior of solar cycle 24, large-scale solar eruptions, and sympathetic remote brightenings. Significant progresses are expected in data mining algorithms and software development, which will benefit the scientific analysis and eventually advance our understanding of solar cycles.

  15. Photoelectrochemical solar water splitting: From basic principles to advanced devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandar Y.Alfaifi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Photoelectrochemical water splitting (PEC offers a promising path for sustainable generation of hydrogen fuel. However, improving solar fuel water splitting efficiency facing tremendous challenges, due to the energy loss related to fast recombination of the photogenerated charge carriers, electrode degradation, as well as limited light harvesting. This review focuses on the brief introduction of basic fundamental of PEC water splitting and the concept of various types of water splitting approaches. Numerous engineering strategies for the investgating of the higher efficiency of the PEC, including charge separation, light harvesting, and co-catalysts doping, have been discussed. Moreover, recent remarkable progress and developments for PEC water splitting with some promising materials are discussed. Recent advanced applications of PEC are also reviewed. Finally, the review concludes with a summary and future outlook of this hot field.

  16. Solar water heating for small cheese factories in Peru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveros Donohue, A A

    1982-03-01

    Plans are described for the implementation of 40 small plants to be used for cheese production. As a start, a demonstration plant has been built in San Juan de Chuquibambilla-Puno, Peru. Design and testing of a flat plate solar collector, to be used for water heating purposes, are described. The cheese making process is discussed. Essentially two pots are required, one at 32/sup 0/C and one at 80/sup 0/. Two flat plate collectors (1.12 m/sup 2/ each) are connected to a 150 l storage tank. Instrumentation and results are discussed. Total efficiency of the process is given as 40%. It is concluded that future installations should consider using biogas digesters and wind driven water pumps in addition to the solar collectors. A brief discussion of the climate, population distribution, and economy of Peru is given. (MJJ)

  17. Experimentation of a Solar Water Heater with Integrated Storage Tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elhmidi, I; Frikha, N; Chaouchi, B; Gabsi, S

    2009-01-01

    An integrated collector storage (ICS) solar water heater was constructed in 2004 and studied its optical and thermal performance. It was revealed that it has some thermal shortcomings of thermal performances. The ICS system consists of one cylindrical horizontal tank properly mounted in a stationary symmetrical Compound Parabolic Concentrating (CPC) reflector trough. The main objective was to delimit the causes of these deficiencies and trying to diagnose them. A rigorous experimentation of the solar water heater has been done over its daily energetic output as well as the evolution of the nocturnal thermal losses. In fact, three successive days, including nights, of operation have permitted to obtain diagrams describing the variations of mean temperature in the tank and the thermal loss coefficient during night of our installation. The experimental results, compared with those obtained by simulation, showed a perfecting of thermal performances of system which approach from those of other models introduced on the international market

  18. Atmospheric solar heating rate in the water vapor bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Ming-Dah

    1986-01-01

    The total absorption of solar radiation by water vapor in clear atmospheres is parameterized as a simple function of the scaled water vapor amount. For applications to cloudy and hazy atmospheres, the flux-weighted k-distribution functions are computed for individual absorption bands and for the total near-infrared region. The parameterization is based upon monochromatic calculations and follows essentially the scaling approximation of Chou and Arking, but the effect of temperature variation with height is taken into account in order to enhance the accuracy. Furthermore, the spectral range is extended to cover the two weak bands centered at 0.72 and 0.82 micron. Comparisons with monochromatic calculations show that the atmospheric heating rate and the surface radiation can be accurately computed from the parameterization. Comparisons are also made with other parameterizations. It is found that the absorption of solar radiation can be computed reasonably well using the Goody band model and the Curtis-Godson approximation.

  19. Design, Fabrication, and Efficiency Study of a Novel Solar Thermal Water Heating System: Towards Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    M. Z. H. Khan; M. R. Al-Mamun; S. Sikdar; P. K. Halder; M. R. Hasan

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigated a novel loop-heat-pipe based solar thermal heat-pump system for small scale hot water production for household purposes. The effective use of solar energy is hindered by the intermittent nature of its availability, limiting its use and effectiveness in domestic and industrial applications especially in water heating. The easiest and the most used method is the conversion of solar energy into thermal energy. We developed a prototype solar water heating system for experi...

  20. Use of solar energy for disinfection of polluted water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Jamil

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Polluted water is causing serious health problems especially in the rural areas of Pakistan. People have limited access to safe water supply and many diseases like diarrhea and gastrointestinal diseases are transmitted by consumption of polluted water. We have investigated the potential of using solar energy to pasteurize water. Low cost indigenously available materials have been utilized to design and fabricate a solar box type pasteurizer having a capacity of three liters. The performance study of the pasteurizer was performed during the month of May 2008. The designed pasteurizer maintained water temperature in the range of60 oC to 70 oC continuously for more than an hour which is enough for deactivation of coliform bacteria. The maximum water temperature on a clear sunny day was found to be 67 oC, corresponding to an ambient temperature of40 oC. With the pasteurizer facing south, a very little repositioning was required. The low cost and operational simplicity of the pasteurizer make it affordable and usable. It is more useful in rural areas where other sources of energy like electricity and gas are not easily available

  1. Decontamination of drinking water by direct heating in solar panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjendbo Jørgensen, A J; Nøhr, K; Sørensen, H; Boisen, F

    1998-09-01

    A device was developed for direct heating of water by solar radiation in a flow-through system of copper pipes. An adjustable thermostat valve prevents water below the chosen temperature from being withdrawn. The results show that it is possible to eliminate coliform and thermotolerant coliform bacteria from naturally contaminated river water by heating to temperatures of 65 degrees C or above. Artificial additions of Salmonella typhimurium, Streptococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli to contaminated river water were also inactivated after heating to 65 degrees C and above. The total viable count could be reduced by a factor of 1000. The heat-resistant bacteria isolated from the Mlalakuva River (Tanzania) were spore-forming bacteria which exhibited greater heat resistance than commonly used test bacteria originating from countries with colder climates. To provide a good safety margin it is recommended that an outlet water temperature of 75 degrees C be used. At that temperature the daily production was about 501 of decontaminated water per m2 of solar panel, an amount that could be doubled by using a heat exchanger to recycle the heat.

  2. Why Do People Stop Treating Contaminated Drinking Water with Solar Water Disinfection (SODIS)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamas, Andrea; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Solar Water Disinfection (SODIS) is a simple method designed to treat microbiologically contaminated drinking water at household level. This article characterizes relapse behavior in comparison with continued SODIS use after a 7-month nonpromotion period. In addition, different subtypes among relapsers and continuers were assumed to diverge mainly…

  3. Solar wind fluctuations at large scale: A comparison between low and high solar activity conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bavassano, B.; Bruno, R.

    1991-01-01

    The influence of the Sun's activity cycle on the solar wind fluctuations at time scales from 1 hour to 3 days in the inner heliosphere (0.3 to 1 AU) is investigated. Hourly averages of plasma and magnetic field data by Helios spacecraft are used. Since fluctuations behave quite differently with changing scale, the analysis is performed separately for two different ranges in time scale. Between 1 and 6 hours Alfvenic fluctuations and pressure-balanced structures are extensively observed. At low solar activity and close to 0.3 AU, Alfvenic fluctuations are more frequent than pressure-balanced structures. This predominance, however, weakens for rising solar activity and radial distance, to the point that a role exchange, in terms of occurrence rate, is found at the maximum of the cycle close to 1 AU. On the other hand, in all cases Alfvenic fluctuations have a larger amplitude than pressure-balanced structures. On the whole, the Alfvenic contribution to the solar wind energy spectrum comes out to be dominant at all solar activity conditions. At scales from 0.5 to 3 days the most important feature is the growth, as the solar wind expansion develops, of strong positive correlations between magnetic and thermal pressures. These structures are progressively built up by the interaction between different wind flows. This effect is more pronounced at low than at high activity. Our findings support the conclusion that the solar cycle evolution of the large-scale velocity pattern is the factor governing the observed variations

  4. Solar disinfection of drinking water and oral rehydration solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acra, A; Raffoul, Z; Karahagopian, Y

    1984-01-01

    This document provides concise information on oral rehydration therapy for the control of diarrheal diseases in developing countries; however, the main emphasis has been placed on the disinfection of oral rehydration solutions, or the water used in their preparation, as achieved by exposure to sunlight in transparent containers. The fundamental principles of solar energy are presented as well as studies which demonstrate the efficacy of the method. 2 figures, 6 tables.

  5. Astrobiology: Water and Life in the Solar System and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alberto Quillfeldt

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available After some methodological considerations and a brief historical background (SETI, we describe the three main impulses to the present discipline of exo / astrobiology - extremophyles, the discovery of exoplanets, and the data gathered by several unmanned probes in the solar system. An overview of recent findings concerning the presence of frozen or liquid water in our planetary system is presented, and the main trends for the following years, summarized.

  6. A new perspective on solar active regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, K. T.; Bruner, M. E.

    1996-01-01

    A flood of new observations of the solar corona have been made with high spatial resolution, good temporal coverage and resolution, and large linear dynamic range by the Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT) on Yohkoh. These data are changing our fundamental understanding of how solar magnetic fields emerge, interact, and dissipate. This paper reviews some of the results from Yohkoh in the context of earlier results from the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) and in comjunction with ground-based optical and radio observations.

  7. Carbon nanoparticles for solar disinfection of water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddigpu, Pratap Reddy; Sawant, Bhairavi; Wanjari, Snehal; Goel, M D; Vione, Davide; Dhodapkar, Rita S; Rayalu, S

    2018-02-05

    The present manuscript deals with the application of carbon nano particles (CNP) and chitosan (CHIT) in the form of CHIT-CNP composite for the disinfection of water. The CHIT-CNP composite was prepared by the solution casting method and characterized by TEM, XRD and elemental analysis. In the present investigation we study the disinfection efficiency towards E. coli bacteria of both CNP and CHIT-CNP, under sunlight (SODIS) in identical experimental conditions. Both CNP and CHIT-CNP enhanced disinfection as compared to SODIS alone, and comparable performance was achieved when the same dose of CNP in the two materials was applied. However, the CHIT-CNP composite is in the form of a fabric and it is easier to use and handle as compared to the CNP powder, especially in rural and resource-constrained areas. Moreover the SODIS-CHIT-CNP setup, when used in a compound parabolic collector (CPC) reactor showed high bactericidal efficiency compared to SODIS alone, which is promising for practical applications. The disinfection potential of the CNP powder was compared with that of the well-known material TiO 2 Degussa P25 (DP 25 ): DP 25 gave 6-log kill of bacteria in 180min, whereas CNP produced 6-log kill in 150min. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Water vapor measurements at ALOMAR over a solar cycle compared with model calculations by LIMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartogh, P.; Sonnemann, G. R.; Grygalashvyly, M.; Song, Li; Berger, U.; Lübken, F.-J.

    2010-01-01

    Microwave water vapor measurements between 40 and 80 km altitude over a solar cycle (1996-2006) were carried out in high latitudes at Arctic Lidar Observatory for Middle Atmosphere Research (ALOMAR) (69.29°N, 16.03°E), Norway. Some smaller gaps and three interruptions of monitoring in the winters 1996/1997 and 2005/2006 and from spring 2001 to spring 2002 occurred during this period. The observations show a distinct year-to-year variability not directly related to solar Lyman-α radiation. In winter the water vapor mixing ratios in the upper domain were anticorrelated to the solar activity, whereas in summer, minima occurred in the years after the solar maximum in 2000/2001. In winter, sudden stratospheric warmings (SSWs) modulated the water vapor mixing ratios. Within the stratopause region a middle atmospheric water vapor maximum was observed, which results from the methane oxidation and is a regular feature there. The altitude of the maximum increased by approximately 5 km as summer approached. The largest mixing ratios were monitored in autumn. During the summer season a secondary water vapor maximum also occurred above 65 km most pronounced in late summer. The solar Lyman-α radiation impacts the water vapor mixing ratio particularly in winter above 65 km. In summer the correlation is positive below 70 km. The correlation is also positive in the lower mesosphere/stratopause region in winter due to the action of sudden stratospheric warmings, which occur more frequently under the condition of high solar activity and the enhancing the humidity. A strong day-to-day variability connected with planetary wave activity was found throughout the entire year. Model calculations by means of Leibniz-Institute Middle Atmosphere model (LIMA) reflect the essential patterns of the water vapor variation, but the results also show differences from the observations, indicating that exchange processes between the troposphere and stratosphere not modeled by LIMA could have

  9. Photoelectrochemical devices for solar water splitting - materials and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chaoran; Moniz, Savio J A; Wang, Aiqin; Zhang, Tao; Tang, Junwang

    2017-07-31

    It is widely accepted within the community that to achieve a sustainable society with an energy mix primarily based on solar energy we need an efficient strategy to convert and store sunlight into chemical fuels. A photoelectrochemical (PEC) device would therefore play a key role in offering the possibility of carbon-neutral solar fuel production through artificial photosynthesis. The past five years have seen a surge in the development of promising semiconductor materials. In addition, low-cost earth-abundant co-catalysts are ubiquitous in their employment in water splitting cells due to the sluggish kinetics of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). This review commences with a fundamental understanding of semiconductor properties and charge transfer processes in a PEC device. We then describe various configurations of PEC devices, including single light-absorber cells and multi light-absorber devices (PEC, PV-PEC and PV/electrolyser tandem cell). Recent progress on both photoelectrode materials (light absorbers) and electrocatalysts is summarized, and important factors which dominate photoelectrode performance, including light absorption, charge separation and transport, surface chemical reaction rate and the stability of the photoanode, are discussed. Controlling semiconductor properties is the primary concern in developing materials for solar water splitting. Accordingly, strategies to address the challenges for materials development in this area, such as the adoption of smart architectures, innovative device configuration design, co-catalyst loading, and surface protection layer deposition, are outlined throughout the text, to deliver a highly efficient and stable PEC device for water splitting.

  10. Solar control on the cloud liquid water content and integrated water vapor associated with monsoon rainfall over India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitra, Animesh; Saha, Upal; Adhikari, Arpita

    2014-12-01

    A long-term observation over three solar cycles indicates a perceptible influence of solar activity on rainfall and associated parameters in the Indian region. This paper attempts to reveal the solar control on the cloud liquid water content (LWC) and integrated water vapor (IWV) along with Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) rainfall during the period of 1977-2012 over nine different Indian stations. Cloud LWC and IWV are positively correlated with each other. An anti-correlation is observed between the Sunspot Number (SSN) and ISM rainfall for a majority of the stations and a poor positive correlation obtained for other locations. Cloud LWC and IWV possess positive correlations with Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) and SSN respectively for most of the stations. The wavelet analyses of SSN, ISM rainfall, cloud LWC and IWV have been performed to investigate the periodic characteristics of climatic parameters and also to indicate the varying relationship of solar activity with ISM rainfall, cloud LWC and IWV. SSN, ISM rainfall and IWV are found to have a peak at around 10.3 years whereas a dip is observed at that particular period for cloud LWC.

  11. A solar assisted heat-pump dryer and water heater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawlader, M.N.A.; Chou, S.K.; Jahangeer, K.A.; Rahman, S.M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Growing concern about the depletion of conventional energy resources has provided impetus for considerable research and development in the area of alternative energy sources. A solar assisted heat pump dryer and water heater found to be one of the solutions while exploring for alternative energy sources. The heat pump system is used for drying and water heating applications with the major share of the energy derived from the sun and the ambient. The solar assisted heat pump dryer and water heater has been designed, fabricated and tested. The performance of the system has been investigated under the meteorological conditions of Singapore. The system consists of a variable speed reciprocating compressor, evaporator-collector, storage tank, air cooled condenser, auxiliary heater, blower, dryer, dehumidifier, and air collector. The drying medium used is air and the drying chamber is configured to carry out batch drying of good grains. A water tank connected in series with the air cooled condenser delivers hot water for domestic applications. The water tank also ensures complete condensation of the refrigerant vapour. A simulation program is developed using Fortran language to evaluate the performance of the system and the influence of different variables. The performance indices considered to evaluate the performance of the system are: Solar Fraction (SF), Coefficient of Performance (COP) and Specific Moisture Extraction Rate (SMER). A COP value of 7.5 for a compressor speed of 1800 rpm was observed. Maximum collector efficiencies of 0.86 and 0.81 have been found for evaporator-collector and air collector, respectively. A value of the SMER of 0.79 has been obtained for a load of 20 kg and a compressor speed of 1200 rpm

  12. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Arlington Raquetball Club, Arlington, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    A solar space and water heating system is described. The solar energy system consists of 2,520 sq. ft. of flat plate solar collectors and a 4,000 gallon solar storage tank. The transfer medium in the forced closed loop is a nontoxic antifreeze solution (50 percent water, 50 percent propylene glycol). The service hot water system consists of a preheat coil (60 ft. of 1 1/4 in copper tubing) located in the upper third of the solar storage tank and a recirculation loop between the preheat coil and the existing electric water heaters. The space heating system consists of two separate water to air heat exchangers located in the ducts of the existing space heating/cooling systems. The heating water is supplied from the solar storage tank. Extracts from site files, specification references for solar modifications to existing building heating and hot water systems, and installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  13. Enerplan, Professional association of solar energy - activity report 2007. Network of solar energy professionals in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Enerplan is the French union of solar energy professionals. Created in 1983, its social purpose is the study and defense of the rights and of the material and moral interests of its members. Enerplan structures its action through two poles representing members' activities: 'solar energy and building' where topics about heat and electricity generation in relation with buildings are treated, and 'photovoltaic energy' where topics specific to big solar power plants are considered. Thanks to the collaborative participation of its members, both poles allow Enerplan union to be source of proposals to develop solar energy in France. As an active interface between professionals and institutions, Enerplan includes in its membership: industrialists, plant makers, engineering consultants, installers, associations, energy suppliers etc, from small-medium size companies to big groups. This document presents Enerplan's activities in 2007 (public relations, lobbying, meetings and conferences, promotional activities, collaborations, projects..)

  14. Enerplan, Professional association of solar energy - activity report 2008. Acting for solar energy promotion and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Enerplan is the French union of solar energy professionals. Created in 1983, its social purpose is the study and defense of the rights and of the material and moral interests of its members. Enerplan structures its action through two poles representing members' activities: 'solar energy and building' where topics about heat and electricity generation in relation with buildings are treated, and 'photovoltaic energy' where topics specific to big solar power plants are considered. Thanks to the collaborative participation of its members, both poles allow Enerplan union to be source of proposals to develop solar energy in France. As an active interface between professionals and institutions, Enerplan includes in its membership: industrialists, plant makers, engineering consultants, installers, associations, energy suppliers etc, from small-medium size companies to big groups. This document presents Enerplan's activities in 2008 (public relations, lobbying, meetings and conferences, promotional activities, collaborations, projects..)

  15. Investigating the real situation of Greek solar water heating market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaldellis, J.K.; Kavadias, K.A.; Spyropoulos, G.

    2005-01-01

    Solar thermal applications have been acknowledged among the leading alternative solutions endeavouring to face the uncontrollable oil price variations, the gradual depletion of fossil fuel reserves and the chain environmental consequences caused by its excessive usage. Almost 30 years after the initial emergence of the commercial domestic solar water heating system (DSWHS) in the European market, the corresponding technology is qualified as quite mature. On top of this, the European Commission expects that 100,000,000 m 2 of solar collectors are to be installed in Europe by the year 2010 to facilitate durable and environment-friendly heat. In this context, the Greek DSWHSs market is highly developed worldwide, having a great experience in this major energy market segment. The present study is devoted to an extensive evaluation of the local DSWHSs market, including a discerning analysis of its time variation, taking seriously into account the corresponding annual replacement rate. Accordingly, the crucial techno-economic reasons, limiting the DSWHSs penetration in the local heat production market, are summarized and elaborated. Subsequently, the national policy measures - aiming to support the DSWHSs in the course of time - are cited, in comparison with those applied in other European countries. Next, the financial attractiveness of a DSWHS for Greek citizens is examined in the local socio-economic environment. The present work is integrated by reciting the prospects and mustering certain proposals that, if applied, could stimulate the local market. As a general comment, the outlook for penetration of new DSWHSs in the local market is rather grim, as the current techno-economic situation of solar heat cannot compete with oil and natural gas heat production, unless the remarkable social and environmental benefits of solar energy are seriously considered. Hence, the Greek State lacks stimulus to further DSWHSs installations, being strongly in support of the imported

  16. Building America Case Study: Addressing Multifamily Piping Losses with Solar Hot Water, Davis, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-12-01

    Solar thermal water heating is most cost effective when applied to multifamily buildings and some states offer incentives or other inducements to install them. However, typical solar water heating designs do not allow the solar generated heat to be applied to recirculation losses, only to reduce the amount of gas or electric energy needed for hot water that is delivered to the fixtures. For good reasons, hot water that is recirculated through the building is returned to the water heater, not to the solar storage tank. The project described in this report investigated the effectiveness of using automatic valves to divert water that is normally returned through the recirculation piping to the gas or electric water heater instead to the solar storage tank. The valves can be controlled so that the flow is only diverted when the returning water is cooler than the water in the solar storage tank.

  17. Using Solar Hot Water to Address Piping Heat Losses in Multifamily Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, David [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States); Seitzler, Matt [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States); Backman, Christine [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States); Weitzel, Elizabeth [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Solar thermal water heating is most cost effective when applied to multifamily buildings and some states offer incentives or other inducements to install them. However, typical solar water heating designs do not allow the solar generated heat to be applied to recirculation losses, only to reduce the amount of gas or electric energy needed for hot water that is delivered to the fixtures. For good reasons, hot water that is recirculated through the building is returned to the water heater, not to the solar storage tank. The project described in this report investigated the effectiveness of using automatic valves to divert water that is normally returned through the recirculation piping to the gas or electric water heater instead to the solar storage tank. The valves can be controlled so that the flow is only diverted when the returning water is cooler than the water in the solar storage tank.

  18. Solar energy activities in the Arab countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayigh, A.A.M.

    1991-01-01

    The Arab countries, 22 in total, are divided into three groups. Group one consists of all countries of the Middle East. The second group is the Arabian Peninsula, and the third group consists of all Arab countries in Africa. The paper outlines the solar density and sunshine hours, as well as wind data in the region and compares them with some industrialized countries. Brief surveys of various solar energy projects are tabulated: that is solar, wind and biomass. Several specific major projects in various parts of the Arab World will be discussed. More specifically, the cooling of the solar energy research building in Baghdad (120 tons of solar absorption chillers, 80 tons of heat pumps), the heating of King Abdu-Asis Airborne and Physical Training School near Tabuk, Saudi Arabia, the 350 kW PV. field of the solar energy village near Riyadh and the 100 kW solar thermal plant in Kuwait are discussed. It is worth noting that the present photovoltaic capacity in the Arab world is more than 3.0 MW and the yearly installation potential per year is 2.0 MW. There are at least five photovoltaic production facilities in the Arab countries. Two of them in Saudi Arabia with capacity of 400 kW, one in Iraq with a capacity of 200 kW, one in Tunisia with a capacity of 100 kW and on in Algeria with capacity of 100 kW. The Arab countries can absorb 5MW per year and more countries like Egypt, Sudan, Morocco, Jordan and Libya are thinking of having their own production capabilities. Five desalination plants are also mentioned, plus the Yanbu plant of 240m/day, which is one of the largest in the world. The potential of wind energy utilisation is considered. Obstacles hindering the process of solar energy in the region are also outlined. (author). 11 refs, 1 fig., 4 tabs

  19. Solar Water Heating with Low-Cost Plastic Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-01-01

    Federal buildings consumed over 392,000 billion Btu of site delivered energy for buildings during FY 2007 at a total cost of $6.5 billion. Earlier data indicate that about 10% of this is used to heat water.[2] Targeting energy consumption in Federal buildings, the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) requires new Federal buildings and major renovations to meet 30% of their hot water demand with solar energy, provided it is cost-effective over the life of the system. In October 2009, President Obama expanded the energy reduction and performance requirements of EISA and its subsequent regulations with his Executive Order 13514.

  20. Solar water heating and its prospect for timber drying application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, B T

    1982-01-01

    The technical requirements for timber drying are discussed, and the possibility of using a solar water heating system to substitute for conventional fuel in a modern kiln is looked into from heat transfer considerations. At the moment, conventional fuel is used to generate steam for the heating of air in a kiln. If hot water is to be substitued for steam as the heating medium, the heating coil size required is larger. This size is determined relative to that of a steam coil for similar kiln operating temperatures. 5 references.

  1. Forced-circulation solar water heater using a solar battery; Taiyo denchi wo mochiita kyosei junkanshiki taiyonetsu onsuiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asai, S; Mizuno, T [Yazaki Resources Co. Ltd., Shizuoka (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    For the purpose of satisfying demands for qualitative improvement on tapwater temperature and pressure, an indirect-type solar water heater using solar cells, in which a closed type hot water storage tank connected directly to the water supply is integrated with a solar collector, was examined for its characteristics and performance. The heat collecting medium is a water solution of polypropylene glycol, which circulates through the solar collector pump, cistern, solar collector, and heat exchanger (hot water storage tank). The results of the test are summarized below. When comparison is made between the two solar collector pump control methods, the solar cells direct connection method and the differential thermo method utilizing temperature difference between the solar collector and the hot water storage tank, they are alike in collecting heat on clear days, but on cloudy days the latter collects 5% more than the former. In winter, when the heat exchanger heat transfer area is 0.4m{sup 2} large, a further increase in the area improves but a little the heat collecting efficiency. An increase in the medium flow rate and temperature, or in the Reynolds number, enhances the heat collecting efficiency. 13 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Role of Solar Water Heating in Multifamily Zero Energy Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, Robb [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States); Williamson, James [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2016-04-08

    Solar domestic hot water (SDHW) systems have been installed on buildings for decades, but because of relatively high costs they have not achieved significant market penetration in most of the country. As more buildings move towards zero net energy consumption, however, many designers and developers are looking more closely at SDHW. In multifamily buildings especially, SDHW may be more practical for several reasons: 1) When designing for zero net energy consumption, solar water heating may be part of the lowest cost approach to meet water heating loads; 2) Because of better scale, SDHW systems in multifamily buildings cost significantly less per dwelling than in single-family homes; 3) Many low-load buildings are moving away from fossil fuels entirely. SDHW savings are substantially greater when displacing electric resistance water heating; and 4) In addition to federal tax incentives, some states have substantial financial incentives that dramatically reduce the costs (or increase the benefits) of SDHW systems in multifamily buildings. With support from the U.S. DOE Building America program, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) worked with a developer in western Massachusetts to evaluate a SDHW system on a 12-unit apartment building. Olive Street Development completed construction in spring of 2014, and CARB has been monitoring performance of the water heating systems since May 2014.

  3. CFD Study of Fluid Flow in an All-glass Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ai, Ning; Fan, Jianhua; Li, Yumin

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: The all-glass evacuated tube solar water heater is one of the most widely used solar thermal technologies. The aim of the paper is to investigate fluid flow in the solar water heater by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The investigation was carried out with a focus on the co...... for future system optimization....

  4. Report of the workshop Energy Utility and Solar Water Heater 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The title workshop was organized to increase the interest of energy utilities for the Solar Water Heater campaign by providing representatives of the utilities with information about the technical and marketing aspects of solar boilers, and to stimulate knowledge transfer between the energy utilities about the method, the possibilities and bottlenecks of solar water heater projects

  5. Inactivation of fecal bacteria in drinking water by solar heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, T M; McGuigan, K G; Elmore-Meegan, M; Conroy, R M

    1996-02-01

    We report simulations of the thermal effect of strong equatorial sunshine on water samples contaminated with high populations of fecal coliforms. Water samples, heavily contaminated with a wild-type strain of Escherichia coli (starting population = 20 x 10(5) CFU/ml), are heated to those temperatures recorded for 2-liter samples stored in transparent plastic bottles and exposed to full Kenyan sunshine (maximum water temperature, 55 degrees C). The samples are completely disinfected within 7 h, and no viable E. coli organisms are detected at either the end of the experiment or a further 12 h later, showing that no bacterial recovery has occurred. The feasibility of employing solar disinfection for highly turbid, fecally contaminated water is discussed.

  6. Commercially Available Activated Carbon Fiber Felt Enables Efficient Solar Steam Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haoran; He, Yurong; Hu, Yanwei; Wang, Xinzhi

    2018-03-21

    Sun-driven steam generation is now possible and has the potential to help meet future energy needs. Current technologies often use solar condensers to increase solar irradiance. More recently, a technology for solar steam generation that uses heated surface water and low optical concentration is reported. In this work, a commercially available activated carbon fiber felt is used to generate steam efficiently under one sun illumination. The evaporation rate and solar conversion efficiency reach 1.22 kg m -2 h -1 and 79.4%, respectively. The local temperature of the evaporator with a floating activated carbon fiber felt reaches 48 °C. Apart from the high absorptivity (about 94%) of the material, the evaporation performance is enhanced thanks to the well-developed pores for improved water supply and steam escape and the low thermal conductivity, which enables reduced bulk water temperature increase. This study helps to find a promising material for solar steam generation using a water evaporator that can be produced economically (∼6 $/m 2 ) with long-term stability.

  7. The UK solar water heating industry: a period of development and growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blower, John

    2001-01-01

    This 2001 edition of the guide to UK renewable energy companies examines the solar water heating sector in the UK and presents an illustration of the layout of a typical solar water heating system. The rising demand for solar water heating and growth in sales especially in the export market are noted. Developments within the UK solar water heating manufacturing industry are considered, and details are given of design and development in innovative policy infrastructure, and the SHINE 21 project supported by the EU's ADAPT programme and the UK Department of Trade and Industry involving collaboration between the solar water heating and plumbing industries. Developments in the new build sectors including in-roof solar collector products and the increasing number of solar water heating systems installed in UK houses are discussed along with the promising future for the market

  8. Enerplan, Professional association of solar energy - activity report 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Enerplan is the French union of solar energy professionals. Created in 1983, its social purpose is the study and defense of the rights and of the material and moral interests of its members. Enerplan structures its action through two poles representing members' activities: 'solar energy and building' where topics about heat and electricity generation in relation with buildings are treated, and 'photovoltaic energy' where topics specific to big solar power plants are considered. Thanks to the collaborative participation of its members, both poles allow Enerplan union to be source of proposals to develop solar energy in France. As an active interface between professionals and institutions, Enerplan includes in its membership: industrialists, plant makers, engineering consultants, installers, associations, energy suppliers etc, from small-medium size companies to big groups. This document presents Enerplan's activities in 2006 (public relations, lobbying, meetings and conferences, promotional activities, collaborations, projects..)

  9. Exergy Analysis of Serpentine Thermosyphon Solar Water Heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Faisal Hasan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a solar hot water system is assessed for heat pump and domestic heating applications. Thermodynamic analysis on a serpentine-type thermosyphon flat-plate solar heater is conducted using the Second Law of thermodynamics. Exergetic optimization is first performed to determine the parameters for the maximum exergy efficiency using MATLAB optimization toolbox. Geometric parameters (collector surface area, dimensions, and pipe diameter, optical parameters (transmittance absorptance product, ambient temperature, solar irradiation and operating parameters (mass flow rate, fluid temperature, and overall heat transfer (loss coefficient are accounted for in the optimization scheme. The exergy efficiency at optimum condition is found to be 3.72%. The results are validated using experimental data and found to be in good agreement. The analysis is further extended to the influence of various operating parameters on the exergetic efficiency. It is observed that optical and thermal exergy losses contribute almost 20%, whereas approximately 77% exergy destruction is contributed by the thermal energy conversion. Exergy destruction due to pressure drop is found negligible. The result of this analysis can be used for designing and optimization of domestic heat pump system and hot water application.

  10. Passive Solar Driven Water Treatment of Contaminated Water Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Mubasher

    2016-01-01

    Master's thesis in Environmental technology Freshwater, being vital for mankind survival, has become a very serious concern for the public especially living in countries with limited water, energy and economic resources. Freshwater generation is an energy-intensive task particularly when fossil based fuels are required as energy source. However, environmental concerns and high energy costs have called for the alternative and renewable sources of energy like wind, hy...

  11. Sustainable implementation of solar tunnel dryers, water heaters and cookers in Nepal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacs, Peter [Danish Energy Management, DEM for Renewable Energy Project, REP, Dhobighat, Lalitpur (Nepal); Shrestha, Niraj; Shakya, Prajwal Raj [Renewable Energy Project, REP, Dhobighat, Lalitpur (Nepal); Pokharel, Govind [Alternative Energy Promotion Centre (AEPC), Lalitpur (Nepal)

    2008-07-01

    The Renewable Energy Project (REP) is a joint effort of the European Union and the Government of Nepal. Main objectives of the project are to create renewable energy infrastructure and services for the benefit of rural people in remote districts of Nepal. The REP will provide solar energy systems for public services in remote districts, as well as for income generating activities e.g. agro business and tourism. The REP focuses on the installation of institutional PV systems with a total capacity of 0.850 MWp. Concurrently, a number of solar thermal systems are being provided to community organizations (COs) in rural areas of Nepal. The priority applications for the solar thermal part are solar tunnel dryers for small industries drying vegetables. fruits and herbs, solar water heaters for community centers in trekking areas and large scale solar cookers in schools. The paper describes the Renewable Energy Project's implementation program for solar thermal technology and in particular the implications on design and usefulness of the solar tunnel dryer from on-site feasibility studies carried out by the project team. REP provides a framework for a sustainable implementation of these systems by carrying out the whole process from dissemination of information to demand collection, feasibility studies, design, procurement, commissioning and user training. Hand over of ownership will take place once the equipment is installed and successfully commissioned. Monitoring during the first year of operation should conclude the project. REP is co-funded by the European Union and the Government of Nepal. (orig.)

  12. Heterogeneous Bimetallic Phosphide/Sulfide Nanocomposite for Efficient Solar-Energy-Driven Overall Water Splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Yanmei; Kan, Xiang; Gan, Li-Yong; Zhang, Zhonghai

    2017-10-24

    Solar-driven overall water splitting is highly desirable for hydrogen generation with sustainable energy sources, which need efficient, earth-abundant, robust, and bifunctional electrocatalysts for both oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Herein, we propose a heterogeneous bimetallic phosphide/sulfide nanocomposite electrocatalyst of NiFeSP on nickel foam (NiFeSP/NF), which shows superior electrocatalytic activity of low overpotentials of 91 mV at -10 mA cm -2 for HER and of 240 mV at 50 mA cm -2 for OER in 1 M KOH solution. In addition, the NiFeSP/NF presents excellent overall water splitting performance with a cell voltage as low as 1.58 V at a current density of 10 mA cm -2 . Combining with a photovoltaic device of a Si solar cell or integrating into photoelectrochemical (PEC) systems, the bifunctional NiFeSP/NF electrocatalyst implements unassisted solar-driven water splitting with a solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency of ∼9.2% and significantly enhanced PEC performance, respectively.

  13. Evaluation of Solar Photosensitised River Water Treatment in the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Tota-Maharaj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An economical supply of hygienic potable water is one of the most pressing public health issues facing developing countries in the Caribbean region today. This project investigates the performance of a novel solar photochemical reactor for disinfecting river water. The prototype photochemical reactor was designed, constructed, and tested for the microbiological degradation of faecal coliform present in River Water. The experiments evaluated the efficacy of two photosensitive dyes (malachite green and methylene blue as agents for detoxification with concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 mg/L. The photochemical reactor operated in a single-pass mode and compared the disinfection rates with direct photolysis. The photosensitizers showed a high efficacy rate using natural sunlight with microbial reduction ranging from 97 to 99% for concentrations as low as 0.5 mg/L of dye. The sensitizers were found to be photobleaching and were very effective at lower concentrations (0.01. Post-solar disinfection included the use of a coconut fiber filter which polished the water removing residual dye concentrations and bacterial contaminants.

  14. Solar-Based Fuzzy Intelligent Water Sprinkle System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riza Muhida

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A solar-based intelligent water sprinkler system project that has been developed to ensure the effectiveness in watering the plant is improved by making the system automated. The control system consists of an electrical capacitance soil moisture sensor installed into the ground which is interfaced to a controller unit of Motorola 68HC11 Handy board microcontroller. The microcontroller was programmed based on the decision rules made using fuzzy logic approach on when to water the lawn. The whole system is powered up by the solar energy which is then interfaced to a particular type of irrigation timer for plant fertilizing schedule and rain detector through a simple design of rain dual-collector tipping bucket. The controller unit automatically disrupted voltage signals sent to the control valves whenever irrigation was not needed. Using this system we combined the logic implementation in the area of irrigation and weather sensing equipment, and more efficient water delivery can be made possible. 

  15. Optimum systems design with random input and output applied to solar water heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Malek, L. L.

    1980-03-01

    Solar water heating systems are evaluated. Models were developed to estimate the percentage of energy supplied from the Sun to a household. Since solar water heating systems have random input and output queueing theory, birth and death processes were the major tools in developing the models of evaluation. Microeconomics methods help in determining the optimum size of the solar water heating system design parameters, i.e., the water tank volume and the collector area.

  16. Studi Kinerja Solar Water Heater Dengan Aliran Zig-zag Beralur Balok

    OpenAIRE

    Ikhsan, M. Rizki; Soeparman, Sudjito; Sasongko, Mega Nur

    2017-01-01

    Solar energy can be used for water heating by using solar water heater application. Therefore, its still needs some modification due to its low efficiency. This modification can be done by replacing the conventional plate of solar collectors into a double plate with a zig-zag pattern. The results shown that along with the decreasing of water flow rates could significantly increase the useful energy (Qu). Initial temperature of water inlet could affect the generated maximum temperature. The hi...

  17. Indexes and parameters of activity in solar-terrestrial physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minasyants, G.S.; Minasyants, T.M.

    2005-01-01

    The daily variation of different indexes and parameters of the solar-terrestrial physics at the 23 cycle were considered to find the most important from them for the forecast of geomagnetic activity. The validity of application of the Wolf numbers in quality of the characteristic of solar activity at sunspots is confirmed. The best geo-effective parameter in the arrival of the interplanetary shock from coronal mass ejection to an orbit of the Earth. (author)

  18. Solar activity and life. A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messerotti, M.; Chela-Flores, J.

    2007-09-01

    Recent claims advocate a downward revision of the solar oxygen abundance. This is a reflection of what may be called a 'solar crisis' whereby we mean that previous consensus in our understanding of our nearest star was unfounded. The implications for solar physics, and chemistry, are obvious and much research in the near future will give us a much clearer understanding of the Sun. We wish to review and update recent work concerning the frontier between Space Weather (SpW) and Astrobiology. We argue that the present robust programs of various space agencies reinforce our hope for a better understanding of the bases of Astrobiology. Eventually with a more realistic model of the Sun, more reliable discussions of all the factors influencing the origin of life on Earth will be possible. (author)

  19. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for junior high/middle school science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    Some basic topics on the subject of solar energy are outlined in the form of a teaching manual. The manual is geared toward junior high or middle school science students. Topics include solar collectors, solar water heating, solar radiation, insulation, heat storage, and desalination. Instructions for the construction of apparatus to demonstrate the solar energy topics are provided. (BCS)

  20. Policy development for solar water heaters: the case of Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chedid, R.B.

    2000-01-01

    Full text.The electric energy demand in Lebanon is estimated to grow at an average of 3-5% per year for the coming 10 years. Such an increase in energy demand is problematic for Lebanon since its economy is almost totally dependent on imported fuel which contributes to 97% of the overall energy requirements. Solar water heaters (SWH) are regarded as the most important element in a long term energy conservation and management strategy for this country, but their promotion is a national issue requiring the participation of many stake holders and decision makers. Additionally, the success of solar energy penetration into the existing energy market is constrained by many factors such as technical and financial limitations, decision criteria and policy instruments. This paper will explore the feasibility of SWH, and will work out, using the Analytic Hierarchy Process technique, a policy to ensure a large scale diffusion of SWH in the energy market

  1. Solar wind fluctuations at large scale - A comparison between low and high solar activity conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavassano, B.; Bruno, R.

    1991-02-01

    The influence of the sun's activity cycle on the solar wind fluctuations at time scales from 1 hour to 3 days in the inner heliosphere (0.3 to 1 AU) is investigated. Hourly averages of plasma and magnetic field data by Helios spacecraft are used. Since fluctuations behave quite differently with changing scale, the analysis is performed separately for two different ranges in time scale. Between 1 and 6 hours Alfvenic fluctuations and pressure-balanced structures are extensively observed. At low solar activity and close to 0.3 AU Alfvenic fluctuations are more frequent than pressure-balanced structures. This predominance, however, weakens for rising solar activity and radial distance, to the point that a role-exchange, in terms of occurrence rate, is found at the maximum of the cycle close to 1 AU. On the other hand, in all cases Alfvenic fluctuations have a larger amplitude than pressure-balanced structures. The Alfvenic contribution to the solar wind energy spectrum comes out to be dominant at all solar activity conditions. These findings support the conclusion that the solar cycle evolution of the large-scale velocity pattern is the factor governing the observed variations.

  2. Performance enhancement of modified solar still using water sprinkler: An experimental approach

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Bhupendra; Sharma, Raghvendra; Shankar, Prem; Baredar, Prashant

    2016-01-01

    In this communication, existing design of single slope solar still has been modified, developed and tested. The modifications in conventional single slope solar still include (i) inside walls painted with white colour and (ii) attachment of water sprinkler with constant water flow rate of 0.0001 kg/s on the glass cover. The performance of modified single slope solar still has been evaluated and compared with conventional solar still. Experiments have been carried out on both modified and conv...

  3. Numerical analysis of using hybrid photovoltaic-thermal solar water heater in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mohammadi Sarduei

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Electrical performance of solar cells decreases with increasing cell temperature, basically because of growth of the internal charge carrier recombination rates, caused by increased carrier concentrations. Hybrid Photovoltaic/thermal (PVT systems produce electrical and thermal energy simultaneously. PVT solar collectors convert the heat generated in the solar cells to low temperature useful heat energy and so they provide a lower working temperature for solar cells which subsequently leads to a higher electrical efficiency. Recently, in Iran, the reforming government policy in subsidy and increasing fossil fuels price led to growing an interest in use of renewable energies for residual and industrial applications. In spite of this, the PV power generator investment is not economically feasible, so far. Hybrid PVT devices are well known as an alternative method to improve energy performance and therefore economic feasibility of the conventional PV systems. The aim of this study is to investigate the performance of a PVT solar water heater in four different cities of Iran using TRNSYS program. Materials and Methods The designed PVT solar water system consists of two separate water flow circuits namely closed cycle and open circuit. The closed cycle circuit was comprised of a solar PVT collector (with nominal power of 880 W and area of 5.6 m2, a heat exchanger in the tank (with volume of 300 L, a pump and connecting pipes. The water stream in the collector absorbs the heat accumulated in the solar cells and delivers it to the water in the tank though the heat exchanger. An on/off controller system was used to activate the pump when the collector outlet temperature was higher than that of the tank in the closed cycle circuit. The water in the open circuit, comes from city water at low temperature, enters in the lower part of the storage tank where the heat transfer occurs between the two separate circuits. An auxiliary heater, connected

  4. Analysis of a solar water thermosyphon system; Analise do aquecimento solar de agua por sistema a termosifao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardenas, Abner Barzola

    1992-07-01

    A design methodology and to perform the simulation of flat plate solar collectors coupled with a water storage tank and operating by natural convection circulation is presented. For a given site the incident solar radiation on a tilted and previously oriented surface is determined from solar astronomy and the dally average of the monthly data of the horizontal total solar radiation. Huancayo situated in Peru (at 12.05 deg S, long. 76.18 deg W, altitude 3,312 m), is chosen as the site to be installed the solar water system, as a mean to improve the peasant's standard of life. An optimum tilt angle for a north oriented collector surface is obtained in order to have a maximum solar capture during the water. The theoretical methodology use here is based upon the ONG's paper (1976), and in attrition is considered the hot water drainage due to the dally consumption. For the sake of comparison, the calculated flowrate values are confronted with the experimental data obtained by FERNANDEZ, for a same site location (Rio de Janeiro) and are used identical dimensions for the water thermosyphon heater. Finally, the economic feasibility of the solar water system is demonstrated when it is compared with the usual immersion electric resistance boiler. For the Peruvian conditions the more adequate solar water system for a rural or domestic usage is a 1.4 m{sup 2} area solar collector (6 parallel, 15,875 mm copper tubes), 100 l capacity for the water storage tank, 33.5 mm for the connecting tubes, being of 300 mm. The height between the collector top and the bottom of the tank. (author)

  5. Analysis of a solar water thermosyphon system; Analise do aquecimento solar de agua por sistema a termosifao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardenas, Abner Barzola

    1992-07-01

    A design methodology and to perform the simulation of flat plate solar collectors coupled with a water storage tank and operating by natural convection circulation is presented. For a given site the incident solar radiation on a tilted and previously oriented surface is determined from solar astronomy and the dally average of the monthly data of the horizontal total solar radiation. Huancayo situated in Peru (at 12.05 deg S, long. 76.18 deg W, altitude 3,312 m), is chosen as the site to be installed the solar water system, as a mean to improve the peasant's standard of life. An optimum tilt angle for a north oriented collector surface is obtained in order to have a maximum solar capture during the water. The theoretical methodology use here is based upon the ONG's paper (1976), and in attrition is considered the hot water drainage due to the dally consumption. For the sake of comparison, the calculated flowrate values are confronted with the experimental data obtained by FERNANDEZ, for a same site location (Rio de Janeiro) and are used identical dimensions for the water thermosyphon heater. Finally, the economic feasibility of the solar water system is demonstrated when it is compared with the usual immersion electric resistance boiler. For the Peruvian conditions the more adequate solar water system for a rural or domestic usage is a 1.4 m{sup 2} area solar collector (6 parallel, 15,875 mm copper tubes), 100 l capacity for the water storage tank, 33.5 mm for the connecting tubes, being of 300 mm. The height between the collector top and the bottom of the tank. (author)

  6. Solar activity monitoring and forecasting capabilities at Big Bear Solar Observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. T. Gallagher

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The availability of full-disk, high-resolution Ha images from Big Bear Solar Observatory (USA, Kanzelhöhe Solar Observatory (Austria, and Yunnan Astronomical Observatory (China allows for the continual monitoring of solar activity with unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution. Typically, this Global Ha Network (GHN provides almost uninterrupted Ha images with a cadence of 1 min and an image scale of 1'' per pixel.  Every hour, GHN images are transferred to the web-based BBSO Active Region Monitor (ARM; www.bbso.njit.edu/arm, which includes the most recent EUV, continuum, and magnetogram data from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, together with magnetograms from the Global Oscillation Network Group. ARM also includes a variety of active region properties from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Space Environment Center, such as up-to-date active region positions, GOES 5-min X-ray data, and flare identification. Stokes I, V, Q, and U images are available from the recently operational BBSO Digital Vector Magnetograph and the Vector Magnetograph at the Huairou Solar Observing Station of Beijing Observatory. Vector magnetograms provide complete information on the photospheric magnetic field, and allow for magnetic flux gradients, electric currents, and shear forces to be calculated: these measurements are extremely sensitive to conditions resulting in flaring activity. Furthermore, we have developed a Flare Prediction System which estimates the probability for each region to produce C-, M-, or X-class flares based on nearly eight years of NOAA data from cycle 22. This, in addition to BBSO’s daily solar activity reports, has proven a useful resource for activity forecasting.Key words. Solar physics, astronomy and astrophysics (flares and mass ejections; instruments and techniques; photosphere and chromosphere

  7. Active solar heating and cooling information user study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on active solar heating and cooling (SHAC). An earlier study identified the information user groups in the solar community and the priority (to accelerate solar energy commercialization) of getting information to each group. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from 19 SHAC groups respondents are analyzed in this report: DOE-Funded Researchers, Non-DOE-Funded Researchers, Representatives of Manufacturers (4 groups), Distributors, Installers, Architects, Builders, Planners, Engineers (2 groups), Representatives of Utilities, Educators, Cooperative Extension Service County Agents, Building Owners/Managers, and Homeowners (2 groups). The data will be used as input to the determination of information products and services the Solar Energy Research Institute, the Solar Energy Information Data Bank Network, and the entire information outreach community should be preparing and disseminating.

  8. Solar activity affects avian timing of reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M.E.; Sanz, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    Avian timing of reproduction is strongly affected by ambient temperature. Here we show that there is an additional effect of sunspots on laying date, from five long-term population studies of great and blue tits (Parus major and Cyanistes caeruleus), demonstrating for the first time that solar

  9. Photocatalyst based on titanium or iron semiconductors for the generation of hydrogen from water upon solar irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Serra, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The objective of present thesis is to prepare and evaluate photocatalyst for hydrogen generation from water methanol mixture using solar light. This general objective has been accomplished by applying different methodology in material preparation as well as exploring the photocatalytic activity of novel semiconductors. In this way after a general introduction to the feed showing the relevance of solar fuels and in particular hydrogen generation, the...

  10. Are cold winters in Europe associated with low solar activity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockwood, M; Harrison, R G; Woollings, T; Solanki, S K

    2010-01-01

    Solar activity during the current sunspot minimum has fallen to levels unknown since the start of the 20th century. The Maunder minimum (about 1650-1700) was a prolonged episode of low solar activity which coincided with more severe winters in the United Kingdom and continental Europe. Motivated by recent relatively cold winters in the UK, we investigate the possible connection with solar activity. We identify regionally anomalous cold winters by detrending the Central England temperature (CET) record using reconstructions of the northern hemisphere mean temperature. We show that cold winter excursions from the hemispheric trend occur more commonly in the UK during low solar activity, consistent with the solar influence on the occurrence of persistent blocking events in the eastern Atlantic. We stress that this is a regional and seasonal effect relating to European winters and not a global effect. Average solar activity has declined rapidly since 1985 and cosmogenic isotopes suggest an 8% chance of a return to Maunder minimum conditions within the next 50 years (Lockwood 2010 Proc. R. Soc. A 466 303-29): the results presented here indicate that, despite hemispheric warming, the UK and Europe could experience more cold winters than during recent decades.

  11. Water disinfection with solar radiation; Desinfeccion del agua con radiacion solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Alejandra; Cortes, Juana E; Rodriguez, Miriam; Mundo, Alfredo; Vazquez, Sandra [Instituto Mexicano de Tecnologia del Agua, Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico); Estrada, Claudio A [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    Water disinfection by exposure to solar radiation is a low cost and easy application option to rural communities. The treatment of water can be done using plastic bags or plastic bottles of two litters setting on a reflective material. The efficient of the plastic bottles is lower than the one plastic bags, but the plastic bottles have a much better control of the treated water avoiding its recontamination. In order to increase the efficiency of disinfection using plastic bottles, two solar concentrators, using flat mirrors, were designed and built. Effluent water from a treatment plant of residual waters was used for the testing. Several comparison were carried out taking into account the position of the concentrators, the transparency of the bottles and the bags. The results show that using the concentrator that adjust its position to the sun every hour, a 100% disinfection is obtained in 4 hours of direct exposure to the sun rays in a sunny day. The period of time can be reduced up to 2 hours, if instead using transparent bottles, the bottles are black painted at their bottom half. With these results, the basis to design a cheap concentrator of easy construction to be used in rural communities have been settle. [Spanish] La desinfeccion del agua por exposicion a la luz solar fotodesinfeccion es una opcion de bajo costo y facil aplicacion para las comunidades rurales. El tratamiento puede llevarse a cabo utilizando bolsas o botellas de plastico transparente de dos litros de capacidad colocadas sobre un material reflejante. Las botellas son menos eficientes que las bolsas, pero permiten un mejor control del agua tratada evitando su recontaminacion. Para aumentar la eficiencia de la desinfeccion utilizando las botellas, se disenaron y construyeron dos concentradores solares de espejos planos que permitieron disminuir el tiempo de exposicion requerido cuando se utilizan estas. Para las pruebas de desinfeccion se utilizo agua del efluente de una planta de tratamiento

  12. Photoanodic Hybrid Semiconductor–Molecular Heterojunction for Solar Water Oxidation

    KAUST Repository

    Joya, Khurram Saleem

    2015-06-29

    Inorganic photo-responsive semiconducting materials have been employed in photoelectrochemical(PEC) water oxidation devicesin pursuit of solar to fuel conversion.[1]The reaction kinetics in semiconductors is limited by poor contact at the interfaces, and charge transfer is impeded by surface defects and the grain boundaries.[2]It has shown that successful surface functionalization of the photo-responsive semiconducting materials with co-catalysts can maximize the charge separation, hole delivery and its effective consumption, and enhances the efficiency and performane of the PEC based water oxidation assembly.[3]We present here unique modification of photoanodic hematite (α-Fe2O3) and bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) with molecular co-catalysts for enhanced photoelectrochemical water oxidation (Figure 1). These hybrid inorganic–organometallic heterojunctions manifest impressive cathodic shifts in the onset potentials, and the photocurrent densities have been enhanced by > 90% at all potentials relative to uncatalyzed α-Fe2O3 or BiVO4, and other catalyst-semiconductor based heterojunctions.This is a novel development in the solar to fuel conversion field, and is crucially important for designing a tandem device where light interfere very little with the catalyst layer on top of semiconducting light absorber.

  13. Comparison of three systems of solar water heating by thermosiphon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, E.; Guzmán, R. E.

    2016-02-01

    The main purpose of this project was to elaborate a comparison between three water heating systems; using two plane water heating solar collector and another using a vacuum tube heater, all of them are on top of the cafeteria's roof on building of the “Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana” in Bucaramanga, Colombia. Through testing was determined each type of water heating systems' performance, where the Stainless Steel tube collector reached a maximum efficiency of 71.58%, the Copper Tubing Collector a maximum value of 76.31% and for the Vacuum Tube Heater Collector a maximum efficiency of 72.33%. The collector with copper coil was the system more efficient. So, taking into account the Performance and Temperature Curves, along with the weather conditions at the time of the testing we determined that the most efficient Solar Heating System is the one using a Vacuum Tube Heater Collector. Reaching a maximum efficiency of 72.33% and a maximum temperature of 62.6°C.

  14. Simulation of an active solar energy system integrated in a passive building in order to obtain system efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceacaru, Mihai C.

    2012-11-01

    In this work we present a simulation of an active solar energy system. This system belongs to the first passive office building (2086 square meters) in Romania and it is used for water heating consumption. This office building was opened in February 2009 and was built based on passive house design solutions. For this simulation, we use Solar Water Heating module, which belongs to the software RETSCREEN and this simulation is done for several cities in Romania. Results obtained will be compared graphically.

  15. On proton events of different solar activity cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattarov, I.; Sherdanov, Ch.; Sattarov, B.

    1997-01-01

    In solar activity cycle N21 and N22 the latitude distribution of the proton large flares and sunspot groups is being studied. It was found that higher proton activity of cycle N22 is connected with its higher latitude sunspot activity (author)

  16. Twist of Magnetic Fields in Solar Active Regions Hongqi Zhang ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    in active regions also shows the butterfly pattern through the solar cycle. And, less than 30% of the active regions do not follow the general trend (Zhang & Bao 1998). The longitudinal distribution of current helicity parameter h|| of active regions in both the hemispheres in the last decade was presented by Zhang & Bao ...

  17. Solar photovoltaic water pumping system using a new linear actuator

    OpenAIRE

    Andrada Gascón, Pedro; Castro, Javier

    2007-01-01

    In this paper a photovoltaic solar pumping system using a new linear actuator is presented. This linear actuator is a double-sided flat two-phase variable-reluctance linear stepper motor that moves a piston-type water pump with the help of a rope, a pulley and a counterweight. The entire actuator pump ensemble is controlled by a simple electronic unit that manages the electric power generated by a photovoltaic array. The proposed system is suitable for rural communities in developing...

  18. Danish participation in the IEA solar cell activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    In the 12-month period 01.05.93 - 30.04.94 the Danish activities in the IEA 'Solar Cell Agreement' consisted in: participation in the Executive Committee (ExCo) and participation in Task 1 'Exchange and Dissemination of Information on PV Power Systems'. ExCo has meetings every half-year and is a coordinating organ for the Agreement. Work on the Task 1 is organized in 4 subtasks: (1) mapping of solar cell activities in the OECD countries and preparation of an IEA handbook on solar cell technology; (2) publishing of a semiannual newsletter about the agreement; (3) an 'executive conference' on solar cell technology and its uses with participation of the decision-makers in respective power industries; (4) information dissemination whenever required. Demonstration projects, like a photovoltaic roof-integrated system connected to the grid. have been implemented. Three larger solar cell projects, subsidized by the EU means, comprehend 'real time monitoring' by a solar system, WHO project 'Solar Energy Applications for Primary Health Care Clinics for Remote Rural Areas' (SAPHIR) and a grid-connected photovoltaic system in a suburb residential settlement. (EG)

  19. Cold-Climate Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burch, J.; Salasovich, J.; Hillman, T.

    2005-11-01

    The Solar Heating and Lighting Sub-program has set the key goal to reduce the cost of saved energy [Csav, defined as (total cost, $)/(total discounted savings, kWh_thermal)] for solar domestic water heaters (SDWH) by at least 50%. To determine if this goal is attainable and prioritize R&D for cold-climate SDWH, life-cycle analyses were done with hypothetical lower-cost components in glycol, drainback, and thermosiphon systems. Balance-of-system (BOS, everything but the collector) measures included replacing metal components with polymeric versions and system simplification. With all BOS measures in place, Csav could be reduced more than 50% with a low-cost, selectively-coated, glazed polymeric collector, and slightly less than 50% with either a conventional selective metal-glass or a non-selective glazed polymer collector. The largest percent reduction in Csav comes from replacing conventional pressurized solar storage tanks and metal heat exchangers with un-pressurized polymer tanks with immersed polymer heat exchangers, which could be developed with relatively low-risk R&D.

  20. Effect of water and air flow on concentric tubular solar water desalting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arunkumar, T.; Jayaprakash, R.; Ahsan, Amimul; Denkenberger, D.; Okundamiya, M.S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We optimized the augmentation of condense by enhanced desalination methodology. ► We measured ambient together with solar radiation intensity. ► The effect of cooling air and water flowing over the cover was studied. -- Abstract: This work reports an innovative design of tubular solar still with a rectangular basin for water desalination with flowing water and air over the cover. The daily distillate output of the system is increased by lowering the temperature of water flowing over it (top cover cooling arrangement). The fresh water production performance of this new still is observed in Sri Ramakrishna Mission Vidyalaya College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore (11° North, 77° East), India. The water production rate with no cooling flow was 2050 ml/day (410 ml/trough). However, with cooling air flow, production increased to 3050 ml/day, and with cooling water flow, it further increased to 5000 ml/day. Despite the increased cost of the water cooling system, the increased output resulted in the cost of distilled water being cut in roughly half. Diurnal variations of a few important parameters are observed during field experiments such as water temperature, cover temperature, air temperature, ambient temperature and distillate output.

  1. Ground water lifting in the remote and arid areas of Egypt using solar photovoltaic pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younes, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    An experimental study has been carried out at Mechanical and Electrical Research Institute, Qenater (300 N, 310 E), Egypt on a 2000 WP solar photovoltaic (PV) water pump. The main objective is to investigate the feasibility of utilizing solar energy in ground water lifting. A solar PV pumping system has been constructed as a prototype for a large-scale photovoltaic project in south of Egypt. Solar potential at the remote and arid areas of Egypt is discussed. Installation and operation factors as a function of environmental conditions are presented. Performance of the water pump has been evaluated. The water discharge and system efficiency has been estimated and presented. The changes in water discharge and system efficiency with change in solar radiation has been measured and presented. Preliminary results show that there is a huge potential and real-ability for solar PV submersible water pumping in the remote and arid areas of Egypt

  2. Development of a Long-Life-Cycle, Highly Water-Resistant Solar Reflective Retrofit Roof Coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyzos, Georgios [ORNL; Hunter, Scott Robert [ORNL; Sharma, Jaswinder K [ORNL; Cheng, Mengdawn [ORNL; Chen, Sharon S [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Demarest, Victoria [Dow Chemical Company; Fabiny, William [Dow Chemical Company; Destaillats, Hugo [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Levinson, Ronnen [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)

    2016-03-04

    Highly water-resistant and solar-reflective coatings for low-slope roofs are potentially among the most economical retrofit approaches to thermal management of the building envelope. Therefore, they represent a key building technology research program within the Department of Energy. Research efforts in industry and the Department of Energy are currently under way to increase long-term solar reflectance on a number of fronts. These include new polymer coatings technologies to provide longer-lasting solar reflectivity and improved test methodologies to predict long-term soiling and microbial performance. The focus on long-term improvements in soiling and microbial resistance for maximum reflectance does not address the single most important factor impacting the long-term sustainability of low-slope roof coatings: excellent water resistance. The hydrophobic character of asphaltic roof products makes them uniquely suitable for water resistance, but their low albedo and poor exterior durability are disadvantages. A reflective coating that maintains very high water resistance with increased long-term resistance to soiling and microbial activity would provide additional energy savings and extend roof service life.

  3. Roll-to-roll processed polymer tandem solar cells partially processed from water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen-Olsen, Thue Trofod; Andersen, Thomas Rieks; Andreasen, Birgitta

    2012-01-01

    Large area polymer tandem solar cells completely processed using roll-to-roll (R2R) coating and printing techniques are demonstrated. A stable tandem structure was achieved by the use of orthogonal ink solvents for the coating of all layers, including both active layers. Processing solvents...... included water, alcohols and chlorobenzene. Open-circuit voltages close to the expected sum of sub cell voltages were achieved, while the overall efficiency of the tandem cells was found to be limited by the low yielding back cell, which was processed from water based ink. Many of the challenges associated...

  4. Ionospheric disturbances under low solar activity conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burešová, Dalia; Laštovička, Jan; Hejda, Pavel; Bochníček, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 2 (2014), s. 185-196 ISSN 0273-1177 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP209/11/1908 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 ; RVO:67985530 Keywords : ionosphere * solar minimum * magnetic storm s * ionospheric variability Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology; DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology (GFU-E) Impact factor: 1.358, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S027311771400221X

  5. Use of reflectors to enhance the synergistic effects of solar heating and solar wavelengths to disinfect drinking water sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rijal, G.K. [Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago, Cicero, Illinois (United States); Fujioka, R.S. [University of Hawaii, Honolulu (United States). Water Resources Research Center

    2004-07-01

    Aluminum reflectors were added to solar units designed to inactivate faecal microorganisms (faecal coliform, E. coli, enterococci, FRNA coliphage, C. perfringens) in stream water and diluted sewage by the two mechanisms (solar heat, solar UV) known to inactivate microorganisms. During sunny conditions, solar units with and without reflectors inactivated E. coli to <1 CFU/100 ml to meet drinking water standards. Solar units with reflectors disinfected to the water sooner by increasing the water temperature by 8-10{sup o}C to 64-75{sup o}C. However, FRNA coliphages were still detected in these samples, indicating that this treatment may not inactivate pathogenic human enteric viruses. During cloudy conditions, reflectors only increased the water temperature by 3-4{sup o}C to a maximum of 43-49{sup o}C and E. coli was not completely inactivated. Under sunny and cloudy conditions, the UV wavelengths of sunlight worked synergistically with increasing water temperatures and were able to disinfect microorganisms at temperatures (45-56{sup o}C), which were not effective in inactivating microorganisms. Relative resistance to the solar disinfecting effects were C perfringens > FRNA coliphages > enterococci >E. coli > faecal coliform. (author)

  6. Use of reflectors to enhance the synergistic effects of solar heating and solar wavelengths to disinfect drinking water sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijal, G K; Fujioka, R S

    2003-01-01

    Aluminum reflectors were added to solar units designed to inactivate faecal microorganisms (faecal coliform, E. coli, enterococci, FRNA coliphage, C. perfringens) in stream water and diluted sewage by the two mechanisms (solar heat, solar UV) known to inactivate microorganisms. During sunny conditions, solar units with and without reflectors inactivated E. coli to water standards. Solar units with reflectors disinfected the water sooner by increasing the water temperature by 8-10 degrees C to 64-75 degrees C. However, FRNA coliphages were still detected in these samples, indicating that this treatment may not inactivate pathogenic human enteric viruses. During cloudy conditions, reflectors only increased the water temperature by 3-4 degrees C to a maximum of 43-49 degrees C and E. coli was not completely inactivated. Under sunny and cloudy conditions, the UV wavelengths of sunlight worked synergistically with increasing water temperatures and were able to disinfect microorganisms at temperatures (45-56 degrees C), which were not effective in inactivating microorganisms. Relative resistance to the solar disinfecting effects were C. perfringens > FRNA coliphages > enterococci > E. coli > faecal coliform.

  7. Household appliances using solar energy technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gul, H.

    2000-01-01

    Many solar energy technologies are now sufficiently developed to make it possible to use these to replace some of our conventional energy sources, but still need improvement and reduction in cost. It is, therefore, necessary to focus attention on household uses of solar energy. This paper describes the recent developments and current position in respect of several such devices, which include; solar cooker, with curved concentrator, Panel Cooker, Solar Dryer, solar water heater, Solar Still, Solar Water Pump, Solar Water Disinfection, Solar space Heating and greenhouse solar Reflectors, Development and Extension activities on these should be taken up at various levels. (author)

  8. Solar Powered Automated Pipe Water Management System, Water Footprint and Carbon Footprint in Soybean Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyanto, K. S.; Abang, Z. E.; Arif, C.; Yanuar, J. P. M.

    2018-05-01

    An automatic water management system for agriculture land was developed based on mini PC as controller to manage irrigation and drainage. The system was integrated with perforated pipe network installed below the soil surface to enable water flow in and out through the network, and so water table of the land can be set at a certain level. The system was operated by using solar power electricity supply to power up water level and soil moisture sensors, Raspberry Pi controller and motorized valve actuator. This study aims to implement the system in controlling water level at a soybean production land, and further to observe water footprint and carbon footprint contribution of the soybean production process with application of the automated system. The water level of the field can be controlled around 19 cm from the base. Crop water requirement was calculated using Penman-Monteith approach, with the productivity of soybean 3.57t/ha, total water footprint in soybean production is 872.01 m3/t. Carbon footprint was calculated due to the use of solar power electric supply system and during the soybean production emission was estimated equal to 1.85 kg of CO2.

  9. Optimum hot water temperature for absorption solar cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecuona, A.; Ventas, R.; Venegas, M.; Salgado, R. [Dpto. Ingenieria Termica y de Fluidos, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. Universidad 30, 28911 Leganes, Madrid (Spain); Zacarias, A. [ESIME UPA, IPN, Av. de las Granjas 682, Col. Santa Catarina, 02550, D.F. Mexico (Mexico)

    2009-10-15

    The hot water temperature that maximizes the overall instantaneous efficiency of a solar cooling facility is determined. A modified characteristic equation model is used and applied to single-effect lithium bromide-water absorption chillers. This model is based on the characteristic temperature difference and serves to empirically calculate the performance of real chillers. This paper provides an explicit equation for the optimum temperature of vapor generation, in terms of only the external temperatures of the chiller. The additional data required are the four performance parameters of the chiller and essentially a modified stagnation temperature from the detailed model of the thermal collector operation. This paper presents and discusses the results for small capacity machines for air conditioning of homes and small buildings. The discussion highlights the influence of the relevant parameters. (author)

  10. Comparative analysis of DG and solar PV water pumping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharani, Kusum; Dahiya, Ratna

    2016-03-01

    Looking at present day electricity scenario, there is a major electricity crisis in rural areas. The farmers are still dependant on the monsoon rains for their irrigation needs and livestock maintenance. Some of the agrarian population has opted to use Diesel Generators for pumping water in their fields. But taking into consideration the economics and environmental conditions, the above choice is not suitable for longer run. An effort to shift from non-renewable sources such as diesel to renewable energy source such as solar has been highlighted. An approximate comparative analysis showing the life cycle costs of a PV pumping system with Diesel Generator powered water pumping is done using MATLAB/STMULTNK.

  11. Thermal analysis and performance optimization of a solar hot water plant with economic evaluation

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Youngdeuk

    2012-05-01

    The main objective of this study is to optimize the long-term performance of an existing active-indirect solar hot water plant (SHWP), which supplies hot water at 65 °C for use in a flight kitchen, using a micro genetic algorithm in conjunction with a relatively detailed model of each component in the plant and solar radiation model based on the measured data. The performance of SHWP at Changi International Airport Services (CIASs), Singapore, is studied for better payback period using the monthly average hourly diffuse and beam radiations and ambient temperature data. The data input for solar radiation model is obtained from the Singapore Meteorological Service (SMS), and these data have been compared with long-term average data of NASA (surface meteorology and solar energy or SSE). The comparison shows a good agreement between the predicted and measured hourly-averaged, horizontal global radiation. The SHWP at CIAS, which comprises 1200m 2 of evacuated-tube collectors, 50m 3 water storage tanks and a gas-fired auxiliary boiler, is first analyzed using a baseline configuration, i.e., (i) the local solar insolation input, (ii) a coolant flow rate through the headers of collector based on ASHRAE standards, (iii) a thermal load demand pattern amounting to 100m 3/day, and (iv) the augmentation of water temperature by auxiliary when the supply temperature from solar tank drops below the set point. A comparison between the baseline configuration and the measured performance of CIAS plant gives reasonably good validation of the simulation code. Optimization is further carried out for the following parameters, namely; (i) total collector area of the plant, (ii) storage volume, and (iii) three daily thermal demands. These studies are performed for both the CIAS plant and a slightly modified plant where the hot water supply to the load is adjusted constant at times when the water temperature from tank may exceed the set temperature. It is found that the latter

  12. Thermal analysis and performance optimization of a solar hot water plant with economic evaluation

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Youngdeuk; Thu, Kyaw; Bhatia, Hitasha Kaur; Bhatia, Charanjit Singh; Ng, K. C.

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to optimize the long-term performance of an existing active-indirect solar hot water plant (SHWP), which supplies hot water at 65 °C for use in a flight kitchen, using a micro genetic algorithm in conjunction with a relatively detailed model of each component in the plant and solar radiation model based on the measured data. The performance of SHWP at Changi International Airport Services (CIASs), Singapore, is studied for better payback period using the monthly average hourly diffuse and beam radiations and ambient temperature data. The data input for solar radiation model is obtained from the Singapore Meteorological Service (SMS), and these data have been compared with long-term average data of NASA (surface meteorology and solar energy or SSE). The comparison shows a good agreement between the predicted and measured hourly-averaged, horizontal global radiation. The SHWP at CIAS, which comprises 1200m 2 of evacuated-tube collectors, 50m 3 water storage tanks and a gas-fired auxiliary boiler, is first analyzed using a baseline configuration, i.e., (i) the local solar insolation input, (ii) a coolant flow rate through the headers of collector based on ASHRAE standards, (iii) a thermal load demand pattern amounting to 100m 3/day, and (iv) the augmentation of water temperature by auxiliary when the supply temperature from solar tank drops below the set point. A comparison between the baseline configuration and the measured performance of CIAS plant gives reasonably good validation of the simulation code. Optimization is further carried out for the following parameters, namely; (i) total collector area of the plant, (ii) storage volume, and (iii) three daily thermal demands. These studies are performed for both the CIAS plant and a slightly modified plant where the hot water supply to the load is adjusted constant at times when the water temperature from tank may exceed the set temperature. It is found that the latter

  13. Solar water heaters: possibilities of using in the climatic conditions of the Russia medium area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popel', O.S.; Frid, S.E.

    2001-01-01

    On the basis of mathematical simulation of the simplest solar water heating facility using up-to-date software and data of typical meteorological year it was shown that under the real climatic conditions peculiar to Russia central region it is appropriate to use seasonal solar water heaters operating from March up to September. It is shown that to promote solar water heaters in the Russian market one should elaborate engineering approaches and should introduce new materials ensuring reduction of cost of solar water heaters with the availability of high quality and durability [ru

  14. Algal Turf Scrubbers: Cleaning Water While Capturing Solar Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adey, W.

    2009-01-01

    Algal Turfs and Algal Turf Scrubbers (ATS) Algal Turfs are bio diverse communities of unicellular to filamentous algae of all major algal phyla. Algal Turf Scrubbers (ATS) are bioengineered ecosystems dominated by algal turfs. They clean water to very high quality, and remove CO 2 from the atmosphere by capturing solar energy at rates 10 times that of agriculture and 50 times that of forestry. ATS was invented at the Smithsonian Institution, by scientist, Walter Adey in the 1980s as a tool for controlling water quality in highly diverse model ecosystems. The technology received extensive R and D for aqua cultural, municipal, and industrial water cleaning by Dr. Adey, using venture capital, through the 1990s. Later, Hydro Mentia, Inc., of Ocala, Florida, engineered ATS to landscape scale of 20-50 Mgpd (it is important to note that this is a modular system, capable of expanding to any size.) A 2005 independent study of ATS, by the South Florida Water Management District and the IFAS Institute of the University of Florida, certified ATS as 5-100 times more cost efficient at removing nutrients from Everglades canal waters than the next competitor, the STA, a managed marsh system. ATS and STA were the final contestants in a 15-year study of nine technologies, and ATS was the only technology that created a use able byproduct.

  15. Subsidy programs on diffusion of solar water heaters: Taiwan's experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Keh-Chin; Lin, Wei-Min; Lee, Tsong-Sheng; Chung, Kung-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Financial incentives are essentially one of the key factors influencing diffusion of solar water heaters in many countries. Two subsidy programs were initiated by the government of Taiwan in 1986 (1986-1991) and 2000 (2000-present), respectively. Those long-term national programs are considered to be the driving force on local market expansion. In 2008, the regional subsidy programs for solar water heaters were announced by Kaohsiung city and Kiemen county, which resulted in the growth in sales. A revised subsidy was also initiated by the government of Taiwan in 2009. The subsidy is 50% more. However, the tremendous enlargement of market size with a high-level ratio of subsidy over total installation cost might result in a negative impact on a sustainable SWH industry and long-term development of the local market, which is associated with system design and post-installation service. This paper aims to address the relative efficiency and pitfalls of those national and regional programs. - Research Highlights: → The direct subsidy has been the driving force on market expansion in Taiwan. → Higher subsidy would certainly increase the total number of systems installed. → A high-level subsidy results in a negative impact on users or a sustainable industry.

  16. Solar-Type Activity in Main-Sequence Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Gershberg, Roald E

    2005-01-01

    Solar-type activity over the whole range of the electromagnetic spectrum is a phenomenon inherent in the majority of low- and moderate-mass main sequence stars. In this monograph observational results are summarized in a systematic and comprehensive fashion. The analysis of the various manifestations of such stellar activity leads to the identification of these phenomena with macroscopic non-linear processes in a magnetized plasma. Comparative study of flare stars and the Sun has become increasingly fruitful and is presently an active field of research involving stellar and solar physicists, experts in plasma physics and high-energy astrophysicists. This book will provide them with both an introduction and overview of observational results from the first optical photometry and spectroscopy, from the satellite telescopes International Ultraviolet Explorer to Hubble Space Telescope, XMM-Newton and Chandra, as well as with the present physical interpretation of solar-type activity in main sequence stars. Gershbe...

  17. Experimental evaluation of an active solar thermoelectric radiant wall system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, ZhongBing; Zhang, Ling; Gong, GuangCai; Han, TianHe

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel active solar thermoelectric radiant wall are proposed and tested. • The novel wall can control thermal flux of building envelope by using solar energy. • The novel wall can eliminate building envelop thermal loads and provide cooling capacity for space cooling. • Typical application issues including connection strategies, coupling with PV system etc. are discussed. - Abstract: Active solar thermoelectric radiant wall (ASTRW) system is a new solar wall technology which integrates thermoelectric radiant cooling and photovoltaic (PV) technologies. In ASTRW system, a PV system transfers solar energy directly into electrical energy to power thermoelectric cooling modes. Both the thermoelectric cooling modes and PV system are integrated into one enclosure surface as radiant panel for space cooling and heating. Hence, ASTRW system presents fundamental shift from minimizing building envelope energy losses by optimizing the insulation thickness to a new regime where active solar envelop is designed to eliminate thermal loads and increase the building’s solar gains while providing occupant comfort in all seasons. This article presents an experimental study of an ASTRW system with a dimension of 1580 × 810 mm. Experimental results showed that the inner surface temperature of the ASTRW is 3–8 °C lower than the indoor temperature of the test room, which indicated that the ASTRW system has the ability to control thermal flux of building envelope by using solar energy and reduce the air conditioning system requirements. Based on the optimal operating current of TE modules and the analysis based upon PV modeling theories, the number and type of the electrical connections for the TE modules in ASTRW system are discussed in order to get an excellent performance in the operation of the ASTRW system

  18. design and experimental study of a solar system for heating water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    M. Ghodbane, B. Boumeddane, N. Said

    2016-09-01

    Sep 1, 2016 ... This work presents a design and an experimental study of a linear Fresnel reflector solar with trapezoidal cavity. ... concentrator in the solar fields allocated to the domestics and industrial water-heaters. Keywords: ...... integrated photovoltaic panels, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, Transactions of the ...

  19. Degradation Patterns in Water and Oxygen of an Inverted Polymer Solar Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norrman, Kion; Vesterager Madsen, Morten; Gevorgyan, Suren

    2010-01-01

    The spatial distribution of reaction products in multilayer polymer solar cells induced by water and oxygen atmospheres was mapped and used to elucidate the degradation patterns and failure mechanisms in an inverted polymer solar cell. The active material comprised a bulk heterojunction formed...... by poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) sandwiched between a layer of zinc oxide and a layer of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) that acted as, respectively, electron and hole transporting layers between the active material...... and the two electrodes indium−tin−oxide (ITO) and printed silver. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) in conjunction with isotopic labeling using H218O and 18O2 enabled detailed information on where and to what extent uptake took place...

  20. Solar energy harvesting by magnetic-semiconductor nanoheterostructure in water treatment technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoodi, Vahid; Bastami, Tahereh Rohani; Ahmadpour, Ali

    2018-03-01

    Photocatalytic degradation of toxic organic pollutants in the wastewater using dispersed semiconductor nanophotocatalysts has a number of advantages such as high activity, cost effectiveness, and utilization of free solar energy. However, it is difficult to recover and recycle nanophotocatalysts since the fine dispersed nanoparticles are easily suspended in waters. Furthermore, a large amount of photocatalysts will lead to color contamination. Thus, it is necessary to prepare photocatalysts with easy separation for the reusable application. To take advantage of high photocatalysis activity and reusability, magnetic photocatalysts with separation function were utilized. In this review, the photocatalytic principle, structure, and application of the magnetic-semiconductor nanoheterostructure photocatalysts under solar light are evaluated. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  1. Improving organic tandem solar cells based on water-processed nanoparticles by quantitative 3D nanoimaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Emil Bøje Lind; Angmo, Dechan; Dam, Henrik Friis

    2015-01-01

    particle active layer. We extract the layered morphology with structural and density information including the porosity present in the various layers and the silver electrode with high resolution in 3D. The Landfester particle layer is found to have an undesired morphology with negatively correlated top......Organic solar cells have great potential for upscaling due to roll-to-roll processing and a low energy payback time, making them an attractive sustainable energy source for the future. Active layers coated with water-dispersible Landfester particles enable greater control of the layer formation...... specifically reveals the need to improve the coatability and layer formation of Landfester nanoparticles, thus allowing improved solar cells to be produced....

  2. Life cycle cost analysis of single slope hybrid (PV/T) active solar still

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Shiv; Tiwari, G.N.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the life cycle cost analysis of the single slope passive and hybrid photovoltaic (PV/T) active solar stills, based on the annual performance at 0.05 m water depth. Effects of various parameters, namely interest rate, life of the system and the maintenance cost have been taken into account. The comparative cost of distilled water produced from passive solar still (Rs. 0.70/kg) is found to be less than hybrid (PV/T) active solar still (Rs. 1.93/kg) for 30 years life time of the systems. The payback periods of the passive and hybrid (PV/T) active solar still are estimated to be in the range of 1.1-6.2 years and 3.3-23.9 years, respectively, based on selling price of distilled water in the range of Rs. 10/kg to Rs. 2/kg. The energy payback time (EPBT) has been estimated as 2.9 and 4.7 years, respectively. (author)

  3. Dynamics of longitudinal-latitudinal asymmetry of solar activity at various solar cycle phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranov, D.G.; Vernova, E.S.; Grigoryan, M.S.; Tyasto, M.I.

    1995-01-01

    Solar activity longitudinal asymmetry in 1943-1984 was studied by means of the polar diagram technique. Longitudinal changes of the activity distribution for northern and southern hemispheres were considered separately. Heliolongitudinal asymmetry was compared with the first harmonic of the 27-days cosmic ray intensity variation and with phases of the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation. There is certain correspondence between the dominance of the asymmetry in one of the solar hemispheres and the phase of the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation. Correlation exists between the amplitude of the 27-days galactic cosmic ray variation and the phase of the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation. 8 refs.; 3 figs

  4. Solar collector wall with active curtain system; Lasikatteinen massiivienen aurinkokeraeaejaeseinae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojanen, T.; Heimonen, I. [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland). Building Physics, Building Services and Fire Technology

    1998-12-01

    Integration of solar collector into the building envelope structure brings many advantages. The disadvantage of a passive solar collector wall is that its thermal performance can not be controlled, which may cause temporary overheating and low thermal efficiency of the collector. The thermal performance of the collector wall can be improved by using controllable, active collector systems. In this paper a solar collector wall with a controllable curtain between the transparent and absorption layers is investigated. The curtain is made of several low-emissivity foil layers, which ensures low radiation heat transfer through the curtain. The curtain decreases the heat losses out from the collector wall and it improves the U-value of the wall. The curtain is used when the solar radiation intensity to the wall is not high enough or when the wall needs protection against overheating during warm weather conditions. The materials and building components used in the collector wall, except those of the curtain, are ordinary in buildings. The transparent layer can be made by using normal glazing technology and the thermal storage layer can be made out of brick or similar material. The solar energy gains through the glazing can be utilised better than in passive systems, because the curtain provides the wall with high thermal resistance outside the solar radiation periods. The thermal performance of the collector wall was studied experimentally using a Hot-Box apparatus equipped with a solar lamp. Numerical simulations were carried out to study the yearly performance of the collector wall under real climate conditions. The objectives were to determine the thermal performance of the collector wall and to study how to optimise the use of solar radiation in this system. When the curtain with high thermal resistance is used actively, the temperature level of the thermal storage layer in the wall is relatively high also during dark periods and the heat losses out from the storage

  5. To built a solar hot water heater to work the sustainability problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carretero Gómez, María Begoña

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We are commemorating the Education Decade for Sustainable Development. If we want to create positive towards our environment and its sustainable development we have to begin working at school. It is necessary to show our students what problems of the environment are and which solutions can be adopted. That is the reason we have planned this activity in our secondary school. We do think that by doing daily activities we have a good opportunity to fulfil this goal. An example of such experiences is the fabrication of a solar hot water heater to make them and their families more environment conscience.

  6. Initiation of non-tropical thunderstorms by solar activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, J R [Radio Sciences Co., Melbourne, Fla. (USA); Goldberg, R A

    1978-02-01

    Correlative evidence accumulating since 1926 suggests that there must be some physical coupling mechanism between solar activity and thunderstorm occurrence in middle to high latitudes. Such a link may be provided by alteration of atmospheric electric parameters through the influence of cosmic ray decreases and/or high-energy solar protons associated with active solar events. Galactic cosmic ray decreases tend to enhance the electric field at low heights. The protons produce excess ionization near and above 20 km, greatly increasing the atmospheric conductivity and possibly lowering the height of the electrosphere. Consequent effects near the solar proton cut-off latitude also lead to an enhancement of the atmospheric electric field near the surface. If appropriate meteorological conditions (warm moist air with updrafts) exist or develop during a solar event, the atmospheric electric field enhancement may be sufficient to trigger thunderstorm development. The suggested mechanism appears plausible enough to warrant a co-ordinated experimental effort involving satellite balloon and ground-based measurements of the possible forcing functions (solar protons and cosmic rays) and the responding atmospheric electrical and ionic species' characteristics.

  7. Solar Cell Polymer Based Active Ingredients PPV and PCBM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardeli, H.; Sanjaya, H.; Resikarnila, R.; Nitami H, R.

    2018-04-01

    A polymer solar cell is a solar cell based on a polymer bulk heterojunction structure using the method of thin film, which can convert solar energy into electrical energy. Absorption of light is carried by active material layer PPV: PCBM. This study aims to make solar cells tandem and know the value of converting solar energy into electrical energy and increase the value of efficiency generated through morphological control, ie annealing temperature and the ratio of active layer mixture. The active layer is positioned above the PEDOT:PSS layer on ITO glass substrate. The characterization results show the surface morphology of the PPV:PCBM active layer is quite evenly at annealing temperature of 165 ° C. The result of conversion of electrical energy with a UV light source in annealing samples with temperature 165 ° C is 0.03 mA and voltage of 4.085 V with an efficiency of 2.61% and mixed ratio variation was obtained in comparison of P3HT: PCBM is 1: 3

  8. Numerical and experimental investigation of thermosyphon solar water heater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelzouli, Khaled; Guizani, Amenallah; Kerkeni, Chakib

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We studied a thermosyphon solar water heater composed of high-performance components. • A differential equations solution technique is investigated. • The influences of the collector and storage losses on the system performance were examined. • The storage losses have more influence on the long-term performance. - Abstract: A glassed flat plate collector with selective black chrome coated absorber and a low wall conductance horizontal storage are combined in order to set up a high performance thermosyphon system. Each component is tested separately before testing the complete system in spring days. During the test period, effect of different inlet water temperatures on the collector performance is studied and results have shown that the collector can reach a high efficiency and high outlet water temperature even for elevated inlet water temperatures. Subsequently, long term system performance is estimated by using a developed numerical model. The proposed model, accurate and gave a good agreement with experimental results, allowed to describe the heat transfer in the storage. It has shown also that the long-term performances are strongly influenced by losses from the storage than losses from the collector

  9. Effects of Solar Activity and Space Environment in 2003 Oct.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Seok Cho

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a good example of extreme solar and geomagnetic activities from October to November, 2003. These activities are characterized by very large sunspot groups, X-class solar flares, strong particle events, and huge geomagnetic storms. We discuss ground-based and space-based data in terms of space weather scales. Especially, we present several solar and geomagnetic disturbance data produced in Korea : sunspots, geo-magnetograms, aurora, Ionogram, and Total Electron Content (TEC map by GPS data. Finally, we introduce some examples of the satellite orbit and communication effects caused by these activities; e.g., the disturbances of the KOMPSAT-1 operational orbit and HF communication.

  10. The influence of solar active region evolution on solar wind streams, coronal hole boundaries and geomagnetic storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, R.E.; Dodson-Prince, H.W.; Hedeman, E.R.; Roelof, E.C.

    1982-01-01

    We have studied solar and interplanetary data by identification of the heliographic longitudes of the coronal source regions of high speed solar wind streams and by mapping the velocities measured near earth back to the sun using the approximation of constant radial velocity. Interplay of active regions and solar wind were studied

  11. Producing propellants from water in lunar soil using solar lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Morais Mendonca Teles, Antonio

    The exploration of the Solar System is directly related to the efficiency of engines designed to explore it, and consequently, to the propulsion techniques, materials and propellants for those engines. With the present day propulsion techniques it is necessary great quantities of propellants to impulse a manned spacecraft to Mars and beyond in the Solar System, which makes these operations financially very expensive because of the costs involved in launching it from planet Earth, due to its high gravity field strength. To solve this problem, it is needed a planetary place with smaller gravity field strength, near to the Earth and with great quantities of substances at the surface necessary for the in-situ production of propellants for spacecrafts. The only place available is Earth's natural satellite the Moon. So, here in this paper, I propose the creation of a Lunar Propellant Manufacturer. It is a robot-spacecraft which can be launched from Earth using an Energia Rocket, and to land on the Moon in an area (principally near to the north pole where it was discovered water molecules ice recently) with great quantities of oxygen and hydrogen (propellants) in the silicate soil, previously observed and mapped by spacecrafts in lunar orbit, for the extraction of those molecules from the soil and the in-situ production of the necessary propellants. The Lunar Propellant Manufacturer (LPM) spacecraft consists of: 1) a landing system with four legs (extendable) and rovers -when the spacecraft touches down, the legs retract in order that two apparatuses, analogue to tractor's wheeled belts parallel sided and below the spacecraft, can touch firmly the ground -it will be necessary for the displacement of the spacecraft to new areas with richer propellants content, when the early place has already exhausted in propellants; 2) a digging machine -a long, resistant extendable arm with an excavator hand, in the outer part of the spacecraft -it will extend itself to the ground

  12. Dissemination of Solar Water Heaters in Taiwan: The Case of Remote Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kung-Ming Chung

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Solar water heaters represent the success story in the development of renewable energy in Taiwan. With increasing public awareness, there are over 0.3 million residential systems in operation. To disseminate solar water heaters in remote islands, economic feasibility and water quality are taken into account in this study. The payback period in Kinmen and Penghu Counties are evaluated, according to effective annual solar energy gain, hot water consumption pattern and cost. Assessment of the scaling and corrosion tendencies for solar water heaters using tap and underground water are also presented. For flat-plate solar collectors with metal components, favorable corrosion resistance and protective anti-corrosion coatings are required.

  13. Final report : testing and evaluation for solar hot water reliability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caudell, Thomas P. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); He, Hongbo (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Menicucci, David F. (Building Specialists, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Mammoli, Andrea A. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Burch, Jay (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO)

    2011-07-01

    Solar hot water (SHW) systems are being installed by the thousands. Tax credits and utility rebate programs are spurring this burgeoning market. However, the reliability of these systems is virtually unknown. Recent work by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has shown that few data exist to quantify the mean time to failure of these systems. However, there is keen interest in developing new techniques to measure SHW reliability, particularly among utilities that use ratepayer money to pay the rebates. This document reports on an effort to develop and test new, simplified techniques to directly measure the state of health of fielded SHW systems. One approach was developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and is based on the idea that the performance of the solar storage tank can reliably indicate the operational status of the SHW systems. Another approach, developed by the University of New Mexico (UNM), uses adaptive resonance theory, a type of neural network, to detect and predict failures. This method uses the same sensors that are normally used to control the SHW system. The NREL method uses two additional temperature sensors on the solar tank. The theories, development, application, and testing of both methods are described in the report. Testing was performed on the SHW Reliability Testbed at UNM, a highly instrumented SHW system developed jointly by SNL and UNM. The two methods were tested against a number of simulated failures. The results show that both methods show promise for inclusion in conventional SHW controllers, giving them advanced capability in detecting and predicting component failures.

  14. Electrically active defects in solar grade multicrystalline silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Espen

    2013-01-01

    Shortage in high purity silicon feedstock, as a result of the formidable increased demand for solar cell devices during the last two decades, can be mitigated by the introduction of cheaper feedstock of solar grade (So-G) quality. Silicon produced through the metallurgical process route has shown...... the potential to be such a feedstock. However, this feedstock has only few years of active commercial history and the detailed understanding of the nature of structural defects in this material still has fundamental shortcomings. In this thesis the electrical activity of structural defects, commonly associated...

  15. Water use and supply concerns for utility-scale solar projects in the Southwestern United States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klise, Geoffrey Taylor; Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Reno, Marissa Devan; Moreland, Barbara Denise.; Zemlick, Katie M.; Macknick, Jordan

    2013-07-01

    As large utility-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) facilities are currently being built and planned for locations in the U.S. with the greatest solar resource potential, an understanding of water use for construction and operations is needed as siting tends to target locations with low natural rainfall and where most existing freshwater is already appropriated. Using methods outlined by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to determine water used in designated solar energy zones (SEZs) for construction and operations & maintenance, an estimate of water used over the lifetime at the solar power plant is determined and applied to each watershed in six Southwestern states. Results indicate that that PV systems overall use little water, though construction usage is high compared to O&M water use over the lifetime of the facility. Also noted is a transition being made from wet cooled to dry cooled CSP facilities that will significantly reduce operational water use at these facilities. Using these water use factors, estimates of future water demand for current and planned solar development was made. In efforts to determine where water could be a limiting factor in solar energy development, water availability, cost, and projected future competing demands were mapped for the six Southwestern states. Ten watersheds, 9 in California, and one in New Mexico were identified as being of particular concern because of limited water availability.

  16. Effects of solar collecting area and water flow rate on the performance of a sand bed solar collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maganhar, A.L.; Memon, A.H.; Panhwar, M.I.

    2005-01-01

    The often discussed renewable sources of energy have been great interest to energy researchers and planners for quite some time. The primary of renewing all sources of energy is the sun. There have been two main problems not yet fully resolved. One is the large scale production of energy and other is the cost factor. In the present study, the cost factor is under consideration. In this regard a non-conventional solar collector using indigenous material (pit sand) as solar absorber is designed and manufactured. This paper presents the results of an investigation of the effect of solar collecting area and water flow rate on the performance of a pit sand bed solar collector especially in terms of rise in water temperature. Three pit sand solar collectors of area 1m/sup 2/ each were connected in series to enhance the collecting area and the system was tested for different flow rates. Experimental results proved that there was increase in water temperature with increase in solar collecting area an decreases in water temperature with increase in flow rate. (author)

  17. Magnetic activity effect on equatorial spread-F under high and low solar activity conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subbarao, K S.V.; Somayajulu, V V; Krishna Murthy, B V

    1986-08-01

    The effect of magnetic activity on spread-F at two equatorial stations, Trivandrum and Huancayo, separated in longitude by about 150 deg, under high and low solar activity conditions has been investigated. Magnetic activity produces strong inhibition effect on spread-F at Huancayo compared to that at Trivandrum especially during high solar activity period. This results in a decrease of spread-F with solar activity at Huancayo in contrast to Trivandrum. These findings are explained in terms of F-region electrodynamics and Rayleigh-Taylor instability mechanism for spread-F.

  18. Characteristics of seasonal variation and solar activity dependence of the geomagnetic solar quiet daily variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinbori, A.; Koyama, Y.; Nose, M.; Hori, T.

    2017-12-01

    Characteristics of seasonal variation and solar activity dependence of the X- and Y-components of the geomagnetic solar quiet (Sq) daily variation at Memanbetsu in mid-latitudes and Guam near the equator have been investigated using long-term geomagnetic field data with 1-h time resolution from 1957 to 2016. In this analysis, we defined the quiet day when the maximum value of the Kp index is less than 3 for that day. In this analysis, we used the monthly average of the adjusted daily F10.7 corresponding to geomagnetically quiet days. For identification of the monthly mean Sq variation in the X and Y components (Sq-X and Sq-Y), we first determined the baseline of the X and Y components from the average value from 22 to 2 h (LT: local time) for each quiet day. Next, we calculated a deviation from the baseline of the X- and Y-components of the geomagnetic field for each quiet day, and computed the monthly mean value of the deviation for each local time. As a result, Sq-X and Sq-Y shows a clear seasonal variation and solar activity dependence. The amplitude of seasonal variation increases significantly during high solar activities, and is proportional to the solar F10.7 index. The pattern of the seasonal variation is quite different between Sq-X and Sq-Y. The result of the correlation analysis between the solar F10.7 index and Sq-X and Sq-Y shows almost the linear relationship, but the slope and intercept of the linear fitted line varies as function of local time and month. This implies that the sensitivity of Sq-X and Sq-Y to the solar activity is different for different local times and seasons. The local time dependence of the offset value of Sq-Y at Guam and its seasonal variation suggest a magnetic field produced by inter-hemispheric field-aligned currents (FACs). From the sign of the offset value of Sq-Y, it is infer that the inter-hemispheric FACs flow from the summer to winter hemispheres in the dawn and dusk sectors and from the winter to summer hemispheres in

  19. Active control of the Chinese Giant Solar Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yichun; Yang, Dehua; Jin, Zhenyu; Liu, Zhong; Qin, Wei

    2014-07-01

    The Chinese Giant Solar Telescope (CGST) is the next generation solar telescope of China with diameter of 8 meter. The unique feature of CGST is that its primary is a ring, which facilitates the polarization detection and thermal control. In its present design and development phase, two primary mirror patterns are considered. For one thing, the primary mirror is expected to construct with mosaic mirror with 24 trapezoidal (or petal) segments, for another thing, a monolithic mirror is also a candidate for its primary mirror. Both of them depend on active control technique to maintain the optical quality of the ring mirror. As a solar telescope, the working conditions of the CGST are quite different from those of the stellar telescopes. To avoid the image deterioration due to the mirror seeing and dome seeing, especially in the case of the concentration of flux in a solar telescope, large aperture solar projects prefer to adopt open telescopes and open domes. In this circumstance, higher wind loads act on the primary mirror directly, which will cause position errors and figure errors of the primary with matters worse than those of the current 10-meter stellar telescopes with dome protect. Therefore, it gives new challenges to the active control capability, telescope structure design, and wind shielding design. In this paper, the study progress of active control of CGST for its mosaic and monolithic mirror are presented, and the wind effects on such two primary mirrors are also investigated.

  20. The Solar System Ballet: A Kinesthetic Spatial Astronomy Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyer, Inge; Slater, T. F.; Slater, S. J.; Astronomy, Center; Education ResearchCAPER, Physics

    2011-05-01

    The Solar System Ballet was developed in order for students of all ages to learn about the planets, their motions, their distances, and their individual characteristics. To teach people about the structure of our Solar System can be revealing and rewarding, for students and teachers. Little ones (and some bigger ones, too) often cannot yet grasp theoretical and spatial ideas purely with their minds. Showing a video is better, but being able to learn with their bodies, essentially being what they learn about, will help them understand and remember difficult concepts much more easily. There are three segments to this activity, which can be done together or separately, depending on time limits and age of the students. Part one involves a short introductory discussion about what students know about the planets. Then students will act out the orbital motions of the planets (and also moons for the older ones) while holding a physical model. During the second phase we look at the structure of the Solar System as well as the relative distances of the planets from the Sun, first by sketching it on paper, then by recreating a scaled version in the class room. Again the students act out the parts of the Solar System bodies with their models. The third segment concentrates on recreating historical measurements of Earth-Moon-Sun system. The Solar System Ballet activity is suitable for grades K-12+ as well as general public informal learning activities.

  1. Activity associated with the solar origin of coronal mass ejections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, D. F.; Hundhausen, A. J.

    1987-01-01

    Solar coronal mass ejections (CMEs) observed in 1980 with the HAO Coronagraph/Polarimeter on the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) satellite are compared with other forms of solar activity that might be physically related to the ejections. The solar phenomena checked and the method of association used were intentionally patterned after those of Munro et al.'s (1979) analysis of mass ejections observed with the Skylab coronagraph to facilitate comparison of the two epochs. Comparison of the results reveals that the types and degree of CME associations are similar near solar activity minimum and at maximum. For both epochs, most CMEs with associations had associated eruptive prominences, and the proportions of association of all types of activity were similar. A high percentage of association between SMM CMEs and X-ray long duration events is also found, in agreement with Skylab results. It is concluded that most CMEs are the result of the destabilization and eruption of a prominence and its overlying coronal structure, or of a magnetic structure capable of supporting a prominence.

  2. Predicting Solar Activity Using Machine-Learning Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobra, M.

    2017-12-01

    Of all the activity observed on the Sun, two of the most energetic events are flares and coronal mass ejections. However, we do not, as of yet, fully understand the physical mechanism that triggers solar eruptions. A machine-learning algorithm, which is favorable in cases where the amount of data is large, is one way to [1] empirically determine the signatures of this mechanism in solar image data and [2] use them to predict solar activity. In this talk, we discuss the application of various machine learning algorithms - specifically, a Support Vector Machine, a sparse linear regression (Lasso), and Convolutional Neural Network - to image data from the photosphere, chromosphere, transition region, and corona taken by instruments aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory in order to predict solar activity on a variety of time scales. Such an approach may be useful since, at the present time, there are no physical models of flares available for real-time prediction. We discuss our results (Bobra and Couvidat, 2015; Bobra and Ilonidis, 2016; Jonas et al., 2017) as well as other attempts to predict flares using machine-learning (e.g. Ahmed et al., 2013; Nishizuka et al. 2017) and compare these results with the more traditional techniques used by the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center (Crown, 2012). We also discuss some of the challenges in using machine-learning algorithms for space science applications.

  3. DASL-Data and Activities for Solar Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harrison P.; Henney, Carl; Hill, Frank; Gearen, Michael; Pompca, Stephen; Stagg, Travis; Stefaniak, Linda; Walker, Connie

    2004-01-01

    DASL-Data and Activities for Solar Learning Data and Activities for Solar Learning (DASL) provides a classroom learning environment based on a twenty-five year record of solar magnetograms from the National Solar Observatory (NSO) at Kitt Peak, AZ. The data, together with image processing software for Macs or PCs, can be used to learn basic facts about the Sun and astronomy at the middle school level. At the high school level, students can study properties of the Sun's magnetic cycle with classroom exercises emphasizing data and error analysis and can participate in a new scientific study, Research in Active Solar Longitudes (RASL), in collaboration with classrooms throughout the country and scientists at NSO and NASA. We present a half-day course to train teachers in the scientific content of the project and its classroom use. We will provide a compact disc with the data and software and will demonstrate software installation and use, classroom exercises, and participation in RASL with computer projection.

  4. Rotation of the Earth, solar activity and cosmic ray intensity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barlyaeva, T.; Bard, E. [Aix-Marseille Univ., CNRS, IRD, Aix-en-Provence (France). CEREGE, College de France; Abarca-del-Rio, R. [Universidad de Concepcion (UDEC) (Chile). Dept. de Geofisica (DGEO)

    2014-10-01

    We analyse phase lags between the 11-year variations of three records: the semi-annual oscillation of the length of day (LOD), the solar activity (SA) and the cosmic ray intensity (CRI). The analysis was done for solar cycles 20-23. Observed relationships between LOD, CRI and SA are discussed separately for even and odd solar cycles. Phase lags were calculated using different methods (comparison of maximal points of cycles, maximal correlation coefficient, line of synchronization of cross-recurrence plots). We have found different phase lags between SA and CRI for even and odd solar cycles, confirming previous studies. The evolution of phase lags between SA and LOD as well as between CRI and LOD shows a positive trend with additional variations of phase lag values. For solar cycle 20, phase lags between SA and CRI, between SA and LOD, and between CRI and LOD were found to be negative. Overall, our study suggests that, if anything, the length of day could be influenced by solar irradiance rather than by cosmic rays.

  5. Rotation of the Earth, solar activity and cosmic ray intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlyaeva, T.; Bard, E.

    2014-01-01

    We analyse phase lags between the 11-year variations of three records: the semi-annual oscillation of the length of day (LOD), the solar activity (SA) and the cosmic ray intensity (CRI). The analysis was done for solar cycles 20-23. Observed relationships between LOD, CRI and SA are discussed separately for even and odd solar cycles. Phase lags were calculated using different methods (comparison of maximal points of cycles, maximal correlation coefficient, line of synchronization of cross-recurrence plots). We have found different phase lags between SA and CRI for even and odd solar cycles, confirming previous studies. The evolution of phase lags between SA and LOD as well as between CRI and LOD shows a positive trend with additional variations of phase lag values. For solar cycle 20, phase lags between SA and CRI, between SA and LOD, and between CRI and LOD were found to be negative. Overall, our study suggests that, if anything, the length of day could be influenced by solar irradiance rather than by cosmic rays.

  6. Solar disinfection of water for low income communities; Desinfeccao solar de agua para comunidades de baixa renda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felix, Lorna Falcao

    2010-03-15

    The use of solar energy for water disinfection, and is accessible to disadvantaged communities because of its low cost, has the advantage of using disposable materials such as bottles of polyethylene terephthalate (PET). We present a study that used two methods of disinfection: the methodology proposed by the project Solar Water Disinfection (SODIS), which consisted of water disinfection by solar radiation and temperature and the methodology which the temperature of the water for disinfection. In both, we seek to eliminate microorganisms that cause serious diseases such as dysentery, typhoid, cholera, etc. Water samples were collected in the community of Bass, where the population has low income and the incidence of waterborne diseases is high. The experiments were divided into two stages. In step 1 we studied the feasibility of disinfection and in step 2 the feasibility of the pilot plant to obtain adequate levels of disinfection temperatures desired. The results showed the efficiency of the disinfection process, reaching an average of 80 to 100% death of microorganisms, but regrowth was observed in some samples. Finally on the good results of stage 1, is designed and built and tested in an experimental pilot plant, which has shown to be feasible to promote water disinfection through the use of solar energy. The water after treatment is in accordance with the limits established by Brazilian legislation for clean water, maintaining a positive performance for the disinfection and acceptable levels of bacterial regrowth. (author)

  7. Factors influencing the performance and efficiency of solar water pumping systems:  a review

    OpenAIRE

    Gouws, Rupert; Lukhwareni, Thendo

    2012-01-01

    The world is having an energy crisis and currently there is a strong drive towards renewable energy. A renewable energy option is solar energy, where by means of photovoltaic (PV) modules electrical energy can be produced. A residential as well as industrial application for these PV modules is solar water pumping systems. Disadvantages of solar water pumping systems are low performance and low energy efficiency. This paper provides a review on the factors that influence the performance and ef...

  8. Technical Analysis of Combined Solar Water Heating Systems for Cold Climate Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Lotfizadeh; André McDonald; Amit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Renewable energy resources, which can supplement space and water heating for residential buildings, can have a noticeable impact on natural gas consumption and air pollution. This study considers a technical analysis of a combined solar water heating system with evacuated tube solar collectors for different solar coverage, ranging from 20% to 100% of the total roof area of a typical residential building located in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. The alternative heating systems were conventional (n...

  9. Stand-Alone Solar Organic Rankine Cycle Water Pumping System and Its Economic Viability in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Suresh Baral; Kyung Chun Kim

    2015-01-01

    The current study presents the concept of a stand-alone solar organic Rankine cycle (ORC) water pumping system for rural Nepalese areas. Experimental results for this technology are presented based on a prototype. The economic viability of the system was assessed based on solar radiation data of different Nepalese geographic locations. The mechanical power produced by the solar ORC is coupled with a water pumping system for various applications, such as drinking and irrigation. The thermal ef...

  10. An investigation of the Performance of a Conical Solar Water Heater in the Kingdom of Bahrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaaliche, Nessreen; Ayhan, Teoman; Fathallah, Raouf

    2017-11-01

    Domestic water heater corresponds to 25% of the house energy consumption and can play an important role to reduce energy house expenses. Solar energy offers a preferred renewable energy resource because of its economic and environmental advantages. It is considered the best alternative to reduce domestic water heater energy consumption cost. Converting solar energy into heat can be considered among the simplest used systems. Solar thermal conversion is more efficient than solar electrical direct conversion method. Solar water heater systems are particularly easy to use and to repair. The integrated conical solar collector water heater (ICSCWH) is so far the easiest among water heating systems. The ICSCWH converts directly and efficiently the solar flux into heat. In order to expand the utilization of ICSCWH systems, many design modifications have been examined and analyzed. This study provides an experimental investigation and mathematical simulation of an ICSCWH system equipped with a glass cover resulting in the increase of the maximum absorption. Integrating the cone-shaped heat collector with an aluminum spiral pipe flow system may enhance the efficiency of the proposed system. In order to maximize the solar radiation of the system, the solar water heater has been designed in a conical shape, which removes the need to change its orientation toward the sun to receive the maximum sun radiation during the day. In this system, the heating of water has been obtained using the spiral pipe flow without the use of the solar cells and mirrors in order to reduce the total cost. The storage water tank of this system is coupled with a conical solar collector. Based on the above design, the solar water heater has been fabricated and tested. In addition, an analytical modeling approach aiming to predict the flow rate within the conical integrated collector storage solar water heater (ICSSWH) and its efficiency, was developed. Modeling through a numerical simulation approach

  11. An investigation of the Performance of a Conical Solar Water Heater in the Kingdom of Bahrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaaliche Nessreen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Domestic water heater corresponds to 25% of the house energy consumption and can play an important role to reduce energy house expenses. Solar energy offers a preferred renewable energy resource because of its economic and environmental advantages. It is considered the best alternative to reduce domestic water heater energy consumption cost. Converting solar energy into heat can be considered among the simplest used systems. Solar thermal conversion is more efficient than solar electrical direct conversion method. Solar water heater systems are particularly easy to use and to repair. The integrated conical solar collector water heater (ICSCWH is so far the easiest among water heating systems. The ICSCWH converts directly and efficiently the solar flux into heat. In order to expand the utilization of ICSCWH systems, many design modifications have been examined and analyzed. This study provides an experimental investigation and mathematical simulation of an ICSCWH system equipped with a glass cover resulting in the increase of the maximum absorption. Integrating the cone-shaped heat collector with an aluminum spiral pipe flow system may enhance the efficiency of the proposed system. In order to maximize the solar radiation of the system, the solar water heater has been designed in a conical shape, which removes the need to change its orientation toward the sun to receive the maximum sun radiation during the day. In this system, the heating of water has been obtained using the spiral pipe flow without the use of the solar cells and mirrors in order to reduce the total cost. The storage water tank of this system is coupled with a conical solar collector. Based on the above design, the solar water heater has been fabricated and tested. In addition, an analytical modeling approach aiming to predict the flow rate within the conical integrated collector storage solar water heater (ICSSWH and its efficiency, was developed. Modeling through a numerical

  12. Feasibility study of a solar photovoltaic water pumping system for rural Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misrak Girma

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Solar Photovoltaic (SPV water pumping system is one of the best technologies that utilize the solar energy to pump water from deep well underground water sources and to provide clean drinking water worldwide. The availability of abundant solar radiation and enough underground water sources in Ethiopia can be combined together to make clean drinking water available to rural communities. The software PVsyst 5.56 was used to study the feasibility of solar photovoltaic water pumping system in the selected sites. The designed system is capable of providing a daily average of 10.5, 7 and 6.5 m3/day for 700, 467 and 433 people in Siadberand Wayu, Wolmera and Enderta sites respectively, with average daily water consumption of 15 liters per day per person and the costs of water without any subsidy, are approximately 0.1, 0.14 and 0.16 $/m3for each site respectively. If diesel generator is used instead of solar photovoltaic water pumping system, to provide the same average daily water for the selected community, the costs of water without any subsidy are approximately 0.2, 0.23 and 0.27 $/m3 for each site respectively. A life cycle cost analysis method was also carried out for economic comparison between solar PV and the diesel pumping system. The results of this study are encouraging the use of the PV system for drinking water supply in the remote areas of the country.

  13. Business Opportunity Prospectus for Utilities in Solar Water Heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Energy Alliance Group

    1999-06-30

    Faced with deregulation and increasingly aggressive competition, utilities are looking for new products and services to increase revenues, improve customer loyalty and retention, and establish barriers to market erosion. With open access now a reality, and retail wheeling just around the corner, business expansion via new products and services is now the central goal for most utilities in the United States. It may seem surprising that solar thermal energy as applied to heating domestic hot water - an idea that has been around for a long time - offers what utilities and their residential customers want most in a new product/service. This document not only explains how and why, it shows how to get into the business and succeed on a commercial scale.

  14. Pengaruh Pelat Penyerap Ganda Model Gelombang dengan Penambahan Reflector terhadap Kinerja Solar Water Heater Sederhana

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail, Nova Risdiyanto

    2011-01-01

    Telah banyak dilakukan USAha meningkatkan kinerja solar water heater diantaranya modifikasi pelat penyerap tunggal menjadi ganda, modifikasi aliran untuk meningkatkan penyerapan panas, modifikasi material dan pelat penyerap ganda model gelombang. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pelat penyerap ganda model gelombang dengan penambahan reflector terhadap kinerja solar water heater sederhana. Dalam penelitian ini dilakukan secara eksperimen, untuk embandingkan kinerja pelat pen...

  15. Solar activity effects in the ionospheric D region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Danilov

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Variations in the D-region electron concentration within the solar activity cycle are considered. It is demonstrated that conclusions of various authors, who have analyzed various sets of experimental data on [e], differ significantly. The most reliable seem to be the conclusions based on analysis of the [e] measurements carried out by the Faraday rotation method and on the theoretical concepts on the D-region photochemistry. Possible QBO effects in the relation of [e] to solar activity are considered and an assumption is made that such effects may be the reason for the aforementioned disagreement in conclusions on the [e] relation to solar indices.Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure · Ion chemistry of the atmosphere · Middle atmosphere

  16. Water vapour retrieval using the Precision Solar Spectroradiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raptis, Panagiotis-Ioannis; Kazadzis, Stelios; Gröbner, Julian; Kouremeti, Natalia; Doppler, Lionel; Becker, Ralf; Helmis, Constantinos

    2018-02-01

    The Precision Solar Spectroradiometer (PSR) is a new spectroradiometer developed at Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos - World Radiation Center (PMOD-WRC), Davos, measuring direct solar irradiance at the surface, in the 300-1020 nm spectral range and at high temporal resolution. The purpose of this work is to investigate the instrument's potential to retrieve integrated water vapour (IWV) using its spectral measurements. Two different approaches were developed in order to retrieve IWV: the first one uses single-channel and wavelength measurements, following a theoretical water vapour high absorption wavelength, and the second one uses direct sun irradiance integrated at a certain spectral region. IWV results have been validated using a 2-year data set, consisting of an AERONET sun-photometer Cimel CE318, a Global Positioning System (GPS), a microwave radiometer profiler (MWP) and radiosonde retrievals recorded at Meteorological Observatorium Lindenberg, Germany. For the monochromatic approach, better agreement with retrievals from other methods and instruments was achieved using the 946 nm channel, while for the spectral approach the 934-948 nm window was used. Compared to other instruments' retrievals, the monochromatic approach leads to mean relative differences up to 3.3 % with the coefficient of determination (R2) being in the region of 0.87-0.95, while for the spectral approach mean relative differences up to 0.7 % were recorded with R2 in the region of 0.96-0.98. Uncertainties related to IWV retrieval methods were investigated and found to be less than 0.28 cm for both methods. Absolute IWV deviations of differences between PSR and other instruments were determined the range of 0.08-0.30 cm and only in extreme cases would reach up to 15 %.

  17. Potential application of solar thermal systems for hot water production in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hong; Yang Hongxing

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the evaluation results of conventional solar water heater (SWH) systems and solar assisted heat pump (SAHP) systems for hot water production in Hong Kong. An economic comparison and global warming impact analysis are conducted among the two kinds of solar thermal systems and traditional water heating systems (i.e. electric water heaters and towngas water heaters). The economic comparison results show that solar thermal systems have greater economic benefits than traditional water heating systems. In addition, conventional SWH systems are comparable with the SAHP systems when solar fractions are above 50%. Besides, analysis on the sensitivity of the total equivalent warming impact (TEWI) indicates that the towngas boosted SWH system has the greatest potential in greenhouse gas emission reduction with various solar collector areas and the electricity boosted SWH system has the comparative TEWI with the SAHP systems if its solar fraction is above 50%. As for SAHP systems, the solar assisted air source heat pump (SA-ASHP) system has the least global warming impact. Based on all investigation results, suggestions are given on the selection of solar thermal systems for applications in Hong Kong

  18. Experimental investigation of a Hybrid Solar Drier and Water Heater System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohajer, Alireza; Nematollahi, Omid; Joybari, Mahmood Mastani; Hashemi, Seyed Ahmad; Assari, Mohammad Reza

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A Hybrid Solar Drier and Water Heater System experimentally investigated. • Using collected data, GIS maps were plotted for solar energy of Khuzestan Province. • System is presented which facilitates a dual-purpose solar collector. • The system includes a 100 l water storage tank, a solar dryer with 5 trays. • Experiments were carried out to dry vegetables (parsley, dill and coriander). - Abstract: Drying process is of great importance in food industries. One of the best methods of food drying is using solar dryers. For initial estimation of solar energy, calculations were made for statistical information measured by Renewable Energy Organization of Iran. Using collected data, GIS maps were plotted for solar energy of Khuzestan Province, Iran. In this study, a new hybrid system is presented which facilitates a dual-purpose solar collector to simultaneously support a dryer system and provide consumptive hot water. The system includes a 100 l water storage tank, a solar dryer with 5 trays, and a dual-purpose collector. Experiments were carried out to dry a mixture of vegetables (parsley, dill and coriander) at constant air and water flow rates. Besides, an electrical heater has been used as an auxiliary source for heating. The results indicated that the system optimally dried the vegetables and simultaneously provided the consumptive hot water

  19. Solar activity and its evolution across the corona: recent advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez Luciano

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Solar magnetism is responsible for the several active phenomena that occur in the solar atmosphere. The consequences of these phenomena on the solar-terrestrial environment and on Space Weather are nowadays clearly recognized, even if not yet fully understood. In order to shed light on the mechanisms that are at the basis of the Space Weather, it is necessary to investigate the sequence of phenomena starting in the solar atmosphere and developing across the outer layers of the Sun and along the path from the Sun to the Earth. This goal can be reached by a combined multi-disciplinary, multi-instrument, multi-wavelength study of these phenomena, starting with the very first manifestation of solar active region formation and evolution, followed by explosive phenomena (i.e., flares, erupting prominences, coronal mass ejections, and ending with the interaction of plasma magnetized clouds expelled from the Sun with the interplanetary magnetic field and medium. This wide field of research constitutes one of the main aims of COST Action ES0803: Developing Space Weather products and services in Europe. In particular, one of the tasks of this COST Action was to investigate the Progress in Scientific Understanding of Space Weather. In this paper we review the state of the art of our comprehension of some phenomena that, in the scenario outlined above, might have a role on Space Weather, focusing on the researches, thematic reviews, and main results obtained during the COST Action ES0803.

  20. A Solar Station for Education and Research on Solar Activity at a National University in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishitsuka, J. K.

    2006-11-01

    pepe@geo.igp.gob.pe Beginning in 1937, the Carnegie Institution of Washington made active regional observations with a spectro-helioscope at the Huancayo Observatory. In 1957, during the celebration of the International Geophysical Year Mutsumi Ishitsuka arrived at the Geophysical Institute of Peru and restarted solar observations from the Huancayo Observatory. Almost 69 years have passed and many contributions for the geophysical and solar sciences have been made. Now the Instituto Geofisico del Peru (IGP), in cooperation with the Faculty of Sciences of the Universidad Nacional San Luis Gonzaga de Ica (UNICA), and with the support of the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, are planning to construct a solar station refurbishing a coelostat that worked for many years at the Huancayo Observatory. A 15 cm refractor telescope is already installed at the university, for the observation of sunspots. A solar Flare Monitor Telescope (FMT) from Hida Observatory of Kyoto University could be sent to Peru and installed at the solar station at UNICA. As the refurbished coelostat, FMT will become a good tool to improve education and research in sciences.

  1. Utilization of solar energy through photosynthesis and artificial water photolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, E.

    1976-01-01

    The plants build up organic matter with a carbon content of the order of 1011 t/year by means of photochemistry. Energy farming for the production of liquid or gaseous fuel is discussed. Yet the abiotic photolysis of water with production of hydrogen is preferable. By means of synthetic, asymmetric, photochemically active, membranes the primary products of water photolysis could be spatially separated so that their recombination is prevented.(author)

  2. Development of domestic hot water systems in Costa Rica from solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lizana-Moreno, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    A software tool is developed to implement the solar domestic hot water systems (DHW) in Costa Rica and to replace the electric water heating equipment. A database with information from the solar radiation is elaborated for different locations in Costa Rica. A manual of design DHW solar systems is realized for the country. An DHW solar system is designed for the type of average building the of country. A software is implemented to calculate the parameters and dimensions necessary for the solar installation of DHW, using the F-Chart method; in addition, the information of the mentioned database is included. A financial analysis is elaborated of the DHW solar systems in Costa Rica. The strategies are proposed for the implementation of DHW solar systems in Costa Rica [es

  3. Quasi-biennial modulation of solar neutrino flux: connections with solar activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchio, A.; Laurenza, M.; D'alessi, L.; Carbone, V.; Storini, M.

    2011-12-01

    A quasi-biennial periodicity has been recently found (Vecchio et al., 2010) in the solar neutrino flux, as detected at the Homestake experiment, as well as in the flux of solar energetic protons, by means of the Empirical Modes Decomposition technique. Moreover, both fluxes have been found to be significantly correlated at the quasi-biennial timescale, thus supporting the hypothesis of a connection between solar neutrinos and solar activity. The origin of this connection is investigated, by modeling how the standard Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect (the process for which the well-known neutrino flavor oscillations are modified in passing through the material) could be influenced by matter fluctuations. As proposed by Burgess et al., 2004, by introducing a background magnetic field in the helioseismic model, density fluctuations can be excited in the radiative zone by the resonance between helioseismic g-modes and Alfvén waves. In particular, with reasonable values of the background magnetic field (10-100 kG), the distance between resonant layers could be of the same order of neutrino oscillation length. We study the effect over this distance of a background magnetic field which is variable with a ~2 yr period, in agreement with typical variations of solar activity. Our findings suggest that the quasi-biennial modulation of the neutrino flux is theoretically possible as a consequence of the magnetic field variations in the solar interior. A. Vecchio, M. Laurenza, V. Carbone, M. Storini, The Astrophysical Journal Letters, 709, L1-L5 (2010). C. Burgess, N. S. Dzhalilov, T. I. Rashba, V., B.Semikoz, J. W. F. Valle, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 348, 609-624 (2004).

  4. The Effect of "Rogue" Active Regions on the Solar Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Melinda; Lemerle, Alexandre; Labonville, François; Petrovay, Kristóf; Charbonneau, Paul

    2017-11-01

    The origin of cycle-to-cycle variations in solar activity is currently the focus of much interest. It has recently been pointed out that large individual active regions with atypical properties can have a significant impact on the long-term behavior of solar activity. We investigate this possibility in more detail using a recently developed 2×2D dynamo model of the solar magnetic cycle. We find that even a single "rogue" bipolar magnetic region (BMR) in the simulations can have a major effect on the further development of solar activity cycles, boosting or suppressing the amplitude of subsequent cycles. In extreme cases, an individual BMR can completely halt the dynamo, triggering a grand minimum. Rogue BMRs also have the potential to induce significant hemispheric asymmetries in the solar cycle. To study the effect of rogue BMRs in a more systematic manner, a series of dynamo simulations were conducted, in which a large test BMR was manually introduced in the model at various phases of cycles of different amplitudes. BMRs emerging in the rising phase of a cycle can modify the amplitude of the ongoing cycle, while BMRs emerging in later phases will only affect subsequent cycles. In this model, the strongest effect on the subsequent cycle occurs when the rogue BMR emerges around cycle maximum at low latitudes, but the BMR does not need to be strictly cross-equatorial. Active regions emerging as far as 20° from the equator can still have a significant effect. We demonstrate that the combined effect of the magnetic flux, tilt angle, and polarity separation of the BMR on the dynamo is via their contribution to the dipole moment, δ D_{BMR}. Our results indicate that prediction of the amplitude, starting epoch, and duration of a cycle requires an accurate accounting of a broad range of active regions emerging in the previous cycle.

  5. Development of an active solar crop dryer: design analysis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The design analysis and performance evaluation of an active solar crop dryer was undertaken by drying marched cassava. The drying rate, system drying, collector and pick-up efficiencies were 1.6kg/day (14%/day), 9%, 46% and 29% respectively. Comparatively, the drying rate for sun drying was 0.9kg/day. The collector ...

  6. Understanding the Ecological Adoption of Solar Water Heaters Among Customers of Island Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pudaruth Sharmila

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the major factors impacting upon the ecological adoption of solar water heaters in Mauritius. The paper applies data reduction technique by using exploratory factor analysis on a sample of 228 respondents and condenses a set of 32 attributes into a list of 8 comprehensible factors impacting upon the sustained adoption of solar water heater in Mauritius. Multiple regression analysis was also conducted to investigate upon the most predictive factor influencing the adoption of solar water heaters in Mauritius. The empirical estimates of the regression analysis have also depicted that the most determining factor pertaining to the ‘government incentives for solar water heaters’ impacts upon the adoption of solar water heaters. These results can be related to sustainable adoption of green energy whereby targeted incentive mechanisms can be formulated with the aim to accelerate and cascade solar energy adoption in emerging economies. A novel conceptual model was also proposed in this paper, whereby, ecological stakeholders in the sustainable arena could use the model as a reference to pave the way to encourage adoption of solar water heating energy. This research represents a different way of understanding ecological customers by developing an expanding on an original scale development for the survey on the ecological adoption of solar water heaters.

  7. Physics of the Solar Active Regions from Radio Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfreikh, G. B.

    1999-12-01

    Localized increase of the magnetic field observed by routine methods on the photosphere result in the growth of a number of active processes in the solar atmosphere and the heliosphere. These localized regions of increased magnetic field are called active regions (AR). The main processes of transfer, accumulation and release of energy in an AR is, however, out of scope of photospheric observations being essentially a 3D-process and happening either under photosphere or up in the corona. So, to investigate these plasma structures and processes we are bound to use either extrapolation of optical observational methods or observations in EUV, X-rays and radio. In this review, we stress and illustrate the input to the problem gained from radio astronomical methods and discuss possible future development of their applicatications. Historically speaking each new step in developing radio technique of observations resulted in detecting some new physics of ARs. The most significant progress in the last few years in radio diagnostics of the plasma structures of magnetospheres of the solar ARs is connected with the developing of the 2D full disk analysis on regular basis made at Nobeyama and detailed multichannel spectral-polarization (but one-dimensional and one per day) solar observations at the RATAN-600. In this report the bulk of attention is paid to the new approach to the study of solar activity gained with the Nobeyama radioheliograph and analyzing the ways for future progress. The most important new features of the multicomponent radio sources of the ARs studied using Nobeyama radioheliograph are as follow: 1. The analysis of magnetic field structures in solar corona above sunspot with 2000 G. Their temporal evolution and fluctuations with the periods around 3 and 5 minutes, due to MHD-waves in sunspot magnetic tubes and surrounding plasma. These investigations are certainly based on an analysis of thermal cyclotron emission of lower corona and CCTR above sunspot

  8. Engineering bacterial efflux pumps for solar-powered bioremediation of surface waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Vikram; Wendell, David

    2013-05-08

    Antibiotics are difficult to selectively remove from surface waters by present treatment methods. Bacterial efflux pumps have evolved the ability to discriminately expel antibiotics and other noxious agents via proton and ATP driven pathways. Here, we describe light-dependent removal of antibiotics by engineering the bacterial efflux pump AcrB into a proteovesicle system. We have created a chimeric protein with the requisite proton motive force by coupling AcrB to the light-driven proton pump Delta-rhodopsin (dR) via a glycophorin A transmembrane domain. This creates a solar powered protein material capable of selectively capturing antibiotics from bulk solutions. Using environmental water and direct sunlight, our AcrB-dR vesicles removed almost twice as much antibiotic as the treatment standard, activated carbon. Altogether, the AcrB-dR system provides an effective means of extracting antibiotics from surface waters as well as potential antibiotic recovery through vesicle solubilization.

  9. Assimilation and water relations of dryland castor at different intensities of solar radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramanian, V.; Venkateswarlu, S.

    1995-01-01

    Primary racemes of dryland castor develop during later part of rainy season and secondaries and tertiaries develop during post-rainy season. The reproductive phase is therefore subjected to variation in soil moisture availability and solar radiation intensity. The objective of the study was to find out the influence of fluctuation in solar radiation intensity on photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, transpiration efficiency, stomatal conductance and leaf water potential during early and late reproductive phase of castor. When photosynthetically active radiation was less than 1000 mu-mol m-2s-1, transpiration efficiency decreased because reduction in photosynthesis rate was more than that in transpiration rate. Transpiration efficiency also decreased, when radiation was above 1500 mu-mol m-2s-1 because of increase only in transpiration rate. Leaf water potential was higher during early than during late reproductive phase at similar radiation intensity. Transpiration rate was lower and transpiration efficiency was more during early phase when radiation was above 1500 mu-mol m-2s-1. Photosynthetically active radiation and leaf water potential were inversely related

  10. A study of water electrolysis using ionic polymer-metal composite for solar energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keow, Alicia; Chen, Zheng

    2017-04-01

    Hydrogen gas can be harvested via the electrolysis of water. The gas is then fed into a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) to produce electricity with clean emission. Ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC), which is made from electroplating a proton-conductive polymer film called Nafion encourages ion migration and dissociation of water under application of external voltage. This property has been proven to be able to act as catalyst for the electrolysis of pure water. This renewable energy system is inspired by photosynthesis. By using solar panels to gather sunlight as the source of energy, the generation of electricity required to activate the IPMC electrolyser is acquired. The hydrogen gas is collected as storable fuel and can be converted back into energy using a commercial fuel cell. The goal of this research is to create a round-trip energy efficient system which can harvest solar energy, store them in the form of hydrogen gas and convert the stored hydrogen back to electricity through the use of fuel cell with minimal overall losses. The effect of increasing the surface area of contact is explored through etching of the polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) with argon plasma or manually sanding the surface and how it affects the increase of energy conversion efficiency of the electrolyser. In addition, the relationship between temperature and the IPMC is studied. Experimental results demonstrated that increases in temperature of water and changes in surface area contact correlate with gas generation.

  11. Arkansas Solar Retrofit Guide. Greenhouses, Air Heaters and Water Heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiles, Albert; Rose, Mary Jo

    Solar retrofits are devices of structures designed to be attached to existing buildings to augment their existing heating sources with solar energy. An investigation of how solar retrofits should be designed to suit the climate and resources of Arkansas is the subject of this report. Following an introduction (section 1), section 2 focuses on…

  12. An Economic Analysis of Solar Water & Space Heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC. Div. of Solar Energy.

    Solar system designs for 13 cities were optimized so as to minimize the life cycle cost over the assumed 20-year lifetime of the solar energy systems. A number of major assumptions were made regarding the solar system, type and use of building, financial considerations, and economic environment used in the design optimization. Seven optimum…

  13. Statistical Properties of Geomagnetic Activity Indices and Solar Wind Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Hee Kim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As the prediction of geomagnetic storms is becoming an important and practical problem, conditions in the Earth’s magnetosphere have been studied rigorously in terms of those in the interplanetary space. Another approach to space weather forecast is to deal with it as a probabilistic geomagnetic storm forecasting problem. In this study, we carry out detailed statistical analysis of solar wind parameters and geomagnetic indices examining the dependence of the distribution on the solar cycle and annual variations. Our main findings are as follows: (1 The distribution of parameters obtained via the superimposed epoch method follows the Gaussian distribution. (2 When solar activity is at its maximum the mean value of the distribution is shifted to the direction indicating the intense environment. Furthermore, the width of the distribution becomes wider at its maximum than at its minimum so that more extreme case can be expected. (3 The distribution of some certain heliospheric parameters is less sensitive to the phase of the solar cycle and annual variations. (4 The distribution of the eastward component of the interplanetary electric field BV and the solar wind driving function BV2, however, appears to be all dependent on the solar maximum/minimum, the descending/ascending phases of the solar cycle and the equinoxes/solstices. (5 The distribution of the AE index and the Dst index shares statistical features closely with BV and BV2 compared with other heliospheric parameters. In this sense, BV and BV2 are more robust proxies of the geomagnetic storm. We conclude by pointing out that our results allow us to step forward in providing the occurrence probability of geomagnetic storms for space weather and physical modeling.

  14. Migration and Extension of Solar Active Longitudinal Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyenge, N.; Baranyi, T.; Ludmány, A.

    2014-02-01

    Solar active longitudes show a characteristic migration pattern in the Carrington coordinate system if they can be identified at all. By following this migration, the longitudinal activity distribution around the center of the band can be determined. The half-width of the distribution is found to be varying in Cycles 21 - 23, and in some time intervals it was as narrow as 20 - 30 degrees. It was more extended around a maximum but it was also narrow when the activity jumped to the opposite longitude. Flux emergence exhibited a quasi-periodic variation within the active zone with a period of about 1.3 years. The path of the active-longitude migration does not support the view that it might be associated with the 11-year solar cycle. These results were obtained for a limited time interval of a few solar cycles and, bearing in mind uncertainties of the migration-path definition, are only indicative. For the major fraction of the dataset no systematic active longitudes were found. Sporadic migration of active longitudes was identified only for Cycles 21 - 22 in the northern hemisphere and Cycle 23 in the southern hemisphere.

  15. Carbon-Electrode-Tailored All-Inorganic Perovskite Solar Cells To Harvest Solar and Water-Vapor Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jialong; Hu, Tianyu; Zhao, Yuanyuan; He, Benlin; Tang, Qunwei

    2018-05-14

    Moisture is the worst enemy for state-of-the-art perovskite solar cells (PSCs). However, the flowing water vapor within nanoporous carbonaceous materials can create potentials. Therefore, it is a challenge to integrate water vapor and solar energies into a single PSC device. We demonstrate herein all-inorganic cesium lead bromide (CsPbBr 3 ) solar cells tailored with carbon electrodes to simultaneously harvest solar and water-vapor energy. Upon interfacial modification and plasma treatment, the bifunctional PSCs yield a maximum power conversion efficiency up to 9.43 % under one sun irradiation according to photoelectric conversion principle and a power output of 0.158 μW with voltage of 0.35 V and current of 0.45 μA in 80 % relative humidity through the flowing potentials at the carbon/water interface. The initial efficiency is only reduced by 2 % on exposing the inorganic PSC with 80 % humidity over 40 days. The successful realization of physical proof-of-concept multi-energy integrated solar cells provides new opportunities of maximizing overall power output. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Cosmic Ray Daily Variation And SOLAR Activity On Anomalous Days

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Rajesh Kumar; Mishra, Rekha Agarwal

    2008-01-01

    A study is carried out on the long-term changes in the diurnal anisotropy of cosmic rays using the ground based Deep River neutron monitor data during significantly low amplitude anisotropic wave train events in cosmic ray intensity for the period 1981-94. It has been observed that the phase of the diurnal anisotropy for majority of the low amplitude anisotropic wave train events significantly shifts towards earlier hours as compared to the co-rotational direction. The long-term behaviour of the amplitude of the diurnal anisotropy can be explained in terms of the occurrence of low amplitude anisotropic wave train events. The occurrence of these events is dominant during solar activity minimum years. The amplitude of the diurnal anisotropy is well correlated with the solar cycle but the direction of the anisotropy is not correlated with the solar cycle and shows a systematic shift to earlier hours. (authors)

  17. DATA ASSIMILATION APPROACH FOR FORECAST OF SOLAR ACTIVITY CYCLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitiashvili, Irina N., E-mail: irina.n.kitiashvili@nasa.gov [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, Mountain View, CA 94035 (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Numerous attempts to predict future solar cycles are mostly based on empirical relations derived from observations of previous cycles, and they yield a wide range of predicted strengths and durations of the cycles. Results obtained with current dynamo models also deviate strongly from each other, thus raising questions about criteria to quantify the reliability of such predictions. The primary difficulties in modeling future solar activity are shortcomings of both the dynamo models and observations that do not allow us to determine the current and past states of the global solar magnetic structure and its dynamics. Data assimilation is a relatively new approach to develop physics-based predictions and estimate their uncertainties in situations where the physical properties of a system are not well-known. This paper presents an application of the ensemble Kalman filter method for modeling and prediction of solar cycles through use of a low-order nonlinear dynamo model that includes the essential physics and can describe general properties of the sunspot cycles. Despite the simplicity of this model, the data assimilation approach provides reasonable estimates for the strengths of future solar cycles. In particular, the prediction of Cycle 24 calculated and published in 2008 is so far holding up quite well. In this paper, I will present my first attempt to predict Cycle 25 using the data assimilation approach, and discuss the uncertainties of that prediction.

  18. A calorimetric method to determine water activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björklund, Sebastian; Wadsö, Lars

    2011-11-01

    A calorimetric method to determine water activity covering the full range of the water activity scale is presented. A dry stream of nitrogen gas is passed either over the solution whose activity should be determined or left dry before it is saturated by bubbling through water in an isothermal calorimeter. The unknown activity is in principle determined by comparing the thermal power of vaporization related to the gas stream with unknown activity to that with zero activity. Except for three minor corrections (for pressure drop, non-perfect humidification, and evaporative cooling) the unknown water activity is calculated solely based on the water activity end-points zero and unity. Thus, there is no need for calibration with references with known water activities. The method has been evaluated at 30 °C by measuring the water activity of seven aqueous sodium chloride solutions ranging from 0.1 mol kg(-1) to 3 mol kg(-1) and seven saturated aqueous salt solutions (LiCl, MgCl(2), NaBr, NaCl, KCl, KNO(3), and K(2)SO(4)) with known water activities. The performance of the method was adequate over the complete water activity scale. At high water activities the performance was excellent, which is encouraging as many other methods used for water activity determination have limited performance at high water activities. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  19. Water Purification and Disinfection by using Solar Energy: Towards Green Energy Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Z.H. Khan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to design a solar water treatment plant for household purpose. Water purification is the process of eradicating detrimental chemicals, biological poisons, suspended solids and gases from contaminated water. In this work we have reported an investigation of compact filter which is cost effective for developing countries and ease of maintenance. We have arranged a solar water disinfection system that improves the microbiological quality of drinking water at household level. We get 14 L pure water and 16 ml water vapour within 240 min by using filtration method. From our work we get hot water up to 49°C. The efficiency of the system at sunny days and cloudy days are 18.23% and 18.13% respectively. This simple solar hybrid system helps to remove turbidity as well as chemical and pathogenic contaminants from water sources in the most affordable, and expedient manner possibly.

  20. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Saint Louis, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The solar heating and hot water system installed at the William Tao & Associates, Inc., office building in St. Louis, Missouri is described, including maintenance and construction problems, final drawings, system requirements, and manufacturer's component data. The solar system was designed to provide 50 percent of the hot water requirements and 45 percent of the space heating needs for a 900 sq ft office space and drafting room. The solar facility has 252 sq ft of glass tube concentrator collectors and a 1000 gallon steel storage tank buried below a concrete slab floor. Freeze protection is provided by a propylene glycol/water mixture in the collector loop. The collectors are roof mounted on a variable tilt array which is adjusted seasonally and is connected to the solar thermal storage tank by a tube-in-shell heat exchanger. Incoming city water is preheated through the solar energy thermal storage tank.

  1. Experimental Analysis of Desalination Unit Coupled with Solar Water Lens Concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaithanya, K. K.; Rajesh, V. R.; Suresh, Rahul

    2016-09-01

    The main problem that the world faces in this scenario is shortage of potable water. Hence this research work rivets to increase the yield of desalination system in an economical way. The integration of solar concentrator and desalination unit can project the desired yield, but the commercially available concentrated solar power technologies (CSP) are not economically viable. So this study proposes a novel method to concentrate ample amount of solar radiation in a cost effective way. Water acting as lens is a highlighted technology initiated in this work, which can be a substitute for CSP systems. And water lens can accelerate the desalination process so as to increase the yield economically. The solar irradiance passing through the water will be concentrated at a focal point, and the concentration depends on curvature of water lens. The experimental analysis of water lens makes use of transparent thin sheet, supported on a metallic structure. The Plano convex shape of water lens is developed by varying the volume of water that is being poured on the transparent thin sheet. From the experimental analysis it is inferred that, as the curvature of water lens increases, solar irradiance can be focused more accurately on to the focus and a higher water temperature is obtained inside the solar still.

  2. NONLINEAR DYNAMICS OF MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC ROSSBY WAVES AND THE CYCLIC NATURE OF SOLAR MAGNETIC ACTIVITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raphaldini, Breno; Raupp, Carlos F. M., E-mail: brenorfs@gmail.com, E-mail: carlos.raupp@iag.usp.br [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofísica e Ciências Atmosféricas, Departamento de Geofísica, Rua do Matão, 1226-Cidade Universitária São Paulo-SP 05508-090 (Brazil)

    2015-01-20

    The solar dynamo is known to be associated with several periodicities, with the nearly 11/22 yr cycle being the most pronounced one. Even though these quasiperiodic variations of solar activity have been attributed to the underlying dynamo action in the Sun's interior, a fundamental theoretical description of these cycles is still elusive. Here, we present a new possible direction in understanding the Sun's cycles based on resonant nonlinear interactions among magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Rossby waves. The WKB theory for dispersive waves is applied to magnetohydrodynamic shallow-water equations describing the dynamics of the solar tachocline, and the reduced dynamics of a resonant triad composed of MHD Rossby waves embedded in constant toroidal magnetic field is analyzed. In the conservative case, the wave amplitudes evolve periodically in time, with periods on the order of the dominant solar activity timescale (∼11 yr). In addition, the presence of linear forcings representative of either convection or instabilities of meridionally varying background states appears to be crucial in balancing dissipation and thus sustaining the periodic oscillations of wave amplitudes associated with resonant triad interactions. Examination of the linear theory of MHD Rossby waves embedded in a latitudinally varying mean flow demonstrates that MHD Rossby waves propagate toward the equator in a waveguide from –35° to 35° in latitude, showing a remarkable resemblance to the structure of the butterfly diagram of the solar activity. Therefore, we argue that resonant nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic Rossby wave interactions might significantly contribute to the observed cycles of magnetic solar activity.

  3. Survey of active solar thermal collectors, industry and markets in Canada : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-08-01

    A survey of the solar thermal industry in Canada was presented. The aim of the survey was to determine the size of the Canadian solar thermal industry and market. Data were used to derive thermal energy output as well as avoided greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from solar thermal systems. The questionnaire was distributed to 268 representatives. Results revealed annual sales of 24.2, 26.4 and 37.5 MW TH in 2002, 2003, and 2004 respectively, which represented over 50 per cent growth in the operating base during the 3 year survey period. Sales of all collector types grew substantially during the 3 year period, and survey respondents anticipated 20 per cent growth in both 2005 and 2006. Approximately 10 per cent of all sales were exported during 2002-2004. Unglazed liquid collectors constituted the majority of collector types sold in Canada, almost all of which were sold into the residential sector for swimming pool heating. The majority of air collectors were sold into the industrial/commercial and institutional (I/CI) sectors for use in space heating. Sales of liquid glazed and evacuated tube collectors were split between the residential and I/CI sectors. Residential sales were primarily for domestic water heating. In 2004, 23 per cent of sales in the residential sector were for combination domestic hot water and space heating applications, an indication of strong growth. Results of the survey indicated that the solar thermal market in Quebec differed from other regions, with more than double the annual per capita revenue of any other region as a result of greater market penetration of unglazed air collectors. Calculations of the GHG emissions avoided due to active solar thermal systems were made based on historical estimates of solar thermal installations. A model was developed to calculate an operating base by collector type from 1979 to the present. The model showed that many of the systems installed during the 1980s were decommissioned during the 1990s, and that

  4. Survey of active solar thermal collectors, industry and markets in Canada : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-08-01

    A survey of the solar thermal industry in Canada was presented. The aim of the survey was to determine the size of the Canadian solar thermal industry and market. Data were used to derive thermal energy output as well as avoided greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from solar thermal systems. The questionnaire was distributed to 268 representatives. Results revealed annual sales of 24.2, 26.4 and 37.5 MW{sub TH} in 2002, 2003, and 2004 respectively, which represented over 50 per cent growth in the operating base during the 3 year survey period. Sales of all collector types grew substantially during the 3 year period, and survey respondents anticipated 20 per cent growth in both 2005 and 2006. Approximately 10 per cent of all sales were exported during 2002-2004. Unglazed liquid collectors constituted the majority of collector types sold in Canada, almost all of which were sold into the residential sector for swimming pool heating. The majority of air collectors were sold into the industrial/commercial and institutional (I/CI) sectors for use in space heating. Sales of liquid glazed and evacuated tube collectors were split between the residential and I/CI sectors. Residential sales were primarily for domestic water heating. In 2004, 23 per cent of sales in the residential sector were for combination domestic hot water and space heating applications, an indication of strong growth. Results of the survey indicated that the solar thermal market in Quebec differed from other regions, with more than double the annual per capita revenue of any other region as a result of greater market penetration of unglazed air collectors. Calculations of the GHG emissions avoided due to active solar thermal systems were made based on historical estimates of solar thermal installations. A model was developed to calculate an operating base by collector type from 1979 to the present. The model showed that many of the systems installed during the 1980s were decommissioned during the 1990s, and

  5. Dimensioning of a solar water heater made from PET bottles; Dimensionamento de um aquecedor solar de agua feito com garrafas PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertoleti, Pedro Henrique Fonseca; Souza, Teofilo Miguel de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Centro de Energias Renovaveis

    2008-07-01

    This document show the solar water heater made of PET bottles, a simple-construction solar water heater that try to give us two important solutions, water heating using solar energy and reutilization of the PET bottles left in the nature. Also, it will be showed how to do the dimensioning of it. Based on the showed dimensioning a application / software is developed and after that simulations are made using the application to provide how is the economy if it's used this kind of solar water heater and their environmental contribution by reutilization of the PET bottles abandoned in the nature. For example, in a common home the economy is about 45% of the electricity bill considering that the warmed water is used just to take a shower. So, the conclusion is: the solar water heater made by PET bottles is a very relevant equipment to the use of the solar energy, to useful applications and environmental contribution. (author)

  6. Solar energy uses in home water heating systems; Utilizacao da energia solar em sistemas de aquecimento de agua residencial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basso, Luiz Henrique

    2008-07-01

    The awareness of the importance of the environment has stimulated the study of new energy sources renewed and less pollutant. Amongst these sources, solar energy stands alone for being perennial and clean. The use of solar energy in systems of residential water heating, instead of the electric shower, can compliment the economy of electric energy, based on the Brazilian energy matrix. To know all the factors that influence the operation of a system of water heating by solar energy it is important the determination of its economic and technical viabilities and, distribution targeting in urban and agricultural residences. To evaluate equipment of water heating for solar energy in the region west of the Parana, Brazil, an archetype with similar characteristics to equipment used in residences for two inhabitants was built, to function with natural circulation or thermosyphon and without help of a complementary heating system. The room temperature and the speed of the wind were also evaluated, verifying its influence in the heating system. The equipment revealed technical viability, reaching the minimum temperature of 35 deg C for shower, whenever the solar radiation was above the 3500 W.m{sup -2}, for the majority of the studied days. The system operated without interruptions and it did not need maintenance, except for the monthly glass cleaning. Economic viability was clearly demonstrated since the useful life of the equipment exceeded the period of use to gain its investment. (author)

  7. Design, Fabrication, and Efficiency Study of a Novel Solar Thermal Water Heating System: Towards Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Z. H. Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated a novel loop-heat-pipe based solar thermal heat-pump system for small scale hot water production for household purposes. The effective use of solar energy is hindered by the intermittent nature of its availability, limiting its use and effectiveness in domestic and industrial applications especially in water heating. The easiest and the most used method is the conversion of solar energy into thermal energy. We developed a prototype solar water heating system for experimental test. We reported the investigation of solar thermal conversion efficiency in different seasons which is 29.24% in summer, 14.75% in winter, and 15.53% in rainy season. This paper also discusses the DC heater for backup system and the current by using thermoelectric generator which are 3.20 V in summer, 2.120 V in winter, and 1.843 V in rainy season. This solar water heating system is mostly suited for its ease of operation and simple maintenance. It is expected that such novel solar thermal technology would further contribute to the development of the renewable energy (solar driven heating/hot water service and therefore lead to significant environmental benefits.

  8. Economical judge possibility uses solar collectors to warm service water and heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Bodonská

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The sun-heated water has been used from before fossil fuels started to determine the direction of our power consumption. This article is focused on the assessing of the use of solar energy as one of inexhaustible resources that has multiple uses, including hot water service systems. Heating is rendered through solar collectors that permit to transform solar energy to warm water. We divide solar collectors into various groups but in principle they are medium temperature collectors and low temperature collectors. The work is directed also on the solar collector market. In our case the market is just at its initial stage as this technology is little known and costs of collectors are rather high, compared to our conditions, on average, they may grow up to 100,000 Slovac crowns per a family house. Because it is the only investment and the costs of operation are minimum throughout the entire collectors lifetime, from the economic point of view, it is a rather advantageous investment. Solar collectors are used in heating and also in hot service water systems in family houses, where they permit to lower costs for the consumption of many kinds of energies. In the hot service water system, solar collectors permit to lower the consumption by almost 70 %. This way of using the solar energy is very prospective and in future it will be used in various sectors

  9. Decentralized and cost-effective solar water purification system for remote communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-ur-Rehman, Hafiz M.; Shakir, Sehar; Atta-ur-Razaq; Saqib, Hamza; Tahir, Saad

    2018-05-01

    In this study, a modified stepped solar still is proposed for water desalination. The overall objective of this work is to develop and test the proposed still design to identify the productivity enhancement as compared to conventional basin type solar still. The proposed design takes the advantage of its stepped configuration that allows the water stream to maintain a minimum desirable water column height and the water flow through the stages under the force of gravity. A minimum water depth in the still results in a higher rate of evaporation. The still is also incorporated with Fresnel lens to increase the water temperature that eventually increases the rate of water evaporation. Another important aspect of this design is the incorporation of phase-change-material (PCM) to increase the operational hours of the solar still. Consequently, daily productivity of fresh water is increased.

  10. Water-Induced Degradation of Polymer Solar Cells Studied by (H2O)-O-18 Labeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norrman, Kion; Gevorgyan, Suren; Krebs, Frederik C

    2009-01-01

    Water-induced degradation of polymer photovoltaics based on the active materials poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) or poly[2-methoxy-5-(2′-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MEHPPV) was studied. The solar cell devices comprised a bulk heterojunction formed by the active material and [6,6]-phenyl......-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) in a standard device geometry. The use of H218O in conjunction with time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry enabled mapping of the parts of the device that were induced by water. A comparison was made between the two active materials and between devices...

  11. Online educative activities for solar ultraviolet radiation based on measurements of cloud amount and solar exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, A V; Downs, N; Turner, J; Amar, A

    2016-09-01

    A set of online activities for children and the community that are based on an integrated real-time solar UV and cloud measurement system are described. These activities use the functionality of the internet to provide an educative tool for school children and the public on the influence of cloud and the angle of the sun above the horizon on the global erythemal UV or sunburning UV, the diffuse erythemal UV, the global UVA (320-400nm) and the vitamin D effective UV. Additionally, the units of UV exposure and UV irradiance are investigated, along with the meaning and calculation of the UV index (UVI). This research will help ensure that children and the general public are better informed about sun safety by improving their personal understanding of the daily and the atmospheric factors that influence solar UV radiation and the solar UV exposures of the various wavebands in the natural environment. The activities may correct common misconceptions of children and the public about UV irradiances and exposure, utilising the widespread reach of the internet to increase the public's awareness of the factors influencing UV irradiances and exposures in order to provide clear information for minimizing UV exposure, while maintaining healthy, outdoor lifestyles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Early solar system. Early accretion of water in the inner solar system from a carbonaceous chondrite-like source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarafian, Adam R; Nielsen, Sune G; Marschall, Horst R; McCubbin, Francis M; Monteleone, Brian D

    2014-10-31

    Determining the origin of water and the timing of its accretion within the inner solar system is important for understanding the dynamics of planet formation. The timing of water accretion to the inner solar system also has implications for how and when life emerged on Earth. We report in situ measurements of the hydrogen isotopic composition of the mineral apatite in eucrite meteorites, whose parent body is the main-belt asteroid 4 Vesta. These measurements sample one of the oldest hydrogen reservoirs in the solar system and show that Vesta contains the same hydrogen isotopic composition as that of carbonaceous chondrites. Taking into account the old ages of eucrite meteorites and their similarity to Earth's isotopic ratios of hydrogen, carbon, and nitrogen, we demonstrate that these volatiles could have been added early to Earth, rather than gained during a late accretion event. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  13. Studi Kinerja Solar Water Heater Dengan Aliran Zig-zag Beralur Balok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rizki Ikhsan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy can be used for water heating by using solar water heater application. Therefore, its still needs some modification due to its low efficiency. This modification can be done by replacing the conventional plate of solar collectors into a double plate with a zig-zag pattern. The results shown that along with the decreasing of water flow rates could significantly increase the useful energy (Qu. Initial temperature of water inlet could affect the generated maximum temperature. The highest mean efficiencies of double plate solar water heater with a zig-zag grooved beams pattern of 49.11% was gained in the flow rate of 700 mL / min.

  14. DEVELOPMENT AND PRELIMINARY TESTING OF A PARABOLIC TROUGH SOLAR WATER HEATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Lasode

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy is a high-temperature, high-energy radiant energy source, with tremendous advantages over other alternative energy sources. It is a reliable, robust renewable resource which is largely undeveloped. The design and fabrication of parabolic trough solar water heater for water heating was executed. The procedure employed includes the design, construction and testing stages. The equipment which is made up of the reflector surface (curved mirror, reflector support, absorber pipe and a stand was fabricated using locally sourced materials. The results obtained. compared favourably with other research works in the literature. It depicts that employing a suitable design, selection of time of heating and proper focusing of the reflected rays to the focal spot region, solar radiation can efficiently be utilized for water heating in a tropical environment. This work presents a parabolic trough solar water heater as a suitable renewable energy technology for reducing water-heating costs.

  15. Candidate for solar power: a novel desalination technology for coal bed methane produced water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattler, Allan; Hanley, Charles; Hightower, Michael; Wright, Emily; Wallace, Sam; Pohl, Phillip; Donahe, Ryan; Andelman, Marc

    2006-01-01

    Laboratory and field developments are underway to use solar energy to power a desalination technology - capacitive deionization - for water produced by remote Coal Bed Methane (CBM) natural gas wells. Due to the physical remoteness of many CBM wells throughout the Southwestern U>S> as shown in Figure 1, this approach may offer promise. This promise is not only from its effectiveness in removing salt from CBM water and allowing it to be utilized for various applications, but also for its potentially lower energy consumption compared Figure 1: Candidate remote well sites for planned field implementation of new PV-powered desalination process: (a) Raton Basin and (b) San Juan Basin, New Mexico to other technologies, such as reverse osmosis. This coupled with the remoteness (Figure 1) of thousands these wells, makes them more feasible for use with photovoltaic (solar, electric, PV) systems. Concurrent laboratory activities are providing information about the effectiveness of this technology and of the attender energy requirements of this technology under various produced water qualities and water reuse applications, such as salinity concentrations and water flows. These parameters are being used to drive the design of integrated PV-powered desalination systems. Full-scale field implementations are planned, with data collection and analysis designed to optimize the system design for practical remote applications. Earlier laboratory (and very recent laboratory) studies of capacitive deionization have shown promise at common CBM salinity levels. The technology may require less energy. be less susceptible to fouling and is more compact than equivalent reverse osmosis (RO) systems. The technology uses positively and negatively charged electrodes to attract charged ions in a liquid, such as dissolved salts, metals, and some organics, to the electrodes. This concentrates the ions at the electrodes and reduced the ion concentrations in the liquid. This paper discusses the

  16. Procedures of water desalination with solar energy and f-chart method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Andrija A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to rapid population growth, and climate change caused by environmental pollution needs for drinking water are increasing while amount of freshwater are decreasing. However possible solution for freshwater scarcity can be found in water desalination procedures. In this article three representative water desalination solar powered plants are described. Except explanation of processes it is also mentioned basic advantages and disadvantages of humidification, reverse osmosis and desalination evaporation by using solar energy. Simulation of the solar desalination system is analyzed with f-chart method monthly, located on located 42 degrees north latitude.

  17. Solar activity influence on air temperature regimes in caves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeva, Penka; Mikhalev, Alexander; Stoev, Alexey

    Cave atmospheres are generally included in the processes that happen in the external atmosphere as circulation of the cave air is connected with the most general circulation of the air in the earth’s atmosphere. Such isolated volumes as the air of caves are also influenced by the variations of solar activity. We discuss cave air temperature response to climate and solar and geomagnetic activity for four show caves in Bulgaria studied for a period of 46 years (1968 - 2013). Everyday noon measurements in Ledenika, Saeva dupka, Snezhanka and Uhlovitsa cave have been used. Temperatures of the air in the zone of constant temperatures (ZCT) are compared with surface temperatures recorded at meteorological stations situated near about the caves - in the towns of Vratsa, Lovech, Peshtera and Smolyan, respectively. For comparison, The Hansen cave, Middle cave and Timpanogos cave from the Timpanogos Cave National Monument, Utah, USA situated nearly at the same latitude have also been examined. Our study shows that the correlation between cave air temperature time series and sunspot number is better than that between the cave air temperature and Apmax indices; that t°ZCT is rather connected with the first peak in geomagnetic activity, which is associated with transient solar activity (CMEs) than with the second one, which is higher and connected with the recurrent high speed streams from coronal holes. Air temperatures of all examined show caves, except the Ledenika cave, which is ice cave show decreasing trends. On the contrary, measurements at the meteorological stations show increasing trends in the surface air temperatures. The trend is decreasing for the Timpanogos cave system, USA. The conclusion is that surface temperature trends depend on the climatic zone, in which the cave is situated, and there is no apparent relation between temperatures inside and outside the caves. We consider possible mechanism of solar cosmic rays influence on the air temperatures in caves

  18. The Utilisation of Solar System in Combined Heating System of Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Jobbágy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper assessed the topicality and returns of solar system utilization to heating of water. Practical measurements were conducted after reconstruction of the family house. (in Nesvady, Slovak republic, on which the solar system were assembled. The system consists of the gas heater, solar panels, distributions and circulation pump. The solar system was assembled due to decreasing of operation costs and connected with conventional already used gas heating system by boiler Quantum (V = 115 L. The conventional system was used for 21 days to gather basic values for evaluation. At this point it was observed that 11.93 m3 of gas is needed to heat up 1 m3 of water. Used water in this case was heated from initial 16.14 °C to 52.04 °C of output temperature. Stand by regime of boiler was characterized by 0.012 m3.h-1 consumption of gas. The rest of the measurements represent the annual (from 03/2013 to 02/2014 operation process of boiler Tatramat VTS 200L (trivalent with 200 litres of volume (as a part of Thermosolar solar system. The solar collectors TS 300 are also part of the solar system. An input and output temperatures of heating water we observed along with water and gas consumption, intensity of solar radiation and actual weather conditions. The amount of heat produced by solar system was then calculated. Total investment on solar system were 2,187.7 € (1,475.7 € with subsidy. Therefore, return on investment for the construction of the solar system was set at 23 years even with subsidy.

  19. Prediction of solar activity from solar background magnetic field variations in cycles 21-23

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepherd, Simon J.; Zharkov, Sergei I.; Zharkova, Valentina V.

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive spectral analysis of both the solar background magnetic field (SBMF) in cycles 21-23 and the sunspot magnetic field in cycle 23 reported in our recent paper showed the presence of two principal components (PCs) of SBMF having opposite polarity, e.g., originating in the northern and southern hemispheres, respectively. Over a duration of one solar cycle, both waves are found to travel with an increasing phase shift toward the northern hemisphere in odd cycles 21 and 23 and to the southern hemisphere in even cycle 22. These waves were linked to solar dynamo waves assumed to form in different layers of the solar interior. In this paper, for the first time, the PCs of SBMF in cycles 21-23 are analyzed with the symbolic regression technique using Hamiltonian principles, allowing us to uncover the underlying mathematical laws governing these complex waves in the SBMF presented by PCs and to extrapolate these PCs to cycles 24-26. The PCs predicted for cycle 24 very closely fit (with an accuracy better than 98%) the PCs derived from the SBMF observations in this cycle. This approach also predicts a strong reduction of the SBMF in cycles 25 and 26 and, thus, a reduction of the resulting solar activity. This decrease is accompanied by an increasing phase shift between the two predicted PCs (magnetic waves) in cycle 25 leading to their full separation into the opposite hemispheres in cycle 26. The variations of the modulus summary of the two PCs in SBMF reveals a remarkable resemblance to the average number of sunspots in cycles 21-24 and to predictions of reduced sunspot numbers compared to cycle 24: 80% in cycle 25 and 40% in cycle 26.

  20. Survey of large-scale solar water heaters installed in Taiwan, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang Keh-Chin; Lee Tsong-Sheng; Chung Kung-Ming [Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan (China); Lien Ya-Feng; Lee Chine-An [Cheng Kung Univ. Research and Development Foundation, Tainan (China)

    2008-07-01

    Almost all the solar collectors installed in Taiwan, China were used for production of hot water for homeowners (residential systems), in which the area of solar collectors is less than 10 square meters. From 2001 to 2006, there were only 39 large-scale systems (defined as the area of solar collectors being over 100 m{sup 2}) installed. Their utilization purposes are for rooming house (dormitory), swimming pool, restaurant, and manufacturing process. A comprehensive survey of those large-scale solar water heaters was conducted in 2006. The objectives of the survey were to asses the systems' performance and to have the feedback from the individual users. It is found that lack of experience in system design and maintenance are the key factors for reliable operation of a system. For further promotion of large-scale solar water heaters in Taiwan, a more compressive program on a system design for manufacturing process should be conducted. (orig.)

  1. Advantages using inlet stratification devices in solar domestic hot water storage tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Janne; Furbo, Simon; Bava, Federico

    2017-01-01

    performances of two solar domestic hot water systems are presented. One system is a traditional high flow system with a heat exchanger spiral in the tank. The other system is a low flow system with an external heat exchanger and a newly developed inlet stratifier from EyeCular Technologies ApS installed......The thermal performance of a domestic hot water system is strongly affected by whether the storage tank is stratified or not. Thermal stratification can be built up in a solar storage tank if the heated water from the solar collectors enters the tank through an inlet stratifier.Measured thermal...... with the stratification device has a higher thermal performance compared to the system with the heat exchanger spiral inside the tank.The relative performance (defined as the ratio between the net utilized solar energy of the low flow system and the net utilized solar energy of the high flow system), is a function...

  2. Economic efficiency of solar hot water policy in New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillingham, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    New Zealand has recently followed the path of several other countries in promoting solar hot water (SHW) systems in the effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, yet the economic efficiency of large-scale policies to encourage SHW remains a pressing question for policymakers. This paper develops an economic framework to examine policies to promote SHW in New Zealand, including the current information, training, and subsidy policy. The economic framework points to environmental, energy security, and average-cost electricity retail pricing market failures as motivation for SHW policy, with the global climate change externality the most important of these. The results indicate that domestic SHW systems are close to being financially attractive from a consumer perspective, but a more substantial subsidy policy would be necessary for SHW to appeal to a wider audience. Such a policy is far more likely to have positive net benefits than a policy of mandating SHW on all homes or all new homes in New Zealand, and could be justified on economic efficiency grounds under reasonable assumptions. However, this result reverses under an economy-wide carbon trading system that internalizes the environmental externality.

  3. The Development of a Roof Integrated Solar Hot Water System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menicucci, David F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Energy Infrastructure and DER Dept.; Moss, Timothy A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Solar Technologies Dept.; Palomino, G. Ernest [Salt River Project (SRP), Tempe, AZ (United States)

    2006-09-01

    The Salt River Project (SRP), in conjunction with Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Energy Laboratories, Inc. (ELI), collaborated to develop, test, and evaluate an advanced solar water-heating product for new homes. SRP and SNL collaborated under a Department of Energy Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), with ELI as SRP's industry partner. The project has resulted in the design and development of the Roof Integrated Thermal Siphon (RITH) system, an innovative product that features complete roof integration, a storage tank in the back of the collector and below the roofline, easy installation by homebuilders, and a low installed cost. SRP's market research guided the design, and the laboratory tests conducted at SNL provided information used to refine the design of field test units and indicated that the RITH concept is viable. ELI provided design and construction expertise and is currently configured to manufacture the units. This final report for the project provides all of the pertinent and available materials connected to the project including market research studies, the design features and development of the system, and the testing and evaluation conducted at SNL and at a model home test site in Phoenix, Arizona.

  4. Field Surveys of Non-Residential Solar Water Heating Systems in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kung-Ming Chung

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available To develop indigenous alternative and renewable energy resources, long-term subsidy programs (1986–1991 and 2000–present for solar water heaters have been enforced in Taiwan. By the end of 2010, the total installed area of solar collectors had exceeded 2 million square meters. However, over 98% of solar water heaters were used in residential systems for hot water production, with the areas of installed solar collector being less than 10 square meters. There were only 98 systems with area of solar collectors installed exceeding 100 square meters put into operation from 2001 to 2010. These systems were mainly installed for water heating in dormitories, swimming pools, restaurants, and manufacturing plants. In the present study, a comprehensive survey of these large-scale solar water heaters was conducted. The objectives of the survey were to assess the system performance and to collect feedback from individual users. It is found that lack of experience in system design and maintenance are the key factors affecting reliable operation of a system. Hourly, daily and long-term field measurements of a dormitory system were also examined to evaluate its thermal efficiencies. Results indicated that thermal efficiency of the system is associated with the daily solar radiation. Hot water use pattern and operation of auxiliary heater should be taken into account in system design.

  5. Studies in biogas technology. Part 4. A noval biogas plant incorporating a solar water-heater and solar still

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, A K.N. [Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore; Prasad, C R; Sathyanarayan, S R.C.; Rajabapaiah, P

    1979-09-01

    A reduction in the heat losses from the top of the gas holder of a biogas plant has been achieved by the simple device of a transparent cover. The heat losses thus prevented have been deployed to heat a water pond formed on the roof of the gas holder. This solar-heated water is mixed with the organic input for hot-charging of the biogas plant. To test whether the advantages indicated by a thermal analysis can be realized in practice, a biogas plant of the ASTRA design was modified to incorporate a roof-top water-heater. The operation of such a modified plant, even under worst case conditions, shows a significant improvement in the gas yield compared to the unmodified plant. Hence, the innovation reported here may lead to drastic reductions in the sizes and therefore costs of biogas plants. By making the transparent cover assume a tent-shape, the roof-top solar heater can serve the additional function of a solar still to yield distilled water. The biogas plant-cum-solar still described here is an example of a spatially integrated hybrid device which is extremely cost-effective.

  6. Proton Flares in Solar Activity Complexes: Possible Origins and Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaeva, E. S.; Tomozov, V. M.; Yazev, S. A.

    2018-03-01

    Solar flares observed during the 24th solar-activity cycle and accompanied by fluxes of particles detected at the Earth's orbit with intensities exceeding 10 particles cm-2 s-1 and energies of more than 10 MeV per particle mainly occurred in activity complexes (82% of cases), with 80% of these occurring no more than 20 heliographic degrees from the nearest coronal holes. The correlation between the X-ray classes of flares and the proton fluxes detected at the Earth's orbit is weak. The work presented here supports the hypothesis that the leakage of particles into the heliosphere is due to the existence of long-lived magnetic channels, which facilitate the transport of flare-accelerated particles into the boundary regions of open magnetic structures of coronal holes. The possible contribution of exchange reconnection in the formation of such channels and the role of exchange reconnection in the generation of flares are discussed.

  7. Simultaneous Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) and Very Large Array (VLA) observations of solar active regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willson, Robert F.

    1991-01-01

    Very Large Array observations at 20 cm wavelength can detect the hot coronal plasma previously observed at soft x ray wavelengths. Thermal cyclotron line emission was detected at the apex of coronal loops where the magnetic field strength is relatively constant. Detailed comparison of simultaneous Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) Satellite and VLA data indicate that physical parameters such as electron temperature, electron density, and magnetic field strength can be obtained, but that some coronal loops remain invisible in either spectral domain. The unprecedent spatial resolution of the VLA at 20 cm wavelength showed that the precursor, impulsive, and post-flare components of solar bursts originate in nearby, but separate loops or systems of loops.. In some cases preburst heating and magnetic changes are observed from loops tens of minutes prior to the impulsive phase. Comparisons with soft x ray images and spectra and with hard x ray data specify the magnetic field strength and emission mechanism of flaring coronal loops. At the longer 91 cm wavelength, the VLA detected extensive emission interpreted as a hot 10(exp 5) K interface between cool, dense H alpha filaments and the surrounding hotter, rarefield corona. Observations at 91 cm also provide evidence for time-correlated bursts in active regions on opposite sides of the solar equator; they are attributed to flare triggering by relativistic particles that move along large-scale, otherwise-invisible, magnetic conduits that link active regions in opposite hemispheres of the Sun.

  8. Design of a Solar Water Heating System for Kuti Hall, University of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Monthly average daily irradiance in plane of solar collector and Cold water temperature calculated from weather data collated to determine heating load. Mathematical model was developed based on heat transfer, thermal and optical and energy performance of collector. The absorber plate area, dimensions of solar ...

  9. Solar heating and domestic hot water system installed at North Dallas High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The solar energy system located at the North Dallas High School, Dallas, Texas is discussed. The system is designed as a retrofit in a three story with basement, concrete frame high school building. Extracts from the site files, specification references for solar modification to existing building heating and domestic hot water systems, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  10. Technical project of a solar water heating system for Hostal FRATERNIDAD, Santiago de Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arzuaga Machado, Yusnel; Torres Ten, Alonso; Fonseca Fonseca, Susana; Fuetes lombá, Osmanys; Massipe Hernández, J. Raúl; Gonzalez, Wagner Roberto

    2017-01-01

    It is presented the technical project of a solar water heating system for Hostal FRATERNIDAD, Santiago de Cuba, Cuba, 20 Cabannas type tourism and a one of 2 square meter flat solar collector will be used, with a storage tank of 200 liters capacity, that is to say one system per cabin. (author)

  11. Analysis of off-grid hybrid wind turbine/solar PV water pumping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    While many remote water pumping systems exist (e.g. mechanical windmills, solar photovoltaic , wind-electric, diesel powered), very few combine both the wind and solar energy resources to possibly improve the reliability and the performance of the system. In this paper, off-grid wind turbine (WT) a...

  12. Solar activity impact on the Earth’s upper atmosphere

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kutiev, I.; Tsagouri, I.; Perrone, L.; Pancheva, D.; Mukhtarov, P.; Mikhailov, A.; Laštovička, Jan; Jakowski, N.; Burešová, Dalia; Blanch, E.; Andonov, B.; Altadill, D.; Magdaleno, S.; Parisi, M.; Torta, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 3, February (2013), A06/1-A06/21 ISSN 2115-7251 Grant - others:COST(XE) ES0803 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : ionosphere * solar activity * storm * total electron content * data analysis Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 2.519, year: 2013 http://www.swsc-journal.org/index.php?option=com_article&access=doi&doi=10.1051/swsc/2013028&Itemid=129

  13. Solar activity: nowcasting and forecasting at the SIDC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Berghmans

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The Solar Influences Data analysis Center (SIDC is the World Data Center for the production and the distribution of the International Sunspot Index, coordinating a network of about 80 stations worldwide. From this core activity, the SIDC has grown in recent years to a European center for nowcasting and forecasting of solar activity on all timescales. This paper reviews the services (data, forecasts, alerts, software that the SIDC currently offers to the scientific community. The SIDC operates instruments both on the ground and in space. The USET telescope in Brussels produces daily white light and Hα images. Several members of the SIDC are co-investigators of the EIT instrument onboard SOHO and are involved in the development of the next generation of Europe's solar weather monitoring capabilities. While the SIDC is staffed only during day-time (7 days/week, the monitoring service is a 24 h activity thanks to the implementation of autonomous software for data handling and analysis and the sending of automated alerts. We will give an overview of recently developed techniques for visualization and automated analysis of solar images and detection of events significant for space weather (e.g. CMEs or EIT waves. As part of the involvement of the SIDC in the ESA Pilot Project for Space Weather Applications we have developed services dedicated to the users of the Global Positioning System (GPS. As a Regional Warning Center (RWC of the International Space Environment Service (ISES, the SIDC produces daily forecasts of flaring probability, geomagnetic activity and 10.7 cm radio flux. The accuracy of these forecasts will be investigated through an in-depth quality analysis.

  14. Integrated collector-storage solar water heater with extended storage unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Rakesh; Rosen, Marc A.

    2011-01-01

    The integrated collector-storage solar water heater (ICSSWH) is one of the simplest designs of solar water heater. In ICSSWH systems the conversion of solar energy into useful heat is often simple, efficient and cost effective. To broaden the usefulness of ICSSWH systems, especially for overnight applications, numerous design modifications have been proposed and analyzed in the past. In the present investigation the storage tank of an ICSSWH is coupled with an extended storage section. The total volume of the modified ICSSWH has two sections. Section A is exposed to incoming solar radiation, while section B is insulated on all sides. An expression is developed for the natural convection flow rate in section A. The inter-related energy balances are written for each section and solved to ascertain the impact of the extended storage unit on the water temperature and the water heater efficiency. The volumes of water in the two sections are optimized to achieve a maximum water temperature at a reasonably high efficiency. The influence is investigated of inclination angle of section A on the temperature of water heater and the angle is optimized. It is determined that a volume ratio of 7/3 between sections A and B yields the maximum water temperature and efficiency in the modified solar water heater. The performance of the modified water heater is also compared with a conventional ICSSWH system under similar conditions.

  15. Water and oxygen induced degradation of small molecule organic solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermenau, Martin; Riede, Moritz; Leo, Karl

    2011-01-01

    Small molecule organic solar cells were studied with respect to water and oxygen induced degradation by mapping the spatial distribution of reaction products in order to elucidate the degradation patterns and failure mechanisms. The active layers consist of a 30 nm bulk heterojunction formed......,4′-diamine p-doped with C60F36 (MeO-TPD:C60F36), which acted as hole transporting layer. Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) and aluminum served as hole and electron collecting electrode, respectively. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) in conjunction...... of aluminum oxide at the BPhen/Al interface, and diffusion of water into the ZnPc:C60 layer where ZnPc becomes oxidized. Finally, diffusion from the electrodes was found to have no or a negligible effect on the device lifetime....

  16. The solar activity cycle physical causes and consequences

    CERN Document Server

    Hudson, Hugh; Petrovay, Kristóf; Steiger, Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    A collection of papers edited by four experts in the field, this book sets out to describe the way solar activity is manifested in observations of the solar interior, the photosphere, the chromosphere, the corona and the heliosphere. The 11-year solar activity cycle, more generally known as the sunspot cycle, is a fundamental property of the Sun.  This phenomenon is the generation and evolution of magnetic fields in the Sun’s convection zone, the photosphere.  It is only by the careful enumeration and description of the phenomena and their variations that one can clarify their interdependences.   The sunspot cycle has been tracked back about four centuries, and it has been recognized that to make this data set a really useful tool in understanding how the activity cycle works and how it can be predicted, a very careful and detailed effort is needed to generate sunspot numbers.  This book deals with this topic, together with several others that present related phenomena that all indicate the physical pr...

  17. A study of the asymmetrical distribution of solar activity features on solar and plasma parameters (1967-2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Borie, M. A.; El-Taher, A. M.; Aly, N. E.; Bishara, A. A.

    2018-04-01

    The impact of asymmetrical distribution of hemispheric sunspot areas (SSAs) on the interplanetary magnetic field, plasma, and solar parameters from 1967 to 2016 has been studied. The N-S asymmetry of solar-plasma activities based on SSAs has a northern dominance during solar cycles 20 and 24. However, it has a tendency to shift to the southern hemisphere in cycles 21, 22, and 23. The solar cycle 23 showed that the sorted southern SSAs days predominated over the northern days by ˜17%. Through the solar cycles 21-24, the SSAs of the southern hemisphere were more active. In contrast, the northern SSAs predominate over the southern one by 9% throughout solar cycle 20. On the other hand, the average differences of field magnitude for the sorted northern and southern groups during solar cycles 20-24 are statistically insignificant. Clearly, twenty years showed that the solar plasma ion density from the sorted northern group was denser than that of southern group and a highest northern dominant peak occurred in 1971. In contrast, seventeen out of fifty years showed the reverse. In addition, there are fifteen clear asymmetries of solar wind speed (SWS), with SWS (N) > SWS (S), and during the years 1972, 2002, and 2008, the SWS from the sorted northern group was faster than that of southern activity group by 6.16 ± 0.65 km/s, 5.70 ± 0.86 km/s, and 5.76 ± 1.35 km/s, respectively. For the solar cycles 20-24, the grand-averages of P from the sorted solar northern and southern have nearly the same parameter values. The solar plasma was hotter for the sorted northern activity group than the southern ones for 17 years out of 50. Most significant northern prevalent asymmetries were found in 1972 (5.76 ± 0.66 × 103 K) and 1996 (4.7 ± 0.8 × 103 K), while two significant equivalent dominant southern asymmetries (˜3.8 ± 0.3 × 103 K) occurred in 1978 and 1993. The grand averages of sunspot numbers have symmetric activity for the two sorted northern and southern hemispheres

  18. The Search for Surviving Direct Samples of Early Solar System Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolensky, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We have become increasingly aware of the fundamental importance of water, and aqueous alteration, on primitive solar-system bodies. All classes of astromaterials studied show some degree of interaction with aqueous fluids. Nevertheless, we are still lacking fundamental information such as the location and timing of the aqueous alteration and the detailed nature of the aqueous fluids. Halite crystals in two meteorite regolith breccias were found to contain aqueous fluid inclusions (brines) trapped approx. 4.5 BYBP. Heating/freezing studies of the aqueous fluid inclusions in these halites demonstrated that they were trapped near 25 C. The initial results of our O and H isotopic measurements on these brine inclusions can be explained by a simple model mixing asteroidal and cometary water. We have been analyzing solids and organics trapped alongside the brines in the halites by FTIR, C-XANES, SXRD and Raman, as clues to the origin of the water. The organics show thermal effects that span the entire range witnessed by organics in all chondrite types. Since we identified water-soluble aromatics, including partially halogenated methanol, in some of the halite, we suspected amino acids were also present, but have thus far found that levels of amino acids were undetectable (which is very interesting). We have also been locating aqueous fluid inclusions in other astromaterials, principally carbonates in CI and CM chondrites. Although we have advanced slowly towards detailed analysis of these ancient brines, since they require techniques right at or just beyond current analytical capabilities, their eventual full characterization will completely open the window onto the origin and activity of early solar system water.

  19. On the possible relations between solar activities and global seismicity in the solar cycle 20 to 23

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herdiwijaya, Dhani, E-mail: dhani@as.itb.ac.id [Astronomy Research Division and Bosscha Observatory, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Bandung Institute of Technology, Ganesha 10, Bandung, Indonesia 40132 (Indonesia); Arif, Johan [Geology Research Division, Faculty of Earth Sciences and Technology, Bandung Institute of Technology, Ganesha 10, Bandung, Indonesia 40132 (Indonesia); Nurzaman, Muhamad Zamzam; Astuti, Isna Kusuma Dewi [Astronomy Study Program, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Bandung Institute of Technology, Ganesha 10, Bandung, Indonesia 40132 (Indonesia)

    2015-09-30

    Solar activities consist of high energetic particle streams, electromagnetic radiation, magnetic and orbital gravitational forces. The well-know solar activity main indicator is the existence of sunspot which has mean variation in 11 years, named by solar cycle, allow for the above fluctuations. Solar activities are also related to the space weather affecting all planetary atmospheric variability, moreover to the Earth’s climate variability. Large extreme space and geophysical events (high magnitude earthquakes, explosive volcanic eruptions, magnetic storms, etc.) are hazards for humankind, infrastructure, economies, technology and the activities of civilization. With a growing world population, and with modern reliance on delicate technological systems, human society is becoming increasingly vulnerable to natural hazardous events. The big question arises to the relation between solar forcing energy to the Earth’s global seismic activities. Estimates are needed for the long term occurrence-rate probabilities of these extreme natural hazardous events. We studied connectivity from yearly seismic activities that refer to and sunspot number within the solar cycle 20 to 23 of year 1960 to 2013 (53 years). We found clear evidences that in general high magnitude earthquake events and their depth were related to the low solar activity.

  20. On the possible relations between solar activities and global seismicity in the solar cycle 20 to 23

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdiwijaya, Dhani; Arif, Johan; Nurzaman, Muhamad Zamzam; Astuti, Isna Kusuma Dewi

    2015-09-01

    Solar activities consist of high energetic particle streams, electromagnetic radiation, magnetic and orbital gravitational forces. The well-know solar activity main indicator is the existence of sunspot which has mean variation in 11 years, named by solar cycle, allow for the above fluctuations. Solar activities are also related to the space weather affecting all planetary atmospheric variability, moreover to the Earth's climate variability. Large extreme space and geophysical events (high magnitude earthquakes, explosive volcanic eruptions, magnetic storms, etc.) are hazards for humankind, infrastructure, economies, technology and the activities of civilization. With a growing world population, and with modern reliance on delicate technological systems, human society is becoming increasingly vulnerable to natural hazardous events. The big question arises to the relation between solar forcing energy to the Earth's global seismic activities. Estimates are needed for the long term occurrence-rate probabilities of these extreme natural hazardous events. We studied connectivity from yearly seismic activities that refer to and sunspot number within the solar cycle 20 to 23 of year 1960 to 2013 (53 years). We found clear evidences that in general high magnitude earthquake events and their depth were related to the low solar activity.

  1. Optimization of hybrid system (wind-solar energy) for pumping water

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    Keywords: Renewable energy; pumping water; technical optimization; ... The country already start on a mega-project of solar power production (2000 MW) ...... with a wind turbine in a standalone renewable energy system based on hydrogen.

  2. EFFICIENCY OF THE CAPACITY-TYPE SOLAR WATER HEATER WITH THE FLEXIBLE POLYMER ABSORBER.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermuratschii V.V.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Energetic indexes of solar capacity-type water heaters with flexible polymer absorbers and different constructions of enclosures using the refined method of calculus were obtained.

  3. Thermophysical characteristics of plastic bottles as an element of water heat accumulators in solar greenhouses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalimov, A. G.; Khairiddinov, B. Eh.; Kim, V. D.; Khalimov, G. G.

    2012-01-01

    This article considers the thermophysical and granulometric characteristics of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic bottles filled with water. The given figures allow one to conduct calculations of thermal plastic bottles as heat storage elements for solar greenhouses. (author)

  4. Design package for a complete residential solar space heating and hot water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Information necessary to evaluate the design of a solar space heating and hot water system is reported. System performance specifications, the design data brochure, the system description, and other information pertaining to the design are included.

  5. Market development for active solar thermal systems (ASTS) in the institutional, commercial and industrial (ICI) sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The market potential for active solar thermal systems in the institutional, commercial and industrial sectors of the Canadian economy was investigated, the objective being to identify markets and to prepare action plans as the foundation for developing these markets by Natural Resources Canada and the industry. In the process of researching the market, barriers to market development in these sectors of the economy were also identified as well as actions to overcome these barriers. Nine potential applications were modelled to determine their energy, economic and environmental performance. Of these four attractive applications have been selected for more detailed treatment. Separate action plans have been developed for Natural Resources Canada, the Canadian Solar Industries Association and the active solar thermal industry. The close cooperation of all three partners is considered essential for a successful marketing effort. A marketing plan which gives due consideration to the product, planning, packaging, price and promotion, is also considered to be a vital ingredient, as is a meticulous follow-up on 'leads' created by exposure to the target market. Solarwall'TM' for preheating of ventilation air to new school buildings and solar domestic hot water heating for camp grounds have been identified as the most attractive candidates for marketing at this time. Highlights of marketing plans for these two options are included for purposes of illustrating the essential ingredients of marketing plans. 1 fig

  6. Spectral Analysis of Geomagnetic Activity Indices and Solar Wind Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Hee Kim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Solar variability is widely known to affect the interplanetary space and in turn the Earth’s electromagnetical environment on the basis of common periodicities in the solar and geomagnetic activity indices. The goal of this study is twofold. Firstly, we attempt to associate modes by comparing a temporal behavior of the power of geomagnetic activity parameters since it is barely sufficient searching for common peaks with a similar periodicity in order to causally correlate geomagnetic activity parameters. As a result of the wavelet transform analysis we are able to obtain information on the temporal behavior of the power in the velocity of the solar wind, the number density of protons in the solar wind, the AE index, the Dst index, the interplanetary magnetic field, B and its three components of the GSM coordinate system, BX, BY, BZ. Secondly, we also attempt to search for any signatures of influence on the space environment near the Earth by inner planets orbiting around the Sun. Our main findings are as follows: (1 Parameters we have investigated show periodicities of ~ 27 days, ~ 13.5 days, ~ 9 days. (2 The peaks in the power spectrum of BZ appear to be split due to an unknown agent. (3 For some modes powers are not present all the time and intervals showing high powers do not always coincide. (4 Noticeable peaks do not emerge at those frequencies corresponding to the synodic and/or sidereal periods of Mercury and Venus, which leads us to conclude that the Earth’s space environment is not subject to the shadow of the inner planets as suggested earlier.

  7. Forecasting the peak of the present solar activity cycle 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, R. H.; Marzouk, B. A.

    2018-06-01

    Solar forecasting of the level of sun Activity is very important subject for all space programs. Most predictions are based on the physical conditions prevailing at or before the solar cycle minimum preceding the maximum in question. Our aim is to predict the maximum peak of cycle 24 using precursor techniques in particular those using spotless event, geomagnetic aamin. index and solar flux F10.7. Also prediction of exact date of the maximum (Tr) is taken in consideration. A study of variation over previous spotless event for cycles 7-23 and that for even cycles (8-22) are carried out for the prediction. Linear correlation between maximum of solar cycles (RM) and spotless event around the preceding minimum gives R24t = 88.4 with rise time Tr = 4.6 years. For the even cycles R24E = 77.9 with rise time Tr = 4.5 y's. Based on the average aamin. index for cycles (12-23), we estimate the expected amplitude for cycle 24 to be Raamin = 99.4 and 98.1 with time rise of Traamin = 4.04 & 4.3 years for both the total and even cycles in consecutive. The application of the data of solar flux F10.7 which cover only cycles (19-23) was taken in consideration and gives predicted maximum amplitude R24 10.7 = 126 with rise time Tr107 = 3.7 years, which are over estimation. Our result indicating to somewhat weaker of cycle 24 as compared to cycles 21-23.

  8. Primitive Liquid Water of the Solar System in an Aqueous Altered Carbonaceous Chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiyama, A.; Miyake, A.; Kitayama, A.; Matsuno, J.; Takeuchi, A.; Uesugi, K.; Suzuki, Y.; Nakano, T.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2016-01-01

    Non-destructive 3D observations of the aqueous altered CM chondrite Sutter's Mill using scanning imaging x-ray microscopy (SIXM) showed that some of calcite and enstatite grains contain two-phase inclusion, which is most probably composed of liquid water and bubbles. This water should be primitive water responsible for aqueous alteration in an asteroid in the early solar system.

  9. Motel solar-hot-water system with nonpressurized storage--Jacksonville, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Modular roof-mounted copper-plated arrays collect solar energy; heated water drains from them into 1,000 gallon nonpressurized storage tank which supplies energy to existing pressurized motel hot water lines. System provides 65 percent of hot water demand. Report described systems parts and operation, maintenance, and performance and provides warranty information.

  10. Solar building

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Luxin

    2014-01-01

    In my thesis I describe the utilization of solar energy and solar energy with building integration. In introduction it is also mentioned how the solar building works, trying to make more people understand and accept the solar building. The thesis introduces different types of solar heat collectors. I compared the difference two operation modes of solar water heating system and created examples of solar water system selection. I also introduced other solar building applications. It is conv...

  11. Solar Energy Educational Material, Activities and Science Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    dropdown arrow Site Map A-Z Index Menu Synopsis Solar Energy Educational Materials Solar with glasses " ;The sun has produced energy for billions of years. Solar energy is the solar radiation that reaches the earth. Solar energy can be converted directly or indirectly into other forms of energy, such as

  12. Microbial Activity Response to Solar Radiation across Contrasting Environmental Conditions in Salar de Huasco, Northern Chilean Altiplano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Klaudia L; Yannicelli, Beatriz; Olsen, Lasse M; Dorador, Cristina; Menschel, Eduardo J; Molina, Verónica; Remonsellez, Francisco; Hengst, Martha B; Jeffrey, Wade H

    2016-01-01

    In high altitude environments, extreme levels of solar radiation and important differences of ionic concentrations over narrow spatial scales may modulate microbial activity. In Salar de Huasco, a high-altitude wetland in the Andean mountains, the high diversity of microbial communities has been characterized and associated with strong environmental variability. Communities that differed in light history and environmental conditions, such as nutrient concentrations and salinity from different spatial locations, were assessed for bacterial secondary production (BSP, 3 H-leucine incorporation) response from short-term exposures to solar radiation. We sampled during austral spring seven stations categorized as: (a) source stations, with recently emerged groundwater (no-previous solar exposure); (b) stream running water stations; (c) stations connected to source waters but far downstream from source points; and (d) isolated ponds disconnected from ground sources or streams with a longer isolation and solar exposure history. Very high values of 0.25 μE m -2 s -1 , 72 W m -2 and 12 W m -2 were measured for PAR, UVA, and UVB incident solar radiation, respectively. The environmental factors measured formed two groups of stations reflected by principal component analyses (near to groundwater sources and isolated systems) where isolated ponds had the highest BSP and microbial abundance (35 microalgae taxa, picoeukaryotes, nanoflagellates, and bacteria) plus higher salinities and PO 4 3- concentrations. BSP short-term response (4 h) to solar radiation was measured by 3 H-leucine incorporation under four different solar conditions: full sun, no UVB, PAR, and dark. Microbial communities established in waters with the longest surface exposure (e.g., isolated ponds) had the lowest BSP response to solar radiation treatments, and thus were likely best adapted to solar radiation exposure contrary to ground source waters. These results support our light history (solar exposure

  13. Improving organic tandem solar cells based on water-processed nanoparticles by quantitative 3D nanoimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, E B L; Angmo, D; Dam, H F; Thydén, K T S; Andersen, T R; Skjønsfjell, E T B; Krebs, F C; Holler, M; Diaz, A; Guizar-Sicairos, M; Breiby, D W; Andreasen, J W

    2015-08-28

    Organic solar cells have great potential for upscaling due to roll-to-roll processing and a low energy payback time, making them an attractive sustainable energy source for the future. Active layers coated with water-dispersible Landfester particles enable greater control of the layer formation and easier access to the printing industry, which has reduced the use of organic solvents since the 1980s. Through ptychographic X-ray computed tomography (PXCT), we image quantitatively a roll-to-roll coated photovoltaic tandem stack consisting of one bulk heterojunction active layer and one Landfester particle active layer. We extract the layered morphology with structural and density information including the porosity present in the various layers and the silver electrode with high resolution in 3D. The Landfester particle layer is found to have an undesired morphology with negatively correlated top- and bottom interfaces, wide thickness distribution and only partial surface coverage causing electric short circuits through the layer. By top coating a polymer material onto the Landfester nanoparticles we eliminate the structural defects of the layer such as porosity and roughness, and achieve the increased performance larger than 1 V expected for a tandem cell. This study highlights that quantitative imaging of weakly scattering stacked layers of organic materials has become feasible by PXCT, and that this information cannot be obtained by other methods. In the present study, this technique specifically reveals the need to improve the coatability and layer formation of Landfester nanoparticles, thus allowing improved solar cells to be produced.

  14. Reactivation and reuse of TiO2-SnS2 composite catalyst for solar-driven water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacic, Marin; Kopcic, Nina; Kusic, Hrvoje; Stangar, Urska Lavrencic; Dionysiou, Dionysios D; Bozic, Ana Loncaric

    2018-01-01

    One of the most important features of photocatalytic materials intended to be used for water treatment is their long-term stability. The study is focused on the application of thermal and chemical treatments for the reactivation of TiO 2 -SnS 2 composite photocatalyst, prepared by hydrothermal synthesis and immobilized on the glass support using titania/silica binder. Such a catalytic system was applied in solar-driven treatment, solar/TiO 2 -SnS 2 /H 2 O 2 , for the purification of water contaminated with diclofenac (DCF). The effectiveness of studied reactivation methods for retaining TiO 2 -SnS 2 activity in consecutive cycles was evaluated on basis of DCF removal and conversion, and TOC removal and mineralization of organic content. Besides these water quality parameters, biodegradability changes in DCF aqueous solution treated by solar/TiO 2 -SnS 2 /H 2 O 2 process using simply reused (air-dried) and thermally and chemically reactivated composite photocatalyst through six consecutive cycles were monitored. It was established that both thermal and chemical reactivation retain TiO 2 -SnS 2 activity in the second cycle of its reuse. However, both treatments caused the alteration in the TiO 2 -SnS 2 morphology due to the partial transformation of visible-active SnS 2 into non-active SnO 2 . Such alteration, repeated through consecutive reactivation and reuse, was reflected through gradual activity loss of TiO 2 -SnS 2 composite in applied solar-driven water treatment.

  15. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON THE PERFORMANCE OF THERMOSYPHON SOLAR WATER HEATER IN THE SOUTH CASPIAN SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollah Riahi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a natural circulation closed thermosyphon flat plate solar water heater has been tested at the Faculty of Engineering of University of Mazandaran located in Babol city (36N, 52E. Data were collected for several sunny and cloudy days. Dynamic response of the system to variations in solar insolation was studied and analyzed. It was found that such systems can provide ample energy to satisfy the demand for hot water, contrary to misperception among locals

  16. Solar hot water system installed at Las Vegas, Nevada. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-01-01

    The solar hot water system installed at LaQuinta Motor Inn Inc., at Las Vegas, Nevada is described. The Inn is a three-story building with a flat roof for installation of the solar panels. The system consists of 1200 square feet of liquid flat plate collectors, a 2500 gallon insulated vertical steel storage tank, two heat exchangers and pumps and controls. The system was designed to supply approximately 74 percent of the total hot water load.

  17. Longevity characteristics of flat solar water-heating collectors in hot-water-supply systems. Part 1. Procedure for calculating collector thermal output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avezova, N.R.; Ruziev, O. S.; Suleimanov, Sh. I.; Avezov, R. R.; Vakhidov, A.

    2013-01-01

    A procedure for calculating longevity indices (daily and monthly variations and, hence, annual thermal output) of flat solar water-heating collectors, amount of conditional fuel saved per year by using solar energy, and cost of solar fuel and thermal energy generated in hot-water-supply systems is described. (authors)

  18. Periodic Variation of the North-South Asymmetry of Solar Activity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We report here a study of various solar activity phenomena occurring in both north and south hemispheres of the Sun during solar cycles 8-23. In the study we have used sunspot data for the period 1832—. 1976, flare index data for the period 1936-1993, Hα flare data 1993-1998 and solar active prominences data ...

  19. Lessons learned from solar energy projects in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huraib, F.S.; Hasnain, S.M.; Alawaji, S.H.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the lessons learned from the major RD and D activities at Energy Research Institute (ERI), King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) in the field of solar energy. Photovoltaic, solar thermal dishes, solar water heating, solar water pumping and desalination, solar hydrogen production and utilization are some of the areas studied for solar energy applications. Recommendations and guidelines for future solar energy research, development, demonstration and dissemination in Saudi Arabia are also given. (Author)

  20. Spectral Monte Carlo simulation of collimated solar irradiation transfer in a water-filled prismatic louver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yaomin; Guo, Zhixiong

    2018-04-20

    The Monte Carlo model was developed to simulate the collimated solar irradiation transfer and energy harvest in a hollow louver made of silica glass and filled with water. The full solar spectrum from the air mass 1.5 database was adopted and divided into various discrete bands for spectral calculations. The band-averaged spectral properties for the silica glass and water were obtained. Ray tracing was employed to find the solar energy harvested by the louver. Computational efficiency and accuracy were examined through intensive comparisons of different band partition approaches, various photon numbers, and element divisions. The influence of irradiation direction on the solar energy harvest efficiency was scrutinized. It was found that within a 15° polar angle of incidence, the harvested solar energy in the louver was high, and the total absorption efficiency reached 61.2% under normal incidence for the current louver geometry.

  1. System design package for SIMS Prototype System 4, solar heating and domestic hot water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-11-01

    This report is a collation of documents and drawings that describe a prototype solar heating and hot water system using air type solar energy collection techniques. The system consists of a modular designed prepackaged solar unit containing solar collctors, a rock storage container, blowers, dampers, ducting, air-to-water heat exchanger, DHW preheat tank, piping and system controls. The system was designed to be installed adjacent to a small single family dwelling. The description, performance specification, subsystem drawings, verification plan/procedure, and hazard analysis of the system are packaged for evaluation of the system with inforation sufficient to assemble a similar system. The prepackage solar unit has been installed at the Mississippi Power and Light Company, Training Facilities, Clinton, Mississippi.

  2. Multi-wavelength Observations of Solar Active Region NOAA 7154

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, M. E.; Nitta, N. V.; Frank. Z. A.; Dame, L.; Suematsu, Y.

    2000-01-01

    We report on observations of a solar active region in May 1992 by the Solar Plasma Diagnostic Experiment (SPDE) in coordination with the Yohkoh satellite (producing soft X-ray images) and ground-based observatories (producing photospheric magnetograms and various filtergrams including those at the CN 3883 A line). The main focus is a study of the physical conditions of hot (T is approximately greater than 3 MK) coronal loops at their foot-points. The coronal part of the loops is fuzzy but what appear to be their footpoints in the transition region down to the photosphere are compact. Despite the morphological similarities, the footpoint emission at 10(exp 5) K is not quantitatively correlated with that at approximately 300 km above the tau (sub 5000) = 1 level, suggesting that the heat transport and therefore magnetic field topology in the intermediate layer is complicated. High resolution imaging observations with continuous temperature coverage are crucially needed.

  3. Hollow ceramic block: containment of water for thermal storage in passive solar design. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winship, C.T.

    1983-12-27

    The project activity has been the development of designs, material compositions and production procedures to manufacture hollow ceramic blocks which contain water (or other heat absorptive liquids). The blocks are designed to serve, in plurality, a dual purpose: as an unobtrusive and efficient thermal storage element, and as a durable and aesthetically appealing surface for floors and walls of passive solar building interiors. Throughout the grant period, numerous ceramic formulas have been tested for their workabilty, thermal properties, maturing temperatures and color. Blocks have been designed to have structural integrity, and textured surfaces. Methods of slip-casting and extrusion have been developed for manufacturing of the blocks. The thermal storage capacity of the water-loaded block has been demonstrated to be 2.25 times greater than that of brick and 2.03 times greater than that of concrete (taking an average of commonly used materials). Although this represents a technical advance in thermal storage, the decorative effects provided by application of the blocks lend them a more significant advantage by reducing constraints on interior design in passive solar architecture.

  4. MAGNETIC PROPERTIES OF SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS THAT GOVERN LARGE SOLAR FLARES AND ERUPTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toriumi, Shin [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Schrijver, Carolus J. [Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center, 3251 Hanover Street, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Harra, Louise K. [UCL-Mullard Space Science Laboratory, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking, Surrey, RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); Hudson, Hugh [SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow (United Kingdom); Nagashima, Kaori, E-mail: shin.toriumi@nao.ac.jp [Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2017-01-01

    Solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs), especially the larger ones, emanate from active regions (ARs). With the aim of understanding the magnetic properties that govern such flares and eruptions, we systematically survey all flare events with Geostationary Orbiting Environmental Satellite levels of ≥M5.0 within 45° from disk center between 2010 May and 2016 April. These criteria lead to a total of 51 flares from 29 ARs, for which we analyze the observational data obtained by the Solar Dynamics Observatory . More than 80% of the 29 ARs are found to exhibit δ -sunspots, and at least three ARs violate Hale’s polarity rule. The flare durations are approximately proportional to the distance between the two flare ribbons, to the total magnetic flux inside the ribbons, and to the ribbon area. From our study, one of the parameters that clearly determine whether a given flare event is CME-eruptive or not is the ribbon area normalized by the sunspot area, which may indicate that the structural relationship between the flaring region and the entire AR controls CME productivity. AR characterization shows that even X-class events do not require δ -sunspots or strong-field, high-gradient polarity inversion lines. An investigation of historical observational data suggests the possibility that the largest solar ARs, with magnetic flux of 2 × 10{sup 23} Mx, might be able to produce “superflares” with energies of the order of 10{sup 34} erg. The proportionality between the flare durations and magnetic energies is consistent with stellar flare observations, suggesting a common physical background for solar and stellar flares.

  5. Performance analysis of solar cogeneration system with different integration strategies for potable water and domestic hot water production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uday Kumar, N.T.; Mohan, Gowtham; Martin, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Solar driven cogeneration system integrating membrane distillation technology is developed. • System utilizes solar thermal energy for the operations without auxiliary heaters. • Three different system integrations are experimentally investigated in UAE. • Economical benefits of solar cogeneration system is also reported. - Abstract: A novel solar thermal cogeneration system featuring the provision of potable water with membrane distillation in combination with domestic hot water supply has been developed and experimentally analyzed. The system integrates evacuated tube collectors, thermal storage, membrane distillation unit, and heat exchangers with the overall goals of maximizing the two outputs while minimizing costs for the given design conditions. Experiments were conducted during one month’s operation at AURAK’s facility in UAE, with average peak global irradiation levels of 650 W/m"2. System performance was determined for three integration strategies, all utilizing brackish water (typical conductivity of 20,000 μs/cm) as a feedstock: Thermal store integration (TSI), which resembles a conventional indirect solar domestic hot water system; Direct solar integration (DSI) connecting collectors directly to the membrane distillation unit without thermal storage; and Direct solar with thermal store integration (DSTSI), a combination of these two approaches. The DSTSI strategy offered the best performance given its operational flexibility. Here the maximum distillate productivity was 43 L/day for a total gross solar collector area of 96 m"2. In terms of simultaneous hot water production, 277 kWh/day was achieved with this configuration. An economic analysis shows that the DSTSI strategy has a payback period of 3.9 years with net cumulative savings of $325,000 during the 20 year system lifetime.

  6. Solar Energy for Domestic Hot Water: Case Studies in Sisimiut 1999-2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimann, Gregers Peter

    2005-01-01

    Two pioneer solar domestic hot water systems were installed at Bygge- og Anlægsskolen in Sisimiut in 1999 and 2000. Detailed measurements of energy flows and solar radiation incl. snow reflectance has been undertaken for both plants. Since August 2004 data logging of the measurements was made...... available online on the website www.arcticsolar.com. Measurements show that solar plant 1 and 2 cover 22% and 23%, respectively, of the energy spent for domestic hot water heating. This paper summarises the findings from the past 5 years....

  7. Absorption heat pump for a potable water supply in a solar house

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elshamarka, S [Military Technical Coll., Cairo (EG)

    1991-01-01

    Solar houses usually have good potential in arid areas. These areas often suffer from not only a shortage of conventional energy sources, but also of potable water supplies. In this study, a solar air-conditioning system including an absorption heat pump, already in production since the early 1980s, is described for potable water production while performing its air-conditioning duty in a solar house. Compiled weather-conditions of the Hurgada area, on the Red Sea coast of Egypt, were employed for the prediction of the system's productivity, if it were installed in such a locality. An evaluation of the system's feasibility has been conducted. (author).

  8. State-of-the-art report for solar water heaters in the Netherlands 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosselaar, L.; Blezer, I.

    2009-01-01

    This state-of-the-art report addresses the implementation of solar heat in the Netherlands. The main appliance is the solar boiler for production of warm tap water in households. Other appliances are production of warm tap water in large buildings (e.g. homes for the elderly), heating of dwellings and heating of swimming pools. The aim of this report is to provide an overview of the market and techniques for this technology. Emphasis will be put on solar boilers, but other appliances will also be addressed [nl

  9. Study of an improved integrated collector-storage solar water heater combined with the photovoltaic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziapour, Behrooz M.; Palideh, Vahid; Mohammadnia, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Simulation of an enhanced ICSSWH system combined with PV panel was conducted. • The present model dose not uses any photovoltaic driven water pump. • High packing factor and tank water mass are caused to high PVT system efficiency. • Larger area of the collector is resulted to lower total PVT system efficiency. - Abstract: A photovoltaic–thermal (PVT) module is a combination of a photovoltaic (PV) panel and a thermal collector for co-generation of heat and electricity. An integrated collector-storage solar water heater (ICSSWH) system, due to its simple and compact structure, offers a promising approach for the solar water heating in the varied climates. The combination of the ICSSWH system with a PV solar system has not been reported. In this paper, simulation of an enhanced ICSSWH system combined with the PV panel has been conducted. The proposed design acts passive. Therefore, it does not use any photovoltaic driven water pump to maintain a flow of water inside the collector. The effects of the solar cell packing factor, the tank water mass and the collector area on the performance of the present PVT system have been investigated. The simulation results showed that the high solar cell packing factor and the tank water mass are caused to the high total PVT system efficiency. Also, larger area of the collector is resulted to lower total PVT system efficiency

  10. Economic Investigation of Different Configurations of Inclined Solar Water Desalination Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Phillips Agboola

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study empirically investigated the performance of four configurations of inclined solar water desalination (ISWD system for parameters such as daily production, efficiency, system cost, and distilled water production cost. The empirical findings show that in terms of daily productivity improved inclined solar water desalination (IISWD performed best with 6.41 kg/m2/day while improved inclined solar water desalination with wire mesh (IISWDWM produced the least with 3.0 kg/m2/day. In terms of cost price of the systems, the control system inclined solar water desalination (ISWD is the cheapest while IISWDWM is the most expensive system. Distilled water cost price ranges from 0.059 TL/kg, for IISWDW, to 0.134 TL/kg, for IISWDWM system. All the systems are economically and technically feasible as a solar desalination system for potable water in northern Cyprus. Potable water from vendors/hawkers ranges from 0.2 to 0.3 TL/kg.

  11. Hot water tank for use with a combination of solar energy and heat-pump desuperheating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, John W.

    1983-06-28

    A water heater or system which includes a hot water tank having disposed therein a movable baffle to function as a barrier between the incoming volume of cold water entering the tank and the volume of heated water entering the tank which is heated by the circulation of the cold water through a solar collector and/or a desuperheater of a heat pump so as to optimize the manner in which heat is imparted to the water in accordance to the demand on the water heater or system. A supplemental heater is also provided and it is connected so as to supplement the heating of the water in the event that the solar collector and/or desuperheater cannot impart all of the desired heat input into the water.

  12. Hot water tank for use with a combination of solar energy and heat-pump desuperheating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, J.W.

    1980-06-25

    A water heater or system is described which includes a hot water tank having disposed therein a movable baffle to function as a barrier between the incoming volume of cold water entering the tank and the volume of heated water entering the tank which is heated by the circulation of the cold water through a solar collector and/or a desuperheater of a heat pump so as to optimize the manner in which heat is imparted to the water in accordance to the demand on the water heater or system. A supplemental heater is also provided and it is connected so as to supplement the heating of the water in the event that the solar collector and/or desuperheater cannot impart all of the desired heat input into the water.

  13. An economic evaluation comparison of solar water pumping system with engine pumping system for rice cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treephak, Kasem; Thongpron, Jutturit; Somsak, Dhirasak; Saelao, Jeerawan; Patcharaprakiti, Nopporn

    2015-08-01

    In this paper we propose the design and economic evaluation of the water pumping systems for rice cultivation using solar energy, gasoline fuel and compare both systems. The design of the water and gasoline engine pumping system were evaluated. The gasoline fuel cost used in rice cultivation in an area of 1.6 acres. Under same conditions of water pumping system is replaced by the photovoltaic system which is composed of a solar panel, a converter and an electric motor pump which is compose of a direct current (DC) motor or an alternating current (AC) motor with an inverter. In addition, the battery is installed to increase the efficiency and productivity of rice cultivation. In order to verify, the simulation and economic evaluation of the storage energy battery system with batteries and without batteries are carried out. Finally the cost of four solar pumping systems was evaluated and compared with that of the gasoline pump. The results showed that the solar pumping system can be used to replace the gasoline water pumping system and DC solar pump has a payback less than 10 years. The systems that can payback the fastest is the DC solar pumping system without batteries storage system. The system the can payback the slowest is AC solar pumping system with batteries storage system. However, VAC motor pump of 220 V can be more easily maintained than the motor pump of 24 VDC and batteries back up system can supply a more stable power to the pump system.

  14. Solar Water Heating as a Potential Source for Inland Norway Energy Mix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejene Assefa Hagos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to assess solar potential and investigate the possibility of using solar water heating for residential application in Inland Norway. Solar potential based on observation and satellite-derived data for four typical populous locations has been assessed and used to estimate energy yield using two types of solar collectors for a technoeconomic performance comparison. Based on the results, solar energy use for water heating is competitive and viable even in low solar potential areas. In this study it was shown that a typical tubular collector in Inland Norway could supply 62% of annual water heating energy demand for a single residential household, while glazed flat plates of the same size were able to supply 48%. For a given energy demand in Inland Norway, tubular collectors are preferred to flat plate collectors for performance and cost reasons. This was shown by break-even capital cost for a series of collector specifications. Deployment of solar water heating in all detached dwellings in Inland could have the potential to save 182 GWh of electrical energy, equivalent to a reduction of 15,690 tonnes of oil energy and 48.6 ktCO2 emissions, and contributes greatly to Norway 67.5% renewable share target by 2020.

  15. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Shoney's Restaurant, North Little Rock, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    A solar heating system designed to supply a major portion of the space and water heating requirements for a restaurant is described. The restaurant has a floor space of approximately 4,650 square feet and requires approximate 1500 gallons of hot water daily. The solar energy system consists of 1,428 square feet of Chamberlain flat plate liquid collector subsystem, and a 1500 gallon storage subsystem circulating hot water producing 321 x 10 to the 6th power Btu/Yr (specified) building heating and hot water heating.

  16. First steeps in industrial applications of solar photocatalysis in water detoxification. La utilizacion industrial de la fotocatalisis solar en la descontaminacion de aguas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, J; Malato, S; Romero, M; Herrero, J; Sanchez, M

    1992-01-01

    A solar photocatalytic water detoxification loop for the destruction of toxic organic compounds dissolved in water has been developed at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria using parabolic trough collectors. In this report, the loop and its main design and control parameters are described as a flexible facility ready to be used for testing. (Author)

  17. Nonlinear techniques for forecasting solar activity directly from its time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafi, S.; Roszman, L.; Cooley, J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents numerical techniques for constructing nonlinear predictive models to forecast solar flux directly from its time series. This approach makes it possible to extract dynamical in variants of our system without reference to any underlying solar physics. We consider the dynamical evolution of solar activity in a reconstructed phase space that captures the attractor (strange), give a procedure for constructing a predictor of future solar activity, and discuss extraction of dynamical invariants such as Lyapunov exponents and attractor dimension.

  18. State-of-the-art for the solar water heater market in the Netherlands 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosselaar, L.

    2007-01-01

    This report shows the development of the market for solar boilers over the last years. Since the top of sales was reached in 2002 with 10,000 solar boilers sold annually, the market has dropped back to nearly 6,000 solar boilers in 2006. The report provides more information on the market, the parties that are active and the bottlenecks that hinder further growth of the market. [mk] [nl

  19. Solar rotational cycle in lightning activity in Japan during the 18-19th centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyahara, Hiroko; Kataoka, Ryuho; Mikami, Takehiko; Zaiki, Masumi; Hirano, Junpei; Yoshimura, Minoru; Aono, Yasuyuki; Iwahashi, Kiyomi

    2018-04-01

    Thunderstorm and cloud activities sometimes show a 27-day period, and this has long been studied to uncover a possible important link to solar rotation. Because the 27-day variations in the solar forcing parameters such as solar ultraviolet and galactic cosmic rays become more prominent when the solar activity is high, it is expected that the signal of the 27-day period in meteorological phenomena may wax and wane according to the changes in the solar activity level. In this study, we examine in detail the intensity variations in the signal of the 27-day solar rotational period in thunder and lightning activity from the 18th to the 19th centuries based on 150-year-long records found in old diaries kept in Japan and discuss their relation with the solar activity levels. Such long records enable us to examine the signals of solar rotation at both high and low solar activity levels. We found that the signal of the solar rotational period in the thunder and lightning activity increases as the solar activity increases. In this study, we also discuss the possibility of the impact of the long-term climatological conditions on the signals of the 27-day period in thunder/lightning activities.

  20. Identification and assessment of environmental benefits from solar hot water production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haralambopoulos, D.; Spilanis, I.

    1997-01-01

    The environmental benefits associated with the utilization of solar energy for hot water production are estimated in this work. The case of a particular country, Greece, and its electricity production system is employed to show the direct consequences of substituting electricity with solar energy for hot water production. The amount of conventional fuel saved, i.e. lignite and oil, is estimated, and the reduction in air pollution is calculated. This allows the calculation of reduction emission factors for solar hot water production to be undertaken. Data, with respect to the materials and the amount of energy necessary for the construction of the solar heaters, are also presented. These can serve as inputs to an energy-environment policy framework in order to lead to reduction of air pollutants like SO 2 , NO X and particulates, and the release of the greenhouse gas CO 2 into the atmosphere. (Author)

  1. Estimation of daily flow rate of photovoltaic water pumping systems using solar radiation data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Benghanem

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a simple model which allows us to contribute in the studies of photovoltaic (PV water pumping systems sizing. The nonlinear relation between water flow rate and solar power has been obtained experimentally in a first step and then used for performance prediction. The model proposed enables us to simulate the water flow rate using solar radiation data for different heads (50 m, 60 m, 70 m and 80 m and for 8S × 3P PV array configuration. The experimental data are obtained with our pumping test facility located at Madinah site (Saudi Arabia. The performances are calculated using the measured solar radiation data of different locations in Saudi Arabia. Knowing the solar radiation data, we have estimated with a good precision the water flow rate Q in five locations (Al-Jouf, Solar Village, AL-Ahsa, Madinah and Gizan in Saudi Arabia. The flow rate Q increases with the increase of pump power for different heads following the nonlinear model proposed. Keywords: Photovoltaic water pumping system, Solar radiation data, Simulation, Flow rate

  2. Heating Water with Solar Energy Costs Less at the Phoenix Federal Correctional Institution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-09-01

    A large solar thermal system installed at the Phoenix Federal Correctional Institution (FCI) in 1998 heats water for the prison and costs less than buying electricity to heat that water. This renewable energy system provides 70% of the facility's annual hot water needs. The Federal Bureau of Prisons did not incur the up-front cost of this system because it was financed through an Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC). The ESPC payments are 10% less than the energy savings so that the prison saves an average of $6,700 per year, providing an immediate payback. The solar hot water system produces up to 50,000 gallons of hot water daily, enough to meet the needs of 1,250 inmates and staff who use the kitchen, shower, and laundry facilities. This publication details specifications of the parabolic trough solar system and highlights 5 years of measured performance data.

  3. Appropriate technology for rural India - solar decontamination of water for emergency settings and small communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Gagandeep; Roy, Sheela; Balraj, Vinohar

    2006-09-01

    A commercial solar water heating system was evaluated for its effectiveness in decontaminating drinking water with a view to use in emergency situations. A total of 18 seeding experiments carried out over 6 months with 10(5) to 10(7)Escherichia coli/ml showed that the solar heater produced 125 l of bacteriologically safe water in 4 h when the ambient temperature was above 30 degrees C, with a holding time of at least 2 h. The solar water heating system is inexpensive, easy to transport and set up and could provide safer drinking water for 50 people a day. It would be effective in the decrease and prevention of waterborne disease in emergency situations, and is appropriate for use in small communities.

  4. Solar-assisted gas-energy water-heating feasibility for apartments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, E. S.

    1975-01-01

    Studies of residential energy use, solar-energy technology for buildings, and the requirements for implementing technology in the housing industry led to a project to develop a solar water heater for apartments. A design study for a specific apartment was used to establish a solar water-heater cost model which is based on plumbing contractor bids and manufacturer estimates. The cost model was used to size the system to minimize the annualized cost of hot water. The annualized cost of solar-assisted gas-energy water heating is found to be less expensive than electric water heating but more expensive than gas water heating. The feasibility of a natural gas utility supplying the auxiliary fuel is evaluated. It is estimated that gas-utilizing companies will find it profitable to offer solar water heating as part of a total energy service option or on a lease basis when the price of new base-load supplies of natural gas reaches $2.50-$3.00 per million Btu.

  5. Optimized operation of a solar driven thermoelectric dehumidification system for fresh water production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jradi, M.; Ghaddar, N.; Ghali, K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, American University of Beirut (Lebanon)], Email: maj18@aub.edu.lb, email: farah@aub.edu.lb, email: ka04@aub.edu.lb

    2011-07-01

    One of the biggest challenges facing humanity is the scarcity of water resources; around 15% of people in the Arab world who do not have access to fresh water. A solar-driven thermoelectric system has been designed to dehumidify air and generate fresh water and combined with a solar distiller, which humidifies the air, the quantity of fresh water produced is further increased. The aim of this study is to assess the performance of this system. A case study was carried out in the Lebanese coastal humid climate zone on a residential space of 80m2 with water needs of 10 liters per day during summer months. Results showed that water requirements can be met with 5 thermoelectrically cooled channels and a solar distiller and that it would result in energy savings of from 17 to 45% during summer. This study demonstrated that the association of solar-driven thermoelectric systems and a solar distiller can provide fresh water at a low cost.

  6. Efficiency analysis of solar facilities for building heating and household water heating under conditions in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Pivko, Michal; Jursová, Simona; Turjak, Juraj

    2012-01-01

    The paper studies the efficiency of solar facilities applied for the heating of buildings and household water heating in the Czech Republic. The Czech Republic is situated in the temperate zone characterized by changeable weather. It is respected in the assessment of a solar facility installation. The efficiency of solar facilities is evaluated according to energy and economic balances. It is analyzed for solar facilities heating both household water and buildings. The main problems relating ...

  7. Solar water disinfection (SODIS): A review from bench-top to roof-top

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGuigan, Kevin G., E-mail: kmcguigan@rcsi.ie [Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Conroy, Ronan M. [Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Mosler, Hans-Joachim [EAWAG, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Ueberlandstrasse 133: CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Preez, Martella du; Ubomba-Jaswa, Eunice [CSIR, Natural Resources and the Environment, Pretoria, Gauteng (South Africa); Fernandez-Ibanez, Pilar [Plataforma Solar de Almeria - CIEMAT, P.O. Box 22, 07200 Tabernas, Almeria (Spain)

    2012-10-15

    Graphical abstract: . Water being treated by solar disinfection outside a primary school classroom in Southern Uganda. Students fill their bottles at home and expose them to the sun while they are at school. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A thorough review of current state of play of solar water disinfection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An examination of both laboratory and field studies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Description of the economic and behaviour change aspects of this technology. - Abstract: Solar water disinfection (SODIS) has been known for more than 30 years. The technique consists of placing water into transparent plastic or glass containers (normally 2 L PET beverage bottles) which are then exposed to the sun. Exposure times vary from 6 to 48 h depending on the intensity of sunlight and sensitivity of the pathogens. Its germicidal effect is based on the combined effect of thermal heating of solar light and UV radiation. It has been repeatedly shown to be effective for eliminating microbial pathogens and reduce diarrhoeal morbidity including cholera. Since 1980 much research has been carried out to investigate the mechanisms of solar radiation induced cell death in water and possible enhancement technologies to make it faster and safer. Since SODIS is simple to use and inexpensive, the method has spread throughout the developing world and is in daily use in more than 50 countries in Asia, Latin America, and Africa. More than 5 million people disinfect their drinking water with the solar disinfection (SODIS) technique. This review attempts to revise all relevant knowledge about solar disinfection from microbiological issues, laboratory research, solar testing, up to and including real application studies, limitations, factors influencing adoption of the technique and health impact.

  8. Solar water disinfection (SODIS): A review from bench-top to roof-top

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuigan, Kevin G.; Conroy, Ronán M.; Mosler, Hans-Joachim; Preez, Martella du; Ubomba-Jaswa, Eunice; Fernandez-Ibañez, Pilar

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: . Water being treated by solar disinfection outside a primary school classroom in Southern Uganda. Students fill their bottles at home and expose them to the sun while they are at school. Highlights: ► A thorough review of current state of play of solar water disinfection. ► An examination of both laboratory and field studies. ► Description of the economic and behaviour change aspects of this technology. - Abstract: Solar water disinfection (SODIS) has been known for more than 30 years. The technique consists of placing water into transparent plastic or glass containers (normally 2 L PET beverage bottles) which are then exposed to the sun. Exposure times vary from 6 to 48 h depending on the intensity of sunlight and sensitivity of the pathogens. Its germicidal effect is based on the combined effect of thermal heating of solar light and UV radiation. It has been repeatedly shown to be effective for eliminating microbial pathogens and reduce diarrhoeal morbidity including cholera. Since 1980 much research has been carried out to investigate the mechanisms of solar radiation induced cell death in water and possible enhancement technologies to make it faster and safer. Since SODIS is simple to use and inexpensive, the method has spread throughout the developing world and is in daily use in more than 50 countries in Asia, Latin America, and Africa. More than 5 million people disinfect their drinking water with the solar disinfection (SODIS) technique. This review attempts to revise all relevant knowledge about solar disinfection from microbiological issues, laboratory research, solar testing, up to and including real application studies, limitations, factors influencing adoption of the technique and health impact.

  9. Temporal associations of life with solar and geophysical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. Breus

    Full Text Available In biology, circadian rhythms with a period of one cycle in 20–28 h are known to be ubiquitous and partly endogenous. Rhythms with a frequency lower than one cycle per day are called 'infradian rhythms'. Among them are components with one cycle in about 3.5, 7, 14 and 28 days, the multiseptans, which, like the circadians, must be regarded as a general characteristic of life: they characterize unicells as well as much more differentiated organisms. We hypothesize that heliogeophysical factors other than the solar visible light, held responsible for the evolution of circadian periodicity, underlie the infradian rhythms of biosystems. The periodicities in the solar wind and variations in the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF which are associated with the solar rotation are very similar in length to the biological periodicities. We investigate the temporal relations of variations in solar activity and in biological systems to test associations between events in the IMF, in geomagnetic disturbance, in myocardial infarction and in physiology. By cross-spectral analysis, we also find relations at certain frequencies between changes in human physiology on the one hand, and (1 the vertical component of the induction vector of the IMF, Bz, and (2 a global index of geomagnetic disturbance, Kp, on the other hand. We wish to stimulate interest in these periodicities of both biological systems and geophysical endpoints among physicists and biologists alike, so that problems relevant to clinicians and other biologists, including evolutionists, are eventually solved by their cooperation with the geophysical community.

  10. Solar Light Responsive Photocatalytic Activity of Reduced Graphene Oxide-Zinc Selenide Nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Koushik; Ibrahim, Sk; Das, Poulomi; Ghosh, Surajit; Pal, Tanusri

    2017-10-01

    Solution processable reduced graphene oxide-zinc selenide (RGO-ZnSe) nanocomposite has been successfully synthesized by an easy one-pot single-step solvothermal reaction. The RGO-ZnSe composite was characterized structurally and morphologically by the study of XRD analysis, SEM and TEM imaging. Reduction in graphene oxide was confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy analysis. Photocatalytic efficiency of RGO-ZnSe composite was investigated toward the degradation of Rhodamine B under solar light irradiation. Our study indicates that the RGO-ZnSe composite is catalytically more active compared to the controlled-ZnSe under the solar light illumination. Here, RGO plays an important role for photoinduced charge separation and subsequently hinders the electron-hole recombination probability that consequently enhances photocatalytic degradation efficiency. We expect that this type of RGO-based optoelectronics materials opens up a new avenue in the field of photocatalytic degradation of different organic water pollutants.

  11. Engineering Water Analysis Laboratory Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    The purposes of water treatment in a marine steam power plant are to prevent damage to boilers, steam-operated equipment, and steam and condensate lives, and to keep all equipment operating at the highest level of efficiency. This laboratory exercise is designed to provide students with experiences in making accurate boiler water tests and to…

  12. Thermal performance behavior of a domestic hot water solar storage tank during consumption operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehghan, A.A.; Barzegar, A.

    2011-01-01

    Transient thermal performance behavior of a vertical storage tank of a domestic solar water heating system with a mantle heat exchanger has been investigated numerically in the discharge/consumption mode. It is assumed that the tank is initially stratified during its previous heat storing/charging operation. During the discharging period, the city cold water is fed at the bottom of the tank and hot water is extracted from its top outlet port for consumption. Meanwhile, the collector loop is assumed to be active. The conservation equations in the axis-symmetric cylindrical co-ordinate have been used and discretised by employing the finite volume method. The low Reynolds number (LRN) k - ω model is utilized for treating turbulence in the fluid. The influence of the tank Grashof number, the incoming cold fluid Reynolds number and the size of the inlet port of the heat storage tank on the transient thermal characteristics of the tank is investigated and discussed. It is found that for higher values of Grashof number, the pre-established thermal stratification is well preserved during the discharging operation mode. It is also noticed that in order to have a tank with a proper thermal performance and or have least mixing inside the tank during the consumption period, the tank inflow Reynolds number and or its inflow port diameter should be kept below certain values. In these cases, the storage tank is enabling to provide proper amount of hot water with a proper temperature for consumption purposes.

  13. The relationship between ionospheric temperature, electron density and solar activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, J.N.; Williams, P.J.S.

    1980-01-01

    In studying the F-region of the ionosphere several authors have concluded that the difference between the electron temperature Tsub(e) and the ion temperature Tsub(i) is related to the electron density N. It was later noted that solar activity (S) was involved and an empirical relationship of the following form was established: Tsub(e)-Tsub(i) = A-BN+CS. The present paper extends this work using day-time data over a four year period. The results are given and discussed. A modified form of the empirical relation is proposed. (U.K.)

  14. The onset of the solar active cycle 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahluwalia, H.S.

    1989-01-01

    There is a great deal of interest in being able to predict the main characteristics of a solar activity cycle (SAC). One would like to know, for instance, how large the amplitude (R sub m) of a cycle is likely to be, i.e., the annual mean of the sunspot numbers at the maximum of SAC. Also, how long a cycle is likely to last, i.e., its period. It would also be interesting to be able to predict the details, like how steep the ascending phase of a cycle is likely to be. Questions like these are of practical importance to NASA in planning the launch schedule for the low altitude, expensive spacecrafts like the Hubble Space Telescope, the Space Station, etc. Also, one has to choose a proper orbit, so that once launched the threat of an atmospheric drag on the spacecraft is properly taken into account. Cosmic ray data seem to indicate that solar activity cycle 22 will surpass SAC 21 in activity. The value of R sub m for SAC 22 may approach that of SAC 19. It would be interesting to see whether this prediction is borne out. Researchers are greatly encouraged to proceed with the development of a comprehensive prediction model which includes information provided by cosmic ray data

  15. The onset of the solar active cycle 22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, H. S.

    1989-01-01

    There is a great deal of interest in being able to predict the main characteristics of a solar activity cycle (SAC). One would like to know, for instance, how large the amplitude (R sub m) of a cycle is likely to be, i.e., the annual mean of the sunspot numbers at the maximum of SAC. Also, how long a cycle is likely to last, i.e., its period. It would also be interesting to be able to predict the details, like how steep the ascending phase of a cycle is likely to be. Questions like these are of practical importance to NASA in planning the launch schedule for the low altitude, expensive spacecrafts like the Hubble Space Telescope, the Space Station, etc. Also, one has to choose a proper orbit, so that once launched the threat of an atmospheric drag on the spacecraft is properly taken into account. Cosmic ray data seem to indicate that solar activity cycle 22 will surpass SAC 21 in activity. The value of R sub m for SAC 22 may approach that of SAC 19. It would be interesting to see whether this prediction is borne out. Researchers are greatly encouraged to proceed with the development of a comprehensive prediction model which includes information provided by cosmic ray data.

  16. Integrating a Semitransparent, Fullerene-Free Organic Solar Cell in Tandem with a BiVO4 Photoanode for Unassisted Solar Water Splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yuelin; Govindaraju, Gokul V; Lee, Dong Ki; Choi, Kyoung-Shin; Andrew, Trisha L

    2017-07-12

    We report an unassisted solar water splitting system powered by a diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP)-containing semitransparent organic solar cell. Two major merits of this fullerene-free solar cell enable its integration with a BiVO 4 photoanode. First is the high open circuit voltage and high fill factor displayed by this single junction solar cell, which yields sufficient power to effect water splitting when serially connected to an appropriate electrode/catalyst. Second, the wavelength-resolved photoaction spectrum of the DPP-based solar cell has minimal overlap with that of the BiVO 4 photoanode, thus ensuring that light collection across these two components can be optimized. The latter feature enables a new water splitting device configuration wherein the solar cell is placed first in the path of incident light, before the BiVO 4 photoanode, although BiVO 4 has a wider bandgap. This configuration is accessed by replacing the reflective top electrode of the standard DPP-based solar cell with a thin metal film and an antireflection layer, thus rendering the solar cell semitransparent. In this configuration, incident light does not travel through the aqueous electrolyte to reach the solar cell or photoanode, and therefore, photon losses due to the scattering of water are reduced. Moreover, this new configuration allows the BiVO 4 photoanode to be back-illuminated, i.e., through the BiVO 4 /back contact interface, which leads to higher photocurrents compared to front illumination. The combination of a semitransparent single-junction solar cell and a BiVO 4 photoanode coated with oxygen evolution catalysts in a new device configuration yielded an unassisted solar water splitting system with a solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency of 2.2% in water.

  17. Environmental aspects of the use of materials for solar water heaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Leun, C.J.; De Jager, D.

    1994-10-01

    The study on the title subject has been carried out in order to apply the results in new designs and to improve the production of solar water heating systems. Attention is paid to solar water heaters that are under development and solar water heaters that are commercially available in the Netherlands. Use has been made of a IVAM-developed product analysis method. For seven solar water heater concepts, that were on the market or under development in the Netherlands in 1992, the applied amounts of materials have been inventorized. Data on the environmental effects of the production of these materials are outlined and aggregated on the level of the components and the systems. Based on those data, environmental profiles are drafted, comprising 'effect scores' on 9 environmental criteria. However, the environmental 'effect scores' are not reliable enough to determine the most important factors in order to identify options to reduce the negative environmental effects. Data on the energy consumption of the production of relevant materials are available and reliable. The solar water heaters, considered in this report, do not show large differences for that matter. It appears that the amounts of air pollution, water pollution and waste flow from the production of materials for solar water heaters are no reasons to further reduce environmental effects of the production. It is recommended to focus on the reduction of material quantities and to increase the quantity of recycled material. Also it is recommended that manufacturers of solar boilers set up a take-back system. 43 tabs., 1 appendix, 56 refs

  18. Solar and terrestrial physics. [effects of solar activities on earth environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The effects of solar radiation on the near space and biomental earth, the upper atmosphere, and the magnetosphere are discussed. Data obtained from the OSO satellites pertaining to the solar cycle variation of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation are analyzed. The effects of solar cycle variation of the characteristics of the solar wind are examined. The fluid mechanics of shock waves and the specific relationship to the characteristics of solar shock waves are investigated. The solar and corpuscular heating of the upper atmosphere is reported based on the findings of the AEROS and NATE experiments. Seasonal variations of the upper atmosphere composition are plotted based on OGO-6 mass spectrometer data.

  19. Simulation programs for ph.D. study of analysis, modeling and optimum design of solar domestic hot water systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Qin

    1998-12-31

    The design of solar domestic hot water (DHW) systems is a complex process, due to characteristics inherent in the solar heating technology. Recently, computer simulation has become a widely used technique to improve the understanding of the thermal processes in such systems. One of the main objects of the Ph.D. study of `Analysis, Modelling and optimum Design of Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems` is to develop and verify programs for carrying out the simulation and evaluation of the dynamic performance of solar DHW systems. During this study, simulation programs for hot water distribution networks and for certain types of solar DHW systems were developed. (au)

  20. Graphene-Based Standalone Solar Energy Converter for Water Desalination and Purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Zhao, Ruiqi; Zhang, Tengfei; Zhao, Kai; Xiao, Peishuang; Ma, Yanfeng; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Shi, Gaoquan; Chen, Yongsheng

    2018-01-23

    Harvesting solar energy for desalination and sewage treatment has been considered as a promising solution to produce clean water. However, state-of-the-art technologies often require optical concentrators and complicated systems with multiple components, leading to poor efficiency and high cost. Here, we demonstrate an extremely simple and standalone solar energy converter consisting of only an as-prepared 3D cross-linked honeycomb graphene foam material without any other supporting components. This simple all-in-one material can act as an ideal solar thermal converter capable of capturing and converting sunlight into heat, which in turn can distill water from various water sources into steam and produce purified water under ambient conditions and low solar flux with very high efficiency. High specific water production rate of 2.6 kg h -1 m -2 g -1 was achieved with near ∼87% under 1 sun intensity and >80% efficiency even under ambient sunlight (solar thermal water purification system for a variety of environmental conditions.