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Sample records for active plant oils

  1. In vitro antibacterial activity of some plant essential oils

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    Ignacimuthu Savarimuthu

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: To evaluate the antibacterial activity of 21 plant essential oils against six bacterial species. Methods: The selected essential oils were screened against four gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris and two gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus at four different concentrations (1:1, 1:5, 1:10 and 1:20 using disc diffusion method. The MIC of the active essential oils were tested using two fold agar dilution method at concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 25.6 mg/ml. Results: Out of 21 essential oils tested, 19 oils showed antibacterial activity against one or more strains. Cinnamon, clove, geranium, lemon, lime, orange and rosemary oils exhibited significant inhibitory effect. Cinnamon oil showed promising inhibitory activity even at low concentration, whereas aniseed, eucalyptus and camphor oils were least active against the tested bacteria. In general, B. subtilis was the most susceptible. On the other hand, K. pneumoniae exhibited low degree of sensitivity. Conclusion: Majority of the oils showed antibacterial activity against the tested strains. However Cinnamon, clove and lime oils were found to be inhibiting both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Cinnamon oil can be a good source of antibacterial agents.

  2. [Peculicidal activity of plant essential oils and their based preparations].

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    Lopatina, Iu V; Eremina, O Iu

    2014-01-01

    The peculicidal activity of eight plant essential oils in 75% isopropyl alcohol was in vitro investigated. Of them, the substances that were most active against lice were tea tree (Melaleuca), eucalyptus, neem, citronella (Cymbopogon nardus), and clove (Syzygium aromaticum) oils; KT50 was not more than 3 minutes on average; KT95 was 4 minutes. After evaporating the solvent, only five (tea tree, cassia, clove, anise (Anisum vulgare), and Japanese star anise (Illicium anisatum) oils) of the eight test botanical substances were active against lice. At the same time, KT50 and KT95 showed 1.5-5-fold increases. Citronella and anise oils had incomplete ovicidal activity. Since the lice were permethrin-resistant, the efficacy of preparations based on essential oils was much higher than permethrin.

  3. Mosquito repellent activity of volatile oils from selected aromatic plants.

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    Lalthazuali; Mathew, Nisha

    2017-02-01

    Essential oils from fresh leaves of four aromatic plants viz., Ocimum sanctum, Mentha piperita, Eucalyptus globulus and Plectranthus amboinicus were extracted by hydrodistillation. The test solutions were prepared as 20% essential oil in ethanol and positive control as 20% DEET in ethanol. Essential oil blend was prepared as 5% concentration. Nulliparous, 3-5-day-old female adult Aedes aegypti mosquitoes were used for repellency screening as per ICMR protocol. The study showed that the repellency of 20% essential oil of O. sanctum, M. piperita and P. amboinicus were comparable with that of the standard DEET (20%) as no mosquito landing on the test was observed up to 6 h. The E. globulus oil exhibited mosquito repellency only upto 1½ h. Considerable mosquito landing and feeding was displayed in negative control. In the case of the oil blend, no landing of mosquitoes was seen up to 6 h as that of positive control. The results showed that the essential oil blend from O. sanctum, M. piperita, E. globulus and P. amboinicus could repel Ae. aegypti mosquitoes or prevent from feeding as in the case of DEET even at a lower concentration of 5%. This study demonstrates the potential of essential oils from O. sanctum, M. piperita, E. globulus and P. amboinicus and their blend as mosquito repellents against Ae. aegypti, the vector of dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever.

  4. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF ESSENTIAL OILS OF PLANTS BELONGING TO LAMIACEAE JUSS. FAMILY

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    Shanayda M.I.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. One of the important sources of therapeutic and prophylactic agents of modern medicines are essential oils of medicinal plants. Essential oils are the main group of biologically active substances of a number of plants belonging to Lamiaceae Juss. Family. Antibacterial activity of medicinal plants belonging to Lamiaceae Family many scientists associated with containing of essential oils. In this regard, considerable interest presents the comparative analysis of the antimicrobial properties of essential oils of Lamiaceae Family representatives. Material and methods.The antimicrobial activity of essential oils of investigated plants was studied with using in vitro condition. The essential oils derived from the aerial parts of cultivated plants of Ocimum, Hyssopus, Dracocephalum, Lophanthus, Monarda and Satureja genus harvested during flowering period (in terms of Ternopil region. The antimicrobial activity of essential oils studied plants was studied by serial dilution method and disk diffusion assay. It has been applied on standard microorganism test strains: Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027 and Candida albicans ATCC 885-653. Results and discussion. It was conducted a comparative study of the influence of some essential oils of cultivated plants belonging to Lamiaceae family on microorganisms in conditions in vitro. It was found that essential oils of the studied plants were most effective in the maximum concentration (1:10. Gram-positive cocci S. aureus and yeast C. albicans were the most sensitive to influence of investigated essential oils. It was analyzed the relationship of the biological activity with the component composition of essential oils of plants. Essential oils of L. anisatus, M. fistulosa and S. hortensis characterized by the dominance of aromatic compounds and had shown stronger antimicrobial activity than essential oils of

  5. Comparison of essential oils from three plants for enhancement of antimicrobial activity of nitrofurantoin against enterobacteria.

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    Rafii, Fatemeh; Shahverdi, Ahmad R

    2007-01-01

    Piperitone from plant essential oils enhancesbactericidal activities of nitrofurantoin and furazolidone against bacteria from the family Enterobacteriaceae. In this study, the essential oils of spearmint (Mentha spicata L.), dill (Anethum graveolens L.) and peppermint (Mentha piperita L.)were screened for augmentation of nitrofurantoin activity and the most active components were determined. The effects of essential oils and their components on the bactericidal activity of nitrofurantoin against Enterobacter cloacae were studied using disk-diffusion and agar-dilution methods. The composition of essential oils was studied using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. M. spicata and A. graveolens oils exhibited the highest effects. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis showed that the oils of these two plants contained 40.12 and 20.32% carvone, respectively. Pure carvone and piperitone equally increased the bactericidal activity of nitrofurantoin. Other ingredients of essential oils, including camphor, limonene and menthone, were less effective. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. In vitro antibacterial activity of some plant essential oils

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    Ignacimuthu Savarimuthu; Jayakumar Manickkam; Prabuseenivasan Seenivasan

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background: To evaluate the antibacterial activity of 21 plant essential oils against six bacterial species. Methods: The selected essential oils were screened against four gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris) and two gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus at four different concentrations (1:1, 1:5, 1:10 and 1:20) using disc diffusion method. The MIC of the active essential oils were tes...

  7. Biological Activities of Essential Oils: From Plant Chemoecology to Traditional Healing Systems

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    Javad Sharifi-Rad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils are complex mixtures of hydrocarbons and their oxygenated derivatives arising from two different isoprenoid pathways. Essential oils are produced by glandular trichomes and other secretory structures, specialized secretory tissues mainly diffused onto the surface of plant organs, particularly flowers and leaves, thus exerting a pivotal ecological role in plant. In addition, essential oils have been used, since ancient times, in many different traditional healing systems all over the world, because of their biological activities. Many preclinical studies have documented antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of essential oils in a number of cell and animal models, also elucidating their mechanism of action and pharmacological targets, though the paucity of in human studies limits the potential of essential oils as effective and safe phytotherapeutic agents. More well-designed clinical trials are needed in order to ascertain the real efficacy and safety of these plant products.

  8. Biological Activities of Essential Oils: From Plant Chemoecology to Traditional Healing Systems.

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    Sharifi-Rad, Javad; Sureda, Antoni; Tenore, Gian Carlo; Daglia, Maria; Sharifi-Rad, Mehdi; Valussi, Marco; Tundis, Rosa; Sharifi-Rad, Marzieh; Loizzo, Monica R; Ademiluyi, Adedayo Oluwaseun; Sharifi-Rad, Razieh; Ayatollahi, Seyed Abdulmajid; Iriti, Marcello

    2017-01-01

    Essential oils are complex mixtures of hydrocarbons and their oxygenated derivatives arising from two different isoprenoid pathways. Essential oils are produced by glandular trichomes and other secretory structures, specialized secretory tissues mainly diffused onto the surface of plant organs, particularly flowers and leaves, thus exerting a pivotal ecological role in plant. In addition, essential oils have been used, since ancient times, in many different traditional healing systems all over the world, because of their biological activities. Many preclinical studies have documented antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of essential oils in a number of cell and animal models, also elucidating their mechanism of action and pharmacological targets, though the paucity of in human studies limits the potential of essential oils as effective and safe phytotherapeutic agents. More well-designed clinical trials are needed in order to ascertain the real efficacy and safety of these plant products.

  9. Antifungal activity of six plant essential oils from Serbia against Trichoderma aggressivum f. europaeum

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    Rada Đurović-Pejčev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Six essential oils (EOs extracted from plants originating in Serbia were assayed for inhibitory and fungicidal activity against a major fungal pathogen of button mushroom causing green mould disease, Trichoderma agressivum f. europaeum. The strongest activity was demonstrated by the oils of basil (Ocimum basilicum L. and peppermint (Mentha piperita L.. Medium antifungal activity of St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L. and walnut [Juglans regia (F] oils was also recorded. Oils extracted from yarrow (Achillea millepholium L. and juniper (Juniperus communis L. exhibited the lowest activity. Peppermint oil showed fungicidal effect on the pathogen, having a minimum fungicidal concentration of 0.64 μl ml-1. The main components of peppermint essential oil were menthone (37.02%, menthol (29.57% and isomenthone (9.06%.

  10. Short communication: an in vitro assessment of the antibacterial activity of plant-derived oils.

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    Mullen, K A E; Lee, A R; Lyman, R L; Mason, S E; Washburn, S P; Anderson, K L

    2014-09-01

    Nonantibiotic treatments for mastitis are needed in organic dairy herds. Plant-derived oils may be useful but efficacy and potential mechanisms of action of such oils in mastitis therapy have not been well documented. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of the plant-derived oil components of Phyto-Mast (Bovinity Health LLC, Narvon, PA), an herbal intramammary product, against 3 mastitis-causing pathogens: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus chromogenes, and Streptococcus uberis. Plant-derived oils evaluated were Thymus vulgaris (thyme), Gaultheria procumbens (wintergreen), Glycyrrhiza uralensis (Chinese licorice), Angelica sinensis, and Angelica dahurica. Broth dilution testing according to standard protocol was performed using ultrapasteurized whole milk instead of broth. Controls included milk only (negative control), milk + bacteria (positive control), and milk + bacteria + penicillin-streptomycin (antibiotic control, at 1 and 5% concentrations). Essential oil of thyme was tested by itself and not in combination with other oils because of its known antibacterial activity. The other plant-derived oils were tested alone and in combination for a total of 15 treatments, each replicated 3 times and tested at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4% to simulate concentrations potentially achievable in the milk within the pre-dry-off udder quarter. Thyme oil at concentrations ≥2% completely inhibited bacterial growth in all replications. Other plant-derived oils tested alone or in various combinations were not consistently antibacterial and did not show typical dose-response effects. Only thyme essential oil had consistent antibacterial activity against the 3 mastitis-causing organisms tested in vitro. Further evaluation of physiological effects of thyme oil in various preparations on mammary tissue is recommended to determine potential suitability for mastitis therapy. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier

  11. Adult repellency and larvicidal activity of five plant essential oils against mosquitoes.

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    Zhu, Junwei; Zeng, Xiaopeng; Yanma; Liu, Ting; Qian, Kuen; Han, Yuhua; Xue, Suqin; Tucker, Brad; Schultz, Gretchen; Coats, Joel; Rowley, Wayne; Zhang, Aijun

    2006-09-01

    The larvicidal activity and repellency of 5 plant essential oils--thyme oil, catnip oil, amyris oil, eucalyptus oil, and cinnamon oil--were tested against 3 mosquito species: Aedes albopictus, Ae. aegypti, and Culex pipiens pallens. Larvicidal activity of these essentials oils was evaluated in the laboratory against 4th instars of each of the 3 mosquito species, and amyris oil demonstrated the greatest inhibitory effect with LC50 values in 24 h of 58 microg/ml (LC90 = 72 microg/ml) for Ae. aegypti, 78 microg/ml (LC90 = 130 microg/ml) for Ae. albopictus, and 77 microg/ml (LC90 = 123 microg/ml) for Cx. p. pallens. The topical repellency of these selected essential oils and deet against laboratory-reared female blood-starved Ae. albopictus was examined. Catnip oil seemed to be the most effective and provided 6-h protection at both concentrations tested (23 and 468 microg/ cm2). Thyme oil had the highest effectiveness in repelling this species, but the repellency duration was only 2 h. The applications using these natural product essential oils in mosquito control are discussed.

  12. Larvicidal Activity of Essential Oils of Apiaceae Plants Against Malaria Vector, Anopheles Stephensi

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    Y Salim Abadi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Plant extracts and oils may act as alternatives to conventional pesticides for malaria vector control. The aim of this study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of essential oils of three plants of Apiaceae family against Anophe­les stephensi, the main malaria vector in Iran. Methods: Essential oils from Heracleum persicum, Foeniculum vulgare and Coriandrum sativum seeds were hydro distil­lated, then their larvicidal activity were evaluated against laboratory-reared larvae of An. stephensi according to stan­dard method of WHO. After susceptibility test, results were analysis using Probit program.Results: Essential oils were separated from H. persicum, F. vulgare and C. sativum plants and their larvicidal activi­ties were tested. Result of this study showed that F. vulgare oil was the most effective against An. stephensi with LC50 and LC90 values of 20.10 and 44.51 ppm, respectively.Conclusion: All three plants essential oil can serve as a natural larvicide against An. stephensi. F. vulgare oil exhib­ited more larvicidal properties.

  13. Aromatic Medicinal Plants of the Lamiaceae Family from Uzbekistan: Ethnopharmacology, Essential Oils Composition, and Biological Activities

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    Nilufar Z. Mamadalieva

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Plants of the Lamiaceae family are important ornamental, medicinal, and aromatic plants, many of which produce essential oils that are used in traditional and modern medicine, and in the food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industry. Various species of the genera Hyssopus, Leonurus, Mentha, Nepeta, Origanum, Perovskia, Phlomis, Salvia, Scutellaria, and Ziziphora are widespread throughout the world, are the most popular plants in Uzbek traditional remedies, and are often used for the treatment of wounds, gastritis, infections, dermatitis, bronchitis, and inflammation. Extensive studies of the chemical components of these plants have led to the identification of many compounds, as well as essentials oils, with medicinal and other commercial values. The purpose of this review is to provide a critical overview of the literature surrounding the traditional uses, ethnopharmacology, biological activities, and essential oils composition of aromatic plants of the family Lamiaceae, from the Uzbek flora.

  14. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activities of Essential Oils of Some Coniferous Plants Cultivated in Egypt.

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    Ibrahim, Taghreed A; El-Hela, Atef A; El-Hefnawy, Hala M; Al-Taweel, Areej M; Perveen, Shagufta

    2017-01-01

    Family Cupressaceae is the largest coniferous plant family. Essential oils of many species belonging to family Cupressaceae are known to have several biological activities specially antimicrobial activity. The essential oils from aerial parts of Calocedrus decurrens Torr., Cupressus sempervirens stricta L. and Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl) Mast. were prepared by hydrodistillation. The chemical composition of the essential oils has been elucidated by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis. The prepared essential oils were examined against selected species of Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria and Candida species. Broth dilution methods were used to detect minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC). Sixteen compounds were identified in the essential oils of both Calocedrus decurrens and Cupressus sempervirens L. and fifteen compounds were identified in the essential oil of Tetraclinis articulata. δ-3-Carene (43.10%), (+)-Cedrol (74.03%) and Camphor (21.23%) were the major constituents in the essential oils of Calocedrus decurrens, Cupressus sempervirens L. and Tetraclinis articulata, respectively. The essential oils showed strong antimicrobial activities against the selected microorganisms in concentration range 0.02 3- 3.03 µL/mL. This study could contribute to the chemotaxonomic characterization of family Cupressaceae. In addition, it proved that the essential oils under investigation possess potential antimicrobial properties.

  15. Larvicidal activity of Brazilian plant essential oils against Coenagrionidae larvae.

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    Silva, D T; Silva, L L; Amaral, L P; Pinheiro, C G; Pires, M M; Schindler, B; Garlet, Q I; Benovit, S C; Baldisserotto, B; Longhi, S J; Kotzian, C B; Heinzmann, B M

    2014-08-01

    Odonate larvae can be serious pests that attack fish larvae, postlarvae, and fingerlings in fish culture tanks, causing significant loss in the supply and production of juveniles. This study reports a screen of the essential oils (EOs) of Nectandra megapotamica (Sprengel) Mez, Nectandra grandiflora Nees, Hesperozygis ringens (Bentham) Epling, Ocimum gratissimum L., Aloysia gratissima (Gillies & Hooker) Troncoso, and Lippia sidoides Chamisso against Coenagrionidae larvae. In addition, the most effective EO and its 50% lethal concentration (LC50) and chemical analysis are described. The larvae of Acanthagrion Selys, Homeoura Kennedy, Ischnura Charpentier, and Oxyagrion Selys were used to assess the EO effects. EO obtained from H. ringens, O. gratissimum, and L. sidoides showed the highest larvicidal effects at 19 h of treatment. The major constituents of the EO of H. ringens include pulegone and limonene, while eugenol and Z-beta-ocimene predominate in the EO of O. gratissimum, and carvacrol and rho-cymene were the major compounds of the EO of L. sidoides. Leaf EOs from H. ringens, O. gratissimum, and L. sidoides showed activity against Coenagrionidae larvae at similar concentrations with LC50s of 62.92, 75.05, and 51.65 microl liter(-1), respectively, and these were considered the most promising treatments.

  16. Repellent Activity of Apiaceae Plant Essential Oils and their Constituents Against Adult German Cockroaches.

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    Lee, Hyo-Rim; Kim, Gil-Hah; Choi, Won-Sil; Park, Il-Kwon

    2017-04-01

    We evaluated the repellent activity of 12 Apiaceae plant essential oils and their components against male and female adult German cockroaches, Blattella germanica L., to find new natural repellents. Of all the plant essential oils tested, ajowan (Trachyspermum ammi Sprague) and dill (Anethum graveolens L.) essential oils showed the most potent repellent activity against male and female adult German cockroaches. Repellent activities of chemicals already identified in active oils were also investigated. Of the compounds identified, carvacrol, thymol, and R-(-)-carvone showed >80% repellent activity against male and female adult German cockroaches at 2.5 µg/cm2. S-(+)-Carvone, (+)-dihydrocarvone, and terpinen-4-ol showed >70% repellent activity against male and female adult German cockroaches at 10 µg/cm2. Our results indicated that Apiaceae plant essential oils and their constituents have good potential as natural repellents against adult German cockroaches. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from the edible aromatic plant Aristolochia delavayi.

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    Li, Zhi-Jian; Njateng, Guy S S; He, Wen-Jia; Zhang, Hong-Xia; Gu, Jian-Long; Chen, Shan-Na; Du, Zhi-Zhi

    2013-11-01

    The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of Aristolochia delavayi Franch. (Aristolochiaceae), a unique edible aromatic plant consumed by the Nakhi (Naxi) people in Yunnan, China, was investigated using GC/MS analysis. In total, 95 components, representing more than 95% of the oil composition, were identified, and the main constituents found were (E)-dec-2-enal (52.0%), (E)-dodec-2-enal (6.8%), dodecanal (3.35%), heptanal (2.88%), and decanal (2.63%). The essential oil showed strong inhibitory activity (96% reduction) of the production of bacterial volatile sulfide compounds (VSC) by Klebsiella pneumoniae, an effect that was comparable with that of the reference compound citral (91% reduction). Moreover, the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil and the isolated major compound against eight bacterial and six fungal strains were evaluated. The essential oil showed significant antibacterial activity against Providencia stuartii and Escherichia coli, with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranging from 3.9 to 62.5 μg/ml. The oil also showed strong inhibitory activity against the fungal strains Trichophyton ajelloi, Trichophyton terrestre, Candida glabrata, Candida guilliermondii, and Cryptococcus neoformans, with MIC values ranging from 3.9 to 31.25 μg/ml, while (E)-dec-2-enal presented a lower antifungal activity than the essential oil.

  18. In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Several Plant Extracts and Oils against Some Gram-Negative Bacteria

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    Ayman Al-Mariri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medicinal plants are considered new resources for producing agents that could act as alternatives to antibiotics in the treatment of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of 28 plant extracts and oils against four Gram-negative bacterial species. Methods: Experimental, in vitro, evaluation of the activities of 28 plant extracts and oils as well as some antibiotics against E. coli O157:H7, Yersinia enterocolitica O9, Proteus spp., and Klebsiella pneumoniae was performed. The activity against 15 isolates of each bacterium was determined by disc diffusion method at a concentration of 5%. Microdilution susceptibility assay was used in order to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs of the plant extracts, oils, and antibiotics. Results: Among the evaluated herbs, only Origanum syriacum L., Thymus syriacus Boiss., Syzygium aromaticum L., Juniperus foetidissima Wild, Allium sativum L., Myristica fragrans Houtt, and Cinnamomum zeylanicum L. essential oils and Laurus nobilis L. plant extract showed anti-bacterial activity. The MIC50 values of these products against the Gram-negative organisms varied from 1.5 (Proteus spp. and K. pneumoniae( and 6.25 µl/ml (Yersinia enterocolitica O9 to 12.5 µl/ml (E. coli O:157. Conclusion: Among the studied essential oils, O. syriacum L., T. syriacus Boiss., C. zeylanicum L., and S. aromaticum L. essential oils were the most effective. Moreover, Cephalosporin and Ciprofloxacin were the most effective antibiotics against almost all the studied bacteria. Therefore, O. syriacum L., T. syriacus Boiss., C. zeylanicum L., and S. aromaticum L. could act as bactericidal agents against Gram-negative bacteria.

  19. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils from Mediterranean aromatic plants against several foodborne and spoilage bacteria.

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    Silva, Nuno; Alves, Sofia; Gonçalves, Alexandre; Amaral, Joana S; Poeta, Patrícia

    2013-12-01

    The antimicrobial activity of essential oils extracted from a variety of aromatic plants, often used in the Portuguese gastronomy was studied in vitro by the agar diffusion method. The essential oils of thyme, oregano, rosemary, verbena, basil, peppermint, pennyroyal and mint were tested against Gram-positive (Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium perfringens, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, and Staphylococcus epidermidis) and Gram-negative strains (Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). For most essential oils examined, S. aureus, was the most susceptible bacteria, while P. aeruginosa showed, in general, least susceptibility. Among the eight essential oils evaluated, thyme, oregano and pennyroyal oils showed the greatest antimicrobial activity, followed by rosemary, peppermint and verbena, while basil and mint showed the weakest antimicrobial activity. Most of the essential oils considered in this study exhibited a significant inhibitory effect. Thyme oil showed a promising inhibitory activity even at low concentration, thus revealing its potential as a natural preservative in food products against several causal agents of foodborne diseases and food spoilage. In general, the results demonstrate that, besides flavoring the food, the use of aromatic herbs in gastronomy can also contribute to a bacteriostatic effect against pathogens.

  20. Research Concerning Antimicrobial Activities of Some Essential Oils Extracted from Plants

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    ADRIANA DALILA CRISTE

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The principal components of some essential oils extracted from plants have been found to have microbial activity. Depending on the concentration, the members of this class are known to be bactericide or bacteriostatic. Their action mechanism is unclear, but some studies suggest that the compounds penetrate the cell, where they interfere with cellular metabolism. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of 5 essential oils extracted from plants on Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus and to determinate how different amount of the used oils can influence the results of inhibition tests. These results showed that mainly all the natural extracts presented an antimicrobial effect. Thereby, some extracts were more efficient than another and the order is: Eucalyptus globulus (eucalyptus, Mentha piperita (mint, Lavandula angustifolia (lavender, Matricaria chamomilla (chamomile, Calendula officinalis (calendula.

  1. Insecticidal Activity of Plant Essential Oils Against the Vine Mealybug, Planococcus ficus

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    Karamaouna, Filitsa; Kimbaris, Athanasios; Michaelakis, Αntonios; Papachristos, Dimitrios; Polissiou, Moschos

    2013-01-01

    The vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is a pest in grape vine growing areas worldwide. The essential oils from the following aromatic plants were tested for their insecticidal activity against P. ficus: peppermint, Mentha piperita L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), thyme-leaved savory, Satureja thymbra L., lavender, Lavandula angustifolia Mill, and basil, Ocimum basilicum L. Essential oils from peels of the following fruits were also tested: lemon, Citrus limon L. (Sapindales: Rutaceae), and orange, C. sinensis L. The reference product was paraffin oil. Bioassays were conducted in the laboratory by using spray applications on grape leaves bearing clusters of P. ficus of one size class, which mainly represented either 3rd instar nymphs or pre-ovipositing adult females. The LC50 values for each essential oil varied depending on the P. ficus life stage but did not significantly differ between 3rd instar nymphs and adult females. The LC50 values of the citrus, peppermint, and thyme-leaved savory essential oils ranged from 2.7 to 8.1 mg/mL, and the LC50 values of lavender and basil oil ranged from 19.8 to 22.5 and 44.1 to 46.8 mg/mL, respectively. The essential oils from citrus, peppermint and thymeleaved savory were more or equally toxic compared to the reference product, whereas the lavender and basil essential oils were less toxic than the paraffin oil. No phytotoxic symptoms were observed on grape leaves treated with the citrus essential oils, and low phytotoxicity was caused by the essential oils of lavender, thyme-leaved savory, and mint, whereas the highest phytotoxicity was observed when basil oil was used. PMID:24766523

  2. Insecticidal activity of plant essential oils against the vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus.

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    Karamaouna, Filitsa; Kimbaris, Athanasios; Michaelakis, Alphantonios; Papachristos, Dimitrios; Polissiou, Moschos; Papatsakona, Panagiota; Tsora, Eleanna

    2013-01-01

    The vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is a pest in grape vine growing areas worldwide. The essential oils from the following aromatic plants were tested for their insecticidal activity against P. ficus: peppermint, Mentha piperita L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), thyme-leaved savory, Satureja thymbra L., lavender, Lavandula angustifolia Mill, and basil, Ocimum basilicum L. Essential oils from peels of the following fruits were also tested: lemon, Citrus limon L. (Sapindales: Rutaceae), and orange, C. sinensis L. The reference product was paraffin oil. Bioassays were conducted in the laboratory by using spray applications on grape leaves bearing clusters of P. ficus of one size class, which mainly represented either 3rd instar nymphs or pre-ovipositing adult females. The LC50 values for each essential oil varied depending on the P. ficus life stage but did not significantly differ between 3(rd) instar nymphs and adult females. The LC50 values of the citrus, peppermint, and thyme-leaved savory essential oils ranged from 2.7 to 8.1 mg/mL, and the LC50 values of lavender and basil oil ranged from 19.8 to 22.5 and 44.1 to 46.8 mg/mL, respectively. The essential oils from citrus, peppermint and thymeleaved savory were more or equally toxic compared to the reference product, whereas the lavender and basil essential oils were less toxic than the paraffin oil. No phytotoxic symptoms were observed on grape leaves treated with the citrus essential oils, and low phytotoxicity was caused by the essential oils of lavender, thyme-leaved savory, and mint, whereas the highest phytotoxicity was observed when basil oil was used.

  3. Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Essential Oils of Selected Aromatic Plants from Tajikistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharopov, Farukh; Braun, Markus Santhosh; Gulmurodov, Isomiddin; Khalifaev, Davlat; Isupov, Salomiddin; Wink, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities of the essential oils of 18 plant species from Tajikistan (Central Asia) were investigated. The essential oil of Origanum tyttanthum showed a strong antibacterial activity with both minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of 312.5 µg/mL for E. coli, 625 µg/mL (MIC) and 1250 µg/mL (MBC) for MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus), respectively. The essential oil of Galagania fragrantissima was highly active against MRSA at concentrations as low as 39.1 µg/mL and 78.2 µg/mL for MIC and MBC, respectively. Origanum tyttanthum essential oil showed the highest antioxidant activity with IC50 values of 0.12 mg/mL for ABTS (2,2′-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) and 0.28 mg/mL for DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl). Galagania fragrantissima and Origanum tyttanthum essential oils showed the highest anti-inflammatory activity; IC50 values of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) inhibition were 7.34 and 14.78 µg/mL, respectively. In conclusion, essential oils of Origanum tyttanthum and Galagania fragrantissima exhibit substantial antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. They are interesting candidates in phytotherapy.

  4. Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Essential Oils of Selected Aromatic Plants from Tajikistan

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    Farukh Sharopov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities of the essential oils of 18 plant species from Tajikistan (Central Asia were investigated. The essential oil of Origanum tyttanthum showed a strong antibacterial activity with both minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC values of 312.5 µg/mL for E. coli, 625 µg/mL (MIC and 1250 µg/mL (MBC for MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. The essential oil of Galagania fragrantissima was highly active against MRSA at concentrations as low as 39.1 µg/mL and 78.2 µg/mL for MIC and MBC, respectively. Origanum tyttanthum essential oil showed the highest antioxidant activity with IC50 values of 0.12 mg/mL for ABTS (2,2′-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid and 0.28 mg/mL for DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. Galagania fragrantissima and Origanum tyttanthum essential oils showed the highest anti-inflammatory activity; IC50 values of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX inhibition were 7.34 and 14.78 µg/mL, respectively. In conclusion, essential oils of Origanum tyttanthum and Galagania fragrantissima exhibit substantial antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. They are interesting candidates in phytotherapy.

  5. Activity of Six Essential Oils Extracted from Tunisian Plants against Legionella pneumophila.

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    Chaftar, Naouel; Girardot, Marion; Quellard, Nathalie; Labanowski, Jérôme; Ghrairi, Tawfik; Hani, Khaled; Frère, Jacques; Imbert, Christine

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the composition of six essential oils extracted from Tunisian plants, i.e., Artemisia herba-alba Asso, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck, Juniperus phoenicea L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Ruta graveolens L., and Thymus vulgaris L., and to evaluate their activity against Legionella pneumophila (microdilution assays). Eight Legionella pneumophila strains were studied, including the two well-known serogroup 1 Lens and Paris strains as controls and six environmental strains isolated from Tunisian spas belonging to serogroups 1, 4, 5, 6, and 8. The essential oils were generally active against L. pneumophila. The activities of the A. herba-alba, C. sinensis, and R. officinalis essential oils were strain-dependent, whereas those of the J. phoenicea and T. vulgaris oils, showing the highest anti-Legionella activities, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) lower than 0.03 and lower than or equal to 0.07 mg/ml, respectively, were independent of the strains' serogroup. Moreover, the microorganisms treated with T. vulgaris essential oil were shorter, swollen, and less electron-dense compared to the untreated controls. Isoborneol (20.91%), (1S)-α-pinene (18.30%) β-phellandrene (8.08%), α-campholenal (7.91%), and α-phellandrene (7.58%) were the major components isolated from the J. phoenicea oil, while carvacrol (88.50%) was the main compound of the T. vulgaris oil, followed by p-cymene (7.86%). This study highlighted the potential interest of some essential oils extracted from Tunisian plants as biocides to prevent the Legionella risk.

  6. Trypanocidal and cytotoxic activities of essential oils from medicinal plants of Northeast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Andrezza Raposo; Aires, Juliana Ramos de Albuquerque; Higino, Taciana Mirely Maciel; de Medeiros, Maria das Graças Freire; Citó, Antonia Maria das Graças Lopes; Lopes, José Arimatéia Dantas; de Figueiredo, Regina Celia Bressan Queiroz

    2012-10-01

    Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in Latin America. There are no vaccines available, the chemotherapy used to treat this illness has serious side effects and its efficacy on the chronic phase of disease is still a matter of debate. In a search for alternative treatment for Chagas disease, essential oils extracted from traditional medicinal plants Lippia sidoides, Lippia origanoides, Chenopodium ambrosioides, Ocimum gratissimum, Justicia pectorales and Vitex agnus-castus were investigated in vitro for trypanocidal and cytotoxic activities. Essential Oils were extracted by hydrodistillation and submitted to chemical analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The concentration of essential oils necessary to inhibit 50% of the epimastigotes or amastigotes growth (IC(50)) and to kill 50% of trypomastigote forms (LC(50)) was estimated. The most prevalent chemical constituents of these essential oils were monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. All essential oils tested demonstrated an inhibitory effect on the parasite growth and survival. L. sidoides and L. origanoides essential oils were the most effective against trypomastigote and amastigote forms respectively. No significant cytotoxic effects were observed in mouse peritoneal macrophages incubated with essential oils which were more selective against the parasites than mammalian cells. Taken together, our results point towards the use of these essential oils as potential chemotherapeutic agent against T. cruzi. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Antifungal Activity of Essential Oils from Some Medicinal Plants of Iran against Alternaria alternate

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    I. Hadizadeh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Increasing public concern over the level of pesticide residues in food especially fresh produce has built up adequate pressure for scientists to look for less hazardous and environmentally safer compounds for controlling post harvest diseases. Essential oils as registered food grade materials have the potential to be applied as alternative anti-fungal treatments for fresh fruits and vegetables. Approach: We present in this study, the identification of the essential oils with antifungal activity from some medicinal plants of Iran (nettle (Urtica dioica L., thyme (Thymus vulgaris L., eucalyptus (Eucalyptus spp., Rue (Ruta graveolens L. and common yarrow (Achillea millefolium L., and their potential application as "generally regarded as safe" antifungal compounds against Alternaria alternate on tomato as a model pathosystem. Results: Both the nettle and the thyme oils exhibited antifungal activity against A. alternata. The thyme oil exhibited a lower degree of inhibition 68.5 and 74.8% at 1500 and 2000 ppm, respectively. Spore germination and germ tube elongation of the pathogens in potato dextrose broth was strongly reduced in the presence of 1500 ppm of the nettle oil. The same concentration of this oil reduced the percentage of decayed tomatoes. The experiments on reducing the development of natural tomato rot gave similar results. Conclusions: Application of essential oils for postharvest disease control of fresh produce, as a novel emerging alternative to hazardous anti-fungal treatments will allow a safer and environmentally more acceptable management of postharvest diseases.

  8. Activity of essential oils from Brazilian medicinal plants on Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Marta Cristina Teixeira; Leme, Ewerton Eduardo; Delarmelina, Camila; Soares, Andressa Almeida; Figueira, Glyn Mara; Sartoratto, Adilson

    2007-05-04

    Essential oils obtained from leaves of 29 medicinal plants commonly used in Brazil were screened against 13 different Escherichia coli serotypes. The oils were obtained by water-distillation using a Clevenger-type system and their minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) were determined by microdilution method. Essential oil from Cymbopogon martinii exhibited a broad inhibition spectrum, presenting strong activity (MIC between 100 and 500 microg/mL) against 10 out of 13 Escherichia coli serotypes: three enterotoxigenic, two enteropathogenic, three enteroinvasive and two shiga-toxin producers. C. winterianus inhibited strongly two enterotoxigenic, one enteropathogenic, one enteroinvasive and one shiga-toxin producer serotypes. Aloysia triphylla also shows good potential to kill Escherichia coli with moderate to strong inhibition. Other essential oils showed antimicrobial properties, however with a more restricted action against the serotypes studied. Chemical analysis of Cymbopogon martinii essential oil performed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) showed the presence of compounds with known antimicrobial activity, including geraniol, geranyl acetate and trans-cariophyllene, which tested separately, indicated geraniol as antimicrobial active compound. The significant antibacterial activity of Cymbopogon martinii oil suggests that they could serve as a source for compounds with therapeutic potential.

  9. Antibacterial activity chemical composition relationship of the essential oils from cultivated plants from Serbia

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    Stanković Nemanja S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial effects of essential oils from Serbian cultivated plants, Thymus vulgaris L. (Lamiace and Lavandula angustifolia L. (Lamiace on different bacteria were investigated, with an emphasis on an antibacterial activity-chemical composition relationship. Essential oil was obtained from airdried aerial parts of the plants by hydrodistillation for 3 h using a Clevenger-type apparatus. The essential oil analyses were performed simultaneously by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS systems. The main constituents of thyme oil were thymol (59.95% and p-cymene (18.34%. Linalyl acetate (38.23% and linalool (35.01% were main compounds in lavender oil. The antibacterial activity of the essential oils samples was tested towards 5 different bacteria: laboratory control strain obtained from the American Type Culture Collection and clinical isolates from different pathogenic media. Gram negative bacteria were represented by Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 43895 and Salmonella enteretidis ATCC 9027 while researched Gram positive strains were Bacillus cereus ATCC 8739 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. A broth microdilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC. Essential oils from thyme have been found to have antimicrobial activity against all microorganisms tested, with a range of MIC values from 0.025 to 0.10 l/ml and MBC values from 0.05 to 0.78 l/ml. Lavender oils demonstrated MIC values from 0.025 to 0.20 l/ml and MBC values from 0.05 and 0.78 l/ml. Reference antibiotic tetracycline was active in concentrations between 0.025 and 0.05 l/ml. The Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to the essential oil of thyme, while Gram-negative bacteria were more sensitive to the essential oil of lavender. Essential oils from thyme and lavender may be used at low concentrations for prevention and treatment of

  10. Virucidal activity of essential oils from aromatic plants of San Luis, Argentina.

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    García, C C; Talarico, L; Almeida, N; Colombres, S; Duschatzky, C; Damonte, E B

    2003-11-01

    Essential oils obtained from eight aromatic plants of San Luis Province, Argentina, were screened for virucidal activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), Junin virus (JUNV) and dengue virus type 2 (DEN-2). The most potent inhibition was observed with the essential oil of Lippia junelliana and Lippia turbinata against JUNV with virucidal concentration 50% (VC(50)) values in the range 14-20 ppm, whereas Aloysia gratissima, Heterotheca latifolia and Tessaria absinthioides inhibited JUNV in the range 52-90 ppm. The virucidal activity was time- and temperature-dependent. The essential oils of A. gratissima, Artemisia douglasiana, Eupatorium patens and T. absinthioides inactivated HSV-1 at 65-125 ppm. However, only A. douglasiana and E. patens had any discernible effect on DEN-2 infectivity with VC(50) values of 60 and 150 ppm, respectively.

  11. Nematicidal Activity of Plant Essential Oils and Components From Ajowan (Trachyspermum ammi), Allspice (Pimenta dioica) and Litsea (Litsea cubeba) Essential Oils Against Pine Wood Nematode (Bursaphelenchus Xylophilus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Il-Kwon; Kim, Junheon; Lee, Sang-Gil; Shin, Sang-Chul

    2007-09-01

    Commercial plant essential oils from 26 plant species were tested for their nematicidal activities against the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Good nematicidal activity against B. xylophilus was achieved with essential oils of ajowan (Trachyspermum ammi), allspice (Pimenta dioica) and litsea (Litsea cubeba). Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry led to identification of 12, 6 and 16 major compounds from ajowan, allspice and litsea oils, respectively. These compounds from three plant essential oils were tested individually for their nematicidal activities against the pinewood nematode. LC(50) values of geranial, isoeugenol, methyl isoeugenol, eugenol, methyl eugenol and neral against pine wood nematodes were 0.120, 0.200, 0.210, 0.480, 0.517 and 0.525 mg/ml, respectively. The essential oils described herein merit further study as potential nematicides against the pinewood nematode.

  12. Chemical composition and insecticidal activity of plant essential oils from Benin against Anopheles gambiae (Giles).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossou, Annick D; Mangelinckx, Sven; Yedomonhan, Hounnankpon; Boko, Pelagie M; Akogbeto, Martin C; De Kimpe, Norbert; Avlessi, Félicien; Sohounhloue, Dominique C K

    2013-12-03

    essential oils at the diagnostic dose. C. citratus, E. tereticornis, E. citriodora, C. ambrosioides and C. schoenanthus are potential promising plant sources for alternative compounds to pyrethroids, for the control of the Anopheles malaria vector in Benin. The efficacy of their essential oils is possibly based on their chemical compositions in which major and/or minor compounds have reported insecticidal activities on various pests and disease vectors such as Anopheles.

  13. Chemical composition and insecticidal activity of plant essential oils from Benin against Anopheles gambiae (Giles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    highly susceptible to all the other essential oils at the diagnostic dose. Conclusions C. citratus, E. tereticornis, E. citriodora, C. ambrosioides and C. schoenanthus are potential promising plant sources for alternative compounds to pyrethroids, for the control of the Anopheles malaria vector in Benin. The efficacy of their essential oils is possibly based on their chemical compositions in which major and/or minor compounds have reported insecticidal activities on various pests and disease vectors such as Anopheles. PMID:24298981

  14. Antibacterial activities of plant-derived compounds and essential oils toward Cronobacter sakazakii and Cronobacter malonaticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraňková, Adéla; Marounek, Milan; Mozrová, Věra; Weber, Jaroslav; Klouček, Pavel; Lukešová, Daniela

    2014-10-01

    Cronobacter sakazakii and C. malonaticus are opportunistic pathogens that cause infections in children and immunocompromised adults. In the present study, the antibacterial activity of 19 plant-derived compounds, 5 essential oils, and an extract of propolis were assessed against C. sakazakii and C. malonaticus. The effects of most of these antimicrobials have not been reported previously. Both strains were susceptible to thymol, carvacrol, thymoquinone, p-cymene, linalool, camphor, citral, eugenol, and trans-cinnamaldehyde as well as cinnamon, lemongrass, oregano, clove, and laurel essential oils; their minimum inhibitory concentrations varied between 0.1 and 2.0 mg/mL. As an alternative treatment method, vapors of the volatiles were tested as an indirect treatment. Vapors of trans-cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, oregano, and cinnamon essential oils inhibited both tested strains, while vapors of linalool were only active against C. sakazakii. To our knowledge, this study is the first time that the inhibitory activity of the vapors of these compounds and essential oils has been reported against Cronobacter spp.

  15. Nematicidal activity of plant essential oils and components from coriander (Coriandrum sativum), Oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis), and valerian (Valeriana wallichii) essential oils against pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junheon; Seo, Sun-Mi; Lee, Sang-Gil; Shin, Sang-Chul; Park, Il-Kwon

    2008-08-27

    Commercial essential oils from 28 plant species were tested for their nematicidal activities against the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Good nematicidal activity against B. xylophilus was achieved with essential oils of coriander (Coriandrum sativum), Oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis), and valerian (Valeriana wallichii). Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry led to the identification of 26, 11, and 4 major compounds from coriander (Coriandrum sativum), Oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis), and valerian (Valeriana wallichii) oils, respectively. Compounds from each plant essential oil were tested individually for their nematicidal activities against the pine wood nematode. Among the compounds, benzaldehyde, trans-cinnamyl alcohol, cis-asarone, octanal, nonanal, decanal, trans-2-decenal, undecanal, dodecanal, decanol, and trans-2-decen-1-ol showed strong nematicidal activity. The essential oils described herein merit further study as potential nematicides against the pine wood nematode.

  16. Antibacterial activity of commercially available plant-derived essential oils against oral pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardají, D K R; Reis, E B; Medeiros, T C T; Lucarini, R; Crotti, A E M; Martins, C H G

    2016-01-01

    This work investigated the antibacterial activity of 15 commercially available plant-derived essential oils (EOs) against a panel of oral pathogens. The broth microdilution method afforded the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of the assayed EOs. The EO obtained from Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Lauraceae) (CZ-EO) displayed moderate activity against Fusobacterium nucleatum (MIC and MBC = 125 μg/mL), Actinomyces naeslundii (MIC and MBC = 125 μg/mL), Prevotella nigrescens (MIC and MBC = 125 μg/mL) and Streptococcus mutans (MIC = 200 μg/mL; MBC = 400 μg/mL). (Z)-isosafrole (85.3%) was the main chemical component of this oil. We did not detect cinnamaldehyde, previously described as the major constituent of CZ-EO, in specimens collected in other countries.

  17. Fatty acids and sterols composition, and antioxidant activity of oils extracted from plant seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozłowska, Mariola; Gruczyńska, Eliza; Ścibisz, Iwona; Rudzińska, Magdalena

    2016-12-15

    This study determined and compared the contents of bioactive components in plant seed oils extracted with n-hexane (Soxhlet method) and chloroform/methanol (Folch method) from coriander, caraway, anise, nutmeg and white mustard seeds. Oleic acid dominated among unsaturated fatty acids in nutmeg and anise seed oils while petroselinic acid was present in coriander and caraway oils. Concerning sterols, β-sitosterol was the main component in seed oils extracted with both methods. The content of total phenolics in nutmeg, white mustard and coriander seed oils extracted with chloroform/methanol was higher than in their counterparts prepared with n-hexane. The seed oil samples extracted according to the Folch method exhibited a higher ability to scavenge DPPH radicals compared to the oil samples prepared with the Soxhlet method. DPPH values of the methanolic extracts derived from oils produced with the Folch method were also higher than in the oils extracted with n-hexane.

  18. "Singing in the Tube"--audiovisual assay of plant oil repellent activity against mosquitoes (Culex pipiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Temitope F; Wongchai, Chatchawal; Chaidee, Anchalee; Pfeiffer, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Plant essential oils have been suggested as a promising alternative to the established mosquito repellent DEET (N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide). Searching for an assay with generally available equipment, we designed a new audiovisual assay of repellent activity against mosquitoes "Singing in the Tube," testing single mosquitoes in Drosophila cultivation tubes. Statistics with regression analysis should compensate for limitations of simple hardware. The assay was established with female Culex pipiens mosquitoes in 60 experiments, 120-h audio recording, and 2580 estimations of the distance between mosquito sitting position and the chemical. Correlations between parameters of sitting position, flight activity pattern, and flight tone spectrum were analyzed. Regression analysis of psycho-acoustic data of audio files (dB[A]) used a squared and modified sinus function determining wing beat frequency WBF ± SD (357 ± 47 Hz). Application of logistic regression defined the repelling velocity constant. The repelling velocity constant showed a decreasing order of efficiency of plant essential oils: rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), citronella (Cymbopogon nardus), tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia), clove (Syzygium aromaticum), lemon (Citrus limon), patchouli (Pogostemon cablin), DEET, cedar wood (Cedrus atlantica). In conclusion, we suggest (1) disease vector control (e.g., impregnation of bed nets) by eight plant essential oils with repelling velocity superior to DEET, (2) simple mosquito repellency testing in Drosophila cultivation tubes, (3) automated approaches and room surveillance by generally available audio equipment (dB[A]: ISO standard 226), and (4) quantification of repellent activity by parameters of the audiovisual assay defined by correlation and regression analyses.

  19. Assessment of microbial respiratory activity of a manufactured gas plant soil after remediation using sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zongqiang; Alef, Kassem; Wilke, Berndt-Michael; Mai, Maike; Li, Peijun

    2005-09-30

    Microbial activity of a manufactured gas plant (MGP) soil, as well as remaining oil degradability, before and after remediation using sunflower oil was assessed. A sandy soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was collected from an MGP site in Berlin, Germany. Column solubilizations of PAHs from the field-moist soil and air-dried soil using sunflower oil as an extractant at an oil/soil ratio of 2:1 (v/m) were carried out to compare PAH removals from the soil under these two conditions. After column solubilizations, portions of untreated soil (UTS), solubilized field-moist soil (SFMS), and solubilized air-dried soil (SADS) were amended with nutrients. Both nutrient amended and unamended soil samples were subjected to soil respiratory measurement. Soil respiration parameters, such as basal respiration rate, nutrient-induced respiration rate, lag time, exponential growth rate, respiratory activation quotient, peak maximum time, and cumulative CO2 evolution were calculated from the soil respiration curves. The parameters were compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and least-significance difference (LSD). Results showed that the impact of soil moisture on the PAH removals was quite significant, with the SADS showing higher PAH removals and the SFMS showing lower ones. There were significant differences between the respiration parameters with respect to the UTS, SFMS, and SADS. Basal respiration rate, nutrient-induced respiration rate, and exponential growth rate were lower for the SFMS and SADS relative to the UTS. Lag time and peak maximum time were higher for the SFMS and SADS relative to the UTS. Exponential growth rate was higher for the SFMS relative to the SADS. These parameters demonstrated that soil microbial activity was reduced at the onset of the test, because a lot of bioavailable materials for microbial growth were removed by sunflower oil. On the other hand, cumulative CO2 evolutions in the SFMS and SADS were higher than that in

  20. Plant species affect colonization patterns and metabolic activity of associated endophytes during phytoremediation of crude oil-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, K; Imran, A; Amin, I; Khan, Q M; Afzal, M

    2016-04-01

    Plants coupled with endophytic bacteria hold great potential for the remediation of polluted environment. The colonization patterns and activity of inoculated endophytes in rhizosphere and endosphere of host plant are among the primary factors that may influence the phytoremediation process. However, these colonization patterns and metabolic activity of the inoculated endophytes are in turn controlled by none other than the host plant itself. The present study aims to determine such an interaction specifically for plant-endophyte systems remediating crude oil-contaminated soil. A consortium (AP) of two oil-degrading endophytic bacteria (Acinetobacter sp. strain BRSI56 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain BRRI54) was inoculated to two grasses, Brachiaria mutica and Leptochloa fusca, vegetated in crude oil-contaminated soil. Colonization patterns and metabolic activity of the endophytes were monitored in the rhizosphere and endosphere of the plants. Bacterial augmentation enhanced plant growth and crude oil degradation. Maximum crude oil degradation (78%) was achieved with B. mutica plants inoculated with AP consortium. This degradation was significantly higher than those treatments, where plants and bacteria were used individually or L. fusca and endophytes were used in combination. Moreover, colonization and metabolic activity of the endophytes were higher in the rhizosphere and endosphere of B. mutica than L. fusca. The plant species affected not only colonization pattern and biofilm formation of the inoculated bacteria in the rhizosphere and endosphere of the host plant but also affected the expression of alkane hydroxylase gene, alkB. Hence, the investigation revealed that plant species can affect colonization patterns and metabolic activity of inoculated endophytic bacteria and ultimately the phytoremediation process.

  1. Repellent activities of some Labiatae plant essential oils against the saltmarsh mosquito Ochlerotatus caspius (Pallas, 1771) (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Samed; Oz, Emre; Cetin, Huseyin

    2012-06-01

    The repellent activities of the essential oils of two Thymus (Thymus sipyleus Boiss. subsp. sipyleus and Thymus revolutus Celak) and two Mentha (Mentha spicata L. subsp. spicata and Mentha longifolia L.) species against Ochlerotatus caspius (Pallas, 1771) (Diptera: Culicidae) are presented. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation of the aerial parts of the plants in flowering period and repellency tests were done with a Y-tube olfactometer. All essential oils showed repellency in varying degrees and exhibited no significant time-dependent repellent activities. When all test oils compared for repellent activities there was no significant activity detected within 15 min exposure period. Mentha essential oils had better activity than Thymus essential oils, producing high repellency (73.8-84.2%) at 30th min on Oc. caspius. Mentha longifolia has the best mosquito repellent activity among the plants tested at the 25th min. Th. sipyleus subsp. sipyleus essential oil produced >85% repellent activity at the 15th min, but the effect decreased noticeably to 63.1% and 68% at 25th and 30th min, respectively.

  2. Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical analysis of crude extracts and essential oils from medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, N C C; Barbosa, L; Seito, L N; Fernandes, A

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to establish a phytochemical analysis of the crude extracts and performed GC-MS of the essential oils (EOs) of Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) and Asteraceae species Baccharis dracunculifolia DC, Matricaria chamomilla L. and Vernonia polyanthes Less, as well as determining their antimicrobial activity. Establishment of the minimal inhibitory concentrations of the crude extracts and EOs against 16 Staphylococcus aureus and 16 Escherichia coli strains from human specimens was carried out using the dilution method in Mueller-Hinton agar. Some phenolic compounds with antimicrobial properties were established, and all EOs had a higher antimicrobial activity than the extracts. Matricaria chamomilla extract and E. uniflora EO were efficient against S. aureus strains, while E. uniflora and V. polyanthes extracts and V. polyanthes EO showed the best antimicrobial activity against E. coli strains. Staphylococcus aureus strains were more susceptible to the tested plant products than E. coli, but all natural products promoted antimicrobial growth inhibition.

  3. Oil from plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvin, M.

    1983-01-01

    As a result of the exhaustion of our supplies of ancient photosynthesis (oil and gas) it is necessary to develop renewable fuels for the future. The most immediate source of renewable fuel is, of course, the annually growing green plants, some of which produce hydrocarbon(s) directly. New plant sources can be selected for this purpose, plants which have high potential for production of chemicals and liquid fuels. Suggestions are made for modification of both the product character and the productivity of the plants. Ultimately, a totally synthetic device will be developed for the conversion of solar quanta into useful chemical form completely independent of the need for arable land.

  4. Fumigant activity of plant essential oils and components from horseradish (Armoracia rusticana), anise (Pimpinella anisum) and garlic (Allium sativum) oils against Lycoriella ingenua (Diptera: Sciaridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ii-Kwon; Choi, Kwang-Sik; Kim, Do-Hyung; Choi, In-Ho; Kim, Lee-Sun; Bak, Won-Chull; Choi, Joon-Weon; Shin, Sang-Chul

    2006-08-01

    Plant essential oils from 40 plant species were tested for their insecticidal activities against larvae of Lycoriella ingénue (Dufour) using a fumigation bioassay. Good insecticidal activity against larvae of L. ingenua was achieved with essential oils of Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Eucalyptus globulus Labill, Eucalyptus smithii RT Baker, horseradish, anise and garlic at 10 and 5 microL L(-1) air. Horseradish, anise and garlic oils showed the most potent insecticidal activities among the plant essential oils. At 1.25 microL L(-1), horseradish, anise and garlic oils caused 100, 93.3 and 13.3% mortality, but at 0.625 microL L(-1) air this decreased to 3.3, 0 and 0% respectively. Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry led to the identification of one major compound from horseradish, and three each from anise and garlic oils. These seven compounds and m-anisaldehyde and o-anisaldehyde, two positional isomers of p-anisaldehyde, were tested individually for their insecticidal activities against larvae of L. ingenua. Allyl isothiocyanate was the most toxic, followed by trans-anethole, diallyl disulfide and p-anisaldehyde with LC(50) values of 0.15, 0.20, 0.87 and 1.47 microL L(-1) respectively.

  5. In vivo and in vitro control activity of plant essential oils against three strains of Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Peeyush; Mishra, Sapna; Kumar, Atul; Kumar, Sanjeev; Prasad, Chandra Shekhar

    2017-08-07

    Contamination of environment and food from the prevalent spores and mycotoxins of Aspergillus niger has led to several diseases in humans and other animals. The present study investigated the control activity of plant essential oils against three strains of A. niger. In the elaborate assays done through microdilution plate assay and agar disk diffusion assay in the lab condition and in vivo assay on the stored wheat grains, the essential oil of Thymus vulgaris depicted overall superior efficacy. In microdilution plate assay, the oil of Anethum graveolens showed best fungistatic activity, while best fungicidal activity was depicted by Syzygium aromaticum oil. The oil of T. vulgaris showed moderate control efficacy against A. niger strains with its antifungal activity resulting mainly due to killing of microorganism rather than growth inhibition. In agar disk diffusion assay, T. vulgaris oil with a zone of inhibition (ZOI) of 23.3-61.1% was the most effective fungicide. The in vivo assay to evaluate the protection efficacy of oils for stored wheat grains against A. niger (AN1) revealed T. vulgaris (90.5-100%) to be the best control agent, followed by the oil of S. aromaticum (61.9-100%). The GC-MS analysis of T. vulgaris oil indicated the presence of thymol (39.11%), γ-terpinene (19.73%), o-cymene (17.21%), and β-pinene (5.38%) as major oil components. Phytotoxic effects of the oils on wheat seeds showed no significant phytotoxic effect of oils in terms of seed germination or seedling growth. The results of the study demonstrated control potentiality of essential oils for the protection of stored wheat against A. niger with prospect for development of eco-friendly antifungal products.

  6. Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Essential Oils from Wild Growing Aromatic Plant Species of Skimmia laureola and Juniperus macropoda from Western Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stappen, Iris; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Ali, Abbas; Wedge, David E; Wanner, Jürgen; Kaul, Vijay K; Lal, Brij; Jaitak, Vikas; Gochev, Velizar K; Schmidt, Erich; Jirovetz, Leopold

    2015-06-01

    The Himalayan region is very rich in a great variety of medicinal plants. In this investigation the essential oils of two selected species are described for their antimicrobial and larvicidal as well as biting deterrent activities. Additionally, the odors are characterized. Analyzed by simultaneous GC-MS and GC-FID, the essential oils' chemical compositions are given. The main components of Skimmia laureola oil were linalool and linalyl acetate whereas sabinene was found as the main compound for Juniperus macropoda essential oil. Antibacterial testing by agar dilution assay revealed highest activity of S. laureola oil against all tested bacteria, followed by J. macropoda oil. Antifungal activity was evaluated against the strawberry anthracnose causing plant pathogens Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae and C. gloeosporioides. Juniperus macropoda essential oil indicated higher antifungal activity against all three pathogens than S. laureola oil. Both essential oils showed biting deterrent activity above solvent control but low larvicidal activity.

  7. Evaluation of antibacterial activity and synergistic effect between antibiotic and the essential oils of some medicinal plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fadila Moussaoui; Tajelmolk Alaoui

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To demonstrate the in vitro antibacterial properties of five essential oils against ten bacterial strains and study the synergistic effect of the combination of essential oils with standard antibiotics.Methods:Origanum compactum,Chrysanthemum coronarium,Thymus willdenowii Boiss,Melissa officinalis and Origanum majorana L.were used alone and combined used with standard antibiotics to evaluate their antimicrobial activities.The disk diffusion method was employed.Results:The results showed that the combined application of the essential oils of the plants with antibiotics led to a synergistic effect in some cases,but antagonistic effect was also observed in some bacteria.Conclusions:This study shows that the combination of essential oils of the five plants with antibiotics may be useful in the fight against emerging microbial drug resistance.

  8. Evaluation of antibacterial activity and synergistic effect between antibiotic and the essential oils of some medicinal plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fadila Moussaoui; Tajelmolk Alaoui

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To demonstrate the in vitro antibacterial properties of five essential oils against ten bacterial strains and study the synergistic effect of the combination of essential oils with standard antibiotics. Methods: Origanum compactum, Chrysanthemum coronarium, Thymus willdenowii Boiss, Melissa officinalis and Origanum majorana L. were used alone and combined used with standard antibiotics to evaluate their antimicrobial activities. The disk diffusion method was employed. Results: The results showed that the combined application of the essential oils of the plants with antibiotics led to a synergistic effect in some cases, but antagonistic effect was also observed in some bacteria. Conclusions: This study shows that the combination of essential oils of the five plants with antibiotics may be useful in the fight against emerging microbial drug resistance.

  9. Antifungal activity of essential oils from Iranian plants against fluconazole-resistant and fluconazole-susceptible Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifzadeh, Aghil; Shokri, Hojjatollah

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to assay the antifungal activity of selected essential oils obtained from plants against both fluconazole (FLU)-resistant and FLU-susceptible C. albicans strains isolated from HIV positive patients with oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC). Materials and Methods: The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation method from Myrtus communis (My. communis), Zingiber officinale roscoe (Z. officinale roscoe), Matricaria chamomilla (Ma. chamomilla), Trachyspermum ammi (T. ammi) and Origanum vulgare (O. vulgare). The susceptibility test was based on the M27-A2 methodology. The chemical compositions of the essential oils were obtained by gas chromatography- mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Results: In GC-MS analysis, thymol (63.40%), linalool (42%), α-pinene (27.87%), α-pinene (22.10%), and zingiberene (31.79%) were found to be the major components of T. ammi, O. vulgare, My. communis, Ma. chamomilla and Z. officinale roscoe, respectively. The results showed that essential oils have different levels of antifungal activity. O. vulgare and T. ammi essential oils were found to be the most efficient (Pessential oils were higher than those of the FLU-susceptible yeasts. Conclusion: Results of this study indicated that the oils from medicinal plants could be used as potential anti FLU-resistant C. albicans agents. PMID:27222835

  10. Insecticidal and Repellent Activity of Several Plant-Derived Essential Oils Against Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Ruth M; Stashenko, Elena; Duque, Jonny E

    2017-03-01

    We examined the pupicidal, adulticidal, repellent, and oviposition-deterrent activities of essential oils (EOs) from Lippia alba, L. origanoides, Eucalyptus citriodora, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon flexuosus, Citrus sinensis , Cananga odorata , Swinglea glutinosa, and Tagetes lucida plants against Aedes aegypti under laboratory conditions. Pupicidal and adulticidal activities were assessed at exploratory concentrations of 250, 310, and 390 parts per million (ppm); and 30, 300, and 1,000 ppm, respectively. The greatest pupicidal activity was exhibited at 390 ppm with a 24-h exposure by L. origanoides, and 390 ppm with a 48-h exposure by Citrus sinensis . Lippia origanoides killed all adult mosquitoes at 300 ppm after 120 min of exposure. Only L. origanoides and E. citriodora EOs, applied at 1,000 ppm to human skin, produced the greatest repellency (100%) to host-seeking Ae. aegypti after 2 min of exposure; the repellency decreased between 12% and 10% after 15 min. Complete oviposition deterrence by gravid Ae. aegypti was observed for E. citriodora EOs at 200 ppm with an oviposition activity index of -1.00. These results confirm that the EOs assessed in this study have insecticidal, repellent, and oviposition-deterrent activities against the dengue vector, Ae. aegypti.

  11. Comparison of the concentrations of phenolic compounds in olive oils and other plant oils: correlation with antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Eduardo; de Castro, Antonio; Romero, Concepcion; Brenes, Manuel

    2006-07-12

    The antimicrobial activity of different edible vegetable oils was studied. In vitro results revealed that the oils from olive fruits had a strong bactericidal action against a broad spectrum of microorganisms, this effect being higher in general against Gram-positive than Gram-negative bacteria. Thus, olive oils showed bactericidal activity not only against harmful bacteria of the intestinal microbiota (Clostridium perfringens and Escherichia coli) also against beneficial microorganisms such as Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum. Otherwise, most of the foodborne pathogens tested (Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enterica, Yersinia sp., and Shigella sonnei) did not survive after 1 h of contact with olive oils. The dialdehydic form of decarboxymethyl oleuropein and ligstroside aglycons, hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol, were the phenolic compounds that statistically correlated with bacterial survival. These findings were confirmed by testing each individual phenolic compound, isolated by HPLC, against L. monocytogenes. In particular, the dialdehydic form of decarboxymethyl ligstroside aglycon showed a potent antimicrobial activity. These results indicate that not all oils classified as "olive oil" had similar bactericidal effects and that this bioactivity depended on their content of certain phenolic compounds.

  12. Evidence for synergistic activity of plant-derived volatile essential oils against fungal pathogens of food

    Science.gov (United States)

    The antifungal activities of eight essential oils (EOs) namely basil, cinnamon, eucalyptus, mandarin, oregano, peppermint, tea tree and thyme were evaluated for their ability to inhibit growth of Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus paraciticus and Penicillium chrysogenum. The antifung...

  13. Antibacterial activity of aromatic plants essential oils from Serbia against the Listeria monocytogenes

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    Klaus Anita

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of selected essential oils for the control of the growth and survival of pathogenic bacteria Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19112 and Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19115, which are of significant importance in food hygiene. Essential oils extracted from Salvia officinalis L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Majorana hortensis Moench., Thymus vulgaris L., Carum carvi L., Pimpinella anisum L. and Coriandrum sativum L. were evaluated. Antibacterial activity was done by the disk diffusion method in the presence of pure essential oils and four suspensions in alcohol. The best results obtained with Thymus vulgaris and Majorana hortensis essential oils, which were acting microbicidaly on both observed strains of Listeria monocytogenes, even in the small concentration. Because some of the essential oils were highly inhibitory even in small quantities to selected pathogenic bacteria, they may provide alternatives to conventional antimicrobial additives in foods. .

  14. Antimicrobial activity of plant essential oils against bacterial and fungal species involved in food poisoning and/or food decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lixandru, Brînduşa-Elena; Drăcea, Nicoleta Olguţa; Dragomirescu, Cristiana Cerasella; Drăgulescu, Elena Carmina; Coldea, Ileana Luminiţa; Anton, Liliana; Dobre, Elena; Rovinaru, Camelia; Codiţă, Irina

    2010-01-01

    The currative properties of aromatic and medicinal plants have been recognized since ancient times and, more recently, the antimicrobial activity of plant essential oils has been used in several applications, including food preservation. The purpose of this study was to create directly comparable, quantitative data on the antimicrobial activity of some plant essential oils prepared in the National Institute of Research-Development for Chemistry and Petrochemistry, Bucharest to be used for the further development of food packaging technology, based on their antibacterial and antifungal activity. The essential oils extracted from thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), sage (Salvia officinalis L.), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L.), spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) and carraway (Carum carvi L.) were investigated for their antimicrobial activity against eleven different bacterial and three fungal strains belonging to species reported to be involved in food poisoning and/or food decay: S. aureus ATCC 25923, S. aureus ATCC 6538, S. aureus ATCC 25913, E. coli ATCC 25922, E. coli ATCC 35218, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis Cantacuzino Institute Culture Collection (CICC) 10878, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19112, Bacillus cereus CIP 5127, Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778, Candida albicans ATCC 10231, Aspergillus niger ATCC 16404, Penicillium spp. CICC 251 and two E. coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis clinical isolates. The majority of the tested essential oils exibited considerable inhibitory capacity against all the organisms tested, as supported by growth inhibition zone diameters, MICs and MBC's. Thyme, coriander and basil oils proved the best antibacterial activity, while thyme and spearmint oils better inhibited the fungal species.

  15. Allelopathic activity of medicinal plant essential oils on seed germination and vigor of lettuce achenes

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    Cíntia Alvarenga Santos Fraga de Miranda

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, essential oils have gained commercial interest in the agricultural area, mainly for their allelopathic, insecticidal, antifungal, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties, and, also for their natural compounds, which have generally displayed low toxicity, relatively low cost and rapid degradation in the environment. Medicinal plants have emerged as potential suppliers of essential oils because of their ethnopharmacological utility. The aim of this study was to evaluate the allelopathic potential of essential oils extracted from fresh leaves of lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus, wild basil (Ocimum gratissimum L. and sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. with regard to their major constituents (citral, eugenol and cineol, respectively in different application forms (direct contact and the effect of volatile constituents on the germination and vigor of lettuce seeds (cultivar Regina SF 3500. The effects of the oils and their major components were evaluated with regard to the variables: first germination count, total germination, GVI (germination velocity index, seedling dry weight and average lengths of shoots and lettuce roots. The essential oils from lemon grass and basil displayed allelopathic potentials on seed germination and vigor of lettuce achenes that can be assigned to their respective major constituents citral and eugenol. On the other hand, the allelopathic effect of the essential oil from basil was a consequence of the combined effect of all the components, regardless the application method.

  16. Essential Oils from Leaves of Medicinal Plants of Brazilian Flora: Chemical Composition and Activity against Candida Species

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    Maria da Conceição Mendes Ferreira da Costa

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The biotechnological potential of medicinal plants from Brazilian Caatinga and the Atlantic Forest has not been extensively studied. Thus, screening programs are important in prospecting for compounds for developing new drugs. The purpose of this study was to determine the chemical composition and to evaluate the anti-Candida activity of essential oils from leaves of Hymenaea courbaril var. courbaril, Myroxylon peruiferum, and Vismia guianensis. Methods: The oils were extracted through hydrodistillation and their chemical compositions were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Antifungal activity against C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. glabrata, and C. krusei was evaluated by determining the minimal inhibitory (MIC and fungicidal (MFC concentrations. Results: The major compounds of the oils were caryophyllene oxide and trans-caryophyllene for H. courbaril; spathulenol, α-pinene, and caryophyllene oxide for M. peruiferum; and caryophyllene oxide and humulene epoxide II for V. guianensis oil. The oils showed antifungal activity against all the strains tested, and the MIC values ranged between 0.625 and 1.25 μL/mL and MFC from 0.625 to 2.5 μL/mL. Conclusion: The essential oils from the species studied have the potential to be evaluated as clinical applications in the treatment of candidiasis.

  17. Antioxidant activity of various plant extracts under ambient and accelerated storage of sunflower oil

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    Sheikh, Munir A.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the antioxidant potential of 11 medicinally or economically important plant materials indigenous to Pakistan. The materials were extracted with 80% methanol and examined  for their antioxidant activity under different storage conditions using sunflower and soybean oils as oxidation substrates. Preliminary antioxidant activity assessment among the extracts was conducted with the TLC-test and by measuring percent inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation. The rhizome of Iris germanica, leaves of Lawsonia alba, and M. oleifera, coffee (Coffee arabica beans, rice (Oryza sativa bran, wheat bran and oats (Avenis sativa groats and hull, which showed higher antioxidant activity among the extracts, were further evaluated using soybean and sunflower oils as oxidation substrates. The vegetable oils were stabilized with extracts at a dosage of 0.12% (w/w, and individually subjected to accelerated (65 oC, 15 days and ambient (6 months storage. The oxidative deterioration level was monitored for the measurement of antioxidant activity index (AI, peroxide value (PV, conjugated dienes and trienes contents. Overall, the extracts of coffee beans, oat groats and hull, Iris germanica and M. oleifera leaves were found to be the most effective in extending oxidative stability, and retarding PV, primary and secondary oxidation products of soybean and sunflower oils. The order of efficiency of the plant extracts for stabilization of the subject oils was as follows: oat groats and hull > coffee beans > M. oleifera leaves > Lawsonia alba > Iris germanica > rice bran > wheat bran. Significant differences in the antioxidant potential of some of the extracts for stabilization of substrate oils were observed under ambient and accelerated storage conditions and thus demonstrated a variable antioxidant prospective of the extracts under different analytical protocols.El presente trabajo se ha realizado para investigar la capacidad

  18. Antibacterial Activity of Daucus crinitus Essential Oils along the Vegetative Life of the Plant

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    Amel Bendiabdellah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils from the aerial parts of Daucus crinitus Desf. were analyzed at three developmental stages (early vegetative, early flowering, and full flowering. Oil yield was found to vary depending on the stage of development, and the highest content of oil (0.15% w/w was obtained at full flowering. The chemical composition of essential oils studied by GC and GC-MS showed a total of 71 compounds: 27 aliphatic compounds, 18 sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, 9 hydrocarbons monoterpene, 5 oxygenated monoterpenes, 5 phenolic compounds, 4 oxygenated sesquiterpenes, 2 oxygenated diterpenes, and 01 diterpene hydrocarbons. Whatever the analyzed stage, phenolic compounds were the most abundant group. Their level significantly increased during ripening and varied from 36.4 to 82.1%. Antimicrobial activities of oils were tested on four different microorganisms. The oils of various phenological stages showed high activity against Candida albicans (30 mm and Staphylococcus aureus (11–28 mm bacteria strains which are deemed very dangerous and very difficult to eliminate. Thus, they represent an inexpensive source of natural antibacterial substances that may potentially be used in pathogenic systems.

  19. Antimicrobial activity of Rosmarinus eriocalyx essential oil and polyphenols: An endemic medicinal plant from Algeria

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    Fethi Benbelaïd

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antimicrobial potency of Rosmarinus eriocalyx (R. eriocalyx essential oil and total polyphenols against pathogenic microorganisms. Methods: Antimicrobial activity of R. eriocalyx extracts was assessed by disc diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentrations determination. Essential oil obtained from endemic rosemary by hydrodistillation was analysed by gas chromatograph/retention index and gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. Results: An interesting antimicrobial activity was shown by R. eriocalyx extracts. Polyphenols, constituted mainly by flavonoids, were the most effective extract with very low minimum inhibitory concentrations values, ranged between 0.06 and 8.00 mg/mL, while essential oil was less efficient. It should be noted that antimicrobial activities of both R. eriocalyx extracts were more directed against fungi and Gram-positive bacteria than Gram-negative ones, in which Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Candida albicans were the most sensitive strains. Concerning chemical composition of R. eriocalyx essential oil, camphor (37.8%, 1,8- cineole (17.4%, camphene (13.3%, and α-pinene (10.9% were the major compounds. Conclusions: The findings of the present study indicate that R. eriocalyx extracts possess significant bactericidal and fungicidal activities. Because of its richness in essential oil, and especially flavonoids, R. eriocalyx may be a source for effective and safe antimicrobial agents.

  20. Extraction of essential oils from native plants and algae from the coast of Peniche (Portugal: antimicrobial and antioxidant activity.

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    Clélia Neves Afonso

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Coastal areas are highly complex and dynamic ecosystem of interface between land, sea and atmosphere, which also suffer biotic influences. These areas play several important ecological functions, and here we can find an enormous biodiversity. The coastline of Portugal features a high number of endemic flora and vegetation with the potential to provide functional compounds that may provide physiological benefits at nutritional and therapeutic levels, as sources of bioactive substances with antimicrobial, antioxidant, antifungal, antitumalr and anti-inflammatory activity. Among these compounds, we find essential oils, also known as volatile oils, which are a result of secondary metabolism of aromatic plants, containing a large number of substances with varied chemical composition that can be obtained by different methods of extraction. The aim of this study was to extract essential oils of native plants and seaweeds from the coast of Peniche by hydrodistillation in Clevenger apparatus, with optimization of the purification process. Extracted essential oils were tested as to their ability as antibacterial and antifungal agents, and also as antioxidants. The plants studied for this purpose were Inula chritmoides L., Juniperus phoenicea subsp. turbinata (Guss. Nyman, Daucus carota spp. halophilus and the seaweeds Fucus spiralis L., Codium tomentosum Stackhouse, Stypocaulon scoparium (Linnaeus Kützing and Plocamium cartilagineum (Linnaeus P.S.Dixon. The antimicrobial ability was tested in two bacteria species, Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli and in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, using standard procedures. The antioxidant potential was evaluated and from the results obtained, we can conclude that the essential oils extracted by the hydrodistillation method of plants and algae contain bioactive compounds present in its constitution with interesting bio-activity that can offer significant benefits and biotechnological relevance.

  1. Aromatic plants essential oils activity on Fusarium verticillioides Fumonisin B(1) production in corn grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, A G; Theumer, M G; Zygadlo, J A; Rubinstein, H R

    2004-10-01

    The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Origanum vulgare, Aloysia triphylla, Aloysia polystachya and Mentha piperita essential oils (EOs) against Fusarium verticillioides M 7075 (F. moniliforme, Sheldon) were assessed, using the semisolid agar antifungal susceptibility (SAAS) technique. O. vulgare, A. triphylla, A. polystachya and M. piperita EOs were evaluated at final concentrations of 10, 20, 40, 50, 100, 200, 250, 500, 1000 and 1500 epsilonl per litre (epsilonl/l) of culture medium. A. triphylla and O. vulgare EOs showed the highest inhibitory effects on F. verticillioides mycelial development. This inhibition was observed at 250 and 500 epsilonl/l for EOs coming from Aloysia triphylla and O. vulgare, respectively. Thus, the effects of EOs on FB(1) production were evaluated using corn grain (Zea mays) as substrate. The EOs were inserted on the 5th, 10th, 15th and 20th day of maize postinoculation with a conidia suspension of F. verticillioides. O. vulgare and A. triphylla were applied to give final concentrations of 30 ppm and 45 ppm, respectively. Different effects were observed in the toxicogenicity at the 20th day treatment. The O. vulgare EO decreased the production level of FB(1) (P < 0.01) while A. triphyla EO increased it (P < 0.001) with respect to those obtained in the inoculated maize, not EOs treated. Results obtained in the present work indicate that fumonisin production could be inhibited or stimulated by some constituents of EOs coming from aromatic plants. Further studies should be performed to identify the components of EOs with modulatory activity on the growth and fumonisins production of Fusarium verticillioides.

  2. Antifungal activity of essential oils from Iranian plants against fluconazole-resistant and fluconazole-susceptible Candida albicans

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    Aghil Sharifzadeh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assay the antifungal activity of selected essential oils obtained from plants against both fluconazole (FLU-resistant and FLU-susceptible C. albicans strains isolated from HIV positive patients with oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC. Materials and Methods: The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation method from Myrtus communis (My. communis, Zingiber officinale roscoe (Z. officinale roscoe, Matricaria chamomilla (Ma. chamomilla, Trachyspermum ammi (T. ammi and Origanum vulgare (O. vulgare. The susceptibility test was based on the M27-A2 methodology. The chemical compositions of the essential oils were obtained by gas chromatography- mass spectroscopy (GC-MS. Results: In GC-MS analysis, thymol (63.40%, linalool (42%, α-pinene (27.87%, α-pinene (22.10%, and zingiberene (31.79% were found to be the major components of T. ammi, O. vulgare, My. communis, Ma. chamomilla and Z. officinale roscoe, respectively. The results showed that essential oils have different levels of antifungal activity. O. vulgare and T. ammi essential oils were found to be the most efficient (P

  3. Antioxidant, Anti-5-lipoxygenase and Antiacetylcholinesterase Activities of Essential Oils and Decoction Waters of Some Aromatic Plants

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    Sílvia M. Albano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The scavenging of free radicals and superoxide anion, the inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase and the antiacetylcholinesterase activities of essential oils and decoction waters of eight aromatic plants (Dittrichia viscosa , Foeniculum vulgare, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis, Thymbra capitata , Thymus camphoratus, Thymus carnosus and Thymus mastichina were studied. The essential oils were dominated by 1,8-cineole in S. officinalis (59%, T. mastichina (49% and T. camphoratus (21%; borneol (20% in T. carnosus; carvacrol in Thymbra capitata (68%; γ -terpinene (49% in O. vulgare; α -pinene (26% in F. vulgare; and trans-nerolidol (8% + β -oplopenone (7% in D. viscosa. O. vulgare decoction waters had the highest amount of phenols (4 5 ± 3 mg GAE/mL while F. vulgare only had 5 ± 0 mg GAE/mL. The decoction waters showed higher radical scavenging activity than the essential oils. O. vulgare decoction water showed the best antioxidant activity (IC 50= 3 ± 0 m g/mL, while the most effective essential oils were those of Thymbra capitata (IC 50=61 ± 2 m g/mL and O. vulgare (IC 50=15 6 ± 5 m g/mL. Thymbra capitata (IC 50= 6 ± 0 m g/mL decoction water showed the best superoxide anion scavenging activity. F. vulgare decoction water and essential oil revealed the best 5-lipoxygenase inhibition capacity (IC 50=2 7 ± 1 m g/mL and IC 50=6 8 ± 2 m g/mL, respectively. T. mastichina (IC 50=4 6 ± 4 m g/mL, S. officinalis (IC 50=5 1 ± 4 m g/mL, Thymbra capitata (IC 50=5 2 ± 1 m g/mL and T. camphoratus (IC 50=13 7 ± 2 m g/mL essential oils showed the best antiacetylcholinesterase activity.

  4. In vitro study of anti-coccidial activity of essential oils from indigenous plants against Eimeria tenella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jitviriyanon, Surapan; Phanthong, Phanida; Lomarat, Pattamapan; Bunyapraphatsara, Nuntavan; Porntrakulpipat, Sarthorn; Paraksa, Nuanchan

    2016-09-15

    This study was designed to evaluate the in vitro anticoccidial properties against Eimeria tenella of different essential oils and their major active components. Efficacy of ten essential oils from different Thai indigenous plants were preliminarily screened and only those with potential were further tested for effective concentrations and identifying their active compounds. Oocysticidal property was evaluated in term of sporulation inhibition of oocysts and the percentage of unsporulated, sporulated and degenerated oocysts, after treatment with 125μg/ml of the selected essential oil, the sample was enumerated by haemocytometer, while coccidiocidal activity was assessed by the inhibition of sporozoite invasion in MDBK cell lines. Results showed that only Boesenbergia pandurata and Ocimum basilicum essential oils had strong sporulation inhibition activity by providing a higher ratio of degenerated oocysts and their IC50 were 0.134 and 0.101mg/ml, respectively. GC-MS analysis of B. pandurata essential oil found trans-b-ocimene, camphor, 1,8-cineole, geraniol, camphene, methyl cinnamate, l-limonene and linalool as the major components, while methyl chavicol, α-bergamotene, 1,8-cineole and trans-β-ocimene were the main compounds of O. basilicum essential oil. Methyl cinnamate and camphor were the active components of B. pandurata oil, whereas methyl chavicol was the active component of O. basilicum oil by exhibiting the oocysticidal effect against E. tenella with IC50 values of 0.008, 0.023 and 0.054mg/ml, respectively. Furthermore, B. pandurata and O. basilicum oils also showed a strong cytotoxic property against coccidia with more than 70% inhibition of sporozoite invasion in MDBK cell lines, and their IC50 were 0.004 and 0.004mg/ml, respectively. Methyl cinnamate as well as camphor from B. pandurata and methyl chavicol from O. basilicum were also effective with IC50 values of 0.029, 0.023, and 0.022mg/ml, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  5. Mosquito repellent activity of essential oils of aromatic plants growing in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillij, Y G; Gleiser, R M; Zygadlo, J A

    2008-05-01

    Mosquitoes are important vectors of diseases and nuisance pests. Repellents minimize contact with mosquitoes. Repellents based on essential oils (EO) are being developed as an alternative to DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-methylbenzamide), an effective compound that has disadvantages including toxic reactions, and damage to plastic and synthetic fabric. This work evaluated the repellency against Aedes aegypti of EO from aromatic plants that grow in Argentina: Acantholippia seriphioides, Achyrocline satureioides, Aloysia citriodora, Anemia tomentosa, Baccharis spartioides, Chenopodium ambrosioides, Eucalyptus saligna, Hyptis mutabilis, Minthostachys mollis, Rosmarinus officinalis, Tagetes minuta and Tagetes pusilla. Most EO were effective. Variations depending on geographic origin of the plant were detected. At a 90% EO concentration, A. satureoides and T. pusilla were the least repellent. At concentrations of 12.5% B. spartioides, R. officinalis and A. citriodora showed the longest repellency times. Comparisons of the principal components of each EO suggest that limonene and camphor were the main components responsible for the repellent effects.

  6. Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Composition of Three Essential Oils Extracted from Mediterranean Aromatic Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshafie, Hazem S; Sakr, Shimaa; Mang, Stefania M; Belviso, Sandra; De Feo, Vincenzo; Camele, Ippolito

    2016-11-01

    There is a growing interest in essential oils (EOs) as possible alternatives for traditional chemical pesticides. This study was carried out to characterize the chemical composition of the three EOs extracted from Verbena officinalis, Majorana hortensis, and Salvia officinalis using gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and to evaluate in vitro their efficacy against some phyto or human pathogens. The antifungal activity was investigated against Colletotrichum acutatum and Botrytis cinerea in comparison with Azoxystrobin as a large spectrum fungicide. Antibacterial activity was evaluated against Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus mojavensis, and Clavibacter michiganensis (G+ve) and Escherichia coli, Xanthomonas campestris, Pseudomonas savastanoi, and P. syringae pv. phaseolicola (G-ve) compared to a synthetic antibiotic tetracycline. Minimum inhibitory concentration was evaluated against the above tested fungi using 96-well microplate method. Results showed that the chemical structure of the three studied EOs was mainly composed of monoterpene compounds and all oils belong to the chemotype carvacrol/thymol. Results of GC analysis identified 64 compounds, which were identified based on their mass to charge ratio. Furthermore, the different concentrations of studied EOs inhibited the growth of tested microorganism in a dose-dependent manner.

  7. Antibacterial Activity of Daucus crinitus Essential Oils along the Vegetative Life of the Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Bendiabdellah, Amel; DIB, Mohammed El Amine; Meliani, Nawel; Muselli, Alain; Nassim, Djabou; Tabti, Boufeldja; Costa, Jean

    2013-01-01

    The essential oils from the aerial parts of Daucus crinitus Desf. were analyzed at three developmental stages (early vegetative, early flowering, and full flowering). Oil yield was found to vary depending on the stage of development, and the highest content of oil (0.15% w/w) was obtained at full flowering. The chemical composition of essential oils studied by GC and GC-MS showed a total of 71 compounds: 27 aliphatic compounds, 18 sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, 9 hydrocarbons monoterpene, 5 oxyg...

  8. Chemical composition, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities of essential oils of plants from Burkina Faso.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagora Bayala

    Full Text Available This research highlights the chemical composition, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities of essential oils from leaves of Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum americanum, Hyptis spicigera, Lippia multiflora, Ageratum conyzoides, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Zingiber officinale. Essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-flame ionization detector. Major constituents were α-terpineol (59.78% and β-caryophyllene (10.54% for Ocimum basilicum; 1, 8-cineol (31.22%, camphor (12.730%, α-pinene (6.87% and trans α-bergamotene (5.32% for Ocimum americanum; β-caryophyllene (21%, α-pinene (20.11%, sabinene (10.26%, β-pinene (9.22% and α-phellandrene (7.03% for Hyptis spicigera; p-cymene (25.27%, β-caryophyllene (12.70%, thymol (11.88, γ-terpinene (9.17% and thymyle acetate (7.64% for Lippia multiflora; precocene (82.10%for Ageratum conyzoides; eucalyptol (59.55%, α-pinene (9.17% and limonene (8.76% for Eucalyptus camaldulensis; arcurcumene (16.67%, camphene (12.70%, zingiberene (8.40%, β-bisabolene (7.83% and β-sesquiphellandrène (5.34% for Zingiber officinale. Antioxidant activities were examined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS methods. O. basilicum and L. multiflora exhibited the highest antioxidant activity in DPPH and ABTS tests, respectively. Anti-inflammatory properties were evaluated by measuring the inhibition of lipoxygenase activity and essential oil of Z. officinale was the most active. Anti-proliferative effect was assayed by the measurement of MTT on LNCaP and PC-3 prostate cancer cell lines, and SF-763 and SF-767 glioblastoma cell lines. Essential oils from A. conyzoides and L. multiflora were the most active on LNCaP and PC-3 cell lines, respectively. The SF-767 glioblastoma cell line was the most sensitive to O. basilicum and L. multiflora EOs while essential oil of A. conyzoides showed the

  9. Chemical composition, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities of essential oils of plants from Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayala, Bagora; Bassole, Imaël Henri Nestor; Gnoula, Charlemagne; Nebie, Roger; Yonli, Albert; Morel, Laurent; Figueredo, Gilles; Nikiema, Jean-Baptiste; Lobaccaro, Jean-Marc A; Simpore, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    This research highlights the chemical composition, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities of essential oils from leaves of Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum americanum, Hyptis spicigera, Lippia multiflora, Ageratum conyzoides, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Zingiber officinale. Essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-flame ionization detector. Major constituents were α-terpineol (59.78%) and β-caryophyllene (10.54%) for Ocimum basilicum; 1, 8-cineol (31.22%), camphor (12.730%), α-pinene (6.87%) and trans α-bergamotene (5.32%) for Ocimum americanum; β-caryophyllene (21%), α-pinene (20.11%), sabinene (10.26%), β-pinene (9.22%) and α-phellandrene (7.03%) for Hyptis spicigera; p-cymene (25.27%), β-caryophyllene (12.70%), thymol (11.88), γ-terpinene (9.17%) and thymyle acetate (7.64%) for Lippia multiflora; precocene (82.10%)for Ageratum conyzoides; eucalyptol (59.55%), α-pinene (9.17%) and limonene (8.76%) for Eucalyptus camaldulensis; arcurcumene (16.67%), camphene (12.70%), zingiberene (8.40%), β-bisabolene (7.83%) and β-sesquiphellandrène (5.34%) for Zingiber officinale. Antioxidant activities were examined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) methods. O. basilicum and L. multiflora exhibited the highest antioxidant activity in DPPH and ABTS tests, respectively. Anti-inflammatory properties were evaluated by measuring the inhibition of lipoxygenase activity and essential oil of Z. officinale was the most active. Anti-proliferative effect was assayed by the measurement of MTT on LNCaP and PC-3 prostate cancer cell lines, and SF-763 and SF-767 glioblastoma cell lines. Essential oils from A. conyzoides and L. multiflora were the most active on LNCaP and PC-3 cell lines, respectively. The SF-767 glioblastoma cell line was the most sensitive to O. basilicum and L. multiflora EOs while essential oil of A. conyzoides

  10. Anti-plasmodial and insecticidal activities of the essential oils of aromatic plants growing in the Mediterranean area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dell’Agli Mario

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sardinia is a Mediterranean area endemic for malaria up to the last century. During a screening study to evaluate the anti-plasmodial activity of some aromatic plants traditionally used in Sardinia, Myrtus communis (myrtle, Myrtaceae, Satureja thymbra (savory, Lamiaceae, and Thymus herba-barona (caraway thyme, Lamiaceae were collected in three vegetative periods: before, during and after flowering. Methods The essential oils were obtained by steam distillation, fractionated by silica gel column chromatography and analysed by GC-FID-MS. Total oil and three main fractions were tested on D10 and W2 strains of Plasmodium falciparum in vitro. Larvicidal and adulticidal activities were tested on Anopheles gambiae susceptible strains. Results The essential oil of savory, rich in thymol, was the most effective against P. falciparum with an inhibitory activity independent from the time of collection (IC50 17–26 μg/ml on D10 and 9–11 μg/ml on W2. Upon fractionation, fraction 1 was enriched in mono-sesquiterpenoid hydrocarbons; fraction 2 in thymol (73-83%; and fraction 3 contained thymol, carvacrol and terpinen-4-ol, with a different composition depending on the time of collection. Thymol-enriched fractions were the most active on both strains (IC50 20–22 μg/ml on D10 and 8–10 μg/ml on W2 and thymol was confirmed as mainly responsible for this activity (IC50 19.7± 3.0 and 10.6 ± 2.0 μg/ml on D10 and W2, respectively. The essential oil of S. thymbra L. showed also larvicidal and adulticidal activities. The larvicidal activity, expressed as LC50, was 0.15 ± 0.002; 0.21 ± 0.13; and 0.15 ± 0.09 μg/ml (mean ± sd depending on the time of collection: before, during and after flowering, respectively. Conclusions This study provides evidence for the use of essential oils for treating malaria and fighting the vector at both the larval and adult stages. These findings open the possibility for further

  11. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayala, Bagora; Bassole, Imaël Henri Nestor; Gnoula, Charlemagne; Nebie, Roger; Yonli, Albert; Morel, Laurent; Figueredo, Gilles; Nikiema, Jean-Baptiste; Lobaccaro, Jean-Marc A.; Simpore, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    This research highlights the chemical composition, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities of essential oils from leaves of Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum americanum, Hyptis spicigera, Lippia multiflora, Ageratum conyzoides, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Zingiber officinale. Essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and gas chromatography–flame ionization detector. Major constituents were α-terpineol (59.78%) and β-caryophyllene (10.54%) for Ocimum basilicum; 1, 8-cineol (31.22%), camphor (12.730%), α-pinene (6.87%) and trans α-bergamotene (5.32%) for Ocimum americanum; β-caryophyllene (21%), α-pinene (20.11%), sabinene (10.26%), β-pinene (9.22%) and α-phellandrene (7.03%) for Hyptis spicigera; p-cymene (25.27%), β-caryophyllene (12.70%), thymol (11.88), γ-terpinene (9.17%) and thymyle acetate (7.64%) for Lippia multiflora; precocene (82.10%)for Ageratum conyzoides; eucalyptol (59.55%), α-pinene (9.17%) and limonene (8.76%) for Eucalyptus camaldulensis; arcurcumene (16.67%), camphene (12.70%), zingiberene (8.40%), β-bisabolene (7.83%) and β-sesquiphellandrène (5.34%) for Zingiber officinale. Antioxidant activities were examined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) methods. O. basilicum and L. multiflora exhibited the highest antioxidant activity in DPPH and ABTS tests, respectively. Anti-inflammatory properties were evaluated by measuring the inhibition of lipoxygenase activity and essential oil of Z. officinale was the most active. Anti-proliferative effect was assayed by the measurement of MTT on LNCaP and PC-3 prostate cancer cell lines, and SF-763 and SF-767 glioblastoma cell lines. Essential oils from A. conyzoides and L. multiflora were the most active on LNCaP and PC-3 cell lines, respectively. The SF-767 glioblastoma cell line was the most sensitive to O. basilicum and L. multiflora EOs while essential oil of A. conyzoides

  12. Repellent Activities of Essential Oils of Some Plants Used Traditionally to Control the Brown Ear Tick, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanzala, W.W.; Hassanali, A.; Mukabana, W.R.; Takken, W.

    2014-01-01

    Essential oils of eight plants, selected after an ethnobotanical survey conducted in Bukusu community in Bungoma County, western Kenya (Tagetes minuta, Tithonia diversifolia, Juniperus procera, Solanecio mannii, Senna didymobotrya, Lantana camara, Securidaca longepedunculata, and Hoslundia opposita)

  13. The Essential Oils of Rhaponticum carthamoides Hairy Roots and Roots of Soil-Grown Plants: Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial, Anti-Inflammatory, and Antioxidant Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Skała

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation from the hairy roots (HR and roots of soil-grown plants (SGR of Rhaponticum carthamoides and were analyzed by GC-MS method. In the both essential oils 62 compounds were identified. The root essential oils showed the differences in the qualitative and quantitative composition. The sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (55–62% dominated in both essential oils. The major compounds of HR essential oil were cyperene, 13-norcypera-1(5,11(12-diene, and cadalene while aplotaxene, nardosina-1(10,11-diene, and dauca-4(11,8-diene dominated in SGR essential oil. Both essential oils showed antibacterial activity especially against Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853 (MIC value = 125 µg/mL. HR and SGR essential oils also decreased the expression of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α and the ROS level in LPS-treatment astrocytes. This is the first report to describe the chemical composition of R. carthamoides essential oil from hairy roots, its protective effect against LPS-induced inflammation and ROS production in astrocytes, and its antimicrobial potential. The results show that R. carthamoides hairy roots may be a valuable source of the essential oil and may be an alternative to the roots of soil-grown plants.

  14. The Essential Oils of Rhaponticum carthamoides Hairy Roots and Roots of Soil-Grown Plants: Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial, Anti-Inflammatory, and Antioxidant Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijo, Patrícia; Garcia, Catarina; Kalemba, Danuta; Toma, Monika; Szemraj, Janusz; Pytel, Dariusz; Śliwiński, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    The essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation from the hairy roots (HR) and roots of soil-grown plants (SGR) of Rhaponticum carthamoides and were analyzed by GC-MS method. In the both essential oils 62 compounds were identified. The root essential oils showed the differences in the qualitative and quantitative composition. The sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (55–62%) dominated in both essential oils. The major compounds of HR essential oil were cyperene, 13-norcypera-1(5),11(12)-diene, and cadalene while aplotaxene, nardosina-1(10),11-diene, and dauca-4(11),8-diene dominated in SGR essential oil. Both essential oils showed antibacterial activity especially against Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853) (MIC value = 125 µg/mL). HR and SGR essential oils also decreased the expression of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α and the ROS level in LPS-treatment astrocytes. This is the first report to describe the chemical composition of R. carthamoides essential oil from hairy roots, its protective effect against LPS-induced inflammation and ROS production in astrocytes, and its antimicrobial potential. The results show that R. carthamoides hairy roots may be a valuable source of the essential oil and may be an alternative to the roots of soil-grown plants. PMID:28074117

  15. The Essential Oils of Rhaponticum carthamoides Hairy Roots and Roots of Soil-Grown Plants: Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial, Anti-Inflammatory, and Antioxidant Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skała, Ewa; Rijo, Patrícia; Garcia, Catarina; Sitarek, Przemysław; Kalemba, Danuta; Toma, Monika; Szemraj, Janusz; Pytel, Dariusz; Wysokińska, Halina; Śliwiński, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    The essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation from the hairy roots (HR) and roots of soil-grown plants (SGR) of Rhaponticum carthamoides and were analyzed by GC-MS method. In the both essential oils 62 compounds were identified. The root essential oils showed the differences in the qualitative and quantitative composition. The sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (55-62%) dominated in both essential oils. The major compounds of HR essential oil were cyperene, 13-norcypera-1(5),11(12)-diene, and cadalene while aplotaxene, nardosina-1(10),11-diene, and dauca-4(11),8-diene dominated in SGR essential oil. Both essential oils showed antibacterial activity especially against Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853) (MIC value = 125 µg/mL). HR and SGR essential oils also decreased the expression of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α and the ROS level in LPS-treatment astrocytes. This is the first report to describe the chemical composition of R. carthamoides essential oil from hairy roots, its protective effect against LPS-induced inflammation and ROS production in astrocytes, and its antimicrobial potential. The results show that R. carthamoides hairy roots may be a valuable source of the essential oil and may be an alternative to the roots of soil-grown plants.

  16. Evidence for synergistic activity of plant-derived essential oils against fungal pathogens of food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Farah; Follett, Peter; Dang Vu, Khang; Harich, Mehdi; Salmieri, Stephane; Lacroix, Monique

    2016-02-01

    The antifungal activities of eight essential oils (EOs) namely basil, cinnamon, eucalyptus, mandarin, oregano, peppermint, tea tree and thyme were evaluated for their ability to inhibit growth of Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus and Penicillium chrysogenum. The antifungal activity of the EOs was assessed by the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using 96-well microplate analysis. The interactions between different EO combinations were done by the checkerboard technique. The highest antifungal activity was exhibited by oregano and thyme which showed lower MIC values amongst all the tested fungi. The antifungal activity of the other EOs could be appropriately ranked in a descending sequence of cinnamon, peppermint, tea tree and basil. Eucalyptus and mandarin showed the least efficiency as they could not inhibit any of the fungal growth at 10,000 ppm. The interaction between these two EOs also showed no interaction on the tested species. A combined formulation of oregano and thyme resulted in a synergistic effect, showing enhanced efficiency against A. flavus and A. parasiticus and P. chrysogenum. Mixtures of peppermint and tea tree produced synergistic effect against A. niger. Application of a modified Gompertz model considering fungal growth parameters like maximum colony diameter, maximum growth rate and lag time periods, under the various EO treatment scenarios, showed that the model could adequately describe and predict the growth of the tested fungi under these conditions.

  17. Evaluating plant and plant oil repellency against the sweetpotato whitefly

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci is a major insect pest of vegetables world-wide. We evaluated the effect of commercial plant oils – garlic oil, hot pepper wax, and mustard oil against B. tabaci. Cucumber plants served as the control. Additional treatments included no plants or oil (clear ai...

  18. Characterization of κ-carrageenan films incorporated plant essential oils with improved antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaee-Aliabadi, Saeedeh; Hosseini, Hedayat; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin; Mohammadi, Abdorreza; Ghasemlou, Mehran; Hosseini, Seyede Marzieh; Khaksar, Ramin

    2014-01-30

    Antioxidant and antimicrobial kappa-carrageenan-based films containing different concentrations of Zataria multiflora Boiss (ZEO) and Mentha pulegium (MEO) essential oils were developed, and their water vapor permeability (WVP), optical, microstructure, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties were characterized. ZEO and MEO decreased the WVP of the emulsified films; for example, 3% ZEO reduced WVP by around 80%. Increasing the content of ZEO or MEO from 1% to 3% (v/v) increased values for elongation at break from 37.43% to 44.74% and from 36.09% to 41.25% respectively. Carrageenan-composite films were less resistant to breakage, more flexible and more opaque with lower gloss. These properties were related to the film's microstructure as analyzed by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. ZEO affected the antioxidant properties of the films more markedly than MEO, e.g., ZEO containing films showed DPPH radical scavenging of 80.6% which were two-fold higher than those having MEO. The films' antimicrobial activities were increased by incorporating essential oils, particularly ZEO, which were more effective against the bacteria in the direct-contact method than a vapor phase. S. aureus was found to be the most sensitive bacterium to either ZEO or MEO, followed by B. cereus and E. coli. A highest inhibition zone of 544.05 mm(2) was observed for S. aureus around the films incorporated with 3% (v/v) ZEO. The total inhibitory zone of 3% (v/v) MEO formulated films was 20.43 for S. typhimurium and 10.15 mm(2) for P. aeruginosa. These results revealed that ZEO and MEO have good potential to be incorporated into κ-carrageenan to make antimicrobial and antioxidant edible films for food applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Potential of biologically active plant oils to control mosquito larvae (Culex pipiens, Diptera: Culicidae) from an Egyptian locality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khater, Hanem Fathy; Shalaby, Afaf Abdel-Salam

    2008-01-01

    The insecticidal effect of six commercially available plant oils was tested against 4th larval instars of Culex pipiens. Larvae were originally collected from Meit El-Attar, Qalyubia Governorate, Egypt, and then reared in the laboratory until F1 generation. The LC50 values were 32.42, 47.17, 71.37, 83.36, 86.06, and 152.94 ppm for fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-grecum), earth almond (Cyperus esculentus), mustard (Brassica compestris), olibanum (Boswellia serrata), rocket (Eruca sativa), and parsley (Carum ptroselinum), respectively. The tested oils altered some biological aspects of C. pipiens, for instance, developmental periods, pupation rates, and adult emergences. The lowest concentrations of olibanum and fenugreek oils caused remarkable prolongation of larval and pupal durations. Data also showed that the increase of concentrations was directly proportional to reduction in pupation rates and adult emergences. Remarkable decrease in pupation rate was achieved by mustard oil at 1000 ppm. Adult emergence was suppressed by earth almond and fenugreek oils at 25 ppm. In addition, the tested plant oils exhibited various morphological abnormalities on larvae, pupae, and adult stages. Consequently, fenugreek was the most potent oil and the major cause of malformation of both larval and pupal stages. Potency of the applied plant oils provided an excellent potential for controlling C. pipiens.

  20. Antibacterial Activity of Daucus crinitus Essential Oils along the Vegetative Life of the Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Bendiabdellah, Amel; DIB, Mohammed El Amine; Meliani, Nawel; Muselli, Alain; Nassim, Djabou; Tabti, Boufeldja; Costa, Jean

    2013-01-01

    The essential oils from the aerial parts of Daucus crinitus Desf. were analyzed at three developmental stages (early vegetative, early flowering, and full flowering). Oil yield was found to vary depending on the stage of development, and the highest content of oil (0.15% w/w) was obtained at full flowering. The chemical composition of essential oils studied by GC and GC-MS showed a total of 71 compounds: 27 aliphatic compounds, 18 sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, 9 hydrocarbons monoterpene, 5 oxyg...

  1. Biological activity of selected Lamiaceae and Zingiberaceae plant essential oils against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaivani, Kandaswamy; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan; Murugesan, Arunachalam Ganesan

    2012-03-01

    The larvicidal activity of hydrodistillate extracts from Mentha piperita L. Ocimum basilicum L. Curcuma longa L. and Zingiber officinale L. were investigated against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae).The results indicated that the mortality rates at 80, 100, 200 and 400 ppm of M. piperita, Z. officinale, C. longa and O. basilicum concentrations were highest amongst all concentrations of the crude extracts tested against all the larval instars and pupae of A. aegypti. Result of log probit analysis (at 95% confidence level) revealed that lethal concentration LC₅₀ and LC₉₀ values were 47.54 and 86.54 ppm for M. piperita, 40.5 and 85.53 ppm for Z. officinale, 115.6 and 193.3 ppm for C. longa and 148.5 and 325.7 ppm for O. basilicum, respectively. All of the tested oils proved to have strong larvicidal activity (doses from 5 to 350 ppm) against A. aegypti fourth instars, with the most potent oil being M. piperita extract, followed by Z. officinale, C. longa and O. basilicum. In general, early instars were more susceptible than the late instars and pupae. The results achieved suggest that, in addition to their medicinal activities, Lamiaceae and Zingiberaceae plant extracts may also serve as a natural larvicidal agent.

  2. In vitro and in vivo antifungal activities of the essential oils of various plants against tomato grey mould disease agent Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soylu, Emine Mine; Kurt, Sener; Soylu, Soner

    2010-10-15

    The aim of this study was to find an alternative to synthetic fungicides currently used in the control of devastating fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea, the causal agent of grey mould disease of tomato. Antifungal activities of essential oils obtained from aerial parts of aromatic plants, which belong to the Lamiacea family such as origanum (Origanum syriacum L. var. bevanii), lavender (Lavandula stoechas L. var. stoechas) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), were investigated against B. cinerea. Contact and volatile phase effects of different concentrations of the essential oils were found to inhibit the growth of B. cinerea in a dose-dependent manner. Volatile phase effects of essential oils were consistently found to be more effective on fungal growth than contact phase effect. A volatile vapour of origanum oil at 0.2 μg/ml air was found to completely inhibit the growth of B. cinerea. Complete growth inhibition of pathogen by essential oil of lavender and rosemary was, however, observed at 1.6 μg/ml air concentrations. For the determination of the contact phase effects of the tested essential oils, origanum oil at 12.8 μg/ml was found to inhibit the growth of B. cinerea completely. Essential oils of rosemary and lavender were inhibitory at relatively higher concentrations (25.6 μg/ml). Spore germination and germ tube elongation were also inhibited by the essential oils tested. Light and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observations revealed that the essential oils cause considerable morphological degenerations of the fungal hyphae such as cytoplasmic coagulation, vacuolations, hyphal shrivelling and protoplast leakage and loss of conidiation. In vivo assays with the origanum essential oil, being the most efficient essential oil, under greenhouse conditions using susceptible tomato plants resulted in good protection against grey mould severity especially as a curative treatment. This study has demonstrated that the essential oils are potential and

  3. Antibacterial activities of essential oils from Iranian medicinal plants on extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi-Rad, J; Mnayer, D; Roointan, A; Shahri, F; Ayatollahi, S A M; Sharifi-Rad, M; Molaee, N; Sharifi-Rad, M

    2016-09-19

    The extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) -producing Escherichia coli strains can lead to various infections particularly urinary tract infections. The main objective of this investigation was to evaluate the antibacterial activities of essential oils (EOs) from different Iranian medicinal plants against TEM gene positive ESBL-producing E. coli strains isolated from urine samples of patients with urinary tract infections. EOs were extracted using hydrodistillation method. E. coli strains were isolated by different specific Medias. ESBL-producing E. coli strains were isolated from urine samples of patients with urinary tract infections in Shiraz hospital, Iran. Then, ESBL- producing strains were identified using double disk synergy test, phenotypic disc confirmatory test and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for TEM gene detection. The antibacterial activity of the EOs from different plants (Achillea wilhelmsii C. Koch, Echinophora platyloba DC., Lallemantia royleana, Nepeta persica Boiss., Pulicaria vulgaris Gaertn., Salvia nemorosa, and Satureja intermedia C.A.Mey) and antibiotics against ESBL-producing strains was studied using the microdilution method for the evaluation of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The 103 out of 295 E. coli strains with 97 (90.65%) TEM gene distributions were identified as ESBL-producing strains. All of the EOs derived from different plants displayed high inhibitory effects against ESBL-producing E. coli strains. The results of our investigations may propose a good treatment option against resistant infectious bacteria.

  4. In vitro activity of essential oils extracted from plants used as spices against fluconazole-resistant and fluconazole-susceptible Candida spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzatti, Patrícia; Scheid, Liliane Alves; Spader, Tatiana Borba; Atayde, Margareth Linde; Santurio, Janio Morais; Alves, Sydney Hartz

    2008-11-01

    In the present study, the antifungal activity of selected essential oils obtained from plants used as spices was evaluated against both fluconazole-resistant and fluconazole-susceptible Candida spp. The Candida species studied were Candida albicans, Candida dubliniensis, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, and Candida krusei. For comparison purposes, they were arranged in groups as C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, and Candida non-albicans. The essential oils were obtained from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Breyn, Lippia graveolens HBK, Ocimum basilicum L., Origanum vulgare L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L., Thymus vulgaris L., and Zingiber officinale. The susceptibility tests were based on the M27-A2 methodology. The chemical composition of the essential oils was obtained by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy and by retention indices. The results showed that cinnamon, Mexican oregano, oregano, thyme, and ginger essential oils have different levels of antifungal activity. Oregano and ginger essential oils were found to be the most and the least efficient, respectively. The main finding was that the susceptibilities of fluconazole-resistant C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, and Candida non-albicans to Mexican oregano, oregano, thyme, and ginger essential oils were higher than those of the fluconazole-susceptible yeasts (Pessential oil than their fluconazole-susceptible counterparts (Pessential oils studied was apparent when these 2 parameters were compared. Finally, basil, rosemary, and sage essential oils did not show antifungal activity against Candida isolates at the tested concentrations.

  5. 四种植物挥发油对食用油脂抗氧化作用的研究%STUDY ON ANTIOXIDATIVE ACTIVITIES OF FOUR KINDS OF PLANT ESSENTIAL OIL TO EDIBLE VEGETABLE OIL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江琰; 陈训

    2006-01-01

    本文采用硫氰酸铁法,以没食子酸丙脂为对照,研究4种植物挥发油对食用植物油脂的抗氧化活性.结果表明,姜黄、生姜、木姜子、桔皮挥发油对黄豆油、芝麻油、油菜籽油、花生仁油等食用植物油脂均具有较强的抗氧化作用.%Antioxidative activities of some kinds of plant essential oil in the four kinds of edible vegetable oil, including soybean oil, rapeseed oil, peanut oil and gingili oil, were investigated in comparison with GP by the thiocyanate method. Those plant essential oil are gained from curcuma, ginger, litsea pugers, and orange peel. The antioxidative activities of the essential oil of curcuma, ginger, litsea pugers, and orange peel in edible oil are quite strong.

  6. Advances in Antifungal Activity of Plant Essential Oil%植物精油抑菌活性研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡林峰; 许明录; 朱红霞

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, advances on antifungal activity and active ingredients of plant essential oil were summarized,which included 31 plant essential oils and 13 active ingredients. In addition,antifungal mechanisms of essential oil and active ingredients were analysed.%本文综述了国内外植物精油在农用抑菌活性及抑菌活性成分研究方面所取得的成果.阐述了具有农用抑菌活性的31种植物精油及其抑菌效果,并列举了植物精油中13种具有开发潜力的抑菌活性成分,简要分析了植物精油及其主要活性成分的作用机理.

  7. Synergistic repellent activity of plant essential oils against Aedes aegypti on rabbit Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koech Peter Kiplang'at

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito-borne diseases are the major causes of mortality particularly in tropics. Due to drug and insecticide resistance, personal protection by use of skin repellents has become a common approach of control. The purpose of the study is to determine if synergy exists between Ocimum basilicum, Azadirachta indica and Eucalyptus citriodora oils. Kinga Mosquito repelling Wax® and Vaseline Pure Petroleum Jelly® were included as positive and negative test control respectively. The results showed that Chrysanthemum cinerariefolium extract had no paralytic effect at 0.002% and 0.005% with mean repellency of 81.58 and 85.94 respectively. Similar observation was shown by 10% Azadirachta indica oil and Kinga with a mean repellency 85.79 and 80.53 respectively. Azadirachta indica oil was then reinforced by addition of Sweet basil oil and Lemon eucalyptus oil. A combination that provides complete protection and displayed mosquito paralysis was obtained. The developed formulation can replace Kinga® and alternative to Chrysanthemum cinerariefolium extract.

  8. Repellent Activities of Essential Oils of Some Plants Used Traditionally to Control the Brown Ear Tick, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wycliffe Wanzala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils of eight plants, selected after an ethnobotanical survey conducted in Bukusu community in Bungoma County, western Kenya (Tagetes minuta, Tithonia diversifolia, Juniperus procera, Solanecio mannii, Senna didymobotrya, Lantana camara, Securidaca longepedunculata, and Hoslundia opposita, were initially screened (at two doses for their repellence against brown ear tick, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, using a dual-choice climbing assay. The oils of T. minuta and T. diversifolia were then selected for more detailed study. Dose-response evaluations of these oils showed that T. minuta oil was more repellent (RD50 = 0.0021 mg than that of T. diversifolia (RD50 = 0.263 mg. Gas chromatography-linked mass spectrometric (GC-MS analyses showed different compositions of the two oils. T. minuta oil is comprised mainly of cis-ocimene (43.78%, dihydrotagetone (16.71%, piperitenone (10.15%, trans-tagetone (8.67%, 3,9-epoxy-p-mentha-1,8(10diene (6.47%, β-ocimene (3.25%, and cis-tagetone (1.95%, whereas T. diversifolia oil is comprised mainly of α-pinene (63.64%, β-pinene (15.00%, isocaryophyllene (7.62%, nerolidol (3.70%, 1-tridecanol (1.75%, limonene (1.52%, and sabinene (1.00%. The results provide scientific rationale for traditional use of raw products of these plants in controlling livestock ticks by the Bukusu community and lay down some groundwork for exploiting partially refined products such as essential oils of these plants in protecting cattle against infestations with R. appendiculatus.

  9. Chemical composition and biological activity of essential oils from wild growing aromatic plant species of Skimmia laureola and Juniperus macropoda from Western Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Himalayan region is very rich in a great variety of medicinal plants. In this investigation the essential oils of two selected species are described for their antimicrobial and larvicidal as well as biting deterrent activities. Additionally, the odors are characterized. Analyzed by simultaneous ...

  10. Antibacterial Activity of Cinnamaldehyde and Estragole Extracted from Plant Essential Oils against Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae Causing Bacterial Canker Disease in Kiwifruit

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa) causes bacterial canker disease in kiwifruit. Antibacterial activity of plant essential oils (PEOs) originating from 49 plant species were tested against Psa by a vapor diffusion and a liquid culture assays. The five PEOs from Pimenta racemosa, P. dioica, Melaleuca linariifolia, M. cajuputii, and Cinnamomum cassia efficiently inhibited Psa growth by either assays. Among their major components, estragole, eugenol, and methyl eugenol showed significant ...

  11. Physicochemical properties of apple puree-alginate films containing plant essential oils and oil compounds active against Escherichia coli 0157:H7

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of edible films as carriers of antimicrobial plant essential oils and other phytochemicals constitutes an approach for external protection of food systems to reduce surface microbial populations and to enhance oxygen-barrier properties, thus enhancing food safety as well as shelf life. To de...

  12. Biological activity of some plant essential oils against Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae), an ectoparasitic mite of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Vahid; Moharramipour, Saeid; Tahmasbi, Gholamhosein

    2011-10-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate acaricidal activity of the essential oils of Thymus kotschyanus, Ferula assa-foetida and Eucalyptus camaldulensis against Varroa destructor under laboratory conditions. Moreover, fumigant toxicity of these oils was tested on Apis mellifera. After preliminary dose-setting experiments, mites and honey bees were exposed to different concentrations of the oil, with 10 h exposure time. Essential oil of T. kotschyanus appeared the most potent fumigant for V. destructor (LC(50) = 1.07, 95% confidence limit (CL) = 0.87-1.26 μl/l air), followed by E. camaldulensis (LC(50) = 1.74, 95% CL = 0.96-2.50 μl/l air). The lowest acaricidal activity (LC(50) = 2.46, 95% CL = 2.10-2.86 μl/l air) was attributed to essential oil of F. assa-foetida. Surprisingly, among the three oils tested, essential oil of T. kotschyanus had the lowest insecticidal activity against A. mellifera (LC(50) = 5.08, 95% CL = 4.54-5.06 μl/l air). These findings proved that essential oil of T. kotschyanus has potential of practical value for use as alternative acaricide in the management of varroa in apiaries.

  13. Antioxidant activity, phenolic content, and peroxide value of essential oil and extracts of some medicinal and aromatic plants used as condiments and herbal teas in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Mehmet Musa; Erel, Ozcan; Herken, Emine Etöz

    2009-02-01

    The antioxidant activity, total peroxide values, and total phenol contents of several medicinal and aromatic plant essential oil and extracts from Turkey were examined. Total phenolic contents were determined using a spectrophotometric technique and calculated as gallic acid equivalents. Total antioxidant activity of essential oil and extracts varied from 0.6853 to 1.3113 and 0.3189 to 0.6119 micromol of Trolox equivalents/g, respectively. The total phenolic content of essential oil ranged from 0.0871 to 0.5919 mg of gallic acid/g dry weight. However, the total phenolic contents of extracts were found to be higher compared with those of essential oils. The amount of total peroxide values of oils varied from 7.31 (pickling herb) to 58.23 (bitter fennel flower) mumol of H(2)O(2)/g. As a result, it is shown that medicinal plant derivatives such as extract and essential oils can be useful as a potential source of total phenol, peroxide, and antioxidant capacity for protection of processed foods.

  14. Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils of Tagetes minuta (Asteraceae) against Selected Plant Pathogenic Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Muthee Gakuubi; Wagacha, John M.; Saifuddin F. Dossaji; Wycliffe Wanzala

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils (EOs) of Tagetes minuta against three phytopathogenic bacteria Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. phaseolicola, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli, and Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis. The essential oils were extracted using steam distillation method in a modified Clevenger-type apparatus while antibacterial activity of the EOs was evaluated by disc diffusion method. Gas chromatogr...

  15. Antimicrobial activity of plant essential oils using food model media: efficacy, synergistic potential and interactions with food components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, J; Barry-Ryan, C; Bourke, P

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to optimise the antimicrobial efficacy of plant essential oils (EOs) for control of Listeria spp. and spoilage bacteria using food model media based on lettuce, meat and milk. The EOs evaluated were lemon balm, marjoram, oregano and thyme and their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined against Enterobacter spp., Listeria spp., Lactobacillus spp., and Pseudomonas spp. using the agar dilution method and/or the absorbance based microplate assay. MICs were significantly lower in lettuce and beef media than in TSB. Listeria strains were more sensitive than spoilage bacteria, and oregano and thyme were the most active EOs. EO combinations were investigated using the checkerboard method and Oregano combined with thyme had additive effects against spoilage organisms. Combining lemon balm with thyme yielded additive activity against Listeria strains. The effect of simple sugars and pH on antimicrobial efficacy of oregano and thyme was assessed in a beef extract and tomato serum model media. EOs retained greater efficacy at pH 5 and 2.32% sugar, but sugar concentrations above 5% did not negatively impact EO efficacy. In addition to proven antimicrobial efficacy, careful selection and investigation of EOs appropriate to the sensory profile of foods and composition of the food system is required. This work shows that EOs might be more effective against food-borne pathogens and spoilage bacteria when applied to foods containing a high protein level at acidic pH, as well as moderate levels of simple sugars.

  16. Variations in Essential Oil Yield, Composition, and Antioxidant Activity of Different Plant Organs from Blumea balsamifera (L.) DC. at Different Growth Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yuan; Huang, Mei; Pang, Yu-Xin; Yu, Fu-Lai; Chen, Ce; Liu, Li-Wei; Chen, Zhen-Xia; Zhang, Ying-Bo; Chen, Xiao-Lu; Hu, Xuan

    2016-08-05

    Blumea balsamifera, also named Ainaxiang, is widely used as an ancient medicinal herb in tropical and subtropical Asia. It is rich in essential oils. In this work the essential oils of B. balsamifera from different plant organs and in different months were extracted, and then analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results showed that essential oil yield of young leaves was the highest (0.65 mL/100 g), followed by mature leaves (0.57 mL/100 g), and the oil yield was higher in October (0.47 mL/100 g) than other months. A total of 44 compounds were identified, representing 92.64%-96.71% of the oil. Eighteen common chemical components were found among the six plant organs, representing >80% of the oil constituents. l-borneol was the main ingredient in leaves, and its content was the highest in senescent leaves and in December. In the essential oils of young shoots and young stems, the main component was dimethoxydurene. Antioxidant activity was also determined using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and β-carotene bleaching (BCB) assays. The results indicated that the β-carotene bleaching activity was far stronger than the DPPH radical-scavenging capacity, and the young leaves and young shoots showed stronger antioxidant activity. Dimethoxydurene, β-caryophyllene, and α-caryophyllene play a positive role in good antioxidant activity, while β-eudesmol, phytol, and tetradecanal play a negative role. The antioxidant activity revealed in this study might help in developing this promising bioresource for use in the medicinal and cosmetic industries.

  17. Insecticidal and acetylcholine esterase inhibition activity of Asteraceae plant essential oils and their constituents against adults of the German cockroach (Blattella germanica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Hwa-Jeong; Jung, Chan-Sik; Kang, Jaesoon; Kim, Junheon; Lee, Jae-Hyeon; Kim, Dong-Soo; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Park, Pil-Sun; Kang, Kyu-Suk; Park, Il-Kwon

    2015-03-04

    The fumigant and contact toxicities of 16 Asteraceae plant essential oils and their constituents against adult male and female Blattella germanica were examined. In a fumigant toxicity test, tarragon oil exhibited 100% and 90% fumigant toxicity against adult male German cockroaches at 5 and 2.5 mg/filter paper, respectively. Fumigant toxicities of Artemisia arborescens and santolina oils against adult male German cockroaches were 100% at 20 mg/filter paper, but were reduced to 60% and 22.5% at 10 mg/filter paper, respectively. In contact toxicity tests, tarragon and santolina oils showed potent insecticidal activity against adult male German cockroaches. Components of active oils were analyzed using gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, or nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer. Among the identified compounds from active essential oils, estragole demonstrated potent fumigant and contact toxicity against adult German cockroaches. β-Phellandrene exhibited inhibition of male and female German cockroach acetylcholinesterase activity with IC50 values of 0.30 and 0.28 mg/mL, respectively.

  18. Fungitoxicity of some higher plants and synergistic activity of their essential oils against Sclerotium rolfsii sacc. causing foot-rot disease of barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R K

    Twenty five plant species were screened for their volatile components against hyphal growth and sclerotia formation of Sclerotium rolfsii causing foot rot disease of barley (Hordeum vulgare). Leaves of Chenopodium ambrosioides (CA), Lippia alba (LA), Azadirachta indica (AI) and Eucalyptus globulus (EG) were found to be strongly toxic. Their volatile active factors were isolated in the form of essential oils which were tested for toxicity individually and in six combinations (1:1 v/v) viz. CA-LA, LA-AI, CA-AI, CA-EG, and EG-AI. The oil combinations were found to be more fungitoxic than the individual oils. The CA-LA, LA-AI, EG-AI, and CA-EG combinations exhibited a broad fnngitoxic spectrum while CA-AI, LA-EG combinations possessed a narrow range of toxicity. None of the six oil combinations showed phytotoxic behaviour on seed germination, seedling growth and general morphology of Hordeum vulgare.

  19. Chemical Composition and Larvicidal Activity of Essential Oils Extracted from Brazilian Legal Amazon Plants against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Clarice Noleto; Alves, Luciana Patrícia Lima; Rodrigues, Klinger Antonio da Franca; Brito, Maria Cristiane Aranha; Rosa, Carliane dos Santos; do Amaral, Flavia Maria Mendonça; Monteiro, Odair dos Santos; Andrade, Eloisa Helena de Aguiar; Maia, José Guilherme Soares; Moraes, Denise Fernandes Coutinho

    2015-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is the major vector of dengue and chikungunya fever. The lack of effective therapies and vaccines for these diseases highlights the need for alternative strategies to control the spread of virus. Therefore, this study investigated the larvicidal potential of essential oils from common plant species obtained from the Chapada das Mesas National Park, Brazil, against third instar A. aegypti larvae. The chemical composition of these oils was determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The essential oils of Eugenia piauhiensis Vellaff., Myrcia erythroxylon O. Berg, Psidium myrsinites DC., and Siparuna camporum (Tul.) A. DC. were observed to be mainly composed of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The essential oil of Lippia gracilis Schauer was composed of oxygenated monoterpenes. Four of the five tested oils were effective against the A. aegypti larvae, with the lethal concentration (LC50) ranging from 230 to 292 mg/L after 24 h of exposure. Overall, this work demonstrated the possibility of developing larvicidal products against A. aegypti by using essential oils from the flora of the Brazilian Legal Amazon. This in turn demonstrates the potential of using natural resources for the control of disease vectors. PMID:25949264

  20. Fumigant toxicity and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of 4 Asteraceae plant essential oils and their constituents against Japanese termite (Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seon-Mi; Kim, Junheon; Kang, Jaesoon; Koh, Sang-Hyun; Ahn, Young-Joon; Kang, Kyu-Suk; Park, Il-Kwon

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated the fumigant toxicity of 4 Asteraceae plant essential oils and their constituents against the Japanese termite Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe. Fumigant toxicity varied with plant essential oils or constituents, exposure time, and concentration. Among the tested essential oils, those from Chamaemelum nobile exhibited the strongest fumigant toxicity, followed by those from Santolina chamaecyparissus, Ormenis multicaulis, and Eriocephalus punctulatus at 2 days after treatment. In all, 15, 24, 19, and 9 compounds were identified in the essential oils from C. nobile, E. punctulatus, O. multicaulis, and S. chamaecyparissus, respectively, by using gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, or open-column chromatography. The identified compounds were tested individually for their fumigant toxicity against Japanese termites. Among the test compounds, trans-pinocarveol, caryophyllene oxide, sabinene hydrate, and santolina alcohol showed strong fumigant toxicity against Japanese termites. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition activity of the identified compounds from C. nobile, E. punctulatus, O. multicaulis, and S. chamaecyparissus essential oils were tested to determine the mode of their action. The IC50 values of (+)-α-pinene, (-)-limonene, (-)-α-pinene, β-pinene, and β-phellandrene against Japanese termite AChE were 0.03, 0.13, 0.41, 0.42, and 0.67mg/mL, respectively. Further studies are warranted to determine the potential of these essential oils and their constituents as fumigants for termite control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Eucalyptus oleosa Essential Oils: Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of the Oils from Different Plant Parts (Stems, Leaves, Flowers and Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Larbi Khouja

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the different parts (stems, adult leaves, immature flowers and fruits of Eucalyptus oleosa were screened for their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties and their chemical composition. According to GC-FID and GC-MS, the principal compound of the stem, immature flowers and the fruit oils was 1,8-cineole, representing 31.5%, 47.0% and 29.1%, respectively. Spathulenol (16.1% and γ-eudesmol (15.0% were the two principal compounds of adult leaves oil. In the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay, the oils of the four parts showed moderate antioxidant activity. In the ABTS (2,2’-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonate assay, the most active part was the adult leaves, with a IC50 value 13.0 ± 0.6 mg/L, followed by stems (IC50 = 43.5 ± 1.4 mg/L. The essential oils showed a better antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and a significant antifungal activity also was observed against yeast-like fungi. A strong correlations between oxygenated monoterpenes and antimicrobial activity (especially 1,8-cineole were noted (R2 = 0.99, 0.97 and 0.79 for B. subtilis, P. aeruginosa and C. albicans, respectively.

  2. Antimicrobial Activities of Essential Oils and Hexane Extracts of Two Turkish Spice Plants, Cymbocarpum erythraeum (DC. Boiss. and Echinophora tenuifolia L. Against Foodborne Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bülent Çetin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrodistillated essential oils and hexane extracts of two spice plants, Cymbocarpum erythraeum (DC. Boiss. and Echinophora tenuifolia L. were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. C. erythraeum oil is rich in aliphatic aldehydes, alcohols and acids and (E-2-decenal (26.1%, (E-2-decen-1-ol (15.7%, (E-2-dodecenal (13.2% and decanal (7.8% were the predominant components. However, ethyl palmitate (16.4%, 2-decenoic acid (14.1% and (E-2-dodecenal (5.2% were the major components of the hexane extract of C. erythraeum. E. tenuifolia oil contained mainly methyl eugenol (53.0%, p-cymene (17.0% and α-phellandrene (13.2%. The hexane extract displayed a different chemical composition, and n-tricosane (75.0% and n-pentacosane (7.6% were found to be the major compounds. The oils showed antimicrobial activity against various microorganisms and they were more active against the tested fungal species as compared with bacteria. The growths of important food-borne pathogens, Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were also inhibited by the oils. However, hexane extract of C. erythraeum was showed weak antibacterial activity against limited number of tested bacteria. The current results showed that the essential oils of C. erythraeumand E. tenuifolia can be used in food preservation.

  3. In-vitro antibacterial activities of the essential oils of aromatic plants against Erwinia herbicola (Lohnis and pseudomonas putida (Kris Hamilton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey Abhay K.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to examine in vitro antibacterial activities of essential oils extracted from 53 aromatic plants of Gorakhpur Division (UP, INDIA for the control of two phytopathogenic bacteria namely Erwinia herbicola and Pseudomonas putida causing several post-harvest diseases in fruits and vegetables. Out of 53 oils screened, 8 oils such as Chenopodium ambrosioides, Citrus aurantium, Clausena pentaphylla, Hyptis suaveolens, Lippia alba, Mentha arvensis, Ocimum sanctum and Vitex negundo completely inhibited the growth of test bacteria. Furthermore MIC & MBC values of C. ambrosioides oil were least for Erw. herbicola (0.25 & 2.0 μl/ml and Ps. putida (0.12 & 1.0 μl/ml respectively than other 7 oils as well as Agromycin and Streptomycin drugs used in current study. GC and GC-MS analysis of Chenopodium oil revealed presence of 125 major and minor compounds, out of them, 14 compounds were recognized. The findings concluded that Chenopodium oil may be regarded as safe antibacterial agent for the management of post-harvest diseases of fruits and vegetables.

  4. Antimicrobial activity ofRosmarinus eriocalyx essential oil and polyphenols:An endemic medicinal plant from Algeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fethi Benbelad; Abdelmounam Khadir; Mourad Bendahou; Fatima Zenati; Chafika Bellahsene; Alain Muselli; Jean Costa

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antimicrobial potency ofRosmarinus eriocalyx (R. eriocalyx) essential oil and total polyphenols against pathogenic microorganisms. Methods:Antimicrobial activity ofR. eriocalyx extracts was assessed by disc diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentrations determination. Essential oil obtained from endemic rosemary by hydrodistillation was analysed by gas chromatograph/retention index and gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. Results:An interesting antimicrobial activity was shown byR. eriocalyx extracts. Polyphenols, constituted mainly by flavonoids, were the most effective extract with very low minimum inhibitory concentrations values, ranged between 0.06 and 8.00 mg/mL, while essential oil was less efficient. It should be noted that antimicrobial activities of bothR. eriocalyx extracts were more directed against fungi and Gram-positive bacteria than Gram-negative ones, in which Staphylococcus aureus,Enterococcus faecalis, andCandida albicans were the most sensitive strains. Concerning chemical composition ofR. eriocalyx essential oil, camphor (37.8%), 1,8-cineole (17.4%), camphene (13.3%), andα-pinene (10.9%) were the major compounds. Conclusions: The findings of the present study indicate thatR. eriocalyx extracts possess significant bactericidal and fungicidal activities. Because of its richness in essential oil, and especially flavonoids,R. eriocalyx may be a source for effective and safe antimicrobial agents.

  5. In vitro total phenolics, flavonoids contents and antioxidant activity of essential oil, various organic extracts from the leaves of tropical medicinal plantTetrastigma from Sabah

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M Amzad Hossain; Muhammad Dawood Shah; Charles Gnanaraj; Muhammad Iqbal

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To detect the in vitro total phenolics, flavonoids contents and antioxidant activity of essential oil, various organic extracts from the leaves of tropical medicinal plantTetrastigma from Sabah.Methods: The dry powder leaves ofTetrastigma were extracted with different organic solvent such as hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform, butanol and aqueous methanol. The total phenolic and total flavonoids contents of the essential oil and various organic extracts such as hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform, butanol and aqueous ethanol were determined by Folin–Ciocalteu method and the assayed antioxidant activity was determined in vitro models such as antioxidant capacity by radical scavenging activity using α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method.Results: The total phenolic contents of the essential oil and different extracts as gallic acid equivalents were found to be highest in methanol extract (386.22 mg/g) followed by ethyl acetate (190.89mg/g), chloroform (175.89 mg/g), hexane (173.44 mg/g), and butanol extract (131.72 mg/g) and the phenolic contents not detected in essential oil. The antioxidant capacity of the essential oil and different extracts as ascorbic acid standard was in the order of methanol extract > ethyl acetate extract >chloroform> butanol > hexane extract also the antioxidant activity was not detected in essential oil.Conclusions:The findings show that the extent of antioxidant activity of the essential oil and all extracts are in accordance with the amount of phenolics present in that extract. Leaves ofTetrastigma being rich in phenolics may provide a good source of antioxidant.

  6. Adsorption of paraquat on the physically activated bleaching earth waste from soybean oil processing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, W T; Chen, C H; Yang, J M

    2002-09-01

    A series of regeneration experiments with physical activation were carried out on bleaching earth waste from the soybean refining process in a rotary reactor. The influence of activation parameters on the spent clay by varying the holding time of 1 to approximately 4 hours and temperature of 700 to approximately 900 degrees C was determined. The variations of pore properties as well as the change of chemical characteristics in the resulting solids were also studied. Results showed that the resulting samples were type IV with hysteresis loops corresponding to type H3 from nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms, indicating slit-shaped mesoporous characteristics. However, the regenerated clays had smaller surface areas (70 to approximately 117 m2/g) than that (245 m2/g) of fresh bleaching earth. Under the physical activation conditions investigated, the holding time of 1 hour and temperature of 700 degrees C were found to be optimal conditions for producing mesoporous clay with physical activation. The adsorption of paraquat on regenerated sample was also evaluated. The isotherm showed that the regenerated sample still had a high affinity for this herbicide. Thus, the regeneration of this agro-industrial waste is one option for utilizing the clay resource, and it may be used for water treatment applications to remove organic contaminants.

  7. Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils of Tagetes minuta (Asteraceae) against Selected Plant Pathogenic Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagacha, John M.; Dossaji, Saifuddin F.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils (EOs) of Tagetes minuta against three phytopathogenic bacteria Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. phaseolicola, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli, and Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis. The essential oils were extracted using steam distillation method in a modified Clevenger-type apparatus while antibacterial activity of the EOs was evaluated by disc diffusion method. Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used for analysis of the chemical profile of the EOs. Twenty compounds corresponding to 96% of the total essential oils were identified with 70% and 30% of the identified components being monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, respectively. The essential oils of T. minuta revealed promising antibacterial activities against the test pathogens with Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. phaseolicola being the most susceptible with mean inhibition zone diameters of 41.83 and 44.83 mm after 24 and 48 hours, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentrations and minimum bactericidal concentrations of the EOs on the test bacteria were in the ranges of 24–48 mg/mL and 95–190 mg/mL, respectively. These findings provide a scientific basis for the use of T. minuta essential oils as a botanical pesticide for management of phytopathogenic bacteria. PMID:27721831

  8. Oils and rubber from arid land plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. D.; Hinman, C. W.

    1980-05-01

    In this article the economic development potentials of Cucurbita species (buffalo gourd and others), Simmondsia chinensis (jojoba), Euphorbia lathyris (gopher plant), and Parthenium argentatum (guayule) are discussed. All of these plants may become important sources of oils or rubber.

  9. Oil-shale plants in Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suurkuusk, T. (Power Engineering Department, Tallinn Technical University, Tallinn, Estonia (SU))

    1991-08-01

    The specific feature of the Estonian energy system is the oil-shale based energy production. The total capacity of the Estonian energy system is 3311 MW, and from this 3104 MW is oil-shale based. There are four oil-shale based power plants in the North-East region of Estonia. (author).

  10. Anti-Aspergillus activities of plant essential oils and their combination effects with ketoconazole or amphotericin B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seungwon

    2003-05-01

    The essential oils from Cedrus atlantica, Styrax tonkinensis, Juniperus communis, Lavandula angustifolia, Melaleuca alternifolia, Pelargonium graveolens, Pogesternon patchouli and Rosmarinus officinalis were analyzed by GC-MS. Antifungal activities of the oils were investigated by disk diffusion assay and the broth dilution method against Aspergillus niger and A. flavus. The effects of geraniol and the essential oil fraction from P. graveolens on the antifungal activity of amphotericin B and ketoconazole were examined using a checkerboard microtiter assay against both Aspergillus fungi. Most of the tested essential oils, with the exception of C. atlantica, J. communis, and P. patchouli, significantly inhibited growth of A. niger and to a lesser extent that of A. flavus, with MICs (minimal inhibitory concentrations) in the range 0.78-12.5 mg/mL. The essential oil fraction of P. graveolens and its main components, geraniol and citronellol, exhibited additive effects with amphotericin B and with ketoconazole against both Aspergillus species, resulting in fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) indices ranging from 0.52 to 1.00.

  11. 植物精油生物活性作用机理研究进展%Advances in Mechanism of Biological Activities of Plant Essential Oils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建烟; 李永裕; 吴少华

    2012-01-01

    Plant essential oils have multifold biological activities,have been widely used in medical care,food industry, cosmetic,agricultural fields and etc. In this paper,the mechanism of several biological activities of plant essential oils have been summarized,such as antibacterial,anticancer.antineoplastic.antioxidative,delaying senile,preventing and curing cardiovascular diseases,antiviral,anti-inflammatory and many other biological activities. Then,some research emphases and breakthroughs of plant essential oils in the future have been proposed.%植物精油具有多种生物活性,被广泛应用于医疗保健、食品工业、化妆品、农业等多个领域.本文综述植物精油抗菌、抗癌、抑制肿瘤细胞生长、抗氧化、延缓衰老、防治心血管疾病、抗病毒、消炎等多种生物活性的作用机理,并展望植物精油今后研究的重点及突破方向.

  12. Chemogeography and antimicrobial activity of essential oils from Geijera parviflora and Geijera salicifolia (Rutaceae): two traditional Australian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadgrove, Nicholas J; Gonçalves-Martins, Maximilien; Jones, Graham L

    2014-08-01

    Essential oils were hydrodistilled from 27 specimens of Geijera parviflora Lindl., (Rutaceae) and nine specimens of Geijera salicifolia Schott, collected over a wide geographic range in New South Wales, Queensland and South Australia. Essential oils were produced by traditional hydrodistillation and characterised using GC-MS. From one specimen a serendipitous discovery was made of bioactive coumarins dissolved in the hydrosol, which were the coumarins isopsoralen, xanthyletine and osthole. These coumarins were not present in the essential oil from that specimen. Using essential oil composition from all specimens, principal component analysis (PCA) demonstrated nine clusters for G. parviflora and three for G. salicifolia. Some clusters are representative of previously described chemotypes and some are reflective of possible chemotypes requiring more comprehensive sampling for confirmation. Thus, another three or four possible chemotypes of G. parviflora and one of G. salicifolia have been tentatively identified. Using micro-titre plate broth dilution assays, antibacterial and antifungal activity of all chemotypes was investigated. In this regard, the 'green oil' chemotype, restricted to G. parviflora, with major components linalool, geijerene/pregeijerene, 1,8-cineol and bicyclogermacrene, demonstrated the highest antimicrobial and free radical scavenging activity. Thus, in the light of traditional use reports of local analgaesia and bioactivity demonstrated in the current study, oils from select chemotypes of G. parviflora may be useful in suitably compounded lotions and creams designed for topical antimicrobial applications and local pain relief. In addition, because major components are known for insecticidal activities, such lotions may also be useful as topically applied insect repellents.

  13. A study on the total phenols content and antioxidant activity of essential oil and different solvent extracts of endemic plant Merremia borneensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Amzad Hossain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is planned to determine the antioxidant activity and total phenols content of the essential oil and different solvent extracts of the endemic plant Merremia borneensis. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were examined by three different methods, DPPH, β-carotene and reducing power assays. In all methods, aqueous ethanol extract exhibited a higher activity potential than that of other extracts (hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol and the essential oil. As assumed, the amount of total phenolics was very high in this extract. Chloroform extract has been found to be rich in flavonoids. A positive result was observed between the antioxidant activity potential and total flavonoid levels of the extracts.

  14. Phytotoxic Activities of Mediterranean Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Rolim de Almeida

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Twelve essential oils from Mediterranean aromatic plants were tested for their phytotoxic activity, at different doses, against the germination and the initial radicle growth of seeds of Raphanus sativus, Lactuca sativa and Lepidium sativum. The essential oils were obtained from Hyssopus officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia, Majorana hortensis, Melissa officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis and Thymus vulgaris (Lamiaceae, Verbena officinalis (Verbenaceae, Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare and Carum carvi (Apiaceae. The germination and radicle growth of tested seeds were affected in different ways by the oils. Thyme, balm, vervain and caraway essential oils were more active against both germination and radicle elongation.

  15. Phytotoxic activities of Mediterranean essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Luiz Fernando Rolim; Frei, Fernando; Mancini, Emilia; De Martino, Laura; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2010-06-14

    Twelve essential oils from Mediterranean aromatic plants were tested for their phytotoxic activity, at different doses, against the germination and the initial radicle growth of seeds of Raphanus sativus, Lactuca sativa and Lepidium sativum. The essential oils were obtained from Hyssopus officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia, Majorana hortensis, Melissa officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis and Thymus vulgaris (Lamiaceae), Verbena officinalis (Verbenaceae), Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare and Carum carvi (Apiaceae). The germination and radicle growth of tested seeds were affected in different ways by the oils. Thyme, balm, vervain and caraway essential oils were more active against both germination and radicle elongation.

  16. Composition, mosquito larvicidal, biting deterrent and antifungal activity of essential oils of different plant parts of Cupressus arizonica var. glabra ('Carolina Sapphire').

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Abbas; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Demirci, Betul; Baser, K Husnu Can; Ellis, Jane; Gray, Sandra; Lackey, Brett R; Murphy, Christine; Khan, Ikhlas A; Wedge, David E

    2013-02-01

    Essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of female cones (FC), male cones (MC), needle-twigs (NT) and wood-bark (WB) of 'Carolina Sapphire' [Cupressus arizonica var glabra (Sudw.) Little] were analyzed simultaneously by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The main constituents of the investigated essential oils were as follows: FC: alpha-pinene 68.5% and myrcene 11.9%; MC: alpha-pinene 22.5%, epi-zonarene 9.9%, zonarene 6.9%, limonene 6.8% and cadina-3,5-diene 6.1%; NT: alpha-pinene 20.7%, epi-zonarene 10.4%, zonarene 7.6%, limonene 5.9% umbellulone 5.8% and cadina-3,5-diene 5.8%; WB: alpha-pinene 40.7%, limonene 3.2% and umbellulone 2.9%. Essential oils were evaluated for antifungal activity against the strawberry anthracnose causing fungal plant pathogens Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae and C. gloeosporioides. Only WB essential oil showed moderate activity when compared with the commercial antifungal standards. Carolina Sapphire essential oils exhibited biting deterrent activity at 10 microg/cm2 with Biting Deterrence Index (BDI) values of 0.64, 0.59, 0.65 and 0.72, for FC, MC, NT and WB, respectively, and were significantly lower (P < or = 0.05) than the synthetic insect repellent, DEET (N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide), at 25 nmol/cm2 against Aedes aegypti. The biting deterrence of NT and WB oils at 100 microg/cm2 with BDI values of 1.04 and 1.01, respectively, were similar, whereas the activity of MC (BDI = 0.88) and FC (BDI = 0.62) essential oils was lower than DEET at 25 nmol/cm2. Essential oil from FC with LD50 of 33.7 ppm was most toxic against 1-day-old Ae. aegypti larvae at 24-h post treatment. Female cone essential oil was significantly more toxic than MC (LD50 = 53.6 ppm), NT (LD50 = 55.5 ppm) and WB (LD50 = 44.6 ppm) essential oils.

  17. Phytochemical Profile and Evaluation of the Biological Activities of Essential Oils Derived from the Greek Aromatic Plant Species Ocimum basilicum, Mentha spicata, Pimpinella anisum and Fortunella margarita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Fitsiou

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Natural products, known for their medicinal properties since antiquity, are continuously being studied for their biological properties. In the present study, we analyzed the composition of the volatile preparations of essential oils of the Greek plants Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil, Mentha spicata (spearmint, Pimpinella anisum (anise and Fortunella margarita (kumquat. GC/MS analyses revealed that the major components in the essential oil fractions, were carvone (85.4% in spearmint, methyl chavicol (74.9% in sweet basil, trans-anethole (88.1% in anise, and limonene (93.8% in kumquat. We further explored their biological potential by studying their antimicrobial, antioxidant and antiproliferative activities. Only the essential oils from spearmint and sweet basil demonstrated cytotoxicity against common foodborne bacteria, while all preparations were active against the fungi Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus niger. Antioxidant evaluation by DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity assays revealed a variable degree of antioxidant potency. Finally, their antiproliferative potential was tested against a panel of human cancer cell lines and evaluated by using the sulforhodamine B (SRB assay. All essential oil preparations exhibited a variable degree of antiproliferative activity, depending on the cancer model used, with the most potent one being sweet basil against an in vitro model of human colon carcinoma.

  18. Phytochemical Profile and Evaluation of the Biological Activities of Essential Oils Derived from the Greek Aromatic Plant Species Ocimum basilicum, Mentha spicata, Pimpinella anisum and Fortunella margarita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitsiou, Eleni; Mitropoulou, Gregoria; Spyridopoulou, Katerina; Tiptiri-Kourpeti, Angeliki; Vamvakias, Manolis; Bardouki, Haido; Panayiotidis, Mihalis Ι; Galanis, Alex; Kourkoutas, Yiannis; Chlichlia, Katerina; Pappa, Aglaia

    2016-08-16

    Natural products, known for their medicinal properties since antiquity, are continuously being studied for their biological properties. In the present study, we analyzed the composition of the volatile preparations of essential oils of the Greek plants Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil), Mentha spicata (spearmint), Pimpinella anisum (anise) and Fortunella margarita (kumquat). GC/MS analyses revealed that the major components in the essential oil fractions, were carvone (85.4%) in spearmint, methyl chavicol (74.9%) in sweet basil, trans-anethole (88.1%) in anise, and limonene (93.8%) in kumquat. We further explored their biological potential by studying their antimicrobial, antioxidant and antiproliferative activities. Only the essential oils from spearmint and sweet basil demonstrated cytotoxicity against common foodborne bacteria, while all preparations were active against the fungi Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus niger. Antioxidant evaluation by DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity assays revealed a variable degree of antioxidant potency. Finally, their antiproliferative potential was tested against a panel of human cancer cell lines and evaluated by using the sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. All essential oil preparations exhibited a variable degree of antiproliferative activity, depending on the cancer model used, with the most potent one being sweet basil against an in vitro model of human colon carcinoma.

  19. Assessing the Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils from Brazilian Plants-Eremanthus erythropappus (Asteraceae), Plectrantuns barbatus, and P. amboinicus (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Nara O Dos; Mariane, Bruna; Lago, João Henrique G; Sartorelli, Patricia; Rosa, Welton; Soares, Marisi G; da Silva, Adalberto M; Lorenzi, Harri; Vallim, Marcelo A; Pascon, Renata C

    2015-05-11

    The chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils obtained from three Brazilian plant species-leaves and branches of Eremanthus erythropappus (Asteraceae), leaves of Plectranthus barbatus, and leaves of P. amboinicus (Lamiaceae)-were determined. Analysis by GC/MS and determination of Kovats indexes both indicated δ-elemene (leaves-42.61% and branches-23.41%) as well as (-)-α-bisabolol (leaves-24.80% and stem bark-66.16%) as major constituents of E. erythropappus essential oils. The main components of leaves of P. barbatus were identified as (Z)-caryophyllene (17.98%), germacrene D (17.35%), and viridiflorol (14.13%); whereas those of leaves of P. amboinicus were characterized as p-cymene (12.01%), γ-terpinene (14.74%), carvacrol (37.70%), and (Z)-caryophyllene (14.07%). The antimicrobial activity against yeasts and bacteria was assessed in broth microdilution assays to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) necessary to inhibit microbial growth. In addition, the crude oil of branches of E. erythropappus was subjected to chromatographic separation procedures to afford purified (-)-α-bisabolol. This compound displayed biological activity against pathogenic yeasts, thus suggesting that the antimicrobial effect observed with crude oils of E. erythropappus leaves and branches may be related to the occurrence of (-)-α-bisabolol as their main component. Our results showed that crude oils of Brazilian plants, specifically E. erythropappus, P. barbatus, and P. amboinicus and its components, could be used as a tool for the developing novel and more efficacious antimicrobial agents.

  20. Inhibitory Activities and Application of Four Plant Essential Oils%4种植物精油的抑菌活性及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓业成; 宁蕾

    2012-01-01

    Inhibitory activities of four plant essential oils against eleven animal pathogenic bacteria and environmental mould were determined using broth dilution method and gaseous fumigation. The results showed that The MICs of oils from Litsea mollis , Citrus reticulata, Erigeron acer and Ageratum cony-zoides to the tested animal pathogenic bacteria were 0. 062 5Z~0. 5,0. 125~1 >2~4 and 0- 062 5~0. 125 mL/L,respectively. The inhibitory activities of oils from L. mollis,C. reticulata and E. acer were high, and that of A. coNryzoides oil was relatively low. At a dose of 16 μ.L per utensil,the four plant essential oils had inhibition against environmental mould,and the inhibitory activities of oils from L. mollis and C. reticulata were higher than that of another two oils. The oils of L, mollis and C. reticulata also had inhibitory effect on mould growth of bread at 27 °C and RH 80%. By studying the formulation of mouth-wash of plant essential oil,the optimum proportion of all components in the mouthwash was confirmed, and the mouthwash of L. mollis essential oil prepared. The removing rate of mouth bacteria by the new mouthwash reached 39. 96% , which was similar to the removing rate by commercial mouthwash and met the demand of industrial product. The principal compounds of four plant essential oils were also identified using GC/MS technique.%采用液体培养基稀释法测定4种植物精油对11种动物病原细菌的最低抑制浓度(MIC),山苍子精油、南丰蜜橘精油、飞蓬精油和胜红蓟精油的MIC分别为0.062 5~0.5、0.125~1、2~4和0.062 5~0.125mL/L;山苍子精油、南丰蜜橘精油和胜红蓟精油对供试病原细菌的抑菌活性好,飞蓬精油的抑菌活性相对较差.采用气态熏蒸法测定4种植物精油对环境常见霉菌的抑菌效果,当精油剂量为16μL/皿时,4种植物精油对环境霉菌有抑制作用,山苍子精油和南丰蜜橘精油的抑制效果较好(此2种精油在27℃下对面包霉变

  1. Plant oils as feedstock alternatives to petroleum - A short survey of potential oil crop platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Anders S

    2009-06-01

    Our society is highly depending on petroleum for its activities. About 90% is used as an energy source for transportation and for generation of heat and electricity and the remaining as feedstocks in the chemical industry. However, petroleum is a finite source as well as causing several environmental problems such as rising carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere. Petroleum therefore needs to be replaced by alternative and sustainable sources. Plant oils and oleochemicals derived from them represent such alternative sources, which can deliver a substantial part of what is needed to replace the petroleum used as feedstocks. Plant derived feedstock oils can be provided by two types of oil qualities, multi-purpose and technical oils. Multi-purpose oils represent oil qualities that contain common fatty acids and that can be used for both food and feedstock applications. Technical oil qualities contain unusual fatty acids with special properties gained from their unique molecular structure and these types of oils should only be used for feedstock applications. As a risk mitigation strategy in the selection of crops, technical oil qualities should therefore preferably be produced by oil crop platforms dedicated for industrial usage. This review presents a short survey of oil crop platforms to be considered for either multi-purpose or technical oils production. Included among the former platforms are some of the major oil crops in cultivation such as oil palm, soybean and rapeseed. Among the later are those that could be developed into dedicated industrial platforms such as crambe, flax, cotton and Brassica carinata. The survey finishes off by highlighting the potential of substantial increase in plant oil production by developing metabolic flux platforms, which are starch crops converted into oil crops.

  2. Antibacterial Activity of Cinnamaldehyde and Estragole Extracted from Plant Essential Oils against Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae Causing Bacterial Canker Disease in Kiwifruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yu-Rim; Choi, Min-Seon; Choi, Geun-Won; Park, Il-Kwon; Oh, Chang-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa) causes bacterial canker disease in kiwifruit. Antibacterial activity of plant essential oils (PEOs) originating from 49 plant species were tested against Psa by a vapor diffusion and a liquid culture assays. The five PEOs from Pimenta racemosa, P. dioica, Melaleuca linariifolia, M. cajuputii, and Cinnamomum cassia efficiently inhibited Psa growth by either assays. Among their major components, estragole, eugenol, and methyl eugenol showed significant antibacterial activity by only the liquid culture assay, while cinnamaldehyde exhibited antibacterial activity by both assays. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of estragole and cinnamaldehyde by the liquid culture assay were 1,250 and 2,500 ppm, respectively. The MIC of cinnamaldehyde by the vapor diffusion assay was 5,000 ppm. Based on the formation of clear zones or the decrease of optical density caused by these compounds, they might kill the bacterial cells and this feature might be useful for managing the bacterial canker disease in kiwifruit. PMID:27493612

  3. Antibacterial Activity of Cinnamaldehyde and Estragole Extracted from Plant Essential Oils against Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae Causing Bacterial Canker Disease in Kiwifruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Rim Song

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa causes bacterial canker disease in kiwifruit. Antibacterial activity of plant essential oils (PEOs originating from 49 plant species were tested against Psa by a vapor diffusion and a liquid culture assays. The five PEOs from Pimenta racemosa, P. dioica, Melaleuca linariifolia, M. cajuputii, and Cinnamomum cassia efficiently inhibited Psa growth by either assays. Among their major components, estragole, eugenol, and methyl eugenol showed significant antibacterial activity by only the liquid culture assay, while cinnamaldehyde exhibited antibacterial activity by both assays. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of estragole and cinnamaldehyde by the liquid culture assay were 1,250 and 2,500 ppm, respectively. The MIC of cinnamaldehyde by the vapor diffusion assay was 5,000 ppm. Based on the formation of clear zones or the decrease of optical density caused by these compounds, they might kill the bacterial cells and this feature might be useful for managing the bacterial canker disease in kiwifruit.

  4. Essential Oils and Their Constituents: Anticonvulsant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damião Pergentino de Sousa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A literature-based survey of plants species and their essential oils with anticonvulsant activity was carried out. As results, 30 species belonging to 13 families and 23 genera were identified for their activities in the experimental models used for anticonvulsant drug screening. Thirty chemical constituents of essential oils with anticonvulsant properties were described. Information on these 30 species is presented together with isolated bioactive compound studies.

  5. 三种植物精油抑菌效果的研究%Study on Antimicrobial Activity of the Three Plant Essential Oils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    米热古丽·伊马木; 余雄; 阿依古丽; 龙宣杞; 王恬

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The antibacterial activities of lavender, rose and grape seed plant essential oils with different concentrations are studied in this paper. [ Method] Essential oils antibacterial activities were investigated by disc diffusion assay method . [ Result] Any concentration of lavender oil and rose oil could inhibit all bacterial species tested in our study, 3 % of lavender oil and rose oil showed the highest antibacterial activity, and activities of grape seed oil were relatively less than those of the others. The antibacterial activity on bacterial species tested in our study of 3% lavender essential oil were Staphylococcus aureus > Bacillus subtilis > Staphylicoccus albus > Lactobacillus plantarum > Escherichia coli > Enterococcus faecalis > Pediococcus pentosaceus, and 3% of rose oil essential oil were Enterococcus faecalis > Pediococcus pertosaceus > Staphylococcus aureus > Staphylicoccus albus > Lnctobacillus plantarum > Escherichia coli > Bacillus subtilis. [Conclusion]The study proved that 3% lavender oil and rose oils had strong antibacterial activities to the bacteria mentioned above and they can be used as natural antibacterial agents.%[目的]研究不同浓度的新疆薰衣草、玫瑰和葡萄籽精油对7种供试菌种的抑菌效果.[方法]采用滤纸片扩散法.[结果]不同浓度的薰衣草、玫瑰和葡萄籽精油对7种供试菌种具有一定的抑菌活性.3%的薰衣草和玫瑰精油对供试菌抑菌效果最好,其中3%薰衣草精油对7种供试菌种抑菌5种菌的活性强度为:金黄色葡萄球菌>枯草芽孢杆菌>白色葡萄球菌>植物乳杆菌>大肠杆菌>粪肠球菌>戊糖片球菌,3%玫瑰精油为:粪肠球菌>戊糖片球菌>金黄色葡萄球菌>白色葡萄球菌>植物乳杆菌>大肠杆菌>枯草芽孢杆菌.葡萄籽精油的抑菌效果相对其它两种精油较弱.[结论]薰衣草和玫瑰精油对上述细菌具有较强的抑菌效果,可作为天然抑菌剂.

  6. Ovicidal and larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae complex mosquitoes of essential oils extracted from three spontaneous plants of Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassolé, I H N; Guelbeogo, W M; Nébié, R; Costantini, C; Sagnon, N; Kabore, Z I; Traoré, S A

    2003-03-01

    Essential oils extracted from dried leaves of three spontaneous plants naturally growing in Burkina Faso, i.e. Cymbopogon proximus, Lippia multiflora and Ocimum canum, exhibited larvicidal activity by the WHO standard protocol against 3rd and 4th instar F1-larvae of field-collected mosquitoes vectors of human disease, namely Aedes aegypti and members of the Anopheles gambiae complex, An. arabiensis and An. gambiae. The median lethal concentration (LC50) for Ae. aegypti and An. gambiae s.l. larvae ranged between 53.5-258.5 ppm and 61.9-301.6 ppm, respectively. The LC90 estimates ranged 74.8-334.8 ppm for Ae. aegypti, and 121.6-582.9 ppm for An. gambiae s.l. Ovicidal activity against eggs of An. gambiae s.l. was also demonstrated. The LC50 values for An. gambiae s.l. eggs ranged between 17.1-188.7 ppm, while LC90 values ranged between 33.5-488 ppm. Lippia multiflora showed the highest activity against An. gambiae s.l. eggs and Ae. aegypti larvae, whereas no difference was found among C. proximus and L. multiflora in their activity against An. gambiae s.l. larvae. Of the three plants, essential oils from O. canum had the lowest activity against both eggs and larvae. Eggs were more susceptible than larvae. Ae. aegypti larvae were more susceptible than larvae of An. gambiae s.l.

  7. Surface structure and properties of plant seed oil bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzen, J T; Huang, A H

    1992-04-01

    Storage triacylglycerols (TAG) in plant seeds are present in small discrete intracellular organelles called oil bodies. An oil body has a matrix of TAG, which is surrounded by phospholipids (PL) and alkaline proteins, termed oleosins. Oil bodies isolated from mature maize (Zea mays) embryos maintained their discreteness, but coalesced after treatment with trypsin but not with phospholipase A2 or C. Phospholipase A2 or C exerted its activity on oil bodies only after the exposed portion of oleosins had been removed by trypsin. Attempts were made to reconstitute oil bodies from their constituents. TAG, either extracted from oil bodies or of a 1:2 molar mixture of triolein and trilinolein, in a dilute buffer were sonicated to produce droplets of sizes similar to those of oil bodies; these droplets were unstable and coalesced rapidly. Addition of oil body PL or dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine, with or without charged stearylamine/stearic acid, or oleosins, to the medium before sonication provided limited stabilization effects to the TAG droplets. High stability was achieved only when the TAG were sonicated with both oil body PL (or dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine) and oleosins of proportions similar to or higher than those in the native oil bodies. These stabilized droplets were similar to the isolated oil bodies in chemical properties, and can be considered as reconstituted oil bodies. Reconstituted oil bodies were also produced from TAG of a 1:2 molar mixture of triolein and trilinolein, dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine, and oleosins from rice (Oryza sativa), wheat (Triticum aestivum), rapeseed (Brassica napus), soybean (Glycine max), or jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis). It is concluded that both oleosins and PL are required to stabilize the oil bodies and that oleosins prevent oil bodies from coalescing by providing steric hindrance. A structural model of an oil body is presented. The current findings on seed oil bodies could be extended to the intracellular storage lipid

  8. Toxicity of plant essential oils to Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Won-Il; Lee, Eun-Hee; Choi, Byeoung-Ryeol; Park, Hyung-Man; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2003-10-01

    A total of 53 plant essential oils were tested for their insecticidal activities against eggs, nymphs, and adults of Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood, using an impregnated filter paper bioassays without allowing direct contact. Responses varied according to oil type and dose, and developmental stage of the insect. Bay, caraway seed, clove leaf, lemon eucalyptus, lime dis 5 F, pennyroyal, peppermint, rosewood, spearmint, and tea tree oils were highly effective against T. vaporariorum adults, nymphs, and eggs at 0.0023, 0.0093, and 0.0047 microl/ml air, respectively. These results indicate that the mode of delivery of these essential oils was largely a result of action in the vapor phase. Significant correlations among adulticidal, nymphicidal, and ovicidal activities of the test oils were observed. The essential oils described herein merit further study as potential fumigants for T. vaporariorum control.

  9. In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils against Streptococcus pyogenes

    OpenAIRE

    Julien Sfeir; Corinne Lefrançois; Dominique Baudoux; Séverine Derbré; Patricia Licznar

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes plays an important role in the pathogenesis of tonsillitis. The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activities of 18 essential oils chemotypes from aromatic medicinal plants against S. pyogenes. Antibacterial activity of essential oils was investigated using disc diffusion method. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of essential oils showing an important antibacterial activity was measured using broth dilution method. Out of 18 essential oils...

  10. Phytochemistry and nematicidal activity of the essential oils from 8 Greek Lamiaceae aromatic plants and 13 terpene components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntalli, Nikoletta G; Ferrari, Federico; Giannakou, Ioannis; Menkissoglu-Spiroudi, Urania

    2010-07-14

    Eight essential oils (EOs) as well as 13 single terpenes were studied for their nematicidal activity against Meloidogyne incognita , for three immersion periods (24, 48, and 96 h). The EOs were isolated from eight Greek Lamiaceae species: Melissa officinalis , Sideritis clandestina , Origanum dictamnus , Ocimum basilicum , Mentha pulegium , Origanum vulgare , Vitex agnus castus , and Salvia officinalis . The EOs nematicidal activity was correlated to their chemical composition as well as to the pure terpenes' activity tested individually. Clear dose and time response relationships were established. The EOs of O. vulgare, O. dictamnus, M. pulegium, and M. officinalis exhibited high nematicidal activity against M. incognita, and the EC(50) values (96 h) were calculated at 1.55, 1.72, 3.15, and 6.15 muL/mL, respectively. The activity of the nematicidal terpenes was found to decrease in the order l-carvone, pulegone, trans-anethole, geraniol, eugenol, carvacrol, thymol, terpinen-4-ol, and the respective EC(50) values (24 h) were calculated in the range of 115-392 mug/mL. Terpenes tested individually were more active than as components in EO, implementing antagonistic action.

  11. Chemical composition, antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic activities of Ocimum sanctum L. essential oil and its safety assessment as plant based antimicrobial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashok; Shukla, Ravindra; Singh, Priyanka; Dubey, Nawal Kishore

    2010-02-01

    The study deals with the efficacy of Ocimum sanctum essential oil (EO) and its major component, eugenol against the fungi causing biodeterioration of food stuffs during storage. O. sanctum EO and eugenol were found efficacious in checking growth of Aspergillus flavus NKDHV8; and, their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were recorded as 0.3 and 0.2 microl ml(-1), respectively. The O. sanctum EO and eugenol also inhibited the aflatoxin B1 production completely at 0.2 and 0.1 microl ml(-1), respectively. Both of these were found superior over some prevalent synthetic antifungals and exhibited broad fungitoxic spectrum against 12 commonly occurring fungi. The LD50 value of O. sanctum EO on mice was found to be 4571.43 microl kg(-1) suggesting its non-mammalian toxic nature. The findings of present study reveals the possible exploitation of O. sanctum EO and eugenol as plant based safe preservatives against fungal spoilage of food stuffs during storage.

  12. Screening of plants for phytoremediation of oil-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeura, Hiromi; Kawasaki, Yu; Kaimi, Etsuko; Nishiwaki, Junko; Noborio, Kosuke; Tamaki, Masahiko

    2016-01-01

    Several species of ornamental flowering plants were evaluated regarding their phytoremediation ability for the cleanup of oil-contaminated soil in Japanese environmental conditions. Thirty-three species of plants were grown in oil-contaminated soil, and Mimosa, Zinnia, Gazania, and cypress vine were selected for further assessment on the basis of their favorable initial growth. No significant difference was observed in the above-ground and under-ground dry matter weight of Gazania 180 days after sowing between contaminated and non-contaminated plots. However, the other 3 species of plants died by the 180th day, indicating that Gazania has an especially strong tolerance for oil-contaminated soil. The total petroleum hydrocarbon concentration of the soils in which the 4 species of plants were grown decreased by 45-49% by the 180th day. Compared to an irrigated plot, the dehydrogenase activity of the contaminated soil also increased significantly, indicating a phytoremediation effect by the 4 tested plants. Mimosa, Zinnia, and cypress vine all died by the 180th day after seeding, but the roots themselves became a source of nutrients for the soil microorganisms, which led to a phytoremediation effect by increase in the oil degradation activity. It has been indicated that Gazania is most appropriate for phytoremediation of oil-contaminated soil.

  13. Evaluation of antileishmanial, cytotoxic and antioxidant activities of essential oils extracted from plants issued from the leishmaniasis-endemic region of Sned (Tunisia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, S Ben Hadj; Sghaier, R M; Guesmi, F; Kaabi, B; Mejri, M; Attia, H; Laouini, D; Smaali, I

    2011-07-01

    In this study, we tested 10 essential oils (EOs) extracted from 10 plants issued from Sned region (Tunisia) to evaluate both their leishmanicidal effects against Leishmania major and L. infantum, and their cytotoxicity against murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 (ATCC, TIB-71). The antioxidant activity was also monitored by the DDPH method, while the chemical composition of active EO was assessed by GC-MS analysis. The results showed that the EOs obtained from Thymus hirtus sp. algeriensis (rich on monoterpenoids, especially linalool at 17.62% and camphor at 13.82%) is significantly active against both L. major and L. infantum, whereas Ruta chalepensis EO (rich on 2-undecanone at 84.28%) is only active against L. infantum. Both oil extracts showed low cytotoxicity towards murine macrophages. The characteristic ratios (IC₈₀ Raw264.7 cells/IC₅₀ L. infantum and IC₈₀ Raw264.7 cells/IC₅₀ L. major) were, respectively, 2.7 and 1.57 for T. hirtus sp. algeriensis, and 1.34 and 0.19 for R. chalepensis. However, when measuring the antioxidant effects (DDPH method), the two latter EOs presented a moderate 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl hydrate scavenging effects compared to EOs from Eucaliptus globulus, Pinus halepensis, Pituranthos tortuosus, Rosmarinus officinalis, Tetraclinis articulata or to BHT.

  14. [Antibacterial activity of natural compounds - essential oils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Sherif T S; Majerová, Michaela; Šudomová, Miroslava; Berchová, Kateřina

    2015-12-01

    Since the problem of bacterial resistance has become a serious problem worldwide, it was necessary to search for new active substances that can overcome the problem and enhance the treatment efficacy of bacterial infections. Numerous plant-derived essential oils exhibited significant antibacterial activities. This review aimed to summarize the most promising essential oils that exhibited remarkable antibacterial activities against various bacterial infections, including staphylococcal infections, Helicobacter pylori infections, skin infections, tuberculosis infection and dental bacterial infection. The synergy effect of essential oils in combination with antibiotics, as well as their role in the treatment of bacterial infections have been discussed. Essential oils can be used as models for further studies in vivo and clinical trials.

  15. The role of supplemental ultraviolet-B radiation in altering the metabolite profile, essential oil content and composition, and free radical scavenging activities of Coleus forskohlii, an indigenous medicinal plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takshak, Swabha; Agrawal, S B

    2016-04-01

    The effects of supplemental ultraviolet-B (s-UV-B; 3.6 kJ m(-2) day(-1) above ambient) radiation were investigated on plant metabolite profile, essential oil content and composition, and free radical scavenging capacities of methanolic extracts of Coleus forskohlii (an indigenous medicinal plant) grown under field conditions. Essential oil was isolated using hydrodistillation technique while alterations in metabolite profile and oil composition were determined via gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Leaf and root methanolic extracts were investigated via various in vitro assays for their DPPH radical-, superoxide radical-, hydrogen peroxide-, hydroxyl radical-, and nitric oxide radical scavenging activities, ferrous ion chelating activity, and reducing power. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, anthocyanins, coumarins, flavonoids, glycosides, phenols, saponins, steroids, tannins, and terpenoids. Oil content was found to be reduced (by ∼7 %) in supplemental UV-B (s-UV-B) treated plants; the composition of the plant extracts as well as essential oil was also considerably altered. Methanolic extracts from treated plant organs showed more potency as free radical scavengers (their EC50 values being lower than their respective controls). Anomalies were observed in Fe(2+) chelating activity for both leaves and roots. The present study concludes that s-UV-B adversely affects oil content in C. forskohlii and also alters the composition and contents of metabolites in both plant extracts and oil. The results also denote that s-UV-B treated plant organs might be more effective in safeguarding against oxidative stress, though further studies are required to authenticate these findings.

  16. Effects of essential oils from herbal plants and citrus fruits on DNA polymerase inhibitory, cancer cell growth inhibitory, antiallergic, and antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitoshi, Mai; Kuriyama, Isoko; Nakayama, Hiroto; Miyazato, Hironari; Sugimoto, Keiichiro; Kobayashi, Yuko; Jippo, Tomoko; Kanazawa, Kazuki; Yoshida, Hiromi; Mizushina, Yoshiyuki

    2012-11-14

    In this study, the biological activity of 20 essential oils (EOs) from herbal plants and citrus fruits were investigated in terms of mammalian DNA polymerase (pol) inhibitory activity, cancer cell (human colon carcinoma, HCT116) growth inhibitory activity, antiallergic activity, as anti-β-hexosaminidase release activity in rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells treated with calcium ionophore A23187, and antioxidant activity by a lipophilic-oxygen radical absorbance capacity method. These EOs showed patterns of inhibition of pol α, a DNA replicative pol, similar to their cancer cell growth inhibitory activity, and their inhibitory activity on pol λ, a DNA repair/recombination pol, by the EOs showed correlation with anti-β-hexosaminidase release activity. Among these EOs, chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) was the strongest inhibitor of pols α and λ and showed significant effects on both cancer cell growth and mast cell degranulation. On the basis of these results, chamomile EO can be recommended as a potentially useful, bioactive candidate for therapeutic applications.

  17. Quality Assessment of Effluent Discharges from Vegetable oil Plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quality Assessment of Effluent Discharges from Vegetable oil Plant. ... oil processing company, located in Anambra State – South east Nigeria, was evaluated ... total hydrocarbon content (THC), oil and grease, total dissolved solids (TDS), pH, ...

  18. Chemical composition and insecticidal activity of essential oils of two aromatic plants from Ivory Coast against Bemisia tabaci G. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tia, Etienne V; Adima, Augustin A; Niamké, Sébastien L; Jean, Gnago A; Martin, Thibaud; Lozano, Paul; Menut, Chantal

    2011-08-01

    Essential oils of aromatic plants with insecticidal properties are nowadays considered as alternative insecticides to protect cultures from attack by insect pest. The aims of the present work were to evaluate the toxicity of the essential oils vapors of two aromatic plants (Lippia multiflora Mold. and Aframomum latifolium K. Schum) against Bemisia tabaci and to characterize their chemical composition. The highest fumigant toxicity against B. tabaci adults was observed with the L. multiflora oil: by exposure to 0.4 microL/L air, the lethal time inducing 90% mortality (LT90) was below 2 hours for this essential oil whereas it reached 15 h in the case of the A. latifolium oil. Both oils were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS on two capillary columns. The oil of L. multiflora contained a majority of oxygenated terpenoids mainly represented by the two acyclic components linalool (46.6%) and (E)-nerolidol (16.5%); the oil of A. latifolium was dominated by hydrocarbonated terpenoids among them beta-pinene (51.6%) and beta-caryophyllene (12.3%) were the two major components.

  19. Chemical variation of leaf essential oil at different stages of plant growth and in vitro antibacterial activity of Thymus vulgaris Lamiaceae, from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizollah Nezhadali

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil components of the leaves were isolated by hydrodistillation from Thymus vulgaris (T. Lamiaceae, at different stages of plant growth. The essential oils from T. Lamiaceae leaves were obtained in yields of 0.83–1.39% (w/w. The oils were studied by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS and thirty-six components were identified in the oil. The major components in the leaf oils were: thymol (38.23–63.01%, o-cymene (5.56–15.47%, γ-terpinene (4.43–7.17%, borneol (1.72–6.65%, 4-terpineol (1.24–5.16% and 1,8-cineole (0.09–1.54%. The results showed that the oil yield and the major constituents' percentage of the leaf were different at different stages of plant growth. The essential oils of T. Lamiaceae leaves were tested against five strains of Gram positive bacteria (g+ and five strains of Gram negative bacteria (g−. The average minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC of essential oils were determined using agar dilution method against the organisms by agar dilution method.

  20. Optimization of Jatropha curcas pure plant oil production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subroto, Erna

    2015-01-01

    The use of pure plant oils as fuel, either directly or after conversion of the oil to bio-diesel, is considered to be one of the potential contributions to the transformation of the current fossil oil based economy to a sustainable bio-based one. The production of oil producing seeds using plants

  1. Inhibition of cholinesterase by essential oil from food plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiyana, Wantida; Okonogi, Siriporn

    2012-06-15

    Inhibition of cholinesterase has attracted much attention recently because of its potential for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. In this work, the anticholinesterase activities of plant oils were investigated using Ellman's colorimetric method. The results indicate that essential oils obtained from Melissa officinalis leaf and Citrus aurantifolia leaf showed high acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase co-inhibitory activities. C. aurantifolia leaf oil revealed in this study has an IC(50) value on acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase of 139 ± 35 and 42 ± 5 μg/ml, respectively. GC/MS analysis revealed that the major constituents of C. aurantifolia leaf oil are monoterpenoids including limonene, l-camphor, citronellol, o-cymene and 1,8-cineole. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Antimicrobial activity of some Iranian medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasemi Pirbalouti Abdollah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The major aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial activity of the extracts of eight plant species which are endemic in Iran. The antimicrobial activities of the extracts of eight Iranian traditional plants, including Hypericum scabrum, Myrtus communis, Pistachia atlantica, Arnebia euchroma, Salvia hydrangea, Satureja bachtiarica, Thymus daenensis and Kelussia odoratissima, were investigated against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes and Candida albicans by agar disc diffusion and serial dilution assays. Most of the extracts showed a relatively high antimicrobial activity against all the tested bacteria and fungi. Of the plants studied, the most active extracts were those obtained from the essential oils of M. communis and T. daenensis. The MIC values for active extract and essential oil ranged between 0.039 and 10 mg/ml. It can be said that the extract and essential oil of some medicinal plants could be used as natural antimicrobial agents in food preservation. .

  3. Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of edible plant-derived essential oils against the pyrethroid-susceptible and -resistant strains of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutthanont, Nataya; Choochote, Wej; Tuetun, Benjawan; Junkum, Anuluck; Jitpakdi, Atchariya; Chaithong, Udom; Riyong, Doungrat; Pitasawat, Benjawan

    2010-06-01

    The chemical compositions and larvicidal potential against mosquito vectors of selected essential oils obtained from five edible plants were investigated in this study. Using a GC/MS, 24, 17, 20, 21, and 12 compounds were determined from essential oils of Citrus hystrix, Citrus reticulata, Zingiber zerumbet, Kaempferia galanga, and Syzygium aromaticum, respectively. The principal constituents found in peel oil of C. hystrix were beta-pinene (22.54%) and d-limonene (22.03%), followed by terpinene-4-ol (17.37%). Compounds in C. reticulata peel oil consisted mostly of d-limonene (62.39%) and gamma-terpinene (14.06%). The oils obtained from Z. zerumbet rhizome had alpha-humulene (31.93%) and zerumbone (31.67%) as major components. The most abundant compounds in K. galanga rhizome oil were 2-propeonic acid (35.54%), pentadecane (26.08%), and ethyl-p-methoxycinnamate (25.96%). The main component of S. aromaticum bud oil was eugenol (77.37%), with minor amounts of trans-caryophyllene (13.66%). Assessment of larvicidal efficacy demonstrated that all essential oils were toxic against both pyrethroid-susceptible and resistant Ae. aegypti laboratory strains at LC50, LC95, and LC99 levels. In conclusion, we have documented the promising larvicidal potential of essential oils from edible herbs, which could be considered as a potentially alternative source for developing novel larvicides to be used in controlling vectors of mosquito-borne disease.

  4. Oil Dispersion with Abamectin as Active Ingredient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavica Gašić

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abamectin was developed as an insecticide, nematocide and acaricide for use on a varietyof agricultural and horticultural crops. The products with this active ingredient can befound on the market mostly formulated as emulsifiable concentrate (EC. Usually producersrecommend using the EC formulation of abamectin together with some kind of adjuvants(natural oils to improve efficacy of the active ingredient. To overcome the efficacy problemwe tried to formulate the active ingredient abamectin as oil dispersion (OD. Oil dispersion,preferably based on naturally derived oils could improve pesticide efficacy. This type of pesticideformulation contains oil instead of water as in classical suspension concentrate andtypically has better retention and coverage. In the case of abamectin, in this investigationsoybean oil was used with the mixture of different nonionic emulsifiers. Content of abamecetinin formulation was 1.8 %. The developed formulation was tested for few importantparameters. The obtained physicochemical properties for the above mentioned formulationhave shown that it is stable and could be used in plant protection.

  5. Sclerorhachis Platyrachis (Boiss. Podlech Ex Rech. F.: an Indigenous Medicinal Plant from Northeastern Iran; Essential Oil Composition, Total Flavonoid Content and Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashem Akhlaghi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of the aerial parts of Sclerorhachis platyrachis (Boiss. Podlech ex Rech. f. (Compositae, growing wild in Sabzevar, Khorasan Razavi Province (Iran, was analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The total yield of volatiles was 0.38% (w/w. Sixty- three compounds representing 89.2% of the aerial parts oil were identified.  The main components of the oil were β-pinene (17.5% and γ-terpinene (15.4%. The oil was rich in monoterpenoids, and among them, monoterpene hydrocarbons (48.7% predominated over oxygenated monoterpenes (11.8%. The total flavonoid content of different extracts of the plant was in the range 52.4-172.3 mg/g, with the maximum amount being in the methanol extract. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were also measured based on radical scavenging activity of antioxidants using the 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH method. The results showed that IC50 values of extracts of S. platyrachis are higher than for the standard synthetic antioxidants, BHT, ascorbic acid and gallic acid. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi; mso-bidi-language:AR-SA;}    

  6. Antifungal Effect of Plant Essential Oils on Controlling Phytophthora Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Jahanshir; Farhang, Vahid; Javadi, Taimoor; Nazemi, Javad

    2016-01-01

    In this study, antifungal activity of essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus and Ocimum basilicum and two fungicides Mancozeb and Metalaxyl-Mancozeb in six different concentrations were investigated for controlling three species of Phytophthora, including P. capsici, P. drechsleri and P. melonis on pepper, cucumber and melon under in vitro and greenhouse conditions, respectively. Under the in vitro condition, the median effective concen- tration (EC50) values (ppm) of plant essential oils and fungicides were measured. In greenhouse, soil infested with Phytophthora species was treated by adding 50 ml of essential oils and fungicides (100 ppm). Disease severity was determined after 28 days. Among two tested plant essential oils, C. citratus had the lowest EC50 values for inhibition of the mycelial growth of P. capsici (31.473), P. melonis (33.097) and P. drechsleri (69.112), respectively. The mean EC50 values for Metalaxyl-Mancozeb on these pathogens were 20.87, 20.06 and 17.70, respectively. Chemical analysis of plant essential oils by GC-MS showed that, among 42 compounds identified from C. citratus, two compounds β-geranial (α-citral) (39.16%) and z-citral (30.95%) were the most abundant. Under the greenhouse condition, Metalaxyl-Mancozeb caused the greatest reduction in disease severity, 84.2%, 86.8% and 92.1% on melon, cucumber, and pepper, respectively. The C. citratus essential oil reduced disease severity from 47.4% to 60.5% compared to the untreated control (p≤0.05). Essential oils of O. basilicum had the lowest effects on the pathogens under in vitro and greenhouse conditions. These results show that essential oils may contribute to the development of new antifungal agents to protect the crops from Phytophthora diseases. PMID:26889111

  7. Antifungal Effect of Plant Essential Oils on Controlling Phytophthora Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahanshir Amini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, antifungal activity of essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus and Ocimum basilicum and two fungicides Mancozeb and Metalaxyl-Mancozeb in six different concentrations were investigated for controlling three species of Phytophthora, including P. capsici, P. drechsleri and P. melonis on pepper, cucumber and melon under in vitro and greenhouse conditions, respectively. Under the in vitro condition, the median effective concen- tration (EC₅₀ values (ppm of plant essential oils and fungicides were measured. In greenhouse, soil infested with Phytophthora species was treated by adding 50 ml of essential oils and fungicides (100 ppm. Disease severity was determined after 28 days. Among two tested plant essential oils, C. citratus had the lowest EC₅₀ values for inhibition of the mycelial growth of P. capsici (31.473, P. melonis (33.097 and P. drechsleri (69.112, respectively. The mean EC₅₀ values for Metalaxyl-Mancozeb on these pathogens were 20.87, 20.06 and 17.70, respectively. Chemical analysis of plant essential oils by GC-MS showed that, among 42 compounds identified from C. citratus, two compounds β-geranial (α-citral (39.16% and z-citral (30.95% were the most abundant. Under the greenhouse condition, Metalaxyl-Mancozeb caused the greatest reduction in disease severity, 84.2%, 86.8% and 92.1% on melon, cucumber, and pepper, respectively. The C. citratus essential oil reduced disease severity from 47.4% to 60.5% compared to the untreated control (p≤0.05. Essential oils of O. basilicum had the lowest effects on the pathogens under in vitro and greenhouse conditions. These results show that essential oils may contribute to the development of new antifungal agents to protect the crops from Phytophthora diseases.

  8. Manitoba 2004 oil activity review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, J.N. [Manitoba Industry, Economic Development and Mines, Winnipeg, MB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    This paper presented data on oil and gas activities in Manitoba during 2004, the busiest year in Manitoba's oil patch since the mid 1980s. Increases in the leasing of Crown and freehold acreage were also noted, with accompanying increases in drilling activity for the latter part of 2004. Details of Crown land sales were presented, with a total of 43,725 hectares of crown oil and gas rights under lease. During 2004, over 15,000 hectares of Crown oil and gas leases were sold, the highest figures since 1997. More wells were licensed and drilled in 2004 than in any year since 1986. Overall drilling success rate was 96.7 per cent. Details of top drillers in Manitoba were presented, with drilling activity focused in Waskada and Daly fields and the Sinclair area. Oil production increased by 0.7 per cent, with 1474 wells in production. Daily oil production statistics were presented, with the total value of Manitoba's oil production being $196 million. Details of the top 5 producers were provided, in addition to details of horizontal well production. Recent developments in Sinclair Field, Pierson L. Amaranth MC 3b A Pool, Waskada L. Amaranth I Pool and Virden Lodgepole D Pool were reviewed. The Manitoba Drilling Incentive Program was discussed with reference to the following enhancements: new well incentives, horizontal well incentives; holiday oil volume accounts; and marginal well major workover programs. Various Oil and Gas Act amendments were reviewed. In addition, the Williston Basin Architecture and Hydrocarbon Potential Project was discussed. 3 figs.

  9. Toxicity and antifeedant activity of essential oils from three aromatic plants grown in Colombia against Euprosterna elaeasa and Acharia fusca (Lepidoptera:Limacodidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ricardo Hernández-Lambraño; Karina Caballero-Gallardo; Jesus Olivero-Verbel

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To determine the biological effects of essential oils (EOs) isolated from Cymbopogon nardus, Cymbopogon flexuosus and Cymbopogon martinii grown in Colombia against two Lepidoptera larvae, common pests in the oil palm. Methods:Specimens were captured in the field and the antifeedant activity and dermal contact lethality of EOs were measured against Acharia fusca and Euprosterna elaeasa (Lepidoptera:Limacodidae) at various concentrations 0.002-0.600 μL/cm2 and 0.002-8 μL/g, respectively. Results: All EOs exhibited strong antifeedant and toxicity activity toward Acharia fusca and Euprosterna elaeasa larvae. Cymbopogon martinii oil was the most active against both pest insect species, although all tested EOs were better than the synthetic repellent IR3535 on both insects. Conclusions:Colombian EOs have potential for integrated pest management programs in the oil palm industry.

  10. Toxicity and antifeedant activity of essential oils from three aromatic plants grown in Colombia against Euprosterna elaeasa and Acharia fusca(Lepidoptera:Limacodidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ricardo; Hernández-Lambrao; Karina; Caballero-Gallardo; Jesus; Olivero-Verbel

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To determine the biological effects of essential oils(EOs) isolated from Cymbopogon iiardus,Cymbopogon Jlexuosus and Cvrnbopogon marlinii grown in Colombia against two Lepidoptera larvae,common pests in the oil palm.Methods:Specimens were captured in the field and the antifeedant activity and dermal contact lethality of EOs were measured against Acharia fusca and Euprosterna elaeasa(Lepidoptera:I.imacodidae) at various concentrations 0.002-0.600 μL/cm~3 and 0.002-8 μL/g,respectively.Results:All EOs exhibited strong antifeedant and toxicity activity toward Acharia fusca and Euprosterna elaeasa larvae.Cymbopogon marlinii oil was llie most active againsl both pest insect species,although all tested EOs were better than the synthetic;repellent IR535 on both insects.Conclusions:Colombian EOs have potential for integrated pest management programs in the oil palm industry.

  11. Insect repellent activity of medicinal plant oils against Aedes aegypti (Linn.), Anopheles minimus (Theobald) and Culex quinquefasciatus Say based on protection time and biting rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phasomkusolsil, Siriporn; Soonwera, Mayura

    2010-07-01

    This study investigated insect bite protection and length of the protection with 30 repellents which were divided into 3 categories: plant oil, essential oil and essential oil with ethyl alcohol, tested against three mosquito species, Aedes aegypti, Anopheles minimus and Culex quinquefasciatus, under laboratory conditions. The plant oil group was comprised of Phlai (Zingiber cassumunar) and Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum). Both substances were effective as repellents and feeding deterrents against An. minimus (205 minutes protection time and a biting rate of 0.9%), Cx. quinquefasciatus (165 minutes protection time and 0.9% biting rate) and Ae. aegypti (90 minutes protection time and 0.8% biting rate). Essential oil from citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus) exhibited protection against biting from all 3 mosquito species: for An. minimus, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti, the results were 130 minutes and 0.9%, 140 minutes and 0.8%, and 115 minutes and 0.8%, respectively. The period of protection time against Ae. aegypti for all repellent candidates tested was lower than the Thai Industrial Standards Institute (TISI) determined time of greater than 2 hours.

  12. Application of Volatile Antifungal Plant Essential Oils for Controlling Pepper Fruit Anthracnose by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeum Kyu Hong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides has been destructive during pepper fruit production in outdoor fields in Korea. In vitro antifungal activities of 15 different plant essential oils or its components were evaluated during conidial germination and mycelial growth of C. gloeosporioides. In vitro conidial germination was most drastically inhibited by vapour treatments with carvacrol, cinnamon oil, trans-cinnamaldehyde, citral, p-cymene and linalool. Inhibition of the mycelial growth by indirect vapour treatment with essential oils was also demonstrated compared with untreated control. Carvacrol, cinnamon oil, trans-cinnamaldehyde, citral and eugenol were among the most inhibitory plant essential oils by the indirect antifungal efficacies. Plant protection efficacies of the plant essential oils were demonstrated by reduced lesion diameter on the C. gloeosporioides-inoculated immature green pepper fruits compared to the inoculated control fruits without any plant essential oil treatment. In planta test showed that all plant essential oils tested in this study demonstrated plant protection efficacies against pepper fruit anthracnose with similar levels. Thus, application of different plant essential oils can be used for eco-friendly disease management of anthracnose during pepper fruit production.

  13. Application of Volatile Antifungal Plant Essential Oils for Controlling Pepper Fruit Anthracnose by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jeum Kyu; Yang, Hye Ji; Jung, Heesoo; Yoon, Dong June; Sang, Mee Kyung; Jeun, Yong-Chull

    2015-09-01

    Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides has been destructive during pepper fruit production in outdoor fields in Korea. In vitro antifungal activities of 15 different plant essential oils or its components were evaluated during conidial germination and mycelial growth of C. gloeosporioides. In vitro conidial germination was most drastically inhibited by vapour treatments with carvacrol, cinnamon oil, trans-cinnamaldehyde, citral, p-cymene and linalool. Inhibition of the mycelial growth by indirect vapour treatment with essential oils was also demonstrated compared with untreated control. Carvacrol, cinnamon oil, trans-cinnamaldehyde, citral and eugenol were among the most inhibitory plant essential oils by the indirect antifungal efficacies. Plant protection efficacies of the plant essential oils were demonstrated by reduced lesion diameter on the C. gloeosporioides-inoculated immature green pepper fruits compared to the inoculated control fruits without any plant essential oil treatment. In planta test showed that all plant essential oils tested in this study demonstrated plant protection efficacies against pepper fruit anthracnose with similar levels. Thus, application of different plant essential oils can be used for eco-friendly disease management of anthracnose during pepper fruit production.

  14. Inhibitory effects of some plant essential oils against Arcobacter butzleri and potential for rosemary oil as a natural food preservative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irkin, Reyhan; Abay, Secil; Aydin, Fuat

    2011-03-01

    We investigated the inhibitory activity of commercially marketed essential oils of mint, rosemary, orange, sage, cinnamon, bay, clove, and cumin against Arcobacter butzleri and Arcobacter skirrowii and the effects of the essential oil of rosemary against A. butzleri in a cooked minced beef system. Using the disc diffusion method to determine the inhibitory activities of these plant essential oils against strains of Arcobacter, we found that those of rosemary, bay, cinnamon, and clove had strong inhibitory activity against these organisms, whereas the essential oils of cumin, mint, and sage failed to show inhibitory activity against most of the Arcobacter strains tested. The 0.5% (vol/wt) essential oil of rosemary was completely inhibitory against A. butzleri in the cooked minced beef system at 4°C. These essential oils may be further investigated as a natural solution to the food industry by creating an additional barrier (hurdle technology) to inhibit the growth of Arcobacter strains.

  15. In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils against Streptococcus pyogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Sfeir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pyogenes plays an important role in the pathogenesis of tonsillitis. The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activities of 18 essential oils chemotypes from aromatic medicinal plants against S. pyogenes. Antibacterial activity of essential oils was investigated using disc diffusion method. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of essential oils showing an important antibacterial activity was measured using broth dilution method. Out of 18 essential oils tested, 14 showed antibacterial activity against S. pyogenes. Among them Cinnamomum verum, Cymbopogon citratus, Thymus vulgaris CT thymol, Origanum compactum, and Satureja montana essential oils exhibited significant antibacterial activity. The in vitro results reported here suggest that, for patients suffering from bacterial throat infections, if aromatherapy is used, these essential oils, considered as potential antimicrobial agents, should be preferred.

  16. Bio-oil fueled diesel power plant; Biooeljyllae toimiva dieselvoimala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuorinen, A. [Modigen Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    The project mission is to develop a diesel power plant which is capable of using liquid bio-oils as the main fuel of the power plant. The applicable bio-oils are rape seed oils and pyrolysis oils. The project was started in 1994 by installing a 1.5 MW Vasa 4L32 engine in VTT Energy laboratory in Otaniemi. During 1995 the first tests with the rape seed oils were made. The tests show that the rape seed oil can be used in Vasa 32 engines without difficulties. In the second phase of the project during 1996 and 1997 pyrolysis oil made of wood will be tested. Finally a diesel power plant concept with integrated pyrolysis oil, electricity and heat production will be developed

  17. Bio-oil fuelled diesel power plant; Biooeljyllae toimiva dieselvoimala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuorinen, A. [Modigen Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The project mission is to develop a diesel power plant which is capable of using liquid bio-oils as the main fuel of the power plant. The applicable bio-oils are rape seed oils and pyrolysis oils. The project was started in 1994 by installing a 1.5 MW Vasa 4L32 engine in VTT Energy laboratory in Otaniemi. During 1995 the first tests with the rape seed oils were made. The tests show that the rape seed oil can be used in Vasa 32 engines without difficulties. In the second phase of the project during 1996 pyrolysis oil made of wood was tested. Finally a diesel power plant concept with integrated pyrolysis oil, electricity and heat production will be developed

  18. Anthelmintic Activity of Grapeseed Oil and Linseed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goswami J

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the anthelminthic activity of vegetable fixed oils,grapeseed and linseed oil using adult earthworm, Pheritima posthuma. The oils were tested at differentconcentrations for the determination of paralysis time and death time of the earthworms. Albendazole isused as standard and it was found that grapeseed and linseed oil showed a better anthelminthic activityin comparison with the standard.

  19. GC/MS Evaluation and In Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oil and Solvent Extracts of an Endemic Plant Used as Folk Remedy in Turkey: Phlomis bourgaei Boiss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz Sarikurkcu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was outlined to examine the chemical composition of hydrodistilled essential oil and in vitro antioxidant potentials of the essential oil and different solvent extracts of endemic Phlomis bourgaei Boiss. used as folk remedy in Turkey. The chemical composition of the oil was analyzed by GC and GC-MS, and the predominant components in the oil were found to be β-caryophyllene (37.37%, (Z-β-farnesene (15.88%, and germacrene D (10.97%. Antioxidant potentials of the solvent extracts and the oil were determined by four testing systems including β-carotene/linoleic acid, DPPH, reducing power, and chelating effect. In β-carotene/linoleic acid assay, all extracts showed the inhibition of more than 50% at all concentrations. In DPPH, chelating effect, and reducing power test systems, the water extract with 88.68%, 77.45%, and 1.857 (absorbance at 700 nm, respectively, exhibited more excellent activity potential than other extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol and the essential oil at 1.0 mg/mL concentration. The amount of the total phenolics and flavonoids was the highest in this extract (139.50 ± 3.98 μg gallic acid equivalents (GAEs/mg extract and 22.71 ± 0.05 μg quercetin equivalents (QEs/mg extract.

  20. The antimicrobial activity of essential oils and extracts of some medicinal plants grown in Ash-shoubak region - South of Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Darwish, Mohammad Sanad; Al-Ramamneh, Ezz Al-Dein Muhammed; Kyslychenko, Viktoria Sergeevna; Karpiuk, Uliana Vladimirovna

    2012-01-01

    The inhibitory effects of essential oils as well as chloroformic extracts of Thymus vulgaris, Thymus serpyllum, Salvia officinalis and Pimpinella anisum grown in Ash-shoubak region-south of Jordan and their possible individual phytochemical constituents was screened against pathogenic clinical and standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. The bioassay employed was the agar well diffusion method. The essential oils and chloroformic extracts of T. vulgaris and T. serpyllum were the most effective against the tested strains of bacteria. Clinical and standard strains of S .aureus and P. aeruginosa were uninhibited by S. officinalis essential oils. P. aeruginosa tested strains were also resistant to P. anisum essential oils. For almost all bacterial strains, the highest antibacterial effect of oils was obtained with the highest tested dose (15 μl). Chlorformic extracts of S. officinalis showed small activity against standard and clinical E. coli strains and were not effective to inhibit strains of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. Chloroformic extracts obtained from P. anisum and applied at 300 μg/cm(2) slightly inhibited E. coli, but moderately inhibited S. aureus. It is shown from the results that the antibacterial effects of the individual components varied depending upon their chemical structure, functional groups and configuration as well as doses used. This study showed the beneficial effects of the essential oils of T. serpyllum and T. vulgaris grown in Ash-shoubak in inhibiting the growth of microbes and the implications this could have in pharmacy and food technology.

  1. Antifungal efficacy of plant essential oils against stored grain fungi of Fusarium spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Peeyush; Mishra, Sapna; Kumar, Atul; Sharma, Amit Kumar

    2016-10-01

    The control potential of seven plant essential oils was evaluated against Fusarium proliferatum (Matsushima) Nirenberg and Fusarium verticillioides Sheldon. The fungicidal activity was assessed through microtiter plate assay to determine the minimum inhibitory and fungicidal concentration of essential oils. The essential oil of Mentha arvensis was adjudged as best for inhibiting the fungal growth, while oil of Thymus vulgaris and Anethum graveolens showed high efficacy in terms of fungicidal activity. The oil of M. arvensis and T. vulgaris also showed good inhibition activity in agar disc diffusion assay. M. arvensis essential oil was analysed for its composition using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry revealing menthol (63.18 %), menthone (15.08 %), isomenthyl acetate (5.50 %) and limonene (4.31 %) as major components. Significant activity of M. arvensis essential oil against F. proliferatum and F. verticillioides isolates obtained, pave the way for its use as antifungal control agents.

  2. Genetically engineered plants with increased vegetative oil content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benning, Christoph

    2017-05-23

    The invention relates to genetically modified agricultural plants with increased oil content in vegetative tissues, as well as to expression systems, plant cells, seeds and vegetative tissues related thereto.

  3. Plant essential oils potency as natural antibiotic in Indonesian medicinal herb of “jamu”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soetjipto, H.; Martono, Y.

    2017-02-01

    The main purposes of this study are to compile antibacterial activity data of essential oils from Indonesian’s plants in order which can be used as a natural antibiotic in “jamu” to increase potential Indonesian medicinal herb. By using Agar Diffusing method, Bioautography and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrum, respectively, antibacterial activity and chemical compounds of 12 plants essential oils were studied in the Natural Product Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Satya Wacana Christian University, Salatiga since 2007 until 2015. The results of this studies showed that all of the essential oils have a medium to a strong antibacterial activity which are in the range of 30 – 2,500 μg and 80-5,000 μg. Further on, the essential oils analyzed by GCMS showed that each essential oils have different dominant compounds. These data can be used as basic doses in the usage of essential oils as natural antibiotics.

  4. Foeniculum vulgare essential oils: chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Maria Graça; Cruz, Cláudia; Faleiro, Leonor; Simões, Mariana T F; Figueiredo, Ana Cristina; Barroso, José G; Pedro, Luis G

    2010-02-01

    The essential oils from Foeniculum vulgare commercial aerial parts and fruits were isolated by hydrodistillation, with different distillation times (30 min, 1 h, 2 h and 3 h), and analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The antioxidant ability was estimated using four distinct methods. Antibacterial activity was determined by the agar diffusion method. Remarkable differences, and worrying from the quality and safety point of view, were detected in the essential oils. trans-Anethole (31-36%), alpha-pinene (14-20%) and limonene (11-13%) were the main components of the essentials oil isolated from F. vulgare dried aerial parts, whereas methyl chavicol (= estragole) (79-88%) was dominant in the fruit oils. With the DPPH method the plant oils showed better antioxidant activity than the fruits oils. With the TBARS method and at higher concentrations, fennel essential oils showed a pro-oxidant activity. None of the oils showed a hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity > 50%, but they showed an ability to inhibit 5-lipoxygenase. The essential oils showed a very low antimicrobial activity. In general, the essential oils isolated during 2 h were as effective, from the biological activity point of view, as those isolated during 3 h.

  5. Valorization of essential oils from Moroccan aromatic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Omar; Fe Andrés, Maria; Sanz, Jesús; Errahmani, Naima; Abdeslam, Lamiri; González-Coloma, Azucena

    2014-08-01

    The chemical composition and biological activity of cultivated and wild medicinal and aromatic plants from Morocco (Artemisia herba-alba, Lippia citriodora, Mentha pulegium, M. spicata, Myrtus communis, Rosmarinus officinalis, and Thymus satureioides) are described. The essential oils (EOs) of these species have been analyzed by GC-MS. The antifeedant, nematicidal and phytotoxic activities of the EOs were tested on insect pests (Spodoptera littoralis, Myzus persicae and Rhopalosiphum padi), root-knot nematodes (Meloydogine javanica) and plants (Lactuca sativa, Lolium perenne and Lycopersicum esculentum). EOs from A. herba-alba, M. pulegium and R. officinalis were strong antifeedants against S. littoralis, M. persicae and R. padi. EOs from L. citriodora, M. spicata and T. satureioides showed high nematicidal activity. These biological effects are explained by the activity of the major EO components and/or synergistic effects.

  6. Characterization of Oxidative Stability of Fish Oil- and Plant Oil-Enriched Skimmed Milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saga, Linda C.; Kristinova, Vera; Kirkhus, Bente

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the oxidative stability of fish oil blended with crude plant oils rich in naturally occurring antioxidants, camelina oil and oat oil, respectively, in bulk and after supplementation of 1 wt% of oil blends to skimmed milk emulsions. Ability of crude...... oat oil and camelina oil to protect fish oil in bulk and as fish oil-enriched skimmed milk emulsions was evaluated. Results of oxidative stability of bulk oils and blends assessed by the Schaal oven weight gain test and by the rancimat method showed significant increase in oxidative stability when oat......, skimmed milk supplemented with fish-oat oil blend gave the highest scores for off-flavors in the sensory evaluation, demonstrating that several methods, including sensory analysis, should be combined to illustrate the complete picture of lipid oxidation in emulsions....

  7. Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity of Ferula gummosa plant essential oil compared to NaOCl and CHX: a preliminary in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Abbaszadegan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The usage of medicinal plants as natural antimicrobial agents has grown in many fields including dental medicine. The aim of this in vitro study was three-fold: (i to determine the chemical compositions of the Ferula gummosa essential oil (FGEO, (ii to compare the antimicrobial efficacy of the oil with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl and chlorhexidine (CHX, (iii to assess the toxic behavior of FGEO in different concentrations compared to 5% NaOCl and 0.2% CHX. Materials and Methods Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS was used to determine the chemical compositions of the oil. The disk diffusion method and a broth micro-dilution susceptibility assay were exploited to assess the antimicrobial efficacy against Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mitis, and Candida albicans. The cytocompatibility of the FGEO was assessed on L929 fibroblasts, and compared to that of NaOCl and CHX. Results Twenty-seven constituents were recognized in FGEO. The major component of the oil was β-pinene (51.83%. All three irrigants significantly inhibited the growth of all examined microorganisms compared to the negative control group. FGEO at 50 µg/mL was effective in lower concentration against Enterococcus faecalis than 5% NaOCl and 0.2% CHX, and was also more potent than 0.2% CHX against Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus. FGEO was a cytocompatible solution, and had significantly lower toxicity compared to 5% NaOCl and 0.2% CHX. Conclusions FGEO showed a promising biological potency as a root canal disinfectant. More investigations are required on the effectiveness of this oil on intracanal bacterial biofilms.

  8. Chemical composition of essential oils and in vitro antioxidant activity of fresh and dry leaves crude extracts of medicinal plant of Lactuca Sativa L. native to Sultanate of Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Nomaani, Rahma Said Salim; Hossain, Mohammad Amzad; Weli, Afaf Mohammed; Al-Riyami, Qasim; Al-Sabahi, Jamal Nasser

    2013-05-01

    To isolate and analyse the chemical composition in the essential oils and free radical scavenging activity of different crude extracts from the fresh and dry leaves of vegetable plants of Lactuca sativa L. (L. sativa). The essential oils and volatile chemical constituents were isolated from the fresh and dry leaves of L. sativa (lettuce) grown in Sultanate of Oman by hydro distillation method. The antioxidant activity of the crude extracts was carried out by well established free radical scavenging activity (DPPH) method. About 20 chemical compounds of different concentration representing 83.07% and 79.88% respectively were isolated and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy in the essential oils isolated from the fresh and dry leaves as α-pinene (5.11% and 4.05%), γ-cymene (2.07% and 1.92%), thymol (11.55% and 10.73%), durenol (52.00% and 49.79%), α-terpinene (1.66% and 1.34%), thymol acetate (0.99% and 0.67%), caryophyllene (2.11% and 1.98%), spathulenol (3.09% and 2.98%), camphene (4.11% and 3.65%), limonene (1.28% and 1.11%) representing these major chemical compounds. However, some other minor chemical constituents were also isolated and identified from the essential oil of lettuce including β-pinene, α-terpinolene, linalool, 4-terpineol, α-terpineol, o-methylthymol, L-alloaromadendrene and viridiflorene. The chemical constituents in the essential oils from the locally grown lettuce were identified in the following classes or groups of chemical compounds such as monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes volatile organic compounds and their oxygenated hydrocarbons. Therefore, the essential oils and the crude extracts from Omani vegetable species of lettuce are active candidates which would be used as antioxidant, antifungal or antimicrobial agents in new drugs preparation for therapy of infectious diseases.

  9. Chemical composition of essential oils and in vitro antioxidant activity of fresh and dry leaves crude extracts of medicinal plant of Lactuca Sativa L. native to Sultanate of Oman

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rahma Said Salim Al Nomaani; Mohammad Amzad Hossain; Afaf Mohammed Weli; Qasim Al-Riyami; Jamal Nasser Al-Sabahi

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To isolate and analyse the chemical composition in the essential oils and free radical scavenging activity of different crude extracts from the fresh and dry leaves of vegetable plants of Lactuca sativa L. (L. sativa). Methods: The essential oils and volatile chemical constituents were isolated from the fresh and dry leaves of L. sativa (lettuce) grown in Sultanate of Oman by hydro distillation method. The antioxidant activity of the crude extracts was carried out by well established free radical scavenging activity (DPPH) method. Results: About 20 chemical compounds of different concentration representing 83.07% and 79.88% respectively were isolated and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy in the essential oils isolated from the fresh and dry leaves as α-pinene (5.11% and 4.05%), γ-cymene (2.07% and 1.92%), thymol (11.55%and 10.73%), durenol (52.00% and 49.79%), α-terpinene (1.66% and 1.34%), thymol acetate (0.99%and 0.67%), caryophyllene (2.11% and 1.98%), spathulenol (3.09% and 2.98%), camphene (4.11% and 3.65%), limonene (1.28% and 1.11%) representing these major chemical compounds. However, some other minor chemical constituents were also isolated and identified from the essential oil of lettuce including β-pinene, α-terpinolene, linalool, 4-terpineol, α-terpineol, o-methylthymol, L-alloaromadendrene and viridiflorene. Conclusions: The chemical constituents in the essential oils from the locally grown lettuce were identified in the following classes or groups of chemical compounds such as monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes volatile organic compounds and their oxygenated hydrocarbons. Therefore, the essential oils and the crude extracts from Omani vegetable species of lettuce are active candidates which would be used as antioxidant, antifungal or antimicrobial agents in new drugs preparation for therapy of infectious diseases.

  10. Antifungal and antibacterial activities of Petroselinum crispum essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, G A; Gazim, Z C; Cardoso, B K; Jorge, L F; Tešević, V; Glamoćlija, J; Soković, M; Colauto, N B

    2016-07-29

    Parsley [Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Fuss] is regarded as an aromatic, culinary, and medicinal plant and is used in the cosmetic, food, and pharmaceutical industries. However, few studies with conflicting results have been conducted on the antimicrobial activity of parsley essential oil. In addition, there have been no reports of essential oil obtained from parsley aerial parts, except seeds, as an alternative natural antimicrobial agent. Also, microorganism resistance is still a challenge for health and food production. Based on the demand for natural products to control microorganisms, and the re-evaluation of potential medicinal plants for controlling diseases, the objective of this study was to determine the chemical composition and antibacterial and antifungal activities of parsley essential oil against foodborne diseases and opportunistic pathogens. Seven bacteria and eight fungi were tested. The essential oil major compounds were apiol, myristicin, and b-phellandrene. Parsley essential oil had bacteriostatic activity against all tested bacteria, mainly Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica, at similar or lower concentrations than at least one of the controls, and bactericidal activity against all tested bacteria, mainly S. aureus, at similar or lower concentrations than at least one of the controls. This essential oil also had fungistatic activity against all tested fungi, mainly, Penicillium ochrochloron and Trichoderma viride, at lower concentrations than the ketoconazole control and fungicidal activity against all tested fungi at higher concentrations than the controls. Parsley is used in cooking and medicine, and its essential oil is an effective antimicrobial agent.

  11. Toxicity of twenty-two plant essential oils against pathogenic bacteria of vegetables and mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorović, Biljana; Potočnik, Ivana; Rekanović, Emil; Stepanović, Miloš; Kostić, Miroslav; Ristić, Mihajlo; Milijašević-Marčić, Svetlana

    2016-12-01

    ASBTRACT Toxicity of twenty-two essential oils to three bacterial pathogens in different horticultural systems: Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli (causing blight of bean), Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (bacterial wilt and canker of tomato), and Pseudomonas tolaasii (causal agent of bacterial brown blotch on cultivated mushrooms) was tested. Control of bacterial diseases is very difficult due to antibiotic resistance and ineffectiveness of chemical products, to that essential oils offer a promising alternative. Minimal inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations are determined by applying a single drop of oil onto the inner side of each plate cover in macrodilution assays. Among all tested substances, the strongest and broadest activity was shown by the oils of wintergreen (Gaultheria procumbens), oregano (Origanum vulgare), and lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus. Carvacrol (64.0-75.8%) was the dominant component of oregano oils, while geranial (40.7%) and neral (26.7%) were the major constituents of lemongrass oil. Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli was the most sensitive to plant essential oils, being susceptible to 19 oils, while 11 oils were bactericidal to the pathogen. Sixteen oils inhibited the growth of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis and seven oils showed bactericidal effects to the pathogen. The least sensitive species was Pseudomonas tolaasii as five oils inhibited bacterial growth and two oils were bactericidal. Wintergreen, oregano, and lemongrass oils should be formulated as potential biochemical bactericides against different horticultural pathogens.

  12. [Study on Raman Spectra of Some Animal and Plant Oils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiang; Dai, Chang-jian

    2015-04-01

    The spectral characteristics of different kinds of oil, either from plant seeds or animal fat, were studied with Raman spectroscopy. The experimental data were processed with the adaptive iteratively reweighted penalized least squares method to realize baseline correction, and provide evident information about their microscopic world. The spectra were analyzed and compared with each other in three parts: the Raman spectra comparison among different samples of plant oils, the analysis of the animal fat and the comparison between plant oils and the animal fat. The differences among the oils were observed in the analysis, including Raman shift and Raman intensity differences. This study not only yields the spectral basis for distinguishing or recognizing the different edible oils, but also confirms that Raman spectroscopy is an effective tool for identifying different oils.

  13. Plan for addressing issues relating to oil shale plant siting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noridin, J. S.; Donovan, R.; Trudell, L.; Dean, J.; Blevins, A.; Harrington, L. W.; James, R.; Berdan, G.

    1987-09-01

    The Western Research Institute plan for addressing oil shale plant siting methodology calls for identifying the available resources such as oil shale, water, topography and transportation, and human resources. Restrictions on development are addressed: land ownership, land use, water rights, environment, socioeconomics, culture, health and safety, and other institutional restrictions. Descriptions of the technologies for development of oil shale resources are included. The impacts of oil shale development on the environment, socioeconomic structure, water availability, and other conditions are discussed. Finally, the Western Research Institute plan proposes to integrate these topics to develop a flow chart for oil shale plant siting. Western Research Institute has (1) identified relative topics for shale oil plant siting, (2) surveyed both published and unpublished information, and (3) identified data gaps and research needs. 910 refs., 3 figs., 30 tabs.

  14. Chemical Composition, Antifungal and Insecticidal Activities of Hedychium Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanniah Rajasekaran

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial properties of essential oils have been documented, and their use as “biocides” is gaining popularity. The aims of this study were to analyze the chemical composition and assess the biological activities of Hedychium essential oils. Oils from 19 Hedychium species and cultivars were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS techniques. The antifungal and insecticidal activities of these oils were tested against Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae, and C. gloeosporioides, and three insects, the azalea lace bug (Stephanitis pyrioides, the yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti, and the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta. Hedychium oils were rich in monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, especially 1,8-cineole (0.1%–42%, linalool (<0.1%–56%, a-pinene (3%–17%, b-pinene (4%–31%, and (E-nerolidol (0.1%–20%. Hedychium oils had no antifungal effect on C. gloeosporioides, C. fragariae, and C. acutatum, but most Hedychium oils effectively killed azalea lace bugs. The oils also show promise as an adult mosquito repellent, but they would make rather poor larvicides or adulticides for mosquito control. Hedychium oils acted either as a fire ant repellent or attractant, depending on plant genotype and oil concentration.

  15. 八种药用植物精油对谷蠹成虫的熏蒸活性%Fumigant activities of eight essential oils of herb plants against Rhizopertha dominica(Fab.)adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄衍章; 李世广; 操海群; 巢道平; 周倩

    2011-01-01

    The fumigant activities of eight essential oils of herb plants against adults of Rhizopertha dominica (Fab.) were tested in the sealed triangular flask. The result indicated that Illicium verum, Foeniculum vulgare and Acorus gramineus oils were possessed of good fumigant activities against the tested pests, especially the Illicium verum oils. Under the condition of empty-storehouse-imitation, the Illicium verum and Foeniculum vulgare oils showed excellent fumigant activities against the tested pests, and the LC50 to R. Dominica (Fab.) after treatment for 3 days were 2.88 uL-L"1 and 4.02 μL·L-1, respectively. Of all eight herb plants essential oils, only Illicium verum showed good fumigant activities under the condition of real-storehouse-imitation, and the oil produced 92.37% corrected mortalities of pests at 166.67 μL·L-1 after treatment for 10 days. Further bioassay showed the LC50 of Illicium verum oil against R. Dominica (Fab.) after treatment for 14 days under the condition of real-storehouse-imitation was 67.01 uL·L-1-1.%采用三角瓶密闭熏蒸法,测试了8种药用植物精油在空仓和实仓模拟条件下对谷蠹成虫的熏蒸活性.结果表明,8种植物精油以八角茴香,小茴香和石菖蒲时试虫的熏杀效果较好,尤以八角茴香精油的熏杀效果最佳.空仓模拟条件下,八角茴香和小茴香精油均对谷蠹成虫表现出很高的熏杀活性,其熏蒸处理3d后的LC50分别为2.88 μL·L-1和4.02 μL·L-1.实仓模拟条件下,8种植物精油仅以八角茴香的熏蒸效果较好,其166.67 μL·L-1熏蒸处理10d后试虫的校正死亡率为92.37%,实仓模拟熏蒸处理14d后的LC50为67.01 μL·L-1.

  16. Eupatorium capillifolium essential oil: chemical composition antifungal activity and insecticidal activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural plant extracts often contain compounds that are useful in pest management applications. The essential oil of Eupatorium capillifolium (dog-fennel) was investigated for antifungal and insecticidal activities. Essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of aerial parts was analyzed by gas chro...

  17. Modeling the kinetics of essential oil hydrodistillation from plant materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milojević Svetomir Ž.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with modeling the kinetics of essential oils extraction from plant materials by water and steam distillation. The experimental data were obtained by studying the hydrodistillation kinetics of essential oil from juniper berries. The literature data on the kinetics of essential oils hydrodistillation from different plant materials were also included into the modeling. A physical model based on simultaneous washing and diffusion of essential oil from plant materials were developed to describe the kinetics of essential oils hydrodistillation, and two other simpler models were derived from this physical model assuming either instantaneous washing followed by diffusion or diffusion with no washing (i.e. the first-order kinetics. The main goal was to compare these models and suggest the optimum ones for water and steam distillation and for different plant materials. All three models described well the experimental kinetic data on water distillation irrespective of the type of distillation equipment and its scale, the type of plant materials and the operational conditions. The most applicable one is the model involving simultaneous washing and diffusion of the essential oil. However, this model was generally inapplicable for steam distillation of essential oils, except for juniper berries. For this hydrodistillation technique, the pseudo first-order model was shown to be the best one. In a few cases, a variation of the essential oil yield with time was observed to be sigmoidal and was modeled by the Boltzmann sigmoid function.

  18. Antitumor Activity of Monoterpenes Found in Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Vieira Sobral

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a complex genetic disease that is a major public health problem worldwide, accounting for about 7 million deaths each year. Many anticancer drugs currently used clinically have been isolated from plant species or are based on such substances. Accumulating data has revealed anticancer activity in plant-derived monoterpenes. In this review the antitumor activity of 37 monoterpenes found in essential oils is discussed. Chemical structures, experimental models, and mechanisms of action for bioactive substances are presented.

  19. Toxicities of oils, dispersants and dispersed oils to algae and aquatic plants: review and database value to resource sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Published toxicity results are reviewed for oils, dispersants and dispersed oils and aquatic plants. The historical phytotoxicity database consists largely of results from a patchwork of research conducted after oil spills to marine waters. Toxicity information is available for ...

  20. Toxicities of oils, dispersants and dispersed oils to algae and aquatic plants: review and database value to resource sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Published toxicity results are reviewed for oils, dispersants and dispersed oils and aquatic plants. The historical phytotoxicity database consists largely of results from a patchwork of research conducted after oil spills to marine waters. Toxicity information is available for ...

  1. Antiaflatoxigenic activity of Carum copticum essential oil

    OpenAIRE

    Kahkha, Mohammad Reza Rezaei; Amanloo, Saeed; Kaykhaii, Massoud

    2013-01-01

    Plants are unique sources of useful metabolites. Plant essential oils display a wide range of antimicrobial effects against various pathogens. Here, we studied the essential oil from the seeds of Carum copticum. We monitored aflatoxin by high-performance liquid chromatography. Results show that Carum copticum essential oil inhibits Asergillus parasiticus growth and prevents aflatoxin production. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) is 127.5 μg mL−1 for aflatoxin B1 and 23.22 μg mL...

  2. Lightning protection of oil and gas industrial plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouquegneau, Christian [Polytechnical University of Mons (Belgium)

    2007-07-01

    The paper brings some cases and presents the general principles, what the IEC 62305 international standard says, the warning and avoidance and the conclusion about lightning protection of oil and gas industrial plants.

  3. Effect of selected essential oil plants on bacterial wilt disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-03-25

    Mar 25, 2014 ... Key words: Essential oil plants, Potatoes, Ralstonia solanacearum, Wilt incidence ... the soil level to collect stems, leaves, flowers and the side branches. Harvesting ..... to other factors such as pH, organic matter content and.

  4. Plant Oils and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors: The Role of Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Caren E

    2012-09-01

    More than 25 years have passed since Ancel Keys and others observed that high intake of monounsaturated fatty acids, especially as supplied by plants (eg, olive oil) was associated with lower cardiovascular and overall mortality. About 15 years later, advances in genotyping technologies began to facilitate widespread study of relationships between dietary fats and genetic variants, illuminating the role of genetic variation in modulating human responses to fatty acids. More recently, microarray technologies evaluate the ways in which minor, bioactive compounds in plant oils (including olive, thyme, lemongrass, clove, eucalyptus, and others) alter gene expression to mediate anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. Results from a range of diverse technologies and approaches are coalescing to improve understanding of the role of the genome in shaping our responses to plant oils, and to clarify the genetic mechanisms underlying the cardioprotective benefits we derive from a wide range of plant oil constituents.

  5. Encapsulation of plant oils in porous starch microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural plant products such as essential oils have gained interest for use in pest control in place of synthetic pesticides because of their low environmental impact. Essential oils can be effective in controlling parasitic mites that infest honeybee colonies but effective encapsulants are needed to...

  6. Fish-oil esters of plant sterols differ from vegetable-oil sterol esters in triglycerides lowering, carotenoid bioavailability and impact on plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 concentrations in hypercholesterolemic subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Yen-Ming

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumption of plant sterol (PS esters lower low-density lipoprotein (LDL-cholesterol levels by suppressing intestinal absorption of cholesterol. Commercially available PS are mainly esterified to omega-6 fatty acid (FA, such as sunflower oil (SO FA. Emerging trends include using other sources such as olive oil (OO or omega-3 FA from fish oil (FO, known to exert potent hypotriglyceridemic effects. Our objective was to compare the actions of different FA esterified to PS on blood lipids, carotenoid bioavailability as well as inflammatory and coagulation markers. Methods Twenty-one moderately overweight, hypercholesterolemic subjects consumed experimental isoenergetic diets enriched with OO (70% of fat, each lasting 28-day and separated by 4-week washout periods, using a randomized crossover design. Diets were supplemented with three PS esters preparations, PS-FO, PS-SO, or PS-OO. All PS treatments contained an equivalent of 1.7 PS g/d, and the PS-FO provided a total of 5.4 g/d FO FA (eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids. Results There were no differences between PS-containing diet effects on total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, or high-density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol levels. However, PS-FO consumption resulted in markedly lower (P Conclusion Our findings suggest that, in hypercholesterolemic subjects consuming an OO-based diet, PS-FO results in lowered blood triglyceride and PAI-1 concentrations, and higher fat-soluble vitamin levels in comparison to the vegetable oil FA esters of PS (PS-SO and PS-OO. Thus, PS-FO may offer hyperlipidemic subjects a more comprehensive lipid lowering approach while reducing the potential risk of decreased plasma carotenoid concentrations.

  7. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of essential oils isolated from Colombian plants Composição química e atividade antioxidante de óleos essenciais isolados de plantas da Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Olivero-Verbel

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen essential oils from Colombian plants, obtained by hydrodistillation or microwave-assisted hydrodistillation of total plant, stem, leaves, and flowers were analyzed by gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry techniques. Cytotoxicity of essential oils was assessed using the brine shrimp assay, and their antioxidant activities measuring their effects on the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances on rat liver microsomes induced by Fe2+/H2O2. Five oils showed high cytotoxicity (LC501000 µg/mL.Treze óleos essenciais de plantas da Colômbia, obtido por hidrodestilação ou hidrodestilação assistida por microondas, da planta inteira, caule, folhas e flores, foram analisados por técnicas de espectrometria de massa acoplada a cromatografia gasosa. Foi avaliada a citotoxicidade de óleos essenciais utilizando o ensaio com Artemia salina e suas atividades antioxidantes medindo seus efeitos sobre os níveis de substâncias reativas ao ácido tiobarbitúrico em microssomas de fígado de rato induzida por Fe2+/H2O2. Cinco óleos apresentaram alta citotoxicidade (LC501000 µg/mL.

  8. Antiprotozoal Activity of Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianet Monzote

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} In the present scenario of protozoal infections, new drugs are urgently needed to treat and control infections such as malaria, sleeping sickness, Chagas disease, leishmaniasis and intestinal infections, which affect millions of people each year. In this review, we are focusing on articles related to antiprotozoal essential oils extracted from plants that have been published during the last 20 years. The data analyzed indicate that essential oils could be promising antiprotozoal agents, opening perspectives to the discovery of more effective drugs of vegetal origin for the treatment of diseases caused by protozoa.

  9. Antimicrobial Effects of Several Essential Oil from Aromatic Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia TUŢULESCU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils (EOs have been long recognized for their antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, insecticidal and antioxidant properties. The present research aimed to study the antimicrobial effects of some volatile oils from aromatic plants (sweet basil and dill against several microorganisms, namely Bacillus subtilis, Alternaria alternata and Penicillium expansum. The oils have been extracted through distillation procedures and the antimicrobial action of the oils was assessed through the disc diffusion method. The best effect against the Bacillus subtilis strain has occurred when the essential oil of dill was undiluted. Regarding the the Alternaria species, it was noted that dill volatile oil has acted in an efficient way only undiluted. As the oil's concentration decreased, the strain becomed resistant. The sweet basil oil has proven to be highly effective when acting against the Bacillus strain. By volatilization, the sweet basil oil produced a strong antimicrobial effect, even in control disc, in which it was noticed a small development of colonies comparing with the dill oil. The results indicated that the sweet basil essential oil exerted an antimicrobial effect both against the tested bacteria and moulds, while the dill oil had a great inhibitory action on Bacillus subtilis and Alternaria alternata, but was less efficient against Penicillium expansum.

  10. Plant Oils as Potential Sources of Vitamin D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele I Stangl

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available To combat vitamin D insufficiency in a population, reliable diet sources of vitamin D are required. The recommendations to consume more oily fish and the use of UVB treated yeast are already applied strategies to address vitamin D insufficiency. This study aimed to elucidate the suitability of plant oils as an alternative vitamin D source. Therefore, plant oils that are commonly used in human nutrition were firstly analyzed for their content of vitamin D precursors and metabolites. Secondly, selected oils were exposed to a short-term UVB irradiation to stimulate the synthesis of vitamin D. Finally, to elucidate the efficacy of plant-derived vitamin D to improve the vitamin D status, we fed UVB-exposed wheat germ oil for 4 weeks to mice and compared them with mice that received non-exposed or vitamin D3 supplemented wheat germ oil. Sterol analysis revealed that the selected plant oils contained high amounts of ergosterol, but also 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC, with the highest concentrations found in wheat germ oil. Exposure to UVB irradiation resulted in a partial conversion of ergosterol and 7-DHC to vitamin D2 and D3 in these oils. Mice fed the UVB-exposed wheat germ oil were able to improve their vitamin D status as shown by the rise in the plasma concentration of 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD and the liver content of vitamin D compared to mice fed the non-exposed oil. However, the plasma concentration of 25(OHD of mice fed the UVB-treated oil did not reach the values observed in the group fed the D3 supplemented oil. It was striking that the intake of the UVB-exposed oil resulted in distinct accumulation of vitamin D2 in the livers of these mice. In conclusion, plant oils, in particular wheat germ oil, contain considerable amounts of vitamin D precursors which can be converted to vitamin D via UVB exposure. However, the UVB-exposed wheat germ oil was less effective to improve the 25(OHD plasma concentration than a supplementation with vitamin D

  11. INSETICIDAL OILS FROM AMAZON PLANTS IN CONTROL OF FALL ARMYWORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA CLÁUDIA VIEIRA DOS SANTOS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential insecticidal of oils from southwestern Amazon plants against Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae was investigated. Initial bioassays were performed with undiluted oils from 11 plant species. The efficacy of the oils was evaluated against eggs and third-instar caterpillars of S. frugiperda. The oils of Copaifera sp. (Leguminosae, Orbignya phalerata (Arecaceae, and Carapa guianensis (Meliaceae displayed a high efficacy against the caterpillars and were used in subsequent concentration-response bioassays, at concentrations established through preliminary tests. The highest nonlethal concentrations of oils and the lowest lethal concentrations were calculated. A completely randomized design was adopted in both bioassays. The LC50 of the oils varied from 7.50 to 60.84% (v/v. Copaifera sp. oil had the highest toxicity and was 6.84-fold more toxic than O. phalerata oil and 8.11-fold more toxic than Carapa guianensis oil. In general, oils from Copaifera sp., O. phalerata, and Carapa guianensis were effective in controlling S. frugiperda caterpillars under laboratory conditions, and are good candidates for use in integrated management programs of corn pests.

  12. [Antioxidant activity of flaxseed oil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prozorovskaia, N N; Rusina, I F; Lupinovich, V L; Beketova, N A; Sorokin, I V; Ipatova, O M; Levachev, M M

    2003-01-01

    Effective concentration of antioxidants and its reactivity toward peroxil radicals (constant k7) have been measured by the chemiluminescence technique for flaxseed oil. Effective concentration of antioxidants is shown to depend on the technology of producing flaxseed oil; period of seed storage before use; and storing duration of flaxseed oil also. Minor component content of flaxseed oil, which may be the members of antioxidant pool, has been quantitatively estimated.

  13. Biodiesel from plant seed oils as an alternate fuel for compression ignition engines-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, C; Ramesh, M; Murugesan, A; Panneerselvam, N; Subramaniam, D; Bharathiraja, M

    2016-12-01

    The modern scenario reveals that the world is facing energy crisis due to the dwindling sources of fossil fuels. Environment protection agencies are more concerned about the atmospheric pollution due to the burning of fossil fuels. Alternative fuel research is getting augmented because of the above reasons. Plant seed oils (vegetable oils) are cleaner, sustainable, and renewable. So, it can be the most suitable alternative fuel for compression ignition (CI) engines. This paper reviews the availability of different types of plant seed oils, several methods for production of biodiesel from vegetable oils, and its properties. The different types of oils considered in this review are cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) oil, ginger oil, eucalyptus oil, rice bran oil, Calophyllum inophyllum, hazelnut oil, sesame oil, clove stem oil, sardine oil, honge oil, polanga oil, mahua oil, rubber seed oil, cotton seed oil, neem oil, jatropha oil, egunsi melon oil, shea butter, linseed oil, Mohr oil, sea lemon oil, pumpkin oil, tobacco seed oil, jojoba oil, and mustard oil. Several methods for production of biodiesel are transesterification, pre-treatment, pyrolysis, and water emulsion are discussed. The various fuel properties considered for review such as specific gravity, viscosity, calorific value, flash point, and fire point are presented. The review also portrays advantages, limitations, performance, and emission characteristics of engine using plant seed oil biodiesel are discussed. Finally, the modeling and optimization of engine for various biofuels with different input and output parameters using artificial neural network, response surface methodology, and Taguchi are included.

  14. Chemical composition, antimicrobial and insecticidal activities of the essential oils of Conyza linifolia and Chenopodium ambrosioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harraz, Fathalla M; Hammoda, Hala M; El Ghazouly, Maged G; Farag, Mohamed A; El-Aswad, Ahmed F; Bassam, Samar M

    2015-01-01

    Two essential oil-containing plants growing wildly in Egypt: Conyza linifolia (Willd.) Täckh. (Asteraceae) and Chenopodium ambrosioides L. (Chenopodiaceae) were subjected to essential oil analysis and biological investigation. The essential oils from both plants were prepared by hydrodistillation, and GC/MS was employed for volatiles profiling. This study is the first to perform GC/MS analysis of C. linifolia essential oil growing in Egypt. C. linifolia essential oil contained mainly sesquiterpenes, while that of C. ambrosioides was rich in monoterpenes. Ascaridole, previously identified as the major component of the latter, was found at much lower levels. In addition, the oils were investigated for their antimicrobial activity against two Gram positive and two Gram negative bacteria, and one fungus. The insecticidal activities of both oils, including mosquitocidal and pesticidal potentials, were also evaluated. The results of biological activities encourage further investigation of the two oils as antimicrobial and insecticidal agents of natural origin.

  15. Plant oil renewable resources as green alternatives in polymer science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Michael A R; Metzger, Jürgen O; Schubert, Ulrich S

    2007-11-01

    The utilization of plant oil renewable resources as raw materials for monomers and polymers is discussed and reviewed. In an age of increasing oil prices, global warming and other environmental problems (e.g. waste) the change from fossil feedstock to renewable resources can considerably contribute to a sustainable development in the future. Especially plant derived fats and oils bear a large potential for the substitution of currently used petrochemicals, since monomers, fine chemicals and polymers can be derived from these resources in a straightforward fashion. The synthesis of monomers as well as polymers from plant fats and oils has already found some industrial application and recent developments in this field offer promising new opportunities, as is shown within this contribution. (138 references.)

  16. Hydrothermal liquefaction of aquatic plants to bio-oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, D.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, S.; Fu, H.; Chen, J. [Fudan Univ., Shanghai (China). Dept. of Environmental Science and Engineering

    2010-07-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of producing bio-oils from aquatic plants by hydrothermal liquefaction using 2 typical aquatic plants as feedstocks, notably Enteromorpha prolifera and water hyacinth which are typical aquatic plants found in seawater and freshwater. Bio-oil production from these 2 feedstocks was studied in a batch reactor at controlled temperatures under an initial partial pressure of 2.0 MPa N2. The effects of temperature and reaction time on the liquefaction products yields were also studied. GC-MS and elemental analysis were carried out to analyze the composition of bio-oils. The bio-oil produced from Enteromorpha prolifera contained mainly fatty acids, esters and quite a few heterocyclic compounds. Phenols and their derivatives were found to be the main compounds in bio-oils produced from water hyacinth. An elemental analysis revealed that bio-oils produced from the 2 aquatic plants have higher energy density. It was concluded that the use of aquatic plants as feedstock for liquid fuel can contribute to environmental protection and sustainable energy development by reducing greenhouse gas emissions associated with the burning of fossil fuels. 9 refs., 3 tabs.

  17. Essential Oils of Plants as Biocides against Microorganisms Isolated from Cuban and Argentine Documentary Heritage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, Sofía; Valdés, Oderlaise; Vivar, Isbel; Lavin, Paola; Guiamet, Patricia; Battistoni, Patricia; Gómez de Saravia, Sandra; Borges, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Natural products obtained from plants with biocidal activity represent an alternative and useful source in the control of biodeterioration of documentary heritage, without negative environmental and human impacts. In this work, we studied the antimicrobial activity of seven essential oils against microorganisms associated with the biodeterioration of documentary heritage. The essential oils were obtained by steam distillation. The antimicrobial activity was analyzed using the agar diffusion method against 4 strains of fungi and 6 bacterial strains isolated from repositories air and documents of the National Archive of the Republic of Cuba and the Historical Archive of the Museum of La Plata, Argentina. Anise and garlic oils showed the best antifungal activity at all concentrations studied, while oregano oil not only was effective against fungi tested but also prevented sporulation of them all. Orange sweet and laurel oils were ineffective against fungi. Clove, garlic, and oregano oils showed the highest antibacterial activity at 25% against Enterobacter agglomerans and Streptomyces sp., while only clove and oregano oils were effective against Bacillus sp. at all concentrations studied. This study has an important implication for the possible use of the natural products from plants in the control of biodeterioration of documentary heritage.

  18. Ammoides pusilla (Brot. Breistr. from Algeria: Effect of harvesting place and plant part (leaves and flowers on the essential oils chemical composition and antioxidant activity

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    Tefiani Choukri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical variability and antioxidant activity of the flower and leaf essential oils (EOs of Ammoides pusilla, collected at Algeria was evaluated. The EOs were isolated by hydrodistillation and analyzed by Gas Chromatography (GC and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS. Antioxidant activity was assessed by DPPH, ABTS, Reducing Power and TBARS assays. Oxygen-containing monoterpenes (54-77% dominated all but one A. pusilla leaf EOs, and in two flower EOs (53% both. Thymol dominated in practically all leaf and flowers EOs, but cumin alcohol, p-cymene and limonene attained also relatively high percentages in some EOs. A strong negative correlation (p<0.01 between IC50 values of ABTS, DPPH, and hydroxyl scavenging activity and the percentages of p-cymene and cumin alcohol present in EOs were observed, showing that higher levels of these monoterpenes were responsible for the best activities found. In spite of this finding, the antagonism and/or synergism between EO components must be taken into account, since the EO activity can only be considered as a whole. Moreover, given the EOs chemical variability their use as antioxidants, should be preceded by their chemical evaluation.

  19. Essential Oils from Ugandan Aromatic Medicinal Plants: Chemical Composition and Growth Inhibitory Effects on Oral Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocheng, Francis; Bwanga, Freddie; Joloba, Moses; Softrata, Abier; Azeem, Muhammad; Pütsep, Katrin; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin; Obua, Celestino; Gustafsson, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The study assessed the growth inhibitory effects of essential oils extracted from ten Ugandan medicinal plants (Bidens pilosa, Helichrysum odoratissimum, Vernonia amygdalina, Hoslundia opposita, Ocimum gratissimum, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon nardus, Teclea nobilis, Zanthoxylum chalybeum, and Lantana trifolia) used traditionally in the management of oral diseases against oral pathogens. Chemical compositions of the oils were explored by GC-MS. Inhibitory effects of the oils were assessed on periodontopathic Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and cariogenic Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus using broth dilution methods at concentrations of 1%, 0.1%, and 0.01%. The most sensitive organism was A. actinomycetemcomitans. Its growth was markedly inhibited by six of the oils at all the concentrations tested. Essential oil from C. nardus exhibited the highest activity with complete growth inhibition of A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis at all the three concentrations tested, the major constituents in the oil being mainly oxygenated sesquiterpenes. Most of the oils exhibited limited effects on L. acidophilus. We conclude that essential oils from the studied plants show marked growth inhibitory effects on periodontopathic A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis, moderate effects on cariogenic S. mutans, and the least effect on L. acidophilus. The present study constitutes a basis for further investigations and development of certain oils into alternative antiplaque agents.

  20. Essential Oils from Ugandan Aromatic Medicinal Plants: Chemical Composition and Growth Inhibitory Effects on Oral Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Ocheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed the growth inhibitory effects of essential oils extracted from ten Ugandan medicinal plants (Bidens pilosa, Helichrysum odoratissimum, Vernonia amygdalina, Hoslundia opposita, Ocimum gratissimum, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon nardus, Teclea nobilis, Zanthoxylum chalybeum, and Lantana trifolia used traditionally in the management of oral diseases against oral pathogens. Chemical compositions of the oils were explored by GC-MS. Inhibitory effects of the oils were assessed on periodontopathic Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and cariogenic Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus using broth dilution methods at concentrations of 1%, 0.1%, and 0.01%. The most sensitive organism was A. actinomycetemcomitans. Its growth was markedly inhibited by six of the oils at all the concentrations tested. Essential oil from C. nardus exhibited the highest activity with complete growth inhibition of A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis at all the three concentrations tested, the major constituents in the oil being mainly oxygenated sesquiterpenes. Most of the oils exhibited limited effects on L. acidophilus. We conclude that essential oils from the studied plants show marked growth inhibitory effects on periodontopathic A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis, moderate effects on cariogenic S. mutans, and the least effect on L. acidophilus. The present study constitutes a basis for further investigations and development of certain oils into alternative antiplaque agents.

  1. Antiaflatoxigenic activity of Carum copticum essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahkha, Mohammad Reza Rezaei; Amanloo, Saeed; Kaykhaii, Massoud

    2014-01-01

    Plants are unique sources of useful metabolites. Plant essential oils display a wide range of antimicrobial effects against various pathogens. Here, we studied the essential oil from the seeds of Carum copticum. We monitored aflatoxin by high-performance liquid chromatography. Results show that Carum copticum essential oil inhibits Asergillus parasiticus growth and prevents aflatoxin production. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) is 127.5 μg mL(-1) for aflatoxin B1 and 23.22 μg mL(-1) for aflatoxin G1. Our findings show that Carum copticum essential oil is a potential candidate for the protection of foodstuff and feeds from toxigenic fungus growth and their subsequent aflatoxin contamination.

  2. Antifungal activities and chemical composition of some medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, A; Nazari, H; Imani, S; Amrollahi, H

    2014-06-01

    The use of and search for drugs and dietary supplements derived from plants have accelerated in recent years. Ethnopharmacologists, botanists, microbiologists and natural-products scientists are combing the earth for phytochemicals and leads, which could be developed for treatment of infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the antifungal activities of the essential oils of some medicinal plants such as Stachys pubescens, Thymus kotschyanus, Thymus daenensis and Bupleurum falcatum against Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus flavus and Alternaria alternata. The essential oils were used to evaluate their MICs and MFCs compared to the amphotricin B as a standard drug. The essential oils were also analyzed by GC/MS. Essential oils isolated from the S. pubescens, T. kotschyanus and B. falcatum showed strong antifungal activities. The essential oil of T. daenensis exhibited a moderate activity against the selected fungi in comparison with the other plants' essential oils. In addition, the results showed that 26, 23, 22 and 15 components were identified from the essential oils of T. kotschyanus, S. pubescens, T. daenensis and B. falcatum, respectively. These oils exhibited a noticeable antifungal activity against the selected fungi. Regarding obtained results and that natural antimicrobial substances are inexpensive and have fewer side effects, they convey potential for implementation in fungal pathogenic systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Actividad antimicótica, citotoxicidad y composición de aceites esenciales de plantas de la familia Labiatae Antifungal activity, cytotoxicity and composition of essential oils from Labiatae family plants

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    Bibiana Zapata

    2009-12-01

    . Many extracts and essential oils isolated from plants have shown to exert antifungal effects in vitro. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal, cytotoxic effect, and chemical composition of essential oils of family Labiatae. Materials and methods: Antifungal activity of twenty two essential oils from Labiatae family was evaluated against C. parapsilosis ATCC 22019, C. krusei ATCC 6258, A. flavus ATCC 204304 y A. fumigatus ATCC 204305, following EUCAST and M38-A standard protocols for yeast and filamentous fungi, respectively. Additionally, cytotoxic activity was evaluated on Vero cell line by colorimetric assay MTT. Essential oils was characterized by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Results: The most active oil with all strains was obtained of Minthostachys mollis (MIC range 250 - 375 μg/mL. The essential oil from Hyptis mutabillis showed activity against A. fumigatus (GM-MIC = 396.8 μg/mL. These essential oils were not cytotoxic on Vero cells. The major components of essential oils from M. mollis and H. mutabillis were cis-piperitone epoxide and 1,8-cineol, respectively. Conclusions: Essential oils of H. mutabillis and M. mollis showed antifungal activity and they were not cytotoxic on Vero cells. Salud UIS 2009; 41: 223-230.

  4. Endophytic Fungi Isolated from Oil-Seed Crop Jatropha curcas Produces Oil and Exhibit Antifungal Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Susheel; Kaushik, Nutan

    2013-01-01

    Jatropha curcas L., a perennial plant grown in tropics and subtropics is popularly known for its potential as biofuel. The plant is reported to survive under varying environmental conditions having tolerance to stress and an ability to manage pest and diseases. The plant was explored for its endophytic fungi for use in crop protection. Endophytic fungi were isolated from leaf of Jatropha curcas, collected from New Delhi, India. Four isolates were identified as Colletotrichum truncatum, and other isolates were identified as Nigrospora oryzae, Fusarium proliferatum, Guignardia cammillae, Alternaria destruens, and Chaetomium sp. Dual plate culture bioassays and bioactivity assays of solvent extracts of fungal mycelia showed that isolates of Colletotrichum truncatum were effective against plant pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Isolate EF13 had highest activity against S. sclerotiorum. Extracts of active endophytic fungi were prepared and tested against S. sclerotiorum. Ethyl acetate and methanol extract of C. truncatum EF10 showed 71.7% and 70% growth inhibition, respectively. Hexane extracts of C. truncatum isolates EF9, EF10, and EF13 yielded oil and the oil from EF10 was similar to oil of the host plant, i.e., J. curcas. PMID:23409154

  5. Endophytic fungi isolated from oil-seed crop Jatropha curcas produces oil and exhibit antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Susheel; Kaushik, Nutan

    2013-01-01

    Jatropha curcas L., a perennial plant grown in tropics and subtropics is popularly known for its potential as biofuel. The plant is reported to survive under varying environmental conditions having tolerance to stress and an ability to manage pest and diseases. The plant was explored for its endophytic fungi for use in crop protection. Endophytic fungi were isolated from leaf of Jatropha curcas, collected from New Delhi, India. Four isolates were identified as Colletotrichum truncatum, and other isolates were identified as Nigrospora oryzae, Fusarium proliferatum, Guignardia cammillae, Alternaria destruens, and Chaetomium sp. Dual plate culture bioassays and bioactivity assays of solvent extracts of fungal mycelia showed that isolates of Colletotrichum truncatum were effective against plant pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Isolate EF13 had highest activity against S. sclerotiorum. Extracts of active endophytic fungi were prepared and tested against S. sclerotiorum. Ethyl acetate and methanol extract of C. truncatum EF10 showed 71.7% and 70% growth inhibition, respectively. Hexane extracts of C. truncatum isolates EF9, EF10, and EF13 yielded oil and the oil from EF10 was similar to oil of the host plant, i.e., J. curcas.

  6. Anti- Sporothrix spp. activity of medicinal plants

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    Stefanie Bressan Waller

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cases of sporotrichosis in humans and animals without satisfactory clinical response have increased, a warning sign of strains resistant to conventional antifungal agents. The urgent search for alternative therapies was an incentive for research on medicinal plants with anti-Sporothrix spp. properties. A bibliographic survey was performed based on scientific papers about in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity of essential oils and extracts of plants in differents solvents against the fungal of the Sporothrix schenckii complex. The study methodology consisted of a literature review in Google Scholar, Science Direct, Pubmed, Bireme and Springer link with papers from 1986 to 2015. We found 141 species of plants that were investigated, of which 100 species were concentrated in 39 botanical families that had confirmed anti-Sporothrix activity. Combretaceae, Asteraceae and Lamiaceae represented the botanical families with the greatest number of plants species with antifungal potential, using different methodologies. However, there are few studies with medicinal plants in experimental infection in animals that prove their activity in the treatment of sporotrichosis. It reinforces the need for further research related to standardization of in vitro methodologies and in vivo studies related to safety and to toxicity potential of these plants with anti-Sporothrix spp. activity.

  7. Biological Activities of the Essential Oil from Erigeron floribundus

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    Riccardo Petrelli

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Erigeron floribundus (Asteraceae is an herbaceous plant widely used in Cameroonian traditional medicine to treat various diseases of microbial and non-microbial origin. In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro biological activities displayed by the essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of E. floribundus, namely the antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities. Moreover, we investigated the inhibitory effects of E. floribundus essential oil on nicotinate mononucleotide adenylyltransferase (NadD, a promising new target for developing novel antibiotics, and Trypanosoma brucei, the protozoan parasite responsible for Human African trypanosomiasis. The essential oil composition was dominated by spathulenol (12.2%, caryophyllene oxide (12.4% and limonene (8.8%. The E. floribundus oil showed a good activity against Staphylococcus aureus (inhibition zone diameter, IZD of 14 mm, minimum inhibitory concentration, MIC of 512 µg/mL. Interestingly, it inhibited the NadD enzyme from S. aureus (IC50 of 98 µg/mL, with no effects on mammalian orthologue enzymes. In addition, T. brucei proliferation was inhibited with IC50 values of 33.5 µg/mL with the essential oil and 5.6 µg/mL with the active component limonene. The essential oil exhibited strong cytotoxicity on HCT 116 colon carcinoma cells with an IC50 value of 14.89 µg/mL, and remarkable ferric reducing antioxidant power (tocopherol-equivalent antioxidant capacity, TEAC = 411.9 μmol·TE/g.

  8. Biological Activities of the Essential Oil from Erigeron floribundus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrelli, Riccardo; Orsomando, Giuseppe; Sorci, Leonardo; Maggi, Filippo; Ranjbarian, Farahnaz; Biapa Nya, Prosper C; Petrelli, Dezemona; Vitali, Luca A; Lupidi, Giulio; Quassinti, Luana; Bramucci, Massimo; Hofer, Anders; Cappellacci, Loredana

    2016-08-13

    Erigeron floribundus (Asteraceae) is an herbaceous plant widely used in Cameroonian traditional medicine to treat various diseases of microbial and non-microbial origin. In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro biological activities displayed by the essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of E. floribundus, namely the antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities. Moreover, we investigated the inhibitory effects of E. floribundus essential oil on nicotinate mononucleotide adenylyltransferase (NadD), a promising new target for developing novel antibiotics, and Trypanosoma brucei, the protozoan parasite responsible for Human African trypanosomiasis. The essential oil composition was dominated by spathulenol (12.2%), caryophyllene oxide (12.4%) and limonene (8.8%). The E. floribundus oil showed a good activity against Staphylococcus aureus (inhibition zone diameter, IZD of 14 mm, minimum inhibitory concentration, MIC of 512 µg/mL). Interestingly, it inhibited the NadD enzyme from S. aureus (IC50 of 98 µg/mL), with no effects on mammalian orthologue enzymes. In addition, T. brucei proliferation was inhibited with IC50 values of 33.5 µg/mL with the essential oil and 5.6 µg/mL with the active component limonene. The essential oil exhibited strong cytotoxicity on HCT 116 colon carcinoma cells with an IC50 value of 14.89 µg/mL, and remarkable ferric reducing antioxidant power (tocopherol-equivalent antioxidant capacity, TEAC = 411.9 μmol·TE/g).

  9. Alkene Metathesis and Renewable Materials: Selective Transformations of Plant Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malacea, Raluca; Dixneuf, Pierre H.

    The olefin metathesis of natural oils and fats and their derivatives is the basis of clean catalytic reactions relevant to green chemistry processes and the production of generate useful chemicals from renewable raw materials. Three variants of alkene metathesis: self-metathesis, ethenolysis and cross-metathesis applied to plant oil derivatives will show new routes to fine chemicals, bifunctional products, polymer precursours and industry intermediates.

  10. Green Nanocomposites from Renewable Plant Oils and Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxanes

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    Takashi Tsujimoto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Green nanocomposites based on renewable plant oils and polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS have been developed. An acid-catalyzed curing of epoxidized plant oils with oxirane-containing POSS derivatives produced transparent nanocomposite coatings with high gloss surface, in which the organic and inorganic components were linked via covalent bonds. The hardness and mechanical strength were improved by the incorporation of the POSS unit into the organic polymer matrix. Nanostructural analyses of the nanocomposites showed the formation of homogeneous structures at the micrometer scale. On the other hand, such improvements of the coating and mechanical properties were not observed in the composite without covalent bonds between the plant oil-based polymer and POSS unit. The study demonstrates the correlation between the nanostructure of composites and macroscopic properties.

  11. Essential oils of medicinal plants from the central andes of Argentina: chemical composition, and antifungal, antibacterial, and insect-repellent activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Beatriz; López, Sandra; Luna, Lorena; Agüero, María B; Aragón, Liliana; Tapia, Alejandro; Zacchino, Susana; López, María L; Zygadlo, Julio; Feresin, Gabriela E

    2011-05-01

    The antifungal, antibacterial, and insect-repellent activities of the essential oils (EOs) of Acantholippia seriphioides, Artemisia mendozana, Gymnophyton polycephalum, Satureja parvifolia, Tagetes mendocina, and Lippia integrifolia, collected in the Central Andes area, province of San Juan, Argentina, were investigated. The dermatophytes Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and T. rubrum were inhibited by the EOs of G. polycephalum, L. integrifolia, and S. parvifolia, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) between 31.2 and 1000 μg/ml. Moreover, all EOs presented moderate activity against the bacteria tested, and the L. integrifolia and G. polycephalum EOs showed excellent repellent properties against Triatoma infestans, the Chagas disease vector, with repellency values between 60 and 100%. The A. seriphioides, G. polycephalum, and L. integrifolia EOs, obtained by hydrodistillation, were characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. The highest number of components (40) was identified in L. integrifolia EO, which, along with that of A. seriphioides, contained important amounts of oxygenated monoterpenes (44.35 and 29.72%, resp.). Thymol (27.61%) and carvacrol (13.24%) were the main components of A. seriphioides EO, and borneol, lippifoli-1(6)-en-5-one, and terpinen-4-ol (>8.5%) were the principal compounds of L. integrifolia EO. These results support the idea that oxygenated monoterpenes are the bioactive fractions of the EOs. Finally, the study shows that these Andean species might be used to treat superficial fungal infections and to improve the local Chagas disease situation by vector-control.

  12. Aromatic plant-derived essential oil: an alternative larvicide for mosquito control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitasawat, B; Champakaew, D; Choochote, W; Jitpakdi, A; Chaithong, U; Kanjanapothi, D; Rattanachanpichai, E; Tippawangkosol, P; Riyong, D; Tuetun, B; Chaiyasit, D

    2007-04-01

    Five aromatic plants, Carum carvi (caraway), Apium graveolens (celery), Foeniculum vulgare (fennel), Zanthoxylum limonella (mullilam) and Curcuma zedoaria (zedoary) were selected for investigating larvicidal potential against mosquito vectors. Two laboratory-reared mosquito species, Anopheles dirus, the major malaria vector in Thailand, and Aedes aegypti, the main vector of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever in urban areas, were used. All of the volatile oils exerted significant larvicidal activity against the two mosquito species after 24-h exposure. Essential oil from mullilam was the most effective against the larvae of A. aegypti, while A. dirus larvae showed the highest susceptibility to zedoary oil.

  13. Biological Activities and Composition of Ferulago carduchorum Essential Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golfakhrabadi, Fereshteh; Khanavi, Mahnaz; Ostad, Seyed Nasser; Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Vatandoost, Hassan; Abai, Mohammad Reza; Hafizi, Mitra; Yousefbeyk, Fatemeh; Rad, Yaghoob Razzaghi; Baghenegadian, Ameneh; Ardekani, Mohammad Reza Shams

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ferulago carduchorum Boiss and Hausskn belongs to the Apiaceae family. This plant grows in west part of Iran that local people added it to dairy and oil ghee to delay expiration date and give them a pleasant taste. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant, antimicrobial, acetyl cholinesterase inhibition, cytotoxic, larvicidal activities and composition of essential oil of F. carduchorum. Methods: Acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory, larvicidal activities and chemical composition of essential oil of F. carduchorum were investigated. Besides, antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of essential oil were tested using DPPH, microdilution method and MTT assay, respectively. Results: The major components of essential oil were (z)-β-ocimene (43.3%), α-pinene (18.23%) and bornyl acetate (3.98%). Among 43 identified components, monoterpenes were the most compounds (84.63%). The essential oil had noticeable efficiency against Candida albicans (MIC= 2340 μg ml−1) and it was effective against Anopheles stephensi with LC50 and LC90 values of 12.78 and 47.43 ppm, respectively. The essential oil could inhibit AChE (IC50= 23.6 μl ml−1). The essential oil showed high cytotoxicity on T47D, HEP-G2 and HT-29 cell lines (IC50< 2 μg ml−1). Conclusion: The essential oil of F. carduchorum collected from west of Iran had anti-Candida, larvicidal and cytotoxicity effects and should be further investigated in others in vitro and in vivo experimental models. PMID:26114148

  14. Biological Activities and Composition of Ferulago carduchorum Essential Oil

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    Fereshteh Golfakhrabadi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ferulago carduchorum Boiss and Hausskn belongs to the Apiaceae family. This plant grows in west part of Iran that local people added it to dairy and oil ghee to delay expiration date and give them a pleasant taste. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant, antimicrobial, acetyl cholinesterase inhibition, cytotoxic, larvicidal activities and composition of essential oil of F. carduchorum.Methods: Acetyl cholinesterase (AChE inhibitory, larvicidal activities and chemical composition of essential oil of F. carduchorum were investigated. Besides, antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of essential oil were tested using DPPH, microdilution method and MTT assay, respectively.Results: The major components of essential oil were (z-β-ocimene (43.3%, α-pinene (18.23% and bornyl acetate (3.98%. Among 43 identified components, monoterpenes were the most compounds (84.63%. The essential oil had noticeable efficiency against Candida albicans (MIC= 2340 μg ml-1 and it was effective against Anophelesstephensi with LC50 and LC90 values of 12.78 and 47.43 ppm, respectively. The essential oil could inhibit AChE (IC50= 23.6 μl ml-1. The essential oil showed high cytotoxicity on T47D, HEP-G2 and HT-29 cell lines (IC50< 2 μg ml-1.Conclusion: The essential oil of F. carduchorum collected from west of Iran had anti-Candida, larvicidal and cytotoxicity effects and should be further investigated in others in vitro and in vivo experimental models.

  15. 五种植物油及其二元混剂对嗜卷书虱的熏蒸活性%Fumigation Activities of Five Plant Oils and Their Binary Mixtures against Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王争艳; 罗琼; 栗婷; 鲁玉杰

    2016-01-01

    Fumigant activities of five plant oils and their binary mixtures were tested against adults and eggs of Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel. After 24 h of exposure, garlic oil exhibited the highest fumigant toxicity against adults of L. bostrychophila, followed by eucalyptus, coriander, attarasa and clove oils, with LC50 values of 0.89, 8.31, 9.93, 19.05 and 36.80 µL/L air, respectively. The highest susceptibility of L. bostrychophila to plant oils was found in adults, followed by 6-, 4-and 2-day eggs. Binary mixtures of eucalyptus/coriander oil and eucalyptus/attarasa oil showed significant synergism with the co-toxicity factor of 126.76 and 135.24, respectively. When mixed at the ratio of 56:44 (v:v), the synergistic combination of eucalyptus/coriander oil possessed the highest toxicity index of 1.77 and the highest co-toxicity coefficient of 160.15. When mixed at the ratio of 50:50 (v:v), the synergistic combination of eucalyptus/attarasa oil possessed the highest toxicity index of 1.74 and the highest co-toxicity coefficient of 227.35.%本文测定了5种植物油及其混剂对嗜卷书虱成虫和卵的熏蒸活性。熏蒸24 h后,5种植物油对嗜卷书虱成虫的熏蒸活性由强到弱依次为大蒜油、桉树油、芫荽油、山苍子油和丁香油,其LC50分别为0.89、8.31、9.93、19.05和36.80µL/L空气。嗜卷书虱不同虫态(龄)对植物油熏蒸的敏感性由低到高依次为2日龄卵、4日龄卵、6日龄卵和成虫。桉树油和芫荽油,桉树油和山苍子油的二元混配对嗜卷书虱成虫表现出明显的熏蒸增效作用,其协同毒力指数分别为126.76和135.24。桉树油和芫荽油混合体积比为56:44时,其毒性比率(1.77)和共毒系数最高(160.15)。桉树油和山苍子油混合体积比为50:50时,其毒性比率(1.74)和共毒系数最高(227.35)。

  16. Interaction hybrid × planting date for oil yield in sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balalić Igor M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the effects of hybrids and planting dates as well as their interaction on oil yield in sunflower for three-year experiment (2005, 2006, 2007. Three sunflower hybrids (Miro, Rimi and Pobednik and eight planting dates were included in the experiment. AMMI (Additive Main Effects and Multiplicative Interaction analysis is one of the mainly used multiplicative models, which evaluates main effects and also interaction. The interaction was detected by using AMMI1 biplot. Oil yield was predominantly influenced by the year of growing (58.9%, then by planting date (12.9% and by hybrid (10.7%. All interactions were significant as well. AMMI ANOVA showed high significance of both IPC1 and IPC2. The contribution of IPC1 was 77.5%. Hybrids Miro and Pobednik showed no significant differences in the mean values, which were higher than average. However, the hybrid Miro showed the highest stability for oil yield. Hybrid Rimi, with the lowest mean value, was the most unstable for the examined character. Oil yield was higher in earlier than in later planting dates. Graphical presentation of AMMI1 in the form of biplot could facilitate the choice of stable hybrids and planting dates for desired characters in sunflower.

  17. Effects of plants containing secondary compounds and plant oils on rumen fermentation and ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanapat, Metha; Kongmun, Pongthon; Poungchompu, Onanong; Cherdthong, Anusorn; Khejornsart, Pichad; Pilajun, Ruangyote; Kaenpakdee, Sujittra

    2012-03-01

    A number of experiments have been conducted to investigate effects of tropical plants containing condensed tannins and/or saponins present in tropical plants and some plant oils on rumen fermentation and ecology in ruminants. Based on both in vitro and in vivo trials, the results revealed important effects on rumen microorganisms and fermentation including methane production. Incorporation and/or supplementation of these plants containing secondary metabolites have potential for improving rumen ecology and subsequently productivity in ruminants.

  18. Using Soxhlet Ethanol Extraction to Produce and Test Plant Material (Essential Oils for Their Antimicrobial Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Redfern

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available As the issue of antimicrobial resistance continues to grow, there is a renewed interest in deriving antimicrobial products from natural compounds, particularly extracts from plant materials. This paper describes how essential oil can be extracted from the common herb, thyme (Thymus vulgaris in the classroom. Subsequently, the extract can be tested for its antimicrobial activity. A number of variables are suggested.

  19. Plant Essential Oils Synergize and Antagonize Toxicity of Different Conventional Insecticides against Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae.

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    Nicoletta Faraone

    Full Text Available Plant-derived products can play an important role in pest management programs. Essential oils from Lavandula angustifolia (lavender and Thymus vulgaris (thyme and their main constituents, linalool and thymol, respectively, were evaluated for insecticidal activity and synergistic action in combination with insecticides against green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae. The essential oils and their main constituents exerted similar insecticidal activity when aphids were exposed by direct sprays, but were non-toxic by exposure to treated leaf discs. In synergism experiments, the toxicity of imidacloprid was synergized 16- to 20-fold by L. angustifolia and T. vulgaris essential oils, but far less synergism occurred with linalool and thymol, indicating that secondary constituents of the oils were probably responsible for the observed synergism. In contrast to results with imidacloprid, the insecticidal activity of spirotetramat was antagonized by L. angustifolia and T. vulgaris essential oils, and linalool and thymol. Our results demonstrate the potential of plant essential oils as synergists of insecticides, but show that antagonistic action against certain insecticides may occur.

  20. Plant Essential Oils Synergize and Antagonize Toxicity of Different Conventional Insecticides against Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraone, Nicoletta; Hillier, N Kirk; Cutler, G Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Plant-derived products can play an important role in pest management programs. Essential oils from Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) and Thymus vulgaris (thyme) and their main constituents, linalool and thymol, respectively, were evaluated for insecticidal activity and synergistic action in combination with insecticides against green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae). The essential oils and their main constituents exerted similar insecticidal activity when aphids were exposed by direct sprays, but were non-toxic by exposure to treated leaf discs. In synergism experiments, the toxicity of imidacloprid was synergized 16- to 20-fold by L. angustifolia and T. vulgaris essential oils, but far less synergism occurred with linalool and thymol, indicating that secondary constituents of the oils were probably responsible for the observed synergism. In contrast to results with imidacloprid, the insecticidal activity of spirotetramat was antagonized by L. angustifolia and T. vulgaris essential oils, and linalool and thymol. Our results demonstrate the potential of plant essential oils as synergists of insecticides, but show that antagonistic action against certain insecticides may occur.

  1. Cytotoxic activity of the essential oil of Salvia verticillata L.

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    N. Khosravi Dehaghi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Salvia is one of the largest genera of  Lamiaceae family. Several species of this genus are perfumed and wealthy in essential oils. Some of them are used in industry, pharmacy and aromatherapy. They have shown different biological effects such as antibacterial and antioxidant activity. For the present study, Salvia verticillata L. was collected from Shahrestanak, Mazandaran, Iran. Hydrodistilled essential oil from the aerial parts of this plant was obtained with a Clevenger type  apparatus  and was analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Moreover, the cytotoxic activity of the essential oil was investigated against HT-29 (colon adenocarcinoma, Caco-2 (colorectal adenocarcinoma, T-47D (breast ductal carcinoma and NIH-3T3 (Swiss mouse embryo fibroblast cell lines by MTT test. 59 components were characterized from the oil with trans-caryophyllene (24.40%, β-phellandrene (9.08%, α-humulene (8.61%, bicyclogermacrene (6.32%, spathulenol (5.89% and β-pinene (5.00% as the major constituents. These compounds represented 97.67% of the essential oil and included monoterpenes (34.83% and sesquiterpens (61.84%. The results of the cytotoxicity assay demonstrated that the essential oil of S. verticillata showed higher cytotoxic effect on Caco-2 cell line.

  2. Effects of Different Plant Oils on the Enzyme Activity and Microbial Activity in vitro%不同植物油脂对体外培养条件下培养液酶活及微生物活力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王曙; 王梦芝; 卢占军; 董淑红; 张鑫; 王洪荣

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this paper were to determine the effects of different plant oils on the enzyme activity and microbial activity in vitro. Three goats with permanent cannulas were used in a simple factor design. The control group was supplemented with no oil and the experimental groups were supplemented with peanut oil, rapeseed oil, corn oil, and soybean oil, respectively. The results showed that the activity of lactate dehy-drogenase (LDH), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase ( GOT), and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase ( GPT) were highest in rapeseed oil group and that in soybean oil group, corn oil group and peanut oil group fell in turn, the activity of LDH, GOT and GPT in the experimental groups were significant higher than that in the control group except for peanut oil group (P 0. 05). However, microbial DNA was generally higher in soybean oil group and corn oil group at all sampling time points, and the changing trend along with time differed from each other. It was further observed that, protozoa to bacteria ratios were much lower in soybean and corn oil. In conclusion, different oils had different effects on microflora and activity of ruminal microorganisms in vitro, while soybean oil and corn oil showed much better effects on promoting microbial activity than the others. [Chinese Journal of Animal Nutrition, 2011, 23(8):1309-1316]%本文旨在研究不同饱和程度的植物油脂对体外培养条件下培养液酶活及微生物活力的影响.试验以3头装有瘤胃瘘管的山羊提供瘤胃液,采用单因子试验设计,对照组不加油脂,试验组分别添加花生油、菜籽油、玉米油和豆油进行体外培养.结果表明:乳酸脱氢酶、谷草转氨酶、谷丙转氨酶3种酶的活性都以菜籽油组最高,豆油组、玉米油组、花生油组依次降低,除花生油组外,其他试验组均显著高于对照组(P<0.05),且试验组间存在显著差异(P<0.05).总脱氢酶以豆油组最高,显著高于对照组(P<0

  3. Preparation of biopolymers from plant oils in green media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use of plant oils as starting materials to prepare polymers has attracted renewed attention in recent years to replace or augment the traditional petrochemical based polymers and resins. This is because of concern for the environment, waste disposal, and depletion of fossil and non renewable feedsto...

  4. Evaluating Sustainability: Soap versus Biodiesel Production from Plant Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Nicola L. B.; Streff, Jennifer M.; Brokman, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Herein we describe a series of experiments for the undergraduate organic laboratory curriculum in which various plant oils (soybean, rapeseed, and olive) are subjected to saponification and transesterification reactions to create a set of compounds that can function as soaps or as fuels. The experiments introduce students to and asks them to…

  5. Margarine from organogels of plant wax and soybean oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organogels obtained from plant wax and soybean oil tested for suitability for incorporation into margarine. Sunflower wax, rice bran wax and candelilla wax were evaluated. Candelilla wax showed phase separation after making the emulsion with the formulation used in this study. Rice bran wax showe...

  6. Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L. essential oil: Chemistry and biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamapada Mandal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Coriandrum sativum L. (C. sativum is one of the most useful essential oil bearing spices as well as medicinal plants, belonging to the family Umbelliferae/Apiaceae. The leaves and seeds of the plant are widely used in folk medicine in addition to its use as a seasoning in food preparation. The C. sativum essential oil and extracts possess promising antibacterial, antifungal and anti-oxidative activities as various chemical components in different parts of the plant, which thus play a great role in maintaining the shelf-life of foods by preventing their spoilage. This edible plant is non-toxic to humans, and the C. sativum essential oil is thus used in different ways, viz., in foods (like flavouring and preservatives and in pharmaceutical products (therapeutic action as well as in perfumes (fragancias and lotions. The current updates on the usefulness of the plant C. sativum are due to scientific research published in different web-based journals.

  7. Antibacterial effect of essential oils from two medicinal plants against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohidpour, A; Sattari, M; Omidbaigi, R; Yadegar, A; Nazemi, J

    2010-02-01

    Antimicrobial properties of plants essential oils (EOs) have been investigated through several observations and clinical studies which purpose them as potential tools to overcome the microbial drug resistance problem. The aim of this research is to study the antibacterial effect of two traditional plants essential oils, Thymus vulgaris and Eucalyptus globulus against clinical isolates of Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and other standard bacterial strains through disk diffusion and agar dilution methods. Gas Chromatography (GC) and Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis examined the chemical composition of the oils. Results revealed both of oils to possess degrees of antibacterial activity against Gram (+) and Gram (-) bacteria. T. vulgaris EO showed better inhibitory effects than E. globulus essential oil. GC analysis of T. vulgaris resulted in thymol as the oil major compound whereas GC/MS assay exhibited eucalyptol as the most abundant constitute of E. globulus EO. These results support previous studies on these oils and suggest an additional option to treat MRSA infections. Clinical and further analytical trials of these data are necessary to confirm the obtained outcomes. Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  8. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils against human pathogenic bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sokovic, M.; Marin, P.D.; Brkic, D.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2008-01-01

    The chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from 10 aromatic plants Matricaria chamommilla, Mentha piperita, M. spicata, Lavandula angustifolia, Ocimum basilicum, Thymus vulgaris, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis, Citrus limon and C. aurantium have been determined. Anti

  9. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils against human pathogenic bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sokovic, M.; Marin, P.D.; Brkic, D.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2008-01-01

    The chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from 10 aromatic plants Matricaria chamommilla, Mentha piperita, M. spicata, Lavandula angustifolia, Ocimum basilicum, Thymus vulgaris, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis, Citrus limon and C. aurantium have been determined.

  10. Study on the Repellent Activity of Plant Essectial Oils Against Latheticus oryzae Waterhouse%5种植物精油对长头谷盗的控制作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭钰; 曾玲; 梁广文

    2013-01-01

    选取小茴香、肉桂、丁香、辣椒和生姜精油,研究其对长头谷盗的控制作用.结果表明:(1)5种精油对长头谷盗均具有显著的驱避活性,其中丁香和生姜精油的5个试验浓度(1∶1、1∶10、1∶15、1∶20和1∶50)对长头谷盗的驱避效果最好,处理60h后,其驱避活性均达到Ⅴ级,72 h后,其驱避活性分别仍达到Ⅲ级和Ⅳ级;(2)小茴香、肉桂和丁香精油对长头谷盗有明显的触杀作用,其中处理最低浓度(1∶50)的肉桂时,长头谷盗的死亡率仍在60%以上;辣椒和生姜精油的触杀活性较弱,5个试验浓度对长头谷盗的死亡率几乎为零;(3)5种精油对长头谷盗均无明显的熏蒸作用.%Five plant essential oils of Foeniculum vulgare,Cinnamomum cassia,Syzygium aromaticum,Capsicum annuum and Zingiber officinale were used to investigate their repellent action,contact action and fumigation against Latheticas oryzae Waterhouse in this paper.The results showed that:(1) Five plant essential oils significantly repelled L.oryzae,and Syzygium aromaticum and Zingiber officinale with 5 tests concentration(1∶1,1 ∶ 10,1∶15,1∶20 and 1 ∶ 50) had the best repellent effects.60 h later,the repellency percentages was Ⅴ level,and 72 h later,the percentages were Ⅲ level and Ⅳ level,respectively.(2)Foeniculum vulgare,Cinnamomum cassia and Syzygium aromaticum essential oils could effectivelf kill L.oryzae adults.The contact toxicity of Foeniculum vulgare essential oil at 1∶ 50 concentration had no contact effect to L.oryzae,but the mortality of 1 ∶ 50 concentration was over 60%.However,the contact activity of Capsicum annuum and Zingiber officinale essential oils were weak,and the mortality of L.oryzae of five test concentrations were nearly zero.(3) In a word,all of the five kinds of essential oils couldn' t effectively fumigate L.oryzae adults.

  11. Composition, mosquito larvicidal, biting deterrent and antifungal activity of essential oils of different plant parts of Cupressus arizonica var. glabra (Carolina Sapphire)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essential oils obtained from the hydrodistillation of female cones (FC), male cones (MC), needles-twigs (NT) and wood barks (WB) of ‘Carolina Sapphire’ [Cupressus arizonica var glabra (Sudw.) Little] were analyzed simultaneously by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC...

  12. Antimicrobial Effect of Escherichia Coli on Essential Oils Derived from Romanian Aromatic Plants

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    Şandru Daniela Maria

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the antimicrobial action of Escherichia coli ATCCR CRM-8739TM on the following essential oils: Teucrium marum, Pinus sylwestris, Thymus vulgaris, Salviae aethedaroleum, Cinnamomum aromaticum, Hippophae rhamnoides, Lavandula angustifolia, Abies alba, Zingiber officinale, Anethum graveolens, Coriandrum sativum, Origanum vulgare, extracted industrialy from romanian plants, using the diffusion disc method. The most intense activity was observed at the essential oil of Cinnamomum aromaticum (cinnamon and the mildest activity was observed at Zingiber officinale (ginger. Many of the essential oils tested exhibited moderate antimicrobial activity, as Teucrium marum, Thymus vulgaris, Hippophae rhamnoides, Lavandula angustifolia,Coriandrum sativum. The lowest antibacterial activity was exhibited on Pinus sylwestris, Salviae aethedaroleum, Zingiber officinale and Anethum graveolens.

  13. Bioefficacy of essential oils of medicinal plants against housefly, Musca domestica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, Rashmi A; Khandagle, Abhay J

    2012-10-01

    The housefly Musca domestica L. is recognized as a public health pest causing a serious threat to human and livestock by vectoring many infectious diseases. Chemical control method commonly used against this pest, though effective, has some major disadvantages, such as development of insect resistance and bioaccumulation. Pest management strategies for populations of houseflies are needed. Presently, bioinsecticides, especially those derived from plant origin, have been increasingly evaluated in controlling insects of medical importance. In order to search for effective and ecofriendly control agents, the essential oils of Mentha piperita, Zingiber officinalis, Emblica officinalis, and Cinnamomum verum were evaluated for their larvicidal, attractant/repellent, and oviposition attractant/deterrent activity against M. domestica. The highest larvicidal activity, i.e., C(50) = 104 ppm was shown by M. piperita. This oil also exhibited 96.8% repellency at the concentration of 1%. The highest oviposition deterrence activity of 98.1% was also exhibited by M. piperita oil at the concentration of 1%. Among the remaining plants, the essential oil of Z. officinalis exhibited significant bioactivities against M. domestica with larvicidal activity, i.e., lethal concentration (LC)(50) = 137 ppm, repellency of 84.9 and 98.1% oviposition deterrence both at 1% concentration. The other two plant oils, viz., C. verum and E. officinalis, showed relatively moderate bioefficacy with larvicidal activity, i.e., LC(50) = 159 and 259 ppm, repellency of 77.9 and 63.0% while oviposition deterrence of 60.0 and 42.6%, respectively. The result revealed that the essential oils of M. piperita have control potential against M. domestica and should be further explored as a component of integrated vector management program.

  14. Antimicrobial activity of the three commercial drug’s essential oils: Chamomillae flos, Calendulae flos and Millefolii herba

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    Stojanović-Radić, Z.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Commercial herbal drugs of the three plants belonging to family Asteraceae were used for the extraction of the essential oils (hydrodistillation method. Since various factors during the processing of the plant material can affect several characteristics of essential oils such as yield, chemical composition and, thus, biological activities of essential oils, comparison of the antimicrobial activity of the herein isolated oils was done with avaiable literature sources dealing with this subject. In order to evaluate antimicrobial potential of the isolated essential oils, a broth microdilution method was employed. The results pointed to very high activity of the tested oils, in all cases much stronger in comparison to the previous results. As a conclusion, the adverse effects of plant material processing did not affect its antimicrobial potential, while the obtained high antimicrobial activity can be explained by sinergistic action of the herein used solvent with essential oils.

  15. Thymus vulgaris essential oil: chemical composition and antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borugă, O; Jianu, C; Mişcă, C; Goleţ, I; Gruia, A T; Horhat, F G

    2014-01-01

    The study was designed to determine the chemical composition and antimicrobial properties of the essential oil of Thymus vulgaris cultivated in Romania. The essential oil was isolated in a yield of 1.25% by steam distillation from the aerial part of the plant and subsequently analyzed by GC-MS. The major components were p-cymene (8.41%), γ-terpinene (30.90%) and thymol (47.59%). Its antimicrobial activity was evaluated on 7 common food-related bacteria and fungus by using the disk diffusion method. The results demonstrate that the Thymus vulgaris essential oil tested possesses strong antimicrobial properties, and may in the future represent a new source of natural antiseptics with applications in the pharmaceutical and food industry.

  16. IN VITRO ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF ESSENTIAL OILS ON GROWTH OF PHYTOPATHOGENIC FUNGI

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    Jasenka Ćosić

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Eleven essential oils (clove, rosemary, cinnamon leaf, sage, scots pine, neroli, peppermint, aniseed, caraway, lavander, common thyme were tested for in vitro antifungal activity on twelve plant pathogenic fungi (Fusarium graminearum, F. verticillioides, F. subglutinans, F. oxysporum, F. avenaceum, Diaporthe helianthi, Diaporthe phaseolorum var. caulivora, Phomopsis longicolla, P. viticola, Helminthosporium sativum, Colletotrichum coccodes, Thanatephorus cucumeris. The results indicated that all oils except scots pine and neroli had antifungal activity against some or all tested fungi. The best antifungal activity had common thyme, cinnamon leaf, clove and aniseed oils. When compared to control, scots pine, neroli and sage oils stimulated mycelium growth of some investigated fungi.

  17. Antifungal activity of essential oils against selected terverticillate penicillia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felšöciová, Soňa; Kačániová, Miroslava; Horská, Elena; Vukovič, Nenad; Hleba, Lukáš; Petrová, Jana; Rovná, Katarina; Stričík, Michal; Hajduová, Zuzana

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to screen 15 essential oils of selected plant species, viz. Lavandula angustifolia, Carum carvi, Pinus mungo var. pulmilio, Mentha piperita, Chamomilla recutita L., Pinus sylvestris, Satureia hortensis L., Origanum vulgare L., Pimpinella anisum, Rosmarinus officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L., Abietis albia etheroleum, Chamomilla recutita L. Rausch, Thymus vulgaris L., Origanum vulgare L. for antifungal activity against five Penicillium species: Penicillium brevicompactum, Penicillium citrinum, Penicillium crustosum, Penicillium expansum and Penicillium griseofulvum. The method used for screening included the disc diffusion method. The study points out the wide spectrum of antifungal activity of essential oils against Penicillium fungi. There were five essential oils of the 15 mentioned above which showed a hopeful antifungal activity: Pimpinella anisum, Chamomilla recutita L., Thymus vulgaris, Origanum vulgare L. The most hopeful antifungal activity and killing effect against all tested penicillia was found to be Origanum vulgare L. and Pimpinella anisum. The lowest level of antifungal activity was demonstrated by the oils Pinus mungo var. pulmilio, Salvia officinalis L., Abietis albia etheroleum, Chamomilla recutita L. Rausch, Rosmarinus officinalis.

  18. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils from the Aerial Parts of Salvia pinnata L.

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    Nehir Unver Somer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The composition of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of Salvia pinnata L. (Labiatae, collected during flowering and fruiting periods, were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. 37 compounds were identified representing 96.1 % of the essential oil obtained from the plant material collected during flowering period. 30 compounds were detected constituting 94.7 % of the essential oil of the plant material collected in fruiting period. The main components of the essential oils were characterized as bornyl acetate, camphor, camphene, bornyl formate, a -pinene and borneol. The oils were screened for antimicrobial activity by the micro-dilution assay against standard bacteria (Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and yeast (Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis. Both of the oils showed antimicrobial activity against the tested organisms.

  19. Lantana montevidensis Essential Oil: Chemical Composition and Mosquito Repellent Activity against Aedes aegypti

    Science.gov (United States)

    The essential oil (EO) of Lantana montevidensis (Spreng.) Briq. (L. sellowiana Link & Otto) was investigated for its chemical composition and mosquito repellent activity. The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of aerial plant parts was analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The major constituents we...

  20. Active movements in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markin, Vladislav S; Jovanov, Emil

    2008-01-01

    The Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula Ellis) captures insects with one of the most rapid movements in the plant kingdom. We investigated trap closure by mechanical and electrical stimuli using the novel charge-injection method and high-speed recording. We proposed a new hydroelastic curvature mechanism, which is based on the assumption that the lobes possess curvature elasticity and are composed of outer and inner hydraulic layers with different hydrostatic pressure. The open state of the trap contains high elastic energy accumulated due to the hydrostatic pressure difference between the hydraulic layers of the lobe. Stimuli open pores connecting the two layers, water rushes from one hydraulic layer to another, and the trap relaxes to the equilibrium configuration corresponding to the closed state. In this paper we derived equations describing this system based on elasticity Hamiltonian and found closing kinetics. The novel charge-injection stimulation method gives insight into mechanisms of the different steps of signal transduction and response in the plant kingdom. PMID:19513230

  1. Plant Essential Oils from Apiaceae Family as Alternatives to Conventional Insecticides

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    Asgar Ebadollahi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Main method to control insect pest is using synthetic insecticides, but the development of insect resistance to this products, the high operational cost, environmental pollution, toxicity to humans and harmful effect on non-target organisms have created the need for developing alternative approaches to control insect pest. Furthermore, the demand for organic crops, especially vegetables for the fresh market, has greatly increased worldwide. The ideal insecticide should control target pests adequately and should be target-specific, rapidly degradable, and low in toxicity to humans and other mammals. Plant essential oils could be an alternative source for insect pest control because they constitute a rich source of bioactive chemicals and are commonly used as flavoring agents in foods. These materials may be applied to food crops shortly before harvest without leaving excessive residues. Moreover, medically safe of these plant derivatives has emphasized also. For these reasons, much effort has been focused on plant essential oils or their constituents as potential sources of insect control agents. In this context, Apiaceae (Umbelliferae family would rank among the most important families of plants. In the last few years more and more studies on the insecticidal properties of essential oils from Apiaceae family have been published and it seemed worthwhile to compile them. The focus of this review lies on the lethal (ovicidal, larvicidal, pupicidal and adulticidal and sublethal (antifeedant, repellent, oviposition deterrent, Growth inhibitory and progeny production activities of plant essential oils and theirmain components from Apiaceae family. These features indicate that pesticides based on Apiaceae essential oils could be used in a variety of ways to control a large number of pests. It can be concluded that essential oils and phytochemicals isolated from Apiaceae family may be efficacious and safe replacements for conventional synthetic

  2. Chemical composition and leishmanicidal activity of Pulicaria gnaphalodes essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Asghari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Several natural compounds have been identified for the treatment ofleishmaniasis. Due to a few safe drugs and the side effects caused by available chemotherapy, some new drugs for treatment of leishmaniasis are requested.  The genus Pulicaria (Asteraceae is represented in the flora of Iran by five species. Phytochemical studies on Pulicaria species have revealed some flavonoids and terpenoids with leishmanicidal activity. In the present investigation chemical composition and leishmanicidal activity of Pulicaria gnaphalodes essential oil have been studied. Methods: The essential oil of the aerial parts of the plant was obtained by Clevenger apparatus and was analyzed by GC/MS. Antileishmanil activity was assessed against promastigoes of Leishmania major. Results:The major components from P. gnaphalodes essential oil have been reported to be geraniol, 1,8-cineole, chrysanthenone, α-pinene, chrystanthenone, α-terpineol and filifolone. The alcohol monoterpenes with contribution of 25.04% constituted the major portion of the essential oil, while hydrocarbon monoterpenes and hydrocarbon sesquiterpenes with contribution of 7.08% and 2.38%, respectively occupied the next rates.In the present experiment the essential oil of P. gnaphalodes progressively inhibited Leishmania major growth in concentrations ranging from 0.125 to 50 µL/mL (parasite culture in 24 h. The essential oil at 50 µL/mL eliminated the promastigotes at the beginning of treatment. It showed antileishmanial activity in concentration of 1.06 µL/mL and destroyed all parasits in 24 h.  Conclusion: Pulicaria gnaphalodes antileishmanial activity, could suggest the species and constituents as possible lead structures for antileishmanial drug discovery.

  3. The Essential Oil Constituents of Zornia diphylla (L. Pers, and Anti-Inflammatory and Antimicrobial Activities of the Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raveendrakurup Arunkumar, , and

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil obtained from hydrodistillation of Zornia diphylla (L. Pers (whole plant was analyzed by gas chromatographic techniques. Thirty seven compounds comprising 96.3% of the oil were identified by GC-MS. Monoterpenoids predominated the oil (83.9% and the major constituent was sabinene (43.1% followed by terpinene 4-ol (13.2%. The oil was screened for antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities. Sabinene was tested for its anti-microbial property. The essential oil showed significant in vitro antibacterial activity against Salmonella typhi, one of the causative organisms of food poisoning. Sabinene exhibited promising anti-bacterial and anti-fungal activities. The essential oil showed anti-inflammatory activity against carageennan-induced paw edema in rats. The oil (50 µg/mL was devoid of any significant in vitro cytotoxicity to thymocytes, macrophages and Dalton’s lympohoma ascitis cells. This is the first report on the essential oil constituents of Zornia diphylla (L. Pers.

  4. Antifertility activity of medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniyal, Muhammad; Akram, Muhammad

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this review was to provide a comprehensive summary of medicinal plants used as antifertility agents in females throughout the world by various tribes and ethnic groups. We undertook an extensive bibliographic review by analyzing classical text books and peer reviewed papers, and further consulting well accepted worldwide scientific databases. We performed CENTRAL, Embase, and PubMed searches using terms such as "antifertility", "anti-implantation", "antiovulation", and "antispermatogenic" activity of plants. Plants, including their parts and extracts, that have traditionally been used to facilitate antifertility have been considered as antifertility agents. In this paper, various medicinal plants have been reviewed for thorough studies such as Polygonum hydropiper Linn, Citrus limonum, Piper nigrum Linn, Juniperis communis, Achyanthes aspera, Azadirachta indica, Tinospora cordifolia, and Barleria prionitis. Many of these medicinal plants appear to act through an antizygotic mechanism. This review clearly demonstrates that it is time to expand upon experimental studies to source new potential chemical constituents from medicinal plants; plant extracts and their active constituents should be further investigated for their mechanisms. This review creates a solid foundation upon which to further study the efficacy of plants that are both currently used by women as traditional antifertility medicines, but also could be efficacious as an antifertility agent with additional research and study.

  5. Effect of essential oils in control of plant diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peighami-Ashnaei, S; Farzaneh, M; Sharifi-Tehrani, A; Behboudi, K

    2009-01-01

    In this study, antifungal activity of some essential oils, extracted from Syzygium aromoticum, Foeniculum vulgare, Cuminum cyminum and Mentha piperita were investigated against grey mould of apple. The essential oils of S. aromaticum and F. vulgare showed considerable antifungal activities on PDA medium against Botrytis cinerea. Results indicated that the increasing of dosage of the essential oils caused to the more antifungal activity against B. cinerea in vitro condition. After 10 days, results showed that the essential oil of F. vulgare in both of the concentrations (750 and 1000 microL/L) was more effective than the essential oil of S. aromaticum against grey mould of apple and decrease the disease up to 15.5% in comparison with the check treatment (100%). After 20 days, biocontrol potential of the essential oils of S. aromaticum and F. vulgare at 1000 microL/L were more effective than the other treatments and the percentage of disease was evaluated 41.6% and 50.8%, respectively, in comparison with the check treatment (100%).

  6. INFLUENCE OF SURFACE-ACTIVE RHAMNOLIPID BIOCOMPLEX AND ETHYLTHIOSULFANILATE ON GROWTH AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF PLANTS IN THE OIL CONTAMINATED SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Banya

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was to study the influence of rhamnolipid biocomplex and ethylthiosulfanilate on field pea and sorghum plants when growing in petroleum contaminated soil. Plant seeds were treated with solutions of rhamnolipid biocomplex or ethylthiosulfanilate (0.01 g/l before planting and grown in containers with soil artificially contaminated with petroleum (5, 8 and 10%. Effect of rhamnolipid biocomplex and ethylthiosulfanilate was determined by the determination of growth (weight, length plants and biochemical parameters (content of photosynthetic pigments, hydrogen peroxide, malondialdehyde. The stimulating effect of rhamnolipid biocomplex and ethylthiosulfanilate on growth parameters of field pea was shown: the shoot mass has significantly increased on 39%, root mass – on 26% if compared with the control. For sorghum somewhat smaller increase of growth parameters was observed. Under the influence of rhamnolipid biocomplex and ethylthiosulfanilate the content of photosynthetic pigments in field pea and sorghum has also increased. It was determined that the action rhamnolipid biocomplex and ethylthiosulfanilate promoted the decrease of indicators of plant oxidative reactions if compared with control: the content of hydrogen peroxide – in average on 15% and 16%, malondialdehyde – on 13.5% and 16% respectively. The results of the study testify to the effectiveness of rhamnolipid biocomplex and ethylthiosulfanilate as growth stimulators for field pea and sorghum, as well as improvement of adaptive capability of plants to unfavorable conditions. It creates the prospects of their application as effective and ecologically safe substances for the intensification of contaminated soil phytoremediation.

  7. Plant Oils and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors: The Role of Genetics

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Caren E.

    2012-01-01

    More than 25 years have passed since Ancel Keys and others observed that high intake of monounsaturated fatty acids, especially as supplied by plants (eg, olive oil) was associated with lower cardiovascular and overall mortality. About 15 years later, advances in genotyping technologies began to facilitate widespread study of relationships between dietary fats and genetic variants, illuminating the role of genetic variation in modulating human responses to fatty acids. More recently, microarr...

  8. The enrichment behavior of natural radionuclides in pulverized oil shale-fired power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaasma, Taavi; Kiisk, Madis; Meriste, Tõnis; Tkaczyk, Alan Henry

    2014-12-01

    The oil shale industry is the largest producer of NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material) waste in Estonia. Approximately 11-12 million tons of oil shale containing various amounts of natural radionuclides is burned annually in the Narva oil shale-fired power plants, which accounts for approximately 90% of Estonian electricity production. The radionuclide behavior characteristics change during the fuel combustion process, which redistributes the radionuclides between different ash fractions. Out of 24 operational boilers in the power plants, four use circulating fluidized bed (CFB) technology and twenty use pulverized fuel (PF) technology. Over the past decade, the PF boilers have been renovated, with the main objective to increase the efficiency of the filter systems. Between 2009 and 2012, electrostatic precipitators (ESP) in four PF energy blocks were replaced with novel integrated desulphurization technology (NID) for the efficient removal of fly ash and SO2 from flue gases. Using gamma spectrometry, activity concentrations and enrichment factors for the (238)U ((238)U, (226)Ra, (210)Pb) and (232)Th ((232)Th, (228)Ra) family radionuclides as well as (40)K were measured and analyzed in different PF boiler ash fractions. The radionuclide activity concentrations in the ash samples increased from the furnace toward the back end of the flue gas duct. The highest values in different PF boiler ash fractions were in the last field of the ESP and in the NID ash, where radionuclide enrichment factors were up to 4.2 and 3.3, respectively. The acquired and analyzed data on radionuclide activity concentrations in different PF boiler ashes (operating with an ESP and a NID system) compared to CFB boiler ashes provides an indication that changes in the fuel (oil shale) composition and boiler working parameters, as well as technological enhancements in Estonian oil shale fired power plants, have had a combined effect on the distribution patterns of natural radionuclides

  9. An attempt of postharvest orange fruit rot control using essential oils from Mediterranean plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camele, Ippolito; De Feo, Vincenzo; Altieri, Luciana; Mancini, Emilia; De Martino, Laura; Luigi Rana, Gian

    2010-12-01

    Twelve essential oils from Mediterranean aromatic plants were tested at different doses against four fungi known as causal agents of post-harvest orange fruit rot: Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium italicum, Phytophthora citrophthora, and Rhizopus stolonifer. Essential oils were obtained from Hyssopus officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia, Majorana hortensis, Melissa officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis, and Thymus vulgaris (Family Lamiaceae), Verbena officinalis (Family Verbenaceae), and Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare, and Carum carvi (Family Apiaceae). Because preliminary in vitro experiments showed that only the oils from V. officinalis, T. vulgaris, and O. vulgare exhibited some fungistatic activity against the above-named fungi, these three essential oils were used in successive in vivo tests carried out to protect healthy "Washington navel" orange fruits from artificial infection by the same micromycetes. The essential oil of T. vulgaris, at a 2,000 ppm dose, controlled fruit rot by B. cinerea, P. citrophthora, and R. stolonifer but was ineffective against P. italicum. Essential oils of V. officinalis and O. vulgare inhibited infection by the first two fungi and only by P. citrophthora, respectively. This finding represents an important result, with the goal of using the essential oils as natural preservatives for food products, due to their positive effect on their safety and shelf life.

  10. Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) repellency field tests of essential oils from plants traditionally used in Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vongsombath, Chanda; Pålsson, Katinka; Björk, Lars; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin; Jaenson, Thomas G T

    2012-11-01

    Essential oils of Hyptis suaveolens (Lamiaceae), Croton roxburghii (Euphorbiaceae), and Litsea cubeba (Lauraceae) were tested in the field near Vientiane city, Lao PDR, on humans for repellent activity against mosquitoes. Landing mosquitoes were collected and later identified. The most abundant mosquitoes captured belonged to the genera Armigeres, Culex, and Aedes. All the plant oils tested at concentrations of 1.7 microg/cm(2), 3.3 microg/cm(2), and 6.3 microg/cm(2) were significantly more mosquito repellent than the negative control. Croton oil was significantly repellent against mosquitoes of the three genera at the highest (6.3 microg/cm(2)) concentration tested. Litsea oil was significantly repellent against Armigeres at all (1.7 microg/cm(2), 3.3 microg/cm(2), and 6.3 microg/cm(2)) concentrations tested. Hyptis oil was significantly repellent against Armigeres at 3.3 microg/cm(2) and 6.3 microg/cm(2) and against Culex at 1.7 microg/cm(2) and 6.3 microg/cm(2). The oils were analyzed for chemical content of volatiles, mainly terpenes. Main constituents were beta-pinene, sabinene, and 1,8-cineol from oils of the green parts of H. suaveolens; alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, and alpha-phellandrene from fresh bark of C. roxburghii; and alpha-pinene, beta-phellandrene, sabinene, and 1,8-cineol from fresh fruits of L. cubeba.

  11. Anti-Candida activity of Brazilian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Marta Cristina Teixeira; Figueira, Glyn Mara; Sartoratto, Adilson; Rehder, Vera Lúcia Garcia; Delarmelina, Camila

    2005-02-28

    Essential oils and ethanolic extracts from the leaves and/or roots of 35 medicinal plants commonly used in Brazil were screened for anti-Candida albicans activity. The oils were obtained by water-distillation using a Clevenger-type system. Essential oils from 13 plants showed anti-Candida activity, including Aloysia triphylla, Anthemis nobilis, Cymbopogon martini, Cymbopogon winterianus, Cyperus articulatus, Cyperus rotundus, Lippia alba, Mentha arvensis, Mikania glomerata, Mentha piperita, Mentha sp., Stachys byzantina, and Solidago chilensis. The ethanol extract was not effective at any of the concentrations tested. Chemical analyses showed the presence of compounds with known antimicrobial activity, including 1,8-cineole, geranial, germacrene-D, limonene, linalool, and menthol.

  12. In vitro antimicrobial activity of five essential oils on multidrug resistant Gram-negative clinical isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Sakkas, Hercules; Gousia, Panagiota; Economou, Vangelis; Sakkas, Vassilios; Petsios, Stefanos; Papadopoulou, Chrissanthy

    2016-01-01

    Aim/Background: The emergence of drug-resistant pathogens has drawn attention on medicinal plants for potential antimicrobial properties. The objective of the present study was the investigation of the antimicrobial activity of five plant essential oils on multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Materials and Methods: Basil, chamomile blue, origanum, thyme, and tea tree oil were tested against clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii (n = 6), Escherichia coli (n = 4), Klebsiella pneum...

  13. Effect of Location, Harvest Season and Plant Age on Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils from Rosmarinus officinalis%栽培地区、采收季节和株龄对迷迭香精油成分和抑菌活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘岩; 白红彤; 李慧; 姜闯道; 石雷

    2012-01-01

    采用气相色谱-质谱联用的方法,研究了不同提取部位、栽培地区、采收季节和株龄对迷迭香精油提取率、成分和抑菌活性的影响.结果表明,在贵州栽培的迷迭香叶子中精油的主要成分为α-蒎烯(31.88%-39.09%)、1,8-桉叶素(8.82%-10.97%)和樟脑(7.63%-11.59%);茎中精油的主要成分为龙脑(26.62%-39.05%)、樟脑(11.41%-15.27%)和α-蒎烯(7.23%-17.80%);茎中精油的抑菌活性强于叶中精油.北京地区栽培的迷迭香,其叶子中精油的主要成分为樟脑(27.92%)和L-β-蒎烯(25.28%),抑菌活性强;茎中精油和贵州栽培的成分和活性均相似.对于采收季节,夏季采收的迷迭香精油提取率高,抑菌活性强.而株龄对精油的成分和抑菌活性影响不大.该研究为我国引种迷迭香的合理配置栽培、采收、生产条件和高效开发利用其抑菌活性提供了科学的依据.%We examined the effect of plant part, cultivating location, harvest season and plant age on the oil yield, chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis). We analyzed essential oils by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and compared the antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Proteus vulgaris. All oil samples showed antibacterial ability against the 4 strains. For Guizhou rosemary, the major compounds of leaf oils were a-pinene (31.88%-39.09%), 1,8-cineole (8.82%-10.97%) and camphor (7.63%-11.59%), whereas those of stem oils were borneol (26.62%-39.05%), camphor (11.41%-15.27%) and a-pinene (7.23%-17.80%). Antibacterial activity was greater for oils from stems than leaves. For oils from Beijing rosemary, the major compounds of leaf oils were camphor (27.92%) and L-β-pinene (25.28%), and the oils showed higher antibacterial activity than those from Guizhou, whereas oils from Beijing plant stems were similar to those from Guizhou

  14. Preliminary study of the molluscicidal and larvicidal properties of some essential oils and phytochemicals from medicinal plants

    OpenAIRE

    Leite,Aristides M.; Lima, Edeltrudes de O.; Evandro L. de Souza; Margareth de F. F. M. Diniz; Leite, Sônia Pereira; Aline L. Xavier; Medeiros,Isac A. de

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the molluscicidal and larvicidal activity of some essential oils and phytochemicals from medicinal plants. Molluscicide and larvicidal activity were determined by, respectively, the lethality bioassays using Artemia salina Leach. Artemiidae and Aedes aegypti L. Culicidae larvae. Essential oils from Eugenia uniflora L. Myrtaceae, Laurus nobilis L. Lauraceae, Origanum vulgare L. Lamiaceae and the phytochemicals α-pinene and eugenol presented citotoxicity toward...

  15. Insecticidal activity of neem oil against Gyropsylla spegazziniana (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) nymphs on Paraguay tea seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formentini, M A; Alves, L F A; Schapovaloff, M E

    2016-01-01

    Gyropsylla spegazziniana (Paraguay tea ampul) is one of the most important pests of Paraguay tea plants, and prohibition of synthetic insecticide use for control of this pest has led to the search for alternative methods. This laboratory study aimed to compare different control strategies for G. spegazziniana, utilizing a commercial neem seed oil product. Paraguay tea seedlings were treated with neem oil solution both pre- and post-infestation with 5th instar nymphs. The systemic action of neem oil was also evaluated by treating plant soil with the neem oil solution, followed by transfer of the insects to plants 24 h post-treatment. Spray treatments were effective against the pest, especially post-infestation (80% mortality), demonstrating the potential of neem oil for control of the Paraguay tea ampul. No significant effects were observed with respect to systemic activity.

  16. Insecticidal activity of neem oil against Gyropsylla spegazziniana (Hemiptera: Psyllidae nymphs on Paraguay tea seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Formentini

    Full Text Available Abstract Gyropsylla spegazziniana (Paraguay tea ampul is one of the most important pests of Paraguay tea plants, and prohibition of synthetic insecticide use for control of this pest has led to the search for alternative methods. This laboratory study aimed to compare different control strategies for G. spegazziniana, utilizing a commercial neem seed oil product. Paraguay tea seedlings were treated with neem oil solution both pre- and post-infestation with 5th instar nymphs. The systemic action of neem oil was also evaluated by treating plant soil with the neem oil solution, followed by transfer of the insects to plants 24 h post-treatment. Spray treatments were effective against the pest, especially post-infestation (80% mortality, demonstrating the potential of neem oil for control of the Paraguay tea ampul. No significant effects were observed with respect to systemic activity.

  17. Antifungal activity of essential oils from leaves and flowers of Inula viscosa (Asteraceae) by Apulian region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafarchia, C; De Laurentis, N; Milillo, M A; Losacco, V; Puccini, V

    2002-12-01

    Some essential oils from several plants (Artemisia verlotorum, Lavandula augustifolia, Ocimum gratissimum) have proved to have acaricidal, antifungal and antibacterial activity. Inula viscosa Ait. (Asteraceae), a plant growing spontaneously in the Mediterranean area, is currently used by popular medicine for its therapeutic effects. Flavonoids, azulenes, sesquiterpenes, and essential oils have been isolated and identified from its leaves. This paper reports the results of the composition and antifungal activity in vitro against dermatophytes and Candida spp. of the four essential oils obtained by steam distillation of the leaves, flowers, whole plant and whole plants without flower extracts of I. viscosa. All the extracts proved to have a significant antifungal activity against dermatophytes even at low concentrations (0.01 mg/ml). The leaf extracts exhibited the greatest antifungal efficacy. The high concentration of the sesquiterpene (carboxyeudesmadiene), occurring in the leaf extracts, may explain its greater antifungal activity.

  18. Chemical composition and some biological activities of the essential oils from basil Ocimum different cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avetisyan, Arpi; Markosian, Anahit; Petrosyan, Margarit; Sahakyan, Naira; Babayan, Anush; Aloyan, Samvel; Trchounian, Armen

    2017-01-19

    The plants belonging to the Ocimum genus of the Lamiaceae family are considered to be a rich source of essential oils which have expressed biological activity and use in different area of human activity. There is a great variety of chemotypes within the same basil species. Essential oils from three different cultivars of basil, O. basilicum var. purpureum, O. basilicum var. thyrsiflora, and O. citriodorum Vis. were the subjects of our investigations. The oils were obtained by steam distillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus. The gas chromatography mass selective analysis was used to determine their chemical composition. The antioxidant activities of these essential oils were measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assays; the tyrosinase inhibition abilities of the given group of oils were also assessed spectophotometrically, and the antimicrobial activity of the essential oils was determined by the agar diffusion method, minimal inhibitory concentrations were expressed. According to the results, the qualitative and quantitative composition of essential oils was quite different: O. basilicum var. purpureum essential oil contained 57.3% methyl-chavicol (estragol); O. basilicum var. thyrsiflora oil had 68.0% linalool. The main constituents of O. citriodorum oil were nerol (23.0%) and citral (20.7%). The highest antioxidant activity was demonstrated by O. basilicum var. thyrsiflora essential oil. This oil has also exhibited the highest tyrosinase inhibition level, whereas the oil from O. citriodorum cultivar demonstrated the highest antimicrobial activity. The results obtained indicate that these essential oils have antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal activity and can be used as natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agents in medicine, food industry and cosmetics.

  19. Microbiological activity in stored olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciafardini, G; Zullo, B A

    2002-05-05

    The disappearance of the bitter taste of newly produced olive oil during storage is due to the enzymatic hydrolysis of the bitter-tasting secoiridoid compound known as oleuropein. Current knowledge attributes the enzymatic hydrolysis of the oleuropein to the beta-glucosidase present in the olives. The present study, however, has demonstrated for the first time that oleuropein present in olive oil can be hydrolysed by beta-glucosidase from the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida wickerhamii. The enzymatic analyses carried out directly on the untreated olive oil and on sterilized olive oil inoculated with the above-mentioned yeasts proved the beta-glucosidase activity through the hydrolysis of both the synthetic substrate p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (PNPG) and the oleuropein. The absence of lipases in the isolated S. cerevisiae and C. wickerhamii examined lead us to believe that the yeasts contribute in a positive way towards the improvement of the organological quality of the oil without altering the composition of the triglycerides.

  20. Plant oils thymol and eugenol affect cattle and swine waste emissions differently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varel, V H; Miller, D N; Lindsay, A D

    2004-01-01

    Wastes generated from the production of cattle and swine in confined facilities create the potential for surface and groundwater pollution, emission of greenhouse gases, transmission of pathogens to food and water sources, and odor. It is our hypothesis that something which inhibits microbial fermentation in livestock wastes will be beneficial to solving some of the environmental problems. Our work has concentrated on the use of antimicrobial plant oils, thymol, thyme oil, carvacrol, eugenol and clove oil. Anaerobic one-litre flasks with a working volume of 0.5 L cattle or swine manure were used to evaluate the effect of thymol and eugenol on production of fermentation gas, short-chain volatile fatty acids, lactate, and bacterial populations. Either oil at 0.2% in both wastes essentially stopped all production of gas and volatile fatty acids, and eliminated all fecal coliform bacteria. In cattle but not swine waste, thymol prevented the accumulation of lactate. However, eugenol stimulated lactate formation in cattle and swine wastes. Thus, eugenol may offer a distinct advantage over thymol, because lactate accumulation in the wastes causes the pH to drop more rapidly, further inhibiting microbial activity and nutrient emissions. We conclude that plant oils may offer solutions to controlling various environmental problems associated with livestock wastes, assuming that they are cost-effective.

  1. Pollution control in oil, gas and chemical plants

    CERN Document Server

    Bahadori, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    This unique book covers the fundamental requirements for air, soil, noise and water pollution control in oil and gas refineries, chemical plants, oil terminals, petrochemical plants, and related facilities. Coverage includes design and operational considerations relevant to critical systems such as monitoring of water pollution control, equipment, and engineering techniques as well as engineering/technological methods related to soil, noise and air pollution control. This book also: ·         Covers a diverse list of pollution control strategies important to practitioners, ranging from waste water gathering systems and oil/suspended solids removal to chemical flocculation units, biological treatment, and sludge handling and treatment ·         Provides numerous step-by-step tutorials that orient both entry level and veteran engineers to the essentials of pollution control methods in petroleum and chemical industries ·         Includes a comprehensive glossary providing readers with...

  2. In vitro antimicrobial properties of plant essential oils thymus vulgaris, cymbopogon citratus and laurus nobilis against five important foodborne pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Farias Millezi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Several essential oils of condiment and medicinal plants possess proven antimicrobial activity and are of important interest for the food industry. Therefore, the Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC of those oils should be determined for various bacteria. MIC varies according to the oil used, the major compounds, and the physiology of the bacterium under study. In the present study, the essential oils of the plants Thymus vulgaris (time, Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass and Laurus nobilis (bay were chemically quantified, and the MIC was determined on the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19117, Salmonella enterica Enteritidis S64, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. The essential oil of C. citratus demonstrated bacterial activity at all concentrations tested and against all of the bacteria tested. The majority of essential oil compounds were geranial and neral. The major constituent of T. vulgaris was 1.8-cineol and of L. nobilis was linalool, which presented lower antibacterial activity, followed by 1.8-cineol. The Gram-negative bacteria demonstrated higher resistance to the use of the essential oils tested in this study. E. coli was the least sensitive and was inhibited only by the oils of C. citratus and L. nobilis.

  3. Alberta petroleum industry activity and oil economics. Status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-10-01

    This report, largely in graphic form, presents the following information on current petroleum industry activity in Alberta: number of oil and gas parcels requested for public tender and their average price, number of drilling rigs, capital raised by oil and gas companies in Canada, changes in federal and provincial oil/gas fiscal systems since 1985, Alberta crude oil producer netbacks, maps showing major oil play economics and intensive oil and gas activity, heavy oil and in-situ bitumen production, and project costs. 10 figs.

  4. Screening of some Malay medicated oils for antimicrobial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Khalisanni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Oils from six Malay medicated oils, used traditionally in the treatment of infectious and septic diseases in humans, were tested for their antimicrobial property. The aim was to evaluate the antimicrobial properties of six Malay medicated oils against certain microbial isolates. Locally available Malay medicated oils were checked for their antimicrobial activities using six species of bacteria: E. coli, Salmonella spp., Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus, Bacillus subtilis and 2 fungi with 1 yeast (Aspergillus niger, Penicillum spp. and Candida albicans. Clove oil showed the highest antibacterial activity followed, respectively, by 'bunga merah', cajaput, nutmeg, lemon grass and 'gamat' oil. Clove oil and lemon grass showed anticandidal activity. The Malay medicated oil studies did not show any antifungal activity. The study shows that Malay medicated oils, like antibiotics, have antimicrobial activities against some microorganisms.

  5. Chemical composition, acute toxicity, and antinociceptive activity of the essential oil of a plant breeding cultivar of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venâncio, Antônio Medeiros; Onofre, Alexandre Sherlley; Lira, Amintas Figueiredo; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; Antoniolli, Angelo Roberto; Marchioro, Murilo; Estevam, Charles dos Santos; de Araujo, Brancilene Santos

    2011-05-01

    Ocimum basilicum L. is an aromatic herb used in Brazil to treat illnesses such as respiratory and rheumatic problems, vomiting, and pain. In the present study, the chemical composition, acute toxicity, and antinociceptive effects of the essential oil (EO) of the cultivar "Maria Bonita" obtained from O. basilicum L. PI 197442 genotype were evaluated in Swiss mice (20-35 g each). Lethal dose to cause 50 % death (LD50) was calculated from a dose-response curve (100-5000 mg/kg body wt.; n = 6) as 532 mg/kg body wt. In the acetic acid-induced writhing test (0.6 % i. p.), EO (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg body wt., n = 8, s. c.) was effective in reducing the abdominal contractions at all doses (48-78 %). In the hot-plate test, EO significantly increased the latency at 50 mg/kg body wt. at all times (37-52 %, n = 8, s. c.). However, the effects of morphine and EO at 50 mg/kg were reverted in the presence of naloxone, an opioid antagonist. In the formalin test, EO significantly reduced paw licking time in the first and second phases of pain at 200 mg/kg body wt. (38 and 75 %, respectively, n = 8, s. c.). The results suggested that the peripheral and central antinociceptive effects of EO are related to the inhibition of the biosynthesis of pain mediators, such as prostaglandins and prostacyclins, and its ability to interact with opioid receptors.

  6. Detection of plant oil DNA using high resolution melting (HRM) post PCR analysis: a tool for disclosure of olive oil adulteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vietina, Michelangelo; Agrimonti, Caterina; Marmiroli, Nelson

    2013-12-15

    Extra virgin olive oil is frequently subjected to adulterations with addition of oils obtained from plants other than olive. DNA analysis is a fast and economic tool to identify plant components in oils. Extraction and amplification of DNA by PCR was tested in olives, in milled seeds and in oils, to investigate its use in olive oil traceability. DNA was extracted from different oils made of hazelnut, maize, sunflower, peanut, sesame, soybean, rice and pumpkin. Comparing the DNA melting profiles in reference plant materials and in the oils, it was possible to identify any plant components in oils and mixtures of oils. Real-Time PCR (RT-PCR) platform has been added of the new methodology of high resolution melting (HRM), both were used to analyse olive oils mixed with different percentage of other oils. Results showed HRM a cost effective method for efficient detection of adulterations in olive oils. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Chemical Composition and in Vitro Antimicrobial and Mutagenic Activities of Seven Lamiaceae Essential Oils

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    Laura De Martino

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Deeper knowledge of the potentiality of aromatic plants can provide results of economic importance for food and pharmacological industry. The essential oils of seven Lamiaceae species were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and assayed for their antibacterial, antifungal and mutagenic activities. Monoterpenes in the oils ranged between 82.47% (hyssop oil and 97.48% (thyme oil, being mainly represented by oxygenated compounds. The antibacterial activity was evaluated against six pathogenic and five non-pathogenic bacterial strains. Oregano and thyme oils showed the strongest antibacterial activity against the pathogenic ones. The antifungal activity was evaluated against six fungal strains of agrifood interest: the oils tested exhibited variable degrees of activity. Two Salmonella typhimurium strains were used to assess the possible mutagenic activity. No oil showed mutagenic activity. Data obtained let us hypothesise that the use of essential oils could be a viable and safe way to decrease the utilisation of synthetic food preservatives. Further research is needed to obtain information regarding the practical effectiveness of essential oils to prevent the growth of food borne and spoiling microbes under specific application conditions.

  8. Antifungal activities of selected essential oils against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici 1322, with emphasis on Syzygium aromaticum essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Abhishek; Rajendran, Sasireka; Srivastava, Ankit; Sharma, Satyawati; Kundu, Bishwajit

    2017-03-01

    The antifungal effects of four essential oils viz., clove (Syzygium aromaticum), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus), mint (Mentha × piperita) and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus) were evaluated against wilt causing fungus, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici 1322. The inhibitory effect of oils showed dose-dependent activity on the tested fungus. Most active being the clove oil, exhibiting complete inhibition of mycelial growth and spore germination at 125 ppm with IC50 value of 18.2 and 0.3 ppm, respectively. Essential oils of lemongrass, mint and eucalyptus were inhibitory at relatively higher concentrations. The Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of clove oil was 31.25 ppm by broth microdilution method. Thirty one different compounds of clove oil, constituting approximately ≥99% of the oil, were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis. The major components were eugenol (75.41%), E-caryophyllene (15.11%), α-humulene (3.78%) and caryophyllene oxide (1.13%). Effect of clove oil on surface morphology of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici 1322 was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). SEM observation revealed shrivelled hyphae while AFM observation showed shrunken and disrupted spores in clove oil treated samples. In pots, 5% aqueous emulsion of clove oil controlled F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici 1322 infection on tomato plants. This study demonstrated clove oil as potent antifungal agent that could be used as biofungicide for the control of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici in both preventive and therapeutic manner. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Plant oil-based shape memory polymer using acrylic monolith

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    T. Tsujimoto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the synthesis of a plant oil-based material using acrylic monolith. An acrylic monolith bearing oxirane groups was prepared via simple technique that involved the dissolution of poly(glycidyl methacrylate-comethyl methacrylate (PGMA in ethanolic – aqueous solution by heating and subsequent cooling. The PGMA monolith had topologically porous structure, which was attributed to the phase separation of the polymer solution. The PGMA monolith was impregnated by epoxidized soybean oil (ESO containing thermally-latent catalyst, and the subsequent curing produced a crosslinked material with relatively good transparency. The Young’s modulus and the tensile strength of polyESO/PGMA increased compared with the ESO homopolymer. The strain at break of polyESO/PGMA was larger than that of the ESO homopolymer and crosslinked PGMA. Furthermore, polyESO/PGMA exhibited good shape memory-recovery behavior.

  10. Antibacterial activity of Thymus vulgaris essential oil alone and in combination with other essential oils

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    MAHENDRA RAI

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Kon K, Rai M. 2012. Antibacterial activity of Thymus vulgaris essential oil alone and in combination with other essential oils. Nusantara Bioscience 4: 50-56. Essential oils (EOs from plants represent an alternative approach in combating antibiotic-resistant bacteria. One of the EOs with proven antibacterial properties is Thymus vulgaris EO. The purpose of the present work was to investigate in vitro antibacterial activity of T. vulgaris EO alone and in combination with other EOs. The activity of T. vulgaris EO was screened in combination with 34 EOs against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli by disk diffusion method; then the most effective combinations were evaluated by broth microdilution method. Against S. aureus the synergistic effect was found in combination of T. vulgaris and Cinnamomum zeylonicum EOs with fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC index of 0.26; Juniperus communis and Picea abies EOs showed additive effect (FIC indexes were 0.74 and 0.78, respectively. Combination of T. vulgaris EO with Aniba rosaeodora and Melissa officinalis EOs demonstrated synergistic effect against E. coli (FIC indexes were 0.23 and 0.34, respectively; combination of T. vulgaris and Mentha piperita EOs was additive (FIC index 0.55. Therefore, combining T. vulgaris EO with other EOs has potential in further enhancing its antibacterial properties.

  11. Evaluation of some medicinal plant extracts for antidiarrhoeal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atta, Attia H; Mouneir, Samar M

    2005-06-01

    The antidiarrhoeal effect of seven plant extracts namely: the aerial parts of Euphorbia paralias L. (EP), Bidens bipinnata L. (BB), Cynachum acutum L. (CyAc), Diplotaxis acris (Forssk.) Boiss (DA), Convolvulus fatmensis (CF) and Schouwia thebaica Webb (ST) and the leaves of Plantago major L. (PM), was evaluated on castor oil-induced diarrhoea, gastrointestinal movement in rats (charcoal meal) and on the motility of duodenum isolated from freshly slaughtered rabbits. A significant antidiarrhoeal effect of the tested plant extracts against castor oil-induced diarrhoea in rats was achieved by 200 and 400 mg/kg. The tested plant extracts decreased the gastrointestinal movement as indicated by the significantly (pmajor active constituents of the tested plants.

  12. Walnut Staminate Flowers Can Be Explored as a Supplementary Plant Oil Source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Fossil fuel is currently the major energy source driving global socio-economy, but its stock is being heavily depleted due to increasing anthropogenic activities worldwide. There are also concerns regarding the burning of fossil fuels, which contributes to global climate warming and air pollution. As such, the development of biodiesel as a non-toxic, biodegradable, and renewable alternative energy source using oil crops such as soybean and rapeseed has quickly emerged in the West countries. However, the production of oil crops in China is far from sufficient to meet the demands of the country's population of 1.3 billion, and increasing oil crop production is inhibited by a severe shortage of agricultural land, which currently averages 0.2 acre per person and, as such, is less than half the world average. The current national policy in China regarding land use is more towards revering cultivated lands in ravins and hills to forestry, which presents an ideal opportunity to further develop plantations of walnut (Juglans regia L.) trees, a plant that is tolerant to drought and infertile soils and has a high oil content. Study in this paper shows that one ament of walnut staminate flowers produces about 0.168 g dry pollen, and the dry pollen contained 49.67% oil. Based on this discovery, oil yield obtained from staminate flowers is estimated to reach 6.95% of that from walnut nuts. Thus walnut staminate flower is suggested to explore as supplementary plant oil source, and has a great opportunity to utilize as a biodiesel feedstock.

  13. Characterization and antimicrobial activity of essential oils of industrial hemp varieties (Cannabis sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissen, Lorenzo; Zatta, Alessandro; Stefanini, Ilaria; Grandi, Silvia; Sgorbati, Barbara; Biavati, Bruno; Monti, Andrea

    2010-07-01

    The present study focused on inhibitory activity of freshly extracted essential oils from three legal (THChemp varieties (Carmagnola, Fibranova and Futura) on microbial growth. The effect of different sowing times on oil composition and biological activity was also evaluated. Essential oils were distilled and then characterized through the gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Thereafter, the oils were compared to standard reagents on a broad range inhibition of microbial growth via minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay. Microbial strains were divided into three groups: i) Gram (+) bacteria, which regard to food-borne pathogens or gastrointestinal bacteria, ii) Gram (-) bacteria and iii) yeasts, both being involved in plant interactions. The results showed that essential oils of industrial hemp can significantly inhibit the microbial growth, to an extent depending on variety and sowing time. It can be concluded that essential oils of industrial hemp, especially those of Futura, may have interesting applications to control spoilage and food-borne pathogens and phytopathogens microorganisms.

  14. Essential Oils from the Malaysian Citrus (Rutaceae) Medicinal Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Md Othman, Siti Nur Atiqah; Hassan, Muhammad Aizam; Nahar, Lutfun; Basar, Norazah; Jamil, Shajarahtunnur; Sarker, Satyajit D

    2016-06-03

    This review article appraises the extraction methods, compositions, and bioactivities of the essential oils from the Citrus species (family: Rutaceae) endemic to Malaysia including C. aurantifolia, C. grandis, C. hystrix, and C. microcarpa. Generally, the fresh peels and leaves of the Citrus species were extracted using different methods such as steam and water distillation, Likens-Nikerson extraction, solvent extraction, and headspace solid-phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME). Most of the Citrus oils were found to be rich in monoterpene hydrocarbons with limonene (1) as the major component identified in the peels of C. aurantifolia (39.3%), C. grandis (81.6%-96.9%), and C. microcarpa (94.0%), while sabinene (19) was the major component in the peels of C. hystrix (36.4%-48.5%). In addition, citronellal (20) (61.7%-72.5%), linalool (18) (56.5%), and hedycaryol (23) (19.0%) were identified as the major components in the oil of C. hystrix leaves, C. grandis blossom and C. microcarpa leaves, respectively. The C. hystrix essential oil has been experimentally shown to have antimicrobial and antifeedant activities, while no bioactivity study has been reported on the essential oils of other Malaysian Citrus species.

  15. Essential Oils from the Malaysian Citrus (Rutaceae Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nur Atiqah Md Othman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This review article appraises the extraction methods, compositions, and bioactivities of the essential oils from the Citrus species (family: Rutaceae endemic to Malaysia including C. aurantifolia, C. grandis, C. hystrix, and C. microcarpa. Generally, the fresh peels and leaves of the Citrus species were extracted using different methods such as steam and water distillation, Likens-Nikerson extraction, solvent extraction, and headspace solid-phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME. Most of the Citrus oils were found to be rich in monoterpene hydrocarbons with limonene (1 as the major component identified in the peels of C. aurantifolia (39.3%, C. grandis (81.6%–96.9%, and C. microcarpa (94.0%, while sabinene (19 was the major component in the peels of C. hystrix (36.4%–48.5%. In addition, citronellal (20 (61.7%–72.5%, linalool (18 (56.5%, and hedycaryol (23 (19.0% were identified as the major components in the oil of C. hystrix leaves, C. grandis blossom and C. microcarpa leaves, respectively. The C. hystrix essential oil has been experimentally shown to have antimicrobial and antifeedant activities, while no bioactivity study has been reported on the essential oils of other Malaysian Citrus species.

  16. Influence of ethereal oils extracted from Lamiaceae family plants on some pathogen microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Anita S.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available As pathogen microorganisms can be found in different kinds of food, using of natural antimicrobial compounds, like ethereal oils, could be important in the preservation of different groceries. To evaluate antimicrobial activity of ethereal oils extracted from Lamiaceae family plants - Rosmarinus officinalis L., Thymus vulgaris L., Majorana hortensis M o e n c h, and Salvia officinalis L screening of their effects against food borne bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella enteritidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes and yeasts Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were applied. All investigated concentrations and pure Majorana hortensis and Thymus vulgaris ethereal oils showed microbicidal effect on majority of tested microorganisms.

  17. Allelopatic effects of some medicinal plant essential oils on plant seeds germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALI SHOKOUHIAN

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of essential oils from some medicinal plants on seed germination was studied with the aim of assessing their potential use as bioherbicides. The experiment was conducted as factorial based on completely randomized design (CRD with three replications. Seeds of 3 summer crops including lettuce (Lactuca sativa, pepper (Piper longum and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum were exposed to essential oils of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis, thyme (Thymus vulgaris and anise (Pimpinella anisum at 3 different concentrations (25 and 50% diluted and undiluted. Treated seeds were grown in a growth chamber at 25°C for 5 days. The number of germinated seeds in each Petri dish was daily counted. After five days seed germination percentage (Ge was calculated. Biplot analysis was performed using genotype plus genotype environment interaction (GGE method. Results showed that the allelopathic effect on Ge was varied among studied plants, which was mainly due to i differences in the composition of the studied essential oils and ii different allelopathic effects of the studied essential oils on Ge. Accordingly, compared to the individual use, combining several essential oils would have a greater inhibitory effect on Ge of weeds.

  18. Occupational exposure to asbestos during renovation of oil-shale fuelled power plants in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangur, Maie

    2007-01-01

    Many thousands of tonnes of asbestos were used in buildings in the past, especially for thermal insulation of pipes and boilers in power plants. Occupational exposure to asbestos dust now mainly occurs during demolition, renovation and routine maintenance activities. The objective of this study was to evaluate occupational exposure to airborne asbestos during renovation of solid oil-shale fuelled power plants carried out in 2001-2003. Air monitoring inside and outside of the renovation area was performed. The concentration of airborne fibres in the working environment increased during renovation but the valid limit value (0.1 fibres/cm(3)) was not exceeded.

  19. Mixtures of wine, essential oils, and plant polyphenolics do not act synergistically against Escherichia coli O157 and Salmonella enterica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Red wine or fortified red wine formulations containing some various essential oils from oregano or thyme or their pure active components, and a mixture of plant extract powders from apple skin, green tea, and olive, were evaluated for inhibitory activity against the foodborne pathogens Escherichia c...

  20. Effects of birch tar oils on soil organisms and plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. HAGNER

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of birch tar oil (BTO is a new innovation in plant and animal protection working against various weeds, harmful insects and rodents. Due to its novelty as a biocide/repellent/plant protection product, no comprehensive information on the effects of BTO on non-target soil organisms is available. In this study we examined the impact of BTO on non-target soil organisms (enchytraeids, nematodes and soil microbes and plants using laboratory toxicity tests and field experiments. In addition, we determined the LC50 value of BTO to the earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa and the EC50 value of BTO to the offspring production of the collembolan Folsomia candida. The effects of BTO on soil fauna were mostly insignificant. BTO seemed to be detrimental to the growth of plants directly after application, but this effect was short-term; after a period of 2.5 months, the growth of most of the plant species recovered completely from the application. The LC50 for A. caliginosa was 6560 mg BTO kg-1 dry soil and EC50 for juvenile production of F. candida was 5100 mg BTO kg-1 dry soil. The results indicate that the risk caused by BTOs (concentration 500-1360 L ha-1 to the soil environment is insignificant and short-term as compared to the many chemical products applied for similar purposes.;

  1. Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Essential Oils of Origanum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare L. under Different Growth Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrica De Falco

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed at investigating the essential oil production, chemical composition and biological activity of a crop of pink flowered oregano (Origanum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare L. under different spatial distribution of the plants (single and binate rows. This plant factor was shown to affect its growth, soil covering, fresh biomass, essential oil amount and composition. In particular, the essential oil percentage was higher for the binate row treatment at the full bloom. The chemical composition of the oils obtained by hydrodistillation was fully characterized by GC and GC-MS. The oil from plants grown in single rows was rich in sabinene, while plants grown in double rows were richer in ocimenes. The essential oils showed antimicrobial action, mainly against Gram-positive pathogens and particularly Bacillus cereus and B. subtilis.

  2. Chemical composition and biological activity of essential oils of Origanum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare L. under different growth conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Falco, Enrica; Mancini, Emilia; Roscigno, Graziana; Mignola, Enrico; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio; Senatore, Felice

    2013-12-04

    This research was aimed at investigating the essential oil production, chemical composition and biological activity of a crop of pink flowered oregano (Origanum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare L.) under different spatial distribution of the plants (single and binate rows). This plant factor was shown to affect its growth, soil covering, fresh biomass, essential oil amount and composition. In particular, the essential oil percentage was higher for the binate row treatment at the full bloom. The chemical composition of the oils obtained by hydrodistillation was fully characterized by GC and GC-MS. The oil from plants grown in single rows was rich in sabinene, while plants grown in double rows were richer in ocimenes. The essential oils showed antimicrobial action, mainly against Gram-positive pathogens and particularly Bacillus cereus and B. subtilis.

  3. Antibacterial activity against Clostridium genus and antiradical activity of the essential oils from different origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kačániová, Miroslava; Vukovič, Nenad; Horská, Elena; Salamon, Ivan; Bobková, Alica; Hleba, Lukáš; Fiskelová, Martina; Vatľák, Alexander; Petrová, Jana; Bobko, Marek

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the antimicrobial and antiradical activities of 15 essential oils were investigated. The antimicrobial activities were determined by using agar disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods against Clostridium genus and antioxidant properties of essential oils by testing their scavenging effect on DPPH radicals activities. We determined the antibacterial activity of Clostridium butyricum, Clostridium hystoliticum, Clostridium intestinale, Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium ramosum. We obtained the original commercial essential oils samples of Lavandula angustifolia, Carum carvi, Pinus montana, Mentha piperita, Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Pinus sylvestris, Satureia montana, Origanum vulgare L. (2 samples), Pimpinella anisum, Rosmarinus officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L., Abies alba Mill., Chamomilla recutita L. Rausch and Thymus vulgaris L. produced in Slovakia (Calendula a.s., Nova Lubovna, Slovakia). The results of the disk diffusion method showed very high essential oils activity against all tested strains of microorganisms. The best antimicrobial activity against C. butyricum was found at Pimpinella anisum, against C. hystoliticum was found at Pinus sylvestris, against C. intestinale was found at Satureia hortensis L., against C. perfringens was found at Origanum vulgare L. and against C. ramosum was found at Pinus sylvestris. The results of broth microdilution assay showed that none of the essential oils was active against C. hystoliticum. The best antimicrobial activity against C. butyricum was found at Abies alba Mill., against C. intestinale was found at Abies alba Mill., against C. perfringens was found at Satureia montana and against C. ramosum was found at Abius alba and Carum carvi. Antioxidant DPPH radical scavenging activity was determined at several solutions of oil samples (50 μL.mL(-1)-0.39 μL.mL(-1)) and the best scavenging effect for the highest concentration (50 μL.mL(-1)) was observed. The antioxidant properties

  4. Metal biomonitoring with mosses in the surroundings of an oil-fired power plant in Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genoni, P.; Parco, V. [Presidio Multizonale di Igiene e Prevenzione, Parabiago, MI (Italy); Santagostino, A. [Unversita degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Milan (Italy). Dip. di Scienze dell' Ambiente e del Territorio

    2000-09-01

    Levels of 12 trace elements were measured in samples of the bryophyte Hypnum cupressiforme Hedw. and in soil collected in the surroundings of an oil-fired power plant in Northern Italy. Metal bioaccumulation in moss was estimated after soil correction in order to obtain deposition patterns and individuate potentially toxic metals emitted from the plant. V and Ni, occurring together in fuel oil, showed highest bioaccumulation values near the stacks. Mean contamination of the study area for these elements is 5.5 (V) and 3.3 (Ni) times the background levels of the reference site. Other elements showed only limited alterations of bioaccumulation values, in relation to agricultural and industrial activity in the study area. (Author)

  5. Fingerprinting antioxidative activities in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Livia; Plieth, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    Background A plethora of concurrent cellular activities is mobilised in the adaptation of plants to adverse environmental conditions. This response can be quantified by physiological experiments or metabolic profiling. The intention of this work is to reduce the number of metabolic processes studied to a minimum of relevant parameters with a maximum yield of information. Therefore, we inspected 'summary parameters' characteristic for whole classes of antioxidative metabolites and key enzymes. Results Three bioluminescence assays are presented. A horseradish peroxidase-based total antioxidative capacity (TAC) assay is used to probe low molecular weight antioxidants. Peroxidases are quantified by their luminol converting activity (LUPO). Finally, we quantify high molecular weight superoxide anion scavenging activity (SOSA) using coelenterazine. Experiments with Lepidium sativum L. show how salt, drought, cold, and heat influence the antioxidative system represented here by TAC, LUPO, SOSA, catalase, and glutathione reductase (GR). LUPO and SOSA run anti-parallel under all investigated stress conditions suggesting shifts in antioxidative functions rather than formation of antioxidative power. TAC runs in parallel with GR. This indicates that a majority of low molecular weight antioxidants in plants is represented by glutathione. Conclusion The set of assays presented here is capable of characterising antioxidative activities in plants. It is inexpensive, quick and reproducible and delivers quantitative data. 'Summary parameters' like TAC, LUPO, and SOSA are quantitative traits which may be promising for implementation in high-throughput screening for robustness of novel mutants, transgenics, or breeds. PMID:19171044

  6. Antifungal activity of essential oils against selected terverticillate penicillia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soňa Felšöciová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to screen 15 essential oils of selected plant species, viz. [i]Lavandula angustifolia[/i], [i]Carum carvi[/i], [i]Pinus mungo var. pulmilio[/i], [i]Mentha piperita[/i], [i]Chamomilla recutita[/i] L.,[i] Pinus sylvestris[/i], [i]Satureia hortensis[/i] L., [i]Origanum vulgare[/i] L., [i]Pimpinella anisum[/i], [i]Rosmarinus officinali[/i]s L., [i]Salvia officinalis[/i] L., [i]Abietis albia etheroleum[/i], [i]Chamomilla recutita[/i] L. [i]Rausch[/i], [i]Thymus vulgaris[/i] L., [i]Origanum vulgare[/i] L. for antifungal activity against five [i]Penicillium[/i] species: [i]Penicillium brevicompactum[/i], [i]Penicillium citrinum[/i], [i]Penicillium crustosum[/i], [i]Penicillium expansum[/i] and [i]Penicillium griseofulvum[/i]. The method used for screening included the disc diffusion method. The study points out the wide spectrum of antifungal activity of essential oils against [i]Penicillium[/i] fungi. There were five essential oils of the 15 mentioned above which showed a hopeful antifungal activity: [i]Pimpinella anisum[/i], [i]Chamomilla recutita[/i] L., [i]Thymus vulgaris[/i], [i]Origanum vulgare[/i] L. The most hopeful antifungal activity and killing effect against all tested penicillia was found to be [i]Origanum vulgare[/i] L. and [i]Pimpinella anisum[/i]. The lowest level of antifungal activity was demonstrated by the oils [i]Pinus mungo var. pulmilio[/i], [i]Salvia officinalis[/i] L., [i]Abietis albia etheroleum[/i], [i]Chamomilla recutita[/i] L.[i] Rausch[/i], [i]Rosmarinus officinalis[/i].

  7. [Study on composition, antibiotic activity and antioxidant activity of volatile oils from uyghur medicine Althaea rosea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munira, Abudukeremu; Muheta'er, Tu'erhong; Resalat, Yimin; Xia, Na

    2015-04-01

    Althaea rosea is a type of mallow plant. Its dry flowers are one of common herb in Uyghur medicines and recorded to have several efficacies such as external application for detumescence, moistening lung and arresting cough, sweating and relieving asthma, diminishing swelling and promoting eruption, soothing the nerves and strengthening heart. However, there are only fewer studies on effective components of A. rosea and no literature about its volatile oil and pharmacological activity. In this paper, the volatile oil of A. rosea was obtained by using the chemical distillation and extraction method. The individual chemical components were separated from the volatile oil and identified by the Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer technique (GC-MS). The antioxidant activity against free radicals was detected by the'ultraviolet and visible spectrophotometer method. The antibiotic activity was detected by the filter paper diffusion method. The experimental results showed nearly 70 compounds in the volatile oil, with complex chemical components. With a low content, most of the compounds were aromatic and aliphatic compounds and their derivatives. A. rosea had a better antibiotic activity for common microorganisms, with a wide antibacterial spectrum. According to the results, the volatile oil of A. rosea will have a good application value in medicine, food and cosmetic industries, which provided a scientific basis for the development of natural A. rosea resources.

  8. Repellent and anti-feedant activity of 19 plant essential oils against Myllocerinus aurolineatus%十九种植物精油对茶丽纹象甲成虫的驱避和拒食活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    边文波; 王国昌; 龚一飞; 孙晓玲; 李元喜

    2012-01-01

    In order to find new non-polluting control methods for the tea weevil Myllocerinus aurolineatus Voss, a behavioral bioassay was conducted to test the repellent activity of nineteen plant essential oils on this pest. The results show that allitridi, lavender oil, baicalin, extract of Cantleyt corniculata ( Becc) Howard, Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, Andrographis paniculata (Burm. F. ) Nees, Artemisia argyi Levl. Et Vant, Fallopia multitlora (Thunb. ) Harald, Sophora flavescensn Alt. , Leonurus artemisia Sweet and Lonicera Japonica Thunb. , were repellent to both male and female M. Aurolineatus adults. Of these, allitridi, S. Miltiorrhiza extract, F. Multiflora extract, and extract of S. Flavescensn reduced feeding by adult weevils relative to the control. Extract of C. Corniculata and L. Japonica reduced feeding activity, whereas allitridi and extract of L. Artemisia significantly enhanced the appetite of adult weevils relative to the control. Artemisia argyi extract, lavender oil, and baicalin, although repellent, did not reduce feeding activity relative tothe control. Compared to the control, extract of A. Paniculata was attractive to weevils. Further research on the effects of extracts of C. Corniculata, S. Miltiorrhiza, F. Multiflora, S. Flavescensn, and L.Japonica on tea weevils is required to fully determine the control potential of these compounds.%为了寻找茶丽纹象甲Myllocerinus aurolineatus Voss无公害防治新途径,采用行为生测法测定了19种植物精油对茶丽纹象甲的驱避和拒食活性.结果表明:大蒜油allitridi、芸香(Cantleyt corniculata( Becc) Howard)油、丹参(Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge.)、穿心莲(Andrographis paniculata( Burm.f.)Nees)、艾叶(Artemisia argyi Lev1.et Vant.)、薰衣草(Lavender angustifolia Mill.)、何首乌(Fallopia multiflora( Thunb.)Harald.)、苦参(Sophora flavescens Alt.)、黄岑(Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi)、益母草(Leonurus heterophyllus Sweet)和金银花(Lonicera Japonica Thunb.)

  9. Antifungal activity of Piper diospyrifolium Kunth (Piperaceae) essential oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Silvia Cristina Heredia; de Paulo, Luis Fernando; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivaleti; Dias Filho, Benedito Prado; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; de Souza, Amanda; Young, Maria Cláudia Marx; Cortez, Diógenes Aparício Garcia

    2011-01-01

    In vitro activity of the essential oil from Piper diospyrifolium leaves was tested using disk diffusion techniques. The antifungal assay showed significant potencial antifungal activity: the oil was effective against several clinical fungal strains. The majority compounds in the essential oil were identified as sesquiterpenoids by GC-MS and GC-FID techniques. PMID:24031717

  10. Dioxin emission from two oil shale fired power plants in Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleicher, O.; Jensen, A.A. [FORCE Technology, Soborg (Denmark); Herrmann, T. [Estonian Environmental Research Centre (EERC), Tallinn (Estonia); Roots, O. [ERGO Forschungsgesellschaft GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Tordik, A. [AS Narva Elektrijaamad, Narva (Estonia)

    2004-09-15

    In March 2003, dioxin emissions were measured from four oil shale fired boilers at two power plants located near the city of Narva in Estonia. The two power plants produce more than 90% of the electricity consumption in Estonia by combusting more than 10 million tons of oil shale per year, which is around 85% of the total consumption of oil shale in the country. These power plants are the world's largest thermal power stations burning low-grade oil shale. These measurements of dioxin air emission from oil shale fuelled plants are the first performed in Estonia. The aim of the measurements was to get background data for the estimation of the annual dioxin emission from oil shale power plants in Estonia, in order to improve or qualify the estimation based on emissions factors for large coal fired power stations given in the recent DANCEE Project: Survey of anthropogenic sources of dioxins in the Baltic Region.

  11. Effect of plant growth regulators and activated charcoal on in vitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-07-15

    Jul 15, 2011 ... Key words: Activated charcoal, oil palm, plant growth regulators, zygotic embryo. ... all the essential mineral ions, carbon source, vitamins and other organic supplements .... (2010), where MS medium fortified with a low level of ...

  12. Antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities of Anthemis palestina essential oil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bardaweel, Sanaa K; Tawaha, Khaled A; Hudaib, Mohammad M

    2014-01-01

    .... The antioxidant activity of the hydrodistilled oil was characterized using various in vitro model systems such as DPPH, ferric-reducing antioxidant power and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity...

  13. Toxicities of Oils, Dispersants and Dispersed Oils to Aquatic Plants: Summary and Database Value to Resource Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the phytotoxicities of crude and dispersed oils is important for near-shore ecosystem management, particularly post-oil spills. One source of information is toxicity data summaries which are scattered and outdated for aquatic plants and petrochemicals. As a resu...

  14. Toxicities of Oils, Dispersants and Dispersed Oils to Aquatic Plants: Summary and Database Value to Resource Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the phytotoxicities of crude and dispersed oils is important for near-shore ecosystem management, particularly post-oil spills. One source of information is toxicity data summaries which are scattered and outdated for aquatic plants and petrochemicals. As a resu...

  15. Lipase Activity in Fermented Oil Seeds of Africa Locust Bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    Castor Seeds (Ricinu Communis) and African Oil Bean (Pentaclethra Macrophylla). A.A. Liman*, P. ... The peak lipase activity for fermented Africa locust bean, Castor seed, and African oil bean were ..... fermented vegetable proteins. World.

  16. Antibacterial activity of the three essential oils on Streptococcus mutans- an in-vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    reevidhya. T. M

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti bacterial activity of three essential oils Thyme, Peppermint and neem oil on Streptococcus mutans, the potent initiator and leading cause of dental caries world wide. Essential oils are distillates of the volatile compounds of a plant’s secondary metabolism and may act as phytoprotective agents. Their curative effect has been known since antiquity. It is based on a variety of pharmacological properties which are specific for each plant species. Antibacterial activity of the three essential oils, Thyme, Peppermint and neem oil were screened against Streptococcus mutans, using disc diffusion technique. The results of this study showed that the extracts at different concentrations exhibited anti bacterial activity against the bacterial species tested.

  17. Antibacterial activity of Coriandrum sativum L. and Foeniculum vulgare Miller Var. vulgare (Miller) essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Cantore, Pietro; Iacobellis, Nicola S; De Marco, Adriana; Capasso, Francesco; Senatore, Felice

    2004-12-29

    Essential oils were extracted from the fruits of Coriandrum sativum L. and Foeniculum vulgare Miller var. vulgare (Miller) and assayed in vitro for antibacterial activity to Escherichia coli and Bacillus megaterium, bacteria routinely used for comparison in the antimicrobial assays, and 27 phytopathogenic bacterial species and two mycopathogenic ones responsible for cultivated mushroom diseases. A significant antibacterial activity, as determined with the agar diffusion method, was shown by C. sativum essential oil whereas a much reduced effect was observed for F. vulgare var. vulgare oil. C. sativum and F. vulgare var. vulgare essential oils may be useful natural bactericides for the control of bacterial diseases of plants and for seed treatment, in particular, in organic agriculture. The significant antibacterial activity of essential oils to the bacterial pathogens of mushrooms appears promising.

  18. Oil Palm Physical and Optical Characteristics from Two Different Planting Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Hafiz Mohd Hazir

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study discovers the uniqueness of physical and optical characteristics of the oil palm Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFB and is based on two different tenera planting materials namely PORIM SERIES 1 (PS 1 and PORIM SERIES 2 (PS 2. Three methods have been done to determine the characteristics which are as follows; 1 manual approach by measuring the weight, length, width and circumference of oil palm FFB, 2 machine vision technique for color information extraction and 3 multi-band portable, active optical sensor system to determine the chlorophyll and anthocyanin content. A total of thirty bunches were standardized into a ripe grade and have been used as samples in this study. The results showed that each planting material produces different physical and optical characteristics. The correlation between the weight and linear dimensions of oil palm FFB was found to be 80%. This study gives very important information in helping researchers on the development of future non-contact and non-destruction oil palm FFB grading equipment and system.

  19. Effect of salt, drought and metal stress on essential oil yield and quality in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Shreyasee; Koul, Monika; Bhatnagar, Ashok Kumar

    2011-10-01

    Essential oil extracted from plants is of high commercial value in medicine, cosmetics and perfumery. Enhancing yield and maintaining the quality of oil is of significant commercial importance. Production of oil in plants is dependent on various biotic and abiotic factors to which the plants are subjected during their growth. Plants are exposed to various degrees of stress on account of natural and human-induced factors. Salinization, drought and presence of heavy metals in the substratum cause substantial effect on the yield and quality of bioactive constituents in the oil. In many plants, the level and kind of stress have detrimental effects on the growth and development. This review provides an account of the studies on some common abiotic stresses to which essential oil plants are exposed during their growth period and their influence on quality and quantity of oil. The yield and quality vary in different plants and so is the response. Enhancing essential oil productivity is an important challenge, and understanding the role played by stress may offer significant advantages to the essential oil farmers and processing industry. Scientific evaluation of the data on many important but unexplored essential oil plants will also help in mitigating, ameliorating and minimizing the harmful effects caused by stress.

  20. Early impact of oil palm planting density on vegetative and oil yield variables in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonneau Xavier

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A range of various different planting distances (from 7.5 to 9.5 m between oil palms were tested using an equilateral triangle design in a plantation density experiment which was settled in an oil palm commercial plantation in Nigeria. Climatic conditions were quite stable, with two seasons and around 2000 mm of annual rainfall. The soil was of desaturated ferralitic type, sandy on the surface, deep and without coarse elements. The early impact of plantation density was analysed at eight years after planting. Some early signs of depressive effect on yields were found for high planting densities (180 and 205 p/ha. Such a negative impact was not severe enough to counteract the effects of a higher number of palms per hectare. As a consequence, a gradient could be observed as yields (in tons of bunches per hectare increased with density. We can anticipate that the competition effect between palms will increase over time with high densities, so that the counteracting point ought to be reached in a few years. A thinning treatment has been included in the protocol. Thinning was carried out at the end of the eight-year period.

  1. Evaluation of antibacterial and antifungal activities of olive (Olea europaea essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R K Upadhyay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Essential oil Olea europaea was investigated for its antibacterial and antifungal activities. Aim: To evaluate antimicrobial activity of O. europaea essential oil against infectious microbial pathogens. Settings and Design: Seeds of O. europaea were grounded by using domestic mixer and powdered material was hydro-distilled in Clevenger apparatus continuously for 5 hrs to yield essential oil. Essential oil was analysed on Gas-Chromatography-Mass spectrometry (GC-MS from which 24 components were identified, representing total 99.98% of the oil. Extracted oil was evaluated for their antibacterial and antifungal activities. Materials and Methods: Paper disc diffusion and serial micro-dilution assays were performed for the determination of inhibition zone diameters and minimal inhibitory concentration, respectively. Results: The O. europaea essential oil showed the diameter of inhibition zone (DIZ ranging from 19.4 ± 0.07-26.4 ± 0.09 mm at a concentration level of 28 μg/disc (W/V separately in all the ten strains tested. The minimum inhibitory concentration of essential oil against bacterial strains was obtained in a range of 7.0-56.0 μg/ml while in and fungal strains it was in a range of 7.0-28 μg/ml. Statistical analysis: All statistical calculations are expressed as mean ± SE of three replicates. Data were analyzed by one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA to locate significant variations in oil activity in various bacterial and fungal strains followed by the Duncan′s multiple range tests. Conclusions: Antibacterial and antifungal activities of O. europaea essential oil are due to the presence of certain secondary plant metabolites such as terpenoids, steroids and flavonoids, esters, and acids, which were identified in the essential oil. The oil components can be further investigated for their biological activities and study to overcome the problem of drug resistance in microbes.

  2. Chemical composition of the volatile oil from Zanthoxylum avicennae and antimicrobial activities and cytotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Through literature retrieval, there has been no report on the research of the chemical components in Zanthoxylum avicennae (Lam. DC. This paper extracted and determined the chemical components of the volatile oil in Z. avicennae, and at the same time, measured and evaluated the bioactivity of the volatile oil in Z. avicennae. Materials and Methods: We extract the volatile oil in Z. avicennae by steam distillation method, determined the chemical composition of the volatile oil by GC-MS coupling technique, and adopt the peak area normalization method to measured the relative percentage of each chemical composition in the volatile oil. Meanwhile, we use the Lethal-to-prawn larva bioactivity experiment to screen the cytotoxicity activities of the volatile oil in Z. avicennae, and using the slanting test-tube experiment to determine and evaluate its antibacterial activities in vitro for the eight kinds of plant pathogenic fungi in the volatile oil of the Z. avicennae. Results: The results show that 68 kinds of compounds are determined from the volatile oil of Z. avicennae. The determined part takes up 97.89% of the total peak area. The main ingredients in the volatile oil of Z. avicennae are sesquiterpenoids and monoterpene. The test results show that the volatile oil in Z. avicennae has strong antibacterial activities and cytotoxicity, with the strongest antibacterial activity against the Rhizoctonia solani AG1-1A. Conclusion: This research results will provide reference data for understanding the chemical composition of the volatile oil in the aromatic plant of Z. avicennae and its bioactivity, and for its further development and application.

  3. Advanced analytical techniques for the extraction and characterization of plant-derived essential oils by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waseem, Rabia; Low, Kah Hin

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, essential oils have received a growing interest because of the positive health effects of their novel characteristics such as antibacterial, antifungal, and antioxidant activities. For the extraction of plant-derived essential oils, there is the need of advanced analytical techniques and innovative methodologies. An exhaustive study of hydrodistillation, supercritical fluid extraction, ultrasound- and microwave-assisted extraction, solid-phase microextraction, pressurized liquid extraction, pressurized hot water extraction, liquid-liquid extraction, liquid-phase microextraction, matrix solid-phase dispersion, and gas chromatography (one- and two-dimensional) hyphenated with mass spectrometry for the extraction through various plant species and analysis of essential oils has been provided in this review. Essential oils are composed of mainly terpenes and terpenoids with low-molecular-weight aromatic and aliphatic constituents that are particularly important for public health.

  4. Biochemical and Antimicrobial Activities of Salvia Officinalis L. and Mentha Piperita L. Essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Izadi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Although antibiotics are used in conventional treatment of infectious diseases, a lot of unexpected side effects along with resistance to antibiotics appear. Salvia officinalis and Mentha piperita are plants found abundantly in most parts of Iran. In the present study, we extracted and identified the chemical compounds of the essential oils of Salvia officinalis and Mentha piperita. Moreover, the anti-oxidative property, free radical scavenging capacity, and antimicrobial activities of the essential oils of these plants were studied. Materials & Methods: This study was conducted in the Biotechnology Department laboratories, Agricultural Faculty of Avicina University, Hamadan, Iran, in 2009. The aerial parts of Salvia officinalis and Mentha piperita were harvested in summer, when the plants were in their full blooming stage and dried in the shade. The essential oil of the aerial parts was extracted by hydro-distillation and was analyzed by capillary GC and GC/MS method. The micro-organisms employed in this study were: E. coli, S. aureus, S. enteritidis, L. monocytogenes. By employing disc diffusion and tube dilution methods, antimicrobial effects of the oils were studied. Antioxidative property, free radical scavenging capacity, and antimicrobial activities of the oils were also studied. Results: Chemical analysis of the extracts resulted in the identification of 28 and 37 compounds in the essential oils of Salvia officinalis and Mentha piperita respectively. The sensitivity of the bacteria to the oils in order of decreasing the sensitivity was L. monocytogenes, E. coli, S. aureus, and S. enteritidis. The antibacterial properties of the essential oil from Mentha piperita leaves were higher than the oil of Salvia officinalis leaves. Also inhibitions zones of microbial growth were not correlated with the microbicidal kinetics of the oils. Conclusion: This study showed that the herbal essences of Salvia officinalis and

  5. Discrimination of plant stress caused by oil pollution and waterlogging using hyperspectral and thermal remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emengini, Ebele Josephine; Blackburn, George Alan; Theobald, Julian Charles

    2013-01-01

    Remote sensing of plant stress holds promise for detecting environmental pollution by oil. However, in oil-rich delta regions, waterlogging is a frequent source of plant stress that has similar physiological effects to oil pollution. This study investigated the capabilities of remote sensing for discriminating between these two sources of plant stress. Bean plants were subjected to oil pollution, waterlogging, and combined oil and waterlogging treatments. Canopy physiological, hyperspectral, and thermal measurements were taken every two to three days after treatment to follow the stress responses. For plants treated with oil, spectral and thermal responses were evident six days before symptoms could be observed visually. In waterlogged plants, only spectral responses were observed, but these were present up to eight days before visual symptoms. A narrowband reflectance ratio was efficient in detecting stress caused by oil and waterlogging. Canopy temperature and a thermal index were good indicators of oil and combined oil and waterlogging stress, but insensitive to waterlogging alone. Hence, this study provides evidence that combined hyperspectral and thermal remote sensing of vegetation has potential for monitoring oil pollution in environments that are also subjected to waterlogging.

  6. Chemical composition and antioxidant activities of essential oils from different parts of the oregano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fei; Ma, Guang-Qiang; Yang, Ming; Yan, Li; Xiong, Wei; Shu, Ji-Cheng; Zhao, Zhi-Dong; Xu, Han-Lin

    This research was undertaken in order to characterize the chemical compositions and evaluate the antioxidant activities of essential oils obtained from different parts of the Origanum vulgare L. It is a medicinal plant used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of heat stroke, fever, vomiting, acute gastroenteritis, and respiratory disorders. The chemical compositions of the three essential oils from different parts of the oregano (leaves-flowers, stems, and roots) were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The antioxidant activity of each essential oil was assessed using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay and reducing the power test. Among the essential oils from different parts of the oregano, the leaf-flower oils have the best antioxidant activities, whereas the stem oils are the worst. The results of the DPPH free radical scavenging assay showed that the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of the essential oils were (0.332±0.040) mg/ml (leaves-flowers), (0.357±0.031) mg/ml (roots), and (0.501±0.029) mg/ml (stems), respectively. Interestingly, the results of reducing the power test also revealed that when the concentration exceeded 1.25 mg/ml, the leaf-flower oils had the highest reducing power; however, the stem oils were the lowest.

  7. Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of the Essence oil of Peppermint (Mentha piperita L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Izadi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Peppermint (Mentha piperita L. is a perennial herbaceous essence oil bearing plant which belongs to the Lamiaceae family. This plant is a valuable and important herb which has many therapeutic properties. Recent investigations have shown its excellent anti-irritable bowel syndrome effects. Other properties of this plant are anti-inflammatory, analgesic, promote menstrual flow, antipyretic, antiseptic and anti-rheumatoid effects. This investigation was conducted to study the antibacterial properties of peppermint essence oil, as well as determining the content and composition of essential oil. Materials & Methods: In order to study the effect of the antibacterial activity of the essence oil of peppermint, this experimental study was conducted in 2009 at Hamedan University of Medical Sciences. The aerial parts of the peppermint were harvested in summer when it was in the full blooming stage of the plant. The collected aerial parts were then dried in the shade. The essence oil of the aerial parts was extracted by hydro-distillation technique using Clevenger apparatus and was analyzed by the capillary GC and GC/MS method. Anti bacterial properties of the essence oil on four pathogenic bacteria were determined by using broth dilution and well diffusion agar methods. The collected data were analyzed by the SPSS version 11.5 software, using the independent t-test. Results: The essence oil of peppermint showed the maximum anti bacterial effect on E. coli and the minimum effect on S. aureus and P. aeuroginosa. The essence oil content of aerial parts was 0.69% (w/w based on dry weight. The amount of menthol which is the main constituent of the oil and as an antiseptic component was 47.9%. Conclusion: Results of this study revealed that the essential oil of peppermint is rich in menthol and can be considered as an anti-bacterial agent in drug and food industries.

  8. Chemical composition and biological activities of essential oils of Azadirachta indica A. Juss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S S El-Hawary

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Essential oils of Neem, Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (family Meliaceae leaves and flowers were prepared by hydrodistillation method. The chemical composition of the oil samples was investigated by GC/MS. Hydrocarbon constituted 85.36% of the leaves oil .The major compounds were β-Elemene (33.39%, γ- Elemene (9.89%, Germacrene D (9.72%, Caryophyllene (6.8% and Bicyclogermacrene (5.23% while the percent of the oxygenated compounds were (5.04% mainly attributed to sesquiterpene oxide. On the other hand, flowers oil hydrocarbons constituted 63.22% composed mainly of pentacosane (18.58%, tetracosane (10.65%, β-germacrene (9.73%, β- caryophyllene (5.84% and dodecene (4.54% while the percent of the oxygenated compounds were 28.3% mainly attributed to octadecanol (16.7%, verdiflorol (5.32%, farnesol (1.63% and α– terpineol (1.51%. The antioxidant properties determined by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assays, antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative, antifungal and larvicidal activities were promising and in relation with the chemical composition of the essential oils. The results indicated that essential oil of flowers could be especially promising as an inexpensive source of effective antioxidant /antimicrobial /larvicidal agents tantamount to fixed oil of the neem seeds.Industrial relevance. The use of medicinal plants is a universal phenomenon. Natural products from plants are rich source to identify, select and process new drugs for medicinal use. Most of research focused on fixed oil of neem seeds but very little was concerned about volatile oils of leaves and flowers. The diverse biological activities of Neem essential oils can be applied on a large scale as antioxidant, antimicrobial and larvicidal agents comprising many important benefits including their volatility, lower level of risk to the environment than with synthetic ones.Keywords. Azadirachta indica; Neem; essential oil; GC/MS; antioxidant

  9. Constituent composition and biological activity of Nepeta manchuriensis essential oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The essential oil present in the aerial parts of the plant Nepeta manchuriensis was prepared by steam distillation using clevenger apparatus. The chemical composition of the oil was studied by GCMS. Sabinene, elemol, selinene, 4-terpineol, menthatriene and neoisothujol are the major components and r...

  10. New insights into the antioxidant activity and components in crude oat oil and soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Qiu, Shuang; Gan, Jing; Li, Zaigui; Nirasawa, Satoru; Yin, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    Developing new antioxidants and using natural examples is of current interest. This study evaluated the antioxidant activities and the ability to inhibit soybean oil oxidation of oat oil obtained with different solvents. Oat oil extract obtained by ethanol extraction gave the highest antioxidant activity with a DPPH radical (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) scavenging activity of 88.2 % and a reducing power (A 700) of 0.83. Oat oil extracted by ethanol contained the highest polyphenol and α-tocopherol content. Significant correlation was observed between the total polyphenol contents, individual phenolic acid, α-tocopherol, and DPPH radical scavenging activity. Soybean oil with 2 % added oat oil showed low malondialdehyde content (8.35 mmol mL(-1)), suggesting that the added oat oil inhibited oxidation. Oat oil showed good antioxidant activity, especially when extracted with ethanol which could also retard the oxidation of soybean oil . DPPH radical scavenging activity was the best method to evaluate the antioxidant activity and components of oat oil.

  11. Global Activities and Plant Survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides an extensive review of the empirical evidence found for Sweden concerning plant survival. The result reveals that foreign MNE plants and exporting non-MNE plants have the lowest exit rates, followed by purely domestic-oriented plants, and that domestic MNE plants have...... the highest exit rates. Moreover, the exit rates of globally engaged plants seem to be unaffected by increased foreign presence, whereas there appears to be a negative impact on the survival rates of non-exporting non-MNE plants. Finally, the result reveals that the survival ratio of plants of acquired...... exporters, but not other types of plants, improves post acquisition....

  12. First international congress on plant oil fuels. Proceedings; Erster Internationaler Kongress zu Pflanzenoel-Kraftstoffen. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The conference proceedings contain 31 contributions on the following topics: biofuels - status and perspectives; ecological evaluation; plant oils: engineering - production and quality; plant oils: international markets and economy; mobile applications - techniques and emissions; stationary applications: techniques and economy; the renewable energies law (EEG), the biofuel quoting law (BioKraftQuG) and the energy tax law (EnergieStG).

  13. Organogels of vegetable oil with plant wax – trans/saturated fat replacements

    Science.gov (United States)

    This featured article reviews recent advances on the development of trans fat-free, low saturated fat food products from organogels formed by a plant wax in a vegetable oil. Plant waxes are of great interest in this research area because they are obtained as by-products during the oil refining proce...

  14. Effects of plants and essential oils on ruminal in vitro batch culture methane production and fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, plants (14) and essential oils (EO; 88) from plants that are naturalized to, or can be successfully grown in North America were evaluated in a batch culture in vitro screening experiments with ruminal fluid as potential anti-methanogenic additives for ruminant diets. Essential oils we...

  15. Repellence and toxicity of plant essential oils to the potato aphid, Macrosiphum euphorbiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munneke, M.E.; Bruin, de A.; Moskal, J.R.; Tol, van R.W.H.M.

    2004-01-01

    Several plant essential oils were tested for their effect on behaviour and mortality of M. euphorbiae. Olfactory and contact experiments were performed to study these effects. We found that host plant and formulation of the different oils have a strong influence on repellence and mortality of the

  16. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY ESSENTIALS OILS PONTIANAK ORANGE PEELS AGAINST Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Sari, Rafika; Mustari, F. Nour Aulia; Wahdaningsih, Sri

    2015-01-01

    The infectious diseases can be caused by the pathogenic bacteria among Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. One of the plants that can be used as antibacterial is essential oils from Pontianak orange peels (Citrus nobilis Lour. var. microcarpa). This research aims to determine the antibacterial activity essential oils Pontianak orange peels againts the pathogenic bacteria by disc diffusion method. This research carried out by using the experimental Completely Randomized Design (CRD) Fa...

  17. [Ovicidal activity of nine essential oils against Chrysomya megacephara in bacon and kipper].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Li-Rong; Li, Hong-Yan; Zhou, Yan-Gang; Gu, Song; Lou, Yong-Gen

    2007-10-01

    To exploit safe ovicides against the flies that attack bacon and kipper, the ovicidal activity of 9 plant essential oils was investigated by a modified egg-dipping method. The results indicated that the essential oils from Cinnamomun cassia, Eugenia caryophyllata and Illicum verum had higher ovicidal activity, with their LC50 values being 0.428, 1.605 and 2.489 mg x ml(-1), respectively. Through GC/MS analysis, a total of 22 components were identified from C. cassia oil, among which, cinamaldehyde was the most predominant one, accounting for 92.33% of the total. The LC50 of synthesized cinamaldehyde (97.33%) was 0.281 mg x ml(-1), being a little higher than the LC50 of C. cassia oil, suggesting that cinamaldehyde was the main ovicidal component of C. cassia oil and could replace the latter as an ovicide against harmful flies.

  18. Influence of phosphorus content of coconut oil on deposit and performance of plant oil pressure stoves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kratzeisen, M.; Mueller, J. [Institut fuer Agrartechnik, Universitaet Hohenheim (440e), Garbenstrasse 9, D-70593 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Influence of phosphorus lipids on formation of deposits and performance of plant oil pressure stoves was investigated. Refined coconut oil with an original phosphorous content of 5.9 mg/kg was used as base for fuel blends by adding lecithin to adjust increased phosphorous concentrations of 32.2, 51.6 and 63.0 mg/kg. The fuel blends were analysed for acid value, iodine value, total contamination, ash content and Conradson carbon residue according to standard methods. In burning trials, the specific fuel consumption, the required frequency of nozzle cleaning and the amount of deposits in the vaporizer were measured. Results showed an exponential increase of deposits in the vaporizer when phosphorous content was increased: deposits amounted to 0.12 g/kg of consumed fuel for unblended coconut oil and 0.92 g/kg for the blend with the highest phosphorous content. Furthermore, increased phosphorous content caused higher fuel consumption of 0.375 kg/h compared to 0.316 kg/h for the control. (author)

  19. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of three Mentha species essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimica-Dukić, Neda; Bozin, Biljana; Soković, Marina; Mihajlović, Biserka; Matavulj, Milan

    2003-05-01

    The present study describes the antimicrobial activity and free radical scavenging capacity (RSC) of essential oils from Mentha aquatica L., Mentha longifolia L., and Mentha piperita L. The chemical profile of each essential oil was determined by GC-MS and TLC. All essential oils exhibited very strong antibacterial activity, in particularly against Esherichia coli strains. The most powerful was M. piperita essential oil, especially towards multiresistant strain of Shigella sonei and Micrococcus flavus ATTC 10,240. All tested oils showed significant fungistatic and fungicidal activity [expressed as minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) values, respectively], that were considerably higher than those of the commercial fungicide bifonazole. The essential oils of M. piperita and M. longifolia were found to be more active than the essential oil of M. aquatica. Especially low MIC (4 microL/mL) and MFC (4 microL/mL) were found with M. piperita oil against Trichophyton tonsurans and Candida albicans (both 8 microL/mL). The RSC was evaluated by measuring the scavenging activity of the essential oils on the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and OH radicals. All examined essential oils were able to reduce DPPH radicals into the neutral DPPH-H form, and this activity was dose-dependent. However, only the M. piperita oil reduced DPPH to 50 % (IC50 = 2.53 microg/mL). The M. piperita essential oil also exhibited the highest OH radical scavenging activity, reducing OH radical generation in the Fenton reaction by 24 % (pure oil). According to GC-MS and TLC (dot-blot techniques), the most powerful scavenging compounds were monoterpene ketones (menthone and isomenthone) in the essential oils of M. longifolia and M. piperita and 1,8-cineole in the oil of M. aquatica.

  20. Toxicities of oils, dispersants and dispersed oils to algae and aquatic plants: review and database value to resource sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Michael; Pryor, Rachel

    2013-09-01

    Phytotoxicity results are reviewed for oils, dispersants and dispersed oils. The phytotoxicity database consists largely of results from a patchwork of reactive research conducted after oil spills to marine waters. Toxicity information is available for at least 41 crude oils and 56 dispersants. As many as 107 response parameters have been monitored for 85 species of unicellular and multicellular algae, 28 wetland plants, 13 mangroves and 9 seagrasses. Effect concentrations have varied by as much as six orders of magnitude due to experimental diversity. This diversity restricts phytotoxicity predictions and identification of sensitive species, life stages and response parameters. As a result, evidence-based risk assessments for most aquatic plants and petrochemicals and dispersants are not supported by the current toxicity database. A proactive and experimentally-consistent approach is recommended to provide threshold toxic effect concentrations for sensitive life stages of aquatic plants inhabiting diverse ecosystems.

  1. Ratite oils promote keratinocyte cell growth and inhibit leukocyte activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Darin C; Leung, Gigi; Wang, Eddy; Ma, Sam; Lo, Blanche K K; McElwee, Kevin J; Cheng, Kimberly M

    2015-09-01

    Traditionally, native Australian aborigines have used emu oil for the treatment of inflammation and to accelerate wound healing. Studies on mice suggest that topically applied emu oil may have anti-inflammatory properties and may promote wound healing. We investigated the effects of ratite oils (6 emu, 3 ostrich, 1 rhea) on immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) in vitro by culturing the cells in media with oil concentrations of 0%, 0.5%, and 1.0%. Peking duck, tea tree, and olive oils were used as comparative controls. The same oils at 0.5% concentration were evaluated for their influence on peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) survival over 48 hr and their ability to inhibit IFNγ production in PBMCs activated by phytohemagglutinin (PHA) in ELISpot assays. Compared to no oil control, significantly shorter population doubling time durations were observed for HaCaT cells cultured in emu oil (1.51×faster), ostrich oil (1.46×faster), and rhea oil (1.64×faster). Tea tree oil demonstrated significant antiproliferative activity and olive oil significantly prolonged (1.35×slower) cell population doubling time. In contrast, almost all oils, particularly tea tree oil, significantly reduced PBMC viability. Different oils had different levels of inhibitory effect on IFNγ production with individual emu, ostrich, rhea, and duck oil samples conferring full inhibition. This preliminary investigation suggests that emu oil might promote wound healing by accelerating the growth rate of keratinocytes. Combined with anti-inflammatory properties, ratite oil may serve as a useful component in bandages and ointments for the treatment of wounds and inflammatory skin conditions.

  2. Ratite oils promote keratinocyte cell growth and inhibit leukocyte activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Darin C.; Leung, Gigi; Wang, Eddy; Ma, Sam; Lo, Blanche K. K.; McElwee, Kevin J.; Cheng, Kimberly M.

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, native Australian aborigines have used emu oil for the treatment of inflammation and to accelerate wound healing. Studies on mice suggest that topically applied emu oil may have anti-inflammatory properties and may promote wound healing. We investigated the effects of ratite oils (6 emu, 3 ostrich, 1 rhea) on immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) in vitro by culturing the cells in media with oil concentrations of 0%, 0.5%, and 1.0%. Peking duck, tea tree, and olive oils were used as comparative controls. The same oils at 0.5% concentration were evaluated for their influence on peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) survival over 48 hr and their ability to inhibit IFNγ production in PBMCs activated by phytohemagglutinin (PHA) in ELISpot assays. Compared to no oil control, significantly shorter population doubling time durations were observed for HaCaT cells cultured in emu oil (1.51 × faster), ostrich oil (1.46 × faster), and rhea oil (1.64 × faster). Tea tree oil demonstrated significant antiproliferative activity and olive oil significantly prolonged (1.35 × slower) cell population doubling time. In contrast, almost all oils, particularly tea tree oil, significantly reduced PBMC viability. Different oils had different levels of inhibitory effect on IFNγ production with individual emu, ostrich, rhea, and duck oil samples conferring full inhibition. This preliminary investigation suggests that emu oil might promote wound healing by accelerating the growth rate of keratinocytes. Combined with anti-inflammatory properties, ratite oil may serve as a useful component in bandages and ointments for the treatment of wounds and inflammatory skin conditions. PMID:26217022

  3. Fumigant antifungal activity of Myrtaceae essential oils and constituents from Leptospermum petersonii against three Aspergillus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunae; Park, Il-Kwon

    2012-09-03

    Commercial plant essential oils obtained from 11 Myrtaceae plant species were tested for their fumigant antifungal activity against Aspergillus ochraceus, A. flavus, and A. niger. Essential oils extracted from Leptospermum petersonii at air concentrations of 56 × 10(-3) mg/mL and 28 × 10(-3) mg/mL completely inhibited the growth of the three Aspergillus species. However, at an air concentration of 14 × 10(-3) mg/mL, inhibition rates of L. petersonii essential oils were reduced to 20.2% and 18.8% in the case of A. flavus and A. niger, respectively. The other Myrtaceae essential oils (56 × 10(-3) mg/mL) only weakly inhibited the fungi or had no detectable affect. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis identified 16 compounds in L. petersonii essential oil. The antifungal activity of the identified compounds was tested individually by using standard or synthesized compounds. Of these, neral and geranial inhibited growth by 100%, at an air concentration of 56 × 10(-3) mg/mL, whereas the activity of citronellol was somewhat lover (80%). The other compounds exhibited only moderate or weak antifungal activity. The antifungal activities of blends of constituents identified in L. petersonii oil indicated that neral and geranial were the major contributors to the fumigant and antifungal activities.

  4. Oil price shocks and stock market activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadorsky, P. [Schulich School of Business, York University, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1999-10-01

    Results from a vector autoregression show that oil prices and oil price volatility both play important roles in affecting real stock returns. There is evidence that oil price dynamics have changed. After 1986, oil price movements explain a larger fraction of the forecast error variance in real stock returns than do interest rates. There is also evidence that oil price volatility shocks have asymmetric effects on the economy. 29 refs.

  5. Distillation Parameters for Pilot Plant Production of Laurus nobilis Essential oil

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Essential oils have increasing importance in flavour and fragrance industries. They are obtained by distillation techniques. In order to produce an oil with market potential its optimum production parameters have to be well known prior to its commercial production. Determination of the steam distillation parameters of commercially available Laurel leaves oil in pilot plant scale is described. The effect of steam rate and processing time play a major role in distillation of essential oils. Dis...

  6. Antimicrobial and Antifungal Activity of Pelargonium roseum Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gâlea Carmen

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: The volatile oils exhibited considerable inhibitory effects against all the organisms under test, in some cases comparable with those of the reference antibiotics. There were no considerable differences between the antimicrobial activities of the oil obtained by distillation and commercially available Pelargonium oils.

  7. Dioxin and PAH emissions from a shale oil processing plant in Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleicher, O.; Jensen, A.A. [FORCE Technology, Soborg (Denmark); Roots, O. [Estonian Environmental Research Centre (EERC), Tallinn (Estonia); Herrmann, T. [ERGO Forschungsgesellschaft GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Tordik, A. [AS Narva Elektrijaamad, Narva (Estonia)

    2004-09-15

    In March 2003, dioxin emissions were measured from a shale oil producing plant located near the city of Narva in Estonia. The measurement was a part of a project on measuring the dioxin emission from four oil shale fired boilers at two power plants located near the city of Narva in Estonia. These power plants produce more than 90% of the electricity consumption in Estonia by combusting more than 10 million tons of oil shale per year, which is around 85 % of the total consumption of oil shale in the country. The oil plant is the second largest consumer of oil shale, with an annual consumption of around 800,000 ton. Two other smaller plants producing oil from oil shale is known to exist in Estonia, and one in Australia. These measurements of dioxin air emission from oil shale pyrolysis are the first performed in Estonia. The aim of the measurements was to get background data for the estimation of the annual dioxin emission from the use of oil shale in pyrolysis processes in Estonia, in order to improve or qualify the estimation based on emissions factors for large coal fired power stations given in the recent DANCEE Project: Survey of anthropogenic sources of dioxins in the Baltic Region. The Danish environmental assistance to Eastern Europe (DANCEE) has sponsored the project, and dk-TEKNIK ENERGY and ENVIRONMENT (now FORCE Technology) was responsible for the measurements, which where conducted in cooperation with EERC in Tallinn.

  8. Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oil of Cosmos bipinnatus Cav. Leaves from South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olajuyigbe, Olufunmiso; Ashafa, Anofi

    2014-01-01

    The chemical composition of essential oils isolated from the leaves of Cosmos bipinnatus and its antibacterial activity were analyzed by GC-MS and microbroth dilution assay respectively. The essential oil extracted from this plant was predominantly composed of monoterpenes (69.62%) and sesquiterpenes (22.73%). The antibacterial assay showed that the oil had significant inhibitory effects against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria isolates. The MIC of Gram-positive strains ranged between 0.16 and 0.31 mg/mL while those of Gram-negative bacteria ranged between 0.31 and 0.63 mg/mL. The Gram-positive bacteria were more susceptible to the essential oil than the Gram-negative bacteria. Most of the major components of this oil in other plants have been reported for antimicrobial activities. The antibacterial activity can be attributed to effects of the combination of several components of the oil. The results indicate that the C. bipinnatus might be exploited as natural antibacterial agent and have application in the treatment of several infectious diseases caused by these bacteria. Since this species is endemic to the eastern Free State, the plant could be collected during its bloom and used efficiently in the management of bacterial infections in South Africa.

  9. Antibacterial and Anticandidal Activities of Common Essential Oil Constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökalp İşcan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils and some of their oxygenated constituents are known to possess antimicrobial activity. In the last 30 years, there is a dramatic increase in the number of resistant microorganisms against available antimicrobials and a tendency towards natural products; consequently, scientists have been forced to discover new bioactive agents preferably from nature. As a result of this, so many antimicrobial screening works have been published on plant essential oils including miscellaneous screening methods and several microorganism strains. The aim of this study was to determine the MIC values of 65 monoterpenoids and 3 phenyl propanoids commonly found in essential oils, against 24 pathogenic bacteria and Candida strains, by using standard reference broth dilution methods (CLSI M7-A7 and M27-A2. According to broth microdilution test results, when compared with standard agents, monoterpene hydrocarbons generally showed weak antibacterial effects (>16 to 4 mg/mL where the oxygenated monoterpenes inhibited the microbial growth between the concentrations of 16 to 0,03 mg/mL. Generally, tested compounds demonstrated better inhibitory effects on Candida strains then the bacteria panel. The most effective microbial growth inhibitor constituents were determined as carvacrol, thymol, cumin alcohol, terpinen-4-ol, α-terpineol, lavandulol, estragol and thymoquinone.

  10. Chemical composition of essential oils of Thymus and Mentha species and their antifungal activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soković, Marina D; Vukojević, Jelena; Marin, Petar D; Brkić, Dejan D; Vajs, Vlatka; van Griensven, Leo J L D

    2009-01-07

    The potential antifungal effects of Thymus vulgaris L., Thymus tosevii L., Mentha spicata L., and Mentha piperita L. (Labiatae) essential oils and their components against 17 micromycetal food poisoning, plant, animal and human pathogens are presented. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodestillation of dried plant material. Their composition was determined by GC-MS. Identification of individual constituents was made by comparison with analytical standards, and by computer matching mass spectral data with those of the Wiley/NBS Library of Mass Spectra. MIC's and MFC's of the oils and their components were determined by dilution assays. Thymol (48.9%) and p-cymene (19.0%) were the main components of T. vulgaris, while carvacrol (12.8%), a-terpinyl acetate (12.3%), cis-myrtanol (11.2%) and thymol (10.4%) were dominant in T. tosevii. Both Thymus species showed very strong antifungal activities. In M. piperita oil menthol (37.4%), menthyl acetate (17.4%) and menthone (12.7%) were the main components, whereas those of M. spicata oil were carvone (69.5%) and menthone (21.9%). Mentha sp. showed strong antifungal activities, however lower than Thymus sp. The commercial fungicide, bifonazole, used as a control, had much lower antifungal activity than the oils and components investigated. It is concluded that essential oils of Thymus and Mentha species possess great antifungal potential and could be used as natural preservatives and fungicides.

  11. Larvicidal activities and chemical composition of essential oils from Piper klotzschianum (Kunth) C. DC. (Piperaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Jeferson C; David, Jorge M; Barbosa, Luiz C A; de Paula, Vanderlucia F; Demuner, Antonio J; David, Juceni P; Conserva, Lucia M; Ferreira, Jésu C; Guimarães, Elsie F

    2013-11-01

    Volatile oils from fresh roots, stems, leaves and seeds of Piper klotzschianum (Piperaceae) were obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed by GC-FID and GC-MS. In total, 25 components, representing more than 95% of the examined oils, were identified. The essential oils were evaluated against Artemia salina Leach nauplii and fourth-instar Aedes aegypti larvae. The major chemical constituents that were identified from various parts of this plant were 1-butyl-3,4-methylenedioxybenzene and 2,4,5-trimethoxy-1-propenylbenzene in the root, 1-butyl-3,4-methylenedioxybenzene in the stems and leaves and 1-butyl-3,4-methylenedioxybenzene, limonene and α-phellandrene in the seeds. The biological activities of these essential oils generally exhibited high toxicity against A. salina, with LC50 values that ranged from 7.06 to 15.43 µg mL(-1), and significant larvicidal activity against fourth-instar A. aegypti larvae was observed in the essential oils from the seeds (LC50 of 13.27 µg mL(-1)) and roots (LC50 of 10.0 µg mL(-1)) of the plant. The present study indicates that both essential oil of P. klotzsdhianum and the isolate 1-butyl-3,4-methylenedioxybenzene are potential resources for A. aegypti larva control. This is the first report of the biological activities of the oil and isolated compound. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Chemical composition and in vitro antimicrobial activity of essential oil of Melissa officinalis L. from Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hăncianu, Monica; Aprotosoaie, Ana Clara; Gille, Elvira; Poiată, Antonia; Tuchiluş, Cristina; Spac, A; Stănescu, Ursula

    2008-01-01

    Melissa officinalis L. (lemon balm) is used in traditional medicine to treat insomnia, anxiety, gastric conditions, psychiatric conditions, migraines, hypertension and bronchial conditions. Natural essential oils (mixtures of fragrant chemical) obtained from various parts of plants are efficient active antimicrobial agents. The widespread use of antimicrobial agents selects resistant bacterial strains, which seriously compromise the effectiveness of antibiotic treatment. The use of herbal medicines might be a precautionary measure to prevent the development of lack of susceptibility to synthetic antibiotics that is associated with therapeutic failures. In this work, the chemical composition and the antimicrobial properties of essential oil from romanian Melissa officinalis were determined. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate in vitro antimicrobial activity of lemon balm oil by comparison with lavender essential oil, which is also utilised for its antimicrobial properties in folk medicine. The most important identified compounds, well known for their antimicrobial effects were citral (neral and geranial) (16.10%), citronellal (3.76%) and trans-caryophyllene (3.57%).The lemon balm oil sample exhibited a higher degree antibacterial activity than did Lavandula oil against Gram-positive strains. The both oil samples tested has shown a high activity against Candida albicans. The gram-negative bacteria were not affected by the lemon balm oil.

  13. A Study on Antimicrobial Activities of Essential Oils of Different Cultivars of Lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Kumar Gupta, Ritam Muhury, Deepak Ganjewala

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cymbopogon flexuosus popularly known as lemongrass provides a lemon scented essential oil which is widely used in flavour and fragrance, perfumery, food and pharmaceuticals. The aim of the present study was to assess antimicrobial activities of essential oils of three lemongrass cultivars viz., Pragati, Praman and Suvarna. Methods: Essential oils were isolated from one month old plants by hydro-distillation in mini Clevenger apparatus for 2 h. Antimicrobial activities were determined by agar well diffusion method Results: Lemongrass oils exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against all the microbes except E coli. Mean inhibition zone diameter (mm against bacteria was ranged 27-38 mm. B. Subtilis was the most sensitive bacterium to all essential oils. Essential oils also showed strong antifungal effects against both A. niger and C. albicans with mean inhibition zone diameter (mm values 20-26 and 27-29 mm, respectively. Statistical analyses revealed that antimicrobial activity shown by essential oils were significant (p > 0.05. Conclusion: The study revealed strong antimicrobial potential of the essential oil against pathogenic microbial strains which may be of high clinical importance in future.

  14. Antimicrobial, antibiofilm and antitumor activities of essential oil of Agastache rugosa from Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Haiyan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the study, we evaluated chemical composition and antimicrobial, antibiofilm, and antitumor activities of essential oils from dried leaf essential oil of leaf and flower of Agastache rugosa for the first time. Essential oil of leaf and flower was evaluated with GC and GC–MS methods, and the essential oil of flower revealed the presence of 21 components, whose major compounds were pulegone (34.1%, estragole (29.5%, and p-Menthan-3-one (19.2%. 26 components from essential oil of leaf were identified, the major compounds were p-Menthan-3-one (48.8% and estragole (20.8%. At the same time, essential oil of leaf, there is a very effective antimicrobial activity with MIC ranging from 9.4 to 42 μg ml−1 and potential antibiofilm, antitumor activities for essential oils of flower and leaf essential oil of leaf. The study highlighted the diversity in two different parts of A. rugosa grown in Xinjiang region and other places, which have different active constituents. Our results showed that this native plant may be a good candidate for further biological and pharmacological investigations.

  15. Antimicrobial, antibiofilm and antitumor activities of essential oil of Agastache rugosa from Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiyan, Gong; Lijuan, He; Shaoyu, Li; Chen, Zhang; Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel

    2016-07-01

    In the study, we evaluated chemical composition and antimicrobial, antibiofilm, and antitumor activities of essential oils from dried leaf essential oil of leaf and flower of Agastache rugosa for the first time. Essential oil of leaf and flower was evaluated with GC and GC-MS methods, and the essential oil of flower revealed the presence of 21 components, whose major compounds were pulegone (34.1%), estragole (29.5%), and p-Menthan-3-one (19.2%). 26 components from essential oil of leaf were identified, the major compounds were p-Menthan-3-one (48.8%) and estragole (20.8%). At the same time, essential oil of leaf, there is a very effective antimicrobial activity with MIC ranging from 9.4 to 42 μg ml(-1) and potential antibiofilm, antitumor activities for essential oils of flower and leaf essential oil of leaf. The study highlighted the diversity in two different parts of A. rugosa grown in Xinjiang region and other places, which have different active constituents. Our results showed that this native plant may be a good candidate for further biological and pharmacological investigations.

  16. Antifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Oenanthe crocata L. essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, J; Zuzarte, M; Gonçalves, M J; Lopes, M C; Cavaleiro, C; Salgueiro, L; Cruz, M T

    2013-12-01

    The present study reports the chemical composition, antifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties as well as the cytotoxicity of Oenanthe crocata essential oil and one of its main compounds. The essential oil was obtained from the aerial parts of the plant by hydrodistillation and analysed by GC and GC/MS. The oil was predominantly composed of monoterpene hydrocarbons (85.8%), being the main compounds trans-β-ocimene (31.3%), sabinene (29.0%) and cis-β-ocimene (12.3%). For the antifungal activity, the minimal inhibitory and minimal lethal concentrations (MICs and MLCs) were determined. The oil was particularly active against dermatophytes and Cryptococcus neoformans, with MIC values ranging from 0.08 to 0.16 μL/mL. Regarding the anti-inflammatory activity, both the oil and sabinene demonstrated strong anti-inflammatory activity through nitric oxide (NO) production inhibition in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plus interferon gamma (IFN-γ)-triggered macrophages. Furthermore, the essential oil showed a potent NO scavenging effect and inhibited inducible NO synthase expression. Interestingly, and although we detected a cytotoxic effect in macrophages and keratinocytes for the highest concentrations tested of the oil and sabinene, we also disclosed bioactive and safe concentrations to be further explored for therapeutic proposes. Taking together, these results support the use of the oil and sabinene for the management of dermatophytosis and/or inflammatory-related diseases.

  17. Influence of Tunisian aromatic plants on the prevention of oxidation in soybean oil under heating and frying conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saoudi, Salma; Chammem, Nadia; Sifaoui, Ines; Bouassida-Beji, Maha; Jiménez, Ignacio A; Bazzocchi, Isabel L; Silva, Sandra Diniz; Hamdi, Moktar; Bronze, Maria Rosário

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to improve the oxidative stability of soybean oil by using aromatic plants. Soybean oil flavored with rosemary (ROS) and soybean oil flavored with thyme (THY) were subjected to heating for 24h at 180°C. The samples were analyzed every 6h for their total polar compounds, anisidine values, oxidative stability and polyphenols content. The tocopherols content was determined and volatile compounds were also analyzed. After 24h of heating, the incorporation of these plants using a maceration process reduced the polar compounds by 69% and 71% respectively, in ROS and THY compared to the control. Until 6h of heating, the ROS kept the greatest oxidative stability. The use of the two extracts preserves approximately 50% of the total tocopherols content until 18h for the rosemary and 24h for the thyme flavored oils. Volatile compounds known for their antioxidant activity were also detected in the formulated oils. Aromatic plants added to the soybean oil improved the overall acceptability of potato crisps (p<0.05) until the fifteenth frying.

  18. 植物精油在肉制品中的抑菌应用研究进展%Advanced in Antibacterial Activities of Plant Essential Oils in the Preservation of Meat Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鹏禹; 任小云; 肖作兵; 王一非

    2013-01-01

    A number of plant essential oils are recognized as GRASs with potential antibacterial effects. According to current demands of food industry and consumers for food safety, there are urgent needs for natural antimicrobial agents in the application of meat products. This article highlights the antibacterial mechanisms of fruit essential oils (EOs) and spice oils, the application in meat products and their effects in combination with other treatments.%  大多数植物精油是公认的GRAS物质,安全性高且具有较好的抑菌作用,能满足当前食品行业和消费者对于食品安全的要求,在肉制品中具有良好的应用前景。介绍果香型精油和香辛料精油在肉制品中的应用、提高抑菌效果的手段及其抑菌机理。

  19. Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oil and Extracts of Valeriana jatamansi Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakshima Thusoo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Valeriana jatamansi is an indigenous medicinal plant used in the treatment of a number of diseases. In the present study, chemical composition of the essential oil was determined by GC-MS. Seven major components were identified in Valeriana jatamansi essential oil, namely, β-vatirenene, β-patchoulene, dehydroaromadendrene, β-gurjunene, patchoulic alcohol, β-guaiene, and α-muurolene. Methanolic, aqueous, and chloroform extracts of Valeriana jatamansi roots were also prepared and analyzed for their polyphenols and flavonoid content. Antioxidant activity of essential oil and different extracts of Valeriana jatamansi roots was determined by DPPH radical scavenging and chelation power assay. A linear correlation has been obtained by comparing the antioxidant activity and polyphenols and flavonoid content of the extracts. Results indicated that antioxidant activity of methanolic extract could be attributed to the presence of rich amount of polyphenols and flavonoid. Essential oil of Valeriana jatamansi roots showed moderate antioxidant activity.

  20. Antimicrobial activity of peppermint essential oil (Mentha piperita L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shapoval O.G.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Рurposе. To study antimicrobial activity of fume of the essential oil of peppermint against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Materials and methods: The screening study of antimicrobial activity of solutions of essential oil by disk-diffusion method and activity of essential oil fume of own preparation and pharmaceutical form of oil according to standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Esсherichia coli and 12 clinical strains of staphylococci (6 methicillin-resistant and 6 methicillin-sensitive has been carried out. Results: Essential oil of own preparation and pharmaceutical form showed equal antimicrobial activity against strains of staphylococci. Essential oil of own preparation has been determined to reveal higher activity against gram-negative strains. Conclusion: Received data have proved the presence of antimicrobial activity against all strains of microorganisms and mostly against staphy-lococci

  1. Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of essential oil from flue-cured tobacco flower bud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunping Xu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils generally derived from one or more plant parts have been used throughout history for many great applications. In this study, the flue-cured tobacco flower buds were subjected to hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus (4 h. The essential oil was characterized by means of gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS. The yield of the oil was 0.57% (w/w. After identification of the components, 34 volatile compounds were identified, which contained 55.0% of the oil. β-Cembrenediol (12.24%, carotol (8.55%, isolimonene (7.37%, thunbergol (4.88% and 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (4.09% were the major constituents of the oil. The essential oil was also tested for antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. The essential oil was particularly active against Bacillus subtilis, with the lowest Minimal Inhibitory Concentration and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration value (7 and 7 mg/mL. Furthermore, the essential oil and its main compounds showed a strong potent OH scavenging effect, when compared to butylated hydroxytoluene as a positive control. In conclusion, the tobacco flower bud oil is a potential source of novel antioxidant and antimicrobial agents.

  2. Engineering plant oils as high-value industrial feedstocks for biorefining - the need for underpinning cell biology research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyer, J.M. (US Arid-Land Agricultural Research Center, United States Dept. of Agriculture, Maricopa (US)); Mullen, R.T. (University of Guelph, Dept. of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Ontario (CA))

    2008-01-15

    Plant oils represent renewable sources of long-chain hydrocarbons that can be used as both fuel and chemical feedstocks, and genetic engineering offers an opportunity to create further high-value specialty oils for specific industrial uses. While many genes have been identified for the production of industrially important fatty acids, expression of these genes in transgenic plants has routinely resulted in a low accumulation of the desired fatty acids, indicating that significantly more knowledge of seed oil production is required before any future rational engineering designs are attempted. Here, we provide an overview of the cellular features of fatty acid desaturases, the so-called diverged desaturases, and diacylglycerol acyltransferases, three sets of enzymes that play a central role in determining the types and amounts of fatty acids that are present in seed oil, and as such, the final application and value of the oil. Recent studies of the intracellular trafficking, assembly and regulation of these enzymes have provided new insights to the mechanisms of storage oil production, and suggest that the compartmentalization of enzyme activities within specific regions or subdomains of the ER may be essential for both the synthesis of novel fatty acid structures and the channeling of these important fatty acids into seed storage oils. (au)

  3. Essential oils chemical composition, antioxidant activities and total phenols of Astrodaucus persicus

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    Saeid Goodarzi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Astrodaucus persicus, Apiaceae, is used as vegetable or food additive in some parts of Iran. The essential oils of different parts of Astrodaucus persicus from Kordestan province were analyzed for the first time and compared with other regions. In this study, antioxidant activities and total phenols determination of aerial parts essential oils and root fractions of A. persicus were investigated. Materials and Methods: The essential oils were obtained by hydro-distillation from flowers/fruits, leaves/stems, ripe fruits and roots of plant and analyzed by GC-MS. Crude root extract was fractionated with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol. Antioxidant activities by DPPH and FRAP methods and total phenols by Folin-ciocalteu assay were measured. Results: The abundant compounds of flowers/fruits blue essential oil were α-thujene, β-pinene and α-pinene. The predominant components of blue leaves/stems essential oil were α-thujene, α-pinene and α-fenchene. The major volatiles of ripe fruits blue essential oil were β-pinene, α-thujene and α-pinene. The chief compounds of root yellow essential oil were trans-caryophyllene, bicycogermacrene and germacrene-D. Total root extract and ethyl acetate fraction showed potent antioxidant activities and high amount of total phenols in comparison to other samples. Among volatile oils, the flowers/fruits essential oil showed potent reducing capacity. Conclusion: The major compounds of aerial parts essential oils were hydrocarbon monoterpenes while the chief percentage of roots essential oil constituents were hydrocarbon sesquiterpenes. α-Eudesmol and β-eudesmol were identified as responsible for creation of blue color in aerial parts essential oils. A. persicus was known as a potent antioxidant among Apiaceae.

  4. Spilled oil and infaunal activity - Modification of burrowing behavior and redistribution of oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, H.E.; Kvenvolden, K.A.; Rapp, J.B.

    1984-01-01

    A series of experiments in Willapa Bay, Washington, indicates the degree to which the presence of spilled oil modifies the burrowing behavior of infauna and the extent to which the animals redistribute oil into intertidal sediment. Small amounts of North Slope crude oil introduced at low tide directly into burrow openings (mostly made by the crustacean Callianassa) resulted in a limited and temporary reduction in the number of burrow openings. In contrast, a layer of oil-saturated sand 1 cm thick buried about 5 cm below the sediment surface sharply reduced the number of burrow openings. After a year, the few new burrows penetrated only the margins of the experimental plot, and bioturbation below the buried oil-saturated sand layer declined dramatically. The experiments suggest that small amounts of oil temporarily stranded by tides in themselves have no long-range effect on burrowing behavior. The fauna, however, are capable of introducing measurable amounts of oil into the subsurface, where it is retained long after the rest of the stranded oil had washed away. A buried layer of oil-saturated sand greatly reduces infaunal activity; the oil presents an effective barrier that can persist for years. The oil incorporated into the sediment from burrow openings showed evidence of degradation after 7 months. In contrast the layer of buried oil remained essentially undergraded after a period of two years, even though oil in lower concentrations above the layer was degraded after a period of one year. This variation in degree of degradation of the buried oil, as well as the heterogeneity of oil distribution wherever the oil has been incorporated from the surface, emphasises the importance of careful sampling in any attempt to locate or monitor the presence of spilled oil in the substrate.In a series of experiments in Willapa Bay, Washington, small amounts of North Slope crude oil introduced at low tide directly into burrow openings resulted in a limited and temporary

  5. Treatment of Oily Wastewater Produced From Old Processing Plant of North Oil Company

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    Dr. Faris Hammoodi Al-Ani

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this research were to study and analyses oily wastewater characteristics originating from old-processing plant of North Oil Company and to find a suitable and simple method to treat the waste so it can be disposed off safely. The work consists of two stages; the first was the study of oily wastewater characteristics and its negative impacts. The results indicated that oil and grease were the most dominant pollutant with concentration range between 1069 – 3269.3 mg/l that must be removed; other pollutants were found to be within Iraqi and EPA standards. The next stage was the use of these characteristics to choose the proper technology to treat that wastewater. This stage was divided into two stages: the first stage was a jar tests to find the optimum doses of alum, lime and powdered activated carbon (PAC. The second stage was the treatment by a batch pilot plant constructed for this purpose employing the optimum doses as determined from the first stage to treat the waste using a flotation unit followed by a filtration-adsorption unit. The removal efficiencies of flotation unit for oil and grease, COD, and T.S.S found to be 0.9789, 0.974, and 0.9933, respectively, while the removal efficiency for T.D.S was very low 0.0293. From filtration – adsorption column the removal efficiencies of oil and grease, T.D.S, COD, and T.S.S were found to be 0.9486, 0.8908, 0.6870, and 0.7815, respectively. The overall removal efficiencies of pilot plant were 0.9986, 0.8939, 0.9921, and 0.9950, respectively. The results indicated that this type of treatment was the simplest and most effective method that can be used to treat produced oily wastewater before disposal

  6. Microstructures of superhydrophobic plant leaves - inspiration for efficient oil spill cleanup materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiger, Claudia; Rodrigues da Silva, Isabelle C; Mail, Matthias; Kavalenka, Maryna N; Barthlott, Wilhelm; Hölscher, Hendrik

    2016-08-16

    The cleanup of accidental oil spills in water is an enormous challenge; conventional oil sorbents absorb large amounts of water in addition to oil and other cleanup methods can cause secondary pollution. In contrast, fresh leaves of the aquatic ferns Salvinia are superhydrophobic and superoleophilic, and can selectively absorb oil while repelling water. These selective wetting properties are optimal for natural oil absorbent applications and bioinspired oil sorbent materials. In this paper we quantify the oil absorption capacity of four Salvinia species with different surface structures, water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes) and Lotus leaves (Nelumbo nucifera), and compare their absorption capacity to artificial oil sorbents. Interestingly, the oil absorption capacities of Salvinia molesta and Pistia stratiotes leaves are comparable to artificial oil sorbents. Therefore, these pantropical invasive plants, often considered pests, qualify as environmentally friendly materials for oil spill cleanup. Furthermore, we investigated the influence of oil density and viscosity on the oil absorption, and examine how the presence and morphology of trichomes affect the amount of oil absorbed by their surfaces. Specifically, the influence of hair length and shape is analyzed by comparing different hair types ranging from single trichomes of Salvinia cucullata to complex eggbeater-shaped trichomes of Salvinia molesta to establish a basis for improving artificial bioinspired oil absorbents.

  7. Depolymerized carrageenan ameliorates growth, physiological attributes, essential oil yield and active constituents of Foeniculum vulgare Mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashmi, Nadeem; Khan, M Masroor A; Moinuddin; Idrees, Mohd; Khan, Zeba H; Ali, Akbar; Varshney, Lalit

    2012-09-01

    Irradiated carrageenan (IC) elicits an array of plant defense responses and biological activities in plants. An experiment was carried out in the naturally illuminated conditions of net house in order to assess the effects of foliar spray of IC on agricultural performance of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.), which is a high-value essential oil bearing medicinal crop used in pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries. There were applied four IC concentrations (40, 60, 80 and 100 mg L(-1)) as foliar sprays. Application of IC significantly improved the growth attributes, physiological and biochemical parameters, essential oil yield and the contents of main components of essential oil of fennel. IC applied at 80 mg L(-1) enhanced these parameters maximally. Unirradiated carrageenan and deionized water had no effect on the attributes studied. Moreover, GLC analysis revealed a significant increase in the components of essential oil, viz. fenchone (4.48-7.82%) and anethole (78.38-86.08%) compared to the control.

  8. Comparison of antifungal activities of Vietnamese citrus essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hung, Pham; Chi, Pham Thi Lan; Phi, Nguyen Thi Lan

    2013-03-01

    Citrus essential oils (EOs) are volatile compounds from citrus peels and widely used in perfumes, cosmetics, soaps and aromatherapy. In this study, inhibition of citrus EOs extracted from Vietnamese orange (Citrus sinensis), mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco), pomelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck) and lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) on the growth of plant pathogenic fungi, Mucor hiemalis, Penicillium expansum and Fusarium proliferatum was investigated. The EOs of the citrus peels were obtained by cold-pressing method and the antifungal activity of EOs was evaluated using the agar dilution method. The results show that the EOs had significant antifungal activity. Lime EO was the best inhibitor of M. hiemalis and F. proliferatum while pomelo EO was the most effective against P. expansum. These results indicate that citrus EOs can be used as antifungal natural products in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries.

  9. Effects of sowing time and plant density on yield and essential oil production of medicinal plant, peppermint (Mentha piperita L.

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    S. Jabarpour

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effects of two sowing time (middle of May and early June and four plant density (8, 12, 16 and 20 plants.m-2 on yield and essential oil content of peppermint at two cutting stages, an experiment was conducted at the Research Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz during growing season of 2003-2004. These treatments were performed as factorial based of randomized complete block design with three replications. The result of the first cutting showed that plant sowing at the early June and eight plants.m-2densities had the highest leaf (4.47% and plant (2.92% essential oil percentage, but these factors and their interaction effects did not effect on the essential oil yield. In the second cutting, the highest plant essential oil was observed in plant sowing at early June and 12 plants/m2 densities. The highest essential oil yield in second cutting produced in middle of May sowing time. The results of two cutting stages showed that the fresh and dry yield decreased by delaying in sowing time.

  10. Fumigant toxicity of plant essential oils against Camptomyia corticalis (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun-Ran; Haribalan, Perumalsamy; Son, Bong-Ki; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2012-08-01

    The toxicity of 98 plant essential oils against third instars of cecidomyiid gall midge Camptomyia corticalis (Loew) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) was examined using a vapor-phase mortality bioassay. Results were compared with that of a conventional insecticide dichlorvos. Based on 24-h LC50 values, all essential oils were less toxic than dichlorvos (LC50, 0.027 mg/cm3). The LC50 of caraway (Carum carvi L.) seed, armoise (Artemisia vulgaris L.), clary sage (Salvia sclarea L.), oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), lemongrass [Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf], niaouli (Melaleuca viridiflora Gaertner), spearmint (Mentha spicata L.), cassia especial (Cinnamomum cassia Nees ex Blume), Dalmatian sage (Salvia offcinalis L.), red thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), bay [Pimenta racemosa (P. Mill.) J.W. Moore], garlic (Allium sativum L.), and pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium L.) oils is between 0.55 and 0.60 mg/cm3. The LC50 of cassia (C. cassia, pure and redistilled), white thyme (T. vulgaris), star anise (Illicium verum Hook.f.), peppermint (Mentha X piperita L.), wintergreen (Gaultheria procumbens L.), cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume) bark, sweet marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), Roman chamomile [Chamaemelum nobile (L.) All.], eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus Labill.), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.),Virginian cedarwood (Juniperus virginiana L.), pimento berry [Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr.], summer savory (Satureja hortensis L.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.), and coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) oils is between 0.61 and 0.99 mg/cm3. All other essential oils tested exhibited low toxicity to the cecidomyiid larvae (LC50, >0.99 mg/cm3). Global efforts to reduce the level of highly toxic synthetic insecticides in the agricultural environment justify further studies on the active essential oils as potential larvicides for the control of C. corticalis populations as fumigants with contact action.

  11. Control of Aspergillus flavus in maize with plant essential oils and their components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes-Belmont, R; Carvajal, M

    1998-05-01

    The effects of 11 plant essential oils for maize kernel protection against Aspergillus flavus were studied. Tests were conducted to determine optimal levels of dosages for maize protection, effects of combinations of essential oils, and residual effects and toxicity of essential oils to maize plants. Principal constituents of eight essential oils were tested for ability to protect maize kernels. Essential oils of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon), Mentha piperita (peppermint), Ocimum basilicum (basil), Origanum vulgare (origanum), Teloxys ambrosioides (the flavoring herb epazote), Syzygium aromaticum (clove), and Thymus vulgaris (thyme) caused a total inhibition of fungal development on maize kernels. Thymol and o-methoxycinnamaldehyde significantly reduced maize grain contamination. The optimal dosage for protection of maize varied from 3 to 8%. Combinations of C. zeylanicum with the remaining oils gave efficient control. A residual effect of C. zeylanicum was detected after 4 weeks of kernel treatment. No phytotoxic effect on germination and corn growth was detected with any of these oils.

  12. The in vitro antimicrobial activities of the essential oils of some Lamiaceae species from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarac, Nurdan; Ugur, Aysel

    2009-08-01

    In this study, antimicrobial activities of the essential oils obtained by using the hydrodistillation method from some lamiaceous plants--Mentha longifolia (L.) Hudson ssp. longifolia, M. longifolia (L.) Hudson ssp. typhoides (Briq.) Harley var. typhoides, Mentha pulegium L., Salvia fruticosa Miller, Salvia tomentosa Miller, Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi ssp. glandulosa (Req.) P.W. Ball, Nepeta cadmea Boiss., Lavandula stoechas L. ssp. stoechas, and Ziziphora tenuior L.--were determined by using the disc diffusion method. The plants used in this study were collected from different localities of Muğla Province, Turkey. All the essential oils isolated from the plants were very effective against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, which included multiple-antibiotic resistant strains, except Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and Pseudomonas fluorescens MU 87. The essential oils of the plant species, except S. tomentosa and S. fruticosa, were very effective against Candida albicans. The antimicrobial activities varied depending on the species, subspecies, or variety. In fact, essential oils of some plants belonging to the same taxa but collected from different localities showed different levels of antimicrobial activities.

  13. Repellent Activity of Botanical Oils against Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhns, Emily H; Martini, Xavier; Hoyte, Angel; Stelinski, Lukasz L

    2016-07-14

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is the insect vector of the pathogen causing huanglongbing. We selected three botanical oils to evaluate behavioral activity against D. citri. In laboratory olfactometer assays, fir oil was repellent to D. citri females, while litsea and citronella oils elicited no response from D. citri females. In choice settling experiments, D. citri settled almost completely on control plants rather than on plants treated with fir oil at a 9.5 mg/day release rate. Therefore, we conducted field trials to determine if fir oil reduced D. citri densities in citrus groves. We found no repellency of D. citri from sweet orange resets that were treated with fir oil dispensers releasing 10.4 g/day/tree as compared with control plots. However, we found a two-week decrease in populations of D. citri as compared with controls when the deployment rate of these dispensers was doubled. Our results suggest that treatment of citrus with fir oil may have limited activity as a stand-alone management tool for D. citri and would require integration with other management practices.

  14. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils from four Ruta species growing in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddouchi, Farah; Chaouche, Tarik Mohammed; Zaouali, Yosr; Ksouri, Riadh; Attou, Amina; Benmansour, Abdelhafid

    2013-11-01

    Antimicrobial properties of plants essential oils have been investigated in order to suggest them as potential tools to overcome the microbial drug resistance and the increasing incidence of food borne diseases problems. The aim of this research is to study the antibacterial and antifungal effects of four traditional plants essential oils, Ruta angustifolia, Ruta chalepensis, Ruta graveolens and Ruta tuberculata, against standard bacterial and fungal strains. The chemical compounds of the oils were examined by GC/MS. Results revealed a powerful antifungal activity against filamentous fungi. Aspergillus fumigatus and Cladosporium herbarum are the most sensitive strains to these oils with MIC values less than 3.5 μg ml(-1) for certain oils, reaching 7.8 μg ml(-1) for other. GC/MS essay exhibited ketones as the most abundant constituent of these oils except for R. tuberculata essential oil which has a completely different composition, monoterpenes alcohols being the most abundant. These compositions explain their potential antifungal activity.

  15. Repellent Activity of Botanical Oils against Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae

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    Emily H. Kuhns

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is the insect vector of the pathogen causing huanglongbing. We selected three botanical oils to evaluate behavioral activity against D. citri. In laboratory olfactometer assays, fir oil was repellent to D. citri females, while litsea and citronella oils elicited no response from D. citri females. In choice settling experiments, D. citri settled almost completely on control plants rather than on plants treated with fir oil at a 9.5 mg/day release rate. Therefore, we conducted field trials to determine if fir oil reduced D. citri densities in citrus groves. We found no repellency of D. citri from sweet orange resets that were treated with fir oil dispensers releasing 10.4 g/day/tree as compared with control plots. However, we found a two-week decrease in populations of D. citri as compared with controls when the deployment rate of these dispensers was doubled. Our results suggest that treatment of citrus with fir oil may have limited activity as a stand-alone management tool for D. citri and would require integration with other management practices.

  16. Bactericidal activity of herbal volatile oil extracts against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intorasoot, Amornrat; Chornchoem, Piyaorn; Sookkhee, Siriwoot; Intorasoot, Sorasak

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the antibacterial activity of 10 volatile oils extracted from medicinal plants, including galangal (Alpinia galanga Linn.), ginger (Zingiber officinale), plai (Zingiber cassumunar Roxb.), lime (Citrus aurantifolia), kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix DC.), sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum Linn.), tree basil (Ocimum gratissimum), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus DC.), clove (Syzygium aromaticum), and cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) against four standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and 30 clinical isolates of multidrug-resistant A. baumannii (MDR-A. baumannii). Agar diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration, and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were employed for the determination of bactericidal activity of water distilled medicinal plants. Tea tree oil (Melaleuca alternifolia) was used as positive control in this study. The results indicated the volatile oil extracted from cinnamon exhibited potent antibacterial activity against the most common human pathogens, S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and A. baumannii. Most of volatile oil extracts were less effective against non-fermentative bacteria, P. aeruginosa. In addition, volatile oil extracted from cinnamon, clove, and tree basil possessed potent bactericidal activity against MDR-A. baumannii with MBC90 of 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/mL, respectively. The volatile oil extracts would be useful as alternative natural product for the treatment of the most common human pathogens and MDR-A. baumannii infections.

  17. Larvicidal and nematicidal activities of the leaf essential oil of Croton regelianus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Maria Conceição M; Assunção, João Carlos; Santiago, Gilvandete Maria P; Andrade-Neto, Manoel; Silveira, Edilberto R; Costa-Lotufo, Leticia V; Bezerra, Daniel P; Marinho Filho, José Delano B; Viana, Francisco Arnaldo; Pessoa, Otília Deusdênia L

    2008-12-01

    The chemical composition of the leaf essential oil of Croton regelianus collected from wild plants growing in two different sites at Ceará State (Brazil) was analyzed by GC/MS and GC-FID. Twenty monoterpenoids, representing more than 96% of the chemical composition of the oils, were identified and quantified. The oils showed similar chemical composition but considerable variation in the levels of each constituent. Ascaridole (33.9-17.0%), p-cymene (22.3-21.6%), and camphor (13.0-3.1%) were the predominant constituents. The monoterpene ascaridole was isolated and characterized by spectroscopic data. The essential oils and the isolated compounds were tested against Aedes aegypti and Artemia sp. larvae, and the root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. The bioassay results show that the essential oil of C. regelianus and ascaridole were moderately active against the M. incognita, but strongly effective against both A. aegypti and Artemia sp. larvae.

  18. Antibacterial activity of Cuminum cyminum L. and Carum carvi L. essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacobellis, Nicola S; Lo Cantore, Pietro; Capasso, Francesco; Senatore, Felice

    2005-01-12

    Essential oils extracted by hydrodistillation from fruits of Cuminum cyminum L. and Carum carvi L. were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry (MS). The main components of C. cyminum oil were p-mentha-1,4-dien-7-al, cumin aldehyde, gamma-terpinene, and beta-pinene, while those of the C. carvi oil were carvone, limonene, germacrene D, and trans-dihydrocarvone. Antibacterial activity, determined with the agar diffusion method, was observed against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species in this study. The activity was particularly high against the genera Clavibacter, Curtobacterium, Rhodococcus, Erwinia, Xanthomonas, Ralstonia, and Agrobacterium, which are responsible for plant or cultivated mushroom diseases worldwide. In general, a lower activity was observed against bacteria belonging to the genus Pseudomonas. These results suggest the potential use of the above essential oils for the control of bacterial diseases.

  19. Composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils from aromatic plants used in Brazil Composição e atividade antimicrobiana de óleos essenciais de plantas aromáticas usadas no Brasil

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    Adilson Sartoratto

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils from aerial parts of Mentha piperita, M. spicata, Thymus vulgaris, Origanum vulgare, O. applii, Aloysia triphylla, Ocimum gratissimum, O. basilicum were obtained by steam destillation using a Clevenger-type system. These oils were screened for antibacterial and anti-Candida albicans activity using bioautographic method. Subsequently, minimal inhibitory concentration from oils was determined by microdilution method. Most essential oil studied were effective against Enterococcus faecium and Salmonella cholerasuis. Aloysia triphylla and O. basilicum presented moderate inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus while only A. tryphila and M. piperita were able to control the yeast Candida albicans. The oils were analyzed by GC and GC-MS techniques in order to determine the majoritary compounds.Óleos essenciais foram obtidos a partir das partes aéreas de Mentha piperita, M. spicata, Thymus vulgaris, Origanum vulgare, O. applii, Aloysia triphylla, Ocimum gratissimum e O. basilicum através de arraste de vapor em sistema tipo Clevenger. Os óleos foram avaliados quanto à atividade antimicrobiana contra bactérias e contra a levedura Candida albicans pelo método de bioautografia. A concentração mínima inibitória dos óleos com atividade positiva foi em seguida determinada pelo método da microdiluição. De acordo com os resultados, a maioria dos óleos essenciais estudados foram efetivos contra Enterococcus faecium e Salmonella cholerasuis. A.triphylla e O. basilicum apresentaram inibição moderada contra Staphylococcus aureus enquanto apenas A. tryphila e M. piperita foram capazes de inibir a levedura Candida albicans. Os óleos foram analisados quimicamente por técnicas de CG e CG-EM de modo a determinar os compostos majoritários presentes.

  20. In vitro antimicrobial activity of Zingiber cassumunar (Plai) oil and a 5% Plai oil gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pithayanukul, P; Tubprasert, J; Wuthi-Udomlert, M

    2007-02-01

    The essential oil of Zingiber cassumunar (Plai oil) exhibits antimicrobial activity against a wide range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, dermatophytes and yeasts. Dermatophytes were found to be the most susceptible microorganisms followed by yeasts, whereas bacteria were the least susceptible. The mean diameter of the inhibition zone determined by the disc diffusion screening method increased with increasing Plai oil concentration between 6.25 and 50 vol %. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) determined by the broth macrodilution method ranged from 0.62 to 2.5 vol % for Plai oil and from 52 to 79 mg/mL for the 5 wt % Plai oil gel, whereas the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) ranged from 0.31 to 1.25 vol % for Plai oil and from 13.8 to 39.5 mg/mL for the 5% Plai oil gel. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Antibacterial activity of thyme and lavender essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sienkiewicz, Monika; Łysakowska, Monika; Ciećwierz, Julita; Denys, Paweł; Kowalczyk, Edward

    2011-11-01

    Strong antiseptic activity of essential oils has been known for a long time. The antibacterial activity of oils was tested against clinical bacterial strains of Staphylococcus, Enterococcus, Escherichia and Pseudomonas genera. The agar diffusion method was used for microbial growth inhibition at various concentrations of the oils from T. vulgaris and L. angustifolia. Susceptibility testing to antibiotics and chemotherapeutics was carried out using disc-diffusion method. 120 strains of bacteria isolated from patients with infections of oral cavity, respiratory, genitourinary tracts and from hospital environment were investigated. The results of experiments showed that the oil from T. vulgaris exhibited extremely strong activity against all of the clinical strains. Thyme oil demonstrated a good efficacy against antibiotics resistant strains of the tested bacteria. Lavender oil has been less activity against clinical strains of Staphylococcus, Enterococcus and Escherichia genus. The worst results have been observed against all strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  2. The Genus Artemisia: a 2012-2017 Literature Review on Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial, Insecticidal and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Abhay K; Singh, Pooja

    2017-09-12

    Essential oils of aromatic and medicinal plants generally have a diverse range of activities because they possess several active constituents that work through several modes of action. The genus Artemisia includes the largest genus of family Asteraceae has several medicinal uses in human and plant diseases aliments. Extensive investigations on essential oil composition, antimicrobial, insecticidal and antioxidant studies have been conducted for various species of this genus. In this review, we have compiled data of recent literature (2012-2017) on essential oil composition, antimicrobial, insecticidal and antioxidant activities of different species of the genus Artemisia. Regarding the antimicrobial and insecticidal properties we have only described here efficacy of essential oils against plant pathogens and insect pests. The literature revealed that 1, 8-cineole, beta-pinene, thujone, artemisia ketone, camphor, caryophyllene, camphene and germacrene D are the major components in most of the essential oils of this plant species. Oils from different species of genus Artemisia exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against plant pathogens and insecticidal activity against insect pests. However, only few species have been explored for antioxidant activity.

  3. The Genus Artemisia: A 2012–2017 Literature Review on Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial, Insecticidal and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pooja

    2017-01-01

    Essential oils of aromatic and medicinal plants generally have a diverse range of activities because they possess several active constituents that work through several modes of action. The genus Artemisia includes the largest genus of family Asteraceae has several medicinal uses in human and plant diseases aliments. Extensive investigations on essential oil composition, antimicrobial, insecticidal and antioxidant studies have been conducted for various species of this genus. In this review, we have compiled data of recent literature (2012–2017) on essential oil composition, antimicrobial, insecticidal and antioxidant activities of different species of the genus Artemisia. Regarding the antimicrobial and insecticidal properties we have only described here efficacy of essential oils against plant pathogens and insect pests. The literature revealed that 1, 8-cineole, beta-pinene, thujone, artemisia ketone, camphor, caryophyllene, camphene and germacrene D are the major components in most of the essential oils of this plant species. Oils from different species of genus Artemisia exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against plant pathogens and insecticidal activity against insect pests. However, only few species have been explored for antioxidant activity. PMID:28930281

  4. Non-Edible Plant Oils as New Sources for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rafiqul Islam

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the concern on the availability of recoverable fossil fuel reserves and the environmental problems caused by the use those fossil fuels, considerable attention has been given to biodiesel production as an alternative to petrodiesel. However, as the biodiesel is produced from vegetable oils and animal fats, there are concerns that biodiesel feedstock may compete with food supply in the long-term. Hence, the recent focus is to find oil bearing plants that produce non-edible oils as the feedstock for biodiesel production. In this paper, two plant species, soapnut (Sapindus mukorossi and jatropha (jatropha curcas, L. are discussed as newer sources of oil for biodiesel production. Experimental analysis showed that both oils have great potential to be used as feedstock for biodiesel production. Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME from cold pressed soapnut seed oil was envisaged as biodiesel source for the first time. Soapnut oil was found to have average of 9.1% free FA, 84.43% triglycerides, 4.88% sterol and 1.59% others. Jatropha oil contains approximately 14% free FA, approximately 5% higher than soapnut oil. Soapnut oil biodiesel contains approximately 85% unsaturated FA while jatropha oil biodiesel was found to have approximately 80% unsaturated FA. Oleic acid was found to be the dominant FA in both soapnut and jatropha biodiesel. Over 97% conversion to FAME was achieved for both soapnut and jatropha oil.

  5. Mode of action and variability in efficacy of plant essential oils showing toxicity against the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, D R; Smith, T J; Shiel, R S; Sparagano, O A E; Guy, J H

    2009-05-12

    This paper describes a series of experiments to examine the mode of action and toxicity of three plant essential oils (thyme, manuka and pennyroyal) to the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer), a serious ectoparasitic pest of laying hens. All three oils were found to be toxic to D. gallinae in laboratory tests with LC(50), LC(90) and LC(99) values below 0.05, 0.20 and 0.30mg/cm(3), respectively, suggesting that these products may make for effective acaricides against this pest. Further experiments demonstrated that when mites were exposed to only the vapour phase of the essential oil without contact with the oil itself, mortality was consistently higher in closed arenas than in arenas open to the surrounding environment, or in control arenas. This suggests that all three essential oils were toxic to D. gallinae by fumigant action. In addition, in an experiment where mites were allowed contact with the essential oil in either open or closed arenas, mortality was always reduced in the open arenas where this was comparable to control mortality for thyme and pennyroyal essential oil treatments. This supports the findings of the previous experiment and also suggests that, with the possible exception of manuka, the selected essential oils were not toxic to D. gallinae on contact. Statistical comparisons were made between the toxicity of the selected essential oils to D. gallinae in the current work and in a previous study conducted in the same laboratory. The results demonstrated considerable variation in LC(50), LC(90) and LC(99) values. Since both the essential oils and the mites were obtained from identical sources in the two studies, it is hypothesized that this variation resulted from the use of different 'batches' of essential oil, which could have varied in chemistry and hence acaricidal activity.

  6. Anioxidant activity of palmarosa essential oil (Cymbopogon martini grown in north indian plains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil Lawrence

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study deals with the in vitro study of antioxidant activity of essential oil from Palmarosa (Cymbopogon martini of family gramineae. Methods: The in vitro study of antioxidant activity of Palmarosa essential oil has been done by using DPPH assay,Nitrogen Oxide assay , reducing power assay, 毬 -carotene bleaching assay and FRAP method. Results: IC 50 values observed for DPPH and NO assay are 0.125 mg/ml and 12.5 毺 g/ml respectively.In beta carotene bleaching method the oil showed 93.15% bleaching for the first hour and it increased to 51.1% in second hour. There was a constant increase in the reducing activities with the increase in concentrations in both reducing activity and FRAP mehods. In all the methods BHT and Gallic acid were kept as standards. Conclusions: The results clearly indicate that Palmarosa essential oil is effective in scavanging free radical and has the potential to be powerful antioxidant An essential oil is a liquid that is generally distilled (more frequently by steam or water from the leaves, stems, flowers, bark or roots or other elements of the plant [1]. These are also known as volatile or ethereal oils. Medicinal applications of essential oils range from skin treatment to remedies for cancer.

  7. Geospatial estimation of the impact of Deepwater Horizon oil spill on plant oiling along the Louisiana shorelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goovaerts, Pierre; Wobus, Cameron; Jones, Russell; Rissing, Matthew

    2016-09-15

    Stranded oil covering soil and plant stems in fragile Louisiana marshes was one of the most visible impacts of the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill. As part of the assessment of marsh injury after the DWH spill, plant stem oiling was broken into five categories (0%, 0-10%, 10-50%, 50-90%, 90-100%) and used as the independent variable for estimating death of vegetation, accelerated erosion, and other metrics of injury. The length of shoreline falling into each of these stem oiling categories was therefore a key measure of the total extent of marsh injury, and its accurate estimation is the focus of this paper. First, we used geographically-weighted logistic regression (GWR) to explore and model spatially varying relationships between stem oiling field data and secondary information (oiling exposure category) collected during shoreline surveys. We then combined GWR probability estimates with field data using indicator cokriging to predict the probability of exceeding four stem oiling thresholds (0, 10, 50, and 90%) at 50 m intervals along the Louisiana shoreline. Cross-validation using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) Curves demonstrate the greater prediction accuracy of the multivariate geostatistical approach relative to either aspatial regression or indicator kriging that ignores secondary information.

  8. Natural attenuation of weathered oil using aquatic plants in a farm in Southeast Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Cruz, María Del Carmen; Trujillo-Narcía, Antonio; Trujillo-Rivera, Eduardo A; Arias-Trinidad, Alfredo; Mendoza-López, María Remedios

    2016-09-01

    An experiment was conducted in field for three years to assess the sustainability of aquatic plants Leersia hexandra, Cyperus articulatus, and Eleocharis palustris for use in the removal of total hydrocarbons of weathered oil in four areas contaminated with 60916-119373 mg/kg of hydrocarbons. The variables evaluated were coverage of plant, dry matter, density of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, and the removal of total weathered oil. The variables showed statistical differences (p = 0.05) due to the effects of time and the amount of oil in the soil. The three aquatic plants survived on the farm during the 36-month evaluation. The grass L. hexandra yielded the greatest coverage of plant but was inhibited by the toxicity of the oil, which, in contrast, stimulated the coverage of C. articulatus. The rhizosphere of L. hexandra in control soil was more densely colonized by N-fixing bacteria, while the density of phosphate and potassium solubilizing rhizobacteria was stimulated by exposure to oil. C. articulatus coverage showed positive relationship with the removal of weathered oil; positive effect between rhizosphere and L. hexandra grass coverage was also identified. These results contributed to the removal of weathered oil in Gleysols flooded and affected by chronic discharges of crude oil.

  9. Citronella essential oil in the control and activation of coffee plants defense response against rust and brown eye spot Óleo essencial de citronela no controle e na ativação de respostas de defesa do cafeeiro contra a ferrugem e cercosporiose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Borges Pereira

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The rust and brown eye spot are the main coffee diseases. The losses are due to intense defoliation of plants, which has reduced its production and longevity. The brown eye spot also occurs in fruits, with negative effects on the beverage quality. Some essential oils have presented promising results in the control of plant diseases, as an alternative to the use of fungicides. The objective of this study was to evaluate citronella essential oil in the control of rust and brown eye spot and in the activation of coffee plants defense responses. Twelve-month-old plants were sprayed with citronella oil 1000 µL L-1, acibenzolar-S-methyl 200 mg L-1 and tebuconazole fungicide 200 mg L-1. Plants were inoculated with Hemileia vastatrix and Cercospora coffeicola seven days later. The application was repeated after 30 days. Plants with five months were sprayed with the same treatments to assess the induced defense responses. Citronella oil controlled rust and brown eye spot with efficiencies of 47.2% and 29.7%, respectively, while tebuconazole presented control of 96.5% and 90.5%, respectively. Acibenzolar-S-methyl reduced brown eye spot by 55.9% and showed no significant control of rust. Citronella oil increased peroxidase and chitinase activities in five months coffee plants 336, and 24 and 336 hours after spraying, respectively. Acibenzolar-S-methyl increased peroxidase, chitinase and ββ-1,3-glucanase activities 192, 288 and 336; 24 and; 240 hours after spraying, respectively. The treatments did not increase accumulation of phenols, but a significant increase in lignin was observed in plants sprayed with citronella oil.A ferrugem e a cercosporiose são as principais doenças de cafeeiro. Os prejuízos se devem a intensa desfolha das plantas que têm sua produção e longevidade reduzidas. A cercosporiose também ocorre nos frutos, com reflexos negativos na qualidade da bebida. Alguns óleos essenciais têm apresentado resultados promissores no

  10. Analysis of Antibacterial Activity of Several Plant Essential Oils Combined with Nisin%几种植物精油与 Nisin 联合抑菌性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁华; 王建清; 王玉峰; 姜楠楠

    2016-01-01

    针对肉制品腐败变质的主要致病菌大肠杆菌和金黄色葡萄球菌,研究乳酸链球菌素(Nisin)、迷迭香、肉豆蔻及鼠尾草精油的抑菌效果,并探索三种植物精油与 Nisin 的复合抑菌性能。实验结果表明:Nisin 较三种香辛料精油具有显著的抑菌效果,其对大肠杆菌和金黄色葡萄球菌的最低抑菌浓度分别为7.5,0.9375 mg/mL,最低杀菌浓度分别为15,0.9375 mg/mL;且肉豆蔻与 Nisin 复配后对二者的抑菌FIC 指数均为1,表现为相加作用,优于其他复合抑菌剂。%Against the main pathogenic bacteria of meat products,EscherichiacoliandStaphylococcus aureus,the antibacterial effect of lactic acid Nisin,rosemary,nutmeg and sage oils is researched.The compound antibacterial properties of three kinds of plant essential oils and Nisin are explored.The results show that Nisin has more significant antibacterial effect than three kinds of fragrant spices essential oils.The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)of EscherichiacoliandStaphylococcus aureus is 7.5,0.9375 mg/mL,and the minimum bactericidal concentration is 15,0.9375 mg/mL. The antibacterial FIC index of nutmeg and Nisin is 1,which shows additive effect and better than other composite antibacterial agent.

  11. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity by essential oil from Citrus paradisi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, M; Tougo, H; Ishihara, M

    2001-01-01

    Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity by essential oils of Citrus paradisi (grapefruit pink in USA) was studied. Inhibition of AChE was measured by the colorimetric method. Nootkatone and auraptene were isolated from C. paradisi oil and showed 17-24% inhibition of AChE activity at the concentration of 1.62 microg/mL.

  12. Bacterial Structure and Characterization of Plant Growth Promoting and Oil Degrading Bacteria from the Rhizospheres of Mangrove Plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    do Carmo, Flavia Lima; dos Santos, Henrique Fragoso; Martins, Edir Ferreira; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Rosado, Alexandre Soares; Peixoto, Raquel Silva

    2011-01-01

    Most oil from oceanic spills converges on coastal ecosystems, such as mangrove forests, which are threatened with worldwide disappearance. Particular bacteria that inhabit the rhizosphere of local plant species can stimulate plant development through various mechanisms; it would be advantageous if t

  13. Bacterial Structure and Characterization of Plant Growth Promoting and Oil Degrading Bacteria from the Rhizospheres of Mangrove Plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    do Carmo, Flavia Lima; dos Santos, Henrique Fragoso; Martins, Edir Ferreira; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Rosado, Alexandre Soares; Peixoto, Raquel Silva

    Most oil from oceanic spills converges on coastal ecosystems, such as mangrove forests, which are threatened with worldwide disappearance. Particular bacteria that inhabit the rhizosphere of local plant species can stimulate plant development through various mechanisms; it would be advantageous if

  14. Oil extraction from plant seeds for biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadessa Gonfa Keneni

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Energy is basic for development and its demand increases due to rapid population growth, urbanization and improved living standards. Fossil fuels will continue to dominate other sources of energy although it is non-renewable and harm global climate. Problems associated with fossil fuels have driven the search for alternative energy sources of which biodiesel is one option. Biodiesel is renewable, non-toxic, environmental-friendly and an economically feasible options to tackle the depleting fossil fuels and its negative environmental impact. It can be produced from vegetable oils, animal fats, waste oils and algae. However, nowadays, the major feedstocks of biodiesel are edible oils and this has created food vs fuel debate. Therefore, the future prospect is to use non-edible oils, animal fats, waste oils and algae as feedstock for biodiesel. Selection of non-expensive feedstock and the extraction and preparation of oil for biodiesel production is a crucial step due to its relevance on the overall technology. There are three main conventional oil extraction methods: mechanical, chemical/solvent and enzymatic extraction methods. There are also some newly developed oil extraction methods that can be used separately or in combination with the conventional ones, to overcome some disadvantages of the conventional oil extraction methods. This review paper presents, compare and discusses different potential biofuel feedstocks, various oil extraction methods, advantages and disadvantages of different oil extraction methods, and propose future prospective for the improvement of oil extraction methods and sustainability of biodiesel production and utilization.

  15. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of peppermint (Mentha piperita L. Essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohaddese Mahboubi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Peppermint with antiseptic and known healing properties is a plant from the Labiatae family. In this study, we analyzed the chemical composition of essential oil from the flowering aerial part of peppermint by GC and GC/MS. Its antimicrobial activity was evaluated against bacteria, fungi and yeast by micro broth dilution assay. The fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC and FIC Index (FICI and related isobologram curve were determined by check board micro titer assay. The results exhibited that the MIC, MLC value of peppermint oil against different kinds of microorganisms were in the range of 0.125-2 and 0.125- >64 µl/ml, respectively. Candida albicans was the most sensitive microorganism and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the less sensitive ones. The oil showed synergistic activities with vancomycin, gentamycin, and amphotericin B with the FICI less of 0.5. This oil could be used as natural antibiotics and may decrease the effective dose of antibiotics.

  16. Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils of Two Species of Lamiaceae against Phytopathogenic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormez, Arzu; Bozari, Sedat; Yanmis, Derya; Gulluce, Medine; Sahin, Fikrettin; Agar, Guleray

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to determine chemical composition and antibacterial activities of Satureja hortensis and Calamintha nepeta against to 20 phytopathogenic bacteria causing serious crop loss. The essential oils of S. hortensis and C. nepeta were isolated by the hydrodistillation method and the chemical composition of the essential oils were analyzed by GC-MS. The antibacterial properties of the essential oils were evaluated against 20 phytopathogenic bacteria through Disc diffusion assay and micro dilution assay. The results revealed that the essential oils of S. hortensis and C. nepeta have significant antibacterial activity. Furthermore, the findings of the study are valuable for future investigations focusing on the alternative natural compounds to control plant diseases.

  17. Phytotoxic activity of foliar volatiles and essential oils of Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araniti, Fabrizio; Lupini, Antonio; Sorgonà, Agostino; Statti, Giancarlo Antonio; Abenavoli, Maria Rosa

    2013-01-01

    Foliar volatiles and essential oils of Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi, a Mediterranean plant species belonging to the Labiatae family, were investigated for their phytotoxic activities on seed germination and root growth of crops (Lactuca sativa L. and Raphanus sativus L.) and weed species (Lolium perenne L. and Amaranthus retroflexus L.). Foliar volatiles of C. nepeta (L.) Savi strongly inhibited both germination and root growth of lettuce, and its essential oils, especially at 125, 250 and 500 μL/L, inhibited both processes in lettuce, radish and A. retroflexus L. species, while displaying a little effect on L. perenne L. By GC-MS, 28 chemicals were identified: 17 monoterpenes, 8 sesquiterpenes, 1 diterpene and 2 miscellaneous. Pulegone was the main constituent of the C. nepeta (L.) Savi essential oils. The terpenic components of essentials oils were probably responsible for the phytotoxic activities.

  18. IMMUNOMODULATORY ACTIVITY OF ARGAN OIL (ARGANIA SPINOSA L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youcef Necib

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunomodulatory activity of Argan oil was evaluated on phagocytic activity by carbon clearance test. Adult Albinos Wistar rats randomly divided into four groups, were the first was served as a control, while animals of treatment group were given Argan oil at dose of: 2.5, 5 and 10 mL kg-1 by gavage respectively 10 days before injected the carbon ink suspension. In carbone clearance test, Argan oil exhibited significantly phagocytic index dose-dependent against control group, indicating stimulation of the reticulo-endothelial system. Present study thus reveals that argan oil holds promise as immunomodulatory agent, which act by stimulating dose dependent phagocytic function.

  19. CNPC-Active Oil Player Worldwide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC),China's largest oil and gas producer, has cumulatively made an investment of 59.6 billion yuan (US$7.39 billion) for its overseas oil and gas business in the past few years. The group has established five oil and natural gas production bases in Africa, central Asia, America, the Asian and Pacific region and the Middle East.

  20. Repellent activity of essential oils against cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattidae, Blattellidae, and Blaberidae) in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavara, Usavadee; Tawatsin, Apiwat; Bhakdeenuan, Payu; Wongsinkongman, Prapai; Boonruad, Thidarat; Bansiddhi, Jaree; Chavalittumrong, Pranee; Komalamisra, Narumon; Siriyasatien, Padet; Mulla, Mir S

    2007-07-01

    Seven commercial essential oils extracted from the plant species Boesenbergia rotunda (L.) Mansf., Citrus hystrix DC., Curcuma longa L., Litsea cubeba (Lour.) Pers., Piper nigrum L., Psidium guajava L. and Zingiber officinale Roscoe, and naphthalene as a control, were evaluated for repellent activity against the three cockroach species Periplaneta americana (L.), Blattella germanica (L.) and Neostylopyga rhombifolia (Stoll) under laboratory conditions. The essential oil derived from Citrus hystrix showed the best repellency over other candidate essential oils and naphthalene. The essential oil of Citrus hystrix exhibited complete repellency (100%) against P. americana and B. germanica, and also showed the highest repellency (among the essential oils tested) of about 87.5% against N. rhombifolia under laboratory conditions. In the field, Citrus hystrix essential oil formulated as a 20% active ingredient in ethanol and some additives provided satisfactory repellency of up to 86% reduction in cockroaches, mostly P. americana and N. rhombifolia with a residual effect lasting a week after treatment. Citrus hystrix essential oil has good potential for being used as a cockroach repellent. Further improvements in efficacy and residual activity may be realized with appropriate formulations.

  1. Development of New Elastomers and Elastic Nanocomposites from Plant Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin; Wool, Richard

    2006-03-01

    Economic and environmental concerns lead to the development of new polymers from renewable resources. In this research, new elastomers were synthesized from plant oil based resins. Acrylated oleic methyl ester (AOME), synthesized from high oleic triglycerides, can readily undergo free radical polymerization and form a linear polymer. To achieve the elastic properties, different strategies have been developed to generate an elastic network and control the crosslink density. The elastomers are reinforced by nanoclays. The intercalated state has a network structure similar to thermoplastic elastomers in which the hard segments aggregate to give ordered crystalline domains. The selected organically modified clay and AOME matrix have similar solubility parameters, therefore intercalation of the monomer/polymer into the clay layers occurs and the nano-scale multilayered structure is stable. In situ intercalation and solution intercalation were used to prepare the elastic nanocomposites. Dramatic improvement in mechanical properties was observed. Changes of tensile strength, strain, Young's modulus and fracture energy were related to the clay concentration. The fracture surface was studied to further understand clay effects on the mechanical properties. Self-Healing of the intercalated nanobeams, thermal stability, biocompatibility and biodegradability of this new elastomer were also explored.

  2. Molecular and phytochemical investigation of Angelica dahurica and Aneelica pubescentis essential oils and their biological activity against Aedes aegypti, Stephanitis pyrioides and Colletotrichum species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water distilled essential oils from the roots of Angelica dahurica and Angelica pubescentis were investigated for their antifungal activity against plant pathogens Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae, and C. gloeosporioides as well as insecticidal activity against the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes ...

  3. Studies on essential oils: part 10; antibacterial activity of volatile oils of some spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, G; Kapoor, I P S; Pandey, S K; Singh, U K; Singh, R K

    2002-11-01

    The essential oils extracted from the seeds of seven spices, Anethum graveolens, Carum capticum, Coriandrum sativum, Cuminum cyminum, Foeniculum vulgare, Pimpinella anisum and Seseli indicum have been studied for antibacterial activity against eight pathogenic bacteria, causing infections in the human body. It has been found that the oil of C. capticum is very effective against all tested bacteria. The oil of C. cyminum and A. graveolens also gave similar results. These oils are equally or more effective when compared with standard antibiotics, at a very low concentration.

  4. Effect of essential oil of Origanum rotundifolium on some plant pathogenic bacteria, seed germination and plant growth of tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadaşoǧlu, Fatih; Kotan, Recep; Karagöz, Kenan; Dikbaş, Neslihan; Ćakmakçi, Ramazan; Ćakir, Ahmet; Kordali, Şaban; Özer, Hakan

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to determine effect of Origanum rotundifolium's essential oil on some plant pathogenic bacterias, seed germination and plant growth of tomato. Xanthomonas axanopodis pv. vesicatoria strain (Xcv-761) and Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. michiganensis strain (Cmm) inoculated to tomato seed. The seeds were tested for germination in vitro and disease severity and some plant growth parameters in vivo. In vitro assay, maximum seed germination was observed at 62,5 µl/ml essential oil treatment in seeds inoculated with Xcv-761 and at 62,5 µl/ml essential oil and streptomycin treatment in seeds inoculated with Cmm. The least infected cotiledon number was observed at 500 µg/ml streptomycin treatment in seeds inoculated with Cmm. In vivo assay, maximum seed germination was observed at 250 µl/ml essential oil teratment in tomato inoculated with Cmm. Lowest disease severity, is seen in the CMM infected seeds with 250 µl/ml essential oil application these results were statistically significant when compared with pathogen infected seeds. Similarly, in application conducted with XCV-761 infected seed, the lowest disease severity was observed for seeds as a result of 250 µl/ml essential oil application. Also according to the results obtained from essential oil application of CMM infected seeds conducted with 62,5 µl/ml dose; while disease severity was found statistically insignificant compared to 250 µl/ml to essential oil application, ıt was found statistically significant compared to pathogen infected seeds. The results showed that essential oil of O. rotundifolium has a potential for some suppressed plant disease when it is used in appropriate dose.

  5. Distillation Time as Tool for Improved Antimalarial Activity and Differential Oil Composition of Cumin Seed Oil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valtcho D Zheljazkov

    Full Text Available A steam distillation extraction kinetics experiment was conducted to estimate essential oil yield, composition, antimalarial, and antioxidant capacity of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L. seed (fruits. Furthermore, regression models were developed to predict essential oil yield and composition for a given duration of the steam distillation time (DT. Ten DT durations were tested in this study: 5, 7.5, 15, 30, 60, 120, 240, 360, 480, and 600 min. Oil yields increased with an increase in the DT. Maximum oil yield (content, 2.3 g/100 seed, was achieved at 480 min; longer DT did not increase oil yields. The concentrations of the major oil constituents α-pinene (0.14-0.5% concentration range, β-pinene (3.7-10.3% range, γ-cymene (5-7.3% range, γ-terpinene (1.8-7.2% range, cumin aldehyde (50-66% range, α-terpinen-7-al (3.8-16% range, and β-terpinen-7-al (12-20% range varied as a function of the DT. The concentrations of α-pinene, β-pinene, γ-cymene, γ-terpinene in the oil increased with the increase of the duration of the DT; α-pinene was highest in the oil obtained at 600 min DT, β-pinene and γ-terpinene reached maximum concentrations in the oil at 360 min DT; γ-cymene reached a maximum in the oil at 60 min DT, cumin aldehyde was high in the oils obtained at 5-60 min DT, and low in the oils obtained at 240-600 min DT, α-terpinen-7-al reached maximum in the oils obtained at 480 or 600 min DT, whereas β-terpinen-7-al reached a maximum concentration in the oil at 60 min DT. The yield of individual oil constituents (calculated from the oil yields and the concentration of a given compound at a particular DT increased and reached a maximum at 480 or 600 min DT. The antimalarial activity of the cumin seed oil obtained during the 0-5 and at 5-7.5 min DT timeframes was twice higher than the antimalarial activity of the oils obtained at the other DT. This study opens the possibility for distinct marketing and utilization for these improved oils. The

  6. Distillation Time as Tool for Improved Antimalarial Activity and Differential Oil Composition of Cumin Seed Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Gawde, Archana; Cantrell, Charles L; Astatkie, Tess; Schlegel, Vicki

    2015-01-01

    A steam distillation extraction kinetics experiment was conducted to estimate essential oil yield, composition, antimalarial, and antioxidant capacity of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seed (fruits). Furthermore, regression models were developed to predict essential oil yield and composition for a given duration of the steam distillation time (DT). Ten DT durations were tested in this study: 5, 7.5, 15, 30, 60, 120, 240, 360, 480, and 600 min. Oil yields increased with an increase in the DT. Maximum oil yield (content, 2.3 g/100 seed), was achieved at 480 min; longer DT did not increase oil yields. The concentrations of the major oil constituents α-pinene (0.14-0.5% concentration range), β-pinene (3.7-10.3% range), γ-cymene (5-7.3% range), γ-terpinene (1.8-7.2% range), cumin aldehyde (50-66% range), α-terpinen-7-al (3.8-16% range), and β-terpinen-7-al (12-20% range) varied as a function of the DT. The concentrations of α-pinene, β-pinene, γ-cymene, γ-terpinene in the oil increased with the increase of the duration of the DT; α-pinene was highest in the oil obtained at 600 min DT, β-pinene and γ-terpinene reached maximum concentrations in the oil at 360 min DT; γ-cymene reached a maximum in the oil at 60 min DT, cumin aldehyde was high in the oils obtained at 5-60 min DT, and low in the oils obtained at 240-600 min DT, α-terpinen-7-al reached maximum in the oils obtained at 480 or 600 min DT, whereas β-terpinen-7-al reached a maximum concentration in the oil at 60 min DT. The yield of individual oil constituents (calculated from the oil yields and the concentration of a given compound at a particular DT) increased and reached a maximum at 480 or 600 min DT. The antimalarial activity of the cumin seed oil obtained during the 0-5 and at 5-7.5 min DT timeframes was twice higher than the antimalarial activity of the oils obtained at the other DT. This study opens the possibility for distinct marketing and utilization for these improved oils. The antioxidant

  7. En-route mechanical activation of viscous oil and oil products transported in railroad tank cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yerlan MYRZAKHMETOV

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors of this document are aiming to substantiate the advantages of en-route mechanical activation technology as aids for railroad transportation of viscous oil and oil products in tank cars. The conceptual design implies the use of momentum generated by brake action. This document also contains preliminary data of laboratory research confirming the validity of the developed concept.

  8. Inhibitory effect of essential oils obtained from plants grown in Colombia on yellow fever virus replication in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez Jairo R

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An antiviral drug is needed for the treatment of patients suffering from yellow fever. Several compounds present in plants can inactive in vitro a wide spectrum of animal viruses. Aim In the present study the inhibitory effect of essential oils of Lippia alba, Lippia origanoides, Oreganum vulgare and Artemisia vulgaris on yellow fever virus (YFV replication was investigated. Methods The cytotoxicity (CC50 on Vero cells was evaluated by the MTT reduction method. The minimum concentration of the essential oil that inhibited virus titer by more than 50% (MIC was determined by virus yield reduction assay. YFV was incubated 24 h at 4°C with essential oil before adsorption on Vero cell, and viral replication was carried out in the absence or presence of essential oil. Vero cells were exposed to essential oil 24 h at 37°C before the adsorption of untreated-virus. Results The CC50 values were less than 100 μg/mL and the MIC values were 3.7 and 11.1 μg/mL. The CC50/MIC ratio was of 22.9, 26.4, 26.5 and 8.8 for L. alba, L origanoides, O. vulgare and A. vulgaris, respectively. The presence of essential oil in the culture medium enhances the antiviral effect: L. origanoides oil at 11.1 μg/mLproduced a 100% reduction of virus yield, and the same result was observed with L. alba, O. vulgare and A. vulgaris oils at100 μg/mL. No reduction of virus yield was observed when Vero cells were treated with essential oil before the adsorption of untreated-virus. Conclusion The essential oils evaluated in the study showed antiviral activities against YFV. The mode of action seems to be direct virus inactivation.

  9. Behavioral effects of plant essential oils on Ceratitis capitata males – risk versus reward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant essential oils have a number of roles in insect pest management. For male Ceratitis capitata, these roles include male-targeted attractants for traps and aromatherapy exposure for increased mating success. Essential oils that affect C. capitata behavior may be from either host or non-host pl...

  10. Chemical composition and antiprotozoal activities of Colombian Lippia spp essential oils and their major components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Escobar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition and biological activities of 19 essential oils and seven of their major components were tested against free and intracellular forms of Leishmania chagasi and Trypanosoma cruzi parasites as well as Vero and THP-1 mammalian cell lines. The essential oils were obtained from different species of Lippia, a widely distributed genus of Colombian plants. They were extracted by microwave radiation-assisted hydro-distillation and characterised by GC-FID and GC-MS. The major components were geranial, neral, limonene, nerol, carvacrol, p-cymene, γ-terpinene, carvone and thymol. The essential oil of Lippia alba exhibited the highest activity against T. cruzi epimastigotes and intracellular amastigotes with an IC50 of 5.5 μg/mL and 12.2 μg/mL, respectively. The essential oil of Lippia origanoides had an IC50 of 4.4 μg/mL in L. chagasi promastigotes and exhibited no toxicity in mammalian cells. Thymol (IC50 3.2 ± 0.4 μg/mL and S-carvone (IC50 6.1 ± 2.2 μg/mL, two of the major components of the active essential oils, were active on intracellular amastigotes of T. cruziinfected Vero cells, with a selective index greater than 10. None of the essential oils or major components tested in this study was active on amastigotes of L. chagasi infected THP-1 cells.

  11. Chemical composition and antiprotozoal activities of Colombian Lippia spp essential oils and their major components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Patricia; Milena Leal, Sandra; Herrera, Laura Viviana; Martinez, Jairo Rene; Stashenko, Elena

    2010-03-01

    The chemical composition and biological activities of 19 essential oils and seven of their major components were tested against free and intracellular forms of Leishmania chagasi and Trypanosoma cruzi parasites as well as Vero and THP-1 mammalian cell lines. The essential oils were obtained from different species of Lippia, a widely distributed genus of Colombian plants. They were extracted by microwave radiation-assisted hydro-distillation and characterised by GC-FID and GC-MS. The major components were geranial, neral, limonene, nerol, carvacrol, p-cymene, gamma-terpinene, carvone and thymol. The essential oil of Lippia alba exhibited the highest activity against T. cruzi epimastigotes and intracellular amastigotes with an IC50 of 5.5 microg/mL and 12.2 microg/mL, respectively. The essential oil of Lippia origanoides had an IC50 of 4.4 microg/mL in L. chagasi promastigotes and exhibited no toxicity in mammalian cells. Thymol (IC50 3.2 +/- 0.4 microg/mL) and S-carvone (IC50 6.1 +/- 2.2 microg/mL), two of the major components of the active essential oils, were active on intracellular amastigotes of T. cruziinfected Vero cells, with a selective index greater than 10. None of the essential oils or major components tested in this study was active on amastigotes of L. chagasi infected THP-1 cells.

  12. Essential Oils of Oregano: Biological Activity beyond Their Antimicrobial Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayely Leyva-López

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils of oregano are widely recognized for their antimicrobial activity, as well as their antiviral and antifungal properties. Nevertheless, recent investigations have demonstrated that these compounds are also potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic and cancer suppressor agents. These properties of oregano essential oils are of potential interest to the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. The aim of this manuscript is to review the latest evidence regarding essential oils of oregano and their beneficial effects on health.

  13. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils against Paenibacillus larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Gende, L. B.; Pires, Sância; Fernandez, N.J.; Damiani, M.; Churio, M.S.; Fritz, R.; Eguaras, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    American foulbrood is a serious bacterial disease that affects Apis mellifera colonies; the causative agent is Paenibacillus larvae [1 ]. The aim of the study was to evaluate in vitro the antimicrobial activity of 32 essential oils against P. larvae. Oils from 21 botanical species were analyzed by gas chromatography (CG and CG/EM). All essential oils were classified according to the composition of their main components in two groups: benzene ring compounds (BRC) and terpene com...

  14. In Vitro Study of the Antifungal Activity of Essential Oils Obtained from Mentha spicata, Thymus vulgaris, and Laurus nobilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houicher, Abderrahmane; Hechachna, Hind; Teldji, Hanifa; Ozogul, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the antifungal activity of the essential oils isolated from three aromatic plants against 13 filamentous fungal strains. The major constituents of Mentha spicata, Thymus vulgaris, and Laurus nobilis essential oils were carvone (52.2%), linalool (78.1%), and 1,8-cineole (45.6%), respectively. There are also some patents suggesting the use of essential oils as natural and safe alternatives to fungicides for plant protection. In the present work, M. spicata essential oil exhibited the strongest activity against all tested fungi in which Fusarium graminearum, F.moniliforme, and Penicillium expansum were the most sensitive to mint oil with lower minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) values of 2.5 μL mL-1 (v/v). Thymus vulgaris essential oil was less active compared to the oil of M. spicata. Aspergillus ochraceus was the most sensitive strain to thyme oil with MIC and MFC values of 2.5 and 5 μL mL-1, respectively. Thymus vulgaris essential oil also exhibited a moderate fungicidal effect against the tested fungi, except for A. niger (MFC >20 μL-1). L. nobilis essential oil showed a similar antifungal activity with thyme oil in which A. parasiticus was the most resistant strain to this oil (MFC >20 μL mL-1). Our findings suggested the use of these essential oils as alternatives to synthetic fungicides in order to prevent pre-and post-harvest infections and ensure product safety. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. Antibacterial Activity and Composition of Essential Oils from Pelargonium Graveolens L’Her and Vitex Agnus-Castus L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Ghannadi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Essential oils are volatile compounds that have been used since Middle Ages as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, sedative, local anesthetic and food flavoring agents. In the current study, essential oils of Pelargonium graveolens L’Her and Vitex agnus-castus L. were analyzed for their antibacterial activities.Materials and Methods: The chemical compositions of essential oils were characterized by GC-MS. Disc diffusion method was used to study antimicrobial activity.Results and Conclusion: Inhibition zones showed that the essential oils of the two plants were active against all of the studied bacteria (except Listeria monocytogenes. The susceptibility of the strains changed with the dilution of essential oils in DMSO. The pure essential oils showed the most extensive inhibition zones and they were very effective antimicrobial compounds compared to chloramphenicol and amoxicillin. The most susceptible strain against these two essential oils was Staphylococcus aureus. It seems that β-citronellol is a prominent part of P. graveolens volatile oil and caryophyllene oxide is a famous and important part of V. agnus-castus volatile oil and their probable synergistic effect with other constituents are responsible for the antibacterial effects of these oils. However further studies must be performed to confirm the safety of these oils for use as antimicrobial agents and natural preservatives in different products.

  16. Assessment of soil contamination by (210)Po and (210)Pb around heavy oil and natural gas fired power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Masri, M S; Haddad, Kh; Doubal, A W; Awad, I; Al-Khatib, Y

    2014-06-01

    Soil contamination by (210)Pb and (210)Po around heavy oil and natural gas power plants has been investigated; fly and bottom ash containing enhanced levels of (210)Pb and (210)Po were found to be the main source of surface soil contamination. The results showed that (210)Pb and (210)Po in fly-ash (economizer, superheater) is highly enriched with (210)Pb and (210)Po, while bottom-ash (boiler) is depleted. The highest (210)Pb and (210)Po activity concentrations were found to be in economizer ash, whereas the lowest activity concentration was in the recirculator ash. On the other hand, (210)Pb and (210)Po activity concentrations in soil samples were found to be higher inside the plant site area than those samples collected from surrounding areas. The highest levels were found in the vicinity of Mhardeh and Tishreen power plants; both plants are operated by heavy oil and natural fuels, while the lowest values were found to be in those samples collected from Nasrieh power plant, which is only operated by one type of fuel, viz. natural gas. In addition, the levels of surface soil contamination have decreased as the distance from the power plant site center increased.

  17. Radiocaesium activity in rape oil and in rape cake after a wet deposition event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaiko, Y.; Rappe-George, M.; Bengtsson, S. [Department of Soil and Environment (Sweden)

    2014-07-01

    After a release of radionuclides in agricultural areas there can be concerns on the levels of radionuclides in food products produced. The uptake of radionuclides via the above ground plant parts is a very important transport route into the food chain for humans as caesium is relatively mobile inside plants. In the production of rape oil the use of a processing factor (Pf) is used to estimate the activity concentration of radioactivity in the final oil product based on the activity concentration in rape seeds. The processing factor has been estimated to be 0.004 for caesium in rape oil by IAEA, and is based on a limited numbers of studies (1). In this project we analysed the activity concentration of radiocaesium ({sup 134}Cs) in rape oil and in rape cake from rape seeds contaminated after a wet deposition event with {sup 134}Cs. With the information of activity concentration of {sup 134}Cs in rape oil and in rape cake, we calculated the Pf-value and confirm or suggest new enhanced Pf-value. We analysed the activity concentration of {sup 134}Cs in rape oil and in rape cake from spring oilseed rape seeds (Brassica napus L.) that had been contaminated experimentally by wet deposited {sup 134}Cs in an earlier experiment by Bengtsson et al. (2013). The estimation of activity concentration of {sup 134}Cs in rape oil and in rape cake was achieved by performing extraction of the oil (and other extractable compounds) from the seeds based on the Randall extraction method (Randall, 1974) using petroleum ether as extraction chemical. The extracted oil and the rape cake samples were weighed and the activity concentration was measured with High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors. Pf-values were calculated by dividing the measured activity concentration in rape oil after extraction by the activity concentration in oilseed rape seeds before extraction. Results from the present study will be presented at the international conference on radioecology and environmental radioactivity

  18. Short range attraction of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) sterile males to six commercially available plant essential oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant essential oils have a number of roles in insect pest management. For male Ceratitis capitata, this includes use of angelica seed oil as long range attractants and ginger root oil as aromatherapy, which is exposure to sterile males to increase mating success. Neither of these plants are hosts f...

  19. Rapid Analytical Method for the Determination of Aflatoxins in Plant-Derived Dietary Supplement and Cosmetic Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumption of edible oils derived from conventional crop plants is increasing because they are generally regarded as more healthy alternatives to animal based fats and oils. More recently there has been increased interest in the use of alternative specialty plant-derived oils, including those from...

  20. Diagnostics of the power oil-filled transformer equipment of thermal power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltyshev, D. K.; Khoroshev, N. I.

    2016-08-01

    Problems concerning improvement of the diagnostics efficiency of the electrical facilities and functioning of the generation and distribution systems through the examples of the power oil-filled transformers, as the responsible elements referring to the electrical part of thermal power plants (TPP), were considered. Research activity is based on the fuzzy logic system allowing working both with statistical and expert information presented in the form of knowledge accumulated during operation of the power oil-filled transformer facilities. The diagnostic algorithm for various types of transformers, with the use of the intellectual estimation model of its thermal state on the basis of the key diagnostic parameters and fuzzy inference hierarchy, was developed. Criteria for taking measures allowing preventing emergencies in the electric power systems were developed. The fuzzy hierarchical model for the state assessment of the power oil-filled transformers of 110 kV, possessing high degree of credibility and setting quite strict requirements to the limits of variables of the equipment diagnostic parameters, was developed. The most frequent defects of the transformer standard elements, related with the disturbance of the isolation properties and instrumentation operation, were revealed after model testing on the real object. Presented results may be used both for the express diagnostics of the transformers state without disconnection from the power line and for more detailed analysis of the defects causes on the basis of the advanced list of the diagnostic parameters; information on those parameters may be received only after complete or partial disconnection.

  1. Plant-wide Control for Better De-oiling of Produced Water in Offshore Oil & Gas Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Stigkær, Jens Peter; Løhndorf, Bo

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of plant-wide control philosophy to enhance the performance and capacity of the Produced Water Treatment (PWT) in offshore oil & gas production processes. Different from most existing facility- or material-based PWT innovation methods, the objective of this work...

  2. Insecticidal and repellence activity of the essential oil of Pogostemon cablin against urban ants species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Elânia L D; Lima, Janaína K A; Souza, Felipe H O; Silva, Indira M A; Santos, Abraão A; Araújo, Ana Paula A; Blank, Arie F; Lima, Rafaely N; Alves, Péricles B; Bacci, Leandro

    2013-09-01

    Ants are highly abundant in neotropical regions, with certain species adapted to the urban environment, where they can cause damage to human health. The main method for controlling ants consists of using organosynthetic insecticides, which are potentially toxic to the environment. Essential plant oils are considered a viable alternative to the use of conventional insecticides. In this study, we analyze the bioinsecticidal activity and repellence of patchouli essential oil (Pogostemon cablin) against three species of urban ants: Camponotus melanoticus, Camponotus novograndensis, and Dorymyrmex thoracicus. The chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed by GC-MS and GC-FID. The major compounds were patchoulol (36.6%) followed by α-bulnesene (13.95%), and α-guaiene (11.96%). Toxicity and repellency bioassays were performed using the essential oil over the ants, and mortality evaluations were performed at 4, 24, and 48 h after performing the bioassays. Mortality percentage of the ants on 7 μg/mg was on average 84%. The essential oil of P. cablin displayed toxicity against all three species of urban ants, with the lowest LD₅₀ being observed for D. thoracicus (2.02 μg oil/mg insect) after 48 h of exposure compared to C. melanoticus (2.34 μg oil/mg insect) and C. novogranadensis (2.95 μg oil/mg insect). The essential oil of P. cablin was strongly repellent to the three species of ants in all concentrations tested (0.01% and 1% v/v). Considering the potential toxicity and repellency of the P. cablin essential oil to the urban ants, future studies could investigate the practical application of this oil to control of this insects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Toxicity of essential oil of Satureja khuzistanica: in vitro cytotoxicity and anti-microbial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefzadi, Morteza; Riahi-Madvar, Ali; Hadian, Javad; Rezaee, Fatemeh; Rafiee, Roya; Biniaz, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    In nature, essential oils play an important role in the protection of the plants by exerting anti-bacterial, -viral, -fungal, -oxidative, -genotoxic, and free radical scavenging properties, as well as in some cases acting as insecticides. Several Satureja species are used in traditional medicine due to recognized therapeutic properties, namely anti-microbial and cytotoxic activities. The purpose of the present work was to determine the biologic activity of the essential oil of S. khuzistanica Jamzad (Lamiaceae) against four human cancer cell lines, as well as its inhibitory effects against a wide array (i.e. n = 11) of pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The essential oil was isolated by hydro-distillation and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Carvacrol (92.87%) and limonene (1.2%) were found to be the main components of the isolated oil. Anti-microbial activity of the essential oil was assessed using a disc diffusion method; an MTT cytotoxicity assay was employed to test effects of the oil on each cancer cell line. The oil exhibited considerable anti-microbial activity against the majority of the tested bacteria and fungi. The test oil also significantly reduced cell viability of Vero, SW480, MCF7, and JET 3 cells in a dose-dependent manner, with the IC50 values calculated for each cell type being, respectively, 31.2, 62.5, 125, and 125 μg/ml. Based on the findings, it is concluded that the essential oil of S. khuzistanica and its major constituents have a potential for further use in anti-bacterial and anti-cancer applications, pending far more extensive testing of toxicities in normal (i.e. primary) cells.

  4. Larvicidal and mosquito repellent activities of Pine (Pinus longifolia, Family: Pinaceae oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Ansari, P.K. Mittal, R.K. Razdan & U. Sreehari

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Various plant-based products are safe and biodegradable alternatives tosynthetic chemicals for use against mosquitoes. Oil of Pinus longifolia is traditionally used forprotection against mosquitoes in some rural areas but there is no documented report of its use againstmosquitoes. The present study was undertaken to scientifically evaluate the activity of Pine oilagainst mosquitoes.Methods: The oil was procured from the market and its contents were chemically analysed. Larvicidalactivity of oil was tested in laboratory bioassays, while repellent action was studied during wholenight bait collections in field by direct application on the skin and after its impregnation on mats.Results: Results showed varying degree of larvicidal activity of Pine oil against mosquitoes with LC50values ranging between 82 and 112 ppm. The Pine oil had strong repellent action against mosquitoesas it provided 100% protection against Anopheles culicifacies for 11 h and 97% protection againstCulex quinquefasciatus for nine hours respectively. Electrically heated mats prepared from Pine oilprovided, 94 and 88% protection against An. culicifacies and Cx. quinquefasciatus for 10 and sevenhours respectively.Interpretaion & conclusion: Pine oil is effective against mosquito larvae at very higher doses whichare not of any practical utility. However, Pine oil showed strong repellent action against An. culicifacies(malaria vector and Cx. quinquefasciatus (pest mosquito. Thus its use could be popularised asmosquito repellent.

  5. Phytochemical characterization, antimicrobial activity and reducing potential of seed oil, latex, machine oil and presscake of Jatropha curcas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Sharma

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aims to evaluate the antimicrobial activity, phytochemical studies and thin layer chromatography analysis of machine oil, hexane extract of seed oil and methanol extract of presscake& latex of Jatropha curcas Linn (family Euphorbiaceae. Materials and Methods: J. curcas extracts were subjected to preliminary qualitative phytochemical screening to detect the major phytochemicals followed by its reducing power and content of phenol and flavonoids in different fractions. Thin layer chromatography was also performed using different solvent systems for the analysis of a number of constituents in the plant extracts. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated by the disc diffusion method, while the minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum bactericidal concentration and minimum fungicidal concentration were calculated by micro dilution method. Results: The methanolic fraction of latex and cake exhibited marked antifungal and antibacterial activities against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, terpenoids, steroids, glycosides, phenols and flavonoids. Reducing power showed dose dependent increase in concentration compared to standard Quercetin. Furthermore, this study recommended the isolation and separation of bioactive compounds responsible for the antibacterial activity which would be done by using different chromatographic methods such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, GC-MS etc. Conclusion: The results of the above study suggest that all parts of the plants possess potent antibacterial activity. Hence, it is important to isolate the active principles for further testing of antimicrobial and other biological efficacy.

  6. Effect of Light Spectral Quality on Essential Oil Components in Ocimum Basilicum and Salvia Officinalis Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. IVANITSKIKH

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In plants grown with artificial lighting, variations in light spectral composition can be used for the directed biosynthesis of the target substances including essential oils, e.g. in plant factories. We studied the effect of light spectral quality on the essential oil composition in Ocimum basilicum and Salvia officinalis plants grown in controlled environment. The variable-spectrum light modules were designed using three types of high-power light-emitting diodes (LEDs with emission peaked in red, blue and red light, white LEDs, and high-pressure sodium lamps as reference. Qualitative and quantitative essential oil determinations were conducted using gas chromatography with mass selective detection and internal standard method.Sweet basil plant leaves contain essential oils (са. 1 % including linalool, pinene, eugenol, camphor, cineole, and other components. And within the genetic diversity of the species, several cultivar groups can be identified according to the flavor (aroma perceived by humans: eugenol, clove, camphor, vanilla basil. Essential oil components produce particular flavor of the basil leaves. In our studies, we are using two sweet basil varieties differing in the essential oil qualitative composition – “Johnsons Dwarf” (camphor as a major component of essential oils and “Johnsons Lemon Flavor” (contains large amount of citral defining its lemon flavor.In sage, essential oil composition is also very variable. As for the plant responses to the light environment, the highest amount of the essential oils was observed at the regimes with white and red + blue LED light. And it was three times less with red light LEDs alone. In the first two environments, thujone accumulation was higher in comparison with camphor, while red LED light and sodium lamp light favored camphor biosynthesis (three times more than thujone. The highest amount of eucalyptol was determined in plants grown with red LEDs.

  7. Degradation of Jatropha curcas phorbol esters derived from Jatropha oil cake and their tumor-promoting activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Motoyuki; Hasegawa, Go; Yasuhara, Tadashi; Ishihara, Yoko

    2015-04-01

    Large amount of oil cake is generated during biodiesel production from Jatropha seeds. Although Jatropha oil cake is rich in plant nutrients, presence of toxic phorbol esters restricts the usage of oil cake as a fertilizer. The objective of this study is to evaluate the components and tumor promoting activity of phorbol esters in Jatropha oil cake-supplemented soil and plants grown in the treated soil. Contents and their biological activity of Jatropha phorbol esters in soil and plants were sequentially analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and in vitro cell transformation assay, respectively. Disappearance of Jatropha phorbol-ester-specific peaks were followed with HPLC during incubation of Jatropha oil cake with soil for five weeks. Along with the degradation of Jatropha phorbol ester in soil, tumor-promoting activity in the sample was also attenuated and ultimately disappeared. Jatropha phorbol esters and tumor promoting activity were not detected from mustard spinach grown in the Jatropha oil cake-supplemented soil. In addition, the esterase KM109 degrades DHPB (see definition below; Jatropha phorbol ester) and reduced its tumor-promoting activity. From these data, we conclude: (1) components and tumor promoting activity of Jatropha phorbol esters in the oil cake disappeared completely by incubation with soil for five-week, (2) Jatropha phorbol esters did not transfer into plants grown in the Jatropha oil cake-supplemented soil, and (3) DHPB can be degraded by esterase from soil bacterium. These observations are useful for utilization of Jatropha oil cake as a fertilizer.

  8. Study on Antimicrobiai and Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oils and Polyphenol in Mentha Plants%薄荷属植物精油和多酚类的抑菌性及抗氧化性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕爽; 田呈瑞; 韩莎莎

    2011-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of essential oil in Mentha piperita and Mentha cardiaca were determined in this study. Furthermore, the polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of solid residues in two mints were also investigated. The results demonstrated that the two essential oils exhibited inhibition effect on E. Coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes, however, without inhibitory effect was observed in the case of Salmonella enteritidis and Aspergillus niger. The antimicrobial ability of peppermint essential oil was stronger than Scotch spearmint essential oils. Besides, the polyphenol content in residues of peppermint was significantly decreased, but that in Scotch spearmint had no significantreduction. The residues of two mints had stronger ability of scavenging DPPH after water distillation, but the antioxidant ability in FRAP assay reduced significantly.%研究了椒样薄荷(Mentha piperita L.)与苏格兰留兰香(Mentha cardiaca G.)精油的抑菌活性,测定了精油的最小抑菌浓度(MIC)和最小杀菌浓度(MBC).同时对两种薄荷叶片以及精油提取后残渣的多酚含量和抗氧化性进行研究,以期为椒样薄荷与苏格兰留兰香的多角度开发利用提供理论依据.结果表明:2种薄荷精油对于大肠杆菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、鼠伤寒沙门氏菌和李斯特菌均有抑制作用,而对于肠炎沙门氏菌及黑曲霉没有抑制作用,椒样薄荷精油的抑菌效果比苏格兰留兰香精油强.另外,椒样薄荷多酚含量在提取精油后显著性减少,而苏格兰留兰香未显著性降低.两种薄荷精油提取后残渣具有较强的DPPH自由基清除能力,而FRAP抗氧化能力却显著性降低.

  9. The flocculants applied in the oil refining plant wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesnokova, M. G.; Shalay, V. V.; Kriga, A. S.; Shaporenko, A. P.

    2017-08-01

    Flocculation methods for the oil refinery wastewater treatment are necessary, effective and economic, and are used, as a rule, for the demulsification of petroleum products from wastewater. In addition, flocculants can be used to remove other pollutants, not only oil products. The research purpose was to analyze the separate indicators level, measured on the oil refinery wastewater treatment facilities. Oil refinery wastewater purification rate was studied, indicating a different level of indicators considered. An influence of cationic and anionic flocculants working efficiency showed that the flocculants allows to increase the flotation technological indicators and to increase the solids content in water.

  10. Acaricidal and repellent activities of essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus against Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Mesostigmata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehghani-Samani Amir

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: By considering an increase in drug resistance against red mites, finding the nonchemical herbal acaricide against Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer (Acari: Mesostigmata is necessary to kill them and to reduce the chemical resistance against chemical acaricides in this specie. Dermanyssus gallinae is a potential vector of the causal agent of several viral diseases such as Equine encephalitis and St. Louis encephalitis. It can be a vector of bacteria such as Salmonella spp., Mycobacterium spp. and Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae. It is also known to cause itching dermatosis in humans. In this study acaricidal and repellent activities of essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus against Dermanyssus gallinae were studied. Methods: After extracting the essential oil, different concentrations of the plant extract were prepared. Then, acaricidal effect of different concentrations was tested on poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, by dropping 3-4 drops of essential oil on mites. Repellent activity of essential oil was tested by Y-tube olfactometer bioassay. After the test, total number of killed and repellent mites reported. Results: Concentration of 1:2 or 50% had more acaricidal effect on mites. Also essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus had repellent activity against red mites. Conclusion: This study showed that essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus had acaricidal and repellent activities against red mites. Hence it might be used as a herbal acaricide against it to kill and to reduce the chemical resistance in this specie.

  11. Localization and movement of mineral oil in plants by fluorescence and confocal microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, B L; Sarafis, V; Beattie, G A C; White, R; Darley, E M; Spooner-Hart, R

    2005-10-01

    Fluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy were explored to investigate the movement and localization of mineral oils in citrus. In a laboratory experiment, fluorescence microscopy observation indicated that when a 'narrow' distillation fraction of an nC23 horticultural mineral oil was applied to adaxial and opposing abaxial leaf surfaces of potted orange [Citrus x aurantium L. (Sapindales: Rutaceae)] trees, oil penetrated steadily into treated leaves and, subsequently, moved to untreated petioles of the leaves and adjacent untreated stems. In another experiment, confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to visualize the penetration into, and the subsequent cellular distribution of, an nC24 agricultural mineral oil in C. trifoliata L. seedlings. Oil droplets penetrated or diffused into plants via both stomata and the cuticle of leaves and stems, and then moved within intercellular spaces and into various cells including phloem and xylem. Oil accumulated in droplets in intercellular spaces and within cells near the cell membrane. Oil entered cells without visibly damaging membranes or causing cell death. In a field experiment with mature orange trees, droplets of an nC23 horticultural mineral oil were observed, by fluorescence microscopy, in phloem sieve elements in spring flush growth produced 4-5 months and 16-17 months after the trees were sprayed with oil. These results suggest that movement of mineral oil in plants is both apoplastic via intercellular spaces and symplastic via plasmodesmata. The putative pattern of the translocation of mineral oil in plants and its relevance to oil-induced chronic phytotoxicity are discussed.

  12. Evaluation of yield, quality and antioxidant activity of essential oil of in vitro propagated Kaempferia galangaLinn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suprava Sahoo; Reena Parida; Sikha Singh; Rabindra N Padhy; Sanghamitra Nayak

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To determine chemical constituents and antioxidant properties of essential oil from rhizome of the medicinal plant,Kaempferia galanga(K. galanga)Linn.(Zingiberaceae) in conventionally propagated(CP) andin vitro propagated(IVP) plants.Methods:In vitro(micro) propagation ofK. galanga was done by inoculating explants on toMurashige andSkoog agar medium, supplemented with suitable combinations of phytohormones; the regenerants were transferred to soil for further growth.Essential oil preparations of bothCP andIVP rhizomes grown in soil, obtained by the hydro-distillation method were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.Antioxidant activities of essential oil samples were monitored. Results:Maximum numbers of regenerated shoots were found in the medium supplemented with1 mg/L benzyl adenine and0.5 mg/L indole-3-acetic acid.A total of6 compounds were identified from rhizomes fromCP andIVP plants that yielded96.9% and97.81% of the total oil contents, respectively.The major compound of rhizome oil identified fromCP andIVP rhizomes was ethyl p-methoxy cinnamate in quantities,82.01% and71.77%, respectively, without any compositional variation.Antioxidant properties of essential oil preparations were assessed by the2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH) and hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging assays.Moreover, antioxidant activities of rhizome-oil fromIVP plants were better than that ofCP oil samples.Conclusions:As IVP rhizomes had better oil yield, those could be used for a large scale commercial propagation for sustainable use of essential oil.The principal chemical in the essential oil, ethyl p-methoxy cinnamate could help apothecary, for several ailments.

  13. Antibacterial activity of essential oils: potential applications in food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burt, S.A.

    2007-01-01

    Due to its antibacterial activity, oregano oil has lately become interesting as a potential 'natural' food preservative. Oregano oil was found to be a fast acting and effective inhibitor of a strain of Escherichia coli O157:H7, the causative agent of a serious gastro-enteritis, and was lethal to

  14. Antibacterial activity of essential oils: potential applications in food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burt, S.A.

    2007-01-01

    Due to its antibacterial activity, oregano oil has lately become interesting as a potential 'natural' food preservative. Oregano oil was found to be a fast acting and effective inhibitor of a strain of Escherichia coli O157:H7, the causative agent of a serious gastro-enteritis, and was lethal to thi

  15. Repellent activity of five essential oils against Culex pipiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erler, F; Ulug, I; Yalcinkaya, B

    2006-12-01

    Essential oils extracted from the seeds of anise (Pimpinella anisum), dried fruits of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis), dried foliage of mint (Mentha piperita) and basil (Ocimum basilicum) and fresh foliage of laurel (Laurus nobilis) were tested for their repellency against the adult females of Culex pipiens. All essential oils showed repellency in varying degrees, eucalyptus, basil and anise being the most active.

  16. Essential oil composition, phytotoxic and antifungal activities of Ruta chalepensis L. leaves from High Atlas Mountains (Morocco).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouajaj, Sana; Romane, Abderrahmane; Benyamna, Abdennaji; Amri, Ismail; Hanana, Mohsen; Hamrouni, Lamia; Romdhane, Mehrez

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at the determination of chemical composition of essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation, and to evaluate their phytotoxic and antifungal activities. Leaves of Ruta chalepensis L. were collected from the region of Tensift Al Haouz (High Atlas Mountains) Marrakech, Morocco. The essential oil (oil yield is 0.56%) was analysed by GC-FID and GC/MS. Twenty-two compounds were identified and accounted for 92.4% of the total oil composition. The major components were undecan-2-one (49.08%), nonan-2-one (33.15%), limonene (4.19%) and decanone (2.71%). Antifungal ability of essential oils was tested by disc agar diffusion against five plant pathogenic fungi: Fusarium proliferatum, Fusarium pseudograminearum, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium polyphialidicum. The oils were also tested in vitro for herbicidal activity by determining their influence on the germination and the shoot and root growth of two weed species, Triticum durum and Phalaris canariensis L.

  17. Antibacterial activity of selected Egyptian ethnomedicinal plants

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    Mashait, M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Medicinal plants have recently received the attention of the antimicrobial activity of plants and their metabolites due to the challenge of growing incidences of drug-resistant pathogens. The aims of this study were to determine the antibacterial activities of plant extracts used as ethnomedicinal in Egypt. Methodology and Results: Investigations were carried out to assess the antibacterial efficiency of 11 plant extracts used as ethnopharmacological among Egyptian native people against infectious diseases. Crude methanol, ethanol,chloroform, hexane, acetone and aqueous extract of plants were tested for antibacterial activity in vitro against ten bacterial isolates using the disc diffusion method test. Discs were impregnated with 2 mg/mL of different solvent extracts. Among all the crude extracts, the methanol extract showed the highest activity than other extracts. P. harmala and S. officinalis exhibited highest antibacterial activity against gram positive and negative bacteria while the remainingplants extracts showed less activity. All the plant extracts showed no significant effect against the Bordetella bronchisepta ATCC 4617 except the extracts of M. fragrans and L. sativum. E. coli is the most sensitive microorganism tested, with the lowest MIC value (0.5 mg/mL in the presence of the plant extract of P. harmala and S. officinalis.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: Results obtained herein, may suggest that the ethnomedicinal Egyptian plants possess antimicrobial activity and therefore, they can be used in biotechnological fields as natural preservative ingredients in food and/or pharmaceutical industry.

  18. Applications of nanoparticles in herbal medicine: zedoary turmeric oil and its active compound β-elemene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meiwan; Wang, Shengpeng; Tan, Miao; Wang, Yitao

    2011-01-01

    Zedoary turmeric oil and its main active ingredient β-elemene are novel plant-derived anticancer agents with long-term clinical application history and low toxicity, which have been approved by the Chinese SFDA to treat different tumors including cancers of the brain, ovary, prostate, breast, lungs, liver, colon, and other tissues. Unfortunately, their hydrophobic properties, poor stabilities and low bioavailabilities seriously hamper their applications in clinic. Therefore, more attention should be paid to develop novel drug delivery systems for zedoary turmeric oil and β-elemene to enhance their overall quality. Recently, increased research has been carried out on a nanoparticle drug delivery system of zedoary turmeric oil and β-elemene to solve their poor aqueous solubilities and low bioavailabilities in vivo with much remarkable achievements springing up in the last decade. This review presents the novel nanoparticle formulations of zedoary turmeric oil and β-elemene and introduces the possible future prospects of their further study.

  19. Larvicidal activity of essential oil and methanol extract of Nepeta menthoides against malaria vector Anopheles stephensi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khanavi Mahnaz; Fallah Alireza; Vatandoost Hassan; Sedaghat Mahdi; Abai Mohammad Reza; Hadjiakhoondi Abbas

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the larvicidal activity of essential oil and methanol extract of theNepeta menthoides (N. menthoides) against main malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi). Methods: The essential oil of plant was obtained by Clevenger type apparatus and the methanol extract was supplied with Percolation method. Larvicidal activity was tested by WHO method. Twenty five fourth-instar larvae of An. stephensi were used in the larvicidal assay and four replicates were tested for each concentration. Five different concentrations of the oil and extract were tested for calculation of LC50 and LC90 values. Results: The LC50 and LC90 values were determined by probit analysis. LC50 was 69.5 and 234.3 ppm and LC90 was 175.5 and 419.9 ppm for the extract and essential oil respectively. Conclusions: According to the results of this study methanolic extract of plant exhibited more larvicidal activity than essential oil. This could be useful for investigation of new natural larvicidal compounds.

  20. Evaluation of vetiver oil and seven insect-active essential oils against the Formosan subterranean termite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, B C; Henderson, G; Chen, F; Fei, H; Laine, R A

    2001-08-01

    Repellency and toxicity of 8 essential oils (vetiver grass, cassia leaf, clove bud, cedarwood, Eucalyptus globules, Eucalyptus citrodora, lemongrass and geranium) were evaluated against the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki. Vetiver oil proved the most effective repellent because of its long-lasting activity. Clove bud was the most toxic, killing 100% of termites in 2 days at 50 micrograms/cm2. The tunneling response of termites to vetiver oil also was examined. Vetiver oil decreased termite tunneling activity at concentrations as low as 5 micrograms/g sand. Tunneling and paper consumption were not observed when vetiver oil concentrations were higher than 25 micrograms/g sand. Bioactivity of the 8 oils against termites and chemical volatility were inversely associated. Listed in decreasing order of volatility, the major constituents of the 8 oils were: eucalyptol, citronellal, citral, citronellol, cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, thujopsene, and both alpha- and beta-vetivone. Vetivor oil is a promising novel termiticide with reduced environmental impact for use against subterranean termites.

  1. Is the plant-associated microbiota of Thymus spp. adapted to plant essential oil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checcucci, Alice; Maida, Isabel; Bacci, Giovanni; Ninno, Cristina; Bilia, Anna Rita; Biffi, Sauro; Firenzuoli, Fabio; Flamini, Guido; Fani, Renato; Mengoni, Alessio

    2016-11-21

    We examined whether the microbiota of two related aromatic thyme species, Thymus vulgaris and Thymus citriodorus, differs in relation to the composition of the respective essential oil (EO). A total of 576 bacterial isolates were obtained from three districts (leaves, roots and rhizospheric soil). They were taxonomically characterized and inspected for tolerance to the EO from the two thyme species. A district-related taxonomic pattern was found. In particular, high taxonomic diversity among the isolates from leaves was detected. Moreover, data obtained revealed a differential pattern of resistance of the isolates to EOs extracted from T. vulgaris and T. citriodorus, which was interpreted in terms of differing chemical composition of the EO of their respective host plants. In conclusion, we suggest that bacterial colonization of leaves in Thymus spp. is influenced by the EO present in leaf glandular tissue as one of the selective forces shaping endophytic community composition.

  2. Essential Oil from Inula britannica Extraction with SF-CO2 and Its Antifungal Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Te; GAO Fei; ZHOU Lin; SONG Tian-you

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the extraction technique of supercritical fluid carbon dioxide (SF-CO2) for the essential oil from Inula britannica flowers and its antifungal activities against plant pathogenic fungi for its potential application as botanical fungicide. The effects of factors, including extraction temperature, extraction pressure, SF-CO2 flow rate, flower powder size, and time on the essential oil yield were studied using the single factor experiment. An orthogonal experiment was conducted to determine the best operating conditions for the maximum extraction oil yield. Adopting the optimum conditions, the maximum yield reached 10.01% at 40°C temperature, 30 MPa pressure, 60 mesh flower powder size, 20 L h-1 SF-CO2 flow rate, and 90 min extraction time. The antifungal activities of I. britannica essential oil using the SF-CO2 against the most important plant pathogenic fungi were also examined through in vitro and in vivo tests. Sixteen plant pathogenic fungi were inhibited to varying degrees at 1 mg mL-1 concentration of the essential oil. The mycelial growth of Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici was completely inhibited. The radial growths of Phytophthora capsici and Fusarium monilifome were also inhibited by 83.76 and 64.69%, respectively. In addition, the essential oil can inhibit the spore germination of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, Phytophthora capsici, Colletotrichum orbiculare, and Pyricularia grisea, and the corresponding inhibition rates were 98.26, 96.54, 87.89, and 87.35%respectively. The present study has demonstrated that the essential oil of I. britannica flowers extracted through the SF-CO2 technique is one potential and promising antifungal agent that can be used as botanical fungicide to protect crops.

  3. Antimicrobial activity of essential oil from Schinus molle Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundidza, M

    1993-11-01

    The essential oil from the fresh leaves of Schinus molle isolated by hydrodistillation was tested for antibacterial activity using the hole plate diffusion method and for antifungal activity using the mycelium or single cell growth inhibition method. Results obtained showed that the volatile oil exhibited significant activity against the following bacterial species: Klebsiella pneumoniae, Alcaligenes faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Leuconostoc cremoris, Enterobacter aerogenes, Proteus vulgaris, Clostridium sporogenes, Acinetobacter calcoacetica, Escherichia coli, Beneckea natriegens, Citrobacter freundii, Serratia marcescens, Bacillus subtilis and Brochothrix thermosphacata. The fungal species Aspergillus ochraceus, Aspergillus parasiticus, Fusarium culmorum and Alternaria alternata exhibited significant sensitivity to the volatile oil.

  4. Quality Evaluation of Oil from Seeds of Wild Plant Tylosema fassoglensis in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ojwang D. Otieno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tylosema fassoglensis is a plant species that is native to Sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical properties of oil from T. fassoglensis in Kenya. Seeds of T. fassoglensis were collected from Mombasa, Taita Taveta, Homa Bay, and Siaya regions. Counts of T. fassoglensis in each region were recorded during the entire survey period. The highest distribution was recorded in Homa Bay followed by Siaya region. Distribution was the least in Taita Taveta and Mombasa regions. The analysis of the physicochemical characteristics of the oil was performed according to the official methods of analysis and the recommended practices of the American Oil Chemists Society. Oil content of 36.4% was obtained. The oil had refractive index 1.47 at 40°C, peroxide value 6.34 meq O2/kg, iodine value 94.06 g of I2/100 g, saponification value 145.93 mg KOH/g of oil, acid value 2.49 ± 0.56 mg KOH/g of oil, and unsaponifiable matter 5.87 g/kg. The oil had Lovibond color index of 2.0Y+28.0R. Oil content of T. fassoglensis is comparable with those of most oil crop under commercial production. The physicochemical properties of oil from T. fassoglensis are within the range recommended by FAO/WHO and hence suitable for human consumption.

  5. Variation of essential oil composition of Melissa officinalis L. leaves during different stages of plant growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Keivan Saeb; Sara Gholamrezaee

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the best time of harvest for Melissa officinalis (M. officinalis) L. to gain highest amounts essential oil.Methods: M. officinalis leaves were harvested in three different stages (before flowering stage, flowering stage and after of flowering stage) and were dried. The essential oils were isolated by hydro- distillation and analyzed by GC/MS.Results: It showed that most essential oils of plants were in before flowering stage. In before flowering stage 37 compounds were identified in leaves oil of M.officinalis. The major components before flowering stage were decadienal (29.38%), geraniol (25.3%), caryophyllene oxide (8.75%), geranyl acetate (5.41%). In the flowering stage 36 compounds were identified as the major components of plant essential oils: decadienal (28.04%), geraniol (24.97%), caryophyllene oxide (7.55%), caryophyllene E (4.65%) and 16 components in the after flowering stage of plant were identified as the major components carvacrol (37.62%), methyl citronellate (32.34%), geranyl acetate (5.82%), caryophyllene (5.50%).Conclusions: The essential oils yields vary considerably from month-to-month and is also influenced by the micro-environment (sun or shade) in which the plant is growing. We found that the essential oil content of M. officinalis L. of leaves is significantly affected by harvesting stages.

  6. Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil and different fractions of Juniperus communis L. and a comparison with some commercial antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANDRA B. GLIIC

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of common juniper (Juniperus communis L., from the southern part of Serbia and its fractions of different composition, as well as commercial antibiotics were used for testing their antimicrobial activity against bacteria, yeast and fungi. The essential oil was produced by hydro-distillation in a pilot plant (130 dm3 and then fractionated by distillation over a column, with 36 theoretical stages, under vacuum (26–66 mbar. The essential oil was also fractionated using pure CO2 or CO2 and methanol as co-solvent under supercritical conditions. The native oil showed weak antimicrobial activity, while the fractions with a high content of a-pinene, and mixture of a-pinene and sabinene showed the highest antimicrobial activity, especially against fungi. In comparison to the commercial antibiotics, the oil fractions showed more extensive spectra of antimicrobial activity, as well as wider inhibition zones.

  7. Chemical composition and amoebicidal activity of Croton pallidulus, Croton ericoides, and Croton isabelli (Euphorbiaceae) essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vunda, Sita Luvangadio Lukoki; Sauter, Ismael Pretto; Cibulski, Samuel Paulo; Roehe, Paulo Michel; Bordignon, Sérgio A Loreto; Rott, Marilise Brittes; Apel, Miriam A; von Poser, Gilsane Lino

    2012-09-01

    Acanthamoeba is a free-living amoebae genus that causes amoebic keratitis which is a painful sight-threatening disease of the eyes. Its treatment is difficult, and the search for new drugs is very important. Here, essential oils obtained from the aerial parts of Croton pallidulus, Croton isabelli, and Croton ericoides (Euphorbiaceae), native plants of Southern Brazil, were tested against Acanthamoeba polyphaga and analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The essential oils of C. pallidulus and C. isabelli were characterized by the presence of sesquiterpenes: germacrene D (15.5 %), terpinen-4-ol (13.2 %), and β-caryophyllene (13.1 %) in C. pallidulus and bicyclogermacrene (48.9 %) in C. isabelli. The essential oil of C. ericoides presented mainly monoterpenes, β-pinene (39.0 %) being the main component. Laboratory tests were carried out to determine the effect of the essential oils against A. polyphaga trophozoites. The essential oil of C. ericoides was the most active, killing 87 % of trophozoites at the concentration of 0.5 mg/mL. The essential oil of C. pallidulus killed only 29 % of the trophozoites at the same concentration. The essential oil of C. isabelli presented the lowest activity, killing only 4 % of the trophozoites at the concentration of 10 mg/mL. The essential oils of the three species showed cytotoxic effect by the methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) method in Vero cells. The oil of C. ericoides, which showed the highest amoebicidal activity, was the most cytotoxic on these mammalian cells.

  8. Chemical Composition and In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Mentha spicata Essential Oil against Common Food-Borne Pathogenic Bacteria

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    Yasser Shahbazi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oil from the leaf of Mentha spicata plant against common food-borne pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, and Escherichia coli O157:H7. Chemical composition of the essential oil was identified by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometer detector (GC-MS. The antibacterial activity of the essential oil was evaluated by broth microdilution method and agar disk diffusion assay. According to the result of GC-MS analysis, 18 components were identified, accounting for 99.89% of the whole essential oil. The main components were carvone (78.76%, limonene (11.50%, β-bourbonene (11.23%, cis-dihydrocarveol (1.43%, trans-caryophyllene (1.04%, menthone (1.01%, menthol (1%, and terpinen-4-ol (0.99. The essential oil exhibited moderate level of antibacterial activity against all test microorganisms. In general, Gram-positive bacteria were more susceptible to M. spicata essential oil than Gram-negative bacteria. L. monocytogenes was the most sensitive of the microorganisms to the antibacterial activity of M. spicata essential oil (inhibition zone = 22 mm and MIC and MBC = 2.5 µL/mL. Based on our results, the essential oil of M. spicata plant collected from Kermanshah province, west of Iran, has a potential to be applied as antibacterial agent.

  9. Chemical Composition and In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Mentha spicata Essential Oil against Common Food-Borne Pathogenic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbazi, Yasser

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oil from the leaf of Mentha spicata plant against common food-borne pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, and Escherichia coli O157:H7). Chemical composition of the essential oil was identified by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometer detector (GC-MS). The antibacterial activity of the essential oil was evaluated by broth microdilution method and agar disk diffusion assay. According to the result of GC-MS analysis, 18 components were identified, accounting for 99.89% of the whole essential oil. The main components were carvone (78.76%), limonene (11.50%), β-bourbonene (11.23%), cis-dihydrocarveol (1.43%), trans-caryophyllene (1.04%), menthone (1.01%), menthol (1%), and terpinen-4-ol (0.99). The essential oil exhibited moderate level of antibacterial activity against all test microorganisms. In general, Gram-positive bacteria were more susceptible to M. spicata essential oil than Gram-negative bacteria. L. monocytogenes was the most sensitive of the microorganisms to the antibacterial activity of M. spicata essential oil (inhibition zone = 22 mm and MIC and MBC = 2.5 µL/mL). Based on our results, the essential oil of M. spicata plant collected from Kermanshah province, west of Iran, has a potential to be applied as antibacterial agent.

  10. First discovery of acetone extract from cottonseed oil sludge as a novel antiviral agent against plant viruses.

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    Lei Zhao

    Full Text Available A novel acetone extract from cottonseed oil sludge was firstly discovered against plant viruses including Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV, Rice stripe virus (RSV and Southern rice black streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV. Gossypol and β-sitosterol separated from the acetone extract were tested for their effects on anti-TMV and analysed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR assay. In vivo and field trials in different geographic distributions and different host varieties declared that this extract mixture was more efficient than the commercial agent Ningnanmycin with a broad spectrum of anti-plant-viruses activity. No phytotoxic activity was observed in the treated plants and environmental toxicology showed that this new acetone extract was environmentally friendly, indicating that this acetone extract has potential application in the control of plant virus in the future.

  11. First discovery of acetone extract from cottonseed oil sludge as a novel antiviral agent against plant viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Feng, Chaohong; Hou, Caiting; Hu, Lingyun; Wang, Qiaochun; Wu, Yunfeng

    2015-01-01

    A novel acetone extract from cottonseed oil sludge was firstly discovered against plant viruses including Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), Rice stripe virus (RSV) and Southern rice black streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV). Gossypol and β-sitosterol separated from the acetone extract were tested for their effects on anti-TMV and analysed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) assay. In vivo and field trials in different geographic distributions and different host varieties declared that this extract mixture was more efficient than the commercial agent Ningnanmycin with a broad spectrum of anti-plant-viruses activity. No phytotoxic activity was observed in the treated plants and environmental toxicology showed that this new acetone extract was environmentally friendly, indicating that this acetone extract has potential application in the control of plant virus in the future.

  12. PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY AND EVALUATION OF THE ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ESSENTIAL OILS AND PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS OF PISTACIA LENTISCUS L

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    K. Arab

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This work aims for the phytochemical study and evaluation of the antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds and essential oils of medicinal plant Pistacia lentiscus L. quantitatively and qualitatively. Through the results obtained, it appears that the leaves and fruits are rich in substances with a high antioxidant power. The yield of the phenolic compounds obtained from 10g  to powder of plant  is for leaves 116.49 %  and 61.34 % for fruit . For essential oils, it is 0.253 ± 0.131 % for 100 g of plant material. The chromatographic profile of the essential oil of Pistacia lentiscus L. shows that monoterpenes are the major compound (9.675 % of identified molecules. The strong antioxidant activity of extracts obtained only confirms the traditional use of this plant by the local population.

  13. PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY AND EVALUATION OF THE ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ESSENTIAL OILS AND PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS OF PISTACIA LENTISCUS L

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    K. Arab

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This work aims for the phytochemical study and evaluation of the antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds and essential oils of medicinal plant Pistacia lentiscus L. quantitatively and qualitatively. Through the results obtained, it appears that the leaves and fruits are rich in substances with a high antioxidant power. The yield of the phenolic compounds obtained from 10g to powder of plant is for leaves 116.49 % and 61.34 % for fruit . For essential oils, it is 0.253 ± 0.131 % for 100 g of plant material. The chromatographic profile of the essential oil of Pistacia lentiscus L. shows that monoterpenes are the major compound (9.675 % of identified molecules. The strong antioxidant activity of extracts obtained only confirms the traditional use of this plant by the local population.

  14. Oil Industry Activities in Ghana: Community Perceptions and Sustainable Solutions

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    George Agyei

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The discovery and exploitation of oil reserves in Ghana has generated different expectations and reactions from the local population about the inevitable consequences for industrialization and economic development in the oil producing area. In pursuit of the perceptions and expectations of communities closer to the offshore operations, a mixture of semi-structured, open ended questions were randomly administered. In analyzing the perceptions and reactions of the local population to the prospects created by the oil discovery in commercial quantities, insights in sustainability and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR were considered. The study reveals that the people in the communities closer to the offshore operations share the same convictions and aspirations; that is they are comfortable with their existing sources of livelihood, afraid that these sources might be hurt from oil-related activities and demanding a just allocation of the expected economic benefits through a harmonization of local fishing, farming and oil extraction activities.

  15. Antimicrobial activity of Zhumeria majdae Rech.F.& Wendelbo essential oil against different microorganisms from Iran

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    Mahboubi Mohaddese

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The monotypic Zhumeria majdae Rech.F. & Wendelbo was recently described as the first member of new genus Zhumeria (Lamiaceae. In Iranian folk medicine, the leaves of plant were used for antiseptic properties. The antimicrobial activity of Zhumeria majdae essential oil was evaluated against a panel of microorganisms including gram negative, gram positive, yeast and fungi using disc diffusion method and micro broth dilution assay. Generally, the oil exhibited similar levels of antimicrobial activity against different microorganisms but some microorganisms appear to be more sensitive. In particular, oil showed significant power against Klebsiella pneumoniae followed by Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Vibrio cholera, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Bacillus cereus. Klebsiella pneumoniae with MIC and MBC values 0.5, 1 μl ml -1 was the most sensitive among the tested microorganisms. The oil showed bactericidal activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli and Enterobacter aerugenes. The oil showed inhibitory effect against Bacillus subtilis, Proteus vulgaris, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger. Salmonella typhi and Pseudomonas aeruginosa among Gram negative bacteria and Bacillus subtilis among Gram positive ones and Aspergillus niger among fungi and yeast were the most resistant to the essential oil.

  16. Durability testing modified compression ignition engines fueled with straight plant oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basinger, M.; Lackner, K.S. [Earth and Environmental Engineering, Columbia University, New York City 10027 (United States); Reding, T. [Mechanical Engineering, Manhattan College, New York City (United States); Rodriguez-Sanchez, F.S. [Mali Biocarburant, Bamako (Mali); Modi, V. [Mechanical Engineering, Columbia University, New York City 10027 (United States)

    2010-08-15

    Many short-run studies point to the potential for direct fueling of compression ignition engines with plant oil fuels. There is a much smaller body of work that examines the potential for these fuels in long-run tests that illuminate engine endurance and longevity issues. Generally, longevity studies involving direct fueling of engines with straight plant oils have shown significant impact to the life of the engine, though test results vary widely depending on the oil, engine type, test conditions, and measurement approach. This study utilizes a previously designed modification kit to investigate the longevity implications of directly fueling straight plant oil in an indirect injection (IDI) listeroid type, slow speed stationary engine common in agro-processing applications in developing countries. Specifically this study focuses on the lubrication oil by developing a model to characterize the engine wear and estimate lube oil change frequency. The model is extended to an analysis of the piston rings. Cylinder liner wear, emissions, engine performance, and a visual investigation of several critical engine components are also studied. The 500 hour test with waste vegetable oil fuel resulted in several important findings. The engine break-in period was identified as taking between 200 and 300 h. Emissions analysis supported the break-in definition as smoke opacity and carbon monoxide values fell from 9% and 600 ppm (respectively) during the first few hundred hours, to 5% and 400 ppm in the final 200 h. Lubrication oil viscosity was found to be the limiting degradation factor in the lube oil, requiring oil to be changed every 110 h. Piston ring mass loss was found to correlate very closely with chromium buildup in the lubrication oil and the mathematical model that was developed was used to estimate that piston ring inspection and replacement should occur after 1000 h. Cylinder ovalisation was found to be most sever at top dead center (TDC) at 53 microns of averaged

  17. Salvia officinalis L. essential oils: effect of hydrodistillation time on the chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, G; Cruz, C; Faleiro, M L; Simões, M T F; Figueiredo, A C; Barroso, J G; Pedro, L G

    2011-03-01

    Salvia officinalis L. oils were isolated from the plant's commercial dried aerial parts, by hydrodistillation, with different distillation times. The essential oils were analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The antioxidant ability was measured using a free radical scavenging activity assay using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), a thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay, a deoxyribose assay for the scavenging of hydroxyl radical, an assay for site-specific actions and a 5-lipoxygenase assay. Antibacterial activity was determined by the agar diffusion method. 1,8-Cineole, α-pinene and camphor were the dominant components of all the essential oils. The different hydrodistillation times did not affect the oil yield nor the relative amount of the oil components. The time of hydrodistillation influenced the antioxidant activity. With the DPPH method, the oils isolated for 2 and 3 h were stronger free radical scavengers, while with the TBARS method, the highest antioxidant values were obtained in the oils isolated for 30 min, 2 and 3 h. Hydroxyl radical scavenging and lipoxygenase activity assays showed the best results with oils isolated for 1 and 3 h. With the deoxyribose method, sage oils at concentrations officinalis showed very weak antimicrobial activity.

  18. Distillation Parameters for Pilot Plant Production of Laurus nobilis Essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temel Özek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils have increasing importance in flavour and fragrance industries. They are obtained by distillation techniques. In order to produce an oil with market potential its optimum production parameters have to be well known prior to its commercial production. Determination of the steam distillation parameters of commercially available Laurel leaves oil in pilot plant scale is described. The effect of steam rate and processing time play a major role in distillation of essential oils. Distillation speed was high in the beginning of the process, then gradually reduced as the distillation proceeded. The main component of the oil of Laurel leaf oil was 1,8-cineole accumulating significantly in the early fractions.

  19. Insecticidal effects of essential oils from various plants against larvae of pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa Schiff) (Lepidoptera: Thaumetopoeidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanat, Mehmet; Alma, M Hakki

    2004-02-01

    Along with sulfate turpentine, the essential oils obtained by steam distillation from nine plant species naturally grown in Turkish forests were tested at three different concentrations to evaluate their effectiveness against the larvae of pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa Schiff). The results indicated that the essential oils from the nine species and sulfate turpentine were effective against the larvae of T pityocampa. The most effective essential oil in the control of the larvae was steam-distilled wood turpentine, followed by thyme herb oil, juniper berry oil, laurel leaf oil, lavender flower oil, eucalyptus leaf oil, lavender leaf oil, cypress berry oil, essential oil of styrax and sulfate turpentine, respectively, in terms of mean mortality time. It is therefore feasible to use these essential oils as environment-friendly insecticides in the control of T pityocampa.

  20. Stress activated MAPKs in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligterink, W.

    2000-01-01

    Plants are exposed to a wide variety of extracellular stimuli and employ a broad set of signaling pathways to give the appropriate response. M itogen a ctivated p rotein k inases (MAPKs) play an important role in the signal transduction of yeast and animals and increasing

  1. Stress activated MAPKs in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligterink, J.W.

    2000-01-01

    Plants are exposed to a wide variety of extracellular stimuli and employ a broad set of signaling pathways to give the appropriate response. M itogen a ctivated p rotein k inases (MAPKs) play an important role in

  2. Essential oil of Croton flavens L. (Welensali), a medicinal plant from Curacao

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdenbag, HJ; Bos, R; van Meeteren, HE; Baarslag, JJJ; de Jong-van den Berg, LTW; Pras, N; do Rego Kuster, G; Petronia, RRL

    2000-01-01

    The volatile constituents from aerial and underground parts of Croton flavens L., a medicinal plant from Curacao, were investigated by GC and GC/MS (EI) analysis. The various plant parts yielded 0.27-0.50%, (v/w) essential oil on a dry weight basis. There were only small differences in the qualitati

  3. Comparison of Essential Oil Content, Constituents, and Antioxidant Activity of Nepeta Glomerulosa during Three Developmental Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, H.; Azizi, M.; Rowshan, V.

    2014-12-01

    The genus Nepeta with the common Persian name "Pune-Sa" is one of the most important genera of Lamiaceae family. More than 250 species in the world and 67 annual or perennial species in Iran have been reported. Some of these species are valuable in medicine and are used for medicinal purposes. The aim of this study was to identify essential oil content, its chemical composition, and antioxidant activity in the N. glomerulosa during vegetative, flowering and seed set stages. The samples of N. glomerulosa in the three above-mentioned stages were collected from Abade region of Fars Province. The essential oil was obtained though hydrodistillation and was analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Essential oil of the plant in vegetative, flowering and seed set stages were measured to be 55, 53 and 53 components, respectively, with geranyl acetate (16.644%, 18.182% and 24.441%), geraniol (10.797%, 11.372% and 12.389%), caryophyllene oxide (8.302%, 10.515% and 6.661%), humulene epoxide ΙΙ (7.974%, 7.112% and 2.587%), α-pinene (4.743%, 4.126% and 6.724%), limonene (4.086%, 3.848% and 4.711%) and 1,8-cineol (3.397%, 4.609% and 3.759%) being the major components of the essential oil. The results confirmed that phonological stages have a significant effect on essential oils constituents. Geranyl acetate and geraniol increased by development of plant from vegetative to seed set stage and geranyl acetate was the main essential oils constituent of the plants throughout the three phonological stages. Antioxidant activity in flowering and seed set stages was significantly higher than vegetative stage, but compared with Gallic acid, which is a very strong antioxidant substance, had insignificant antioxidant activity.

  4. The Antibacterial Activity of Selected Labiatae (Lamiaceae Essential Oils against Brucella melitensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Al-Mariri

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brucellosis, a zoonosis caused by four species of brucella, has a high morbidity. The major cause of brucellosis worldwide is brucella melitensis. Medicinal plants are considered as new antibacterial sources that could replace conventional antibiotics in the treatment of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of some native plants, alone and in combination with some antibiotics, in the treatment of brucellosis.Methods: The present experimental in vitro study was carried out to evaluate the anti-brucella activities of essential oils of Rosmarinus officinalis L., Origanum syriacum, Thymus syriacus, Salvia palaestina Benth, Mentha piperia, and Lavandula stoechas L., alone and in combination with some antibiotics. The activity against 16 tetracycline-resistant B. melitensis isolates was determined by disc diffusion method incorporating a concentration of 5%. Antibiotic discs were also used as a control. Microdilution brucella broth susceptibility assay was used in order to determine the MICs of essential oils and five antibiotics.Results: Among all the herbs evaluated, only the essential oils of O. syriacum and T. syriacus plants demonstrated most effective anti-brucella activity, and were then chosen for MIC study. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC50 of essential oils of O. syriacum and T. syriacus against tetracycline-resistant B. melitensis were 3.125 µl/ml and 6.25 µl/ml, respectively. Conclusion: Among the essential oils studied, those of O. syriacum and T. syriacus were most effective. Since a combination of levofloxacin and Thymus syriacus essential oil increased the efficacy of this antibiotic, O. syriacum and T. syriacus are recommended to be used as bactericidal agents against B. melitensis.

  5. In Vitro and In Vivo Antileishmanial Activities of Pistacia vera Essential Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudvand, Hossein; Saedi Dezaki, Ebrahim; Ezatpour, Behrouz; Sharifi, Iraj; Kheirandish, Farnaz; Rashidipour, Marzieh

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo antileishmanial activities of Pistacia vera essential oil and compare their efficacy with a reference drug, meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime®). This essential oil (0-100 µg/mL) was evaluated in vitro against the intracellular amastigote forms of Leishmania tropica (MHOM/IR/2002/Mash2) and then tested on cutaneous leishmaniasis of male BALB/c mice by Leishmania major (MRHO/IR/75/ER). In the in vitro assay, it could be observed that P. vera essential oil significantly (p essential oil had potent suppression effects on cutaneous leishmaniasis in BALB/c mice (87.5% recovery), while 10 and 20 mg/mL of the essential oil represented the suppression effects as weak to intermediate. The mean diameter of the lesions decreased about 0.11 and 0.27 cm after the treatment of the subgroups with the essential oil concentrations of 10 and 20 mg/mL, respectively. In contrast, in the subgroup treated with the essential oil concentration of 30 mg/mL, the mean diameter of the lesions decreased about 0.56 cm. In the control subgroups, the mean diameter of the lesions increased to 1.01 cm. The main components of P. vera essential oil were limonene (26.21%), α-pinene (18.07%), and α-thujene (9.31%). It was also found that P. vera essential oil had no significant cytotoxic effect on J774 cells. The present study found that P. vera essential oil showed considerable in vitro and in vivo effectiveness against L. tropica and L. major compared to the reference drug. These findings also provided the scientific evidence that natural plants could be used in traditional medicine for the prevention and treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

  6. In Vivo Potential Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Melissa officinalis L. Essential Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounihi, Amina; Hajjaj, Ghizlane; Alnamer, Rachad; Cherrah, Yahia; Zellou, Amina

    2013-01-01

    Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) had been reported in traditional Moroccan medicine to exhibit calming, antispasmodic, and strengthening heart effects. Therefore, this study is aimed at determining the anti-inflammatory activities of M. officinalis L. leaves. The effect of the essential oil of the leaves of this plant was investigated for anti-inflammatory properties by using carrageenan and experimental trauma-induced hind paw edema in rats. The essential oil extracted from leaves by hydrodistillation was characterized by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). M. officinalis contained Nerol (30.44%), Citral (27.03%), Isopulegol (22.02%), Caryophyllene (2.29%), Caryophyllene oxide (1.24%), and Citronella (1.06%). Anti-inflammatory properties of oral administration of essential oil at the doses of 200, 400 mg/kg p.o., respectively, showed significant reduction and inhibition of edema with 61.76% and 70.58%, respectively, (P officinalis L. essential oil showed pronounced reduction and inhibition of edema induced by carrageenan at 6 h at 200 and 400 mg/kg with 91.66% and 94.44%, respectively (P essential oil of M. officinalis L. possesses potential anti-inflammatory activities, supporting the traditional application of this plant in treating various diseases associated with inflammation and pain.

  7. In vitro antioxidant activities of Asteraceae Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijaylakshmi, S; Nanjan, M J; Suresh, B

    2009-10-01

    Anaphalis neelgerriana DC and Cnicus wallichi DC belonging to the family Asteraceae (Compositae) are important medicinal plants indigenous to Nilgiris. Since the related species Anaphalis morrisonicola and Cnicus benedictus were reported for its anti cancer activities, the above mentioned plants were screened for Invitro antioxidant activity. In vitro antioxidant studies were carried out by DPPH, Nitric oxide and Hydrogen peroxide methods for the aerial part extracts of the plants. Different extracts were obtained from the aerial parts of the whole plant by successive solvent extraction and cold maceration process and subjected for Invitro antioxidant activity studies. Among the extracts tested, the ethyl acetate extract of Anaphalis neelgerriana DC and Cnicus wallchi DC showed significant anti oxidant activity in all the above methods. The potent ethyl acetate extract should be tested for anti oxidant activity in animal models.

  8. Assessment of hydrocarbon degradation potentials in plant-microbe interaction system with oil sludge contamination: A sustainable solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhote, Monika; Kumar, Anil; Jajoo, Anjana; Juwarkar, Asha

    2017-05-25

    A pot culture experiment was conducted for 90 days for evaluation of oil and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) degradation in vegetated and non-vegetated treatments of real field oil sludge contaminated soil. Five different treatments include, (T1) control, 2% oil sludge contaminated soil; (T2), augmentation of microbial consortium; (T3), Vertiver zizanioide; (T4), bio-augmentation along with Vertiver zizanioide and (T5), bio-augmentation with Vertiver zizanioide and bulking agent. During the study, oil reduction, TPH and degradation of its fractions was determined. Physic-chemical and microbiological parameters of soil were also monitored simultaneously. At the end of the experimental period, oil content (85%) was reduced maximally in bio-augmented rhizospheric treatments (T4 and T5) as compared to control (27%). TPH reduction was observed to be 88% and 89% in bio-augmented rhizospheric soil (T4 and T5 treatments), whereas in non-rhizospheric and control (T2 and T1) TPH reduction was 78% and 37% respectively. Degradation of aromatic fraction after 90 days in bio-augmented rhizosphere of treatment T4 and T5 was found to 91% and 92%. In microbial (T2) and Vertiver treatment (T3) degradation of aromatic fraction was 83% and 68% respectively. A threefold increase in soil dehydrogenase activity and noticeable changes in organic carbon content, water holding capacity were also observed which indicated maximum degradation of oil and its fractions in combined treatment of plants and microbes. It is concluded that plant-microbe-soil system helps to restore soil quality and can be used as an effective tool for remediation of oil sludge contaminated sites.

  9. Amebicidal activity of the essential oils of Lippia spp. (Verbenaceae) against Acanthamoeba polyphaga trophozoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Israel Gomes de Amorim; Scher, Ricardo; Rott, Marilise Brittes; Menezes, Leociley Rocha; Costa, Emmanoel Vilaça; Cavalcanti, Sócrates Cabral de Holanda; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; Aguiar, Jaciana dos Santos; da Silva, Teresinha Gonçalves; Dolabella, Silvio Santana

    2016-02-01

    Amoebic keratitis and granulomatous amoebic encephalitis are caused by some strains of free-living amoebae of the genus Acanthamoeba. In the case of keratitis, one of the greatest problems is the disease recurrence due to the resistance of parasites, especially the cystic forms, to the drugs that are currently used. Some essential oils of plants have been used as potential active agents against this protist. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the amebicidal activity of essential oils from plants of the genus Lippia against Acanthamoeba polyphaga trophozoites. To that end, 8 × 10(4) trophozoites were exposed for 24 h to increasing concentrations of essential oils from Lippia sidoides, Lippia gracilis, Lippia alba, and Lippia pedunculosa and to their major compounds rotundifolone, carvone, and carvacrol. Nearly all concentrations of oils and compounds showed amebicidal activity. The IC50 values for L. sidoides, L. gracilis L. alba, and L. pedunculosa were found to be 18.19, 10.08, 31.79, and 71.47 μg/mL, respectively. Rotundifolone, carvacrol, and carvone were determined as the major compounds showing IC50 of 18.98, 24.74, and 43.62 μg/mL, respectively. With the exception of oil from L. alba, the other oils evaluated showed low cytotoxicity in the NCI-H292 cell line. Given these results, the oils investigated here are promising sources of compounds for the development of complementary therapy against amoebic keratitis and granulomatous amoebic encephalitis and can also be incorporated into cleaning solutions to increase their amebicidal efficiency.

  10. Biological and Nonbiological Antioxidant Activity of Some Essential Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Rosés, Renato; Risco, Ester; Vila, Roser; Peñalver, Pedro; Cañigueral, Salvador

    2016-06-15

    Fifteen essential oils, four essential oil fractions, and three pure compounds (thymol, carvacrol, and eugenol), characterized by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, were investigated for biological and nonbiological antioxidant activity. Clove oil and eugenol showed strong DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free-radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 13.2 μg/mL and 11.7 μg/mL, respectively) and powerfully inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in human neutrophils stimulated by PMA (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate) (IC50 = 7.5 μg/mL and 1.6 μg/mL) or H2O2 (IC50 = 22.6 μg/mL and 27.1 μg/mL). Nutmeg, ginger, and palmarosa oils were also highly active on this test. Essential oils from clove and ginger, as well as eugenol, carvacrol, and bornyl acetate inhibited NO (nitric oxide) production (IC50 oils of clove, red thyme, and Spanish oregano, together with eugenol, thymol, and carvacrol showed the highest myeloperoxidase inhibitory activity. Isomers carvacrol and thymol displayed a disparate behavior in some tests. All in all, clove oil and eugenol offered the best antioxidant profile.

  11. Screening for Antiviral Activities of Isolated Compounds from Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Astani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oil of star anise as well as phenylpropanoids and sesquiterpenes, for example, trans-anethole, eugenol, β-eudesmol, farnesol, β-caryophyllene and β-caryophyllene oxide, which are present in many essential oils, were examined for their antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 in vitro. Antiviral activity was analyzed by plaque reduction assays and mode of antiviral action was determined by addition of the drugs to uninfected cells, to the virus prior to infection or to herpesvirus-infected cells. Star anise oil reduced viral infectivity by >99%, phenylpropanoids inhibited HSV infectivity by about 60–80% and sesquiterpenes suppressed herpes virus infection by 40–98%. Both, star anise essential oil and all isolated compounds exhibited anti-HSV-1 activity by direct inactivation of free virus particles in viral suspension assays. All tested drugs interacted in a dose-dependent manner with herpesvirus particles, thereby inactivating viral infectivity. Star anise oil, rich in trans-anethole, revealed a high selectivity index of 160 against HSV, whereas among the isolated compounds only β-caryophyllene displayed a high selectivity index of 140. The presence of β-caryophyllene in many essential oils might contribute strongly to their antiviral ability. These results indicate that phenylpropanoids and sesquiterpenes present in essential oils contribute to their antiviral activity against HSV.

  12. Microbicide activity of clove essential oil (Eugenia caryophyllata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Nuñez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Clove essential oil, used as an antiseptic in oral infections, inhibits Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria as well as yeast. The influence of clove essential oil concentration, temperature and organic matter, in the antimicrobial activity of clove essential oil, was studied in this paper, through the determination of bacterial death kinetics. Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were the microorganisms selected for a biological test. To determine the temperature effect, they were assayed at 21° and 37° C. The concentration coefficient was determined with 0.4%, and 0.2% of essential oil. The influence of the presence of organic matter was determined with 0.4% of essential oil. The results obtained demonstrated that Escherichia coli were more sensitive even though the essential oil exerted a satisfactory action in three cases. In the three microbial species, 0.4% of essential oil at 21º C have reduced the bacterial population in 5 logarithmic orders. Organic matter reduces the antibacterial activity even though the bactericide efficacy was not lost. Clove essential oil can be considered as a potential antimicrobial agent for external use

  13. Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of essential oils from cumin and ajowan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAHADEO D. PATIL

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Patil SD, Maknikar PP, Wankhade SJ, Ukesh CS, Rai MK. 2016. Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of essential oils from cumin and ajowan. Nusantara Bioscience 8: 60-65. Plant essential oils have gained importance as alternative remedies for treatment of many infectious diseases and food preservatives. In the present study, we have determined the chemical composition of the essential oils (EOs from two Indian spices Cuminum cyminum (cumin and Trachyspermum ammi (ajowan of family Apiaceae by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Moreover, the antimicrobial potential of these oils was evaluated against several Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria using disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods. A Total of 20 major chemical components were analyzed by GC-MS studies and were found to be cuminaldehyde (36.67% and caren-10-al (21.34% in case of cumin essential oil while p-cymene (15.54% and thymol (15.48% were found to be present in ajowan essential oil. Both the EOs exhibited potent antibacterial effect against most of the tested pathogens. Furthermore, cumin and ajowan EOs demonstrated remarkable antibacterial activity against Salmonella typhi with an inhibition zone diameter of 54 and 60 mm respectively with identical MIC value of 12.5 µl/ml. Ajowan EO was found to exhibit wide spectrum activity against both the Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms when compared with cumin. Both the essential oils were more potent than standard antibiotic chloramphenicol except cumin against Escherichia coli and Enterobacter aerogenes. Antioxidant activity of cumin was weaker (12.36% and ajowan was stronger (71.68% than standard ascorbic acid (20.24% at 1000 µg/ml concentration when assessed by DPPH radical scavenging assay. Our study suggests that, spice essential oils have significant potential in controlling the human and foodborne pathogens.

  14. Microbial Inoculation Improves Growth of Oil Palm Plants (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Om, Azlin Che; Ghazali, Amir Hamzah Ahmad; Keng, Chan Lai; Ishak, Zamzuri

    2009-12-01

    Introduction of diazotrophic rhizobacteria to oil palm tissues during the in vitro micropropagation process establishes an early associative interaction between the plant cells and bacteria. In the association, the diazotrophs provide the host plants with phytohormones and fixed nitrogen. This study was conducted to observe growth of bacterised tissue cultured oil palm plants under ex vitro conditions after 280 days of growth. Root dry weight, shoot dry weight, root volume, bacterial colonisation, leaf protein and chlorophyll content of the host plants were observed. The results revealed that the inocula successfully colonised roots of the host plants. Plants inoculated with Acetobacter diazotrophicus (R12) had more root dry weight and volume than plants inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense (Sp7). Leaf protein and chlorophyll content were higher in the bacterised plants compared to Control 2 plants (inoculated with killed Sp7). These results suggest that the diazotrophs successfully improved the growth of the host plant (oil palm) and minimised the amount of N fertiliser necessary for growth.

  15. Anti-ulcer activity of essential oil constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Francisco de Assis; Andrade, Luciana Nalone; de Sousa, Elida Batista Vieira; de Sousa, Damião Pergentino

    2014-05-05

    Essential oils have attracted considerable worldwide attention over the last few decades. These natural products have wide-ranging pharmacological activities and biotechnological applications. Faced with the need to find new anti-ulcer agents and the great effort on the development of drugs for the treatment of ulcers, in this review, the anti-ulcer activities of 21 bioactive compounds found in essential oils are discussed.

  16. Anti-Ulcer Activity of Essential Oil Constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Assis Oliveira

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils have attracted considerable worldwide attention over the last few decades. These natural products have wide-ranging pharmacological activities and biotechnological applications. Faced with the need to find new anti-ulcer agents and the great effort on the development of drugs for the treatment of ulcers, in this review, the anti-ulcer activities of 21 bioactive compounds found in essential oils are discussed.

  17. Bench-scale development of coal/oil co-processing technology conceptual commercial plant design and economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duddy, J.E.; Pramanik, M.S.; Popper, G.A.

    1990-09-01

    The goal of this project is to expand the data base for Hydrocarbon Research, Inc. Coal/Oil Co-Processing Technology and to allow for process optimization. The specific objectives are to: define process performance at commerically viable catalyst cost and activity levels; determine the dependence of process performance on changes in feedstock characteristics; improve effectiveness of catalyst system; expand data base to include other coals and petroleum feedstocks; update economic assessments. This topical report describes work performed by HRI on a conceptual commercial plant designed for a co-processing unit and economic screening studies based on this conceptual plant design. 21 figs., 39 tabs.

  18. In vitro control of post-harvest fruit rot fungi by some plant essential oil components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camele, Ippolito; Altieri, Luciana; De Martino, Laura; De Feo, Vincenzo; Mancini, Emilia; Rana, Gian Luigi

    2012-01-01

    Eight substances that are main components of the essential oils from three Mediterranean aromatic plants (Verbena officinalis, Thymus vulgaris and Origanum vulgare), previously found active against some phytopathogenic Fungi and Stramenopila, have been tested in vitro against five etiological agents of post-harvest fruit decay, Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium italicum, P. expansum, Phytophthora citrophthora and Rhizopus stolonifer. The tested compounds were β-fellandrene, β-pinene, camphene, carvacrol, citral, o-cymene, γ-terpinene and thymol. Citral exhibited a fungicidal action against P. citrophthora; carvacrol and thymol showed a fungistatic activity against P. citrophthora and R. stolonifer. Citral and carvacrol at 250 ppm, and thymol at 150 and 250 ppm stopped the growth of B. cinerea. Moreover, thymol showed fungistatic and fungicidal action against P. italicum. Finally, the mycelium growth of P. expansum was inhibited in the presence of 250 ppm of thymol and carvacrol. These results represent an important step toward the goal to use some essential oils or their components as natural preservatives for fruits and foodstuffs, due to their safety for consumer healthy and positive effect on shelf life extension of agricultural fresh products.

  19. Releases of natural radionuclides from oil-shale-fired power plants in Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Realo, E.; Realo, K.; Jogi, J. [AN Ehstonskoj SSR, Tartu (Estonia). Inst. Fiziki

    1996-11-01

    In the vicinity of two large oil-shale-fired power plants in northeast Estonia, depth-dependent activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in soil were determined by gamma spectrometry. In the surface soil considerably higher (or lower) concentrations of {sup 40}k, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th were found than in deeper soil layers. The observed increase or decrease of the enrichment of radionuclides for different sampling sites was dependent on the relative concentrations of radionuclides in fly-ash and in deep soil layers. The fraction of the radionuclides deposited onto the ground was characterized by a mean {sup 226}Ra/{sup 232}Th activity concentration ratio of 2.2, approximately equal to the one (2.1) found for oil-shale filter ash. The atmospheric deposition rates of fly-ash radionuclides onto the ground were estimated and compared to other relevant published data. The migration of the deposited fly-ash radionuclides into soil was satisfactorily described assuming an exponential depth distribution with the relaxation length value, {alpha}{sup -1} = 2.9 {+-} 0.6 cm, for both {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th. (Author).

  20. In Vitro Control of Post-Harvest Fruit Rot Fungi by Some Plant Essential Oil Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Luigi Rana

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Eight substances that are main components of the essential oils from three Mediterranean aromatic plants (Verbena officinalis, Thymus vulgaris and Origanum vulgare, previously found active against some phytopathogenic Fungi and Stramenopila, have been tested in vitro against five etiological agents of post-harvest fruit decay, Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium italicum, P. expansum, Phytophthora citrophthora and Rhizopus stolonifer. The tested compounds were β-fellandrene, β-pinene, camphene, carvacrol, citral, o-cymene, γ-terpinene and thymol. Citral exhibited a fungicidal action against P. citrophthora; carvacrol and thymol showed a fungistatic activity against P. citrophthora and R. stolonifer. Citral and carvacrol at 250 ppm, and thymol at 150 and 250 ppm stopped the growth of B. cinerea. Moreover, thymol showed fungistatic and fungicidal action against P. italicum. Finally, the mycelium growth of P. expansum was inhibited in the presence of 250 ppm of thymol and carvacrol. These results represent an important step toward the goal to use some essential oils or their components as natural preservatives for fruits and foodstuffs, due to their safety for consumer healthy and positive effect on shelf life extension of agricultural fresh products.

  1. Chemical composition and biological effects of Artemisia maritima and Artemisia nilagirica essential oils from wild plants of western Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stappen, Iris; Wanner, Jürgen; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Wedge, David E; Ali, Abbas; Khan, Ikhlas A; Kaul, Vijay K; Lal, Brij; Jaitak, Vikas; Gochev, Velizar; Girova, Tania; Stoyanova, Albena; Schmidt, Erich; Jirovetz, Leopold

    2014-08-01

    Artemisia species possess pharmacological properties that are used for medical purposes worldwide. In this paper, the essential oils from the aerial parts of Artemisia nilagirica and Artemisia maritima from the western Indian Himalaya region are described. The main compounds analyzed by simultaneous GC/MS and GC/FID were camphor and 1,8-cineole from A. maritima, and camphor and artemisia ketone from A. nilagirica. Additionally, the oils were evaluated for their antibacterial, antifungal, mosquito biting deterrent, and larvicidal activities. A. nilagirica essential oil demonstrated nonselective antifungal activity against plant pathogens Colletotrichum acutatum, Colletotrichum fragariae, and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, whereas A. maritima did not show antifungal activity. Both Artemisia spp. exhibited considerable mosquito biting deterrence, whereas only A. nilagirica showed larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti. Antibacterial effects assessed by an agar dilution assay demonstrated greater activity of A. maritima essential oil against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa compared to A. nilagirica.

  2. Active condensation of water by plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokhorov Alexey Anatolievich

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to some peculiarities of water condensation on the surface of plants . Arguments in support of the hypothesis that in decreasing temperature of leaves and shoots below the dew point, the plant can actively condense moisture from the air, increasing the duration of dewfall are presented. Evening dewfall on plant surfaces begins before starting the formation of fog. Morning condensation continues for some time after the air temperature exceeds the dew point . The phenomenon in question is found everywhere, but it is particularly important for plants in arid ecosystems.

  3. Toxic effects of essential plant oils in adult Sitophilus oryzae (Linnaeus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Roveré Franz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Toxic effects of essential plant oils in adult Sitophilus oryzae (Linnaeus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae. Stored grains are subject to losses in quality nutritional value and in sanitation from the time they are stored to the time they are consumed. Botanical insecticides may offer an alternative solution for pest control. The objective was to test the insecticidal properties of the essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus (leaf, Zingiber officinale (root and Mentha sp. (leaf. The efficacy of these oils was tested to control the rice weevil, S. oryzae, using hydrodistillation. Chemical analysis of the essential oils was carried out by gas chromatography. Major components of C. citratus were geranial (48% and neral (31%, of Z. officinale were α-zingibereno (13%, geranial (16%, neral (10% and α-farneseno (5% and of Mentha sp. was menthol (92%. Bioassays were carried out by fumigation and topical application. In topical application assays, the essential oil of C. citratus had greater toxicity (LC50 0.027 µL mL-1 and shorter exposure time than the oils of the other two plants. After 24 h and 48 h, 70% and 100% mortality of S. oryzae occurred, respectively. In fumigation assays, essential oil of Z. officinale had a lower LC50 (1.18 µL cm-2 and 70% mortality after 24 h exposure. Therefore, we recommend the use of essential oils of C. citratus and Z. officinale to control the rice weevil S. oryzae.

  4. Cultivation of Herbs and Medicinal Plants in Norway - Essential Oil Production and Quality Control

    OpenAIRE

    Rohloff, Jens

    2003-01-01

    Essential oils (EO) are plant secondary metabolites that are known for their fragrance and food flavour properties. They consist of a complex mixture of mono- and sesquiterpenes, phenyl propanoids and oxygenated compounds. EOs can be present in different plant organs and materials, and their storage is related to specialised secretory structures. The yield of EOs from plant raw materials by distillation or pressing may on average vary from 0.1 – 1%, thus restricting the major EO production to...

  5. Amtimicrobial activity of essential oil of Melissa officinalis L, Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aničić Nada V.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Melissa officinalis was investigated in this paper. The essential oil was obtained by the principle of water and steam and analyzed by GC and GC-MS using FID and MSD. The main components of the oil of Melissa officinalis were geranial (17.30%, neral (14.70% and citronellal (10.70%. The antimicrobial properties were tested against the following bacterial species: B subtilis, B.cereus Bifidobacterium sp., Corynobacterium sp., E. coli, Klebsiella sp., L. acidophilus, L. fermentum, L. plantarum, L. rhamnosus, Listeria monocytogenes, P. vulgaris, P. aerugenosa, S. enteritidis, Shigella sp., S. aureus, and fungi Candida albicans, Alternarija sp. and Aspergillus niger. The diffusion technique was used for testing: the antimicrobial activity, and the MIC was determined by the broth dilution method. The essential oil of M. officinalis showed high antimicrobial activity.

  6. A continuum of research projects to improve extraction of oil and proteins in oilseed plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miquel Martine

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A key challenge in the actual context of fossil sources rarefaction, global warming, and of increase of the world global population, is to promote the use of molecules derived from renewable sources such as plants. Among these molecules, lipids and proteins are targets of interest. Plant lipids from oilseeds are attractive substitutes to the use of fossil oil. Till the beginning of the 20th century, numerous products used in the daily life were derived from natural renewable products. For instance, plant oil was commonly used as fuel for vehicles and was entering in the composition of paintings, lubricants etc. Unfortunately, natural oils have been progressively replaced by cheaper fossil oil in the fabrication of these products. Nowadays, fossil oils are becoming increasingly expensive being a finite comodity. It is thus important to reduce our dependence from fossil oil and develop substitution industries. Oilseeds contain important amounts of proteins which are mainly used in f