The bachelor thesis discusses how the biological children of foster parents accept their new foster siblings and fostering of their parents from the view of the foster parents. The aim of this work is to find out if and how the biological children accept their new foster siblings, what are their relationships like, what are the problematic aspects of these relationships and how to prevent them.
Fuentes, M J; Salas, M D; Bernedo, I M; García-Martín, M A
Few studies have analysed the effects of the parenting style used by foster carers on children's behaviour problems. This study examines the role played by the quality of the emotional relationship with foster carers and the kind of discipline they use as regard internalizing and externalizing problems among foster children. Participants were 104 foster children (56 boys and 48 girls) and their respective foster families. The Child Behaviour Checklist, the Affect and Communication Scale, and the Rules and Demands Scale were completed by foster parents. A series of linear regression analyses were performed using the stepwise method. The main findings were as follows: an authoritarian parenting style explained the internalizing problems presented by foster children (11% of the variance); criticism/rejection, authoritarian parenting and permissive parenting explained externalizing problems (37% of the variance); and criticism/rejection and authoritarian parenting explained total problems (29% of the variance). These results indicate that criticism/rejection on the part of foster parents, as well as the use of inappropriate parenting styles (authoritarian and permissive), has an important effect in relation to the behaviour problems of foster children. This highlights the key role that foster carers play in terms of tackling the behaviour problems that foster children present. The findings also suggest that preparation for fostering should focus especially on ways of helping foster parents both to acquire positive parenting strategies and to avoid authoritarian and permissive parenting. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Meyers, Kathleen; Kaynak, Övgü; Clements, Irene; Bresani, Elena; White, Tammy
Adolescents involved with foster care are five times more likely to receive a drug dependence diagnosis when compared to adolescents in the general population. Prior research has shown that substance use is often hidden from providers, negating any chance for treatment and almost guaranteeing poor post-foster care outcomes. There are virtually no studies that examine the willingness (and its determinants) to foster youth with substance abuse problems. The current study conducted a nationally-distributed survey of 752 currently licensed foster care parents that assessed willingness to foster youth overall and by type of drug used, and possible correlates of this decision (e.g., home factors, system factors, and individual foster parent factors such as ratings of perceived difficulty in fostering this population). Overall, willingness to foster a youth involved with alcohol and other drugs (AOD) was contingent upon the types of drugs used. The odds that a parent would foster an AOD-involved youth were significantly increased by being licensed as a treatment foster home, having fostered an AOD-involved youth in the past, having AOD-specific training and past agency-support when needed, and self-efficacy with respect to positive impact. Surprisingly, when religion played a large part in the decision to foster any child, the odds of willingness to foster an AOD-involved youth dropped significantly. These results suggest that a large proportion of AOD-involved youth who find themselves in the foster care system will not have foster families willing to parent them, thereby forcing placement into a variety of congregate care facilities (e.g., residential treatment facilities, group homes). Specific ways in which the system can address these issues to improve placement and permanency efforts is provided. PMID:25878368
Kenny, Michael; Fleming, Ted
relevance to attachment within the biological and foster family. Yet every foster parent has a childhood attachment history that influences their interpersonal relationships in adulthood. The primary concern of the foster parent and their supports is with the foster child. But as a result the foster parent may distract or block reflection on their own attachment history. This presentation will focus on attachment theory and the adult, with particular reference to the foster parent. The pre...
Denby, R; Rindfleisch, N; Bean, G
The United States General Accounting Office (United States General Accounting Office [USGAO], 1989) report on out-of-home care affirmed that the foster care system is in crisis. To shed light on some factors that influence retention, the study reported here asked "What factors influence the satisfaction of foster parents?" and "What factors influence the intent of licensed foster parents to continue to foster?" A sample of 539 foster parents in eight urban counties in a large Midwestern state completed questionnaires aimed at addressing these questions. Some of the factors exerting the strongest influence on satisfaction were: feeling competent to handle the children who were placed; wanting to take in children who needed loving parents; no regrets about investment in foster children; foster mother's age; and agency social worker providing information and showing approval for a job well done. An example of factors exerting influence on intent to continue to foster include overall satisfaction, readiness to phone the social worker, number of foster boys in the home, being treated like one needed help oneself, and agency affiliation (private). Efforts to increase the supply of foster homes through recruitment is not enough. The support, training, and professional regard given to parents after they have begun the fostering task is of greater need. Based on analysis of the findings, implications for practice, programming, and policy are offered.
Maaskant, A.M.; van Rooij, F.B.; Bos, H.M.W.; Hermanns, J.M.A.
Most Dutch foster children live permanently in foster families. It is often assumed that foster children have ambivalent loyalties and attachments to their birth parents and foster parents and are torn between the two. In this study 59 children between 10 and 18 years placed in long term foster care
Illinois State Dept. of Children and Family Services, Springfield.
This handbook outlines essential information for foster parents under these basic headings: (1) legal rights and responsibilities of children, parents and foster parents; (2) recruitment, licensing, training, and evaluation of foster homes; (3) placement and removal of foster children; (4) payments and expenses; (5) medical care; (6)…
this important caregiving role and enhance practice and policy imperatives. ... By contributing and making a positive change on the lives of needy children, foster ... depression. ... children including their physical, social, emotional, psychological, cultural and ..... evidence base of training for foster and treatment foster parents.
Foster care is currently being discussed a great deal, in particular in connection with the planned shutdown of infant care centres. Currently it is preferred to place a child in foster care rather than in institutional care. However, attention should not only be paid to the children placed in foster families. The families that receive the children should also be given a lot of attention. Within a family, one cannot only consider the adults who will become foster parents for the placed childr...
King, Keith A.; Kraemer, Linda K.; Bernard, Amy L.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.
We surveyed 191 Southwest Ohio foster parents regarding their involvement in authoritative parenting and interest for additional parenting education. Our results showed that most respondents reported using an authoritative parenting style and were interested in receiving future training. Involvement in authoritative parenting differed…
Schatz, Mona Struhsaker; Faust, Timothy Philip
This module is part of a training program for foster parents and foster care workers offered at Colorado State University. The module explores the attachment process and the long-term effects of attachment difficulties in the first years of a child's life. The module's learning objectives address: (1) ways of identifying the basic concepts…
The affected children are placed in the care of related or unrelated .... if they were part of the decision for the removal of the child (Pickin et al, 2011; Samrai .... Foster parents described denial and guilt when a foster child is removed from them.
Vanschoonlandt, Femke; Vanderfaeillie, Johan; Van Holen, Frank; De Maeyer, Skrallan
Foster parents are often faced with serious externalizing behaviors of their foster child. These behavioral problems may induce family stress and are related to less effective parenting and often increase. Foster children with behavioral problems are also more at risk of placement breakdown. An intervention to support foster parents of young…
Taylor, Brian J.; McQuillan, Karen
The potential human and financial costs of foster placement disruption for the children, families, professionals and agencies involved are widely accepted. This service evaluation identified and described perspectives of foster parents and social workers regarding placement disruptions in order to identify the main issues of concern and to derive…
Jay Miller, J; Benner, Kalea; Thrasher, Shawndaya; Pope, Natalie; Dumas, Tamikia; Damron, Larry J; Segress, Melissa; Niu, Chunling
Despite the use of mentoring programs in fields such as business, career training, and youth development, little is known about how mentoring can be used to train and support new foster parents. This paper describes how Concept Mapping was used with current foster parents to develop a conceptual framework suitable to plan a foster parent mentor program. A secondary aim of this study was to explore priority differences in the conceptualization by self-reported gender (foster mothers vs. foster fathers). Participant data was collected via three qualitative brainstorming sessions, and analyzed using non-metric multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analysis. Findings indicate that foster parents participating in this study conceptualized effective mentor programs via a seven cluster solution. Study results also showed no significant differences in cluster ratings by gender. Implications for practice and program planning are identified, as well as areas for future research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity has many positive effects on children's health while TV viewing has been associated with adverse health outcomes. Many children do not meet physical activity recommendations and exceed TV viewing guidelines. Parents are likely to be an important influence on their children's behaviour. There is an absence of information about the associations between parents' and children's physical activity and TV viewing. Methods Year 6 children and their parent were recruited from 40 primary schools. Results are presented for the 340 parent-child dyads with accelerometer data that met a ≥ 3 day inclusion criteria and the 431 parent-child dyads with complete self-reported TV viewing. Over 80% of the dyads with valid TV viewing data included mothers and their child. Mean minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA, minutes of sedentary time per day and counts per minute were assessed by accelerometer. Self-reported hours of TV viewing were coded into 3 groups (4 hours per day. Linear and multi-nominal regression models were run by child gender to examine parent-child associations. Results In linear regression models there was an association for the overall sedentary time of girls and their parents (t = 2.04. p = .020 but there was no association between girls' and parents' physical activity. There were no associations between parents' and boys' sedentary or physical activity time. For girls, the risk of watching more than 4 hours of TV per day, (reference = 2 hours of TV per day, was 3.67 times higher if the girl's parent watched 2-4 hours of TV per day (p = 0.037. For boys, the risk of watching more than 4 hours of TV per day, was 10.47 times higher if the boy's parent watched more than 4 hours of TV per day (p = 0.038. Conclusions There are associations in the sedentary time of parents and daughters. Higher parental TV viewing was associated with an increased risk of high levels of TV viewing for both boys
Jago, Russell; Fox, Kenneth R; Page, Angie S; Brockman, Rowan; Thompson, Janice L
Physical activity has many positive effects on children's health while TV viewing has been associated with adverse health outcomes. Many children do not meet physical activity recommendations and exceed TV viewing guidelines. Parents are likely to be an important influence on their children's behaviour. There is an absence of information about the associations between parents' and children's physical activity and TV viewing. Year 6 children and their parent were recruited from 40 primary schools. Results are presented for the 340 parent-child dyads with accelerometer data that met a > or = 3 day inclusion criteria and the 431 parent-child dyads with complete self-reported TV viewing. Over 80% of the dyads with valid TV viewing data included mothers and their child. Mean minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), minutes of sedentary time per day and counts per minute were assessed by accelerometer. Self-reported hours of TV viewing were coded into 3 groups (4 hours per day. Linear and multi-nominal regression models were run by child gender to examine parent-child associations. In linear regression models there was an association for the overall sedentary time of girls and their parents (t = 2.04. p = .020) but there was no association between girls' and parents' physical activity. There were no associations between parents' and boys' sedentary or physical activity time. For girls, the risk of watching more than 4 hours of TV per day, (reference = 2 hours of TV per day), was 3.67 times higher if the girl's parent watched 2-4 hours of TV per day (p = 0.037). For boys, the risk of watching more than 4 hours of TV per day, was 10.47 times higher if the boy's parent watched more than 4 hours of TV per day (p = 0.038). There are associations in the sedentary time of parents and daughters. Higher parental TV viewing was associated with an increased risk of high levels of TV viewing for both boys and girls. There were no associations between the time that
Strickler, Amy; Trunzo, Annette C.; Kaelin, Michael S.
Background: Pre-service training of treatment parents is a requirement for all foster care models to ensure safety and well-being of children in care. Researchers theorize treatment parents benefit more from enhanced pre-service trainings; however, no rigorous studies exist indicating the effectiveness of these trainings for treatment parents.…
... the present study indicates that improvements can be made by adopting alternative approaches. Further studies are needed to ascertain how foster parenting and imprinting may be utilized to optimize chick performance, including the long-term consequences of these practices. Keywords: Parental care, Struthio camelus, ...
Thirty Mora, New Mexico parents attended a 13-session parent involvement workshop (The Mora Adventure) designed to help parents foster successful school experiences through non-school activities with their children. A parent involvement model was used as the basis of the workshop in which the parents developed more effective communication skills;…
Lee, Kyunghee; Lee, Jung-Sook
This study examines the associations between parental book reading and social-emotional outcomes for Head Start children in foster care. Despite no main Head Start impact on parental book reading, subgroup effects were found. Foster parents in Head Start provided more book reading for children with disabilities but less for children with low preacademic scores. Head Start enhanced social-emotional outcomes for children in foster care. The positive impacts of Head Start on children's social-emotional outcomes were greater when parents read books frequently. Head Start should include more foster families and provided parenting skills to enhance social-emotional outcomes for children in foster care.
"Helping Foster Children in School" explores the challenges that foster children face in schools and offers positive and practical guidance tailored to help the parents, teachers and social workers supporting them. Children in care often perform poorly at school both in terms of their behavior and their academic performance, with many…
Mersky, Joshua P.; Topitzes, James; Grant-Savela, Stacey D.; Brondino, Michael J.; McNeil, Cheryl B.
Objective: This study presents outcomes from a randomized trial of a novel Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) model for foster families. Differential effects of two intervention doses on child externalizing and internalizing symptoms are examined. Method: A sample of 102 foster children was assigned to one of three conditions--brief PCIT,…
Oksana Vladimirovna Besschetnova
Full Text Available This paper discusses the development and functioning of foster families, one of the priority interventions for children without parental care in Russia and abroad. The paper analyzes the current official statistics on the problem of child abandonment in Russia as a whole and in the Saratov and Belgorod regions of Russia in particular. The mechanism of social adaptation of children in foster care is based on the qualitative and quantitative methods (surveys and interviews of foster parents and foster children. The author identifies obstacles to the development of social institutions in the regions and the necessity of its active implementation in domestic social practices. The study found that foster care has been successful in areas where accepted legal basis allowed the recruiting, selecting candidates for adoptive parents, and foster care maintenance are carried out by social services. In addition, in order to reduce risk factors such as the secondary abandonment of foster children it is necessarily to increase assistance from the social guardianship bodies and professionals as well as building trusting parent-child relationships that use the democratic parenting style by foster parents.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-8-8
Barnett, Erin R; Jankowski, Mary K; Butcher, Rebecca L; Meister, Catherine; Parton, Rebecca R; Drake, Robert E
Caring for children with complex needs severely stresses foster and adoptive parents, but few studies have examined their perspectives on needs and services. To examine parental views, the authors analyzed four focus groups (n = 27 participants) and one state-wide survey (n = 512 respondents, 42% of 1206 contacted) of foster and adoptive parents in one state. Results highlighted inadequate communication between providers and families, cultural and legal barriers, needs for parent training and preparation, the importance of several types of parent supports, and needs for specialized mental health treatment for the children. Surveyed parents identified children's behavior problems as their top challenge, and over half rated the availability of mental health providers who treat attachment and family as insufficient. The findings suggest specific areas in which state leaders could enhance training and supports for child welfare staff and foster and adoptive parents and improve mental health services for children in foster and adoptive care.
Foster parenting, human imprinting and conventional handling affects survival and early .... bird may subsequently direct its sexual attention to those humans on whom it was imprinted (Bubier et al., ..... The mind through chicks' eyes: memory,.
Lehmann, Stine; Bøe, Tormod; Breivik, Kyrre
Mental health problems are common in foster-children, and tools to measure the mental health of these children are needed. One candidate instrument is the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), a measure of child psychological adjustment that is increasingly being employed by Child Protection services. The aim of the current study was to examine the structural validity of the foster parent completed SDQ in a sample of 237 school aged foster children. Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated an excellent fit of the foster parent completed SDQ data to a five-factor model (CFI = 0.96, RMSEA = 0.05, 90% CI [0.04, 0.06]), thus confirming the structural validity of the five-factor model for the parent-version of the SDQ in Norwegian foster children. Measurement invariance analyses indicated that boys had lower thresholds for fighting with or bullying other children than girls. Girls were on their side more likely to be rated as less popular than boys with a similar level of peer problems.
Price, Joseph M; Roesch, Scott; Walsh, Natalia E; Landsverk, John
Children in foster care are at risk for externalizing behavior problems, which can in turn increase the risk of changes in foster care placement. The KEEP (Keeping Foster Parents Trained and Supported) foster parent training intervention was designed to equip foster parents with strategies for managing externalizing behavior problems. The primary goals of this investigation were to (a) examine the effectiveness of the KEEP intervention in reducing child behavior problems, as delivered by a community agency; (b) determine if the effects of the KEEP intervention generalize to more than one child in the same home; and (c) examine the effectiveness of the KEEP intervention in reducing parental stress associated with child behavior problems. The data from 335 foster and kinship families with children between the ages of 5 and 12 years were analyzed to address these objectives. Families were randomly assigned to the intervention or control condition. The results indicated that the KEEP intervention was effective in reducing child behavior problems when delivered by a community agency. These results expanded prior research on the KEEP intervention, revealing that the intervention was effective in reducing the behavior problems of more than one child in the same household and in reducing parental stress levels associated with the behavioral issues of the focal child. Thus, the KEEP intervention model holds promise for reducing the behavior problems of children in foster care and reducing stress levels of foster and kinship caregivers as it is disseminated and implemented within similar child welfare settings.
Strijker, J.; Zandberg, Tj.; Van der Meulen, B.F.
This study examines the similarities and differences between foster parents and kinship foster parents in the Netherlands. Both parents and caseworkers have filled out questionnaires for the purpose of this study. No evidence has been found to support the argument that kinship foster care holds
RABY, K. LEE; YARGER, HEATHER A.; LIND, TERESA; FRALEY, R. CHRIS; LEERKES, ESTHER; DOZIER, MARY
The first aim of the current study was to examine the latent structure of attachment states of mind as assessed by the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) among three groups of parents of children at risk for insecure attachments: parents who adopted internationally (N = 147), foster parents (N = 300), and parents living in poverty and involved with Child Protective Services (CPS; N = 284). Confirmatory factor analysis indicated the state of mind rating scales loaded on two factors reflecting ad...
de Schipper, J.C.; Oosterman, M.; Schuengel, C.
In a foster care sample, the moderating effect of temperamental shyness on the association between parental sensitivity and attachment quality was tested. The foster parents of 59 foster children (age M=57 months, SD=16.4) filled out the Child Behavior Questionnaire. To control for confounds,
Despite the high rate of early parenthood among youth in foster care as well as the increased risk of child maltreatment among children whose adolescent parents have been neglected or abused, very little is known about child welfare services involvement among children whose parents were in foster care when they were born. This study uses administrative data from the Illinois Department of Children and Family Services (DCFS) to examine the occurrence of child abuse and neglect investigations, indicated reports and out of home care placements among the children of youth in foster. Thirty-nine percent of the children were the subject of at least one CPS investigation, 17 percent had at least one indicated report and 11 percent were placed in out of home care at least once before their 5th birthday. Cox proportional hazard models are also estimated to identify characteristics of parenting foster youth and their placement histories associated with the risk of child welfare services involvement. Implications of the findings for policy and practice are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Schielzeth, H; Burger, C; Bolund, E; Forstmeier, W
Sexual imprinting on discrete variation that serves the identification of species, morphs or sexes is well documented. By contrast, sexual imprinting on continuous variation leading to individual differences in mating preferences within a single species, morph and sex has been studied only once (in humans). We measured female preferences in a captive population of wild-type zebra finches. Individual cross-fostering ensured that all subjects grew up with unrelated foster parents and nest mates. Females from two cohorts (N = 113) were given a simultaneous choice between (two or four) unfamiliar males, one of which was a genetic son of their foster parents (SFP). We found no significant overall preference for the SFP (combined effect size d = 0.14 +/- 0.15). Additionally, we tested if foster parent traits could potentially explain between-female variation in preferences. However, neither the effectiveness of cooperation between the parents nor male contribution to parental care affected female preferences for the son of the foster father. We conclude that at least in zebra finches sexual imprinting is not a major source of between-individual variation in mating preferences.
Barnett, Erin R; Cleary, Sarah E; Butcher, Rebecca L; Jankowski, Mary K
Caring for children in foster or adoptive care with behavioral health needs can severely stress parents, contributing to adverse outcomes for children and families. Trauma-informed services from the child welfare and mental health sectors may help prevent poor outcomes by helping children and parents identify and understand trauma and its impact on children's behavioral health and receive effective treatment. To help understand the role of trauma-informed services for the child welfare population, we examined whether trauma-informed child welfare and mental health services moderated the relationship between children's behavioral health needs and parent satisfaction and commitment. The researchers analyzed data from a cross-sectional statewide survey of foster and adoptive parents (n = 512 respondents, 42% of 1,206 contacted) from one state. Foster (but not adoptive) parent ratings of trauma-informed mental health services significantly moderated the relationship between children's behavioral health needs and foster and adoptive parent satisfaction and commitment. As ratings of trauma-informed mental health services increased, the association between child behavioral health needs and parent satisfaction and commitment became nonsignificant, suggesting a buffering effect. Trauma-informed child welfare services did not moderate the relationship for foster or adoptive parents. Leaders and policymakers are urged to promote trauma-informed mental health services for children involved with child welfare to potentially buffer foster parents against lower parenting satisfaction and commitment. More research is needed to replicate and expand on these findings and to examine the effectiveness of trauma-informed services on other relevant child and family outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Maaskant, A.M.; van Rooij, F.B.; Overbeek, G.J.; Oort, F.J.; Hermanns, J.M.A.
The present randomized controlled trial examined the four months follow-up effectiveness of Parent Management Training Oregon (PMTO) for parents with foster children (aged 4–12) with severe externalizing behavior problems in long-term foster care arrangements. The aim of PMTO, a relative long and
Dorsey, Shannon; Pullmann, Michael D.; Berliner, Lucy; Koschmann, Elizabeth; McKay, Mary; Deblinger, Esther
The goal of this study was to examine the impact of supplementing Trauma-focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT; Cohen, Mannarino, & Deblinger, 2006) with evidence-based engagement strategies on foster parent and foster youth engagement in treatment, given challenges engaging foster parents in treatment. A randomized controlled trial of TF-CBT standard delivery compared to TF-CBT plus evidence-based engagement strategies was conducted with 47 children and adolescents in foster care and ...
Cassidy, Wanda; Brown, Karen; Jackson, Margaret
Cyber bullying among youth is rapidly becoming a global phenomenon, as educators, parents and policymakers grapple with trying to curtail this negative and sometimes devastating behavior. Since most cyber bullying emanates from the home computer, parents can play an important role in preventing cyber bullying and in fostering a kinder online…
Bernard, Kristin; Butzin-Dozier, Zachary; Rittenhouse, Joseph; Dozier, Mary
To examine differences in waking to bedtime cortisol production between children who remained with birth parents vs children placed in foster care following involvement of Child Protective Services (CPS). Between-subject comparison of cortisol patterns among 2 groups of children. Children referred from the child welfare system. Three hundred thirty-nine children aged 2.9 to 31.4 months who were living with birth parents (n = 155) or placed in foster care (n = 184) following CPS involvement as well as 96 unmatched children from low-risk environments. Main Exposures Involvement by CPS and foster care. Main Outcome Measure Salivary cortisol samples obtained at waking and bedtime for children on 2 days. Child Protective Services-involved children who continued to live with birth parents and CPS-involved children placed in foster care differed in cortisol production, with children living with their birth parents showing flatter slopes in waking to bedtime values. Continuing to live with birth parents following involvement of CPS is associated with greater perturbation to the diurnal pattern of cortisol production than living with foster parents. Foster care may have a regulating influence on children's cortisol among children who have experienced maltreatment.
Dorsey, Shannon; Pullmann, Michael D; Berliner, Lucy; Koschmann, Elizabeth; McKay, Mary; Deblinger, Esther
The goal of this study was to examine the impact of supplementing Trauma-focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT; Cohen et al., 2006) with evidence-based engagement strategies on foster parent and foster youth engagement in treatment, given challenges engaging foster parents in treatment. A randomized controlled trial of TF-CBT standard delivery compared to TF-CBT plus evidence-based engagement strategies was conducted with 47 children and adolescents in foster care and one of their foster parents. Attendance, engagement, and clinical outcomes were assessed 1 month into treatment, end of treatment, and 3 months post-treatment. Youth and foster parents who received TF-CBT plus evidence-based engagement strategies were more likely to be retained in treatment through four sessions and were less likely to drop out of treatment prematurely. The engagement strategies did not appear to have an effect on the number of canceled or no-show sessions or on treatment satisfaction. Clinical outcomes did not differ by study condition, but exploratory analyses suggest that youth had significant improvements with treatment. Strategies that specifically target engagement may hold promise for increasing access to evidence-based treatments and for increasing likelihood of treatment completion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vasileva, Mira; Petermann, Franz
Parents and other significant persons have an important role when preschool children develop or cope with psychological symptoms following traumatic experiences. The underlying mechanisms of the interaction between traumatic experiences and influences of the foster family are still unclear. This study investigates foster parents’ stress levels and parenting styles as moderators or mediators in the context of traumatic experiences. Foster parents of 286 children between three and seven years participated in an online or paper-and-pencil survey. The results suggest a connection between the traumatic experiences of foster children and the stress levels as well as the parenting styles of their foster parents. While verbosity and laxness as parenting styles moderated the impact of traumatic experiences on externalising symptoms, stress levels mediated the impact of traumatic experiences on children’s internalising and externalising symptoms. The results underscore the necessity of standardized preparation of and support for foster parents in order to avoid deterioration of psychological symptoms following traumatic Events.
Vasileva, Mira; Petermann, Franz
Children in foster care often experience traumatic events which increase their risk for posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). Until now, no research has investigated the developmentally sensitive PTSS criteria for preschoolers among children in foster care. The current study estimated the prevalence of potentially traumatic experiences and clinical PTSS in German foster care children aged 3 to 7 years. The foster parents of 324 children completed questionnaires about children's PTSS, foster parental stress, parenting, and family functioning. Linear regression models tested trauma-related variables, placement history, and foster family characteristics as predictors of PTSS. Approximately 45.4% of the foster children had experienced at least one traumatic event and 15.4% had clinical PTSS. Physical abuse, β = .34, p < .001; hospitalization, β = -.17, p = .026; witnessing someone being hurt, β = -.15, p = .047; and parental stress, β = .43, p < .001, were significantly associated with PTSS. Results demonstrate the impact the foster family has on children who are coping with trauma, and suggest the necessity of trauma-sensitive trainings for foster parents, with stress management as an important component. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.
Schofield, Gillian; Beek, Mary
This paper reports on a longitudinal study of children growing up in long-term foster family care. It focuses attention on the challenges for foster carers in providing a secure base for foster children in middle childhood and early adolescence, who have come predominantly from backgrounds of abuse, neglect, and psychosocial adversity. Separation and loss in the children's lives, often through multiple placements, increase the likelihood of difficulties across a range of development. These children tend to be wary, distrustful, and controlling when they enter foster placements, but need from their carers many of the caregiving qualities most commonly described as providing a secure base in infancy. This study describes a model of parenting which uses four caregiving dimensions that are consistent with attachment theory and research: promoting trust in availability, promoting reflective function, promoting self-esteem, and promoting autonomy. A fifth dimension, promoting family membership, is added, as it reflects the need for children in long-term foster family care to experience the security that comes from a sense of identity and belonging. Qualitative data from the study demonstrates the usefulness of this model as a framework for analysis, but also suggests the potential use of such a framework for working with and supporting foster carers.
M.A. South Africa is facing a high proportion of children in need of care due to the high escalation of HIV/AIDS related illness. Most of the orphaned children are left with either paternal or maternal families. As a result the families are facing challenges to perform “social, emotional, and educational tasks” and to cope with the additional family members. The study was exploratory and aimed to explore the challenges faced by foster parents, and their coping strategies in Johannesburg. T...
Luster, Tom; Qin, Desiree; Bates, Laura; Rana, Meenal; Lee, Jung Ah
This study explores the adaptation of unaccompanied Sudanese refugee minors resettled in the US. Seven years after resettlement, in-depth interviews were conducted with 19 Sudanese youths and 20 foster parents regarding factors that contributed to successful adaptation. The youths emphasized personal agency and staying focused on getting an…
Schuengel, C.; Oosterman, M.
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether foster children showed different autonomic nervous system activity on separation and reunion than control children. Autonomic nervous system activity in foster children was examined in relation to time in placement and disinhibited attachment. METHOD: The sample
Kubiak, Sheryl Pimlott; Kasiborski, Natalie; Karim, Nidal; Schmittel, Emily
This longitudinal study of 83 incarcerated women, who gave birth during incarceration and retained their parental rights through brief sentences, examines the intersection between subsequent criminal justice involvement postrelease and child welfare outcomes. Ten years of multiple state-level administrative data sets are used to determine if arrest or conviction predict foster care and/or termination of parental rights. Findings indicate that only felony arrest is a significant predictor of foster care involvement. Additionally, 69% of mothers retained legal custody, despite subsequent criminal involvement for many, suggesting supportive parenting programs and resources need to be available to these women throughout and after incarceration.
Singer, Elly; Doornenbal, Jeannette; Okma, Krista
This article discusses a study of children's perspectives on disciplinary conflicts with their foster parents. Most children accept parental authority, but they also defend their personal autonomy and loyalties to peers. In this study, only birthchildren told real-life stories about fierce
Putnam-Hornstein, Emily; Hammond, Ivy; Eastman, Andrea Lane; McCroskey, Jacquelyn; Webster, Daniel
This analysis examined California county birth rate variations among girls in foster care. The objective was to generate data to assess potential intervention points tied to federal legislation extending foster care beyond age 18 years. Child protection records for all adolescent girls in foster care at age 17 years between 2003 and 2007 (N = 20,222) were linked to vital birth records through 2011. The cumulative percentage of girls who had given birth by age 21 years was calculated by county and race/ethnicity. One in three (35.2%) adolescent girls in foster care had given birth at least once before age 21 years. Although significant birth rate variations emerged, even at the low end of the county range, more than one in four girls had given birth by age 21 years. Child welfare systems are now charged with coordinating transitional services for foster youth beyond age 18 years. Extended foster care provides new opportunities for pregnancy prevention work and targeted parenting support. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Linares, L. Oriana; Jimenez, Jessica; Nesci, Cristina; Pearson, Eva; Beller, Sarah; Edwards, Nancy; Levin-Rector, Alison
Sibling aggression among maltreated children placed in foster homes is linked to other externalizing problems and placement disruption. The reduction of sibling conflict and aggression may be achieved via a multicomponent ecologically focused intervention for families in the foster care system. The focus of the study is to evaluate the feasibility and short-term effectiveness of a transtheoretical intervention model targeting sibling pairs and their foster parent that integrates family systems, social learning theory, and a conflict mediation perspective. In this pilot study, sibling pairs (N=22) and their foster parent were randomized into a three-component intervention (n=13) or a comparison (n=9) group. Promoting Sibling Bonds (PSB) is an 8-week prevention intervention targeting maltreated sibling pairs ages 5–11 years placed together in a foster home. The Siblings, Parent, and Joint components were delivered in a program package at the foster agency by a trained two-clinician team. Average attendance across program components was 73%. Outcomes in four areas were gathered at pre-and post-intervention: observed sibling interaction quality (positive and negative) including conflict during play, and foster parent reports of mediation strategies and sibling aggression in the foster home. At post-intervention, adjusting for baseline scores and child age, intervention pairs showed higher positive (p<.001) and negative (p<.05) interaction quality, and lower sibling conflict during play (p <.01) than comparison pairs. Foster parents in the intervention group reported a higher number of conflict mediation strategies than those in the comparison group (p <.001). Foster parents in the intervention group reported lower sibling physical aggression from the older toward the younger child than those in the comparison group (p <.05). Data suggest that the PSB intervention is a promising approach to reduce conflict and promote parental mediation which together may reduce
Peterson, Shelley Stagg; Ladky, Mary
This research, using questionnaire and interview data, examined practices and challenges of educators in areas of southern Ontario in fostering immigrant parents' support for their children's literacy. Results showed that teachers learn about the language and culture of their students, modify homework assigned to their ESL students, and encourage…
Steenbakkers, Anne; van der Steen, Steffie; Ellingsen, Ingunn T.; Grietens, Hans
Children in family foster care have a specific set of psychosocial needs, stemming from previous caregiving, (traumatic) experiences, and living in a foster family. Foster parents are expected to learn about these needs and incorporate them into their parenting and nurturing. When foster children
Linares, L Oriana; Jimenez, Jessica; Nesci, Cristina; Pearson, Eva; Beller, Sarah; Edwards, Nancy; Levin-Rector, Alison
Sibling aggression among maltreated children placed in foster homes is linked to other externalizing problems and placement disruption. The reduction of sibling conflict and aggression may be achieved via a multicomponent ecologically focused intervention for families in the foster care system. The focus of the study is to evaluate the feasibility and short-term effectiveness of a transtheoretical intervention model targeting sibling pairs and their foster parent that integrates family systems, social learning theory, and a conflict mediation perspective. In this pilot study, sibling pairs (N = 22) and their foster parent were randomized into a three-component intervention (n = 13) or a comparison (n = 9) group. Promoting Sibling Bonds (PSB) is an 8-week prevention intervention targeting maltreated sibling pairs ages 5-11 years placed together in a foster home. The siblings, parent, and joint components were delivered in a program package at the foster agency by a trained two-clinician team. Average attendance across program components was 73 %. Outcomes in four areas were gathered at pre- and postintervention: observed sibling interaction quality (positive and negative) including conflict during play, and foster parent reports of mediation strategies and sibling aggression in the foster home. At postintervention, adjusting for baseline scores and child age, intervention pairs showed higher positive (p conflict during play (p conflict mediation strategies than those in the comparison group (p conflict and promote parental mediation, which together may reduce sibling aggression in the foster home.
Van Andel, Hans; Post, Wendy; Jansen, Lucres; Van der Gaag, Rutger Jan; Knorth, Erik; Grietens, Hans
The relationship between foster children and their foster carers comes with many risks and may be very stressful both for parents and children. We developed an intervention (foster family intervention [FFI]) to tackle these risks. The intervention focuses on foster children below the age of 5 years.
Andel, H. Van; Post, W.; Janssen, L.; Gaag, R.J. van der; Knorth, E.; Grietens, H.
The relationship between foster children and their foster carers comes with many risks and may be very stressful both for parents and children. We developed an intervention (foster family intervention [FFI]) to tackle these risks. The intervention focuses on foster children below the age of 5 years.
Loesch-Griffin, Deborah A.; Ringstaff, Cathy
A program of education, training, and support provided to foster parents in a California county through a nonprofit agency is evaluated. The evaluators' experience indicates that: (1) evaluations are gaining in popularity; (2) role shifts by evaluators are sometimes difficult to perceive; (3) program staff are unlikely to use evaluative feedback…
This thesis started by focusing on Dutch foster children’s well-being, emotional and behavioral functioning and placement stability. Subsequently, we attempted to identify how foster families who are considered to be at a high risk of placement breakdown could be given effective support. The
..., childhood can be a time of sadness, pain, and separation. These children need and deserve safe, loving, and... commend the devotion and selflessness of the foster parents who step in to care for them. We also pay..., parent and advocacy groups--volunteer their time as mentors, tutors, and advocates for children in foster...
Diemer, Matthew A
This study examines the roles of parental political socialization and the moral commitment to change social inequalities in predicting marginalized youths' (defined here as lower-SES youth of color) political participation. These issues are examined by applying structural equation modeling to a longitudinal panel of youth. Because tests of measurement invariance suggested racial/ethnic heterogeneity, the structural model was fit separately for three racial/ethnic groups. For each group, parental political socialization: discussion predicted youths' commitment to produce social change and for two groups, longitudinally predicted political participation. This study contributes to the literature by examining civic/political participation among disparate racial/ethnic groups, addresses an open scholarly question (whether youths' commitment to create social change predicts their "traditional" participation), and emphasizes parents' role in fostering marginalized youths' civic and political participation.
Rosnati, Rosa; Iafrate, Raffaella; Scabini, Eugenia
There is a paucity of studies aimed at comparing how parents and children in different family structures cope with the challenges posed by the adolescence transition; in particular, there are few studies aimed at comparing adoptive and foster families. In order to partially fill this gap, the principal aims of the present study were to verify whether there are differences in parent-child communication among foster, intercountry adoptive, and biological families according to the adolescents' gender, and to compare the perceptions of parents and adolescents concerning parent-child communication. Data were elaborated on two levels: a generational level (adolescent's and his/her parents' perceptions among the three family groups) and a dyadic level (mother-child and father-child perceptions). The sample was composed of 276 Italian families with adolescents aged between 11 and 17 (81 foster, 98 international adoptive, and 97 biological families). Subjects (mothers, fathers, and children) filled out a questionnaire including the Parent-Adolescent Communication Scale (Barnes & Olson, 1985 ). Results highlighted that in foster families, parent-child communication showed more difficulties from both the adolescent's and the parents' point of view. Adoptive adolescents, however, reported a more positive communication with both their parents than did their peers living in biological and foster families. At a dyadic level, some differences emerged among the three groups. In biological families, a more pronounced distance emerged between parents and children. In adoptive families, father and adolescent shared more similar perceptions, whereas a significant discrepancy emerged between mother and child. A higher level of perceptual congruence between adolescents and parents was found in foster families. Gender differences were also seen: Mothers experienced a more open communication with their children than did fathers, and adolescents, and above all females, communicated better
... America A Proclamation Nearly a half-million children and youth are in foster care in America, all... promise of children and youth in foster care, as well as former foster youth. We also celebrate the professionals and foster parents who demonstrate the depth and kindness of the human heart. Children and youth...
Davis, Maia; Losey, Elizabeth
The popularity of the New Jersey Foster Care Scholars program is a testament to its importance. Typical college students rely on parents for financial assistance and emotional support. Youth aging out of foster care often are on their own. The scholarship program offers an opportunity for higher education that many foster youth thought they would…
Nadeem, Erum; Waterman, Jill; Foster, Jared; Paczkowski, Emilie; Belin, Thomas R.; Miranda, Jeanne
This exploratory longitudinal study examined behavioral outcomes and parenting stress among families with children adopted from foster care, taking into account environmental and biological risk factors. Child internalizing and externalizing problems and parenting stress were assessed in 82 adopted children and their families at 2 months…
Havlicek, Judy; McMillen, J. Curtis; Fedoravicius, Nicole; McNelly, David; Robinson, Debra
Studies find considerable movement between residential treatment and less restrictive foster home settings, with approximately half of foster youth who are stepped down eventually returning to a higher level of care. Very little is known about the step down for foster youth who are approaching adulthood in locked residential facilities. A qualitative study of stepping down a small sample of foster youth, as perceived by team members delivering a model of treatment foster care, is presented. These findings reveal the dimensions of stepping down foster youth at the onset of adulthood, and highlight the importance of providing foster youth with developmental opportunities to engage in the social roles and tasks of late adolescence and/or early adulthood. Implications for further refining the concept of stepping down from a developmental perspective are discussed. PMID:23878410
Jacobsen, Heidi; Vang, Kristin Alvestad; Lindahl, Karoline Mentzoni; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Smith, Lars; Moe, Vibeke
The main aim of this study was to investigate the quality of social interaction between 60 foster parents and their foster children compared to a group of 55 non-foster families at 2 (T1) and again at 3 (T2) years of age. Video observations were used to investigate child-parent interaction at both time-points. "This is My Baby" interview was administered to investigate foster parents' commitment at T1. The main results revealed significant group differences at T1 on all child-parent social interaction measures, although not at T2. Further, a significant group by time interaction was identified for parental sensitivity, revealing a positive development over time in the foster group. Finally, a significant positive relation was found between commitment at T1 and parental sensitivity. The results convey an optimistic view of the possibilities for foster dyads to develop positive patterns of social interaction over time.
Maaskant, A.M.; van Rooij, F.B.; Overbeek, G.J.; Oort, F.J.; Arntz, M.; Hermanns, J.M.A.
The present randomized controlled trial examined the effectiveness of Parent Management Training Oregon for foster parents with foster children (aged 4–12) with severe externalizing behavior problems in long-term foster care arrangements. Foster children’s behavior problems are challenging for
Gramkowski, Bridget; Kools, Susan; Paul, Steven; Boyer, Cherrie; Monasterio, Erica; Robbins, Nancy
Problem Adolescent health problems are predominantly caused by risk behavior. Foster adolescents have disproportionately poor health; therefore identification of risk behavior is critical. Method A secondary analysis of data from a larger study investigated the health risk behavior of 56 foster youth using the CHIP-AE. Findings Foster youth had some increased risk behavior. Younger adolescents and those in kinship care had less risky behavior. Youth had more risk behavior when: in group homes, parental death, histories of physical or emotional abuse, or history of attempted suicide. Conclusions These results point to areas of strength and vulnerability in foster youth. PMID:19490278
Morton, Brenda M.
Foster children have been identified as one of the most high-risk groups for academic failure in schools today. However, a small number of foster youth are beating the odds by achieving academically. How are they able to overcome tremendous barriers and succeed? This phenomenological study reports the findings of former foster youth and their P-12…
Full Text Available Family and Consumer Sciences (FCS programs target families in deprived rural and urban communities with the objective of equipping them with skills to improve family well-being, education, and relationships. In recent years, the focus of FCS in Ghana has been on parental styles and education that foster parents’ involvement in their children's school work. Using a child-parent interactive model, a series of math activities were delivered to children between the ages of 6 and 10 years. Group activities were also facilitated by the FCS staff. Parents used local materials, such as small empty cans, bottles, leaves, stones, sticks, old newspapers, and sand, to explain math concepts. Staff, parents, and children used fun activities and role plays to demonstrate developmental processes that enhance effective child development. The lessons identified were tied to the understanding of appropriate parenting styles that foster acquisition of skills for basic math concepts. At the end of the 12-week program, parents reported increased interest and confidence in math and were more proactive in supervising their children to complete their homework. The importance of the model lies in its simplicity in conveying fundamental knowledge that relates to the interwoven aspect of developmental domains to ensure children experience maximal success with math-related activities. The model also promotes acquisition of basic math skills in a naturalistic setting.
Full Text Available Children with special needs disproportionately receive child welfare services in out-of-home placements, such as foster and adoptive homes. This theoretical model has been developed to describe or explain exigencies of adoptive and foster families of children with special needs (n = 82. A web content analysis, including theme, feature, link, exchange, and language analyses, of online discussion forums of adoptive and foster parents of children with special needs using a phenomenological framework was conducted. Inductive and quantitative web content analyses were conducted on themes. Parenting concerns were clustered into two main themes, disability and placement issues, and focused on children’s pre and post placement needs. A phenomenological analysis resulted in the development of the Special Needs Adoption and Foster Exigencies (SAFE, which outlines exigencies of adoptive and foster parents of children with special needs during engagement, assessment, and intervention phases of case management.
Oosterman, M.; Schuengel, C.
This study focused on attachment of foster children by examining factors associated with attachment relationships of children raised from birth by the same parents. The sample included 61 children between 26 to 88 months of age and their foster caregivers. Attachment security and caregiver
Fischer, Robert L.; Attah, E. B.
A study examined perceptions of a 7-day Outward Bound program among 23 urban youths, foster parents, and foster care workers from group homes in Atlanta (Georgia). Foster parents reported improved self-esteem and behavior among the teens, but foster care workers reported worse behavior. Negative program impressions lessened among male youths but…
Jee, Sandra H; Szilagyi, Moira; Conn, Anne-Marie; Nilsen, Wendy; Toth, Sheree; Baldwin, Constance D; Szilagyi, Peter G
To assess the effectiveness of social-emotional screening in the primary care setting for youths in foster care. The setting was a primary care practice for all youth in home-based foster care in 1 county. Subjects were youths, aged 11 to 17 years, and their foster parents; both completed a Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire at well-child visits. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire is a previously validated 25-item tool that has 5 domains: emotional symptoms; conduct problems; hyperactivity/inattention; peer problems; and prosocial behaviors and an overall total difficulties score. We first compared youth versus parent Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire scores and then assessed the accuracy of these Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire scores by comparing them in a subsample of youths (n = 50) with results of home-based structured clinical interviews using the Children's Interview for Psychiatric Syndromes. Of 138 subjects with both youth and parent reports, 78% had prosocial behaviors (strengths), and 70% had 1 or more social-emotional problems. Parents reported significantly more conduct problems (38% vs 16%; P youth. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire had better agreement with the Children's Interview for Psychiatric Syndromes (n = 50) for any Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire-identified problem for combined youth and foster-parent reports (93%), compared with youth report alone (54%) or parent report alone (71%). Although most youths in foster care have social-emotional problems, most have strengths as well. Youth and foster-parent perspectives on these problems differ. Systematic social-emotional screening in primary care that includes both youth and parent reports can identify youths who may benefit from services.
Grant, Monica J; Yeatman, Sara
Despite the frequency of divorce and remarriage across much of sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about what these events mean for the living arrangements of children. We use longitudinal data from rural Malawi to examine the effects of family transitions on the prevalence and incidence of child fostering, or children residing apart from their living parents. We find that between 7 % and 15 % of children aged 3-14 are out-fostered over the two-year intersurvey period. Although divorce appears to be a significant driver of child fostering in the cross-sectional analysis, it is not significantly associated with the incidence of out-fostering. In contrast, maternal remarriage has both a lagged and an immediate effect on the incidence of out-fostering. Furthermore, the likelihood of out-fostering is even higher among children whose mother remarried and had a new child during the intersurvey period. Using longitudinal data collected from living mothers rather than from children's current foster homes offers new insights into the reasons children are sent to live with others besides their parents.
Van Andel, Hans W.H.; Grietens, Hans; Strijker, Johan; Van der Gaag, Rutger J.; Knorth, Erik J.
Foster children experience a lot of stress because of their life histories and changes in their family circumstances, such as foster care placement. It is important that foster parents recognize the early signs of stress in foster children and learn how to act in a non-threatening and understanding
... biological parent becomes unable to care for the child due to a disability; or (4) The employee, annuitant....303 Eligibility of foster children under Option C. (a) Effective October 30, 1998, foster children are eligible for coverage as family members under Option C. (b) To qualify for coverage as a foster child, the...
Lietz, Cynthia A; Julien-Chinn, Francie J; Geiger, Jennifer M; Hayes Piel, Megan
Families who foster offer essential care for children and youth when their own parents are unable to provide for their safety and well-being. Foster caregivers face many challenges including increased workload, emotional distress, and the difficulties associated with health and mental health problems that are more common in children in foster care. Despite these stressors, many families are able to sustain fostering while maintaining or enhancing functioning of their unit. This qualitative study applied an adaptational process model of family resilience that emerged in previous studies to examine narratives of persistent, long-term, and multiple fostering experiences. Data corroborated previous research in two ways. Family resilience was again described as a transactional process of coping and adaptation that evolves over time. This process was cultivated through the activation of 10 family strengths that are important in different ways, during varied phases. © 2016 Family Process Institute.
Nduwimana, Estella; Mukunzi, Sylvere; Ng, Lauren C; Kirk, Catherine M; Bizimana, Justin I; Betancourt, Theresa S
Fostering children is common in sub-Saharan Africa, but few studies examine these children's mental health needs. This study investigated the impact of living in a foster family on the mental health of HIV-positive, HIV-affected and HIV-unaffected children (n = 681 aged 10-17) in rural Rwanda. Regression analyses assessed the impact of living in a foster family on mental health, parenting, and daily hardships; multiple mediation analyses assessed whether family factors mediated the association between foster status and mental health. HIV-positive children were eight times more likely to live in foster families than HIV-unaffected children. Being HIV-affected was predictive of depression and irritability symptoms after controlling for family factors. Controlling for HIV-status, foster children had more symptoms of depression, anxiety, and irritability than non-fostered children. Positive parenting fully mediated the association between foster status and mental health. Mental health and parenting interventions for foster children and HIV-affected children may improve child outcomes.
Gabrielli, Joy; Jackson, Yo; Brown, Shaquanna
The Behavioral Assessment System for Children-2 (BASC-2) is used to assess behavioral and emotional outcomes for youth. Research providing evidence for use of the BASC-2 parent-report form historically has included biological parents reporting on their children (Reynolds and Kamphaus 2004). For youth residing in out-of-home placements through enrollment in foster care, caregivers reporting on their functioning may include foster parents or residential staff. Given the significant adverse mental health outcomes for youth in foster care and the need to adequately assess adjustment in foster care, the purpose of the study was to evaluate the measurement properties of caregivers' report on the parent report form (PRS) of the BASC-2 in foster care youth. Using 479 respondents, a measurement model was fit to the data demonstrating adequate fit across Internalizing Problems, Externalizing Problems, and Adaptive Skills. Further, a comparison of measurement properties across child and adolescent groups and groups of youth residing in residential facilities versus foster homes was conducted. Factorial invariance and latent means also were assessed. The BASC-2 PRS was found to be an adequate assessment of psychological outcomes for youth in foster care when completed by foster parents or residential facility staff.
Enrolling children in youth sport is an American tradition to keep children active while learning life lessons such as teamwork, commitment, and work ethic. However, youth sport is becoming extremely expensive and demanding, resulting in high parental involvement. Research shows over-involved parents cause stress, anxiety, and even burnout. The…
Martin, T E; Scott, J; Menge, C
Alexander Skutch hypothesized that increased parental activity can increase the risk of nest predation. We tested this hypothesis using ten open-nesting bird species in Arizona, USA. Parental activity was greater during the nestling than incubation stage because parents visited the nest frequently to feed their young during the nestling stage. However, nest predation did not generally increase with parental activity between nesting stages across the ten study species. Previous investigators h...
Gramkowski, Bridget; Kools, Susan; Paul, Steven; Boyer, Cherrie B; Monasterio, Erica; Robbins, Nancy
Many adolescent health problems are predominantly caused by risk behavior. Foster adolescents have disproportionately poor health; therefore, identification of risk behavior is critical. Data from a larger study were analyzed to investigate the health risk behavior of 56 youth in foster care using the Child Health and Illness Profile-Adolescent Edition. Data indicated that youth in foster care had some increased risk behavior when compared with a normative adolescent population. Younger adolescents and those in relative placement had less risky behavior. Risk behavior was increased for youth in foster care when they were in group homes, had experienced a parental death, or had a history of physical or emotional abuse or attempted suicide. These results point to areas of strength and vulnerability for youth in foster care and suggest areas for clinicians and caregivers of these adolescents to focus interventions towards harm reduction and enhancement of resiliency.
Full Text Available In a situation when a family does not care about the child and does not fulfil its educational duties to its child, and even where the support given does not result in an improvement of the situation, then the child may be placed in foster care. This leads to the child’s coexistence in two families: the biological one and foster one. In accordance with the law in force in Poland on family support and the foster care system of 20 September 2012, foster care becomes a supplement to parental care-giving and does not replace it. This article is an attempt to show the complexity of the issues concerning the upbringing of a child in two families. Particular attention is paid to the difficult situation of the child, who periodically, by the court’s decision is sent to foster care and functions in a new unrelated family, while maintaining contact with their biological parents, with whom they share a legal bond. This situation raises a number of difficulties experienced by the child – dilemmas and problems with identification and belonging to the foster or biological family. The temporary nature of foster care, its subsidiary character, causes that nowadays the goal of foster families is not to establish ties with the child similar to those resulting from a parent-like attitude but to support, help in the care and upbringing of the child. The article also highlights the resulting threats to the proper functioning of the child
Brown, Jason D.; Moraes, Sabrina; Mayhew, Janet
We examined the service needs of foster families with children who have disabilities. Foster parents in a large Canadian city were asked "What services or supports would be helpful to you?" The responses to this question were edited for clarity and to eliminate redundancies, and sorted into piles of like statements by a group of 15…
to give voice to foster children so that their knowledge about "the life as a child in foster care" could find its way to social workers and foster parents as well as politicians, thus influencing, democratizing and qualifying social work with children and youth in foster care. "Børneting" was established......Based on Axel Honneth's Theoty of Recognition and an empirical action research project entitled "Børnetinget" (Children's Parliament), conducted in Denmark by the author, this article discuss dilemmas and possibilities of giving voice to children in foster care. The Børnetinget project aimed...... with a core group of 15 foster children, aged 10-13, and a web-based "foster children's public forum". This article focuses on learning about participation from the Børnetinget experience, both as a model of participatory research practice and for the insights it provides in relation to how we understand...
Dignam, Christopher Anthony
This qualitative research study addressed the problem of the lack of parental involvement in secondary school science. Increasing parental involvement is vital in supporting student academic achievement and social growth. The purpose of this emergent phenomenological study was to identify conditions required to successfully construct a supportive learning environment to form partnerships between students, parents, and educators. The overall research question in this study investigated the conditions necessary to successfully enlist parental participation with students during science inquiry investigations at the secondary school level. One hundred thirteen pairs of parents and students engaged in a 6-week scientific inquiry activity and recorded attitudinal data in dialogue journals, questionnaires, open-ended surveys, and during one-one-one interviews conducted by the researcher between individual parents and students. Comparisons and cross-interpretations of inter-rater, codified, triangulated data were utilized for identifying emergent themes. Data analysis revealed the active involvement of parents in researching with their child during inquiry investigations, engaging in journaling, and assessing student performance fostered partnerships among students, parents, and educators and supported students' social skills development. The resulting model, employing constructivist leadership and enlisting parent involvement, provides conditions and strategies required to develop a community of practice that can help effect social change. The active involvement of parents fostered improved efficacy and a holistic mindset to develop in parents, students, and teachers. Based on these findings, the interactive collaboration of parents in science learning activities can proactively facilitate a community of practice that will assist educators in facilitating social change.
Oke, Nicholas; Rostill-Brookes, Helen; Larkin, Michael
This study examines carer attributes associated with placement stability for teenagers growing up in long term foster care, focusing on unexpected placement success. We explored experiences and perceptions relating to family, belonging and commitment in a group of foster carers providing a stable placement for a young person who had not been expected to settle. These placements showed positive outcome, despite factors in the child's history that might have predicted otherwise. Seven foster carers were interviewed following a semi-structured guide, which covered their ideas about their relationship with the child in question, about the foster family, and the child's sense of belonging in foster and birth family. Analysis of carers' accounts of placements which had succeeded 'against the odds' revealed four major themes, described under the headings My Child--emotional bonding, the carers' enlarged view of family and their parental regard for the young person; Jam in the Sandwich--working within a 'compromised space' between Local Authority and birth family; Repair and Rebuild--the craft of fostering including managing the foster/birth family boundary; Sticking with It--resilience, tenacity and maintaining hopefulness. The carers' accounts offer pointers towards the ingredients of successful placements and prompt reflection on how these may be supported and promoted. They also highlight tensions inherent in the foster carer task relating to carers' parental functioning for young people in long-term foster care.
Negriff, Sonya; James, Adam; Trickett, Penelope K
Little is known about the social support networks of maltreated youth or how youth in foster care may compare with those who remain with their parent(s). Social network characteristics and perceived social support were examined between (1) maltreated and comparison youth, (2) maltreated youth who remained with their biological parent, those with a foster parent, or a those with a kin caregiver, and (3) youth in stable placements and those who have changed placements. Data came from a sample of 454 adolescents (241 boys, 9-13 years old at enrollment) who took part in a longitudinal study of child maltreatment. Participants completed three assessments approximately 1 year apart. Results showed that on average, maltreated adolescents named significantly fewer people in their network than comparison adolescents. At Time 2, comparison adolescents reported more same-aged friends. In the maltreatment group, youth with a foster parent reported significantly more older friends than maltreated youth with a kin caregiver. Fewer maltreated youth named a biological parent on the social support questionnaire at all three time points. More youth in kinship care described their caregiver as supportive than those in foster care. These findings indicate that despite heterogeneous placement histories, social support networks among maltreated youth were very similar.
Storer, Heather L.; Barkan, Susan E.; Stenhouse, Linnea L.; Eichenlaub, Caroline; Mallillin, Anastasia; Haggerty, Kevin P.
Placement instability is an ongoing challenge for the 125,000 foster youth aged 14 – 18 that are living in foster care, with youth living in approximately 3 placements before aging out of the system. Despite the importance caring adult relationships can play in promoting positive youth development and resiliency, there has been limited inquiry into the characteristics of the foster youth and caregiver relationship. The goal of this paper is to provide a descriptive account of the foster youth and caregiver relationship, and explore what qualities and experiences foster youth desire from their caregivers. Qualitative data were gathered from 9 focus groups. Data were analyzed using thematic content analysis approaches. Foster youth, caregivers, and child welfare staff described relationships lacking in formative bonds and connection, where youth didn’t “fit in”, and chaotic homes marked by reactivity and judgment. Characteristics of supportive foster homes include a sense of belonging, structure, guidance, and consistency. This research underscores the important role positive relationships can play in foster youth’s feelings of well-being and points to the need for foster parent training to include tangible strategies to develop stronger bonds. PMID:26052173
Turney, Kristin; Wildeman, Christopher
Despite good reason to believe that children in foster care are disproportionately exposed to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), relatively little research considers exposure to ACEs among this group of vulnerable children. In this article, we use data from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH), a nationally representative sample of non-institutionalized children ages 0-17 in the United States, to estimate the association between foster care placement and exposure to an array of ACEs. In adjusted logistic regression models, we find that children placed in foster care or adopted from foster care, compared to their counterparts, were more likely to experience parental divorce or separation, parental death, parental incarceration, parental abuse, violence exposure, household member mental illness, and household member substance abuse. These children were also more likely to experience ACEs than children across different thresholds of socioeconomic disadvantage (e.g., children in households with incomes below the poverty line) and across different family structures (e.g., children in single-mother families). These results advance our understanding of how children in foster care, an already vulnerable population, are disproportionately exposed to ACEs. This exposure, given the link between ACEs and health, may have implications for children's health and wellbeing throughout the life course. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tyler, Kimberly A.; Melander, Lisa A.
Although homeless youth with and without foster care histories both face adverse life circumstances, little is known about how these two groups compare in terms of their early histories and whether they face similar outcomes. As such, we compared those with and without a history of foster care placement to determine if the associations between a…
September, Shiron Jade; Rich, Edna Grace; Roman, Nicolette Vanessa
Early childhood development (ECD) has been recognised to be the most important contributor to long-term social and emotional development. Therefore, positive parenting is paramount to foster quality parent-child interaction. Previous research shows that for parents to adopt a positive parenting style, some degree of parental knowledge is required.…
Turney, Kristin; Wildeman, Christopher
Each year, nearly 1% of US children spend time in foster care, with 6% of US children placed in foster care at least once between their birth and 18th birthday. Although a large literature considers the consequences of foster care placement for children's wellbeing, no study has used a nationally representative sample of US children to compare the mental and physical health of children placed in foster care to the health of children not placed in foster care. We used data from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health, a nationally representative sample of noninstitutionalized children in the United States, and logistic regression models to compare parent-reported mental and physical health outcomes of children placed in foster care to outcomes of children not placed in foster care, children adopted from foster care, children across specific family types (eg, single-mother households), and children in economically disadvantaged families. We find that children in foster care are in poor mental and physical health relative to children in the general population, children across specific family types, and children in economically disadvantaged families. Some differences are explained by adjusting for children's demographic characteristics, and nearly all differences are explained by also adjusting for the current home environment. Additionally, children adopted from foster care, compared with children in foster care, have significantly higher odds of having some health problems. Children in foster care are a vulnerable population in poor health, partially as a result of their early life circumstances. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Full Text Available Natural selection penalizes individuals that provide costly parental care to non-relatives. However, feedings to brood-parasitic fledglings by individuals other than their foster parents, although anecdotic, have been commonly observed, also in the great spotted cuckoo (Clamator glandarius--magpie (Pica pica system, but this behaviour has never been studied in depth. In a first experiment, we here show that great spotted cuckoo fledglings that were translocated to a distant territory managed to survive. This implies that obtaining food from foreign magpies is a frequent and efficient strategy used by great spotted cuckoo fledglings. A second experiment, in which we presented a stuffed-cuckoo fledgling in magpie territories, showed that adult magpies caring for magpie fledglings responded aggressively in most of the trials and never tried to feed the stuffed cuckoo, whereas magpies that were caring for cuckoo fledglings reacted rarely with aggressive behavior and were sometimes disposed to feed the stuffed cuckoo. In a third experiment we observed feedings to post-fledgling cuckoos by marked adult magpies belonging to four different possibilities with respect to breeding status (i.e. composition of the brood: only cuckoos, only magpies, mixed, or failed breeding attempt. All non-parental feeding events to cuckoos were provided by magpies that were caring only for cuckoo fledglings. These results strongly support the conclusion that cuckoo fledglings that abandon their foster parents get fed by other adult magpies that are currently caring for other cuckoo fledglings. These findings are crucial to understand the co-evolutionary arms race between brood parasites and their hosts because they show that the presence of the host's own nestlings for comparison is likely a key clue to favour the evolution of fledgling discrimination and provide new insights on several relevant points such as learning mechanisms and multiparasitism.
Thoma, Brian C
Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) are at disproportionate risk for HIV infection. Parental monitoring is protective against adolescent sexual risk behavior among heterosexual adolescents, yet it is unclear whether these findings generalize to YMSM. YMSM experience unique family dynamics during adolescence, including coming out to parents and parental rejection of sexual orientation. The present study examined how theoretically derived parental monitoring constructs were associated with sexual activity and sexual risk behaviors among YMSM. YMSM aged 14-18 years completed a cross-sectional online survey (n = 646). Factor analysis was completed to determine factor structure of monitoring measure. Sexual behaviors were predicted from monitoring constructs and covariates within regression models. Parental knowledge and adolescent disclosure, parental solicitation, parental control, and adolescent secret-keeping emerged as four distinct monitoring constructs among YMSM. Higher knowledge and disclosure (b = -.32, p = .022), higher control (b = -.28, p = .006), lower solicitation (b = .31, p = .008), and lower secret-keeping (b = .25, p = .015) were associated with lower odds of sexual activity with males in the past 6 months. Higher knowledge and disclosure (b = -.12, p = .016), higher control (b = -.08, p = .039), and lower secret-keeping (b = .11, p = .005) were associated with having fewer recent sexual partners. Monitoring constructs were unassociated with condomless anal intercourse instances among sexually active YMSM. YMSM disclosure is closely tied with parental knowledge, and parents should foster relationships and home environments where YMSM are comfortable disclosing information freely. Effective parental monitoring could limit YMSM's opportunities for sexual activity, but monitoring is not sufficient to protect against HIV-related sexual risk behaviors among sexually active YMSM. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and
Vasileva, Mira; Petermann, Franz
A proper preparation for foster parents to care for abused and neglected children includes effective training and initial diagnostics in order to plan individual treatment. Hence, a basic knowledge about the main psychosocial and developmental problems associated with abuse and neglect and their prevalence in foster children is needed. For this purpose, a systematical literature review and a series of meta-analyses were conducted. A total of 25 studies reporting data on development (n = 4,033), mental health (n = 726), and attachment (n = 255) of foster children in preschool age met the inclusion criteria. The meta-analyses indicated prevalence rates of approximately 40% for developmental, mental health problems, and insecure attachment. Rates of disorganized attachment were estimated to 22%. These findings outline the necessity of an initial trauma-oriented diagnostics and trainings for foster parents that address foster children's development, mental health, and disorganized attachment. © The Author(s) 2016.
Crain, A. Lauren; Senso, Meghan M.; Levy, Rona L.; Sherwood, Nancy E.
Objective: To examine relationships between parenting styles and practices and child moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and screen time. Methods: Participants were children (6.9 ± 1.8 years) with a body mass index in the 70–95th percentile and their parents (421 dyads). Parent-completed questionnaires assessed parental support for child physical activity (PA), parenting styles and child screen time. Children wore accelerometers to assess MVPA. Results: Parenting style did not predict MVPA, but support for PA did (positive association). The association between support and MVPA, moreover, varied as a function of permissive parenting. For parents high in permissiveness, the association was positive (greater support was related to greater MVPA and therefore protective). For parents low in permissiveness, the association was neutral; support did not matter. Authoritarian and permissive parenting styles were both associated with greater screen time. Conclusions: Parenting practices and styles should be considered jointly, offering implications for tailored interventions. PMID:24812256
... love, protection, and stability of a permanent family. This month, we recommit to giving them that..., family members--individuals dedicated to making a difference. As they lend their strength to our most... be an adoptive or foster parent. And we will support programs that help increase permanency, reduce...
Full Text Available This research focused on the most important topics areas in parents` communication with the teachers and their assessments of the values prevailing in the classroom of second grade children using the programme “Free of Bullying”. The Free of Bullying methodology is fostering the development of children`s social skills, where family-teacher partnership plays essential role. The bullying prevention programme, initiated in the Kingdom of Denmark in 2007 and implemented in kindergartens in Estonia since 2010 and in schools since 2013. The main goal of the Free of Bullying methodology is to develop a behavioural culture that fosters respect toward oneself, fellow-pupils and adults, and works through mutual consideration. Creating a trusting relationship with parents and attaching importance to their role in creating a safe classroom atmosphere is essential for preventing the situation where parents are integrated in this process only when painful and negative problem situations occur. The current research sample consists of the parents of second grade children attending the “Free from bullying” pilot schools. The research revealed that from the bullying prevention point of view parents highly appreciate care, tolerance and respect. The most frequent topics of parent-teacher discussion are joint activities of the class and bullying between children. Thus it appears that parents who have been more actively involved through the measures of “Bullying-free school” project more frequently discuss aspects of the social structure of classroom climate with the teacher.
Langer, Shelby L; Crain, A Lauren; Senso, Meghan M; Levy, Rona L; Sherwood, Nancy E
To examine relationships between parenting styles and practices and child moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and screen time. Participants were children (6.9 ± 1.8 years) with a body mass index in the 70-95th percentile and their parents (421 dyads). Parent-completed questionnaires assessed parental support for child physical activity (PA), parenting styles and child screen time. Children wore accelerometers to assess MVPA. Parenting style did not predict MVPA, but support for PA did (positive association). The association between support and MVPA, moreover, varied as a function of permissive parenting. For parents high in permissiveness, the association was positive (greater support was related to greater MVPA and therefore protective). For parents low in permissiveness, the association was neutral; support did not matter. Authoritarian and permissive parenting styles were both associated with greater screen time. Parenting practices and styles should be considered jointly, offering implications for tailored interventions. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Moran, M. Susan; O'Neill, Peggy E.; Entekhabi, Dara; Njoku, Eni G.; Kellogg, Kent H.
The NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission will provide global observations of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state from space. We outline how priority applications contributed to the SMAP mission measurement requirements and how the SMAP mission plans to foster applications and applied science.
Full Text Available Trust is an important aspect of interpersonal relationships, but little is known about adolescents' interpersonal trust. The aim of the present study was to examine the associations among parental monitoring, parent-adolescent communication, and adolescents' trust in their parents in China.Data in this study were collected as part of the cross-sectional study of children in China. 3349 adolescents (female 48.6%, age range of 12-15 years were randomly selected from 35 secondary schools in April, 2009 and administered to the Adolescent Interpersonal Trust Scale, the Parental Monitoring Scale, and the Parent-Adolescent Communication Scale.Adolescents' trust in their parents was positively related to parental monitoring and parent-adolescent communication. Furthermore, parent-adolescent communication mediated the association between parental monitoring and adolescents' trust in their parents. The mediation model fit data of both genders and three age groups equally well.Parental monitoring and parent-adolescent communication play an importance role in fostering adolescents' trust in their parents.
Fowler, Cathrine; Dawson, Angela; Rossiter, Chris; Jackson, Debra; Power, Tamara; Roche, Michael
Learning to parent sensitively and safely can be challenging for adults with childhood abuse and neglect experiences. Such childhood experiences are prevalent among incarcerated parents whose ability to parent their own children is also limited by separation from them. Several prisons have developed programs to foster pro-social parenting skills…
Ahmad, Abdulbaghi; Mohamad, Kirmanj
A one-year follow-up study of children who had lost both parents and were placed in orphanages (n=19) or foster homes (n=18) in Iraqi Kurdistan investigated the orphans' situation and development. The children in orphanages were found to have higher frequency of post-traumatic stress disorder than the foster care children. (Author/CR)
Jago, Russell; Davison, Kirsten K; Brockman, Rowan; Page, Angie S; Thompson, Janice L; Fox, Kenneth R
The objective of this study was to determine whether parenting styles and practices are associated with children's physical activity. Cross-sectional survey of seven hundred ninety-two 10- to 11-year-old UK children in Bristol (UK) in 2008-2009 was conducted. Accelerometer-assessed physical activity and mean minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (mean MVPA) and mean counts per minute (mean CPM) were obtained. Maternal parenting style and physical activity parenting practices were self-reported. In regression analyses, permissive parenting was associated with higher mean MVPA among girls (+6.0 min/day, pparents. Maternal logistic support was associated with mean CPM for girls (+36.2 counts/min, p=0.001), while paternal logistic support was associated with boys' mean MVPA (+4.0 min/day, p=0.049) and mean CPM (+55.7 counts/min, p=0.014). Maternal permissive parenting was associated with higher levels of physical activity than authoritative parenting, but associations differed by child gender and type of physical activity. Maternal logistic support was associated with girls' physical activity, while paternal logistic support was associated with boys' physical activity. Health professionals could encourage parents to increase logistic support for their children's physical activity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
De Vet, Emely; Simons, Monique; Wesselman, Maarten
Active video games that require whole body movement to play the game may be an innovative health promotion tool to substitute sedentary pastime with more active time and may therefore contribute to children's health. To inform strategies aimed at reducing sedentary behavior by replacing non-active by active gaming, opinions about active and non-active video games are explored among 8- to 12-year-old children and their parents. Six qualitative, semi-structured focus groups were held with 8- to 12-year-old children (n = 46) and four with their parents (n = 19) at three different primary schools in The Netherlands. The focus groups with children discussed game preferences, gaming context and perceived game-related parenting. The focus groups with parents addressed considerations in purchasing video games, perceived positive and negative consequences of gaming, and game-related parenting. Both children and their parents were very positive about active video games and preferred active games over non-active games. Active video games were considered more social than non-active video games, and active games were played more often together with friends and family than non-active video games. Parenting practices did not differ for active and non-active video games, although some parents were less strict regarding active games. Two conditions for practical implementation were met: children enjoyed active video games, and parents were willing to buy active video games. Active video games were preferred to non-active video games, illustrating that using active video games is a promising health promotion tool to reduce sedentary pastime in youth.
Cheryl A. Zecevic
Full Text Available Parents influence on their young children's physical activity (PA behaviours was examined in a sample of 102 preschool-aged children (54 boys. Questionnaires regarding family sociodemographics and physical activity habits were completed. Results showed that children who received greater parental support for activity (B=.78, P<.10 and had parents who rated PA as highly enjoyable (B=.69, P<.05 were significantly more likely to engage in one hour or more of daily PA. Being an older child (B=−.08, P<.01, having older parents (B=−.26, P<.01, and watching more than one hour of television/videos per day (B=1.55, P<.01 reduced the likelihood that a child would be rated as highly active. Children who received greater parental support for PA were 6.3 times more likely to be highly active than inactive (B=1.44, P<.05. Thus, parents can promote PA among their preschoolers, not only by limiting TV time but also by being highly supportive of their children's active pursuits.
... Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care Communication & Discipline Types of Families Media Work & Play Getting Involved in Your Community Healthy Children > Family Life > Family Dynamics > Parenting Conflicts Family Life Listen Español Text Size Email Print ...
Marsha L. Richins; Lan Nguyen Chaplin
This research introduces the concept of material parenting, in which parents use material goods to express their love or to shape children's behavior. Despite the common use of material goods for these purposes, possible long term effects of material parenting practices have not been studied. This article addresses this oversight by examining the potential effects of material parenting on the material values of children once they're grown. This research proposes and tests a material parenting...
McMillen, J Curtis; Narendorf, Sarah Carter; Robinson, Debra; Havlicek, Judy; Fedoravicius, Nicole; Bertram, Julie; McNelly, David
Older youth in out-of-home care often live in restrictive settings and face psychiatric issues without sufficient family support. This paper reports on the development and piloting of a manualized treatment foster care program designed to step down older youth with high psychiatric needs from residential programs to treatment foster care homes. A team of researchers and agency partners set out to develop a treatment foster care model for older youth based on Multi-dimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC). After matching youth by mental health condition and determining for whom randomization would be allowed, 14 youth were randomized to treatment as usual or a treatment foster home intervention. Stakeholders were interviewed qualitatively at multiple time points. Quantitative measures assessed mental health symptoms, days in locked facilities, employment and educational outcomes. Development efforts led to substantial variations from the MTFC model and a new model, Treatment Foster Care for Older Youth was piloted. Feasibility monitoring suggested that it was difficult, but possible to recruit and randomize youth from and out of residential homes and that foster parents could be recruited to serve them. Qualitative data pointed to some qualified clinical successes. Stakeholders viewed two team roles - that of psychiatric nurse and skills coaches - very highly. However, results also suggested that foster parents and some staff did not tolerate the intervention well and struggled to address the emotion dysregulation issues of the young people they served. Quantitative data demonstrated that the intervention was not keeping youth out of locked facilities. The intervention needed further refinement prior to a broader trial. Intervention development work continued until components were developed to help address emotion regulation problems among fostered youth. Psychiatric nurses and skills coaches who work with youth in community settings hold promise as important
Ordway, Monica Roosa; Webb, Denise; Sadler, Lois S; Slade, Arietta
The current state of science suggests that safe, responsive, and nurturing parent-child relationships early in children's lives promotes healthy brain and child development and protection against lifelong disease by reducing toxic stress and promoting foundational social-emotional health. Pediatric health care providers (HCPs) have a unique opportunity to foster these relationships. However, such a role requires a shift in pediatric health care from a focus only on children to one that includes families and communities, as well as the inclusion of children's social and emotional health with their physical health. To foster healthy parent-child relationships, HCPs must develop the expertise to integrate approaches that support the family's socioemotional health into pediatric primary care. This article suggests ways in which pediatric HCPs can integrate a focus on parental reflective functioning into their clinical work, helping parents to understand some of the thoughts and feelings that underlie their children's behavior. Copyright © 2015 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mishra, Vinod; Arnold, Fred; Otieno, Fredrick; Cross, Anne; Hong, Rathavuth
We examined whether orphaned and fostered children and children of HIV-infected parents are disadvantaged in schooling, nutrition, and health care. We analyzed data on 2,756 children aged 0-4 years and 4,172 children aged 6-14 years included in the 2003 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey, with linked anonymous HIV testing, using multivariate logistic regression. Results indicate that orphans, fostered children, and children of HIV-infected parents are significantly less likely to attend school than non-orphaned/non-fostered children of HIV-negative parents. Children of HIV-infected parents are more likely to be underweight and wasted, and less likely to receive medical care for ARI and diarrhea. Children of HIV-negative single mothers are also disadvantaged on most indicators. The findings highlight the need to expand child welfare programs to include not only orphans but also fostered children, children of single mothers, and children of HIV-infected parents, who tend to be equally, if not more, disadvantaged.
Menendez Blanco, Maria; Bjørn, Pernille; De Angeli, Antonella
Critical design is gaining momentum in interaction design, yet little CSCW research has focused on articulating the cooperative potentials of critical design artefacts. We address this gap by reflecting upon a design project aimed at overturning the prevailing narrative regarding dyslexia in Italy....... The adversarial propositions embedded in our critical design artefacts challenged the description of dyslexia as a learning disorder putting forward the view of a learning difference. These artefacts demonstrated their capacity to bridge heterogeneous social worlds (those of teachers, children, and parents......) into one cooperative entity and mobilise cooperative activism. The contribution to CSCW is two-fold. Firstly, we introduce the cooperative potentials of critical design artefacts; secondly, we propose critical design as a strategy for researchers engaging with cooperative activism....
Meakings, Sarah; Selwyn, Julie
Foster care remains a valuable and safe intervention for many children unable to live with their birth family. When birth family reunification is not considered possible, a small proportion of children in foster care will go on to achieve permanency by way of adoption. This article reports on some unexpected findings to emerge from two national adoption studies of previously looked after children in England and Wales. Focussing on a subset of families who had experienced or were at risk of an adoption disruption, the findings revealed that not only did children carry elevated risks for disruption due to their older age at entry to care, multiple foster care placements and traumatic early histories, but once in care, many of the children whose placements had disrupted were considered by their adoptive parents to have had very poor, even harmful fostering experiences before being placed for adoption. Possible explanations for these findings are discussed, together with the implications for social work practice. © The Author(s) 2016.
Full Text Available A questionnaire-based survey was conducted on a sample of 238 parents whose children attend the third and fourth grades in two Belgrade elementary schools: “Oslobodioci Beograda” and “Borislav Pekic”. The aim of this study was to deter¬mi¬ne the incidence of outdoor activities and the attitude of the third and fourth graders’ parents towards it. Statistical data processing was based on the use of the –R, and every question represented a random variable. The analysis of the collected data has proved the presence of outdoor activities among these pupils and their positive attitude towards camping out, as well as a positive attitude of their parents.
Ahrens, Kym R.; Richardson, Laura P.; Courtney, Mark E.; McCarty, Carolyn; Simoni, Jane; Katon, Wayne
OBJECTIVES The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between having resided in foster care and risk for sexually transmitted infection (STI) during young adulthood. METHODS Multiple regression analyses were performed by using Waves I to III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (1994–2002) to evaluate the association between foster care status and STI biomarkers and risk behaviors. Female (N = 7563) and male participants (N = 6759) were evaluated separately. Covariates in all models included baseline age, race, ethnicity, parental education level, parental income level, and average neighborhood household income level. RESULTS Female participants who had been in foster care were more likely to have Trichomonas (odds ratio [OR]: 3.23 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.45–7.23) but not gonorrhea or chlamydia and reported increased sexual risk behaviors compared with nonfostered peers. Male participants who had been in foster care were more likely to have both gonorrhea (OR: 14.28 [95% CI: 2.07–98.28]) and chlamydia (OR: 3.07 [95% CI: 1.36–6.96]) but not Trichomonas and did not report a higher risk for most sexual risk behaviors than nonfostered peers. CONCLUSIONS Results suggest that individuals who have been in foster care are at increased risk for STIs during young adulthood. The pattern of exposure may differ between male and female individuals. If findings are confirmed, they suggest that health care providers who work with these youth should adjust their STI screening practices. Child welfare agencies should also consider targeted interventions to reduce STI risk in this population. PMID:20547646
Nanette Erkelenz, Susanne Kobel, Sarah Kettner, Clemens Drenowatz, Jürgen M. Steinacker and the Research Group "Join the Healthy Boat - Primary School"
Full Text Available Parents play a crucial role in the development of their children’s lifestyle and health behaviour. This study aims to examine associations between parental physical activity (PA and children’s BMI percentiles (BMIPCT, moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA as well as participation in organised sports. Height and body weight was measured in 1615 in German children (7.1 ± 0.6 years, 50.3% male and converted to BMIPCT. Parental BMI was calculated based on self-reported height and body weight. Children’s MVPA and sports participation as well as parental PA were assessed via parental questionnaire. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA, controlling for age and family income was used to examine the association between parental and children’s PA levels as well as BMIPCT. 39.7% of the parents classified themselves as physically active and 8.3% of children were classified as overweight or obese. Lower BMIPCT were observed with both parents being physically active (44.5 ± 26.3 vs. 50.2 ± 26.9 and 52.0 ± 28.4, respectively. There was no association between parental and children’s PA levels but children with at least one active parent displayed a higher participation in organised sports (102.0 ± 96.6 and 117.7 ± 123.6 vs. 73.7 ± 100.0, respectively. Children of active parents were less likely to be overweight and obese. The lack of association between subjectively assessed parental PA and child MVPA suggests that parental support for PA in children is more important than parents being a role model. More active parents, however, may be more likely to facilitate participation in organised sports. These results underline the importance of the inclusion of parents in health promotion and obesity prevention programmes in children.
Haycraft, Emma; Powell, Faye; Meyer, Caroline
This is a two-study paper that developed a measure to assess parenting practices related to children's physical activity and explored maternal predictors of such parenting practices. Study 1: A self-report measure of parents' activity-related practices (the Parenting Related to Activity Measure) was developed, and a principal component analysis was carried out using data from 233 mothers of 4.5- to 9-year-old children. The results supported a six-factor model and yielded the following subscales: Responsibility/monitoring; Activity regulation; Control of active behaviours; Overweight concern; Rewarding parenting; and Pressure to exercise. Study 2: Mothers (N = 170) completed the Parenting Related to Activity Measure, alongside measures of eating psychopathology and compulsive exercise, to identify predictors of activity-related parenting practices. Mothers' eating psychopathology and exercise beliefs predicted activity parenting practices with their sons and daughters, but different predictors were seen for mothers of daughters versus sons. Mothers' eating and exercise attitudes are important predictors of their activity-related parenting practices, particularly with girls. Identifying early interactions around activity/exercise could be important in preventing the development of problematic beliefs about exercise, which are often a key symptom of eating disorders. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
Antle, B J; Mills, W; Steele, C; Kalnins, I; Rossen, B
The life expectancy of children with physical disabilities now extends into adulthood and has been accompanied by the transfer of rehabilitation services from institutions to the home. Thus, families must increasingly partner with health service providers to promote their child's health and prevent the development of secondary conditions that may contribute to heart disease, stroke, respiratory diseases, low endurance and emotional difficulties. To investigate within a family context the health promotion efforts of parents on behalf of a child with a physical disability. The Long Interview Method was used to interview 15 families (11 two-parent and 4 single-parent) having a child 11-16 years of age with a physical disability including cerebral palsy (7), spina bifida (3), muscular dystrophy (3) and other conditions (2). Parents' health promotion efforts were characterized by three main themes. First, parents emphasized traditional lifestyle health behaviours including nutrition, physical activity, tobacco, alcohol and drug use, and personal hygiene. Second, parents tried to foster their adolescent's social life and friendships. They expressed particular concern about how, and if, their child would develop a sense of purpose and have a productive future. Third, parents invested a great deal of effort into observing daily routines, making arrangements for their child's social inclusion and supporting their child in a way that balanced independence with safety and energy conservation. Parents recognize that their child with a physical disability faces greater obstacles, and work hard at health promotion. Healthcare workers need to work with parents to: (1) provide information about specific lifestyle health behaviours including nutrition, physical activity and sexuality; (2) advocate for resources to foster social inclusion; and (3) discuss family strategies that balance parental involvement with their child's need for independence and energy conservation for daily
Wanat, Carolyn L.
This case study examined parent groups' involvement in school activities and their participation in decision making. Research questions included the following: (1) What is the nature of parent groups in schools? (2) What activities and issues gain parent groups' attention and participation? (3) How do parent groups communicate concerns about…
Li, Yunbo; Li, Aobo; Sievenpiper, Daniel
The electromagnetic (EM) hard surface which can both support transverse electric and transverse magnetic surface wave modes has the important ability to reduce the EM blockage of metallic obstacles. We propose a method to design an electrically thin hard surface with wide bandwidth by loading with non-Foster elements. The wideband hard surface composed of an anisotropic impedance coating can be considered as a kind of active metasurface. We develop a method to determine the values of the loading non-Foster circuit which can minimize the dispersion of the unit cells. For this method, we derive accurate values for the loading non-Foster elements through theoretical analysis. We also determine the fundamental limitations on the bandwidth due to stability requirements. To verify our theoretical design, we simulate the transmission performance between the two ports on opposite sides of a metallic rhombus-shaped obstacle coated with the non-Foster based metasurface. The simulated results show that the blockage has been largely reduced over a broad bandwidth from 0.2 GHz to 1.5 GHz. Finally, we provide a discussion on how the resistive part of the non-Foster circuit can affect the performance of the wideband hard surface coating.
Austin, Erica Weintraub; Austin, Bruce W; French, Brian F; Cohen, Marilyn A
Interventions addressing links between media exposure and obesity risk for school-age youth have not explicitly addressed the role of family communication about media. Youths' influence attempts on parents to purchase advertised foods can create conflict and negatively affect parental food choices. This study tested whether a family-based media literacy curriculum improves parents' media management skills and decreases youths' susceptibility to appealing but unrealistic food marketing. A matched-group pretest/posttest field experiment of parent-youth dyads with control group (N = 100 dyads, youth M = 11 years of age) tested the six-session curriculum. Hypotheses were analyzed using a Bayesian structural equation model. The curriculum increased parents' active negative mediation to foster youths' critical thinking about food marketing, b* = 0.35, 95% CCI [0.17, 0.50], increased parent Efficacy for making healthy dietary changes for their families, b* = 0.59, 95% CCI [0.41, 0.75], and fostered family discussion about nutrition labels (total effect = 0.22). Additionally, cumulative influences of Perceived Desirability and Wishful Identification on youths' requests for marketed foods were reduced (total effect = 0.04). Media literacy education can empower parents and improve youths' critical thinking to reduce effects of food marketing on families and improve use of media to obtain nutrition information.
Sebire, Simon J; Jago, Russell; Wood, Lesley; Thompson, Janice L; Zahra, Jezmond; Lawlor, Deborah A
Parenting is an often-studied correlate of children's physical activity, however there is little research examining the associations between parenting styles, practices and the physical activity of younger children. This study aimed to investigate whether physical activity-based parenting practices mediate the association between parenting styles and 5-6 year-old children's objectively-assessed physical activity. 770 parents self-reported parenting style (nurturance and control) and physical activity-based parenting practices (logistic and modeling support). Their 5-6 year old child wore an accelerometer for five days to measure moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Linear regression was used to examine direct and indirect (mediation) associations. Data were collected in the United Kingdom in 2012/13 and analyzed in 2014. Parent nurturance was positively associated with provision of modeling (adjusted unstandardized coefficient, β = 0.11; 95% CI = 0.02, 0.21) and logistic support (β = 0.14; 0.07, 0.21). Modeling support was associated with greater child MVPA (β = 2.41; 0.23, 4.60) and a small indirect path from parent nurturance to child's MVPA was identified (β = 0.27; 0.04, 0.70). Physical activity-based parenting practices are more strongly associated with 5-6 year old children's MVPA than parenting styles. Further research examining conceptual models of parenting is needed to understand in more depth the possible antecedents to adaptive parenting practices beyond parenting styles. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Jankowska, Anna M.; Lewandowska-Walter, A.; Chalupa, A. A.; Jonak, Jolanta; Duszynski, Ramzia; Mazurkiewicz, N.
Altered family experiences place children in foster care at risk for school adjustment difficulties. This study focuses on exploring the differences in school adaptation, locus of control, depression symptoms, and attachment styles among children in foster care and children raised by their biological parents. Sixty children completed self-report…
Schary, David P.; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Loprinzi, Paul D.
Emerging evidence suggests that parenting style may directly or indirectly influence school-aged children's activity behaviour. Given that relatively fewer studies have been conducted among preschool-aged children, this study's primary purpose was to examine the direct relationships between parental support and parenting style on preschool…
Hudson, Angela L
Adolescents with a history of foster care placement are more likely to become homeless, have mental illness, become parents too early in life, or become incarcerated within the juvenile justice/prison system. In addition, a low percentage of young adults, who formerly were in foster care, complete vocational training or higher education. This was a qualitative study, using focus group methodology. Four focus group sessions were conducted with youth living in foster care. The purpose was to obtain their perceptions about mentoring. Focus groups comprised six to eight youths per group and were guided by a semi-structured interview guide. A total of 27 youth in foster care participated in focus group interviews. Mean age was 16.4 (SD = 0.68) years. Youth participants were very knowledgeable about mentoring programs for at-risk youth, along with negative psychosocial outcomes experienced by former foster youth. However, they remarked that they are given few opportunities for career mentoring. The overall themes that emerged from narrative data were needing and finding authority figures, hooking up with a career mentor, and deserving the good life. Career mentoring is an affordable and feasible intervention for child welfare agencies. This could lead to more motivated and prepared youth living in foster care for vocational training or higher education. Learning opportunities from a career mentor may be a lifeline for preventing negative psychosocial outcomes for foster youth, reward achievement goals, and improve overall quality of life in emerging adulthood. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Christofaro, Diego Giulliano Destro; Andersen, Lars Bo; Andrade, Selma Maffei de; Barros, Mauro Virgílio Gomes de; Saraiva, Bruna Thamyres Ciccotti; Fernandes, Rômulo Araújo; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes
The purpose of this study was to determine whether parents' current and previous physical activity practice is associated with adolescents' physical activity. The sample was composed of 1231 adolescents (14-17 years), and 1202 mothers and 871 fathers were interviewed. Weight and height of the adolescents were measured. Self-reported parents' weight and height were obtained. The current and previous physical activity levels (Baecke's questionnaire) of parents (during childhood and adolescence) and adolescents' physical activity levels were obtained using a questionnaire. The magnitude of the associations between parent and adolescent physical activity levels was determined by binary logistic regression (adjusted by sex, age, and socioeconomic level of adolescents and education level of parents). The current physical activity practice by parents was associated with adolescents' physical activity (p<0.001). The physical activities reported by parents in their childhood and adolescence were also associated with higher physical activity levels among adolescents. Adolescents whose parents were both physically active in the past and present were six times (OR=6.67 [CI=1.94-22.79]) more likely to be physically active compared to adolescents with no parents who were physically active in the past. The current and previous physical activities of parents were associated with higher levels of physical activity in adolescents, even after controlling for confounding factors. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Diego Giulliano Destro Christofaro
Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether parents' current and previous physical activity practice is associated with adolescents' physical activity. Methods: The sample was composed of 1231 adolescents (14-17 years, and 1202 mothers and 871 fathers were interviewed. Weight and height of the adolescents were measured. Self-reported parents' weight and height were obtained. The current and previous physical activity levels (Baecke's questionnaire of parents (during childhood and adolescence and adolescents' physical activity levels were obtained using a questionnaire. The magnitude of the associations between parent and adolescent physical activity levels was determined by binary logistic regression (adjusted by sex, age, and socioeconomic level of adolescents and education level of parents. Results: The current physical activity practice by parents was associated with adolescents' physical activity (p < 0.001. The physical activities reported by parents in their childhood and adolescence were also associated with higher physical activity levels among adolescents. Adolescents whose parents were both physically active in the past and present were six times (OR = 6.67 [CI = 1.94-22.79] more likely to be physically active compared to adolescents with no parents who were physically active in the past. Conclusions: The current and previous physical activities of parents were associated with higher levels of physical activity in adolescents, even after controlling for confounding factors.
... español Preguntas y respuestas sobre sexo Answering their kids' questions about sex is a responsibility that many parents dread. Otherwise ... avoided. Parents can help foster healthy feelings about sex if they answer kids' questions in an age-appropriate way. When do ...
Sorbring, Emma; Hallberg, Jonas; Bohlin, Margareta; Skoog, Therése
Parental attitudes towards young people's sexuality in traditional (i.e. non-online media) settings have been associated with young people's sexual activities. In this study, we explored the association between key parent and youth characteristics and parental attitudes towards young people's online sexual activities. We also examined the…
Mâsse Louise C
Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on parent-child correlations of physical activity have been mixed. Few studies have examined concurrent temporal patterns of physical activity and sedentary behaviors in parents and children using direct measures. The purpose of this study was to examine parent-child activity correlations by gender, day of week, and time of day, using accelerometers - a method for direct assessment of physical activity. Methods Accelerometers were used to assess physical activity and sedentary time in 45 fathers, 45 mothers and their children (23 boys, 22 girls, mean age 9.9 years over the course of 4 days (Thursday - Sunday. Participants were instructed to wear accelerometers for 24 hours per day. Data from accelerometers were aggregated into waking hours on weekdays and weekends (6:00 am to midnight and weekday after-school hours (3:00 - 7:00 pm. Results Across the 4 days, the mean minutes per day of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA for fathers was 30.0 (s.d. = 17.3, for mothers was 30.1 (s.d. = 20.1 and for children was 145.47 (s.d. = 51.64. Mothers' and fathers' minutes of MVPA and minutes of sedentary time were positively correlated with child physical activity and sedentary time (all ps Conclusions Greater parental MVPA was associated with increased child MVPA. In addition, having two parents with higher levels of MVPA was associated with greater levels of activity in children. Sedentary time in children was not as strongly correlated with that of their parents. Findings lend support to the notion that to increase childhood activity levels it may be fruitful to improve physical activity among parents.
A child in foster care is often categorized as a student at risk for school failure. However, children in foster care face a unique challenge in that most have been involuntarily separated from their biological parent and/or family. The schools must work in collaboration with the child to provide the necessary supports to achieve better…
Aim: To assess the psycho social problems encountered in parenting sickle-cell children in Enugu. Method: The subjects include all parents, guardian, foster parents of sickle cell children who have the responsibility of caring for sickle-cell children and who have attended the sickle-cell clinic of the UNTH between June to ...
Seagull, Elizabeth A. W.; Scheurer, Susan L.
Follow-up of 64 neglected and abused children, seen one to seven years earlier, with mentally retarded parent revealed that six children had been relinquished voluntarily for adoption; that courts had terminated parental rights for 34 children; and that nine had been placed in foster care. Cognitive limitations prevented parents from utilizing…
Harris, Jane; Porcellato, Lorna
This article aims to foster discussion and debate around seeking parental consent from young people recruited online. The growth of social media, particularly for young people, has led to increased interest in young people's online activities as both a research topic and recruitment setting. In a health-related study, which sought to recruit young people aged 13 to 18 years old from YouTuber fan communities to an online survey, the question arose of how parental consent could be sought from young people below 16 when no link existed between researcher and parents/guardians. A practical strategy is proposed which combines novel communication methods for participant information, opt-out online consent and age verification to address this issue. Strengths and limitations of these approaches are discussed.
Siebert, Erin A.; Hamm, Jessica; Yun, Joonkoo
The purpose of this study was to identify parental influences on physical activity behaviours of children with disabilities. One hundred and forty-eight parents of children with disabilities responded to a survey about factors related to parent and child physical activity, parental support and belief in their child's abilities regarding physical…
Sebire, Simon J.; Jago, Russell; Wood, Lesley; Thompson, Janice L.; Zahra, Jezmond; Lawlor, Deborah A.
Rationale Parenting is an often-studied correlate of children's physical activity, however there is little research examining the associations between parenting styles, practices and the physical activity of younger children. Objective This study aimed to investigate whether physical activity-based parenting practices mediate the association between parenting styles and 5–6 year-old children's objectively-assessed physical activity. Methods 770 parents self-reported parenting style (nurturance and control) and physical activity-based parenting practices (logistic and modeling support). Their 5–6 year old child wore an accelerometer for five days to measure moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Linear regression was used to examine direct and indirect (mediation) associations. Data were collected in the United Kingdom in 2012/13 and analyzed in 2014. Results Parent nurturance was positively associated with provision of modeling (adjusted unstandardized coefficient, β = 0.11; 95% CI = 0.02, 0.21) and logistic support (β = 0.14; 0.07, 0.21). Modeling support was associated with greater child MVPA (β = 2.41; 0.23, 4.60) and a small indirect path from parent nurturance to child's MVPA was identified (β = 0.27; 0.04, 0.70). Conclusions Physical activity-based parenting practices are more strongly associated with 5–6 year old children's MVPA than parenting styles. Further research examining conceptual models of parenting is needed to understand in more depth the possible antecedents to adaptive parenting practices beyond parenting styles. PMID:26647364
Jago, Russell; Davison, Kirsten K.; Brockman, Rowan; Page, Angie S.; Thompson, Janice L.; Fox, Kenneth R.
Objective The objective of this study was to determine whether parenting styles and practices are associated with children's physical activity. Methods Cross-sectional survey of seven hundred ninety-two 10- to 11-year-old UK children in Bristol (UK) in 2008–2009 was conducted. Accelerometer-assessed physical activity and mean minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (mean MVPA) and mean counts per minute (mean CPM) were obtained. Maternal parenting style and physical activity parenti...
Green, Beth L; Furrer, Carrie; McAllister, Carol
The importance of supportive relationships for new parents has been the focus of both research and parenting interventions. Attachment style, typically viewed as a relatively stable trait reflecting one's comfort in social relationships, as well as social support, or one's perception of the social context, have both been found to be important for fostering engaged, involved parenting. Less is known, however, about how these variables work together to influence parenting behavior, especially in families at higher risk for negative child outcomes. Data were collected from 152 urban, predominantly African American, low-income parents when their children were 14 and 36 months of age. Results suggest that parents with more social support show greater increases in the frequency of positive parent-child activities over time, but that this effect is mediated by mothers' attachment style, specifically, their level of anxious/ambivalent attachment. Mothers with more social support tended to be less anxious/ambivalent about close relationships, and this in turn led to increases over time in the frequency of parent-child interactions. Mothers' tendency to avoid close relationships, however, while correlated with social support, was unrelated to changes in parenting behavior. Implications of these findings for program development, parenting, and the malleability of attachment style based on social context are discussed.
Mesch, Gustavo S
Cyberbullying, the use of information and communication technologies to intentionally harm others, has become an important area of research. Studies have begun to investigate the extent of cyberbullying and its victims' personality characteristics. Less is known about the effect of specific online activities and the role of parental mediation on the likelihood of being bullied. This study attempts to fill this gap in the literature conducting a secondary analysis of a representative sample of the U.S. youth population, the Teens and Parents survey conducted by the Pew and American Life Project (n = 935). The results indicate that the risk of youth being bullied is higher for adolescents who have an active profile on social networking sites and participate in chat rooms but not in playing games online. Gender differences emerge in risk factors. A few parental mediation techniques are protective, but most are not. The results indicate the need for more parental participation to reduce risks to youth arising from Internet use for interpersonal communication.
Full Text Available Abstract Background With rates of childhood obesity increasing, physical activity (PA promotion especially in young children has assumed greater importance. Given the limited effectiveness of most interventions to date, new approaches are needed. The General Systems theory suggests that involving parents as intervention targets may be effective in fostering healthier life styles in children. We describe the development of a parent-focused participatory intervention and the procedures used to evaluate its effectiveness in increasing daily PA in preschoolers. Methods/Design Thirty-seven South German preschools were identified for this study and agreed to participate. Using a two-armed, controlled cluster-randomized trial design we test a participatory intervention with parents as the primary target group and potential agents of behavioural change. Specifically, the intervention is designed to engage parents in the development, refinement and selection of project ideas to promote PA and in incorporating these ideas into daily routines within the preschool community, consisting of children, teachers and parents. Our study is embedded within an existing state-sponsored programme providing structured gym lessons to preschool children. Thus, child-based PA outcomes from the study arm with the parent-focused intervention and the state-sponsored programme are compared with those from the study arm with the state-sponsored programme alone. The evaluation entails baseline measurements of study outcomes as well as follow-up measurements at 6 and 12 months. Accelerometry measures PA intensity over a period of six days, with the mean over six days used as the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcomes include childrens' BMI, a sum of averaged skin fold thickness measurements across multiple sites, and PA behaviour. Longitudinal multilevel models are used to assess within-subject change and between-group differences in study outcomes, adjusted for covariates
Ayala Guadalupe X
Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical inactivity is increasing among adolescents in the U.S., especially among girls. Despite growing evidence that parents are an important influence on adolescent health, few longitudinal studies have explored the causal relationship between parental influence and physical activity. This study examines how the relationships between parental influences and adolescent physical activity differ by gender and tests whether these relationships are mediated by adolescents' self-esteem and depression. Methods Data are from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The sample includes 13,246 youth, grades 7 to 12, interviewed in 1995 and again 1 year later. Logit models were used to evaluate parental influences on achieving five or more bouts of moderate to vigorous physical activity per week [MVPA] and whether the relationship between parental influence and MVPA was mediated by adolescents' level of self-esteem and depression. Results Family cohesion, parent-child communication and parental engagement positively predicted MVPA for both genders one year later (odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for females, 1.09 [1.05–1.12], 1.13 [1.07–1.19], 1.25 [1.17–1.33] and males, 1.08 [1.04–1.11], 1.14 [1.07–1.23], 1.23 [1.14–1.33], respectively; however, parental monitoring did not (odds ratio and confidence intervals for females and males, 1.02 [.97–1.07]. For both females and males, self-esteem mediated the relationship between parental influence and physical activity. Depressive symptoms were only a mediator among males. Females reported higher levels of parent-child communication and lower family cohesion compared with males. There were no gender differences in levels of parental monitoring and engagement. Females had significantly lower levels of self-esteem and higher levels of depressive symptoms than males. Conclusion Strategies to promote physical activity among adolescents should focus on
Van Camp, Carole M.; Montgomery, Jan L.; Vollmer, Timothy R.; Kosarek, Judith A.; Happe, Shawn; Burgos, Vanessa; Manzolillo, Anthony
Previous research has demonstrated the efficacy of a 30-hr behavioral parent training program at increasing skill accuracy. However, it remains unknown whether skills acquisitions are maintained on a long-term basis. Few studies have evaluated the maintenance of skills learned during behavioral parent training for foster parents. The purpose of…
Hurwitz, Lisa B.; Lauricella, Alexis R.; Hanson, Ann; Raden, Anthony; Wartella, Ellen
Head Start emphasises parent engagement as a critical strategy in promoting children's long-term learning. Parents can support children's positive development by engaging them in stimulating activities. The following study assessed whether a service that delivered parenting tips via text message could prompt parents of children enrolled in Head…
Louise C. Mâsse
Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents are widely recognized as playing a central role in the development of child behaviors such as physical activity. As there is little agreement as to the dimensions of physical activity-related parenting practices that should be measured or how they should be operationalized, this study engaged experts to develop an integrated conceptual framework for assessing parenting practices that influence multiple aspects of 5 to 12 year old children’s participation in physical activity. The ultimate goal of this study is to inform the development of an item bank (repository of calibrated items aimed at measuring physical activity parenting practices. Methods Twenty four experts from 6 countries (Australia, Canada, England, Scotland, the Netherlands, & United States (US sorted 77 physical activity parenting practice concepts identified from our previously published synthesis of the literature (74 measures and survey of Canadian and US parents. Concept Mapping software was used to conduct the multi-dimensional scaling (MDS analysis and a cluster analysis of the MDS solution of the Expert’s sorting which was qualitatively reviewed and commented on by the Experts. Results The conceptual framework includes 12 constructs which are presented using three main domains of parenting practices (neglect/control, autonomy support, and structure. The neglect/control domain includes two constructs: permissive and pressuring parenting practices. The autonomy supportive domain includes four constructs: encouragement, guided choice, involvement in child physical activities, and praises/rewards for their child’s physical activity. Finally, the structure domain includes six constructs: co-participation, expectations, facilitation, modeling, monitoring, and restricting physical activity for safety or academic concerns. Conclusion The concept mapping analysis provided a useful process to engage experts in re-conceptualizing physical activity
Mâsse, Louise C; O'Connor, Teresia M; Tu, Andrew W; Hughes, Sheryl O; Beauchamp, Mark R; Baranowski, Tom
Parents are widely recognized as playing a central role in the development of child behaviors such as physical activity. As there is little agreement as to the dimensions of physical activity-related parenting practices that should be measured or how they should be operationalized, this study engaged experts to develop an integrated conceptual framework for assessing parenting practices that influence multiple aspects of 5 to 12 year old children's participation in physical activity. The ultimate goal of this study is to inform the development of an item bank (repository of calibrated items) aimed at measuring physical activity parenting practices. Twenty four experts from 6 countries (Australia, Canada, England, Scotland, the Netherlands, & United States (US)) sorted 77 physical activity parenting practice concepts identified from our previously published synthesis of the literature (74 measures) and survey of Canadian and US parents. Concept Mapping software was used to conduct the multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) analysis and a cluster analysis of the MDS solution of the Expert's sorting which was qualitatively reviewed and commented on by the Experts. The conceptual framework includes 12 constructs which are presented using three main domains of parenting practices (neglect/control, autonomy support, and structure). The neglect/control domain includes two constructs: permissive and pressuring parenting practices. The autonomy supportive domain includes four constructs: encouragement, guided choice, involvement in child physical activities, and praises/rewards for their child's physical activity. Finally, the structure domain includes six constructs: co-participation, expectations, facilitation, modeling, monitoring, and restricting physical activity for safety or academic concerns. The concept mapping analysis provided a useful process to engage experts in re-conceptualizing physical activity parenting practices and identified key constructs to include in
Hansen, Gitte Riis; Grandal*, Niels
(in 2012) to report on sexual and physical violence, that raised awareness on the subject. The investigations showed that professionals perceive very few of the cases of sexual abuse in residential and foster care and in many cases the perpetrators turn out to be peers. This drew attention......In The Netherlands, Denmark and Scotland special awareness on the subject of sexual abuse and sexual exploitation was raised by national investigations on the prevalence and content of sexual abuse in residential and foster care. In Flanders (Belgium) it was the start of the so called Helpline 1712...... to a central issue: the incapability of professionals to support a healthy sexual development and discuss sexual behaviour with children and young people, their (foster) parents and other professionals. Sex is a subject that is not easily talked about and most professionals feel insecure about. Moreover...
Spada, Marcantonio M; Caselli, Gabriele; Manfredi, Chiara; Rebecchi, Daniela; Rovetto, Francesco; Ruggiero, Giovanni M; Nikčević, Ana V; Sassaroli, Sandra
Parental overprotection may have a direct effect on worry through hindering children's exploration experiences and preventing the learning of action-oriented coping strategies (Cheron, Ehrenreich and Pincus, 2009; Nolen-Hoeksema, Wolfson, Mumme and Guskin, 1995) and an indirect effect through fostering the development of maladaptive metacognitions that are associated with the activation of worry and the escalation of anxiety (Wells, 2000). The aim was to investigate the relative contribution of recalled parental overprotection in childhood and metacognitions in predicting current levels of worry. A community sample (n = 301) was administered four self-report instruments to assess parental overprotection, metacognitions, anxiety and worry. Metacognitions were found to predict levels of worry independently of gender, anxiety and parental overprotection. They were also found to predict anxiety independently of gender, worry and parental overprotection. The combination of a family environment perceived to be characterized by overprotection and high levels of maladaptive metacognitions are a risk factor for the development of worry.
Dev, Dipti A; Byrd-Williams, Courtney; Ramsay, Samantha; McBride, Brent; Srivastava, Deepa; Murriel, Ashleigh; Arcan, Chrisa; Adachi-Mejia, Anna M
Using the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics benchmarks as a framework, this study examined childcare providers' (Head Start [HS], Child and Adult Care Food Program [CACFP] funded, and non-CACFP) perspectives regarding communicating with parents about nutrition to promote children's health. Qualitative. State-licensed center-based childcare programs. Full-time childcare providers (n = 18) caring for children 2 to 5 years old from varying childcare contexts (HS, CACFP funded, and non-CACFP), race, education, and years of experience. In-person interviews using semi-structured interview protocol until saturation were achieved. Thematic analysis was conducted. Two overarching themes were barriers and strategies to communicate with parents about children's nutrition. Barriers to communication included-(a) parents are too busy to talk with providers, (b) parents offer unhealthy foods, (c) parents prioritize talking about child food issues over nutrition, (d) providers are unsure of how to communicate about nutrition without offending parents, and (e) providers are concerned if parents are receptive to nutrition education materials. Strategies for communication included-(a) recognize the benefits of communicating with parents about nutrition to support child health, (b) build a partnership with parents through education, (c) leverage policy (federal and state) to communicate positively and avoid conflict, (d) implement center-level practices to reinforce policy, and (e) foster a respectful relationship between providers and parents. Policy and environmental changes were recommended for fostering a respectful relationship and building a bridge between providers and parents to improve communication about children's nutrition and health.
Provides suggestions to help early childhood teachers work more effectively with teenage parents and become significant adults in teenage parents' lives. Suggestions include fostering positive identification and addressing individual teenager needs. Presents Erikson's stages of psychosocial development as a basis for recommendations to develop…
Pitchford, E. Andrew; Siebert, Erin; Hamm, Jessica; Yun, Joonkoo
Physical activity promotion is of need for youth with developmental disabilities. Parental perceptions of physical activity benefits may influence youth behaviors. This study investigated the relationship between parental beliefs on the importance of physical activity and physical activity levels among youth with disabilities. Parents and…
Ravindran, Niyantri; Engle, Jennifer M; McElwain, Nancy L; Kramer, Laurie
In this study, we assessed whether an intervention designed to improve children's sibling relationships, the More Fun with Sisters and Brothers program (MFWSB), may also help parents manage their emotions more effectively. Families with at least 2 children between the ages of 4 and 8 years were randomly assigned to an intervention (n = 50) or wait-list control (n = 34) group. Parents completed pre- and posttest questionnaires on sibling warmth and agonism, their emotion regulation during sibling conflict, and their global emotion regulation styles. Program participation had a direct effect on 3 of the 4 emotion regulation outcomes for mothers. Mothers in the intervention versus control group reported lower levels of dysregulation and suppression and higher levels of reappraisal at posttest, controlling for pretest regulation scores. Additionally, path models examining posttest responses showed that participation in MFWSB led to lower levels of maternal and paternal negative reactivity in the sibling context via lower levels of sibling agonism, controlling for pretest levels of negative reactivity. Alternate path models, with parents' emotion regulation as mechanisms linking MFWSB and sibling relationship quality, were tested but not supported. Results highlight the value of a sibling-focused intervention for promoting parents' abilities to regulate their emotions. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Mirza, M; Krischer, A; Stolley, M; Magaña, S; Martin, M
A large number of U.S. children are identified as having special health care needs (CSHCN). Despite parents' central role in managing their child's needs, many parents report difficulties in navigating service systems, finding information about their child's condition, and accessing health care and community resources. Therefore, there is a need for interventions that "activate" parents of children with special health care needs to increase their knowledge, skills, and confidence in managing, coordinating, and advocating for their child's needs. This study sought to review the existing literature and examine the effects of parent support interventions that focus on parental activation either in part or whole, on child, parent, or family outcomes. Specific aims included (a) summarizing the nature and content of interventions; (b) describing changes in relevant outcomes; (c) identifying limitations and making recommendations for future research. Following electronic databases were searched: MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO via ProQuest, PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health via EBSCO, Education Resources Information Center (ERIC) via ProQuest, The Cochrane Library (Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Methodology Register), and Google Scholar. Twenty-two studies were selected, data were extracted, and quality was assessed using standardized procedures. Five intervention categories were identified: parent-to-parent supports, psycho-educational groups, content-specific groups, community health worker model, and self-management-based interventions. Although most studies showed positive effects of the intervention, evidence was inconsistent for parental outcomes such as self-efficacy, confidence, strain, depression, and perceived social support. Evidence was more consistent in showing improvement in parent coping and in use of community-based services and resources. There is a need to boost active
Full Text Available Discourses on lifelong and lifewide learning portray everyday life as a pedagogical space where requirements for how to preferably improve oneself through learning are highly significant. Drawing upon the notion of governmentality, it could be argued that techniques operate within a range of practices to shape, foster and stabilize the assumed adequate ways to perform. Using that particular lens, the case of parenting was investigated to accentuate selves and self-work in narrations on family life in Norway. The analysis illustrates how the techniques of activation and comparison are at work to define, fashion and develop the responsible, involved and attentive parental self, thereby signifying pedagogical claims one should aspire to. However, how this is accomplished differs slightly within the social contexts of family life. Parenting, then, may be discussed as a powerful educative practice for fabricating capable and wellbehaved citizens of contemporary times.
What is common in aggression and in abusive/neglectful parenting is low levels of empathy. Fostering empathy--the ability to identify with another person's feelings--can serve as an antidote to aggression and is crucial to good parenting. Poor parenting and aggression cut across all socioeconomic levels of the community and, as such, empathy needs to be fostered in all children. During the period of rapid brain development, adversity has a devastating impact on the baby's developing brain. Repeated experiences of stress are hardwired into the brain, creating damaging pathways. Risk factors such as domestic violence, child abuse and neglect, maternal depression, maternal addictions, and poverty are not just additive to the vulnerable developing brain; they are multiplicative in their impact. The parent is the baby's lifeline, mitigating stress for them and helping them to learn to regulate their emotions. The impact of poor parenting on a child's life is profound, resulting in insecure attachments which lead to a spectrum of inadequate coping mechanisms, poor emotional regulation, diminished learning potential and low competence. Responsive and nurturing parenting is the key to optimal early childhood development; it allows the young brain to develop in a way that is less aggressive and more emotionally stable, social and empathic. Good early childhood development leads to good human development. We must match our investment where the opportunity is most ripe--building parenting capacity. The 'Roots of Empathy' program offers real hope in breaking the intergenerational transference of poor parenting and violence.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many children do not engage in sufficient levels of physical activity (PA and spend too much time screen-viewing (SV. High levels of SV (e.g. watching TV, playing video games and surfing the internet and low levels of PA have been associated with adverse health outcomes. Parenting courses may hold promise as an intervention medium to change children’s PA and SV. The current study was formative work conducted to design a new parenting programme to increase children’s PA and reduce their SV. Specifically, we focussed on interest in a course, desired content and delivery style, barriers and facilitators to participation and opinions on control group provision. Methods In-depth telephone interviews were conducted with thirty two parents (29 female of 6–8 year olds. Data were analysed thematically. An anonymous online survey was also completed by 750 parents of 6–8 year old children and descriptive statistics calculated. Results Interview participants were interested in a parenting course because they wanted general parenting advice and ideas to help their children be physically active. Parents indicated that they would benefit from knowing how to quantify their child’s PA and SV levels. Parents wanted practical ideas of alternatives to SV. Most parents would be unable to attend unless childcare was provided. Schools were perceived to be a trusted source of information about parenting courses and the optimal recruitment location. In terms of delivery style, the majority of parents stated they would prefer a group-based approach that provided opportunities for peer learning and support with professional input. Survey participants reported the timing of classes and the provision of childcare were essential factors that would affect participation. In terms of designing an intervention, the most preferred control group option was the opportunity to attend the same course at a later date. Conclusions Parents are
Background Many children do not engage in sufficient levels of physical activity (PA) and spend too much time screen-viewing (SV). High levels of SV (e.g. watching TV, playing video games and surfing the internet) and low levels of PA have been associated with adverse health outcomes. Parenting courses may hold promise as an intervention medium to change children’s PA and SV. The current study was formative work conducted to design a new parenting programme to increase children’s PA and reduce their SV. Specifically, we focussed on interest in a course, desired content and delivery style, barriers and facilitators to participation and opinions on control group provision. Methods In-depth telephone interviews were conducted with thirty two parents (29 female) of 6–8 year olds. Data were analysed thematically. An anonymous online survey was also completed by 750 parents of 6–8 year old children and descriptive statistics calculated. Results Interview participants were interested in a parenting course because they wanted general parenting advice and ideas to help their children be physically active. Parents indicated that they would benefit from knowing how to quantify their child’s PA and SV levels. Parents wanted practical ideas of alternatives to SV. Most parents would be unable to attend unless childcare was provided. Schools were perceived to be a trusted source of information about parenting courses and the optimal recruitment location. In terms of delivery style, the majority of parents stated they would prefer a group-based approach that provided opportunities for peer learning and support with professional input. Survey participants reported the timing of classes and the provision of childcare were essential factors that would affect participation. In terms of designing an intervention, the most preferred control group option was the opportunity to attend the same course at a later date. Conclusions Parents are interested in PA/SV parenting
Pulakka, A; Ashorn, P; Gondwe, A; Phiri, N; Ashorn, U
In scientific studies, physical activity is measured by the amount of bodily movement, but lay perceptions of physical activity might be different. Parental influence is important for the development of children's physical activity behaviour, and parental perceptions of facilitators of physical activity are context specific. We aimed to investigate how parents of young Malawian children conceptualize physical activity in childhood, situate it in child development and understand its facilitators. We used convenience sampling to identify parents of young children from different socio-economic backgrounds and age groups in semi-rural area of Malawi. We conducted in-depth interviews with 16 parents, a focus group discussion with six parents and key informant interviews with two nurses in Malawi. Six of the participants were fathers. We analysed the data with conventional qualitative content analysis by inductive approach. The parents emphasized practical skills, education and proper behaviour as goals for their children. They viewed activity as encompassing both mental and physical qualities and they perceived it as a positive attribute of children. The parents discussed skills acquisition, social competence, health and bodily movement as signs for being active. As facilitators of physical activity the parents mentioned balanced diet, good health and stimulation. The main concerns of the parents in regard to facilitators of physical activity and good child development were the availability of food and the child being healthy. Malawian parents' concept of children's physical activity is more comprehensive than scientific definition and includes aspects of both physical and mental activity. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Collier, Margo; Kingsley, Karla V.; Ovitt, Brigid; Lin, Yi-Ling; Romero Benavidez, Juliette
Technology has reshaped conceptions of professional development by increasing access to information, enabling sustained follow-up efforts, and fostering teacher reflection and collaboration. Drawing on theoretical models of parent involvement and an ethic of caring, this study examined the perceptions and attitudes of educators toward…
van Rooij, F.; Maaskant, A.; Weijers, I.; Weijers, D.; Hermanns, J.
This study examined the role of placement and child characteristics in the unplanned termination of foster placements. Data were used from 169 foster children aged 0 to 20. Results showed that 35% of all foster placement terminations were unplanned. Outcomes of logistic regression analyses
DeCamp, Lisa Ross; Leifheit, Kathryn; Shah, Harita; Valenzuela-Araujo, Doris; Sloand, Elizabeth; Polk, Sarah; Cheng, Tina L
(1) To measure healthcare activation among low-income parents by language (English/Spanish); and (2) to assess the psychometrics of the Parent-Patient Activation Measure (P-PAM) in the study population. We surveyed parents/guardians of publicly-insured children who were established patients at a pediatrics clinic for ≥6months. Surveys included the Parent-Patient Activation Measure (P-PAM), a 13-item measure adapted from the well-validated Patient Activation Measure (PAM). Of 316 surveys, 68% were completed in Spanish. Mean activation score in the English-language survey group was 79.1 (SD 16.2); mean score in the Spanish-language group was 70.7 (SD 17.9) (pSpanish α=0.93). The P-PAM had acceptable test-retest reliability, but no previously reported PAM factor structure fit the study data adequately for either language. Healthcare activation among low-income parents was greater for parents surveyed in English compared with those surveyed in Spanish. The P-PAM has acceptable reliability and validity in English and Spanish, but a different factor structure than the PAM. Activation as measured by the P-PAM may not have the same associations with or impact on health/healthcare outcomes in pediatrics compared with adults owing to possible measure differences between the P-PAM and PAM. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
How can teachers help parents to get involved with their children's learning? Maths at home is full of activities designed to fit in with the Key Stage 2 Numeracy topics. Teachers can photocopy the appropriate sheet and send it home for parents and children to work on together. Each activity has a set of explanatory notes for teachers and a photocopiable worksheet. Instructions to parents are clearly presented, with resources listed. The activities are practical and enjoyable, covering everyday mathematical tasks, such as calculating shopping bills, estimating quantities and looking at timetab
Jones, Jason D; Ehrlich, Katherine B; Lejuez, C W; Cassidy, Jude
Parents' knowledge of their adolescents' whereabouts and activities is a robust predictor of adolescent risk behavior, including the use of drugs and alcohol. Surprisingly few studies have attempted to identify parental characteristics that are associated with the degree of parental knowledge. The present study is the first to examine how parental attachment style relates to mother, father, and adolescent reports of parental knowledge. Further, we used structural equation modeling to test the associations among parents' attachment styles, reports of parental knowledge, and adolescents' alcohol and marijuana use. Participants included 203 adolescents (M age = 14.02, SD = .91) living in 2-parent households and their parent(s). As predicted, mothers' and fathers' insecure attachment styles were negatively associated with self-reported and adolescent-reported parental knowledge, and all 3 reports of parental knowledge were negatively related to adolescent substance use. Mothers' and fathers' attachment styles were unrelated to adolescent substance use. However, evidence emerged for indirect effects of parental attachment style on adolescent substance use through reports of parental knowledge. Implications for prevention efforts and the importance of multiple reporters within the family are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Hyatt Raymond R
Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents influence their children's behaviors directly through specific parenting practices and indirectly through their parenting style. Some practices such as logistical and emotional support have been shown to be positively associated with child physical activity (PA levels, while for others (e.g. monitoring the relationship is not clear. The objectives of this study were to determine the relationship between parent's PA-related practices, general parenting style, and children's PA level. Methods During the spring of 2007 a diverse group of 99 parent-child dyads (29% White, 49% Black, 22% Hispanic; 89% mothers living in low-income rural areas of the US participated in a cross-sectional study. Using validated questionnaires, parents self-reported their parenting style (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and uninvolved and activity-related parenting practices. Height and weight were measured for each dyad and parents reported demographic information. Child PA was measured objectively through accelerometers and expressed as absolute counts and minutes engaged in intensity-specific activity. Results Seventy-six children had valid accelerometer data. Children engaged in 113.4 ± 37.0 min. of moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA per day. Children of permissive parents accumulated more minutes of MVPA than those of uninvolved parents (127.5 vs. 97.1, p p = 0.03. While controlling for known covariates, an uninvolved parenting style was the only parenting behavior associated with child physical activity. Parenting style moderated the association between two parenting practices - reinforcement and monitoring - and child physical activity. Specifically, post-hoc analyses revealed that for the permissive parenting style group, higher levels of parental reinforcement or monitoring were associated with higher levels of child physical activity. Conclusions This work extends the current literature by demonstrating the potential
Eshbaugh, Elaine M.; Peterson, Carla A.; Wall, Shavaun; Carta, Judith J.; Luze, Gayle; Swanson, Mark; Jeon, Hyun-Joo
Warm and responsive parenting is optimal for child development, but this style of parenting may be difficult for some parents to achieve. This study examines how parents' observed warmth and their reported frequency of parent-child activities were related to children's classifications as having biological risks or a range of disability indicators.…
Akin, Becci A; Bryson, Stephanie A; McDonald, Tom; Walker, Sheila
Long-term foster care (LTFC) is an enduring problem that lacks evidence of effective strategies for practice or policy. This article describes initial activities of a statewide project of the national Permanency Innovations Initiative. The authors sought to: (1) verify the relevance of children's mental health as a predictor of LTFC, (2) describe critical barriers encountered by parents of children with serious emotional disturbances, and (3) identify systems barriers that hinder permanency for this target population.
Tomcikova, Zuzana; Veselska, Zuzana; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; van Dijk, Jitse P; Reijneveld, Sijmen A
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore the association between adolescent drunkenness and participation in risky leisure time activities and parental monitoring. A sample of 3,694 Slovak elementary school students (mean age 14.5 years; 49.0% males) was assessed for drunkenness in the previous month, participation in risky leisure activities and parental monitoring. Participation in risky leisure time activities increased the probability of drunkenness among adolescents, while parental monitoring decreased it. The effect did not change after adding the mother's and father's monitoring into the models. Our results imply that adolescents involved in going out with friends, having parties with friends and/or visiting sporting events every day or several times a week are at a higher risk of drunkenness, as are those less monitored by their parents. These less monitored adolescents and their parents should become a target group in prevention. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Background Parents influence their children's behaviors directly through specific parenting practices and indirectly through their parenting style. Some practices such as logistical and emotional support have been shown to be positively associated with child physical activity (PA) levels, while for others (e.g. monitoring) the relationship is not clear. The objectives of this study were to determine the relationship between parent's PA-related practices, general parenting style, and children's PA level. Methods During the spring of 2007 a diverse group of 99 parent-child dyads (29% White, 49% Black, 22% Hispanic; 89% mothers) living in low-income rural areas of the US participated in a cross-sectional study. Using validated questionnaires, parents self-reported their parenting style (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and uninvolved) and activity-related parenting practices. Height and weight were measured for each dyad and parents reported demographic information. Child PA was measured objectively through accelerometers and expressed as absolute counts and minutes engaged in intensity-specific activity. Results Seventy-six children had valid accelerometer data. Children engaged in 113.4 ± 37.0 min. of moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) per day. Children of permissive parents accumulated more minutes of MVPA than those of uninvolved parents (127.5 vs. 97.1, p parents who provided above average levels of support had children who participated in more minutes of MVPA (114.2 vs. 98.3, p = 0.03). While controlling for known covariates, an uninvolved parenting style was the only parenting behavior associated with child physical activity. Parenting style moderated the association between two parenting practices - reinforcement and monitoring - and child physical activity. Specifically, post-hoc analyses revealed that for the permissive parenting style group, higher levels of parental reinforcement or monitoring were associated with higher levels of child
Hennessy, Erin; Hughes, Sheryl O; Goldberg, Jeanne P; Hyatt, Raymond R; Economos, Christina D
Parents influence their children's behaviors directly through specific parenting practices and indirectly through their parenting style. Some practices such as logistical and emotional support have been shown to be positively associated with child physical activity (PA) levels, while for others (e.g. monitoring) the relationship is not clear. The objectives of this study were to determine the relationship between parent's PA-related practices, general parenting style, and children's PA level. During the spring of 2007 a diverse group of 99 parent-child dyads (29% White, 49% Black, 22% Hispanic; 89% mothers) living in low-income rural areas of the US participated in a cross-sectional study. Using validated questionnaires, parents self-reported their parenting style (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and uninvolved) and activity-related parenting practices. Height and weight were measured for each dyad and parents reported demographic information. Child PA was measured objectively through accelerometers and expressed as absolute counts and minutes engaged in intensity-specific activity. Seventy-six children had valid accelerometer data. Children engaged in 113.4 ± 37.0 min. of moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) per day. Children of permissive parents accumulated more minutes of MVPA than those of uninvolved parents (127.5 vs. 97.1, p parents who provided above average levels of support had children who participated in more minutes of MVPA (114.2 vs. 98.3, p = 0.03). While controlling for known covariates, an uninvolved parenting style was the only parenting behavior associated with child physical activity. Parenting style moderated the association between two parenting practices - reinforcement and monitoring - and child physical activity. Specifically, post-hoc analyses revealed that for the permissive parenting style group, higher levels of parental reinforcement or monitoring were associated with higher levels of child physical activity. This work
Spinelli, Cathleen G.
Provides guidelines for fostering positive teacher-parent relationships. Discusses recent legislative mandates, how parent/teacher relationships are affected by current policy issues promoted by professional education organizations, and methods of constructive communication. Parents and teachers of students with learning disabilities are urged to…
Schlank, Carol Hilgartner; Metzger, Barbara
Noting the need to promote gender equity and foster cooperative play between boys and girls in early childhood programs, this guide presents ways that teachers and parents of young children can help all children realize their potential, regardless of gender, and help children learn to work and play together. Chapter 1, "Teaching for…
Fishburn, Sarah; Meins, Elizabeth; Greenhow, Sarah; Jones, Christine; Hackett, Simon; Biehal, Nina; Baldwin, Helen; Cusworth, Linda; Wade, Jim
The studies reported here aimed to test the proposal that mind-mindedness is a quality of personal relationships by assessing mind-mindedness in caregiver-child dyads in which the relationship has not spanned the child's life or in which the relationship has been judged dysfunctional. Studies 1 and 2 investigated differences in mind-mindedness between adoptive parents (ns = 89, 36) and biological parents from the general population (ns = 54, 114). Both studies found lower mind-mindedness in adoptive compared with biological parents. The results of Study 2 showed that this group difference was independent of parental mental health and could not fully be explained in terms of children's behavioral difficulties. Study 3 investigated differences in mind-mindedness in foster carers (n = 122), parents whose children had been the subject of a child protection plan (n = 172), and a community sample of biological parents (n = 128). The level of mind-mindedness in foster carers and parents who were involved with child protection services was identical and lower than that in the community sample; children's behavioral difficulties could not account for the difference between the 2 groups of biological parents. In all 3 studies, nonbiological carers' tendency to describe their children with reference to preadoption or placement experiences was negatively related to mind-mindedness. These findings are in line with mind-mindedness being a relational construct. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Humphries, Laura S; Lyon, Sarah; Garza, Rebecca; Butz, Daniel R; Lemelman, Benjamin; Park, Julie E
A thorough understanding of attitudes toward and program policies for parenthood in graduate medical education (GME) is essential for establishing fair and achievable parental leave policies and fostering a culture of support for trainees during GME. A systematic review of the literature was completed. Non-cohort studies, studies completed or published outside of the United States, and studies not published in English were excluded. Studies that addressed the existence of parental leave policies in GME were identified and were the focus of this study. Twenty-eight studies addressed the topic of the existence of formal parental leave policies in GME, which was found to vary across time and ranged between 22 and 90%. Support for such policies persisted across time. Attention to formal leave policies in GME has traditionally been lacking, but may be increasing. Negative attitudes towards parenthood in GME persist. Active awareness of the challenges faced by parent-trainees combined with formal parental leave policy implementation is important in supporting parenthood in GME. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Glatz, Terese; Buchanan, Christy M
Parental self-efficacy (PSE) is defined as parents' beliefs about their abilities to influence their children in a way that fosters their children's positive development. Research has shown links among PSE, parenting, and children's behavior (Jones & Prinz, 2005), but there are still questions concerning the associations over time. Theory predicts 3 types of processes relevant to these associations: a PSE-driven process, a parent-behavior-driven process, and a child-driven process. In this study, we tested these processes during early to middle adolescence using reports from 401 parents (286 mothers, 115 fathers) from 305 families, and their adolescents (Mage = 11.5 years), at 3 time points. Cross-lagged panel models were used to examine the associations among PSE, promotive parenting practices, and adolescents' externalizing. Results supported a PSE-driven process for mothers within early adolescence. In addition, evidence for parent-behavior-driven and child-driven processes emerged at different times within this developmental period. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Newton, Emily K; Laible, Deborah; Carlo, Gustavo; Steele, Joel S; McGinley, Meredith
Bidirectional theories of social development have been around for over 40 years (Bell, 1968), yet they have been applied primarily to the study of antisocial development. In the present study, the reciprocal relationship between parenting behavior and children's socially competent behaviors were examined. Using the National Institute of Child Health and Development Study of Early Child Care data set (NICHD Early Child Care Research Network, 2005), bidirectional relationships between parental sensitivity and children's prosocial behavior were modeled using latent variables in structural equation modeling for mothers and fathers, separately. Children and their parents engaged in structured interactions when children were 54-month-olds, 3rd graders, and 5th graders, and these interactions were coded for parental sensitivity. At 3rd, 5th, and 6th grades, teachers and parents reported on children's prosocial behavior. Parental education and child gender were entered as covariates in the models. The results provide support for a bidirectional relationship between children's prosocial behavior and maternal sensitivity (but not paternal sensitivity) in middle childhood. The importance of using a bidirectional approach to examine the development of social competence is emphasized. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Sarrett, Jennifer C
The home is a critical place to learn about cultural values of childhood disability, including autism and intellectual disabilities. The current article describes how the introduction of autism into a home and the availability of intervention options change the structure and meaning of a home and reflect parental acceptance of a child's autistic traits. Using ethnographic data from Kerala, India and Atlanta, GA USA, a description of two types of homes are developed: the custodial home, which is primarily focused on caring for basic needs, and the therapeutic home, which is focused on changing a child's autistic traits. The type of home environment is respondent to cultural practices of child rearing in the home and influences daily activities, management, and care in the home. Further, these homes differ in parental acceptance of their autistic children's disabilities, which is critical to understand when engaging in international work related to autism and intellectual disability. It is proposed that parental acceptance can be fostered through the use of neurodiverse notions that encourage autism acceptance.
Koukourikos, Antonis; Karampiperis, Pythagoras; Panagopoulos, George
The process of identifying techniques for fostering creativity, and applying these theoretical constructs in real-world educational activities, is, by nature, multifaceted and not straightforward, pertaining to several fields such as cognitive theory and psychology. Furthermore, the quantification of the impact of different activities on…
Im-Bolter, Nancie; Zadeh, Zohreh Yaghoub; Ling, Daphne
Studies have demonstrated the association between parenting style and children's academic achievement, but the specific mechanisms underlying this relationship remain unclear. The development of skills that lay the foundation for academic success might be found in early parent-child interactions that foster language competence. Early negative…
Byrne, Michelle L; Badcock, Paul B; Simmons, Julian G; Whittle, Sarah; Pettitt, Adam; Olsson, Craig A; Mundy, Lisa K; Patton, George C; Allen, Nicholas B
Family environments and parenting have been associated with inflammation and immune activation in children and adolescents; however, it remains unclear which specific aspects of parenting drive this association. In this study, we cross-sectionally examined the association between 5 discrete parenting styles and inflammation and immune activation in late childhood. Data were drawn from 102 families (55 with female children, mean age 9.50 years, SD = 0.34) participating in the Imaging Brain Development in the Childhood to Adolescence Transition Study. Children provided saliva samples from which inflammation (C-reactive protein) and immune competence/activation (secretory immunoglobulin A) were measured. Parents completed the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire, which measures 5 aspects of parenting style-positive parental involvement, positive disciplinary techniques, consistency in disciplinary techniques, corporal punishment, and monitoring and supervision. Results showed that higher scores on the poor parental monitoring scale were associated with higher levels of both inflammation and immune activation in children. This study highlights parental monitoring and supervision as a specific aspect of parenting behavior that may be important for children's physical and mental health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Criscuolo, François; Zahn, Sandrine; Bize, Pierre
A growing body of studies is showing that offspring telomere length (TL) can be influenced by the age of their parents. Such a relationship might be explained by variation in TL at conception (gamete effect) and/or by alteration of early growth conditions in species providing parental care. In a long-lived bird with bi-parental care, the Alpine swift ( Apus melba ), we exchanged an uneven number of 2 to 4-day-old nestlings between pairs as part of a brood size manipulation. Nestling TL was measured at 50 days after hatching, which allowed investigation of the influence of the age of both their biological and foster parents on offspring TL, after controlling for the manipulation. Nestling TL was negatively related to the age of their biological father and foster mother. Nestling TL did not differ between enlarged and reduced broods. These findings suggest that offspring from older males were fertilized by gametes with shorter telomeres, presumably due to a greater cell division history or a longer accumulation of damage, and that older females may have provided poorer parental care to their offspring. © 2017 The Author(s).
Hsin, Amy; Felfe, Christina
This study tests the two assumptions underlying popularly held notions that maternal employment negatively affects children because it reduces time spent with parents: (1) that maternal employment reduces children's time with parents, and (2) that time with parents affects child outcomes. We analyze children's time-diary data from the Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and use child fixed-effects and IV estimations to account for unobserved heterogeneity. We find that working mothers trade quantity of time for better "quality" of time. On average, maternal work has no effect on time in activities that positively influence children's development, but it reduces time in types of activities that may be detrimental to children's development. Stratification by mothers' education reveals that although all children, regardless of mother's education, benefit from spending educational and structured time with their mothers, mothers who are high school graduates have the greatest difficulty balancing work and child care. We find some evidence that fathers compensate for maternal employment by increasing types of activities that can foster child development as well as types of activities that may be detrimental. Overall, we find that the effects of maternal employment are ambiguous because (1) employment does not necessarily reduce children's time with parents, and (2) not all types of parental time benefit child development.
Suggate, Sebastian; Stoeger, Heidrun; Pufke, Eva
Children's fine motor skills (FMS) are being increasingly recognized as an important aspect of preschool development; yet, we know very little about the experiences that foster their development. We utilized a parent-administered children's fine and gross motor activities questionnaire (MAQ) to investigate links with FMS. We recruited a sample of…
Campayo-Muñoz, Emilia; Cabedo-Mas, Alberto
This paper explores the importance and effects of parents' and teachers' attitudes on students' academic performance in music. To this end, the research literature on the effects of parental and teacher behaviour on the behaviour of their children and students is reviewed, focusing on parents' and teachers' emotional skills. The review looks at…
Brown, Jason D.; Bednar, Lisa M.
The purpose of the study was to describe the challenges of parents of children with a fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Nineteen birth, foster or adoptive parents were asked to answer the following question: "What are the challenges you face parenting a child with a fetal alcohol spectrum disorder?" The data were analyzed using…
child and caregiver outcomes over time, based on a sample of 200 military personnel and their co- parents who have recently or will soon separate from...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0407 TITLE: SMART Optimization of a Parenting Program for Active Duty Families PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Abigail...Optimization of a Parenting Program for Active Duty 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Families 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Abigail
Lynch, Frances L; Dickerson, John F; Saldana, Lisa; Fisher, Phillip A
Of 1 million cases of child maltreatment identified every year in the United States, one-fifth result in foster care. Many of these children suffer from significant emotional and behavioral conditions. Decision-makers must allocate highly constrained budgets to serve these children. Recent evidence suggests that Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care for Preschoolers can reduce negative outcomes for these children, but the relative benefits and costs of the program have not been evaluated. The objective of this study was to assess net benefit, over 24 months, of Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care for Preschoolers compared to regular foster care. Data were from a randomized controlled trial of 117 young children entering a new foster placement. A subsample exhibited placement instability (n = 52). Intervention services including parent training, lasted 9-12 months. Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care for Preschoolers significantly increased permanent placements for the placement instability sample. Average total cost for the new intervention sample was significantly less than for regular foster care (full sample: $27,204 vs. $30,090; P = .004; placement instability sample: $29,595 vs. $36,061; P = .045). Incremental average net benefit was positive at all levels of willingness to pay of zero or greater, indicating that the value of benefits exceeded costs. Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care for Preschoolers has significant benefit for preschool children in foster care with emotional and behavioral disorders compared to regular foster care services. At even modest levels of willingness to pay, benefits exceed costs indicating a strong likeliness that this program is an efficient choice for improving outcomes for young children with emotional and behavioral disorders in foster care.
This paper presents a semi-structured psychoeducational model of group work for parents of aggressive children based on concepts of co-parenting and bidirectionality. The group was developed for enhancing five Taiwanese aggressive children's social competence by promoting positive interactions within family. Topics covered in the group included identifying parenting styles, forming parental alliances, fostering parent-child mutual initiations/mutual compliances, establishing parent-child co-regulation, and responding to aggressive children's negative emotions. Pre- and post-group comparisons suggested the effectiveness of the group model.
Harwood, Robin; Feng, Xin; Yu, Stella
Adopted children are a heterogeneous group, varying along numerous factors, including type of adoption (international, foster, private), length of exposure to preadoption adversities as indexed by age of adoption, history of preadoption maltreatment, and prenatal substance exposure. Yet, we know little about how these adversity factors are mediated by quality of postadoption parent-child relationships and/or the presence of special health care needs to produce specific child outcomes across different groups of U.S. adopted children. This study uses structural equation modeling to analyze cross-sectional data from the National Survey of Adoptive Parents to investigate differences in outcomes among three groups of U.S. adopted children: international, foster, and private. SEM results indicate that compared with privately adopted children, (a) children adopted from the foster care system were more likely to be identified with special health care needs, and (b) internationally adopted children showed on average poorer school performance as indexed by math and reading. Analyses yielded both direct and indirect paths between preadoption adversities and child outcomes, with the majority of associations mediated or partially mediated by quality of parent-child relationships and/or special health care needs status. The results of these analyses highlight the heterogeneity among different groups of adopted children within the United States and also underline the important mediating roles that the quality of parent-child relationship and children's special health care needs status have on adopted children's selected mental health and academic outcomes. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background More than 20% of US children ages 2-5 yrs are classified as overweight or obese. Parents greatly influence the behaviors their children adopt, including those which impact weight (e.g., diet and physical activity. Unfortunately, parents often fail to recognize the risk for excess weight gain in young children, and may not be motivated to modify behavior. Research is needed to explore intervention strategies that engage families with young children and motivate parents to adopt behaviors that will foster healthy weight development. Methods This study tests the efficacy of the 35-week My Parenting SOS intervention. The intervention consists of 12 sessions: initial sessions focus on general parenting skills (stress management, effective parenting styles, child behavior management, coparenting, and time management and later sessions apply these skills to promote healthier eating and physical activity habits. The primary outcome is change in child percent body fat. Secondary measures assess parent and child dietary intake (three 24-hr recalls and physical activity (accelerometry, general parenting style and practices, nutrition- and activity-related parenting practices, and parent motivation to adopt healthier practices. Discussion Testing of these new approaches contributes to our understanding of how general and weight-specific parenting practices influence child weight, and whether or not they can be changed to promote healthy weight trajectories. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00998348
Ward, Dianne S; Vaughn, Amber E; Bangdiwala, Kant I; Campbell, Marci; Jones, Deborah J; Panter, Abigail T; Stevens, June
More than 20% of US children ages 2-5 yrs are classified as overweight or obese. Parents greatly influence the behaviors their children adopt, including those which impact weight (e.g., diet and physical activity). Unfortunately, parents often fail to recognize the risk for excess weight gain in young children, and may not be motivated to modify behavior. Research is needed to explore intervention strategies that engage families with young children and motivate parents to adopt behaviors that will foster healthy weight development. This study tests the efficacy of the 35-week My Parenting SOS intervention. The intervention consists of 12 sessions: initial sessions focus on general parenting skills (stress management, effective parenting styles, child behavior management, coparenting, and time management) and later sessions apply these skills to promote healthier eating and physical activity habits. The primary outcome is change in child percent body fat. Secondary measures assess parent and child dietary intake (three 24-hr recalls) and physical activity (accelerometry), general parenting style and practices, nutrition- and activity-related parenting practices, and parent motivation to adopt healthier practices. Testing of these new approaches contributes to our understanding of how general and weight-specific parenting practices influence child weight, and whether or not they can be changed to promote healthy weight trajectories. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00998348.
Hawk, S.T.; Keijsers, L.; Hale, W.W., III; Meeus, W.
Privacy coordination between adolescents and their parents is difficult, as adolescents' changing roles require adjustments to expectations about family boundaries. Adolescents' perceptions of privacy invasion likely provoke conflicts with parents, but higher levels of conflict may also foster
Benjamin, Sara E; Haines, Jess; Ball, Sarah C; Ward, Dianne S
A large percentage of children in the United States spend part of their day in out-of-home child care. As rates of obesity continue to rise, especially among young children, child care has become a focus for nutrition and physical activity intervention. Parental involvement is an important component of these efforts. During summer 2006, parents of children in child care were surveyed to better understand their perceived quality of meals, snacks, and physical activity at the child-care center, and their recommendations for improvement. Parents of children who attended 94 licensed child-care centers in North Carolina were invited to complete a brief survey of perceived quality of meals, snacks, and physical activity at their centers using close-ended questions. Open-ended questions were used to identify suggestions for improvement. Five hundred eight parents from 91 child-care centers completed the questionnaire. The majority of parents reported quality of meals and snacks at the center as either excellent (30% meals, 27% snacks) or good (42% meals, 46% snacks). The main recommendations for improving meals and snacks were to increase fruits and vegetables and provide a variety of healthful foods. The majority of parents categorized the quality of physical activity at the center as excellent (36%) or good (46%), and suggested more structured, outdoor activities for children. Findings from this study provide insight into key areas of concern for parents regarding the nutrition and activity environment of child-care centers. This information may be used to create or modify interventions or policies and to help motivate parents to become advocates for change in child care.
Gniewosz, Burkhard; Noack, Peter
The present study investigates the intergenerational transmission of academic task values within family in early adolescence. Social learning processes are assumed to operate through the students' perceptions of their parents' values. The major goal of this study is to show that this values transmission is facilitated by between-parent value agreement. Based on a longitudinal data set including 1019 German students, their mothers (N = 847), and fathers (N = 733), structural equation models showed significant effects of the parents' task values regarding math and German language as academic subjects on the respective task values reported by the students, mediated through the student-perceived parental values. This transmission chain was only found if the between-parent agreement was high. The results are discussed in terms of parent-specific mechanisms fostering transmission if both parents agree on academic values, such as an improved perceptive accuracy as well as the increased salience and mutual reinforcement of parental messages. Copyright © 2011 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Insufficient physical activity (PA) is considered a critical contributor to childhood overweight. Parents are a key in influencing their child's PA through various mechanisms of PA parenting, including support, restriction of PA, and facilitation of enrollment in PA classes or activities. However, s...
Barber, James G; Delfabbro, Paul H
This study compared the profile of neglected and abused children in the Australian foster care system as well as differences between maltreatment types in relation to parental contact, reunification and psychosocial progress in care. The case files of 235 children entering foster care were examined and their social workers were administered standardised questionnaires at the point of intake. All measures were repeated for those remaining in care 1 year and then again 2 years later. Neglected children were younger than non-neglected children, more likely to have a physical or mental disability, more likely to experience multiple forms of maltreatment and less likely to pose conduct problems for carers. Neglected children were more likely than non-neglected children to experience a decline in parental contact over time, and were less likely to be reunified with their families of origin. There was minimal difference between neglected and non-neglected in their psychosocial progress while in care. Aboriginal children were more likely to be reunified than non-Aboriginal children when neglect was attributable to transient factors (parental incapacity) but the reverse was true for non-neglected children. The fact that neglected children more often require a second form of maltreatment before being removed from home suggests that children's services workers are less inclined to remove children for neglect than for other forms of maltreatment. As a consequence, those neglected children who are in care tend to come from more dysfunctional families than non-neglected children do, as evidenced by the relatively poorer parental contact and reunification results of neglected children. Neglected children differ systematically from non-neglected children and suffer relative disadvantage in relation to multiple forms of maltreatment, parental contact, and reunification. The fact that declines in parental contact among neglected children in care occurred only when indirect contact
Løvdahl, Sebastian Rosten
In the view of the latest corporate scandals in Norway and increased focus on ethics and anti-corruption, the purpose of this thesis is to investigate the roles of Purchasing and Supply Management and Organizational Culture when fostering ethical behavior and preventing corruption. More specifically, this research attempts to investigate and theorize how organizations can foster ethical behavior and prevent corruption in their respective activities. The research methodology is qualitative...
Beisse, Kay; Tyre, Ashli
This study was an exploratory investigation of caregiver involvement in the education of youth in foster care. In this study, foster caregivers reported that they are involved in the education of children in their care and participate in at-home involvement activities more often than at-school involvement activities. Caregivers in this study…
Full Text Available Objective: Parental practices that aim at increasing children's physical activity were found to be related to children's physical activity. So far, however, the association between these two sets of variables was studied without considering the moderating role of children's BMI z-score, which may determine the effectiveness of parental practices. The present study aims at filling this void.Design: Longitudinal data were collected among 879 dyads of children (6–11 years old and their parents. Seven parental physical activity practices were assessed at baseline. Physical activity, body mass, and height (measured among children were assessed twice (at baseline and 7-month follow-up. Body mass and height were measured objectively. Seven moderation analyses were conducted.Results: Six parental practices emerged to predict physical activity of children: collaborative social control, overall support, stimulation to be active, general encouragement for physical activity, positive social control, and modeling. Children's BMI z-score moderated three associations. The relationships between parental positive social control, overall parental support, and general parental encouragement for physical activity (at baseline, and children's physical activity (at follow-up were significant only among children with low and medium BMI z-score. In turn, collaborative social control and modeling predicted children's physical activity at the follow-up regardless child's BMI z-score.Conclusions: Parental positive social control or overall parental support may be ineffective in children with higher body mass who are in need to increase their physical activity.
Köhler, M; Emmelin, M; Hjern, A; Rosvall, M
This study investigated the impact of being in family foster care on selected health determinants and participation in Child Health Services (CHS). Two groups of 100 children, born between 1992 and 2008, were studied using data from Swedish Child Health Services for the preschool period up to the age of six. The first group had been in family foster care, and the controls, matched for age, sex and geographic location, had not. Descriptive statistics were used to describe differences in health determinants and participation in Child Health Services between the two groups. The foster care group had higher health risks, with lower rates of breastfeeding and higher levels of parental smoking. They were less likely to have received immunisations and attended key nurse or physician visits and speech and vision screening. Missing data for the phenylketonuria test were more common in children in family foster care. Children in family foster care were exposed to more health risks than the control children and had lower participation in the universal child health programme during the preschool period. These results call for secure access to high-quality preventive health care for this particularly vulnerable group of children. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Rajan, Anugraha Merin; John, Romate
Resilience of parents in the context of raising a child with intellectual disability is gaining attention as a mechanism that addresses their inherent strengths to withstand the potential associated strain. Understanding its underlying factors has applications in fostering their resilience. The present study explored the resilience of parents and…
Sleddens, Ester F C; Gubbels, Jessica S; Kremers, Stef P J; van der Plas, Eline; Thijs, Carel
It has been generally assumed that activity-related parenting practices influence children's activity behavior and weight status. However, vice versa parents may also change their parenting behaviors in response to their perceptions of their child's activity behavior and weight status. This study examined the bidirectional relationships between activity-related parenting practices, and physical activity, sedentary screen-based behavior, and body mass index (BMI) between children's age of 5 and 7 years. Three scales of the Activity-related Parenting Questionnaire (i.e. 'restriction of sedentary behavior', 'stimulation of physical activity', and 'monitoring of physical activity') were completed by 1694 parents of the Dutch KOALA Birth Cohort Study at the child's age of around 5 and again around age 7. Physical activity, sedentary screen-based behavior and BMI were measured at both ages as well. Linear regression models were used to estimate the bidirectional associations between each parenting practice and the child's physical activity levels, sedentary screen-based behavior and BMI z-scores. Several parenting practices at age 5 predicted child physical activity, sedentary screen-based behavior, and BMI z-scores at age 7. Restriction of sedentary behavior positively predicted child BMI and sedentary screen-based behavior, whereas this practice negatively predicted child physical activity. In addition, stimulation of physical activity at age 5 was significantly associated with higher levels of child physical activity at age 7. The following child factors at age 5 predicted parenting practices at age 7: Child physical activity positively predicted parental stimulation of physical activity and monitoring activities. Sedentary screen-based behavior was associated with lower parental stimulation to be active. Findings generally revealed that parents and children mutually influence each other's behavior. A reinforcing feedback loop was present between parental stimulation
Crowley, Kevin; Callanan, Maureen A.; Jipson, Jennifer L.; Galco, Jodi; Topping, Karen; Shrager, Jeff
Current accounts of the development of scientific reasoning focus on individual children's ability to coordinate the collection and evaluation of evidence with the creation of theories to explain the evidence. This observational study of parent-child interactions in a children's museum demonstrated that parents shape and support children's scientific thinking in everyday, nonobligatory activity. When children engaged an exhibit with parents, their exploration of evidence was observed to be longer, broader, and more focused on relevant comparisons than children who engaged the exhibit without their parents. Parents were observed to talk to children about how to select and encode appropriate evidence and how to make direct comparisons between the most informative kinds of evidence. Parents also sometimes assumed the role of explainer by casting children's experience in causal terms, connecting the experience to prior knowledge, or introducing abstract principles. We discuss these findings with respect to two dimensions of children's scientific thinking: developments in evidence collection and developments in theory construction.
This study of 29 adopted children examines the consequences of parental rights termination (PRT) for neglected or abused children in relation to antecedent characteristics of children, parents, and circumstances in the foster care process. Suggests alternative plans for children whose PRT has not been followed by permanent adoptive placement.…
Berniell, Lucila; de la Mata, Dolores; Valdés, Nieves
This paper exploits state health education (HED) reforms as quasi-natural experiments to estimate the causal impact of HED received by children on their parents' physical activity. We use data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics for the period 1999-2005 merged with data on state HED reforms from the National Association of State Boards of Education Health Policy Database and the 2000 and 2006 School Health Policies and Programs Study. To identify the spillover effects of HED requirements on parents' behavior, we use several methodologies (triple differences, changes in changes, and difference in differences) in which we allow for different types of treatments. We find a positive effect of HED reforms at the elementary school on the probability of parents doing light physical activity. Introducing major changes in HED increases the probability of fathers engaging in physical activity by between 6.3 and 13.7 percentage points, whereas on average, this probability for mothers does not seem to be affected. We analyze several heterogeneous impacts of the HED reforms to unveil the mechanisms behind these spillovers. We find evidence consistent with hypotheses such as gender specialization of parents in childcare activities or information sharing between children and parents. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Aram-Fichman, Reut; Davidson-Arad, Bilha
The present study is anchored in the view that hope is a resource that fosters better coping and parenting. It examines the self-perceived hope and parental role of parents whom the welfare services in Israel have assessed as maltreating their children. The parents were recruited in 2010 through facilities for maltreated children. The study sample consisted of 262 parents (68.4% response rate), divided into those who had at least one child removed from home and those whose children were all at home. Both groups of parents reported moderately high basic and family hope and sense of pathways and agency, and moderate perceived parental role, with no significant group differences. Differences were found, however, in the role of hope in mediating between parents' sociodemographic features and their perceived parental role. The mediation was more substantial among the parents whose children were at home and differed in content. Only among parents whose children were at home did religiosity (β = 0.20, P hope, which increased the perceived parental role. Moreover, the findings underscore the lack of role of family hope and sense of agency among parents whose children were not at home. In both the groups, higher income led to greater hope (β = 0.18, P hope as a resource to help them improve their parenting, especially where the child was removed from home. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Carter, Erik W.; Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Cooney, Molly; Weir, Katherine; Moss, Colleen K.; Machalicek, Wendy
Fostering student self-determination is now considered an essential element of special education and transition services for children and youth with intellectual disability and/or autism. Yet, little is known about the pivotal role parents might play beyond the school campus in fostering self-determination among their children with developmental…
Bentley Georgina F
Full Text Available Abstract Background Establishing healthy physical activity (PA behaviours in early childhood is important for future PA behaviours. Parents play a central role in young children’s PA. However, there is currently little research on parenting interventions to increase child PA. This study was formative work to inform the content of a pilot randomised-controlled trial. Methods In-depth telephone interviews were carried out with 32 parents of 6 to 8 year old children residing in two areas that varied in their socio-economic characteristics, in Bristol, UK. Data were analysed thematically using a framework approach. Results Most parents described their child as being active or very active and indicated that they did not perceive a need for an increase in their child’s PA. Parents used a variety of visual cues to make this judgement, the most common being that they perceived their child as having lots of energy or that they did not view them as overweight. Parents reported environmental factors such as monetary cost, time constraints, lack of activity provision and poor weather as the main barriers to their child’s PA. Parental support and child’s enjoyment of PA appeared to be important facilitators to children participating in PA. Conclusion Improving parents’ knowledge of the PA recommendations for children, and increasing their awareness of the benefits of PA beyond weight status may be an important first step for a parenting PA intervention. Although parents commonly perceive environmental factors as the main barriers to their child’s PA, parental concern about low levels of child PA, their capacity to support behaviour change, child motivation, self confidence and independence may be key areas to address within an intervention to increase child PA. Effective methods of helping parents address the latter have been developed in the context of generic parenting programmes.
Lindley, Lisa C; Slayter, Elspeth M
Children in foster care suffer with serious illness at end of life. However, the relationship between prior trauma exposure and serious illness has received little empirical attention. The objectives were to examine the prevalence and type of trauma exposure, and investigate the relationship between prior trauma and serious illness among foster children at end of life. We used national longitudinal foster care data. We included children who were less than 18 years with residence in the United States. Serious illness (i.e., physical health, mental/behavioral health, developmental disabilities) was measured via the foster care files. Three measures of prior trauma exposure (i.e., maltreatment, drug/alcohol exposure, psychosocial stressors) were created. Using multivariate logistic regressions, we evaluated the influence of prior trauma on serious illness at end of life, while controlling for demographic, geographic, and foster care support characteristics. Sixty-eight percent of children experienced maltreatment, 28% exposure to parental drug/alcohol misuse, and 39% psychosocial stressors prior to entering foster care. Maltreatment was positively associated with physical health and developmental disabilities, while parental drug/alcohol exposure was inversely related to developmental disabilities. Psychosocial stressors contributed to the prediction of poor physical, mental, and developmental health. These findings suggest that trauma-informed end-of-life care may be a critical need among children in foster care with serious illness. Future directions are discussed, including collaboration between end-of-life clinicians and social service workers and the importance of future research to understand and improve the quality of health at end of life for this underserved population. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Sarah Levin Martin
Full Text Available NikeGO was initiated in 2002 by the Nike US Community Affairs Division to address a growing need: to provide youth a safe environment in which to be physically active. Nike collaborated with several organizations across the country and offered an array of programs to foster developmentally appropriate physical activity among youth through their influencers (e.g., teachers, coaches. These programs reached youth in underserved areas ranging from urban inner cities to rural Native lands through various channels and settings including schools, Boys and Girls Clubs, YMCA’s, youth sports organizations, and others. Objective and subjective measures were used to determine the reach of the program, the dose of physical activity, the “fun” level of the activities, changes in youths’ self-esteem and self-concept, and the likelihood of continued participation. Many older youth gained leadership skills in the process. Overall, the programs have been successful in reaching “hard to reach” youth and engaging them in the positive, developmentally sensitive, health behaviors.
Pereira, Armanda; Moreira, Tânia; Lopes, Sílvia; Nunes, Ana R; Magalhães, Paula; Fuentes, Sonia; Reoyo, Natalia; Núñez, José C; Rosário, Pedro
Engaged students tend to show school-committed behaviors (e.g., attend classes, get involved with the learning process), high achievement, and sense of belonging. However, students with disabilities are prone to show a lack of engagement with school due to the specific difficulties they have to handle. In fact, children with disabilities are likely to show poor participation in school when compared with children without disabilities. This poor involvement is related to their low autonomy to participate in the school activities, which, in turn, results in low school engagement. Parents play a crucial role in their children's education. Parental involvement in school activities promotes autonomous behaviors and, consequently, school engagement. In fact, extant literature has shown close relationships between parental involvement, school engagement, and academic performance. Yet, parental involvement in school activities of children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) has received little direct attention from researchers. These children tend to display lower participation due to the motor, or cognitive, impairments that compromise their autonomy, and have a high likelihood to develop learning disabilities, with special incidences in reading and arithmetic. Therefore, our aim is twofold, to understand the parental styles; and how the perceived parental involvement in school activities is related to their children school engagement. Hence, 19 interviews were conducted with one of the parents of 19 children with CP. These interviews explored the school routines of children and the perceived involvement of parents in those routines. Additionally, children filled out a questionnaire on school engagement. Results show that the majority of the parents were clustered in the Autonomy Allowance and Acceptance and Support parental style, and the majority of their children were perceived as autonomous. Moreover, about a half of the children reported a high level of school engagement
Full Text Available The purpose. This article is devoted to the systems analysis of theoretical and practical aspects of forming of social security system of orphans and children deprived of parental care. Methodology. Covered a topical issue – placement of the orphans and deprived of parental care children. Characterized each form of the children placement emphasizing their fundamental difference and problem questions, consequences and lacks of such determination, are lighted up. Results. Offered a new approach to the forms of the children placement. Modern realities of the state development need considerable rethinking of essence of social security of children, and accordingly raising of new tasks which this system is called to decide, and mechanisms of realization of social security of children, which must be adequate to the markets conditions. Essence and functions of population social security of orphans and children deprived of parental care, are analyzed in the article. Practical meaning. Analysis of management activity in the field of social arrangement of children tells that the main its result is the arrangement of orphans and children deprived of parental care into the different forms of arrangements (adoption, guardianship (trusteeship, foster home, orphanage of family type, care home. We offer to consider the process of quality estimating with help of indicators of efficiency in depends on the priority in arrangement form of child (efficiency of management activity in the questions of adoption (Ead, efficiency of management activity in the questions of guardianship (trusteeship (Eg, efficiency of management activity in the questions of foster homes creation (Efh, efficiency of management activity in the questions of creation family type orphanage, (Ecfto efficiency of management activity in the questions of care homes creation (Echcand general efficiency of management activity in the field of social arrangement of children (Earr. Value
Naisseh, Matilda; Martinent, Guillaume; Ferrand, Claude; Hautier, Christophe
Previous studies have neglected the multivariate nature of motivation. The purpose of the current study was to first identify motivational profiles of parents' own physical activity. Second, the study examined if such profiles differ in the way in which parents perceive their children's competence in physical activity and the importance and support given to their children's physical activity. 711 physically active parents (57% mothers; M age = 39.7 yr.; children 6-11 years old) completed the Situational Motivation Scale, the Parents' Perceptions of Physical Activity Importance and their Children's Ability Questionnaire, and the Parental Support for Physical Activity Scale. Cluster analyses indicated four motivational profiles: Highly self-determined, Moderately self-determined, Non-self-determined, and Externally motivated profiles. Parents' beliefs and support toward their children's physical activity significantly differed across these profiles. It is the first study using Self-Determination Theory that provides evidence for the interpersonal outcomes of motivation.
Dubois-Comtois, Karine; Bernier, Annie; Tarabulsy, George M; Cyr, Chantal; St-Laurent, Diane; Lanctôt, Anne-Sophie; St-Onge, Janie; Moss, Ellen; Béliveau, Marie-Julie
This study investigated different environmental and contextual factors associated with maltreated children's adjustment in foster care. Participants included 83 children (52 boys), ages 1-7 years, and their foster caregivers. Quality of interaction with the foster caregiver was assessed from direct observation of a free-play situation; foster caregiver attachment state of mind and commitment toward the child were assessed using two interviews; disruptive behavior symptoms were reported by foster caregivers. Results showed that quality of interaction between foster caregivers and children were associated with behavior problems, such that higher-quality interactions were related to fewer externalizing and internalizing problems. Foster caregivers' state of mind and commitment were interrelated but not directly associated with behavior problems of foster children. Type of placement moderated the association between foster caregiver commitment and foster child behavior problems. Whereas greater foster caregiver commitment was associated with higher levels of adjustment for children in foster families (kin and non-kin), this was not the case in foster-to-adopt families. Finally, the associations between foster child behavior problems and history of maltreatment and placement related-risk conditions fell below significance after considering child age and quality of interaction with the foster caregiver. Findings underscore the crucial contribution of the foster caregiver-child relationship to fostering child adjustment and, thereby, have important implications for clinical services offered to this population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nelson, Benjamin W; Byrne, Michelle L; Simmons, Julian G; Whittle, Sarah; Schwartz, Orli S; Reynolds, Eric C; O'Brien-Simpson, Neil M; Sheeber, Lisa; Allen, Nicholas B
This study utilized a novel multisystem approach to investigate the effect of observed parental behavior on the relationship between biological mechanisms associated with disease processes (i.e., autonomic physiology and immune response) among their adolescent children. Thirty-three adolescents (23 males), aged 11-13, and their parents participated in a laboratory session in which adolescents provided baseline measures of autonomic (sympathetic) activity, and adolescents and 1 parent participated in a laboratory based dyadic conflict resolution interaction task. This included 3 male parent/male adolescent dyads, 20 female parent/male adolescent dyads, 3 male parent/female adolescent dyads, and 7 female parent/female adolescent dyads. Approximately 3 years later, adolescents provided a salivary measure of C-Reactive Protein (sCRP) to index inflammation. Analyses revealed a positive association between sympathetic activity and sCRP, as well as a moderating role of positive parental behavior in this relationship, such that the association between sympathetic activity and sCRP was greater among adolescents whose parents displayed shorter duration of positive affect. Overall findings indicate parental behavior may influence the association between adolescent sympathetic activity and inflammatory processes. These findings have important implications for understanding the impact of psychosocial factors on biological mechanisms of disease. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Saunders, Julie; Hume, Clare; Timperio, Anna; Salmon, Jo
Understanding the influences on physical activity is crucial, particularly among important target groups such as adolescent girls. This study describes cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between parenting style and girls' participation in organized sport, walking/cycling trips and objectively assessed moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Data were collected from adolescent girls (n=222) and their parents in 2004 and again in 2006. Parents self-reported their demographic characteristics and parenting style. Girls self-reported their organized sport participation and weekly walking/cycling trips, while MVPA was assessed using accelerometers. Linear regression and interaction analyses were performed. Interactions between socio-demographic factors and parenting style with organized sport, walking/cycling trips and MVPA are presented. There were cross-sectional associations between authoritative (B=-0.45, p=0.042) and indulgent (B=-0.56, p=0.002) parenting and the number of walking/cycling trips, and authoritarian (B=0.27, p=0.033) parenting and frequency of organized sport. Significant interactions included those between: family status, authoritative parenting and daily (p=0.048) and week day (p=0.013) MVPA; education, indulgent parenting and MVPA on weekend days (p=0.006); and, employment, authoritarian parenting and duration and frequency of organized sport (p=0.004), highlighting the complexity of these relationships. Longitudinal analyses revealed significant decreases in organized sport and MVPA, significant increases in walking/cycling trips and no significant associations between parenting and physical activity. Parenting styles appear to influence walking and cycling trips among adolescent girls, though not physical activity within other domains. Socio-demographic characteristics interact with the relationships between parenting and physical activity. While these findings can inform the development of family-based interventions to improve
Majdandžić, M.; de Vente, W.; Bögels, S.M.
Based on evidence that fathers show more challenging and physical play than mothers, it has been theorized that fathers have a different parenting role, more focused at stimulating exploration and taking chances. Challenging parenting behavior (CPB) may foster confidence and buffer against anxiety
Full Text Available Purpose – to analyze gamification, as the method for fostering creativity.Design/methodology/approach – Author analyses the precognitions, which allowed gamification to attract mainstream attention, the diversity of understandings about the phenomenon, and the possible relations between usage of gamified platform and the development of creativity. The paper is based on the comparative analysis of scientific literature and related sources from sociology, business, and entertainment. The engagement is analyzed through the theories of self-determination and the “flow”. Creativity is understood as “any act, idea, or product that changes an existing domain, or that transforms an existing domain into a new one” (Csikszentmihalyi, 1996. Gamification is analyzed as “use of game design elements in non-game context” (Deterding, Dixon, Khaled, and Nacke (2011. Findings – Although the gamification is gaining more public attention, there is a lack of studies which would reveal its relations in fostering creativity. One of the main goals of any gamified platform is to raise the engagement of the participant while keeping subject interested in the process or activity. In some cases, there is a relation between “flow” and creativity. However, the strength of this relationship depends from the users of gamified content and the domain of interest.Research limitations / implications – There are very few empirical studies which would support correlation between experiencing the “flow” state and a raise of creativity. This issue requires more surveys, which would ground the idea.Practical implications – By developing further research in usage of gamification while fostering creativity it is possible to determine, whether or not the “creative domains” should apply more measures of gamification in their activities.Value – The article emphasizes on theoretical analysis of gamification and its applicability in fostering creativity
... permanency outcomes for particular groups of children and youth who are at risk for long- term foster care... those barriers and reduce the likelihood that children will remain in foster care for three years or... their parents or permanent or foster caregivers, caseworkers, supervisors, service providers, and key...
Vaughn, Amber; Hales, Derek; Ward, Dianne S.
Parents play a critical role in shaping children’s attitudes, beliefs and behaviors, including those around physical activity and inactivity. Our ability to identify which practices effectively promote children’s physical activity and limit inactivity is limited by existing measurement instruments. This project will present a newly developed physical activity parenting practices survey, the psychometric properties of this survey’s scales, and their association with child physical activity and...
Perkins, Kara; Columna, Luis; Lieberman, Lauren; Bailey, JoEllen
Introduction: Ongoing communication with parents and the acknowledgment of their preferences and expectations are crucial to promote the participation of physical activity by children with visual impairments. Purpose: The study presented here explored parents' perceptions of physical activity for their children with visual impairments and explored…
Dosreis, Susan; Yoon, Yesel; Rubin, David M; Riddle, Mark A; Noll, Elizabeth; Rothbard, Aileen
Despite national concerns over high rates of antipsychotic medication use among youth in foster care, concomitant antipsychotic use has not been examined. In this study, concomitant antipsychotic use among Medicaid-enrolled youth in foster care was compared with disabled or low-income Medicaid-enrolled youth. The sample included 16 969 youths younger than 20 years who were continuously enrolled in a Mid-Atlantic state Medicaid program and had ≥1 claim with a psychiatric diagnosis and ≥1 antipsychotic claim in 2003. Antipsychotic treatment was characterized by days of any use and concomitant use with ≥2 overlapping antipsychotics for >30 days. Medicaid program categories were foster care, disabled (Supplemental Security Income), and Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF). Multicategory involvement for youths in foster care was classified as foster care/Supplemental Security Income, foster care/TANF, and foster care/adoption. We used multivariate analyses, adjusting for demographics, psychiatric comorbidities, and other psychotropic use, to assess associations between Medicaid program category and concomitant antipsychotic use. Average antipsychotic use ranged from 222 ± 110 days in foster care to only 135 ± 101 days in TANF (P foster care only and 24% in foster care/adoption compared with youths in the foster care system.
SOBKIN VLADIMIR S.; SKOBELTSINA KSENIA N.
This article studies the structure of the pastime of contemporary preschool children and the importance and prevalence of various kinds of activities that parents and their children share. The emphasis is on those features of parental behavior that are determined by gender role (mother/father), family status (two-parent/separated family), style of parent-child relationship, and also child’s gender. The work is based on data from 1,936 questionnaires received from parents of preschool children...
Apelman, Maja; King, Julie
Children have many natural opportunities to learn about the basic aspects of quantity. This booklet is addressed to parents who want to support their children's mathematical growth. The activities presented suggest many ways in which parents and children can use mathematics in their environment. The activities are organized around common…
Discusses ways for parents (and educators) to use the life stories of heroes, such as individuals who rescued Jews from the Holocaust, to foster children's moral courage, sense of right and wrong, and commitment to others. (MDM)
To explore associations between helicopter, little emperor, tiger mom, and concerted cultivation hyper-parenting styles with child physical activity. 724 North American parents of 7-12 year olds completed a survey (May, 2014) that assessed their engagement in the hyper-parenting styles and the frequency that their child played outdoors, walked/bicycled, and played organized sports. Z-scores were generated for each hyper-parenting style and four groups were created: low (1 SD). Outdoor play, active transportation, and organized sport did not differ across helicopter parenting groups. Children in the low little emperor group had higher (Pparenting styles were associated with lower physical activity among 7-12 year olds. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents can influence their children's physical activity participation and screen time.This study examined the relative significance of perceived parental barriers and self-efficacy in relation to children's physical activity participation and screen time viewing. The associations between these factors and the behaviours were analysed. Methods Cross-sectional population survey in New South Wales, Australia of parents of pre-school (N = 764, younger (Kindergarten, Grades 2 and 4; N = 1557 and older children (Grades 6, 8 and 10; N = 1665. Parents reported barriers and self-efficacy to influence their child's physical activity and screen time behaviours in a range of circumstances. Differences were examined by child's sex and age group, household income, maternal education and location of residence. The duration of physical activity and screen viewing was measured by parental report for pre-school and younger children and self-report for older children. Associations between parental factors and children's organised, non-organised and total activity and screen time were analysed. Results Cost, lack of opportunities for participation and transport problems were the barriers most often reported, particularly by low income parents and those in rural areas. The number of barriers was inversely related to children's time spent in organised activity, but not their non-organised activity. Higher parental self-efficacy was positively associated with organised physical activity in the younger and older children's groups and the non-organised activity of older children. School-age children (younger and older groups were less likely to meet physical activity guidelines when parents reported ≥4 barriers (OR 3.76, 95% CI 1.25-11.34 and OR 3.72, 95% CI 1.71-8.11 respectively. Low parental self-efficacy was also associated with the likelihood of children exceeding screen time guidelines for each age group (pre-school OR 0.62, 95% CI 0
Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the influences on physical activity is crucial, particularly among important target groups such as adolescent girls. This study describes cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between parenting style and girls’ participation in organized sport, walking/cycling trips and objectively assessed moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA. Methods Data were collected from adolescent girls (n=222 and their parents in 2004 and again in 2006. Parents self-reported their demographic characteristics and parenting style. Girls self-reported their organized sport participation and weekly walking/cycling trips, while MVPA was assessed using accelerometers. Linear regression and interaction analyses were performed. Interactions between socio-demographic factors and parenting style with organized sport, walking/cycling trips and MVPA are presented. Results There were cross-sectional associations between authoritative (B=−0.45, p=0.042 and indulgent (B=−0.56, p=0.002 parenting and the number of walking/cycling trips, and authoritarian (B=0.27, p=0.033 parenting and frequency of organized sport. Significant interactions included those between: family status, authoritative parenting and daily (p=0.048 and week day (p=0.013 MVPA; education, indulgent parenting and MVPA on weekend days (p=0.006; and, employment, authoritarian parenting and duration and frequency of organized sport (p=0.004, highlighting the complexity of these relationships. Longitudinal analyses revealed significant decreases in organized sport and MVPA, significant increases in walking/cycling trips and no significant associations between parenting and physical activity. Conclusion Parenting styles appear to influence walking and cycling trips among adolescent girls, though not physical activity within other domains. Socio-demographic characteristics interact with the relationships between parenting and physical activity. While these findings can
Background Understanding the influences on physical activity is crucial, particularly among important target groups such as adolescent girls. This study describes cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between parenting style and girls’ participation in organized sport, walking/cycling trips and objectively assessed moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Methods Data were collected from adolescent girls (n=222) and their parents in 2004 and again in 2006. Parents self-reported their demographic characteristics and parenting style. Girls self-reported their organized sport participation and weekly walking/cycling trips, while MVPA was assessed using accelerometers. Linear regression and interaction analyses were performed. Interactions between socio-demographic factors and parenting style with organized sport, walking/cycling trips and MVPA are presented. Results There were cross-sectional associations between authoritative (B=−0.45, p=0.042) and indulgent (B=−0.56, p=0.002) parenting and the number of walking/cycling trips, and authoritarian (B=0.27, p=0.033) parenting and frequency of organized sport. Significant interactions included those between: family status, authoritative parenting and daily (p=0.048) and week day (p=0.013) MVPA; education, indulgent parenting and MVPA on weekend days (p=0.006); and, employment, authoritarian parenting and duration and frequency of organized sport (p=0.004), highlighting the complexity of these relationships. Longitudinal analyses revealed significant decreases in organized sport and MVPA, significant increases in walking/cycling trips and no significant associations between parenting and physical activity. Conclusion Parenting styles appear to influence walking and cycling trips among adolescent girls, though not physical activity within other domains. Socio-demographic characteristics interact with the relationships between parenting and physical activity. While these findings can inform the
Luanna Alexandra Cheng
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between physical activity and social support from parents and friends on the physical activity level among adolescents. METHODS: Data from 2,361 adolescents (56.6% females; mean age 16.4; SD = 1.2, from public and private high schools were analyzed. The physical activity level of the adolescents, parents, and friends were measured through a questionnaire. Parents' and friends' support and self-efficacy were measured using two previously tested scales. Data analysis was performed usingthe structural equation modeling in IBM(r SPSS(r AmosTM 20.0. RESULTS: Physical activity of friends was directly associated with physical activity level of adolescents. Physical activity of the father was associated with their sons, and the physical activity of mother was associated with their daughters. An indirect association was identified between the physical activity of parents and friends with physical activity level of the adolescents, mediated by social support. Social support was directly associated with physical activity in adolescents of both genders and indirectly mediated by self-efficacy. CONCLUSIONS: Parents and friends have a social influence on adolescents' level of physical activity through the mechanism of behavior modeling or through social support, mediated by self-efficacy.
Cheng, Luanna Alexandra; Mendonça, Gerfeson; Farias Júnior, José Cazuza de
To analyze the association between physical activity and social support from parents and friends on the physical activity level among adolescents. Data from 2,361 adolescents (56.6% females; mean age 16.4; SD = 1.2), from public and private high schools were analyzed. The physical activity level of the adolescents, parents, and friends were measured through a questionnaire. Parents' and friends' support and self-efficacy were measured using two previously tested scales. Data analysis was performed using the structural equation modeling in IBM® SPSS® Amos™ 20.0. Physical activity of friends was directly associated with physical activity level of adolescents. Physical activity of the father was associated with that of their sons, and the physical activity of mother was associated with that of their daughters. An indirect association was identified between the physical activity of parents and friends with physical activity level of the adolescents, mediated by social support. Social support was directly associated with physical activity in adolescents of both genders and indirectly mediated by self-efficacy. Parents and friends have a social influence on adolescents' level of physical activity through the mechanism of behavior modeling or through social support, mediated by self-efficacy. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Loprinzi, Paul D.; Schary, David P.; Beets, Michael W.; Leary, Janie; Cardinal, Bradley J.
Background: To date, most research investigating the influence of parents on children"s physical activity behavior has been conducted among school-aged children. As a result, we have a limited understanding of the mechanisms through which parents can influence their young children's physical activity behavior. The purpose of this study was to…
A disabled woman reviews the ways in which parents can communicate positive and realistic expectations about their disabled children's future. The importance of direct communication regarding sexuality and prejudice is emphasized. (CL)
Sleddens, Ester F. C.; Gubbels, Jessica S.; Kremers, Stef P. J.; van der Plas, Eline; Thijs, Carel
Background It has been generally assumed that activity-related parenting practices influence children?s activity behavior and weight status. However, vice versa parents may also change their parenting behaviors in response to their perceptions of their child?s activity behavior and weight status. This study examined the bidirectional relationships between activity-related parenting practices, and physical activity, sedentary screen-based behavior, and body mass index (BMI) between children?s ...
Physical activity (PA) parenting research has proliferated over the past decade, with findings verifying the influential role that parents play in children's emerging PA behaviors. This knowledge, however, has not translated into effective family-based PA interventions. During a preconference worksh...
Full Text Available Engaged students tend to show school-committed behaviors (e.g., attend classes, get involved with the learning process, high achievement, and sense of belonging. However, students with disabilities are prone to show a lack of engagement with school due to the specific difficulties they have to handle. In fact, children with disabilities are likely to show poor participation in school when compared with children without disabilities. This poor involvement is related to their low autonomy to participate in the school activities, which, in turn, results in low school engagement. Parents play a crucial role in their children’s education. Parental involvement in school activities promotes autonomous behaviors and, consequently, school engagement. In fact, extant literature has shown close relationships between parental involvement, school engagement, and academic performance. Yet, parental involvement in school activities of children with Cerebral Palsy has received little direct attention from researchers.These children tend to display lower participation due to the motor, or cognitive, impairments that compromise their autonomy, and have a high likelihood to develop learning disabilities, with special incidences in reading and arithmetic. Therefore, our aim is twofold, to understand the parental styles; and how the perceived parental involvement in school activities is related to their children school engagement. Hence, 19 interviews were conducted with one of the parents of 19 children with Cerebral Palsy. These interviews explored the school routines of children and the perceived involvement of parents in those routines. Additionally, children filled out a questionnaire on school engagement. Results show that the majority of the parents were clustered in the Autonomy Allowance and Acceptance and Support parental style, and the majority of their children were perceived as autonomous. Moreover, about a half of the children reported a high level
Full Text Available This article studies the structure of the pastime of contemporary preschool children and the importance and prevalence of various kinds of activities that parents and their children share. The emphasis is on those features of parental behavior that are determined by gender role (mother/father, family status (two-parent/separated family, style of parentchild relationship, and also child’s gender. The work is based on data from 1,936 questionnaires received from parents of preschool children (from 1.5 to 7 years old who were attending Moscow kindergartens. The research was carried out in 41 kindergartens in 9 districts of Moscow. The survey uncovered several social-psychological features of the position parents take while organizing their shared pastime with preschool children: the influence of traditional gender-role models of parental behavior; the “complementary” principle of mother’s and father’s social-role positions in the upbringing of a daughter; the distortion of traditional maternal behavior in the upbringing of a son in a separated family; the reduced organization of shared play with a child in a separated family; the influence of the style of the parent-child relationship on the participation of parents in their children’s activities. The dynamics show how the parents’ position changes as their children grow older (from 1.5 years to 7 years: namely, the decrease of parents’ organization of and participation in a preschool child’s activities has a negative impact on their emotional state while interacting with the child.
Van der Geest, K. E.; Mérelle, S. Y. M.; Rodenburg, G.; Van de Mheen, D.; Renders, C. M.
Background Children’s activity level, including physical activity (PA) and screen sedentary time (SST), is influenced by environmental factors in which parents play a critical role. Different types of parenting styles may influence children’s activity level. Inconsistent results were found on the association between parenting styles and PA, and few studies tested the association between parenting styles and SST. This study examined the association between parenting styles, PA and SST and the ...
Morin, Pascale; Turcotte, Sylvain; Perreault, Gino
Background: With a view toward developing concerted efforts in fostering healthy eating habits and a physically active lifestyle among young people, a study was carried out to explore associations between eating behavior and physical activity (PA). Methods: In the school district, questionnaires were completed at home by parents of primary school…
..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE... foster care and the eligibility of foster care providers in title IV-E programs. 1356.71 Section 1356.71... § 1356.71 Federal review of the eligibility of children in foster care and the eligibility of foster care...
Jackson, Lovie J.; O'Brien, Kirk; Pecora, Peter J.
Little is known about the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adult alumni of foster care and its demographic and contextual correlates. This is one of the first studies to report on racial/ethnic and gender differences and the influence of foster care experiences (i.e., revictimization during foster care, placement change rate,…
Jee, Sandra H; Halterman, Jill S; Szilagyi, Moira; Conn, Anne-Marie; Alpert-Gillis, Linda; Szilagyi, Peter G
To determine whether systematic use of a validated social-emotional screening instrument in a primary care setting is feasible and improves detection of social-emotional problems among youth in foster care. Before-and-after study design, following a practice intervention to screen all youth in foster care for psychosocial problems using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), a validated instrument with 5 subdomains. After implementation of systematic screening, youth aged 11 to 17 years and their foster parents completed the SDQ at routine health maintenance visits. We assessed feasibility of screening by measuring the completion rates of SDQ by youth and foster parents. We compared the detection of psychosocial problems during a 2-year period before systematic screening to the detection after implementation of systematic screening with the SDQ. We used chart reviews to assess detection at baseline and after implementing systematic screening. Altogether, 92% of 212 youth with routine visits that occurred after initiation of screening had a completed SDQ in the medical record, demonstrating high feasibility of systematic screening. Detection of a potential mental health problem was higher in the screening period than baseline period for the entire population (54% vs 27%, P youth had 2 or more significant social-emotional problem domains on the SDQ. Systematic screening for potential social-emotional problems among youth in foster care was feasible within a primary care setting and doubled the detection rate of potential psychosocial problems. Copyright © 2011 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available High prevalence of mental disorders among foster children highlight the need to examine the mental health of children placed out of home. We examined the properties of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ in screening school-aged foster children for mental disorders.Foster parents and teachers of 279 foster children completed the SDQ and the diagnostic interview Developmental and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA. Using the diagnoses derived from the DAWBA as the standard, we examined the performance of the SDQ scales as dimensional measures of mental health problems using receiver operating characteristic (ROC analyses. Recommended cut-off scores were derived from ROC coordinates. The SDQ predictive algorithms were also examined.ROC analyses supported the screening properties of the SDQ Total difficulties and Impact scores (AUC = 0.80-0.83. Logistic regression analyses showed that the prevalence of mental disorders increased linearly with higher SDQ Total difficulties scores (X2 = 121.47, df = 13, p<.001 and Impact scores (X2 = 69.93, df = 6, p<.001. Our results indicated that there is an additive value of combining the scores from the Total difficulties and Impact scales, where scores above cut-off on any of the two scales predicted disorders with high sensitivity (89.1%, but moderate specificity (62.1%. Scores above cut-off on both scales yielded somewhat lower sensitivity (73.4%, but higher specificity (81.1%. The SDQ multi-informant algorithm showed low discriminative ability for the main diagnostic categories, with an exception being the SDQ Conduct subscale, which accurately predicted the absence of behavioural disorders (LHR- = 0.00.The results support the use of the SDQ Total difficulties and Impact scales when screening foster children for mental health problems. Cut-off values for both scales are suggested. The SDQ multi-informant algorithms are not recommended for mental health screening of foster
Pereira, Armanda; Moreira, Tânia; Lopes, Sílvia; Nunes, Ana R.; Magalhães, Paula; Fuentes, Sonia; Reoyo, Natalia; Núñez, José C.; Rosário, Pedro
Engaged students tend to show school-committed behaviors (e.g., attend classes, get involved with the learning process), high achievement, and sense of belonging. However, students with disabilities are prone to show a lack of engagement with school due to the specific difficulties they have to handle. In fact, children with disabilities are likely to show poor participation in school when compared with children without disabilities. This poor involvement is related to their low autonomy to participate in the school activities, which, in turn, results in low school engagement. Parents play a crucial role in their children’s education. Parental involvement in school activities promotes autonomous behaviors and, consequently, school engagement. In fact, extant literature has shown close relationships between parental involvement, school engagement, and academic performance. Yet, parental involvement in school activities of children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) has received little direct attention from researchers. These children tend to display lower participation due to the motor, or cognitive, impairments that compromise their autonomy, and have a high likelihood to develop learning disabilities, with special incidences in reading and arithmetic. Therefore, our aim is twofold, to understand the parental styles; and how the perceived parental involvement in school activities is related to their children school engagement. Hence, 19 interviews were conducted with one of the parents of 19 children with CP. These interviews explored the school routines of children and the perceived involvement of parents in those routines. Additionally, children filled out a questionnaire on school engagement. Results show that the majority of the parents were clustered in the Autonomy Allowance and Acceptance and Support parental style, and the majority of their children were perceived as autonomous. Moreover, about a half of the children reported a high level of school engagement
MacDonnell, Judith A
This article describes findings from a qualitative policy study focused on female nurses' activism in relation to lesbian health. Critical feminist analysis and comparative life history methodology were applied to career histories obtained from 10 diversely situated female nurses across Ontario, Canada. The findings show that nursing activist practices are informed by advocacy experiences that foster inclusive professional and community education plus formal education processes that shape their political socialization. Implications for nursing theory include the development of political knowledges and practices that support caring science, sociopolitical knowing, and primary healthcare nursing practice in a community context.
Johnson, Sara B.; Pryce, Julia M.; Martinovich, Zoran
Effective service interventions greatly enhance the well-being of foster youth. A study of 262 foster youth examined one such intervention, therapeutic mentoring. Results showed that mentored youth improved significantly in the areas of family and social functioning, school behavior, and recreational activities, as well as in the reduction of…
Foster Anderson, Herbert
Stseenid Leedu ennesõjaaegsest pealinnast Kaunasest briti ärimehe H. Foster Andersoni silme läbi 1940. aastal. Lühikokkuvõte raamatust: Foster Anderson, Herbert. Borderline Russia. London : Cresset press, 1942
Dunton, Genevieve Fridlund; Liao, Yue; Almanza, Estela; Jerrett, Micheal; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Pentz, Mary Ann
Background Parental factors may play an important role in influencing children’s physical activity levels. Purpose This cross-sectional study sought to describe the locations of joint physical activity among parents and children. Methods Parent-child pairs (N = 291) wore an Actigraph GT2M accelerometer and GlobalSat BT-335 Global Positioning Systems (GPS) device over the same 7-day period. Children were ages 8–14 years. Joint behavior was defined by a linear separation distance of less than 50m between parent and child. Land use classifications were assigned to GPS data points. Results Joint physical activity was spread across residential locations (35%), and commercial venues (24%), and open spaces/parks (20%). Obese children and parents performed less joint physical activity in open spaces/parks than under/normal weight children and parents (p’s parent-child physical activity naturally occurs may inform location-based interventions to promote these behaviors. PMID:23011914
Frame, Laura; Ivins, Barbara; Wong, Lynette; Cantrell, Sally
Treatment of very young children in foster care involves the complex dynamics of a child's trauma history, multiple relationships, and caregivers' and providers' feelings about working with the child welfare system. Through the story of a toddler removed from his parents and placed in foster care, the authors illustrate a model of combined group…
Whitaker, D J; Miller, K S; May, D C; Levin, M L
Teenagers' communication with their partners about sex and their use of condoms may be influenced by the discussions teenagers have with their parents about sex. However, little is known about the process of parent-teenager communication on this topic. Understanding both what parents discuss with their children and how they discuss it may lead to a greater understanding of teenagers' sexual behavior. Interviews were conducted with 372 sexually active black and Hispanic youth aged 14-17 from Alabama, New York and Puerto Rico. Regression analyses were used to examine parent-teenager discussions about sexuality and about sexual risk, and parental communication skills as predictors of teenagers' discussions about sexual risk with a partner and teenagers' condom use. Parent-teenager discussions about sexuality and sexual risk were associated with an increased likelihood of teenager-partner discussions about sexual risk and of teenagers' condom use, but only if parents were open, skilled and comfortable in having those discussions. Teenagers' communication with their partner about sexual risk also was associated with greater condom use, but the relationship between parent-teenager communication and teenagers' condom use was independent of this association. The influence on teenagers of parent-teenager discussions about sexuality and sexual risk depends on both what parents say and how they say it. Programs that foster parent-teenager communication about sexuality and sexual risk must emphasize both of these aspects.
McWhinney, Sharon; McDonald, Andrea; Dawkins-Moultin, Lenna; Outley, Corliss; McKyer, E. Lisako; Thomas, Audrene
A comprehensive understanding of the barriers inhibiting physical activity among children is critical in the fight against childhood obesity. This qualitative interview study examined parents' and children's perceptions of the barriers to physical activity in rural communities of low socioeconomic status. Parents and children concurred that the…
Loucaides, Constantinos A; Tsangaridou, Niki
The purpose of this study was to examine the structural validity of a parent and a child questionnaire that assessed parental and friends' influences on children's physical activity and investigate the associations between the derived factors, physical activity, and time spent outside. Children ( N = 154, mean age = 11.7) and 144 of their parents completed questionnaires assessing parental and friends' influences on children's physical activity. Children wore a pedometer for six days. Exploratory factor analyses revealed four factors for the parental and five for the child's questionnaire that explained 66.71% and 63.85% of the variance, respectively. Five factors were significantly associated with physical activity and five significantly associated with time spent outside. Higher correlations were revealed between "general friend support," "friends' activity norms," and physical activity ( r = 0.343 and 0.333 resp., p friend support" and time spent outside ( r = 0.460, p parental and friends' influences on physical activity from both parents and children may provide a more complete picture of influences. Parents and friends seem to influence children's physical activity behavior and time spent outside, but friends' influences may have a stronger impact on children's behaviors.
Full Text Available Background: While there is a rich literature on the practice of child fostering in sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about how fostering impacts receiving households, as few studies consider household conditions both before and after fostering. Despite the fact that circumstancessurrounding fostering vary, the literature's key distinction of fostering is often drawn along the simple line of whether or not a household is fostering a child. This paper argues that anticipation of fostering responsibilities, in particular, is a useful dimension to distinguish fostering experiences for receiving households. Objective: This paper examines the relationship between receiving a foster child and subsequent changes in household wealth. Particular emphasis is placed on how these changes are conditioned by differing levels of anticipation of the fostering event. Methods: This study uses data from Tsogolo la Thanzi (TLT, a longitudinal survey in Balaka, Malawi. Using data from 1754 TLT respondents, fixed effects pooled time-series models are estimated to assess whether and how receiving a foster child changes household wealth. Results: This paper demonstrates the heterogeneity of fostering experiences for receiving households.The results show that households that anticipate fostering responsibilities experience a greater increase in household wealth than both households that do not foster and those that are surprised by fostering. Conclusions: Households that anticipate fostering responsibilities exhibit the greatest increase in householdwealth. While fostering households that do not anticipate fostering responsibilities may not experience these gains, there is no evidence to indicate that such households are negatively impacted relative to households that do not foster. This finding suggests that additional childcare responsibilities may not be as detrimental to African households as some researchers have feared.
The purpose of this study was to compare the physical activity parenting practices (PAPPs) parents report using with the PAPPs incorporated in the published literature. PAPPs in the literature were identified by reviewing the content of 74 published PAPPs measures obtained from current systematic re...
Greiner, Mary V; Beal, Sarah J; Nause, Katie; Staat, Mary Allen; Dexheimer, Judith W; Scribano, Philip V
To determine the prevalence of medical illness detected by laboratory screening in children entering foster care in a single, urban county. All children entering foster care in a single county in Ohio were seen at a consultation foster care clinic and had laboratory screening, including testing for infectious diseases such as HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, syphilis, and tuberculosis as well as for hemoglobin and lead levels. Over a 3-year period (2012-2015), laboratory screening was performed on 1977 subjects entering foster care in a consultative foster care clinic. The prevalence of hepatitis B, hepatitis C, syphilis, and tuberculosis were all found to be <1%. There were no cases of HIV. Seven percent of teenagers entering foster care tested positive for Chlamydia . A secondary finding was that 54% of subjects were hepatitis B surface antibody-negative, indicating an absence of detected immunity to the hepatitis B virus. Routine laboratory screening for children entering foster care resulted in a low yield. Targeted, rather than routine, laboratory screening may be a more clinically meaningful approach for children entering foster care. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Popkin, Michael H.
Based largely on the theories of Alfred Adler and Rudolf Dreikurs, this parent education curriculum is a video-based interactive learning experience that teaches a comprehensive model of parenting to parents of children ages 5 to 12 years. The kit provides parents with the skills needed to help their children develop courage, responsibility, and…
To promote optimal health and well-being of all children, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) supports access for all children to (1) civil marriage rights for their parents and (2) willing and capable foster and adoptive parents, regardless of the parents' sexual orientation. The AAP has always been an advocate for, and has developed policies to support, the optimal physical, mental, and social health and well-being of all infants, children, adolescents, and young adults. In so doing, the AAP has supported families in all their diversity, because the family has always been the basic social unit in which children develop the supporting and nurturing relationships with adults that they need to thrive. Children may be born to, adopted by, or cared for temporarily by married couples, nonmarried couples, single parents, grandparents, or legal guardians, and any of these may be heterosexual, gay or lesbian, or of another orientation. Children need secure and enduring relationships with committed and nurturing adults to enhance their life experiences for optimal social-emotional and cognitive development. Scientific evidence affirms that children have similar developmental and emotional needs and receive similar parenting whether they are raised by parents of the same or different genders. If a child has 2 living and capable parents who choose to create a permanent bond by way of civil marriage, it is in the best interests of their child(ren) that legal and social institutions allow and support them to do so, irrespective of their sexual orientation. If 2 parents are not available to the child, adoption or foster parenting remain acceptable options to provide a loving home for a child and should be available without regard to the sexual orientation of the parent(s).
Yancey, A K
The literature on identity formation in individuals from socially devalued racial and ethnic groups in the United States is summarized. Implications are discussed for a particular segment of at-risk adolescents--those in foster care residential group homes--who have received little published attention. The majority, in large urban centers, are African-American or Latino. These young people bear a disproportionate burden of such societal problems as unintended pregnancy and childbearing, academic underachievement and early educational discontinuation, substance abuse, and, ultimately, homelessness and more individually and socially costly forms of dependency (criminal justice, welfare, or mental health systems). It is postulated that their social maladaptation is reflective of identity disturbances created by the negative images of African-Americans and Latinos perpetuated by the dominant society and unfiltered by optimal parental racial socialization.
Jacob, Minu Mariam
The demand for miniaturized, broadband communication systems has created a need for electrically small, broadband antennas. However, all passive electrically small antennas have a fundamental gain-bandwidth limitation related to their electrical size, as first described by Wheeler and Chu. This limitation can be overcome using active non-Foster circuits (negative inductors and/or negative capacitors), which can deliver a broadband input match with active matching techniques, or can help reduce phase dispersion using negative delay effects. This thesis will illustrate the advantages of non-Foster circuits in obtaining broadband small antennas, in addition to examining their practical limitations due to noise in receive applications, and nonlinearity in transmit applications.
Salmon, Jo; Timperio, Anna; Chu, Binh; Veitch, Jenny
This study aimed to determine cross-sectional associations of dog ownership, dog walking, and physical activity (PA) among children and their parents. Objective measures of PA were obtained for children ages 5-6 and 10-12 years from 19 primary schools across Melbourne, Australia. Parents self-reported their PA, dog ownership, and frequency of dog…
O'Donnell, Lydia; Stueve, Ann; Duran, Richard; Myint-U, Athi; Agronick, Gail; San Doval, Alexi; Wilson-Simmons, Renée
In urban economically distressed communities, high rates of early sexual initiation combined with alcohol use place adolescent girls at risk for myriad negative health consequences. This article reports on the extent to which parents of young teens underestimate both the risks their daughters are exposed to and the considerable influence that they have over their children's decisions and behaviors. Surveys were conducted with more than 700 sixth-grade girls and their parents, recruited from seven New York City schools serving low-income families. Bivariate and multivariate analyses examined relationships among parents' practices and perceptions of daughters' risks, girls' reports of parenting, and outcomes of girls' alcohol use, media and peer conduct, and heterosexual romantic and social behaviors that typically precede sexual intercourse. Although only four parents thought that their daughters had used alcohol, 22% of the daughters reported drinking in the past year. Approximately 5% of parents thought that daughters had hugged and kissed a boy for a long time or had "hung out" with older boys, whereas 38% of girls reported these behaviors. Parents' underestimation of risk was correlated with lower reports of positive parenting practices by daughters. In multivariate analyses, girls' reports of parental oversight, rules, and disapproval of risk are associated with all three behavioral outcomes. Adult reports of parenting practices are associated with girls' conduct and heterosexual behaviors, but not with their alcohol use. Creating greater awareness of the early onset of risk behaviors among urban adolescent girls is important for fostering positive parenting practices, which in turn may help parents to support their daughters' healthier choices.
Lagace-Seguin, Daniel G.; Case, Emily
The main goal of this study was to explore if parental involvement and extracurricular activity participation could predict well-being and academic competence in elementary school children. Seventy-two children (mean age = 10.9 years, SD = 0.85) and their parents participated. Results revealed that parental pressure and support, when paired with…
Lampard, Amy M; Nishi, Akihiro; Baskin, Monica L; Carson, Tiffany L; Davison, Kirsten K
This study aimed to assess the psychometric properties of a child-report, multidimensional measure of physical activity (PA) parenting, the Activity Support Scale for Multiple Groups (ACTS-MG), in African American and non-Hispanic white families. The ACTS-MG was administered to children aged 5 to 12 years. A three factor model of PA parenting (Modeling of PA, Logistic Support, and Restricting Access to Screen-based Activities) was tested separately for mother's and fathers' PA parenting. The proposed three-factor structure was supported in both racial groups for mothers' PA parenting and in the African American sample for fathers' PA parenting. Factorial invariance between racial groups was demonstrated for mother's PA parenting. Building on a previous study examining the ACTS-MG parent-report, this study supports the use of the ACTS-MG child-report for mothers' PA parenting. However, further research is required to investigate the measurement of fathers' PA parenting across racial groups.
Arredondo, Elva M; Elder, John P; Ayala, Guadalupe X; Campbell, Nadia; Baquero, Barbara; Duerksen, Susan
Parenting styles influence a child's risk for obesity. The goals of this study are to evaluate the influence of (i) parenting style on children's health behaviors (physical activity and dietary intake), (ii) children's sociodemographic characteristics on parenting style and on children's health behaviors and (iii) parents' sociodemographic characteristics on their use of controlling styles to promote a healthy home environment. Survey and anthropometric data were collected from a community sample of Latino parents (n = 812) and their children in kindergarten through second grade. Parental use of positive reinforcement and monitoring was associated with children's healthy eating and exercise. Also, parents' use of appropriate disciplining styles was associated with healthier eating, while parental use of control styles was associated with unhealthy eating. The daughters of parents who used controlling styles ate more unhealthy foods than did the sons. Older, employed and more acculturated parents used less controlling styles than their counterparts. Parenting interventions targeting children's dietary intake and physical activity should encourage parents to use more positive reinforcement and monitor their children's health behaviors as these parenting styles are associated with healthier behaviors. Moreover, intervention researchers may want to encourage Latino parents to use less controlling styles with girls as this parenting style increased girls' risk for unhealthy eating.
Foster care children who experience placement disruption and foster care instability are at elevated risk for a host of poor outcomes, yet little work considers what these unstable foster care careers look like or what causes them. In this article, I start by using previous studies on foster care...
Acharya, Kamal Prasad
This article examines the socio-cultural activities that have direct and indirect impacts on critical thinking practices in primary science classrooms and what kinds of teachers' activities help to foster the development of critical thinking practices in children. Meanwhile, the constructivist and the socio-cultural theoretical dimensions have…
Hyatt Raymond R; Goldberg Jeanne P; Hughes Sheryl O; Hennessy Erin; Economos Christina D
Abstract Background Parents influence their children's behaviors directly through specific parenting practices and indirectly through their parenting style. Some practices such as logistical and emotional support have been shown to be positively associated with child physical activity (PA) levels, while for others (e.g. monitoring) the relationship is not clear. The objectives of this study were to determine the relationship between parent's PA-related practices, general parenting style, and ...
Lukie, Ivanna K.; Skwarchuk, Sheri-Lynn; LeFevre, Jo-Anne; Sowinski, Carla
Children's involvement in home literacy and numeracy activities has been linked to school achievement, but the subtleties in the home environment responsible for these gains have yet to be thoroughly investigated. The purpose of this study was to determine how children's interests and collaborative parent-child interactions affect exposure to home…
Boufous, Soufiane; Finch, Caroline; Bauman, Adrian
To examine the extent to which parents and carers perceive injury and safety risks as serious enough to prevent or discourage their children, aged 5-12 years, from participating in sports/physical activity and to identify factors that influence these perceptions. An analysis of the 2001 New South Wales Child Health Survey. More than one-quarter of parents/ carers of active children aged 5-12 years reported discouraging or preventing children from playing a particular sport (34.7% for boys and 16.6% for girls) because of injury and safety concerns. In boys, the most frequently discouraged sport was rugby league (23.2%), followed by rugby union (7.5%) and Australian rules football (2.8%). Among girls, the most frequently discouraged activities were rollerblading (2.7%), rugby league (2.3%) and soccer (2.1%). Multivariate analysis shows that factors independently associated with parents' decision to prevent/discourage their child from engaging in sport/physical activity include their child's age and gender, language spoken at home, presence of disability, and the respondent's relation to the child. Efforts need to be made to modify some sports/ activities, such as football codes, in order to minimise injury and to ensure that children continue enjoying their favourite activity well into adulthood. Guidelines designed to promote physical activity among children and young adolescents need to take into account parental concerns regarding the associated risk of injury.
Maloney, Tim; Jiang, Nan; Putnam-Hornstein, Emily; Dalton, Erin; Vaithianathan, Rhema
Introduction Official statistics have confirmed that relative to their presence in the population and relative to white children, black children have consistently higher rates of contact with child protective services (CPS). We used linked administrative data and statistical decomposition techniques to generate new insights into black and white differences in child maltreatment reports and foster care placements. Methods Birth records for all children born in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, between 2008 and 2010 were linked to administrative service records originating in multiple county data systems. Differences in rates of involvement with child protective services between black and white children by age 4 were decomposed using nonlinear regression techniques. Results Black children had rates of CPS involvement that were 3 times higher than white children. Racial differences were explained solely by parental marital status (i.e., being unmarried) and age at birth (i.e., predominantly teenage mothers). Adding other covariates did not capture any further racial differences in maltreatment reporting or foster care placement rates, they simply shifted differences already explained by marital status and age to these other variables. Discussion Racial differences in rates of maltreatment reports and foster care placements can be explained by a basic model that adjusts only for parental marital status and age at the time of birth. Increasing access to early prevention services for vulnerable families may reduce disparities in child protective service involvement. Using birth records linked to other administrative data sources provides an important means to developing population-based research.
Rusby, James S M
This retrospective study examines the long-term effect of the age at which British children were fostered in World War II on their divorce rate. A total of 859 respondents, aged 62 to 72 years, were recruited who had childhood homes in the county of Kent in southeast England during the war. Of these, 770 had been evacuated and fostered, and the remainder stayed at home. Reflecting the wartime concerns of Bowlby, Miller, and Winnicott (1939) regarding the wisdom of separating young children from their parents for a potentially long period, male and female respondents evacuated between the ages of 4 to 6 years had a significantly higher incidence of divorce compared with those in the 13- to 15-year age group. This association was found to be mediated by attachment style in which the fearful category was predominant. The relevance of these results in the broader developmental context, and to family counseling, are briefly discussed.
Parents influence their children's behaviors directly through specific parenting practices and indirectly through their parenting style. Some practices such as logistical and emotional support have been shown to be positively associated with child physical activity (PA) levels, while for others (e.g...
Brummelman, Eddie; Nelemans, Stefanie A; Thomaes, Sander; Orobio de Castro, Bram
Western parents often give children overly positive, inflated praise. One perspective holds that inflated praise sets unattainable standards for children, eventually lowering children's self-esteem (self-deflation hypothesis). Another perspective holds that children internalize inflated praise to form narcissistic self-views (self-inflation hypothesis). These perspectives were tested in an observational-longitudinal study (120 parent-child dyads from the Netherlands) in late childhood (ages 7-11), when narcissism and self-esteem first emerge. Supporting the self-deflation hypothesis, parents' inflated praise predicted lower self-esteem in children. Partly supporting the self-inflation hypothesis, parents' inflated praise predicted higher narcissism-but only in children with high self-esteem. Noninflated praise predicted neither self-esteem nor narcissism. Thus, inflated praise may foster the self-views it seeks to prevent. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Pinna, Keri L M; Hanson, Sheila; Zhang, Na; Gewirtz, Abigail H
Military deployment of a parent is a risk factor for children's internalizing and externalizing problems. This risk may be heightened in National Guard and Reserve (NG/R) families who tend to be isolated from other NG/R families and do not benefit from the centralized support system available to active duty families living on military bases. Isolation and trauma-related disorders may complicate the adjustment of military families during reintegration. An evidence-based parent training intervention was modified to meet the unique needs of recently deployed NG/R parents and their spouses, and the modified program was evaluated in a randomized controlled trial. The current study examines engagement and satisfaction with the program. Modifications such as employment of military-connected facilitators sought to maximize engagement in and satisfaction with the program. Engagement and satisfaction were examined between mothers and fathers, as well as between groups led by a military-connected facilitator and those led by civilian facilitators. Significantly greater engagement was noted for groups that were led by a military-connected facilitator (p = .01). There were no differences between genders in attendance rates, though greater positive group experiences were reported by mothers versus fathers (p = .01). Results are discussed in the context of engagement and satisfaction reported for similar programs. Implications for working with military families are also considered. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Physical activity is a major component of a healthy lifestyle in youth and adults. To identify determinants of this complex behavior is an important research objective in the process of designing interventions to promote physical activity at population level. In addition to individual determinants, there is evidence documenting familial influences on physical activity. However, the few studies that have addressed this issue with objective measures did not provide data on parent-offspring physical activity relationships throughout childhood and adolescence. The purpose of this study was to assess familial correlations in pedometer-assessed physical activity.We measured ambulatory activity in 286 French nuclear families (283 mothers, 237 fathers, and 631 children aged 8-18 years by pedometer recordings (Yamax Digiwalker DW 450 over a week. Correlations were computed with their 95% confidence intervals (CI for spouse pairs, siblings, mother-offspring, and father-offspring. Data were expressed as steps per day and computed both for the full recording period and separately for weekdays and weekends.The correlations were the highest between siblings (r=0.28, 95%CI: 0.17-0.38. Parent-offspring correlations were significant in mothers (r=0.21, 95%CI: 0.12-0.30, especially between mothers and daughters (r=0.24, 95%CI: 0.12-0.36 vs. r=0.18, 95%CI: 0.05-0.31 for sons, but were almost nonexistent in fathers. Correlations were generally higher on weekend days compared to weekdays. Mother-offspring correlations did not decrease with increasing age of children (r=0.17, 95%CI: 0.00-0.34 in 8-11-year-olds, r=0.20, 95%CI: 0.07-0.33 in 12-15-year-olds, and r=0.25, 95%CI: 0.07-0.39 in ≥16-year-olds. Finally, between-spouse correlations were significant only during weekend days (r=0.14, 95%CI: 0.01-0.27.Ambulatory activity correlated within families, with a possible mother effect. Mother-offspring correlations remained significant through the transition from
Huang, Qi; Zhang, Xiao; Liu, Yingyi; Yang, Wen; Song, Zhanmei
A growing body of recent research has shown that parent-child mathematical activities have a strong effect on children's mathematical learning. However, this research was conducted predominantly in Western societies and focused mainly on mothers' involvement in such activities. This study aimed to examine both mother-child and father-child numeracy activities in Hong Kong Chinese families and both parents' unique roles in predicting young Chinese children's mathematics ability. A sample of 104 Hong Kong Chinese children aged approximately 5 years and their mothers and fathers participated in this study. Mothers and fathers independently reported the frequency of their own numeracy activities with their children. Children were assessed individually using two measures of mathematical ability. Hierarchical regression models were used to investigate the contribution of parent-child numeracy activities to children's mathematical ability. Mothers' participation in number skill activities and fathers' participation in number game and application activities significantly predicted their children's mathematical performance even after controlling for background variables and children's language ability. This study extends previous research with a sample of Chinese kindergarten children and shows that parent-child numeracy activities are related to young children's mathematical ability. The findings highlight the important roles that mothers and fathers play in their young children's mathematical learning. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.
Gopinath, Bamini; Hardy, Louise L; Baur, Louise A; Teber, Erdahl; Mitchell, Paul
Epidemiological data on the relationship between parental hypertension and lifestyle factors among children are limited. We assessed the associations between positive parental history of hypertension with a range of indicators of sedentariness (television viewing, computer and videogame usage) and physical activity (outdoor and indoor activity) among prepubertal children. Six-year-old (1765 of 2238 eligible) students from a random cluster sample of 34 Sydney schools were examined. Parents completed questionnaires about their medical conditions and the child's activities. If the biological mother and/or father had hypertension, then this was classified as positive parental history of hypertension. Parents of 160 (9.2%) children gave a positive family history of hypertension. After adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, parental education and employment and exposure to passive smoking, children with, compared with those without, a family history of hypertension were more likely to spend above the median time (hours/day) watching television and playing videogames [odds ratio (OR) 1.41, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.96; OR 1.52, CI 1.12-2.06, respectively]. The offspring of hypertensive parents were more likely to spend above the median time in total physical activity (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.23-2.27). Maternal (but not paternal) hypertension was associated with increased time spent watching television (P = 0.03) and in outdoor activity (P = 0.01). Parental hypertension influences the time that prepubertal offspring spend in both active and sedentary pursuits. These findings highlight potential factors that could be addressed in the development of cardiovascular disease-preventive measures starting early in life among the offspring of hypertensive parents.
Arredondo, Elva M.; Elder, John P.; Ayala, Guadalupe X.; Campbell, Nadia; Baquero, Barbara; Duerksen, Susan
Parenting styles influence a child's risk for obesity. The goals of this study are to evaluate the influence of (i) parenting style on children's health behaviors (physical activity and dietary intake), (ii) children's sociodemographic characteristics on parenting style and on children's health behaviors and (iii) parents' sociodemographic…
Myrhaug, Hilde Tinderholt; Østensjø, Sigrid
To describe motor training and physical activity among preschoolers with cerebral palsy (CP) in Norway, and assess associations between child, parent, and motor intervention characteristics, and parent-reported child benefits from interventions. Survey of 360 parents and data from the Norwegian CP follow-up program. The response rate was 34%. During the six months preceding the time of the survey, 75% of the children performed gross-motor training, 73% fine-motor training, 80% manual stretching, and 67% participated regularly in physical activities. The training was highly goal-directed, intensive, frequently incorporated in daily routines, and often with a high level of parental involvement. The use of goals was associated with higher parent-reported child benefits for all types of interventions. Moreover, the positive relationship, which was indicated between frequency of training, parent education, and parent-reported child benefits of gross-motor training, was not seen for fine-motor training. Parent-reported child benefits support goal-directed motor interventions, and the use of everyday activities to increase practice of motor skills.
Greguol, Márcia; Gobbi, Erica; Carraro, Attilio
To analyze the practice of physical activity among children and adolescents with visual impairments (VI), regarding the possible influence of parental support and perceived barriers. Twenty-two young people with VIs (10 + 2.74 years old) and one of each of their parents were evaluated. They responded to the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C), Baecke Questionnaire, the Parental Support Scale and a questionnaire about perceived barriers to physical activity. The independent samples t-test, pearson correlation test and chi-square test were performed. Blind young people showed lower physical activity levels. There were significant correlations both between parents' physical activity and the support offered to children and between the PAQ-C results and the importance given by young people to physical activity, but only for those aged between 8 and 10 years old. The main perceived barriers were lack of security, motivation, professional training and information about available physical activity programs. The influence of parental support seems to be an important factor in the adoption of a physically active lifestyle for young people with VI. Parents and children should have more information about the benefits and opportunities of physical activity. Implications for Rehabilitation Young people with visual impairment should be encouraged by parents to practice physical activity. More information should be provided on the benefits of physical activity to both parents and children. Professional training should be available to help support this group become more active.
Constantinos A. Loucaides
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the structural validity of a parent and a child questionnaire that assessed parental and friends’ influences on children’s physical activity and investigate the associations between the derived factors, physical activity, and time spent outside. Children (N=154, mean age = 11.7 and 144 of their parents completed questionnaires assessing parental and friends’ influences on children’s physical activity. Children wore a pedometer for six days. Exploratory factor analyses revealed four factors for the parental and five for the child’s questionnaire that explained 66.71% and 63.85% of the variance, respectively. Five factors were significantly associated with physical activity and five significantly associated with time spent outside. Higher correlations were revealed between “general friend support,” “friends’ activity norms,” and physical activity (r=0.343 and 0.333 resp., p<0.001 and between “general friend support” and time spent outside (r=0.460, p<0.001. Obtaining information relating to parental and friends’ influences on physical activity from both parents and children may provide a more complete picture of influences. Parents and friends seem to influence children’s physical activity behavior and time spent outside, but friends’ influences may have a stronger impact on children’s behaviors.
O'Dwyer, Mareesa V; Fairclough, Stuart J; Knowles, Zoe; Stratton, Gareth
Early childhood provides a window of opportunity for the promotion of physical activity. Given the limited effectiveness of interventions to date, new approaches are needed. Socio-ecological models suggest that involving parents as intervention targets may be effective in fostering healthier lifestyles in children. This study describes the effectiveness of a family-focused 'Active Play' intervention in decreasing sedentary time and increasing total physical activity in preschool children. Seventy-seven families were recruited from 8 randomly selected SureStart children's centres in the North West of England. Centres were randomly assigned to either an intervention (n = 4) or a comparison group (n = 4). Parents and children in the intervention group received a 10-week active play programme delivered by trained active play professionals; this included an activity and educational component. Families in the comparison group were asked to maintain their usual routine. Each participating parent and child wore a uni-axial accelerometer for 7 days at baseline and post-test. Week and weekend day sedentary time and total physical activity adjusted for child- and home- level covariates were analysed using multilevel analyses. Significant intervention effects were observed for sedentary time and physical activity for both week and weekend days. Children in the intervention group engaged in 1.5% and 4.3% less sedentary time during week and weekend days, respectively and 4.5% and 13.1% more physical activity during week and weekend days, respectively than children in the comparison group. Parent's participation in sport and their physical activity levels, child's sex, availability of media in the home and attendance at organised activities were significant predictors of sedentary time and physical activity in this age group. A 10-week family focused active play intervention produced positive changes in sedentary time and total physical activity levels in preschool children
The Role of NGOs in Fostering Development and Good Governance at the Local Level ... Non-governmental organisations have since the colonial period played a ... Although they are individually engaged in diverse activities, the Kenyan data ...
Johansson, Klara; Wennberg, Patrik; Hammarström, Anne
Physical activity is an important public health issue. Factors shown to be associated with physical activity are parenthood and country-level gender equality, while the importance of individual gender equality (in parenthood or in general) remains to explore. In Scandinavia, where parental leave can be shared equally between mothers and fathers, parental leave is one dimension of gender equality in parenthood. The aim of this study was to investigate parental leave in relation to increased physical activity among men and women. Participants in the Northern Swedish Cohort with a child born 1993-2005 (n = 584) were investigated with questionnaires at ages 21 and 42; register data on parental leave between ages 28 and 42 were obtained from Statistics Sweden. The relationships between parental leave between ages 28 and 42 and meeting WHO guidelines for physical activity at age 42, as well as changes in physical activity between ages 21 and 42, were tested with multinomial regression, controlling for socio-economic status and birth year of the child. For women, the length of parental leave was not associated with increased physical activity or with meeting WHO guidelines at age 42. For men, parental leave was associated with increased physical activity, controlling for socio-economic status and age of the child, but not with meeting WHO guidelines for physical activity at age 42. A gender non-traditional out-take of parental leave might be associated with an increase in physical activity among men at the lower end of the physical activity spectrum, but not among women. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
Hudson, Angela L
Adolescents in foster care are at risk for unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, including HIV infection. A study using a qualitative method was conducted to describe how and where foster youth receive reproductive health and risk reduction information to prevent pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Participants also were asked to describe their relationship with their primary health care provider while they were in foster care. Nineteen young adults, recently emancipated from foster care, participated in individual interviews. Using grounded theory as the method of analysis, three thematic categories were generated: discomfort visiting and disclosing, receiving and not receiving the bare essentials, and learning prevention from community others. Recommendations include primary health care providers providing a confidential space for foster youth to disclose sexual activity and more opportunities for foster youth to receive reproductive and risk prevention information in the school setting. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Becci, A Akin; Brook, Jody; Lloyd, Margaret H
This study is a mixed-methods examination of the prevalence and impact of parental substance abuse among families involved in foster care who have a child with a serious emotional disturbance. Data utilized for this study were both administrative and assessment data collected by case managers and parents as part of a federally funded demonstration project in a Midwestern state. At baseline, parent self-report and case manager ratings of family functioning found that parents affected by substance abuse fared worse in domains related to socioeconomics, parental trauma, parental mental health, and social supports when compared to families without parental substance abuse. Case managers and independent raters scored parents affected by substance abuse higher on effective parenting than parents not affected by substance abuse. While all children in the sample have a serious emotional disturbance, parents and case managers rated children's functioning higher among children whose families were characterized by parental substance abuse. These results suggest that, among families who have children with a serious emotional disturbance and are in foster care, those with and without substance abuse may represent two distinct service groups, each with a unique set of needs and contextual factors. For families with parental substance abuse, findings suggest that an appropriate child welfare response should attend to both children's and parent's behavioral health needs and include strategies that are well matched to the families' socioeconomic and social support needs.
Njelesani, Janet; Leckie, Karen; Drummond, Jennifer; Cameron, Deb
Parents have a strong influence on their child's engagement in physical activities, especially for children with developmental disabilities, as these children are less likely to initiate physical activity. Knowledge is limited regarding parents' perceptions of this phenomenon in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs); yet many rehabilitation providers work with children with developmental disabilities and their parents in these contexts. The aim of this study was to explore the barriers perceived by parents of children with developmental disabilities to their children's engagement in physical activity. An occupational perspective was used to explore how parents speak about barriers to their child's engagement in physical activity. Interviews were conducted with nine parents in Port-of-Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. Parent's perceived barriers were categorized into four themes: family priorities, not an option in our environment, need to match the activity to the child's ability, and need for specialized supports. FINDINGS provide opportunities for future rehabilitation and community programming in LMICs. Implications for Rehabilitation Children living with a developmental disability may engage more in solitary and sedentary pursuits as a result of parents choosing activities that do not present extensive social and physical demands for their child. Therapists can play an important role in providing knowledge to parents of appropriate physical activity and the benefits of physical activity for children with developmental disabilities in order to promote children's participation. In environments where there is limited social support for families, therapists need to consider and be particularly supportive of parental priorities and schedules.
Schecter, Sandra R.; Sherri, Dana L.
Research suggests that community-referenced pedagogy initiatives foster academic inclusion for minority students. However, we know little about such engagements' benefits for teachers. This study provides insights into teachers' dispositions toward school-based parent involvement in education based on ethnographic data collected through…
organizational structure, training, leadership development and education, personnel, facilities, and policies foster creative thinking ? These questions will be...in fostering creative thinking at the organizational level across the US Army. This assumption justifies researching if CGSOC fosters creative...creative thinking . Doctrine and policy and organizational structure and personnel will also be grouped to consolidate analysis. While the researcher will
Mehta, Urvakhsh M; Bhagyavathi, Haralahalli D; Kumar, Channaveerachari Naveen; Thirthalli, Jagadisha; Gangadhar, Bangalore N
Schizophrenia patients experience impairments across various functional roles. Emotional unresponsiveness and an inability to foster intimacy and display affection may lead to impairments in parenting. A comprehensive cognitive understanding of parenting abilities in schizophrenia has the potential to guide newer treatment strategies. As part of a larger study on functional ability in schizophrenia patients, we attempted a cognitive deconstruction of their parenting ability. Sixty-nine of the 170 patients who participated in a study on social cognition in remitted schizophrenia were parents (mean age of their children: 11.8 ± 6.2 years). They underwent comprehensive assessments for neurocognition, social cognition (theory of mind, emotion processing, social perception and attributional bias), motivation and insight. A rater blind to their cognitive status assessed their social functioning using the Groningen Social Disabilities Schedule. We examined the association of their functional ability (active involvement and affective relationship) in the parental role with their cognitive performance as well as with their level of insight and motivation. Deficits in first- and second-order theory of mind (t = 2.57, p = 0.01; t = 3.2, p = 0.002, respectively), speed of processing (t = 2.37, p = 0.02), cognitive flexibility (t = 2.26, p = 0.02) and motivation (t = 2.64, p = 0.01) had significant association with parental role dysfunction. On logistic regression, second-order theory of mind emerged as a specific predictor of parental role, even after controlling for overall functioning scores sans parental role. Second-order theory of mind deficits are specifically associated with parental role dysfunction of patients with schizophrenia. Novel treatment strategies targeting theory of mind may improve parenting abilities in individuals with schizophrenia.
Van der Geest, K E; Mérelle, S Y M; Rodenburg, G; Van de Mheen, D; Renders, C M
BACKGROUND: Children's activity level, including physical activity (PA) and screen sedentary time (SST), is influenced by environmental factors in which parents play a critical role. Different types of parenting styles may influence children's activity level. Inconsistent results were found on the
Geenen, Sarah J.; Powers, Laurie E.
The study evaluated the IEPs/Individualized Transition Plans of 45 students who were in special education and foster care, and compared them to the plans of 45 students who were in special education only. Results indicate that the transition plans of foster youth with disabilities were poor in quality, both in absolute terms and in comparison to…
Teepe, R.C.; Molenaar, I.; Oostdam, R.J.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.
Preschool vocabulary knowledge develops mainly informally via parent-child interaction. Family literacy programs (FLP’s) aim to promote children's vocabulary by supporting parent-child interaction quantity and quality. In addition to traditional storytelling activities that are part of FLP's
VanDerworp, Gwendolyn Kay; Ryan, Sarah-Jane
Childhood physical activity (PA) has declined in the western world recently. To combat child inactivity, government programs have been organized to promote PA within families. It is important for physiotherapists to understand the influence parents perceive to have on their child's PA habits in order to better encourage a positive parental influence. The purpose of this study is to explore how parents perceive their influence on their child/children's PA through an interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) approach. This qualitative study used a phenomenological approach with semi-structured interviews conducted with five participants. The interviews were analyzed using elements of IPA. Master themes developed with their corresponding subthemes: creating an environment of opportunity--logistics, opportunities through encouragement and PA within the family, barriers to PA--barriers created by parents and barriers created by external factors, and parent and child interactions--children communicating interest and disinterest in PA and parent's attitudes toward children's disinterest. The findings suggest that parents perceive themselves to have a greater positive influence on their children rather than negative. The barriers that parents create are not perceived to prevent their child's PA but rather restrict it. Many participants reported enjoying doing PA with their children and used PA as an opportunity for family time, indicating a dual purpose for PA. © The Author(s) 2014.
Robb, Sheri L; Haase, Joan E; Perkins, Susan M; Haut, Paul R; Henley, Amanda K; Knafl, Kathleen A; Tong, Yan
To examine the feasibility/acceptability of a parent-delivered Active Music Engagement (AME + P) intervention for young children with cancer and their parents. Secondary aim to explore changes in AME + P child emotional distress (facial affect) and parent emotional distress (mood; traumatic stress symptoms) relative to controls. A pilot two-group randomized trial was conducted with parents/children (ages 3-8 years) receiving AME + P ( n = 9) or attention control ( n = 7). Feasibility of parent delivery was assessed using a delivery checklist and child engagement; acceptability through parent interviews; preliminary outcomes at baseline, postintervention, 30 days postintervention. Parent delivery was feasible, as they successfully delivered AME activities, but interviews indicated parent delivery was not acceptable to parents. Emotional distress was lower for AME + P children, but parents derived no benefit. Despite child benefit, findings do not support parent delivery of AME + P. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Pavlova, Maria K; Silbereisen, Rainer K; Ranta, Mette; Salmela-Aro, Katariina
It is widely believed that warm and supportive parenting fosters all kinds of prosocial behaviors in the offspring, including civic engagement. However, accumulating international evidence suggests that the effects of family support on civic engagement may sometimes be negative. To address this apparent controversy, we identified several scenarios for the negative effects of supportive parenting on youth civic engagement and tested them using four waves of data from the Finnish Educational Transitions Studies. They followed 1549 students (55 % female) from late adolescence into young adulthood, included both maternal (n = 231) and offspring reports of parental support, and assessed civic engagement in young adulthood. Control variables included socioeconomic status, other sociodemographic indicators, church belonging, personality traits, and earlier civic engagement. Higher maternal warmth and support and a stronger identification with the parental family in adolescence predicted offspring's lower political activism up to 10 years later. Perceived parental support in young adulthood predicted lower volunteering 2 years later. There were no significant effects on general organizational involvement (e.g., in student and hobby associations). None of the a priori scenarios that we identified from the literature appeared to explain the pattern of results satisfactorily. We put forth cultural and life stage explanations of our findings.
Jaballas, Elvira; Clark-Ott, Dorothy; Clasen, Carla; Stolfi, Adrienne; Urban, Marianne
Parental perceptions of their young children's weight and habits may play an important role in determining whether children develop and maintain healthy lifestyles. This study was conducted to determine perceptions of parents of third-grade children in an urban school setting regarding their children's weight, eating habits, and physical activities. Parents anonymously completed surveys about their child's weight, eating habits, and daily activities. The survey also asked about how schools could encourage healthy eating and increased physical activity. Overall, 26% of the parents perceived their child to be overweight and expressed concern, but 40% of these parents believed that overweight is a condition that will be outgrown. Parents who reported eating more than eight meals per week with their child were less likely to report their child as overweight and more likely to believe that their child's physical activity level was appropriate. Most parents of third-grade students demonstrated concern regarding their child's weight and perceive obesity as a problem. Parents support school interventions such as nutrition education and fitness classes. Copyright © 2011 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Van Der Geest, K. E.; Mérelle, S. Y. M.; Rodenburg, G.; Van De Mheen, D.; Renders, C. M.
Background Children’s activity level, including physical activity (PA) and screen sedentary time (SST), is influenced by environmental factors in which parents play a critical role. Different types of parenting styles may influence children’s activity level. Inconsistent results were found on the
Raghavan, Ramesh; Brown, Derek S; Allaire, Benjamin T
Medicaid claims have been used to identify populations of children in foster care in the current literature; however, the ability of such an approach to validly ascertain a foster care population is unknown. This study linked children in the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being-I to their Medicaid claims from 36 states using their Social Security numbers. Using this match, we examined discordance between caregiver report of foster care placement and the foster care eligibility code contained in the child's Medicaid claims. Only 73% of youth placed in foster care for at least a year displayed a Medicaid code for foster care eligibility. Half of all youth coming into contact with child welfare displayed discordance between caregiver report and Medicaid claims. Children with emergency department utilization, and those in primary care case management health insurance arrangements, had the highest odds of accurate ascertainment. The use of Medicaid claims to identify a cohort of children in foster care results in high rates of underascertainment. Supplementing administrative data with survey data is one way to enhance validity of ascertainment.
Lijuan, Wang; Jiancui, Sun; Suzhe, Zhao
This study aimed to examine the association among parental moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), parental support, and the MVPA of children by gender. Participants comprised of 172 boys and 151 girls aged seven to 11 years old from three primary schools in Shanghai. Their parents were also included as research respondents. Accelerometers…
The goal of the project presented in the practicum was to help parents develop competencies in interacting with their children in ways which foster self esteem and cooperative behavior. The objectives of the practicum included, first, increasing parents' knowledge of: (1) the factors leading to high self esteem and cooperative behavior; (2) the…
Sijtsma, Anna; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Corpeleijn, Eva
Background: Parental behavior can influence the development of overweight in children. The aim of this study is to examine whether parental BMI and parental physical activity are associated with BMI, waist circumference and physical activity in young children. Methods: In 3-4 year old children,
Eli, Karin; Howell, Kyndal; Fisher, Philip A; Nowicka, Paulina
Although one quarter of US and UK families rely on grandparents as the main providers of informal childcare, grandparental perspectives on the feeding and physical activity of young children remain understudied. The study's aim was to elucidate parents' and grandparents' perspectives on young children's feeding and physical activity, and identify how they negotiate potential differences between these perspectives. We interviewed 22 parents and 27 grandparents from 16 families of children aged 3-5 years in the Pacific Northwest, US. Using familial homeostasis as a novel theoretical framework, the interviews were analyzed to assess differences between parental and grandparental perspectives on feeding and physical activity. The analysis yielded six thematic categories: (1) disagreements about feeding stem from parents' and grandparents' differing definitions of healthy feeding; (2) differences between parents' and grandparents' feeding practices reflect differences in perceived caretaking roles; (3) parents and grandparents negotiate differences in feeding practices through grandparental compliance and parental compromise; (4) differences in preschoolers' physical activity are influenced by parents' and grandparents' own access to and engagement in physical activity; (5) parents and grandparents express few disagreements about preschoolers' screen-time; (6) parents and grandparents rarely discuss preschoolers' physical activity. The findings suggest that parental and grandparental decision-making about feeding and exercise is informed by ideas of what constitutes familial balance and a balanced lifestyle for a preschool aged child, rather than by the child's weight status. Parents and grandparents appear to engage in practices designed to preserve familial homeostasis, which may provide a compelling explanation for the persistent difficulties in implementing family-based childhood obesity interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Williams, Joel E; Helsel, Brian; Griffin, Sarah F; Liang, Jessica
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between parental BMI and the family environment and determine if differences exist in child diet and physical activity related parenting behaviors by parental BMI in a community sample of families recruited through elementary schools in a local school district. We found an association between parental BMI category and family nutrition and physical activity (FNPA) score. Families with an underweight or normal weight parent had a larger proportion (64.3%) of high (indicating a healthier family environment) FNPA scores and families with an overweight or obese parent had a smaller proportion (45.2%) of high FNPA scores (χ 2 = 5.247, P = 0.022). Families with a parent who was overweight or obese had 2.18 times the odds (95% CI 1.11-4.27) of being in the low FNPA ("less healthy" environment) group. Further, underweight/normal weight parents reported higher levels of monitoring of child diet (Z = -3.652, P authoritative parenting behaviors were associated with a less obesogenic home environment and a positive parenting style related to child eating and physical activity behaviors.
Gribble, Karleen D
A case is presented in which a medically fragile baby was breastfed by her foster mother. As a result, the child's physical and emotional health were improved. The mechanisms whereby human milk improves health are well known. The act of breastfeeding may also have an analgesic and relaxant effect as a result of hormonal influences and skin-to-skin contact. Many foster babies may benefit from human milk or breastfeeding. However, the risk of disease transmission must be minimized. Provision of human milk to all medically fragile foster babies is desirable. Breastfeeding by the foster mother may be applicable in cases in which the child is likely to be in long-term care, the child has been previously breastfed, or the child's mother expresses a desire that the infant be breastfed. However, social barriers must be overcome before breastfeeding of foster babies can become more common.
Suen, Yi-Nam; Cerin, Ester; Barnett, Anthony; Huang, Wendy Y J; Mellecker, Robin R
Valid instruments of parenting practices related to children's physical activity (PA) are essential to understand how parents affect preschoolers' PA. This study developed and validated a questionnaire of PA-related parenting practices for Chinese-speaking parents of preschoolers in Hong Kong. Parents (n = 394) completed a questionnaire developed using findings from formative qualitative research and literature searches. Test-retest reliability was determined on a subsample (n = 61). Factorial validity was assessed using confirmatory factor analysis. Subscale internal consistency was determined. The scale of parenting practices encouraging PA comprised 2 latent factors: Modeling, structure and participatory engagement in PA (23 items), and Provision of appropriate places for child's PA (4 items). The scale of parenting practices discouraging PA scale encompassed 4 latent factors: Safety concern/overprotection (6 items), Psychological/behavioral control (5 items), Promoting inactivity (4 items), and Promoting screen time (2 items). Test-retest reliabilities were moderate to excellent (0.58 to 0.82), and internal subscale reliabilities were acceptable (0.63 to 0.89). We developed a theory-based questionnaire for assessing PA-related parenting practices among Chinese-speaking parents of Hong Kong preschoolers. While some items were context and culture specific, many were similar to those previously found in other populations, indicating a degree of construct generalizability across cultures.
Full Text Available Alternating residence for children with separated parents has become increasingly popular in Sweden over the last few decades. In this article, a brief background to the use of alternating residence in Sweden will be provided. Relevant legislation will be described and some of the apparent problems in connection to this kind of living arrangement will also be discussed. It is estimated that approximately one out of every five children with separated parents today are living alternately with both parents. The high frequency of alternating residence can probably be explained, to a great extent, by determined legislative work to ensure that joint custody is the main rule for separated parents. Joint custody after separation encourages parents to take a more active part in the child’s life. Alternating residence can be seen as the optimal way to ensure that a child is provided natural and stress-free contact with both parents in the different events of everyday life that is not possible when the child lives with one parent. However, there are also problems related to alternating residence that need to be addressed. The possibility for the courts to decide on alternating residence against the will of one of the parents appears to have little justification considering that one of the prerequisites for this form of living arrangement is that it is beneficial for children if their parents can co-operate. There are also other aspects of the regulation of alternating residence that need to be improved, in particular questions concerning the child maintenance. Different aspects of the public social security system for children with separated parents also need to be adjusted to provide just and fair solutions for children with alternating residence. Finally, since alternating residence is motivated by a desire to protect the best interests of the child, further research clarifying the experiences of children with alternating residence needs to be carried
Hesketh Kylie D
Full Text Available Abstract Background While parents are central to the development of behaviours in their young children, little is known about how parents view their role in shaping physical activity and screen time behaviours. Methods Using an unstructured focus group design, parental views and practices around children′s physical activity and screen time (television and computer use were explored with eight groups of new parents (n=61; child age Results Parents generally believed children are naturally active, which may preclude their engagement in strategies designed to increase physical activity. While parents across both age groups shared many overarching views concerning parenting for children′s physical activity and screen time behaviours, some strategies and barriers differed depending on the age of the child. While most new parents were optimistic about their ability to positively influence their child′s behaviours, many parents of preschool-aged children seemed more resigned to strategies that worked for them, even when aware such strategies may not be ideal. Conclusions Interventions aiming to increase children′s physical activity and decrease screen time may need to tailor strategies to the age group of the child and address parents′ misconceptions and barriers to optimum parenting in these domains.
Van Tassel, Jean
Intended for parents and teachers of multiply handicapped preschool children, the booklet provides lesson plans in three major areas--basic concepts, motor activities, and language activities. Each lesson plan is broken down into four parts: purpose (a descriptive statement of what the lesson hopes to accomplish), materials (list of materials…
Cowie, Eloise; White, Katherine; Hamilton, Kyra
Despite the unequivocal benefits of regular physical activity, many parents engage in lower levels of physical activity (PA) following the birth of a child. Drawing on the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) and health action process approach (HAPA), an integrative model was developed to examine variables predicting PA in parents of very young children. In addition, key beliefs related to PA intentions and behaviour among parents of very young children were investigated. A prospective-correlational design with two waves of data collection, spaced one week apart, was adopted. Parents (N = 297) completed an online- or paper-based questionnaire assessing TPB global constructs and belief-based items as well as family social support and planning from the HAPA. One week later, parents self-reported their PA behaviour. Data were analysed using latent variable structural equation modelling. Findings revealed the model was a good fit to the data, accounting for 62% and 27% of the variance in PA intentions and behaviour, respectively. Attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioural control predicted intentions. Family social support failed to predict both planning and intentions. Physical activity was predicted by planning only, with an indirect effect occurring from intentions to behaviour through planning. A number of key beliefs on intentions and behaviour were also identified. This formative research provides further understanding of the factors that influence the PA behaviour of parents of very young children. Results provide targets for future interventions to increase PA for parents in a transition phase where PA levels decline. Statement of Contribution What is already known on this subject? Despite physical activity benefits, many parents are inactive following the birth of a child Social-cognitive models have demonstrated efficacy in predicting physical activity Weaknesses are inherent in the use of single theories to explain behaviour What does this study
Constantinos A. Loucaides; Niki Tsangaridou
The purpose of this study was to examine the structural validity of a parent and a child questionnaire that assessed parental and friends' influences on children's physical activity and investigate the associations between the derived factors, physical activity, and time spent outside. Children (N = 154, mean age = 11.7) and 144 of their parents completed questionnaires assessing parental and friends' influences on children's physical activity. Children wore a pedometer for six days. Explorat...
Berntsson, Leeni T; Ringsberg, Karin C
Nordic children's health has declined. Studies show that parents' engagement in children's leisure-time activities might provide beneficial health outcomes for children. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between Swedish parents' activities together with their children, the parents' experiences of time pressure and their children's health. Data of 1461 Swedish children aged 2-17 years old that were collected in the NordChild study of 2011 were used. We analyzed physical health, diseases and disabilities, psychosomatic health and well-being, and the parents' experiences of time pressure; and we calculated the associations between parental activity together with the child and health indicators. Activities that were significantly and positively associated with children's health at ages 2-17 years of age were: playing and playing games; going to the cinema, theatre, and sporting events; reading books; playing musical instruments/singing; sports activities; watching TV/video/DVD. Playing video games or computer games, driving child to activities and going for walks were significantly and positively associated at age groups 7-12 years and 13-17 years. Activities that were negatively associated with health were: surfing/blogging on the Internet, going shopping and doing homework. Parents who were not experiencing time pressures had a higher level of activity together with their children. The parental experience of time pressure was associated with work time, with less homework activity and more symptoms in children. The family and home are important settings for the development of children's health we found eight parental activities together with their children that promoted the children's health parents' working time and their time pressure experiences affected their activities with their children there is a need for an increased focus on parental activities that are positively associated with children's health. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of
Rhee, KE; McEachern, R; Jelalian, E
Parent involvement is important to help overweight children lose weight. However, parent readiness to make changes around child eating and physical activity (PA) behaviors can differ across domains. Using a cross-sectional design, our aim was to examine which factors were associated with parents being in the action/maintenance stage of change (SOC) in each domain. From November 2008 – August 2009, parents of overweight/obese children (n=202) attending a tertiary care obesity clinic in Provide...
Díaz, Diego José; Boj, Clara; Portalés, Cristina
This paper presents HybridPLAY, a novel technology composed of a sensor and mobile-based video games that transforms urban playgrounds into game scenarios. With this technology we aim to stimulate physical activity and playful learning by creating an entertaining environment in which users can actively participate and collaborate. HybridPLAY is different from other existing technologies that enhance playgrounds, as it is not integrated in them but can be attached to the different elements of the playgrounds, making its use more ubiquitous (i.e., not restricted to the playgrounds). HybridPLAY was born in 2007 as an artistic concept, and evolved after different phases of research and testing by almost 2000 users around the world (in workshops, artistic events, conferences, etc.). Here, we present the temporal evolution of HybridPLAY with the different versions of the sensors and the video games, and a detailed technical description of the sensors and the way interactions are produced. We also present the outcomes after the evaluation by users at different events and workshops. We believe that HybridPLAY has great potential to contribute to increased physical activity in kids, and also to improve the learning process and monitoring at school centres by letting users create the content of the apps, leading to new narratives and fostering creativity.
Kalof, Linda; Zammit-Lucia, Joe; Bell, Jessica; Granter, Gina
Visual depictions of animals can alter human perceptions of, emotional responses to, and attitudes toward animals. Our study addressed the potential of a slideshow designed to activate emotional responses to animals to foster feelings of kinship with them. The personal meaning map measured changes in perceptions of animals. The participants were…
K. E. Van der Geest
Full Text Available Abstract Background Children’s activity level, including physical activity (PA and screen sedentary time (SST, is influenced by environmental factors in which parents play a critical role. Different types of parenting styles may influence children’s activity level. Inconsistent results were found on the association between parenting styles and PA, and few studies tested the association between parenting styles and SST. This study examined the association between parenting styles, PA and SST and the modifying effect of children’s gender and maternal educational level on these associations. Methods Cross-sectional data were collected from parents of children aged 8–11 years old who completed a web-based non-standardized questionnaire (N = 4047. Since 85% of the questionnaires were filled in by mothers, parenting styles are mainly reported by mothers. Multiple linear regression techniques were used to assess the associations between parenting styles (authoritative, permissive, authoritarian and neglectful, and PA and SST (mean min/day. The modifying effect of children’s gender and maternal educational level on these associations was explored. P values ≤.0125 were considered as statistically significant based on the Bonferroni correction for four primary analyses. Results The neglectful parenting style was most widely used (35.3%, while the authoritarian style was least common (14.8%. No significant association was found between parenting styles and PA level. As regards SST, an authoritative parenting style was significantly associated with lower SST in boys while a neglectful parenting style was significantly associated with higher SST in both boys and girls. When the mother had a medium educational level, an authoritative parenting style was significantly associated with lower SST while neglectful parenting was significantly associated with higher SST. Conclusions No association was found between parenting styles and PA. However, an
Van der Geest, K E; Mérelle, S Y M; Rodenburg, G; Van de Mheen, D; Renders, C M
Children's activity level, including physical activity (PA) and screen sedentary time (SST), is influenced by environmental factors in which parents play a critical role. Different types of parenting styles may influence children's activity level. Inconsistent results were found on the association between parenting styles and PA, and few studies tested the association between parenting styles and SST. This study examined the association between parenting styles, PA and SST and the modifying effect of children's gender and maternal educational level on these associations. Cross-sectional data were collected from parents of children aged 8-11 years old who completed a web-based non-standardized questionnaire (N = 4047). Since 85% of the questionnaires were filled in by mothers, parenting styles are mainly reported by mothers. Multiple linear regression techniques were used to assess the associations between parenting styles (authoritative, permissive, authoritarian and neglectful), and PA and SST (mean min/day). The modifying effect of children's gender and maternal educational level on these associations was explored. P values ≤.0125 were considered as statistically significant based on the Bonferroni correction for four primary analyses. The neglectful parenting style was most widely used (35.3%), while the authoritarian style was least common (14.8%). No significant association was found between parenting styles and PA level. As regards SST, an authoritative parenting style was significantly associated with lower SST in boys while a neglectful parenting style was significantly associated with higher SST in both boys and girls. When the mother had a medium educational level, an authoritative parenting style was significantly associated with lower SST while neglectful parenting was significantly associated with higher SST. No association was found between parenting styles and PA. However, an authoritative parenting style was associated with a reduction in SST
Loprinzi, Paul D.; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Kane, Christy; Lee, Hyo; Beets, Michael W.
Background: Parents' behaviors, practices, beliefs, and attitudes greatly influence children's active play behavior; however, little research has examined these parental influences on preschool children's sedentary behavior (SB). Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between parental influences on preschool SB. Methods:…
Hinnant, J Benjamin; Erath, Stephen A; El-Sheikh, Mona
Stress response systems are thought to play an important role in the development of psychopathology. In addition, family stress may have a significant influence on the development of stress response systems. One potential avenue of change is through alterations to thresholds for the activation of stress responses: Decreased threshold for responding may mark increased stress sensitivity. Our first aim was to evaluate the interaction between thresholds for parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) responding, operationalized as resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and harsh parenting in the prediction of development of delinquency and adolescent substance use (resting RSA as a biomarker of risk). The second aim was to evaluate if resting RSA changes over time as a function of harsh parenting and stress reactivity indexed by RSA withdrawal (altered threshold for stress responding). Our third aim was to evaluate the moderating role of sex in these relations. We used longitudinal data from 251 children ages 8-16 years. Mother-reports of child delinquency and RSA were acquired at all ages. Adolescents self-reported substance use at age 16 years. Family stress was assessed with child-reported harsh parenting. Controlling for marital conflict and change over time in harsh parenting, lower resting RSA predicted increases in delinquency and increased likelihood of drug use in contexts of harsh parenting, especially for boys. Harsh parenting was associated with declining resting RSA for children who exhibited greater RSA withdrawal to stress. Findings support resting PNS activity as a moderator of developmental risk that can be altered over time. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Although physical activity (PA is an important and modifiable determinant of health, in Sweden only 15% of boys and 10% of girls aged 15 years old achieve the recommended levels of PA 7 days per week. Adolescents’ PA levels are associated with social influence exerted by parents, friends, and teachers. The purpose of this study was to describe parents’ experiences of being a part of their adolescents’ empowerment-inspired PA intervention. A qualitative interview study was performed at a school in the northern part of Sweden. A total of 10 parents were interviewed, and the collected data were analyzed with qualitative content analysis. Three subthemes were combined into one main theme, demonstrating that parents are one important part of a successful PA intervention. The life of an adolescent has many options and demands that make it difficult to prioritize PA. Although parents felt that they were important in supporting their adolescent, a successful PA intervention must have multiple components. Moreover, the parents noted that the intervention had a positive effect upon not only their adolescents’, but also their own PA. Interventions aimed at promoting PA among adolescents should include measures to stimulate parent participation, have an empowerment approach, and preferably be school-based.
Full Text Available Family is a crucial factor to determine the amount, the duration, and the complexity of children’s sport activities. This study aims at comparing the beliefs concerning the involvement in sport activities among parents of children with Down syndrome (DS and parents of typically developing children (TDC. A phenomenological theoretical framework was adopted to realize semistructured interviews with the parents. The participants were 35 parents: 19 with children and adolescents with DS and 16 with TDC. The main facilitation/barrier themes identified by the parents of children with DS were the family and the expert at Adapted Physical Activity (APA instructors. Conversely, the parents of TDC identified social factors related to family as the only barrier. One of the issues that emerge from this study is the lack of home-based physical activity (PA intervention programs aimed at involving families and children.
Kirk, Chris M.; Lewis, Rhonda K.; Nilsen, Corinne; Colvin, Deltha Q.
Despite an overall increase in college attendance, low-income youth and particularly those in the foster care system are less likely to attend college (Wolanin, 2005). Although youth in foster care report high educational aspirations, as little as 4% obtain a 4-year college degree (Nixon & Jones, 2007). The purpose of this study is to explore…
Howlett Sarah A
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to canvass the nature of adolescent-parent interactions about weight, particularly overweight, and to explore ideas of how to foster supportive discussions regarding weight, both in the home and with family doctors. Methods A market research company was contracted to recruit and conduct a series of separate focus groups with adolescents and unrelated parents of adolescents from low-middle socio-economic areas in Sydney and a regional centre, Australia. Group discussions were audio recorded, transcribed, and then a qualitative content analysis of the data was performed. Results Nine focus groups were conducted; two were held with girls (n = 13, three with boys (n = 18, and four with parents (20 mothers, 12 fathers. Adolescent and parent descriptions of weight-related interactions could be classified into three distinct approaches: indirect/cautious (i.e. focus on eating or physical activity behaviors without discussing weight specifically; direct/open (i.e. body weight was discussed; and never/rarely discussing the subject. Indirect approaches were described most frequently by both adolescents and parents and were generally preferred over direct approaches. Parents and adolescents were circumspect but generally supportive of the potential role for family doctors to monitor and discuss adolescent weight status. Conclusions These findings have implications for developing acceptable messages for adolescent and family overweight prevention and treatment interventions.
Tu, Andrew W; O'Connor, Teresia M; Beauchamp, Mark R; Hughes, Sheryl O; Baranowski, Tom; Mâsse, Louise C
Parents have the potential to substantively influence their child's physical activity. This study identified the parenting practices of US and Canadian parents to encourage or discourage their 5-12 year-old child's physical activity and to examine differences in parenting practices by country, parental sex, age of child, and income. The sample consisted of 134 US and Canadian parents (54.5% US; 60.4% female) recruited from a web-based panel by a polling firm. The parents answered open-ended questions about what they and other parents do to encourage or discourage their child to be active. Responses were coded using a scheme previously developed to code items used in the published literature. Coded responses were summarized by domain and dimension with differences in responses by country, parental sex, age of child, or household income assessed with a log-linear analysis. The 134 parents provided 649 and 397 responses to ways that parents encourage or discourage their child's physical activity, respectively. Over 70% of responses for practices that encourage physical activity were related to structure of the environment, parental encouragement, and co-participation. The most common response was co-participation in activity with the child. Of the practices that discourage physical activity, 67% were related to structure of the environment, lack of parental control, and modeling poor behaviors. The most common response was allowing screen time. There were no differences in response by country, parental sex, child age, or household income. Parents most often encouraged physical activity through structure and emotional support and discouraged physical activity through lack of structure and control. Understanding how parents influence their child's physical activity may help improve intervention strategies. The current results will inform the development of a physical activity parenting practices instrument.
Guo, Hui; Reeder, Anthony I; McGee, Rob; Darling, Helen
Adolescent participation in leisure activities is developmentally beneficial, but certain activities may increase health compromising behaviours, such as tobacco smoking. A limited range of leisure activities has been studied, with little research on out-of-school settings where parental supervision is a potential protective factor. Tobacco smoking is an important, potentially modifiable health determinant, so understanding associations between adolescent leisure activities, parental monitoring, demographic factors and daily smoking may inform preventive strategies. These associations are reported for a New Zealand adolescent sample. Randomly selected schools (n = 145) participated in the 2006 Youth In-depth Survey, a national, biennial study of Year 10 students (predominantly 14-15 years). School classes were randomly selected and students completed a self-report questionnaire in class time. Adjustment for clustering at the school level was included in all analyses. Since parental monitoring and demographic variables potentially confound relations between adolescent leisure activities and smoking, variables were screened before multivariable modelling. Given prior indications of demographic differences, gender and ethnic specific regression models were built. Overall, 8.5% of the 3,161 students were daily smokers, including more females (10.5%) than males (6.5%). In gender and ethnic specific multivariate analysis of associations with daily smoking (adjusted for age, school socioeconomic decile rating, leisure activities and ethnicity or gender, respectively), parental monitoring exhibited a consistently protective, dose response effect, although less strongly among Māori. Attending a place of worship and going to the movies were protective for non-Māori, as was watching sports, whereas playing team sport was protective for all, except males. Attending a skate park was a risk factor for females and Māori which demonstrated a strong dose response effect. There
Background Adolescent participation in leisure activities is developmentally beneficial, but certain activities may increase health compromising behaviours, such as tobacco smoking. A limited range of leisure activities has been studied, with little research on out-of-school settings where parental supervision is a potential protective factor. Tobacco smoking is an important, potentially modifiable health determinant, so understanding associations between adolescent leisure activities, parental monitoring, demographic factors and daily smoking may inform preventive strategies. These associations are reported for a New Zealand adolescent sample. Methods Randomly selected schools (n = 145) participated in the 2006 Youth In-depth Survey, a national, biennial study of Year 10 students (predominantly 14-15 years). School classes were randomly selected and students completed a self-report questionnaire in class time. Adjustment for clustering at the school level was included in all analyses. Since parental monitoring and demographic variables potentially confound relations between adolescent leisure activities and smoking, variables were screened before multivariable modelling. Given prior indications of demographic differences, gender and ethnic specific regression models were built. Results and Discussion Overall, 8.5% of the 3,161 students were daily smokers, including more females (10.5%) than males (6.5%). In gender and ethnic specific multivariate analysis of associations with daily smoking (adjusted for age, school socioeconomic decile rating, leisure activities and ethnicity or gender, respectively), parental monitoring exhibited a consistently protective, dose response effect, although less strongly among Māori. Attending a place of worship and going to the movies were protective for non-Māori, as was watching sports, whereas playing team sport was protective for all, except males. Attending a skate park was a risk factor for females and Māori which
Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescent participation in leisure activities is developmentally beneficial, but certain activities may increase health compromising behaviours, such as tobacco smoking. A limited range of leisure activities has been studied, with little research on out-of-school settings where parental supervision is a potential protective factor. Tobacco smoking is an important, potentially modifiable health determinant, so understanding associations between adolescent leisure activities, parental monitoring, demographic factors and daily smoking may inform preventive strategies. These associations are reported for a New Zealand adolescent sample. Methods Randomly selected schools (n = 145 participated in the 2006 Youth In-depth Survey, a national, biennial study of Year 10 students (predominantly 14-15 years. School classes were randomly selected and students completed a self-report questionnaire in class time. Adjustment for clustering at the school level was included in all analyses. Since parental monitoring and demographic variables potentially confound relations between adolescent leisure activities and smoking, variables were screened before multivariable modelling. Given prior indications of demographic differences, gender and ethnic specific regression models were built. Results and Discussion Overall, 8.5% of the 3,161 students were daily smokers, including more females (10.5% than males (6.5%. In gender and ethnic specific multivariate analysis of associations with daily smoking (adjusted for age, school socioeconomic decile rating, leisure activities and ethnicity or gender, respectively, parental monitoring exhibited a consistently protective, dose response effect, although less strongly among Māori. Attending a place of worship and going to the movies were protective for non-Māori, as was watching sports, whereas playing team sport was protective for all, except males. Attending a skate park was a risk factor for females
Mohsen Besharat Pour
Full Text Available Background. Poor nutrition, lack of physical activity, and obesity in children have important public health implications but, to date, their effects have not been studied in the growing population of children in Sweden with immigrant parents. Methods. We estimated the association between parental migration background and nutrition, physical activity, and weight in 8-year-old children born in Stockholm between 1994 and 1996 of immigrants and Swedish parents (n=2589. Data were collected through clinical examination and questionnaires filled out by parents. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs were calculated using multivariable logistic regression. Results. Children of immigrants complied more closely with Nordic Nutrition Recommendations compared with those of Swedes (OR = 1.35, 95% CI 1.11–1.64. They had higher intake of dietary fibre, vitamins C, B6, and E, folic acid, and polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 and omega-6 reflecting higher consumption of foods of plant origin, but lower intake of vitamins A and D, calcium, and iron reflecting lower consumption of dairy products. Children of immigrants had higher intake of sucrose reflecting higher consumption of sugar and sweets. Furthermore, these children had a higher risk of having low physical activity (OR = 1.31, 95% CI 1.06–1.62 and being overweight (OR = 1.33, 95% CI 1.06–1.65 compared with children of Swedish parents. The odds of having low physical activity and being overweight were even higher in children whose parents were both immigrants. A low level of parental education was associated with increased risk of low physical activity regardless of immigration background. Conclusions. Culturally appropriate tools to capture the diverse range of ethnic foods and other lifestyle habits are needed. Healthcare professionals should be aware of the low levels of physical activity, increased weight, and lack of consumption of some important vitamins among children of
Dallaire, Danielle H.; Wilson, Laura C.
We examined the psychosocial maladjustment of 32 children with an incarcerated parent from the child's perspective as well as from the perspective of their caregiver. We focused on the relation between the incarcerated parent's report of children's exposure to parental criminal activity, arrest, and sentencing and caregivers' and children's…
Yancey, A K
In a previous article (Yancey, 1992), the literature on identity development in individuals from socially devalued racial and ethnic groups was summarized. It was postulated that the social maladaptation of adolescents in residential group foster care is reflective of identity disturbances created by the negative images of African-Americans and Latinos perpetuated by the dominant society and unfiltered by optimal parental racial/ethnic socialization. The present article describes the development of a pilot preventive mental health intervention, the PRIDE (Personal and Racial/ethnic Identity Development and Enhancement) program, designed to provide components of parenting that are necessary for promoting positive self-image in ethnically marginalized adolescents and that are typically lacking in the group foster care milieu. PRIDE utilizes successful, ethnically relevant role models in interactive group sessions to create a significant cognitive and emotional experience for teens. While the utility of role modeling for at-risk youth is widely accepted, there is little research on the packaging, delivery, and influence of this intervention modality. This study demonstrates the feasibility of a "hybrid" role-modeling approach (intermediate in intensity of exposure and cost between one-to-one mentoring and career-day programs). Implications for further research on this type of intervention are discussed.
Drózdz, E; Pokorski, M
The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationships among perceived parental attitudes and domains of social competence in late adolescents. Forty boys and 40 girls, all aged 18, representing a population sample of high school second graders were examined. Self-report data were collected using questionnaires of parent-child relations and of social competence. Analyses detected a significant association between the maternal loving or protective attitude and competence in interpersonal relations in the combined sample of adolescents. However, gender was a moderator of this general relationship. Maternal control fostered their sons' interpersonal relations, and no such relationship was observed toward daughters. Adolescents' behavior was somehow less influenced by fatherly control. The findings are in line with the concept of familism as a dominant form of family organization, but implicate constraints in parental sentiments whose overly expression may backfire and do more harm than good in other domains of social competence of adolescents, such as assertiveness and performance during social exposure. The study may contribute to future research on how parenting style shapes adolescent social outcomes.
Lloyd, Adam B; Lubans, David R; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Collins, Clare E; Morgan, Philip J
The primary aim of this study was to examine a range of potential behavioral and maternal/paternal correlates of adiposity in children. Secondary aims were to examine (a) correlates of screen-time, diet and physical activity and (b) if there were differences in maternal and paternal physical activity- and dietary-related parenting practices. Cross-sectional analysis was conducted using 70 families with children (59% boys (41/70), mean age 8.4 (±2.4) years). Parenting practices were measured using the Parenting Strategies for Eating and Activity Scale. Children's outcomes included: 7-day pedometry (physical activity), screen-time, percent energy from core foods (Food frequency questionnaire) and BMI z-score. Multiple regression models were generated to examine the associations between maternal and paternal parenting practices and children's variables. In the regression analyses, fathers' BMI (p parenting practices [limit setting (p = .01), reinforcement (p = .02)] and child screen-time (p = .02) were significantly associated with intake of core foods. Despite some similarities within families, three out of five parenting constructs were significantly different between mothers and fathers. Mothers and fathers have different parental influences on their children's weight status and lifestyle behaviors and both should be included in lifestyle interventions targeting children. A focus on maternal parenting specifically relating to screen-time and diet, and father's physical activity parenting and weight status may support their children in developing more healthy behaviors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Loprinzi, Paul D; Schary, David P; Cardinal, Bradley J
The primary purpose of the present study was to examine adherence to current active play and electronic media use guidelines in a sample of US preschool-aged children and to examine whether differences occurred across gender and parental education. 164 parents completed an on-line survey to estimate preschool children's active play and sedentary behaviors. For weekdays, 50% of the sample met the active play guideline with this increasing to 65% during the weekend. With respect to electronic media use, 90% of the sample met guidelines during the week, with the percentage meeting guidelines dropping to 78% during the weekend. A greater percentage of preschool children from high parental education families (83.4 ± 3.3) met electronic media use guidelines on the weekends, compared to preschool children from low parental education families (59.4 ± 8.1) (p = 0.002). Our findings indicate that a substantial portion of preschool children are not meeting active play guidelines and that adherence to active play and electronic media use guidelines may be influenced by parental education.
Theim, Kelly R.; Sinton, Meghan M.; Stein, Richard I.; Saelens, Brian E.; Thekkedam, Sucheta C.; Welch, R. Robinson; Epstein, Leonard H.; Wilfley, Denise E.
Developmentally relevant high-risk dietary situations (e.g., parties where tempting foods are available) may influence overweight youth's weight control, as they increase risk for overeating. Better self-efficacy for coping with these situations--which preadolescents may learn from their parents--could foster successful weight control. Overweight…
E. Y. Lau
Full Text Available Introduction: To examine temporal variations in parental and peer influences on adolescent physical activity (PA and whether these variations predicted changes in PA. Methods: We analyzed data from Years 1, 2 and 3 of the COMPASS study. Participants were 22 909 students in Grades 9 to 12 (mean age [years] = 15.42 ± 1.12, 46% boys, 85% White, who had completed the following survey items on 2 or more consecutive occasions: age, sex, grade, race/ethnicity, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA, parental encouragement and parental instrumental support for PA, and number of active peers. We used a linear-mixed model to investigate longitudinal effects of parental and peer influences on changes in square-root transformed average MVPA. We used a generalized-estimating-equations (GEE model to investigate compliance with Canadian PA guidelines for youth. These models included parental encouragement, instrumental support and number of active peers as time-varying predictors, adjusting for sociodemographic factors and grade as covariates, and accounting for the clustering within children and schools. Results: We found that adolescents perceived significantly less parental encouragement and instrumental support and reported fewer active peers as they got older. In addition, the adjusted models suggest that, for a one-unit increase in the score of parental encouragement, parental instrumental support and number of active peers, average MVPA significantly increased by 0.22 units, 0.23 units and 0.16 units, respectively. For the same one-unit increase, adjusted odds of an adolescent complying with the PA guidelines increased by 9%, 4% and 6%, respectively. Conclusion: Promoting parental support and facilitating the formation and maintenance of a physically active friendship network may play an important role in attenuating declines in PA during adolescence.
Brindova, Daniela; Pavelka, Jan; Ševčikova, Anna; Žežula, Ivan; van Dijk, Jitse P; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova
The aim of this study is to explore the association between family-related factors and excessive time spent on screen-based activities among school-aged children. A cross-sectional survey using the methodology of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study was performed in 2013, with data collected from Slovak (n = 258) and Czech (n = 406) 11- and 15-year-old children. The effects of age, gender, availability of a TV or computer in the bedroom, parental rules on time spent watching TV or working on a computer, parental rules on the content of TV programmes and computer work and watching TV together with parents on excessive time spent with screen-based activities were explored using logistic regression models. Two-thirds of respondents watch TV or play computer games at least two hours a day. Older children have a 1.80-times higher chance of excessive TV watching (CI: 1.30-2.51) and a 3.91-times higher chance of excessive computer use (CI: 2.82-5.43) in comparison with younger children. More than half of children have a TV (53%) and a computer (73%) available in their bedroom, which increases the chance of excessive TV watching by 1.59 times (CI: 1.17-2.16) and of computer use by 2.25 times (CI: 1.59-3.20). More than half of parents rarely or never apply rules on the length of TV watching (64%) or time spent on computer work (56%), and their children have a 1.76-times higher chance of excessive TV watching (CI: 1.26-2.46) and a 1.50-times greater chance of excessive computer use (CI: 1.07-2.08). A quarter of children reported that they are used to watching TV together with their parents every day, and these have a 1.84-times higher chance of excessive TV watching (1.25-2.70). Reducing time spent watching TV by applying parental rules or a parental role model might help prevent excessive time spent on screen-based activities.
Hughes, James S.; Johnson, Gary E.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Hennen, Matthew J.; Fischer, Eric S.; Zimmerman, Shon A.
The goal of the study was to optimize performance of the fixed-location hydroacoustic systems at Foster Dam (FOS) by determining deployment and data acquisition methods that minimized structural, electrical, and acoustic interference. Optimization of the hydroacoustic systems will establish methodology for sampling by active acoustic methods during this year-long evaluation of juvenile salmonid passage at FOS.
Sun, Gwo-Ching; Hsu, Mei-Chi
) received body attack and were injured. The intervention significantly reduced violence, improved impulsivity, changed patients' and parents' violence attributions, and fostering active coping processes in the experimental group as compared to the control group (pparent's reactions to assault, attentional subscale of impulsivity and wishful thinking (p>0.05). Child- and Parent-focused Violence Intervention Program is effective on child-to-parent violence management in parent-adult child dyads. Thus, the intervention can be helpful for patients who have just been diagnosed with mental illness and had an episode of violence toward their parents within a narrow time frame. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Diego José Díaz
Full Text Available This paper presents HybridPLAY, a novel technology composed of a sensor and mobile-based video games that transforms urban playgrounds into game scenarios. With this technology we aim to stimulate physical activity and playful learning by creating an entertaining environment in which users can actively participate and collaborate. HybridPLAY is different from other existing technologies that enhance playgrounds, as it is not integrated in them but can be attached to the different elements of the playgrounds, making its use more ubiquitous (i.e., not restricted to the playgrounds. HybridPLAY was born in 2007 as an artistic concept, and evolved after different phases of research and testing by almost 2000 users around the world (in workshops, artistic events, conferences, etc.. Here, we present the temporal evolution of HybridPLAY with the different versions of the sensors and the video games, and a detailed technical description of the sensors and the way interactions are produced. We also present the outcomes after the evaluation by users at different events and workshops. We believe that HybridPLAY has great potential to contribute to increased physical activity in kids, and also to improve the learning process and monitoring at school centres by letting users create the content of the apps, leading to new narratives and fostering creativity.
Díaz, Diego José; Boj, Clara; Portalés, Cristina
This paper presents HybridPLAY, a novel technology composed of a sensor and mobile-based video games that transforms urban playgrounds into game scenarios. With this technology we aim to stimulate physical activity and playful learning by creating an entertaining environment in which users can actively participate and collaborate. HybridPLAY is different from other existing technologies that enhance playgrounds, as it is not integrated in them but can be attached to the different elements of the playgrounds, making its use more ubiquitous (i.e., not restricted to the playgrounds). HybridPLAY was born in 2007 as an artistic concept, and evolved after different phases of research and testing by almost 2000 users around the world (in workshops, artistic events, conferences, etc.). Here, we present the temporal evolution of HybridPLAY with the different versions of the sensors and the video games, and a detailed technical description of the sensors and the way interactions are produced. We also present the outcomes after the evaluation by users at different events and workshops. We believe that HybridPLAY has great potential to contribute to increased physical activity in kids, and also to improve the learning process and monitoring at school centres by letting users create the content of the apps, leading to new narratives and fostering creativity. PMID:27120601
Kirby, Kimberly C.; Versek, Brian; Kerwin, MaryLouise E.; Meyers, Kathleen; Benishek, Lois A.; Bresani, Elena; Washio, Yukiko; Arria, Amelia; Meyers, Robert J.
We describe a project focused on training parents to facilitate their treatment-resistant adolescent's treatment entry and to manage their child after entry into community-based treatment. Controlled studies show that Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT) is a unilateral treatment that fosters treatment entry of adults; however,…
Courtney, Mark E.
Although they make up a relatively small proportion of all children in the U.S. foster care system, foster youth approaching adulthood have over the years attracted considerable attention from policymakers. Three times in the past 25 years the Social Security Act has been amended to try to better support the transition to adulthood for foster…
Pagan, Stephanie; Sénéchal, Monique
In this research, parents and children participated in a comprehensive book reading intervention designed to improve children's literacy. Over eight weeks during the summer, children in the intervention condition were encouraged to read one book weekly and parents were trained to foster reading comprehension. Forty-eight Grades 3 and 5 children…
Mennen, Ferol E.; Trickett, Penelope K.
This study evaluated parenting attitudes, family environments, depression, and anxiety in a sample of primarily minority urban mothers to better understand maltreating mothers (n = 83), who retain custody of their children and how they are similar to and different from foster mothers (n = 50), kin caregivers (n = 52) of maltreated children, and…
The purpose of this study was to assess the association of positive and negative parenting with child externalizing problems. Quantitative data were collected during face-to-face interviews with 320 parents of children 9-16 years of age (50% males) in 11 communities in Eastern, Southern, and Central Ukraine. The study estimated the relationship between parenting practices and child externalizing behaviors such as aggression, delinquency, and attention problems. Results revealed that positive parenting, child monitoring, and avoidance of corporal punishment were associated with fewer child externalizing symptoms. Results also indicated that child male gender and single parenting had significant and positive association with child externalizing behaviors. This study extends international psychosocial knowledge on children and families. These findings can be used to design programs and foster dialogs about the role of family and social environments in the development of externalizing disorder among researchers, representatives of governmental and nongovernmental organizations, and mass media that work with child abuse prevention in Ukraine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Maaskant, A.M.; van Rooij, F.B.; Hermanns, J.M.A.
More than 20,000 children in the Netherlands live in foster families. The majority are in long-term foster family placements, which are intended to provide a stable rearing environment until the children reach adulthood. International studies have shown, however, that compared to children in the
Full Text Available Objective: Military service is a highly stressful period both for the soldiers serving and for their parents. Surprisingly, parents’ experience has been mostly ignored in the research. This study’s goal is to shed light on the experience and distress levels of parents of active duty combat soldiers during Operation Protective Edge, a military operation carried out by the Israel Defense Forces during July and August of 2014.Methods: During the advanced stages of the operation, 69 parents of Israeli male combat soldiers (55 mothers and 14 fathers completed an online survey measuring symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD-Checklist-5 and distress (Brief Symptom Inventory-18. Participants were recruited using a convenience sample, by posting ads on the public Facebook pages of the researchers and of the groups dedicated to parents of Israeli soldiers.Results: Parents’ depression and anxiety symptom levels were higher than depression and anxiety symptom levels of the adult community norms in Israel. General distress rates of parents were similar to those presented by adults in southern Israel who were exposed for 7 years to the ongoing threat of daily rocket fire from Gaza, and higher than rates of a non-threatened Israeli population. Finally, 20.2% of the parents presented PTSD-like symptoms, a higher percentage than the probable PTSD diagnosis rates that were found in the general population in Israel during previous terror waves.Conclusion: This study provides preliminary evidence of soldiers’ parents’ distress and indicates the need for a better understanding of the impact of military service on soldiers’ parents.
Tomcikova, Z.; Veselska, Z.; Madarasova Geckova, A.; van Dijk, J.P.; Reijneveld, S.A.
Background: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore the association between adolescent drunkenness and participation in risky leisure time activities and parental monitoring. Methods: A sample of 3,694 Slovak elementary school students (mean age 14.5 years; 49.0% males) was assessed for
Tomcikova, Zuzana; Veselska, Zuzana; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.
Background: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore the association between adolescent drunkenness and participation in risky leisure time activities and parental monitoring. Methods: A sample of 3,694 Slovak elementary school students (mean age 14.5 years; 49.0% males) was assessed for
Bakhbakhi, Danya; Siassakos, Dimitrios; Storey, Claire; Heazell, Alexander; Lynch, Mary; Timlin, Laura; Burden, Christy
The perinatal mortality review meeting that takes place within the hospital following a stillbirth or neonatal death enables clinicians to learn vital lessons to improve care for women and their families for the future. Recent evidence suggests that parents are unaware that a formal review following the death of their baby takes place. Many would welcome the opportunity to feedback into the meeting itself. Parental involvement in the perinatal mortality review meeting has the potential to improve patient satisfaction, drive improvements in patient safety and promote an open culture within healthcare. Yet evidence on the feasibility of involving bereaved parents in the review process is lacking. This paper describes the protocol for the Parents' Active Role and Engangement iN the review of their Stillbirth/perinatal death study (PARENTS 2) , whereby healthcare professionals' and stakeholders' perceptions of parental involvement will be investigated, and parental involvement in the perinatal mortality review will be piloted and evaluated at two hospitals. We will investigate perceptions of parental involvement in the perinatal mortality review process by conducting four focus groups. A three-round modified Delphi technique will be employed to gain a consensus on principles of parental involvement in the perinatal mortality review process. We will use three sequential rounds, including a national consensus meeting workshop with experts in stillbirth, neonatal death and bereavement care, and a two-stage anonymous online questionnaire. We will pilot a new perinatal mortality review process with parental involvement over a 6-month study period. The impact of the new process will be evaluated by assessing parents' experiences of their care and parents' and staff perceptions of their involvement in the process by conducting further focus groups and using a Parent Generated Index questionnaire. This study has ethical approval from the UK Health Research Authority. We will
Zelkowitz, P; Looper, K J; Mustafa, S S; Purden, M; Baron, M
Our study examines the association between the disease characteristics of inflammatory arthritis and patients' self-perception of mental health, parenting disability, parenting stress and child behaviour in early inflammatory arthritis (EIA). Patients in the early phase (more than 6 weeks, less than 18 months) of inflammatory arthritis were recruited from a larger EIA registry that recorded sociodemographic data and measures of pain, physical functioning and disease activity. Patient-perceived parenting disability, parenting stress, depression and children's behaviour problems were assessed using the Parenting Disability Index, Parenting Stress Index, Center for Epidemiologic Studies--Depression Mood Scale and Child Behavior Checklist, respectively. Pain, physical dysfunction, number of tender joints and physician global assessment of disease activity were associated with parenting disability. Self-report measures of parenting disability were associated with those of depression and parenting stress. Parenting stress was associated with children internalizing and externalizing behaviour problems while parenting disability was associated with children externalizing behaviour problems. This study suggests a possible reciprocal relationship among physical aspects of disease activity, parenting disability and parent and child distress in EIA.
Representatives of Foster Wheeler Corporation and A. Ahlstroem Oy have signed in the 3rd of October 1995 a contract which transfers the majority of the shares in Ahlstroem Pyropower to the American company Foster Wheeler at a price of some 200 million dollars. The final price will depend on the result of Ahlstroem Pyropower at the end of 1995. (1 fig.)
Harkness, Sara; Zylicz, Piotr Olaf; Super, Charles M; Welles-Nyström, Barbara; Bermúdez, Moisés Ríos; Bonichini, Sabrina; Moscardino, Ughetta; Mavridis, Caroline Johnston
Theoretical perspectives and research in sociology, anthropology, sociolinguistics, and cultural psychology converge in recognizing the significance of children's time spent in various activities, especially in the family context. Knowing how children's time is deployed, however, only gives us a partial answer to how children acquire competence; the other part must take into account the culturally constructed meanings of activities, from the perspective of those who organize and direct children's daily lives. In this article, we report on a study of children's routine daily activities and on the meanings that parents attribute to them in six Western middle-class cultural communities located in Italy, The Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Sweden, and the United States (N = 183). Using week-long time diaries kept by parents, we first demonstrate similarities as well as significant differences in children's daily routines across the cultural samples. We then present brief vignettes--"a day in the life" --of children from each sample. Parent interviews were coded for themes in the meanings attributed to various activities. Excerpts from parent interviews, focusing on four major activities (meals, family time, play, school- or developmentally related activities), are presented to illustrate how cultural meanings and themes are woven into parents' organization and understanding of their children's daily lives. The results of this mixed-method approach provide a more reliable and nuanced picture of children's and families' daily lives than could be derived from either method alone.
Feinstein, Noah Robert
When and how does science matter to people in their everyday lives? In this dissertation, I explore the importance of science to parents of young children recently diagnosed with autism. I examine the questions parents ask and the resources they use as they attempt to understand and advocate for their children, and use this data to develop a new conceptual model of engagement with science: the intrapersonal and interpersonal process through which people connect science with their lived experience. I recruited a socio-economically diverse sample of ten parents, each with at least one young child (18 months--7 years) who had been diagnosed with autism 6--24 months prior to recruitment. Each parent completed a series of 8--12 semi-structured interviews over a period of approximately six months. These interviews were analyzed using both grounded theory and conceptually driven coding strategies. Two findings stand out. First, only a small fraction of parents' questions (15%) and resources (11%) were directly related to science. A much larger fraction (41% and 42%) fell into the broader categories of near-science questions and resources. Second, half of the parents demonstrated an iterative pattern of activity that I referred to as progressive engagement with science. In each case, a science or near-science question led the parent to a science or near-science resource, which transformed the question. The new question led to different science or near-science resources, which led to new questions and so forth. Parents who did not undertake progressive engagement with science were also less interested in autism as an organizing construct for understanding their children. Drawing on the work of Peter Galison, I propose that the idea of autism helps create a "trading zone" between the distinct social systems of family life and medical science. Parents who ask near-science questions must find near-science resources to help them direct their questions appropriately. They must
Education scholars agree on the positive role that parents play in fostering educational success. Much research done also shows ways in which teachers contribute greatly to students' performance in school. Limited research focuses on how students' interactions with one another effect their academic performance. This study examines ways in which…
Children's early mathematical abilities are fundamental to their later academic achievement. An interest in mathematics in the early years is likely to establish a positive attitude to later mathematical learning, hopefully sustaining continued interest in mathematics and mathematical learning. Approaches to early mathematics teaching in the early years, however, are typically adult-initiated, which may fail to capture children's interest. Given the importance of children's motivation and sustained interest, the study described here strove to spark children's interests in mathematical problems in everyday life. The study sought to determine if children would incorporate more numeracy-related concepts into their free play if exposed to adult demonstrations of age-appropriate numeracy activities such as patterning. For at least 15 min three times weekly, participating children's parents and educators demonstrated numeracy problem-solving nearby, while children engaged in other activities. Demonstrations were thought to ascribe social value to the problem-solving activities. If children became interested in participating, adults told them to wait until the demonstrations finished, further indicating social value. Results show these children chose to play with numeracy-related activities in their free play time at preschool significantly more than children in a control group. These results suggest that seeking to foster children's interest in mathematics through child-initiated play, rather than prescribing adult-initiated mathematics activities, may be an important means of laying the foundation for lifelong mathematics learning. Ascribing social value to numeracy applications is proposed as a new approach to teaching mathematics in the early years.
Wu, Cynthia Sau Ting; Fowler, Cathrine; Lam, Winsome Yuk Yin; Wong, Ho Ting; Wong, Charmaine Hei Man; Yuen Loke, Alice
Young children are using digital technology (DT) devices anytime and anywhere, especially with the invention of smart phones and the replacement of desktop computers with digital tablets. Although research has shown that parents play an important role in fostering and supporting preschoolers' developing maturity and decisions about DT use, and in protecting them from potential risk due to excessive DT exposure, there have been limited studies conducted in Hong Kong focusing on parent-child DT use. This study had three objectives: 1) to explore parental use of DTs with their preschool children; 2) to identify the DT content that associated with child behavioral problems; and 3) to investigate the relationships between approaches adopted by parents to control children's DT use and related preschooler behavioral problems. This exploratory quantitative study was conducted in Hong Kong with 202 parents or guardians of preschool children between the ages of 3 and 6 attending kindergarten. The questionnaire was focused on four aspects, including 1) participants' demographics; 2) pattern of DT use; 3) parenting approach to manage the child's DT use; and 4) child behavioral and health problems related to DT use. Multiple regression analysis was adopted as the main data analysis method for identifying the DT or parental approach-related predictors of the preschooler behavioral problems. In the multiple linear regression model, the 'restrictive approach score' was the only predictor among the three parental approaches (B:1.66, 95% CI: [0.21, 3.11], p children also significantly increased the tendency of children to have behavioral problem (B:3.84, 95% CI: [1.66, 6.02], p children's cognitive and functional abilities are still in the developmental stage, parents play a crucial role in fostering appropriate and safe DT use. It is suggested that parents practice a combination of restrictive, instructive and co-using approaches, rather than a predominately restrictive
Lavadera, Anna Lubrano; Ferracuti, Stefano; Togliatti, Marisa Malagoli
The present study highlights the characteristics of separated families in Italy for whom Parental Alienation Syndrome (PAS) has been diagnosed during court custody evaluations. The study analyzed the psychological reports of 12 court-appointed expert evaluations of families for whom PAS had been diagnosed. Twelve evaluations that did not receive the PAS diagnosis served as a control group. A specific coding system was used for data analysis. The results indicated that the alienating parents were always the parents who had custody of the children. Children who were diagnosed with PAS were predominantly the only child in the family, had identity problems and manifested manipulative behavior. The consultant in these cases suggested individual psychotherapy for the children and recommended foster care to the Social Services agency. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
DePouw, Christin; Matias, Cheryl
Parenting is often discussed in the field of education, but frequently in terms of family or community deficiency, rather than strengths (Bonilla Silva, 2006; Few, 2007), particularly when communities of color are being examined. In this conceptual article, we advocate for the use of critical race theory (CRT) in discussions of parenting and…
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is documented that parents have an essential influence on the physical activity (PA of their children. More physically active parents bring up more physically active children in comparison with children of less physically active parents. However, the relationship between parents-child PA is not exactly quantified and little is known about whether the parents' PA helps their children achieve the currently recommended daily step count (SC on weekdays and at weekends. PURPOSE: This study aimed to determine and quantify the relationship between parents' behaviour (SC and screen time [ST] and children's SC on weekdays and at weekends. This study also investigates whether parents' level of SC helps children achieve the step count recommendations. METHODS: The participants (388 parents aged 35-45 and their 485 children aged 9-12 were randomly recruited from 21 Czech government-funded primary schools. The participants recorded their SC (The Yamax Digiwalker SW-200 and their ST duration for seven consecutive days (≥ 10 hours/day during April-May and September-October of 2013. The associations between the parents' behaviour (SC and ST and children's SC were estimated using general linear regression. Logistic regression (enter method was used to examine the odds of achievement of the recommendations of 11,000 SC/day for girls and 13,000 SC/day for boys. RESULTS: Each 1,000 SC increase in the mothers' (fathers' SC/weekday was significantly (p < .05 associated with an extra 261 SC/day in their daughters and 413 (244 SC/day in their sons. Each 1,000 SC increase in mothers' (fathers' SC/weekend day was significantly (p < .05 associated with an extra 523 (386 SC/day in their daughters and 508 (435 SC/day in their sons. A reduction in the mothers' ST by 30 minutes per weekend day was significantly (p < .05 associated with an extra 494 SC/day in their daughters and 467 SC/day in their sons. The children of the mothers and fathers who met the
Tran, Alexander D; Aalborg, Jenny; Asdigian, Nancy L; Morelli, Joseph G; Mokrohisky, Stefan T; Dellavalle, Robert P; Berwick, Marianne; Box, Neil F; Crane, Lori A
Sun exposure is a major risk factor for skin cancer, but without physical activity, children are at risk of childhood obesity. The objective of this study was to explore relationships between parental perceptions of skin cancer threat, sun protection behaviors, physical activity, and body mass index (BMI) in children. This is a cross-sectional analysis nested within the Colorado Kids Sun Care Program sun safety intervention trial. In summer 2007, parent telephone interviews provided data on demographics, perceptions of skin cancer threat, sun protection behaviors, and physical activity. Physical examinations provided data on phenotype, freckling, and BMI. Data from 999 Colorado children born in 1998 were included in analysis. We used analysis of variance, Spearman's rho (ρ) correlation, and multivariable linear regression analysis to evaluate relationships with total amount of outdoor physical activity. After controlling for sex, race/ethnicity, skin color, and sun protection, regression analysis showed that each unit increase in perceived severity of nonmelanoma skin cancer was associated with a 30% increase in hours of outdoor physical activity (P = .005). Hours of outdoor physical activity were not related to perceived severity of melanoma or perceived susceptibility to skin cancer. BMI-for-age was not significantly correlated with perceptions of skin cancer threat, use of sun protection, or level of physical activity. The promotion of sun safety is not likely to inhibit physical activity. Skin cancer prevention programs should continue to promote midday sun avoidance and sun protection during outdoor activities.
Kremer-Sadlik, Tamar; Izquierdo, Carolina; Fatigante, Marilena
This article focuses on children's engagement in extracurricular activities from the perspective of middle-class parents in Rome, Italy, and Los Angeles, California. Analysis of parents' accounts captured in interviews and ethnographic fieldwork reveals that both sets of parents perceive activities as important for children's success. Yet Roman…
Lee, JoAnn S; Courtney, Mark E; Harachi, Tracy W; Tajima, Emiko A
This study uses labeling theory to examine the role that adolescent legal system involvement may play in initiating a process of social exclusion, leading to higher levels of adult criminal activities among foster youth who have aged out of care. We used data from the Midwest Evaluation of the Adult Functioning of Former Foster Youth (Midwest Study), a prospective study that sampled 732 youth from Illinois, Iowa, and Wisconsin as they were preparing to leave the foster care system at ages 17 or 18. The youth were interviewed again at ages 19, 21, and 23 or 24. We used structural equation modeling to examine pathways to self-reported adult criminal behaviors from juvenile legal system involvement. The path model indicated that legal system involvement as a juvenile was associated with a lower likelihood of having a high school diploma at age 19, which was associated with a reduced likelihood of employment and increased criminal activities at age 21. Legal system involvement is more common among foster youth aging out of care, and this legal system involvement appears to contribute to a process of social exclusion by excluding former foster youth from conventional opportunities. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Baur Louise A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity and small screen recreation are two modifiable behaviours associated with childhood obesity and the development of chronic health problems. Parents and preschool staff shape behaviour habits in young children. The aims of this qualitative study were to explore the attitudes, values, knowledge and understanding of parents and carers of preschool-age children in relation to physical activity and small screen recreation and to identify influences upon these behaviours. Methods This research involved a focus group study with parents and carers of the target population. A purposive sample of 39 participants (22 parents, 17 carers participated in 9 focus groups. Participants were drawn from three populations of interest: those from lower socioeconomic status, and Middle-Eastern and Chinese communities in the Sydney (Australia metropolitan region. Results All participants understood the value of physical activity and the impact of excessive small screen recreation but were unfamiliar with national guidelines for these behaviours. Participants described the nature and activity patterns of young children; however, the concept of activity 'intensity' in this age group was not a meaningful term. Factors which influenced young children's physical activity behaviour included the child's personality, the physical activity facilities available, and the perceived safety of their community. Factors facilitating physical activity included a child's preference for being active, positive parent or peer modelling, access to safe play areas, organised activities, preschool programs and a sense of social connectedness. Barriers to physical activity included safety concerns exacerbated by negative media stories, time restraints, financial constraints, cultural values favouring educational achievement, and safety regulations about equipment design and use within the preschool environment. Parents considered that young children are
Jimenez-Pavon, D.; Fernandez-Alvira, J.M.; te Velde, S.J.; Brug, J.; Bere, E.; Jan, N.; Kovacs, E.; Androutsos, O.; Manios, Y.; de Bourdeaudhuij, I.; Moreno, L.A.
Objective: The present study sought to examine the independent associations of parental education and physical activity (PA) with children's PA across Europe. Methods: A total of 7214 children (10-12. years) were recruited from a school-based cross-sectional survey during 2010 in seven European
When children with profound multiple disabilities are hospitalized: A cross-sectional survey of parental burden of care, quality of life of parents and their hospitalized children, and satisfaction with family-centered care.
Seliner, Brigitte; Latal, Bea; Spirig, Rebecca
We aimed to assess parental burden of care, satisfaction with family-centered care, and quality of life (HRQoL) of parents and their hospitalized children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD), and determine the relationship among these factors. A cross-sectional study using printed questionnaires and qualitative questions was undertaken at a Swiss University Children's Hospital. The 117 parents (98 mothers, 19 fathers) studied indicated a substantial impact on burden of care and parental health-related quality of life. Significant correlations with the hospitalized children's well-being were rs = .408 for burden of care and rs -.368 for quality of life. Qualitative results showed parents struggling to safeguard their children and worrying most about the children's well-being. Health professionals need to be aware of parental burden and that the perception of the children's well-being and the parents' efforts determine their support needs. Easing parents' burden and fostering confidence in the hospitalized children's well-being requires coordination of care provided by advanced nurse specialists, with an institutional framework that clarifies parental collaboration. © 2016, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Marshall, Sheila K; Young, Richard A; Wozniak, Agnieszka; Lollis, Susan; Tilton-Weaver, Lauree; Nelson, Margo; Goessling, Kristen
Leisure research to date has generally overlooked planning and organizing of leisure time and activities between parents and adolescents. This investigation examined how a sample of Canadian adolescents and their parents jointly constructed and acted on goals related to adolescents' leisure time during the move from elementary to high school. Using the Qualitative Action-Project Method, data were collected over an 8-10 month period from 26 parent-adolescent dyads located in two urban sites, through video-taped conversations about leisure time, video recall interviews, and telephone monitoring interviews. Analysis of the data revealed that the joint projects of the 26 dyads could be grouped into three clusters: a) governance transfer or attempts to shift, from parent to adolescent, responsibility over academic demands, organizing leisure time, and safety with peers, b) balancing extra-curricular activities with family life, academics, and social activities, and c) relationship adjustment or maintenance. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Puig, Victoria I.
Nearly half a million children in the United States are currently being served by the foster care system. Infants and toddlers represent the largest single group entering foster care. While these very young children are at the greatest peril for physical, mental health, and developmental issues and tend to spend the longest time in the foster care…
Kranz, Ashley M; Rozier, R Gary; Zeldin, Leslie P; Preisser, John S
This cross-sectional study examined Early Head Start (EHS) teachers' oral health program activities and their association with teacher and program characteristics. Self-completed questionnaires were distributed to the staff in all EHS programs in North Carolina. Variables for dental health activities for parents (four items) and children (four items) were constructed as the sum of responses to a 0-4 Likert-type scale (never to very frequently). Ordinary least squares regression models examined the association between teachers' oral health program activities and modifiable teacher (oral health knowledge, values, self-efficacy, dental health training, perceived barriers to dental activities) and program (director and health coordinator knowledge and perceived barriers to dental activities) characteristics. Teachers in the parent (n=260) and child (n=231) analyses were a subset of the 485 staff respondents (98 percent response rate). Teachers engaged in child oral health activities (range = 0-16; mean = 9.0) more frequently than parent activities (range = 0-16; mean = 6.9). Teachers' oral health values, perceived oral health self-efficacy, dental training, and director and health coordinator knowledge were positively associated with oral health activities (P oral health activity in EHS programs is less than optimal. Several characteristics of EHS staff were identified that can be targeted with education interventions. Evidence for effectiveness of EHS interventions needs to be strengthened, but results of this survey provide encouraging findings about the potential effects of teacher training on their oral health practices.
Borden, Valerie Melino; Labiner-Wolfe, Judith; Blake, Susan M.; Marr, Amanda; Rowe, Jonelle; Wasserman, Jill
The "BodyWorks" program was designed to help parents improve family eating and activity behaviors. "BodyWorks" was associated with significant gains in parents' knowledge about nutrition and activity, and greater self-efficacy to set family nutrition goals, plan physical activities, and change eating habits. (Contains 1 table.)
Marmarosh, Cheri L
Therapists often struggle to determine the most important things to focus on during termination. Reviewing the treatment, identifying plans for the future, summarizing positive gains, and saying goodbye receive the most attention. Despite our best intentions, termination can end up becoming intellectualized. Attachment theory and recent developments in neuroscience offer us a road map for facilitating endings that address client's underlying relational needs, direct us to foster engagement, and help us facilitate new relational experience that can be transformative for clients. We argue that endings in therapy activate client's and therapist's attachments and these endings trigger emotion regulating strategies that can elicit client's engagement or more defensiveness. The current paper will highlight through de-identified case examples how clients automatically respond termination and how therapists can foster rich relational experiences in the here-and-now that clients can take with them. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Mei, Hong; Johansson, Elin; Hagströmer, Maria; Xiong, Yuelin; Zhang, Lanlan; Zhang, Jianduan; Marcus, Claude
Physical activity (PA) is associated with health benefits, already in childhood. However, little is known about actual levels, patterns and gender differences in PA level in very young children. This study examines Chinese one-year-old children and their parents' PA levels and patterns, and assesses the correlations between children's PA level and gender, body mass index standard deviation score (BMI SDS), parental BMI and parental PA level. Data from 123 families participating in the Early STOPP China study were used. Families were recruited based on parental BMI and were classified as either high-risk or low-risk of obesity. Parents and children wore an ActiGraph GT3X+ to assess the average PA levels. PA levels and hourly patterns during weekdays and weekends were examined as were correlations with gender, BMI SDS, parental BMI and parental PA levels. There were no significant differences in children's averaged PA between risk groups, genders, or between weekdays and weekends. Children's peak average activity level was at 7 pm and they were least active at 3 pm (pgender, BMI SDS, parental BMI or paternal PA levels. Maternal PA was found positively associated with child PA (pgender, BMI SDS, parental BMI or paternal PA. Larger scale studies with more contextual information are needed to improve the understanding of our findings.
Zito, Julie M; Safer, Daniel J; Sai, Devadatta; Gardner, James F; Thomas, Diane; Coombes, Phyllis; Dubowski, Melissa; Mendez-Lewis, Maria
Studies have revealed that youth in foster care covered by Medicaid insurance receive psychotropic medication at a rate > 3 times that of Medicaid-insured youth who qualify by low family income. Systematic data on patterns of medication treatment, particularly concomitant drugs, for youth in foster care are limited. The purpose of this work was to describe and quantify patterns of psychotropic monotherapy and concomitant therapy prescribed to a randomly selected, 1-month sample of youth in foster care who had been receiving psychotropic medication. METHODS. Medicaid data were accessed for a July 2004 random sample of 472 medicated youth in foster care aged 0 through 19 years from a southwestern US state. Psychotropic medication treatment data were identified by concomitant pattern, frequency, medication class, subclass, and drug entity and were analyzed in relation to age group; gender; race or ethnicity; International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, psychiatric diagnosis; and physician specialty. Of the foster children who had been dispensed psychotropic medication, 41.3% received > or = 3 different classes of these drugs during July 2004, and 15.9% received > or = 4 different classes. The most frequently used medications were antidepressants (56.8%), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder drugs (55.9%), and antipsychotic agents (53.2%). The use of specific psychotropic medication classes varied little by diagnostic grouping. Psychiatrists prescribed 93% of the psychotropic medication dispensed to youth in foster care. The use of > or = 2 drugs within the same psychotropic medication class was noted in 22.2% of those who were given prescribed drugs concomitantly. Concomitant psychotropic medication treatment is frequent for youth in foster care and lacks substantive evidence as to its effectiveness and safety.
Lam, Chun Bun; McHale, Susan M
This study examined the developmental patterns and parental correlates of youth leisure-time physical activity from middle childhood through adolescence. On 5 occasions across 7 years, fathers, mothers, and children who were first- and second born from 201 European American, working- and middle-class families participated in home and multiple nightly phone interviews. Multilevel modeling revealed that, controlling for family socioeconomic status, neighborhood characteristics, and youth overweight status and physical health, leisure-time physical activity increased during middle childhood and declined across adolescence, and the decline was more pronounced for girls than for boys. Moreover, controlling for time-varying, parental work hours and youth interest in sports and outdoor activities, on occasions when fathers and mothers spent proportionally more time on these activities with youth than usual, youth also spent more total time on these activities than usual. The within-person association between mother-youth joint involvement and youth's total involvement in leisure-time physical activity reached statistical significance at the transition to adolescence, and became stronger over time. Findings highlight the importance of maintaining adolescents', especially girls', physical activity levels and targeting both fathers' and mothers' involvement to promote youth's physical activity. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.
... ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Child Assistance Foster Care § 20.507 What requirements must foster care providers meet? If a child needs foster care, the social services worker must select care that... contain an approved current home study. (c) An off-reservation foster home, or residential care facility...
A N Pronina
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the topic of the development of children from orphanage in a foster home, showing the importance of personal maturity of the adoptive parents. The authors present the results of a study showing that there is a relationship between the individual criteria of personal maturity of the adoptive parents and the process of socialization and individualization of the children from orphanage.
Guo, Qingke; Feng, Linlin
Parenting styles are critical for fostering children's empathy and prosociality. Yet these relations haven't been well established for Chinese children, and the underlying mechanisms were seldom explored. Drawing upon parental acceptance-rejection theory and empathy-altruism hypothesis, the objective of this study was to investigate the relationships between perceived parenting styles and altruistic behavior of children, and the intervening role of children's empathy and the moderating role of in-group and out-group conditions. What is novel about this study is that it contains both survey data and experimental data. Four hundred and ninety-four children ( M age = 8.92 years) completed four simple binary-choice dictator games which are widely used in the study of other-regarding preferences (concerns for the interests of others). These children also reported their perceived parenting styles. And children's empathy was reported by their mothers. Each child's altruism score, which was used in the subsequent analyses, was derived from the altruistic choices in these games. Mediation analyses indicated that, when age and gender were controlled for, maternal and paternal emotional warmth were positively associated with children's altruism via children's empathy, while maternal and paternal rejection were negatively associated with children's altruism via children's empathy. Multi-group analyses showed that the influences of perceived parenting styles on children's altruistic behavior via children's empathy were consistent for in-group and out-group conditions. These findings suggest that enhancing parental emotional warmth and reducing parental rejection may foster children's empathy, which in turn promote children's altruism. Limitations and future directions of this study were also discussed.
Mazumder, Quamrul H.
Engineering is a complex field of study. Declining enrollment in engineering programs in the United States is of concern and understanding the various factors that contribute to this decline is in order. Fostering a higher level of student engagement with the content may foster passion towards engineering which could increase academic competency…
Brzęk, Anna; Strauss, Markus; Przybylek, Bianca; Dworrak, Tarja; Dworrak, Birgit; Leischik, Roman
Apart from many positive changes associated with technical civilization, there are also - from the health point of view - some threats. The reduction in the level of physical activity is one of them. The aim of the study was to investigate whether there are any relationships between children's physical activity and behaviors, and to assess the impact of the adults' activity on their children's habits. The study involved a group of 340 children aged 7-12 years (mean age: 9.81 ±1.7) and their parents. In order to evaluate children's physical activity and the amount of time that they spend with electronic devices, an original questionnaire and the IPAQ questionnaire were used. Children usually use electronic devices between 2 and 7 days per week (mean: 4.74 ±0.86), regardless of sex ( p > 0.09) and spend between 5 and 1620 min per week (mean: 459.46 ±308.1) with their mobile phone, tablet, PCs and TVs. 67.92% of boys and 69.61% of girls lead an active lifestyle. The children's activity level depends on their parents' level of activity ( p Parents of semi-active children lead a lifestyle with a moderate level of physical activity. The level of physical activity in younger children depends on the children's relationship with their parents and their level of activity. Children spend a lot of free time with their electronic devices. It is necessary to develop and implement activities intended to raise awareness of children and their families about the effects of hypokinesis.
Slater, Amy; Bowen, Jane; Corsini, Nadia; Gardner, Claire; Golley, Rebecca; Noakes, Manny
To identify parents' concerns and attitudes towards children's diets, activity habits and weight status. Computer-assisted telephone interviewing administration of a 37-item survey. Data were weighted for parental education level. Descriptive results are presented, and comparisons are made by the age, gender and parental characteristics of the child. Online research panel of Australian parents. A total of 1202 randomly selected parents of children aged 2-16 years, broadly representative of the Australian population. Parents were concerned about their child's education (reported by 35 % of respondents), child's health and well-being (25 %), and violence, drugs and alcohol (20 %). Concern about nutrition was indicated by 14 % of respondents and concern about fitness/exercise was indicated by 3 % of the sample. Factors perceived as making a healthy diet difficult to achieve for their child were child resistance (89 %), the availability of healthy food (72 %), a busy lifestyle (67 %) and the influence of food advertising (63 %). Ninety-two per cent of parents thought that it was realistic for their child to be active for at least 1 h/d, with 75 % of parents feeling that it was realistic for their child to have less than 2 h recreational screen time per d. Despite this, common barriers to achieving the activity guidelines were lack of time, weather and keeping children occupied. Insights into parental concerns from the current study may be useful in guiding development of interventions to improve children's nutrition and physical activity habits by framing messages in a way that are most likely to resonate with parents.
Hamilton, Kyra; White, Katherine M.
Evidence within Australia and internationally suggests parenthood as a risk factor for inactivity; however, research into understanding parental physical activity is scarce. Given that active parents can create active families and social factors are important for parents' decision making, the authors investigated a range of social influences on…
Full Text Available Foster care is an almost absent component in the child care system and scientific research conducted in Portugal foster comprises 3.2%1 of out-of-home care in Portugal. This research aims to contribute to a deeper visibility of the care phenomena, giving specific attention to the foster families themselves. This research adopted a qualitative analytical approach, inspired by Grounded Theory. Foster families’ motivation is rooted in altruism, affection for children, and sensitivity to maltreatment. Personal and professional biography or past contact with out-of-home care can also induce predisposition to become a carer. The experience of being a carer2 is one of traversing through a life of many challenges and rewards. Considering the recognition from the stakeholders, it is a rewarding task. The quality of the service provided and the performance of the care professionals are both key elements to foster care.
Over 400,000 children are in foster care in the United States, and more than 100,000 of them are waiting to be adopted. Yet many will age out of foster care into adulthood without an adoptive family. Teens and young adults aging out of foster care, even those with preparation and training for the transition, often do not fare well in young adulthood. Many face challenges in areas of education, employment, homelessness, finances, the criminal justice system, and meeting health and mental healthcare needs. Research demonstrates what only makes sense: teens with tangible support from meaningful adult relationships fare better than those without. This article describes an innovative program that connects teens in foster care with supportive adults through social events that can lead to meaningful long-term teen-adult connections - including friendships, mentoring, and even, in some cases, adoption. Pediatric nurses, aware of the challenges these teens face adjusting to adulthood, can begin to explore referral and support options for such teens in their own locales using the resources herein.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Identifying critical life transitions in people’s physical activity behaviors may illuminate the most opportune intervention apertures for chronic disease prevention. A substantive evidence base now indicates that parenthood is one of these critical transition points for physical activity decline. This study will examine whether a brief theory-based intervention can prevent a decline in physical activity among new parents over 6 months following intervention. This study protocol represents the first dyad-based physical activity initiative in the parenthood literature involving both mothers and fathers; prior research has focused on only mothers or only fathers (albeit limited, and has shown only short-term changes in physical activity. This study will be investigating whether a theory-based physical activity intervention can maintain or improve moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity measured via accelerometry of new parents over a 6 month period following intervention compared to a control group. Methods This study is a 6-month longitudinal randomized controlled trial. Parents are measured at baseline (2 months postpartum with two assessment points at 6 weeks (3.5 months postpartum and 3 months (5 months postpartum and a final follow-up assessment at 6 months (8 months postpartum. The content of the theory-based intervention was derived from the results of our prior longitudinal trial of new parents using an adapted theory of planned behavior framework to predict changes in physical activity. Results A total of 152 couples have been recruited to date. Sixteen couples dropped out after baseline and a total of 88 couples have completed their 6-month measures. Discussion If the intervention proves successful, couple-based physical activity promotion efforts among parents could be a promising avenue to pursue to help mitigate the declines of physical activity levels during parenthood. These findings could inform
Quinlan, Alison; Rhodes, Ryan E; Beauchamp, Mark R; Symons Downs, Danielle; Warburton, Darren E R; Blanchard, Chris M
Identifying critical life transitions in people's physical activity behaviors may illuminate the most opportune intervention apertures for chronic disease prevention. A substantive evidence base now indicates that parenthood is one of these critical transition points for physical activity decline. This study will examine whether a brief theory-based intervention can prevent a decline in physical activity among new parents over 6 months following intervention. This study protocol represents the first dyad-based physical activity initiative in the parenthood literature involving both mothers and fathers; prior research has focused on only mothers or only fathers (albeit limited), and has shown only short-term changes in physical activity. This study will be investigating whether a theory-based physical activity intervention can maintain or improve moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity measured via accelerometry of new parents over a 6 month period following intervention compared to a control group. This study is a 6-month longitudinal randomized controlled trial. Parents are measured at baseline (2 months postpartum) with two assessment points at 6 weeks (3.5 months postpartum) and 3 months (5 months postpartum) and a final follow-up assessment at 6 months (8 months postpartum). The content of the theory-based intervention was derived from the results of our prior longitudinal trial of new parents using an adapted theory of planned behavior framework to predict changes in physical activity. A total of 152 couples have been recruited to date. Sixteen couples dropped out after baseline and a total of 88 couples have completed their 6-month measures. If the intervention proves successful, couple-based physical activity promotion efforts among parents could be a promising avenue to pursue to help mitigate the declines of physical activity levels during parenthood. These findings could inform public health materials and practitioners. This trial has been
Green, Rex S.; Ellis, Peter T.
In 2003 foster youth employed by a foster youth advocacy organization suggested that an evaluation of group home services to foster youth be conducted in Alameda County, California. This report presents the development and conduct of this evaluation study; how funding was obtained; and how foster youth were hired, trained, and employed to produce…
Gavidia-Payne, Susana; Denny, Bianca; Davis, Kate; Francis, Andrew; Jackson, Mervyn
Self-concept is one important yet understudied construct, often associated with healthy children's well-being, and particularly crucial for those raised in rural disadvantaged communities. Also, commonly acknowledged is that adults, including parents and teachers, play an important role in fostering self-concept. The overall aim of the current…
Steenbakkers, Anne; van der Steen, Steffie; Grietens, Hans
Sharing stories about the past and about being in care, can help adolescents placed in foster families to make meaning of their experiences and connect with their conversation partner. However, what obstacles and opportunities for sharing stories are experienced by foster youth has not been
Eyre, E L J; Duncan, M J; Birch, S L; Cox, V M
Children's physical activity (PA) is affected by socio-economic status (SES) and the environment. Children are not fully autonomous in their decision making; parental decisions thus affect how children utilise their surrounding environments for PA. The aim was to examine environmental influences on children's PA from a qualitative perspective in parents from low SES wards in Coventry, UK. 59 parents of children in year 4 (aged 8-9years) completed the ALPHA environmental questionnaire. 16 of these parents took part in focus group discussions examining environmental facilitators and barriers to their child's PA (March-April, 2013). Emerging themes related to physical (i.e. poor access, safety and quality of the neighbourhood) and social environment (i.e. 'rough' neighbourhood due to crime and anti-social behaviour) influences on the PA behaviour of children. The parents believed these environmental factors resulted in the children engaging in greater sedentary activity (watching TV) indoors. The school environment was perceived as a supportive physical environment for children's PA behaviour. Parent's perceptions of an unsupportive physical and social environment restrict children's opportunities to play outside and be physically active and may lead to increased body fat (BF). Schools provide a supportive environment for children from low SES to be physically active in.
Lee, Florence M Y; Tsang, Janice F K; Chui, Mandy M Y
This study attempted to use a validated and standardised psychometric tool to identify the specific needs of parents of children with visual impairment studying in mainstream schools in Hong Kong. The second aim was to compare their needs with those of parents of mainstream school children without special education needs and parents having children with learning and behavioural problems. Cross-sectional survey. Mainstream schools in Hong Kong. Parents of 30 children with visual impairment who were studying in mainstream schools and attended assessment by optometrists at Child Assessment Service between May 2009 and June 2010 were recruited in the study (visual impairment group). Parents of 45 children with learning and behavioural problems recruited from two parent support groups (learning and behavioural problems group), and parents of 233 children without special education needs studying in mainstream schools recruited in a previous validation study on Service Needs Questionnaire (normal group) were used for comparison. Participants were invited to complete a self-administered Service Needs Questionnaire and a questionnaire on demographics of the children and their responding parents. The visual impairment group was asked additional questions about the ability of the child in coping and functioning in academic and recreational activities. Needs expressed by parents of the visual impairment group were significantly higher than those of parents of the normal group, and similar to those in the learning and behavioural problems group. Parents of children with visual impairment expressed more needs for future education and school support than resources for dealing with personal and family stress. Service needs of children with visual impairment and their families are high, particularly for future education and school support. More study on the various modes of accommodation for children with visual impairment and more collaborative work among different partners
Storer, Heather L.; Barkan, Susan E.; Stenhouse, Linnea L.; Eichenlaub, Caroline; Mallillin, Anastasia; Haggerty, Kevin P.
Placement instability is an ongoing challenge for the 125,000 foster youth aged 14 – 18 that are living in foster care, with youth living in approximately 3 placements before aging out of the system. Despite the importance caring adult relationships can play in promoting positive youth development and resiliency, there has been limited inquiry into the characteristics of the foster youth and caregiver relationship. The goal of this paper is to provide a descriptive account of the foster youth...
Eby, Ruth A; Hartley, Patricia Lynn; Hodges, Patricia J; Hoffpauir, Rebecca Baldwin
Nursing students bring an array of morals, values, and ethics that may be inconsistent with ethical integrity. This study explored nurse educator perceptions of student ethical integrity and how educators can foster an ethical foundation in students and novice educators. Four major themes influencing ethical integrity emerged: the learning environment, behaviors, ethical principles, and a toolbox of strategies. Strategies for fostering ethical integrity included: modeling ethical integrity, effective communication, grading accuracy, faculty perceptions, and faculty peer mentoring.
This book for children (ages 8 to 14) and the accompanying teacher/parent guide present the story of two brothers, one of whom has a severe hearing impairment, who climb up Mt. Fuji in Japan. Information on the disability is presented subtly and incidentally to encourage the reader to relate more personally and foster a deeper level of acceptance…
Youth transitioning out of foster care face significant medical and mental health care needs. Unfortunately, these youth rarely receive the services they need because of lack of health insurance. Through many policies and programs, the federal government has taken steps to support older youth in foster care and those aging out. The Fostering Connections to Success and Increasing Adoptions Act of 2008 (Pub L No. 110-354) requires states to work with youth to develop a transition plan that addresses issues such as health insurance. In addition, beginning in 2014, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (Pub L No. 111-148) makes youth aging out of foster care eligible for Medicaid coverage until age 26 years, regardless of income. Pediatricians can support youth aging out of foster care by working collaboratively with the child welfare agency in their state to ensure that the ongoing health needs of transitioning youth are met.
Cullinan, John; Cawley, John
Childhood overweight and obesity is a major public health challenge for policymakers in many countries. As the most common supervisors of children's activities, parents have a potentially important role to play in obesity prevention. However, a precondition for parents to improve their children's diets, encourage them to be more physically active, or take them to see a doctor about their weight is for the parent to first recognize that their child is overweight or obese. This paper examines the extent of parental misclassification of child weight status, and its correlates, focusing on the role of parental education and the parent's own obesity status. We find evidence that, among non-obese parents, those who are better-educated report their child's weight status more accurately, but among obese parents, the better-educated are 45.18% more likely than parents with lower secondary education to give a false negative report of their child's overweight/obesity; this may reflect social desirability bias. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ballan, Michelle S; Freyer, Molly Burke
Youths with intellectual and developmental disabilities (ID/DD) are overrepresented in the American foster care system and experience heightened rates of pregnancy compared to their nondisabled peers. Yet limited information is known about sexually active or pregnant young women with ID/DD in foster care. Consequently, important healthcare needs of this population are not adequately addressed. This article explores sexuality education and sexual healthcare for female adolescents in foster care with ID/DD and recommends practice guidelines to support and prepare their emergent sexual development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gubbels, Jessica S; Kremers, Stef P J; Stafleu, Annette; de Vries, Sanne I; Goldbohm, R Alexandra; Dagnelie, Pieter C; de Vries, Nanne K; van Buuren, Stef; Thijs, Carel
Insights into the effects of energy balance-related parenting practices on children's diet and activity behavior at an early age is warranted to determine which practices should be recommended and to whom. The purpose of this study was to examine child and parent background correlates of energy balance-related parenting practices at age 5, as well as the associations of these practices with children's diet, activity behavior, and body mass index (BMI) development. Questionnaire data originated from the KOALA Birth Cohort Study for ages 5 (N = 2026) and 7 (N = 1819). Linear regression analyses were used to examine the association of child and parent background characteristics with parenting practices (i.e., diet- and activity-related restriction, monitoring and stimulation), and to examine the associations between these parenting practices and children's diet (in terms of energy intake, dietary fiber intake, and added sugar intake) and activity behavior (i.e., physical activity and sedentary time) at age 5, as well as BMI development from age 5 to age 7. Moderation analyses were used to examine whether the associations between the parenting practices and child behavior depended on child characteristics. Several child and parent background characteristics were associated with the parenting practices. Dietary monitoring, stimulation of healthy intake and stimulation of physical activity were associated with desirable energy balance-related behaviors (i.e., dietary intake and/or activity behavior) and desirable BMI development, whereas restriction of sedentary time showed associations with undesirable behaviors and BMI development. Child eating style and weight status, but not child gender or activity style, moderated the associations between parenting practices and behavior. Dietary restriction and monitoring showed weaker, or even undesirable associations for children with a deviant eating style, whereas these practices showed associations with desirable behavior for
This study examines the extent to which parental nuclear fear, parental activism, and parental responsivity is associated with children's (age 10) nuclear fear. Other associated variables investigated include: nuclear denial, general anxiety and fear, and the personal characteristics of sex, socio-economic status, and academic aptitude. Findings indicate that children attend to nuclear issues when their parents attend to a significant degree. Children's hopelessness about the arms race is increased as parents' worry about nuclear war increases. Children's fear about not surviving a nuclear war increases as parents' worry about survivability decreases. Children who have more general fears also indicated that they have a high level of hopelessness, pervasive worry, and much concern about being able to survive a nuclear war. Children with a high degree of general anxiety did not indicate high degrees of nuclear fears. Children with high academic aptitude were more knowledgeable about nuclear issues and expressed more fears about the nuclear threat. Boys demonstrated more knowledge about nuclear issues than girls, and girls expressed much more frequent fear and worry about the nuclear threat than boys. Parents of lower socio-economic statues (SES) expressed more denial about the nuclear threat and were more pro-military than the higher SES parents.
Ángel Alberto Valdés Cuervo
Full Text Available This article describes the degree of parental involvement in the educational activities of elementary school children in the State of Yucatán. Based on the opinion of experts and references in the relevant literature, a Likert-type scale with 36 items was designed and applied to 106 parents of students at a public elementary school in the city of Mérida, capital of the state of Yucatan, in order to evaluate their involvement. The results show that the scale has an acceptable reliability coefficient (Cronbach’s alpha = .92 and its underlying structure, after a factor analysis with varimax rotation, consists of three unit factors: 1 Communication with the school; 2 Communication with the child, and 3 Knowledge of the school. Generally, the results show that parent involvement in children’s educational activities is low or precarious, especially in regard to the factors of Communication and Knowledge of the school, although mothers have a considerably higher level of involvement than fathers in these factors. The implications of these findings for the school as well as for research on parental participation in the educational process are discussed in light of the results.
Kolt Gregory S
Full Text Available Abstract Background Whilst evidence exists for the influence of encouragement on physical activity participation, the diversity of support sources and the type of physical activity examined previously is limited. This study examined the importance of perceived encouragement from parents, siblings/cousins, friends, and schools on participation levels across three time-specific activity opportunities that are available during a school day (after-school physical activities, lunchtime activity, and active transportation to and from school. Methods A cross-sectional sample of 12–18 year old high school students (n = 3,471 were recruited from low SES schools within South Auckland, New Zealand and categorised as either Junior (Years 9–11 or Senior (Years 12 & 13 students. Participants reported their physical activity levels and quantity of encouragement received from their parent(s, friend(s, sibling(s/cousin(s, and school to be active. For each physical activity variable participants were dichotomized as being either "active" or "less active". For each social support source, participants were grouped into either receiving "high" or "low" levels of support. Binary logistic regression analyzes were conducted to calculate odd ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results Low parental support (Juniors, OR: 0.47, 95% CI: 0.38–0.58; Seniors, OR: 0.41, 95% CI: 0.29–0.60 and low peer support (Juniors, OR: 0.61, 95% CI: 0.51–0.74; Seniors, OR: 0.49, 95% CI: 0.35–0.69 were associated with reduced odds of being regularly active after school. For lunchtime activity, low peer support (Juniors, OR: 0.39, 95% CI: 0.32–0.48; Seniors, OR: 0.41, 95% CI: 0.29–0.57 was associated with reduced odds of being categorized as active. While no variables were significantly related to active transportation among senior students, low peer support was associated with reduced odds of actively commuting for Junior students (OR: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.66–0.92. Irrespective
Jacquot, Cyril; Seo, Andrew; Miller, Peter M; Lezama, Niara; Criss, Valli R; Colvin, Camilla; Luban, Naomi L C; Wong, Edward C C
Directed donation is associated with a higher prevalence of donations that are positive for infectious disease markers; however, little is known about the positive rates among parental-directed, non-parental-directed, and allogeneic donations. We reviewed blood-collection records from January 1997 through December 2008, including infectious disease results, among parental, non-parental, and community donations. Infectious disease rates were compared by Mann-Whitney U test. In total, 1532 parental, 4910 non-parental, and 17,423 community donations were examined. Among parental donors, the median rate of positive infectious disease testing was 8.66% (interquartile range (IQR), 4.49%) for first-time donors and 1.26% (IQR, 5.86%) for repeat donors; among non-parental donors, the rate was 1.09% (IQR, 0.98%) for first-time donors and 0% (IQR, 0.83%) for repeat donors; and, among community donors, the rate was 2.95% (IQR, 1.50%) for first-time donors and 0.45% (IQR, 0.82%) for repeat donors. The mean rate of positive infectious disease testing for first-time parental donors was significantly higher (7.63%), whereas all repeat donors had similar rates. However, the rate of positive infectious disease testing among first-time non-parental donors was significantly lower than that in the other groups, especially for the period from 2001 through 2008. First-time non-parental and community donors had significantly higher infectious disease risk than the respective repeat donors. First-time parental donors had the highest rates of positive infectious disease testing. We suggest that first-time parental blood donation should be discouraged. Repeat community donors or first-time non-parental donors provide a safer alternative. These findings can foster better patient education, donor selection, and possibly a reduced risk of infectious disease. © 2017 AABB.
Zeijlmans, Kirti; López, Monica; Grietens, Hans; Knorth, Erik J.
Matching in family foster care is a form of complex decision-making influenced by more than case factors alone. Organizational, contextual, and decision-maker factors also contribute to the process. This scoping review has synthesized the empirical literature on matching decisions in family foster
Luanna Alexandra Cheng
Conclusions: Parents and friends have a social influence on adolescents’ level of physical activity through the mechanism of behavior modeling or through social support, mediated by self‐efficacy.
Sotomayor-Peterson, Marcela; Figueredo, Aurelio J; Christensen, Donna H; Taylor, Angela R
This study tested a model of shared parenting as its centerpiece that incorporates cultural values as predictors and family emotional climate as the outcome variable of interest. We aimed to assess the predictive power of the Mexican cultural values of familismo and simpatia over couples' shared parenting practices. We anticipated that higher levels of shared parenting would predict family emotional climate. The participants were 61 Mexican American, low income couples, with at least one child between 3 and 4 years of age, recruited from a home-based Head Start program. The predictive model demonstrated excellent goodness of fit, supporting the hypothesis that a positive emotional climate within the family is fostered when Mexican American couples practice a sufficient level of shared parenting. Empirical evidence was previously scarce on this proposition. The findings also provide evidence for the role of cultural values, highlighting the importance of family solidarity and avoidance of confrontation as a pathway to shared parenting within Mexican American couples. © FPI, Inc.
Sadowska, Julita; Gębczyński, Andrzej K.; Konarzewski, Marek
The assimilation capacity (AC) hypothesis for the evolution of endothermy predicts that the maternal basal metabolic rate (BMR) should be positively correlated with the capacity for parental investment. In this study, we provide a unique test of the AC model based on mice from a long-term selection experiment designed to produce divergent levels of BMR. By constructing experimental families with cross-fostered litters, we were able to control for the effect of the mother as well as the type of pup based on the selected lines. We found that mothers with genetically determined high levels of BMR were characterized by higher parental investment capacity, measured as the offspring growth rate. We also found higher food consumption and heavier visceral organs in the females with high BMR. These findings suggested that the high-BMR females have higher energy acquisition abilities. When the effect of the line type of a foster mother was controlled, the pup line type significantly affected the growth rate only in the first week of life, with young from the high-BMR line type growing more rapidly. Our results support the predictions of the AC model. PMID:23282996
Rhodes, Ryan E.; Lim, Clarise
Promoting physical activities that involve both parents and their children would be very useful to the improved health and well-being of families, yet coactivity interventions have been particularly unsuccessful in past research. The purpose of this study was to elicit the salient parental beliefs about coactivity framed through theory of planned…
Full Text Available Abstract This paper examines health-related quality of life (HRQOL experiences and barriers facing young people who have received a liver transplant (LT. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with children and adolescents who have undergone LT and their parents. Findings indicate that LT fosters substantially improved child and adolescent HRQOL; however, young people also experience challenges such as difficulties with medication compliance, self-management of care routines, physical activity restrictions, and undesirable medical procedures. Implications and recommendations for clinical practice and research are discussed.
Full Text Available Parenting styles are critical for fostering children’s empathy and prosociality. Yet these relations haven’t been well established for Chinese children, and the underlying mechanisms were seldom explored. Drawing upon parental acceptance-rejection theory and empathy-altruism hypothesis, the objective of this study was to investigate the relationships between perceived parenting styles and altruistic behavior of children, and the intervening role of children’s empathy and the moderating role of in-group and out-group conditions. What is novel about this study is that it contains both survey data and experimental data. Four hundred and ninety-four children (Mage = 8.92 years completed four simple binary-choice dictator games which are widely used in the study of other-regarding preferences (concerns for the interests of others. These children also reported their perceived parenting styles. And children’s empathy was reported by their mothers. Each child’s altruism score, which was used in the subsequent analyses, was derived from the altruistic choices in these games. Mediation analyses indicated that, when age and gender were controlled for, maternal and paternal emotional warmth were positively associated with children’s altruism via children’s empathy, while maternal and paternal rejection were negatively associated with children’s altruism via children’s empathy. Multi-group analyses showed that the influences of perceived parenting styles on children’s altruistic behavior via children’s empathy were consistent for in-group and out-group conditions. These findings suggest that enhancing parental emotional warmth and reducing parental rejection may foster children’s empathy, which in turn promote children’s altruism. Limitations and future directions of this study were also discussed.
... § 1355.40 Foster care and adoption data collection. (a) Scope of the data collection system. (1) Each... children who enter foster care prior to October 1, 1995 and who are still in the system, core data elements... of foster care data reports. (1) For each child, a computer generated transaction date must reflect...
Wakely, Luke; Langham, Jessica; Johnston, Catherine; Rae, Kym
Children residing in rural areas face unique barriers to physical activity participation. Further, while children with a disability who reside in metropolitan areas face barriers hindering physical activity, rurally residing children with a disability may face the augmented combination of these barriers that could have negative health implications. Parents are often the key advocates for children with disabilities and are likely to have valuable insight into the opportunities and barriers to physical activity for their child. The aim of this study was to investigate parents' perceptions of physical activity opportunities for their child with a disability in a rural area. A mixed method survey examining parent's perceptions of their child's physical activity and possible barriers to participation was mailed to rurally residing parents of children with a disability. Quantitative data were analyzed descriptively using frequencies and proportions. Qualitative data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. There were 34 completed surveys, a response rate of 37%. Participants' responses indicated 74% of children were not meeting daily recommendations of physical activity. Participation barriers including emotional, physical and environmental issues. Three main themes emerged from qualitative data; segregation, access to facilities and resources and barriers specific to the child. The children in this study were from rural areas and face similar barriers to children in metropolitan areas. However, they are also confronted with the same barriers children without a disability in rural areas face, participating in physical activity. This may have detrimental effects on their health and development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
McFadden, Emily Jean
"Emotional Development: Fostering the Child's Identity" is a manual for use in training families providing service to foster children. Consisting of information to be covered in eight class sessions and numerous appendices providing supplementary material, this instructor's manual contains instructor's materials and participants' course content.…
Newton, Emily K.; Laible, Deborah; Carlo, Gustavo; Steele, Joel S.; McGinley, Meredith
Bidirectional theories of social development have been around for over 40 years (Bell, 1968), yet they have been applied primarily to the study of antisocial development. In the present study, the reciprocal relationship between parenting behavior and children's socially competent behaviors were examined. Using the National Institute of Child…
Oostdam, Ron; Hooge, Edith
Although parental involvement is often a priority on the quality agenda of schools for primary and secondary education, it is still not usual to involve parents as an educational partner in the actual learning process of their child. Rather than adopting an open approach, teachers tend to tell parents what they should do or keep them at a safe…
Anderson, Kristen L.
The purpose of this study was to determine what life is like for foster youth pursuing postsecondary education. At a time when few foster youth are pursuing and completing higher education, this study attempted to gain an understanding from foster youth about 1) the reason(s) for their success in pursuing postsecondary education, 2) how they were…
Lippold, Melissa A.; Davis, Kelly D.; McHale, Susan M.; Almeida, David M.
Considerable evidence documents linkages between parental knowledge of youth activities and youth risky behavior. We extended this research to determine whether parental knowledge was associated with youth physical health, including reports of physical symptoms (e.g., headaches, stomachaches) and a biomarker of hypothalamic pituitary adrenocortical (HPA) axis functioning (i.e., salivary cortisol levels). Participants were children of employees in the Information Technology division of a Fortune 500 company (N = 132, Mean Age Youth = 13.39 years, 55% female) who participated in a daily diary study. Data were collected via telephone calls on eight consecutive evenings. On four study days, cortisol samples were collected at 4 time points (waking, 30 min after waking, before dinner, bedtime). Multi-level models revealed that, at the between-person level, youth whose parents had higher average knowledge about their activities, exhibited lower bedtime cortisol levels. Furthermore, at the within-person level, on days when parents displayed more knowledge than usual (relative to their own eight-day average), youth had lower before-dinner cortisol than usual. Linkages between average parental knowledge and physical health symptoms were moderated by youth age: Younger but not older adolescents whose parents were more knowledgeable had fewer physical health symptoms, on average. A next step is to identify the processes that underlie these associations. PMID:26751757
de Vries Nanne K
Full Text Available Abstract Background Insights into the effects of energy balance-related parenting practices on children's diet and activity behavior at an early age is warranted to determine which practices should be recommended and to whom. The purpose of this study was to examine child and parent background correlates of energy balance-related parenting practices at age 5, as well as the associations of these practices with children's diet, activity behavior, and body mass index (BMI development. Methods Questionnaire data originated from the KOALA Birth Cohort Study for ages 5 (N = 2026 and 7 (N = 1819. Linear regression analyses were used to examine the association of child and parent background characteristics with parenting practices (i.e., diet- and activity-related restriction, monitoring and stimulation, and to examine the associations between these parenting practices and children's diet (in terms of energy intake, dietary fiber intake, and added sugar intake and activity behavior (i.e., physical activity and sedentary time at age 5, as well as BMI development from age 5 to age 7. Moderation analyses were used to examine whether the associations between the parenting practices and child behavior depended on child characteristics. Results Several child and parent background characteristics were associated with the parenting practices. Dietary monitoring, stimulation of healthy intake and stimulation of physical activity were associated with desirable energy balance-related behaviors (i.e., dietary intake and/or activity behavior and desirable BMI development, whereas restriction of sedentary time showed associations with undesirable behaviors and BMI development. Child eating style and weight status, but not child gender or activity style, moderated the associations between parenting practices and behavior. Dietary restriction and monitoring showed weaker, or even undesirable associations for children with a deviant eating style, whereas these
Watson, Christina; Kabler, Brenda
Recent statistics estimate that there are 783,000 children living in foster care in the United States. This vulnerable population is at risk for academic failure as well as internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems. Compared to their peers, foster youth face significant educational difficulties, including lower levels of academic…
Cramer, Eugene H., Ed.; Castle, Marrietta, Ed.
Representing current thinking about a wide range of issues related to reading motivation, this book offers a look at how to create classroom cultures that foster in students the love of reading. The book is about teachers and the critical role they play in helping children develop into motivated, active, engaged readers who read both for pleasure…
Pac, Jessica; Waldfogel, Jane; Wimer, Christopher
We use data from the Current Population Survey and the new Supplemental Poverty Measure (SPM) to provide estimates for poverty among foster children over the period 1992 to 2013. These are the first large-scale national estimates for foster children who are not included in official poverty statistics. Holding child and family demographics constant, foster children have a lower risk of poverty than other children. Analyzing income in detail suggests that foster care payments likely play an important role in reducing the risk of poverty in this group. In contrast, we find that children living with grandparents have a higher risk of poverty than other children, even after taking demographics into account. Our estimates suggest that this excess risk is likely linked to their lower likelihood of receiving foster care or other income supports. PMID:28659651
Children living in foster care are a unique population with specialized healthcare needs. This article will assist forensic nurses and advanced practice forensic nurses, particularly those working in pediatrics, in understanding the needs of children in foster care and implementing a practice plan to better meet their healthcare needs. To that end, a basic understanding of the foster care system is crucial and involves an appreciation of the interface between the legal system and the child welfare system. Most important to providing care to children in foster care is a true understanding of trauma exposure and its potential effects on the lives of children: physically, developmentally, emotionally, and psychologically. This article will assist forensic nurses working with pediatric populations to more fully understand the needs of children in foster care and to develop innovative interventions to appropriately meet their unique needs.
Punamäki, R L; Qouta, S; el Sarraj, E
The relations between traumatic events, perceived parenting styles, children's resources, political activity, and psychological adjustment were examined among 108 Palestinian boys and girls of 11-12 years of age. The results showed that exposure to traumatic events increased psychological adjustment problems directly and via 2 mediating paths. First, the more traumatic events children had experienced, the more negative parenting they experienced. And, the poorer they perceived parenting, the more they suffered from high neuroticism and low self-esteem. Second, the more traumatic events children had experienced, the more political activity they showed, and the more active they were, the more they suffered from psychological adjustment problems. Good perceived parenting protected children's psychological adjustment by making them less vulnerable in two ways. First, traumatic events decreased their intellectual, creative, and cognitive resources, and a lack of resources predicted many psychological adjustment problems in a model excluding perceived parenting. Second, political activity increased psychological adjustment problems in the same model, but not in the model including good parenting.
Dellert, Jane Cerruti; Johnson, Portia
Examine the effect of interventions with parents and children on children's physical activity and body mass index (BMI). Computerized searches for intervention studies published between 1990 and 2011 used multiple ProQuest databases, including unpublished dissertations and theses to minimize publication bias. English-language, intervention-testing studies of children, parents, or families with outcomes of physical activity or BMI were retrieved from peer-reviewed journals, dissertations, and theses. Eliminated studies had no control or comparison group; had no continuous outcome variable; had no physical activity/exercise and/or BMI as outcomes; or had incomplete statistics necessary for meta-analysis (means, standard deviations, or confidence intervals). Twenty-one studies met inclusion criteria. Quality criteria were control group, objective outcome variable measure, clarity of variable definitions, and number and reason for subject withdrawal. Meta-analysis on the raw difference of means estimated mean weighted effect size (MWES) assessed dispersion of effects and computed a summary effect. MWES for interventions with parents and children on physical activity (Z = 2.92; confidence interval [CI] = .09 to .48; p = .002) and on BMI for interventions with children alone (Z = -2.10; CI = -.16 to -.01; p = .02) was significant. A significant effect on physical activity but not on BMI was found when interventions included both parents and their children.
Marine Corps, Washington, DC.
This booklet grew from an idea that the children of Marines might appreciate some special discussion of their family's separation during deployment. Information is provided for parents to help them express their feelings with their children about the deployment. Outlines of activities to do before leaving are included. Suggestions are given for…
Bąk-Sosnowska, Monika; Skrzypulec-Plinta, Violetta
To analyse eating and physical activity preferences among adolescent school children and to compare the teenagers' lifestyle declarations with their parents' beliefs. Unfavorable behavior in eating habits and physical activity may result in serious dysfunctions and diseases, such as eating disorders and incorrect body mass. A retrospective cross-sectional study conducted in 2010-2011. The data was collated from 711 pupils and 266 parents. The survey included questions on: breakfast consumption, types of food eaten for breakfast, time of supper, the daily number of meals, the quantity of fruit and vegetables, food products purchased in the school shop, as well as the type and level of physical activity. In the population of children aged 14-15 years, 10% do not eat 1st breakfast and 15% do not eat 2nd breakfast, 50% eat dairy products for 1st breakfast, 70% have sandwiches for 2nd breakfast, 45% most frequently buy snacks in the school shop, 65% prefer physical activity in the form of team games, and 90% willingly participate in PE classes. The parents' beliefs differ from their children's declarations with regard to: breakfast consumption, the number of meals a day, the quantity of fruit, and participation in PE classes. The lifestyle of the studied adolescents is within the norms recommended for their age group, although there is a tendency to skip breakfast. A positive aspect is the adolescents' engagement in physical activity. Parents underestimate their children's level of physical activity and overestimate their daily number of meals. The study confirms the validity of conducting health education, addressed to both children and their parents, with regard to correct eating habits and physical activity, as well as prevention of eating disorders. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Pontoppidan, Maiken; Hansen, Helle; Deding, Mette
Dette notat er en kort opsamling af den nyeste forskning af effekterne af Multidimension Treatment Foster Care (herefter MTFC). SFI lavede i 2010 en oversigt over forskningen om effekterne af MTFC i forbindelse med udarbejdelsen af en projektbeskrivelse. Dette notat sammenfatter den nyeste...
Bois, Julien; Sarrazin, Philippe; Brustad, Robert; Trouilloud, David; Cury, François
International audience; Objectives. To study the influence of fathers' and mothers' physical activity involvement and perceptions of their children's physical competence upon children's perceptions of competence and children's time spent in physical activity. Two forms of parental socialization influence were assessed: the direct influence of parents' actual physical activity (PA) behaviour (role modelling) on children's physical activity and the indirect influence of parents' beliefs systems...
Lauruschkus, Katarina; Nordmark, Eva; Hallström, Inger
To explore how parents of children with cerebral palsy (CP) experience their child's participation in physical activities and to identify facilitators and barriers for being physically active and reducing sedentary behaviour. Twenty-five parents of sixteen children, aged 8-11 years old with CP, with varying gross motor, cognitive and communicative functions and with different cultural backgrounds, participated in focus group or individual interviews. Content analysis was used for analysis. Five subcategories addressing children's participation in physical activity were found: "Belonging and taking space in the family", "Important persons facilitating and hindering", "Friends important but hard to get", "Good for the body but challenging" and "Availability and opting out possibilities". The subcategories built the main category "Protecting and pushing towards independence", expressing the challenges parents experienced when their child wanted to be physically active. Parents desire competent persons to be available for support in participation in physical activities. They want support in finding friends for their child to be physically active with. Family culture and attitudes affect their child's motivation for being physically active and should be taken into account when designing interventions for increased participation in physical activities and for reduced sedentary behaviour in children with disabilities. Implications for Rehabilitation Friends and competent adults facilitate participation in physical activities and reduce sedentary behaviour. Information on accessible and tailored physical activities is an important facilitator for participation in physical activities. Service planning and design of interventions may be facilitated by taking the individual family culture into account.
Legault, Louise M. R.
's provision of autonomy support and of ecological information, as well as, joint child/parent involvement in ecological activities favored parents' ecological attitudes and motivation. These results were consistent across the experimental and the control groups. Future studies are necessary to identify optimal intervention strategies devised to foster in people a sense of personal responsibility and self-determination that may propel them into action.
Hearld, Larry R; Alexander, Jeffrey A; Mittler, Jessica N
A touted advantage of multisectoral health care alliances is their ability to coordinate diverse constituencies and pursue community health goals in ways that allow them to make greater progress than each constituency could independently. However, participating organizations may have goals that do not entirely overlap or necessarily align with the alliance's goals, which can weaken or undermine an alliance's efforts. Fostering changes within participating organizations in ways that are consistent with the alliance's goals (i.e., alliance-oriented change) may be one mechanism by which alliances can coordinate diverse activities and improve care in their local communities. We examined whether alliance-oriented change within participating organizations is associated with alliance decision-making and conflict management style, level of participation, perceptions of alliance participation benefits and costs, and awareness of alliance activities within participating organizations. The study used two rounds of survey data collected from organizational participants of 14 alliances participating in the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Aligning Forces for Quality program. Alliance participants generally reported low levels of alliance-oriented change within their organizations as a result of the alliance and its activities. However, participants reporting higher levels of internal change in response to alliance activities had more positive perceptions of alliance decision-making style, higher levels of participation in alliance activities, more positive perceptions of alliance participation benefits relative to costs, and greater awareness of alliance activities across multiple levels of their respective organizations. Despite relatively low levels of alliance-oriented change within participating organizations, alliances may still have the means to align the goal orientations of a diverse membership and foster change that may extend the reach of the alliance in the community.
Engr E. Egbochukwu
skill training (SST) in fostering interpersonal behaviour among Nigerian adolescents. ..... communication problems (Akinade, 1988, Aremu, 1998, Ojekunle, 1999, .... Restructuring on the Enhancement of Self Esteem of Visually Impaired.
Full Text Available The transmission of positive values between parents and children is generally considered to be the hallmark of successful socialization. As this issue has been widely discussed but surprisingly little researched - especially with reference to core sport values - in this study we aimed to: 1 analyze adolescent athletes’ acceptance of the sport values their parents want to transmit to them (i.e., parental socialization values and 2 examine the relationship between parental involvement in children’s sportive activity and adolescents’ acceptance of their parents’ socialization values. One hundred and seventy-two Italian adolescents (48.3% male, 51.7% female who regularly practice team sports were asked to fill out a questionnaire which included the Youth Sport Values Questionnaire – 2 and the Parental Involvement in Sport Questionnaire. The dyadic correlations revealed that young athletes are in general willing to accept their parents’ socialization values in regards to sport. Moreover, from the relative weight analysis (a relatively new data analysis strategy, it emerged that parental involvement characterized by praise and understanding is the most important predictor of adolescents’ willingness to accept their parents’ sport values. Implications of these results and further expansion of the study are discussed.
This study examined self-concept, resiliency and social support in 107 children and youth placed in foster care in New York City. Of the children and youth, 55 were placed in family foster care, while the remaining 52 children and youth were placed in a kinship foster home. Significantly more of mothers of the kinship foster care children and…
Full Text Available Research on technology use and access among youth raised in non-traditional family structures indicates that the youth’s experiences are different from individuals raised in traditional family structures. Foster care represents a non-traditional family structure that warrants research attention in terms of technology. Using a multicultural feminist framework, the present study explores the past and present technological experience of a woman (30 years old who was raised in the foster care system. The results are presented as a case study documenting her technological experience in foster care, as she transitioned out of the foster care system, and as she has taken on the roles of wife and mother. Results indicated that the participant had limited access to technology while in the foster care system, and this limited technology access related to her current use and perceptions of technology. Directions for future research are provided.
Glozah, Franklin N; Pevalin, David J
To examine the role of perceived social support and parental education on physical activity and eating behaviour of Ghanaian adolescents. Seven hundred and seventy Senior High School students (504 boys and 266 girls) between the ages of 14-21 years participated by completing questionnaires on perceived social support, physical activity and eating behaviour. The highest education attained by either parent or guardian was also obtained. Multivariate analysis of covariance was the main statistical test used to analyse the data. The results showed significant gender differences in physical activity and eating behaviour combined, with boys more likely to engage in physical activity than girls, and girls also more likely to engage in healthy eating behaviour than boys, albeit the effect was not statistically significant. While perceived social support had a significant positive effect on eating behaviour and physical activity, parental education had a significant effect only on eating behaviour but not physical activity. Perceived social support from family coupled with parental education provides more opportunities for adolescents to engage in healthy eating behaviour. Also, parents' educational attainment alone does not necessarily guarantee that adolescents will engage in physical activity; providing the needed social support and conducive home environment is more likely to induce physical activity behaviours. Finally, physical activity and eating behaviour should not be construed as alternative health behaviours as suggested by gender differentials in these health behaviours.
Rice, Karen; Girvin, Heather; Primak, Sarah
Older youth in foster care are particularly vulnerable because they are poorly prepared for the transition from foster care to independent adulthood. Interventions designed to assist in this transition rarely engage youth directly; plans are made for youth rather than with them. Photographs can serve as an externalised medium for the expression of…
McLoone, J K; Wakefield, C E; Cohn, R J
Starting or returning to school after intense medical treatment can be academically and socially challenging for childhood cancer survivors. This study aimed to evaluate the school (re)entry experience of children who had recently completed cancer treatment. Forty-two semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted to explore parents' perceptions of their child's (re)entry to school after completing treatment (23 mothers, 19 fathers, parent mean age 39.5 years; child mean age 7.76 years). Interviews were analysed using the framework of Miles and Huberman and emergent themes were organised using QSR NVivo8. Parents closely monitored their child's school (re)entry and fostered close relationships with their child's teacher to ensure swift communication of concerns should they arise. The most commonly reported difficulty related to aspects of peer socialisation; survivors either displayed a limited understanding of social rules such as turn taking, or related more to older children or teachers relative to their peers. Additionally, parents placed a strong emphasis on their child's overall personal development, above academic achievement alone. Improved parent, clinician and teacher awareness of the importance of continued peer socialisation during the treatment period is recommended in order to limit the ongoing ramifications this may have on school (re)entry post-treatment completion. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Vanderwert, Ross E; Zeanah, Charles H; Fox, Nathan A; Nelson, Charles A
Extreme social and cognitive deprivation as a result of institutional care has profound effects on developmental outcomes across multiple domains for many abandoned or orphaned children. The Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP) examines the outcomes for children originally placed in institutions who were assessed comprehensively and then randomized to foster care (FCG) or care as usual (CAUG) and followed longitudinally. Here we report on the brain electrical activity (electroencephalogram: EEG) of 12-year-old children enrolled in the BEIP. Previous reports suggested improvement in resting EEG activity for the group of children placed in the foster care intervention, particularly those placed before 24 months of age compared to children who were randomized to CAUG or those placed into families after this age. At 12 years, differences between those in the FCG and those in the CAUG persist in the alpha band (8-13 Hz), but not in higher frequency bands (i.e. in the beta band; 15-30 Hz), except in those children placed into the FCG who remained in high quality care environments over the course of the study. These findings highlight the importance of maintaining a stable high quality caregiving environment, particularly for children exposed to early psychosocial deprivation, for promoting healthy brain development. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
López López, Mónica; Del Valle, Jorge F
The voice of foster families is a valuable tool in the development and improvement of foster family services. Regularly evaluating the satisfaction of foster carers can facilitate the early identification of a range of problems that might pose a risk to the placement. This article reports the experience of 200 Spanish foster families (kinship and non-kinship) with foster services in relation to motivation for becoming foster carers, sources of stress and reward, satisfaction with the services and needs. Semi-structured interviews were performed. The aims of the research are principally of a descriptive character, so each group of variables was examined using frequency analysis. The foster carers interviewed demonstrated a high degree of satisfaction with the foster programs, although some areas seem more problematic, such as financial compensation, information provided about the fostered child, contact with the birth family and the sensitivity of professionals. This study reveals several differences with regard to international literature, that are related to particularities of the Spanish child care system. The results may be extremely useful for the implementation of policy changes which could contribute to raised levels of satisfaction for the foster carers, and increased effectiveness of the programs.
Kestilä, Laura; Koskinen, Seppo; Martelin, Tuija; Rahkonen, Ossi; Pensola, Tiina; Pirkola, Sami; Patja, Kristiina; Aromaa, Arpo
To assess the association of parental education, childhood living conditions and adversities with daily smoking in early adulthood and to analyse the effect of the respondent's own education, main economic activity, and current family structure on these associations. The study is based on a representative two-stage cluster sample (N = 1894, participation rate 79%) of young adults aged 18-29, in 2000, in Finland. The outcome measure is daily smoking. Parental smoking and the respondent's own education had the strongest effects on daily smoking. If both parents of the respondent were smokers, then the respondent was most likely to be a smoker too (for men OR (odds ratio) = 3.01, for women OR = 2.41 after all adjustments). Young adults in the lowest educational category had a much higher risk of daily smoking than those in the highest category (OR = 5.88 for women, 4.48 for men). For women parental divorce (OR = 2.31) and current family structure also determined daily smoking. Parental education had a strong gradient in daily smoking and the effect appeared to be mediated largely by the respondent's own educational level. Childhood living conditions are strong determinants of daily smoking. Much of their influence seems to be mediated through current living conditions, which are also determined by childhood conditions. Determinants of smoking behaviour are developed throughout the life course. The findings stress the importance of the respondent's education and parental smoking as determinants of smoking behaviour. Our results support the notion that intervention on smoking initiation and cessation should be considered throughout the life course. Parental involvement in fostering non-smoking would be important.
Else-Quest, Nicole M; Morse, Emily
Achievement of a positive ethnic identity has been linked to positive outcomes for ethnic minority youth and is fostered by parental ethnic socialization practices. In light of findings of variability in developmental trajectories and outcomes, we examined ethnic group variations in parents' ethnic socialization practices and adolescents' ethnic identity. Within a sample of 370 adolescents who self-identified as White, African American, Latino/a, or Asian American, and their parents, parental ethnic socialization practices (including preparation for bias, promotion of mistrust, and cultural socialization) and adolescent ethnic identity development (including identity exploration and commitment) were assessed at 10th and 11th grades. Consistent with predictions, African American youth reported higher levels of ethnic identity exploration and commitment than youth from other ethnic groups, and parents of African American youth tended to report higher levels of ethnic socialization than other parents. Parental cultural socialization significantly predicted adolescent ethnic identity exploration and commitment 1 year later; ethnicity did not moderate this link. Findings are discussed in the context of the schools and urban community from which the sample was recruited, highlighting the importance of sociocultural context in development. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
...-0089'' in any correspondence. During the comment period, comments may be viewed online through the FDMS... use of other forms of information technology. Title: Statement of Dependency of Parent(s), VA Form 21... injuries and depends on his or her parent(s) for support complete VA Form 21-509 to report income and...
... No. 2900-0089'' in any correspondence. During the comment period, comments may be viewed online... use of other forms of information technology. Title: Statement of Dependency of Parent(s), VA Form 21... injuries and depends on his or her parent(s) for support complete VA Form 21-509 to report income and...
Youth mental health disorders are rising across the world. Mindful Parenting could be a potential tool to promote youth mental health. The primary distinction between Mindful Parenting programs and other behavioral parenting programs is the focus on emotional literacy and compassion. However, this emerging field has gaps in its theory and evidence. In order to objectively evaluate the impact of Mindful Parenting, it is important to identify how it promotes change. This theoretical paper aims to articulate the key change processes of Mindful Parenting that promote positive outcomes. A literature review was conducted to synthesize the change processes outlined by different authors in the field. Key processes argued to promote Mindful Parenting were aligned with five main categories, namely attention, intention, attitude, attachment and emotion. More specifically the change processes were listening, emotional awareness, emotional regulation, attentional regulation, attunement, attention to variability, intentionality, reperceiving, compassion and non-judgmental acceptance. This preliminary analysis attempted to understand how Mindful Parenting fosters change and transformation. Whilst there are numerous change processes, the essence of Mindful Parenting appears to be the ability to be responsive to a child's needs. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2016.
Zhou, Chunfang; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard; Kolmos, Anette
In recent years, Problem and Project Based Learning (PBL) has been employed by a growing number of educational institutions to foster creative engineers. This paper aims to explore how PBL can develop creativity in engineering education. Accordingly, a qualitative case study was carried out...... with a student satellite project (AAUSAT3) in the department of electronic systems at Aalborg University in Denmark. Multiple methods including interviews and observation were employed. The analysis of the empirical data leads to the findings and discussions that PBL can foster creative engineers by providing...... conditions of problem analysis and solving, the shift from teaching to learning and team based projects. This research therefore contributes to both theory and practice in the PBL setting of engineering education....
Lippold, Melissa A; Davis, Kelly D; McHale, Susan M; Almeida, David M
Considerable evidence documents linkages between parental knowledge of youth activities and youth risky behavior. We extended this research to determine whether parental knowledge was associated with youth physical health, including reports of physical symptoms (e.g., headaches, stomachaches) and a biomarker of hypothalamic pituitary adrenocortical (HPA) axis functioning (i.e., salivary cortisol levels). Participants were children of employees in the Information Technology division of a Fortune 500 company (N = 132, mean age youth = 13.39 years, 55% female) who participated in a daily diary study. Data were collected via telephone calls on 8 consecutive evenings. On 4 study days, cortisol samples were collected at 4 time points (waking, 30 min after waking, before dinner, bedtime). Multilevel models revealed that, at the between-person level, youth whose parents had higher average knowledge about their activities, exhibited lower bedtime cortisol levels. Furthermore, at the within-person level, on days when parents displayed more knowledge than usual (relative to their own 8-day average), youth had lower before-dinner cortisol than usual. Linkages between average parental knowledge and physical health symptoms were moderated by youth age: Younger but not older adolescents whose parents were more knowledgeable had fewer physical health symptoms, on average. A next step is to identify the processes that underlie these associations. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Physical activity (PA is associated with health benefits, already in childhood. However, little is known about actual levels, patterns and gender differences in PA level in very young children. This study examines Chinese one-year-old children and their parents' PA levels and patterns, and assesses the correlations between children's PA level and gender, body mass index standard deviation score (BMI SDS, parental BMI and parental PA level.Data from 123 families participating in the Early STOPP China study were used. Families were recruited based on parental BMI and were classified as either high-risk or low-risk of obesity. Parents and children wore an ActiGraph GT3X+ to assess the average PA levels. PA levels and hourly patterns during weekdays and weekends were examined as were correlations with gender, BMI SDS, parental BMI and parental PA levels.There were no significant differences in children's averaged PA between risk groups, genders, or between weekdays and weekends. Children's peak average activity level was at 7 pm and they were least active at 3 pm (p<0.001. Both mothers and fathers demonstrated a similar PA pattern as their children, although paternal PA level was consistently lower than that of mothers and children. No significant association was found between children's PA and their gender, BMI SDS, parental BMI or paternal PA levels. Maternal PA was found positively associated with child PA (p<0.05.PA in one-year-old Chinese children vary over the day but weekdays and weekends are similar. At this age, children's PA is not related to gender, BMI SDS, parental BMI or paternal PA. Larger scale studies with more contextual information are needed to improve the understanding of our findings.
Full Text Available Parents play a critical role in developing and shaping their children’s physical activity (PA and sedentary behaviours, particularly in the early years of life. The aim of this systematic review is to identify current literature investigating associations of parental influences with both PA and screen time in young children. This systematic review was conducted in November 2013 using 6 electronic databases covering research literature from January 1998 to November 2013. Thirty articles that met inclusion criteria were identified. These studies covered five important aspects of parenting: (1 parenting practices; (2 parents’ role modelling; (3 parental perceptions of children’s PA and screen viewing behaviours; (4 parental self-efficacy; and (5 general parenting style. Findings suggest that parents’ encouragement and support can increase children’s PA, and reducing parents’ own screen time can lead to decreased child screen time. Improving parenting practices, parental self-efficacy or changing parenting style may also be promising approaches to increasing PA time and decreasing screen time of young children.
N. L. Antonova
Full Text Available Introduction. Early school education as a beginning stage of an individual’s educational trajectory fosters an enabling environment for a child’s personal, physical, intellectual and moral development. A productive interaction between pre-school educational organizations and parents is known to play the key role in the mentioned process.Aim. Based on the empirical-sociological materials of the research, this paper is aimed to identify specific features of interaction between parents and teachers as subjects of the system of early childhood education in large industrial cities.Methodology and research methods. The empirical basis of the research was a questionnaire survey conducted among parents (n=220, whose children attended pre-school institutions in Yekaterinburg, and semi-structured interviews with early school teachers (n=30. The teachers were interviewed using the method of systematic sampling. Results and scientific novelty. A serious divergence was identified with regard to how parents and teachers understand the goal of early school education. The social demand of parents consists in preservation and strengthening of physical health of the child, and teachers consider the development of pupils’ abilities as their main task. The research revealed the main topic for discussion between parents and teachers to be organizational issues (due payments, leaving children in the morning, etc.. The conclusion is drawn that passive acceptance of the current situation prevails in teacher-parent interaction, rather than an active attitude to realization of the principles of partnership and cooperation. Parents’ tight schedules become an impediment for building of partner relationship with their children’s teachers and eventually prevent collaborative interaction between the two sides. Nevertheless, parents are shown to trust teachers and recognize the teachers’ professionalism. This circumstance is seen as a founding principle for
Full Text Available Introduction: A research has been done in pre-school institutions of Montenegro and Serb Republic whose aim was to get directions for improvement of physical education in pre-school institutions as well as for taking measures in order to educate parents of the children attending those institutions in the sense of improving knowledge on importance of physical activity for growth and development of pre-school children through monitoring and insight into attitudes of parents on physical activity of their children. Problem of this research is consisted of an attempt to use the parents` attitudes to estimate how active their children are within the time period when there are not on the pre-school institutions. Methods: The research was done by the poll method of anonymous questionnaire, with was filled by parents of the children attending pre-school institutions in Montenegro and Serb Republic. Sample of the examinees from Montenegro was made of 1356 of parents of the pre-school children attending pre-school institutions from all three Montenegrin regions. Sample of the examinees from the Serb Republic was made of 386 parents of the pre-school children attending pre-school institutions. Aim of the research was consisted of estimation of the parents` attitudes on volume and features of the physical activity of their children and of attempt to use the given data to take certain measures on the base of which their physical activities would be optimized. For this poll, a specially structured questionnaire for this purpose was used, in which the questions were set into groups with the aim of estimating features of physical activity of the pre-school children. Results: For the statistics processing methods of descriptive statistics were used, which were used for numerical and percent presentation of frequency of some answers of the examinees, and the answers were presented comparatively in tables for both samples. Results of this research indicate to trend
Norman, Åsa; Berlin, Anita; Sundblom, Elinor; Elinder, Liselotte Schäfer; Nyberg, Gisela
Dietary habits and physical activity are often the focus of obesity prevention programmes and involving parents in such programmes has proven to be effective. The aims of this study were to describe parents' concerns about their children's diet and physical activity habits and to describe barriers to change. The study used archival data gathered unobtrusively in the form of memos taken after sessions of Motivational Interviewing as part of the parental support programme, A Healthy School Start. The 74 MI-sessions were conducted from October 2010 to April 2011 with either a mother or father or both, all with children in pre-school class. Thematic analysis was applied. Three themes were identified regarding children's dietary habits: amount of food consumed influenced by behaviour in the family, eating situations influenced by stressful everyday life and family interplay, and food choices influenced by stressful everyday life and family interplay. One theme appeared regarding physical activity: physical activity influenced by stressful everyday life and family interplay. Family interplay appears to be an important link between the work-life stress perceived by parents and less healthy food and physical activity habits in the home. Both lack of parental cooperation and negative parent-child interactions may act as barriers to healthy eating and physical activity and should be addressed in future intervention studies on health-related behaviours of children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Park, Yoonjung; Lee-Kim, Jennie; Killen, Melanie; Park, Kyoungja; Kim, Jihyun
Korean children's evaluations of parental restrictions of children's activities based on gender stereotypic expectations were investigated. Third and sixth grade Korean (N = 128) children evaluated scenarios in which a boy or girl desired to play ballet or soccer. Participants used stereotypes to support children's desires to play…
Jones, Loring P
Research findings have developed a troubling narrative of youth leaving foster care. Congress attempted to address the post-discharge difficulties of foster youth by passing the Independent Living Initiative in 1986, which mandated that the states develop services that would prepare youth for life after foster care. However, it is unclear what effect these programs have on post-foster care trajectories. This largely qualitative study examined the perceptions of a sample of discharged foster six months after leaving care. Most youth felt prepared for life and foster care. They were also for the most part were satisfied with their independent living program, but had significant dissatisfactions with elements of the program. These satisfactions and dissatisfactions are reported along with suggestions for improvement. The policy and practice implications of these suggestions are considered.
Greer, Renada D.
Foster care youth face significant challenges to postsecondary educational success, especially while enrolled at four-year institutions. Foster care youth are absent of family support that their non-foster peers receive throughout the college experience. Without family support, foster care youth encounter greater challenges to persevere through…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many children do not meet physical activity guidelines. Parents and friends are likely to influence children's physical activity but there is a shortage of measures that are able to capture these influences. Methods A new questionnaire with the following three scales was developed: 1 Parental influence on physical activity; 2 Motives for activity with friends scale; and 3 Physical activity and sedentary group normative values. Content for each scale was informed by qualitative work. One hundred and seventy three, 10-11 year old children completed the new questionnaire twice, one week apart. Participants also wore an accelerometer for 5 days and mean minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity, light physical activity and sedentary time per day were obtained. Test-retest reliability of the items was calculated and Principal Component analysis of the scales performed and sub-scales produced. Alphas were calculated for main scales and sub-scales. Correlations were calculated among sub-scales. Correlations between each sub-scale and accelerometer physical activity variables were calculated for all participants and stratified by sex. Results The Parental influence scale yielded four factors which accounted for 67.5% of the variance in the items and had good (α > 0.7 internal consistency. The Motives for physical activity scale yielded four factors that accounted for 66.1% and had good internal consistency. The Physical activity norms scale yielded 4 factors that accounted for 67.4% of the variance, with good internal consistency for the sub-scales and alpha of .642 for the overall scale. Associations between the sub-scales and physical activity differed by sex. Although only 6 of the 11 sub-scales were significantly correlated with physical activity there were a number of associations that were positively correlated >0.15 indicating that these factors may contribute to the explanation of children's physical activity
Kim, Hyoun K; Buchanan, Rohanna; Price, Joseph M
Substance use problems are highly prevalent among youth in foster care. Such problems in adolescence have long-lasting implications for subsequent adjustment throughout adulthood and even across generations. Although several programs have demonstrated positive results in reducing substance use in at-risk youth, few studies have systemically examined how such programs work for foster youth and whether they are effective for both genders. This study examined the efficacy of KEEP SAFE, a family-based and skill-focused program designed to prevent substance use and other related health risking behaviors among youth in foster care. We hypothesized that improving the caregiver-youth relationship would lead to later reductions in youths' involvement with deviant peers, which subsequently would lead to less substance use, and that this mechanism would work comparably for both genders. A sample of 259 youth (154 girls, ages 11-17 years) in foster care and their caregivers participated in a randomized controlled trial and was followed for 18 months post-baseline. Results indicated that the intervention significantly reduced substance use in foster youth at 18 months post-baseline and that the intervention influenced substance use through two processes: youths' improved quality of relationships with caregivers at 6 months post-baseline and fewer associations with deviant peers at 12 months post-baseline. This suggests that these two processes may be fruitful immediate targets in substance use prevention programs for foster youth. We also found little gender differences in direct and mediating effects of the intervention, suggesting KEEP SAFE may be effective for both genders in foster care.
White, Catherine Roller; O'Brien, Kirk; Pecora, Peter J.; English, Diana; Williams, Jason R.; Phillips, Chereese M.
The Northwest Foster Care Alumni Study examined the relation between experiences in foster care and depression among young adults who spent at least a year in foster care as adolescents. Results indicate that preparation for leaving foster care, nurturing supports from the foster family, school stability, access to tutoring, access to therapeutic…
Susan Sonnenschein; Claudia Galindo; Shari R. Metzger; Joy A. Thompson; Hui Chih Huang; Heather Lewis
This study explored associations between parents’ beliefs about children’s development and children’s reported math activities at home. Seventy-three parents were interviewed about the frequency of their children’s participation in a broad array of math activities, the importance of children doing math activities at home, how children learn math, parents’ role in their children’s math learning, and parents’ own math skills. Although the sample consisted of African Americans, Chinese, Latino, ...
Rees, Alyson; Holland, Sally; Pithouse, Andrew
This study explores the significance of food and mealtimes in relation to the transition into foster care and the therapeutic settling of the child in a new family. In doing so, we draw upon an in-depth, qualitative case study of 10 experienced foster families in the UK focusing on what helped them to be successful. At the time of the study, there…
Vanderwerker, Lauren; Akincigil, Ayse; Olfson, Mark; Gerhard, Tobias; Neese-Todd, Sheree; Crystal, Stephen
The authors investigated the extent to which clinical diagnoses of externalizing disorders explain higher rates of antipsychotic use by foster care youths. Medicaid claims data from 44 states for 2009 for youths in foster care (N=301,894) and those not in foster care (N=5,092,574) were analyzed, excluding those with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, autism, and major depressive disorder. Logistic regressions assessed the relationship between foster care, externalizing disorders, and antipsychotic use. Foster care youths had higher rates of externalizing disorders than the comparison group (attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, 17.3% versus 6.5%; disruptive behavior disorder, 7.2% versus 2.5%; conduct disorder, 2.3% versus .5%) and greater antipsychotic use (7.4% versus 1.4%). Foster care remained a significant predictor of antipsychotic use after control for demographic and diagnostic covariates, including externalizing disorders (adjusted odds ratio=2.59, 95% confidence interval=2.54-2.63). High rates of externalizing disorder diagnoses only partially explained elevated levels of antipsychotic use in this vulnerable population.
Beecher, G P
Every year, the ODA's Economics of Practice Committee, with the help of an independent consulting firm, carries out the Cost of Practice Monitor which tracks the various costs of running a dental practice in Ontario. This article is the result of a joint ODA-Arthur Andersen initiative to provide members with detailed information from the Monitor. Over the next year, there will be a series of articles published under the heading "Best practises for Ontario's Dental Practices." The article featured in this issue focuses on wage expenses in dental practices and how to foster employee involvement as a means of addressing cost-productivity issues. Furthermore, information relating to wage expenses may be used by practitioners to benchmark their practice against the average Ontario dental practice. Appendix C was developed for this purpose. Through benchmarking, the practitioner may gain insight into ways of evaluating their practice and in addressing issues that could improve the management of the practice. For a long time, concepts of best business practises were applied only to manufacturing organizations or large multi-national corporations but experience has demonstrated that these activities are universal to all organizations, including service companies, schools, government and not-for-profit organizations.
This paper mainly introduces students＇ interest＇ fostering and stimulating. First, it tells the importance of interest in learning by citing the famous person＇ s word. Then it turns to the some knowledge that we should pay attention to in fostering students＇ interest. Then it is about the introduction to the principles that we should adhere to in fostering students＇ interest. Last, it draws to a conclusion, and once again, it tells us the importance of interest in classroom teaching.
Johnson, Sara B; Pryce, Julia M
This study utilized secondary data analysis to examine therapeutic mentoring (TM) as a service intervention in helping to reduce trauma symptoms in foster youth. Outcomes were compared for mentored (n = 106) and non-mentored (n = 156) foster youth related to experience and symptoms of trauma. Results showed that mentored youth improved significantly in the reduction of trauma symptoms relative to non-mentored youth, suggesting that TM shows promise as an important treatment intervention for foster youth with trauma experiences.
A reduction in academic achievement over the course of adolescence has been observed. School failure is characterized by difficulties to teaching school goals. A variety of other behavioral problems are often associated with school failure. Child-to-parent violence has been associated with different school problems. The main objective of current study was to examine the contribution of family variables (parental education level, family cohesion, and positive family discipline) on academic failure and child-to-parent violence of adolescents from a community sample. Moreover, a goal was to explore if academic failure was a valid predictor of child-to-parent violence. To this end, it has been developed a comprehensive statistical model through Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Participants were 584 children from eight secondary schools in the Basque Country (Spain) and aged between 12 and 18. Among other scales Conflict Tactics Scale and Family Environment Scale were administrated for measuring child-to-parent violence and family cohesion environment, respectively. The structural model revealed that parental education level is a relevant protective factor against academic failure. Positive family discipline (inductive discipline, supervision, and penalty) show a significant association with child-to-parent violence and academic failure. Disciplinary practices could be more efficient to prevent child-to-parent violence or school failure if children perceive a positive environment in their home. However, these findings could be explained by inverse causality, because some parents respond to child-to-parent violence or academic failure with disciplinary strategies. School failure had indirect effects on child-to-parent violence through family cohesion. For all that, education policies should focus on parental education courses for disadvantaged families in order to generate appropriate learning environments at home and to foster improvement of parent
O'Connor, Teresia M; Cerin, Ester; Hughes, Sheryl O; Robles, Jessica; Thompson, Deborah I; Mendoza, Jason A; Baranowski, Tom; Lee, Rebecca E
Latino preschoolers (3-5 year old children) have among the highest rates of obesity. Low levels of physical activity (PA) are a risk factor for obesity. Characterizing what Latino parents do to encourage or discourage their preschooler to be physically active can help inform interventions to increase their PA. The objective was therefore to develop and assess the psychometrics of a new instrument: the Preschooler Physical Activity Parenting Practices (PPAPP) among a Latino sample, to assess parenting practices used to encourage or discourage PA among preschool-aged children. Cross-sectional study of 240 Latino parents who reported the frequency of using PA parenting practices. 95% of respondents were mothers; 42% had more than a high school education. Child mean age was 4.5 (±0.9) years (52% male). Test-retest reliability was assessed in 20%, 2 weeks later. We assessed the fit of a priori models using Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA). In a separate sub-sample (35%), preschool-aged children wore accelerometers to assess associations with their PA and PPAPP subscales. The a-priori models showed poor fit to the data. A modified factor structure for encouraging PPAPP had one multiple-item scale: engagement (15 items), and two single-items (have outdoor toys; not enroll in sport-reverse coded). The final factor structure for discouraging PPAPP had 4 subscales: promote inactive transport (3 items), promote screen time (3 items), psychological control (4 items) and restricting for safety (4 items). Test-retest reliability (ICC) for the two scales ranged from 0.56-0.85. Cronbach's alphas ranged from 0.5-0.9. Several sub-factors correlated in the expected direction with children's objectively measured PA. The final models for encouraging and discouraging PPAPP had moderate to good fit, with moderate to excellent test-retest reliabilities. The PPAPP should be further evaluated to better assess its associations with children's PA and offers a new tool for measuring PPAPP
Bellows, Laura; Silvernail, Sara; Caldwell, Lisa; Bryant, Angela; Kennedy, Cathy; Davies, Patricia; Anderson, Jennifer
Childhood obesity is among the leading health concerns in the United States. The relationship between unmet physical activity needs in young children is of particular interest as the trend in childhood obesity continues to rise and unmet physical activity needs are identified. The preschool years are an influential time in promoting healthful lifestyle habits and early childhood interventions may help establish lifelong healthful behaviors which could help prevent obesity later in life. The Food Friends®: Get Movin' with Mighty Moves® is a preschool physical activity program which aims to improve children's gross motor skills and physical activity levels. The home environment and parental modeling are critical factors related to child physical activity in this population. The parent component, Mighty Moves®: Fun Ways to Keep Families Active and Healthy, was designed to address barriers in the home environment that lead to unmet physical activity needs in preschoolers and their families. The program and materials were designed based on Social Marketing tenets and Social Learning Theory principles. Four Colorado Head Start centers were assigned to an experimental group as part of the Mighty Moves® group randomized trial. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation methods were used to determine what messages and materials reached and motivated the target audience to increase physical activity levels. Results of the study indicated the program's materials helped families and children to be more physically active. Additionally, materials and material dissemination were revised to enhance program goals.
Sterdt, Elena; Pape, Natalie; Kramer, Silke; Liersch, Sebastian; Urban, Michael; Werning, Rolf; Walter, Ulla
Preschool can have positive effects on the development of a healthy lifestyle. The present study analysed to what extent different conditions, structures and behavioural models in preschool and family-children's central social microsystems-can lead to differences in children's health resources. Using a cross-sectional mixed methods approach, contrast analyses of "preschools with systematic physical activity programmes" versus "preschools without physical activity programmes" were conducted to assess the extent to which children's physical activity, quality of life and social behaviour differ between preschools with systematic and preschools without physical activity programmes. Differences in children's physical activity according to parental behaviour were likewise assessed. Data on child-related outcomes and parent-related factors were collected via parent questionnaires and child interviews. A qualitative focused ethnographic study was performed to obtain deeper insight into the quantitative survey data. Two hundred and twenty seven (227) children were interviewed at 21 preschools with systematic physical activity programmes, and 190 at 25 preschools without physical activity programmes. There was no significant difference in children's physical activity levels between the two preschool types (p = 0.709). However, the qualitative data showed differences in the design and quality of programmes to promote children's physical activity. Data triangulation revealed a strong influence of parental behaviour. The triangulation of methods provided comprehensive insight into the nature and extent of physical activity programmes in preschools and made it possible to capture the associations between systematic physical activity promotion and children's health resources in a differential manner.
This article uses data on couples from the 2000 UK Time Use Survey (N=610) to analyze how social position influences parents' leisure activities with children. The study is the first using representative data to investigate this fundamental question to understand social inequalities in family life and children's life chances. Results reveal that social position intersects with gender in influencing parent-child leisure activities with implications on children's cultural capital. Three are the main findings: (1) social position has significant positive effects on cultural activities with children and negative on parent-child television watching among mothers, but moderate differences are observed for fathers; (2) father-child leisure is strongly influenced by the spouse's social position, but not mother-child leisure; (3) education and social class show complex differences in affecting parent-child leisure, suggesting that future studies should include these two variables when analyzing parent-child time and family life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Huang, Qi; Zhang, Xiao; Liu, Yingyi; Yang, Wen; Song, Zhanmei
Background: A growing body of recent research has shown that parent-child mathematical activities have a strong effect on children's mathematical learning. However, this research was conducted predominantly in Western societies and focused mainly on mothers' involvement in such activities. Aims: This study aimed to examine both mother-child and…
Critelli, Filomena M.
Using a telephone survey, this study examined the experiences of 100 foster mothers who receive aid through Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF). Foster mothers reported numerous difficulties with TANF, including frequent sanctions and case closings, limited work and training opportunities, and pervasive material hardships. Foster…
Perez, Beatrix F.; Romo, Harriett D.
Youth exiting foster care often experience difficulties transitioning into adulthood. This paper focuses on Latino foster care youth in a major southwestern U.S. city and addresses the importance of peer networks as a crucial form of social capital as youth leave foster care. Case studies illustrate experiences of foster care alumni ranging in age…
Glozah, Franklin N
The type of parental child-rearing practices used by parents and guardians substantially influence children's self-esteem and consequently their decision to engage in alcohol use, its abuse. The aim of this study was to explore the role of self-esteem and parenting patterns on alcohol use and abuse among adolescents. Three hundred and sixteen boys and girls in Senior High Schools completed self-report questionnaires assessing self-esteem, parenting patterns and alcohol use and abuse. The results showed that while girls reported lesser self-esteem than boys, boys reported higher levels of alcohol use and abuse than girls. Also, authoritative parenting pattern had a positive effect on self-esteem and a negative effect on alcohol use. On the other hand, authoritarian and permissive parenting patterns had negative effects on self-esteem and positive effects on alcohol use, with slight variations. These results provide valuable information regarding strategies aimed at fostering parent-child relationship and rapport with the ultimate aim of bolstering the self-esteem of adolescents to subsequently eschew insalubrious behaviour, particularly alcohol use and abuse.
Franklin N. Glozah
Full Text Available The type of parental child-rearing practices used by parents and guardians substantially influence children’s self-esteem and consequently their decision to engage in alcohol use, its abuse. The aim of this study was to explore the role of self-esteem and parenting patterns on alcohol use and abuse among adolescents. Three hundred and sixteen boys and girls in Senior High Schools completed self-report questionnaires assessing self-esteem, parenting patterns and alcohol use and abuse. The results showed that while girls reported lesser self-esteem than boys, boys reported higher levels of alcohol use and abuse than girls. Also, authoritative parenting pattern had a positive effect on self-esteem and a negative effect on alcohol use. On the other hand, authoritarian and permissive parenting patterns had negative effects on self-esteem and positive effects on alcohol use, with slight variations. These results provide valuable information regarding strategies aimed at fostering parent-child relationship and rapport with the ultimate aim of bolstering the self-esteem of adolescents to subsequently eschew insalubrious behaviour, particularly alcohol use and abuse.
Glozah, Franklin N.
The type of parental child-rearing practices used by parents and guardians substantially influence children’s self-esteem and consequently their decision to engage in alcohol use, its abuse. The aim of this study was to explore the role of self-esteem and parenting patterns on alcohol use and abuse among adolescents. Three hundred and sixteen boys and girls in Senior High Schools completed self-report questionnaires assessing self-esteem, parenting patterns and alcohol use and abuse. The results showed that while girls reported lesser self-esteem than boys, boys reported higher levels of alcohol use and abuse than girls. Also, authoritative parenting pattern had a positive effect on self-esteem and a negative effect on alcohol use. On the other hand, authoritarian and permissive parenting patterns had negative effects on self-esteem and positive effects on alcohol use, with slight variations. These results provide valuable information regarding strategies aimed at fostering parent-child relationship and rapport with the ultimate aim of bolstering the self-esteem of adolescents to subsequently eschew insalubrious behaviour, particularly alcohol use and abuse. PMID:26973951
Hawk, Skyler T; Keijsers, Loes; Hale, William W; Meeus, Wim
Privacy coordination between adolescents and their parents is difficult, as adolescents' changing roles require adjustments to expectations about family boundaries. Adolescents' perceptions of privacy invasion likely provoke conflicts with parents, but higher levels of conflict may also foster invasion perceptions. This longitudinal study assessed relations between privacy invasion and conflict frequency among adolescents, mothers, and fathers (N = 309). Bidirectional relations were present; all reports showed that invasion provoked conflict in later adolescence, but the timing and direction of conflict-to-invasion relations differed between respondents and measurement waves. The findings suggest a functional role for conflict in adolescent-parent privacy negotiations, in that it both draws attention to discrepant expectations and provides youths with a means of directly managing perceived boundary violations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).
King, Bryn; Van Wert, Melissa
Placement into foster care is driven by a number of factors, many of which are associated with adolescent childbirth. Yet, there are few studies that identify the experiences and characteristics that predict adolescent childbirth among girls who spend time in foster care. A longitudinal, population-based data set was constructed by probabilistically matching California child protective service records for female foster youth to maternal information available on vital birth records for children born between 2001 and 2010. Rates of childbirth among girls in foster care after their 10th birthday were generated. Chi-square tests assessed differences and survival models were specified to determine the rate of childbearing across key characteristics. Among the 30,339 girls who spent time in foster care as adolescents, 18.3% (5,567) gave birth for the first time before their 20th birthday. At a bivariate level, significant differences (p foster care placement experiences. In the fully adjusted survival model, the highest birth rates were observed among girls who entered care between ages 13 and 16 years; had been in care for relatively short periods of time; lived in congregate care at the estimated date of conception; had a history of running away; and were Latina, black, or Native American. The results suggest that there are identifiable risk factors associated with early childbirth among girls in foster care, which can help determine the timing and location of reproductive health services to minimize unintended pregnancy and maximize adolescent health and well-being. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Albrecht, Lauren; Scott, Shannon D.; Hartling, Lisa
Background An emerging field of knowledge translation (KT) research has begun to focus on health consumers, particularly in child health. KT tools provide health consumers with research knowledge to inform health decision-making and may foster ‘effective consumers’. Thus, the purpose of this scoping review was to describe the state of the field of previously published effectiveness research on child health-related KT tools for parents/caregivers to understand the evidence-base, identify gaps,...
Rasmussen, Eric C.; White, Shawna R.; King, Andy J.; Holiday, Steven; Densley, Rebecca L.
Many parents fail to interact with their children regularly about media content and past research has identified few predictors of parents' engagement in parental mediation behaviors. This correlational study explored the relationship between parents' critical thinking about media and parents' provision of both active and restrictive mediation of…
Bennett, Pamela R.; Lutz, Amy; Jayaram, Lakshmi
We investigate cultural and structural sources of class differences in youth activity participation with interview, survey, and archival data. We find working- and middle-class parents overlap in parenting logics about participation, though differ in one respect: middle-class parents are concerned with customizing children’s involvement in activities, while working-class parents are concerned with achieving safety and social mobility for children through participation. Second, because of financial constraints, working-class families rely on social institutions for participation opportunities, but few are available. Schools act as an equalizing institution by offering low-cost activities, allowing working-class children to resemble middle-class youth in school activities, but they remain disadvantaged in out-of-school activities. School influences are complex, however, as they also contribute to class differences by offering different activities to working- and middle-class youth. Findings raise questions about the extent to which differences in participation reflect class culture rather than the objective realities parents face. PMID:25328250
Bennett, Pamela R; Lutz, Amy; Jayaram, Lakshmi
We investigate cultural and structural sources of class differences in youth activity participation with interview, survey, and archival data. We find working- and middle-class parents overlap in parenting logics about participation, though differ in one respect: middle-class parents are concerned with customizing children's involvement in activities, while working-class parents are concerned with achieving safety and social mobility for children through participation. Second, because of financial constraints, working-class families rely on social institutions for participation opportunities, but few are available. Schools act as an equalizing institution by offering low-cost activities, allowing working-class children to resemble middle-class youth in school activities, but they remain disadvantaged in out-of-school activities. School influences are complex, however, as they also contribute to class differences by offering different activities to working- and middle-class youth. Findings raise questions about the extent to which differences in participation reflect class culture rather than the objective realities parents face.
Day, Angelique; Curtis, Amy; Paul, Rajib; Allotey, Prince Addo; Crosby, Shantel
To evaluate the impact of a policy change for older foster care youth from a fee-for-service (FFS) Medicaid program to health maintenance organization (HMO) providers on the timeliness of first well-child visits (health care physicals). A three-year retrospective study using linked administrative data collected by the Michigan Departments of Human Services and Community Health of 1,657 youth, ages 10-20 years, who were in foster care during the 2009-2012 study period was used to examine the odds of receiving a timely well-child visit within the recommended 30-day time frame controlling for race, age, days from foster care entry to Medicaid enrollment, and number of foster care placements. Youth entering foster care during the HMO period were more likely to receive a timely well-child visit than those in the FFS period (odds ratio, 2.46; 95% confidence interval, 1.84-3.29; p foster care during the FFS period to 29 days for the HMO period. Among the other factors examined, more than 14 days to Medicaid enrollment, being non-Hispanic black and having five or more placements were negatively associated with receipt of a timely first well-child visit. Those youth who entered foster care during the HMO period had significantly greater odds of receiving a timely first well-child visit; however, disparities in access to preventive health care remain a concern for minority foster care youth, those who experience delayed Medicaid enrollment and those who experienced multiple placements. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wilson, Bianca DM; Cooper, Khush; Kastanis, Angeliki; Nezhad, Sheila
LGBTQ foster youth are twice as likely to report poor treatment and more likely to live in group homes and to have more foster care placements. Approximately 1 in 5, or 1,400 foster youth in Los Angeles County, home to the nation’s largest population of foster youth, identify as LGBTQ. The finding is twice the estimated percentage of youth not in foster care who are LGBTQ. Generally, LGBTQ foster youth mirror the racial/ethnic demographic of all foster youth in Los Angeles County. The majorit...
Full Text Available Abstract. There are many innovative products fail to reach minimum critical mass adopter and cease to exist. New financial technology products are not an exception because the current financial technology to facilitate transactions, whether payment, investment, and insurance still function remarkably well. Since new financial technology products have features to better serve low to middle-level customers in the form of higher convenience level and lower costs than the current financial technology products, the initiatives to ensure their success is imperative. Thus, the purpose of this study is to present propositions based on a literature review to encourage companies to simultaneously have two competencies, first competencies in new product development and second, competencies to foster and collaborate with other companies in within and across business ecosystems. The implications of this paper are companies with higher competencies to foster and collaborate with other companies, even though they start with relatively basic innovative product, have higher probability to reach minimum critical mass of adopter and higher probability to become leader in their business ecosystem and government need to maintain their active role to foster collaboration within and across business ecosystem. Keywords: Business ecosystem, business ecosystems leader, collaboration, fintech (financial technology, new product development.
Chęć, Magdalena; Potemkowski, Andrzej; Wąsik, Marta; Samochowiec, Agnieszka
A better functioning of adolescents involves proper relationships with parents, whereas negative relationships lead to aggressive behaviour. Young members of Emo subculture, characterised by deep emotional sensitivity, are particularly vulnerable to parental influence. The aim was to specify a relationship between parental attitudes and aggression among adolescents from the Emo subculture in comparison with a control group. 3,800 lower secondary school students took part in the introductory research. A target group constituted 41 people from the Emo subculture as well as a control group involving 48 people. A screening survey, the Parental Attitudes Scale, the Aggression Questionnaire and the author's questionnaire including questions concerning the functioning in the Emo subculture were used in the study. The results obtained in the research study suggest that there is a relationship between the indicated improper parental attitudes and aggressive behaviour among adolescents from the Emo subculture in comparison with the control group. In the Emo subculture, teenagers'aggressive behaviour is related to improper parental attitudes. It has been stated that mother's attitudes, irrespective of subculture, are much more strongly associated with the aggression among adolescents than father's attitudes. Moreover, aggressive behaviour in the Emo subculture occurs when father displays an excessively demanding attitude. A reduction of the level of almost all kinds of aggression manifested among teenagers from the Emo subculture is associated with mothers' attitude of acceptance. Mothers' autonomous attitude leads to an increase in the aggression in this group, whereas an inconsistent attitude of mothers fosters an increase in aggression among all teenagers.
Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.; Altenburger, Lauren E.; Settle, Theresa A.; Kamp Dush, Claire M.; Sullivan, Jason M.; Bower, Daniel J.
This study examined expectant fathers’ intuitive parenting behavior, its correlates, and its associations with fathers’ postpartum positive engagement. One hundred eighty-two expectant couples completed the Prenatal Lausanne Trilogue Play in the third trimester of pregnancy. Coders rated expectant fathers’ and mothers’ intuitive parenting behavior during this procedure. Expectant parents also completed surveys regarding their psychological and demographic characteristics. At 3 months postpartum, fathers completed time diaries that assessed the time they spent in developmentally appropriate positive engagement activities with their infants. Examination of correlates of expectant fathers’ intuitive parenting behavior revealed that expectant fathers showed lower levels of these behaviors than expectant mothers, that intuitive parenting behavior was moderately positively associated for mothers and fathers, and that individual differences in expectant fathers’ intuitive parenting behavior were associated with parent demographic and psychological characteristics. In particular, expectant fathers showed greater intuitive parenting behavior when they had greater human capital and more progressive beliefs about parent roles, and when their partners had lower parenting self-efficacy. Findings also indicated that expectant fathers’ greater intuitive parenting behavior was predictive of fathers’ greater subsequent engagement in developmentally appropriate activities at 3 months postpartum, but only when expectant mothers demonstrated low levels of intuitive parenting behavior. PMID:25798492
Tyrell, Fanita A.; Yates, Tuppett M.
Background: Procuring safe housing is a salient developmental task during emerging adulthood, one that is especially challenging for emancipated foster youth. Yet, little is known about factors that influence foster youths' housing experiences. Objective: This investigation documented changes in foster youth's housing quality during the first…
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What cost reimbursements are provided to Foster..., Status and Cost Reimbursements § 2552.46 What cost reimbursements are provided to Foster Grandparents? Cost reimbursements include: (a) Stipend. Foster Grandparents who are income eligible will receive a...
McNutt, M. K.
The responsible conduct of research requires that all involved in the research enterprise - researchers, sponsors, reviewers, publishers, and communicators - adhere to a set of integrity principles to protect the public's investment. Given the increasing complexity and globalization of the research enterprise, the National Academies recently re-examined and updated its integrity recommendations for researchers in the report Fostering Integrity in Research, with sponsorship from the National Science Foundation. Major departures from the previous recommendations 25-years earlier are the recognition that practices that were previously classified as merely questionable are indeed detrimental to the responsible conduct of research. Furthermore, the report concludes that there has been insufficient effort to respond to the threats that lapses in research integrity pose to the quality of research products and the reputation of researchers as deserving of the public trust. It recommends the creation of an independent, non-profit entity dedicated to promoting research integrity by serving as a resource and clearing house for expertise, advice, materials, and best practices on fostering research integrity and responding to allegations of research misconduct.
Bean, Corliss; Harlow, Meghan; Kendellen, Kelsey
Youth leadership programming has become an increasingly common context to foster basic psychological needs and promote youth development. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore strategies involved in fostering youth needs support within six leadership programs. Two leaders and 30 youth participated in semi-structured interviews to better understand the strategies used to foster needs support. Findings revealed that leaders were able to foster a sense of relatedness among youth through building trusting adult-youth relationships and nurturing an inclusive environment. Maximizing choice and negotiating youth voice helped to foster youth's autonomy. Finally, creating a task-oriented climate and providing intentional opportunities for skill-building helped to foster youth's competence. Findings suggest that training for leaders is critical in understanding what, and how strategies should be employed to help foster youth needs support in leadership programming. Limitations and future directions are outlined. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Al-Dhamit, Yahya; Kreishan, Lana
The aim of this research is to describe and investigate a sample of school gifted students' intrinsic and extrinsic motivations, and the role of their parents in fostering motivational achievements in Jordan. In the study, 122 gifted students were selected to complete a questionnaire (adapted from Pelletier, Fortier and Vallerand et?al.)…
Stunkard, Cynthia Joyce
The data obtained in this qualitative study focused on the educational experiences of youth formerly in foster care after graduation from high school from the viewpoint of the youth. Data were gathered from interviews from 10 participants. Themes included: (a) How do youth emancipated from foster care perceive their educational experiences? (b)…
DeGarmo, John Nelson
As more children are placed under foster care, schools often have difficulty in responding to newly placed foster teens. Foster teens often exhibit both academic and behavioral adjustment issues, leading to disciplinary problems and high failure, and dropout rates. Attachment theory related to placement disruptions, school performance and…
Viera, Anthony J; Antonelli, Ray
Menu labels displaying food energy in physical activity calorie equivalents (PACE) is a possible strategy to encourage ordering meals with fewer calories and promoting physical activity. Potential effects of such labeling for children have never been examined. We conducted a national survey of 1000 parents randomized to 1 of 4 fast food menus: no labels, calories only, calories plus minutes, or calories plus miles needed to walk to burn the calories. Respondents were asked to imagine they were in a fast food restaurant and place an order for their child. At the survey's conclusion, all respondents were shown a calorie-only label and both PACE labels and asked to rate the likelihood each label would influence them to encourage their child to exercise. We excluded respondents whose meals totaled 0 calories or >4000 calories, leaving 823 parents in the analysis. The mean age of the child for whom the meal was "ordered" was 9.5 years. Parents whose menus displayed no label ordered an average of 1294 calories, whereas those shown calories only, calories plus minutes, or calories plus miles ordered 1066, 1060, and 1099 calories, respectively (P = .0001). Only 20% of parents reported that calories-only labeling would be "very likely" to prompt them to encourage their children to exercise versus 38% for calories plus minutes (P calories plus miles (P food items to order for their children and encourage them to get their children to exercise. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Hutchens, Amy; Lee, Rebecca E.
The purpose of this integrative review was to analyze the state of science concerning the influence of parenting practices on children's physical activity (PA) levels. A total of 38 studies met the inclusion criteria after full-text review. The body of research is limited in experimental designs with only three studies measuring the influence of…
The arrival of a child profoundly alters the life-course for men. Yet, children could change men's lives not only by arriving in them, but also by departing from them. In this article, I test how one such departure-foster care placement-affects men's labor market attachment, and in so doing I...... provide a novel parallel to existing research on how fatherhood affects men, which focuses almost exclusively on a child's arrival. Using population panel data from Denmark that include all first time fathers whose children were placed in foster care from 1995-2005, I find that having a child placed...... in foster care is associated with up to a 12 percentage point increase in welfare dependency. This result persists in analyses that control for individual and family level fixed effects, unobserved heterogeneity, and selection into having a child placed in foster care....
Strijker, Johan; Knorth, Erik J.
A substantial part of children placed out of home in family foster care suffers severe emotional and behavioural problems. These problems can enlarge the risk of a placement breakdown: the stay of a child in a foster family comes prematurely to an end because, for instance, the foster carers are not
Hutchens, Amy; Soltero, Erica G; Barquera, Simón; Lévesque, Lucie; Jauregui, Edtna; López Y Taylor, Juan; Lee, Rebecca E
This cross sectional study aims to determine the effects of gender and parental perception of safety at school on children's physical activity (PA) levels. Parents of school aged Mexican children residing in Guadalajara, Mexico City, and Puerto Vallarta, completed surveys about their children's PA measures. The physical activity indicators were evaluated using linear and logistical regression models. Analysis did not indicate that gender moderated the relationship between parental perception of safety and PA measures, but significant gender issues exist with girls participating less than boys in the three measures of PA in this study (p<0.001). Results suggest the need for additional interventions promoting physical activity in girls in Mexico.
O'Connor, Teresia M; Cerin, Ester; Hughes, Sheryl O; Robles, Jessica; Thompson, Deborah; Baranowski, Tom; Lee, Rebecca E; Nicklas, Theresa; Shewchuk, Richard M
Hispanic preschoolers are less active than their non-Hispanic peers. As part of a feasibility study to assess environmental and parenting influences on preschooler physical activity (PA) (Niños Activos), the aim of this study was to identify what parents do to encourage or discourage PA among Hispanic 3-5 year old children to inform the development of a new PA parenting practice instrument and future interventions to increase PA among Hispanic youth. Nominal Group Technique (NGT), a structured multi-step group procedure, was used to elicit and prioritize responses from 10 groups of Hispanic parents regarding what parents do to encourage (5 groups) or discourage (5 groups) preschool aged children to be active. Five groups consisted of parents with low education (less than high school) and 5 with high education (high school or greater) distributed between the two NGT questions. Ten NGT groups (n = 74, range 4-11/group) generated 20-46 and 42-69 responses/group for practices that encourage or discourage PA respectively. Eight to 18 responses/group were elected as the most likely to encourage or discourage PA. Parental engagement in child activities, modeling PA, and feeding the child well were identified as parenting practices that encourage child PA. Allowing TV and videogame use, psychological control, physical or emotional abuse, and lack of parental engagement emerged as parenting practices that discourage children from being active. There were few differences in the pattern of responses by education level. Parents identified ways they encourage and discourage 3-5 year-olds from PA, suggesting both are important targets for interventions. These will inform the development of a new PA parenting practice scale to be further evaluated. Further research should explore the role parents play in discouraging child PA, especially in using psychological control or submitting children to abuse, which were new findings in this study.
Cochrane, Deborah Frankle; Szabo-Kubitz, Laura
This report examines why former foster youth in California are not receiving the aid they are likely eligible for, from inadequate or poorly targeted information about college costs and financial aid to structural obstacles within the aid process and programs. While many of this report's findings and recommendations are specific to foster youth,…
Cidav, Zuleyha; Xie, Ming; Mandell, David S.
The prevalence and risk of foster care involvement among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) relative to children with intellectual disability (ID), children with ASD and ID, and typically developing children were examined using 2001-2007 Medicaid data. Children were followed up to the first foster care placement or until the end of 2007;…
van der Kaap-Deeder, Jolene; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Soenens, Bart; Verstuyf, Joke; Boone, Liesbet; Smets, Jos
Although several studies have established the beneficial effects of self-endorsed forms of motivation for lasting therapeutic change, the way patients with an eating disorder can be encouraged to volitionally pursue change has received less attention. On the basis of Self-Determination Theory, this longitudinal study addressed the role of an autonomy-supportive environment and psychological need satisfaction in fostering self-endorsed motivation for change and subsequent weight gain. Female inpatients (n = 84) with mainly anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa filled out questionnaires at the onset of, during, and at the end of treatment regarding their perceived autonomy support from parents, staff members, and fellow patients, their psychological need satisfaction, and their reasons for undertaking change. Furthermore, the body mass index (BMI) of the patients at the onset and end of treatment was assessed by the staff. Path analyses were used to investigate the relations between these constructs. At the start of treatment, perceived parental autonomy support related positively to self-endorsed motivation through psychological need satisfaction. Perceived staff and fellow patients autonomy support related to changes in self-endorsed motivation over the course of treatment through fostering change in psychological need satisfaction. Finally, relative increases in self-endorsed motivation related to relative increases in BMI throughout treatment in a subgroup of patients with anorexia nervosa. These results point to the importance of an autonomy-supportive context for facilitating self-endorsed motivation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Tung, S E H; Ng, X H; Chin, Y S; Mohd Taib, M N
This study aimed to evaluate parental perception of neighbourhood environments and safety in association with children's physical activity among primary school children in Klang, Selangor, Malaysia. A total of 250 children (9-12 years of age) and their parents participated in this cross-sectional study. Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children and Neighbourhood Environmental Walkability Scale as well as questions on constrained behaviours (avoidance and defensive behaviours) were used to assess the children's physical activity and parental perception of neighbourhood environment and safety, respectively. More than one-third (36.0%) of the children were physically inactive compared with only a small percentage (4.8%) who were physically active, with boys achieving higher physical activity levels than girls (t = 2.564, P = 0.011). For the environmental scale, parents' perception of land-use mix (access) (r = 0.173, P = 0.006), traffic hazards (r = -0.152, P = 0.016) and defensive behaviour (r = -0.024, P = 0.143) correlated significantly with children's physical activity. In multiple linear regression analysis, child's gender (β = -0.226; P = 0.003), parent's education (β = 0.140; P = 0.001), household income (β = 0.151; P = 0.024), land-use mix (access) (β = 0.134; P = 0.011) and defensive behaviour (β = -0.017; P = 0.038) were significantly associated with physical activity in children (R = 0.349, F = 6.760; P safety and constrained behaviours with their children's participation in active play. Interventions aimed to increase actual and perceived safety and reduce perceptions of risk by parents in safe neighbourhoods can be targeted to increase children's physical activity in their local neighbourhoods. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Nicksic, Nicole E; Salahuddin, Meliha; Butte, Nancy F; Hoelscher, Deanna M
A growing body of research has examined the relationship between perceived neighborhood safety and parental encouragement for child physical activity (PA), yet these potential predictors have not been studied together to predict child outdoor PA. The purpose of this study is to examine these predictors and parent- and child-reported child outdoor PA. The Texas Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration study collected data from fifth-grade students attending 31 elementary schools across Austin and Houston and their parents (N = 748 parent-child dyads). Mixed-effects linear and logistic regressions stratified by gender and adjusted for sociodemographic covariates assessed associations among parental-perceived neighborhood safety, parental encouragement for child's outdoor PA, and parent- and child-reported child's outdoor PA. Parental-perceived neighborhood safety was significantly associated with encouraging outdoor PA (P = .01) and child-reported child's outdoor PA in boys, but not in girls. Significant associations were found between parental encouragement and child-reported outdoor PA for girls (P < .05) and parent-reported outdoor PA (P < .01) for boys and girls. Parent encouragement of PA and neighborhood safety are potential predictors of child outdoor PA and could be targeted in youth PA interventions.