WorldWideScience

Sample records for active optical system

  1. Active polarimeter optical system laser hazard analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustoni, Arnold L.

    2005-07-01

    A laser hazard analysis was performed for the SNL Active Polarimeter Optical System based on the ANSI Standard Z136.1-2000, American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers and the ANSI Standard Z136.6-2000, American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers Outdoors. The Active Polarimeter Optical System (APOS) uses a pulsed, near-infrared, chromium doped lithium strontium aluminum fluoride (Cr:LiSAF) crystal laser in conjunction with a holographic diffuser and lens to illuminate a scene of interest. The APOS is intended for outdoor operations. The system is mounted on a height adjustable platform (6 feet to 40 feet) and sits atop a tripod that points the beam downward. The beam can be pointed from nadir to as much as 60 degrees off of nadir producing an illuminating spot geometry that can vary from circular (at nadir) to elliptical in shape (off of nadir). The JP Innovations crystal Cr:LiSAF laser parameters are presented in section II. The illuminating laser spot size is variable and can be adjusted by adjusting the separation distance between the lens and the holographic diffuser. The system is adjusted while platform is at the lowest level. The laser spot is adjusted for a particular spot size at a particular distance (elevation) from the laser by adjusting the separation distance (d{sub diffuser}) to predetermined values. The downward pointing angle is also adjusted before the platform is raised to the selected operation elevation.

  2. QKD system with fast active optical path length compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Byung Kwon; Lee, Min Soo; Woo, Min Ki; Kim, Yong-Su; Han, Sang-Wook; Moon, Sung

    2017-06-01

    We develop a quantum key distribution (QKD) system with fast active optical path length compensation. A rapid and reliable active optical path length compensation scheme is proposed and applied to a plug-and-play QKD system. The system monitors changes in key rates and controls it is own operation automatically. The system achieves its optimal performance within three seconds of operation, which includes a sifted key rate of 5.5 kbps and a quantum bit error rate of less than 2% after an abrupt temperature variation along the 25 km quantum channel. The system also operates well over a 24 h period while completing more than 60 active optical path length compensations.

  3. FTTA System Demo Using Optical Fiber-Coupled Active Antennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Neumann

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The convergence of optical and wireless systems such as Radio-over-Fiber (RoF networks is the key to coping with the increasing bandwidth demands due to the increasing popularity of video and other high data rate applications. A high level of integration of optical technologies enables simple base stations with a fiber-to-the-antenna (FTTA approach. In this paper, we present a complete full-duplex RoF–FTTA system consisting of integrated active fiber-coupled optical receiving and transmitting antennas that are directly connected to a standard single mode fiber optical link. Data rates up to 1 Gbit/s could be shown without advanced modulation formats on a 1.5 GHz carrier frequency. The antennas as well as the whole system are explained and the results of the system experiments are discussed.

  4. Laser metrology and optic active control system for GAIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, F.; Bonino, L.; Cesare, S.; Castorina, G.; Mottini, S.; Bertinetto, F.; Bisi, M.; Canuto, E.; Musso, F.

    2017-11-01

    The Laser Metrology and Optic Active Control (LM&OAC) program has been carried out under ESA contract with the purpose to design and validate a laser metrology system and an actuation mechanism to monitor and control at microarcsec level the stability of the Basic Angle (angle between the lines of sight of the two telescopes) of GAIA satellite. As part of the program, a breadboard (including some EQM elements) of the laser metrology and control system has been built and submitted to functional, performance and environmental tests. In the followings we describe the mission requirements, the system architecture, the breadboard design, and finally the performed validation tests. Conclusion and appraisals from this experience are also reported.

  5. Analysis technique for controlling system wavefront error with active/adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genberg, Victor L.; Michels, Gregory J.

    2017-08-01

    The ultimate goal of an active mirror system is to control system level wavefront error (WFE). In the past, the use of this technique was limited by the difficulty of obtaining a linear optics model. In this paper, an automated method for controlling system level WFE using a linear optics model is presented. An error estimate is included in the analysis output for both surface error disturbance fitting and actuator influence function fitting. To control adaptive optics, the technique has been extended to write system WFE in state space matrix form. The technique is demonstrated by example with SigFit, a commercially available tool integrating mechanical analysis with optical analysis.

  6. Optical Activity of HDE 245770/A0535+26 System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannelli, Franco; Nesci, Roberto; Rossi, Corrinee

    2011-02-01

    The O9.7IIIe star HDE 245770, nicknamed Flavia, is the optical counterpart of the X-ray pulsar A0535+26. On February 5, 2011 at the Loiano 1.52 m telescope from UT 18hh 40mm 40ss we performed optical B, V spectrophotometry of HDE 245770 and starting from UT 18hh 51mm 11ss to 19hh 15mm 37ss we performed optical spectroscopy in the range 330 - 785 nm [Delta(lambda) from about 0.4 to 0.3 nm] by using the BFOSC (Bologna Faint Object Spectrograph & Camera).

  7. Peculiarities of light propagation in optically active absorbing crystals of the orthorhombic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinova, A. F.; Golovina, T. G.; Nabatov, B. V.; Evdishchenko, E. A.; Konstantinov, K. K.

    2011-05-01

    Peculiarities of the manifestation of optical activity and absorption in crystals of the orthorhombic system of the 222 class are considered. The influence of each effect on the ellipticities of eigenwaves is analyzed. The dependences of the azimuth, ellipticity, and intensity of transmitted light in directions slightly and significantly deviating from the optical axes are considered in detail. Cases are indicated where the approximate relations obtained disregarding multiple reflections and nonorthogonality of eigenwaves in crystal hold true. The differences of the simulated conoscopic patterns of the biaxial absorbing optically active crystals from the patterns of inactive or nonabsorbing crystals are analyzed.

  8. Noncoherent Spectral Optical CDMA System Using 1D Active Weight Two-Code Keying Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bih-Chyun Yeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new family of one-dimensional (1D active weight two-code keying (TCK in spectral amplitude coding (SAC optical code division multiple access (OCDMA networks. We use encoding and decoding transfer functions to operate the 1D active weight TCK. The proposed structure includes an optical line terminal (OLT and optical network units (ONUs to produce the encoding and decoding codes of the proposed OLT and ONUs, respectively. The proposed ONU uses the modified cross-correlation to remove interferences from other simultaneous users, that is, the multiuser interference (MUI. When the phase-induced intensity noise (PIIN is the most important noise, the modified cross-correlation suppresses the PIIN. In the numerical results, we find that the bit error rate (BER for the proposed system using the 1D active weight TCK codes outperforms that for two other systems using the 1D M-Seq codes and 1D balanced incomplete block design (BIBD codes. The effective source power for the proposed system can achieve −10 dBm, which has less power than that for the other systems.

  9. Active optics system for the 4m telescope of the Eastern Anatolia Observatory (DAG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lousberg, Gregory P.; Mudry, Emeric; Bastin, Christian; Schumacher, Jean-Marc; Gabriel, Eric; Pirnay, Olivier; Flebus, Carlo

    2016-07-01

    An active optics system is being developed by AMOS for the new 4m-class telescope for the Turkish Eastern Anatolia Observatory (DAG). It consists in (a) an adjustable support for the primary mirror and (b) two hexapods supporting M2 and M3. The M1 axial support consists of 66 pneumatic actuators (for mirror shape corrections) associated with 9 hydraulic actuators that are arranged in three independent circuits so as to fix the axial position of the mirror. Both M1 support and the hexapods are actively controlled during regular telescope operations, either with look-up tables (openloop control) or using optical feedback from a wavefront sensor (closed-loop control).

  10. Motionless active depth from defocus system using smart optics for camera autofocus applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, M. Junaid; Riza, Nabeel A.

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes a motionless active Depth from Defocus (DFD) system design suited for long working range camera autofocus applications. The design consists of an active illumination module that projects a scene illuminating coherent conditioned optical radiation pattern which maintains its sharpness over multiple axial distances allowing an increased DFD working distance range. The imager module of the system responsible for the actual DFD operation deploys an electronically controlled variable focus lens (ECVFL) as a smart optic to enable a motionless imager design capable of effective DFD operation. An experimental demonstration is conducted in the laboratory which compares the effectiveness of the coherent conditioned radiation module versus a conventional incoherent active light source, and demonstrates the applicability of the presented motionless DFD imager design. The fast response and no-moving-parts features of the DFD imager design are especially suited for camera scenarios where mechanical motion of lenses to achieve autofocus action is challenging, for example, in the tiny camera housings in smartphones and tablets. Applications for the proposed system include autofocus in modern day digital cameras.

  11. Fiber-optic transmission system information for the testing of active phased antenna arrays in an anechoic chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saveleiv, I. K.; Sharova, N. V.; Tarasenko, M. Yu; Yalunina, T. R.; Davydov, V. V.; Rud’, V. Yu

    2017-11-01

    The results of the research of the developed fiber-optic transmission systems for analog high frequency signal are represented. On its basis, a new method to identify various structural defects in the active phased antenna arrays is elaborated.

  12. Optical Airborne Tracker System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Optical Airborne Tracker System (OATS) is an airborne dual-axis optical tracking system capable of pointing at any sky location or ground target.  The objectives...

  13. Noticeable positive Doppler effect on optical bistability in an N-type active Raman gain atomic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Zeng-Guang; Zhang Jing-Tao; Niu Yue-Ping; Gong Shang-Qing

    2012-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the Doppler effect on optical bistability in an N-type active Raman gain atomic system inside an optical ring cavity. It is shown that the Doppler effect can greatly enhance the dispersion and thus create the bistable behaviour or greatly increase the bistable region, which has been known as the positive Doppler effect on optical bistability. In addition, we find that a positive Doppler effect can change optical bistability from the hybrid dispersion-gain type to a dispersive type

  14. Synthesis and Antifeedant Activity of Racemic and Optically Active Hydroxy Lactones with the p-Menthane System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Grudniewska

    Full Text Available Two racemic and two enantiomeric pairs of new δ-hydroxy-γ-lactones based on the p-menthane system were prepared from racemic and optically active cis- and trans-piperitols. The Johnson-Claisen rearrangement of the piperitols, epoxidation of the γδ-unsaturated esters, and acidic lactonization of the epoxy esters were described. The structures of the compounds were confirmed spectroscopically. The antifeedant activities of the hydroxy lactones and racemic piperitone were evaluated against three insect pests: lesser mealworm, Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer; Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say; and peach-potato aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulz.. The chemical transformation of piperitone by the introduction of a lactone moiety and a hydroxy group changed its antifeedant properties. Behavioral bioassays showed that the feeding deterrent activity depended on the insect species and the structure of the compounds. All hydroxy lactones deterred the settling of M. persicae. Among chewing insects, the highest sensitivity showed A. diaperinus adults.

  15. Synthesis and Antifeedant Activity of Racemic and Optically Active Hydroxy Lactones with the p-Menthane System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grudniewska, Aleksandra; Kłobucki, Marek; Dancewicz, Katarzyna; Szczepanik, Maryla; Gabryś, Beata; Wawrzeńczyk, Czesław

    2015-01-01

    Two racemic and two enantiomeric pairs of new δ-hydroxy-γ-lactones based on the p-menthane system were prepared from racemic and optically active cis- and trans-piperitols. The Johnson-Claisen rearrangement of the piperitols, epoxidation of the γδ-unsaturated esters, and acidic lactonization of the epoxy esters were described. The structures of the compounds were confirmed spectroscopically. The antifeedant activities of the hydroxy lactones and racemic piperitone were evaluated against three insect pests: lesser mealworm, Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer); Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say); and peach-potato aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulz.). The chemical transformation of piperitone by the introduction of a lactone moiety and a hydroxy group changed its antifeedant properties. Behavioral bioassays showed that the feeding deterrent activity depended on the insect species and the structure of the compounds. All hydroxy lactones deterred the settling of M. persicae. Among chewing insects, the highest sensitivity showed A. diaperinus adults.

  16. Strong Optical Activity of HDE 245770/A0535+26 System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannelli, Franco; Gualandi, Roberto; Sabau-Graziati, Lola

    2010-03-01

    The O9.7IIIe star HDE 245770, nicknamed Flavia' star, is the optical counterpart of the X-ray pulsar A0535+26. On March 19, 2010 from UT 18hh 45mm 37ss to 19hh 28mm 07ss at the Loiano 1.52 m telescope we performed optical spectroscopy of this star in the range 330 - 785 nm [Delta(lambda) from about 0.4 to 0.3 nm] by using the BFOSC (Bologna Faint Object Spectrograph & Camera). The first analysis of the spectra shows a strong optical activity of the star.

  17. Control of optical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Founds, D.

    1988-01-01

    Some of the current and planned activities at the Air Force Systems Command in structures and controls for optical-type systems are summarized. Many of the activities are contracted to industry; one task is an in-house program which includes a hardware test program. The objective of the in-house program, referred to as the Aluminum Beam Expander Structure (ABES), is to address issues involved in on-orbit system identification. The structure, which appears similar to the LDR backup structure, is about 35 feet tall. The activity to date has been limited to acquisition of about 250 hours of test data. About 30 hours of data per excitation force is gathered in order to obtain sufficient data for a good statistical estimate of the structural parameters. The development of an Integrated Structural Modeling (ISM) computer program is being done by Boeing Aerospace Company. The objective of the contracted effort is to develop a combined optics, structures, thermal, controls, and multibody dynamics simulation code.

  18. Nonlinear optical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lugiato, Luigi; Brambilla, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Guiding graduate students and researchers through the complex world of laser physics and nonlinear optics, this book provides an in-depth exploration of the dynamics of lasers and other relevant optical systems, under the umbrella of a unitary spatio-temporal vision. Adopting a balanced approach, the book covers traditional as well as special topics in laser physics, quantum electronics and nonlinear optics, treating them from the viewpoint of nonlinear dynamical systems. These include laser emission, frequency generation, solitons, optically bistable systems, pulsations and chaos and optical pattern formation. It also provides a coherent and up-to-date treatment of the hierarchy of nonlinear optical models and of the rich variety of phenomena they describe, helping readers to understand the limits of validity of each model and the connections among the phenomena. It is ideal for graduate students and researchers in nonlinear optics, quantum electronics, laser physics and photonics.

  19. Optical system design

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Robert F

    2008-01-01

    Honed for more than 20 years in an SPIE professional course taught by renowned optical systems designer Robert E. Fischer, Optical System Design, Second Edition brings you the latest cutting-edge design techniques and more than 400 detailed diagrams that clearly illustrate every major procedure in optical design. This thoroughly updated resource helps you work better and faster with computer-aided optical design techniques, diffractive optics, and the latest applications, including digital imaging, telecommunications, and machine vision. No need for complex, unnecessary mathematical derivations-instead, you get hundreds of examples that break the techniques down into understandable steps. For twenty-first century optical design without the mystery, the authoritative Optical Systems Design, Second Edition features: Computer-aided design use explained through sample problems Case studies of third-millennium applications in digital imaging, sensors, lasers, machine vision, and more New chapters on optomechanic...

  20. Transition dipole coupling modeling of optical activity enhancements in macromolecular protein systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Průša, Jiří; Bouř, Petr

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 1 (2018), s. 55-64 ISSN 0899-0042 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-09072S; GA MŠk(CZ) LTC17012 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : optical activity * vibrational circular dichroism * protein fibrils Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics OBOR OECD: Biophysics Impact factor: 1.956, year: 2016

  1. Intelligent Optical Systems Using Adaptive Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    Until recently, the phrase adaptive optics generally conjured images of large deformable mirrors being integrated into telescopes to compensate for atmospheric turbulence. However, the development of smaller, cheaper devices has sparked interest for other aerospace and commercial applications. Variable focal length lenses, liquid crystal spatial light modulators, tunable filters, phase compensators, polarization compensation, and deformable mirrors are becoming increasingly useful for other imaging applications including guidance navigation and control (GNC), coronagraphs, foveated imaging, situational awareness, autonomous rendezvous and docking, non-mechanical zoom, phase diversity, and enhanced multi-spectral imaging. The active components presented here allow flexibility in the optical design, increasing performance. In addition, the intelligent optical systems presented offer advantages in size and weight and radiation tolerance.

  2. Tunable Optical Polymer Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jenekhe, S. A; Bard, Allen J; Chen, S. H; Hammond, P. T; Rothberg, L. J

    2004-01-01

    This multidisciplinary university research initiative (MURI) program investigated tunable optical polymer systems suitable for large-area color-switchable coatings and devices, displays, sensors, and other electronic applications...

  3. FIBER OPTIC LIGHTING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munir BATUR

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently there have been many important and valuable developments in the communication industry. The huge increase in the sound, data and visual communications has caused a parallel increase in the demand for systems with wider capacity, higher speed and higher quality. Communication systems that use light to transfer data are immensely increased. There have recently many systems in which glass or plastic fiber cables were developed for light wave to be transmitted from a source to a target place. Fiber optic systems, are nowadays widely used in energy transmission control systems, medicine, industry and lighting. The basics of the system is, movement of light from one point to another point in fiber cable with reflections. Fiber optic lighting systems are quite secure than other lighting systems and have flexibility for realizing many different designs. This situation makes fiber optics an alternative for other lighting systems. Fiber optic lighting systems usage is increasing day-by-day in our life. In this article, these systems are discussed in detail.

  4. Nondispersive optical activity of meshed helical metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun Sung; Kim, Teun-Teun; Kim, Hyeon-Don; Kim, Kyungjin; Min, Bumki

    2014-11-17

    Extreme optical properties can be realized by the strong resonant response of metamaterials consisting of subwavelength-scale metallic resonators. However, highly dispersive optical properties resulting from strong resonances have impeded the broadband operation required for frequency-independent optical components or devices. Here we demonstrate that strong, flat broadband optical activity with high transparency can be obtained with meshed helical metamaterials in which metallic helical structures are networked and arranged to have fourfold rotational symmetry around the propagation axis. This nondispersive optical activity originates from the Drude-like response as well as the fourfold rotational symmetry of the meshed helical metamaterials. The theoretical concept is validated in a microwave experiment in which flat broadband optical activity with a designed magnitude of 45° per layer of metamaterial is measured. The broadband capabilities of chiral metamaterials may provide opportunities in the design of various broadband optical systems and applications.

  5. Optical Complex Systems 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Guillaume

    The Optical Complex Systems are more and more in the heart of various systems that industrial applications bring to everyday life. From environment up to spatial applications, OCS is also relevant in monitoring, transportation, robotics, life sciences, sub-marine, and even for agricultural purposes.

  6. Development of a fibre optic goniometer system to measure lumbar and hip movement to detect activities and their lumbar postures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, J A; Stigant, M

    2007-01-01

    If sitting postures influence the risk of developing low back pain then it is important that quantification of sedentary work activities and simultaneous measurement of lumbar postural characteristics takes place. The objective of this study was to develop a system for identifying activities and their associated lumbar postures using fibre optic goniometers (FOGs). Five student subjects wore two FOGs attached to the lumbar spine and hip for 8 min while being recorded using a video camera when sitting, standing and walking. Observer Software was used to code the video recording, enabling the sagittal movement characteristics of each FOG to be described for individual activities. Results indicated that each activity produced unique data, and could be independently identified from their motion profiles by three raters (k = 1). The data will be used to develop algorithms to automate the process of activity detection. This system has the potential to measure behaviour in non-clinical settings.

  7. Optical switching systems using nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkjær, Kristian

    2004-01-01

    High capacity multiservice optical networks require compact and efficient switches. The potential benefits of optical switch elements based on nanostructured material are reviewed considering various material systems.......High capacity multiservice optical networks require compact and efficient switches. The potential benefits of optical switch elements based on nanostructured material are reviewed considering various material systems....

  8. Aurora laser optical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanlon, J.A.; McLeod, J.

    1987-01-01

    Aurora is the Los Alamos short-pulse high-power krypton fluoride laser system. It is primarily an end-to-end technology demonstration prototype for large-scale UV laser systems of interest for short-wavelength inertial confinement fusion (ICF) investigations. The system is designed to employ optical angular multiplexing and aerial amplification by electron-beam-driven KrF laser amplifiers to deliver to ICF targets a stack of pulses with a duration of 5 ns containing several kilojoules at a wavelength of 248 nm. A program of high-energy density plasma physics investigations is now planned, and a sophisticated target chamber was constructed. The authors describe the design of the optical system for Aurora and report its status. This optical system was designed and is being constructed in two phases. The first phase carries only through the amplifier train and does not include a target chamber or any demultiplexing. Installation should be complete, and some performance results should be available. The second phase provides demultiplexing and carries the laser light to target. The complete design is reported

  9. Optics activity for hospitalized children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargallo, Ana; Gómez-Varela, Ana I.; González-Nuñez, Hector; Delgado, Tamara; Almaguer, Citlalli; Cambronero, Ferran; Garcia-Sanchez, Angel; Flores-Arias, Maria T.

    2014-08-01

    USC-OSA is a student chapter whose objective is to bring Optics knowledge closer to the non-optics community. The activity developed at the Hospital school was one of the most important last year. It was consisted in a few Optics experiments and workshops with hospitalized children of different ages and pathologies. The experiments had to be adapted to their physical conditions with the aim of everyone could participate. We think this activity has several benefits including spreading Optics through children meanwhile they have fun and forget their illness for a while.

  10. OPTICAL WIRELESS COMMUNICATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSHUA L.Y. CHIENG

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The growing demand of bandwidth in this modern internet age has been testing the existing telecommunication infrastructures around the world. With broadband speeds moving towards the region of Gbps and Tbps, many researches have begun on the development of using optical wireless technology as feasible and future methods to the current wireless technology. Unlike the existing radio frequency wireless applications, optical wireless uses electromagnetic spectrums that are unlicensed and free. With that, this project aim to understand and gain better understanding of optical wireless communication system by building an experimental and simulated model. The quality of service and system performance will be investigated and reviewed. This project employs laser diode as the propagation medium and successfully transferred audio signals as far as 15 meters. On its quality of service, results of the project model reveal that the bit error rate increases, signal-to-noise ratio and quality factor decreases as the link distance between the transmitter and receiver increases. OptiSystem was used to build the simulated model and MATLAB was used to assist signal-to-noise ratio calculations. By comparing the simulated and experimental receiver’s power output, the experimental model’s efficiency is at 66.3%. Other than the system’s performance, challenges and factors affecting the system have been investigated and discussed. Such challenges include beam divergence, misalignment and particle absorption.

  11. Optically pumped laser systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMaria, A.J.; Mack, M.E.

    1975-01-01

    Laser systems which are pumped by an electric discharge formed in a gas are disclosed. The discharge is in the form of a vortex stabilized electric arc which is triggered with an auxiliary energy source. At high enough repetition rates residual ionization between successive pulses contributes to the pulse stabilization. The arc and the gain medium are positioned inside an optical pumping cavity where light from the arc is coupled directly into the gain medium

  12. Optical systems engineering - A tutorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman, C. L.

    1979-01-01

    The paper examines the use of the systems engineering approach in the design of optical systems, noting that the use of such an approach which involves an integrated interdisciplinary approach to the development of systems is most appropriate for optics. It is shown that the high precision character of optics leads to complex and subtle effects on optical system performance, resulting from structural, thermal dynamical, control system, and manufacturing and assembly considerations. Attention is given to communication problems that often occur among users and optical engineers due to the unique factors of optical systems. It is concluded that it is essential that the optics community provide leadership to resolve communication problems and fully formalize the field of optical systems engineering.

  13. Optical fiber inspection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Francis W.

    1987-01-01

    A remote optical inspection system including an inspection head. The inspection head has a passageway through which pellets or other objects are passed. A window is provided along the passageway through which light is beamed against the objects being inspected. A plurality of lens assemblies are arranged about the window so that reflected light can be gathered and transferred to a plurality of coherent optical fiber light guides. The light guides transfer the light images to a television or other image transducer which converts the optical images into a representative electronic signal. The electronic signal can then be displayed on a signal viewer such as a television monitor for inspection by a person. A staging means can be used to support the objects for viewing through the window. Routing means can be used to direct inspected objects into appropriate exit passages for accepted or rejected objects. The inspected objects are advantageously fed in a singular manner to the staging means and routing means. The inspection system is advantageously used in an enclosure when toxic or hazardous materials are being inspected.

  14. Integration of optically active Neodymium ions in Niobium devices (Nd:Nb): quantum memory for hybrid quantum entangled systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayfeh, O. M.; Chao, D.; Djapic, N.; Sims, P.; Liu, B.; Sharma, S.; Lerum, L.; Fahem, M.; Dinh, V.; Zlatanovic, S.; Lynn, B.; Torres, C.; Higa, B.; Moore, J.; Upchurch, A.; Cothern, J.; Tukeman, M.; Barua, R.; Davidson, B.; Ramirez, A. D.; Rees, C. D.; Anant, V.; Kanter, G. S.

    2017-08-01

    Optically active rare-earth Neodymium (Nd) ions are integrated in Niobium (Nb) thin films forming a new quantum memory device (Nd:Nb) targeting long-lived coherence times and multi-functionality enabled by both spin and photon storage properties. Nb is implanted with Nd spanning 10-60 keV energy and 1013-1014 cm-2 dose producing a 1- 3% Nd:Nb concentration as confirmed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Scanning confocal photoluminescence (PL) at 785 nm excitation are made and sharp emission peaks from the 4F3/2 -red shift and increased broadening to a 4.8 nm linewidth. Nd:Nb is photoconductive and responds strongly to applied fields. Furthermore, optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) measurements are presented spanning near-infrared telecom band. The modulation of the emission intensity with magnetic field and microwave power by integration of these magnetic Kramer type Nd ions is quantified along with spin echoes under pulsed microwave π-π/2 excitation. A hybrid system architecture is proposed using spin and photon quantum information storage with the nuclear and electron states of the Nd3+ and neighboring Nb atoms that can couple qubit states to hyperfine 7/2 spin states of Nd:Nb and onto NIR optical levels excitable with entangled single photons, thus enabling implementation of computing and networking/internet protocols in a single platform.

  15. The LAM space active optics facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, C.; Ferrari, M.; Hugot, E.; Escolle, C.; Bonnefois, A.; Bernot, M.; Bret-Dibat, T.; Carlavan, M.; Falzon, F.; Fusco, T.; Laubier, D.; Liotard, A.; Michau, V.; Mugnier, L.

    2017-11-01

    The next generation of large lightweight space telescopes will require the use of active optics systems to enhance the performance and increase the spatial resolution. Since almost 10 years now, LAM, CNES, THALES and ONERA conjugate their experience and efforts for the development of space active optics through the validation of key technological building blocks: correcting devices, metrology components and control strategies. This article presents the work done so far on active correcting mirrors and wave front sensing, as well as all the facilities implemented. The last part of this paper focuses on the merging of the MADRAS and RASCASSE test-set up. This unique combination will provide to the active optics community an automated, flexible and versatile facility able to feed and characterise space active optics components.

  16. Liquid chromatography automatic system with optical activity laser detector and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajer, V.; Naranjo, S.; Fernandez, H.; Mora, W.; Cepero, T.; Arista, E.; Mesa, G.; Cossio, G.; Arreche, J.; Fonfria, C.; Rodriguez, C.W.

    2009-01-01

    A new liquid chromatographic system with polarimetric detection and a computer program allowing the output of chromatograms to a display on line and electronic data storing was designed, built and put to work. The chromatographic system includes the laser polarimetric detector, having a measuring interval of one second, the chromatographic columns, the continuous flux polarimeter tubes of 50 and 100 mm, the programs for data acquisition, processing and storing, and the technical know-how for its most efficiently application. Thirty minutes is all the time needed to obtain a chromatogram by this method which is reasonably shorter than the time required for any other known comparable technique, and offering, besides, lower operation cost. The combination of molecular exclusion liquid chromatography and laser polarimetric detection has turned into a carbohydrate separation and quantification system of basic importance for the evaluation of plants fluids of industrial interest (sugarcane, agave, vegetable extracts, etc.). It is described here the application of this system as an early or complementary indicator of leaf scald -disease that affects sugarcane plants-. Another application on algae extracts gave good results in the separation and identification of biologically active components. The introduction of this system in several research centers in Cuba and abroad has resulted in practical information for the industry. (Author)

  17. Optically Active Organic Microrings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balzer, Frank; Beermann, J.; Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

    2003-01-01

    -hexaphenyl molecules are generated on mica surfaces, possessing narrow size distributions with mean diameters of a few micrometers, wall widths of 100 to 200 nm, and wall heights of several hundred nanometers. Polarized linear and nonlinear optics reveals that the rings are made up of radially o...

  18. PROSPECT: Optical Calibration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Ken; Prospect Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    The Precision Reactor Oscillation and SPECTrum Experiment (PROSPECT), is a short baseline, reactor neutrino experiment which focuses on measurements of the flux and energy spectrum of antineutrinos emitted from the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Using these measurements, PROSPECT will probe for eV-scale sterile neutrinos while making a high precision measurement of the U-235 antineutrino spectrum. PROSPECT contains two phases; the first phase consists of a mobile detector near the reactor core while the second phase adds a larger fixed detector further from the core. The PROSPECT Phase 1 detector consists of a 2ton optically segmented liquid scintillator with each segment read-out by two photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The PMTs are calibrated with a photon source generated by a nanosecond pulsed laser. In this project, we developed a plan to determine the effectiveness of a 450nm fiber-pigtailed diode laser as it coupled with several modules including an optical fiber splitter, an optical diffuser, and an attenuator. The project tested for the system ability to deliver light uniformly to each of the cells in the detector. We will present the design and result of this project as well as discuss how it will be implemented in PROSPECT.

  19. Optical systems for synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howells, M.R.

    1985-12-01

    Various fundamental topics which underlie the design and use of optical systems for synchrotron radiation are considered from the viewpoint of linear system theory. These topics include the damped harmonic oscillator, free space propagation of an optical field, electromagnetic theory of optical properties of materials, theory of dispersion, and the Kramers-Kronig relations. 32 refs., 5 figs

  20. Self-referencing Mach-Zehnder interferometer as a laser system diagnostic: Active and adaptive optical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, M.; Mockler, D.J.; English, R.E. Jr.; Byrd, J.L.; Salmon, J.T.

    1991-01-01

    We are incorporating a novel self-referencing Mach-Zehnder interferometer into a large scale laser system as a real time, interactive diagnostic tool for wavefront measurement. The instrument is capable of absolute wavefront measurements accurate to better than λ/10 pv over a wavelength range > 300 nm without readjustment of the optical components. This performance is achieved through the design of both refractive optics and catadioptric collimator to achromatize the Mach-Zehnder reference arm. Other features include polarization insensitivity through the use of low angles of incidence on all beamsplitters as well as an equal path length configuration that allows measurement of either broad-band or closely spaced laser-line sources. Instrument accuracy is periodically monitored in place by means of a thermally and mechanically stable wavefront reference source that is calibrated off-line with a phase conjugate interferometer. Video interferograms are analyzed using Fourier transform techniques on a computer that includes dedicated array processor. Computer and video networks maintain distributed interferometers under the control of a single analysis computer with multiple user access. 7 refs., 11 figs

  1. Optical imaging of neuronal activity and visualization of fine neural structures in non-desheathed nervous systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher John Goldsmith

    Full Text Available Locating circuit neurons and recording from them with single-cell resolution is a prerequisite for studying neural circuits. Determining neuron location can be challenging even in small nervous systems because neurons are densely packed, found in different layers, and are often covered by ganglion and nerve sheaths that impede access for recording electrodes and neuronal markers. We revisited the voltage-sensitive dye RH795 for its ability to stain and record neurons through the ganglion sheath. Bath-application of RH795 stained neuronal membranes in cricket, earthworm and crab ganglia without removing the ganglion sheath, revealing neuron cell body locations in different ganglion layers. Using the pyloric and gastric mill central pattern generating neurons in the stomatogastric ganglion (STG of the crab, Cancer borealis, we found that RH795 permeated the ganglion without major residue in the sheath and brightly stained somatic, axonal and dendritic membranes. Visibility improved significantly in comparison to unstained ganglia, allowing the identification of somata location and number of most STG neurons. RH795 also stained axons and varicosities in non-desheathed nerves, and it revealed the location of sensory cell bodies in peripheral nerves. Importantly, the spike activity of the sensory neuron AGR, which influences the STG motor patterns, remained unaffected by RH795, while desheathing caused significant changes in AGR activity. With respect to recording neural activity, RH795 allowed us to optically record membrane potential changes of sub-sheath neuronal membranes without impairing sensory activity. The signal-to-noise ratio was comparable with that previously observed in desheathed preparations and sufficiently high to identify neurons in single-sweep recordings and synaptic events after spike-triggered averaging. In conclusion, RH795 enabled staining and optical recording of neurons through the ganglion sheath and is therefore both a

  2. Optical system defect propagation in ABCD systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKinley, W.G.; Yura, H.T.; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    1988-01-01

    We describe how optical system defects (tilt/jitter, decenter, and despace) propagate through an arbitrary paraxial optical system that can be described by an ABCD ray transfer matrix. A pedagogical example is given that demonstrates the effect of alignment errors on a typical optical system...

  3. Two-Photon Polarization Dependent Spectroscopy in Chirality: A Novel Experimental-Theoretical Approach to Study Optically Active Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencio E. Hernández

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Many phenomena, including life itself and its biochemical foundations are fundamentally rooted in chirality. Combinatorial methodologies for catalyst discovery and optimization remain an invaluable tool for gaining access to enantiomerically pure compounds in the development of pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and flavors. Some exotic metamaterials exhibiting negative refractive index at optical frequencies are based on chiral structures. Chiroptical activity is commonly quantified in terms of circular dichroism (CD and optical rotatory dispersion (ORD. However, the linear nature of these effects limits their application in the far and near-UV region in highly absorbing and scattering biological systems. In order to surmount this barrier, in recent years we made important advancements on a novel non linear, low-scatter, long-wavelength CD approach called two-photon absorption circular dichroism (TPACD. Herein we present a descriptive analysis of the optics principles behind the experimental measurement of TPACD, i.e., the double L-scan technique, and its significance using pulsed lasers. We also make an instructive examination and discuss the reliability of our theoretical-computational approach, which uses modern analytical response theory, within a Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory (TD-DFT approach. In order to illustrate the potential of this novel spectroscopic tool, we first present the experimental and theoretical results obtained in C2-symmetric, axially chiral R-(+-1,1'-bi(2-naphthol, R-BINOL, a molecule studied at the beginning of our investigation in this field. Next, we reveal some preliminary results obtained for (R-3,3′-diphenyl-2,2′-bi-1-naphthol, R-VANOL, and (R-2,2′-diphenyl-3,3′-(4-biphenanthrol, R-VAPOL. This family of optically active compounds has been proven to be a suitable model for the structure-property relationship study of TPACD, because its members are highly conjugated yet photo-stable, and easily

  4. Active optics for next generation space telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costes, V.; Perret, L.; Laubier, D.; Delvit, J. M.; Imbert, C.; Cadiergues, L.; Faure, C.

    2017-09-01

    High resolution observation systems need bigger and bigger telescopes. The design of such telescopes is a key issue for the whole satellite. In order to improve the imaging resolution with minimum impact on the satellite, a big effort must be made to improve the telescope compactness. Compactness is also important for the agility of the satellite and for the size and cost of the launcher. This paper shows how compact a high resolution telescope can be. A diffraction limited telescope can be less than ten times shorter than its focal length. But the compactness impacts drastically the opto-mechanical sensitivity and the optical performances. Typically, a gain of a factor of 2 leads to a mechanical tolerance budget 6 times more difficult. The need to implement active optics for positioning requirements raises very quickly. Moreover, the capability to compensate shape defaults of the primary mirror is the way to simplify the mirror manufacture, to mitigate the development risks and to minimize the cost. The larger the primary mirror is, the more interesting it is to implement active optics for shape compensations. CNES is preparing next generation of earth observation satellite in the frame of OTOS (Observation de la Terre Optique Super-Résolue; High resolution earth observing optical system). OTOS is a technology program. In particular, optical technological developments and breadboards dedicated to active optics are on-going. The aim is to achieve TRL 5 to TRL6 for these new technologies and to validate the global performances of such an active telescope.

  5. A system for obtaining an optical spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a system for obtaining an optical spectrum 648 of analytes in a fluid sample, wherein a porous filter 602a, 602b is arranged so that the fluid sample may be placed onto a first region of the porous filter, and a SERS-active material 610a, 610b having a SERS...... the second region. Thereby, the porous filter enables that the fluid sample is filtered so that only sufficiently small entities in the fluid sample reach the second region where they may be probed so that an optical spectrum related to the analytes in the filtered sample may be obtained. The optical system...... also comprises a light source 634, a light detector 642, and the optical analysis system is arranged for obtaining the optical spectrum 648 of the analytes adjacent to the SERS-active material 610a, 610b exclusively from the second region of the porous filter 602a, 602b....

  6. Actively Cooled Silicon Lightweight Mirrors for Far Infrared and Submillimeter Optical Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Schafer proposes to demonstrate 2 different methods for actively cooling our 5-7.5 kg/m2 areal density Silicon Lightweight Mirrors (SLMS?) technology for future NASA...

  7. Ocean Optics Instrumentation Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides instrumentation suites for a wide variety of measurements to characterize the ocean’s optical environment. These packages have been developed to...

  8. Flow system for optical activity detection of vegetable extracts employing molecular exclusion continuous chromatographic detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajer, V.; Rodríguez, C.; Naranjo, S.; Mesa, G.; Mora, W.; Arista, E.; Cepero, T.; Fernández, H.

    2006-02-01

    The combination of molecular exclusion chromatography and laser polarimetric detection has turned into a carbohydrate separation and quantification system for plant fluids of industrial value, making it possible the evaluation of the quality of sugarcane juices, agave juices and many other plant extracts. Some previous papers described a system where liquid chromatography separation and polarimetric detection using a LASERPOL 101M polarimeter with He-Ne light source allowed the collection and quantification of discrete samples for analytical purposes. In this paper, the authors are introducing a new improved system which accomplishes polarimetric measurements in a continuous flux. Chromatograms of several carbohydrates standard solutions were obtained as useful references to study juice quality of several sugarcane varieties under different physiological conditions. Results by either discrete or continuous flux systems were compared in order to test the validation of the new system. An application of the system to the diagnostics of scalded foliar is described. A computer program allowing the output of the chromatograms to a display on line and the possibility of digital storing, maxima detections, zone integration, and some other possibilities make this system very competitive and self-convincing.

  9. Optically activated magnetic recording tape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, A. M.; Shulman, A. R.

    1970-01-01

    Optically activated data storage medium visually and electromagnetically reproduces a recorded signal. In an electric field, particles in heat-fluidized thermoplastic layer form a visible image of the recorded signal. Refluidizing the thermoplastic layer erases the signals. Very high data packing densities are achieved.

  10. Actively Cooled Silicon Lightweight Mirrors for Far Infrared and Submillimeter Optical Systems, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA Space Science Enterprise has 2 themes requiring large, lightweight cryogenic mirrors: Astronomical Search for Origins and Planetary Systems (ASO) and the...

  11. Development of a portable active long-path differential optical absorption spectroscopy system for volcanic gas measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vita, Fabio; Kern, Christoph; Inguaggiato, Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    Active long-path differential optical absorption spectroscopy (LP-DOAS) has been an effective tool for measuring atmospheric trace gases for several decades. However, instruments were large, heavy and power-inefficient, making their application to remote environments extremely challenging. Recent developments in fibre-coupling telescope technology and the availability of ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV-LEDS) have now allowed us to design and construct a lightweight, portable, low-power LP-DOAS instrument for use at remote locations and specifically for measuring degassing from active volcanic systems. The LP-DOAS was used to measure sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from La Fossa crater, Vulcano, Italy, where column densities of up to 1.2 × 1018 molec cm−2 (~ 500 ppmm) were detected along open paths of up to 400 m in total length. The instrument's SO2 detection limit was determined to be 2 × 1016 molec cm−2 (~ 8 ppmm), thereby making quantitative detection of even trace amounts of SO2 possible. The instrument is capable of measuring other volcanic volatile species as well. Though the spectral evaluation of the recorded data showed that chlorine monoxide (ClO) and carbon disulfide (CS2) were both below the instrument's detection limits during the experiment, the upper limits for the X / SO2 ratio (X = ClO, CS2) could be derived, and yielded 2 × 10−3 and 0.1, respectively. The robust design and versatility of the instrument make it a promising tool for monitoring of volcanic degassing and understanding processes in a range of volcanic systems.

  12. Piezoelectric actuators for active optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Letty, R.; Barillot, F.; Fabbro, H.; Guay, Ph.; Cadiergues, L.

    2017-11-01

    Piezoelectric actuators find their first applications in active space optics. The purpose of this paper is to describe the state of the art and some applications. Piezo actuators display attractive features for space applications, such as precise positioning, unlubricated, non magnetic and compact features, and low power consumption. However, piezo mechanisms cannot be considered separately from their driving and control electronic. Piezo actuators, such as Amplified Piezo Actuators or Parallel Pre-stressed Actuators, initially designed under CNES contracts, shall find their first space flight applications in optics on the PHARAO Laser bench: • fine pointing of the laser beams, • laser cavity tuning. Breadboard mechanisms based on piezo actuators have also been tested for refocusing purposes. Other applications includes the improvement of the CCD resolution through an oversampling technique, such as in the SOHO/LASCO instrument, fast optical shutter operation, optical filter in combination with a Fabry - Perot interferometer, such as in future LIDAR for earth observation. The first applications shall be described and an overview of the future potential applications shall be given.

  13. Optical control of antibacterial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velema, Willem A.; van der Berg, Jan Pieter; Hansen, Mickel J.; Szymanski, Wiktor; Driessen, Arnold J. M.; Feringa, Ben L.

    2013-11-01

    Bacterial resistance is a major problem in the modern world, stemming in part from the build-up of antibiotics in the environment. Novel molecular approaches that enable an externally triggered increase in antibiotic activity with high spatiotemporal resolution and auto-inactivation are highly desirable. Here we report a responsive, broad-spectrum, antibacterial agent that can be temporally activated with light, whereupon it auto-inactivates on the scale of hours. The use of such a ‘smart’ antibiotic might prevent the build-up of active antimicrobial material in the environment. Reversible optical control over active drug concentration enables us to obtain pharmacodynamic information. Precisely localized control of activity is achieved, allowing the growth of bacteria to be confined to defined patterns, which has potential for the development of treatments that avoid interference with the endogenous microbial population in other parts of the organism.

  14. Active Star Architectures For Fiber Optics Ethernet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, Yoseph L.

    1988-12-01

    Ethernet, and the closely related IEEE 802.3 CSMA/CD standard (Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection), is probably the widest used method for high speed Local Area Networks (LANs). The original Ethernet medium was baseband coax but the wide acceptance of the system necessitated the ability to use Ethernet on a variety of media. So far the use of Ethernet on Thin Coax (CheaperNet), Twisted Pair (StarLan) and Broadband Coax has been standardized. Recently, an increased interest in Fiber Optic based LANs resulted in a formation of an IEEE group whose charter is to recommend approaches for Active and Passive Fiber Optic Ethernet systems. The various approaches which are being considered are described in this paper with an emphasis on Active Star based systems.

  15. Atmospheric Optical Communication Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-01

    Johnson) Doise is given by Nt = 4kT3 (2-10) where k is Bol~ann’s coostn± and T the effective detection-systezu temperamre. (M) in lieu of specifying...34> where A. Is a coherent, complem wavebrmgiven by A13 -T ULM 4 +j (t). 2.) 17ther the wave amuplitade U, the optical ftvqiuency w , or the phase o mazy be...centered at the 4Kme 7 w - - w A’S inserted behind the detecor o remoethe uodlaed sipal elements, the lustaouu xgnal current at the 7 out~u: winl be is - (itqx

  16. Optical Navigation System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is for a flexible navigation system for deep space operations that does not require GPS measurements. The navigation solution is computed using an...

  17. Optical fiber telecommunications systems and networks

    CERN Document Server

    Kaminow, Ivan; Willner, Alan E

    2013-01-01

    Optical Fiber Telecommunications VI (A&B) is the sixth in a series that has chronicled the progress in the R&D of lightwave communications since the early 1970s. Written by active authorities from academia and industry, this edition brings a fresh look to many essential topics, including devices, subsystems, systems and networks. A central theme is the enabling of high-bandwidth communications in a cost-effective manner for the development of customer applications. These volumes are an ideal reference for R&D engineers and managers, optical systems implementers, university researchers and s

  18. Optical detection in microfluidic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Kutter, Jörg Peter

    2009-01-01

    Optical detection schemes continue to be favoured for measurements in microfluidic systems. A selection of the latest progress mainly within the last two years is critically reviewed. Emphasis is on integrated solutions, such as planar waveguides, coupling schemes to the outside world, evanescent...

  19. Fiber Optic Augmented Reality System (FOARS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Innovation: Fiber Optics Augmented Reality System. This system in form of a mobile app interacts real time with the actual FOSS(Fiber Optics Sensing System) data and...

  20. Measurement of optical activity of honey bee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Gutiérrez, Mauricio; Olivares-Pérez, Arturo; Salgado-Verduzco, Marco Antonio; Ibarra-Torres, Juan Carlos

    2016-03-01

    Optical activity of some substances, such as chiral molecules, often exhibits circular birefringence. Circular birefringence causes rotation of the vibration plane of the plane polarized light as it passes through the substance. In this work we present optical characterization of honey as function of the optical activity when it is placed in a polariscope that consists of a light source and properly arranged polarizing elements.

  1. Systems and methods for enhancing optical information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVore, Peter Thomas Setsuda; Chou, Jason T.

    2018-01-02

    An Optical Information Transfer Enhancer System includes a first system for producing an information bearing first optical wave that is impressed with a first information having a first information strength wherein the first optical wave has a first shape. A second system produces a second optical wave. An information strength enhancer module receives the first and said second optical waves and impresses the first optical wave upon the second optical wave via cross-phase modulation (XPM) to produce an information-strength-enhanced second optical wave having a second information strength that is greater than the first information strength of the first optical wave. Following a center-wavelength changer by an Optical Information Transfer Enhancer System improves its performance.

  2. Phase-Modulated Optical Communication Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, Keang-Po

    2005-01-01

    Fiber-optic communication systems have revolutionized our telecommunication infrastructures – currently, almost all telephone land-line, cellular, and internet communications must travel via some form of optical fibers. In these transmission systems, neither the phase nor frequency of the optical signal carries information – only the intensity of the signal is used. To transmit more information in a single optical carrier, the phase of the optical carrier must be explored. As a result, there is renewed interest in phase-modulated optical communications, mainly in direct-detection DPSK signals for long-haul optical communication systems. When optical amplifiers are used to maintain certain signal level among the fiber link, the system is limited by amplifier noises and fiber nonlinearities. Phase-Modulated Optical Communication Systems surveys this newly popular area, covering the following topics: The transmitter and receiver for phase-modulated coherent lightwave systems Method for performance analysis o...

  3. Knowledge-based optical system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, Taoufik

    1992-03-01

    This work is a new approach for the design of start optical systems and represents a new contribution of artificial intelligence techniques in the optical design field. A knowledge-based optical-systems design (KBOSD), based on artificial intelligence algorithms, first order logic, knowledge representation, rules, and heuristics on lens design, is realized. This KBOSD is equipped with optical knowledge in the domain of centered dioptrical optical systems used at low aperture and small field angles. It generates centered dioptrical, on-axis and low-aperture optical systems, which are used as start systems for the subsequent optimization by existing lens design programs. This KBOSD produces monochromatic or polychromatic optical systems, such as singlet lens, doublet lens, triplet lens, reversed singlet lens, reversed doublet lens, reversed triplet lens, and telescopes. In the design of optical systems, the KBOSD takes into account many user constraints such as cost, resistance of the optical material (glass) to chemical, thermal, and mechanical effects, as well as the optical quality such as minimal aberrations and chromatic aberrations corrections. This KBOSD is developed in the programming language Prolog and has knowledge on optical design principles and optical properties. It is composed of more than 3000 clauses. Inference engine and interconnections in the cognitive world of optical systems are described. The system uses neither a lens library nor a lens data base; it is completely based on optical design knowledge.

  4. Optical Energy Transfer and Conversion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, William C. (Inventor); Hogan, Bartholomew P. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An optical power transfer system comprising a fiber spooler, a fiber optic rotary joint mechanically connected to the fiber spooler, and an electrical power extraction subsystem connected to the fiber optic rotary joint with an optical waveguide. Optical energy is generated at and transferred from a base station through fiber wrapped around the spooler, through the rotary joint, and ultimately to the power extraction system at a remote mobility platform for conversion to another form of energy.

  5. Optical Manipulation System Using a Plurality of Optical Traps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    The present invention relates to an optical manipulation system (10) for generation of a plurality of optical traps for manipulation of micro-objects including nano-objects using electromagnetic radiation forces in a micro-object manipulation volume (14), the system comprising a spatially modulat...

  6. The ANTARES optical beacon system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ageron, M.; Aguilar, J. A.; Albert, A.; Ameli, F.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardellier-Desages, F.; Aslanides, E.; Aubert, J.-J.; Auer, R.; Barbarito, E.; Basa, S.; Battaglieri, M.; Becherini, Y.; Beltramelli, J.; Bertin, V.; Bigi, A.; Billault, M.; Blaes, R.; de Botton, N.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Bradbury, S. M.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Burgio, G. F.; Busto, J.; Cafagna, F.; Caillat, L.; Calzas, A.; Capone, A.; Caponetto, L.; Carmona, E.; Carr, J.; Cartwright, S. L.; Castel, D.; Castorina, E.; Cavasinni, V.; Cecchini, S.; Ceres, A.; Charvis, P.; Chauchot, P.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Colnard, C.; Compère, C.; Coniglione, R.; Cottini, N.; Coyle, P.; Cuneo, S.; Cussatlegras, A.-S.; Damy, G.; van Dantzig, R.; de Bonis, G.; de Marzo, C.; de Vita, R.; Dekeyser, I.; Delagnes, E.; Denans, D.; Deschamps, A.; Destelle, J.-J.; Dinkespieler, B.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Drogou, J.-F.; Druillole, F.; Durand, D.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Escoffier, S.; Falchini, E.; Favard, S.; Fehr, F.; Feinstein, F.; Ferry, S.; Fiorello, C.; Flaminio, V.; Fratini, K.; Fuda, J.-L.; Galeotti, S.; Gallone, J.-M.; Giacomelli, G.; Girard, N.; Gojak, C.; Goret, Ph.; Graf, K.; Hallewell, G.; Harakeh, M. N.; Hartmann, B.; Heijboer, A.; Heine, E.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Hößl, J.; Hoffman, C.; Hogenbirk, J.; Hubbard, J. R.; Jaquet, M.; Jaspers, M.; de Jong, M.; Jouvenot, F.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Katz, U.; Keller, P.; Kok, E.; Kok, H.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Korolkova, E. V.; Kouchner, A.; Kretschmer, W.; Kruijer, A.; Kuch, S.; Kudryavstev, V. A.; Lagier, P.; Lahmann, R.; Lamanna, G.; Lamare, P.; Lambard, G.; Languillat, J.-C.; Laschinsky, H.; Lavalle, J.; Le Guen, Y.; Le Provost, H.; Le van Suu, A.; Lefèvre, D.; Legou, T.; Lelaizant, G.; Lim, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Louis, F.; Lucarelli, F.; Lyashuk, V.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Masullo, R.; Mazéas, F.; Mazure, A.; McMillan, J. E.; Megna, R.; Melissas, M.; Migneco, E.; Milovanovic, A.; Mongelli, M.; Montaruli, T.; Morganti, M.; Moscoso, L.; Musumeci, M.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Naumann, C.; Niess, V.; Noble, T.; Olivetto, C.; Ostasch, R.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Payre, P.; Peek, H.; Perez, A.; Petta, C.; Piattelli, P.; Pillet, R.; Pineau, J.-P.; Poinsignon, J.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Racca, C.; Randazzo, N.; van Randwijk, J.; Real, D.; van Rens, B.; Réthoré, F.; Rewiersma, P.; Riccobene, G.; Rigaud, V.; Ripani, M.; Roca, V.; Roda, C.; Rolin, J. F.; Rose, H. J.; Rostovtsev, A.; Roux, J.; Ruppi, M.; Russo, G. V.; Rusydi, G.; Salesa, F.; Salomon, K.; Sapienza, P.; Schmitt, F.; Schuller, J.-P.; Shanidze, R.; Sokalski, I.; Spona, T.; Spurio, M.; van der Steenhoven, G.; Stolarczyk, T.; Streeb, K.; Sulak, L.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Tao, C.; Terreni, G.; Thompson, L. F.; Urbano, F.; Valdy, P.; Valente, V.; Vallage, B.; Vaudaine, G.; Venekamp, G.; Verlaat, B.; Vernin, P.; de Vries-Uiterweerd, G.; van Wijk, R.; Wijnker, G.; de Witt Huberts, P.; Wobbe, G.; de Wolf, E.; Yao, A.-F.; Zaborov, D.; Zaccone, H.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2007-08-01

    ANTARES is a neutrino telescope being deployed in the Mediterranean Sea. It consists of a three-dimensional array of photomultiplier tubes that can detect the Cherenkov light induced by charged particles produced in the interactions of neutrinos with the surrounding medium. High angular resolution can be achieved, in particular, when a muon is produced, provided that the Cherenkov photons are detected with sufficient timing precision. Considerations of the intrinsic time uncertainties stemming from the transit time spread in the photomultiplier tubes and the mechanism of transmission of light in sea water lead to the conclusion that a relative time accuracy of the order of 0.5 ns is desirable. Accordingly, different time calibration systems have been developed for the ANTARES telescope. In this article, a system based on Optical Beacons, a set of external and well-controlled pulsed light sources located throughout the detector, is described. This calibration system takes into account the optical properties of sea water, which is used as the detection volume of the ANTARES telescope. The design, tests, construction and first results of the two types of beacons, LED and laser-based, are presented.

  7. Optical wireless communications system and channel modelling with Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Ghassemlooy, Z

    2012-01-01

    Detailing a systems approach, Optical Wireless Communications: System and Channel Modelling with MATLAB(R), is a self-contained volume that concisely and comprehensively covers the theory and technology of optical wireless communications systems (OWC) in a way that is suitable for undergraduate and graduate-level students, as well as researchers and professional engineers. Incorporating MATLAB(R) throughout, the authors highlight past and current research activities to illustrate optical sources, transmitters, detectors, receivers, and other devices used in optical wireless communications. The

  8. High pressure fiber optic sensor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guida, Renato; Xia, Hua; Lee, Boon K; Dekate, Sachin N

    2013-11-26

    The present application provides a fiber optic sensor system. The fiber optic sensor system may include a small diameter bellows, a large diameter bellows, and a fiber optic pressure sensor attached to the small diameter bellows. Contraction of the large diameter bellows under an applied pressure may cause the small diameter bellows to expand such that the fiber optic pressure sensor may measure the applied pressure.

  9. Problems of Aero-optics and Adaptive Optical Systems: Analytical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. I. Shanin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The analytical review gives the basic concepts of the aero-optics problem arising from the radiation propagation in the region of the boundary layers of a laser installation carrier aircraft. Estimates the radiation wave front distortions at its propagation in the near and far field. Presents main calculation approaches and methods to solve the gas-dynamic and optical problems in propagating laser radiation. Conducts a detailed analysis of the flows and their generating optical aberrations introduced by the aircraft turret (a projection platform of the on-board laser. Considers the effect of various factors (shock wave, difference in wall and flow temperatures on the flow pattern and the optical aberrations. Provides research data on the aero-optics obtained in the flying laboratory directly while in flight. Briefly considers the experimental research methods, diagnostic equipment, and synthesis of results while studying the aero-optics problem. Discusses some methods for mitigating the aerodynamic effects on the light propagation under flight conditions. Presents data about the passive, active, and hybrid effects on the flow in the boundary layers in order to reduce aberrations through improving the flow aerodynamics.The paper considers operation of adaptive optical systems under conditions of aero-optical distortions. Presents the study results concerning the reduction of the aero-optics effect on the characteristics of radiation in far field. Gives some research results regarding the effect on the efficiency of the adaptive system of a laser beam jitter and a time delay in the feedback signal transmission, which occur under application conditions. Provides data on adaptive correction of aero-optical wave fronts of radiation. Considers some application aspects in control systems of the on-board adaptive optics of adaptive filtration as a way to improve the efficiency of adaptive optical systems. The project in mind is to use obtained results

  10. Mode-Locked Semiconductor Lasers for Optical Communication Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yvind, Kresten; Larsson, David; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo

    2005-01-01

    We present investigations on 10 and 40 GHz monolithic mode-locked lasers for applications in optical communications systems. New all-active lasers with one to three quantum wells have been designed, fabricated and characterized.......We present investigations on 10 and 40 GHz monolithic mode-locked lasers for applications in optical communications systems. New all-active lasers with one to three quantum wells have been designed, fabricated and characterized....

  11. Photovoltaic concentrator assembly with optically active cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesniak, Adam P

    2014-01-21

    A photovoltaic concentrator assembly that includes a housing that defines an internal volume and includes a rim, wherein the rim defines an opening into the internal volume, a photovoltaic cell positioned in the internal volume, and an optical element that includes an optically active body and a flange extending outward from the body, wherein the flange is sealingly engaged with the rim of the housing to enclose the internal volume.

  12. Optical Switching for Dynamic Distribution of Wireless-Over-Fiber Signals in Active Optical Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Rodes, Guillermo; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2012-01-01

    of a four wavelength-division-multiplexed channel system operating on a WiMax frequency band and employing an orthogonal-frequency-division-multiplexing modulation at 625 Mbits/s per channel, transmission of the data over 20 km of optical fiber, and active switching in a 1 × 16 active optical switch....... The results show a negligible power penalty on each channel for both the best and the worst case in terms of inter-channel crosstalk. The presented system is highly scalable both in terms of port count and throughput, a desirable feature in highly branched access networks, and is modulation- and frequency...

  13. New Photonic System for Optical Packet Switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Rudge Barbosa

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Fast optical switching (ms timebase is realized by using a RF frequency tone inserted in the optical packet that carries a digital payload. By using a highly selective RF filtering for optical packet header frequency recognition, we have obtained excellent performance in optical switching function.. The RF header is detected at optical node input, and signals the node switching control, which instantly directs the packet to a prescribed output. No electronic processing of the digital payload is performed. The optical circuit is noise-free, has very low crosstalk, and is extremely selective in header frequency detection. BER measurements for payload consistently yield figures as low as 10-12 . This system is applicable to optical metropolitan and access networks, and is fully compatible with DWDM systems.

  14. Optimized systems for energy efficient optical tweezing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampmann, R.; Kleindienst, R.; Grewe, A.; Bürger, Elisabeth; Oeder, A.; Sinzinger, S.

    2013-03-01

    Compared to conventional optics like singlet lenses or even microscope objectives advanced optical designs help to develop properties specifically useful for efficient optical tweezers. We present an optical setup providing a customized intensity distribution optimized with respect to large trapping forces. The optical design concept combines a refractive double axicon with a reflective parabolic focusing mirror. The axicon arrangement creates an annular field distribution and thus clears space for additional integrated observation optics in the center of the system. Finally the beam is focused to the desired intensity distribution by a parabolic ring mirror. The compact realization of the system potentially opens new fields of applications for optical tweezers such as in production industries and micro-nano assembly.

  15. Active Optical Fibers Doped with Ceramic Nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Mrazek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Erbium-doped active optical fiber was successfully prepared by incorporation of ceramic nanocrystals inside a core of optical fiber. Modified chemical vapor deposition was combined with solution-doping approach to preparing preform. Instead of inorganic salts erbium-doped yttrium-aluminium garnet nanocrystals were used in the solution-doping process. Prepared preform was drawn into single-mode optical fiber with a numerical aperture 0.167. Optical and luminescence properties of the fiber were analyzed. Lasing ability of prepared fiber was proofed in a fiber-ring set-up. Optimal laser properties were achieved for a fiber length of 20~m. The slope efficiency of the fiber-laser was about 15%. Presented method can be simply extended to the deposition of other ceramic nanomaterials.

  16. Silicon retina for optical tracking systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohbehn, K.; Jenkins, R. E.; Sun, X.; Andreou, A. G.

    1993-01-01

    There are a host of position sensors, such as quadcells and CCD's, which are candidates for detecting optical position errors and providing error signals for a mirror positioning loop. We are developing a novel, very high bandwidth, biologically inspired position sensor for optical position tracking systems. We present recent test results and design issues for the use of biologically inspired silicon retinas for spaceborne optical position tracking systems.

  17. Micro-optical-mechanical system photoacoustic spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotovsky, Jack; Benett, William J.; Tooker, Angela C.; Alameda, Jennifer B.

    2013-01-01

    All-optical photoacoustic spectrometer sensing systems (PASS system) and methods include all the hardware needed to analyze the presence of a large variety of materials (solid, liquid and gas). Some of the all-optical PASS systems require only two optical-fibers to communicate with the opto-electronic power and readout systems that exist outside of the material environment. Methods for improving the signal-to-noise are provided and enable mirco-scale systems and methods for operating such systems.

  18. Raman Optical Activity of Biological Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanch, Ewan W.; Barron, Laurence D.

    Now an incisive probe of biomolecular structure, Raman optical activity (ROA) measures a small difference in Raman scattering from chiral molecules in right- and left-circularly polarized light. As ROA spectra measure vibrational optical activity, they contain highly informative band structures sensitive to the secondary and tertiary structures of proteins, nucleic acids, viruses and carbohydrates as well as the absolute configurations of small molecules. In this review we present a survey of recent studies on biomolecular structure and dynamics using ROA and also a discussion of future applications of this powerful new technique in biomedical research.

  19. Disulfide Chromophore and Its Optical Activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maloň, Petr; Bednárová, Lucie; Straka, Michal; Krejčí, Lucie; Kumprecht, Lukáš; Kraus, Tomáš; Kubáňová, M.; Baumruk, V.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 22, 1E (2010), E47-E55 ISSN 0899-0042 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/07/1335; GA ČR GA203/06/1550; GA ČR GA203/09/2037; GA ČR GAP208/10/0376; GA AV ČR IAA400550810 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : disulfide chromophore * Raman optical activity * vibrational optical activity * circular dichroism Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.892, year: 2010

  20. Optical control of antibacterial activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velema, Willem A.; van der Berg, Jan Pieter; Hansen, Mickel J.; Szymanski, Wiktor; Driessen, Arnold J. M.; Feringa, Ben L.

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial resistance is a major problem in the modern world, stemming in part from the build-up of antibiotics in the environment. Novel molecular approaches that enable an externally triggered increase in antibiotic activity with high spatiotemporal resolution and auto-inactivation are highly

  1. Modeling and analysis of laser active interference optical path

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Cong-miao; Sun, Hua-yan; Zhao, Yan-zhong; Chen, Jian-biao; Ren, Jian-ying

    2017-10-01

    By using the geometrical optics and physical optics method, the models of wedge plate interference optical path, Michelson interferometer and Mach Zehnder interferometer thus three different active interference pattern are built. The optical path difference (OPD) launched by different interference patterns, fringe spacing and contrast expression have been derived. The results show that far field interference peak intensity of the wedge plate interference is small, so the detection distance is limited, Michelson interferometer with low contrast affects the performance of detection system, Mach Zehnder interferometer has greater advantages in peak intensity, the variable range of interference fringe spacing and contrast ratio. The results of this study are useful for the theoretical research and practical application of laser active interference detection.

  2. Adaptive optics compensation using active illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgs, Charles; Barclay, Herbert T.; Kansky, Jan E.; Murphy, Daniel V.; Primmerman, Charles A.

    1998-09-01

    We have conducted atmospheric compensation experiments using active illumination for both adaptive-optics and tracking. Tests were performed in support of the Air Force's Airborne Laser program. The tests utilized the 5.4-km horizontal propagation range at the Lincoln Laboratory Firepond facility. The adaptive-optics beacon was provided by actively illuminating the target with a multibeam laser illuminator. A second multibeam laser illuminator was used to provide a beacon for an imaging tracker. Experiments were conducted using two different adaptive-optics illuminator configurations, as well as with point-source beacons. Data were collected over a range of atmospheric conditions. Results from these tests have helped to provide a performance benchmark for the Airborne Laser program.

  3. Embedded Multifunctional Optical Sensor System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address NASA's need for in situ sensor systems for use on rigid and/or flexible ablative Thermal Protection System (TPS) materials, Physical Optics Corporation...

  4. Fiber Optic Sensing Systems for Launch Vehicles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AES in partnership with HEOMD's Launch Services Program and ARMD, plans to develop Fiber Optic Sensing System (FOSS) hardware for use with Launch Vehicle Systems.AES...

  5. Knowledge-based optical system design: some optical systems generated by the KBOSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, Taoufik; Erard, Pierre-Jean

    1993-04-01

    This work is a new approach for the design of start optical systems and represents a new contribution of artificial intelligence techniques in the optical design field. A knowledge-based optical-systems design (KBOSD), based on artificial intelligence algorithms, first order logic, knowledge representation, rules, and heuristics on lens design, is realized. This KBOSD is equipped with optical knowledge in the domain of centered dioptrical optical systems used at low aperture and small field angles. This KBOSD generates centered dioptrical, on-axis and low-aperture optical-systems, which are used as start systems for the subsequent optimization by existing lens design programs. This KBOSD produces monochromatic or polychromatic optical systems, such as singlet lens, doublet lens, triplet lens, reversed singlet lens, reversed doublet lens, reversed triplet lens, and telescopes. In the design of optical systems, the KBOSD takes into account many user constraints such as cost, resistance of the optical material (glass) to chemical, thermal, and mechanical effects, as well as the optical quality such as minimal aberrations and chromatic aberrations corrections. This KBOSD is developed in the programming language Prolog and has knowledge on optical design principles and optical properties and uses neither a lens library nor a lens data base, it is completely based on optical design knowledge.

  6. Active optical cable for intrasatellite communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco, J.; Cano, D.; Navasquillo, O.; Esteban, M. A.

    2017-11-01

    DAS Photonics and Airbus Defence and Space (Spain) have been working for more than six years in the concept of an Active Optical Cable (AOC) for copper cable substitution. The main advantages that AOC offers are significant mass and size saving, better flexibility and routing of the cable and immunity to EMI.

  7. Surface enhanced Raman optical activity (SEROA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdali, Salim; Blanch, E.W.

    2008-01-01

    Raman optical activity (ROA) directly monitors the stereochemistry of chiral molecules and is now an incisive probe of biomolecular structure. ROA spectra contain a wealth of information on tertiary folding, secondary structure and even the orientation of individual residues in proteins and nucleic...

  8. Integration of active and passive polymer optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Schøler, Mikkel; Kristensen, Anders

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate a wafer scale fabrication process for integration of active and passive polymer optics: Polymer DFB lasers and waveguides. Polymer dye DFB lasers are fabricated by combined nanoimprint and photolithography (CNP). The CNP fabrication relies on an UV transparent stamp with nm sized...

  9. Active x-ray optics for high resolution space telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doel, Peter; Atkins, Carolyn; Brooks, D.; Feldman, Charlotte; Willingale, Richard; Button, Tim; Rodriguez Sanmartin, Daniel; Meggs, Carl; James, Ady; Willis, Graham; Smith, Andy

    2017-11-01

    The Smart X-ray Optics (SXO) Basic Technology project started in April 2006 and will end in October 2010. The aim is to develop new technologies in the field of X-ray focusing, in particular the application of active and adaptive optics. While very major advances have been made in active/adaptive astronomical optics for visible light, little was previously achieved for X-ray optics where the technological challenges differ because of the much shorter wavelengths involved. The field of X-ray astronomy has been characterized by the development and launch of ever larger observatories with the culmination in the European Space Agency's XMM-Newton and NASA's Chandra missions which are currently operational. XMM-Newton uses a multi-nested structure to provide modest angular resolution ( 10 arcsec) but large effective area, while Chandra sacrifices effective area to achieve the optical stability necessary to provide sub-arc second resolution. Currently the European Space Agency (ESA) is engaged in studies of the next generation of X-ray space observatories, with the aim of producing telescopes with increased sensitivity and resolution. To achieve these aims several telescopes have been proposed, for example ESA and NASA's combined International X-ray Observatory (IXO), aimed at spectroscopy, and NASA's Generation-X. In the field of X-ray astronomy sub 0.2 arcsecond resolution with high efficiency would be very exciting. Such resolution is unlikely to be achieved by anything other than an active system. The benefits of a such a high resolution would be important for a range of astrophysics subjects, for example the potential angular resolution offered by active X-ray optics could provide unprecedented structural imaging detail of the Solar Wind bowshock interaction of comets, planets and similar objects and auroral phenomena throughout the Solar system using an observing platform in low Earth orbit. A major aim of the SXO project was to investigate the production of thin

  10. All-Optical Regeneration System for Optical Wavelength Division Multiplexed Communication Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The invention relates to an all-optical regeneration system for regeneration of optical wavelength division multiplexed WDM data signals in an optical WDM communication system. The system comprises a WDM-to-Optical time domain multiplexing OTDM, WDM-to-OTDM, converter, capable of converting....... The system additionally comprises an OTDM-to-WDM converter for converting the output OTDM data signal to an output WDM data signal. An input of the all-optical regenerator unit is in optical communication with an output of the WDM-to-OTDM converter, and an output of the all-optical regenerator unit...... an input WDM data signal comprising multiple wavelength channels into an input OTDM data signal comprising multiple time multiplexed time channels. The system further comprises an all-optical regenerator unit being configured for regenerating the input OTDM data signal into an output OTDM data signal...

  11. Integrated Optical Interconnect Architectures for Embedded Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Nicolescu, Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a broad overview of current research in optical interconnect technologies and architectures. Introductory chapters on high-performance computing and the associated issues in conventional interconnect architectures, and on the fundamental building blocks for integrated optical interconnect, provide the foundations for the bulk of the book which brings together leading experts in the field of optical interconnect architectures for data communication. Particular emphasis is given to the ways in which the photonic components are assembled into architectures to address the needs of data-intensive on-chip communication, and to the performance evaluation of such architectures for specific applications.   Provides state-of-the-art research on the use of optical interconnects in Embedded Systems; Begins with coverage of the basics for high-performance computing and optical interconnect; Includes a variety of on-chip optical communication topologies; Features coverage of system integration and opti...

  12. Non-Hermitian optics in atomic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaoyang; Ma, Danmeng; Sheng, Jiteng; Zhang, Yiqi; Zhang, Yanpeng; Xiao, Min

    2018-04-01

    A wide class of non-Hermitian Hamiltonians can possess entirely real eigenvalues when they have parity-time (PT) symmetric potentials. Recently, this family of non-Hermitian systems has attracted considerable attention in diverse areas of physics due to their extraordinary properties, especially in optical systems based on solid-state materials, such as coupled gain-loss waveguides and microcavities. Considering the desired refractive index can be effectively manipulated through atomic coherence, it is important to realize such non-Hermitian optical potentials and further investigate their distinct properties in atomic systems. In this paper, we review the recent theoretical and experimental progress of non-Hermitian optics with coherently prepared multi-level atomic configurations. The realizations of (anti-) PT symmetry with different schemes have extensively demonstrated the special optical properties of non-Hermitian optical systems with atomic coherence.

  13. Features of optical modeling in educational and scientific activity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article discusses the functionality of existing software for the modeling, analysis and optimization of lighting systems and optical elements, through which the stage of their design can be automated completely. The use of these programs is shown using the example of scientific work and the educational activity of ...

  14. Beam optics: computer program for electrostatic optical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roussel, Joseph.

    1976-06-01

    A computer program has been written to calculate the parameters of electrostatic optical systems with a cylindrical geometry required for atomic physics experiments. Very easy to use, this program allows the calculation of the electric potential chart to be performed by an iterative method (Frankel and Young method). The equipotentials and trajectories can be plotted, to make easier the interpretation of the results [fr

  15. Optical system for trapping particles in air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampmann, R; Chall, A K; Kleindienst, R; Sinzinger, S

    2014-02-01

    An innovative optical system for trapping particles in air is presented. We demonstrate an optical system specifically optimized for high precision positioning of objects with a size of several micrometers within a nanopositioning and nanomeasuring machine (NPMM). Based on a specification sheet, an initial system design was calculated and optimized in an iterative design process. By combining optical design software with optical force simulation tools, a highly efficient optical system was developed. Both components of the system, which include a refractive double axicon and a parabolic ring mirror, were fabricated by ultra-precision turning. The characterization of the optical elements and the whole system, especially the force simulations based on caustic measurements, represent an important interim result for the subsequently performed trapping experiments. The caustic of the trapping beam produced by the system was visualized with the help of image processing techniques. Finally, we demonstrated the unique efficiency of the configuration by reproducibly trapping fused silica spheres with a diameter of 10 μm at a distance of 2.05 mm from the final optical surface.

  16. Optical beam transport system at FEL-SUT

    CERN Document Server

    Nomaru, K; Yokoyama, M; Oda, F; Nakayama, A; Koike, H; Kuroda, H

    2000-01-01

    Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd. has installed an FEL beam transport system at the IR FEL Research Center of the Science University of Tokyo (FEL-SUT). This system transports the FEL output beam from the FEL machine room to the optical diagnostic room through a vacuum tube. The in-vacuum multi-mirror synchronized system operated from the FEL control room enables the operator to control the multiple mirrors simultaneously on or off axis of the FEL beam and to distribute the FEL output to one of the laboratories. The essential component of the transport system is the passive control optics that is composed of an elliptical and parabolic mirror couple. Once the control optics is aligned, a parallel FEL beam with a good pointing stability is obtained without any active operation to tune the optical system for different wavelengths.

  17. Fiber optical parametric amplifiers in optical communication systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marhic, Michel E.; Andrekson, Peter A.; Petropoulos, Periklis

    2015-01-01

    The prospects for using fiber optical parametric amplifiers (OPAs) in optical communication systems are reviewed. Phase-insensitive amplifiers (PIAs) and phase-sensitive amplifiers (PSAs) are considered. Low-penalty amplification at/or near 1 Tb/s has been achieved, for both wavelength- and time...... in excess of 14,000 Tb/s x km in realistic wavelength-division multiplexed long-haul networks. Technical challenges remaining to be addressed in order for fiber OPAs to become useful for long-haul communication networks are discussed....

  18. Mobile based optical form evaluation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asım Sinan YÜKSEL

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Optical forms that contain multiple-choice answers are widely used both for electing students and evaluating student achievements in education systems in our country and worldwide. Optical forms are evaluated by employing optical mark recognition techniques through optical readers. High cost of these machines, limited access to them, long waiting time for evaluation results make the process hard for educationists working in cities or countries. In this study, a mobile application was developed for the educationists who own mobile phones or tablets for the purpose of evaluating students' answer sheets quickly and independent of location and optical readers. Optical form recognition, reading and evaluation processes are done on the image of student's answer sheet that is taken with the mobile phone or tablet of educationist. The Android based mobile application that we developed has a user-friendly interface, high success rate and is the first of our knowledge application that operates on mobile platforms in this field.

  19. System for optical sorting of microscopic objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a system for optical sorting of microscopic objects and corresponding method. An optical detection system (52) is capable of determining the positions of said first and/or said second objects. One or more force transfer units (200, 205, 210, 215) are placed...... in a first reservoir, the one or more force units being suitable for optical momentum transfer. An electromagnetic radiation source (42) yields a radiation beam (31, 32) capable of optically displacing the force transfer units from one position to another within the first reservoir (1R). The force transfer...... units are displaced from positions away from the first objects to positions close to the first objects, and then displacing the first objects via a contact force (300) between the first objects and the force transfer units facilitates an optical sorting of the first objects and the second objects....

  20. Optical Digital Image Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-18

    who directly contributed to ODISS. David R. Allder Irene C. Anthony Anna M. Barnaba Juanita M. Bennett Carolyn L. Bernaski Kevin L. Bradley -Jean Bray...optical disk can be described as the laser beam heating a pre-magnetized spot on the disk. Wheu the spot is heated to the curie point, a small external

  1. Free space optical alignment system using GPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, Wee-Leong; Refai, Hazem H.; Sluss, James J., Jr.

    2005-04-01

    This paper presents results from an ongoing effort at the University of Oklahoma to develop a real-time active alignment system for free-space optical communication system. An initial prototype of a FSO active alignment system using Global Positioning System (GPS) sensors, two gimbals, and point-to-point spread spectrum RF communication is described. The positions of both FSO transceivers are exchanged over the radio frequency (RF) communication link. A controller uses the exchanged information to calculate azimuth and elevation bearings to achieve initial alignment between the transceivers. The gimbals are used to steer the beams. The paper also presents a binary scan algorithm developed to expedite the initial alignment process. The algorithm incorporates power measurements as feed back to the original transceiver for comparison. In minimizing convergence time, simulation results confirm that the algorithm performs better than raster scan, spiral scan, and raster spiral scan algorithms, all of which are used in laser satellite communications. The results also show that the initial design is not able to achieve real-time alignment. For real-time alignment, different augmenting technologies (for example, steering mirrors) should be considered.

  2. Optical measuring system with an interrogator and a polymer-based single-mode fibre optic sensor system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention relates to an optical measuring system comprising a polymer-based single-mode fibre-optic sensor system (102), an optical interrogator (101), and an optical arrangement (103) interconnecting the optical interrogator (101) and the polymer-based single-mode fibre-optic sensor...... system (102). The invention further relates to an optical interrogator adapted to be connected to a polymer-based single-mode fibre-optic sensor system via an optical arrangement. The interrogator comprises a broadband light source arrangement (104) and a spectrum analysing arrangement which receives...... and analyses light reflected from the polymer-based single- mode fibre-optic sensor system....

  3. Fiber Optic Communication System For Medical Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenson, Ronald L.; Morton, Dan E.; London, Jack W.

    1982-01-01

    This paper discusses a fiber optic communication system linking ultrasound devices, Computerized tomography scanners, Nuclear Medicine computer system, and a digital fluoro-graphic system to a central radiology research computer. These centrally archived images are available for near instantaneous recall at various display consoles. When a suitable laser optical disk is available for mass storage, more extensive image archiving will be added to the network including digitized images of standard radiographs for comparison purposes and for remote display in such areas as the intensive care units, the operating room, and selected outpatient departments. This fiber optic system allows for a transfer of high resolution images in less than a second over distances exceeding 2,000 feet. The advantages of using fiber optic cables instead of typical parallel or serial communication techniques will be described. The switching methodology and communication protocols will also be discussed.

  4. Respiratory monitoring system based on fiber optic macro bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnamaningsih, Retno Wigajatri; Widyakinanti, Astari; Dhia, Arika; Gumelar, Muhammad Raditya; Widianto, Arif; Randy, Muhammad; Soedibyo, Harry

    2018-02-01

    We proposed a respiratory monitoring system for living activities in human body based on fiber optic macro-bending for laboratory scale. The respiration sensor consists of a single-mode optical fiber and operating on a wavelength at around 1550 nm. The fiber optic was integrated into an elastic fabric placed on the chest and stomach of the monitored human subject. Deformations of the flexible textile involving deformations of the fiber optic bending curvature, which was proportional to the chest and stomach expansion. The deformation of the fiber was detected using photodetector and processed using microcontroller PIC18F14K50. The results showed that this system able to display various respiration pattern and rate for sleeping, and after walking and running activities in real time.

  5. Optics and multilayer coatings for EUVL systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soufli, R; Bajt, S; Hudyma, R M; Taylor, J S

    2008-03-21

    EUV lithography (EUVL) employs illumination wavelengths around 13.5 nm, and in many aspects it is considered an extension of optical lithography, which is used for the high-volume manufacturing (HVM) of today's microprocessors. The EUV wavelength of illumination dictates the use of reflective optical elements (mirrors) as opposed to the refractive lenses used in conventional lithographic systems. Thus, EUVL tools are based on all-reflective concepts: they use multilayer (ML) coated optics for their illumination and projection systems, and they have a ML-coated reflective mask.

  6. Fiber optic neutron imaging system: calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malone, R.M.; Gow, C.E.; Thayer, D.R.

    1981-01-01

    Two neutron imaging experiments using fiber optics have been performed at the Nevada Test Site. In each experiment, an array of scintillator fluor tubes is exposed to neutrons. Light is coupled out through radiation resistant PCS fibers (8-m long) into high-bandwidth, graded index fibers. For image reconstruction to be accurate, common timing differences and transmission variations between fiber optic channels are needed. The calibration system featured a scanning pulsed dye laser, a specially designed fiber optic star coupler, a tektronix 7912AD transient digitizer, and a DEC PDP 11/34 computing system

  7. A new optical antennas based on fiber coupling system and aspherical optical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ye; Tian, Shaohua

    2013-08-01

    Space Laser communication is a new technology in recent years of optical communications, optical antenna is a communications front receiving system, compose of the optical antenna receiver, optical fiber coupling lenses. Optical antenna to receive as much as possible the signal light from the target of free space, In this paper, 10.6μm wavelength of infrared light for communication wave, we use spherical mirror and aspheric lens combination of the system, Design of large diameter concave mirror to collect more laser energy, After another spherical convex mirror reflection again to aspherical lens, then coupled into the fiber. The aspheric lens can be a good feature to correct aberration, so this design has less transmission loss and high coupling efficiency. Using Zemax software, we setting reasonable energy analysis and image quality evaluation, design spherical mirrors and aspherical refractive lenses optical system, has good optical performance and economy, can be apply on the atmospheric Laser communication the receiving device.

  8. Optical seismic sensor systems and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, A. Craig; Cummings, Malcolm E.; Zavriyev, Anton; Christensen, Caleb A.; Lee, Keun

    2015-12-08

    Disclosed is an optical seismic sensor system for measuring seismic events in a geological formation, including a surface unit for generating and processing an optical signal, and a sensor device optically connected to the surface unit for receiving the optical signal over an optical conduit. The sensor device includes at least one sensor head for sensing a seismic disturbance from at least one direction during a deployment of the sensor device within a borehole of the geological formation. The sensor head includes a frame and a reference mass attached to the frame via at least one flexure, such that movement of the reference mass relative to the frame is constrained to a single predetermined path.

  9. Design of optically stable image reflector system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chung-Yu

    2013-08-01

    The design of a partially optically stable (POS) reflector system, in which the exit ray direction and image pose are unchanged as the reflector system rotates about a specific directional vector, was presented in an earlier study by the current group [Appl. Phys. B100, 883-890 (2010)]. The present study further proposes an optically stable image (OSI) reflector system, in which not only is the optical stability property of the POS system retained, but the image position and total ray path length are also fixed. An analytical method is proposed for the design of OSI reflector systems comprising multiple reflectors. The validity of the proposed approach is demonstrated by means of two illustrative examples.

  10. Full-duplex optical communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shay, Thomas M. (Inventor); Hazzard, David A. (Inventor); Horan, Stephen (Inventor); Payne, Jason A. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A method of full-duplex electromagnetic communication wherein a pair of data modulation formats are selected for the forward and return data links respectively such that the forward data electro-magnetic beam serves as a carrier for the return data. A method of encoding optical information is used wherein right-hand and left-hand circular polarizations are assigned to optical information to represent binary states. An application for an earth to low earth orbit optical communications system is presented which implements the full-duplex communication and circular polarization keying modulation format.

  11. Management Concerns for Optical Based Filing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE IN INFORMATION SYSTEMS from the NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL March... social security number (SSN) of an individual may be inadequate if there are many records for an individual. While descriptors from a particular record...displayed. - Source The Hanbook ofOptical Memor Syste s p. 6.0-Z Optical Disk Intitute, 1989 Figure 4. Retrieval Time Factors 42 V. SERVICE RECORD

  12. Microfocusing of the FERMI@Elettra FEL beam with a K–B active optics system: Spot size predictions by application of the WISE code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raimondi, L., E-mail: lorenzo.raimondi@elettra.trieste.it [Sincrotrone Trieste ScpA, S.S. 14 km 163.5 in Area Science Park, 34149 Trieste (Italy); Svetina, C.; Mahne, N. [Sincrotrone Trieste ScpA, S.S. 14 km 163.5 in Area Science Park, 34149 Trieste (Italy); Cocco, D. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, MS-19 Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Abrami, A.; De Marco, M.; Fava, C.; Gerusina, S.; Gobessi, R.; Capotondi, F.; Pedersoli, E.; Kiskinova, M. [Sincrotrone Trieste ScpA, S.S. 14 km 163.5 in Area Science Park, 34149 Trieste (Italy); De Ninno, G. [Sincrotrone Trieste ScpA, S.S. 14 km 163.5 in Area Science Park, 34149 Trieste (Italy); University of Nova Gorica, Vipavska 13, Rozna Dolina, SI-5000 Nova Gorica (Slovenia); Zeitoun, P. [Laboratoire d' Optique Appliquée, CNRS-ENSTA-École Polytechnique, Chemin de la Humiére, 91761 Palaiseau (France); Dovillaire, G. [Imagine Optic, 18 Rue Charles de Gaulle, 91400 Orsay (France); Lambert, G. [Laboratoire d' Optique Appliquée, CNRS-ENSTA-École Polytechnique, Chemin de la Humiére, 91761 Palaiseau (France); Boutu, W.; Merdji, H.; Gonzalez, A.I. [Service des Photons, Atomes et Molécules, IRAMIS, CEA-Saclay, Btiment 522, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Gauthier, D. [University of Nova Gorica, Vipavska 13, Rozna Dolina, SI-5000 Nova Gorica (Slovenia); and others

    2013-05-11

    FERMI@Elettra, the first seeded EUV-SXR free electron laser (FEL) facility located at Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste has been conceived to provide very short (10–100 fs) pulses with ultrahigh peak brightness and wavelengths from 100 nm to 4 nm. A section fully dedicated to the photon transport and analysis diagnostics, named PADReS, has already been installed and commissioned. Three of the beamlines, EIS-TIMEX, DiProI and LDM, installed after the PADReS section, are in advanced commissioning state and will accept the first users in December 2012. These beam lines employ active X-ray optics in order to focus the FEL beam as well as to perform a controlled beam-shaping at focus. Starting from mirror surface metrology characterization, it is difficult to predict the focal spot shape applying only methods based on geometrical optics such as the ray tracing. Within the geometrical optics approach one cannot take into account the diffraction effect from the optics edges, i.e. the aperture diffraction, and the impact of different surface spatial wavelengths to the spot size degradation. Both these effects are strongly dependent on the photon beam energy and mirror incident angles. We employed a method based on physical optics, which applies the Huygens–Fresnel principle to reflection (on which the WISE code is based). In this work we report the results of the first measurements of the focal spot in the DiProI beamline end-station and compare them to the predictions computed with Shadow code and WISE code, starting from the mirror surface profile characterization.

  13. The MIT Lincoln Laboratory optical systems test facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, David C.; Hayes, Alexander G.; Jiang, Leaf A.; Hines, Eric L.; Richardson, Jonathan M.

    2006-05-01

    The Optical Systems Test Facility was established at MIT Lincoln Laboratory to support a broad scope of program areas, encompassing tactical ground-based sensors through strategic space-based sensors. The Optical Systems Test Facility comprises several separate ranges developed as a coordinated set of test sites at MIT Lincoln Laboratory. There are currently four separate ranges in the facility, an active range (Laser Radar Test Facility), a passive range (Seeker Experimental System), an aerosol range (Standoff Aerosol Active Signature Testbed) and an optical material measurements range. The active range has optical and target facilities for evaluating elements of laser radar sensors as well as complete ladar systems. It has facilities for simulating long range wavefronts and for dynamic target motions. The passive range concentrates on evaluating passive infrared sensors, with capabilities for static and dynamic scene generation in both cryogenic and room temperature environments. The aerosol range is currently configured for the measurement of both particulate and bio-agent aerosol dispersion characteristics. The optical materials measurements range started with measurement capabilities for laser radar target materials and is currently being expanded to measure both emissivity and reflectance of materials from the visible through the infrared.

  14. Fiber optic coherent laser radar 3d vision system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebastian, R.L.; Clark, R.B.; Simonson, D.L.

    1994-01-01

    Recent advances in fiber optic component technology and digital processing components have enabled the development of a new 3D vision system based upon a fiber optic FMCW coherent laser radar. The approach includes a compact scanner with no moving parts capable of randomly addressing all pixels. The system maintains the immunity to lighting and surface shading conditions which is characteristic of coherent laser radar. The random pixel addressability allows concentration of scanning and processing on the active areas of a scene, as is done by the human eye-brain system

  15. Electro-optical fuel pin identification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, T.L.

    1978-09-01

    A prototype Electro-Optical Fuel Pin Identification System referred to as the Fuel Pin Identification System (FPIS) has been developed by the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) in support of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) presently under construction at HEDL. The system is designed to remotely read an alpha-numeric identification number that is roll stamped on the top of the fuel pin end cap. The prototype FPIS consists of four major subassemblies: optical read head, digital compression electronics, video display, and line printer

  16. Active optics: off axis aspherics generation for high contrast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugot, E.; Laslandes, M.; Ferrari, M.; Vives, S.; Moindrot, S.; El Hadi, K.; Dohlen, K.

    2017-11-01

    Active Optics methods, based on elasticity theory, allow the aspherisation of optical surfaces by stress polishing but also active aspherisation in situ. Researches in this field will impact the final performance and the final cost of any telescope or instrument. The stress polishing method is well suited for the superpolishing of aspheric components for astronomy. Its principle relies on spherical polishing with a full-sized tool of a warped substrate, which becomes aspherical once unwarped. The main advantage of this technique is the very high optical quality obtained either on form or on high spatial frequency errors. Furthermore, the roughness can be decreased down to a few angstroms, thanks the classical polishing with a large pitch tool, providing a substantial gain on the final scientific performance, for instance on the contrast on coronagraphic images, but also on the polishing time and cost. Stress polishing is based on elasticity theory, and requires an optimised deformation system able to provide the right aspherical form on the optical surface during polishing. The optical quality of the deformation is validated using extensive Finite Element Analysis, allowing an estimation of residuals and an optimisation of the warping harness. We describe here the work realised on stress polishing of toric mirrors for VLT-SPHERE and then our actual work on off axis aspherics (OAA) for the ASPIICS-Proba3 mission for solar coronagraphy. The ASPIICS optical design made by Vives et al is a three mirrors anastigmat including a concave off axis hyperboloid and a convex off axis parabola (OAP). We are developing a prototype in order to demonstrate the feasibility of this type of surface, using a multi-mode warping harness (Lemaitre et al). Furthermore, we present our work on variable OAP, meaning the possibility to adjust the shape of a simple OAP in situ with a minimal number of actuators, typically one actuator per optical mode (Focus, Coma and Astigmatism

  17. Active learning in optics for girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, R.; Ashraf, I.

    2017-08-01

    Active learning in Optics (ALO) is a self-funded program under the umbrella of the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) and Quaid-i-Azam University (QAU) to bring physical sciences to traditionally underserved Girls high schools and colleges in Pakistan. There is a significant gender disparity in physical Sciences in Pakistan. In Department of Physics at QAU, approximately 10 to 20% of total students were used to be females from past many decades, but now this percentage is increasing. To keep it up at same pace, we started ALO in January 2016 as a way to provide girls an enriching science experiences, in a very friendly atmosphere. We have organized many one-day activities, to support and encourage girls' students of government high schools and colleges to pursue careers in sciences. In this presentation we will describe our experience and lesson learned in these activities.

  18. Active Full-Shell Grazing-Incidence Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jacqueline M.; Elsner, Ronald F.; Ramsey, Brian D.; O'Dell, Stephen L.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery; Weisskopf, Martin C.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.

    2016-01-01

    MSFC has a long history of developing full-shell grazing-incidence x-ray optics for both narrow (pointed) and wide field (surveying) applications. The concept presented in this paper shows the potential to use active optics to switch between narrow and wide-field geometries, while maintaining large effective area and high angular resolution. In addition, active optics has the potential to reduce errors due to mounting and manufacturing lightweight optics. The design presented corrects low spatial frequency error and has significantly fewer actuators than other concepts presented thus far in the field of active x-ray optics. Using a finite element model, influence functions are calculated using active components on a full-shell grazing-incidence optic. Next, the ability of the active optic to effect a change of optical prescription and to correct for errors due to manufacturing and mounting is modeled.

  19. Vibrational optical activity principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Nafie, Laurence A

    2011-01-01

    This unique book stands as the only comprehensive introduction to vibrational optical activity (VOA) and is the first single book that serves as a complete reference for this relatively new, but increasingly important area of molecular spectroscopy. Key features:A single-source reference on this topic that introduces, describes the background and foundation of this area of spectroscopy.Serves as a guide on how to use it to carry out applications with relevant problem solving.Depth and breadth of the subject is presented in a logical, complete and progressive fashion. A

  20. Active microring based tunable optical power splitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Eldhose; Thomas, Arun; Dhawan, Anuj; Sarangi, Smruti R.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we propose a set of novel tunable optical power splitters based on active microring resonators. They work by operating ring resonators in the transient zone between full resonance and off-resonance states for a specific wavelength. We can achieve different split ratios by either varying the bias voltage, or by selectively enabling a given resonator with a specific split ratio among an array of ring resonators. We take 500 ps to tune the resonator, which is at least 10× better that competing designs. Its split ratio varies from 0.4 to 1.8 for an applied voltage range of 0-5 V.

  1. Control systems in optical fibre industry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kostka, František

    1998-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 4 (1998), s. 195-200 ISSN 1405-5546 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) KSK1067601 Projekt 10/96/K:4107 Keywords : control systems * real time systems * microcomputers * optical fibres Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  2. Fiber optical parametric amplifiers in optical communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marhic (†), Michel E; Andrekson, Peter A; Petropoulos, Periklis; Radic, Stojan; Peucheret, Christophe; Jazayerifar, Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    The prospects for using fiber optical parametric amplifiers (OPAs) in optical communication systems are reviewed. Phase-insensitive amplifiers (PIAs) and phase-sensitive amplifiers (PSAs) are considered. Low-penalty amplification at/or near 1 Tb/s has been achieved, for both wavelength- and time-division multiplexed formats. High-quality mid-span spectral inversion has been demonstrated at 0.64 Tb/s, avoiding electronic dispersion compensation. All-optical amplitude regeneration of amplitude-modulated signals has been performed, while PSAs have been used to demonstrate phase regeneration of phase-modulated signals. A PSA with 1.1-dB noise figure has been demonstrated, and preliminary wavelength-division multiplexing experiments have been performed with PSAs. 512 Gb/s have been transmitted over 6,000 km by periodic phase conjugation. Simulations indicate that PIAs could reach data rate x reach products in excess of 14,000 Tb/s × km in realistic wavelength-division multiplexed long-haul networks. Technical challenges remaining to be addressed in order for fiber OPAs to become useful for long-haul communication networks are discussed. PMID:25866588

  3. Optical Soliton Simulation in Optical Fibers by OptiSystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaik Tay, Kim; Huong Kah Ching, Audrey; Loi, Wei Sen; Tiong Ong, Chee

    2017-08-01

    Fiber optic communication is often known to offer higher frequency transmission of signals with greater bit rate and larger data carrying capacity over a long distance with lower loss and interference as compared to copper wire electrical communication. However, several factors that would affect the performance of an optical fiber transmission are such as group velocity dispersion (GVD), fiber loss and also self-phase modulation (SPM). In this paper, the effects of GVD, SPM, optical soliton formation and fiber loss are simulated using OptiSystem 14. It is found that GVD broaden pulse in temporal domain without modifying its spectrum. Meanwhile, SPM creates chirp in spectrum with its temporal profile maintained. This work concluded that a balance between the GVD and SPM is essential to form solitonthat is able to travel for a long distance without being distorted. It is also found that the decrease in the amplitude of the soliton is dependent on the fiber loss and this decay in the signal increases with the propagation distance.

  4. Adjustment of gripping force by optical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalba, C. K.; Barz, C.

    2018-01-01

    With increasing automation, robotics also requires ever more intelligent solutions in the handling of various tasks. In this context, many grippers must also be re-designed. For this, they must always be adapted for different requirements. The equipment of the gripper systems with sensors should help to make the gripping process more intelligent. In order to achieve such objectives, optical systems can also be used. This work analyzes how the gripping force can be adjusted by means of an optical recognition. The result of this work is the creation of a connection between optical recognition, tolerances, gripping force and real-time control. In this way, algorithms can be created, with the aid of which robot grippers as well as other gripping systems become more intelligent.

  5. Optical activity in planar chiral metamaterials: Theoretical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Benfeng; Svirko, Yuri; Turunen, Jari; Vallius, Tuomas

    2007-01-01

    A thorough theoretical study of the optical activity in planar chiral metamaterial (PCM) structures, made of both dielectric and metallic media, is conducted by the analysis of gammadion-shaped nanoparticle arrays. The general polarization properties are first analyzed from an effective-medium perspective, by analogy with natural optical activity, and then verified by rigorous numerical simulation, some of which are corroborated by previous experimental results. The numerical analysis suggests that giant polarization rotation (tens of degrees) may be achieved in the PCM structures with a thickness of only hundreds of nanometers. The artificial optical activity arises from circular birefringence induced by the structural chirality and is enhanced by the guided-mode or surface-plasmon resonances taking place in the structures. There are two polarization conversion types in the dielectric PCMs, whereas only one type in the metallic ones. Many intriguing features of the polarization property of PCMs are also revealed and explained: the polarization effect is reciprocal and vanishes in the symmetrically layered structures; the effect occurs only in the transmitted field, but not in the reflected field; and the polarization spectra of two enantiomeric PCM structures are mirror symmetric to each other. These remarkable properties pave the way for the PCMs to be used as polarization elements in new-generation integrated optical systems

  6. Last results of MADRAS, a space active optics demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laslandes, Marie; Hourtoule, Claire; Hugot, Emmanuel; Ferrari, Marc; Devilliers, Christophe; Liotard, Arnaud; Lopez, Céline; Chazallet, Frédéric

    2017-11-01

    The goal of the MADRAS project (Mirror Active, Deformable and Regulated for Applications in Space) is to highlight the interest of Active Optics for the next generation of space telescope and instrumentation. Wave-front errors in future space telescopes will mainly come from thermal dilatation and zero gravity, inducing large lightweight primary mirrors deformation. To compensate for these effects, a 24 actuators, 100 mm diameter deformable mirror has been designed to be inserted in a pupil relay. Within the project, such a system has been optimized, integrated and experimentally characterized. The system is designed considering wave-front errors expected in 3m-class primary mirrors, and taking into account space constraints such as compactness, low weight, low power consumption and mechanical strength. Finite Element Analysis allowed an optimization of the system in order to reach a precision of correction better than 10 nm rms. A dedicated test-bed has been designed to fully characterize the integrated mirror performance in representative conditions. The test set up is made of three main parts: a telescope aberrations generator, a correction loop with the MADRAS mirror and a Shack-Hartman wave-front sensor, and PSF imaging. In addition, Fizeau interferometry monitors the optical surface shape. We have developed and characterized an active optics system with a limited number of actuators and a design fitting space requirements. All the conducted tests tend to demonstrate the efficiency of such a system for a real-time, in situ wave-front. It would allow a significant improvement for future space telescopes optical performance while relaxing the specifications on the others components.

  7. Optical Navigation System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is for a flexible navigation system for deep space operations that does not require GPS measurements. The navigation solution is computed using an...

  8. Aharonov-Bohm effect in optical activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, C Z

    2010-01-01

    Optically active media have the helical and dissymmetric crystal structure, which constrains the motions of the electrons to a helical path under the influence of the incident electric field. The charge flow along the helices induces a magnetic field in the direction of the axis of helices. The helical structure hence acts as natural micro-solenoids for the electromagnetic waves passing through them. Optical rotation is related to the difference in the accumulative Aharonov-Bohm (AB) phase between the right- and the left-circularly polarized waves. The AB phase is proportional to the angular momentum of an electron moving around the micro-solenoid. Originally the AB phase is shown to be a continuous function of the magnetic flux. However, quantization of the geometrical angular momentum leads to the quantized AB phase. The rotatory power and the Verdet constant are proportional to the refractive index of the medium. The quantized current in the micro-solenoid is proportional to the Bohr magneton and inversely proportional to the area of the helices.

  9. Vibrational Raman optical activity of ketose monosaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Alasdair F.; Hecht, Lutz; Barron, Laurence D.

    1995-07-01

    The vibrational Raman optical activity (ROA) spectra of the four ketose sugars D-fructose, L-sorbose, D-tagatose and D-psicose in aqueous solution, which have been measured in backscattering in the range ≈250-1500 cm -1, are reported. These results are combined with those from a previous ROA study of aldose and pentose sugars in an attempt to establish new vibrational assignments and to verify old ones. The high information content of these spectra provides a new perspective on all the central features of monosaccharide stereochemistry including dominant anomeric configuration, ring conformation, exocyclic CH 2OH group conformation and relative disposition of the hydroxyl groups around the ring.

  10. Portable electronic vision enhancement systems in comparison with optical magnifiers for near vision activities: an economic evaluation alongside a randomized crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Nathan; Brand, Andrew; Taylor, John; Hoare, Zoe; Dickinson, Christine; Edwards, Rhiannon T

    2017-08-01

    To determine the incremental cost-effectiveness of portable electronic vision enhancement system (p-EVES) devices compared with optical low vision aids (LVAs), for improving near vision visual function, quality of life and well-being of people with a visual impairment. An AB/BA randomized crossover trial design was used. Eighty-two participants completed the study. Participants were current users of optical LVAs who had not tried a p-EVES device before and had a stable visual impairment. The trial intervention was the addition of a p-EVES device to the participant's existing optical LVA(s) for 2 months, and the control intervention was optical LVA use only, for 2 months. Cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analyses were conducted from a societal perspective. The mean cost of the p-EVES intervention was £448. Carer costs were £30 (4.46 hr) less for the p-EVES intervention compared with the LVA only control. The mean difference in total costs was £417. Bootstrapping gave an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of £736 (95% CI £481 to £1525) for a 7% improvement in near vision visual function. Cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) ranged from £56 991 (lower 95% CI = £19 801) to £66 490 (lower 95% CI = £23 055). Sensitivity analysis varying the commercial price of the p-EVES device reduced ICERs by up to 75%, with cost per QALYs falling below £30 000. Portable electronic vision enhancement system (p-EVES) devices are likely to be a cost-effective use of healthcare resources for improving near vision visual function, but this does not translate into cost-effective improvements in quality of life, capability or well-being. © 2016 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation and European Association for Vision & Eye Research.

  11. Optical countermeasures against CLOS weapon systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toet, Alexander; Benoist, Koen W.; van Lingen, Joost N. J.; Schleijpen, H. Ric M. A.

    2013-10-01

    There are many weapon systems in which a human operator acquires a target, tracks it and designates it. Optical countermeasures against this type of systems deny the operator the possibility to fulfill this visual task. We describe the different effects that result from stimulation of the human visual system with high intensity (visible) light, and the associated potential operational impact. Of practical use are flash blindness, where an intense flash of light produces a temporary "blind-spot" in (part of) the visual field, flicker distraction, where strong intensity and/or color changes at a discomfortable frequency are produced, and disability glare where a source of light leads to contrast reduction. Hence there are three possibilities to disrupt the visual task of an operator with optical countermeasures such as flares or lasers or a combination of these; namely, by an intense flash of light, by an annoying light flicker or by a glare source. A variety of flares for this purpose is now available or under development: high intensity flash flares, continuous burning flares or strobe flares which have an oscillating intensity. The use of flare arrays seems particularly promising as an optical countermeasure. Lasers are particularly suited to interfere with human vision, because they can easily be varied in intensity, color and size, but they have to be directed at the (human) target, and issues like pointing and eye-safety have to be taken into account. Here we discuss the design issues and the operational impact of optical countermeasures against human operators.

  12. Scanning Long-wave Optical Test System: a new ground optical surface slope test system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tianquan; Park, Won Hyun; Parks, Robert E.; Su, Peng; Burge, James H.

    2011-09-01

    The scanning long-wave optical test system (SLOTS) is under development at the University of Arizona to provide rapid and accurate measurements of aspherical optical surfaces during the grinding stage. It is based on the success of the software configurable optical test system (SCOTS) which uses visible light to measure surface slopes. Working at long wave infrared (LWIR, 7-14 μm), SLOTS measures ground optical surface slopes by viewing the specular reflection of a scanning hot wire. A thermal imaging camera collects data while motorized stages scan the wire through the field. Current experiments show that the system can achieve a high precision at micro-radian level with fairly low cost equipment. The measured surface map is comparable with interferometer for slow optics. This IR system could be applied early in the grinding stage of fabrication of large telescope mirrors to minimize the surface shape error imparted during processing. This advantage combined with the simplicity of the optical system (no null optics, no high power carbon dioxide laser) would improve the efficiency and shorten the processing time.

  13. Automatic design of optical systems by digital computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casad, T. A.; Schmidt, L. F.

    1967-01-01

    Computer program uses geometrical optical techniques and a least squares optimization method employing computing equipment for the automatic design of optical systems. It evaluates changes in various optical parameters, provides comprehensive ray-tracing, and generally determines the acceptability of the optical system characteristics.

  14. Optical fiber-applied radiation detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiura, Ryuichi; Uranaka, Yasuo; Izumi, Nobuyuki

    2001-01-01

    A technique to measure radiation by using plastic scintillation fibers doped radiation fluorescent (scintillator) to plastic optical fiber for a radiation sensor, was developed. The technique contains some superiority such as high flexibility due to using fibers, relatively easy large area due to detecting portion of whole of fibers, and no electromagnetic noise effect due to optical radiation detection and signal transmission. Measurable to wide range of and continuous radiation distribution along optical fiber cable at a testing portion using scintillation fiber and flight time method, the optical fiber-applied radiation sensing system can effectively monitor space radiation dose or apparatus operation condition monitoring. And, a portable type scintillation optical fiber body surface pollution monitor can measure pollution concentration of radioactive materials attached onto body surface by arranging scintillation fiber processed to a plate with small size and flexibility around a man to be tested. Here were described on outline and fundamental properties of various application products using these plastic scintillation fiber. (G.K.)

  15. Cornea Optical Topographical Scan System (COTSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    The Cornea Optical Topographical Scan System (COTSS) is an instrument designed for use by opthalmologist to aid in performing surgical procedures such as radial keratotomy and to provide quick accurate data to aid in prescribing contact lenses and eyeglasses. A breadboard of the system was built and demonstrated in June of 1984. Additional refinements to the breadboard are needed to meet systems requirements prior to proceeding with prototype development. The present status of the COTSS instrument is given and the areas in which system refinements are required, are defined.

  16. Fiber coupled optical spark delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalin, Azer; Willson, Bryan; Defoort, Morgan

    2008-08-12

    A spark delivery system for generating a spark using a laser beam is provided, the spark delivery system including a laser light source and a laser delivery assembly. The laser delivery assembly includes a hollow fiber and a launch assembly comprising launch focusing optics to input the laser beam in the hollow fiber. In addition, the laser delivery assembly includes exit focusing optics that demagnify an exit beam of laser light from the hollow fiber, thereby increasing the intensity of the laser beam and creating a spark. In accordance with embodiments of the present invention, the assembly may be used to create a spark in a combustion engine. In accordance with other embodiments of the present invention, a method of using the spark delivery system is provided. In addition, a method of choosing an appropriate fiber for creating a spark using a laser beam is also presented.

  17. Optical Systems Design for a Stratospheric Lidar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermid, I. Stuart; Walsh, T. Daniel; Deslis, Apostolos; White, Mary

    1995-01-01

    The optical systems for the transmitter and receiver of a high-power lidar for stratospheric measurements have been designed and analyzed. The system requirements and design results are presented and explained. An important and driving factor of this design was the requirement for a small image diameter in the plane of an optical chopper to allow the high-intensity lidar returns from the lower atmosphere to be shielded from the detection system. Some results relevant to the optical performance of the system are presented. The resulting system has been constructed and is now in operation at the Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii, and is making regular measurements of stratospheric ozone, temperature, and aerosol profiles.

  18. The fiber-optic imaging and manipulation of neural activity during animal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Daisuke; Murayama, Masanori

    2016-02-01

    Recent progress with optogenetic probes for imaging and manipulating neural activity has further increased the relevance of fiber-optic systems for neural circuitry research. Optical fibers, which bi-directionally transmit light between separate sites (even at a distance of several meters), can be used for either optical imaging or manipulating neural activity relevant to behavioral circuitry mechanisms. The method's flexibility and the specifications of the light structure are well suited for following the behavior of freely moving animals. Furthermore, thin optical fibers allow researchers to monitor neural activity from not only the cortical surface but also deep brain regions, including the hippocampus and amygdala. Such regions are difficult to target with two-photon microscopes. Optogenetic manipulation of neural activity with an optical fiber has the advantage of being selective for both cell-types and projections as compared to conventional electrophysiological brain tissue stimulation. It is difficult to extract any data regarding changes in neural activity solely from a fiber-optic manipulation device; however, the readout of data is made possible by combining manipulation with electrophysiological recording, or the simultaneous application of optical imaging and manipulation using a bundle-fiber. The present review introduces recent progress in fiber-optic imaging and manipulation methods, while also discussing fiber-optic system designs that are suitable for a given experimental protocol. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Distributed fiber optic moisture intrusion sensing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    2003-06-24

    Method and system for monitoring and identifying moisture intrusion in soil such as is contained in landfills housing radioactive and/or hazardous waste. The invention utilizes the principle that moist or wet soil has a higher thermal conductance than dry soil. The invention employs optical time delay reflectometry in connection with a distributed temperature sensing system together with heating means in order to identify discrete areas within a volume of soil wherein temperature is lower. According to the invention an optical element and, optionally, a heating element may be included in a cable or other similar structure and arranged in a serpentine fashion within a volume of soil to achieve efficient temperature detection across a large area or three dimensional volume of soil. Remediation, moisture countermeasures, or other responsive action may then be coordinated based on the assumption that cooler regions within a soil volume may signal moisture intrusion where those regions are located.

  20. Passive and active optical bit-pattern recognition structures for multiwavelength optical packet switching networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljada, Muhsen; Alameh, Kamal

    2007-05-28

    Next generation High-Speed optical packet switching networks require components capable of recognising the optical header to enable on-the-fly accurate switching of incoming data packets to their destinations. This paper experimentally demonstrates a comparison between two different optical header recognition structures; A passive structure based on the use of Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBGs), whereas the active structure employs Opto-VLSI processors that synthesise dynamic wavelength profile through digital phase holograms. The structures are experimentally demonstrated at 10Gbps. Performance comparison between the two structures is also discussed. These optical header recognition structures are attractive for multiwavelength optical network and applications.

  1. Proceedings of cryogenic optical systems and instruments IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melugin, R.K.

    1990-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of Cryogenic Optical systems and Instruments IV. Topics covered include: Cryogenic System Design and Optical Technology; Cryogenic Instruments, Sensors, and Detectors; Space Cryogenic Dewars and Coolers; and Cryogenic Mechanisms, Testing, and Structures

  2. Fiber Optic Temperature Sensors for Thermal Protection Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Intelligent Fiber Optic Systems Corporation (IFOS) proposes an innovative fiber optic-based, multiplexable, highly ruggedized, integrated sensor system for real-time...

  3. Active Stand-off Detection of Gas Leaks Using a Short Range Hard-target Backscatter Differential Optical Absorption System Based on a Quantum Cascade Laser Transmitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diaz Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fugitive gas emissions from agricultural or industrial plants and gas pipelines are an important environmental concern as they can contribute to the global increase of greenhouse gas concentration. Moreover, they are also a security and safety concern because of possible risk of fire/explosion or toxicity. This study presents gas concentration measurements using a quantum cascade laser open path system (QCLOPS. The system retrieves the pathaveraged concentration of N2O and CH4 by collecting the backscattered light from a scattering target. The gas concentration measurements have a high temporal resolution (68 ms and are achieved at sufficient range (up to 40 m, ~ 130 feet with a detection limit of 2.6 ppm CH4 and 0.4 ppm for N2O. Given these characteristics, this system is promising for mobile/multidirectional remote detection and evaluation of gas leaks. The instrument is monostatic with a tunable QCL emitting at ~ 7.7 μm wavelength range. The backscattered radiation is collected by a Newtonian telescope and focused on an infrared light detector. Puffs of N2O and CH4 are released along the optical path to simulate a gas leak. The measured absorption spectrum is obtained using the thermal intra-pulse frequency chirped DFB QCL and is analyzed to obtain path averaged gas concentrations.

  4. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Fincham, W H A

    2013-01-01

    Optics: Ninth Edition Optics: Ninth Edition covers the work necessary for the specialization in such subjects as ophthalmic optics, optical instruments and lens design. The text includes topics such as the propagation and behavior of light; reflection and refraction - their laws and how different media affect them; lenses - thick and thin, cylindrical and subcylindrical; photometry; dispersion and color; interference; and polarization. Also included are topics such as diffraction and holography; the limitation of beams in optical systems and its effects; and lens systems. The book is recommen

  5. An exactly solvable system from quantum optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maciejewski, Andrzej J., E-mail: maciejka@astro.ia.uz.zgora.pl [J. Kepler Institute of Astronomy, University of Zielona Góra, Licealna 9, PL-65-417 Zielona Góra (Poland); Przybylska, Maria, E-mail: M.Przybylska@if.uz.zgora.pl [Institute of Physics, University of Zielona Góra, Licealna 9, 65-417 Zielona Góra (Poland); Stachowiak, Tomasz, E-mail: stachowiak@cft.edu.pl [Center for Theoretical Physics PAS, Al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-07-31

    We investigate a generalisation of the Rabi system in the Bargmann–Fock representation. In this representation the eigenproblem of the considered quantum model is described by a system of two linear differential equations with one independent variable. The system has only one irregular singular point at infinity. We show how the quantisation of the model is related to asymptotic behaviour of solutions in a vicinity of this point. The explicit formulae for the spectrum and eigenfunctions of the model follow from an analysis of the Stokes phenomenon. An interpretation of the obtained results in terms of differential Galois group of the system is also given. - Highlights: • New exactly solvable system from quantum optics is found. • Normalisation condition for system in Bargmann representation is used. • Formulae for spectrum and eigenfunctions from analysis of Stokes phenomenon are given.

  6. The catalystic asymmetric synthesis of optically active epoxy ketones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marsman, Bertha Gerda

    1981-01-01

    In this thesis the use of catalytic asymmetric synthesis to prepare optically active epoxy ketones is described. This means that the auxiliary chirality, necessary to obtain an optically active product, is added in a catalytic quantity . In principle this is a very efficient way to make opticlly

  7. Active Learning Environment with Lenses in Geometric Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tural, Güner

    2015-01-01

    Geometric optics is one of the difficult topics for students within physics discipline. Students learn better via student-centered active learning environments than the teacher-centered learning environments. So this study aimed to present a guide for middle school teachers to teach lenses in geometric optics via active learning environment…

  8. Optical Systems for Ultra-High-Speed TDM Networking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Galili

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses key results in the field of high speed optical networking with particular focus on packet-based systems. Schemes for optical packet labeling, packet switching and packet synchronization will be discussed, along with schemes for optical clock recovery, channel identification and detection of ultra-high-speed optical signals.

  9. Optical design of an athermalised dual field of view step zoom optical system in MWIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucukcelebi, Doruk

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, the optical design of an athermalised dual field of view step zoom optical system in MWIR (3.7μm - 4.8μm) is described. The dual field of view infrared optical system is designed based on the principle of passive athermalization method not only to achieve athermal optical system but also to keep the high image quality within the working temperature between -40°C and +60°C. The infrared optical system used in this study had a 320 pixel x 256 pixel resolution, 20μm pixel pitch size cooled MWIR focal plane array detector. In this study, the step zoom mechanism, which has the axial motion due to consisting of a lens group, is considered to simplify mechanical structure. The optical design was based on moving a single lens along the optical axis for changing the optical system's field of view not only to reduce the number of moving parts but also to athermalize for the optical system. The optical design began with an optimization process using paraxial optics when first-order optics parameters are determined. During the optimization process, in order to reduce aberrations, such as coma, astigmatism, spherical and chromatic aberrations, aspherical surfaces were used. As a result, athermalised dual field of view step zoom optical design is proposed and the performance of the design using proposed method was verified by providing the focus shifts, spot diagrams and MTF analyzes' plots.

  10. Robust adaptive optics systems for vision science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, S. A.; de Castro, A.; Sawides, L.; Luo, T.; Sapoznik, K.

    2018-02-01

    Adaptive Optics (AO) is of growing importance for understanding the impact of retinal and systemic diseases on the retina. While AO retinal imaging in healthy eyes is now routine, AO imaging in older eyes and eyes with optical changes to the anterior eye can be difficult and requires a control and an imaging system that is resilient when there is scattering and occlusion from the cornea and lens, as well as in the presence of irregular and small pupils. Our AO retinal imaging system combines evaluation of local image quality of the pupil, with spatially programmable detection. The wavefront control system uses a woofer tweeter approach, combining an electromagnetic mirror and a MEMS mirror and a single Shack Hartmann sensor. The SH sensor samples an 8 mm exit pupil and the subject is aligned to a region within this larger system pupil using a chin and forehead rest. A spot quality metric is calculated in real time for each lenslet. Individual lenslets that do not meet the quality metric are eliminated from the processing. Mirror shapes are smoothed outside the region of wavefront control when pupils are small. The system allows imaging even with smaller irregular pupils, however because the depth of field increases under these conditions, sectioning performance decreases. A retinal conjugate micromirror array selectively directs mid-range scatter to additional detectors. This improves detection of retinal capillaries even when the confocal image has poorer image quality that includes both photoreceptors and blood vessels.

  11. Spike Bursts from an Excitable Optical System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios Leite, Jose R.; Rosero, Edison J.; Barbosa, Wendson A. S.; Tredicce, Jorge R.

    Diode Lasers with double optical feedback are shown to present power drop spikes with statistical distribution controllable by the ratio of the two feedback times. The average time between spikes and the variance within long time series are studied. The system is shown to be excitable and present bursting of spikes created with specific feedback time ratios and strength. A rate equation model, extending the Lang-Kobayashi single feedback for semiconductor lasers proves to match the experimental observations. Potential applications to construct network to mimic neural systems having controlled bursting properties in each unit will be discussed. Brazilian Agency CNPQ.

  12. Optical manipulation with two beam traps in microfluidic polymer systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoury Arvelo, Maria; Matteucci, Marco; Sørensen, Kristian Tølbøl

    2015-01-01

    An optical trapping system with two opposing laser beams, also known as the optical stretcher, are naturally constructed inside a microfluidic lab-on-chip system. We present and compare two approaches to combine a simple microfluidic system with either waveguides directly written in the microflui......An optical trapping system with two opposing laser beams, also known as the optical stretcher, are naturally constructed inside a microfluidic lab-on-chip system. We present and compare two approaches to combine a simple microfluidic system with either waveguides directly written...... in the microfluidic chip or with optical fibers mounted in the chip....

  13. Application of the optical-coherence area concept : Optical system for Rayleigh spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, G.A.

    1981-01-01

    A practical optical system for Rayleigh spectroscopy is shown as an application of the optical coherence area concept. A short review of the propagation of the electric field self-correlation function is presented. (Author) [pt

  14. High-Resolution Integrated Optical System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakapenka, V. B.; Goncharov, A. F.; Holtgrewe, N.; Greenberg, E.

    2017-12-01

    Raman and optical spectroscopy in-situ at extreme high pressure and temperature conditions relevant to the planets' deep interior is a versatile tool for characterization of wide range of properties of minerals essential for understanding the structure, composition, and evolution of terrestrial and giant planets. Optical methods, greatly complementing X-ray diffraction and spectroscopy techniques, become crucial when dealing with light elements. Study of vibrational and optical properties of minerals and volatiles, was a topic of many research efforts in past decades. A great deal of information on the materials properties under extreme pressure and temperature has been acquired including that related to structural phase changes, electronic transitions, and chemical transformations. These provide an important insight into physical and chemical states of planetary interiors (e.g. nature of deep reservoirs) and their dynamics including heat and mass transport (e.g. deep carbon cycle). Optical and vibrational spectroscopy can be also very instrumental for elucidating the nature of the materials molten states such as those related to the Earth's volatiles (CO2, CH4, H2O), aqueous fluids and silicate melts, planetary ices (H2O, CH4, NH3), noble gases, and H2. The optical spectroscopy study performed concomitantly with X-ray diffraction and spectroscopy measurements at the GSECARS beamlines on the same sample and at the same P-T conditions would greatly enhance the quality of this research and, moreover, will provide unique new information on chemical state of matter. The advanced high-resolution user-friendly integrated optical system is currently under construction and expected to be completed by 2018. In our conceptual design we have implemented Raman spectroscopy with five excitation wavelengths (266, 473, 532, 660, 946 nm), confocal imaging, double sided IR laser heating combined with high temperature Raman (including coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering) and

  15. Optical design of a LED searchlight system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chen; Xu, Haiping; Liang, Jinhua; Liu, Yunfei; Yuan, Zengquan

    2018-01-01

    A 1200m visible searchlight system is designed based on photometry and application of geometric optics. To generate intensity distribution of this relatively powerful light beam we propose to use a high power LED and several refractive optical elements, which are composed of two plane-convex lenses and a conventional Fresnel lens. Two plane-convex lenses enable refraction of the side rays from the LED to the front direction which incident on the Fresnel lens. Fresnel lens, in its turn, concentrate the light flux and provide a nearly collimated beam to meet the requirement of forming a well-illuminated area across the road in the far field. Simulation data shows that this searchlight allow generating an appropriate illumination distribution for the long range requirements. A proof-of-concept prototype producing acceptable illuminance is developed.

  16. ADVANTAGES OF DIFFRACTIVE OPTICAL ELEMENTS APPLICATION IN SIMPLE OPTICAL IMAGING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. Zoric

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the influence of diffractive optical elements on the optical aberrations. The correction of optical aberrations was investigated in the simple optical systems with one and two lenses (singlet and doublet. The advantages of diffractive optical elements are their ability to generate arbitrary complex wave fronts from a piece of optical material that is essentially flat. The optical systems consisting of the standard surfaces were designed and optimized by using the same starting points. Further, the diffractive and aspheric surfaces were introduced into the developed systems. The resulting hybrid systems were optimized. To compare the complicity of the development of narrow field systems and wide field optical systems, the optimization has been done separately for these two types of the instruments. The optical systems were designed by using special Optical Design Software. Тhe characteristics of designed diffractive surfaces were controlled in Software DIFSYS 2.30. Due to the application of diffractive optical elements the longitudinal chromatic aberration was 5 times reduced for the narrow field systems. The absolute value of Seidel coefficient related to the spherical aberration was reduced in the range of 0.03. Considering that diffractive optical elements have the known disadvantages, like possible parasitic diffraction orders and probable decrease of the transmission, we also developed and analyzed the optical systems with combined aspheric and diffractive surfaces. A combination of the aspheric and diffractive surfaces in the optical disk system of the disk reading lens, gave cutting down of the longitudinal color aberrations almost 15 times on-axis, comparing to the lens consisting of the aspherical and standard surfaces. All of the designed diffractive optical elements possess the parameters within the fabrication limits.

  17. Active learning in optics and photonics: Fraunhofer diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghalila, H.; Ben Lakhdar, Z.; Lahmar, S.; Dhouaidi, Z.; Majdi, Y.

    2014-07-01

    "Active Learning in Optics and Photonics" (ALOP), funded by UNESCO within its Physics Program framework with the support of ICTP (Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics) and SPIE (Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers), aimed to helps and promotes a friendly and interactive method in teaching optics using simple and inexpensive equipment. Many workshops were organized since 2005 the year when Z. BenLakhdar, whom is part of the creators of ALOP, proposed this project to STO (Société Tunisienne d'Optique). These workshops address several issues in optics, covering geometrical optics, wave optics, optical communication and they are dedicated to both teachers and students. We focus this lecture on Fraunhofer diffraction emphasizing the facility to achieve this mechanism in classroom, using small laser and operating a slit in a sheet of paper. We accompany this demonstration using mobile phone and numerical modeling to assist in the analysis of the diffraction pattern figure.

  18. A Study of Synchronization Techniques for Optical Communication Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardi, R. M.

    1975-01-01

    The study of synchronization techniques and related topics in the design of high data rate, deep space, optical communication systems was reported. Data cover: (1) effects of timing errors in narrow pulsed digital optical systems, (2) accuracy of microwave timing systems operating in low powered optical systems, (3) development of improved tracking systems for the optical channel and determination of their tracking performance, (4) development of usable photodetector mathematical models for application to analysis and performance design in communication receivers, and (5) study application of multi-level block encoding to optical transmission of digital data.

  19. Resonance Raman Optical Activity and Surface Enhanced Resonance Raman Optical Activity analysis of Cytochrome C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Christian; Abdali, Salim; White, Peter C.

    2007-01-01

    High quality Resonance Raman (RR) and resonance Raman Optical Activity (ROA) spectra of cytochrome c were obtained in order to perform full assignment of spectral features of the resonance ROA spectrum. The resonance ROA spectrum of cytochrome c revealed a distinct spectral signature pattern due...... Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (ChERS) spectra of the protein were successfully obtained at very low concentration (as low as 1 µM). The assignment of spectral features was based on the information obtained from the RR and resonance ROA spectra. Excellent agreement between RR and SERRS spectra is reported...

  20. All-optical virtual private network and ONUs communication in optical OFDM-based PON system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chongfu; Huang, Jian; Chen, Chen; Qiu, Kun

    2011-11-21

    We propose and demonstrate a novel scheme, which enables all-optical virtual private network (VPN) and all-optical optical network units (ONUs) inter-communications in optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing-based passive optical network (OFDM-PON) system using the subcarrier bands allocation for the first time (to our knowledge). We consider the intra-VPN and inter-VPN communications which correspond to two different cases: VPN communication among ONUs in one group and in different groups. The proposed scheme can provide the enhanced security and a more flexible configuration for VPN users compared to the VPN in WDM-PON or TDM-PON systems. The all-optical VPN and inter-ONU communications at 10-Gbit/s with 16 quadrature amplitude modulation (16 QAM) for the proposed optical OFDM-PON system are demonstrated. These results verify that the proposed scheme is feasible. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  1. Optical monitoring system for a turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Dennis H; Smed, Jan P; Williams, James P; Jonnalagadda, Vinay

    2013-05-14

    The monitoring system for a gas turbine engine including a viewing tube assembly having an inner end and an outer end. The inner end is located adjacent to a hot gas flow path within the gas turbine engine and the outer end is located adjacent to an outer casing of the gas turbine engine. An aperture wall is located at the inner end of the viewing tube assembly and an optical element is located within the viewing tube assembly adjacent to the inner end and is spaced from the aperture wall to define a cooling and purge chamber therebetween. An aperture is defined in the aperture wall for passage of light from the hot gas flow path to the optical element. Swirl passages are defined in the viewing tube assembly between the aperture wall and the optical element for passage of cooling air from a location outside the viewing tube assembly into the chamber, wherein swirl passages effect a swirling movement of air in a circumferential direction within the chamber.

  2. Physical-layer network coding in coherent optical OFDM systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xun; Chan, Chun-Kit

    2015-04-20

    We present the first experimental demonstration and characterization of the application of optical physical-layer network coding in coherent optical OFDM systems. It combines two optical OFDM frames to share the same link so as to enhance system throughput, while individual OFDM frames can be recovered with digital signal processing at the destined node.

  3. Precision-analog fiber-optic transmission system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stover, G.

    1981-06-01

    This article describes the design, experimental development, and construction of a DC-coupled precision analog fiber optic link. Topics to be covered include overall electrical and mechanical system parameters, basic circuit organization, modulation format, optical system design, optical receiver circuit analysis, and the experimental verification of the major design parameters

  4. Systems and methods for free space optical communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Warren W [Benton City, WA; Aker, Pamela M [Richland, WA; Pratt, Richard M [Richland, WA

    2011-05-10

    Free space optical communication methods and systems, according to various aspects are described. The methods and systems are characterized by transmission of data through free space with a digitized optical signal acquired using wavelength modulation, and by discrimination between bit states in the digitized optical signal using a spectroscopic absorption feature of a chemical substance.

  5. Laser-controlled optical transconductance varistor system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Hoang T.; Stuart, Brent C.

    2017-07-11

    An optical transconductance varistor system having a modulated radiation source configured to provide modulated stimulus, a wavelength converter operably connected to the modulated radiation source to produce a modulated stimulus having a predetermined wavelength, and a wide bandgap semiconductor photoconductive material in contact between two electrodes. The photoconductive material is operably coupled, such as by a beam transport module, to receive the modulated stimulus having the predetermined wavelength to control a current flowing through the photoconductive material when a voltage potential is present across the electrodes.

  6. Optical Diagnostic System for the TLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuan, C. K.; Tseng, T. C.; Wang, D. J.; Hsiung, G. Y.; Perng, S. Y.; Tsai, Z. D.; Ueng, T. S.; Hsueh, H. P.; Chen, J. R.

    2007-01-01

    The Taiwan light source (TLS) uses a photon beam intensity system (Io monitor) to index the electron beam stability. This index combines the information of the fluctuations of electron beam position and size. For understanding the impact of these fluctuations to the electron beam instability, a set of the optical diagnostic system was installed in the TLS BL10 diagnostics beamline. This system includes the photon beam position monitor (PBPM), the beam size monitor (BSM) and the Io monitor. From the result, we concluded that about one-third impact of beam instability came from the fluctuation of electron beam position and about two-thirds impact of beam instability came from the fluctuation of electron beam size. The hardware configuration is described in this paper

  7. A new optical secure communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Fan; Fang, Nian; Huang, Zhaoming; Wang, Chunhua

    2007-11-01

    An optical secure communication system based on digital chaos and Polarization Shift Keying (PolSK) technology is proposed. In several selected PolSK schemes, states of polarization are partially or totally uniform on Poincare sphere. Different PolSK schemes are chosen according to the real-time chaos-based pseudo-random sequences to modulate original information in different periods of clock of the transmitter. In the receiver, according to the synchronous chaotic sequences, corresponding PolSK schemes are used to demodulate the information. Simulation is carried out by using the softwares of OptiSystem and Matlab. Some analysis results are presented. In the conclusion, this system works well in communication and has strong anti-attack capacity.

  8. Multilayer optical disc system using homodyne detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, Takahiro; Ide, Tatsuro; Tanaka, Yukinobu; Watanabe, Koichi

    2014-09-01

    A write/read system using high-productivity multilayer optical discs was developed. The recording medium used in the system consists of planar recording layers and a separated guide layer, and is fabricated by web coating and lamination process. The recording layers in the medium are made of one-photon-absorption material, on which data can be recorded with a normal laser diode. The developed system is capable of focusing and tracking on the medium and amplifying readout signals by using phase-diversity homodyne detection. A highly layer-selective focusing method using homodyne detection was also proposed. This method obtains stable focus-error signals with clearly separated S-shaped curves even when layer spacing is quite narrow, causing large interlayer crosstalk. Writing on the medium and reading with the signal amplification effect of homodyne detection was demonstrated. In addition, the effectiveness of the method was experimentally evaluated.

  9. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Fincham, W H A

    2013-01-01

    Optics: Eighth Edition covers the work necessary for the specialization in such subjects as ophthalmic optics, optical instruments and lens design. The text includes topics such as the propagation and behavior of light; reflection and refraction - their laws and how different media affect them; lenses - thick and thin, cylindrical and subcylindrical; photometry; dispersion and color; interference; and polarization. Also included are topics such as diffraction and holography; the limitation of beams in optical systems and its effects; and lens systems. The book is recommended for engineering st

  10. Optically active Babinet planar metamaterial film for terahertz polarization manipulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zalkovskij, Maksim; Malureanu, Radu; Kremers, C.

    2013-01-01

    are characterized by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy, revealing anisotropic transmission with high optical activity. A simple coupled resonator model is applied to explain the principal optical features of the dimers, with predictive power of positions and number of resonances through a parametrical model...

  11. Bridge SHM system based on fiber optical sensing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sheng; Fan, Dian; Fu, Jiang-hua; Huang, Xing; Jiang, De-sheng

    2015-09-01

    The latest progress of our lab in recent 10 years on the area of bridge structural health monitoring (SHM) based on optical fiber sensing technology is introduced. Firstly, in the part of sensing technology, optical fiber force test-ring, optical fiber vibration sensor, optical fiber smart cable, optical fiber prestressing loss monitoring method and optical fiber continuous curve mode inspection system are developed, which not only rich the sensor types, but also provides new monitoring means that are needed for the bridge health monitoring system. Secondly, in the optical fiber sensing network and computer system platform, the monitoring system architecture model is designed to effectively meet the integration scale and effect requirement of engineering application, especially the bridge expert system proposed integration of sensing information and informatization manual inspection to realize the mode of multi index intelligence and practical monitoring, diagnosis and evaluation. Finally, the Jingyue bridge monitoring system as the representative, the research on the technology of engineering applications are given.

  12. Navy explosive ordnance disposal project: Optical ordnance system development. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merson, J.A.; Salas, F.J.; Helsel, F.M.

    1996-03-01

    An optical ordnance firing system consisting of a portable hand held solid state rod laser and an optically ignited detonator has been developed for use in explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) activities. Solid state rod laser systems designed to have an output of 150 mJ in a 500 microsecond pulse have been produced and evaluated. A laser ignited detonator containing no primary explosives has been designed and fabricated. The detonator has the same functional output as an electrically fired blasting cap. The optical ordnance firing system has demonstrated the ability to reliably detonate Comp C-4 through 1000 meters of optical fiber.

  13. Systems engineering and analysis of electro-optical and infrared systems

    CERN Document Server

    Arrasmith, William Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Introduction to Electro-optic and Infrared (EO/IR) Systems Engineering?Radiation in the Visible and Infrared Parts of the Electromagnetic SpectrumRadiation SourcesThe Effect of the Atmosphere on Optical PropagationBasic OpticsOptical ModulationThe Detection of Optical RadiationNoise in the Optical Detection ProcessTechnical Performance Measures and Metrics of Optical DetectorsModern Detectors and their Measures of PerformanceThe Effects of Cooling on Optical Detector NoiseSignal and Image ProcessingElectro-Optic and Infrared Systems AnalysisLaser Imaging Systems?Spectral Imaging?LIDAR and LADA

  14. Progress in the active development of large optics for astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, David Jon

    An international consortium consisting of the United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Brazil, Chile and Argentina are planning to revolutionize the field of astronomy by building the two GEMINI 8m astronomical telescopes. These are designed to provide unprecedented image quality, which should significantly increase our knowledge and understanding of the structure and dynamics of the universe. To provide such superb image quality, the specifications of almost every aspect of the telescope are tighter than for any other ever built. The work described in this thesis is part of the ongoing research currently being undertaken in the Optical Science Laboratory into the production of large, highly aspheric optical surfaces. Meeting the design specifications for the GEMINI secondary mirrors is believed to be impossible using conventional craft techniques, but it is expected to be a tractable problem when utilizing the Active Lap technique described herein. The goal of the project is to demonstrate this technique by producing a 1/3 scale model of these mirrors. Broadly speaking, the Active Lap uses closed loop control of a system comprising of arrays of load cells and force actuators to control the ablation of the mirror in real time. This is a significant step forward in the field, and aims to propel conventional craft techniques which date back to the time of Sir Isaac Newton into the 21st century! A major contribution of the author to the Active Lap research project was the data acquisition and control software, which was designed to be ergonomic and make efficient use of cpu time. Other significant contributions involved calibration methods, system testing, and development of the closed loop control algorithms. In particular the novel idea of utilizing artificial neural networks to replace these algorithms is discussed. Finally, the performance of the Active Lap is evaluated, and suggestions are made for both the strategy for its future use, and the investigations

  15. Active optical fibers doped with ceramic nanocrystals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mrázek, Jan; Kašík, Ivan; Procházková, L.; Čuba, V.; Aubrecht, Jan; Cajzl, Jakub; Podrazký, Ondřej; Peterka, Pavel; Nikl, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 6 (2014), s. 567-574 ISSN 1336-1376 Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) M100761202 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : Erbium * Nanocrystals * Special optical fiber Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering; BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism (FZU-D)

  16. Optical Spectroscopy of Obscured Active Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida Lopes, Vivian Cristina; Steiner, Joao Evangelista

    1998-02-01

    We present in this work a study of obscured Active Galaxies which were identified by Sofia Kirhakos in 1990. She verified that surveys at the optical part of the spectrum are not efficient to identify Seyfert nuclei in galaxies observed edge-on. To overcome this difficulty she proposed a selection criterion in which sources identified by the IRAS satellite that were simultaneously X-rays sources in the HEAO-1 catalog were the primary targets for subsequent observations. Optical spectroscopy of these non-identified sources done by Kirhakos revelead that there is an excess of face-on objects among Seyfert 1 galaxies while the Seyfert 2 galaxies were preferencially edge-on objects. The proposed interpretation was was that the Seyfert 2 nuclei are obscured Seyfert 1 nuclei. However, the spectral region covered by Kirhakos was in the blue, quite sensitive to redenning effects. Moreover, the signal-to-noise ratio was poor to classify accuratelya number of fainter objects. In our work, objects previously classified as AGN and Transition Objects were observed at the Laboratorio Nacional de Astrofisica- Brazil, using the 1,6 m telescope in the region 6000-10000 Angtrons. Diagnostics based on line emission ratios and FWHM of the lines permited us to better classify the observed objects. We verify that the Transition Objects show characteristics of H II regions and the AGN. We also studied the far infrared luminosities and hard X-rays luminosities, and found that they correlate positively, but only until a saturation value. This may indicate the presence of a barrier trapping the IR radiation. We conclude that selection effects play a role to define the classification of some objects, but not all, with the different classes of AGN presenting intrinsically different properties. We also verified that the present classification criteria are not efficient enough to positively define all classes of Active Galactic Nuclei. Apresentamos neste trabalho o estudo de Galáxias Ativas

  17. LISA Pathfinder: Optical Metrology System monitoring during operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audley, Heather E.; LISA Pathfinder Collaboration

    2017-05-01

    The LISA Pathfinder (LPF) mission has demonstrated excellent performance. In addition to having surpassed the main mission goals, data has been collected from the various subsystems throughout the duration of the mission. This data is a valuable resource, both for a more complete understanding of the LPF satellite and the differential acceleration measurements, as well as for the design of the future Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission. Initial analysis of the Optical Metrology System (OMS) data was performed as part of daily system monitoring, and more in-depth analyses are ongoing. This contribution presents an overview of these activities along with an introduction to the OMS.

  18. Adaptive optics system application for solar telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukin, V. P.; Grigor'ev, V. M.; Antoshkin, L. V.; Botugina, N. N.; Emaleev, O. N.; Konyaev, P. A.; Kovadlo, P. G.; Krivolutskiy, N. P.; Lavrionova, L. N.; Skomorovski, V. I.

    2008-07-01

    The possibility of applying adaptive correction to ground-based solar astronomy is considered. Several experimental systems for image stabilization are described along with the results of their tests. Using our work along several years and world experience in solar adaptive optics (AO) we are assuming to obtain first light to the end of 2008 for the first Russian low order ANGARA solar AO system on the Big Solar Vacuum Telescope (BSVT) with 37 subapertures Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor based of our modified correlation tracker algorithm, DALSTAR video camera, 37 elements deformable bimorph mirror, home made fast tip-tip mirror with separate correlation tracker. Too strong daytime turbulence is on the BSVT site and we are planning to obtain a partial correction for part of Sun surface image.

  19. Raman amplification in optical communication systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Rasmus

    2008-01-01

    Fiber Raman amplifiers are investigated with the purpose of identifying new applications and limitations for their use in optical communication systems. Three main topics are investigated, namely: New applications of dispersion compensating Raman amplifiers, the use Raman amplification to increase...... støjtal under 4,5 dB og en samlet udgangseffekt på 22 dBm. Med henblik på at forlænge rækkevidden af fremtidige access-netværk foreslås en ny arkitektur for såkaldte langdistance passive optiske netværk (PON). Dette system evalueres både teoretisk og eksperimentelt. Distribueret Raman-forstærkning bruges...

  20. Optics study of liquid scintillation counting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran Ramiro, M. T.; Garcia-Torano, E.

    2005-01-01

    Optics is a key issue in the development of any liquid scintillation counting (LSC) system. Light emission in the scintillating solution, transmission through the vial and reflector design are some aspects that need to be considered in detail. This paper describes measurements and calculations carried out to optimise these factors for the design of a new family of LSC counters. Measurements of the light distribution emitted by a scintillation vial were done by autoradiographs of cylindrical vials made of various materials and results were compared to those obtained by direct measurements of the light distribution made by scanning the vial with a photomultiplier tube. Calculations were also carried out to study the light transmission in the vial and the optimal design of the reflector for a system with one photomultiplier tube. (Author)

  1. Spirallike structure in the conoscopic figures of optically active crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikul', O. Yu.; Rudoi, K. A.; Livashvili, A. I.; Doronin, V. I.; Stroganov, V. I.

    2005-02-01

    This paper discusses a spirallike structure in the conoscopic figures of optically active crystals, differing from the Airy figure. The cause of the appearance of the spirallike structure is circularly polarized radiation.

  2. Advances in synthetic optically active condensation polymers - A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The study of optically active polymers is a very active research field, and these materials have exhibited a number of interesting properties. Much of the attention in chiral polymers results from the potential of these materials for several specialized utilizations that are chiral matrices for asymmetric synthesis, chiral stationary phases for the separation of racemic mixtures, synthetic molecular receptors and chiral liquid crystals for ferroelectric and nonlinear optical applications. Recently, highly efficient methodologies and catalysts have been developed to synthesize various kinds of optically active compounds. Some of them can be applied to chiral polymer synthesis. In a few synthetic approaches for optically active polymers, chiral monomer polymerization has essential advantages in applicability of monomer, apart from both asymmetric polymerization of achiral or prochiral monomers and enantioselective polymerization of a racemic monomer mixture. The following are the up to date successful approaches to the chiral synthetic polymers by condensation polymerization reaction of chiral monomers.

  3. Coherent optical monolithic phased-array antenna steering system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hietala, Vincent M.; Kravitz, Stanley H.; Vawter, Gregory A.

    1994-01-01

    An optical-based RF beam steering system for phased-array antennas comprising a photonic integrated circuit (PIC). The system is based on optical heterodyning employed to produce microwave phase shifting by a monolithic PIC constructed entirely of passive components. Microwave power and control signal distribution to the antenna is accomplished by optical fiber, permitting physical separation of the PIC and its control functions from the antenna. The system reduces size, weight, complexity, and cost of phased-array antenna systems.

  4. Optically active thiophenes via an organocatalytic one-pot methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransborg, Lars Krogager; Albrecht, Łukasz; Weise, Christian F; Bak, Jesper R; Jørgensen, Karl Anker

    2012-02-03

    A general methodology for the synthesis of trisubstituted, optically active thiophenes by an organocatalytic one-pot reaction cascade is presented. The target products are synthesized in good yields (up to 92%) and with excellent enantioselectivities (up to 98% ee). Importantly, based on practical and easily available starting materials, the presented methodology can be conducted under mild reaction conditions. To further elucidate the generality, the synthesis of optically active thienoindoles, as well as selenophenes, is also demonstrated. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  5. Ultrafast chiroptical spectroscopy: Monitoring optical activity in quick time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanju Rhee

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Optical activity spectroscopy provides rich structural information of biologically important molecules in condensed phases. However, a few intrinsic problems of conventional method based on electric field intensity measurement scheme prohibited its extension to time domain technique. We have recently developed new types of optical activity spectroscopic methods capable of measuring chiroptical signals with femtosecond pulses. It is believed that these novel approaches will be applied to a variety of ultrafast chiroptical studies.

  6. Activities to investigate wavelength-shifting optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Megan; Strong, Denver; Baker, Blane

    2017-07-01

    Understanding principles and operation of optical fibers is important for students of physics due to increased applications of fiber optics in today’s technological world. In an effort to devise new activities to study such fibers, we obtained samples of wavelength-shifting WLS optical fibers, used in construction of research-grade particle detectors. Qualitative experiments in our laboratories examined how these fibers interact with various colors of visible light. From these results, student activities were developed to increase critical thinking in introductory physics courses and to facilitate students’ progression from traditional-classroom to research-oriented settings.

  7. Active fiber optic technologies used as tamper-indicating devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, P.R.V.; Waddoups, I.G.

    1995-11-01

    The Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Safeguards and Seals Evaluation Program is evaluating new fiber optic active seal technologies for use at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The goal of the program is to investigate active seal technologies that can monitor secured containers storing special nuclear materials (SNM) within DOE vaults. Specifically investigated were active seal technologies that can be used as tamper-indicating devices to monitor secured containers within vaults while personnel remain outside the vault area. Such a system would allow minimal access into vaults while ensuring container content accountability. The purpose of this report is to discuss tamper-indicating devices that were evaluated for possible DOE use. While previous seal evaluations (Phase I and II) considered overall facility applications, this discussion focuses specifically on their use in vault storage situations. The report will highlight general background information, specifications and requirements, and test procedures. Also discussed are the systems available from four manufacturers: Interactive Technologies, Inc., Fiber SenSys, Inc., Inovonics, Inc., and Valve Security Systems

  8. The Modular Optical Underwater Survey System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhul Amin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center deploys the Modular Optical Underwater Survey System (MOUSS to estimate the species-specific, size-structured abundance of commercially-important fish species in Hawaii and the Pacific Islands. The MOUSS is an autonomous stereo-video camera system designed for the in situ visual sampling of fish assemblages. This system is rated to 500 m and its low-light, stereo-video cameras enable identification, counting, and sizing of individuals at a range of 0.5–10 m. The modular nature of MOUSS allows for the efficient and cost-effective use of various imaging sensors, power systems, and deployment platforms. The MOUSS is in use for surveys in Hawaii, the Gulf of Mexico, and Southern California. In Hawaiian waters, the system can effectively identify individuals to a depth of 250 m using only ambient light. In this paper, we describe the MOUSS’s application in fisheries research, including the design, calibration, analysis techniques, and deployment mechanism.

  9. Raman optical activity of proteins and glycoproteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smyth, E.

    2000-03-01

    Raman optical activity (ROA), measured in this project as a small difference in the intensity of Raman scattering from chiral molecules in right- and left-circularly polarised incident laser light, offers the potential to provide more information about the structure of biological molecules in aqueous solution than conventional spectroscopic techniques. Chapter one contains a general discussion of the relative merits of different spectroscopic techniques for structure determination of biomolecules, as well as a brief introduction to ROA. In Chapter two a theoretical analysis of ROA is developed, which extends the discussion in chapter one. The spectrometer setup and sample preparation is then discussed in chapter three. Instrument and sample conditions are monitored to ensure that the best results are obtained. As with any experimental project problems occur, which may result in a degradation of the spectra obtained. The cause of these problems was explored and remedied whenever possible. Chapter four introduces a brief account of protein, glycoprotein and carbohydrate structure and function, with a particular emphasis on the structure of proteins. In the remaining chapters experimental ROA results on proteins and glycoproteins, with some carbohydrate samples, from a wide range of sources are examined. For example, in chapter five some β-sheet proteins are examined. Structural features in these proteins are examined in the extended amide III region of their ROA spectra, revealing that ROA is sensitive to the rigidity or flexibility inherent in proteins. Chapter six concentrates on a group of proteins (usually glycoproteins) known as the serine proteinase inhibitors (serpins). Medically, the serpins are one of the most important groups of proteins of current interest, with wide-ranging implications in conditions such as Down's syndrome, Alzheimer's disease, and emphysema with associated cirrhosis of the liver. With favourable samples and conditions ROA may offer the

  10. Optical Systems for Ultra-High-Speed TDM Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galili, Michael; Hu, Hao; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses key results in the field of high speed optical networking with particular focus on packet-based systems. Schemes for optical packet labeling, packet switching and packet synchronization will be discussed, along with schemes for optical clock recovery, channel identification...

  11. Optical design of the adaptive optics laser guide star system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bissinger, H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    The design of an adaptive optics package for the 3 meter Lick telescope is presented. This instrument package includes a 69 actuator deformable mirror and a Hartmann type wavefront sensor operating in the visible wavelength; a quadrant detector for the tip-tile sensor and a tip-tilt mirror to stabilize atmospheric first order tip-tile errors. A high speed computer drives the deformable mirror to achieve near diffraction limited imagery. The different optical components and their individual design constraints are described. motorized stages and diagnostics tools are used to operate and maintain alignment throughout observation time from a remote control room. The expected performance are summarized and actual results of astronomical sources are presented.

  12. Optical Imaging and Microscopy Techniques and Advanced Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Török, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This text on contemporary optical systems is intended for optical researchers and engineers, graduate students and optical microscopists in the biological and biomedical sciences. This second edition contains two completely new chapters. In addition most of the chapters from the first edition have been revised and updated. The book consists of three parts: The first discusses high-aperture optical systems, which form the backbone of optical microscopes. An example is a chapter new in the second edition on the emerging field of high numerical aperture diffractive lenses which seems to have particular promise in improving the correction of lenses. In this part particular attention is paid to optical data storage. The second part is on the use of non-linear optical techniques, including nonlinear optical excitation (total internal reflection fluorescence, second and third harmonic generation and two photon microscopy) and non-linear spectroscopy (CARS). The final part of the book presents miscellaneous technique...

  13. Optical design and tolerancing of an ophthalmological system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieber, Ingo; Martin, Thomas; Yi, Allen; Li, Likai; Rübenach, Olaf

    2014-09-01

    Tolerance analysis by means of simulation is an essential step in system integration. Tolerance analysis allows for predicting the performance of a system setup of real manufactured parts and for an estimation of the yield with respect to evaluation figures, such as performance requirements, systems specification or cost demands. Currently, optical freeform optics is gaining importance in optical systems design. The performance of freeform optics often strongly depends on the manufacturing accuracy of the surfaces. For this reason, a tolerance analysis with respect to the fabrication accuracy is of crucial importance. The characterization of form tolerances caused by the manufacturing process is based on the definition of straightness, flatness, roundness, and cylindricity. In case of freeform components, however, it is often impossible to define a form deviation by means of this standard classification. Hence, prediction of the impact of manufacturing tolerances on the optical performance is not possible by means of a conventional tolerance analysis. To carry out a tolerance analysis of the optical subsystem, including freeform optics, metrology data of the fabricated surfaces have to be integrated into the optical model. The focus of this article is on design for manufacturability of freeform optics with integrated alignment structures and on tolerance analysis of the optical subsystem based on the measured surface data of manufactured optical freeform components with respect to assembly and manufacturing tolerances. This approach will be reported here using an ophthalmological system as an example.

  14. Electrical and Optical Characterization System for IR Photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-12

    Electrical and Optical Characterization System for IR Photodetectors The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the...published in non peer-reviewed journals: Final Report: Electrical and Optical Characterization System for IR Photodetectors Report Title This DURIP project...Final Report for the ARO DURIP Program Electrical and Optical Characterization System for IR Photodetectors Grant No.: W911NF-14-1-0446   Period 01

  15. Multiparameter fiber optic sensing system for monitoring enhanced geothermal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Challener, William A

    2014-12-04

    The goal of this project was to design, fabricate and test an optical fiber cable which supports multiple sensing modalities for measurements in the harsh environment of enhanced geothermal systems. To accomplish this task, optical fiber was tested at both high temperatures and strains for mechanical integrity, and in the presence of hydrogen for resistance to darkening. Both single mode (SM) and multimode (MM) commercially available optical fiber were identified and selected for the cable based on the results of these tests. The cable was designed and fabricated using a tube-within-tube construction containing two MM fibers and one SM fiber, and without supporting gel that is not suitable for high temperature environments. Commercial fiber optic sensing instruments using Raman DTS (distributed temperature sensing), Brillouin DTSS (distributed temperature and strain sensing), and Raleigh COTDR (coherent optical time domain reflectometry) were selected for field testing. A microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) pressure sensor was designed, fabricated, packaged, and calibrated for high pressure measurements at high temperatures and spliced to the cable. A fiber Bragg grating (FBG) temperature sensor was also spliced to the cable. A geothermal well was selected and its temperature and pressure were logged. The cable was then deployed in the well in two separate field tests and measurements were made on these different sensing modalities. Raman DTS measurements were found to be accurate to ±5°C, even with some residual hydrogen darkening. Brillouin DTSS measurements were in good agreement with the Raman results. The Rayleigh COTDR instrument was able to detect some acoustic signatures, but was generally disappointing. The FBG sensor was used to determine the effects of hydrogen darkening, but drift over time made it unreliable as a temperature or pressure sensor. The MEMS sensor was found to be highly stable and accurate to better than its 0.1% calibration.

  16. 40 Gb/s optical transmission systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buxens Azcoaga, Alvaro Juan; Nielsen, Steen Krogh

    2003-01-01

    application (maximum distance of 40 km) the maximum PMD coeficient allowed in the transmission fiber, 0.4 ps=pkm, is below the values defined by actual standards, 0.5 ps=pkm. The most promising PMD compensation methods are presented and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. A PMD compensator based......; chromatic dispersion, Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD), Self Phase Modulation (SPM) and linear or non-linear crosstalk among others. Regarding chromatic dispersion, sufficient evidence is presented for the need in 40 Gb/s systems of either modulation formats that allow for higher tolerance than...... per span is 0.25 ps=pkm, still below the maximum value allowed by standards. Return to Zero (RZ) and Carrier Suppressed RZ (CSRZ) modulation formats are found to provide a significant advantage in multi-span transmission compared to the traditional NRZ or the optical duobinary modulation formats...

  17. Self-amplified optical pattern recognition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hua-Kuang (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A self amplifying optical pattern recognizer includes a geometric system configuration similar to that of a Vander Lugt holographic matched filter configuration with a photorefractive crystal specifically oriented with respect to the input beams. An extraordinarily polarized, spherically converging object image beam is formed by laser illumination of an input object image and applied through a photorefractive crystal, such as a barium titanite (BaTiO.sub.3) crystal. A volume or thin-film dif ORIGIN OF THE INVENTION The invention described herein was made in the performance of work under a NASA contract, and is subject to the provisions of Public Law 96-517 (35 USC 202) in which the Contractor has elected to retain title.

  18. Challenges in the optical system of GAIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Poole, Rudolf S.

    2017-11-01

    The precision aimed at by ESA's Astrometry and Radial Velocity mission GAIA surpasses that of the successful HIPPARCOS mission by more than 2 orders of magnitude, while at the same time increasing the number of objects 10000 times. This overwhelming increase in performance (statistical weight increased by 8 orders of magnitude) is achieved by insisting on a full description in terms of photon shot noise as the fundamental limiting factor. Yet such measurements refer to wave front topography to be understood to the level of better than 100 pico meters, in an optical system a few meters across. Obviously such understanding relies heavily on the expected stability, and chromatic effects also are of dominant importance, requiring stellar spectral energy distributions to be determined. It is fascinating that the experience of HIPPARCOS can indeed generate sufficient confidence for these performance specifications to be within reach. Elaborating the design specifications and tolerances I hope to convince you of GAIA's imminent success.

  19. Optical cuff for optogenetic control of the peripheral nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michoud, Frédéric; Sottas, Loïc; Browne, Liam E.; Asboth, Léonie; Latremoliere, Alban; Sakuma, Miyuki; Courtine, Grégoire; Woolf, Clifford J.; Lacour, Stéphanie P.

    2018-02-01

    Objective. Nerves in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) contain axons with specific motor, somatosensory and autonomic functions. Optogenetics offers an efficient approach to selectively activate axons within the nerve. However, the heterogeneous nature of nerves and their tortuous route through the body create a challenging environment to reliably implant a light delivery interface. Approach. Here, we propose an optical peripheral nerve interface—an optocuff—, so that optogenetic modulation of peripheral nerves become possible in freely behaving mice. Main results. Using this optocuff, we demonstrate orderly recruitment of motor units with epineural optical stimulation of genetically targeted sciatic nerve axons, both in anaesthetized and in awake, freely behaving animals. Behavioural experiments and histology show the optocuff does not damage the nerve thus is suitable for long-term experiments. Significance. These results suggest that the soft optocuff might be a straightforward and efficient tool to support more extensive study of the PNS using optogenetics.

  20. Fiber Optic Temperature Sensors for Thermal Protection Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In Phase 1, Intelligent Fiber Optic Systems Corporation (IFOS), in collaboration with North Carolina State University, successfully demonstrated a Fiber Bragg...

  1. Fiber Optic Temperature Sensors for Thermal Protection Systems, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In Phase 1, Intelligent Fiber Optic Systems Corporation (IFOS), in collaboration with North Carolina State University, successfully demonstrated a Fiber Bragg...

  2. Electro-Optical Data Acquisition and Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electro-Optical Data Acquisition and Tracking System (EDATS) dynamically tracks and measures target signatures. It consists of an instrumentation van integrated...

  3. Application principle of Sagnac interferometer in optical fiber gyroscopic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Márton

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Gyroscopes are widely used in various applications for decades, but the idea to construct a gyroscopic system, able to exploit the properties of the gyroscope and also monitor the status information arose later. The expansion of the optical fiber technology also touch the subject, with the development of such interferometer measuring means to explore a variety of non-optical parameters led to the idea of the application of this knowledge to the already known systems. This optical system has been constructed on a fundamental principle of the gyroscope, but we can’t talk about pure gyroscope, because there is an optical interferometer that uses its features. So it was named as fiber optic gyroscopes. In this article we describe fiber optic gyro system, design and testing experimental measurements with this gyroscope system.

  4. SPECIAL ASPECTS OF INITIAL OPTICAL SCHEME SELECTION FOR DESIGN OF NON-IMAGING OPTICAL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. V. Anitropov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The research results, structural composition analysis and the parametric synthesis of the projected imaging and non-imaging optical systems were presented. We made an attempt to use the gained experience about imaging systems while designing non-imaging systems, by adapting the composition theory for the calculations of non-imaging systems. Several patterns were revealed, which provide a deeper understanding of the design process of non-imaging optical systems; measures of its optimization were proposed. Method. We investigated the applicability of the theory of composition and synthesis of non-imaging optical systems. The main provisions of the theory of composition are based on the division of all available optical elements in four types depending on their functionality, which corresponds to a modular design. Similar items were identified in non-imaging optical systems and adaptation of composition theory to their design became possible. Main Results. General design patterns of imaging and non-imaging optical systems were studied. Classification of systems, components, as well as technical and generic characteristics of imaging and non-imaging optical systems was determined. Search mechanism of the initial optical system by means of structural and parametric synthesis of non-imaging optical system was formalized. The basic elements were determined included in non-imaging systems and their classification by functionality was done. They were subdivided into basic, corrective, wide angle and high aperture ones. The rules for formation of these elements and their composition were determined: surface reflecting, refracting, spherical and nonspherical elements with total internal reflection. The foundations of composition theory for non-imaging optical systems were laid. The approbation of this method was carried out on the example of the illumination system calculation for surgical room. A 3D model of an illumination optical

  5. Near-simultaneous optical and infrared spectrophotometry of active galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yates, M.G.; Garden, R.P.

    1989-01-01

    We present optical and infrared spectrophotometry for a sample of eight optically bright quasars, and the broad-line radio galaxy (BLRG) 3C 120. The optical and infrared spectrophotometry is separated by only five weeks, thus we have been able to minimize uncertainties due to variations in the objects. We compare our observed Paα/Hα and Hα/Hβ ratios with a large number of current photoionization models. We find that none of these models are able to reproduce our observed values of Paα/Hα in any of the active galaxies except the quasars 3C 273 and 0736+017. (author)

  6. Active material, optical mode and cavity impact on nanoscale electro-optic modulation performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Rubab; Suer, Can; Ma, Zhizhen; Sarpkaya, Ibrahim; Khurgin, Jacob B.; Agarwal, Ritesh; Sorger, Volker J.

    2017-10-01

    Electro-optic modulation is a key function in optical data communication and possible future optical compute engines. The performance of modulators intricately depends on the interaction between the actively modulated material and the propagating waveguide mode. While a variety of high-performance modulators have been demonstrated, no comprehensive picture of what factors are most responsible for high performance has emerged so far. Here we report the first systematic and comprehensive analytical and computational investigation for high-performance compact on-chip electro-optic modulators by considering emerging active materials, model considerations and cavity feedback at the nanoscale. We discover that the delicate interplay between the material characteristics and the optical mode properties plays a key role in defining the modulator performance. Based on physical tradeoffs between index modulation, loss, optical confinement factors and slow-light effects, we find that there exist combinations of bias, material and optical mode that yield efficient phase or amplitude modulation with acceptable insertion loss. Furthermore, we show how material properties in the epsilon near zero regime enable reduction of length by as much as by 15 times. Lastly, we introduce and apply a cavity-based electro-optic modulator figure of merit, Δλ/Δα, relating obtainable resonance tuning via phase shifting relative to the incurred losses due to the fundamental Kramers-Kronig relations suggesting optimized device operating regions with optimized modulation-to-loss tradeoffs. This work paves the way for a holistic design rule of electro-optic modulators for high-density on-chip integration.

  7. Passive thermo-optic feedback for robust athermal photonic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakich, Peter T.; Watts, Michael R.; Nielson, Gregory N.

    2015-06-23

    Thermal control devices, photonic systems and methods of stabilizing a temperature of a photonic system are provided. A thermal control device thermally coupled to a substrate includes a waveguide for receiving light, an absorption element optically coupled to the waveguide for converting the received light to heat and an optical filter. The optical filter is optically coupled to the waveguide and thermally coupled to the absorption element. An operating point of the optical filter is tuned responsive to the heat from the absorption element. When the operating point is less than a predetermined temperature, the received light is passed to the absorption element via the optical filter. When the operating point is greater than or equal to the predetermined temperature, the received light is transmitted out of the thermal control device via the optical filter, without being passed to the absorption element.

  8. Organo-erbium systems for optical amplification at telecommunications wavelengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, H Q; Li, Z; Peng, Y; Wang, C C; Li, T Y; Zheng, Y X; Sapelkin, A; Adamopoulos, G; Hernández, I; Wyatt, P B; Gillin, W P

    2014-04-01

    Modern telecommunications rely on the transmission and manipulation of optical signals. Optical amplification plays a vital part in this technology, as all components in a real telecommunications system produce some loss. The two main issues with present amplifiers, which rely on erbium ions in a glass matrix, are the difficulty in integration onto a single substrate and the need of high pump power densities to produce gain. Here we show a potential organic optical amplifier material that demonstrates population inversion when pumped from above using low-power visible light. This system is integrated into an organic light-emitting diode demonstrating that electrical pumping can be achieved. This opens the possibility of direct electrically driven optical amplifiers and optical circuits. Our results provide an alternative approach to producing low-cost integrated optics that is compatible with existing silicon photonics and a different route to an effective integrated optics technology.

  9. Projective measurements in quantum and classical optical systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, FS

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available equally well to both classical and quantum optical systems. A projective measurement, in the context of quantum mechanics, is understood to be the process where a projection operator operates on some input state. Often this projection operator is composed...) Projective measurements in quantum and classical optical systems Filippus S. Roux* and Yingwen Zhang CSIR National Laser Centre, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria 0001, South Africa (Received 3 July 2014; published 22 September 2014) Experimental setups for the optical...

  10. Drawing inspiration from biological optical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert, H. D.

    2009-08-01

    Bio-Mimicking/Bio-Inspiration: How can we not be inspired by Nature? Life has evolved on earth over the last 3.5 to 4 billion years. Materials formed during this time were not toxic; they were created at low temperatures and low pressures unlike many of the materials developed today. The natural materials formed are self-assembled, multifunctional, nonlinear, complex, adaptive, self-repairing and biodegradable. The designs that failed are fossils. Those that survived are the success stories. Natural materials are mostly formed from organics, inorganic crystals and amorphous phases. The materials make economic sense by optimizing the design of the structures or systems to meet multiple needs. We constantly "see" many similar strategies in approaches, between man and nature, but we seldom look at the details of natures approaches. The power of image processing, in many of natures creatures, is a detail that is often overlooked. Seldon does the engineer interact with the biologist and learn what nature has to teach us. The variety and complexity of biological materials and the optical systems formed should inspire us.

  11. Multiple wavelength multitimescale optical absorption system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubis, R.; Allan, D.; Hodgson, B.W.; Swallow, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    A new workstation for pulse radiolysis studies has been developed for the Paterson Institute Linear Accelerator Laboratory. It is particularly suited to the study of materials available only in limited quantities. The analysing light beam is dispersed into a plane spectrum by a McPherson 270 monochromator and focused down to a line spectrum by a rod lens. The spectral intensity distribution is sampled by a linear array of optical fibres which conduct the light to photodiodes. A preamplifier unit amplifies and buffers the diode photocurrent signal which then passes to the main electronics unit incorporating further amplification stages, filters, backing-off of the background photocurrent, analog-to-digital conversion, data storage memory and a computer interface. All control of the electronic system is performed from a computer equipped with appropriate software. The system has 10 channels of spectral bandwidth 16 nm, a useful spectral response from 350 nm to 1 μm with a high signal-to-noise ratio, signal sampling rates from 20 MHz to 2 kHz and 8 kbyte of local memory for each channel. (author)

  12. Multiple wavelength multitimescale optical absorption system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubis, R.; Allan, D.; Hodgson, B. W.; Swallow, A. J.

    A new workstation for pulse radiolysis studies has been developed for the Paterson Institute Linear Accelerator Laboratory. It is particularly suited to the study of materials available only in limited quantities. The analysing light beam is dispersed into a plane spectrum by a McPherson 270 monochromator and focused down to a line spectrum by a rod lens. The spectral intensity distribution is sampled by a linear array of optical fibres which conduct the light to photodiodes. A preamplifier unit amplifies and buffers the diode photocurrent signal which then passes to the main electronics unit incorporating further amplification stages, filters, backing-off of the background photocurrent, analog-to-digital conversion, data storage memory and a computer interface. All control of the electronic system is performed from a computer equipped with appropriate software. The system has 10 channels of spectral bandwidth 16 nm, a useful spectral response from 350 nm to 1 μm with a high signal-to-noise ratio, signal sampling rates from 20 MHz to 2 kHz and 8 kbyte of local memory for each channel.

  13. Active Learning Strategies for Introductory Light and Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokoloff, David R.

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that traditional approaches are ineffective in teaching physics concepts, including light and optics concepts. A major focus of the work of the Activity Based Physics Group has been on the development of active learning curricula like RealTime Physics (RTP) labs and Interactive Lecture Demonstrations (ILDs). Among…

  14. Building electro-optical systems making it all work

    CERN Document Server

    Hobbs, Philip C D

    2009-01-01

    Praise for the First Edition ""Now a new laboratory bible for optics researchers has joined the list: it is Phil Hobbs's Building Electro-Optical Systems: Making It All Work.""-Tony Siegman, Optics & Photonics News Building a modern electro-optical instrument may be the most interdisciplinary job in all of engineering. Be it a DVD player or a laboratory one-off, it involves physics, electrical engineering, optical engineering, and computer science interacting in complex ways. This book will help all kinds of technical people sort through the complexit

  15. Parallel particle identification and separation for active optical sorting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perch-Nielsen, Ivan R.; Palima, Darwin; Dam, Jeppe Seidelin

    2009-01-01

    An instrument for rapidly and non-invasively sorting different cell specimens is a valuable tool in biological and medical research. Parallel identification of target specimens through image analysis can sort based on highly tuneable selection criteria and can enable high-speed optical sorting when...... matched with a rapidly reconfigurable optical sorting field. We demonstrate the potential of such a system using colloidal polystyrene microspheres. By combining machine vision with a parallel add-on optical manipulation scheme, we were able to move identified particles over a distance of several hundred...

  16. Development of Optical System for ARGO-M

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakyoung Nah

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ARGO-M is a satellite laser ranging (SLR system developed by the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute with the consideration of mobility and daytime and nighttime satellite observation. The ARGO-M optical system consists of 40 cm receiving telescope, 10 cm transmitting telescope, and detecting optics. For the development of ARGO-M optical system, the structural analysis was performed with regard to the optics and optomechanics design and the optical components. To ensure the optical performance, the quality was tested at the level of parts using the laser interferometer and ultra-high-precision measuring instruments. The assembly and alignment of ARGO-M optical system were conducted at an auto-collimation facility. As the transmission and reception are separated in the ARGO-M optical system, the pointing alignment between the transmitting telescope and receiving telescope is critical for precise target pointing. Thus, the alignment using the ground target and the radiant point observation of transmitting laser beam was carried out, and the lines of sight for the two telescopes were aligned within the required pointing precision. This paper describes the design, structural analysis, manufacture and assembly of parts, and entire process related with the alignment for the ARGO-M optical system.

  17. An image stabilization optical system using deformable freeform mirrors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Qun; Cheng, Xuemin; Kang, Jiqiang; Jiang, Yuhua

    2015-01-15

    An image stabilization optical system using deformable freeform mirrors is proposed that enables the ray sets to couple dynamically in the object and image space. It aims to correct image blurring and degradation when there is relative movement between the imaging optical axis and the object. In this method, Fermat's principle and matrix methods are used to describe the optical path of the entire optical system with a shift object plane and a fixed corresponding image plane in the carrier coordinate system. A constant optical path length is determined for each ray set, so the correspondence between the object and the shift free image point is used to calculate the solution to the points on the surface profile of the deformable mirrors (DMs). Off-axis three-mirror anastigmats are used to demonstrate the benefits of optical image stabilization with one- and two-deformable mirrors.

  18. Optical symbolic processor for expert system execution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Aloke

    1987-11-01

    The goal of this program is to develop a concept for an optical computer architecture for symbolic computing by defining a computation model of a high level language, examining the possible devices for the ultimate construction of a processor, and by defining required optical operations. This quarter we investigated the implementation alternatives for an optical shuffle exchange network (SEN). Work in previous quarter had led to the conclusion that the SEN was most appropriate optical interconnection network topology for the symbolic processing architecture (SPARO). A more detailed analysis was therefore conducted to examine implementation possibilities. It was determined that while the shuffle connection of the SEN was very feasible in optics using passive devices, a full-scale exchange switch which handles conflict resolution among competing messages is much more difficult. More emphasis was therefore given to the exchange switch design. The functionalities required for the exchange switch and its controls were analyzed. These functionalities were then assessed for optical implementation. It is clear that even the basic exchange switch, that is, an exchange without the controls for conflict resolution, delivery, etc..., is quite a difficult problem in optics. We have proposed a number of optical techniques that appear to be good candidates for realizing the basic exchange switch. A reasonable approach appears to be to evaluate these techniques.

  19. System for optical sorting of microscopic objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    in a first reservoir, the one or more force units being suitable for optical momentum transfer. An electromagnetic radiation source (42) yields a radiation beam (31, 32) capable of optically displacing the force transfer units from one position to another within the first reservoir (1R). The force transfer...

  20. Production Systems. Laboratory Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallaway, Ann, Ed.

    This production systems guide provides teachers with learning activities for secondary students. Introductory materials include an instructional planning outline and worksheet, an outline of essential elements, domains and objectives, a course description, and a content outline. The guide contains 30 modules on the following topics: production…

  1. Advanced Fiber Optic-Based Sensing Technology for Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Lance; Parker, Allen R.; Piazza, Anthony; Ko, William L.; Chan, Patrick; Bakalyar, John

    2011-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of fiber optic sensing technology development activities performed at NASA Dryden in support of Unmanned Aircraft Systems. Examples of current and previous work are presented in the following categories: algorithm development, system development, instrumentation installation, ground R&D, and flight testing. Examples of current research and development activities are provided.

  2. On the Origin of the Chiro-Optical Activity in Supramolecular Assemblies: A Quantum Chemical Study of C3 Octopolar Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto-Ortega, Belén; Casado, Juan; López Navarrete, Juan T; Hennrich, Gunter; Ramírez, Francisco J

    2011-10-11

    First-principles quantum chemical approach has been used to understand the origin of the chiro-optical signal induced by the chiral aggregation of an achiral chromophore. The study was focused in predicting the circular dichroism (CD) spectra of different π-stacked columnar oligomers built with C3 star-shape molecular bricks. We studied the influence of the relevant structural self-assembly parameters on the CD spectra (i.e., the number of units, the rotation angle and the intermonomer distance). A detailed analysis was based on the MO topologies and the magnetic and electric transition dipole moments, the vectors which determine the CD intensities, has been conducted. We have rationalized the influence of the various structural factors of supramolecular self-assemblies in connection with the nature of their CD spectroscopic signal, which provides new avenues for structure-spectroscopic relationships.

  3. Controls for optical systems; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 21, 22, 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breakwell, John

    1992-07-01

    The present conference discusses the control and actuator design for a precision magnetic suspension linear bearing, image-rotation in plane-mirror optical systems, a linear analysis for optomechanical systems, the phasing of a space-based segmented sub-mm wavelength telescope using focal plane measurements, and a fiber-optic-based position sensor immune to temperature variations. Also discussed are the dynamic simulation of precision optical systems, active damping with a reaction-mass actuator, the status of a wide-field integrated beam-control demonstration, an integrated multidisciplinary analysis of segmented reflector telescopes, and spatial filters for shape control.

  4. Acousto-optic tunable filter multispectral imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Li-Jen; Chao, Tien-Hsin; Reyes, George

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses recent activities of Jet Propulsion Laboratory in the development of a new type of remote sensing multispectral imaging instruments using acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) as programmable bandpass filter. This remote sensor provides real-time operation; observational flexibility; measurements of spectral, spatial, and polarization information using a single instrument; and compact, solid state structure without moving parts. Two microcomputer-controlled AOTF imaging spectrometer breadboard systems were designed and built. One operates in the wavelength range of 0.48-0.76 micron and the other in the range of 1.2-2.5 micron. Experiments were performed using these two systems to observe geological and botanical objects in laboratory and outdoor environment. Results have demonstrated the feasibility of using the AOTF multispectral imaging system as a real-time versatile remote sensor with operational flexibility for future Army tactical applications.

  5. Optical Systems of Biopsy: The Invisible Eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kriti Bagri-Manjrekar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The exploration of new methods and techniques for the diagnosis of malignant tumours has always attracted the attention of scientists. The development of adjunct tools to facilitate the non invasive screening of high risk lesions in real time has the potential to significantly improve our ability to reduce the dismal morbidity and mortality of oral cancer. Despite easy accessibility of the oral cavity to examination, there is no satisfactory method to adequately screen and detect precancers non-invasively. The current method of oral cancer diagnosis clinically relies heavily on visual examination of the oral cavity. However, discerning potentially malignant and early malignant lesions from common benign inflammatory conditions can be difficult at times. There is a need for an objective method that could provide real- time results and be routinely applied to a large population. Though science is yet to present such a perfect technique, Optical Biopsy Systems developed using knowledge of light and tissue interaction, can provide a plausible option.

  6. Topologies for optical interconnection networks based on the optical transpose interconnection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coudert, D; Ferreira, A; Muñoz, X

    2000-06-10

    Many results exist in the literature describing technological and theoretical advances in optical network topologies and design. However, an essential effort has yet to be made in linking those results together. We propose a step in this direction by giving optical layouts for several graph-theoretical topologies studied in the literature, using the optical transpose interconnection system (OTIS) architecture. These topologies include the family of partitioned optical passive star (POPS) and stack-Kautz networks as well as a generalization of the Kautz and the de Bruijn digraphs.

  7. Optical systems for synchrotron radiation. Lecture 1. Introductory topics. Revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howells, M.R.

    1986-02-01

    Various fundamental topics are considered which underlie the design and use of optical systems for synchrotron radiation. The point of view of linear system theory is chosen which acts as a unifying concept throughout the series. In this context the important optical quantities usually appear as either impulse response functions (Green's functions) or frequency transfer functions (Fourier Transforms of the Green's functions). Topics include the damped harmonic oscillator, free-space optical field propagation, optical properties of materials, dispersion, and the Kramers-Kronig relations

  8. Optical System Critical Design Review (CDR) Flight Software Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorrami, Mori

    2006-01-01

    The Mid Infrared Instrument (MIRI FSW presentation covers: (1) Optical System FSW only and Cooling System FSW is covered at its CDR (2) Requirements & Interfaces (3) Relationship with the ISIM FSW (4) FSW Design Drivers & Solutions.

  9. Optical Automatic Car Identification (OACI) : Volume 1. Advanced System Specification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-12-01

    A performance specification is provided in this report for an Optical Automatic Car Identification (OACI) scanner system which features 6% improved readability over existing industry scanner systems. It also includes the analysis and rationale which ...

  10. Optical system design with common aperture for mid-infrared and laser composite guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuanzhi; Yang, Zijian; Sun, Ting; Yang, Huamei; Han, Kunye; Hu, Bo

    2017-02-01

    When the field of operation of precision strike missiles is more and more complicated, autonomous seekers will soon encounter serious difficulties, especially with regard to low signature targets and complex scenarios. So the dual-mode sensors combining an imaging sensor with a semi-active laser seeker are conceived to overcome these specific problems. Here the sensors composed a dual field of view mid-infrared thermal imaging camera and a laser range finder have the common optical aperture which produced the minization of seeker construction. The common aperture optical systems for mid-infrared and laser dual-mode guildance have been developed, which could meet the passive middle infrared high-resolution imaging and the active laser high-precision indication and ranging. The optical system had good image quality, and fulfilled the performance requirement of seeker system. The design and expected performance of such a dual-mode optical system will be discussed.

  11. Accuracy requirements of optical linear algebra processors in adaptive optics imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downie, John D.

    1990-01-01

    A ground-based adaptive optics imaging telescope system attempts to improve image quality by detecting and correcting for atmospherically induced wavefront aberrations. The required control computations during each cycle will take a finite amount of time. Longer time delays result in larger values of residual wavefront error variance since the atmosphere continues to change during that time. Thus an optical processor may be well-suited for this task. This paper presents a study of the accuracy requirements in a general optical processor that will make it competitive with, or superior to, a conventional digital computer for the adaptive optics application. An optimization of the adaptive optics correction algorithm with respect to an optical processor's degree of accuracy is also briefly discussed.

  12. Geometric optics theory and design of astronomical optical systems using Mathematica

    CERN Document Server

    Romano, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    This text, now in its second edition, presents the mathematical background needed to design many optical combinations that are used in astronomical telescopes and cameras. It uses a novel approach to third-order aberration theory based on Fermat’s principle and the use of particular optical paths (called stigmatic paths) instead of rays, allowing for easier derivation of third-order formulae. Each optical combination analyzed is accompanied by a downloadable Mathematica® notebook that automates its third-order design, eliminating the need for lengthy calculations. The essential aspects of an optical system with an axis of rotational symmetry are introduced first, along with a development of Gaussian optics from Fermat’s principal. A simpler approach to third-order monochromatic aberrations based on both Fermat’s principle and stigmatic paths is then described, followed by a new chapter on fifth-order aberrations and their classification. Several specific optical devices are discussed and analyzed, incl...

  13. Integrated optical measurement system for fluorescence spectroscopy in microfluidic channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hübner, Jörg; Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Jørgensen, Anders Michael

    2001-01-01

    A transportable miniaturized fiber-pigtailed measurement system is presented which allows quantitative fluorescence detection in microliquid handling systems. The microliquid handling chips are made in silica on silicon technology and the optical functionality is monolithically integrated...... with the microfluidic channel system. This results in inherent stability and photolithographic alignment precision. Permanently attached optical fibers provide a rugged connection to the light source, detection, and data processing unit, which potentially allows field use of such systems. Fluorescence measurements...

  14. Different Types of Coding Input Data In Optical Transmission Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Ružbarský

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Optical fiber transmission systems are currently the most widely used transmission media. Their development in time had improved their characteristics to such an extent that they gradually replaced very popular copper cable connections. Inspite of that optical fibers still have not reached perfection and constant improvement is needed. Apart from notable advantages such as large data transfer, few numbers of repeaters required on the transmission path or higher safety of transmitted data, optical fiber has also drawbacks that include not sufficient purity optical fibers, fiber fragility and also higher proclivity to nonlinear effects. Weaknesses of optical systems can be depressed by e.g. a selection of an appropriate laser, a proper combination of materials used for fiber production during the manufacture process, or even by using an encryption of transmitted data. This article is focused on the comparison of optical signal properties in various source encoding types of input data.

  15. An Optical Receiver Post Processing System for the Integrated Radio and Optical Communications Software Defined Radio Test Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nappier, Jennifer M.; Tokars, Roger P.; Wroblewski, Adam C.

    2016-01-01

    The Integrated Radio and Optical Communications (iROC) project at the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations (NASA) Glenn Research Center is investigating the feasibility of a hybrid radio frequency (RF) and optical communication system for future deep space missions. As a part of this investigation, a test bed for a radio frequency (RF) and optical software defined radio (SDR) has been built. Receivers and modems for the NASA deep space optical waveform are not commercially available so a custom ground optical receiver system has been built. This paper documents the ground optical receiver, which is used in order to test the RF and optical SDR in a free space optical communications link.

  16. An Optical Receiver Post-Processing System for the Integrated Radio and Optical Communications Software Defined Radio Test Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nappier, Jennifer M.; Tokars, Roger P.; Wroblewski, Adam C.

    2016-01-01

    The Integrated Radio and Optical Communications (iROC) project at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Glenn Research Center is investigating the feasibility of a hybrid radio frequency (RF) and optical communication system for future deep space missions. As a part of this investigation, a test bed for a radio frequency (RF) and optical software defined radio (SDR) has been built. Receivers and modems for the NASA deep space optical waveform are not commercially available so a custom ground optical receiver system has been built. This paper documents the ground optical receiver, which is used in order to test the RF and optical SDR in a free space optical communications link.

  17. Optical Tomography System: Charge-coupled Device Linear Image Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Idroas

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discussed an optical tomography system based on charge-coupled device (CCD linear image sensors. The developed system consists of a lighting system, a measurement section and a data acquisition system. Four CCD linear image sensors are configured around a flow pipe with an octagonal-shaped measurement section, for a four projections system. The four CCD linear image sensors consisting of 2048 pixels with a pixel size of 14 micron by 14 micron are used to produce a high-resolution system. A simple optical model is mapped into the system’s sensitivity matrix to relate the optical attenuation due to variations of optical density within the measurement section. A reconstructed tomographic image is produced based on the model using MATLAB software. The designed instrumentation system is calibrated and tested through different particle size measurements from different projections.

  18. Human brain activity with functional NIR optical imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qingming

    2001-08-01

    In this paper we reviewed the applications of functional near infrared optical imager in human brain activity. Optical imaging results of brain activity, including memory for new association, emotional thinking, mental arithmetic, pattern recognition ' where's Waldo?, occipital cortex in visual stimulation, and motor cortex in finger tapping, are demonstrated. It is shown that the NIR optical method opens up new fields of study of the human population, in adults under conditions of simulated or real stress that may have important effects upon functional performance. It makes practical and affordable for large populations the complex technology of measuring brain function. It is portable and low cost. In cognitive tasks subjects could report orally. The temporal resolution could be millisecond or less in theory. NIR method will have good prospects in exploring human brain secret.

  19. ADASY (Active Daylighting System)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Moliní, Daniel; González-Montes, Mario; Fernández-Balbuena, Antonio Á.; Bernabéu, Eusebio; García-Botella, Ángel; García-Rodríguez, Lucas; Pohl, Wilfried

    2009-08-01

    The main objective of ADASY (Active Daylighting System) work is to design a façade static daylighting system oriented to office applications, mainly. The goal of the project is to save energy by guiding daylight into a building for lighting purpose. With this approach we can reduce the electrical load for artificial lighting, completing it with sustainable energy. The collector of the system is integrated on a vertical façade and its distribution guide is always horizontal inside of the false ceiling. ADASY is designed with a specific patent pending caption system, a modular light-guide and light extractor luminaire system. Special care has been put on the final cost of the system and its building integration purpose. The current ADASY configuration is able to illuminate 40 m2 area with a 300lx-400lx level in the mid time work hours; furthermore it has a good enough spatial uniformity distribution and a controlled glare. The data presented in this study are the result of simulation models and have been confirmed by a physical scaled prototype. ADASY's main advantages over regular illumination systems are: -Low maintenance; it has not mobile pieces and therefore it lasts for a long time and require little attention once installed. - No energy consumption; solar light continue working even if there has been a power outage. - High quality of light: the colour rendering of light is very high - Psychological benefits: People working with daylight get less stress and more comfort, increasing productivity. - Health benefits

  20. Advances in optical structure systems; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 16-19, 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breakwell, John; Genberg, Victor L.; Krumweide, Gary C.

    Various papers on advances in optical structure systems are presented. Individual topics addressed include: beam pathlength optimization, thermal stress in glass/metal bond with PR 1578 adhesive, structural and optical properties for typical solid mirror shapes, parametric study of spinning polygon mirror deformations, simulation of small structures-optics-controls system, spatial PSDs of optical structures due to random vibration, mountings for a four-meter glass mirror, fast-steering mirrors in optical control systems, adaptive state estimation for control of flexible structures, surface control techniques for large segmented mirrors, two-time-scale control designs for large flexible structures, closed-loop dynamic shape control of a flexible beam. Also discussed are: inertially referenced pointing for body-fixed payloads, sensor blending line-of-sight stabilization, controls/optics/structures simulation development, transfer functions for piezoelectric control of a flexible beam, active control experiments for large-optics vibration alleviation, composite structures for a large-optical test bed, graphite/epoxy composite mirror for beam-steering applications, composite structures for optical-mirror applications, thin carbon-fiber prepregs for dimensionally critical structures.

  1. Optical design of an in vivo laparoscopic lighting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaolong; Abdolmalaki, Reza Yazdanpanah; Mancini, Gregory J; Tan, Jindong

    2017-12-01

    This paper proposes an in vivo laparoscopic lighting system design to address the illumination issues, namely poor lighting uniformity and low optical efficiency, existing in the state-of-the-art in vivo laparoscopic cameras. The transformable design of the laparoscopic lighting system is capable of carrying purposefully designed freeform optical lenses for achieving lighting performance with high illuminance uniformity and high optical efficiency in a desired target region. To design freeform optical lenses for extended light sources such as LEDs with Lambertian light intensity distributions, we present an effective and complete freeform optical design method. The procedures include (1) ray map computation by numerically solving a standard Monge-Ampere equation; (2) initial freeform optical surface construction by using Snell's law and a lens volume restriction; (3) correction of surface normal vectors due to accumulated errors from the initially constructed surfaces; and (4) feedback modification of the solution to deal with degraded illuminance uniformity caused by the extended sizes of the LEDs. We employed an optical design software package to evaluate the performance of our laparoscopic lighting system design. The simulation results show that our design achieves greater than 95% illuminance uniformity and greater than 89% optical efficiency (considering Fresnel losses) for illuminating the target surgical region. (2017) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  2. Cooperatively active sensing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirai, Shigeoki; Kita, Nobuyuki; Kuniyoshi, Yasuo; Hara, Isao; Matsui, Toshihiro

    2000-01-01

    Aiming at development of a strong and flexible sensing system, a study on a sensing technology prepared with cooperativity, activity, and real time workability has been promoted. In the former period, together with preparation of plural moving robot group with real time processing capacity of a lot of sensor informations composing of platform, a parallel object direction language Eus Lisp effectively capable of describing and executing cooperative processing and action therewith was developed. And, it was also shown that capacity to adaptively act even at dynamic environment could be learnt experientially. And, on processing of individual sensor information, application of a photographing system with multiple resolution property similar to human visual sense property was attempted. In the latter period, together with intending of upgrading on adaptability of sensing function, by using moving robot group in center of a moving robot loaded with active visual sense, a cooperative active sensing prototype system was constructed to show effectiveness of this study through evaluation experiment of patrolling inspection at plant simulating environment. (G.K.)

  3. Design, tolerancing, and experimental characterization of dynamic freeform optical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Jason Allen

    Although freeform concepts have been considered for many decades, new fabrication capabilities have enabled new classes of optical components and sparked greatly increased interest in freeform optics. Generally defined as surfaces without rotational symmetry, freeform optics enable complex phase variations due to their asymmetry. One approach for freeform optics utilizes multiple freeform surfaces in close proximity. Light transmitted through these surfaces results in a composite wavefront, which is then dynamically changed through controlled relative motions of the freeform surfaces, thereby dynamically changing the overall optical function of the system. These 'dynamic freeform optics' offer advantages such as design miniaturization, decreased manufacturing costs, and optical design flexibility. Examples include the varifocal Alvarez lens and a variable diameter Gaussian to flat-top beam shaper. In these cases the output function is varied through relative lateral shifts. The analytical design procedures for these examples have been well documented in previous work. However, previous cases possess inherent design constraints. For example, the classic Alvarez lens has no optical power when the lateral shift is zero, and both examples are limited to rotationally symmetric output functions and lateral shifts along a single axis. A primary objective of this dissertation is to expand design procedures to overcome these constraints for creation of additional novel dynamic freeform optical systems. The optical performance of several example systems is characterized through experimental testing of diamond-machined freeform elements. Furthermore, as the advantages offered by freeform systems are realized, there remain unknowns regarding performance sensitivity to several potential errors such as opto-mechanical alignment, surface form accuracy, and surface finish quality. To this end, this dissertation also includes individual tolerance analyses on each of these error

  4. Configuration of electro-optic fire source detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Ram Z.; Steiner, Zeev; Hofman, Nir

    2007-04-01

    The recent fighting activities in various parts of the world have highlighted the need for accurate fire source detection on one hand and fast "sensor to shooter cycle" capabilities on the other. Both needs can be met by the SPOTLITE system which dramatically enhances the capability to rapidly engage hostile fire source with a minimum of casualties to friendly force and to innocent bystanders. Modular system design enable to meet each customer specific requirements and enable excellent future growth and upgrade potential. The design and built of a fire source detection system is governed by sets of requirements issued by the operators. This can be translated into the following design criteria: I) Long range, fast and accurate fire source detection capability. II) Different threat detection and classification capability. III) Threat investigation capability. IV) Fire source data distribution capability (Location, direction, video image, voice). V) Men portability. ) In order to meet these design criteria, an optimized concept was presented and exercised for the SPOTLITE system. Three major modular components were defined: I) Electro Optical Unit -Including FLIR camera, CCD camera, Laser Range Finder and Marker II) Electronic Unit -including system computer and electronic. III) Controller Station Unit - Including the HMI of the system. This article discusses the system's components definition and optimization processes, and also show how SPOTLITE designers successfully managed to introduce excellent solutions for other system parameters.

  5. High-stability 48-core bendable and movable optical cable for FAST telescope optical transmission system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongfei; Pan, Gaofeng; Lin, Zhong; Liu, Cheng; Zhu, Wenbai; Nan, Rendong; Li, Chunsheng; Gao, Guanjun; Luo, Wenyong; Jin, Chengjin; Song, Jinyou

    2017-11-01

    The construction of FAST telescope was completed in Guizhou province of China in September 2016, and a kind of novel high-stability 48-core bendable and movable optical cable was developed and applied in analog data optical transmission system of FAST. Novel structure and selective material of this optical cable ensure high stability of optical power in the process of cables round-trip motion when telescope is tracking a radio source. The 105 times bend and stretch accelerated experiment for this optical cable was implemented, and real-time optical and RF signal power fluctuation were measured. The physical structure of optical cables after 105 times round-trip motion is in good condition; the real-time optical power attenuation fluctuation is smaller than 0.044 dB; the real-time RF power fluctuation is smaller than 0.12 dB. The optical cable developed in this letter meets the requirement of FAST and has been applied in FAST telescope.

  6. Study on decentration-induced optical aberrations in an optical system using Shack Hartmann wavefront sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalikivayi, V.; Krishna Kumar, R.; Kannan, K.; Ganesan, A. R.

    2014-09-01

    Alignment of optical components is one of the important requirements in any optical system. Decentration of a component, like a lens, in the path of the beam, would introduce aberrations of various types. This would affect the measurement accuracy in the optical system such as an interferometer. In this work, we have analyzed the influence of decentration of an optical component on the wavefront in an optical system. The various aberrations caused due to the shifting of the axis of a lens in the path of an optical wavefront have been measured using a Shack Hartmann Wavefront Sensor and their influence studied. One of the lenses in the optical system is moved or decentered in transverse direction by 500 μm in steps of 50 μm. Decentration was done for all four quadrants. For each step, wavefront data is been taken and data was analyzed. Defocus, horizontal coma, vertical coma and spherical aberration were analyzed, apart from peak-to-valley and RMS values. Results showed that the error introduced is minimal up to 300 μm decentration, above which the aberrations were quite large. The experimental results and analyses are presented.

  7. Accuracy requirements of optical linear algebra processors in adaptive optics imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downie, John D.; Goodman, Joseph W.

    1989-10-01

    The accuracy requirements of optical processors in adaptive optics systems are determined by estimating the required accuracy in a general optical linear algebra processor (OLAP) that results in a smaller average residual aberration than that achieved with a conventional electronic digital processor with some specific computation speed. Special attention is given to an error analysis of a general OLAP with regard to the residual aberration that is created in an adaptive mirror system by the inaccuracies of the processor, and to the effect of computational speed of an electronic processor on the correction. Results are presented on the ability of an OLAP to compete with a digital processor in various situations.

  8. Ultra-high Frequency Linear Fiber Optic Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lau, Kam

    2011-01-01

    This book provides an in-depth treatment of both linear fiber-optic systems and their key enabling devices. It presents a concise but rigorous treatment of the theory and practice of analog (linear) fiber-optics links and systems that constitute the foundation of Hybrid Fiber Coax infrastructure in present-day CATV distribution and cable modem Internet access. Emerging applications in remote fiber-optic feed for free-space millimeter wave enterprise campus networks are also described. Issues such as dispersion and interferometric noise are treated quantitatively, and means for mitigating them are explained. This broad but concise text will thus be invaluable not only to students of fiber-optics communication but also to practicing engineers. To the second edition of this book important new aspects of linear fiber-optic transmission technologies are added, such as high level system architectural issues, algorithms for deriving the optimal frequency assignment, directly modulated or externally modulated laser t...

  9. Research on reflective optical telescope system's wavefront aberration compensation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xueting

    Wavefront aberration measurement of the image quality of reflective telescope system which has a large aperture and long focal length is one of the frequently-used methods of high-precision test and alignment. It was widely used during the large aperture telescope manufacturing process. The influences of surface shape error of the reflective optical telescope system components were simulated and analyst by input the actual measuring data into the optical design software CODE V in this article. According to the test results compared to the alignment process, the accuracy of the simulation method was indicated. At the same time, the wavefront aberration optical compensation principle of the reflective optical telescope system was proved by the simulation of alignment. And in this article, the feasibility of the application of optical phase compensation alignment method was investigated.

  10. Information Optics and Photonics Algorithms, Systems, and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Javidi, Bahram

    2010-01-01

    This book addresses applications, recent advances, and emerging areas in fields with applications in information optics and photonics systems. The objective of this book is to illustrate and discuss novel approaches, analytical techniques, models, and technologies that enhance sensing, measurement, processing, interpretation, and visualization of information using free space optics and photonics. The material in this book concentrates on integration of diverse fields for cross-disciplinary applications including bio-photonics, digitally enhanced sensing and imaging systems, multi-dimensional optical imaging and image processing, bio-inspired imaging, 3D visualization, 3D displays, imaging on the nano-scale, quantum optics, super resolution imaging, photonics for biological applications, and holographic information systems. As a result, this book is a useful resource for researchers, engineers, and graduate students who work in the diverse fields comprising information optics and photonics.

  11. Digital Signal Processing for Optical Coherent Communication Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xu

    In this thesis, digital signal processing (DSP) algorithms are studied to compensate for physical layer impairments in optical fiber coherent communication systems. The physical layer impairments investigated in this thesis include optical fiber chromatic dispersion, polarization demultiplexing......, light sources frequency and phase offset and phase noise. The studied DSP algorithms are considered as key building blocks in digital coherent receivers for the next generation of optical communication systems such as 112-Gb/s dual polarization (DP) quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) optical...... spectrum narrowing tolerance 112-Gb/s DP-QPSK optical coherent systems using digital adaptive equalizer. The demonstrated results show that off-line DSP algorithms are able to reduce the bit error rate (BER) penalty induced by signal spectrum narrowing. Third, we also investigate bi...

  12. Space active optics: in flight aberrations correction for the next generation of large space telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laslandes, M.; Ferrari, M.; Hugot, E.; Lemaitre, G.

    2017-11-01

    The need for both high quality images and light structures is a constant concern in the conception of space telescopes. In this paper, we present an active optics system as a way to fulfill those two objectives. Indeed, active optics consists in controlling mirrors' deformations in order to improve the images quality [1]. The two main applications of active optics techniques are the in-situ compensation of phase errors in a wave front by using a corrector deformable mirror [2] and the manufacturing of aspherical mirrors by stress polishing or by in-situ stressing [3]. We will focus here on the wave-front correction. Indeed, the next generation of space telescopes will have lightweight primary mirrors; in consequence, they will be sensitive to the environment variations, inducing optical aberrations in the instrument. An active optics system is principally composed of a deformable mirror, a wave front sensor, a set of actuators deforming the mirror and control/command electronics. It is used to correct the wave-front errors due to the optical design, the manufacturing imperfections, the large lightweight primary mirrors' deflection in field gravity, the fixation devices, and the mirrors and structures' thermal distortions due to the local turbulence [4]. Active optics is based on the elasticity theory [5]; forces and/or load are used to deform a mirror. Like in adaptive optics, actuators can simply be placed under the optical surface [1,2], but other configurations have also been studied: a system's simplification, inducing a minimization of the number of actuators can be achieved by working on the mirror design [5]. For instance, in the so called Vase form Multimode Deformable Mirror [6], forces are applied on an external ring clamped on the pupil. With this method, there is no local effect due to the application of forces on the mirror's back face. Furthermore, the number of actuators needed to warp the mirror does not depend on the pupil size; it is a fully

  13. Study towards diversity oriented synthesis of optically active ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A study towards diversity-oriented synthesis of optically active cyclopentane fused bicyclic frameworks has been accomplished. The common intermediate was prepared from commercially available starting material (S)-carvone. The observations on competition between Grubbs-II catalyzed ring closing metathesis (RCM) ...

  14. Optical storage media based on fluorite activated crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokienko, I.Yu.; Poletimov, A.E.; Shcheulin, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    Earlier studied mechanisms of photo- and thermotransformations of defects in pure and activated additively coloured crystals with fluorite structure are considered to suggest several methods of reversible optical recording of images, characterized by high resistance to high-power laser radiation and mechanical deformation

  15. Molecular structures of viruses from Raman optical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanch, Ewan W.; Hecht, Lutz; Syme, Christopher D.

    2002-01-01

    A vibrational Raman optical activity (ROA) study of a range of different structural types of virus exemplified by filamentous bacteriophage fd, tobacco mosaic virus, satellite tobacco mosaic virus, bacteriophage MS2 and cowpea mosaic virus has revealed that, on account of its sensitivity to chira...

  16. Synthesis and aggregation study of optically active tetra--[()-2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 122; Issue 6. Synthesis and aggregation study of optically active tetra--[()-2-octanyloxy]-substituted copper and nickel phthalocyanines. Fang-Di Cong Gui Gao Jian-Xin Li Guo-Qing Huang Zhen Wei Feng-Yang Yu Xi-Guang Du Ke-Zhi Xing. Full Papers Volume ...

  17. Raman optical activity study on insulin amyloid- and prefibril intermediate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yamamoto, Shigeki; Watarai, H.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 2 (2012), s. 97-103 ISSN 0899-0042 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : raman optical activity * amyloid * fibril * intermediate * insulin Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.718, year: 2012

  18. Optical fiducial timing system for X-ray streak cameras with aluminum coated optical fiber ends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilson, David G.; Campbell, E. Michael; MacGowan, Brian J.; Medecki, Hector

    1988-01-01

    An optical fiducial timing system is provided for use with interdependent groups of X-ray streak cameras (18). The aluminum coated (80) ends of optical fibers (78) are positioned with the photocathodes (20, 60, 70) of the X-ray streak cameras (18). The other ends of the optical fibers (78) are placed together in a bundled array (90). A fiducial optical signal (96), that is comprised of 2.omega. or 1.omega. laser light, after introduction to the bundled array (90), travels to the aluminum coated (82) optical fiber ends and ejects quantities of electrons (84) that are recorded on the data recording media (52) of the X-ray streak cameras (18). Since both 2.omega. and 1.omega. laser light can travel long distances in optical fiber with only a slight attenuation, the initial arial power density of the fiducial optical signal (96) is well below the damage threshold of the fused silica or other material that comprises the optical fibers (78, 90). Thus the fiducial timing system can be repeatably used over long durations of time.

  19. MERTIS: geometrical calibration of thermal infrared optical system by applying diffractive optical elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, M.; Baumbach, D.; Buder, M.; Börner, A.; Grießbach, D.; Peter, G.; Santier, E.; Säuberlich, T.; Schischmanow, A.; Schrader, S.; Walter, I.

    2015-09-01

    Geometrical sensor calibration is essential for space applications based on high accuracy optical measurements, in this case for the thermal infrared push-broom imaging spectrometer MERTIS. The goal is the determination of the interior sensor orientation. A conventional method is to measure the line of sight for a subset of pixels by single pixel illumination with collimated light. To adjust angles, which define the line of sight of a pixel, a manipulator construction is used. A new method for geometrical sensor calibration is using Diffractive Optical Elements (DOE) in connection with laser beam equipment. Diffractive optical elements (DOE) are optical microstructures, which are used to split an incoming laser beam with a dedicated wavelength into a number of beams with well-known propagation directions. As the virtual sources of the diffracted beams are points at infinity, the resulting image is invariant against translation. This particular characteristic allows a complete geometrical sensor calibration with only one taken image avoiding complex adjustment procedures, resulting in a significant reduction of calibration effort. We present a new method for geometrical calibration of a thermal infrared optical system, including an thermal infrared test optics and the MERTIS spectrometer bolometer detector. The fundamentals of this new approach for geometrical infrared optical systems calibration by applying diffractive optical elements and the test equipment are shown.

  20. Optical Variability of Active Galactic Nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozłowski, Szymon, E-mail: simkoz@astrouw.edu.pl [Astronomical Observatory, University of Warsaw, Warsaw (Poland)

    2017-09-21

    Variability studies of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) typically use either power spectral density (PSD) and structure function (SF) analyses or direct modeling of light curves with the damped random walk (DRW) and the continuous autoregressive moving average (CARMA) models. A fair fraction of research publications on the subject are flawed, and simply report incorrect results, because they lack a deep understanding of where these methods originate from and what their limitations are. For example, SF analyses typically lack or use a wrong noise subtraction procedure, leading to flat SFs. DRW, on the other hand, can only be used if the experiment length is sufficient, at least ten times the signal decorrelation time scale τ, and if the data show the power-law SF slope of γ ≡ 0.5.

  1. Optically active free radicals: circular dichroism, optical absorption and emission and ESR studies on optically active 1S(+)- and 1R(-)-camphorquinone radicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sur, S.; Colpa, J. P.; Wan, J. K. S.

    1986-09-01

    Optical activity of the transient camphorquinone radical anions has been measured at room temperature by circular dichroism (CD). The steady state CD and kinetic decay of the CD absorption band at ≈ 314 nm of these transient species demonstrate the nature of optical activity in the radicals from 1S(+)-camphorquinone and 1R(-)-camphorquinone. ESR, optical absorption and fluorescence emission were also used to characterise the radicals. Existence of an ion-pair equilibrium between radical monomer and paramagnetic dimer during sodium metal reduction is shown by ESR and optical studies. The radical monomer in ethanol absorbs at ≈ 324 nm and has an emission band at ≈ 390 nm. The absorption and fluorescence emission of the dimer in diethyl ether occur at ≈ 266 and ≈ 290 nm respectively.

  2. Optical Assembly and Characterization System for Nano-Photonics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Integrated device characterization for both in-plane and surface-normal photonic devices. This assembly and characterization system will significantly...Unlimited Final Report: Optical Assembly and Characterization System for Nano- Photonics Research The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this...reviewed journals: Final Report: Optical Assembly and Characterization System for Nano- Photonics Research Report Title With this equipment funding support

  3. Optical signal processing techniques and applications of optical phase modulation in high-speed communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ning

    In recent years, optical phase modulation has attracted much research attention in the field of fiber optic communications. Compared with the traditional optical intensity-modulated signal, one of the main merits of the optical phase-modulated signal is the better transmission performance. For optical phase modulation, in spite of the comprehensive study of its transmission performance, only a little research has been carried out in terms of its functions, applications and signal processing for future optical networks. These issues are systematically investigated in this thesis. The research findings suggest that optical phase modulation and its signal processing can greatly facilitate flexible network functions and high bandwidth which can be enjoyed by end users. In the thesis, the most important physical-layer technology, signal processing and multiplexing, are investigated with optical phase-modulated signals. Novel and advantageous signal processing and multiplexing approaches are proposed and studied. Experimental investigations are also reported and discussed in the thesis. Optical time-division multiplexing and demultiplexing. With the ever-increasing demand on communication bandwidth, optical time division multiplexing (OTDM) is an effective approach to upgrade the capacity of each wavelength channel in current optical systems. OTDM multiplexing can be simply realized, however, the demultiplexing requires relatively complicated signal processing and stringent timing control, and thus hinders its practicability. To tackle this problem, in this thesis a new OTDM scheme with hybrid DPSK and OOK signals is proposed. Experimental investigation shows this scheme can greatly enhance the demultiplexing timing misalignment and improve the demultiplexing performance, and thus make OTDM more practical and cost effective. All-optical signal processing. In current and future optical communication systems and networks, the data rate per wavelength has been approaching

  4. Note: Folded optical system for narrow forward looking probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Hsuan-Chao; Hah, Dooyoung; Kim, Jeonghwan; Feldman, M.

    2014-01-01

    An optical system is described in which a laser beam makes three passes through a single graded index lens, forming a focus along the optic axis. It has important applications in endoscopic probes, where the forward looking characteristic permits the avoidance of obstacles and the narrow structure makes it minimally invasive

  5. Digital adaptive optics line-scanning confocal imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changgeng; Kim, Myung K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. A digital adaptive optics line-scanning confocal imaging (DAOLCI) system is proposed by applying digital holographic adaptive optics to a digital form of line-scanning confocal imaging system. In DAOLCI, each line scan is recorded by a digital hologram, which allows access to the complex optical field from one slice of the sample through digital holography. This complex optical field contains both the information of one slice of the sample and the optical aberration of the system, thus allowing us to compensate for the effect of the optical aberration, which can be sensed by a complex guide star hologram. After numerical aberration compensation, the corrected optical fields of a sequence of line scans are stitched into the final corrected confocal image. In DAOLCI, a numerical slit is applied to realize the confocality at the sensor end. The width of this slit can be adjusted to control the image contrast and speckle noise for scattering samples. DAOLCI dispenses with the hardware pieces, such as Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensor and deformable mirror, and the closed-loop feedbacks adopted in the conventional adaptive optics confocal imaging system, thus reducing the optomechanical complexity and cost. Numerical simulations and proof-of-principle experiments are presented that demonstrate the feasibility of this idea. PMID:26140334

  6. Optical System Design and Integration of the Mercury Laser Altimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Izquierdo, Luis; Scott, V. Stanley, III; Schmidt, Stephen; Britt, Jamie; Mamakos, William; Trunzo, Raymond; Cavanaugh, John; Miller, Roger

    2005-01-01

    The Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA). developed for the 2004 MESSENGER mission to Mercury, is designed to measure the planet's topography via laser ranging. A description of the MLA optical system and its measured optical performance during instrument-level and spacecraft-level integration and testing are presented.

  7. Magnetic Active Radiation Shielding System Using Helmholtz Coil Lattices

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this proposal is to investigate whether a magnetic active radiation shielding systems can be designed from an optics perspective, where Helmholtz...

  8. Gratings in passive and active optical waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berendt, Martin Ole

    1999-01-01

    mode losses confirmed. An elaborated grating model, including the detailed shape of the index modulation, has been developed. This model improves the interpretation of grating growth dynamic, which is of value to both; analysis of the UV imprinting set-ups, and to the investigation of photosensitivity...... attenuated. In either case the cladding mode coupling gives loss on the short wavelength side of the reflection band. The cladding mode coupling loss is a major problem for the utilization of fiber Bragg gratings in wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) system. In this project, a numerical model for cladding...... mode coupling has been developed. The model can predict the spectral location and size of coupling, for various fiber designs. By the aid of this modeling tool, a fiber has been optimized to give low cladding-mode losses. The optimized fiber has been produced and the predicted reduction of cladding...

  9. Optical parallel database management system for page oriented holographic memeories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jian; Schamschula, Marius P.; Caulfield, H. John

    1999-12-01

    Current data recall rates from page oriented holographic memories far exceed the ability of electronics toeven read or transmit the data. For database management, we must not only read those data but also query them-computationally, a far more complex task. That task is very severe for electronics. We show here the rudiments of an optical system that can do most of the query operations in parallel in optics, leaving the burden for electronics significantly less. Even here, electronics is the ultimate speed limiter. Nevertheless, we can query data far faster in our optical/electronic system than any purely electronic system.

  10. An optical CDMA system based on chaotic sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-lei; En, De; Wang, Li-guo

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, a coherent asynchronous optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) system is proposed, whose encoder/decoder is an all-optical generator. This all-optical generator can generate analog and bipolar chaotic sequences satisfying the logistic maps. The formula of bit error rate (BER) is derived, and the relationship of BER and the number of simultaneous transmissions is analyzed. Due to the good property of correlation, this coherent OCDMA system based on these bipolar chaotic sequences can support a large number of simultaneous users, which shows that these chaotic sequences are suitable for asynchronous OCDMA system.

  11. 40  Gb/s indoor optical wireless system enabled by a cyclically arranged optical beamsteering receiver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuebing; Liu, Yu; Cao, Zizheng; Li, Fan; Li, Zhaohui; Ismaeel, R; Brambilla, G; Chen, Y; Koonen, A M J

    2018-02-15

    Indoor optical wireless communication with optical beamsteering capability is currently attracting a lot of attention. One major two-dimensional (2D) optical beamsteering scheme is realized by 2D grating or its active counterpart, which is usually based on a spatial light modulator (SLM). However, there is a fundamental trade-off between the field of view (FoV) and power efficiency due to the inherent feature of gratings. In this Letter, we propose a new class of 2D beamsteering, named cyclically arranged optical beamsteering (CAO-BS), which can break that trade-off. Traditional 2D gratings extend the optical beam in the Cartesian coordinates (1D grating in horizontal + 1D grating in vertical), while CAO-BS extends the optical beam in the polar coordinates (1D grating + angular rotation). Since only 1D grating is engaged, the power efficiency increases with the number of grating lobes reduced. In the polar coordinates, the angle rotation tuning in a SLM is quasi-continuous in a full 2π range. The CAO-BS is demonstrated at the receiving end in an indoor experimental system. The FoV is 18° by 360° in polar coordinates without any additional mechanical parts. Based on the CAO-BS, 40 Gbit/s on-off keying data is also successfully transmitted over 1 km single-mode fiber and 0.5 m free space.

  12. Optical fiber sensors measurement system and special fibers improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelinek, Michal; Hrabina, Jan; Hola, Miroslava; Hucl, Vaclav; Cizek, Martin; Rerucha, Simon; Lazar, Josef; Mikel, Bretislav

    2017-06-01

    We present method for the improvement of the measurement accuracy in the optical frequency spectra measurements based on tunable optical filters. The optical filter was used during the design and realization of the measurement system for the inspection of the fiber Bragg gratings. The system incorporates a reference block for the compensation of environmental influences, an interferometric verification subsystem and a PC - based control software implemented in LabView. The preliminary experimental verification of the measurement principle and the measurement system functionality were carried out on a testing rig with a specially prepared concrete console in the UJV Řež. The presented system is the laboratory version of the special nuclear power plant containment shape deformation measurement system which was installed in the power plant Temelin during last year. On the base of this research we started with preparation other optical fiber sensors to nuclear power plants measurement. These sensors will be based on the microstructured and polarization maintaining optical fibers. We started with development of new methods and techniques of the splicing and shaping optical fibers. We are able to made optical tapers from ultra-short called adiabatic with length around 400 um up to long tapers with length up to 6 millimeters. We developed new techniques of splicing standard Single Mode (SM) and Multimode (MM) optical fibers and splicing of optical fibers with different diameters in the wavelength range from 532 to 1550 nm. Together with development these techniques we prepared other techniques to splicing and shaping special optical fibers like as Polarization-Maintaining (PM) or hollow core Photonic Crystal Fiber (PCF) and theirs cross splicing methods with focus to minimalize backreflection and attenuation. The splicing special optical fibers especially PCF fibers with standard telecommunication and other SM fibers can be done by our developed techniques. Adjustment

  13. Optical imaging of neural and hemodynamic brain activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schei, Jennifer Lynn

    Optical imaging technologies can be used to record neural and hemodynamic activity. Neural activity elicits physiological changes that alter the optical tissue properties. Specifically, changes in polarized light are concomitant with neural depolarization. We measured polarization changes from an isolated lobster nerve during action potential propagation using both reflected and transmitted light. In transmission mode, polarization changes were largest throughout the center of the nerve, suggesting that most of the optical signal arose from the inner nerve bundle. In reflection mode, polarization changes were largest near the edges, suggesting that most of the optical signal arose from the outer sheath. To overcome irregular cell orientation found in the brain, we measured polarization changes from a nerve tied in a knot. Our results show that neural activation produces polarization changes that can be imaged even without regular cell orientations. Neural activation expends energy resources and elicits metabolic delivery through blood vessel dilation, increasing blood flow and volume. We used spectroscopic imaging techniques combined with electrophysiological measurements to record evoked neural and hemodynamic responses from the auditory cortex of the rat. By using implantable optics, we measured responses across natural wake and sleep states, as well as responses following different amounts of sleep deprivation. During quiet sleep, evoked metabolic responses were larger compared to wake, perhaps because blood vessels were more compliant. When animals were sleep deprived, evoked hemodynamic responses were smaller following longer periods of deprivation. These results suggest that prolonged neural activity through sleep deprivation may diminish vascular compliance as indicated by the blunted vascular response. Subsequent sleep may allow vessels to relax, restoring their ability to deliver blood. These results also suggest that severe sleep deprivation or chronic

  14. Design of partially optically stable reflector systems and prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chuang-Yu

    2010-09-01

    The characteristics and design method of the total optically stable (TOS) reflector systems/prisms were introduced in an early paper (Tsai and Lin in Appl. Opt. 47:4158-4163, 2008), where only two types of TOS reflector system exist, namely preservation or retroreflection. In this paper, we introduce the partially optically stable (POS) reflector system, which is only optically stable about a specific directional vector; nevertheless, the exiting light ray is not restricted to preservation or retroreflection. The proposed paper also presents an analytic method for the design of POS reflector systems comprised of multiple reflectors. Furthermore, it is shown that a POS prism can be obtained by adding two refracting flat boundary surfaces with specific conditions at the entrance and exit positions of the light ray in an optical system with multiple reflectors.

  15. The USC-OSA-EPS section activities in optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aymerich, María.; Cambronero-López, Ferran; Aragón, Ángel L.; Delgado, Tamara; Blanco, Manuel; Gómez Varela, Ana I.; Gargallo, Ana; Williamson, Sandra; Amorín, Adán.; Sánchez-García, Ángel; Bao-Varela, Carmen; Flores-Arias, M. Teresa

    2017-08-01

    The USC-OSA Student Chapter and USC-EPS Young Minds Section is a group financed by The Optical Society (OSA) and the European Physical Society (EPS). It is formed by PhD and degree students from the Universidade de Santiago de Compostela (USC) and one supervisor of the Faculty of Physics. Its main goal is to promote and diffuse Optics in the society. For this purpose, the group carries out several activities in the academic and non-academic community. The group is also committed to the professional development of our members and motivates the exposition of our work into the scientific community.

  16. Active polymer materials for optical fiber CO2 sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysokiński, Karol; Filipowicz, Marta; Stańczyk, Tomasz; Lipiński, Stanisław; Napierała, Marek; Murawski, Michał; Nasiłowski, Tomasz

    2017-04-01

    CO2 optical fiber sensors based on polymer active materials are presented in this paper. Ethyl cellulose was proven to be a good candidate for a matrix material of the sensor, since it gives porous, thick and very sensitive layers. Low-cost sensors based on polymer optical fibers have been elaborated. Sensors have been examined for their sensitivity to CO2, temperature and humidity. Response time during cyclic exposures to CO2 have been also determined. Special layers exhibiting irreversible change of color during exposure to carbon dioxide have been developed. They have been verified for a possible use in smart food packaging.

  17. Ring-laser optical flip-flop memory with single active element

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, S.; Liu, Y.S.; Lenstra, D.; Hill, M. T.; Ju, H. K.; Khoe, G.D.; Dorren, H.J.S.

    2004-01-01

    We present a novel optical flip-flop configuration that consists of two unidirectional ring lasers with separate cavities but sharing the same active element unidirectionally. We show that in such a configuration light in the lasing cavity can suppress lasing in the other cavity so that this system

  18. Optical design of an in vivo laparoscopic lighting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaolong; Abdolmalaki, Reza Yazdanpanah; Mancini, Gregory J.; Tan, Jindong

    2017-12-01

    This paper proposes an in vivo laparoscopic lighting system design to address the illumination issues, namely poor lighting uniformity and low optical efficiency, existing in the state-of-the-art in vivo laparoscopic cameras. The transformable design of the laparoscopic lighting system is capable of carrying purposefully designed freeform optical lenses for achieving lighting performance with high illuminance uniformity and high optical efficiency in a desired target region. To design freeform optical lenses for extended light sources such as LEDs with Lambertian light intensity distributions, we present an effective and complete freeform optical design method. The procedures include (1) ray map computation by numerically solving a standard Monge-Ampere equation; (2) initial freeform optical surface construction by using Snell's law and a lens volume restriction; (3) correction of surface normal vectors due to accumulated errors from the initially constructed surfaces; and (4) feedback modification of the solution to deal with degraded illuminance uniformity caused by the extended sizes of the LEDs. We employed an optical design software package to evaluate the performance of our laparoscopic lighting system design. The simulation results show that our design achieves greater than 95% illuminance uniformity and greater than 89% optical efficiency (considering Fresnel losses) for illuminating the target surgical region.

  19. Modeling illumination performance of plastic optical fiber passive daylighting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulaiman, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmed, A.Z.

    2006-01-01

    One of the most direct methods of utilizing solar energy for energy conservation is to bring natural light indoors to light up an area. This paper reports on the investigation of the feasibility to utilize large core optical fibers to convey and distribute solar light passively throughout residential or commercial structures. The focus of this study is on the mathematical modeling of the illumination performance and the light transmission efficiency of solid core end light fiber for optical day lighting systems. The Meatball simulations features the optical fiber transmittance for glass and plastic fibers, illumination performance over lengths of plastic end-lit fiber, spectral transmission, light intensity loss through the large diameter solid core optical fibers as well as the transmission efficiency of the optical fiber itself. It was found that plastic optical fiber has less transmission loss over the distance of the fiber run which clearly shows that the Plastic Optical Fiber should be optimized for emitting visible light. The findings from the analysis on the performance of large diameter optical fibers for day lighting systems seems feasible for energy efficient lighting system in commercial or residential buildings

  20. Investigation on dispersion in the active optical waveguide resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zihan; Gao, Yining; Xie, Wei

    2018-03-01

    Introducing active gain in the optical waveguide resonator not only compensates the loss, but also can change the dispersion relationship in the ring resonator. It is demonstrated that the group delay time is negative when the resonator is in the undercoupled condition, which also means the resonator exhibits the fast light effect. Theoretical analysis indicates that fast light effect due to anomalous dispersion, would be manipulated by the gain coefficient controlled by the input pump light power and that fast light would enhance scale factor of the optical resonant gyroscope. Resonance optical gyroscope (ROG)'s scale factor for measuring rotation rate is enhanced by anomalous dispersion with superluminal light propagation. The sensitivity of ROG could be enhanced by anomalous dispersion by coupled resonators even considering the effect of anomalous dispersion and propagation gain on broadened linewidth, and this could result in at least two orders of magnitude enhancement in sensitivity.

  1. Coincidence imaging system with electron optics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kroupa, M.; Jakubek, J.; Krejčí, F.; Žemlička, J.; Horáček, Miroslav; Radlička, Tomáš; Vlček, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 633, Supl. 1 (2011), S270-S273 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100650803 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : electron optics * coincidence Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.207, year: 2011

  2. Student project of optical system analysis API-library development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Tatiana; Zhukova, Tatiana; Dantcaranov, Ruslan; Romanova, Maria; Zhadin, Alexander; Ivanov, Vyacheslav; Kalinkina, Olga

    2017-08-01

    In the paper API-library software developed by students of Applied and Computer Optics Department (ITMO University) for optical system design is presented. The library performs paraxial and real ray tracing, calculates 3d order (Seidel) aberration and real ray aberration of axis and non-axis beams (wave, lateral, longitudinal, coma, distortion etc.) and finally, approximate wave aberration by Zernike polynomials. Real aperture can be calculated by considering of real rays tracing failure on each surface. So far we assume optical system is centered, with spherical or 2d order aspherical surfaces. Optical glasses can be set directly by refraction index or by dispersion coefficients. The library can be used for education or research purposes in optical system design area. It provides ready to use software functions for optical system simulation and analysis that developer can simply plug into their software development for different purposes, for example for some specific synthesis tasks or investigation of new optimization modes. In the paper we present an example of using the library for development of cemented doublet synthesis software based on Slusarev's methodology. The library is used in optical system optimization recipes course for deep studying of optimization model and its application for optical system design. Development of such software is an excellent experience for students and help to understanding optical image modeling and quality analysis. This development is organized as student group joint project. We try to organize it as a group in real research and development project, so each student has his own role in the project and then use whole library functionality in his own master or bachelor thesis. Working in such group gives students useful experience and opportunity to work as research and development engineer of scientific software in the future.

  3. Lithographically-Scribed Planar Holographic Optical CDMA Devices and Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mossberg, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    .... The present Phase II effort has harnessed new fabrication tools to perfect disruptive HBR-based multiplexer products for DoD avionics, optical communications systems computer data communications and local area networks...

  4. Automated Mulitple Object Optical Tracking and Recognition System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — OPTRA proposes to develop an optical tracking system that is capable of recognizing and tracking up to 50 different objects within an approximately 2 degree x 3...

  5. Optical Imaging Sensors and Systems for Homeland Security Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Javidi, Bahram

    2006-01-01

    Optical and photonic systems and devices have significant potential for homeland security. Optical Imaging Sensors and Systems for Homeland Security Applications presents original and significant technical contributions from leaders of industry, government, and academia in the field of optical and photonic sensors, systems and devices for detection, identification, prevention, sensing, security, verification and anti-counterfeiting. The chapters have recent and technically significant results, ample illustrations, figures, and key references. This book is intended for engineers and scientists in the relevant fields, graduate students, industry managers, university professors, government managers, and policy makers. Advanced Sciences and Technologies for Security Applications focuses on research monographs in the areas of -Recognition and identification (including optical imaging, biometrics, authentication, verification, and smart surveillance systems) -Biological and chemical threat detection (including bios...

  6. Automated Mulitple Object Optical Tracking and Recognition System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — OPTRA proposes to develop an optical tracking system that is capable of recognizing and tracking up to 50 different objects within an approximately 2 degree x 3...

  7. Digital optical feeder links system for broadband geostationary satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulenard, Sylvain; Mège, Alexandre; Fuchs, Christian; Perlot, Nicolas; Riedi, Jerome; Perdigues, Josep

    2017-02-01

    An optical link based on a multiplex of wavelengths at 1.55μm is foreseen to be a valuable solution for the feeder link of the next generation of high-throughput geostationary satellite. The main satellite operator specifications for such link are an availability of 99.9% over the year, a capacity around 500Gbit/s and to be bent-pipe. Optical ground station networks connected to Terabit/s terrestrial fibers are proposed. The availability of the optical feeder link is simulated over 5 years based on a state-of-the-art cloud mask data bank and an atmospheric turbulence strength model. Yearly and seasonal optical feeder link availabilities are derived and discussed. On-ground and on-board terminals are designed to be compliant with 10Gbit/s per optical channel data rate taking into account adaptive optic systems to mitigate the impact of atmospheric turbulences on single-mode optical fiber receivers. The forward and return transmission chains, concept and implementation, are described. These are based on a digital transparent on-off keying optical link with digitalization of the DVB-S2 and DVB-RCS signals prior to the transmission, and a forward error correcting code. In addition, the satellite architecture is described taking into account optical and radiofrequency payloads as well as their interfaces.

  8. Optical Design of COATLI: A Diffraction-Limited Visible Imager with Fast Guiding and Active Optics Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Fernández, J.; Cuevas, S.; Watson, A. M.

    2018-04-01

    We present the optical design of COATLI, a two channel visible imager for a comercial 50 cm robotic telescope. COATLI will deliver diffraction-limited images (approximately 0.3 arcsec FWHM) in the riz bands, inside a 4.2 arcmin field, and seeing limited images (approximately 0.6 arcsec FWHM) in the B and g bands, inside a 5 arcmin field, by means of a tip-tilt mirror for fast guiding, and a deformable mirror for active optics, both located on two optically transferred pupil planes. The optical design is based on two collimator-camera systems plus a pupil transfer relay, using achromatic doublets of CaF2 and S-FTM16 and one triplet of N-BK7 and CaF2. We discuss the effciency, tolerancing, thermal behavior and ghosts. COATLI will be installed at the Observatorio Astronómico Nacional in Sierra San Pedro Mártir, Baja California, Mexico, in 2018.

  9. Laser Transmitters for the optical link systems used in CMS

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    In the CMS experiment of the now new flagship LHC optical links will be used for the tracker readout system. One part of this components will be semiconductor laser (~50.000 !!!), named correctly: 1310 nm InGaAsP (DCPBH-MQW) edge-emitting laser. They are foreseen as transmitter in the Tx Hybrid part of the optical link system.

  10. Optical production systems using neural networks and symbolic substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botha, Elizabeth; Casasent, David; Barnard, Etienne

    1988-01-01

    Two optical implementations of production systems are advanced. The production systems operate on a knowledge base where facts and rules are encoded as formulas in propositional calculus. The first implementation is a binary neural network. An analog neural network is used to include reasoning with uncertainties. The second implementation uses a new optical symbolic substitution correlator. This implementation is useful when a set of similar situations has to be handled in parallel on one processor.

  11. Toward multi-Gbps indoor optical wireless multicasting system employing passive diffractive optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, C W; Huijskens, F M; Cao, Z; Tangdiongga, E; Koonen, A M J

    2014-05-01

    This Letter presents the evaluation and demonstration of an optical free-space (FS) multicasting system for multi-Gigabits-per-second (multi-Gbps) indoor transmission. These simultaneous line-of-sight links are formed by infrared beams and are beam-steered using a passive diffraction grating. The experiment has resulted in error-free links (bit error rate optical wireless communication and can be seamlessly integrated in in-building fiber networks.

  12. Ultra-high accuracy optical testing: creating diffraction-limited short-wavelength optical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Naulleau, Patrick P.; Rekawa, Senajith B.; Denham, Paul E.; Liddle, J. Alexander; Gullikson, Eric M.; Jackson, KeithH.; Anderson, Erik H.; Taylor, John S.; Sommargren, Gary E.; Chapman, Henry N.; Phillion, Donald W.; Johnson, Michael; Barty, Anton; Soufli, Regina; Spiller, Eberhard A.; Walton, Christopher C.; Bajt, Sasa

    2005-01-01

    Since 1993, research in the fabrication of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) optical imaging systems, conducted at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), has produced the highest resolution optical systems ever made. We have pioneered the development of ultra-high-accuracy optical testing and alignment methods, working at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths, and pushing wavefront-measuring interferometry into the 2-20-nm wavelength range (60-600 eV). These coherent measurement techniques, including lateral shearing interferometry and phase-shifting point-diffraction interferometry (PS/PDI) have achieved RMS wavefront measurement accuracies of 0.5-1-(angstrom) and better for primary aberration terms, enabling the creation of diffraction-limited EUV optics. The measurement accuracy is established using careful null-testing procedures, and has been verified repeatedly through high-resolution imaging. We believe these methods are broadly applicable to the advancement of short-wavelength optical systems including space telescopes, microscope objectives, projection lenses, synchrotron beamline optics, diffractive and holographic optics, and more. Measurements have been performed on a tunable undulator beamline at LBNL's Advanced Light Source (ALS), optimized for high coherent flux; although many of these techniques should be adaptable to alternative ultraviolet, EUV, and soft x-ray light sources. To date, we have measured nine prototype all-reflective EUV optical systems with NA values between 0.08 and 0.30 (f/6.25 to f/1.67). These projection-imaging lenses were created for the semiconductor industry's advanced research in EUV photolithography, a technology slated for introduction in 2009-13. This paper reviews the methods used and our program's accomplishments to date

  13. A new approach for the verification of optical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, Umair; Aravantinos, Vincent; Tahar, Sofiène

    2013-09-01

    Optical systems are increasingly used in microsystems, telecommunication, aerospace and laser industry. Due to the complexity and sensitivity of optical systems, their verification poses many challenges to engineers. Tra­ditionally, the analysis of such systems has been carried out by paper-and-pencil based proofs and numerical computations. However, these techniques cannot provide perfectly accurate results due to the risk of human error and inherent approximations of numerical algorithms. In order to overcome these limitations, we propose to use theorem proving (i.e., a computer-based technique that allows to express mathematical expressions and reason about them by taking into account all the details of mathematical reasoning) as an alternative to computational and numerical approaches to improve optical system analysis in a comprehensive framework. In particular, this paper provides a higher-order logic (a language used to express mathematical theories) formalization of ray optics in the HOL Light theorem prover. Based on the multivariate analysis library of HOL Light, we formalize the notion of light ray and optical system (by defining medium interfaces, mirrors, lenses, etc.), i.e., we express these notions mathematically in the software. This allows us to derive general theorems about the behavior of light in such optical systems. In order to demonstrate the practical effectiveness, we present the stability analysis of a Fabry-Perot resonator.

  14. Imaging the chemical activity of single nanoparticles with optical microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei

    2018-04-03

    Nanomaterials exhibit structural and functional heterogeneity among individual nanoparticles, thus requiring a capability to study single nanoparticles. While electron microscopes often provide static images of their chemical composition, morphology and structure, imaging the chemical activity of single nanoparticles is highly desirable for exploring the structure-activity relationship via a bottom-up strategy, to understand their microscopic reaction mechanisms and kinetics, and to identify a minority subpopulation with extraordinary activity. Recently, various optical microscopes have been emerging as powerful techniques towards this goal, owing to their non-invasive nature, excellent sensitivity, diversified spectroscopic principles and sufficient spatial and temporal resolution. In this review, we first introduce the motivational concept and the strength of using optical microscopy to study the chemical activity of single nanoparticles. In the second section, five types of commonly used optical microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, dark-field microscopy, surface plasmon resonance microscopy, Raman microscopy and photothermal microscopy are described, with an emphasis on their applicable nanomaterials and mechanisms for application. Recent achievements of these techniques in nanosensing, nanoelectrochemistry and nanocatalysis are surveyed and summarized in the subsequent sections, respectively. We finally conclude with our perspective on the remaining challenges and the future trends in this field.

  15. Application of Optical Forces in Microphotonic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    multiparticle patterns has previously been achieved using structured light fields generated by interference fringes, holography , spatial light modulators, or...34 Photonics Technology Letters, IEEE 7, 32-34 (1995). [30]. K. Bayat, S. K. Chaudhuri, and S. Safavi-Naeini, "Ultra-compact photonic crystal based...polarization modulation in semiconductor optical amplifiers," Photonics Technology Letters, IEEE 11, 970-972 (1999). [34]. R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear

  16. Optical two-beam traps in microfluidic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg-Sørensen, Kirstine

    2016-01-01

    An attractive solution for optical trapping and stretching by means of two counterpropagating laser beams is to embed waveguides or optical fibers in a microfluidic system. The microfluidic system can be constructed in different materials, ranging from soft polymers that may easily be cast...... in a rapid prototyping manner, to hard polymers that could even be produced by injection moulding, or to silica in which waveguides may either be written directly, or with grooves for optical fibers. Here, we review different solutions to the system and also show results obtained in a polymer chip with DUV...... written waveguides and in an injection molded polymer chip with grooves for optical fibers. (C) 2016 The Japan Society of Applied Physics....

  17. Variable-length code construction for incoherent optical CDMA systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jen-Yung; Jhou, Jhih-Syue; Wen, Jyh-Horng

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the multirate transmission in fiber-optic code-division multiple-access (CDMA) networks. In this article, we propose a variable-length code construction for any existing optical orthogonal code to implement a multirate optical CDMA system (called as the multirate code system). For comparison, a multirate system where the lower-rate user sends each symbol twice is implemented and is called as the repeat code system. The repetition as an error-detection code in an ARQ scheme in the repeat code system is also investigated. Moreover, a parallel approach for the optical CDMA systems, which is proposed by Marić et al., is also compared with other systems proposed in this study. Theoretical analysis shows that the bit error probability of the proposed multirate code system is smaller than other systems, especially when the number of lower-rate users is large. Moreover, if there is at least one lower-rate user in the system, the multirate code system accommodates more users than other systems when the error probability of system is set below 10 -9.

  18. Iterative Decoding for an Optical CDMA based Laser communication System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Young; Kim, Eun Cheol [Kwangwoon Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Jae Sang [Seoul National Univ. of Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-11-15

    An optical CDMA(code division multiple access)based Laser communication system has attracted much attention since it requires minimal optical Laser signal processing and it is virtually delay free, while from the theoretical point of view, its performance depends on the auto and cross correlation properties of employed sequences. Various kinds of channel coding schemes for optical CDMA based Laser communication systems have been proposed and analyzed to compensate nonideal channel and receiver conditions in impaired photon channels. In this paper, we propose and analyze an iterative decoding of optical CDMA based Laser communication signals for both shot noise limited and thermal noise limited systems. It is assumed that optical channel is an intensity modulated (IM)channel and direct detection scheme is employed to detect the received optical signal. The performance is evaluated in terms of bit error probability and throughput. It is demonstrated that the BER and throughput performance is substantially improved with interleaver length for a fixed code rate and with alphabet size of PPM (pulse position modulation). Also, the BER and throughput performance is significantly enhanced with the number of iterations for decoding process. The results in this paper can be applied to the optical CDMA based Laser communication network with multiple access applications.

  19. Iterative Decoding for an Optical CDMA based Laser communication System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Young; Kim, Eun Cheol; Cha, Jae Sang

    2008-01-01

    An optical CDMA(code division multiple access)based Laser communication system has attracted much attention since it requires minimal optical Laser signal processing and it is virtually delay free, while from the theoretical point of view, its performance depends on the auto and cross correlation properties of employed sequences. Various kinds of channel coding schemes for optical CDMA based Laser communication systems have been proposed and analyzed to compensate nonideal channel and receiver conditions in impaired photon channels. In this paper, we propose and analyze an iterative decoding of optical CDMA based Laser communication signals for both shot noise limited and thermal noise limited systems. It is assumed that optical channel is an intensity modulated (IM)channel and direct detection scheme is employed to detect the received optical signal. The performance is evaluated in terms of bit error probability and throughput. It is demonstrated that the BER and throughput performance is substantially improved with interleaver length for a fixed code rate and with alphabet size of PPM (pulse position modulation). Also, the BER and throughput performance is significantly enhanced with the number of iterations for decoding process. The results in this paper can be applied to the optical CDMA based Laser communication network with multiple access applications

  20. TV-acquired optical diagnostics systems on ATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalibjian, R.; Chong, Y.P.; Cornish, J.P.; Jackson, C.H.; Fessenden, T.J.

    1984-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report on optical system developments on the ATA and their applications to ATA beam characterization. Television (TV)-acquired optical diagnostics data provide spatial and temporal properties of the ATA beam that complements recorded information from other types of sensors, such as, beam-wall current monitors, x-ray probes, and rf probes. The ATA beam operates: (1) in the normal mode at 50-MeV, 10-kA at a 1-Hz rate; and (2) in the 1-KHz burst mode (for 10-pulses) at a 0.5 Hz rate. The beam has a 70-ns pulse width in vacuum propagation; however, beam-head erosion will occur in atmospheric propagation, thus limiting the pulse width to less than 50-ns. Various optical systems are used for ATA diagnostics. Optical-imaging provides a convenient measurement in a single pulse of the 2-dimensional profile of the beam intensity. It can also provide multiple 2-D framing in a single pulse. In some studies it may be desirable to study optical events with temporal resolution less than 100-ps with 1-dimensional streak cameras. Spatially integrated data from phototube cameras can also be used for background measurement applications as well as for single pixel monitoring. The optical line-of-sight (LOS) configurations have been made versatile to accommodate a large number of options for the various optical systems

  1. The Pleiades System High Resolution Optical Satellite and its Performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boussarie, E.

    France is setting up a cooperative program with Italy as main partner, including other european cooperative countries, in order to develop a dual use system. This means that it intends to be used by civilian users, and by military ones, as well. It will deliver optical images (part of the system developed under french responsibility), and radar images (part of the system developed under italian responsibility). This paper aims at describing the optical satellite inside the overall system. The Pléiades optical high resolution system is based upon the use of a satellite featuring a set of newly european developed technologies. This paper reports the status of the satellite development. It describes the newly developed technologies, explains the system sizing philosophy, and describes the performances status.

  2. Research on Retro-reflecting Modulation in Space Optical Communication System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yifeng; Wang, Guannan

    2018-01-01

    Retro-reflecting modulation space optical communication is a new type of free space optical communication technology. Unlike traditional free space optical communication system, it applys asymmetric optical systems to reduce the size, weight and power consumption of the system and can effectively solve the limits of traditional free space optical communication system application, so it can achieve the information transmission. This paper introduces the composition and working principle of retro-reflecting modulation optical communication system, analyzes the link budget of this system, reviews the types of optical system and optical modulator, summarizes this technology future research direction and application prospects.

  3. The control of an optical hyper-chaotic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Shumin; Tian Lixin; Wang Xuedi

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the problem of hyper-chaos control of an optical system. Based on Lyapunov stability theory, a non-autonomous feedback controller is designed. The proposed controller ensures that the hyper-chaotic system will be asymptotically stable. Numerical simulation of the original and the controlled system is provided to show the effectiveness of our method

  4. Final Report: Imaging of Buried Nanoscale Optically Active Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appelbaum, Ian

    2011-07-05

    This is a final report covering work done at University of Maryland to develop a Ballistic Electron Emission Luminescence (BEEL) microscope. This technique was intended to examine the carrier transport and photon emission in deeply buried optically-active layers and thereby provide a means for materials science to unmask the detailed consequences of experimentally controllable growth parameters, such as quantum dot size, statistics and orientation, and defect density and charge recombination pathways.

  5. Diamagnetic Raman Optical Activity of Chlorine, Bromine, and Iodine Gases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šebestík, Jaroslav; Kapitán, J.; Pačes, Ondřej; Bouř, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 10 (2016), s. 3504-3508 ISSN 1433-7851 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-03978S; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-00431S; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-05935S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : angular momentum theory * diamagnetic molecules * excited electronic states * magnetic field * Raman optical activity Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 11.994, year: 2016

  6. Gain determination of optical active doped planar waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šmejcký, J.; Jeřábek, V.; Nekvindová, P.

    2017-12-01

    This paper summarizes the results of the gain transmission characteristics measurement carried out on the new ion exchange Ag+ - Na+ optical Er3+ and Yb3+ doped active planar waveguides realized on a silica based glass substrates. The results were used for optimization of the precursor concentration in the glass substrates. The gain measurements were performed by the time domain method using a pulse generator, as well as broadband measurement method using supercontinuum optical source in the wavelength domain. Both methods were compared and the results were graphically processed. It has been confirmed that pulse method is useful as it provides a very accurate measurement of the gain - pumping power characteristics for one wavelength. In the case of radiation spectral characteristics, our measurement exactly determined the maximum gain wavelength bandwidth of the active waveguide. The spectral characteristics of the pumped and unpumped waveguides were compared. The gain parameters of the reported silica-based glasses can be compared with the phosphate-based parameters, typically used for optical active devices application.

  7. Fiber-Optic Monitoring System of Particle Counters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Titov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers development of a fiber-optic system to monitor the counters of particles. Presently, optical counters of particles, which are often arranged at considerable distance from each other, are used to study the saltation phenomenon. For monitoring the counters, can be used electric communication lines.However, it complicates and raises the price of system Therefore, we offered a fiber-optic system and the counter of particles, free from these shortcomings. The difference between the offered counter of particles and the known one is that the input of radiation to the counter and the output of radiation scattering on particles are made by the optical fibers, and direct radiation is entered the optical fiber rather than is delayed by a light trap and can be used for lighting the other counters thereby allowing to use their connection in series.The work involved a choice of the quartz multimode optical fiber for communication, defining the optical fiber and lenses parameters of the counter of particles, and a selection of the radiation source and the photo-detector.Using the theory of light diffraction on a particle, a measuring range of the particle sizes has been determined. The system speed has been estimated, and it has been shown that a range of communication can reach 200km.It should be noted that modulation noise of counters of particles connected in series have the impact on the useful signal. To assess the extent of this influence we have developed a calculation procedure to illustrate that with ten counters connected in series this influence on the signal-to-noise ratio will be insignificant.Thus, it has been shown that the offered fiber-optic system can be used for monitoring the counters of particles across the desertified territories. 

  8. Optical activity via Kerr nonlinearity in a spinning chiral medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Anwar Ali, E-mail: anwarali@uom.edu.pk [Department of Physics, University of Malakand at Chakdara Dir(L) (Pakistan); Bacha, Bakht Amin, E-mail: aminoptics@gmail.com [Department of Physics, University of Malakand at Chakdara Dir(L) (Pakistan); Khan, Rahmat Ali, E-mail: rahmat_alipk@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics, University of Malakand (Pakistan)

    2016-11-11

    Optical activity is investigated in a chiral medium by employing the four level cascade atomic model, in which the optical responses of the atomic medium are studied with Kerr nonlinearity. Light entering into a chiral medium splits into circular birefringent beams. The angle of divergence between the circular birefringent beams and the polarization states of the two light beams is manipulated with Kerr nonlinearity. In the stationary chiral medium the angle of divergence between the circular birefringent beams is calculated to be 1.3 radian. Furthermore, circular birefringence is optically controlled in a spinning chiral medium, where the maximum rotary photon drag angle for left (right) circularly polarized beam is ±1.1 (±1.5) microradian. The change in the angle of divergence between circular birefringent beams by rotary photon drag is calculated to be 0.4 microradian. The numerical results may help to understand image designing, image coding, discovery of photonic crystals and optical sensing technology. - Highlights: • Coherent control of a circular birefringence in a chiral medium is studied. • Angle of divergence between birefringent beams is modified with Kerr nonlinearity. • Rotary photon drag is controlled for birefringent beams and enhanced with Kerr nonlinearity in a spinning medium. • Rotation of the angle of divergence is observed with mechanical rotation of the medium about an axis and modified with Kerr effect. • A change in the angle of divergence is calculated by about a microradian with rotary photon drag.

  9. A removable optical sealing system for application to international safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.E.

    1985-06-01

    A removable, optically verifiable sealing system for CANDU spent fuel storage facilities has been developed. The seal is based on the use of unique crystal patterns formed in a pure metal identity/integrity element and has been designed for easy installation and removal using simple tooling. Since the seal is optically verified, a wide range of commercial instruments, including those in use by the IAEA, can be used to verify it. Futhermore, optical verification allows the level of scrutiny to be matched with the degree of confidence required to be confident that spent fuel has not been diverted

  10. Magneto-optical system for high speed real time imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baziljevich, M.; Barness, D.; Sinvani, M.; Perel, E.; Shaulov, A.; Yeshurun, Y.

    2012-08-01

    A new magneto-optical system has been developed to expand the range of high speed real time magneto-optical imaging. A special source for the external magnetic field has also been designed, using a pump solenoid to rapidly excite the field coil. Together with careful modifications of the cryostat, to reduce eddy currents, ramping rates reaching 3000 T/s have been achieved. Using a powerful laser as the light source, a custom designed optical assembly, and a high speed digital camera, real time imaging rates up to 30 000 frames per seconds have been demonstrated.

  11. Optical laser systems at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minitti, Michael P.; Robinson, Joseph S.; Coffee, Ryan N.; Edstrom, Steve; Gilevich, Sasha; Glownia, James M.; Granados, Eduardo; Hering, Philippe; Hoffmann, Matthias C.; Miahnahri, Alan; Milathianaki, Despina; Polzin, Wayne; Ratner, Daniel; Tavella, Franz; Vetter, Sharon; Welch, Marc; White, William E.; Fry, Alan R.

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript serves as a reference to describe the optical laser sources and capabilities at the Linac Coherent Light Source. Ultrafast optical lasers play an essential role in exploiting the unique capabilities of recently commissioned X-ray free-electron laser facilities such as the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). Pump–probe experimental techniques reveal ultrafast dynamics in atomic and molecular processes and reveal new insights in chemistry, biology, material science and high-energy-density physics. This manuscript describes the laser systems and experimental methods that enable cutting-edge optical laser/X-ray pump–probe experiments to be performed at LCLS

  12. Optical laser systems at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minitti, Michael P.; Robinson, Joseph S.; Coffee, Ryan N.; Edstrom, Steve; Gilevich, Sasha; Glownia, James M.; Granados, Eduardo; Hering, Philippe; Hoffmann, Matthias C.; Miahnahri, Alan; Milathianaki, Despina; Polzin, Wayne; Ratner, Daniel; Tavella, Franz; Vetter, Sharon; Welch, Marc; White, William E.; Fry, Alan R., E-mail: alanfry@slac.stanford.edu [Linac Coherent Light Source, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2015-04-22

    This manuscript serves as a reference to describe the optical laser sources and capabilities at the Linac Coherent Light Source. Ultrafast optical lasers play an essential role in exploiting the unique capabilities of recently commissioned X-ray free-electron laser facilities such as the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). Pump–probe experimental techniques reveal ultrafast dynamics in atomic and molecular processes and reveal new insights in chemistry, biology, material science and high-energy-density physics. This manuscript describes the laser systems and experimental methods that enable cutting-edge optical laser/X-ray pump–probe experiments to be performed at LCLS.

  13. Performance evaluation of an IMDD optical OFDM-CDMA system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhatli, Sofien; Mrabet, Hichem; Giacoumidis, Elias; Dayoub, Iyad

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a modulation technique for passive optical networks that harnesses two-dimensional prime hop system optical code division multiplexing access (OCDMA) and optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) for intensity modulation with direct-detection (IMDD) to enhance users' signal capacity in a cost-effective manner. The theoretical analysis is built from an analytical formula that takes into account both multiple-access interference and photodetector noise. Results show that OFDM-OCDMA with multiple users has similar performance to single-user conventional OOFDM for low transmitted powers.

  14. The Impact Of Optical Storage Technology On Image Processing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garges, Daniel T.; Durbin, Gerald T.

    1984-09-01

    The recent announcement of commercially available high density optical storage devices will have a profound impact on the information processing industry. Just as the initial introduction of random access storage created entirely new processing strategies, optical technology will allow dramatic changes in the storage, retrieval, and dissemination of engineering drawings and other pictorial or text-based documents. Storage Technology Corporation has assumed a leading role in this arena with the introduction of the 7600 Optical Storage Subsystem, and the formation of StorageTek Integrated Systems, a subsidiary chartered to incorporate this new technology into deliverable total systems. This paper explores the impact of optical storage technology from the perspective of a leading-edge manufacturer and integrator.

  15. Low Cost, Wide Angle Infinity Optics Visual System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    in Droducinq optical simulators led to the develooment of the Pancake Window display , an in-line, compact, infinity display system with the advantages...of using only reflec- tive optics and providinq very large field-of-view anqles. The Pancake Window display consists of two linear polarizers, two...with its plane of polarization not crossed but oarallel to its linear axis: consequently, this light will be transmitted by the Pancake Window display . If

  16. Beam transport optics for high-power laser systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    Beam transport optics receive output energy from the laser cavity and deliver it to the work site. Depending on the application, this may require a few simple elements or large complex systems. Collection of the laser energy depends on the spatial and temporal energy distribution as well as the wavelength and polarization of the laser cavity and output coupler. Transport optics can perform a variety of functions, including beam formatting, frequency doubling, and distribution to one or more work sites while maintaining or even improving the beam quality. The beam may be delivered to work sites as focused spots or images, projected to distant targets, or propagated through various media for sensing or photochemical processing. Design may involve optical modeling of the system, including diffraction effects and thermal management. A Gaussian beam profile is often used for convenience in modeling. When deviations from this ideal profile need to be considered, it is necessary to characterize the laser beam in detail. Design of the transport system requires understanding of the interaction of the laser energy with optical materials and components. Practical considerations include mounting the optics without stress and with the stability suitable for the intended application. Requirements for beam direction, stability, size, shape, and quality dictate the design approach for each specific situation. Attention also must be given to reliability, environmental, and commercial requirements. Damage to optics in high-power laser systems is a common concern. Environmental problems such as atmospheric turbulence, contamination by dust or vapor from the work site or other sources, or absorption of water vapor can directly degrade beam quality. Other potentially significant optical performance effects may result from instability and aging of the optics, temperature, humidity, pressure, transmitted vibration, and contamination from the work site or other sources

  17. Electro-optic side-chain polyimide system with large optical nonlinearity and high thermal stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotoyama, Wataru; Tatsuura, Satoshi; Yoshimura, Tetsuzo

    1994-04-01

    We report electro-optic (EO) efficiency and thermal stability of a poled polyimide system with nonlinear optical dyes as side chains. The side-chain polyimide system is synthesized from a dianhydride containing azobenzene dye and a diamine. The dye in the polymer is chemically stable for temperatures below 250 °C. The polymer can be poled simultaneously with or after imidization of the polyamic acid. Our sample poled after imidization shows a large EO coefficient (r33=10.8 pm/V at λ=1.3 μm) and long-term thermal stability at 120 °C.

  18. Digital optical correlator x-ray telescope alignment monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lis, Tomasz; Gaskin, Jessica; Jasper, John; Gregory, Don A.

    2018-01-01

    The High-Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun (HEROES) program is a balloon-borne x-ray telescope mission to observe hard x-rays (˜20 to 70 keV) from the sun and multiple astrophysical targets. The payload consists of eight mirror modules with a total of 114 optics that are mounted on a 6-m-long optical bench. Each mirror module is complemented by a high-pressure xenon gas scintillation proportional counter. Attached to the payload is a camera that acquires star fields and then matches the acquired field to star maps to determine the pointing of the optical bench. Slight misalignments between the star camera, the optical bench, and the telescope elements attached to the optical bench may occur during flight due to mechanical shifts, thermal gradients, and gravitational effects. These misalignments can result in diminished imaging and reduced photon collection efficiency. To monitor these misalignments during flight, a supplementary Bench Alignment Monitoring System (BAMS) was added to the payload. BAMS hardware comprises two cameras mounted directly to the optical bench and rings of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) mounted onto the telescope components. The LEDs in these rings are mounted in a predefined, asymmetric pattern, and their positions are tracked using an optical/digital correlator. The BAMS analysis software is a digital adaption of an optical joint transform correlator. The aim is to enhance the observational proficiency of HEROES while providing insight into the magnitude of mechanically and thermally induced misalignments during flight. Results from a preflight test of the system are reported.

  19. Interactive educational technologies as a method of communicative competency development of optical and fiber optic communication systems specialists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveeva, Tatiana U.; Osadchiy, Igor S.; Husnutdinova, Marina N.

    2017-04-01

    The article examines the process of formation of communicative competencies of optic and fiber optic communication systems specialists; the role of communicative competencies is examined in the structure of professionally important skills, together with the contents of professional activity. The stages of empirical research into formation of communicative competencies have been presented, and the values of statistical reliability of data have been provided. The model of formation of communicative competency using interactive technology has been developed based on the research done, and main stages of model implementation and motives of formation of communicative competency have been highlighted. A scheme of "Communicative competence as a base of future success" training session has been suggested as one of the basic interactive technologies. Main components of education that are used during the stages of the training cycle have been examined. The statistical data on the effectiveness of use of interactive educational technologies has been presented; it allowed development of communicative competency of specialists in the field of optical and fiber optic communication system.

  20. Confocal optical system: a novel noninvasive sensor to study mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejos, Jose R; Kostov, Yordan; Marten, Mark R; Rao, Govind

    2005-01-01

    A novel confocal optical system to study mixing time in small-scale bioreactors is presented. The system is designed to monitor fluorescence upon tracer addition from a localized confocal volume of 0.21 mL within a glass vessel. The key elements of the fluorescence-based confocal system are a pinhole, a lens, an APD (Avalanche photodiode) detector, and light filters. The optical technique was validated by comparison with a pH-based technique. Finally, the optical sensor was tested and a real cultivation media (i.e., spent mammalian cell media) was used to measure mixing time in a 12.5-mL stirred transparent vessel. High accuracy, easy results interpretation, and low costs are the three most attractive characteristics of the sensor. Because of its noninvasive nature and versatility, the results suggest that the confocal system is a promising tool to perform mixing time studies in stirred vessels.

  1. Microstructured optical fibers for gas sensing systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Challener, William Albert; Choudhury, Niloy; Palit, Sabarni

    2017-10-17

    Microstructured optical fiber (MOF) includes a cladding extending a length between first and second ends. The cladding includes an inner porous microstructure that at least partially surrounds a hollow core. A perimeter contour of the hollow core has a non-uniform radial distance from a center axis of the cladding such that first segments of the cladding along the perimeter contour have a shorter radial distance from the center axis relative to second segments of the cladding along the perimeter contour. The cladding receives and propagates light energy through the hollow core, and the inner porous microstructure substantially confines the light energy within the hollow core. The cladding defines at least one port hole that extends radially from an exterior surface of the cladding to the hollow core. Each port hole penetrates the perimeter contour of the hollow core through one of the second segments of the cladding.

  2. Optimization of a particle optical system in a mutilprocessor environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Lei; Yin Hanchun; Wang Baoping; Tong Linsu

    2002-01-01

    In the design of a charged particle optical system, many geometrical and electric parameters have to be optimized to improve the performance characteristics. In every optimization cycle, the electromagnetic field and particle trajectories have to be calculated. Therefore, the optimization of a charged particle optical system is limited by the computer resources seriously. Apart from this, numerical errors of calculation may also influence the convergence of merit function. This article studies how to improve the optimization of charged particle optical systems. A new method is used to determine the gradient matrix. With this method, the accuracy of the Jacobian matrix can be improved. In this paper, the charged particle optical system is optimized with a Message Passing Interface (MPI). The electromagnetic field, particle trajectories and gradients of optimization variables are calculated on networks of workstations. Therefore, the speed of optimization has been increased largely. It is possible to design a complicated charged particle optical system with optimum quality on a MPI environment. Finally, an electron gun for a cathode ray tube has been optimized on a MPI environment to verify the method proposed in this paper

  3. Dome diagnostics system of optical parameters and characteristics of LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretyagin, Vladimir S.; Pavlenko, Nikita A.

    2017-09-01

    Scientific and technological progress of recent years in the production of the light emitting diodes (LEDs) has led to the expansion of areas of their application from the simplest systems to high precision lighting devices used in various fields of human activity. However, development and production (especially mass production) of LED lighting devices are impossible without a thorough analysis of its parameters and characteristics. There are many ways and devices for analysis the spatial, energy and colorimetric parameters of LEDs. The most methods are intended for definition only one parameter (for example, luminous flux) or one characteristic (for example, the angular distribution of energy or the spectral characteristics). Besides, devices used these methods are intended for measuring parameters in only one point or plane. This problem can be solved by using a dome diagnostics system of optical parameters and characteristics of LEDs, developed by specialists of the department OEDS chair of ITMO University in Russia. The paper presents the theoretical aspects of the analysis of LED's spatial (angular), energy and color parameters by using mentioned of diagnostics system. The article also presents the results of spatial), energy and color parameters measurements of some LEDs brands.

  4. The omni-directional image assisted optical surveillance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yung-Hsiang; Hwang, Chi-Hung; Wang, Wei-Chung; Lin, Chun-Fu

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a high resolution optical surveillance system which integrated an omni-directional imager as an event finder/ system trigger. The omni-directional optics, a fish-eye camera in this study, provides a wider field of view (FOV) which can monitor widely range continuously without scanning mechanism but offers sufficient information which includes sign of field event and direction and then drive high resolution surveillance camera for detail imaging. To archive an optical triggering surveillance system, the scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) is implemented to detect features both from images taken by omni-directional imager and the high resolution surveillance camera. Considering the FOV of high resolution surveillance system is narrow, to ensure the pointing of high resolution surveillance system, feature matching is also implemented in this system to identify the images obtained by high resolution surveillance system are identical to the existing omni-directional image obtained from fish-eye camera. This provides a robust and accurate solution to the problem of optical radar surveillance system localization in unknown environments. An experiment is performed on outdoor image sequences with demonstrating the efficiency of our algorithm.

  5. Optical bus of centralized relay protection and automation system of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article deals with the system of information collection and transfer from a centralized relay protection and automation system for medium voltage electrical units based on a passive optical bus. The issues of electromagnetic compatibility of technical devices are also considered, and the intensity of electromagnetic ...

  6. Performance Analysis of Optical Code Division Multiplex System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Sandeep; Bhatia, Kamaljit Singh

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents the Pseudo-Orthogonal Code generator for Optical Code Division Multiple Access (OCDMA) system which helps to reduce the need of bandwidth expansion and improve spectral efficiency. In this paper we investigate the performance of multi-user OCDMA system to achieve data rate more than 1 Tbit/s.

  7. Kansas Communication and Instruction System through Fiber-Optic Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansas State Dept. of Education, Topeka.

    Schools and communities will restructure as they move into the next decade. The success of this restructuring will be dependent upon access to and sharing of quality teaching and information through an expanded communication system. One of the major two-way interactive technologies is the fiber-optic cable: a delivery system that will provide…

  8. Optical Assessment of Caries Lesion Structure and Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Robert Chulsung

    New, more sophisticated diagnostic tools are needed for the detection and characterization of caries lesions in the early stages of development. It is not sufficient to simply detect caries lesions, methods are needed to assess the activity of the lesion and determine if chemical or surgical intervention is needed. Previous studies have demonstrated that polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) can be used to nondestructively image the subsurface lesion structure and measure the thickness of the highly mineralized surface zone. Other studies have demonstrated that the rate of dehydration can be correlated with the lesion activity and that the rate can be measured using optical methods. The main objective of this work was to test the hypothesis that optical methods can be used to assess lesion activity on tooth coronal and root surfaces. Simulated caries models were used to develop and validate an algorithm for detecting and measuring the highly mineralized surface layer using PS-OCT. This work confirmed that the algorithm was capable of estimating the thickness of the highly mineralized surface layer with high accuracy. Near-infrared (NIR) reflectance and thermal imaging methods were used to assess activity of caries lesions by measuring the state of lesion hydration. NIR reflectance imaging performed the best for artificial enamel and natural coronal caries lesion samples, particularly at wavelengths coincident with the water absorption band at 1460-nm. However, thermal imaging performed the best for artificial dentin and natural root caries lesion samples. These novel optical methods outperformed the conventional methods (ICDAS II) in accurately assessing lesion activity of natural coronal and root caries lesions. Infrared-based imaging methods have shown potential for in-vivo applications to objectively assess caries lesion activity in a single examination. It is likely that if future clinical trials are a success, this novel imaging

  9. Quantitative analysis of eyes and other optical systems in linear optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, William F; Evans, Tanya; van Gool, Radboud D

    2017-05-01

    To show that 14-dimensional spaces of augmented point P and angle Q characteristics, matrices obtained from the ray transference, are suitable for quantitative analysis although only the latter define an inner-product space and only on it can one define distances and angles. The paper examines the nature of the spaces and their relationships to other spaces including symmetric dioptric power space. The paper makes use of linear optics, a three-dimensional generalization of Gaussian optics. Symmetric 2 × 2 dioptric power matrices F define a three-dimensional inner-product space which provides a sound basis for quantitative analysis (calculation of changes, arithmetic means, etc.) of refractive errors and thin systems. For general systems the optical character is defined by the dimensionally-heterogeneous 4 × 4 symplectic matrix S, the transference, or if explicit allowance is made for heterocentricity, the 5 × 5 augmented symplectic matrix T. Ordinary quantitative analysis cannot be performed on them because matrices of neither of these types constitute vector spaces. Suitable transformations have been proposed but because the transforms are dimensionally heterogeneous the spaces are not naturally inner-product spaces. The paper obtains 14-dimensional spaces of augmented point P and angle Q characteristics. The 14-dimensional space defined by the augmented angle characteristics Q is dimensionally homogenous and an inner-product space. A 10-dimensional subspace of the space of augmented point characteristics P is also an inner-product space. The spaces are suitable for quantitative analysis of the optical character of eyes and many other systems. Distances and angles can be defined in the inner-product spaces. The optical systems may have multiple separated astigmatic and decentred refracting elements. © 2017 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2017 The College of Optometrists.

  10. Turnkey Optical Inspection Systems: Getting The Job Done Right

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figler, Burton D.

    1988-05-01

    A turnkey optical inspection system is one for which the vendor, not the customer, assumes the responsibility for ensuring that the system satisfies the customer's needs. This paper presents some of the pitfalls that are encountered in reaching the goal of mutual satisfaction of vendor and customer, based on experience with actual turnkey inspection and measurement systems that have been developed for industrial assembly operations. A "roadmap" is presented for achieving a turnkey system that is satisfactory to both vendor and customer.

  11. Optical diagnostics based on elastic scattering: An update of clinical demonstrations with the Optical Biopsy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigio, I.J.; Boyer, J.; Johnson, T.M.; Lacey, J.; Mourant, J.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Conn, R. [Lovelace Medical Center, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bohorfoush, A. [Wisconsin Medical School, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

    1994-10-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory has continued the development of the Optical Biopsy System (OBS) for noninvasive, real-time in situ diagnosis of tissue pathologies. Our clinical studies have expanded since the last Biomedical Optics Europe conference (Budapest, September 1993), and we report here on the latest results of clinical tests in gastrointestinal tract. The OBS invokes a unique approach to optical diagnosis of tissue pathologies based on the elastic scattering properties, over a wide range of wavelengths, of the tissue. The use of elastic scattering as the key to optical tissue diagnostics in the OBS is based on the fact that many tissue pathologies, including a majority of cancer forms, manifest significant architectural changes at the cellular and sub-cellular level. Since the cellular components that cause elastic scattering have dimensions typically on the order of visible to near-IR wavelengths, the elastic (Mie) scattering properties will be wavelength dependent. Thus, morphology and size changes can be expected to cause significant changes in an optical signature that is derived from the wavelength-dependence of elastic scattering. The OBS employs a small fiberoptic probe that is amenable to use with any endoscope or catheter, or to direct surface examination. The probe is designed to be used in optical contact with the tissue under examination and has separate illuminating and collecting fibers. Thus, the light that is collected and transmitted to the analyzing spectrometer must first scatter through a small volume of the tissue before entering the collection fiber(s). Consequently, the system is also sensitive to the optical absorption spectrum of the tissue, over an effective operating range of <300 to 950 nm, and such absorption adds valuable complexity to the scattering spectral signature.

  12. Unmanned aerial optical systems for spatial monitoring of Antarctic mosses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucieer, Arko; Turner, Darren; Veness, Tony; Malenovsky, Zbynek; Harwin, Stephen; Wallace, Luke; Kelcey, Josh; Robinson, Sharon

    2013-04-01

    we have implemented in a larger UAS a micro-Hyperspec imaging spectrometer (Headwall Inc., the USA) acquiring so-called hyperspectral image data of 162 or 324 wavebands between 399 and 998 nm. Continuous reflectance of narrow spectral bands (FWHM of about 4 nm) allows quantification of main moss bio-chemical spectral absorbents, i.e. foliar pigments or turf water content, but also estimation of the steady-state chlorophyll fluorescence, indicating their actual photosynthetic activity. Finally, a small FLIR thermal camera carried by UAS provides spatial temperature changes of the moss surface. Such a broad range of the unmanned aerial optical systems enables a regular and time efficient investigation of the spatio-temporal changes in polar moss ecosystems, indicating the influence of the progressing climate change in Antarctica.

  13. Fibre-optic communications

    CERN Document Server

    Lecoy, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    This book describes in a comprehensive manner the components and systems of fiber optic communications and networks. The first section explains the theory of multimode and single-mode fibers, then the technological features, including manufacturing, cabling, and connecting. The second section describes the various components (passive and active optical components, integrated optics, opto-electronic transmitters and receivers, and optical amplifiers) used in fiber optic systems. Finally, the optical transmission system design is explained, and applications to optical networks and fiber optic se

  14. Closed loop high precision position control system with optical scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Cheng-liang; Liao, Yuan; He, Zhong-wu; Luo, Zhong-xiang; Huang, Zhi-wei; Wan, Min; Hu, Xiao-yang; Fan, Guo-bin; Liang, Zheng

    2008-03-01

    With the developments of science of art, there are more and more demands on the high resolution control of position of object to be controlled, such as lathe, product line, elements in the optical resonant cavity, telescope, and so on. As one device with high resolution, the optical scale has more and more utility within the industrial and civil applications. With one optical scale and small DC servo motor, one closed loop high resolution position control system is constructed. This apparatus is used to control the position of the elements of optical system. The optical scale is attached on the object or reference guide way. The object position is sampled by a readhead of non-contact optical encoder. Control system processes the position information and control the position of object through the motion control of servo DC motor. The DC motor is controlled by one controller which is connected to an industrial computer. And the micro frictionless slide table does support the smooth motion of object to be controlled. The control algorithm of system is PID (Proportional-Integral-Differential) methods. The PID control methods have well ROBUST. The needed data to control are position, velocity and acceleration of the object. These three parameters correspond to the PID characters respectively. After the accomplishments of hardware, GUI (Graphical user interface), that is, the software of control system is also programmed. The whole system is assembled by specialized worker. Through calibration experiments, the coefficients of PID are obtained respectively. And then the precision of position control of the system is about 0.1μm.

  15. Optical filtering in directly modulated/detected OOFDM systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, C; Ortega, B; Wei, J L; Capmany, J

    2013-12-16

    This work presents a theoretical investigation on the performance of directly modulated/detected (DM/DD) optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexed (OOFDM) systems subject to optical filtering. The impact of both linear and nonlinear distortion effects are taken into account to calculate the effective signal-to-noise ratio of each subcarrier. These results are then employed to optimize the design parameters of two simple optical filtering structures: a Mach Zehnder interferometer and a uniform fiber Bragg grating, leading to a significant optical power budget improvement given by 3.3 and 3dB, respectively. These can be further increased to 5.5 and 4.2dB respectively when balanced detection configurations are employed. We find as well that this improvement is highly dependent on the clipping ratio.

  16. Chinese National Optical Education Small Private Online Course system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, XiaoJie; Lin, YuanFang; Liu, Xu; Liu, XiangDong; Cen, ZhaoFeng; Li, XiaoTong; Zheng, XiaoDong; Wang, XiaoPing

    2017-08-01

    In order to realize the sharing of high quality course resources and promote the deep integration of `Internet+' higher education and talent training, a new on-line to off-line specialized courses teaching mode was explored in Chinese colleges and universities, which emphasized different teaching places, being organized asynchronously and localized. The latest progress of the Chinese National Optical Education Small Private On-line Course (CNOESPOC) system set up by Zhejiang University and other colleges and universities having disciplines in the field of optics and photonics under the guidance of the Chinese National Steering Committee of Optics and Photonics (CNSCOP) was introduced in this paper. The On-line to Off-line (O2O) optical education teaching resource sharing practice offers a new good example for higher education in China under the background of Internet +.

  17. Fiber laser master oscillators for optical synchronization systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, A.

    2008-04-01

    New X-ray free electron lasers (e.g. the European XFEL) require a new generation of synchronization system to achieve a stability of the FEL pulse, such that pump-probe experiments can fully utilize the ultra-short pulse duration (50 fs). An optical synchronization system has been developed based on the distribution of sub-ps optical pulses in length-stabilized fiber links. The synchronization information is contained in the precise repetition frequency of the optical pulses. In this thesis, the design and characterization of the laser serving as laser master oscillator is presented. An erbium-doped mode-locked fiber laser was chosen. Amplitude and phase noise were measured and record-low values of 0.03 % and 10 fs for the frequency range of 1 kHz to the Nyquist frequency were obtained. Furthermore, an initial proof-of-principle experiment for the optical synchronization system was performed in an accelerator environment. In this experiment, the fiber laser wase phase-locked to a microwave reference oscillator and a 500 meter long fiber link was stabilized to 12 fs rms over a range of 0.1 Hz to 20 kHz. RF signals were obtained from a photodetector without significant degradation at the end of the link. Furthermore, the laser master oscillator for FLASH was designed and is presently in fabrication and the initial infrastructure for the optical synchronization system was setup. (orig.)

  18. Fiber laser master oscillators for optical synchronization systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, A.

    2008-04-15

    New X-ray free electron lasers (e.g. the European XFEL) require a new generation of synchronization system to achieve a stability of the FEL pulse, such that pump-probe experiments can fully utilize the ultra-short pulse duration (50 fs). An optical synchronization system has been developed based on the distribution of sub-ps optical pulses in length-stabilized fiber links. The synchronization information is contained in the precise repetition frequency of the optical pulses. In this thesis, the design and characterization of the laser serving as laser master oscillator is presented. An erbium-doped mode-locked fiber laser was chosen. Amplitude and phase noise were measured and record-low values of 0.03 % and 10 fs for the frequency range of 1 kHz to the Nyquist frequency were obtained. Furthermore, an initial proof-of-principle experiment for the optical synchronization system was performed in an accelerator environment. In this experiment, the fiber laser wase phase-locked to a microwave reference oscillator and a 500 meter long fiber link was stabilized to 12 fs rms over a range of 0.1 Hz to 20 kHz. RF signals were obtained from a photodetector without significant degradation at the end of the link. Furthermore, the laser master oscillator for FLASH was designed and is presently in fabrication and the initial infrastructure for the optical synchronization system was setup. (orig.)

  19. Development of Nanostructured Antireflection Coatings for Infrared and Electro-Optical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal G. Pethuraja

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Electro-optic infrared technologies and systems operating from ultraviolet (UV to long-wave infrared (LWIR spectra are being developed for a variety of defense and commercial systems applications. Loss of a significant portion of the incident signal due to reflection limits the performance of electro-optic infrared (IR sensing systems. A critical technology being developed to overcome this limitation and enhance the performance of sensing systems is advanced antireflection (AR coatings. Magnolia is actively involved in the development and advancement of nanostructured AR coatings for a wide variety of defense and commercial applications. Ultrahigh AR performance has been demonstrated for UV to LWIR spectral bands on various substrates. The AR coatings enhance the optical transmission through optical components and devices by significantly minimizing reflection losses, a substantial improvement over conventional thin-film AR coating technologies. Nanostructured AR coatings have been fabricated using a nanomanufacturable self-assembly process on substrates that are transparent for a given spectrum of interest ranging from UV to LWIR. The nanostructured multilayer structures have been designed, developed and optimized for various optoelectronic applications. The optical properties of optical components and sensor substrates coated with AR structures have been measured and the process parameters fine-tuned to achieve a predicted high level of performance. In this paper, we review our latest work on high quality nanostructure-based AR coatings, including recent efforts on the development of nanostructured AR coatings on IR substrates.

  20. Camera, handlens, and microscope optical system for imaging and coupled optical spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungas, Greg S. (Inventor); Boynton, John (Inventor); Sepulveda, Cesar A. (Inventor); Nunes de Sepulveda, legal representative, Alicia (Inventor); Gursel, Yekta (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An optical system comprising two lens cells, each lens cell comprising multiple lens elements, to provide imaging over a very wide image distance and within a wide range of magnification by changing the distance between the two lens cells. An embodiment also provides scannable laser spectroscopic measurements within the field-of-view of the instrument.

  1. RFID-over-Fiber system for agricultural exploitations - Wireless track and trace with range extension using optical fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter; Suhr, Lau Frejstrup; Cavalcante, Lucas Costa Pereira

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes and demonstrates an RFIDover-Fiber wireless track and trace system using active RFID tags and operating over distances up to 30 km of optical fiber and 35 meters of wireless readability......This paper proposes and demonstrates an RFIDover-Fiber wireless track and trace system using active RFID tags and operating over distances up to 30 km of optical fiber and 35 meters of wireless readability...

  2. Rapid Process to Generate Beam Envelopes for Optical System Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Joseph; Seals, Lenward

    2012-01-01

    The task of evaluating obstructions in the optical throughput of an optical system requires the use of two disciplines, and hence, two models: optical models for the details of optical propagation, and mechanical models for determining the actual structure that exists in the optical system. Previous analysis methods for creating beam envelopes (or cones of light) for use in this obstruction analysis were found to be cumbersome to calculate and take significant time and resources to complete. A new process was developed that takes less time to complete beam envelope analysis, is more accurate and less dependent upon manual node tracking to create the beam envelopes, and eases the burden on the mechanical CAD (computer-aided design) designers to form the beam solids. This algorithm allows rapid generation of beam envelopes for optical system obstruction analysis. Ray trace information is taken from optical design software and used to generate CAD objects that represent the boundary of the beam envelopes for detailed analysis in mechanical CAD software. Matlab is used to call ray trace data from the optical model for all fields and entrance pupil points of interest. These are chosen to be the edge of each space, so that these rays produce the bounding volume for the beam. The x and y global coordinate data is collected on the surface planes of interest, typically an image of the field and entrance pupil internal of the optical system. This x and y coordinate data is then evaluated using a convex hull algorithm, which removes any internal points, which are unnecessary to produce the bounding volume of interest. At this point, tolerances can be applied to expand the size of either the field or aperture, depending on the allocations. Once this minimum set of coordinates on the pupil and field is obtained, a new set of rays is generated between the field plane and aperture plane (or vice-versa). These rays are then evaluated at planes between the aperture and field, at a

  3. Assembling optically active and nonactive metamaterials with chiral units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Xiong

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Metamaterials constructed with chiral units can be either optically active or nonactive depending on the spatial configuration of the building blocks. For a class of chiral units, their effective induced electric and magnetic dipoles, which originate from the induced surface electric current upon illumination of incident light, can be collinear at the resonant frequency. This feature provides significant advantage in designing metamaterials. In this paper we concentrate on several examples. In one scenario, chiral units with opposite chiralities are used to construct the optically nonactive metamaterial structure. It turns out that with linearly polarized incident light, the pure electric or magnetic resonance (and accordingly negative permittivity or negative permeability can be selectively realized by tuning the polarization of incident light for 90°. Alternatively, units with the same chirality can be assembled as a chiral metamaterial by taking the advantage of the collinear induced electric and magnetic dipoles. It follows that for the circularly polarized incident light, negative refractive index can be realized. These examples demonstrate the unique approach to achieve certain optical properties by assembling chiral building blocks, which could be enlightening in designing metamaterials.

  4. Optical design of high power excimer laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yongsheng; Zhao Jun; Ma Lianying; Yi Aiping; Liu Jingru

    2011-01-01

    Image relay and angular multiplexing,which should be considered together in the design of high power excimer laser system, is reviewed. It's important to select proper illumination setup and laser beam shaping techniques. Given the complex and special angular multiplexing scheme in high power excimer laser systems, some detailed conceptual layout schemes are given in the paper. After a brief description of lens array and reflective telescope objective, which combine the incoming beams to a common focus, a new schematic layout which uses the final targeting optics and one optical delay line array, to realize multiplexing and de-multiplexing simultaneously is first proposed in the paper. (authors)

  5. Optical fiber sensors: Systems and applications. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culshaw, Brian; Dakin, John

    State-of-the-art fiber-optic (FO) sensors and their applications are described in chapters contributed by leading experts. Consideration is given to interferometers, FO gyros, intensity- and wavelength-based sensors and optical actuators, Si in FO sensors, point-sensor multiplexing principles, and distributed FO sensor systems. Also examined are chemical, biochemical, and medical sensors; physical and chemical sensors for process control; FO-sensor applications in the marine and aerospace industries; FO-sensor monitoring systems for security and safety, structural integrity, NDE, and the electric-power industry; and the market situation for FO-sensor technology. Diagrams, drawings, graphs, and photographs are provided.

  6. Optical performance monitoring in high-speed optical fiber communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Changyuan; Yang, Jing; Hu, Junhao; Zhang, Banghong

    2011-11-01

    Optical performance monitoring (OPM) becomes an attractive topic as the rapid growth of data rate in optical communication networks. It provides improved operation of the high capacity optical transmission systems. Among the various impairments, chromatic dispersion (CD) is one of major factors limiting the transmission distance in high-speed communication systems. Polarization-mode dispersion (PMD) also becomes a degrading effect in the system with data rate larger than 40 Gbit/s. In this paper, we summarize several CD and PMD monitoring methods based on RF spectrum analysis and delay-tap sampling. By using a narrow band fiber Bragg grating (FBG) notch filter, centered at 10 GHz away from the optical carrier, 10-GHz RF power can be used as a CD-insensitive PMD monitoring signal. By taking the 10-GHz RF power ratio of non-filtered and filtered signal, PMD-insensitive CD monitoring can be achieved. If the FBG notch filter is placed at optical carrier, the RF clock power ratio between non-filtered and filtered signal is also a PMDinsensitive CD monitoring parameter, which has larger RF power dynamic range and better measurement resolution. Both simulation and experiment results show that the proposed methods are efficient on measuring CD and PMD values in 57-Gbit/s D8PSK systems. Delay-tap sampling is another efficient method of measuring residual CD. Amplitude ratio of asynchronous delay-tap sampling plot decreases with CD monotonously, and the amplitude ratio can be obtained by using low bandwidth balanced receiver. The simulated results show that our method is efficient on residual CD measurement in 50-Gbit/s 50% RZ DQPSK systems with a 12-GHz balanced receiver. Since no modification on the transmitter or receiver is required, the proposed scheme is simple and cost effective.

  7. The Multiaperture Optical (mao) System Based on the Apposition Principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Chao

    Automation freed mankind from repeated boring labor and/or labor requiring an instantaneous response. When applied as robotics it could even free mankind from dangerous labor such as handling radioactive material. For a robot or an automated system a vision device has proven to be an important element. Almost all artificial vision systems are similar in design to the human eye with its single large lens system. In contrast, the compound eye of an insect is much smaller than the human eye. Therefore, it is proposed to imitate the insect eye in order to develop a small viewing device useful in robotic design. The basic element of the multiaperture optical system described here is a non-imaging light horn. The optical studies on the non-imaging light horn (a simulated insect eye eyelet) have been done and show that this device may produce images when several horns are used together in an array. The study also shows that with several non -imaging devices the position of an object point light source can be determined very easily. One possible realization of multiaperture optical system design based on the apposition principle is proposed and discussed. The multiaperture optical system proposed is a small, low cost device with digital image processing.

  8. Optical design of digital control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tou, Julius T

    1963-01-01

    In this book, we study theoretical and practical aspects of computing methods for mathematical modelling of nonlinear systems. A number of computing techniques are considered, such as methods of operator approximation with any given accuracy; operator interpolation techniques including a non-Lagrange interpolation; methods of system representation subject to constraints associated with concepts of causality, memory and stationarity; methods of system representation with an accuracy that is the best within a given class of models; methods of covariance matrix estimation;methods for low-rank mat

  9. Micro optical sensor systems for sunsensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leijtens, Johan; de Boom, Kees

    2017-11-01

    Optimum application of micro system technologies allows building small sensor systems that will alter procurement strategies for spacecraft manufacturers. One example is the decreased size and cost for state of the art sunsensors. Integrated sensor systems are being designed which, through use of microsystem technology, are an order of magnitutde smaller than most current sunsensors and which hold due to the large reproducibility through batch manufacturing the promise of drastic price reduction. If the Commercial Of The Shelf (COTS) approach is adopted by satellite manufacturers, this will drastically decrease mass and cost budgets associated with sunsensing applications.

  10. Dispersion relations and sum rules for natural optical activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomaz, M.T.; Nussenzveig, H.M.

    1981-06-01

    Dispersion relations and sum rules are derived for the complex rotatory power of an arbitrary linear (nonmagnetic) isotropic medium showing natural optical activity. Both previously known dispersion relations and sum rules as well as new ones are obtained. It is shown that the Rosenfeld-Condon dispersion formula is inconsistent with the expected asymptotic behavior at high frequencies. A new dispersion formula based on quantum eletro-dynamics removes this inconsistency; however, it still requires modification in the low-frequency limit. (Author) [pt

  11. Transition polarizability model of induced resonance Raman optical activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yamamoto, S.; Bouř, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 25 (2013), s. 2152-2158 ISSN 0192-8651 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP208/11/0105; GA ČR GA13-03978S; GA MŠk(CZ) LH11033 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) M200551205 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : induced resonance Raman optical activity * europium complexes * density functional computations * light scattering Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.601, year: 2013

  12. Observation of Paramagnetic Raman Optical Activity of Nitrogen Dioxide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šebestík, Jaroslav; Bouř, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 35 (2014), s. 9236-9239 ISSN 1433-7851 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP208/11/0105; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-00431S; GA MŠk(CZ) LH11033 Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) M200550902 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : angular momentum theory * nitrogen dioxide * paramagnetic gases * Raman optical activity * spectral simulations Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 11.261, year: 2014

  13. Optical neural network system for pose determination of spinning satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Andrew; Casasent, David

    1990-01-01

    An optical neural network architecture and algorithm based on a Hopfield optimization network are presented for multitarget tracking. This tracker utilizes a neuron for every possible target track, and a quadratic energy function of neural activities which is minimized using gradient descent neural evolution. The neural net tracker is demonstrated as part of a system for determining position and orientation (pose) of spinning satellites with respect to a robotic spacecraft. The input to the system is time sequence video from a single camera. Novelty detection and filtering are utilized to locate and segment novel regions from the input images. The neural net multitarget tracker determines the correspondences (or tracks) of the novel regions as a function of time, and hence the paths of object (satellite) parts. The path traced out by a given part or region is approximately elliptical in image space, and the position, shape and orientation of the ellipse are functions of the satellite geometry and its pose. Having a geometric model of the satellite, and the elliptical path of a part in image space, the three-dimensional pose of the satellite is determined. Digital simulation results using this algorithm are presented for various satellite poses and lighting conditions.

  14. Automated optical sensing system for biochemical assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oroszlan, Peter; Duveneck, Gert L.; Ehrat, Markus; Widmer, H. M.

    1994-03-01

    In this paper, we present a new system called FOBIA that was developed and optimized with respect to automated operation of repetitive assay cycles with regenerable bioaffinity sensors. The reliability and precision of the new system is demonstrated by an application in a competitive assay for the detection of the triazine herbicide Atrazine. Using one sensor in more than 300 repetitive cycles, a signal precision better than 5% was achieved.

  15. Optical character recognition systems for different languages with soft computing

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhuri, Arindam; Badelia, Pratixa; K Ghosh, Soumya

    2017-01-01

    The book offers a comprehensive survey of soft-computing models for optical character recognition systems. The various techniques, including fuzzy and rough sets, artificial neural networks and genetic algorithms, are tested using real texts written in different languages, such as English, French, German, Latin, Hindi and Gujrati, which have been extracted by publicly available datasets. The simulation studies, which are reported in details here, show that soft-computing based modeling of OCR systems performs consistently better than traditional models. Mainly intended as state-of-the-art survey for postgraduates and researchers in pattern recognition, optical character recognition and soft computing, this book will be useful for professionals in computer vision and image processing alike, dealing with different issues related to optical character recognition.

  16. Switched diversity approach for multireceiving optical wireless systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Hassan; Refai, Hazem H; Lopresti, Peter G

    2011-10-10

    A number of existing spatial diversity schemes have been shown to improve the performance of optical wireless communication systems in diversity-rich environments. Among all, switched diversity has low complexity and is simple to implement. In this paper, an innovative spatial diversity scheme based on switched diversity is proposed. The scheme, namely switch-to-dominant combining, contributes to a higher bit error rate (BER) performance when compared to conventional switched diversity schemes, including switch-and-stay and switch-and-examine diversity. The optical multireceiver wireless system operates in a spatially correlated and lognormally distributed fading channel. Analytical analyses are conducted to demonstrate BER and processing load performance offered by the new scheme and compare them to available schemes, i.e., conventional switched combining and selection combining. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  17. Characterization of optical systems for the ALPS II experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spector, Aaron D. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Experimentalphsik; Pold, Jan H.; Lindner, Axel [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Baehre, Robin; Willke, Benno [Max-Planck-Institute for Gravitational Physics, Hannover (Germany); Hannover Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Gravitationsphysik

    2016-09-15

    ALPS II is a light shining through a wall style experiment that will use the principle of resonant enhancement to boost the conversion and reconversion probabilities of photons to relativistic WISPs. This will require the use of long baseline low-loss optical cavities. Very high power build up factors in the cavities must be achieved in order to reach the design sensitivity of ALPS II. This necessitates a number of different sophisticated optical and control systems to maintain the resonance and ensure maximal coupling between the laser and the cavity. In this paper we report on the results of the characterization of these optical systems with a 20m cavity and discuss the results in the context of ALPS II.

  18. Present status of metrology of electro-optical surveillance systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrzanowski, K.

    2017-10-01

    There has been a significant progress in equipment for testing electro-optical surveillance systems over the last decade. Modern test systems are increasingly computerized, employ advanced image processing and offer software support in measurement process. However, one great challenge, in form of relative low accuracy, still remains not solved. It is quite common that different test stations, when testing the same device, produce different results. It can even happen that two testing teams, while working on the same test station, with the same tested device, produce different results. Rapid growth of electro-optical technology, poor standardization, limited metrology infrastructure, subjective nature of some measurements, fundamental limitations from laws of physics, tendering rules and advances in artificial intelligence are major factors responsible for such situation. Regardless, next decade should bring significant improvements, since improvement in measurement accuracy is needed to sustain fast growth of electro-optical surveillance technology.

  19. Detection system for optical coherence tomography: Czerny-Turner spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamińska, Aleksandra

    2017-08-01

    Research methods based on spectral analysis have powerful impact on development in many field of science. Signal spectrum can be a source of useful and important data. It enables to obtain information about physical and chemical properties of tested materials. This paper has been devoted to describe optical design for high resolution spectrometer, which is significant element of optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems. Designed spectrometer is working in visible range (450-830 nm). Czerny-Turner configuration enables to correcting astigmatism and coma aberration over full bandwidth. Moreover, spectrometer has uncomplicated construction. Merely, two mirrors and diffraction gratings allows to design low - cost spectrometer with satisfying optical properties. Spectrum detection has been realized using CMOS line scan sensors with 6144 pixels. It provides high speed and resolution of the system.

  20. Characterization of optical systems for the ALPS II experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spector, Aaron D.; Baehre, Robin; Willke, Benno; Hannover Univ.

    2016-09-01

    ALPS II is a light shining through a wall style experiment that will use the principle of resonant enhancement to boost the conversion and reconversion probabilities of photons to relativistic WISPs. This will require the use of long baseline low-loss optical cavities. Very high power build up factors in the cavities must be achieved in order to reach the design sensitivity of ALPS II. This necessitates a number of different sophisticated optical and control systems to maintain the resonance and ensure maximal coupling between the laser and the cavity. In this paper we report on the results of the characterization of these optical systems with a 20m cavity and discuss the results in the context of ALPS II.

  1. Active Beam Shaping System and Method Using Sequential Deformable Mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Colin A. (Inventor); Pueyo, Laurent A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An active optical beam shaping system includes a first deformable mirror arranged to at least partially intercept an entrance beam of light and to provide a first reflected beam of light, a second deformable mirror arranged to at least partially intercept the first reflected beam of light from the first deformable mirror and to provide a second reflected beam of light, and a signal processing and control system configured to communicate with the first and second deformable mirrors. The first deformable mirror, the second deformable mirror and the signal processing and control system together provide a large amplitude light modulation range to provide an actively shaped optical beam.

  2. Optical activity studies of hydrogen-deuterium exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, L.J.

    1990-01-01

    The potassium complexes of racemic and optically active forms of 1,2-propanediaminetriacetatoacetic acid nickel-ate (II) were prepared stoichiometrically by two different experimental procedures. The complexes were characterized by UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, and thermal analysis. Circular dichroism and optical rotatory dispersion values were obtained on the optically active complexes. TGA and IR spectroscopy techniques suggest that Δ-K [Ni(R (-)HPDTA)] H 2 O (1)and Λ-K [Ni(S (+)HPDTA)] H 2 O (2) have different configurations in solution than in the solid state. Solid complexes of (1) are theorized to have the nickel (II) ion bound pentadentate to the PDTA ligand and unidentate to a water molecule. The free carboxyl arm of the PDTA ligand is protonated. Dissolution of the complexes results in rotational changes which occur with time. The rate of rotational change has been kinetically measured, which results in three pH dependent rate constants. An isotope effect for such reactions in H 2 O and D 2 O has been measured. The base-catalyzed hydrogen-deuterium exchange of the out-of-plane glycinate rings of (1) and (2) complexes has been determined for three of the four glycinate protons by ORD. The rate of hydrogen-deuterium exchange is extremely slow and consecutive proton exchanges are not independent of one another over sufficiently long periods, such that measurement of α ∞ are calculated by three differing mathematical models and applied to the calculation of the hydrogen-deuterium rate constants

  3. DWDM Fiber-Wireless Access System with Centralized Optical Frequency Comb-based RF Carrier Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pang, Xiaodan; Beltrán, Marta; Sánchez, José

    2013-01-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate an optical wireless DWDM system at 60 GHz with optical incoherent heterodyne up-conversion using an optical frequency comb. Multiple users with wireline and wireless services are simultaneously supported.......We propose and experimentally demonstrate an optical wireless DWDM system at 60 GHz with optical incoherent heterodyne up-conversion using an optical frequency comb. Multiple users with wireline and wireless services are simultaneously supported....

  4. Space Active Optics: toward optimized correcting mirrors for future large spaceborne observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laslandes, Marie; Hugot, Emmanuel; Ferrari, Marc; Lemaitre, Gérard; Liotard, Arnaud

    2011-10-01

    Wave-front correction in optical instruments is often needed, either to compensate Optical Path Differences, off-axis aberrations or mirrors deformations. Active optics techniques are developed to allow efficient corrections with deformable mirrors. In this paper, we will present the conception of particular deformation systems which could be used in space telescopes and instruments in order to improve their performances while allowing relaxing specifications on the global system stability. A first section will be dedicated to the design and performance analysis of an active mirror specifically designed to compensate for aberrations that might appear in future 3m-class space telescopes, due to lightweight primary mirrors, thermal variations or weightless conditions. A second section will be dedicated to a brand new design of active mirror, able to compensate for given combinations of aberrations with a single actuator. If the aberrations to be corrected in an instrument and their evolutions are known in advance, an optimal system geometry can be determined thanks to the elasticity theory and Finite Element Analysis.

  5. An All-Fiber-Optic Combined System of Noncontact Photoacoustic Tomography and Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Jonghyun; Shin, Jun Geun; Park, Soongho; Rim, Sunghwan; Lee, Byeong Ha

    2016-05-20

    We propose an all-fiber-based dual-modal imaging system that combines noncontact photoacoustic tomography (PAT) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). The PAT remotely measures photoacoustic (PA) signals with a 1550-nm laser on the surface of a sample by utilizing a fiber interferometer as an ultrasound detector. The fiber-based OCT, employing a swept-source laser centered at 1310 nm, shares the sample arm of the PAT system. The fiber-optic probe for the combined system was homemade with a lensed single-mode fiber (SMF) and a large-core multimode fiber (MMF). The compact and robust common probe is capable of obtaining both the PA and the OCT signals at the same position without any physical contact. Additionally, the MMF of the probe delivers the short pulses of a Nd:YAG laser to efficiently excite the PA signals. We experimentally demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed dual-modal system with a phantom made of a fishing line and a black polyethylene terephthalate fiber in a tissue mimicking solution. The all-fiber-optic system, capable of providing complementary information about absorption and scattering, has a promising potential in minimally invasive and endoscopic imaging.

  6. Active Learning Strategies for Introductory Light and Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokoloff, David R.

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that traditional approaches are ineffective in teaching physics concepts, including light and optics concepts. A major focus of the work of the Activity Based Physics Group has been on the development of active learning curricula like RealTime Physics (RTP) labs and Interactive Lecture Demonstrations (ILDs). Among the characteristics of these curricula are: (1) use of a learning cycle in which students are challenged to compare predictions—discussed with their peers in small groups—to observations of the physical world, (2) use of guided hands-on work to construct basic concepts from observations, and (3) use of computer-based tools. It has been possible to change the lecture and laboratory learning environments at a large number of universities, colleges, and high schools without changing the structure of the introductory course. For example, in the United States, nearly 200 physics departments have adopted RTP, and many others use pre-publication, open-source versions or have adopted the RTP approach to develop their own labs. Examples from RTP and ILDs (including optics magic tricks) are described in this paper.

  7. Thermal management evaluation of the complex electro-optical system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nijemčević Srećko S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermal management of a complex electro-optical system aimed for outdoor application is challenging task due to the requirement of having an air-sealed enclosure, harsh working environment, and an additional thermal load generated by sunlight. It is essential to consider the effect of heating loads in the system components, as well as the internal temperature distribution, that can have influence on the system life expectancy, operational readiness and parameters, and possibility for catastrophic failure. The main objective of this paper is to analyze internal temperature distribution and evaluate its influence on system component operation capability. The electro-optical system simplified model was defined and related thermal balance simulation model based on Solid Works thermal analysis module was set and applied for temperature distribution calculation. Various outdoor environment scenarios were compared to evaluate system temperature distribution and evaluate its influence on system operation, reliability, and life time in application environment. This work was done during the design process as a part of the electro-optical system optimization. The results show that temperature distribution will not be cause for catastrophic failure and malfunction operation during operation in the expected environment.

  8. Optical diagnostic technology of fusion laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanabe, Tadashi; Nakatsuka, Masahiro

    1986-01-01

    As the lasers for nuclear fusion research, the construction of high power glass lasers has been rapidly carried out since 1970s. Around 1985, the glass laser of 100 kJ and 100 TW appeared, thus the remarkable technical development has been made. In the institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, a multi-beam system Gekko No.2 was installed in 1975 for the first time in Japan, and through a phosphate glass system Gekko No.4 as the first in the world, and Gekko M2 as the prototype of Gekko No.12, in 1983, Gekko No.12 of 20 kJ was completed. These laser systems are still in operation now. From November, 1983, high power amplifying test and target irradiation test were begun by using the Gekko No.12. In December, 1983, the largest output in the world of 57 TW was attained, and in the target implosion test, 4 x 10 10 neutrons were generated, which was the largest in the world at that time. Thereafter, the automatic operation of the laser, laser wave form correction, the adoption of high endurance, no reflection elements and the second higher harmonic wave conversion using a single crystal KDP of 38 cm diameter, the largest in the world, were carried out, and those enabled the supply of 0.53 μm light at the maximum conversion efficiency of 86 %. The constitution of measuring instruments for Gekko No.12, the measuring techniques at the oscillator and the laser system are described. (Kako, J.)

  9. Optical Elastography of Systemic Sclerosis Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    have been tested in SSc, with varying success. Here, we advance a novel contact-independent noninvasive technique capable of micrometer/nanometer...1, the animal model of SSc has been successfully re-established. In addition, animals are being scheduled for the proposed treatment and monitoring...study. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Systemic Sclerosis, Imaging, Skin, Diagnostics, Animal Models, OCT, OCE 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF

  10. Polarization sensitive optical frequency domain imaging system for endobronchial imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, J.; Feroldi, Fabio; de Lange, J.; Daniels, J.M.A.; Grünberg, K.; de Boer, J.F.

    2015-01-01

    A polarization sensitive endoscopic optical frequency domain imaging (PS-OFDI) system with a motorized distal scanning catheter is demonstrated. It employs a passive polarization delay unit to multiplex two orthogonal probing polarization states in depth, and a polarization diverse detection unit to

  11. An Evaluation of PC-Based Optical Character Recognition Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, E. M.; Uslan, M. M.

    1991-01-01

    The review examines six personal computer-based optical character recognition (OCR) systems designed for use by blind and visually impaired people. Considered are OCR components and terms, documentation, scanning and reading, command structure, conversion, unique features, accuracy of recognition, scanning time, speed, and cost. (DB)

  12. Underwater Wireless Optical Communication System Using Blue LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Aobo; Tong, Zheng; Song, Yuhang; Kong, Meiwei; Xu, Jing

    2016-02-01

    We demonstrate a self-designed underwater wireless optical communication system using blue LEDs. The performance of the transmitter and receiver was experimentally investigated. Four different square wave signals (10 KHz, 100 KHz, 500 KHz and 1 MHz) were successfully transmitted via a short water channel at the first phase.

  13. A beamforming system based on the acousto-optic effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torras Rosell, Antoni; Barrera Figueroa, Salvador; Jacobsen, Finn

    2012-01-01

    Beamforming techniques are usually based on microphone arrays. The present work uses a beam of light as a sensor element, and describes a beamforming system that locates sound sources based on the acousto-optic effect, this is, the interaction between sound and light. The use of light as a sensin...

  14. Temporal Probabilistic Constellation Shaping for WDM Optical Communication Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yankov, Metodi Plamenov; Forchhammer, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Finite state machine sources transmitting QPSK are studied as input to WDM optical fiber systems with ideal distributed Raman amplification. The probabilities of successive constellation symbols are shaped for nonlinear transmission and gains of around 500km (5-10%) are demonstrated...

  15. Wavelet-Based Processing for Fiber Optic Sensing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamory, Philip J. (Inventor); Parker, Allen R., Jr. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention is an improved method of processing conglomerate data. The method employs a Triband Wavelet Transform that decomposes and decimates the conglomerate signal to obtain a final result. The invention may be employed to improve performance of Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometry systems.

  16. The Fiber Optic System for the Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Melanie N.; Thomes, Joe; Onuma, Eleanya; Switzer, Robert; Chuska, Richard; Blair, Diana; Frese, Erich; Matyseck, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) Instrument has been in integration and testing over the past 18 months in preparation for the Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite - 2 (ICESat-2) Mission, scheduled to launch in 2017. ICESat-2 is the follow on to ICESat which launched in 2003 and operated until 2009. ATLAS will measure the elevation of ice sheets, glaciers and sea ice or the "cryosphere" (as well as terrain) to provide data for assessing the earth's global climate changes. Where ICESat's instrument, the Geo-Science Laser Altimeter (GLAS) used a single beam measured with a 70 m spot on the ground and a distance between spots of 170 m, ATLAS will measure a spot size of 10 m with a spacing of 70 cm using six beams to measure terrain height changes as small as 4 mm. The ATLAS pulsed transmission system consists of two lasers operating at 532 nm with transmitter optics for beam steering, a diffractive optical element that splits the signal into 6 separate beams, receivers for start pulse detection and a wavelength tracking system. The optical receiver telescope system consists of optics that focus all six beams into optical fibers that feed a filter system that transmits the signal via fiber assemblies to the detectors. Also included on the instrument is a system that calibrates the alignment of the transmitted pulses to the receiver optics for precise signal capture. The larger electro optical subsystems for transmission, calibration, and signal receive, stay aligned and transmitting sufficiently due to the optical fiber system that links them together. The robust design of the fiber optic system, consisting of a variety of multi fiber arrays and simplex assemblies with multiple fiber core sizes and types, will enable the system to maintain consistent critical alignments for the entire life of the mission. Some of the development approaches used to meet the challenging optical system requirements for ATLAS are discussed here.

  17. The fiber optic system for the Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Melanie N; Thomes, Joe; Onuma, Eleanya; Switzer, Robert; Chuska, Richard; Blair, Diana; Frese, Erich; Matyseck, Marc

    2016-08-28

    The Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) Instrument has been in integration and testing over the past 18 months in preparation for the Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite - 2 (ICESat-2) Mission, scheduled to launch in 2017. ICESat-2 is the follow on to ICESat which launched in 2003 and operated until 2009. ATLAS will measure the elevation of ice sheets, glaciers and sea ice or the "cryosphere" (as well as terrain) to provide data for assessing the earth's global climate changes. Where ICESat's instrument, the Geo-Science Laser Altimeter (GLAS) used a single beam measured with a 70 m spot on the ground and a distance between spots of 170 m, ATLAS will measure a spot size of 10 m with a spacing of 70 cm using six beams to measure terrain height changes as small as 4 mm.[1] The ATLAS pulsed transmission system consists of two lasers operating at 532 nm with transmitter optics for beam steering, a diffractive optical element that splits the signal into 6 separate beams, receivers for start pulse detection and a wavelength tracking system. The optical receiver telescope system consists of optics that focus all six beams into optical fibers that feed a filter system that transmits the signal via fiber assemblies to the detectors. Also included on the instrument is a system that calibrates the alignment of the transmitted pulses to the receiver optics for precise signal capture. The larger electro optical subsystems for transmission, calibration, and signal receive, stay aligned and transmitting sufficiently due to the optical fiber system that links them together. The robust design of the fiber optic system, consisting of a variety of multi fiber arrays and simplex assemblies with multiple fiber core sizes and types, will enable the system to maintain consistent critical alignments for the entire life of the mission. Some of the development approaches used to meet the challenging optical system requirements for ATLAS are discussed here.

  18. An adaptive optics imaging system designed for clinical use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Yang, Qiang; Saito, Kenichi; Nozato, Koji; Williams, David R.; Rossi, Ethan A.

    2015-01-01

    Here we demonstrate a new imaging system that addresses several major problems limiting the clinical utility of conventional adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO), including its small field of view (FOV), reliance on patient fixation for targeting imaging, and substantial post-processing time. We previously showed an efficient image based eye tracking method for real-time optical stabilization and image registration in AOSLO. However, in patients with poor fixation, eye motion causes the FOV to drift substantially, causing this approach to fail. We solve that problem here by tracking eye motion at multiple spatial scales simultaneously by optically and electronically integrating a wide FOV SLO (WFSLO) with an AOSLO. This multi-scale approach, implemented with fast tip/tilt mirrors, has a large stabilization range of ± 5.6°. Our method consists of three stages implemented in parallel: 1) coarse optical stabilization driven by a WFSLO image, 2) fine optical stabilization driven by an AOSLO image, and 3) sub-pixel digital registration of the AOSLO image. We evaluated system performance in normal eyes and diseased eyes with poor fixation. Residual image motion with incremental compensation after each stage was: 1) ~2–3 arc minutes, (arcmin) 2) ~0.5–0.8 arcmin and, 3) ~0.05–0.07 arcmin, for normal eyes. Performance in eyes with poor fixation was: 1) ~3–5 arcmin, 2) ~0.7–1.1 arcmin and 3) ~0.07–0.14 arcmin. We demonstrate that this system is capable of reducing image motion by a factor of ~400, on average. This new optical design provides additional benefits for clinical imaging, including a steering subsystem for AOSLO that can be guided by the WFSLO to target specific regions of interest such as retinal pathology and real-time averaging of registered images to eliminate image post-processing. PMID:26114033

  19. PYROLASER - PYROLASER OPTICAL PYROMETER OPERATING SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, F. E.

    1994-01-01

    The PYROLASER package is an operating system for the Pyrometer Instrument Company's Pyrolaser. There are 6 individual programs in the PYROLASER package: two main programs, two lower level subprograms, and two programs which, although independent, function predominantly as macros. The package provides a quick and easy way to setup, control, and program a standard Pyrolaser. Temperature and emissivity measurements may be either collected as if the Pyrolaser were in the manual operations mode, or displayed on real time strip charts and stored in standard spreadsheet format for post-test analysis. A shell is supplied to allow macros, which are test-specific, to be easily added to the system. The Pyrolaser Simple Operation program provides full on-screen remote operation capabilities, thus allowing the user to operate the Pyrolaser from the computer just as it would be operated manually. The Pyrolaser Simple Operation program also allows the use of "quick starts". Quick starts provide an easy way to permit routines to be used as setup macros for specific applications or tests. The specific procedures required for a test may be ordered in a sequence structure and then the sequence structure can be started with a simple button in the cluster structure provided. One quick start macro is provided for continuous Pyrolaser operation. A subprogram, Display Continuous Pyr Data, is used to display and store the resulting data output. Using this macro, the system is set up for continuous operation and the subprogram is called to display the data in real time on strip charts. The data is simultaneously stored in a spreadsheet format. The resulting spreadsheet file can be opened in any one of a number of commercially available spreadsheet programs. The Read Continuous Pyrometer program is provided as a continuously run subprogram for incorporation of the Pyrolaser software into a process control or feedback control scheme in a multi-component system. The program requires the

  20. Preliminary analyses of WL experiment No. 701, space environment effects on operating fiber optic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, E. W.; Berry, J. N.; Sanchez, A. D.; Padden, R. J.; Chapman, S. P.

    1992-01-01

    A brief overview of the analyses performed to date on WL Experiment-701 is presented. Four active digital fiber optic links were directly exposed to the space environment for a period of 2114 days. The links were situated aboard the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) with the cabled, single fiber windings atop an experimental tray containing instrumentation for exercising the experiment in orbit. Despite the unplanned and prolonged exposure to trapped and galactic radiation, wide temperature extremes, atomic oxygen interactions, and micro-meteorite and debris impacts, in most instances the optical data links performed well within the experimental limits. Analysis of the recorded orbital data clearly indicates that fiber optic applications in space will meet with success. Ongoing tests and analysis of the experiment at the Phillips Laboratory's Optoelectronics Laboratory will expand this premise, and establish the first known and extensive database of active fiber optic link performance during prolonged space exposure. WL Exp-701 was designed as a feasibility demonstration for fiber optic technology in space applications, and to study the performance of operating fiber systems exposed to space environmental factors such as galactic radiation, and wide temperature cycling. WL Exp-701 is widely acknowledged as a benchmark accomplishment that clearly demonstrates, for the first time, that fiber optic technology can be successfully used in a variety of space applications.

  1. High-temperature optically activated GaAs power switching for aircraft digital electronic control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berak, J. M.; Grantham, D. H.; Swindal, J. L.; Black, J. F.; Allen, L. B.

    1983-01-01

    Gallium arsenide high-temperature devices were fabricated and assembled into an optically activated pulse-width-modulated power control for a torque motor typical of the kinds used in jet engine actuators. A bipolar heterojunction phototransistor with gallium aluminum arsenide emitter/window, a gallium arsenide junction field-effect power transistor and a gallium arsenide transient protection diode were designed and fabricated. A high-temperature fiber optic/phototransistor coupling scheme was implemented. The devices assembled into the demonstrator were successfully tested at 250 C, proving the feasibility of actuator-located switching of control power using optical signals transmitted by fibers. Assessments of the efficiency and technical merits were made for extension of this high-temperature technology to local conversion of optical power to electrical power and its control at levels useful for driving actuators. Optical power sources included in the comparisons were an infrared light-emitting diode, an injection laser diode, tungsten-halogen lamps and arc lamps. Optical-to-electrical power conversion was limited to photovoltaics located at the actuator. Impedance matching of the photovoltaic array to the load was considered over the full temperature range, -55 C to 260 C. Loss of photovoltaic efficiency at higher temperatures was taken into account. Serious losses in efficiency are: (1) in the optical source and the cooling which they may require in the assumed 125 C ambient, (2) in the decreased conversion efficiency of the gallium arsenide photovoltaic at 260 C, and (3) in impedance matching. Practical systems require improvements in these areas.

  2. High-speed photodetectors in optical communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zeping; Liu, Jianguo; Liu, Yu; Zhu, Ninghua

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents a review and discussion for high-speed photodetectors and their applications on optical communications and microwave photonics. A detailed and comprehensive demonstration of high-speed photodetectors from development history, research hotspots to packaging technologies is provided to the best of our knowledge. A few typical applications based on photodetectors are also illustrated, such as free-space optical communications, radio over fiber and millimeter terahertz signal generation systems. Project supported by the Preeminence Youth Fund of China (No. 61625504).

  3. Simulation of atmospheric turbulence for optical systems with extended sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Majid; Hranilovic, Steve

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, the method of random wave vectors for simulation of atmospheric turbulence is extended to 2D×2D space to provide spatial degrees of freedom at both input and output planes. The modified technique can thus simultaneously simulate the turbulence-induced log-amplitude and phase distortions for optical systems with extended sources either implemented as a single large aperture or multiple apertures. The reliability of our simulation technique is validated in different conditions and its application is briefly investigated in a multibeam free-space optical communication scenario.

  4. A Compact Prototype of an Optical Pattern Recognition System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Y.; Liu, H. K.; Marzwell, N. I.

    1996-01-01

    In the Technology 2006 Case Studies/Success Stories presentation, we will describe and demonstrate a prototype of a compact optical pattern recognition system as an example of a successful technology transfer and continuuing development of state-of-the-art know-how by the close collaboration among government, academia, and small business via the NASA SBIR program. The prototype consists of a complete set of optical pattern recognition hardware with multi-channel storage and retrieval capability that is compactly configured inside a portable 1'X 2'X 3' aluminum case.

  5. Ring resonator systems to perform optical communication enhancement using soliton

    CERN Document Server

    Amiri, Iraj Sadegh

    2014-01-01

    The title explain new technique of secured and high capacity optical communication signals generation by using the micro and nano ring resonators. The pulses are known as soliton pulses which are more secured due to having the properties of chaotic and dark soliton signals with ultra short bandwidth. They have high capacity due to the fact that ring resonators are able to generate pulses in the form of solitons in multiples and train form. These pulses generated by ring resonators are suitable in optical communication due to use the compact and integrated rings system, easy to control, flexibi

  6. Optical fiber communication systems with Matlab and Simulink models

    CERN Document Server

    Binh, Le Nguyen

    2014-01-01

    ""This book adds an aspect of programming and simulation not so well developed in other books. It is complete in this sense and enables directly linking the physics of optical components and systems to realistic results.""-Martin Rochette, Associate Professor, McGill University, Quebec, Canada""…this will be an excellent textbook since it has all new development and information on optical communication systems…I think this book can easily replace many other textbooks in this field.""-Massoud Moussavi, California State Polytechnic University-Pomona""The book is well written. It describes the fu

  7. Orthogonal polynomials describing polarization aberration for rotationally symmetric optical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiangru; Huang, Wei; Xu, Mingfei

    2015-10-19

    Optical lithography has approached a regime of high numerical aperture and wide field, where the impact of polarization aberration on imaging quality turns to be serious. Most of the existing studies focused on the distribution rule of polarization aberration on the pupil, and little attention had been paid to the field. In this paper, a new orthonormal set of polynomials is established to describe the polarization aberration of rotationally symmetric optical systems. The polynomials can simultaneously reveal the distribution rules of polarization aberration on the exit pupil and the field. Two examples are given to verify the polynomials.

  8. Initial study and verification of a distributed fiber optic corrosion monitoring system for transportation structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    For this study, a novel optical fiber sensing system was developed and tested for the monitoring of corrosion in : transportation systems. The optical fiber sensing system consists of a reference long period fiber gratings (LPFG) sensor : for corrosi...

  9. Vision System for Relative Motion Estimation from Optical Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey M. Sokolov

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available For the recent years there was an increasing interest in different methods of motion analysis based on visual data acquisition. Vision systems, intended to obtain quantitative data regarding motion in real time are especially in demand. This paper talks about the vision systems that allow the receipt of information on relative object motion in real time. It is shown, that the algorithms solving a wide range of practical problems by definition of relative movement can be generated on the basis of the known algorithms of an optical flow calculation. One of the system's goals is the creation of economically efficient intellectual sensor prototype in order to estimate relative objects motion based on optic flow. The results of the experiments with a prototype system model are shown.

  10. THE ALGOL TRIPLE SYSTEM SPATIALLY RESOLVED AT OPTICAL WAVELENGTHS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavala, R. T.; Hutter, D. J.; Hummel, C. A.; Boboltz, D. A.; Ojha, R.; Shaffer, D. B.; Tycner, C.; Richards, M. T.

    2010-01-01

    Interacting binaries typically have separations in the milliarcsecond regime, and hence it has been challenging to resolve them at any wavelength. However, recent advances in optical interferometry have improved our ability to discern the components in these systems and have now enabled the direct determination of physical parameters. We used the Navy Prototype Optical Interferometer to produce for the first time images resolving all three components in the well-known Algol triple system. Specifically, we have separated the tertiary component from the binary and simultaneously resolved the eclipsing binary pair, which represents the nearest and brightest eclipsing binary in the sky. We present revised orbital elements for the triple system, and we have rectified the 180 0 ambiguity in the position angle of Algol C. Our directly determined magnitude differences and masses for this triple star system are consistent with earlier light curve modeling results.

  11. Fourier transform digital holographic adaptive optics imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changgeng; Yu, Xiao; Kim, Myung K.

    2013-01-01

    A Fourier transform digital holographic adaptive optics imaging system and its basic principles are proposed. The CCD is put at the exact Fourier transform plane of the pupil of the eye lens. The spherical curvature introduced by the optics except the eye lens itself is eliminated. The CCD is also at image plane of the target. The point-spread function of the system is directly recorded, making it easier to determine the correct guide-star hologram. Also, the light signal will be stronger at the CCD, especially for phase-aberration sensing. Numerical propagation is avoided. The sensor aperture has nothing to do with the resolution and the possibility of using low coherence or incoherent illumination is opened. The system becomes more efficient and flexible. Although it is intended for ophthalmic use, it also shows potential application in microscopy. The robustness and feasibility of this compact system are demonstrated by simulations and experiments using scattering objects. PMID:23262541

  12. An Antenna Measurement System Based on Optical Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryohei Hosono

    2013-01-01

    the advantage of the system is demonstrated by measuring an ultra-wideband (UWB antenna both by the optical and electrical feeding systems and comparing with a calculated result. Ripples in radiation pattern due to the electrical feeding are successfully suppressed by the optical feeding. For example, in a radiation measurement on the azimuth plane at 3 GHz, ripple amplitude of 1.0 dB that appeared in the electrical feeding is reduced to 0.3 dB. In addition, a circularly polarized (CP antenna is successfully measured by the proposed system to show that the system is available not only for amplitude but also phase measurements.

  13. Information system development activities and inquiring systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carugati, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a framework that maps information system development (ISD) activities on systems for the creation of knowledge. This work addresses the relevant and persisting problem of improving the chances of ISD success. The article builds upon previous research on knowledge aspects...... provides a new way to see the development of a system in terms of the knowledge created in the process. The main practical implication of the framework is that it improves the managers' ability to guide ISD activities as knowledge activities embedded in a knowledge process, a crucial element in development...... of ISD, abandoning the idea of a monolithic approach to knowledge and presenting a pluralistic approach based on the idea that different inquiring systems can support micro-level ISD activities. The article is divided into two parts. The first part presents the theoretical development of the framework...

  14. Optically active vibrational modes of PPV derivatives on textile substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, M.A.T. da; Dias, I.F.L.; Santos, E.P. dos; Martins, A.A.; Duarte, J.L.; Laureto, E.; Reis, G.A. dos; Guimarães, P.S.S.; Cury, L.A.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, MEH-PPV and BDMO-PPV films were deposited by spin-coating on “dirty” textile substrates of canvas, nylon, canvas with resin, jeans and on glass and the temperature dependence of the optical properties of them was studied by photoluminescence and Raman (300 K) techniques. The temperature dependence of the energy, of the half line width at half height of the purely electronic peak, of the integrated PL intensity and of the Huang-Rhys factor, S=I (01) /I (00) , were obtained directly from the PL spectrum. For an analysis of the vibrational modes involved, Raman measurements were performed on substrates with and without polymers deposited and the results compared with those found in the literature. The films of MEH-PPV and BDMO-PPV showed optical properties similar to those films deposited on other substrates such as glass, metals, etc. It was observed an inversion of the first vibrational band in relation to the purely electronic peak with increasing temperature in the films deposited on nylon and canvas. The vibrational modes obtained by Raman were used to compose the simulation of the PL line shape of BDMO-PPV films on canvas and nylon, using a model proposed by Lin [29]. - Highlights: ► MEH-PPV and BDMO-PPV films were deposited by spin-coating on dirty textile. ► Their properties were studied by photoluminescence and Raman techniques. ► We observed inversion of first vibrational band in relation to purely electronic peak. ► Optically active vibrational modes of PPV derivatives were studied.

  15. BER performance comparison of optical CDMA systems with/without turbo codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Muralidhar; Chauhan, Vijender S.; Dutta, Yashpal; Sinha, Ravindra K.

    2002-08-01

    In this paper, we have analyzed and simulated the BER performance of a turbo coded optical code-division multiple-access (TC-OCDMA) system. A performance comparison has been made between uncoded OCDMA and TC-OCDMA systems employing various OCDMA address codes (optical orthogonal codes (OOCs), Generalized Multiwavelength Prime codes (GMWPC's), and Generalized Multiwavelength Reed Solomon code (GMWRSC's)). The BER performance of TC-OCDMA systems has been analyzed and simulated by varying the code weight of address code employed by the system. From the simulation results, it is observed that lower weight address codes can be employed for TC-OCDMA systems that can have the equivalent BER performance of uncoded systems employing higher weight address codes for a fixed number of active users.

  16. Optical system for object detection and delineation in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handelman, Amir; Shwartz, Shoam; Donitza, Liad; Chaplanov, Loran

    2018-01-01

    Object recognition and delineation is an important task in many environments, such as in crime scenes and operating rooms. Marking evidence or surgical tools and attracting the attention of the surrounding staff to the marked objects can affect people's lives. We present an optical system comprising a camera, computer, and small laser projector that can detect and delineate objects in the environment. To prove the optical system's concept, we show that it can operate in a hypothetical crime scene in which a pistol is present and automatically recognize and segment it by various computer-vision algorithms. Based on such segmentation, the laser projector illuminates the actual boundaries of the pistol and thus allows the persons in the scene to comfortably locate and measure the pistol without holding any intermediator device, such as an augmented reality handheld device, glasses, or screens. Using additional optical devices, such as diffraction grating and a cylinder lens, the pistol size can be estimated. The exact location of the pistol in space remains static, even after its removal. Our optical system can be fixed or dynamically moved, making it suitable for various applications that require marking of objects in space.

  17. Low-Cost Optical Camera System for Disaster Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, F.; Meynberg, O.; Rosenbaum, D.; Türmer, S.; Reinartz, P.; Schroeder, M.

    2012-07-01

    Real-time monitoring of natural disasters, mass events, and large accidents with airborne optical sensors is an ongoing topic in research and development. Airborne monitoring is used as a complemental data source with the advantage of flexible data acquisition and higher spatial resolution compared to optical satellite data. In cases of disasters or mass events, optical high resolution image data received directly after acquisition are highly welcomed by security related organizations like police and rescue forces. Low-cost optical camera systems are suitable for real-time applications as the accuracy requirements can be lowered in return for faster processing times. In this paper, the performance of low-cost camera systems for real-time mapping applications is exemplarily evaluated based on already existing sensor systems operated at German Aerospace Center (DLR). Focus lies next to the geometrical and radiometric performance on the real time processing chain which includes image processors, thematic processors for automatic traffic extraction and automatic person tracking, data downlink to the ground station, and further processing and distribution on the ground. Finally, a concept for a national airborne rapid mapping service based on the low-cost hardware is proposed.

  18. Capillarity-based preparation system for optical colorimetric sensor arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiao-Gang; Yi, Xin; Bu, Xiang-Nan; Hou, Chang-Jun; Huo, Dan-Qun; Yang, Mei; Fa, Huan-Bao; Lei, Jin-Can

    2017-03-01

    In recent years, optical colorimetric sensor arrays have demonstrated beneficial features, including rapid response, high selectivity, and high specificity; as a result, it has been extensively applied in food inspection and chemical studies, among other fields. There are instruments in the current market available for the preparation of an optical colorimetric sensor array, but it lacks the corresponding research of the preparation mechanism. Therefore, in connection with the main features of this kind of sensor array such as consistency, based on the preparation method of contact spotting, combined with a capillary fluid model, Washburn equation, Laplace equation, etc., this paper develops a diffusion model of an optical colorimetric sensor array during its preparation and sets up an optical colorimetric sensor array preparation system based on this diffusion model. Finally, this paper compares and evaluates the sensor arrays prepared by the system and prepared manually in three aspects such as the quality of array point, response of array, and response result, and the results show that the performance index of the sensor array prepared by a system under this diffusion model is better than that of the sensor array of manual spotting, which meets the needs of the experiment.

  19. Program for beam optical computation of axial symmetrical electrostatic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke Jianlin; Wu Chunlei; Zhou Changgeng

    2012-01-01

    The beam optical computation of axial symmetrical electrostatic systems is very important in the design and test of low-energy accelerators such as Cock-Croft and Van de Graaf accelerators. In this paper, a program for the beam optical computation of these structures has been developed using transfer matrix method. The electrostatic field region is divided into several small intervals in the program, and then the beam envelope is calculated interval-to-interval from the axial potential distribution, which is calculated by other electromagnetic field simulation software such as Maxwell SV. Space charge effect is included so that the program can be used in the computation of intense beam, while nonlinear effect is beyond its ability. The program can be used in the calculation of beam optics in most complicated axial symmetrical electrostatic fields, and the computing time required is very short. (authors)

  20. Exploring lipids with nonlinear optical microscopy in multiple biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso-Garcia, Alba

    Lipids are crucial biomolecules for the well being of humans. Altered lipid metabolism may give rise to a variety of diseases that affect organs from the cardiovascular to the central nervous system. A deeper understanding of lipid metabolic processes would spur medical research towards developing precise diagnostic tools, treatment methods, and preventive strategies for reducing the impact of lipid diseases. Lipid visualization remains a complex task because of the perturbative effect exerted by traditional biochemical assays and most fluorescence markers. Coherent Raman scattering (CRS) microscopy enables interrogation of biological samples with minimum disturbance, and is particularly well suited for label-free visualization of lipids, providing chemical specificity without compromising on spatial resolution. Hyperspectral imaging yields large datasets that benefit from tailored multivariate analysis. In this thesis, CRS microscopy was combined with Raman spectroscopy and other label-free nonlinear optical techniques to analyze lipid metabolism in multiple biological systems. We used nonlinear Raman techniques to characterize Meibum secretions in the progression of dry eye disease, where the lipid and protein contributions change in ratio and phase segregation. We employed similar tools to examine lipid droplets in mice livers aboard a spaceflight mission, which lose their retinol content contributing to the onset of nonalcoholic fatty-liver disease. We also focused on atherosclerosis, a disease that revolves around lipid-rich plaques in arterial walls. We examined the lipid content of macrophages, whose variable phenotype gives rise to contrasting healing and inflammatory activities. We also proposed new label-free markers, based on lifetime imaging, for macrophage phenotype, and to detect products of lipid oxidation. Cholesterol was also detected in hepatitis C virus infected cells, and in specific strains of age-related macular degeneration diseased cells by

  1. Progress in Nano-Electro-Optics VII Chemical, Biological, and Nanophotonic Technologies for Nano-Optical Devices and Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ohtsu, Motoichi

    2010-01-01

    This book focuses on chemical and nanophotonic technology to be used to develop novel nano-optical devices and systems. It begins with temperature- and photo-induced phase transition of ferromagnetic materials. Further topics include: energy transfer in artificial photosynthesis, homoepitaxial multiple quantum wells in ZnO, near-field photochemical etching and nanophotonic devices based on a nonadiabatic process and optical near-field energy transfer, respectively and polarization control in the optical near-field for optical information security. Taken as a whole, this overview will be a valuable resource for engineers and scientists working in the field of nano-electro-optics.

  2. Impact of optical hard limiter on the performance of an optical overlapped-code division multiple access system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaty, Elie; Raad, Robert; Tablieh, Nicole

    2011-08-01

    Throughout this paper, a closed form expression of the multiple access interference (MAI) limited bit error rate (BER) is provided for the multiwavelength optical code-division multiple-access system when the system is working above the nominal transmission rate limit imposed by the passive encoding-decoding operation. This system is known in literature as the optical overlapped code division multiple access (OV-CDMA) system. A unified analytical framework is presented emphasizing the impact of optical hard limiter (OHL) on the BER performance of such a system. Results show that the performance of the OV-CDMA system may be highly improved when using OHL preprocessing at the receiver side.

  3. Optical spectral properties of active galactic nuclei and quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yee, H.K.C.

    1981-01-01

    Four separate investigations dealing with the properties of optical continuum and emission-lines of active galactic nuclei (AGN) and quasars are presented. Multichannel scans of 3CR radio galaxies are decomposed by using a two-component model-an elliptical galaxy and a power-law nonthermal component. It is found that there is a strong correlation between the luminosity of the power-law component and the strength of the Balmer emission-lines. In most cases, by extrapolating to the Lyman continuum, the power-law models derived provide enough ionizing radiation to account for the Balmer line strengths. Extending the study of radio galaxies to include Seyfert galaxies and quasars, it is found that there is a strong continuity between broad-line AGN's and quasars in terms of similarities in the correlations between line luminosities and nonthermal continuum luminosity. Next, a study of the variability of absolute optical energy distribution and emission-lines of the N-galaxies 3C382 and 3C390.3 is made. Lastly, a preliminary study of surface photometry of Markarian Seyfert galaxies are presented. It is found that the properties of the underlying galaxies such as scale-length and surface brightness of the disk, color, and total brightness, do not depart systematically from those of luminous normal spiral galaxies

  4. Changing University Students’ Alternative Conceptions of Optics by Active Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zalkida Hadžibegović

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Active learning is individual and group participation in effective activities such as in-class observing, writing, experimenting, discussion, solving problems, and talking about to-be-learned topics. Some instructors believe that active learning is impossible, or at least extremely difficult to achieve in large lecture sessions. Nevertheless, the truly impressive implementation results of theSCALE-UP learning environment suggest that such beliefs are false (Beichner et al., 2000. In this study, we present a design of an active learning environment with positive effect on students. The design is based on the following elements: (1 helping students to learn from interactive lecture experiment; (2 guiding students to use justified explanation and prediction after observing and exploring a phenomenon; (3 developing a conceptual question sequencedesigned for use in an interactive lecture with students answering questions in worksheets by writing and drawing; (4 evaluating students’ conceptual change and gains by questions related to light reflection, refraction, and image formation in an exam held a week after the active learning session. Data were collected from 95 science freshmen with different secondary school backgrounds. They participated in geometrical optics classes organized for collecting research results during and after only one active learning session.The results have showed that around 60% of the students changed their initial alternative conceptions of vision and of image formation. It was also found that a large group of university students is likely to be engaged in active learning, shifting from a passive role they usually play during teacher’s lectures.

  5. PAPR reduction techniques for asymmetrically clipped optical OFDM communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Zhang, Zhaojun; Sun, Lu

    2014-07-01

    In the ultraviolet communication system, ACO-OFDM technology can effectively suppress inter-symbol interference on the system performance, and further improve the transmission rate of the system. However, ACO-OFDM has a high peak to average power ratio (PAPR), and high PAPR not only reduces the power efficiency of the optical modulator, but also bring damage to the human eye or skin. In order to solve the above problem, according to ACO-OFDM signal characteristics, two clipping and filtering algorithms are used, and its performance is simulated, the simulations show that the two algorithms are able to inhibit well the PAPR of ACO-OFDM system.

  6. The selection criteria elements of X-ray optics system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikova, I. V.; Chicherina, N. V.; Bays, S. S.; Bildanov, R. G.; Stary, O.

    2018-01-01

    At the design of new modifications of x-ray tomography there are difficulties in the right choice of elements of X-ray optical system. Now this problem is solved by practical consideration, selection of values of the corresponding parameters - tension on an x-ray tube taking into account the thickness and type of the studied material. For reduction of time and labor input of design it is necessary to create the criteria of the choice, to determine key parameters and characteristics of elements. In the article two main elements of X-ray optical system - an x-ray tube and the detector of x-ray radiation - are considered. Criteria of the choice of elements, their key characteristics, the main dependences of parameters, quality indicators and also recommendations according to the choice of elements of x-ray systems are received.

  7. A radiographic image archive system on digital optical disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankovich, N.J.; Taira, R.K.; Cho, P.S.; Wong, W.K.; Stewart, B.K.; Huang, H.K.

    1986-01-01

    The recent introduction of projection computed radiography (CR) systems allows radiology departments to consider digital operation in over 90% of performed procedures. Ideally, current patient procedures from CT, CT, and MR along with laser-digitized historical films should be centrally stored at their full digital resolution. Magnetic disks, because of their limited storage capacity and expense, can only retain these data on a limited basis. The author devised an optical disk archive system which automatically stores images directly onto 2.6-gigabyte optical cartridges without recourse to film. This system is in full clinical operation in the UCLA Pediatric Radiology Section of the authors' department. From this experience they present (a) an analysis of the digital archiving requirements of the Pediatric Radiology Section based on CR, CT, MR, and laser digitized films; (b) the archive and retrieval methods along with performance statistics; and (c) the procedure for assuring digital image integrity

  8. Fiber-optic perimeter security system based on WDM technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakov, Alexandre V.

    2017-10-01

    Intelligent underground fiber optic perimeter security system is presented. Their structure, operation, software and hardware with neural networks elements are described. System allows not only to establish the fact of violation of the perimeter, but also to locate violations. This is achieved through the use of WDM-technology division spectral information channels. As used quasi-distributed optoelectronic recirculation system as a discrete sensor. The principle of operation is based on registration of the recirculation period change in the closed optoelectronic circuit at different wavelengths under microstrain exposed optical fiber. As a result microstrain fiber having additional power loss in a fiber optical propagating pulse, which causes a time delay as a result of switching moments of the threshold device. To separate the signals generated by intruder noise and interference, the signal analyzer is used, based on the principle of a neural network. The system detects walking, running or crawling intruder, as well as undermining attempts to register under the perimeter line. These alarm systems can be used to protect the perimeters of facilities such as airports, nuclear reactors, power plants, warehouses, and other extended territory.

  9. Fiber optic perimeter system for security in smart city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubik, Jakub; Kepak, Stanislav; Nedoma, Jan; Fajkus, Marcel; Zboril, Ondrej; Novak, Martin; Jargus, Jan; Vasinek, Vladimir

    2017-10-01

    Protection of persons and assets is the key challenge of Smart City safeguards technologies. Conventional security technologies are often outdated and easy to breach. Therefore, new technologies that could complement existing systems or replace them are developed. The use of optical fibers and their subsequent application in sensing is a trend of recent years. This article discusses the use of fiber-optic sensors in perimeter protection. The sensor consists of optical fibers and couplers only and being constructed without wires and metal parts bring many advantages. These include an absence of interference with electromagnetic waves, system presence can be difficult to detect as well as affect its operation. Testing installation of perimeter system was carried out under reinforced concrete structure. Subjects walked over the bridge at different speeds and over the different routes. The task for the system was an absolute detection of all subjects. The proposed system should find application mainly in areas with the presence of volatile substances, strong electromagnetic fields, or in explosive areas.

  10. Monocular distance estimation from optic flow during active landing maneuvers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Breugel, Floris; Morgansen, Kristi; Dickinson, Michael H

    2014-01-01

    Vision is arguably the most widely used sensor for position and velocity estimation in animals, and it is increasingly used in robotic systems as well. Many animals use stereopsis and object recognition in order to make a true estimate of distance. For a tiny insect such as a fruit fly or honeybee, however, these methods fall short. Instead, an insect must rely on calculations of optic flow, which can provide a measure of the ratio of velocity to distance, but not either parameter independently. Nevertheless, flies and other insects are adept at landing on a variety of substrates, a behavior that inherently requires some form of distance estimation in order to trigger distance-appropriate motor actions such as deceleration or leg extension. Previous studies have shown that these behaviors are indeed under visual control, raising the question: how does an insect estimate distance solely using optic flow? In this paper we use a nonlinear control theoretic approach to propose a solution for this problem. Our algorithm takes advantage of visually controlled landing trajectories that have been observed in flies and honeybees. Finally, we implement our algorithm, which we term dynamic peering, using a camera mounted to a linear stage to demonstrate its real-world feasibility. (paper)

  11. Laser Polarimeter for Measurement of Optical Activity of Biological Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protasov, E. A.; Protasov, D. E.; Ryzhkova, A. V.

    In this paper has been described the polarimetric device for measurement of optical activity of biological tissues, where the source of radiation is an infrared laser with a wave λ=0.808 micron. The polarizers used are polarizing prisms of Glan - Taylor. To obtain required angular resolution (0.180/cm) has been developed a device that converts the angle of rotation of the analyzer into electrical signal, which is fed to the appropriate scan digital oscilloscope. The passage of the polarized light through the fingers of the hand was established and the angles of rotation of the polarization vector of the transmitted radiation were measured, the values of which may be determined by the content of hemoglobin in the blood.

  12. Reverberation Mapping of Optical Emission Lines in Five Active Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fausnaugh, M. M.; Denney, K. D.; Peterson, B. M.; Kochanek, C. S.; Pogge, R. W.; Brown, Jonathan S.; Coker, C. T. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 W. 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Grier, C. J.; Beatty, Thomas G. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Bentz, M. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Rosa, G. De [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Adams, S. M. [Cahill Center for Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Barth, A. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4129 Frederick Reines Hall, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Bhattacharjee, A.; Brotherton, M. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, 1000 E. University Avenue, Laramie, WY (United States); Borman, G. A. [Crimean Astrophysical Observatory, P/O Nauchny, Crimea 298409 (Russian Federation); Boroson, T. A. [Las Cumbres Global Telescope Network, 6740 Cortona Drive, Suite 102, Santa Barbara, CA 93117 (United States); Bottorff, M. C. [Fountainwood Observatory, Department of Physics FJS 149, Southwestern University, 1011 E. University Avenue, Georgetown, TX 78626 (United States); Brown, Jacob E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Columbia (United States); Crawford, S. M. [South African Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 9, Observatory 7935, Cape Town (South Africa); and others

    2017-05-10

    We present the first results from an optical reverberation mapping campaign executed in 2014 targeting the active galactic nuclei (AGNs) MCG+08-11-011, NGC 2617, NGC 4051, 3C 382, and Mrk 374. Our targets have diverse and interesting observational properties, including a “changing look” AGN and a broad-line radio galaxy. Based on continuum-H β lags, we measure black hole masses for all five targets. We also obtain H γ and He ii λ 4686 lags for all objects except 3C 382. The He ii λ 4686 lags indicate radial stratification of the BLR, and the masses derived from different emission lines are in general agreement. The relative responsivities of these lines are also in qualitative agreement with photoionization models. These spectra have extremely high signal-to-noise ratios (100–300 per pixel) and there are excellent prospects for obtaining velocity-resolved reverberation signatures.

  13. Reverberation Mapping of Optical Emission Lines in Five Active Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fausnaugh, M. M.; Grier, C. J.; Bentz, M. C.; Denney, K. D.; De Rosa, G.; Peterson, B. M.; Kochanek, C. S.; Pogge, R. W.; Adams, S. M.; Barth, A. J.; Beatty, Thomas G.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Borman, G. A.; Boroson, T. A.; Bottorff, M. C.; Brown, Jacob E.; Brown, Jonathan S.; Brotherton, M. S.; Coker, C. T.; Crawford, S. M.; Croxall, K. V.; Eftekharzadeh, Sarah; Eracleous, Michael; Joner, M. D.; Henderson, C. B.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; Horne, Keith; Hutchison, T.; Kaspi, Shai; Kim, S.; King, Anthea L.; Li, Miao; Lochhaas, Cassandra; Ma, Zhiyuan; MacInnis, F.; Manne-Nicholas, E. R.; Mason, M.; Montuori, Carmen; Mosquera, Ana; Mudd, Dale; Musso, R.; Nazarov, S. V.; Nguyen, M. L.; Okhmat, D. N.; Onken, Christopher A.; Ou-Yang, B.; Pancoast, A.; Pei, L.; Penny, Matthew T.; Poleski, Radosław; Rafter, Stephen; Romero-Colmenero, E.; Runnoe, Jessie; Sand, David J.; Schimoia, Jaderson S.; Sergeev, S. G.; Shappee, B. J.; Simonian, Gregory V.; Somers, Garrett; Spencer, M.; Starkey, D. A.; Stevens, Daniel J.; Tayar, Jamie; Treu, T.; Valenti, Stefano; Van Saders, J.; Villanueva, S., Jr.; Villforth, C.; Weiss, Yaniv; Winkler, H.; Zhu, W.

    2017-05-01

    We present the first results from an optical reverberation mapping campaign executed in 2014 targeting the active galactic nuclei (AGNs) MCG+08-11-011, NGC 2617, NGC 4051, 3C 382, and Mrk 374. Our targets have diverse and interesting observational properties, including a “changing look” AGN and a broad-line radio galaxy. Based on continuum-Hβ lags, we measure black hole masses for all five targets. We also obtain Hγ and He II λ4686 lags for all objects except 3C 382. The He II λ4686 lags indicate radial stratification of the BLR, and the masses derived from different emission lines are in general agreement. The relative responsivities of these lines are also in qualitative agreement with photoionization models. These spectra have extremely high signal-to-noise ratios (100-300 per pixel) and there are excellent prospects for obtaining velocity-resolved reverberation signatures.

  14. Contamination control research activities for space optics in JAXA RANDD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimoto, Y.

    2017-11-01

    Contamination control research activities for space optics projects in JAXA R&D are described. More accurate contamination control techniques are requested because of intensified recent science mission requirements. One approach to control the contamination effects is analysis by software. JAXA has been developing a contamination analytical tool "J-SPICE" (Japanese Spacecraft Induced Contamination analysis software) as well as experiment facilities to improve the J-SPICE. A reflection model in J-SPICE has been experimentally verified and outgassing model data has been acquired by a facility. JAXA has developed a facility which could determine the influence of the contamination at a specific wavelength by combining a vacuum chamber with an I-R spectrometer and performed an experiment to inspect the effect of baking. Space material exposure experiment results reveal the actual thickness of the contamination layer in ISS orbit.

  15. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Mathieu, Jean Paul

    1975-01-01

    Optics, Parts 1 and 2 covers electromagnetic optics and quantum optics. The first part of the book examines the various of the important properties common to all electromagnetic radiation. This part also studies electromagnetic waves; electromagnetic optics of transparent isotropic and anisotropic media; diffraction; and two-wave and multi-wave interference. The polarization states of light, the velocity of light, and the special theory of relativity are also examined in this part. The second part is devoted to quantum optics, specifically discussing the classical molecular theory of optical p

  16. Optical diagnostics based on elastic scattering: Recent clinical demonstrations with the Los Alamos Optical Biopsy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigio, I.J.; Loree, T.R.; Mourant, J.; Shimada, T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Story-Held, K.; Glickman, R.D. [Texas Univ. Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX (United States). Dept. of Ophthalmology; Conn, R. [Lovelace Medical Center, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Urology

    1993-08-01

    A non-invasive diagnostic tool that could identify malignancy in situ and in real time would have a major impact on the detection and treatment of cancer. We have developed and are testing early prototypes of an optical biopsy system (OBS) for detection of cancer and other tissue pathologies. The OBS invokes a unique approach to optical diagnosis of tissue pathologies based on the elastic scattering properties, over a wide range of wavelengths, of the microscopic structure of the tissue. The use of elastic scattering as the key to optical tissue diagnostics in the OBS is based on the fact that many tissue pathologies, including a majority of cancer forms, manifest significant architectural changes at the cellular and sub-cellular level. Since the cellular components that cause elastic scattering have dimensions typically on the order of visible to near-IR wavelengths, the elastic (Mie) scattering properties will be strongly wavelength dependent. Thus, morphology and size changes can be expected to cause significant changes in an optical signature that is derived from the wavelength dependence of elastic scattering. The data acquisition and storage/display time with the OBS instrument is {approximately}1 second. Thus, in addition to the reduced invasiveness of this technique compared with current state-of-the-art methods (surgical biopsy and pathology analysis), the OBS offers the possibility of impressively faster diagnostic assessment. The OBS employs a small fiber-optic probe that is amenable to use with any endoscope, catheter or hypodermic, or to direct surface examination (e.g. as in skin cancer or cervical cancer). It has been tested in vitro on animal and human tissue samples, and clinical testing in vivo is currently in progress.

  17. Optical signal processing for enabling high-speed, highly spectrally efficient and high capacity optical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazal, Muhammad Irfan

    The unabated demand for more capacity due to the ever-increasing internet traffic dictates that the boundaries of the state of the art maybe pushed to send more data through the network. Traditionally, this need has been satisfied by multiple wavelengths (wavelength division multiplexing), higher order modulation formats and coherent communication (either individually or combined together). WDM has the ability to reduce cost by using multiple channels within the same physical fiber, and with EDFA amplifiers, the need for O-E-O regenerators is eliminated. Moreover the availability of multiple colors allows for wavelength-based routing and network planning. Higher order modulation formats increases the capacity of the link by their ability to encode data in both the phase and amplitude of light, thereby increasing the bits/sec/Hz as compared to simple on-off keyed format. Coherent communications has also emerged as a primary means of transmitting and receiving optical data due to its support of formats that utilize both phase and amplitude to further increase the spectral efficiency of the optical channel, including quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) and quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK). Polarization multiplexing of channels can double capacity by allowing two channels to share the same wavelength by propagating on orthogonal polarization axis and is easily supported in coherent systems where the polarization tracking can be performed in the digital domain. Furthermore, the forthcoming IEEE 100 Gbit/s Ethernet Standard, 802.3ba, provides greater bandwidth, higher data rates, and supports a mixture of modulation formats. In particular, Pol-MUX QPSK is increasingly becoming the industry's format of choice as the high spectral efficiency allows for 100 Gbit/s transmission while still occupying the current 50 GHz/channel allocation of current 10 Gbit/s OOK fiber systems. In this manner, 100 Gbit/s transfer speeds using current fiber links, amplifiers, and filters

  18. A 20-channel magnetoencephalography system based on optically pumped magnetometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borna, Amir; Carter, Tony R.; Goldberg, Josh D.; Colombo, Anthony P.; Jau, Yuan-Yu; Berry, Christopher; McKay, Jim; Stephen, Julia; Weisend, Michael; Schwindt, Peter D. D.

    2017-12-01

    We describe a multichannel magnetoencephalography (MEG) system that uses optically pumped magnetometers (OPMs) to sense the magnetic fields of the human brain. The system consists of an array of 20 OPM channels conforming to the human subject’s head, a person-sized magnetic shield containing the array and the human subject, a laser system to drive the OPM array, and various control and data acquisition systems. We conducted two MEG experiments: auditory evoked magnetic field and somatosensory evoked magnetic field, on three healthy male subjects, using both our OPM array and a 306-channel Elekta-Neuromag superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) MEG system. The described OPM array measures the tangential components of the magnetic field as opposed to the radial component measured by most SQUID-based MEG systems. Herein, we compare the results of the OPM- and SQUID-based MEG systems on the auditory and somatosensory data recorded in the same individuals on both systems.

  19. Quasiparticle electronic and optical properties of the Si-Sn system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, Rasmus V S; Pedersen, Thomas G; Larsen, Arne N

    2011-01-01

    The Si 1-x Sn x material system is an interesting candidate for an optically active material compatible with Si. Based on density functional theory with quasiparticle corrections we calculate the electronic band structure of zinc-blende SiSn under both compressive and tensile strain. At 2.2% tensile strain the band gap becomes direct with a magnitude of 0.85 eV. We develop an accurate tight-binding parameterization of the electronic structure and calculate the optical properties of SiSn. Furthermore, the silicide SiSn 2 is investigated and found to have metallic character. (paper)

  20. Optical systems for synchrotron radiation. Lecture 2. Mirror systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howells, M.R.

    1986-02-01

    The process of reflection of VUV and x-radiation is summarized. The functions of mirrors in synchrotron beamlines are described, which include deflection, filtration, power absorption, formation of a real image, focusing, and collimation. Fabrication of optical surfaces for synchrotron radiation beamlines are described, and include polishing of a near spherical surface as well as bending a cylindrical surface to toroidal shape. The imperfections present in mirrors, aberrations and surface figure inaccuracy, are discussed. Calculation of the thermal load of a mirror in a synchrotron radiation beam and the cooling of the mirror are covered briefly. 50 refs., 7 figs

  1. Measuring the spatial resolution of an optical system in an undergraduate optics laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Calvin; Donnelly, T. D.

    2017-06-01

    Two methods of quantifying the spatial resolution of a camera are described, performed, and compared, with the objective of designing an imaging-system experiment for students in an undergraduate optics laboratory. With the goal of characterizing the resolution of a typical digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) camera, we motivate, introduce, and show agreement between traditional test-target contrast measurements and the technique of using Fourier analysis to obtain the modulation transfer function (MTF). The advantages and drawbacks of each method are compared. Finally, we explore the rich optical physics at work in the camera system by calculating the MTF as a function of wavelength and f-number. For example, we find that the Canon 40D demonstrates better spatial resolution at short wavelengths, in accordance with scalar diffraction theory, but is not diffraction-limited, being significantly affected by spherical aberration. The experiment and data analysis routines described here can be built and written in an undergraduate optics lab setting.

  2. Application of Optical Biosensors in Small-Molecule Screening Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Knecht

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The last two decades have seen remarkable progress and improvements in optical biosensor systems such that those are currently seen as an important and value-adding component of modern drug screening activities. In particular the introduction of microplate-based biosensor systems holds the promise to match the required throughput without compromising on data quality thus representing a sought-after complement to traditional fluidic systems. This article aims to highlight the application of the two most prominent optical biosensor technologies, namely surface plasmon resonance (SPR and optical waveguide grating (OWG, in small-molecule screening and will present, review and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of different assay formats on these platforms. A particular focus will be on the specific advantages of the inhibition in solution assay (ISA format in contrast to traditional direct binding assays (DBA. Furthermore we will discuss different application areas for both fluidic as well as plate-based biosensor systems by considering the individual strength of the platforms.

  3. A planar waveguide optical discrete Fourier transformer design for 160 Gb/s all-optical OFDM systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Liang, Xiaojun; Ma, Weidong; Zhou, Tianhong; Huang, Benxiong; Liu, Deming

    2010-01-01

    A cost-effective all-optical discrete Fourier transformer (ODFT) is designed based on a silicon planar lightwave circuit (PLC), which can be applied to all-optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) transmission systems and can be achieved by current techniques. It consists of 2 × 2 directional couplers, phase shifters and optical delay lines. Metal-film heaters are used as phase shifters, according to the thermooptic effect of SiO 2. Based on the ODFT, a 160 Gb/s OFDM system is set up. Simulation results show excellent bit error rate (BER) and optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) performances after 400 km transmission.

  4. An optical system via liquid crystal photonic devices for photobiomodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chia-Ming; Lin, Yi-Hsin; Srivastava, Abhishek Kumar; Chigrinov, Vladimir Grigorievich

    2018-03-09

    Photobiomodulation or low-level light therapy (LLLT) has extensive applications based on light-induced effects in biological systems. Photobiomodulation remains controversial because of a poorly understood biochemical mechanism limited by the well-known biphasic dose response or Arndt-Schulz curve. The Arndt-Schulz curve states that an optimal dose of light is a key factor for realizing a therapeutic effect. In this report, we demonstrate a tunable optical system for photobiomodulation to aid physicians in overcoming the constraints of light due to biphasic dose response. The tunable optical system is based on a white light-emitting diode and four liquid crystal (LC) photonic devices: three LC phase retarders, and one LC lens. The output light of the tunable optical system exhibits electrical tunability for the wavelength, energy density and beam size. The operating principle is introduced, and the experimental results are presented. The proposed concept can be further extended to other electrically tunable photonic devices for different clinical purposes for photobiomodulation.

  5. Optics designs and system MTF for laser scanning displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urey, Hakan; Nestorovic, Ned; Ng, Baldwin S.; Gross, Abraham A.

    1999-07-01

    The Virtual Retinal DisplayTM (VRDTM) technology is a new display technology being developed at Microvision Inc. The displayed image is scanned onto the viewer's retina using low- power red, green, and blue light sources. Microvision's proprietary miniaturized scanner designs make VRD system very well suited for head-mounted displays. In this paper we discuss some of the advantages of the VRD technology, various ocular designs for HMD and other applications, and details of constructing a system MTF budget for laser scanning systems that includes electronics, modulators, scanners, and optics.

  6. Fiber-Optic Based Compact Gas Leak Detection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    deGroot, Wim A.

    1995-01-01

    A propellant leak detection system based on Raman scattering principles is introduced. The proposed system is flexible and versatile as the result of the use of optical fibers. It is shown that multiple species can be monitored simultaneously. In this paper oxygen, nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen are detected and monitored. The current detection sensitivity for both hydrogen and carbon monoxide is 1% partial pressure at ambient conditions. The sensitivity for oxygen and nitrogen is 0.5% partial pressure. The response time to changes in species concentration is three minutes. This system can be used to monitor multiple species at several locations.

  7. Hybrid optical security system using photonic crystals and MEMS devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciosek, Jerzy; Ostrowski, Roman

    2017-10-01

    An important issue in security systems is that of selection of the appropriate detectors or sensors, whose sensitivity guarantees functional reliability whilst avoiding false alarms. Modern technology enables the optimization of sensor systems, tailored to specific risk factors. In optical security systems, one of the safety parameters considered is the spectral range in which the excitation signal is associated with a risk factor. Advanced safety systems should be designed taking into consideration the possible occurrence of, often multiple, complex risk factors, which can be identified individually. The hazards of concern in this work are chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial compounds present in the forms of gases and aerosols. The proposed sensor solution is a hybrid optical system consisting of a multi-spectral structure of photonic crystals associated with a MEMS (Micro Electro-Mechanical System) resonator. The crystallographic structures of carbon present in graphene rings and graphenecarbon nanotube nanocomposites have properties which make them desirable for use in detectors. The advantage of this system is a multi-spectral sensitivity at the same time as narrow-band selectivity for the identification of risk factors. It is possible to design a system optimized for detecting specified types of risk factor from very complex signals.

  8. Holographic spectrum-splitting optical systems for solar photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Deming

    Solar energy is the most abundant source of renewable energy available. The relatively high cost prevents solar photovoltaic (PV) from replacing fossil fuel on a larger scale. In solar PV power generation the cost is reduced with more efficient PV technologies. In this dissertation, methods to improve PV conversion efficiency with holographic optical components are discussed. The tandem multiple-junction approach has achieved very high conversion efficiency. However it is impossible to manufacture tandem PV cells at a low cost due to stringent fabrication standards and limited material types that satisfy lattice compatibility. Current produced by the tandem multi-junction PV cell is limited by the lowest junction due to series connection. Spectrum-splitting is a lateral multi-junction concept that is free of lattice and current matching constraints. Each PV cell can be optimized towards full absorption of a spectral band with tailored light-trapping schemes. Holographic optical components are designed to achieve spectrum-splitting PV energy conversion. The incident solar spectrum is separated onto multiple PV cells that are matched to the corresponding spectral band. Holographic spectrum-splitting can take advantage of existing and future low-cost technologies that produces high efficiency thin-film solar cells. Spectrum-splitting optical systems are designed and analyzed with both transmission and reflection holographic optical components. Prototype holograms are fabricated and high optical efficiency is achieved. Light-trapping in PV cells increases the effective optical path-length in the semiconductor material leading to improved absorption and conversion efficiency. It has been shown that the effective optical path length can be increased by a factor of 4n2 using diffusive surfaces. Ultra-light-trapping can be achieved with optical filters that limit the escape angle of the diffused light. Holographic reflection gratings have been shown to act as angle

  9. Optical readout and control systems for the CMS tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Troska, Jan K; Faccio, F; Gill, K; Grabit, R; Jareno, R M; Sandvik, A M; Vasey, F

    2003-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) Experiment will be installed at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in 2007. The readout system for the CMS Tracker consists of 10000000 individual detector channels that are time-multiplexed onto 40000 unidirectional analogue (40 MSample /s) optical links for transmission between the detector and the 65 m distant counting room. The corresponding control system consists of 2500 bi-directional digital (40 Mb/s) optical links based as far as possible upon the same components. The on-detector elements (lasers and photodiodes) of both readout and control links will be distributed throughout the detector volume in close proximity to the silicon detector elements. For this reason, strict requirements are placed on minimal package size, mass, power dissipation, immunity to magnetic field, and radiation hardness. It has been possible to meet the requirements with the extensive use of commercially available components with a minimum of customization. The project has now entered its vol...

  10. Acousto-optic laser projection systems for displaying TV information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulyaev, Yu V [V.A.Kotel' nikov Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kazaryan, M A [P N Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Mokrushin, Yu M [D.V. Efremov Scientific Research Institute of Electrophysical Apparatus (Russian Federation); Shakin, O V [Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2015-04-30

    This review addresses various approaches to television projection imaging on large screens using lasers. Results are presented of theoretical and experimental studies of an acousto-optic projection system operating on the principle of projecting an image of an entire amplitude-modulated television line in a single laser pulse. We consider characteristic features of image formation in such a system and the requirements for its individual components. Particular attention is paid to nonlinear distortions of the image signal, which show up most severely at low modulation signal frequencies. We discuss the feasibility of improving the process efficiency and image quality using acousto-optic modulators and pulsed lasers. Real-time projectors with pulsed line imaging can be used for controlling high-intensity laser radiation. (review)

  11. Acousto-optic laser projection systems for displaying TV information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulyaev, Yu V; Kazaryan, M A; Mokrushin, Yu M; Shakin, O V

    2015-01-01

    This review addresses various approaches to television projection imaging on large screens using lasers. Results are presented of theoretical and experimental studies of an acousto-optic projection system operating on the principle of projecting an image of an entire amplitude-modulated television line in a single laser pulse. We consider characteristic features of image formation in such a system and the requirements for its individual components. Particular attention is paid to nonlinear distortions of the image signal, which show up most severely at low modulation signal frequencies. We discuss the feasibility of improving the process efficiency and image quality using acousto-optic modulators and pulsed lasers. Real-time projectors with pulsed line imaging can be used for controlling high-intensity laser radiation. (review)

  12. Acousto-optic laser projection systems for displaying TV information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulyaev, Yu V.; Kazaryan, M. A.; Mokrushin, Yu M.; Shakin, O. V.

    2015-04-01

    This review addresses various approaches to television projection imaging on large screens using lasers. Results are presented of theoretical and experimental studies of an acousto-optic projection system operating on the principle of projecting an image of an entire amplitude-modulated television line in a single laser pulse. We consider characteristic features of image formation in such a system and the requirements for its individual components. Particular attention is paid to nonlinear distortions of the image signal, which show up most severely at low modulation signal frequencies. We discuss the feasibility of improving the process efficiency and image quality using acousto-optic modulators and pulsed lasers. Real-time projectors with pulsed line imaging can be used for controlling high-intensity laser radiation.

  13. Simulation of multicomponent light source for optical-electronic system of color analysis objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretiagin, Vladimir S.; Alekhin, Artem A.; Korotaev, Valery V.

    2016-04-01

    Development of lighting technology has led to possibility of using LEDs in the specialized devices for outdoor, industrial (decorative and accent) and domestic lighting. In addition, LEDs and devices based on them are widely used for solving particular problems. For example, the LED devices are widely used for lighting of vegetables and fruit (for their sorting or growing), textile products (for the control of its quality), minerals (for their sorting), etc. Causes of active introduction LED technology in different systems, including optical-electronic devices and systems, are a large choice of emission color and LED structure, that defines the spatial, power, thermal and other parameters. Furthermore, multi-element and color devices of lighting with adjustable illumination properties can be designed and implemented by using LEDs. However, devices based on LEDs require more attention if you want to provide a certain nature of the energy or color distribution at all the work area (area of analysis or observation) or surface of the object. This paper is proposed a method of theoretical modeling of the lighting devices. The authors present the models of RGB multicomponent light source applied to optical-electronic system for the color analysis of mineral objects. The possibility of formation the uniform and homogeneous on energy and color illumination of the work area for this system is presented. Also authors showed how parameters and characteristics of optical radiation receiver (by optical-electronic system) affect on the energy, spatial, spectral and colorimetric properties of a multicomponent light source.

  14. Optical Wireless Sensor Network System Using Corner Cube Retroreflectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teramoto Shota

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze an optical wireless sensor network system that uses corner cube retroreflectors (CCRs. A CCR consists of three flat mirrors in a concave configuration. When a light beam enters the CCR, it bounces off each of the three mirrors, and is reflected back parallel to the direction it entered. A CCR can send information to the base station by modulating the reflected beam by vibrating the CCR or interrupting the light path; the most suitable transmission format is on-off keying (OOK. The CCR is attractive in many optical communication applications because it is small, easy to operate, and has low power consumption. This paper examines two signal decision schemes for use at the base station: collective decision and majority decision. In collective decision, all optical signals detected by the sensors are received by one photodetector (PD, and its output is subjected to hard decision. In majority decision, the outputs of the PDs associated with the sensors are subjected to hard detection, and the final data is decided by majority decision. We show that increasing the number of sensors improves the bit error rate (BER. We also show that when the transmitted optical power is sufficiently large, BER depends on sensor accuracy. We confirm that collective decision yields lower BERs than majority decision.

  15. Fiber-Optic Micrometeoroid/Orbital Debris Impact Detector System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Eric L.; Tennyson, R. C.; Morison, W. D.

    2012-01-01

    A document describes a reliable, lightweight micrometeoroid/orbital debris (MMOD) detection system that can be located at strategic positions of "high consequence" to provide real-time warning of a penetration, its location, and the extent of the damage to a spacecraft. The concept is to employ fiber-optic sensors to detect impact damage and penetration of spacecraft structures. The fibers are non-electrical, employ light waves, and are immune to electromagnetic interference. The fiber-optic sensor array can be made as a stand-alone product, being bonded to a flexible membrane material or a structure that is employed as a MMOD shield material. The optical sensors can also be woven into hybrid MMOD shielding fabrics. The glass fibers of the fiber-optic sensor provide a dual purpose in contributing to the breakup of MMOD projectiles. The grid arrays can be made in a modular configuration to provide coverage over any area desired. Each module can be connected to a central scanner instrument and be interrogated in a continuous or periodic mode.

  16. MNC Headquarters as Activity Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nell, Phillip C.; Møller Larsen, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    Recent literature has questioned why multinational corporations (MNC) relocate their headquarters activities overseas. In this paper, we investigate the consequences of this phenomenon. To do this, we conceptualize the MNC headquarters activities as an interdependent system, and develop a set of ...

  17. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF OPTICAL CDMA SYSTEM USING VC CODE FAMILY UNDER VARIOUS OPTICAL PARAMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HASSAN YOUSIF AHMED

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The intent of this paper is to study the performance of spectral-amplitude coding optical code-division multiple-access (OCDMA systems using Vector Combinatorial (VC code under various optical parameters. This code can be constructed by an algebraic way based on Euclidian vectors for any positive integer number. One of the important properties of this code is that the maximum cross-correlation is always one which means that multi-user interference (MUI and phase induced intensity noise are reduced. Transmitter and receiver structures based on unchirped fiber Bragg grating (FBGs using VC code and taking into account effects of the intensity, shot and thermal noise sources is demonstrated. The impact of the fiber distance effects on bit error rate (BER is reported using a commercial optical systems simulator, virtual photonic instrument, VPITM. The VC code is compared mathematically with reported codes which use similar techniques. We analyzed and characterized the fiber link, received power, BER and channel spacing. The performance and optimization of VC code in SAC-OCDMA system is reported. By comparing the theoretical and simulation results taken from VPITM, we have demonstrated that, for a high number of users, even if data rate is higher, the effective power source is adequate when the VC is used. Also it is found that as the channel spacing width goes from very narrow to wider, the BER decreases, best performance occurs at a spacing bandwidth between 0.8 and 1 nm. We have shown that the SAC system utilizing VC code significantly improves the performance compared with the reported codes.

  18. Turnkey Optical Inspection Systems: Getting What You Want

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figler, Burton D.

    1985-12-01

    The science of automatic inspection and measurement has assumed greatly increased importance in today's competitive business environment and it will assume still greater importance with the coming of tomorrow's Factory of the Future (FOF). Even today, the terms Computer Aided Manufacturing, the "CAM" in CAD/CAM, and Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) have become common in the popular jargon. Whether computer aided or computer integrated, the modern manufacturing operation requires automated inspection and measurement for two fundamental reasons: (1) economic pressures dictate that waste and inefficiency be minimized, and (2) today's customer base requires not only competitive prices but also competitive quality. Therefore, automated inspection and measurement is needed to provide cost minimization while also providing quality maximization. These dual requirements are discussed in terms of turnkey systems supplied by independent vendors to the manufacturer. Specific examples are presented of the pitfalls that are sometimes encountered. We illustrate the process in terms of actual turnkey on-line inspection and measurement systems that have been developed for industrial use on fixed assembly lines, as well as for use in flexible assembly operations. The systems to be discussed contain image acquisition subsystems, real time data processing, optical non-contact gauging subsystems, and the associated mechanical, optical and computer hardware to achieve total automated operation. As such, these systems address the problems of integrated system design for automated inspection and gauging. The systems described have the capability to inspect and gauge a variety of products, ranging from spur gears to rigid, dimensionally accurate bodies, to metal webs, to transparent/transluscent paper, plastic and woven materials, and to the testing and inspection of optical systems.

  19. 77 FR 73456 - Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive Patent License; Fiber Optic Sensor Systems Technology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ...; Fiber Optic Sensor Systems Technology Corporation AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of the Navy hereby gives notice of its intent to grant to Fiber Optic Sensor... Modulated Fiber Optic Pressure Sensor, Navy Case No. 83,816.//U.S. Patent No. 7,149,374: Fiber Optic...

  20. Detecting tissue optical and mechanical properties with an ultrasound modulated optical imaging system in reflection detection geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yi; Li, Sinan; Eckersley, Robert J; Elson, Daniel S; Tang, Meng-Xing

    2015-01-01

    Tissue optical and mechanical properties are correlated to tissue pathologic changes. This manuscript describes a dual-mode ultrasound modulated optical imaging system capable of sensing local optical and mechanical properties in reflection geometry. The optical characterisation was achieved by the acoustic radiation force assisted ultrasound modulated optical tomography (ARF-UOT) with laser speckle contrast detection. Shear waves generated by the ARF were also tracked optically by the same system and the shear wave speed was used for the elasticity measurement. Tissue mimicking phantoms with multiple inclusions buried at 11 mm depth were experimentally scanned with the dual-mode system. The inclusions, with higher optical absorption and/or higher stiffness than background, were identified based on the dual results and their stiffnesses were quantified. The system characterises both optical and mechanical properties of the inclusions compared with the ARF-UOT or the elasticity measurement alone. Moreover, by detecting the backward scattered light in reflection detection geometry, the system is more suitable for clinical applications compared with transmission geometry.

  1. An automated activation analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minor, M.M.; Hensley, W.K.; Denton, M.M.; Garcia, S.R.

    1982-01-01

    An automated delayed neutron counting and instrumental neutron activation analysis system has been developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory's Omega West Reactor (OWR) to analyze samples for uranium and 31 additional elements with a maximum throughput of 400 samples per day. The system and its mode of operation for a large reconnaissance survey will be described. (author)

  2. Automated activation-analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minor, M.M.; Hensley, W.K.; Denton, M.M.; Garcia, S.R.

    1981-01-01

    An automated delayed neutron counting and instrumental neutron activation analysis system has been developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory's Omega West Reactor (OWR) to analyze samples for uranium and 31 additional elements with a maximum throughput of 400 samples per day. The system and its mode of operation for a large reconnaissance survey are described

  3. Active Response Gravity Offload System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Paul; Dungan, Larry; Cunningham, Thomas; Lieberman, Asher; Poncia, Dina

    2011-01-01

    The Active Response Gravity Offload System (ARGOS) provides the ability to simulate with one system the gravity effect of planets, moons, comets, asteroids, and microgravity, where the gravity is less than Earth fs gravity. The system works by providing a constant force offload through an overhead hoist system and horizontal motion through a rail and trolley system. The facility covers a 20 by 40-ft (approximately equals 6.1 by 12.2m) horizontal area with 15 ft (approximately equals4.6 m) of lifting vertical range.

  4. 78 FR 17187 - Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive Patent License; Fiber Optic Sensor Systems Technology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ...; Fiber Optic Sensor Systems Technology Corporation AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION: Notice..., 2012, announcing an intent to grant to Fiber Optic Sensor Systems Technology Corporation, a revocable... the Navy hereby gives notice of its intent to grant to Fiber Optic Sensor Systems Technology...

  5. Involvement of the Extrageniculate System in the Perception of Optical Illusions: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken-Ichi Tabei

    Full Text Available Research on the neural processing of optical illusions can provide clues for understanding the neural mechanisms underlying visual perception. Previous studies have shown that some visual areas contribute to the perception of optical illusions such as the Kanizsa triangle and Müller-Lyer figure; however, the neural mechanisms underlying the processing of these and other optical illusions have not been clearly identified. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, we determined which brain regions are active during the perception of optical illusions. For our study, we enrolled 18 participants. The illusory optical stimuli consisted of many kana letters, which are Japanese phonograms. During the shape task, participants stated aloud whether they perceived the shapes of two optical illusions as being the same or not. During the word task, participants read aloud the kana letters in the stimuli. A direct comparison between the shape and word tasks showed activation of the right inferior frontal gyrus, left medial frontal gyrus, and right pulvinar. It is well known that there are two visual pathways, the geniculate and extrageniculate systems, which belong to the higher-level and primary visual systems, respectively. The pulvinar belongs to the latter system, and the findings of the present study suggest that the extrageniculate system is involved in the cognitive processing of optical illusions.

  6. Involvement of the Extrageniculate System in the Perception of Optical Illusions: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabei, Ken-Ichi; Satoh, Masayuki; Kida, Hirotaka; Kizaki, Moeni; Sakuma, Haruno; Sakuma, Hajime; Tomimoto, Hidekazu

    2015-01-01

    Research on the neural processing of optical illusions can provide clues for understanding the neural mechanisms underlying visual perception. Previous studies have shown that some visual areas contribute to the perception of optical illusions such as the Kanizsa triangle and Müller-Lyer figure; however, the neural mechanisms underlying the processing of these and other optical illusions have not been clearly identified. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we determined which brain regions are active during the perception of optical illusions. For our study, we enrolled 18 participants. The illusory optical stimuli consisted of many kana letters, which are Japanese phonograms. During the shape task, participants stated aloud whether they perceived the shapes of two optical illusions as being the same or not. During the word task, participants read aloud the kana letters in the stimuli. A direct comparison between the shape and word tasks showed activation of the right inferior frontal gyrus, left medial frontal gyrus, and right pulvinar. It is well known that there are two visual pathways, the geniculate and extrageniculate systems, which belong to the higher-level and primary visual systems, respectively. The pulvinar belongs to the latter system, and the findings of the present study suggest that the extrageniculate system is involved in the cognitive processing of optical illusions.

  7. Laser beam shaping optical system design methods and their application in edge-emitting semiconductor laser-based LIDAR systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serkan, Mert

    LIDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) systems are employed for numerous applications such as remote sensing, military applications, optical data storage, display technology, and material processing. Furthermore, they are superior to other active remote sensing tools such as RADAR systems, considering their higher accuracy and more precise resolution due to their much shorter wavelengths and narrower beamwidth. Several types of lasers can be utilized as the radiation source of several LIDAR systems. Semiconductor laser-based LIDAR systems have several advantages such as low cost, compactness, broad range of wavelengths, and high PRFs (Pulse Repetition Frequency). However, semiconductor lasers have different origins and angles of divergence in the two transverse directions, resulting in the inherent astigmatism and elliptical beam shape. Specifically, elliptical beam shape is not desirable for several laser-based applications including LIDAR systems specifically designed to operate in the far-field region. In this dissertation, two mirror-based and two lens-based beam shapers are designed to circularize, collimate, and expand an edge-emitting semiconductor laser beam to a desired beam diameter for possible application in LIDAR systems. Additionally, most laser beams including semiconductor laser beams have Gaussian irradiance distribution. For applications that require uniform illumination of an extended target area, Gaussian irradiance distribution is undesirable. Therefore, a specific beam shaper is designed to transform the irradiance distribution from Gaussian to uniform in addition to circularizing, collimating, and expanding the semiconductor laser beam. For the design of beam shapers, aperture sizes of the surfaces are preset for desired power transmission and allowed diffraction level, surface parameters of the optical components and the distances between these surfaces are determined. Design equations specific to these beam shaping optical systems are

  8. Optical system for UV-laser technological equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedosov, Yuri V.; Romanova, Galina E.; Afanasev, Maxim Ya.

    2017-09-01

    Recently there has been an intensive development of intelligent industrial equipment that is highly automated and can be rapidly adjusted for certain details. This equipment can be robotics systems, automatic wrappers and markers, CNC machines and 3D printers. The work equipment considered is the system for selective curing of photopolymers using a UV-laser and UV-radiation in such equipment that leads to additional technical difficulties. In many cases for transporting the radiation from the laser to the point processed, a multi-mirror system is used: however, such systems are usually difficult to adjust. Additionally, such multi-mirror systems are usually used as a part of the equipment for laser cutting of metals using high-power IR-lasers. For the UV-lasers, using many mirrors leads to crucial radiation losses because of many reflections. Therefore, during the development of the optical system for technological equipment using UV-laser we need to solve two main problems: to transfer the radiation for the working point with minimum losses and to include the system for controlling/handling the radiation spot position. We introduce a system for working with UV-lasers with 450mW of power and a wavelength of 0.45 μm based on a fiber system. In our modelling and design, we achieve spot sizes of about 300 μm, and the designed optical and mechanical systems (prototypes) were manufactured and assembled. In this paper, we present the layout of the technological unit, the results of the theoretical modelling of some parts of the system and some experimental results.

  9. Semiconductor Mode-Locked Lasers for Optical Communication Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yvind, Kresten

    2003-01-01

    The thesis deals with the design and fabrication of semiconductor mode-locked lasers for use in optical communication systems. The properties of pulse sources and characterization methods are described as well as requirements for application in communication systems. Especially, the importance of......, and ways to reduce high-frequency jitter is discussed. The main result of the thesis is a new design of the epitaxial structure that both enables simplified fabrication and improves the properties of monolithic lasers. 40 GHz monolithic lasers with record low jitter and high power is presented as well...

  10. Ray and wave optics of integrable and stochastic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, S.W.; Kaufman, A.N.

    1979-07-01

    The generalization of WKB methods to more than one dimension is discussed in terms of the integrability or non-integrability of the geometrical optics (ray Hamiltonian) system derived in the short-wave approximation. In the two-dimensional case the ray trajectories are either regular or stochastic, and the qualitative differences between these types of motion are manifested in the characteristics of the spectra and eigenfunctions. These are examined for a model system which may be integrable or stochastic, depending on a single parameter

  11. Performance analysis of an adaptive optics system for free-space optics communication through atmospheric turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yukun; Xu, Huanyu; Li, Dayu; Wang, Rui; Jin, Chengbin; Yin, Xianghui; Gao, Shijie; Mu, Quanquan; Xuan, Li; Cao, Zhaoliang

    2018-01-18

    The performance of free-space optics communication (FSOC) is greatly degraded by atmospheric turbulence. Adaptive optics (AO) is an effective method for attenuating the influence. In this paper, the influence of the spatial and temporal characteristics of turbulence on the performance of AO in a FSOC system is investigated. Based on the Greenwood frequency (GF) and the ratio of receiver aperture diameter to atmospheric coherent length (D/r 0 ), the relationship between FSOC performance (CE) and AO parameters (corrected Zernike modes number and bandwidth) is derived for the first time. Then, simulations and experiments are conducted to analyze the influence of AO parameters on FSOC performance under different GF and D/r 0 . The simulation and experimental results show that, for common turbulence conditions, the number of corrected Zernike modes can be fixed at 35 and the bandwidth of the AO system should be larger than the GF. Measurements of the bit error rate (BER) for moderate turbulence conditions (D/r 0  = 10, f G  = 60 Hz) show that when the bandwidth is two times that of GF, the average BER is decreased by two orders of magnitude compared with f G /f 3dB  = 1. These results and conclusions can provide important guidance in the design of an AO system for FSOC.

  12. Passive radiation detection using optically active CMOS sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosiek, Luke; Schalk, Patrick D.

    2013-05-01

    Recently, there have been a number of small-scale and hobbyist successes in employing commodity CMOS-based camera sensors for radiation detection. For example, several smartphone applications initially developed for use in areas near the Fukushima nuclear disaster are capable of detecting radiation using a cell phone camera, provided opaque tape is placed over the lens. In all current useful implementations, it is required that the sensor not be exposed to visible light. We seek to build a system that does not have this restriction. While building such a system would require sophisticated signal processing, it would nevertheless provide great benefits. In addition to fulfilling their primary function of image capture, cameras would also be able to detect unknown radiation sources even when the danger is considered to be low or non-existent. By experimentally profiling the image artifacts generated by gamma ray and β particle impacts, algorithms are developed to identify the unique features of radiation exposure, while discarding optical interaction and thermal noise effects. Preliminary results focus on achieving this goal in a laboratory setting, without regard to integration time or computational complexity. However, future work will seek to address these additional issues.

  13. LED Based Optical Wireless Communication System for WBAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ATTIYA BAQAI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the O-WBANs (Optical Wireless Body Area Networks is presented as an alternative to the radio and microwave BANs which are plagued with issues like interference, power hungry, hazardous and costly spectrum. Various experiments performed in this work demonstrate the feasibility of LED (Light-Emitting Diode based optical systems to be used for BANs. The system cost is kept as low as possible. Mainly the effects on the optical link are observed under ambient light and with different modulation schemes by varying link distance and line of sight in this paper. Experimental results reveal the satisfactory link availability up to the distance of 7 feet (around 2m, the optimum range of WBAN and within the field of view of 30-60º. The low cost solution presented in this paper meets the WBANs data rate requirement for physiological data (i.e. 10-100 kbps. As IR (Infra-Red signals do not provide any interference with the signals generated by the medical equipment of hospitals which is the problem in case of RF or microwave signals, additionally the IR signals are confined within a room hence IR signaling can prove to be potential candidate for WBAN fulfilling its security and limited access requirement.

  14. Advanced optical systems for ultra high energy cosmic rays detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambicorti, L.; Pace, E.; Mazzinghi, P.

    2017-11-01

    A new advanced optical system is proposed and analysed in this work with the purpose to improve the photons collection efficiency of Multi-AnodePhotoMultipliers (MAPMT) detectors, which will be used to cover large focal surface of instruments dedicated to the Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs, above 1019eV) and Ultra High Energy Neutrino (UHEN) detection. The employment of the advanced optical system allows to focus all photons inside the sensitive area of detectors and to improve the signal-to-noise ratios in the wavelength range of interest (300-400nm), thus coupling imaging and filtering capability. Filter is realised with a multilayer coating to reach high transparency in UV range and with a sharp cut-off outside. In this work the applications on different series of PMTs have been studied and results of simulations are shown. First prototypes have been realised. Finally, this paper proposes another class of adapters to be optically coupled on each pixel of MAPMT detector selected, consisting of non-imaging concentrators as Winston cones.

  15. Controllable optical bistability and multistability in a graphene monolayer system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Duo, E-mail: zhangduo10@126.com [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Wuhan Polytechnic University, Wuhan 430023 (China); Sun, Zhaoyu [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Wuhan Polytechnic University, Wuhan 430023 (China); Ding, Chunling [School of Physics and Electronics, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Yu, Rong [School of Science, Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Intelligent Robot, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Wuhan 430073 (China); Yang, Xiaoxue [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics and School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2016-02-15

    We theoretically investigate the behavior of optical bistability (OB) and optical multistability (OM) in a graphene monolayer system driven by an elliptically polarized control field and a right-hand circularly polarized probe field. Our numerical results show that it is easy to realize the transition from OB to OM or vice versa by adjusting the frequency detunings of the probe field and the control field, as well as the polarization-dependent phase difference between the two components of the control laser field. The influences of the intensity of the control field and the cooperation parameter on the OB behavior are also discussed in detail. These results may provide some new possibilities for technological applications in optoelectronics and solid-state quantum information science.

  16. Optical sensors and their applications for probing biological systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palanco, Marta Espina

    biological sample to provide a SERS-template where silver nanoparticles can grow, thus providing a new insight into SERS-based sensors for chemically sensing in-situ plant constituents. Optical manipulation techniques have been used to investigate mechanical properties of soft membrane cells, i.e. mammalian......There is a great interest in exploring and developing new optical sensitive methodologies for probing complex biological systems. In this project we developed non-invasive and sensitive biosensor strategies for studying physiologically relevant chemical and physical properties of plant...... parts of the fresh tissues. The location of the nanoparticles inside some of the tissues was examined via SERS images, collected from Raman signatures of the constituents of the tissues as well as from Raman signatures of a specific pH-sensitive reporter molecule attached to the nanoparticles...

  17. Polarization mode dispersion in optical fiber transmission systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, John Charles

    The birefringence of optical fibers causes pulse broadening in fiber-optic communication systems. This phenomenon is known as polarization mode dispersion (PMD). PMD is one of the most important limiting factors for high capacity fiber-optic systems. A number of aspects of PMD are examined in this thesis. In Chapter 2 an expression is derived for the probability density function of the pulse broadening due to first-order PMD. This result is used to obtain an expression for the system limitation due to PMD. The birefringence of optical fibers is commonly simulated with the waveplate model. In Chapter 3 two standard versions of the waveplate model are introduced. In addition, a novel waveplate model is proposed. The characteristics of the three versions of the waveplate model are examined to confirm their suitability for use in subsequent chapters of the thesis. Simulations with the waveplate model are performed in Chapter 4 for three purposes: (1) to determine the impact of chromatic dispersion on the system limitation due to PMD, (2) to examine the effectiveness of three different PMD compensation techniques in the presence of chromatic dispersion, and (3) to examine the interaction of second-order chromatic dispersion with PMD. The simulations in Chapter 4 reveal that it is possible with one compensation technique to have output pulses that are narrower than the input pulses. In Chapter 5, this anomalous pulse narrowing is demonstrated analytically for a simple model of PMD and through experiment. It is also shown that this pulse narrowing can be explained as an interference phenomenon. Chapter 6 presents measurements of PMD and state of polarization on installed optical fibers. The PMD coefficients of 122 fibers are presented and the results are analyzed in terms of the age of the fibers and the type of cabling. Measurements of the time evolution of PMD and state of polarization are presented for fibers installed in both buried and aerial cables. The uncertainty

  18. Beat Noise Cancellation in 2-D Optical Code-Division Multiple-Access Systems Using Optical Hard-Limiter Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Ngoc T.; Pham, Anh T.; Cheng, Zixue

    We analyze the beat noise cancellation in two-dimensional optical code-division multiple-access (2-D OCDMA) systems using an optical hard-limiter (OHL) array. The Gaussian shape of optical pulse is assumed and the impact of pulse propagation is considered. We also take into account the receiver noise and multiple access interference (MAI) in the analysis. The numerical results show that, when OHL array is employed, the system performance is greatly improved compared with the cases without OHL array. Also, parameters needed for practical system design are comprehensively analyzed.

  19. A variable-resolution optical profile measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tung-Hsien; Fan, Kuang-Chao; Mou, Jong-I.

    2002-02-01

    In this study, a variable-resolution optical measurement system (VROPMS) based on triangulation measurement technology is proposed. The VROPMS optical scanning probe is composed of dual CCD cameras fitted with zoom lenses and a line laser diode projector. A flexible and novel calibration procedure for VROPMS is developed to acquire the system parameters quickly and accurately. The central position of the reflected laser image is calculated using Gaussian function least-squares fitting of the beam intensity. Subpixel resolution can thus be acquired. Experimental calibration results show that the higher the lens magnification, the finer the derived system resolution. The best accuracy at the zoomed focus position is about 0.02 mm. This system can flexibly zoom in or out to measure a 3D object profile in sections according to the approximate surface profile. Varied mesh images taken from different zoom positions by VROPMS can be patched using the image matching technique to reconstruct the entire profile. A human sculpture with a complex surface profile is measured using VROPMS as a practical illustration of the effectiveness of the system.

  20. Tunable photonic band gaps and optical nonreciprocity by an RF-driving ladder-type system in moving optical lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, Nuo; Zhong, Xin; Wang, Lei; Fei, Jin-You; Zhang, Yan; Bao, Qian-Qian; Xiao, Li

    2018-03-01

    We investigate photonic transport properties of the 1D moving optical lattices filled with vast cold atoms driven into a four-level ladder-type system and obtain dynamically controlled photonic bandgaps and optical nonreciprocity. It is found that the two obvious optical nonreciprocity can be generated at two well-developed photonic bandgaps based on double dark states in the presence of a radio-frequency field. However, when the radio-frequency field is absence, the only one induced photonic bandgaps with distinguishing optical nonreciprocity can be opened up via single dark state. Dynamic control of the induced photonic bandgaps and optical nonreciprocity could be exploited to achieve all-optical diodes and routing for quantum information networks.

  1. The Design and Use of an Optical Mapping System for the Study of Intracardiac Electrical Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maneesh Shrivastav, PhD

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescent optical mapping of electrically active cardiac tissues provides a unique method to examine the excitation wave dynamics of underlying action potentials. Such mapping can be viewed as a bridge between cellular level and organ systems physiology, e.g., by facilitating the development of advanced theoretical concepts of arrhythmia. We present the design and use of a high-speed, high-resolution optical mapping system composed entirely of “off the shelf” components. The electrical design integrates a 256 element photodiode array with a 16 bit data acquisition system. Proper grounding and shielding at various stages of the design reduce electromagnetic interference. Our mechanical design provides flexibility in terms of mounting positions and applications (use for whole heart or tissue preparations, while maintaining precise alignment between all optical components. The system software incorporates a user friendly graphical user interface, e.g., spatially recorded action potentials can be represented as intensity graphs or in strip chart format. Thus, this system is capable of displaying cardiac action potentials with high spatiotemporal resolution. Results from cardiac action potential mapping with intact mouse hearts are provided. It should be noted that this system could be readily configured to study isolated myocardial biopsies (e.g., isolated ventricular trabeculae. We describe the details of a versatile, user-friendly system that could be employed for a magnitude of study protocols.

  2. Imaging Neuronal Activity in the Optic Tectum of Late Stage Larval Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Bergmann

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The zebrafish is an established model to study the development and function of visual neuronal circuits in vivo, largely due to their optical accessibility at embryonic and larval stages. In the past decade multiple experimental paradigms have been developed to study visually-driven behaviours, particularly those regulated by the optic tectum, the main visual centre in lower vertebrates. With few exceptions these techniques are limited to young larvae (7–9 days post-fertilisation, dpf. However, many forms of visually-driven behaviour, such as shoaling, emerge at later developmental stages. Consequently, there is a need for an experimental paradigm to image the visual system in zebrafish larvae beyond 9 dpf. Here, we show that using NBT:GCaMP3 line allows for imaging neuronal activity in the optic tectum in late stage larvae until at least 21 dpf. Utilising this line, we have characterised the receptive field properties of tectal neurons of the 2–3 weeks old fish in the cell bodies and the neuropil. The NBT:GCaMP3 line provides a complementary approach and additional opportunities to study neuronal activity in late stage zebrafish larvae.

  3. Micro-vision servo control of a multi-axis alignment system for optical fiber assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weihai; Yu, Fei; Qu, Jianliang; Chen, Wenjie; Zhang, Jianbin

    2017-04-01

    This paper describes a novel optical fiber assembly system featuring a multi-axis alignment function based on micro-vision feedback control. It consists of an active parallel alignment mechanism, a passive compensation mechanism, a micro-gripper and a micro-vision servo control system. The active parallel alignment part is a parallelogram-based design with remote-center-of-motion (RCM) function to achieve precise rotation without fatal lateral motion. The passive mechanism, with five degrees of freedom (5-DOF), is used to implement passive compensation for multi-axis errors. A specially designed 1-DOF micro-gripper mounted onto the active parallel alignment platform is adopted to grasp and rotate the optical fiber. A micro-vision system equipped with two charge-coupled device (CCD) cameras is introduced to observe the small field of view and obtain multi-axis errors for servo feedback control. The two CCD cameras are installed in an orthogonal arrangement—thus the errors can be easily measured via the captured images. Meanwhile, a series of tracking and measurement algorithms based on specific features of the target objects are developed. Details of the force and displacement sensor information acquisition in the assembly experiment are also provided. An experiment demonstrates the validity of the proposed visual algorithm by achieving the task of eliminating errors and inserting an optical fiber to the U-groove accurately.

  4. Micro-vision servo control of a multi-axis alignment system for optical fiber assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Weihai; Yu, Fei; Qu, Jianliang; Chen, Wenjie; Zhang, Jianbin

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes a novel optical fiber assembly system featuring a multi-axis alignment function based on micro-vision feedback control. It consists of an active parallel alignment mechanism, a passive compensation mechanism, a micro-gripper and a micro-vision servo control system. The active parallel alignment part is a parallelogram-based design with remote-center-of-motion (RCM) function to achieve precise rotation without fatal lateral motion. The passive mechanism, with five degrees of freedom (5-DOF), is used to implement passive compensation for multi-axis errors. A specially designed 1-DOF micro-gripper mounted onto the active parallel alignment platform is adopted to grasp and rotate the optical fiber. A micro-vision system equipped with two charge-coupled device (CCD) cameras is introduced to observe the small field of view and obtain multi-axis errors for servo feedback control. The two CCD cameras are installed in an orthogonal arrangement—thus the errors can be easily measured via the captured images. Meanwhile, a series of tracking and measurement algorithms based on specific features of the target objects are developed. Details of the force and displacement sensor information acquisition in the assembly experiment are also provided. An experiment demonstrates the validity of the proposed visual algorithm by achieving the task of eliminating errors and inserting an optical fiber to the U-groove accurately. (paper)

  5. Versatile optical manipulation system for inspection, laser processing, and isolation of individual living cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuhrmann, B.; Jahnke, H.-G.; Schmidt, M.; Jähn, K.; Betz, T.; Müller, K.; Rothermel, A.; Käs, J.; Robitzki, A. A.

    2006-06-01

    Isolation of individual cells from a heterogeneous cell population is an invaluable step in the analysis of single cell properties. The demands in molecular and cellular biology as well as molecular medicine are the selection, isolation, and monitoring of single cells and cell clusters of biopsy material. Of particular interest are methods which complement a passive optical or spectroscopic selection with a variety of active single cell processing techniques such as mechanical, biochemical, or genetic manipulation prior to isolation. Sophisticated laser-based cell processing systems are available which can perform single cell processing in a contact-free and sterile manner. Until now, however, these multipurpose turnkey systems offer only basic micromanipulation and are not easily modified or upgraded, whereas laboratory situations often demand simple but versatile and adaptable solutions. We built a flexible laser micromanipulation platform combining contact-free microdissection and catapulting capabilities using a pulsed ultraviolet (337nm) laser with simultaneous generation of optical tweezing forces using a continuous wave infrared (1064nm) laser. The potential of our platform is exemplified with techniques such as local laser-induced injection of biomolecules into individual living cells, laser surgery, isolation of single cells by laser catapulting, and control of neuronal growth using optical gradient forces. Arbitrary dynamic optical force patterns can be created by fast laser scanning with acousto-optical deflectors and galvanometer mirrors, allowing multibeam contact-free micromanipulation, a prerequisite for reliable handling of material in laboratory-on-a-chip applications. All common microscopy techniques can be used simultaneously with the offered palette of micromanipulation methods. Taken together, we show that advanced optical micromanipulation systems can be designed which combine quality, cost efficiency, and adaptability.

  6. Raman optical activity spectroscopy by visible-excited coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramatsu, Kotaro; Leproux, Philippe; Couderc, Vincent; Nagata, Takashi; Kano, Hideaki

    2015-09-01

    We developed a Raman optical activity (ROA) spectroscopic system with visible-excited coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS). A supercontinuum within the visible region was generated with a photonic crystal fiber pumped with both 532 and 1064 nm excitation, generating a multiplexed CARS-ROA spectrum covering the whole fingerprint region. In visible excitation, the CARS-ROA spectrum of (-)-β-pinene shows a higher contrast ratio of the chirality-induced signal to the achiral background than that of the previously reported near-infrared CARS-ROA spectrum.

  7. Technicon H*1 Hematology System: Optical Design Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colella, G. M.; Tycko, D. H.; Groner, W.

    1988-06-01

    The Technicon H*1 systemTM is a clinical laboratory flow cytometer which performs a complete hematology profile, providing quantitative information on the various types of cells in a blood sample. A light-scattering method, using a HeNe laser, determines in a single flow channel the red cell count, platelet count, and the distributions of red cell volume, red cell hemoglobin concentration, and platelet volume. To accomplish this the scattered light from each red cell in the sample is measured in real time at two angular intervals. The cell volume and the hemoglobin concentration within the cell are derived from these two measurements. Severe accuracy and precision specifications are placed on the medically important red cell count (RBC) and the mean red cell volume (MCV). From the point of view of optical system design, the dominant factor is the requirement that RBC and MCV have precision and accuracy of the order of 2%. Signal-to-noise and scattering-angle definition requirements dictated the choice of a HeNe laser light source. The optics includes an illumination system for producing a sharply defined, uniformly illuminated scattering region and a detection system which must accurately define the accepted scattering angles. In previous cytometric methods for determining MCV only a single quantity was measured for each cell. Such methods cannot disentangle the independent effects of cell size and hemoglobin concentration on the measurement, thus compromising MCV accuracy. The present double-angle scattering method overcomes this accuracy problem. The H*1 red cell method, the supporting optical design and data demonstrating that the use of this technique eliminates interference between the observed red cell indices are presented.

  8. Second-Order Statistics for Wave Propagation through Complex Optical Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yura, H.T.; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    1989-01-01

    Closed-form expressions are derived for various statistical functions that arise in optical propagation through arbitrary optical systems that can be characterized by a complex ABCD matrix in the presence of distributed random inhomogeneities along the optical path. Specifically, within the second......-order Rytov approximation, explicit general expressions are presented for the mutual coherence function, the log-amplitude and phase correlation functions, and the mean-square irradiance that are obtained in propagation through an arbitrary paraxial ABCD optical system containing Gaussian-shaped limiting...... apertures. Additionally, we consider the performance of adaptive-optics systems through arbitrary real paraxial ABCD optical systems and derive an expression for the mean irradiance of an adaptive-optics laser transmitter through such systems. © 1989 Optical Society of America...

  9. Structure and optical bandgap relationship of π-conjugated systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Leitão Botelho

    Full Text Available In bulk heterojunction photovoltaic systems both the open-circuit voltage as well as the short-circuit current, and hence the power conversion efficiency, are dependent on the optical bandgap of the electron-donor material. While first-principles methods are computationally intensive, simpler model Hamiltonian approaches typically suffer from one or more flaws: inability to optimize the geometries for their own input; absence of general, transferable parameters; and poor performance for non-planar systems. We introduce a set of new and revised parameters for the adapted Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (aSSH Hamiltonian, which is capable of optimizing geometries, along with rules for applying them to any [Formula: see text]-conjugated system containing C, N, O, or S, including non-planar systems. The predicted optical bandgaps show excellent agreement to UV-vis spectroscopy data points from literature, with a coefficient of determination [Formula: see text], a mean error of -0.05 eV, and a mean absolute deviation of 0.16 eV. We use the model to gain insights from PEDOT, fused thiophene polymers, poly-isothianaphthene, copolymers, and pentacene as sources of design rules in the search for low bandgap materials. Using the model as an in-silico design tool, a copolymer of benzodithiophenes along with a small-molecule derivative of pentacene are proposed as optimal donor materials for organic photovoltaics.

  10. A Sort-Last Rendering System over an Optical Backplane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Kirihata

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Sort-Last is a computer graphics technique for rendering extremely large data sets on clusters of computers. Sort-Last works by dividing the data set into even-sized chunks for parallel rendering and then composing the images to form the final result. Since sort-last rendering requires the movement of large amounts of image data among cluster nodes, the network interconnecting the nodes becomes a major bottleneck. In this paper, we describe a sort-last rendering system implemented on a cluster of computers whose nodes are connected by an all-optical switch. The rendering system introduces the notion of the Photonic Computing Engine, a computing system built dynamically by using the optical switch to create dedicated network connections among cluster nodes. The sort-last volume rendering algorithm was implemented on the Photonic Computing Engine, and its performance is evaluated. Prelimi- nary experiments show that performance is affected by the image composition time and average payload size. In an attempt to stabilize the performance of the system, we have designed a flow control mechanism that uses feedback messages to dynamically adjust the data flow rate within the computing engine.

  11. Application for surveying technology for the alignment of large optical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauke, W.

    1984-01-01

    Precise alignment of optical elements in large optical systems is difficult if many elements are positioned such that direct alignment or boresighting becomes impossible. A practical approach is to identify discrete optical path segments and align these using standard surveying or optical-tooling instrumentation. One simply has to develop an alignment theory in which the alignment optical path duplicates or closely approximates the optical path of the operational device. The surveying instruments can then be used to simulate the optical input beams to the system segments to be aligned. Auxiliary targets and reflectors may be added, and the alignment procedure may be augmented by standard optical test instrumentation and techniques. Examples are given using theodolites, transits, and levels with autocollimating capability and micrometer adaptors to perform boresighting and autocollimation techniques on segments of the optical train of the Antares Laser Fusion System at Los Alamos National Laboratory

  12. New optical architecture for holographic data storage system compatible with Blu-ray Disc™ system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Ken-ichi; Ide, Tatsuro; Shimano, Takeshi; Anderson, Ken; Curtis, Kevin

    2014-02-01

    A new optical architecture for holographic data storage system which is compatible with a Blu-ray Disc™ (BD) system is proposed. In the architecture, both signal and reference beams pass through a single objective lens with numerical aperture (NA) 0.85 for realizing angularly multiplexed recording. The geometry of the architecture brings a high affinity with an optical architecture in the BD system because the objective lens can be placed parallel to a holographic medium. Through the comparison of experimental results with theory, the validity of the optical architecture was verified and demonstrated that the conventional objective lens motion technique in the BD system is available for angularly multiplexed recording. The test-bed composed of a blue laser system and an objective lens of the NA 0.85 was designed. The feasibility of its compatibility with BD is examined through the designed test-bed.

  13. Exploring the active site structure of photoreceptor proteins by Raman optical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unno, Masashi

    2015-03-01

    Understanding protein function at the atomic level is a major challenge in a field of biophysics and requires the combined efforts of structural and functional methods. We use photoreceptor proteins as a model system to understand in atomic detail how a chromophore and a protein interact to sense light and send a biological signal. A potential technique for investigating molecular structures is Raman optical activity (ROA), which is a spectroscopic method with a high sensitivity to the structural details of chiral molecules. However, its application to photoreceptor proteins has not been reported. Thus we have constructed ROA spectrometer using near-infrared (NIR) laser excitation at 785 nm. The NIR excitation enables us to measure ROA spectra for a variety of biological samples, including photoreceptor proteins, without fluorescence from the samples. In the present study, we have applied the NIR-ROA to bacteriorhodopsin (BR) and photoactive yellow protein (PYP). BR is a light-driven proton pump and contains a protonated Schiff base of retinal as a chromophore. PYP is a blue light receptor, and this protein has the 4-hydroxycinnamyl chromophore, which is covalently linked to Cys69 through a thiolester bond. We have successfully obtained the ROA spectra of the chromophore within a protein environment. Furthermore, calculations of the ROA spectra utilizing density functional theory provide detailed structural information, such as data on out-of-plane distortions of the chromophore. The structural information obtained from the ROA spectra includes the positions of hydrogen atoms, which are usually not detected in the crystal structures of biological samples.

  14. Adhesive Bonding for Optical Metrology Systems in Space Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gohlke, Martin; Schuldt, Thilo; Braxmaier, Claus; Döringshoff, Klaus; Peters, Achim; Johann, Ulrich; Weise, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Laser based metrology systems become more and more attractive for space applications and are the core elements of planned missions such as LISA (NGO, eLISA) or NGGM where laser interferometry is used for distance measurements between satellites. The GRACE-FO mission will for the first time demonstrate a Laser Ranging Instrument (LRI) in space, starting 2017. Laser based metrology also includes optical clocks/references, either as ultra-stable light source for high sensitivity interferometry or as scientific payload e.g. proposed in fundamental physics missions such as mSTAR (mini SpaceTime Asymmetry Research), a mission dedicated to perform a Kennedy-Thorndike experiment on a satellite in a low-Earth orbit. To enable the use of existing optical laboratory setups, optimization with respect to power consumption, weight and dimensions is necessary. At the same time the thermal and structural stability must be increased. Over the last few years we investigated adhesive bonding of optical components to thermally highly stable glass ceramics as an easy-to-handle assembly integration technology. Several setups were implemented and tested for potential later use in space applications. We realized a heterodyne LISA related interferometer with demonstrated noise levels in the pm-range for translation measurement and nano-radiant-range for tilt measurements and two iodine frequency references on Elegant Breadboard (EBB) and Engineering Model (EM) level with frequency stabilities in the 10 -15 range for longer integration times. The EM setup was thermally cycled and vibration tested. (paper)

  15. Adhesive Bonding for Optical Metrology Systems in Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohlke, Martin; Schuldt, Thilo; Döringshoff, Klaus; Peters, Achim; Johann, Ulrich; Weise, Dennis; Braxmaier, Claus

    2015-05-01

    Laser based metrology systems become more and more attractive for space applications and are the core elements of planned missions such as LISA (NGO, eLISA) or NGGM where laser interferometry is used for distance measurements between satellites. The GRACE-FO mission will for the first time demonstrate a Laser Ranging Instrument (LRI) in space, starting 2017. Laser based metrology also includes optical clocks/references, either as ultra-stable light source for high sensitivity interferometry or as scientific payload e.g. proposed in fundamental physics missions such as mSTAR (mini SpaceTime Asymmetry Research), a mission dedicated to perform a Kennedy-Thorndike experiment on a satellite in a low-Earth orbit. To enable the use of existing optical laboratory setups, optimization with respect to power consumption, weight and dimensions is necessary. At the same time the thermal and structural stability must be increased. Over the last few years we investigated adhesive bonding of optical components to thermally highly stable glass ceramics as an easy-to-handle assembly integration technology. Several setups were implemented and tested for potential later use in space applications. We realized a heterodyne LISA related interferometer with demonstrated noise levels in the pm-range for translation measurement and nano-radiant-range for tilt measurements and two iodine frequency references on Elegant Breadboard (EBB) and Engineering Model (EM) level with frequency stabilities in the 10-15 range for longer integration times. The EM setup was thermally cycled and vibration tested.

  16. Transport of heavy ions through matter within ion optical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwab, T.

    1991-04-01

    In this thesis for the first time higher-order ion-optical calculations were connected with the whole phase-space changes of the heavy ions in passing through matter. With the developed programs and the newly proposed analytical methods atomic and nuclear interactions of the heavy ions within ion optical systems can be described realistically. The results of this thesis were applied to the conception of the fragment separator (FRS) and to the planning and preparation of experiments at the new GSI accelerator facility. Especially for the description of the ion-optical combination of FRS and the storage ring ESR the developed programs and methods proved to be necessary. A part of the applied theories on the atomic stopping could be confirmed in the framework of this thesis in an experiment with the high-resolving spectrometer SPEC at GANIL. The method of the isotopically pure separation of projectile fragments by means of magnetic analysis and the electronic energy loss could be also experimentally successfully tested at several energies (60-400 MeV/u). Furthermore in this thesis also application-related problems regarding a tumor therapy with heavy ions were solved. A concept for a medical separator (BMS) was developed, which separates light diagnosis beams isotopically purely and beyond improves the energy sharpness by means of an especially shaped (monoenergetic) stopper so that an in-situ range determination is possible with an accuracy of about one millimeter. (orig./HSI) [de

  17. Optical Synchronization Systems for Femtosecond X-ray Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcox, Russell; Staples, John W.; Holzwarth, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    In femtosecond pump/probe experiments using short X-Ray and optical pulses, precise synchronization must be maintained between widely separated lasers in a synchrotron or FEL facility. We are developing synchronization systems using optical signals for applications requiring different ranges of timing error over 100 meter of glass fiber. For stabilization in the hundred femtosecond range a CW laser is amplitude modulated at 1 10 GHz, the signal retroreflected from the far end, and the relative phase used to correct the transit time with a piezoelectric phase modulator. For the sub-10 fsec range the laser frequency itself is upshifted 55 MHz with an acousto-optical modulator, retroreflected, upshifted again and phase compared at the sending end to a 110 MHz reference. Initial experiments indicate less than 1 fsec timing jitter. To lock lasers in the sub-10 fs range we will lock two single-frequency lasers separated by several tera Hertz to a master modelocked fiber laser, transmit the two frequencies over fiber, and lock two comb lines of a slave laser to these frequencies, thus synchronizing the two modelocked laser envelopes

  18. Optical Verification Laboratory Demonstration System for High Security Identification Cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javidi, Bahram

    1997-01-01

    Document fraud including unauthorized duplication of identification cards and credit cards is a serious problem facing the government, banks, businesses, and consumers. In addition, counterfeit products such as computer chips, and compact discs, are arriving on our shores in great numbers. With the rapid advances in computers, CCD technology, image processing hardware and software, printers, scanners, and copiers, it is becoming increasingly easy to reproduce pictures, logos, symbols, paper currency, or patterns. These problems have stimulated an interest in research, development and publications in security technology. Some ID cards, credit cards and passports currently use holograms as a security measure to thwart copying. The holograms are inspected by the human eye. In theory, the hologram cannot be reproduced by an unauthorized person using commercially-available optical components; in practice, however, technology has advanced to the point where the holographic image can be acquired from a credit card-photographed or captured with by a CCD camera-and a new hologram synthesized using commercially-available optical components or hologram-producing equipment. Therefore, a pattern that can be read by a conventional light source and a CCD camera can be reproduced. An optical security and anti-copying device that provides significant security improvements over existing security technology was demonstrated. The system can be applied for security verification of credit cards, passports, and other IDs so that they cannot easily be reproduced. We have used a new scheme of complex phase/amplitude patterns that cannot be seen and cannot be copied by an intensity-sensitive detector such as a CCD camera. A random phase mask is bonded to a primary identification pattern which could also be phase encoded. The pattern could be a fingerprint, a picture of a face, or a signature. The proposed optical processing device is designed to identify both the random phase mask and the

  19. Associations between the molecular and optical properties of dissolved organic matter in the Florida Everglades, a model coastal wetland system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasha eWagner

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Optical properties are easy-to-measure proxies for dissolved organic matter (DOM composition, source and reactivity. However, the molecular signature of DOM associated with such optical parameters remains poorly defined. The Florida coastal Everglades is a subtropical wetland with diverse vegetation (e.g., sawgrass prairies, mangrove forests, seagrass meadows and DOM sources (e.g., terrestrial, microbial and marine. As such, the Everglades is an excellent model system from which to draw samples of diverse origin and composition to allow classically-defined optical properties to be linked to molecular properties of the DOM pool. We characterized a suite of seasonally- and spatially-collected DOM samples using optical measurements (EEM-PARAFAC, SUVA254, S275-295, S350-400, SR, FI, freshness index and HIX and ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS. Spearman’s rank correlations between FTICR-MS signal intensities of individual molecular formulae and optical properties determined which molecular formulae were associated with each PARAFAC component and optical index. The molecular families that tracked with the optical indices were generally in agreement with conventional biogeochemical interpretations. Therefore, although they represent only a small portion of the bulk DOM pool, absorbance and fluorescence measurements appear to be appropriate proxies for the aquatic cycling of both optically-active and associated optically-inactive DOM in coastal wetlands.

  20. High extinction ratio integrated optical modulator for quantum telecommunication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronev, A.; Parfenov, M.; Agruzov, P.; Ilichev, I.; Shamray, A.

    2018-01-01

    A method for increasing the extinction ratio of integrated optical Mach-Zehnder modulators based on LiNbO3 via the photorefractive effect is proposed. The influence of the photorefractive effect on the X- and Y-splitters of intensity modulators is experimentally studied. An increase in the modulator extinction ratio by 17 dB (from 30 to 47 dB) is obtained. It is shown that fabricated modulators with a high extinction ratio are important for quantum key distribution systems.

  1. Recent progress in multidimensional optical sensing and imaging systems (MOSIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xin; Javidi, Bahram

    2017-05-01

    We present recent progress of the previously reported Multidimensional Optical Sensing and Imaging Systems (MOSIS) 2.0 for target recognition, material inspection and integrated visualization. The degrees of freedom of MOSIS 2.0 include three-dimensional (3D) imaging, polarimetric imaging and multispectral imaging. Each of these features provides unique information about a scene. 3D computationally reconstructed images mitigate the occlusion in front of the object, which can be used for 3D object recognition. The degree of polarization (DoP) of the light reflected from object surface is measured by 3D polarimetric imaging. Multispectral imaging is able to segment targets with specific spectral properties.

  2. Study on a transient optical fiber high temperature measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Lulu; Liu, Yusha; Wang, Yutian

    2009-07-01

    High temperature is one of the most important parameters in the fields of scientific research and industrial production. At present, thermocouple, thermo resistive and radiance thermometer are already technologically mature which can be adopted to measure the general temperature, but when it comes to the transient high temperature that changes pretty quickly in wretched conditions, those traditional pyrometers can not meet the requirements any more. In this paper, we designed a transient optical high temperature measurement system. First, design of the temperature measurement probe. The system took blackbody cavity sensor together with optical fiber to receive the measured signal, here, the integrated emissivity model of the blackbody cavity was established and the optimum structure parameters were confirmed. Secondly, design of the entire temperature measurement system. A contact-noncontact measurement method was applied, which is to make the blackbody cavity and the measured high-temperature source contact, the fiber probe and the blackbody cavity noncontact, as a result, the error caused by contact measurement is overcame and the precision is guaranteed at the same time. In addition, a fiber grating was introduced as the wavelength filter device which can realize the dynamic filter of narrow-band signals and reduce the impact of background light. Thirdly, signal processing. In this part, we applied labVIEW software and wavelet analysis method. All of the signal acquisition and processing were realized in the labVIEW environment. Through calling matlab in labVIEW, the signals from optical fiber detector were wavelet denoised and decomposed, thus the temperature information was extracted, and the temperature value was obtained. On basis of wavelet transformation, the paper adopted the 4dB wavelet with horizontal scale of 5 to realize the feature extraction and noise removal, parts of the signals before and after the wavelet noise removal were given and analyzed

  3. A new optical encryption system for image transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shuyu; Chen, Linfei; Chang, Guojun; He, Bingyu

    2017-12-01

    This paper introduces a new optical image encryption system based on Fresnel diffraction and phase iterative algorithm, which can realize the conversion between different images. The method is based on the optical system of free space transmission, and uses the iterative phase retrieval algorithm to encode an image into two phase masks and a ciphertext. Unlike the existed methods, the ciphertext is a visible image, which can be used to achieve the conversion of one image to another image. In order to enhance the security, two phase masks are combined into a wide-scale phase mask by the double image cross pixel scrambling approach. In the decryption process, the wide-scale phase mask is re-decrypted into two random phase masks using a random shift matrix. The ciphertext and the first phase mask are placed on the input plane and the second random phase mask is placed on the transformation plane. The Fresnel diffraction principle can be used to obtain the plaintext information on the output plane. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that the encryption system is feasible and quite safe.

  4. New education system for construction of optical holography setup - Tangible learning with Augmented Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Takeshi; Yoshikawa, Hiroshi

    2013-02-01

    In case of teaching optical system construction, it is difficult to prepare the optical components for the attendance student. However the tangible learning is very important to master the optical system construction. It helps learners understand easily to use an inexpensive learning system that provides optical experiments experiences. Therefore, we propose the new education system for construction of optical setup with the augmented reality. To use the augmented reality, the proposed system can simulate the optical system construction by the direct hand control. Also, this system only requires an inexpensive web camera, printed makers and a personal computer. Since this system does not require the darkroom and the expensive optical equipments, the learners can study anytime, anywhere when they want to do. In this paper, we developed the system that can teach the optical system construction of the Denisyuk hologram and 2-step transmission type hologram. For the tangible learning and the easy understanding, the proposed system displays the CG objects of the optical components on the markers which are controlled by the learner's hands. The proposed system does not only display the CG object, but also display the light beam which is controlled by the optical components. To display the light beam that is hard to be seen directly, the learners can confirm about what is happening by the own manipulation. For the construction of optical holography setup, we arrange a laser, mirrors, a PBS (polarizing beam splitter), lenses, a polarizer, half-wave plates, spatial filters, an optical power meter and a recording plate. After the construction, proposed system can check optical setup correctly. In comparison with the learners who only read a book, the learners who use the system can construct the optical holography setup more quickly and correctly.

  5. New education system for construction of optical holography setup – Tangible learning with Augmented Reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Takeshi; Yoshikawa, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    In case of teaching optical system construction, it is difficult to prepare the optical components for the attendance student. However the tangible learning is very important to master the optical system construction. It helps learners understand easily to use an inexpensive learning system that provides optical experiments experiences. Therefore, we propose the new education system for construction of optical setup with the augmented reality. To use the augmented reality, the proposed system can simulate the optical system construction by the direct hand control. Also, this system only requires an inexpensive web camera, printed makers and a personal computer. Since this system does not require the darkroom and the expensive optical equipments, the learners can study anytime, anywhere when they want to do. In this paper, we developed the system that can teach the optical system construction of the Denisyuk hologram and 2-step transmission type hologram. For the tangible learning and the easy understanding, the proposed system displays the CG objects of the optical components on the markers which are controlled by the learner's hands. The proposed system does not only display the CG object, but also display the light beam which is controlled by the optical components. To display the light beam that is hard to be seen directly, the learners can confirm about what is happening by the own manipulation. For the construction of optical holography setup, we arrange a laser, mirrors, a PBS (polarizing beam splitter), lenses, a polarizer, half-wave plates, spatial filters, an optical power meter and a recording plate. After the construction, proposed system can check optical setup correctly. In comparison with the learners who only read a book, the learners who use the system can construct the optical holography setup more quickly and correctly.

  6. System for actively reducing sound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2005-01-01

    A system for actively reducing sound from a primary noise source, such as traffic noise, comprising: a loudspeaker connector for connecting to at least one loudspeaker for generating anti-sound for reducing said noisy sound; a microphone connector for connecting to at least a first microphone placed

  7. Automated activation-analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minor, M.M.; Garcia, S.R.; Denton, M.M.

    1982-01-01

    An automated delayed neutron counting and instrumental neutron activation analysis system has been developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory's Omega West Reactor (OWR) to analyze samples for uranium and 31 additional elements with a maximum throughput of 400 samples per day

  8. Design of an optimized adaptive optics system with a photo-controlled deformable mirror

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pilař, Jan; Bonora, Stefano; Lucianetti, Antonio; Jelínková, H.; Mocek, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 13 (2016), s. 1422-1425 ISSN 1041-1135 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : adaptive optics * closed loop systems * deformable mirror Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.375, year: 2016

  9. Accurate measurement of the optical activity of alanine crystals and the determination of their absolute chirality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Kazuhiko; Terasawa, Yukana; Tanaka, Masahito; Asahi, Toru

    2017-05-01

    Wavelength dependence measurements of the chiroptical properties in alanine crystals have so far been unsuccessful using conventional spectroscopic techniques. We describe our attempts to measure the wavelength dependence of the optical activity in L- and D-alanine crystals along each crystallographic axis, and to determine the absolute chirality of alanine crystals by correlating the absolute structure to the optical activity using an x-ray diffractometer and a generalized high accuracy universal polarimeter. We have succeeded in accurately measuring the optical rotatory dispersion in the direction, which shows that the optical rotation of the D-alanine crystal is dextrorotatory and that of the L-alanine crystal is laevorotatory, thereby determining the absolute chirality. Furthermore, comparison with the optical activity in solution shows that the optical activity in alanine crystals is different not only in value, but also in the sign. These results have led us to conclude that the optical rotatory power in the crystalline state should not be simply the summation of molecular optical rotatory power values. We propose the necessity of a theory, which contains the contribution of molecular interactions within the crystal, in order to calculate the optical rotatory power of the crystalline state.

  10. Calculations of optical properties of nanohole systems in metallic films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Peter; Miljkovic, Vladimir; Kall, Mikael

    2010-03-01

    We present a computational study of the optical properties of systems of nanohole system in thin (the typical thickness is less than 100 nm) noble metal films. The Green's tensor technique adopted to layered systems forms the analytical framework to the calculations. We have studied individual holes as well as several interacting holes, and calculated quantities related both to far-field properties such as scattering cross sections and near fields and near-field properties such as resonance energy transfer between molecules. The resonance properties of nanoholes are determined by their size and shape[1]. The interaction between two holes can, at a basic level, be understood as a dipole-dipole interaction between the holes, however, the interaction strength is strongly modulated by the properties of the surface plasmons of the metal film[2]. [1]. B. Sepulveda et al., Opt. Express 16, 5609 (2008). [2]. J. Alegret, P. Johansson, and M. K"all, New J. Phys.10, 105004 (2008).

  11. Machine learning techniques for optical communication system optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibar, Darko; Wass, Jesper; Thrane, Jakob

    In this paper, machine learning techniques relevant to optical communication are presented and discussed. The focus is on applying machine learning tools to optical performance monitoring and performance prediction.......In this paper, machine learning techniques relevant to optical communication are presented and discussed. The focus is on applying machine learning tools to optical performance monitoring and performance prediction....

  12. Active composite waveguides with a suppressed competition of optical modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vysotskii, D V; Elkin, N N; Napartovich, A P

    2008-01-01

    The possibilities of separating the fundamental optical mode in composite waveguides by selecting the structure of amplifying regions are analysed. Conditions are presented under which the fundamental mode preserves the highest gain at any saturation. (letters)

  13. Optical fiber-based photomechanical molecular delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Koki; Sato, Shunichi; Kawauchi, Satoko; Ashida, Hiroshi; Nishidate, Izumi

    2014-02-01

    Molecular delivery based on nanosecond pulsed laser-induced photomechanical waves (PMWs) enables endoscopic application by using an optical fiber for laser transmission. In our previous fiber system, a laser target, which was a black natural rubber film as a laser absorbing material covered with an optically transparent polyethylene terephthalate disk to confine the laser-induced plasma, was attached to the output end of a 1 mm core diameter quartz fiber. There were two problems in that system: 1) the outer diameter was large (~2.7 mm) and 2) available peak pressure rapidly decreased with increasing pulse number. In this study, we developed a new fiber delivery system to overcome these problems. As a laser absorbing material, we used a cap-type silicone rubber containing carbon black, into which the fiber output end can simply be inserted. The fiber end surface works to confine the laser-induced plasma. The outer diameter of the fiber system was reduced to ~1.4 mm. At an output laser fluence of 1.2 J/cm2, peak pressure of the first PMW pulse exceeded ~40 MPa. With successive 10 laser pulses, decreasing rate of the peak pressure was 22%, which was considerably lower than that with the previous fiber system (82%), enabling generation of at least successive 30 pulses of PMW with the same cap-type target. With this fiber system, we attempted transfer of plasmid DNA encoding EGFP (enhanced green fluorescence protein) to the rat skin as a test tissue in vivo, showing site-selective efficient gene expression.

  14. Design of optical system for binocular fundus camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Lou, Shiliang; Xiao, Zhitao; Geng, Lei; Zhang, Fang; Wang, Wen; Liu, Mengjia

    2017-12-01

    A non-mydriasis optical system for binocular fundus camera has been designed in this paper. It can capture two images of the same fundus retinal region from different angles at the same time, and can be used to achieve three-dimensional reconstruction of fundus. It is composed of imaging system and illumination system. In imaging system, Gullstrand Le Grand eye model is used to simulate normal human eye, and Schematic eye model is used to test the influence of ametropia in human eye on imaging quality. Annular aperture and black dot board are added into illumination system, so that the illumination system can eliminate stray light produced by corneal-reflected light and omentoscopic lens. Simulation results show that MTF of each visual field at the cut-off frequency of 90lp/mm is greater than 0.2, system distortion value is -2.7%, field curvature is less than 0.1 mm, radius of Airy disc is 3.25um. This system has a strong ability of chromatic aberration correction and focusing, and can image clearly for human fundus in which the range of diopters is from -10 D to +6 D(1 D = 1 m -1 ).

  15. Method and system for processing optical elements using magnetorheological finishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menapace, Joseph Arthur; Schaffers, Kathleen Irene; Bayramian, Andrew James; Molander, William A

    2012-09-18

    A method of finishing an optical element includes mounting the optical element in an optical mount having a plurality of fiducials overlapping with the optical element and obtaining a first metrology map for the optical element and the plurality of fiducials. The method also includes obtaining a second metrology map for the optical element without the plurality of fiducials, forming a difference map between the first metrology map and the second metrology map, and aligning the first metrology map and the second metrology map. The method further includes placing mathematical fiducials onto the second metrology map using the difference map to form a third metrology map and associating the third metrology map to the optical element. Moreover, the method includes mounting the optical element in the fixture in an MRF tool, positioning the optical element in the fixture; removing the plurality of fiducials, and finishing the optical element.

  16. Converting Existing Copper Wire Firing System to a Fiber Optically Controlled Firing System for Electromagnetic Pulsed Power Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-19

    Firing System for Electromagnetic Pulsed Power Experiments by Robert Borys Jr and Colby Adams Approved for public release...2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Converting Existing Copper Wire Firing System to a Fiber-Optically Controlled Firing System for Electromagnetic Pulsed ...US Army Research Laboratory Converting Existing Copper Wire Firing System to a Fiber-Optically Controlled Firing System for Electromagnetic

  17. Choice of optical system is critical for the security of double random phase encryption systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniraj, Inbarasan; Guo, Changliang; Malallah, Ra'ed; Cassidy, Derek; Zhao, Liang; Ryle, James P.; Healy, John J.; Sheridan, John T.

    2017-06-01

    The linear canonical transform (LCT) is used in modeling a coherent light-field propagation through first-order optical systems. Recently, a generic optical system, known as the quadratic phase encoding system (QPES), for encrypting a two-dimensional image has been reported. In such systems, two random phase keys and the individual LCT parameters (α,β,γ) serve as secret keys of the cryptosystem. It is important that such encryption systems also satisfy some dynamic security properties. We, therefore, examine such systems using two cryptographic evaluation methods, the avalanche effect and bit independence criterion, which indicate the degree of security of the cryptographic algorithms using QPES. We compared our simulation results with the conventional Fourier and the Fresnel transform-based double random phase encryption (DRPE) systems. The results show that the LCT-based DRPE has an excellent avalanche and bit independence characteristics compared to the conventional Fourier and Fresnel-based encryption systems.

  18. Research algorithm for synthesis of double conjugation optical systems in the Gauss region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Ostrun

    2014-01-01

    of the algorithm is as follows. The initial thicknesses for two extreme states of the system are set, and their sum must be the same. Based on the given conditions a system of multilinear equations is generated in automatic mode. Using the numerical method all possible solutions are found. In case of failure, the air thicknesses are changed to a predetermined value, and the algorithm repeats. After finding the solutions a kinematics of three moving parts is calculated. To do this a new system of multilinear equations is automatically generated with the axial thicknesses to be as unknowns. The conditions are the following: constant back focal length and position of the exit pupil, immutable sum of axial thicknesses, providing a define focal length. Next, the resulting system focal length changes at a predetermined step, and the search for solutions of the system is carried out by methods of nonlinear programming. The solution results are the axial thicknesses corresponding to the specified focal length and determining the position of the moving components.The proposed algorithm is universal and, a part from the other methods, in principle can be applied to design both the systems of double conjugation with mobile components and the systems based on liquid lenses. All methods revealed while analyzing the literature have been designed only for one of abovementioned cases.The algorithm was tested using the Hopkins system of calculation as an example. As a result, two versions of double conjugation system with twentyfold magnification were calculated, optical forces and principles of motion components were determined. The developed algorithm allows us to facilitate a paraxial design of double conjugation systems with a high degree of automation. A designer, actually, has only to enter the required dimension and magnification. The main drawback of the proposed algorithm is the ambiguity in choice of the initial axial distances. The activities to eliminate it are underway.

  19. Active Space Debris Removal System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele GUERRA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the start of the space era, more than 5000 launches have been carried out, each carrying satellites for many disparate uses, such as Earth observation or communication. Thus, the space environment has become congested and the problem of space debris is now generating some concerns in the space community due to our long-lived belief that “space is big”. In the last few years, solutions to this problem have been proposed, one of those is Active Space Debris Removal: this method will reduce the increasing debris growth and permit future sustainable space activities. The main idea of the method proposed below is a drag augmentation system: use a system capable of putting an expanded foam on a debris which will increase the area-to-mass ratio to increase the natural atmospheric drag and solar pressure. The drag augmentation system proposed here requires a docking system; the debris will be pushed to its release height and then, after un-docking, an uncontrolled re-entry takes place ending with a burn up of the object and the foam in the atmosphere within a given time frame. The method requires an efficient way to change the orbit between two debris. The present paper analyses such a system in combination with an Electric Propulsion system, and emphasizes the choice of using two satellites to remove five effective rockets bodies debris within a year.

  20. Compact optical multipass matrix system design based on slicer mirrors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yin; Sun, Liqun

    2018-02-10

    High path-to-volume ratio (PVR) and low-aberration-output beams are the two main criteria to assess the performance of multipass absorption cells. However, no substantial progress has been reported for large-numerical-aperture-coupled multipass cells, which is due to the accumulated aberrations caused by a large number of off-axis reflections. Based on Chernin's design, in this study, we modified Chernin's four-objective multipass matrix cell by using slicer mirrors to eliminate alignment difficulty and decrease the system volume. A generalized design routine based on user requirements is also proposed. Based on the automatic modeling tool package (Pyzdde) connected with Zemax and boundary conditions of the parameters selection proposed, a low-aberration-output beam and a high PVR are easily obtained compared with other multipass cells schemes. In one demo design, 108 passes (5×7 matrix spots) in a base length of 300 mm are presented. The PVR and peak-to-valley value wavefront errors are 67.5 m/L and 0.92 μm, respectively. Finally, a tolerance analysis of this optical multipass system is also presented. This work may provide better broadband optical absorption cells in terms of response time and a better detection sensitivity in versatile applications.