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Sample records for active myofascial trigger

  1. Myofascial trigger points: spontaneous electrical activity and its consequences for pain induction and propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Hong-You; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Yue, Shou-Wei

    2011-03-25

    Active myofascial trigger points are one of the major peripheral pain generators for regional and generalized musculoskeletal pain conditions. Myofascial trigger points are also the targets for acupuncture and/or dry needling therapies. Recent evidence in the understanding of the pathophysiology of myofascial trigger points supports The Integrated Hypothesis for the trigger point formation; however unanswered questions remain. Current evidence shows that spontaneous electrical activity at myofascial trigger point originates from the extrafusal motor endplate. The spontaneous electrical activity represents focal muscle fiber contraction and/or muscle cramp potentials depending on trigger point sensitivity. Local pain and tenderness at myofascial trigger points are largely due to nociceptor sensitization with a lesser contribution from non-nociceptor sensitization. Nociceptor and non-nociceptor sensitization at myofascial trigger points may be part of the process of muscle ischemia associated with sustained focal muscle contraction and/or muscle cramps. Referred pain is dependent on the sensitivity of myofascial trigger points. Active myofascial trigger points may play an important role in the transition from localized pain to generalized pain conditions via the enhanced central sensitization, decreased descending inhibition and dysfunctional motor control strategy.

  2. Myofascial trigger points: spontaneous electrical activity and its consequences for pain induction and propagation

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    Fernández-de-las-Peñas César

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Active myofascial trigger points are one of the major peripheral pain generators for regional and generalized musculoskeletal pain conditions. Myofascial trigger points are also the targets for acupuncture and/or dry needling therapies. Recent evidence in the understanding of the pathophysiology of myofascial trigger points supports The Integrated Hypothesis for the trigger point formation; however unanswered questions remain. Current evidence shows that spontaneous electrical activity at myofascial trigger point originates from the extrafusal motor endplate. The spontaneous electrical activity represents focal muscle fiber contraction and/or muscle cramp potentials depending on trigger point sensitivity. Local pain and tenderness at myofascial trigger points are largely due to nociceptor sensitization with a lesser contribution from non-nociceptor sensitization. Nociceptor and non-nociceptor sensitization at myofascial trigger points may be part of the process of muscle ischemia associated with sustained focal muscle contraction and/or muscle cramps. Referred pain is dependent on the sensitivity of myofascial trigger points. Active myofascial trigger points may play an important role in the transition from localized pain to generalized pain conditions via the enhanced central sensitization, decreased descending inhibition and dysfunctional motor control strategy.

  3. Latent myofascial trigger points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Hong-You; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2011-10-01

    A latent myofascial trigger point (MTP) is defined as a focus of hyperirritability in a muscle taut band that is clinically associated with local twitch response and tenderness and/or referred pain upon manual examination. Current evidence suggests that the temporal profile of the spontaneous electrical activity at an MTP is similar to focal muscle fiber contraction and/or muscle cramp potentials, which contribute significantly to the induction of local tenderness and pain and motor dysfunctions. This review highlights the potential mechanisms underlying the sensory-motor dysfunctions associated with latent MTPs and discusses the contribution of central sensitization associated with latent MTPs and the MTP network to the spatial propagation of pain and motor dysfunctions. Treating latent MTPs in patients with musculoskeletal pain may not only decrease pain sensitivity and improve motor functions, but also prevent latent MTPs from transforming into active MTPs, and hence, prevent the development of myofascial pain syndrome.

  4. Comparison between four treatment modalities for active myofascial triggers points

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    Atef Fouda

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study aimed at the painful trigger points (TrPs for the purpose of ablating muscle spasms and restoring normal muscle length to find the most effective treatment for alleviating pain and improving mouth range of motion in patients with myofascial pain dysfunction. Methods: We enrolled 72 patients with pain and reduced mouth opening due to temporomandibular joint dysfunction. Patients assigned to four groups and four treatment modalities used to treat myofascial TrPs pain. We used mean and standard deviation values. The Mann-Whitney U-test was used to compare the two groups. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to study the changes by the time in mean pain scores. The Student's t-test was used to compare maximum mouth opening (MMO groups. Then paired t-test was also used to study the changes of time in an MMO. Results: The results showed that pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF therapy is the most effective treatment modality regarding for pain relief. Both the anesthesia and PEMF groups showed a reduction in mean pain scores throughout all follow-up periods, and a statistically significant increase in mean MMO. Conclusion: The findings suggest that PEMF is the most effective treatment for alleviating pain and improving mouth range of motion in patients with myofascial pain.

  5. Contribution of the local and referred pain from active myofascial trigger points in fibromyalgia syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ge, Hong-You; Nie, Hongling; Madeleine, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    The generalized hypersensitivity associated with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) may in part be driven by peripheral nociceptive sources. The aim of the study was to investigate whether local and referred pain from active myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) contributes to fibromyalgia pain. FMS patients...

  6. Etiology of myofascial trigger points

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    Bron, C.; Dommerholt, J.D.

    2012-01-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is described as the sensory, motor, and autonomic symptoms caused by myofascial trigger points (TrPs). Knowing the potential causes of TrPs is important to prevent their development and recurrence, but also to inactivate and eliminate existing TrPs. There is general ag

  7. Understanding of myofascial trigger points

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhuang Xiaoqiang; Tan Shusheng; Huang Qiangmin

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the current practice of myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) including current epidemiology,pathology,diagnosis and treatment.Data sources The data analyzed in this review were mainly from relevant articles without restriction on the publication date reported in PubMed,MedSci,Google scholar.The terms "myofasial trigger points" and "myofacial pain syndrome" were used for the literature search.Study selection Original articles with no limitation of research design and critical reviews containing data relevant to myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) and MPS were retrieved,reviewed,analyzed and summarized.Results Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is characterized by painful taut band,referred pain,and local response twitch with a prevalence of 85% to 95% of incidence.Several factors link to the etiology of MTrPs,such as the chronic injury and overload of muscles.Other factors,such as certain nutrient and hormone insufficiency,comorbidities,and muscle imbalance may also maintain the MTrP in an active status and induce recurrent pain.The current pathology is that an extra leakage acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction induces persistent contracture knots,relative to some hypotheses of integration,muscle spindle discharges,spinal segment sensitization,ect.MTrPs can be diagnosed and localized based on a few subjective criteria.Several approaches,including both direct and supplementary treatments,can inactivate MTrPs.Direct treatments are categorized into invasive and conservative.Conclusion This review provides a clear understanding of MTrP pain and introduces the most useful treatment approaches in China.

  8. Reproduction of overall spontaneous pain pattern by manual stimulation of active myofascial trigger points in fibromyalgia patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ge, Hong-You; Wang, Ying; Fernandez-de-las-Penas, Cesar

    2011-01-01

    It has previously been reported that local and referred pain from active myofascial trigger points (MTPs) in the neck and shoulder region contribute to fibromyalgia (FM) pain and that the pain pattern induced from active MTPs can reproduce parts of the spontaneous clinical FM pain pattern...

  9. Introduction to myofascial trigger points in dogs.

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    Wall, Rick

    2014-06-01

    In dogs, muscles make up 44%-57% of total body weight and can serve as source of both pain and dysfunction when myofascial trigger points are present. However, rarely is muscle mentioned as a generator of pain in dogs, and even less mentioned is muscle dysfunction. The veterinary practitioner with interest in pain management, rehabilitation, orthopedics, and sports medicine must be familiar with the characteristics, etiology, and precipitating factors of myofascial trigger points. Additionally, the development of examination and treatment skill is needed to effectively manage myofascial trigger points in dogs.

  10. Contribution of the local and referred pain from active myofascial trigger points in fibromyalgia syndrome.

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    Ge, Hong-You; Nie, Hongling; Madeleine, Pascal; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2009-12-15

    The generalized hypersensitivity associated with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) may in part be driven by peripheral nociceptive sources. The aim of the study was to investigate whether local and referred pain from active myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) contributes to fibromyalgia pain. FMS patients and healthy controls (n=22 each, age- and gender-matched) were recruited. The surface area over the upper trapezius muscle on each side was divided into 13 sub-areas (points) of 1cm in diameter for each point. Pressure pain threshold (PPT) and the local and referred pain pattern induced by manual palpation at 13 points bilaterally in the upper trapezius were recorded. Results showed that PPT levels at all measured points were significantly lower in FMS than controls. Multiple active MTrPs (7.4+/-2.2) were identified bilaterally in the muscle in FMS patients, but no active MTrPs were found in controls. The mid-fiber region of the muscle had the lowest PPT level with the largest number of active MTrPs in FMS and with the largest number of latent MTrPs in controls. The local and referred pain pattern induced from active MTrPs bilaterally in the upper trapezius muscle were similar to the ongoing pain pattern in the neck and shoulder region in FMS. In conclusion, active MTrPs bilaterally in the upper trapezius muscle contribute to the neck and shoulder pain in FMS. Active MTrPs may serve as one of the sources of noxious input leading to the sensitization of spinal and supraspinal pain pathways in FMS.

  11. Activator instrument versus dry needling of active upper trapezius myofascial trigger points in those with neck pain

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    M.Tech. (Chiropractic) Neck pain is a common and costly complaint in society and many are made to believe that their neck pain is caused by pinched nerve, compressed disk, arthritis or displaced cervical vertebrae, when in reality the pain may be solely due to referral from myofascial trigger points in overworked or traumatized muscles of their upper back and shoulders. Travel and Simons (1999) demonstrated trapezius muscle of the neck, back and shoulder as the main cause of mechanical nec...

  12. Assessment of Myofascial Trigger Points Using Ultrasound.

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    Kumbhare, Dinesh A; Elzibak, Alyaa H; Noseworthy, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome is a common musculoskeletal pain disorder characterized by the presence of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs). The diagnosis of myofascial pain syndrome is currently made on clinical grounds. Numerous diagnostic criteria are used to identify myofascial pain syndrome, including the localization of MTrPs. Identifying the presence of MTrPs currently requires the physician to palpate the symptomatic region. Because the interrater reliability of the palpation technique has been found to be poor, numerous groups have been interested in finding objective imaging measures to localize the MTrP. This comprehensive review focuses on summarizing ultrasound imaging techniques that have shown promise in visually localizing the trigger point. The authors' literature search identified three sonographic approaches that have been used in MTrP localization: conventional gray-scale imaging, Doppler imaging, and elastographic ultrasound imaging. This review article explains the basic physics behind the imaging methods and summarizes the characteristics of the MTrP as identified by the ultrasonic techniques.

  13. Characteristics of referred muscle pain to the head from active trigger points in women with myofascial temporomandibular pain and fibromyalgia syndrome.

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    Alonso-Blanco, Cristina; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; de-la-Llave-Rincón, Ana Isabel; Zarco-Moreno, Pedro; Galán-Del-Río, Fernando; Svensson, Peter

    2012-11-01

    Our aim was to compare the differences in the prevalence and the anatomical localization of referred pain areas of active trigger points (TrPs) between women with myofascial temporomandibular disorder (TMD) or fibromyalgia (FMS). Twenty women (age 46 ± 8 years) with TMD and 20 (age 48 ± 6 years) with FMS were recruited from specialized clinic. Bilateral temporalis, masseter, sternocleidomastoid, upper trapezius, and suboccipital muscles were examined for TrPs. TrPs were identified by palpation and considered active when the pain reproduced familiar pain symptom experienced by the patient. The referred pain areas were drawn on anatomical maps, digitalized and also measured. A new analysis technique based on a center of gravity (COG) method was used to quantitative estimate of the localization of the TrP referred pain areas. Women with FMS exhibited larger areas of usual pain symptoms than women with myofascial TMD (P pain on the frontal and posterior pain maps were located more superior in TMD than in FMS. The number of active TrPs was significantly higher in TMD (mean ± SD 6 ± 1) than in FMS (4 ± 1) (P = 0.002). Women with TMD exhibited more active TrPs in the temporalis and masseter muscles than FMS (P pain areas than those with TMD for sternocleidomastoid and suboccipital muscles (P pain areas were found in TMD, the referred pain was more pronounced in the orofacial region, whereas the referred pain in FMS was more pronounced in the cervical spine. This study showed that the referred pain elicited from active TrPs shared similar patterns as usual pain symptoms in women with TMD or FMS, but that distinct differences in TrP prevalence and location of the referred pain areas could be observed. Differences in location of referred pain areas may help clinicians to determine the most relevant TrPs for each pain syndrome in spite of overlaps in pain areas.

  14. Myofascial trigger points in cluster headache patients: a case series

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    Rico-Villademoros Fernando

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Active myofascial trigger points (MTrPs have been found to contribute to chronic tension-type headache and migraine. The purpose of this case series was to examine if active trigger points (TrPs provoking cluster-type referred pain could be found in cluster headache patients and, if so, to evaluate the effectiveness of active TrPs anaesthetic injections both in the acute and preventive headache's treatment. Twelve patients, 4 experiencing episodic and 8 chronic cluster headache, were studied. TrPs were found in all of them. Abortive infiltrations could be done in 2 episodic and 4 chronic patients, and preemptive infiltrations could be done in 2 episodic and 5 chronic patients, both kind of interventions being successful in 5 (83.3% and in 6 (85.7% of the cases respectively. When combined with prophylactic drug therapy, injections were associated with significant improvement in 7 of the 8 chronic cluster patients. Our data suggest that peripheral sensitization may play a role in cluster headache pathophysiology and that first neuron afferent blockade can be useful in cluster headache management.

  15. An update on botulinum toxin A injections of trigger points for myofascial pain.

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    Zhou, Jon Y; Wang, Dajie

    2014-01-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is a common chronic pain condition that is characterized by distinct "trigger points." Despite current treatments with physical therapy, analgesics, anti-depressants and trigger-point injections, myofascial pain remains a challenging chronic pain condition in clinical practice. Botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) can cause prolonged muscle relaxation through inhibition of acetylcholine release. It may offer some advantages over the current treatments for MPS by providing a longer sustained period of pain relief. Despite numerous clinical trials, the efficacy of BTX-A in alleviating MPS is not well-established due to mixed results from recent clinical trials. Active trigger points are associated with referred pain and greatly impact many aspects of activities of daily living, mood, and health status. This review is designed to analyze the clinical trials regarding the efficacy of BTX-A injection of active trigger points as a treatment for MPS. The literature referenced was obtained via a computer search with Google Scholar, Pubmed, Medline and EMbase. Our search terms included "Botulinum toxin," "myofascial pain," "trigger points," "myofascial trigger points," "chronic pain." Additional references were retrieved from the reference list of the reports found via this search. Studies were considered eligible for inclusion if they were double-blinded, randomized, controlled trials evaluating the efficacy of BTX-A injections into trigger points for pain reduction, and if the trigger point selection in the trial included referred pain and/or local twitch response. Open-label studies, case reports, and other non-randomized studies were excluded. Eight trials were found according to the above criteria and are summarized in Table 1. There are well-designed clinical trials to support the efficacy of trigger-point injections with BTX-A for MPS. However, further clinical trials with considerations of minimizing placebo effect, repeated dosing, adequate

  16. [Differences between myofascial trigger points and tender points].

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    Mense, S

    2011-02-01

    The article describes and compares the characteristics of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) of the myofascial pain syndrome and the tender points (TePs) of the fibromyalgia syndrome. Many statements are hypothetical, because not all aspects of the disorders have been clarified in solid studies. Signs and symptoms of MTrPs: (1) palpable nodule, often located close to the muscle belly, (2) often single, (3) allodynia and hyperalgesia at the MTrP, (4) referral of the MTrP pain, (5) normal pain sensitivity outside the MTrPs, (6) local twitch response, (7) local contracture in biopsy material, (8) peripheral mechanism probable. Signs and symptoms of TePs: (1) no palpable nodule, (2) location often close to the muscle attachments, (3) multiple by definition, (4) allodynia and hyperalgesia also outside the TePs, (5) enhanced pain under psychic stress, (6) unspecific histological changes in biopsy material, (7) central nervous mechanism probable. The multitude of differences speak against a common aetiology and pathophysiology.

  17. EFFECTIVENESS OF ISCHEMIC COMPRESSION ON TRAPEZIUS MYOFASCIAL TRIGGER POINTS IN NECK PAIN

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    Pragnya Ravichandran

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neck pain is a common disorder prevailing among individuals of different populations. The myofascial pain syndrome is a disorder related to myofascial trigger points. It is defined as a hyperirritable locus in skeletal muscle and that is associated with a hypersensitive palpable nodule in a taut band of muscle. Manual therapy has got a profound role in treating and ischemic compression technique has been researched widely. Thus the study intends to analyse the effectiveness of Manual Therapy (Ischemic Compression on functional outcome in neck pain. Methods: A single blinded randomized control study was conducted for subjects of sample size 30 who met the inclusion criteria and random allocation was made. The baseline parameters as like pain severity using VAS, pain pressure threshold using pressure Algometer, active cervical lateral flexion using 360 degree goniometer and disability using NDI were recorded. Study group received ischemic compression followed by myofascial stretches while the control group received ultrasonic therapy of 1.4watts/cm2. Both received Cryotherapy post session. After 2 weeks the baseline parameters were again recorded for t-test analysis. Result: There was no statistical significance between groups (p≥0.05. But active cervical lateral flexion showed improved mobility in study group and a high statistical significance within groups (p≤0.01 in relation to all parameters. Conclusion: Both ultrasonic therapy and Ischemic compression technique was found to show better improvement in pain pressure threshold and functional outcome in neck pain.

  18. Fibromyalgia, myofascial pain, tender points and trigger points: splitting or lumping?

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    Bennett, Robert M; Goldenberg, Don L

    2011-06-30

    Myofascial trigger points (MTPs) have long been a contentious issue in relation to fibromyalgia, and poorly defined pain complaints in general. Can MTPs be reproducibly identified? Do MTPs have valid objective findings, such as spontaneous electromyographic activity, muscle microdialysis evidence for an inflammatory milieu or visualization with newer ultrasound techniques? Is fibromyalgia a syndrome of multiple MTPs, or is focal muscle tenderness a manifestation of central sensitization? These issues are discussed with relevance to a recent paper reporting that manual palpation of active MTPs elicits the spontaneous pain experienced by fibromyalgia patients.

  19. The importance of postural habits in perpetuating myofascial trigger point pain.

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    Edwards, Janet

    2005-06-01

    Various structural abnormalities that contribute to the perpetuation of myofascial trigger point activity and the pain arising from it, have previously been well documented. In addition, however, there are a number of postural habits that are important to recognise as they may also contribute, as shown in the five cases discussed. These postural habits, which are likely to be carried out both frequently and unconsciously, are adopted during the course of sitting, standing or sleeping. They are entirely independent of any structural abnormalities that may be present. Correcting them is a necessary contribution to treatment, as failure to do so is liable to lead to persistence of the pain.

  20. [Progress of research on acupuncture at trigger point for myofascial pain syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yao; Bu, He; Jia, Ji-rong; Zhang, Xue

    2012-06-01

    To review the literature of acupuncture at trigger point for myofascial pain syndrome from the main selected points (trigger point), the mechanism of Chinese medicine and modern research and its clinical application. The results show that acupuncture at trigger point has significant effect on the myofascial pain syndrome, which could be influenced by the type of needle, manipulation, insertion angle and depth of the needles. However, the involved studies at present are still far from enough and lack of systematic study with multivariate analysis, it is needed to be improved that some problems about the clinical diagnosis and basic research.

  1. Incidence of trapezius myofascial trigger points in patients with the possible carpal tunnel syndrome

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    Azadeh, Hamid; Dehghani, Mohammad; Zarezadeh, Abolghasem

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) often complain of prominent pain in shoulder and arm, also there are patients that have pain in their shoulder and arm which is due to myofascial trigger point (MTP) located in their upper trapezius muscle. Despite the frequency of this observation, few studies have previously sought to establish possible relationship between the CTS and MTP in shoulder area. METHODS: Samples were 160 patients (221 hands) consist of 130 females and 30 males, with suspected diagnosis of CTS, from March 2008 to October 2008. In this study after performing electrodiagnosis searches, another evaluation was performed to find out if there was any sign of myofascial trigger point. The correlation between these two was sought. RESULTS: It was found that all of 36 hands with normal electrodiagnostic findings had myofascial trigger points in their upper trapezius muscle. Out of 185 hands, 130 hands (70%) with electrophysiological evidences of CTS showed myofascial trigger points in their trapezius muscles. Statistical analysis revealed significant (p < 0.001) reverse correlation between the severity of CTS and the presence of MTP. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study imply the significant correlation between occurrence of CTS and MTP. It is suggested that clinicians consider the probability of existence of MTP in patients referred for diagnosis of CTS. PMID:21526092

  2. Treatment of myofascial trigger points in patients with chronic shoulder pain : a randomized, controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bron, Carel; de Gast, Arthur; Dommerholt, Jan; Stegenga, Boudewijn; Wensing, Michel; Oostendorp, Rob A. B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Shoulder pain is a common musculoskeletal problem that is often chronic or recurrent. Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) cause shoulder pain and are prevalent in patients with shoulder pain. However, few studies have focused on MTrP therapy. The aim of this study was to assess the effecti

  3. Incidence of trapezius myofascial trigger points in patients with the possible carpal tunnel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Azadeh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS often complain of prominent pain in shoulder and arm, also there are patients that have pain in their shoulder and arm which is due to myofascial trigger point (MTP located in their upper trapezius muscle. Despite the frequency of this observation, few studies have previously sought to establish possible relationship between the CTS and MTP in shoulder area. Methods: Samples were 160 patients (221 hands consist of 130 females and 30 males, with suspected diagnosis of CTS, from March 2008 to October 2008. In this study after performing electrodiagnosis searches, another evaluation was performed to find out if there was any sign of myofascial trigger point. The correlation between these two was sought. Results: It was found that all of 36 hands with normal electrodiagnostic findings had myofascial trigger points in their upper trapezius muscle. Out of 185 hands, 130 hands (70% with electrophysiological evidences of CTS showed myofascial trigger points in their trapezius muscles. Statistical analysis revealed significant (p < 0.001 reverse correlation between the severity of CTS and the presence of MTP. Conclusions: The findings of this study imply the significant correlation between occurrence of CTS and MTP. It is suggested that clinicians consider the probability of existence of MTP in patients referred for diagnosis of CTS.

  4. The Ultrasonographic Findings of Trigger Points of Myofascial Pain Syndrome in a Rabbit Model

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    Moon, Kyung Mi; Park, Seog Hee [Catholic University of Korea, Kangnam St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Heon; Kim, Joo Hyun; Kim, Han Kyum [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-03-15

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is a common cause of musculoskeletal pain. Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) have been repeatedly described by numerous authors. However, there have been few studies in which their existence and behavior was supported and their location confirmed. The purpose of this study was to determine whether diagnostic ultrasonography is an objective diagnostic tool which is able to significantly identify or detect the soft tissue changes in the region of clinically identified active MTrPs by using a rabbit experimental model. Ten MPS model rabbits were used in this study. We made an MPS animal model by causing the rabbits to overuse one leg for 3 weeks by cutting the contralateral L4 spinal nerve root. We compared the ultrasonographic findings of the taut band at pre-OP with those at post-OP during the consecutive three week period. To find the taut bands of the muscle, after skin exposure, the muscles were gently rubbed or pinched with the thumb and index finger on the two opposing surfaces of the muscle across the direction of the fibers. Then, the muscle was held in the same way, but with a 5-8 MHz stick probe being used in place of the thumb. After the palpation of various muscles, we selected the hardest and largest myofascial trigger nodule, in order to observe the ultrasonographic and power Doppler findings of the MPS. The size, shape, echogenecity and vascularity of the MTrPs were observed. The analysis of the results of the ultrasonography revealed that all MTrPs have a hyperechoic area. The mean thickness of the hyperechoic lesion in the biceps was 0.96{+-}0.14 cm in the MPS site (at pre-OP?), and 0.49{+-}0.12 cm at post-OP 3weeks (p < 0.01). The hyperechoic lesions in all of the studied biceps femoris of the rabbits were observed by high resolution ultrasonography. No definitively decreased vascularity was observed within the hyperechoic area by power Doppler imaging. Until now, there has been no objective method for the diagnosis of

  5. Uncovering the biochemical milieu of myofascial trigger points using in vivo microdialysis: an application of muscle pain concepts to myofascial pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Jay P; Gilliams, Elizabeth A

    2008-10-01

    This article discusses muscle pain concepts in the context of myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) and summarizes microdialysis studies that have surveyed the biochemical basis of this musculoskeletal pain condition. Though MPS is a common type of non-articular pain, its pathophysiology is only beginning to be understood due to its enormous complexity. MPS is characterized by the presence of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs), which are defined as hyperirritable nodules located within a taut band of skeletal muscle. MTrPs may be active (spontaneously painful and symptomatic) or latent (non-spontaneously painful). Painful MTrPs activate muscle nociceptors that, upon sustained noxious stimulation, initiate motor and sensory changes in the peripheral and central nervous systems. This process is called sensitization. In order to investigate the peripheral factors that influence the sensitization process, a microdialysis technique was developed to quantitatively measure the biochemical milieu of skeletal muscle. Biochemical differences were found between active and latent MTrPs, as well as in comparison with healthy muscle tissue. In this paper we relate the findings of elevated levels of sensitizing substances within painful muscle to the current theoretical framework of muscle pain and MTrP development.

  6. Myofascial Trigger Points Then and Now: A Historical and Scientific Perspective.

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    Shah, Jay P; Thaker, Nikki; Heimur, Juliana; Aredo, Jacqueline V; Sikdar, Siddhartha; Gerber, Lynn

    2015-07-01

    The intent of this article is to discuss the evolving role of the myofascial trigger point (MTrP) in myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) from both a historical and scientific perspective. MTrPs are hard, discrete, palpable nodules in a taut band of skeletal muscle that may be spontaneously painful (i.e., active) or painful only on compression (i.e., latent). MPS is a term used to describe a pain condition that can be acute or, more commonly, chronic and involves the muscle and its surrounding connective tissue (e.g. fascia). According to Travell and Simons, MTrPs are central to the syndrome-but are they necessary? Although the clinical study of muscle pain and MTrPs has proliferated over the past two centuries, the scientific literature often seems disjointed and confusing. Unfortunately, much of the terminology, theories, concepts, and diagnostic criteria are inconsistent, incomplete, or controversial. To address these deficiencies, investigators have recently applied clinical, imaging (of skeletal muscle and brain), and biochemical analyses to systematically and objectively study the MTrP and its role in MPS. Data suggest that the soft tissue milieu around the MTrP, neurogenic inflammation, sensitization, and limbic system dysfunction may all play a role in the initiation, amplification, and perpetuation of MPS. The authors chronicle the advances that have led to the current understanding of MTrP pathophysiology and its relationship to MPS, and review the contributions of clinicians and researchers who have influenced and expanded our contemporary level of clinical knowledge and practice.

  7. Prevalence of myofascial trigger points in fibromyalgia: the overlap of two common problems.

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    Ge, Hong-You

    2010-10-01

    With the objective evidence of their existence, myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) contribute to an increasing number of chronic regional and widespread pain conditions. The widespread spontaneous pain pattern in fibromyalgia (FM) is a summation of multiple regional pains due to active MTrPs. A regional pain in FM is from local active MTrPs and/or referred from remote active MTrPs. Positive tender points specified in FM are MTrPs, either active or latent. Manual stimulation of active MTrPs located in the muscles in different body regions completely reproduced overall spontaneous FM pain pattern. Active MTrPs as tonic peripheral nociceptive input contribute tremendously to the initiation and maintenance of central sensitization, to the impairment of descending inhibition, to the increased excitability of motor units, and to the induction of sympathetic hyperactivity observed in FM. The considerable overlap of MTrPs and FM in pain characteristics and pathophysiology suggests that FM pain is largely due to MTrPs.

  8. Myofascial trigger points, neck mobility and forward head posture in unilateral migraine.

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    Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, C; Cuadrado, M L; Pareja, J A

    2006-09-01

    This paper describes the differences in the presence of myofascial trigger points (TrPs) in the upper trapezius, sternocleidomastoid, temporalis and suboccipital muscles between unilateral migraine subjects and healthy controls, and the differences in the presence of TrPs between the symptomatic side and the non-symptomatic side in migraine subjects. In addition, we assess the differences in the presence of both forward head posture (FHP) and active neck mobility between migraine subjects and healthy controls and the relationship between FHP and neck mobility. Twenty subjects with unilateral migraine without side-shift and 20 matched controls participated. TrPs were identified when there was a hypersensible tender spot in a palpable taut band, local twitch response elicited by the snapping palpation of the taut band and reproduction of the referred pain typical of each TrP. Side-view pictures were taken in both sitting and standing positions to measure the cranio-vertebral angle. A cervical goniometer was employed to measure neck mobility. Migraine subjects showed a significantly greater number of active TrPs (Pangle than controls (Pangle and neck mobility. Nociceptive inputs from TrPs in head and neck muscles may produce continuous afferent bombardment of the trigeminal nerve nucleus caudalis and, thence, activation of the trigeminovascular system. Active TrPs located ipsilateral to migraine headaches might be a contributing factor in the initiation or perpetuation of migraine.

  9. Mechanical pain sensitivity of deep tissues in children - possible development of myofascial trigger points in children

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    Han Ting-I

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is still unclear when latent myofascial trigger points (MTrPs develop during early life. This study is designed to investigate the mechanical pain sensitivity of deep tissues in children in order to see the possible timing of the development of latent MTrPs and attachment trigger points (A-TrPs in school children. Methods Five hundreds and five healthy school children (age 4- 11 years were investigated. A pressure algometer was used to measure the pressure pain threshold (PPT at three different sites in the brachioradialis muscle: the lateral epicondyle at elbow (site A, assumed to be the A-TrP site, the mid-point of the muscle belly (site B, assumed to be the MTrP site, and the muscle-tendon junction as a control site (site C. Results The results showed that, for all children in this study, the mean PPT values was significantly lower (p p Conclusions It is concluded that a child had increased sensitivity at the tendon attachment site and the muscle belly (endplate zone after age of 4 years. Therefore, it is likely that a child may develop an A-Trp and a latent MTrP at the brachioradialis muscle after the age of 4 years. The changes in sensitivity, or the development for these trigger points, may not be related to the activity level of children aged 7-11 years. Further investigation is still required to indentify the exact timing of the initial occurrence of a-Trps and latent MTrPs.

  10. Myofascial syndrome

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    Giancarlo Carli

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Myofascial pain syndrome is common cause one of musculoskeletal pain and it is characterized by trigger points (TP, limited range of motion in joints and local twitch response (LTR during mechanical stimulation of the TP. Trigger point is a hyperirritable spot in skeletal muscle that is associated with a hypersensitive palpable nodule in a taut band. The spot is tender when pressed and can give rise to characteristic referred pain, motor dysfunction and autonomic phenomena. Palpation is reliable diagnostic criterion for locating TP in patients. Treatment is based on anesthetise TP, stretch and spray, local pression and physical activity.

  11. Dry Needling at Myofascial Trigger Spots of Rabbit Skeletal Muscles Modulates the Biochemicals Associated with Pain, Inflammation, and Hypoxia

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    Yueh-Ling Hsieh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose. Dry needling is an effective therapy for the treatment of pain associated with myofascial trigger point (MTrP. However, the biochemical effects of dry needling that are associated with pain, inflammation, and hypoxia are unclear. This study investigated the activities of β-endorphin, substance P, TNF-α, COX-2, HIF-1α, iNOS, and VEGF after different dosages of dry needling at the myofascial trigger spots (MTrSs of a skeletal muscle in rabbit. Materials and Methods. Dry needling was performed either with one dosage (1D or five dosages (5D into the biceps femoris with MTrSs in New Zealand rabbits. Biceps femoris, serum, and dorsal root ganglion (DRG were sampled immediately and 5 d after dry needling for β-endorphin, substance P, TNF-α, COX-2, HIF-1α, iNOS, and VEGF immunoassays. Results. The 1D treatment enhanced the β-endorphin levels in the biceps femoris and serum and reduced substance P in the biceps femoris and DRG. The 5D treatment reversed these effects and was accompanied by increase of TNF-α, COX-2, HIF-1α, iNOS, and VEGF production in the biceps femoris. Moreover, the higher levels of these biochemicals were still maintained 5 d after treatment. Conclusion. Dry needling at the MTrSs modulates various biochemicals associated with pain, inflammation, and hypoxia in a dose-dependent manner.

  12. The predetermined sites of examination for tender points in fibromyalgia syndrome are frequently associated with myofascial trigger points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ge, Hong You; Wang, Ying; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente;

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this present study is to test the hypotheses that the 18 predetermined sites of examination for tender points (TP sites) in fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) are myofascial trigger points (MTrPs), and that the induced pain from active MTrPs at TP sites may mimic fibromyalgia pain. Each TP site...... was evaluated with manual palpation followed by intramuscular electromyographic (EMG) registration of spontaneous electrical activity to confirm or refute the existence of an MTrP in 30 FMS patients. Overall spontaneous pain intensity and pain pattern were recorded before manual identification of MTrPs. Local...... and referred pain pattern from active MTrPs were drawn following manual palpation at TP sites. RESULTS: Showed that most of the TP sites are MTrPs. Local and referred pain from active MTrPs reproduced partly the overall spontaneous pain pattern. The total number of active MTrPs (r = .78, P

  13. The predetermined sites of examination for tender points in fibromyalgia syndrome are frequently associated with myofascial trigger points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ge, Hongyou; Wang, Ying; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente;

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this present study is to test the hypotheses that the 18 predetermined sites of examination for tender points (TP sites) in fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) are myofascial trigger points (MTrPs), and that the induced pain from active MTrPs at TP sites may mimic fibromyalgia pain. Each TP site......), but not latent MTrPs (r = -.001, P = .99), was positively correlated with spontaneous pain intensity in FMS. The current study provides first evidence that pain from active MTrPs at TP sites mimics fibromyalgia pain. MTrPs may relate to generalized increased sensitivity in FMS due to central sensitization....... PERSPECTIVE: This article underlies the importance of active MTrPs in FMS patients. Most of the TP sites in FMS are MTrPs. Active MTrPs may serve as a peripheral generator of fibromyalgia pain and inactivation of active MTrPs may thus be an alternative for the treatment of FMS....

  14. Induction of muscle cramps by nociceptive stimulation of latent myofascial trigger points.

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    Ge, Hong-You; Zhang, Yang; Boudreau, Shellie; Yue, Shou-Wei; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this present study is to test the hypothesis that nociceptive stimulation of latent myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) increases the occurrence of local muscle cramps. Nociceptive muscle stimulation was obtained by a bolus injection of glutamate (0.1 ml, 0.5 M) into a latent MTrP and a control point (a non-MTrP) located in the right or left gastrocnemius medialis muscles in 14 healthy subjects. A bolus of isotonic saline (0.9%, 0.1 ml) injection served as a control. The injections were guided by intramuscular electromyography (EMG) showing resting spontaneous electrical activity at a latent MTrP and no such activity at a non-MTrP. Intramuscular and surface EMG activities in the gastrocnemius medialis muscle were recorded pre-, during-, and post-injection for a period of 8 min to monitor the occurrence of muscle cramps, which are characterized by a brief episodic burst of high levels of EMG activity. The results showed that glutamate and isotonic saline injections into the latent MTrPs induced higher peak pain intensity than into the non-MTrPs (both P < 0.05). Glutamate injection induced higher peak pain intensity than isotonic saline injection into either latent MTrPs or non-MTrPs (both P < 0.05). Muscle camps were observed in 92.86% of the subjects following glutamate injection into the latent MTrPs, but not into the non-MTrPs (P < 0.001). No muscle cramps were recorded following isotonic saline injection into either the latent MTrPs or the non-MTrPs. These results suggest that latent MTrPs could be involved in the genesis of muscle cramps. Focal increase in nociceptive sensitivity at MTrPs constitutes one of the mechanisms underlying muscle cramps.

  15. Treatment of myofascial trigger points in female patients with chronic tension-type headache - A randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berggreen, S.; Wiik, E.; Lund, Hans

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of myofascial trigger point massage in the muscles of the head, neck and shoulders regarding pain in the treatment of females with chronic tension-type headache. They were randomized into either a treatment group (n = 20) (one session of trigger...... point massage per week for 10 weeks) or a control group receiving no treatment (n = 19). The patients kept a diary to record their pain on a visual analogue scale (VAS), and the daily intake of drugs (mg) during the 4 weeks before and after the treatment period. The McGill Pain Questionnaire......: 8.8 (95% CI 0.1117.4), p = 0.047). Furthermore, a significant decrease in the number of trigger points was observed in the treatment group compared with the control group. Myofascial trigger point massage has a beneficial effect on pain in female patients with chronic tension-type headache. © 2012...

  16. High prevalence of shoulder girdle muscles with myofascial trigger points in patients with shoulder pain

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    Wensing Michel

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shoulder pain is reported to be highly prevalent and tends to be recurrent or persistent despite medical treatment. The pathophysiological mechanisms of shoulder pain are poorly understood. Furthermore, there is little evidence supporting the effectiveness of current treatment protocols. Although myofascial trigger points (MTrPs are rarely mentioned in relation to shoulder pain, they may present an alternative underlying mechanism, which would provide new treatment targets through MTrP inactivation. While previous research has demonstrated that trained physiotherapists can reliably identify MTrPs in patients with shoulder pain, the percentage of patients who actually have MTrPs remains unclear. The aim of this observational study was to assess the prevalence of muscles with MTrPs and the association between MTrPs and the severity of pain and functioning in patients with chronic non-traumatic unilateral shoulder pain. Methods An observational study was conducted. Subjects were recruited from patients participating in a controlled trial studying the effectiveness of physical therapy on patients with unilateral non-traumatic shoulder pain. Sociodemographic and patient-reported symptom scores, including the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH Questionnaire, and Visual Analogue Scales for Pain were compared with other studies. To test for differences in age, gender distribution, and education level between the current study population and the populations from Dutch shoulder studies, the one sample T-test was used. One observer examined all subjects (n = 72 for the presence of MTrPs. Frequency distributions, means, medians, standard deviations, and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for descriptive purposes. The Spearman's rank-order correlation (ρ was used to test for association between variables. Results MTrPs were identified in all subjects. The median number of muscles with MTrPs per subject was 6 (active

  17. Effects of treatment of myofascial trigger points on the pain of fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giamberardino, Maria Adele; Affaitati, Giannapia; Fabrizio, Alessandra; Costantini, Raffaele

    2011-10-01

    Myofascial pain syndromes (MPSs) from trigger points (TrPs) and fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) are common musculoskeletal pain conditions that frequently coexist in the same patients. In recent decades, it has become evident that these entities greatly influence each other's clinical expression. FMS is mainly rooted in the central nervous system, while TrPs have a peripheral origin. However, the nociceptive impulses from TrPs may have significant impact on symptoms of FMS, probably by enhancing the level of central sensitization typical of this condition. Several attempts have been made to assess the effects of treatment of co-occurring TrPs in FMS. We report the outcomes of these studies showing that local extinction of TrPs in patients with fibromyalgia produces significant relief of FMS pain. Though further studies are needed, these findings suggest that assessment and treatment of concurrent TrPs in FMS should be systematically performed before any specific fibromyalgia therapy is undertaken.

  18. The Effect of Monochromatic Infrared Photo Energy on the Irritability of Myofascial Trigger Spot of Rabbit Skeletal Muscle

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    Ta-Shen Kuan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine whether the vasodilatation effect of monochromatic infrared photo energy (MIRE had the potential for the treatment of myofascial trigger spot (MTrS in rabbits. Design. A randomized-controlled animal study. Subjects. Twelve adult New Zealand rabbits. Methods. For each rabbit, a MTrS (equivalent to a myofascial trigger point in humans in one side of the biceps femoris muscle was randomly selected for MIRE treatment (experimental side, while another MTrS in the other side (control side received a sham treatment. The intervention consisted of a daily 40 minutes treatment, three times per week for 2 weeks. The prevalence of endplate noise (EPN loci in the MTrS was assessed before, immediately after, and one week after the completion of the 2-week treatment. Results. MIRE could suppress the prevalence of EPN in the MTrS. The degree of reduction in EPN prevalence in the MTrS between the experimental side and the control side was significantly different immediately after MIRE treatment, but not significantly different one week after MIRE treatment. Conclusion. Our study suggests that MIRE may be a useful therapeutic option for the management of the myofascial trigger point in humans.

  19. SPECIFIC SEQUENTIAL MYOFASCIAL TRIGGER POINT THERAPY IN THE TREATMENT OF A PATIENT WITH MYOFASCIAL PAIN SYNDROME ASSOCIATED WITH REFLEX SYMPATHETIC DYSTROPHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Chang-Zern

    2000-01-01

    A patient with traumatic rotator cuff tear of the left shoulder developed severe myofascial pain syndrome with reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD) involving the left upper extremity. He was unable to tolerate any type of manual therapy or needle treatment due to severe allodynia in the whole left upper limb. This patient presented for treatment approximately 6 months after the onset of trauma. Treatment consisting of specific myofascial trigger point (MTrP) therapy, beginning with desensitization and gentle massage on the MTrP of the first dorsal interosseous muscle, followed by treatment of MTrPs of the wrist-finger extensors and anterior deltoid muscles was commenced. Allodynia was remarkably reduced and further physical therapy with modalities was administered. After 2 weeks of daily MTrP therapy, he received local steroid injection to the left shoulder and continued MTrP therapy 2-3 times per week. Approximately 2 months after the injection the patient was almost pain free with nearly full range of motion in his left shoulder. The mechanism of MTrPs and their association with RSD is discussed in this paper. PMID:17987165

  20. The use of trigger point "dry" needling under ultrasound guidance for the treatment of myofascial pain (technological innovation and literature review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubnov, Rostyslav V

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the use of trigger point dry needling under ultrasound guidance and myofascial release for the treatment of myofascial pain and to increase the provability of the puncture treatment by visual verification. A review of modern and traditional approaches to myofascial pain treatment is presented in the article. For the first time the trigger point was visualized by ultrasound (US) in this study and ultrasound guided needling therapy of muscles was performed as well. The group of 91 patients, suffered from myofascial pain of different location was included in the study. The patients were treated during last year by patented method (UA patent A 2010 06283). The pain relief effect was registered in 93.3% patients.

  1. Myofascial trigger points:the common cause of clinical tissue pain%肌筋膜疼痛触发点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘琳; 黄强民; 汤莉

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Myofascial trigger points have been widely applied in clinical rehabilitation and tissue pain field in the United States and Europe countries, and they have been recognized as the common cause of clinical musculoskeletal pain, joint function limitation, tissue injuries and muscle fatigue by many physiotherapists abroad. However, in China, many experts stil have some mistaken ideas and limitations to understand the pathological mechanism and to diagnosis and treat myofascial trigger points. OBJECTIVE:From the aspects of the etiology, pathological mechanism, diagnosis and positioning, treatments, to elaborate the method issues and the clinical experience of treatments of myofascial trigger points. METHODS:PubMed, ScienceDirect, EBSCO and CNKI databases were searched by the keywords of “myofascial trigger points, myofascial pain syndrome” in Chinese and English, respectively, in the titles and abstract to retrieve relevant articles published from the time of database construction to August 2014. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:It is concluded that a child has myofascial trigger points in some skeletal muscles after age of 4 years. The main causes of myofascial trigger points include issue trauma, the wrong posture, bone and joint degeneration, nutrition deficiency, mental stress, chronic infection and so on. The pathological mechanism of myofascial trigger points remains unknown, but what has been widely accepted is the integrated trigger point hypothesis introduced by Simons. And how to find and position myofascial trigger points is the key point to treat this disease successfuly. The application of myofascial trigger points techniques is important for the rehabilitation of clinical tissue pain and the occurrence and spread of bone and joint injuries, myofascitis, muscle pain, muscle fatigue and so on.%背景:肌筋膜疼痛触发点技术在欧美国家临床康复和组织疼痛领域已得到广泛性应用,国内相关专家对其病理机制认识,

  2. Remote Subcutaneous Needling to Suppress the Irritability of Myofascial Trigger Spots: An Experimental Study in Rabbits

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    Zhonghua Fu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To obtain electrophysiological effects of Fu’s subcutaneous needling (FSN on needling distance by assessment of endplate noise (EPN recorded from the myofascial trigger spots (MTrSs in rabbit skeletal muscle. Method. Eighteen New Zealand rabbits weighing 2.5–3.0 kg were randomly divided into two groups as follows: proximal needling (PN group and distal needling (DN group. The needling procedure followed the instructions described by the inventor of FSN, including needling insertion and swaying movement. The amplitudes of EPN on the MTrS region of BF muscle were recorded as an index of MTrS irritability. Random sampling of EPN tracings were taken for further analyses before, during, and after FSN treatment. Results. In PN and DN groups, the trends of EPN amplitude alterations were similar at conditions before, during, and after FSN treatment. The degree of reduction in the EPN amplitude in PN group was significantly higher than that in DN group. There were no significant changes in EPN amplitudes in the MTrS of contralateral BF without FSN intervention either in DN or PN group. Conclusion. The irritability of proximal MTrSs could be modulated after ipsilateral FSNs. The placement of FSN may affect the effectiveness of suppression of irritability of MTrSs.

  3. Myofascial trigger points of the pelvic floor: associations with urological pain syndromes and treatment strategies including injection therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldwin, Robert M; Fariello, Jennifer Yonaitis

    2013-10-01

    Myofascial trigger points (MTrP), or muscle "contraction knots," of the pelvic floor may be identified in as many as 85 % of patients suffering from urological, colorectal and gynecological pelvic pain syndromes; and can be responsible for some, if not all, symptoms related to these syndromes. Identification and conservative treatment of MTrPs in these populations has often been associated with impressive clinical improvements. In refractory cases, more "aggressive" therapy with varied trigger point needling techniques, including dry needling, anesthetic injections, or onabotulinumtoxinA injections, may be used, in combination with conservative therapies.

  4. Effects of postural and visual stressors on myofascial trigger point development and motor unit rotation during computer work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyle, Jeffrey A; Marras, William S; Sheedy, James E; Hart, Dennis E

    2011-02-01

    Musculoskeletal complaint rates are high among those performing low-level static exertions (LLSEs), such as computer users. However, our understanding of the causal mechanisms is lacking. It was hypothesized that myofascial trigger point (MTrP) development might be one causal mechanism to help explain these complaints and that static postural and visual demands may be contributing factors. Therefore, the purpose of this experiment was to examine MTrP development and the behavior of multiple parts of the trapezius muscle under postural and mental stress (represented by visual stress) conditions during computer work. Twelve subjects (six male and six female) were monitored for MTrP development via expert opinion, subject self-report, and cyclic changes in EMG median frequency across fourteen spatial locations. Results showed that MTrPs developed after one hour of continuous typing, despite the stress condition. Interestingly, both the high postural and high visual stress conditions resulted in significantly fewer median frequency cycles (3.76 and 5.35 cycles, respectively), compared to the baseline low stress condition (6.26 cycles). Lastly, the MTrP location as well as locations more medial to the spine showed significantly fewer cycles than other locations. Findings suggest that MTrPs may be one causal pathway for pain during LLSEs and both postural and visual demands may play a role in muscle activation patterns, perhaps attributing to MTrP development and resultant discomfort.

  5. Myofascial pain syndromes and their evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giamberardino, Maria Adele; Affaitati, Giannapia; Fabrizio, Alessandra; Costantini, Raffaele

    2011-04-01

    This article reviews the available published knowledge about the diagnosis, pathophysiology and treatment of myofascial pain syndromes from trigger points. Furthermore, epidemiologic data and clinical characteristics of these syndromes are described, including a detailed account of sensory changes that occur at both painful and nonpainful sites and their utility for diagnosis and differential diagnosis; the identification/diagnostic criteria available so far are critically reviewed. The key role played by myofascial trigger points as activating factors of pain symptoms in other algogenic conditions--headache, fibromyalgia and visceral disease--is also addressed. Current hypotheses on the pathophysiology of myofascial pain syndromes are presented, including mechanisms of formation and persistence of primary and secondary trigger points as well as mechanisms beyond referred pain and hyperalgesia from trigger points. Conventional and most recent therapeutic options for these syndromes are described, and their validity is discussed on the basis of results from clinical controlled studies.

  6. Chronic whiplash and central sensitization; an evaluation of the role of a myofascial trigger points in pain modulation

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    Freeman Michael D

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective it has been established that chronic neck pain following whiplash is associated with the phenomenon of central sensitization, in which injured and uninjured parts of the body exhibit lowered pain thresholds due to an alteration in central pain processing. it has furthermore been hypothesized that peripheral sources of nociception in the muscles may perpetuate central sensitization in chronic whiplash. the hypothesis explored in the present study was whether myofascial trigger points serve as a modulator of central sensitization in subjects with chronic neck pain. Design controlled case series. Setting outpatient chronic pain clinic. Subjects seventeen patients with chronic and intractable neck pain and 10 healthy controls without complaints of neck pain. Intervention symptomatic subjects received anesthetic infiltration of myofascial trigger points in the upper trapezius muscles and controls received the anesthetic in the thigh. Outcome measures: pre and post injection cervical range of motion, pressure pain thresholds (ppt over the infraspinatus, wrist extensor, and tibialis anterior muscles. sensitivity to light (photophobia and subjects' perception of pain using a visual analog scale (vas were also evaluated before and after injections. only the ppt was evaluated in the asymptomatic controls. Results immediate (within 1 minute alterations in cervical range of motion and pressure pain thresholds were observed following an average of 3.8 injections with 1–2 cc of 1% lidocaine into carefully identified trigger points. cervical range of motion increased by an average of 49% (p = 0.000 in flexion and 44% (p = 0.001 in extension, 47% (p = 0.000 and 28% (p Conclusion the present data suggest that myofascial trigger points serve to perpetuate lowered pain thresholds in uninjured tissues. additionally, it appears that lowered pain thresholds associated with central sensitization can be immediately reversed, even when associated

  7. Dry needling on tendons and myofascial trigger points in post-traumatic stiffness of elbow: a case report

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    Sukumar Shanmugam

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A 42 years old female presented with the complaints of pain and stiffness of right elbow with limited elbow extension, since 8 months, due to fracture of head of the radius. She was receiving conventional physical therapy treatment for pain relief and functional improvement since eight months. The limitation in Elbow extension caused difficulty in carrying household works. Later the patient was treated with dry needling to myofascial trigger points in brachioradiallis, common flexor, and extensor muscles of elbow and upper trapezius of shoulder, dry needling for tendons were added for further muscle relaxation. The interventions were carried out for three sessions, alternatively for one week. Pain (VAS score from 8/10 to 1/10, elbow extension range of motion (from 120-35 to 120-05 and the patient's upper limb functions (Quick DASH score from 63.36 to 13.63 were improved after one week of intervention. This case report results suggest that overall neuro-musculoskeletal function was improved due to dry needle induced myofascial trigger points deactivation and further muscle relaxation caused by tendon needling. This case report may helpful in formulating further treatment tool for better and faster recovery from pain and joint dysfunction in post immobilization pain and stiffness of elbow and other joints. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(6.000: 1529-1532

  8. Myofascial pain syndrome treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg-Stein, Joanne; Iaccarino, Mary Alexis

    2014-05-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is a regional pain disorder caused by taut bands of muscle fibers in skeletal muscles called myofascial trigger points. MPS is a common disorder, often diagnosed and treated by physiatrists. Treatment strategies for MPS include exercises, patient education, and trigger point injection. Pharmacologic interventions are also common, and a variety of analgesics, antiinflammatories, antidepressants, and other medications are used in clinical practice. This review explores the various treatment options for MPS, including those therapies that target myofascial trigger points and common secondary symptoms.

  9. Remote Effect of Lower Limb Acupuncture on Latent Myofascial Trigger Point of Upper Trapezius Muscle: A Pilot Study

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    Kai-Hua Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To demonstrate the use of acupuncture in the lower limbs to treat myofascial pain of the upper trapezius muscles via a remote effect. Methods. Five adults with latent myofascial trigger points (MTrPs of bilateral upper trapezius muscles received acupuncture at Weizhong (UB40 and Yanglingquan (GB34 points in the lower limbs. Modified acupuncture was applied at these points on a randomly selected ipsilateral lower limb (experimental side versus sham needling on the contralateral lower limb (control side in each subject. Each subject received two treatments within a one-week interval. To evaluate the remote effect of acupuncture, the range of motion (ROM upon bending the contralateral side of the cervical spine was assessed before and after each treatment. Results. There was significant improvement in cervical ROM after the second treatment (P=0.03 in the experimental group, and the increased ROM on the modified acupuncture side was greater compared to the sham needling side (P=0.036. Conclusions. A remote effect of acupuncture was demonstrated in this pilot study. Using modified acupuncture needling at remote acupuncture points in the ipsilateral lower limb, our treatments released tightness due to latent MTrPs of the upper trapezius muscle.

  10. A narrative review of new trends in the diagnosis of myofascial trigger points: diagnostic ultrasound imaging and biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srbely, John Z; Kumbhare, Dinesh; Grosman-Rimon, Liza

    2016-01-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is one of the most common conditions of chronic musculoskeletal pain encountered by primary healthcare practitioners on a daily basis. It is generally accepted amongst the broad profile of healthcare practitioners treating MPS that the presence of discrete, palpable and tender nodules within the muscle, known as myofascial trigger points (MTrP), is necessary to confirm the diagnosis of MPS. Manual palpation is currently the most common technique used to detect MTrP, however, previous research has shown that the reliability of manual palpation for detecting MTrP is poor, and in our opinion unacceptably poor, leading to inconsistent diagnosis of MPS and poor patient outcomes. There are currently no objective accepted diagnostic criteria for the clinical detection of MTrP, nor are there standardized diagnostic criteria for MPS. Two promising areas of research with potential for enhancing the diagnosis of MPS include the use of diagnostic ultrasound and biomarkers. Further research is needed to advance the development of composite diagnostic criteria employing ultrasound imaging, biomarker assessments and physical assessment to enhance the accuracy and objectivity of MTrP detection and diagnosis of chronic MPS disorder. PMID:27713577

  11. Myofascial low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsook, Ryan R; Malanga, Gerard A

    2012-10-01

    Low back pain is a common condition that is encountered by both primary care physicians as well as various specialists, which include: orthopedic surgeons, physical medicine and rehabilitation specialists, neurologists, rheumatologists, and pain management specialists. Associated muscular pain is very common and often a reactive response from nociception from other structures. Myofascial pain may arise, which is characterized by the presence of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) that are located in fascia, tendons, and/or muscle. This article reviews the current evidence regarding the pathophysiology, assessment, and recommended treatment options for myofascial low back pain.

  12. PENURUNAN NYERI DAN DISABILITAS DENGAN INTEGRATED NEUROMUSCULAR INHIBITION TECHNIQUES (INIT DAN MASSAGE EFFLEURAGE PADA MYOFASCIAL TRIGGER POINT SYNDROME OTOT TRAPESIUS BAGIAN ATAS

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    Veni Fatmawati

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Myofascia Trigger Point Syndrome (MTrPs is trigger point muscle happens in musculoskeletal. Factors which strengthen and trigger the emerge of MTrPs are the muscle contraction which happens continuously, poor body position, wrong body position or movement, poor occupation activity and unsuitable workplace arrangement that affect the unergonomic work behavior. The objective of this reseacrh is to reveal the effectivity of  integrated neuromuscular  inhibition techniques (init and massage efflurage in decreasing pain and disability in myofasial trigger point of upper trapesius muscle. The subjects this research are 34 people which are taken randomly in Puskesmas 2 Kartosuro, Surakarta with 17 samples of each group. Group 1 is integrated neuromuscular inhibition techniques (init and group 2 is massage efflurage. The data used in this research is NDI scale taken before and after therapy. The data collected is processed by using differential test through computer base of SPSS 15.0 version. The data analysis by using paired sample t-test, in group 1 the data resulted before therapy is 48,35±6,68 and the data resulted after therapy is 25,94±5,87 with p = 0,000 (p < 0,05. Whereas in group 2, the  resulted before therapy is 47,53±5,17 and the data resulted before therapy is 28,00±8,91 with p = 0,000 (p < 0,05. To conclude, based on the data resulted in this research, integrated neuromuscular  inhibition techniques (init and massage effleurage are there is no difference decrease pain and disability in myofascial trigger point of upper trapezius muscle.

  13. Chronic pelvic pain syndrome: reduction of medication use after pelvic floor physical therapy with an internal myofascial trigger point wand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Rodney U; Harvey, Richard H; Wise, David; Nevin Smith, J; Nathanson, Brian H; Sawyer, Tim

    2015-03-01

    This study documents the voluntary reduction in medication use in patients with refractory chronic pelvic pain syndrome utilizing a protocol of pelvic floor myofascial trigger point release with an FDA approved internal trigger point wand and paradoxical relaxation therapy. Self-referred patients were enrolled in a 6-day training clinic from October, 2008 to May, 2011 and followed the protocol for 6 months. Medication usage and symptom scores on a 1-10 scale (10 = most severe) were collected at baseline, and 1 and 6 months. All changes in medication use were at the patient's discretion. Changes in medication use were assessed by McNemar's test in both complete case and modified intention to treat (mITT) analyses. 374 out of 396 patients met inclusion criteria; 79.7 % were male, median age of 43 years and median symptom duration of 5 years. In the complete case analysis, the percent of patients using medications at baseline was 63.6 %. After 6 months of treatment the percentage was 40.1 %, a 36.9 % reduction (p < 0.001). In the mITT analysis, there was a 22.7 % overall reduction from baseline (p < 0.001). Medication cessation at 6 months was significantly associated with a reduction in total symptoms (p = 0.03).

  14. A systematic, critical review of manual palpation for identifying myofascial trigger points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myburgh, Corrie; Larsen, Anders Holsgaard; Hartvigsen, Jan

    2008-01-01

    To determine the reproducibility of manual palpation in identifying trigger points based on a systematic review of available literature.......To determine the reproducibility of manual palpation in identifying trigger points based on a systematic review of available literature....

  15. The occurrence and inter-rater reliability of myofascial trigger points in the quadratus lumborum and gluteus medius: A prospective study in non-specific low back pain patients and controls in general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.H. Njoo (Khing Hua); E. van der Does (Emiel)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThe presence of a trigger point is essential to the myofascial pain syndrome. This study centres on identifying clearer criteria for the presence of trigger points in the quadratus lumborum and gluteus medius muscle by investigating the occurrence and inter-rater reliability of trigger p

  16. Treatment of myofascial trigger points in common shoulder disorders by physical therapy: A randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN75722066

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franssen Jo LM

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shoulder disorders are a common health problem in western societies. Several treatment protocols have been developed for the clinical management of persons with shoulder pain. However available evidence does not support any protocol as being superior over others. Systematic reviews provide some evidence that certain physical therapy interventions (i.e. supervised exercises and mobilisation are effective in particular shoulder disorders (i.e. rotator cuff disorders, mixed shoulder disorders and adhesive capsulitis, but there is an ongoing need for high quality trials of physical therapy interventions. Usually, physical therapy consists of active exercises intended to strengthen the shoulder muscles as stabilizers of the glenohumeral joint or perform mobilisations to improve restricted mobility of the glenohumeral or adjacent joints (shoulder girdle. It is generally accepted that a-traumatic shoulder problems are the result of impingement of the subacromial structures, such as the bursa or rotator cuff tendons. Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs in shoulder muscles may also lead to a complex of symptoms that are often seen in patients diagnosed with subacromial impingement or rotator cuff tendinopathy. Little is known about the treatment of MTrPs in patients with shoulder disorders. The primary aim of this study is to investigate whether physical therapy modalities to inactivate MTrPs can reduce symptoms and improve shoulder function in daily activities in a population of chronic a-traumatic shoulder patients when compared to a wait-and-see strategy. In addition we investigate the recurrence rate during a one-year-follow-up period. Methods/Design This paper presents the design for a randomized controlled trial to be conducted between September 2007 – September 2008, evaluating the effectiveness of a physical therapy treatment for non-traumatic shoulder complaints. One hundred subjects are included in this study. All subjects

  17. Myofascial pain syndrome: a treatment review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Mehul J; Saini, Vikramjeet; Saini, Shawnjeet

    2013-06-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is defined as pain that originates from myofascial trigger points in skeletal muscle. It is prevalent in regional musculoskeletal pain syndromes, either alone or in combination with other pain generators. The appropriate evaluation and management of myofascial pain is an important part of musculoskeletal rehabilitation, and regional axial and limb pain syndromes. This article reviews the current hypotheses regarding the treatment modalities for myofascial trigger points and muscle pain. Through a critical evidence-based review of the pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatments, the authors aim to provide clinicians with a more comprehensive knowledge of the interventions for myofascial pain.

  18. Treatment of myofascial pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Mehul J; Bean, Matthew C; Heckman, Thomas W; Jayaseelan, Dhinu; Moats, Nick; Nava, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The objective of this article was to perform a narrative review regarding the treatment of myofascial pain syndrome and to provide clinicians with treatment recommendations. This paper reviews the efficacy of various myofascial pain syndrome treatment modalities, including pharmacological therapy, injection-based therapies and physical therapy interventions. Outcomes evaluated included pain (visual analog scale), pain pressure threshold and range of motion. The evidence found significant benefit with multiple treatments, including diclofenac patch, thiocolchicoside and lidocaine patches. Trigger point injections, ischemic compression therapy, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, spray and stretch, and myofascial release were also efficacious. The authors recommend focusing on treating underlying pathologies, including spinal conditions, postural abnormalities and underlying behavioral issues. To achieve maximum pain reduction and improve function, we recommend physicians approach myofascial pain syndrome with a multimodal plan, which includes a combination of pharmacologic therapies, various physical therapeutic modalities and injection therapies.

  19. Effect of Latent Myofascial Trigger Points on Strength Measurements of the Upper Trapezius: A Case-Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anshul

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: The purpose of this article was to determine whether strength is altered in the upper trapezius in the presence of latent myofascial trigger points (MTrP). Methods: This study was case controlled and used convenience sampling. The sample recruited was homogeneous with respect to age, sex, height, and body mass. Participants were assessed for the presence of latent MTrP in the upper trapezius and placed into two groups: an experimental group that had latent MTrP in the upper trapezius and a control group that did not. Eighteen women (mean age 21.4 y, SD 1.89; mean height 156.9 cm, SD 4.03; and mean body mass 51.7 kg, SD 5.84) made up the experimental group, and 19 women (mean age 20.3 y, SD 1.86; mean height 158.6 cm, SD 3.14; and mean body mass 53.2 kg, SD 5.17) made up the control group. We obtained strength measurements of the non-dominant arm using a handheld dynamometer and compared them between the two groups. Results: The difference in the strength measurements between the two groups was not statistically significant (p=0.59). Conclusions: The presence of latent MTrPs may not affect the strength of the upper trapezius. PMID:22942517

  20. Glimpse of Views in Ashi and Myofascial Trigger Point%阿是穴与激痛点浅议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王列; 马铁明; 曹锐; 王颖; 马帅; 王建华; 王莹; 陈玲

    2016-01-01

    阿是穴与激痛点虽于不同时代提出,但二者之间有诸多相似之处,本文从二者的起源、定位、病理机制、临床应用及干预方法等多方面进行分析阐述,揭示二者之间的联系与区别,希望从一个全新的视角出发,对二者的理论及实践的发展提供借鉴.%Ashi and myofascial trigger point,although proposed at different times,but there are many similarities between them,due to its unique efficacy and widespread concern in Western medical community.From the origin,location,pathological mechanisms,clinical application and intervention aspects of both methods were analyzed and discussed,reveals links and differences between them.We hope from a new perspective on the development of both the theory and practice for reference.

  1. The role of myofascial trigger points in musculoskeletal pain syndromes of the head and neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Simons, David; Cuadrado, Maria Luz; Pareja, Juan

    2007-10-01

    Neck and head pain syndromes are common problems seen in clinical practice. Pain features of commonly designated idiopathic neck pain and some primary headaches (ie, tension-type headache or migraine) fit the descriptions of referred pain originating in muscle trigger points (TrPs). This article discusses the scientific evidence supporting the role of muscle TrPs in chronic musculo-skeletal disorders of the neck and head. The relevance of referred pain elicited by muscle TrPs in patients with neck pain has been investigated in few studies. Some authors found that both muscle TrPs in neck-shoulder muscles and cervical joint dysfunctions contribute at the same time to neck pain perception. Furthermore, it seems that referred pain originated in muscle TrPs could also contribute to neck symptoms perceived by subjects after a rear-end crash. In addition, several recent studies reported that both TTH and migraine are associated with referred pain from TrPs in the suboccipital, upper trapezius, sternocleidomastoid, temporalis, or superior oblique muscles. Referred pain elicited by active TrPs mimics the pain areas observed during head pain attacks in these primary headaches. Based on available data, it seems that the pain profile of neck and head syndromes may be provoked referred pain from TrPs in the posterior cervical, head, and shoulder muscles. Additional studies are needed to delineate more information on the relation between muscle TrPs and musculoskeletal pain syndromes of the head and neck.

  2. Effectiveness of dry needling and injections of myofascial trigger points associated with plantar heel pain: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cotchett Matthew P

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plantar heel pain (plantar fasciitis is one of the most common musculoskeletal pathologies of the foot. Plantar heel pain can be managed with dry needling and/or injection of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs however the evidence for its effectiveness is uncertain. Therefore, we aimed to systematically review the current evidence for the effectiveness of dry needling and/or injections of MTrPs associated with plantar heel pain. Methods We searched specific electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus and AMI in April 2010 to identify randomised and non-randomised trials. We included trials where participants diagnosed with plantar heel pain were treated with dry needling and/or injections (local anaesthetics, steroids, Botulinum toxin A and saline alone or in combination with acupuncture. Outcome measures that focussed on pain and function were extracted from the data. Trials were assessed for quality using the Quality Index tool. Results Three quasi-experimental trials matched the inclusion criteria: two trials found a reduction in pain for the use of trigger point dry needling when combined with acupuncture and the third found a reduction in pain using 1% lidocaine injections when combined with physical therapy. However, the methodological quality of the three trials was poor, with Quality Index scores ranging form 7 to 12 out of a possible score of 27. A meta-analysis was not conducted because substantial heterogeneity was present between trials. Conclusions There is limited evidence for the effectiveness of dry needling and/or injections of MTrPs associated with plantar heel pain. However, the poor quality and heterogeneous nature of the included studies precludes definitive conclusions being made. Importantly, this review highlights the need for future trials to use rigorous randomised controlled methodology with measures such as blinding to reduce bias. We also recommend that such trials adhere to the

  3. 肌筋膜“扳机点”动物模型的构建及针灸干预机制%Myofascial Trigger Points:Construction of Animal Models and Mechanism of Acupuncture Intervention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵开超; 查和萍; 范志勇; 吴世芳; 李珊珊

    2013-01-01

    肌筋膜炎是临床常见病之一,从肌筋膜“扳机点”入手治疗具有较好的疗效。本文分别从中医学和现代医学的角度,进一步深入了解肌筋膜“扳机点”,并对目前肌筋膜“扳机点”动物模型的构建进行阐述,阐明针灸干预肌筋膜“扳机点”的机制,对肌筋膜“扳机点”的进一步研究具有积极的意义。%Myofascitis is one of clinical common diseases ,and myofascial trigger point therapy usually plays a good curative effect .Respectively from the angle of medicine and modern medicine , in order to further under-stand myofascial trigger points , and myofascial trigger point elaborates the construction of animal models , to clarify the mechanism of acupuncture intervention myofascial trigger point .The further study of myofascial trigger points has a positive significance .

  4. Difference in effect between ischemic compression and muscle energy technique on upper trepezius myofascial trigger points: Comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal S Nambi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Myofascial trigger point (MTrP is a hyperirritable point or spot, usually within a taut band of skeletal muscle or in the muscle fascia which is painful on compression and can give rise to characteristic-referred pain and motor dysfunction. Studies suggest that various types of massage forms are available for treating MTrPs. Aims: To find the difference in effect of two forms of massage techniques: Ischemic compression and muscle energy technique (MET on upper trepezius MTrPs. Settings and Design: Quasi experimental design was conducted with convenient sampling method. Materials and Methods: Patients ( n = 30 who fulfil the screening criteria were randomly assigned to Group A ( n = 15 treated with ischemic compression and ultrasound and Group B ( n = 15 treated with MET and ultrasound for 4 weeks and they were assessed at baseline and after 4 weeks. Outcome measures included pain intensity by visual analog scale (VAS and range of motion by universal goniometer. Statistical Analysis Used: Intergroup analysis was done with Mann-Whitney test and intragroup analysis was done with Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results: Statistically, no significant ( P > 0.05 changes in the scores were found in the Groups A and B for VAS, and statistically significant ( P < 0.05 changes in the scores were found in the Groups A and B for Range of Motion (ROM with greater change scores in the Group B compared with Group A. Conclusion: Treatment program consisting of MET with ultrasound may be more effective in reducing pain and improve ROM in patients in upper trepezius MTrPs.

  5. Diagnosis of myofascial pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerwin, Robert D

    2014-05-01

    Myofascial pain is one of the most common causes of pain. The diagnosis of myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is made by muscle palpation. The source of the pain in MPS is the myofascial trigger point, a very localized region of tender, contracted muscle that is readily identified by palpation. The trigger point has well-described electrophysiologic properties and is associated with a derangement of the local biochemical milieu of the muscle. A proper diagnosis of MPS includes evaluation of muscle as a cause of pain, and assessment of associated conditions that have an impact on MPS.

  6. A RANDOMIZED TRIAL TO STUDY THE COMPARISON OF TRIGGER POINT DRY NEEDLING VERSUS KINESIO TAPING TECHNIQUE IN MYOFASCIAL PAIN SYNDROME DURING A 3-MONTH FOLLOW UP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emrullah Hayta

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Managemen of myofascial pain syndrome (MPS is a current research subject since there is a small number of randomized studies comparing different management techniques. Multiple studies attempted to assess various treatment options including trigger point dry needling and kinesiotaping. We compared the effects of trigger point dry needling and kinesiotaping in the management of myofascial pain syndome during a 3-month follow-up period. Methods: In this prospective randomized studyin MPS patients with upper trapezius muscle trigger points, the effects of dry needling (n=28 and kinesiotaping (n=27 was compared with regard to the visual analog scale (VAS, neck disability index (NDI, and Nottingham health profile (NHP scores measured at the weeks 0, 4, and 12. Results: Both dry needling and kinesiotaping comparably reduced VAS scores measured at the weeks 4 and 12 and their efficacies were more remarkable at the week 12 (p<0.05. These interventions significantly reduced the NDI and NHP score and their effects were also more remarkable at the week 12; however, dry needling was found more effective (p<0.05. Conclusion: Overall, in current clinical settings, during the management of MPS, pain can be reduced comparably by both dry needling and kinesiotaping; however, restriction in the range of motionin neck region and quality of life are more remarkably reduced by dry needling. Both dry needling and kinesiotaping can provide an increasing effectiveness up to 12 weeks.

  7. Fluence-dependent effects of low-level laser therapy in myofascial trigger spots on modulation of biochemicals associated with pain in a rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yueh-Ling; Hong, Chang-Zern; Chou, Li-Wei; Yang, Shun-An; Yang, Chen-Chia

    2015-01-01

    Evidence strongly supports that low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is an effective physical modality for the treatment of pain associated with myofascial trigger points (MTrP). However, the effect of laser fluence (energy intensity in J/cm(2)) on biochemical regulation related to pain is unclear. To better understand the biochemical mechanisms modulated by high- and low-fluence LLLT at myofascial trigger spots (MTrSs; similar to human MTrPs) in skeletal muscles of rabbits, the levels of β-endorphin (β-ep), substance P (SP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were investigated in this study. New Zealand rabbits (2.5-3.0 kg in weight) were used in this study. High-fluence LLLT (27 J/cm(2)), low-fluence LLLT (4.5 J/cm(2)), or sham operations were applied on MTrSs of biceps femoris of rabbits for five sessions (one session per day). Effects of LLLT at two different fluences on biceps femoris, dorsal root ganglion (DRG), and serum were determined by β-ep, SP, TNF-α, and COX-2 immunoassays. LLLT irradiation with fluences of 4.5 and 27 J/cm(2) at MTrSs can significantly reduce SP level in DRG. LLLT with lower fluence of 4.5 J/cm(2) exerted lower levels of TNF-α and COX-2 expression in laser-treated muscle, but LLLT with higher fluence of 27 J/cm(2) elevated the levels of β-ep in serum, DRG, and muscle. This study demonstrated fluence-dependent biochemical effects of LLLT in an animal model on management of myofascial pain. The findings can contribute to the development of dosage guideline for LLLT for treating MTrP-induced pain.

  8. Masticatory Muscle Sleep Background EMG Activity is Elevated in Myofascial TMD Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raphael, Karen G.; Janal, Malvin N.; Sirois, David A.; Dubrovsky, Boris; Wigren, Pia E.; Klausner, Jack J.; Krieger, Ana C.; Lavigne, Gilles J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite theoretical speculation and strong clinical belief, recent research using laboratory polysomnographic (PSG) recording has provided new evidence that frequency of sleep bruxism (SB) masseter muscle events, including grinding or clenching of the teeth during sleep, is not increased for women with chronic myofascial temporomandibular disorder (TMD). The current case-control study compares a large sample of women suffering from chronic myofascial TMD (n=124) with a demographically matched control group without TMD (n=46) on sleep background electromyography (EMG) during a laboratory PSG study. Background EMG activity was measured as EMG root mean square (RMS) from the right masseter muscle after lights out. Sleep background EMG activity was defined as EMG RMS remaining after activity attributable to SB, other orofacial activity, other oromotor activity and movement artifacts were removed. Results indicated that median background EMG during these non SB-event periods was significantly higher (p<.01) for women with myofascial TMD (median=3.31 μV and mean=4.98 μV) than for control women (median=2.83 μV and mean=3.88 μV) with median activity in 72% of cases exceeding control activity. Moreover, for TMD cases, background EMG was positively associated and SB event-related EMG was negatively associated with pain intensity ratings (0–10 numerical scale) on post sleep waking. These data provide the foundation for a new focus on small, but persistent, elevations in sleep EMG activity over the course of the night as a mechanism of pain induction or maintenance. PMID:24237356

  9. Masticatory muscle sleep background electromyographic activity is elevated in myofascial temporomandibular disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raphael, K G; Janal, M N; Sirois, D A; Dubrovsky, B; Wigren, P E; Klausner, J J; Krieger, A C; Lavigne, G J

    2013-12-01

    Despite theoretical speculation and strong clinical belief, recent research using laboratory polysomnographic (PSG) recording has provided new evidence that frequency of sleep bruxism (SB) masseter muscle events, including grinding or clenching of the teeth during sleep, is not increased for women with chronic myofascial temporomandibular disorder (TMD). The current case-control study compares a large sample of women suffering from chronic myofascial TMD (n = 124) with a demographically matched control group without TMD (n = 46) on sleep background electromyography (EMG) during a laboratory PSG study. Background EMG activity was measured as EMG root mean square (RMS) from the right masseter muscle after lights out. Sleep background EMG activity was defined as EMG RMS remaining after activity attributable to SB, other orofacial activity, other oromotor activity and movement artefacts were removed. Results indicated that median background EMG during these non-SB event periods was significantly higher (P myofascial TMD (median = 3·31 μV and mean = 4·98 μV) than for control women (median = 2·83 μV and mean = 3·88 μV) with median activity in 72% of cases exceeding control activity. Moreover, for TMD cases, background EMG was positively associated and SB event-related EMG was negatively associated with pain intensity ratings (0-10 numerical scale) on post-sleep waking. These data provide the foundation for a new focus on small, but persistent, elevations in sleep EMG activity over the course of the night as a mechanism of pain induction or maintenance.

  10. The occurrence and inter-rater reliability of myofascial trigger points in the quadratus lumborum and gluteus medius: A prospective study in non-specific low back pain patients and controls in general practice

    OpenAIRE

    Njoo, Khing Hua; Does, Emiel

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThe presence of a trigger point is essential to the myofascial pain syndrome. This study centres on identifying clearer criteria for the presence of trigger points in the quadratus lumborum and gluteus medius muscle by investigating the occurrence and inter-rater reliability of trigger point symptoms. Using the symptoms and signs as described by Simons' 1990 definition and two other former sets of criteria, 61 non-specific low back pain patients and 63 controls were examined in ge...

  11. 腰背部肌筋膜疼痛综合征激痛点的剪切波弹性模量研究%Study on the elastic modulus of shear wave for myofascial trigger points of lumber and back myofascial pain syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李真; 吕恒勇; 任泽阳; 梁晓宁; 贾晓霞; 李硕; 牛雅莉; 李迎新; 郭瑞君

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical diagnostic value of elastography in myofascial pain syndrome by measuring the elastic properties of myofascial trigger points.Methods The elastic modulus of 30 myofascial trigger points from 15 female patients with myofascial pain syndrome and 8 normal points from 8 female healthy volunteers were measured by shear wave elastography.The mean,min,max,and standard deviation (SD) of elastic modulus in lesions,surrounding tissue of myofascial trigger point and normal points were recorded and compared,and the correlation between elasticity of myofascial trigger points and age,location were analyzed.Results The mean,min,max,and standard deviation of elastic modulus in lesion area of myofascial trigger point were significantly higher than that in surrounding tissue and normal points (P<0.05).There were no significant differences between lesion area of myofascial trigger point and normal points (P>0.05),and elastic modulus of myofascial trigger points bore no relation to age and location (P>0.05).Conclusions Shear wave elastic modulus can be used to differentiate lesion area and its adjacent area of trigger points and normal points,which will provide a new way to identify myofascial trigger point and new basis for palpation,thus has higher application value in clinical and research prospect.%目的 通过剪切波弹性成像(SWE)技术研究肌筋膜疼痛综合征激痛点的弹性特征,探索弹性超声技术在肌筋膜疼痛综合征临床诊断中的应用价值.方法 对8例女性健康志愿者的8个正常点和15例女性肌筋膜疼痛综合征患者腰背部30个激痛点行弹性超声检查,分别获得正常点、激痛点病灶区及邻近区定量分析取样框(Q-box)内弹性模量的均值(Mean)、最小值(Min)、最大值(Max)及标准差(SD);比较正常点、激痛点病灶区及临近区的弹性模量差异,探索激痛点弹性模量与患者年龄、所在部位的关系.结果 激痛点病灶区弹

  12. Experienced versus Inexperienced Interexaminer Reliability on Location and Classification of Myofascial Trigger Point Palpation to Diagnose Lateral Epicondylalgia: An Observational Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Mora-Relucio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose was to evaluate the interexaminer reliability of experienced and inexperienced examiners on location and classification of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs in two epicondylar muscles and the association between the MTrP found and the diagnosis of lateral epicondylalgia (LE. Fifty-two pianists (some suffered LE voluntarily participated in the study. Three physiotherapists (one inexperienced in myofascial pain examined, located, and marked MTrPs in the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB and extensor digitorum communis (EDC muscles. Forearms were photographed and analyzed to establish the degree of agreement on MTrPs diagnosis. Data showed 81.73% and 77.88% of agreement on MTrP classification and 85.58% and 72.12% on MTrP location between the expert evaluators for ECRB and EDC, respectively. The agreement on MTrP classification between experienced and inexperienced examiners was 54.81% and 51.92% for ECRB and 50.00% and 55.77% for EDC. Also, agreement on MTrP location was 54.81% and 60.58% for ECRB and 48.08% and 48.08% for EDC. A strong association was found between presence of relevant MTrPs, LE diagnosis, and forearm pain when the examiners were experts. The analysis of location and classification of MTrPs in the epicondylar muscles through physical examination by experienced evaluators is reliable, reproducible, and suitable for diagnosing LE.

  13. Change and role of biochemical milieu in the site near to myofascial trigger points%肌筋膜疼痛触发点内理化环境的改变及其作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄丹婧; 吕娇娇; 黄强民; 吴小丽

    2011-01-01

    背景:以往研究对肌筋膜疼痛触发点的研究主要集中在发病特点和临床治疗方面,有关肌筋膜疼痛触发点局部组织的理化环境变化及其作用的研究较少.目的:总结并讨论肌筋膜疼痛触发点局部组织的理化环境变化及各种理化因子在肌筋膜疼痛中的作用.方法:由第一作者用计算机检索中国期刊全文数据库(CNKI:2000/2010)和Medline数据库(2000/2010),检索词分别为"肌筋膜疼痛触发点、致痛因子、神经系统致敏、伤害性感受器"和"myofascial trigger points,algogenic substance,nervous system sensitization,nociceptors".共检索到159篇文章,按纳入和排除标准对文献进行筛选,共纳入30篇文章.从肌筋膜疼痛触发点局部理化环境变化及各种理化因子的作用两方面进行总结,对理化环境在肌筋膜疼痛触发点发病中的重要作用进行介绍.结果与结论:肌筋膜疼痛触发点局部肌肉组织各种理化因子发生显著性变化,表现为各神经血管反应物质增多,炎症递质和致痛因子浓度明显升高.但是国内外对肌筋膜疼痛触发点理化环境变化及其作用的相关研究较少,了解仍不深入.%BACKGROUND: Most previous studies of sites near to myofascial trigger points focus on pathological characteristics and clinical treatments. The biochemical milieu and role in the sites near to myofascial trigger points are poorly understood.OBJECTIVE: To summarize the biochemical milieu in the sites near to myofascial trigger points and the role of various biochemical factors in myofascial pains.METHODS: A computer-based retrieval was performed by the first author using the key words“myofascial trigger points, algogenic substance, nervous system sensitization, nociceptors” in English and Chinese to search papers published between 2000 and 2010 in CNKI and Medline databases. A total of 159 papers were retrieved. According to inclusion and exclusion criteria, 30 papers were incl

  14. Range of motion and cervical myofascial pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, J; Niederer, D; Fleckenstein, J; Vogt, L; Banzer, W

    2016-01-01

    Several studies investigating myofascial pain syndrome include assessments of range of motion (ROM) as a diagnostic criterion. However, the value of ROM in this context has not yet been evaluated in controlled clinical studies. We aimed to examine whether patients with myofascial pain syndrome display alterations of ROM when compared to healthy subjects. Twenty-two individuals (13 females, 9 males; aged 33.4 ± 13.9 yrs) afflicted with active myofascial trigger points in the upper trapezius muscle as well as 22 age and sex matched healthy controls were included. All subjects underwent an examination of maximal active cervical ROM in flexion/extension assessed by means of a 3D ultrasonic movement analysis system (30 Hz; Zebris CMS 70). In the patients group, pressure pain threshold (PPT) of the trigger points was determined using a pressure algometer. Maximum range of motion in the sagittal plane did not differ between individuals with MTrP (125.9 ± 23.2°, 95% CI: 116.2-135.6°) and asymptomatic subjects (128.2 ± 20.4°, 95% CI: 119.7-136.7°; p > .05). In patients, PPT (1.7 ± .6, 95% CI: 1.5-1.9) was not correlated with cervical mobility (r = -.13; p > .05). Based on these pilot data, range of motion in flexion/extension is not a valid criterion for the detection of myofascial trigger points. Additional research incorporating movement amplitudes in other anatomical planes and additional afflicted muscles should be conducted in order to further delineate the relative impact of MTrP on range of motion.

  15. Standardized manual palpation of myofascial trigger points in relation to neck/shoulder pain; the influence of clinical experience on inter-examiner reproducibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myburgh, Corrie; Lauridsen, Henrik Hein; Larsen, Anders H

    2011-01-01

    -observer agreement study was conducted using two experienced and two inexperienced clinicians. All performed standardized palpation of the upper Trapezius musculature, judging the clinical relevance of TP(s) using clinician global assessment (GA). A random case mix of 81 female participants was examined, 14...... asymptomatic and the remainder suffering from neck/shoulder pain. Examiners received psychomotor skills training and video feedback analysis to improve protocol standardization. Kappa co-efficient calculations indicated good agreement between the experienced pairing (κ = 0.63), moderate agreement between......A diagnosis of Myofascial Pain Syndrome (MPS) requires palpation for the identification of at least one clinically relevant trigger point (TP). However, few comparable, high quality studies currently exist from which to draw firm conclusions regarding the robustness of TP examination. An inter...

  16. Fascial components of the myofascial pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecco, Antonio; Gesi, Marco; Stecco, Carla; Stern, Robert

    2013-08-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is described as the muscle, sensory, motor, and autonomic nervous system symptoms caused by stimulation of myofascial trigger points (MTP). The participation of fascia in this syndrome has often been neglected. Several manual and physical approaches have been proposed to improve myofascial function after traumatic injuries, but the processes that induce pathological modifications of myofascial tissue after trauma remain unclear. Alterations in collagen fiber composition, in fibroblasts or in extracellular matrix composition have been postulated. We summarize here recent developments in the biology of fascia, and in particular, its associated hyaluronan (HA)-rich matrix that address the issue of MPS.

  17. A afferent fibers are involved in the pathology of central changes in the spinal dorsal horn associated with myofascial trigger spots in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fei; Ge, Hong-You; Wang, Yong-Hui; Yue, Shou-Wei

    2015-11-01

    A afferent fibers have been reported to participate in the development of the central sensitization induced by inflammation and injuries. Current evidence suggests that myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) induce central sensitization in the related spinal dorsal horn, and clinical studies indicate that A fibers are associated with pain behavior. Because most of these clinical studies applied behavioral indexes, objective evidence is needed. Additionally, MTrP-related neurons in dorsal root ganglia and the spinal ventral horn have been reported to be smaller than normal, and these neurons were considered to be related to A fibers. To confirm the role of A fibers in MTrP-related central changes in the spinal dorsal horn, we studied central sensitization as well as the size of neurons associated with myofascial trigger spots (MTrSs, equivalent to MTrPs in humans) in the biceps femoris muscle of rats and provided some objective morphological evidence. Cholera toxin B subunit-conjugated horseradish peroxidase was applied to label the MTrS-related neurons, and tetrodotoxin was used to block A fibers specifically. The results showed that in the spinal dorsal horn associated with MTrS, the expression of glutamate receptor (mGluR1α/mGluR5/NMDAR1) increased, while the mean size of MTrS-related neurons was smaller than normal. After blocking A fibers, these changes reversed to some extent. Therefore, we concluded that A fibers participated in the development and maintenance of the central sensitization induced by MTrPs and were related to the mean size of neurons associated with MTrPs in the spinal dorsal horn.

  18. Remote Dose-Dependent Effects of Dry Needling at Distant Myofascial Trigger Spots of Rabbit Skeletal Muscles on Reduction of Substance P Levels of Proximal Muscle and Spinal Cords

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueh-Ling Hsieh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Dry needling at distant myofascial trigger points is an effective pain management in patients with myofascial pain. However, the biochemical effects of remote dry needling are not well understood. This study evaluates the remote effects of dry needling with different dosages on the expressions of substance P (SP in the proximal muscle, spinal dorsal horns of rabbits. Methods. Male New Zealand rabbits (2.5–3.0 kg received dry needling at myofascial trigger spots of a gastrocnemius (distant muscle in one (1D or five sessions (5D. Bilateral biceps femoris (proximal muscles and superficial laminaes of L5-S2, T2-T5, and C2-C5 were sampled immediately and 5 days after dry needling to determine the levels of SP using immunohistochemistry and western blot. Results. Immediately after dry needling for 1D and 5D, the expressions of SP were significantly decreased in ipsilateral biceps femoris and bilateral spinal superficial laminaes (P<.05. Five days after dry needling, these reduced immunoactivities of SP were found only in animals receiving 5D dry needling (P<.05. Conclusions. This remote effect of dry needling involves the reduction of SP levels in proximal muscle and spinal superficial laminaes, which may be closely associated with the control of myofascial pain.

  19. Eficácia da desativação dos pontos-gatilho miofasciais para o controle do zumbido Efficacy of myofascial trigger point deactivation for tinnitus control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Bezerra Rocha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Dor crônica nas imediações do ouvido pode influenciar o zumbido. OBJETIVO: Investigar a eficácia da desativação de pontos-gatilho miofasciais na melhora do zumbido. MÉTODO: Ensaio clínico randomizado com 71 pacientes com zumbido e síndrome dolorosa miofascial. O Grupo Experimental (n = 37 foi submetido a 10 sessões de desativação dos pontos-gatilho miofasciais e o Grupo Controle (n = 34, a 10 sessões de desativação placebo. RESULTADOS: O tratamento do Grupo Experimental foi eficaz para o controle do zumbido (p Chronic pain in areas surrounding the ear may influence tinnitus. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy of myofascial trigger point deactivation for the relief of tinnitus. METHOD: A double-blind randomized clinical trial enrolled 71 patients with tinnitus and myofascial pain syndrome. The experimental group (n = 37 underwent 10 sessions of myofascial trigger point deactivation and the control group (n = 34, 10 sessions with sham deactivation. RESULTS: Treatment of the experimental group was effective for tinnitus relief (p < 0.001. Pain and tinnitus relieves were associated (p = 0.013, so were the ear with worst tinnitus and the side of the body with more pain (p < 0.001. The presence of temporary tinnitus modulation (increase or decrease upon initial muscle palpation was frequent in both groups, but its temporary decrease was related to the persistent relief at the end of treatment (p = 0.002. CONCLUSION: Besides medical and audiological investigation, patients with tinnitus should also be checked for: 1 presence of myofascial pain surrounding the ear; 2 laterality between both symptoms; 3 initial decrease of tinnitus during muscle palpation. Treating this specific subgroup of tinnitus patients with myofascial trigger point release may provide better results than others described so far.

  20. Two-dimensional ultrasound and ultrasound elastography imaging of trigger points in women with myofascial pain syndrome treated by acupuncture and electroacupuncture: a double-blinded randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Cristina Emöke Erika; Aranha, Maria Fernanda Montans; Gavião, Maria Beatriz Duarte

    2015-04-01

    Chronic pain has been often associated with myofascial pain syndrome (MPS), which is determined by myofascial trigger points (MTrP). New features have been tested for MTrP diagnosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate two-dimensional ultrasonography (2D US) and ultrasound elastography (UE) images and elastograms of upper trapezius MTrP during electroacupuncture (EA) and acupuncture (AC) treatment. 24 women participated, aged between 20 and 40 years (M ± SD = 27.33 ± 5.05) with a body mass index ranging from 18.03 to 27.59 kg/m2 (22.59 ± 3.11), a regular menstrual cycle, at least one active MTrP at both right (RTPz) and left trapezius (LTPz) and local or referred pain for up to six months. Subjects were randomized into EA and AC treatment groups and the control sham AC (SHAM) group. Intensity of pain was assessed by visual analogue scale; MTrP mean area and strain ratio (SR) by 2D US and UE. A significant decrease of intensity in general, RTPz, and LTPz pain was observed in the EA group (p = 0.027; p pain in the AC group (p < 0.001). Decreased MTrP area in RTPz and LTPz were observed in AC (p < 0.001) and EA groups (RTPz, p = 0.003; LTPz, p = 0.005). Post-treatment SR in RTPz and LTPz was lower than pre-treatment in both treatment groups. 2D US and UE effectively characterized MTrP and surrounding tissue, pointing to the possibility of objective confirmation of subjective EA and AC treatment effects.

  1. COMPARISON OF ACTIVE RELEASE TECHNIQUE AND MYOFASCIAL RELEASE TECHNIQUE ON PAIN, GRIP STRENGTH & FUNCTIONAL PERFORMANCE IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC LATERAL EPICONDYLITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parth Trivedi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Purpose: Lateral epicondylitis is the most common lesion of the elbow. Tennis elbow or lateral epicondylitis is defined as a syndrome of pain in the wrist extensor muscles at or near their lateral epicondyle origin or pain directly over the lateral epicondyle. So, the aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of Active Release Technique (ART and Myofascial Release Technique (MFR in the treatment of Chronic Lateral Epicondylitis (CLE. Methodology: The study included thirty-six patients with Chronic Lateral Epicondylitis of age group range between 30 to 45 years. Patients were randomly divided into three groups: Control Group (A, Active Release Technique Group (B and Myofascial Release Technique Group (C. The patients were treated for 4 weeks and three outcome measures: 0-10 NPRS, Hand Dynamometer and PRTEE were taken for assessment and analysis at baseline and after 4th weeks was done. Result: In this study the result showed that Active Release Technique and Myofascial Release Technique were effective in all three outcome measures when compared to Control Group. Myofascial Release Technique was more effective in improving grip strength & reducing pain & disability when compared to Active Release Technique.(p<0.05 Conclusion: Active Release Technique and Myofascial Release Technique are effective in patients with Chronic Lateral Epicondylitis. Myofascial Release Technique demonstrated better outcomes than Active Release Technique in the management of Chronic Lateral Epicondylitis.

  2. Cisplatin triggers platelet activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togna, G I; Togna, A R; Franconi, M; Caprino, L

    2000-09-01

    Clinical observations suggest that anticancer drugs could contribute to the thrombotic complications of malignancy in treated patients. Thrombotic microangiopathy, myocardial infarction, and cerebrovascular thrombotic events have been reported for cisplatin, a drug widely used in the treatment of many solid tumours. The aim of this study is to explore in vitro cisplatin effect on human platelet reactivity in order to define the potentially active role of platelets in the pathogenesis of cisplatin-induced thrombotic complications. Our results demonstrate that cisplatin increases human platelet reactivity (onset of platelet aggregation wave and thromboxane production) to non-aggregating concentrations of the agonists involving arachidonic acid metabolism. Direct or indirect activation of platelet phospholipase A(2) appears to be implicated. This finding contributes to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of thrombotic complications occurring during cisplatin-based chemotherapy.

  3. Standardized manual palpation of myofascial trigger points in relation to neck/shoulder pain; the influence of clinical experience on inter-examiner reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myburgh, Corrie; Lauridsen, Henrik Hein; Larsen, Anders H; Hartvigsen, Jan

    2011-04-01

    A diagnosis of Myofascial Pain Syndrome (MPS) requires palpation for the identification of at least one clinically relevant trigger point (TP). However, few comparable, high quality studies currently exist from which to draw firm conclusions regarding the robustness of TP examination. An inter-observer agreement study was conducted using two experienced and two inexperienced clinicians. All performed standardized palpation of the upper Trapezius musculature, judging the clinical relevance of TP(s) using clinician global assessment (GA). A random case mix of 81 female participants was examined, 14 asymptomatic and the remainder suffering from neck/shoulder pain. Examiners received psychomotor skills training and video feedback analysis to improve protocol standardization. Kappa co-efficient calculations indicated good agreement between the experienced pairing (κ = 0.63), moderate agreement between the mixed pairings (κ = 0.35 and 0.47) and poor agreement between the inexperienced pairing (κ = 0.22). Inter-observer agreement was not stable with the experienced pairing exhibiting a sharp decline in agreement during the latter portion of the study. Identification of clinically relevant TPs of the upper Trapezius musculature is reproducible when performed by two experienced clinicians, however, a mixed observer pairing can yield acceptable agreement. A protracted period of data collection may be detrimental to inter-observer agreement; more investigation is needed in this regard.

  4. Does Deep Cervical Flexor Muscle Training Affect Pain Pressure Thresholds of Myofascial Trigger Points in Patients with Chronic Neck Pain? A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlos Bobos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We need to understand more about how DNF performs in different contexts and whether it affects the pain threshold over myofascial trigger points (MTrPs. Purpose. The objectives were to investigate the effect of neck muscles training on disability and pain and on pain threshold over MTrPs in people with chronic neck pain. Methods. Patients with chronic neck pain were eligible for participation with a Neck Disability Index (NDI score of over 5/50 and having at least one MTrP on either levator scapulae, upper trapezoid, or splenius capitis muscle. Patients were randomly assigned into either DNF training, superficial neck muscle exercise, or advice group. Generalized linear model (GLM was used to detect differences in treatment groups over time. Results. Out of 67 participants, 60 (47 females, mean age: 39.45 ± 12.67 completed the study. Neck disability and neck pain were improved over time between and within groups (p<0.05. However, no differences were found within and between the therapeutic groups (p<0.05 in the tested muscles’ PPTs and in cervicothoracic angle over a 7-week period. Conclusion. All three groups improved over time. This infers that the pain pathways involved in the neck pain relief are not those involved in pain threshold.

  5. The effect of dry needling on pain, pressure pain threshold and disability in patients with a myofascial trigger point in the upper trapezius muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaeifar, Maryam; Arab, Amir Massoud; Karimi, Noureddin; Nourbakhsh, Mohammad Reza

    2014-04-01

    Dry needling (DN) has been used recently by physical therapists as a therapy of choice for patients with myofascial trigger points (TrP). The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to investigate the effect of DN in the treatment of TrPs in the upper trapezius (UT) muscle. A sample of convenience of 33 patients with TrP in the UT muscle participated in this study. Patients were randomly assigned to a standard (N = 17) or experimental group (N = 16). The treatment protocol for the standard group consisted of trigger point compression technique (TCT) on MTP, while the patients in the experimental group received DN. Pain intensity and pressure pain thresholds were assessed for both groups before and after the treatment sessions. In addition, the Disability of Arm, Hand, and Shoulder (DASH) was administered. Statistical analysis (paired t-test) revealed a significant improvement in pain, PPT and DASH scores after treatment in the experimental (DN) and standard (TCT) group compared with before treatment (P < 0.05). The ANCOVA revealed significant differences between the DN and TCT groups on the post-measurement VAS score (P = 0.01). There was, however, no significant difference between the two groups on the post-measurement score of the PPT (P = 0.08) and DASH (P = 0.34). DN produces an improvement in pain intensity, PPT and DASH and may be prescribed for subjects with TrP in UT muscles especially when pain relief is the goal of the treatment.

  6. Myofascial low back pain: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanga, Gerard A; Cruz Colon, Eduardo J

    2010-11-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome is a common nonarticular local musculoskeletal pain syndrome caused by myofascial trigger points located at muscle, fascia, or tendinous insertions, affecting up to 95% of people with chronic pain disorders. Clinically, myofascial pain syndrome can present as painful restricted range of motion, stiffness, referred pain patterns, and autonomic dysfunction. The underlying cause is often related to muscular imbalances, and following a thorough physical examination the condition should be treated with a comprehensive rehabilitation program. Additional treatment options include pharmacologic, needling with or without anesthetic agents or nerve stimulation, and alternative medicine treatments such as massage or herbal medicines. Repeated trigger point injections should be avoided, and corticosteroids should not be injected into trigger points.

  7. The occurrence and inter-rater reliability of myofascial trigger points in the quadratus lumborum and gluteus medius: a prospective study in non-specific low back pain patients and controls in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njoo, K H; Van der Does, E

    1994-09-01

    The presence of a trigger point is essential to the myofascial pain syndrome. This study centres on identifying clearer criteria for the presence of trigger points in the quadratus lumborum and gluteus medius muscle by investigating the occurrence and inter-rater reliability of trigger point symptoms. Using the symptoms and signs as described by Simons' 1990 definition and two other former sets of criteria, 61 non-specific low back pain patients and 63 controls were examined in general practice by 5 observers, working in pairs. From the two major criteria of Simons' 1990 definition only 'localized tenderness' has good discriminative ability and inter-rater reliability (kappa > 0.5). This study does not find proof for the clinical usefulness of 'referred pain', which has neither of these two abilities. The criteria 'jump sign' and 'recognition', on the condition that localized tenderness is present, also have good discriminative ability and inter-rater reliability. Trigger points defined by the criteria found eligible in this study allow significant distinction between non-specific low back pain patients and controls. This is not the case with trigger points defined by Simons' 1990 criteria. Concerning reliability there is also a significant difference between the two different criteria sets. This study suggests that the clinical usefulness of trigger points is increased when localized tenderness and the presence of either jump sign or patient's recognition of his pain complaint are used as criteria for the presence of trigger points in the M. quadratus lumborum and the M. gluteus medius.

  8. Effect of Trigger Point of Myofascial Pain for Treatment of Low Back Myofascial Pain Syndrome%肌筋膜疼痛触发点治疗技术治疗腰背肌筋膜疼痛综合征疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙佳佳; 庄小强; 谭树生

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the superiority effect of trigger point of myofascial pain for treatment of low back myofas-cial pain syndrome. Methods: All 500 patients met the diagnostic criteria were randomly divided into treatment group and control group, with 250 cases in each group. The patients of treatment group were treated with trigger point of myofascial pain technology (acupuncture and massage therapy), while the control group were treated with tizanidine, all the patients were treated every other day, for 7 days was a course of treatment. The two groups were compared each other before and 8 courses after treatment. Results: The index of pain, functional status, and induration cords were decreased after treatment in both groups (P<0. 05). There were 100 cases cured (accounting for 40. 00%), 78 cases effective (accounting for 31. 20%), 61 cases improved (accounting for 24. 40%), and 11 cases ineffective (accounting for 4. 40%), with the total efficiency of 95. 60% in the treatment group. While, there were 80 cases cured (accounting for 32. 00%), 92 cases effective (accounting for 36. 80%), 41 cases improved (accounting for 16. 40%), and 37 cases ineffective (accounting for 14. 80%), with the total efficiency of 85. 20% in the control group. The therapeutic effects was significant difference between two groups (P<0. 05). Conclusion: It is effective for using trigger point of myofascial pain for treatment of low back myofascial pain syndrome, and which is superior to tizanidine therapeutic, so it is worthy for further research and extension.%目的:评价利用肌筋膜疼痛触发点治疗腰背肌筋膜疼痛综合征临床疗效的优越性.方法:将500例符合诊断标准的患者随机分为治疗组和对照组,每组250例,治疗组采用肌筋膜疼痛触发点治疗技术(针刺和推拿疗法)进行治疗,对照组采用替扎尼定进行治疗;2组治疗均隔日1次,7d为1个疗程;治疗8个疗程后,进行2组自身治疗前后对照,以及2

  9. Relating Chronic Pelvic Pain and Endometriosis to Signs of Sensitization and Myofascial Pain and Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aredo, Jacqueline V; Heyrana, Katrina J; Karp, Barbara I; Shah, Jay P; Stratton, Pamela

    2017-01-01

    Chronic pelvic pain is a frustrating symptom for patients with endometriosis and is frequently refractory to hormonal and surgical management. While these therapies target ectopic endometrial lesions, they do not directly address pain due to central sensitization of the nervous system and myofascial dysfunction, which can continue to generate pain from myofascial trigger points even after traditional treatments are optimized. This article provides a background for understanding how endometriosis facilitates remodeling of neural networks, contributing to sensitization and generation of myofascial trigger points. A framework for evaluating such sensitization and myofascial trigger points in a clinical setting is presented. Treatments that specifically address myofascial pain secondary to spontaneously painful myofascial trigger points and their putative mechanisms of action are also reviewed, including physical therapy, dry needling, anesthetic injections, and botulinum toxin injections.

  10. Recognizing myofascial pelvic pain in the female patient with chronic pelvic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastore, Elizabeth A; Katzman, Wendy B

    2012-01-01

    Myofascial pelvic pain (MFPP) is a major component of chronic pelvic pain (CPP) and often is not properly identified by health care providers. The hallmark diagnostic indicator of MFPP is myofascial trigger points in the pelvic floor musculature that refer pain to adjacent sites. Effective treatments are available to reduce MFPP, including myofascial trigger point release, biofeedback, and electrical stimulation. An interdisciplinary team is essential for identifying and successfully treating MFPP.

  11. Progress of research on acupuncture at trigger point for myofascial pain syndrome%针刺激痛点治疗肌筋膜疼痛综合征研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马尧; 布赫; 贾纪荣; 张雪

    2012-01-01

    To review the literature of acupuncture at trigger point for myofascial pain syndrome from the main selected points (trigger point), the mechanism of Chinese medicine and modern research and its clinical application. The results show that acupuncture at trigger point has significant effect on the myofascial pain syndrome, which could be influenced by the type of needle, manipulation, insertion angle and depth of the needles. However, the involved studies at present are still far from enough and lack of systematic study with multivariate analysis, it is needed to be improved that some problems about the clinical diagnosis and basic research.%从针刺治疗肌筋膜疼痛综合征的主要选穴(激痛点)、针刺激痛点治疗本痛的中医和现代研究机制及治疗该病时针刺激痛点的临床应用几个方面,对针刺激痛点治疗肌筋膜疼痛综合征的相关文献进行综述.结果表明针刺激痛点在治疗肌筋膜疼痛综合征中具有十分显著的疗效,且针刺激痛点时选择的针具、针刺的手法、角度、深度等各项参数对治疗肌筋膜疼痛综合征临床疗效有重要影响,但目前对此研究非常薄弱,缺乏多因素分析的系统性研究,且在临床诊断及基础性研究等方面有待改进.

  12. Occurrence of myofascial pain in patients with possible carpal tunnel syndrome - a single-blinded study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qerama, Erisela; Kasch, Helge; Fuglsang-Frederiksen, Anders

    2009-01-01

    There exits some similarity between symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and myofascial pain related to trigger points (TPs) in the infraspinatus muscle.......There exits some similarity between symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and myofascial pain related to trigger points (TPs) in the infraspinatus muscle....

  13. Expression of the endocannabinoid system in fibroblasts and myofascial tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPartland, John M

    2008-04-01

    The endocannabinoid (eCB) system, like the better-known endorphin system, consists of cell membrane receptors, endogenous ligands and ligand-metabolizing enzymes. Two cannabinoid receptors are known: CB(1) is principally located in the nervous system, whereas CB(2) is primarily associated with the immune system. Two eCB ligands, anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), are mimicked by cannabis plant compounds. The first purpose of this paper was to review the eCB system in detail, highlighting aspects of interest to bodyworkers, especially eCB modulation of pain and inflammation. Evidence suggests the eCB system may help resolve myofascial trigger points and relieve symptoms of fibromyalgia. However, expression of the eCB system in myofascial tissues has not been established. The second purpose of this paper was to investigate the eCB system in fibroblasts and other fascia-related cells. The investigation used a bioinformatics approach, obtaining microarray data via the GEO database (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/). GEO data mining revealed that fibroblasts, myofibroblasts, chondrocytes and synoviocytes expressed CB(1), CB(2) and eCB ligand-metabolizing enzymes. Fibroblast CB(1) levels nearly equalled levels expressed by adipocytes. CB(1) levels upregulated after exposure to inflammatory cytokines and equiaxial stretching of fibroblasts. The eCB system affects fibroblast remodeling through lipid rafts associated with focal adhesions and dampens cartilage destruction by decreasing fibroblast-secreted metalloproteinase enzymes. In conclusion, the eCB system helps shape biodynamic embryological development, diminishes nociception and pain, reduces inflammation in myofascial tissues and plays a role in fascial reorganization. Practitioners wield several tools that upregulate eCB activity, including myofascial manipulation, diet and lifestyle modifications, and pharmaceutical approaches.

  14. Discrepancy between prevalence and perceived effectiveness of treatment methods in myofascial pain syndrome: Results of a cross-sectional, nationwide survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freiberg Florentina

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myofascial pain is a common dysfunction with a lifetime prevalence affecting up to 85% of the general population. Current guidelines for the management of myofascial pain are not available. In this study we investigated how physicians on the basis of prescription behaviour evaluate the effectiveness of treatment options in their management of myofascial pain. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional, nationwide survey with a standardized questionnaire among 332 physicians (79.8% male, 25.6% female, 47.5 ± 9.6 years experienced in treating patients with myofascial pain. Recruitment of physicians took place at three German meetings of pain therapists, rheumatologists and orthopaedists, respectively. Physicians estimated the prevalence of myofascial pain amongst patients in their practices, stated what treatments they used routinely and then rated the perceived treatment effectiveness on a six-point scale (with 1 being excellent. Data are expressed as mean ± standard deviation. Results The estimated overall prevalence of active myofascial trigger points is 46.1 ± 27.4%. Frequently prescribed treatments are analgesics, mainly metamizol/paracetamol (91.6%, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs/coxibs (87.0% or weak opioids (81.8%, and physical therapies, mainly manual therapy (81.1%, TENS (72.9% or acupuncture (60.2%. Overall effectiveness ratings for analgesics (2.9 ± 0.7 and physical therapies were moderate (2.5 ± 0.8. Effectiveness ratings of the various treatment options between specialities were widely variant. 54.3% of all physicians characterized the available treatment options as insufficient. Conclusions Myofascial pain was estimated a prevalent condition. Despite a variety of commonly prescribed treatments, the moderate effectiveness ratings and the frequent characterizations of the available treatments as insufficient suggest an urgent need for clinical research to establish evidence-based guidelines for the

  15. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    by Wesley Smith

    2010-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The overall status of the L1 trigger has been excellent and the running efficiency has been high during physics fills. The timing is good to about 1%. The fine-tuning of the time synchronization of muon triggers is ongoing and will be completed after more than 10 nb-1 of data have been recorded. The CSC trigger primitive and RPC trigger timing have been refined. A new configuration for the CSC Track Finder featured modified beam halo cuts and improved ghost cancellation logic. More direct control was provided for the DT opto-receivers. New RPC Cosmic Trigger (RBC/TTU) trigger algorithms were enabled for collision runs. There is further work planned during the next technical stop to investigate a few of the links from the ECAL to the Regional Calorimeter Trigger (RCT). New firmware and a new configuration to handle trigger rate spikes in the ECAL barrel are also being tested. A board newly developed by the tracker group (ReTRI) has been installed and activated to block re...

  16. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith from contributions of C. Leonidopoulos

    2010-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software Since nearly all of the Level-1 (L1) Trigger hardware at Point 5 has been commissioned, activities during the past months focused on the fine-tuning of synchronization, particularly for the ECAL and the CSC systems, on firmware upgrades and on improving trigger operation and monitoring. Periodic resynchronizations or hard resets and a shortened luminosity section interval of 23 seconds were implemented. For the DT sector collectors, an automatic power-off was installed in case of high temperatures, and the monitoring capabilities of the opto-receivers and the mini-crates were enhanced. The DTTF and the CSCTF now have improved memory lookup tables. The HCAL trigger primitive logic implemented a new algorithm providing better stability of the energy measurement in the presence of any phase misalignment. For the Global Calorimeter Trigger, additional Source Cards have been manufactured and tested. Testing of the new tau, missing ET and missing HT algorithms is underw...

  17. Skeletal muscle contractility, self-reported pain and tissue sensitivity in females with neck/shoulder pain and upper Trapezius myofascial trigger points - a randomized intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myburgh, Corrie; Hartvigsen, Jan; Aagaard, Per

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In relation to Myofascial Triggerpoints (MFTrPs) of the upper Trapezius, this study explored muscle contractility characteristics, the occurrence of post-intervention muscle soreness and the effect of dry needling on muscle contractile characteristics and clinical outcomes......-intervention and 48 hours post-intervention. Symptomatic and asymptomatic participant groups were each randomized into two treatment sub-groups (superficial (SDN) and deep dry needling (DDN)) after baseline testing. At 48 hours post-intervention participants were asked whether delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) and....../or post-needling soreness had developed. RESULTS: Muscle contractile characteristics did not differ between groups at baseline. Forty-six individuals developed muscle soreness (39 from mechanical testing and seven from needling). No inter-group differences were observed post-intervention for Fmax or RFD...

  18. Treatment experience of pulsed radiofrequency under ultrasound guided to the trapezius muscle at myofascial pain syndrome -a case report-.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chung Hoon; Lee, Yoon Woo; Kim, Yong Chan; Moon, Joo Hwa; Choi, Jong Bum

    2012-01-01

    Trigger point injection treatment is an effective and widely applied treatment for myofascial pain syndrome. The trapezius muscle frequently causes myofascial pain in neck area. We herein report a case in which direct pulsed radiofrequency (RF) treatment was applied to the trapezius muscle. We observed that the RF treatment produced continuous pain relief when the effective duration of trigger point injection was temporary in myofascial pain.

  19. [Cervical myofascial pain syndrome. Narrative review of physiotherapeutic treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capó-Juan, M A

    2015-01-01

    Pain is a complex and multifactorial phenomenon that depends on the interaction of biopsychosocial factors. Between 15-25% of adults suffer from chronic pain at some point in their lives. Cervical chronic pain is considered a public health problem affecting 9.6% men and 21.9% women, according to the latest National Health Survey 2011-12. A high percentage of medical consultations due to muscle pain turn out to be myofascial pain syndrome (MPS). Its existence implies the presence of myofascial trigger points which can be latent or active throughout the whole population. The aim of this review is to update knowledge in the various therapies applied by the physiotherapist in the treatment of this syndrome at cervical level. From the review it appears that some of the most used techniques that may be useful in the short or medium term are: ischemic compression and/or trigger point pressure release and dry needling. Furthermore, various combinations of treatment modalities are used to treat this syndrome, taking other aspects into account, such as education.

  20. Referred pain from myofascial trigger points in head and neck-shoulder muscles reproduces head pain features in children with chronic tension type headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; Fernández-Mayoralas, Daniel M; Ortega-Santiago, Ricardo; Ambite-Quesada, Silvia; Palacios-Ceña, Domingo; Pareja, Juan A

    2011-02-01

    Our aim was to describe the referred pain pattern and areas from trigger points (TrPs) in head, neck, and shoulder muscles in children with chronic tension type headache (CTTH). Fifty children (14 boys, 36 girls, mean age: 8 ± 2) with CTTH and 50 age- and sex- matched children participated. Bilateral temporalis, masseter, superior oblique, upper trapezius, sternocleidomastoid, suboccipital, and levator scapula muscles were examined for TrPs by an assessor blinded to the children's condition. TrPs were identified with palpation and considered active when local and referred pains reproduce headache pain attacks. The referred pain areas were drawn on anatomical maps, digitalized, and also measured. The total number of TrPs was significantly greater in children with CTTH as compared to healthy children (P < 0.001). Active TrPs were only present in children with CTTH (P < 0.001). Within children with CTTH, a significant positive association between the number of active TrPs and headache duration (r (s) = 0.315; P = 0.026) was observed: the greater the number of active TrPs, the longer the duration of headache attack. Significant differences in referred pain areas between groups (P < 0.001) and muscles (P < 0.001) were found: the referred pain areas were larger in CTTH children (P < 0.001), and the referred pain area elicited by suboccipital TrPs was larger than the referred pain from the remaining TrPs (P < 0.001). Significant positive correlations between some headache clinical parameters and the size of the referred pain area were found. Our results showed that the local and referred pains elicited from active TrPs in head, neck and shoulder shared similar pain pattern as spontaneous CTTH in children, supporting a relevant role of active TrPs in CTTH in children.

  1. An evidence-informed review of the current myofascial pain literature--January 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommerholt, Jan; Grieve, Rob; Layton, Michelle; Hooks, Todd

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an up-to-date review of the most recent publications about myofascial pain, trigger points (TrPs) and other related topics. We have added some commentaries where indicated with supporting references. In the Basic Research section, we reviewed the work by Danish researchers about the influence of latent TrPs and a second study of the presence and distribution of both active and latent TrPs in whiplash-associated disorders. The section on Soft Tissue Approaches considered multiple studies and case reports of the efficacy of myofascial release (MFR), classic and deep muscle massage, fascial techniques, and connective tissue massage. Dry needling (DN) is becoming a common approach and we included multiple studies, reviews, and case reports, while the section on Injection Techniques features an article on TrP injections following mastectomy and several articles about the utilization of botulinum toxin. Lastly, we review several articles on modalities and other clinical approaches.

  2. Comparison of dry needling and physiotherapy in treatment of myofascial pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayegani, Seyed Mansoor; Bayat, Masume; Bahrami, Mohammad Hasan; Raeissadat, Seyed Ahmad; Kargozar, Elham

    2014-06-01

    To compare the effects of dry needling and physiotherapy in treatment of myofascial pain syndrome, a randomized controlled trial was performed on 28 patients with myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) of upper trapezius muscle in the Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Center of Shohadaye Tajrish Hospital from April 2009 to April 2010. After matching the age, sex, duration of symptoms, pain severity, and quality of life measures, subjects were randomly assigned into two subgroups of case (dry needling) and control (physiotherapy). One week and 1 month after receiving standard therapeutic modalities, outcomes and intragroup and intergroup changes in pain severity, pressure pain of trigger point (TP), and quality of life measures were evaluated and compared. After 1 month, both the physiotherapy and dry needling groups had decreased resting, night, and activity pain levels (ppain threshold of TP and some scores of quality of life (SF-36) were improved (pmyofascial pain of the upper trapezius muscle.

  3. 平刺和直刺肌筋膜触发点治疗颈型颈椎病疗效比较%Comparison of the Efficacies of Transverse Needling Versus Perpendicular Needling at Myofascial Trigger Points in Treating Cervical Spondylosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王翀敏; 王延武; 楚佳梅; 朱敏

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the efficacies of transverse needling versus perpendicular needling at myofascial trigger points in treating cervical spondylosis and sift out a needling direction for a better improving effect on myofascial pain syndrome such as cervical spondylosis. Method One hundred and six patients with cervical spondylosis were randomly allocated to two groups. The transverse needling group received transverse needling at myofascial trigger points and the perpendicular needling group, perpendicular needling at myofascial trigger points. The symptoms and signs of cervical spondylosis were scored and the VAS score was recorded in the two groups before and after treatment. Result In the two groups, the VAS score had a statistically significant pre-/post-treatment difference (P0.05). In the two groups, the cervical spondylotic symptom and sign score had a statistically significant pre-/post-treatment difference (P<0.05) and decreased after treatment. The cervical spondylotic symptom and sign score was significantly lower in the transverse needling group than in the perpendicular needling group after treatment; there was a statistically significant difference between the two groups (P<0.05). The total efficacy rate was 94.0% in the transverse needling group, which was higher than 79.6% in the perpendicular needling group; there was a statistically significant difference between the two groups (P<0.05). Conclusion Both transverse needling and perpendicular needling can remove myofascial trigger points and treat cervical spondylosis, but transverse needling at myofascial trigger points is superior to perpendicular needling at myofascial trigger points.%目的:比较平刺和直刺肌筋膜触发点治疗颈型颈椎病的疗效差异;并筛选出改善颈型颈椎病等肌筋膜疼痛综合征的更高效的针刺方向。方法将106例颈型颈椎病患者随机分为两组,平刺组采用平刺肌筋膜触发点进行治疗,直刺组采用直刺肌

  4. Myofascial pelvic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotarinos, Rhonda

    2012-10-01

    Myofascial pelvic pain is fraught with many unknowns. Is it the organs of the pelvis, is it the muscles of the pelvis, or is the origin of the pelvic pain from an extrapelvic muscle? Is there a single source or multiple? In this state of confusion what is the best way to manage the many symptoms that can be associated with myofascial pelvic pain. This article reviews current studies that attempt to answer some of these questions. More questions seem to develop as each study presents its findings.

  5. Equal Improvement in Men and Women in the Treatment of Urologic Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome Using a Multi-modal Protocol with an Internal Myofascial Trigger Point Wand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Rodney U; Wise, David; Sawyer, Tim; Nathanson, Brian H; Nevin Smith, J

    2016-06-01

    Both men and women require treatment for urologic chronic pelvic pain syndromes (UCPPS), which includes interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome, pelvic floor dysfunction, and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. However, it is unknown if men and women respond differently to a protocol that includes specific physical therapy self-treatment using an internal trigger point wand and training in paradoxical relaxation. We performed a retrospective analysis by gender in a single arm, open label, single center clinical trial designed to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of a protocol for the treatment of UCPPS from October, 2008 to May, 2011. 314 adult men (79.9 %) and 79 (20.1 %) women met inclusion criteria. The median duration of symptoms was 60 months. The protocol required an initial 6-day clinic for training followed by a 6-month self-treatment period. The treatment included self-administered pelvic floor trigger point release with an internal trigger point device for physical therapy along with paradoxical relaxation training. Notable gender differences in prior treatments were observed. Men had a lower median [Interquartile Range] NIH-CPSI score at baseline than women (27 [21, 31] vs. 29 [22, 33], p = 0.04). Using a 1-10 scale with 10 = Most Severe, the median reduction in trigger point sensitivity was 3 units for both men and women after 6 months therapy (p = 0.74). A modified Intention to Treat analysis and a multivariate regression analysis found similar results. We conclude that men and women have similar, significant reductions in trigger point sensitivity with this protocol.

  6. Effect of acupuncture myofascial trigger points in the treatment of cerebral arterial thrombosis spasm%针刺肌筋膜触发点治疗缺血性脑卒中痉挛的效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙佳佳; 庄小强; 谭树生; 言丽燕

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the clinical curative effect of acupuncture myofascial trigger points in the treatment of cerebral arterial thrombosis spasm.Methods 75 patients with cerebral arterial thrombosis spasm in Department of Rehabilitation Medicine,the National Hospital of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region from February 2010 to December 2012 were divided into acupuncture myofascial trigger points group (treatment group,38 cases) and traditional acupuncture group (control group,37 cases) according to random number table with single-blind method.The FuglMeyer motor function score,Barthel index of daily life ability,degree of hemiplegic limb spasm,overall evaluation of spasticity comprehensive efficacy evaluation and clinical nerve function defect score of two groups before treatment and after 1,2 courses of treatment were evaluated.The dates were statistically analyzed by SPSS 17.0 statistics software.Results The Fugl-Meyer motor function score,Barthel index of daily life ability,modified Ashworth scale,clinic spasticity index and nerve function defect score of two groups could be improved obviously.The Fugl-Meyer motor function score,Barthel index of daily life ability,modified Ashworth scale,clinic spasticity index and nerve function defect score after 2 courses of treatment in the treatment group were better than those before treatment,after 1 course of treatment in the treatment group and after 2 courses of treatment in the control group (all P < 0.05).The total effective rate of treatment group (92.11%) was better than that of control group (75.68%) (P < 0.05).Conclusion Acupuncture myofascial trigger points in the treatment of cerebral arterial thrombosis spasm has good clinical curative effect,less side effects and it is worthy of clinical application.%目的 探讨针刺肌筋膜触发点治疗缺血性脑卒中痉挛的临床疗效.方法 选取2010年2月~2012年12月来广西壮族自治区民族医院康复医学科就诊

  7. Efficacy Observation on Acupuncture on Trigger Point of Myofascial Pain Combined with Massage Treating Lumbar Disc Herniation%针刺肌筋膜疼痛触发点联合推拿治疗腰椎间盘突出症疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷迈; 李乾扬

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察针刺肌筋膜疼痛触发点联合推拿治疗腰椎间盘突出症(LDH)的疗效。方法:将60例LDH患者随机分为治疗组(30例)和对照组(30例),治疗组采用针刺肌筋膜疼痛触发点联合推拿治疗,对照组给予常规药物及理疗,比较两组患者JOA、VAS评分改善情况及临床疗效。结果:治疗组总有效率、JOA评分均高于对照组(P<0.01),VAS评分低于对照组(P<0.01)。结论:针刺肌筋膜疼痛触发点联合推拿治疗LDH疗效显著。%Objective:To observe the effects of acupuncture on trigger point of myofascial pain combined with massage treating lumbar disc hernia-tion (LDH). Methods:60 cases of LDH were randomly divided into treatment group (30 cases) and control group (30 cases), treatment group was treated with acupuncture on trigger point of myofascial pain combined with massage, control group with routine medicine and physiotherapy, im-provement of JOA and VAS score and clinical efficacy were compared between the two groups. Results:The total effective rate and JOA score of treatment group were higher than those of control group (P<0.01), VAS score was lower than that of control group (P<0.01). Conclusion:Acupunc-ture on trigger point of myofascial pain combined with massage treating lumbar disc herniation is of distinct efficacy.

  8. 针刺配合干针刺肌筋膜触发点治疗腰椎间盘突出症疗效观察%Efficacy Observation on Acupuncture Combined with Dry Needling Myofascial Trigger Points for Lumbar Disc Herniation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    植剑龙

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the efficacy of acupuncture combined with dry needling myofascial trigger points for lumbar disc herniation. Methods:136 cases of patients were randomly divided into observation group and control group, the observation group used conventional acupunc-ture combined with dry needling myofascial trigger points, the control group only used conventional acupuncture. Results:The total effective rate of observation group was 92.65%, which was higher than 73.53 that of control group (P<0.01). Conclusion:Conventional acupuncture combined with dry needling myofascial trigger points has significant curative effect on lumbar disc herniation.%目的:探讨针刺配合干针刺肌筋膜触发点治疗腰椎间盘突出症的疗效。方法:将136例患者随机分为观察组和对照组,观察组采用常规针刺配合干针刺肌筋膜触发点治疗,对照组单纯采用常规针刺治疗。结果:观察组总有效率为92.65%,高于对照组的73.53%(P<0.01)。结论:常规针刺配合干针刺肌筋膜触发点治疗腰椎间盘突出症疗效显著。

  9. A critical overview of the current myofascial pain literature - March 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommerholt, Jan; Hooks, Todd; Finnegan, Michelle; Grieve, Rob

    2016-04-01

    The worldwide interest in myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) and trigger points (TrPs) is reflected in the increasing number of publications. In this overview of the literature, we included 26 studies, case reports and review articles by authors from 18 different countries. Several research groups are exploring the characteristic of TrPs such as Chen and colleagues, who continued their work on the quantification of the taut bands. Meng and colleagues studied the relationships between TrPs and central sensitization, while Yu and colleagues examined the electrophysiological characteristics that occur as a result of active TrPs. Several researchers used objective measurements to determine clinical outcomes, such as Koppenhaver and colleagues who measured objective changes in the function and nociceptive sensitivity of lumbar multifidus muscle subjects with low back pain. Turo and colleagues quantified muscle tissue changes after dry needling in chronic myofascial pain using elastography. Multiple studies explored various treatment options for TrPs, such as dry needling, injections with lidocaine or granisetron, traditional Thai massage, self-myofascial release, kinesiotaping, and monochromatic infrared photo energy, among others.

  10. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The hardware of the trigger components has been mostly finished. The ECAL Endcap Trigger Concentrator Cards (TCC) are in production while Barrel TCC firmware has been upgraded, and the Trigger Primitives can now be stored by the Data Concentrator Card for readout by the DAQ. The Regional Calorimeter Trigger (RCT) system is complete, and the timing is being finalized. All 502 HCAL trigger links to RCT run without error. The HCAL muon trigger timing has been equalized with DT, RPC, CSC and ECAL. The hardware and firmware for the Global Calorimeter Trigger (GCT) jet triggers are being commissioned and data from these triggers is available for readout. The GCT energy sums from rings of trigger towers around the beam pipe beam have been changed to include two rings from both sides. The firmware for Drift Tube Track Finder, Barrel Sorter and Wedge Sorter has been upgraded, and the synchronization of the DT trigger is satisfactory. The CSC local trigger has operated flawlessly u...

  11. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Roberta Arcidiacono

    2013-01-01

    Trigger Studies Group (TSG) The Trigger Studies Group has just concluded its third 2013 workshop, where all POGs presented the improvements to the physics object reconstruction, and all PAGs have shown their plans for Trigger development aimed at the 2015 High Level Trigger (HLT) menu. The Strategy for Trigger Evolution And Monitoring (STEAM) group is responsible for Trigger menu development, path timing, Trigger performance studies coordination, HLT offline DQM as well as HLT release, menu and conditions validation – this last task in collaboration with PdmV (Physics Data and Monte Carlo Validation group). In the last months the group has delivered several HLT rate estimates and comparisons, using the available data and Monte Carlo samples. The studies were presented at the Trigger workshops in September and December, and STEAM has contacted POGs and PAGs to understand the origin of the discrepancies observed between 8 TeV data and Monte Carlo simulations. The most recent results show what the...

  12. New trends in the treatment and management of myofascial pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srbely, John Z

    2010-10-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome presents a significant physical and financial burden to society. In view of the aging demographics, myofascial pain promises to be an even greater challenge to health care in the future. Myofascial trigger points have been identified as important anatomic and physiologic phenomena in the pathophysiology of myofascial pain. While their pathophysiologic mechanisms are still unclear, emerging research suggests that trigger points may be initiated by neurogenic mechanisms secondary to central sensitization, and not necessarily by local injury. A variety of treatments are employed in the management of trigger points, including manual therapy, electrotherapy, exercise, and needle therapy. Therapeutic ultrasound demonstrates significant potential as a safe, cost-effective, and relatively noninvasive therapeutic alternative in the treatment and management of this modern day medical enigma.

  13. Myofascial low back pain treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharan, Deepak; Rajkumar, Joshua Samuel; Mohandoss, Mathankumar; Ranganathan, Rameshkumar

    2014-09-01

    Myofascial pain is a common musculoskeletal problem, with the low back being one of the commonest affected regions. Several treatments have been used for myofascial low back pain through physical therapies, pharmacologic agents, injections, and other such therapies. This review will provide an update based on recently published literature in the field of myofascial low back pain along with a brief description of a sequenced, multidisciplinary treatment protocol called Skilled Hands-on Approach for the Release of myofascia, Articular, Neural and Soft tissue mobilization (SHARANS) protocol. A comprehensive multidisciplinary approach is recommended for the successful management of individuals with myofascial low back pain.

  14. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The trigger synchronization procedures for running with cosmic muons and operating with the LHC were reviewed during the May electronics week. Firmware maintenance issues were also reviewed. Link tests between the new ECAL endcap trigger concentrator cards (TCC48) and the Regional Calorimeter Trigger have been performed. Firmware for the energy sum triggers and an upgraded tau trigger of the Global Calorimeter Triggers has been developed and is under test. The optical fiber receiver boards for the Track-Finder trigger theta links of the DT chambers are now all installed. The RPC trigger is being made more robust by additional chamber and cable shielding and also by firmware upgrades. For the CSC’s the front-end and trigger motherboard firmware have been updated. New RPC patterns and DT/CSC lookup tables taking into account phi asymmetries in the magnetic field configuration are under study. The motherboard for the new pipeline synchronizer of the Global Trigg...

  15. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    2012-01-01

      Level-1 Trigger The Level-1 Trigger group is ready to deploy improvements to the L1 Trigger algorithms for 2012. These include new high-PT patterns for the RPC endcap, an improved CSC PT assignment, a new PT-matching algorithm for the Global Muon Trigger, and new calibrations for ECAL, HCAL, and the Regional Calorimeter Trigger. These should improve the efficiency, rate, and stability of the L1 Trigger. The L1 Trigger group also is migrating the online systems to SLC5. To make the data transfer from the Global Calorimeter Trigger to the Global Trigger more reliable and also to allow checking the data integrity online, a new optical link system has been developed by the GCT and GT groups and successfully tested at the CMS electronics integration facility in building 904. This new system is now undergoing further tests at Point 5 before being deployed for data-taking this year. New L1 trigger menus have recently been studied and proposed by Emmanuelle Perez and the L1 Detector Performance Group...

  16. Effect of yoga on the Myofascial Pain Syndrome of neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharan, D; Manjula, M; Urmi, D; Ajeesh, Ps

    2014-01-01

    Myofascial Pain Syndrome (MPS) refers to pain attributed to muscle and its surrounding fascia, which is associated with "myofascial trigger points" (MTrPs). MTrPs in the trapezius has been proposed as the main cause of temporal and cervicogenic headache and neck pain. Literature shows that the prevalence of various musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) among physiotherapists is high. Yoga has traditionally been used to treat MSDs in various populations. But there is scarcity of literature which explains the effects of yoga on reducing MPS of the neck in terms of various physical parameters and subjective responses. Therefore, a pilot study was done among eight physiotherapists with minimum six months of experience. A structured yoga protocol was designed and implemented for five days in a week for four weeks. The outcome variables were Disability of Arm, Shoulder and Hands (DASH) score, Neck Disability Index (NDI), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), Pressure Pain Threshold (PPT) for Trigger Points, Cervical Range of Motion (CROM) - active & passive, grip and pinch strengths. The variables were compared before and after the intervention. Finally, the result revealed that all the variables (DASH: P<0.00, NDI: P<0.00, VAS: P<0.00, PPT: Left: P<0.00, PPT: Right: P<0.00, Grip strength: left: P<0.00, Grip strength: right: P<0.01, Key pinch: left: P<0.01, Key pinch: right: P<0.01, Palmar pinch: left: P<0.01, Palmar pinch: right: P<0.00, Tip pinch: left: P<0.01, Tip pinch: Right: P<0.01) improved significantly after intervention.

  17. Effect of yoga on the Myofascial Pain Syndrome of neck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Sharan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Myofascial Pain Syndrome (MPS refers to pain attributed to muscle and its surrounding fascia, which is associated with ′′myofascial trigger points′′ (MTrPs. MTrPs in the trapezius has been proposed as the main cause of temporal and cervicogenic headache and neck pain. Literature shows that the prevalence of various musculoskeletal disorders (MSD among physiotherapists is high. Yoga has traditionally been used to treat MSDs in various populations. But there is scarcity of literature which explains the effects of yoga on reducing MPS of the neck in terms of various physical parameters and subjective responses. Therefore, a pilot study was done among eight physiotherapists with minimum six months of experience. A structured yoga protocol was designed and implemented for five days in a week for four weeks. The outcome variables were Disability of Arm, Shoulder and Hands (DASH score, Neck Disability Index (NDI, Visual Analogue Scale (VAS, Pressure Pain Threshold (PPT for Trigger Points, Cervical Range of Motion (CROM - active & passive, grip and pinch strengths. The variables were compared before and after the intervention. Finally, the result revealed that all the variables (DASH: P<0.00, NDI: P<0.00, VAS: P<0.00, PPT: Left: P<0.00, PPT: Right: P<0.00, Grip strength: left: P<0.00, Grip strength: right: P<0.01, Key pinch: left: P<0.01, Key pinch: right: P<0.01, Palmar pinch: left: P<0.01, Palmar pinch: right: P<0.00, Tip pinch: left: P<0.01, Tip pinch: Right: P<0.01 improved significantly after intervention.

  18. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    At the March meeting, the CMS trigger group reported on progress in production, tests in the Electronics Integration Center (EIC) in Prevessin 904, progress on trigger installation in the underground counting room at point 5, USC55, the program of trigger pattern tests and vertical slice tests and planning for the Global Runs starting this summer. The trigger group is engaged in the final stages of production testing, systems integration, and software and firmware development. Most systems are delivering final tested electronics to CERN. The installation in USC55 is underway and integration testing is in full swing. A program of orderly connection and checkout with subsystems and central systems has been developed. This program includes a series of vertical subsystem slice tests providing validation of a portion of each subsystem from front-end electronics through the trigger and DAQ to data captured and stored. After full checkout, trigger subsystems will be then operated in the CMS Global Runs. Continuous...

  19. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The production of the trigger hardware is now basically finished, and in time for the turn-on of the LHC. The last boards produced are the Trigger Concentrator Cards for the ECAL Endcaps (TCC-EE). After the recent installation of the four EE Dees, the TCC-EE prototypes were used for their commissioning. Production boards are arriving and are being tested continuously, with the last ones expected in November. The Regional Calorimeter Trigger hardware is fully integrated after installation of the last EE cables. Pattern tests from the HCAL up to the GCT have been performed successfully. The HCAL triggers are fully operational, including the connection of the HCAL-outer and forward-HCAL (HO/HF) technical triggers to the Global Trigger. The HCAL Trigger and Readout (HTR) board firmware has been updated to permit recording of the tower “feature bit” in the data. The Global Calorimeter Trigger hardware is installed, but some firmware developments are still n...

  20. Tufted angioma and myofascial pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Roberto Souto da; Bressan, Aline Lopes; Nascimento, Lívia Barbosa; Kac, Bernard Kawa; Azulay-Abulafia, Luna

    2011-01-01

    Tufted angioma is a rare acquired vascular tumor. It is characterized by painful purplish macules that may progress to plaques containing angiomatous papules. The condition is benign; however, it often affects extensive areas of the skin, leading to functional disability of the affected limb if painful. The present report describes a case of a tufted angioma associated with myofascial pain syndrome in which the predisposing element was the presence of this tumor since childhood. Pain at the site of the lesion affected muscle use and led to the onset of the associated syndrome. Complete relief from symptoms was achieved by blocking the trigger points of the affected limb with anesthesia.

  1. Short-term effects of self-massage combined with home exercise on pain, daily activity, and autonomic function in patients with myofascial pain dysfunction syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yuan-Chi; Wang, Tzyy-Jiuan; Chang, Cheng-Chiang; Chen, Liang-Cheng; Chu, Heng-Yi; Lin, Shiou-Ping; Chang, Shin-Tsu

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present was to investigate the short-term effects of a program combining self-massage and home exercise for patients with myofascial pain dysfunction syndrome (MPDS). [Subjects and Methods] In this retrospective study, 63 patients were allocated to the experimental (n = 32) and control (n = 31) groups. Both groups received 6 sessions of treatment with physical modalities over the course of two weeks. The experimental group completed an additional program with a combination of self-massage and home exercise. The outcome measurements included a pain scale, pressure pain threshold (PPT), neck disability index (NDI), patient-specific functional scales (PSFS), and heart rate variability (HRV). The interactions between the groups and over time were analyzed using two-way repeated measures ANOVA. [Results] Only the experimental group demonstrated significant improvements in the pain scale with varying conditions. The PPTs of the trigger points increased significantly in the experimental group, and significant functional improvements in NDI and PSFS were observed in the same group. There were significant increases in high-frequency HRV and high-frequency % in the experimental group. [Conclusion] Treatment with physical modalities plus combination of self-massage and home exercise is more effective than the physical modalities treatment alone.

  2. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    2010-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The Level-1 Trigger hardware has performed well during both the recent proton-proton and heavy ion running. Efforts were made to improve the visibility and handling of alarms and warnings. The tracker ReTRI boards that prevent fixed frequencies of Level-1 Triggers are now configured through the Trigger Supervisor. The Global Calorimeter Trigger (GCT) team has introduced a buffer cleanup procedure at stops and a reset of the QPLL during configuring to ensure recalibration in case of a switch from the LHC clock to the local clock. A device to test the cables between the Regional Calorimeter Trigger and the GCT has been manufactured. A wrong charge bit was fixed in the CSC Trigger. The ECAL group is improving crystal masking and spike suppression in the trigger primitives. New firmware for the Drift Tube Track Finder (DTTF) sorters was developed to improve fake track tagging and sorting. Zero suppression was implemented in the DT Sector Collector readout. The track finder b...

  3. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    Trigger Hardware The status of the trigger components was presented during the September CMS Week and Annual Review and at the monthly trigger meetings in October and November. Procedures for cold and warm starts (e.g. refreshing of trigger parameters stored in registers) of the trigger subsystems have been studied. Reviews of parts of the Global Calorimeter Trigger (GCT) and the Global Trigger (GT) have taken place in October and November. The CERN group summarized the status of the Trigger Timing and Control (TTC) system. All TTC crates and boards are installed in the underground counting room, USC55. The central clock system will be upgraded in December (after the Global Run at the end of November GREN) to the new RF2TTC LHC machine interface timing module. Migration of subsystem's TTC PCs to SLC4/ XDAQ 3.12 is being prepared. Work is on going to unify the access to Local Timing Control (LTC) and TTC CMS interface module (TTCci) via SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol, a lightweight XML-based messaging ...

  4. Spontaneous Myoelectric Phenomenon and Histopathology of Myofascial Trigger Points in Rats%大鼠肌筋膜疼痛触发点自发肌电现象和病理组织学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩蓓; 黄强民; 谭树生; 庄小强

    2011-01-01

    Objective We attempted to observe the spontaneous myoelectric phenomenon and histopathology of myofascial trigger points. Methods Thirty two male mice were equally divided into control group (A) , and experimental groups B、 C and D. Medial vastus muscle of rat was stroked in combination with eccentric exercise once a week in groups B for 4 weeks, in group C for 8 weeks with 2 weeks rest, and in group D for 8 weeks with 4 weeks rest. The responsive taut band, spontaneous EMG, and local tic of rats were checked. Histology of the trigger points was observed as well. Results Comparing with group A: (1) the positive rate of responsive taut band was 0%, 100% (8/8, P<0.01) , and75% (6/8, P<0.01) ingroupsB, C, andD, respectively: (2) the positive rate of local tic was 37.5% (3/8, P<0.05) , 87.5% (7/8, P<0.01) , and75% (6/8, P<0.01)in groups B, C, and D, respectively: (3) the positive rate of spontaneous EMG was 12.5% (1/8,P>0.05) , 100% (8/8, P<0.01) , and 87.5% (7/8, P<0.01) ingroupsB, C, andD, respectively. The contracture of muscle fiber was found in group C and D, except in group B. Conclusion 1-week striking plus eccentric exercise can cause the development of mynfascial trigger point, but is not enough to induce the myofascial pain syndrome.%目的:观察局部损伤后肌筋膜疼痛触发点动物模型的自发肌电和触发点肌纤维的病理结构改变.方法:32只雄性SD大鼠(7周龄)随机分成4组,每组8只.A组对照组,不进行干预;B、C、D组为实验组,采取打击结合离心运动进行干预,每周1次,不同组采取的干预持续时间不同,B组干预4周,C组干预8周后饲养2周,D组干预8周后饲养4周.实验共12周.分别在不同时间检查大鼠受累肌的紧张带和局部抽搐反应,采用肌电仪观察自发肌电现象,然后解剖取材,检查触发点肌肉组织学改变,并与对照组进行比较.结果:A组各项检查均为阴性.其它3组与A组比较:(1)紧张带:B组

  5. Modificaciones del umbral de dolor en un punto gatillo miofascial tras técnica de energía muscular Changes in pain threshold in myofascial trigger point after muscle energy technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Zuil Escobar

    2010-10-01

    écnica de energía muscular en el punto gatillo miofascial latente 1 del trapecio superior ha mostrado un aumento inmediato en el umbral de dolor, quien no se mantuvo a las 24horas. Son necesarias investigaciones con una muestra mayor y con sujetos sintomáticos.Aims: Evaluate the changes in pressure pain threshold in latent myofascial trigger points 1 of the upper trapezius after a muscle energy technique application and evaluate intra-tester reliability of an analogue algometer on this point. Material y methods: A total of 35 asymptomatic subjects with latent upper trapezius myofascial trigger point 1 were randomized in two groups: one group was treated with a muscle energy technique (group 1 and the other one (control, group 2 was not treated. Demographic variables, such as gender, age, height and weight, and pressure pain threshold was evaluated. Pressure pain threshold was evaluated using an analogue algometer three times: before the intervention, five minutes post-intervention and 24h post-intervention. For quantitative variables statistical analysis, means, ranges and standard deviations wer used; and for qualitative variables, percentages and frequencies. For inter-tester reliability intra-class correlation coefficient was used. A two-way analysis of variance for repeated measurements was used for pressure pain threshold differences. The statistical analysis was performed using a 95% confidence level. Results: Intra-class correlation coefficient showed values ranging from 0.82-0.92. No significant differences were observed for baseline values. Analysis of variance showed significant effects for time and interaction between time and group. Group 1 showed a significant increase in pressure pain threshold after five minutes intervention, but this disappeared at 24h post intervention. Group 2 showed no significant differences. Conclusions: Inter-tested reliabilty of pressure pain threshold was good. Muscle energy technique in latent upper trapezius trigger point 1 has

  6. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    R. Carlin with contributions from D. Acosta

    2012-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Data-taking continues at cruising speed, with high availability of all components of the Level-1 trigger. We have operated the trigger up to a luminosity of 7.6E33, where we approached 100 kHz using the 7E33 prescale column.  Recently, the pause without triggers in case of an automatic "RESYNC" signal (the "settle" and "recover" time) was reduced in order to minimise the overall dead-time. This may become very important when the LHC comes back with higher energy and luminosity after LS1. We are also preparing for data-taking in the proton-lead run in early 2013. The CASTOR detector will make its comeback into CMS and triggering capabilities are being prepared for this. Steps to be taken include improved cooperation with the TOTEM trigger system and using the LHC clock during the injection and ramp phases of LHC. Studies are being finalised that will have a bearing on the Trigger Technical Design Report (TDR), which is to be rea...

  7. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The final parts of the Level-1 trigger hardware are now being put in place. For the ECAL endcaps, more than half of the Trigger Concentrator Cards for the ECAL Endcap (TCC-EE) are now available at CERN, such that one complete endcap can be covered. The Global Trigger now correctly handles ECAL calibration sequences, without being influenced by backpressure. The Regional Calorimeter Trigger (RCT) hardware is complete and working in USC55. Intra-crate tests of all 18 RCT crates and the Global Calorimeter Trigger (GCT) are regularly taking place. Pattern tests have successfully captured data from HCAL through RCT to the GCT Source Cards. HB/HE trigger data are being compared with emulator results to track down the very few remaining hardware problems. The treatment of hot and dead cells, including their recording in the database, has been defined. For the GCT, excellent agreement between the emulator and data has been achieved for jets and HF ET sums. There is still som...

  8. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The trigger system has been constantly in use in cosmic and commissioning data taking periods. During CRAFT running it delivered 300 million muon and calorimeter triggers to CMS. It has performed stably and reliably. During the abort gaps it has also provided laser and other calibration triggers. Timing issues, namely synchronization and latency issues, have been solved. About half of the Trigger Concentrator Cards for the ECAL Endcap (TCC-EE) are installed, and the firmware is being worked on. The production of the other half has started. The HCAL Trigger and Readout (HTR) card firmware has been updated, and new features such as fast parallel zero-suppression have been included. Repairs of drift tube (DT) trigger mini-crates, optical links and receivers of sector collectors are under way and have been completed on YB0. New firmware for the optical receivers of the theta links to the drift tube track finder is being installed. In parallel, tests with new eta track finde...

  9. Immediate and short-term effects of the combination of dry needling and percutaneous TENS on post-needling soreness in patients with chronic myofascial neck pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose V. León-Hernández

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background Dry needling (DN and percutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (PENS are widely used techniques in the treatment of myofascial pain. Objective To investigate the immediate and short-term effects of the combination of DN and PENS compared to DN alone on the upper trapezius muscle. Method This is a 72-hour follow-up single-blinded randomized controlled trial. Sixty-two volunteer patients with chronic myofascial neck pain with active Myofascial Trigger Points (MTrPs in the upper trapezius muscle were recruited. Randomization was performed, and 31 patients received DN treatment (DN group and 31 received DN and PENS (DN+PENS group. The primary outcomes were neck disability index (NDI and visual analog scale for pain for both post-needling soreness (PNS and neck pain intensity (NPI. Pressure pain threshold (PPT and cervical range of motion (CROM were the secondary outcomes. Results We detected between-group differences in NPI and PNS in favor of the DN+PENS group immediately after treatment. No between-group differences in NDI were observed. Conclusion PENS application after dry needling treatment is more effective than dry needling alone for decreasing soreness in the short term and improving neck pain intensity immediately in patients with myofascial chronic neck pain.

  10. Myofacial trigger points in advanced cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideaki Hasuo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Myofascial pain syndrome is started to be recognized as one of important factors of pain in cancer patients. However, no reports on features of myofascial trigger points were found in terminally-ill cancer populations. This time, we encountered 5 patients with myofascial pain syndrome and terminal cancer in whom delirium developed due to increased doses of opioid without a diagnosis of myofascial pain syndrome on initial presentation. The delirium subsided with dose reductions of opioid and treatment of myofascial pain syndrome. The common reason for a delayed diagnosis among the patients included an incomplete palpation of the painful sites, which led to unsuccessful myofascial trigger points identification. The features of myofascial trigger points included single onset in the cancer pain management site with opioid and the contralateral abdominal side muscles of the non-common sites. Withdrawal reflexes associated with cancer pain in the supine position, which are increasingly seen in the terminal cancer patients, were considered to have contributed to this siuation.We consider that careful palpation of the painful site is important, in order to obtain greater knowledge and understanding of the features of myofascial trigger points.

  11. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    At the December meeting, the CMS trigger group reported on progress in production, tests in the Electronics Integration Center (EIC) in Prevessin 904, progress on trigger installation in the underground counting room at point 5, USC55, and results from the Magnet Test and Cosmic Challenge (MTCC) phase II. The trigger group is engaged in the final stages of production testing, systems integration, and software and firmware development. Most systems are delivering final tested electronics to CERN. The installation in USC55 is underway and moving towards integration testing. A program of orderly connection and checkout with subsystems and central systems has been developed. This program includes a series of vertical subsystem slice tests providing validation of a portion of each subsystem from front-end electronics through the trigger and DAQ to data captured and stored. This is combined with operations and testing without beam that will continue until startup. The plans for start-up, pilot and early running tri...

  12. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    2011-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software New Forward Scintillating Counters (FSC) for rapidity gap measurements have been installed and integrated into the Trigger recently. For the Global Muon Trigger, tuning of quality criteria has led to improvements in muon trigger efficiencies. Several subsystems have started campaigns to increase spares by recovering boards or producing new ones. The barrel muon sector collector test system has been reactivated, new η track finder boards are in production, and φ track finder boards are under revision. In the CSC track finder, an η asymmetry problem has been corrected. New pT look-up tables have also improved efficiency. RPC patterns were changed from four out of six coincident layers to three out of six in the barrel, which led to a significant increase in efficiency. A new PAC firmware to trigger on heavy stable charged particles allows looking for chamber hit coincidences in two consecutive bunch-crossings. The redesign of the L1 Trigger Emulator...

  13. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    R. Arcidiacono

    2013-01-01

      In 2013 the Trigger Studies Group (TSG) has been restructured in three sub-groups: STEAM, for the development of new HLT menus and monitoring their performance; STORM, for the development of HLT tools, code and actual configurations; and FOG, responsible for the online operations of the High Level Trigger. The Strategy for Trigger Evolution And Monitoring (STEAM) group is responsible for Trigger Menu development, path timing, trigger performance studies coordination, HLT offline DQM as well as HLT release, menu and conditions validation – in collaboration and with the technical support of the PdmV group. Since the end of proton-proton data taking, the group has started preparing for 2015 data taking, with collisions at 13 TeV and 25 ns bunch spacing. The reliability of the extrapolation to higher energy is being evaluated comparing the trigger rates on 7 and 8 TeV Monte Carlo samples with the data taken in the past two years. The effect of 25 ns bunch spacing is being studied on the d...

  14. TRIGGER

    CERN Document Server

    W. Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The road map for the final commissioning of the level-1 trigger system has been set. The software for the trigger subsystems is being upgraded to run under CERN Scientific Linux 4 (SLC4). There is also a new release for the Trigger Supervisor (TS 1.4), which implies upgrade work by the subsystems. As reported by the CERN group, a campaign to tidy the Trigger Timing and Control (TTC) racks has begun. The machine interface was upgraded by installing the new RF2TTC module, which receives RF signals from LHC Point 4. Two Beam Synchronous Timing (BST) signals, one for each beam, can now be received in CMS. The machine group will define the exact format of the information content shortly. The margin on the locking range of the CMS QPLL is planned for study for different subsystems in the next Global Runs, using a function generator. The TTC software has been successfully tested on SLC4. Some TTC subsystems have already been upgraded to SLC4. The TTCci Trigger Supervisor ...

  15. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith, from contributions of D. Acosta

    2012-01-01

      The L1 Trigger group deployed several major improvements this year. Compared to 2011, the single-muon trigger rate has been reduced by a factor of 2 and the η coverage has been restored to 2.4, with high efficiency. During the current technical stop, a higher jet seed threshold will be applied in the Global Calorimeter Trigger in order to significantly reduce the strong pile-up dependence of the HT and multi-jet triggers. The currently deployed L1 menu, with the “6E33” prescales, has a total rate of less than 100 kHz and operates with detector readout dead time of less than 3% for luminosities up to 6.5 × 1033 cm–2s–1. Further prescale sets have been created for 7 and 8 × 1033 cm–2s–1 luminosities. The L1 DPG is evaluating the performance of the Trigger for upcoming conferences and publication. Progress on the Trigger upgrade was reviewed during the May Upgrade Week. We are investigating scenarios for stagin...

  16. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith from contributions of C. Leonidopoulos, I. Mikulec, J. Varela and C. Wulz.

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software Over the past few months, the Level-1 trigger has successfully recorded data with cosmic rays over long continuous stretches as well as LHC splash events, beam halo, and collision events. The L1 trigger hardware, firmware, synchronization, performance and readiness for beam operation were reviewed in October. All L1 trigger hardware is now installed at Point 5, and most of it is completely commissioned. While the barrel ECAL Trigger Concentrator Cards are fully operational, the recently delivered endcap ECAL TCC system is still being commissioned. For most systems there is a sufficient number of spares available, but for a few systems additional reserve modules are needed. It was decided to increase the overall L1 latency by three bunch crossings to increase the safety margin for trigger timing adjustments. In order for CMS to continue data taking during LHC frequency ramps, the clock distribution tree needs to be reset. The procedures for this have been tested. A repl...

  17. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    2011-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software Overall the L1 trigger hardware has been running very smoothly during the last months of proton running. Modifications for the heavy-ion run have been made where necessary. The maximal design rate of 100 kHz can be sustained without problems. All L1 latencies have been rechecked. The recently installed Forward Scintillating Counters (FSC) are being used in the heavy ion run. The ZDC scintillators have been dismantled, but the calorimeter itself remains. We now send the L1 accept signal and other control signals to TOTEM. Trigger cables from TOTEM to CMS will be installed during the Christmas shutdown, so that the TOTEM data can be fully integrated within the CMS readout. New beam gas triggers have been developed, since the BSC-based trigger is no longer usable at high luminosities. In particular, a special BPTX signal is used after a quiet period with no collisions. There is an ongoing campaign to provide enough spare modules for the different subsystems. For example...

  18. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    by Wesley Smith

    2011-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software After the winter shutdown minor hardware problems in several subsystems appeared and were corrected. A reassessment of the overall latency has been made. In the TTC system shorter cables between TTCci and TTCex have been installed, which saved one bunch crossing, but which may have required an adjustment of the RPC timing. In order to tackle Pixel out-of-syncs without influencing other subsystems, a special hardware/firmware re-sync protocol has been introduced in the Global Trigger. The link between the Global Calorimeter Trigger and the Global Trigger with the new optical Global Trigger Interface and optical receiver daughterboards has been successfully tested in the Electronics Integration Centre in building 904. New firmware in the GCT now allows a setting to remove the HF towers from energy sums. The HF sleeves have been replaced, which should lead to reduced rates of anomalous signals, which may allow their inclusion after this is validated. For ECAL, improvements i...

  19. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Alimena

    2013-01-01

    Trigger Strategy Group The Strategy for Trigger Evolution And Monitoring (STEAM) group is responsible for the development of future High-Level Trigger menus, as well as of its DQM and validation, in collaboration and with the technical support of the PdmV group. Taking into account the beam energy and luminosity expected in 2015, a rough estimate of the trigger rates indicates a factor four increase with respect to 2012 conditions. Assuming that a factor two can be tolerated thanks to the increase in offline storage and processing capabilities, a toy menu has been developed using the new OpenHLT workflow to estimate the transverse energy/momentum thresholds that would halve the current trigger rates. The CPU time needed to run the HLT has been compared between data taken with 25 ns and 50 ns bunch spacing, for equivalent pile-up: no significant difference was observed on the global time per event distribution at the only available data point, corresponding to a pile-up of about 10 interactions. Using th...

  20. 美洛昔康痛点注射配合肌筋膜牵拉手法治疗肩关节周围炎%Clinical Observation on Trigger Point Injection with Meloxicam Combined with Myofascial Traction for treating Periarthritis of Shoulder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧汉锋; 罗海燕; 魏秋实; 曾伟恒

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To observe the efficacy and safety of trigger point injection with meloxicam combined with myofascial traction for treating periarthritis of shoulder.Methods:All 106 outpatients were randomly divided into treatment group I (meloxicam combined with myofascial traction group),treatment group Ⅱ (myofascial traction group),and control group (routine massage group).Three groups were administrated with manipulation treatment and self-rehabilitation.The patients were performed with routine massage in control group and myofascial traction in treatment group,and plus trigger point injection once a weeks in treatment group Ⅰ.All groups were treated once a day,7 days for a treatment course,every 2 courses with 2 day's interval,and a total of four courses.The efficacy and safety were evaluated according to Constant-Murley score and complications.Results:The efficacy of treatment group Ⅰ (100%) and Ⅱ (93.7%) were higher than control group (70%,P<0.05),and treatment group Ⅰ was higher than treatment group Ⅱ (P<0.05).There was no complication in all groups.Conclusion:Trigger point injection with meloxicam combined with myofascial traction can effectively loosen adhesion of soft tissue in frozen shoulder,relieve pain,improve function of shoulder,and reduce labor intensity of operator.It is easy,safe,and effective for clinical application.%目的:观察美洛昔康痛点注射配合肌筋膜牵拉手法治疗肩关节周围炎的临床效果和安全性.方法:106个门诊病例应用随机分为美洛昔康+肌筋膜牵拉手法组(A组)、肌筋膜牵拉手法组(B组)和常规推拿手法组(C组),3组均进行手法治疗和自主康复训练,C组进行常规推拿手法,A、B组进行肌筋膜牵拉手法,A在手法结束后进行痛点注射;每日1次,7d为1个疗程,每2个疗程间休息2d,痛点注射每周1次,共4个疗程.根据Constant-Murley score来评价疗效,根据并发症来评价安全性.结果:疗效比较,A组(l00

  1. Myofascial pain, fibromyalgia or fibrositis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, J M S

    2004-01-01

    The terms myofascial pain, fibromyalgia and fibrositis are critically examined. They constitute diagnostic labels for non-specific musculoskeletal aches and pains. Analysis of the evidence shows that none of these labels is substantiated by hard physical signs or by laboratory evidence of consistent pathological or biochemical abnormality. What is the objective evidence for disorder(s) of muscle, fascia or fibrous tissues, so clearly indicated by these diagnostic names? Alternative terms such as 'regional pain syndrome' or 'chronic pain syndrome' merely redefine the clinical problem without providing a mechanism or basis for diagnosis. Despite different diagnostic criteria, these conditions, along with chronic fatigue syndrome, have many demographic and clinical similarities, most notably tender trigger points. Indeed, the terms are often used interchangeably. There are few differences in the symptoms, physical findings, laboratory tests, functional status, psychosocial features and psychiatric disorders. This paper seeks not to deny the existence of aches and pains, but to critically examine the utility of these terms. The only claimed physical sign is the presence of tender trigger points over muscles or muscle attachments. Research suggests that tender points are a measure of general distress related to pain complaints but separately associated with fatigue and depression. They are present in some normal subjects and are variable in occurrence in time in the same individual. They reflect no demonstrable pathology. It is therefore argued that none of these commonly used diagnoses represent distinct disease entities. A possible but unproven alternative hypothesis is that such symptoms relate to neural pain with both peripheral and central components, and in some instances psychological or wilful embellishment.

  2. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware The CERN group is working on the TTC system. Seven out of nine sub-detector TTC VME crates with all fibers cabled are installed in USC55. 17 Local Trigger Controller (LTC) boards have been received from production and are in the process of being tested. The RF2TTC module replacing the TTCmi machine interface has been delivered and will replace the TTCci module used to mimic the LHC clock. 11 out of 12 crates housing the barrel ECAL off-detector electronics have been installed in USC55 after commissioning at the Electronics Integration Centre in building 904. The cabling to the Regional Calorimeter Trigger (RCT) is terminated. The Lisbon group has completed the Synchronization and Link mezzanine board (SLB) production. The Palaiseau group has fully tested and installed 33 out of 40 Trigger Concentrator Cards (TCC). The seven remaining boards are being remade. The barrel TCC boards have been tested at the H4 test beam, and good agreement with emulator predictions were found. The cons...

  3. An acute bout of self-myofascial release increases range of motion without a subsequent decrease in muscle activation or force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Graham Z; Penney, Michael D H; Mullaley, Michelle E; Cuconato, Amanda L; Drake, Corey D J; Behm, David G; Button, Duane C

    2013-03-01

    Foam rolling is thought to improve muscular function, performance, overuse, and joint range of motion (ROM); however, there is no empirical evidence demonstrating this. Thus, the objective of the study was to determine the effect of self-myofascial release (SMR) via foam roller application on knee extensor force and activation and knee joint ROM. Eleven healthy male (height 178.9 ± 3.5 cm, mass 86.3 ± 7.4 kg, age 22.3 ± 3.8 years) subjects who were physically active participated. Subjects' quadriceps maximum voluntary contraction force, evoked force and activation, and knee joint ROM were measured before, 2 minutes, and 10 minutes after 2 conditions: (a) 2, 1-minute trials of SMR of the quadriceps via a foam roller and (b) no SMR (Control). A 2-way analysis of variance (condition × time) with repeated measures was performed on all dependent variables recorded in the precondition and postcondition tests. There were no significant differences between conditions for any of the neuromuscular dependent variables. However, after foam rolling, subjects' ROM significantly (p foam rolling, which no longer existed after foam rolling. In conclusion, an acute bout of SMR of the quadriceps was an effective treatment to acutely enhance knee joint ROM without a concomitant deficit in muscle performance.

  4. Therapeutic Observation of Acupuncture at Myofascial Trigger Points for Cervical Spondylosis of Vertebral Artery Type%针刺肌筋膜触发点治疗椎动脉型颈椎病疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王翀敏; 陈红薇; 王延武; 岳红; 朱敏

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察针刺肌筋膜触发点治疗椎动脉型颈椎病的临床疗效。方法将98例椎动脉型颈椎病患者随机分为治疗组51例和对照组47例。治疗组采用针刺肌筋膜触发点治疗,对照组采用注射消炎镇痛液治疗。比较两组治疗前后旋颈试验阳性率、眩晕评分及头项部疼痛VAS评分。结果两组治疗后VAS评分、旋颈试验阳性率及眩晕评分与同组治疗前比较,差异均具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。治疗组治疗后VAS评分、旋颈试验阳性率及眩晕评分与对照组比较,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。治疗组总有效率为96.1%,对照组为76.6%,两组比较差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论针刺肌筋膜触发点能改善椎动脉型颈椎病患者眩晕及头项部疼痛症状。%Objective To observe the therapeutic efficacy of acupuncture at myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) in treating cervical spondylosis of vertebral artery type. Methods Ninety-eight patients with cervical spondylosis of vertebral artery type were randomized into a treatment group of 51 cases and a control group of 47 cases. The treatment group was intervened by acupuncture at the MTrPs, while the control group was by injection of medical solution for anti-inflammation and analgesia. The positive rate of rotate-cervix test, dizziness score, and visual analogue scale (VAS) of the head and neck pain were compared before and after intervention. Results After intervention, the positive rate, dizziness score, and VAS score were significantly changed in both groups (P<0.05). There were significant differences in comparing the positive rate, dizziness score, and VAS score between the two groups after intervention (P<0.05). The total effective rate was 96.1%in the treatment group versus 76.6%in the control group, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion Acupuncture at the MTrPs can improve the dizziness and head-neck pain in patients with

  5. Current studies on myofascial pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Ta-Shen

    2009-10-01

    Recent studies have clarified the nature of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs). In an MTrP region, multiple hyperirritable loci can be found. The sensory components of the MTrP locus are sensitized nociceptors that are responsible for pain, referred pain, and local twitch responses. The motor components are dysfunctional endplates that are responsible for taut band formation as a result of excessive acetylcholine (ACh) leakage. The concentrations of pain- and inflammation-related substances are increased in the MTrP region. It has been hypothesized that excessive ACh release, sarcomere shortening, and release of sensitizing substances are three essential features that relate to one another in a positive feedback cycle. This MTrP circuit is the connection among spinal sensory (dorsal horn) neurons responsible for the MTrP phenomena. Recent studies suggest that measurement of biochemicals associated with pain and inflammation in the MTrP region, the sonographic study of MTrPs, and the magnetic resonance elastography for taut band image are potential tools for the diagnosis of MTrPs. Many methods have been used to treat myofascial pain, including laser therapy, shockwave therapy, and botulinum toxin type A injection.

  6. Intermuscular force transmission along myofascial chains: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Frieder; Wilke, Jan; Vogt, Lutz; Banzer, Winfried

    2016-06-01

    The present review aims to provide a systematic overview on tensile transmission along myofascial chains based on anatomical dissection studies and in vivo experiments. Evidence for the existence of myofascial chains is growing, and the capability of force transmission via myofascial chains has been hypothesized. However, there is still a lack of evidence concerning the functional significance and capability for force transfer. A systematic literature research was conducted using MEDLINE (Pubmed), ScienceDirect and Google Scholar. Studied myofascial chains encompassed the superficial backline (SBL), the back functional line (BFL) and the front functional line (FFL). Peer-reviewed human dissection studies as well as in vivo experiments reporting intermuscular tension transfer between the constituents of a myofascial chain were included. To assess methodic quality, two independent investigators rated studies by means of validated assessment tools (QUACS and PEDro Scale). The literature research identified 1022 articles. Nine studies (moderate to excellent methodological quality) were included. Concerning the SBL and the BFL, there is moderate evidence for force transfer at all three transitions (based on six studies), and one of two transitions (three studies). One study yields moderate evidence for a slight, but not significant force transfer at one transition in the FFL. The findings of the present study indicate that tension can be transferred between some of the examined adjacent structures. Force transfer might have an impact in overuse conditions as well as on sports performance. However, different methods of force application and measurement hinder the comparability of results. Considering anatomical variations in the degree of continuity and histological differences of the linking structures is crucial for interpretation. Future studies should focus on the in vivo function of myofascial continuity during isolated active or passive tissue tensioning.

  7. The Kinesio Taping Method for Myofascial Pain Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei-Ting; Hong, Chang-Zern; Chou, Li-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Many people continue suffering from myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) defined as a regional pain syndrome characterized by muscle pain caused by myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) clinically. Muscle spasm and block of blood circulation can be noticed in the taut bands. In the MTrP region, nociceptors can be sensitized by the peripheral inflammatory factors and contracture of fascia can also be induced. Traditional treatments of MPS include stretching therapy, thermal treatment, electrical stimulation, massage, manipulation, trigger points injection, acupuncture, and medicine. However, the pain syndrome may not be relieved even under multiple therapies. Recently, the Kinesio Taping (KT) method is popularly used in sports injuries, postoperative complications, and various pain problems, but little research is focused on MPS with KT method. In this paper, we review the research studies on the application to KT in treating MPS and other related issues. It appears that the KT application can elevate the subcutaneous space and then increase the blood circulation and lymph fluid drainage to reduce the chemical factors around the MTrP region. Therefore, it is suggested that KT method can be used as a regular treatment or added to the previous treatment for myofascial pain.

  8. The Kinesio Taping Method for Myofascial Pain Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Ting Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many people continue suffering from myofascial pain syndrome (MPS defined as a regional pain syndrome characterized by muscle pain caused by myofascial trigger points (MTrPs clinically. Muscle spasm and block of blood circulation can be noticed in the taut bands. In the MTrP region, nociceptors can be sensitized by the peripheral inflammatory factors and contracture of fascia can also be induced. Traditional treatments of MPS include stretching therapy, thermal treatment, electrical stimulation, massage, manipulation, trigger points injection, acupuncture, and medicine. However, the pain syndrome may not be relieved even under multiple therapies. Recently, the Kinesio Taping (KT method is popularly used in sports injuries, postoperative complications, and various pain problems, but little research is focused on MPS with KT method. In this paper, we review the research studies on the application to KT in treating MPS and other related issues. It appears that the KT application can elevate the subcutaneous space and then increase the blood circulation and lymph fluid drainage to reduce the chemical factors around the MTrP region. Therefore, it is suggested that KT method can be used as a regular treatment or added to the previous treatment for myofascial pain.

  9. Efficacy of kinesio tape application on pain and muscle strength in patients with myofascial pain syndrome: a placebo-controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Gülcan; Külcü, Duygu Geler; Mesci, Nilgün; Şilte, Ayşe Duygu; Aydog, Ece

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the short- and mid-term effects of Kinesio taping on the trapezius muscle in individuals with myofascial pain syndrome. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-seven patients with active upper trapezius myofascial trigger points were randomly divided to 2 groups: group 1 received Kinesio taping for the upper trapezius muscle, and group 2 received a sham Kinesio taping application. Neck pain (Visual Analog Scale and pressure algometry) and trapezius muscle strength data were collected at baseline, immediately after Kinesio taping application, and at one month follow-up. [Results] The mean changes in Visual Analog Scale scores were significantly different between groups at T2 and T1, with less pain in group 1. The mean changes in algometry scores were significantly different between groups at T3 compared with T2 in favor of group 1. The mean changes in trapezius muscle strength were significantly different between the groups at T2 compared with T1 in favor of group 1. [Conclusion] Patients with myofascial pain syndrome receiving an application of Kinesio taping exhibited statistically significant improvements in pain and upper trapezius muscle strength. PMID:27190430

  10. Efficacy of kinesio tape application on pain and muscle strength in patients with myofascial pain syndrome: a placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Gülcan; Külcü, Duygu Geler; Mesci, Nilgün; Şilte, Ayşe Duygu; Aydog, Ece

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the short- and mid-term effects of Kinesio taping on the trapezius muscle in individuals with myofascial pain syndrome. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-seven patients with active upper trapezius myofascial trigger points were randomly divided to 2 groups: group 1 received Kinesio taping for the upper trapezius muscle, and group 2 received a sham Kinesio taping application. Neck pain (Visual Analog Scale and pressure algometry) and trapezius muscle strength data were collected at baseline, immediately after Kinesio taping application, and at one month follow-up. [Results] The mean changes in Visual Analog Scale scores were significantly different between groups at T2 and T1, with less pain in group 1. The mean changes in algometry scores were significantly different between groups at T3 compared with T2 in favor of group 1. The mean changes in trapezius muscle strength were significantly different between the groups at T2 compared with T1 in favor of group 1. [Conclusion] Patients with myofascial pain syndrome receiving an application of Kinesio taping exhibited statistically significant improvements in pain and upper trapezius muscle strength.

  11. Efficacy of Trigger Point Biopsy Combined with Injection Therapy in the Upper Trapezius Muscle for Myofascial Pain Syndrome%斜方肌激痛点活检复合注射疗法治疗肌筋膜疼痛综合征的疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭亚秋; 齐峰; 胡启雅; 王姿; 郭静旋; 黄海真; 丁超; 潘新; 张力

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to observe the efficacy of trigger point biopsy combined with injection therapy on the upper trapezius muscle for myofascial pain syndrome (MPS). Sixty patients of MPS were recruited and randomly divided equally into two groups. Group BI groupreceived myofascial trigger point (MTrP) biopsy plus injection therapy and group IT treated with MTrP injection therapy alone. The Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) was measured before the treatment, after the treatment immediately, and the day 7, 14, 21 and 28 after the treatment. The efficacy rate was evaluated up to three months after the treatment. Side effects were also observed during the treatment. The VAS in both groups decreased significantly after treatment (P<0. 05). The VAS in the group BI decreased significantly as compared to that in the group IT at day 14, 21, 28 after treatment (P< 0. 05). The effective rate was significantly higher than that in group IT three months after treatment (P<0. 05). Only one side effect appeared in group BI. Myofascial trigger point biopsy combined with analgesic injection therapy can provide an effective treatment for MPS than injection therapy alone.%观察斜方肌激痛点活检复合注射疗法治疗肌筋膜疼痛综合征(MPS)的疗效是否优于单纯注射治疗。选择MPS患者60例,随机分为激痛点活检复合镇痛液注射治疗组(BI组)和单纯镇痛液注射治疗组(IT组),每组30例。BI组患者行激痛点活检,并于活检处行镇痛液注射疗法;IT组患者仅于激痛点处行镇痛液注射治疗。评定患者治疗前和治疗后即刻、7天、14天、21天及28天疼痛视觉模拟评分(VAS),治疗后3个月的临床有效率以及和治疗有关的不良反应。结果两组治疗后VAS评分与治疗前相比均降低(P<0.05),从治疗后14天起BI组VAS评分低于IT组(P<0.05)。治疗3个月后BI组有效率高于IT组(P<0.05)。BI组出现1例不良反应患者。激痛点活

  12. 肌筋膜疼痛触发点配合经络穴位治疗腰背肌筋膜疼痛综合征的临床研究%Clinical Research of Muscular Fasciae Trigger Point Combined with Meridian Point in the Treatment of Lumbar Back Myofascial Pain Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    农洪升

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To study the clinical research of muscular fasciae trigger point combined with meridian point in the treatment of lumbar back Myofascial Pain Syndrome.Methods:200 cases with lumbar back myofascial pain syndrome were divided into control group and treatment group according to random number table method,100 cases in each group.The control group was treated with muscular fasciae trigger point.The treatment group was given additional meridian point treatment based on the control group.Both the two groups were given eight courses of treatment,each course 15 d.Compare the pain index,scleroma cords index,function index and efficient of two groups before and after the treatment.Results:The pain index,scleroma cords index,function index and efficient of two groups had greatly improved,the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05).The effective rate was 96.0% in treatment group and 82.0% in control group.Compared the efficient of two groups,the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05).Conclusion:Muscular fasciae trigger point combined with meridian point in the treatment of lumbar back Myofascial Pain Syndrome has obvious curative effect and high efficient.%目的:探讨肌筋膜疼痛触发点配合经络穴位治疗腰背肌筋膜疼痛综合征的临床疗效.方法:腰背肌筋膜疼痛综合征患者200例按随机数字表法分为对照组和治疗组,每组各100例.对照组采取肌筋膜疼痛触发点治疗技术进行治疗,治疗组在对照组的基础上配合经络穴位治疗.两组患者均治疗8个疗程,每个疗程15 d.治疗结束后,比较两组患者在治疗前后疼痛指数、硬结条索状物指数、功能状态指数及有效率.结果:两组患者各自在疼痛指数、功能状态指数以及硬结条索状物指数方面,治疗后都较治疗前有较大的改善,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).治疗组有效率为96.0%,对照组有效率为82.0%,两组有效率比

  13. 温和灸激痛点治疗肩背部肌筋膜疼痛综合征:随机对照研究%A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial for Treatment of Shoulder-back Myofascial Pain Syn-drome with Mild Moxibustion at Trigger Points

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王列; 马帅; 赵悦; 曹锐; 王颖; 马铁明

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the efficacy difference between the mild moxibustion and acupuncture stimulation at trigger points in the treatment of shoulder and back myofascial pain syndrome (MPS),so as to provide a reference for clinical treatment of MPS.Methods A total of 60 patients with shoulder and back MPS were equally and randomly divided into mild moxibustion group and acupuncture group.The myofascial trigger points in the shoulder and back regions were stimulated with mild moxibustion for 20- 1 00 min every time or punctured with filiform needles by retaining the needles for 30 min after twirling for a while.The treatment was conducted once daily for 1 0 days.The short-form McGill pain questionnaire (SF-MPQ)including the pain rating index [PRI consisting of 1 5 descriptors (1 1 sensory,4 affective)which are rated on an intensity scale as 0 = none,1 =mild,2=moderate and 3=severe],present pain intensity (PPI)index of the standard MPQ and a visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to assess the patient’s pain severity before and after the treatment.Results Following the treatment,of the two 30 cases of MPS patients in the acupuncture and mild moxibustion groups,1 and 7 were cured,1 1 and 1 7 experienced marked im-provement,1 4 and 5 were effective,4 and 1 was invalid,with the effective rates being 86.7% (26/30)and 96.7%(29/30),re-spectively.The cured plus markedly effective rate of the mild moxibustion group was significantly better than that of the acupunc-ture group(P 0.05).Conclusion Mild moxibustion stimulation of myofascial trigger point is effective in relieving shoulder-back MPS,being comparable to that of acupuncture therapy.%目的::比较温和灸与针刺激痛点治疗肩背部肌筋膜疼痛综合征(MPS)的疗效差异,为肩背部MPS 的治疗提供参考。方法:60例肩背部 MPS 患者随机分为温和灸组和针刺组,每组30例,两组均选取疼痛部位的激痛点进行治疗。温和灸组采用温和

  14. Influencia de la presión sobre la mucosa gingival en la medición algométrica de un punto gatillo miofascial del músculo masetero: Estudio aleatorio, cruzado, controlado The influence of pressure on the gingivae mucosa on the algometry measurement of the masseter´s myofascial trigger point: A Randomized Cross-Over Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. La Touche

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Este trabajo valora mediante una aplicación algométrica si la presión sobre la mucosa gingival de la zona de los molares mandibulares influye sobre el umbral del dolor a la presión (UDP de uno de los puntos gatillo miofasciales (PGMs del músculo masetero. Material y métodos: Se estudiaron un total de 38 pacientes que presentaban dolor orofacial por PGMs a nivel del músculo masetero. Se valoro el UDP por medio de algometría y la percepción de la intensidad del dolor (PID post-medición por medio de la Escala Visual Analógica (EVA. Todos los sujetos del estudio se utilizaron como grupo experimental y control; al grupo experimental se la aplicó una medición donde se evitaba generar presión sobre la mucosa gingival y al control una medición directa sobre PGM. El orden de aplicación de las mediciones se realizó por medio de una distribución aleatoria sistemática. Resultados: Se observaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre el UDP obtenido en el grupo experimental con respecto al control (P 0,05 y tampoco se apreció una correlación entre el UDP y la PID postmedición para el grupo experimental (r = -0,11, P = 0,5 ni para el caso del grupo control. (r = 0,15, P = 0,36. Conclusiones: Los resultados obtenidos demuestran que el evitar la presión sobre la mucosa gingival si influye en el valor de la medición algométrica, ya que aumenta el UDP de el PGM valorado en el músculo masetero. Sin embargo, es necesario realizar más investigaciones que puedan determinar la sensibilidad y la fiabilidad de este protocolo de medición antes de ser extrapolado a la clínica.Objective: Our study sets out to determine if the pressure on the gingivae mucosa of the lower molars influences the pressure pain threshold of one of the masseter's myofascial trigger point. Material and methods: A total of 38 subjects who had orofacial pain were included in the study. The masseter's myofascial trigger point was studied. The

  15. Myofascial pain: from Virchow's to our days

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Egorov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Myalgia is not a definite nosological entity and fixes the attention of neurologists, rheumatologists, and physicians in other specialties. This is first of all associated with the high incidence of chronic pain syndrome that leads to long-term disability mainly in young and middle-aged persons. One of the most common reasons for seeking advice from a therapist and neurologist is low back pain that may be due to the involvement of three key anatomical players: facet joints (arthrosis treatment should make an emphasis on  hondroprotectors, intervertebral disks (in case of discopathy, clinicians tend to favor nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs – NSAIDs, and a muscular frame. In this case, two thirds of patients with pain syndromes in the trunk and limbs are found to have myofascial dysfunction that is defined as impaired function of one orother muscle, which occurs with its overload and manifests itself as muscle spasm and the presence of painful muscle infiltrations or local muscle hypertonus and trigger points in the tense muscles. Ignoring this fact gives rise to the irrational use of analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs and further to the increase of their doses because the treatment is ineffective. Modern-day therapy for myofascial syndrome is multimodal and encompasses physiotherapic and manual procedures and the use of myorelaxants rather than NSAIDs. To prescribe myorelaxants, it is necessary to understand their mechanisms of action and the effects of different agents in this group.

  16. [Myofascial pain syndrome--fascial muscle pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partanen, Juhani; Ojala, Tuula; Arokoski, Jari P A

    2010-01-01

    Symptoms of myofascial pain syndrome, i.e. fascial muscle pain may occur in several areas of the body, particularly in the neck-shoulder region. The muscle pain symptom in the neck-shoulder region is commonly termed tension neck pain or nonspecific neck pain, but myofascial pain syndrome can also be distinguished into its own diagnosis. This review deals with the clinical picture of myofascial pain syndrome along with pathophysiological hypotheses and treatment options.

  17. Might axial myofascial properties and biomechanical mechanisms be relevant to ankylosing spondylitis and axial spondyloarthritis?

    OpenAIRE

    Masi, Alfonse T.

    2014-01-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis and axial spondyloarthropathy have characteristic age- and sex-specific onset patterns, typical entheseal lesions, and marked heritability, but the integrative mechanisms causing the pathophysiological and structural alterations remain largely undefined. Myofascial tissues are integrated in the body into webs and networks which permit transmission of passive and active tensional forces that provide stabilizing support and help to control movements. Axial myofascial hype...

  18. Myofascial pain syndrome: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Anudeep; Chansoria, Mayank; Tomar, Gaurav; Kumar, Abhyuday

    2015-03-01

    Over the last few decades, advances have been made in the understanding of myofascial pain syndromes (MPSs). In spite of its high prevalence in the society, it is not a commonly established diagnosis. MPS is said to be the great imitator. This article puts some light on the various clinical presentations of the syndrome, on the various tools to reach to a diagnosis for commencing the treatment and on the treatment modalities that have been used so far.

  19. Myofascial Pain Dysfunction Syndrome (MPDS)

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Myofascial Pain Dysfunction Syndrome (MPDS) is one of the most important causes of the orofacial pain. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate 40 related variables in this regard. Materials and Methods: Thirty nine patients with MPDS were evaluated in this study. Different factors including age, gender, occupation, marital status, sensitivity of masticatory muscles, maximum opening of the mouth, deviation, deflection, involvement of temporomandibular joint, habit, parafun...

  20. Myofascial pain syndrome and its suggested role in the pathogenesis and treatment of fibromyalgia syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Helgard P

    2002-08-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome is a chronic muscle pain disorder in one or more muscles or groups of muscles accompanied by local and referred pain, decreased range of motion, weakness, and often autonomic phenomena. Patients are readily recognized by their history of muscle pain and the presence of myofascial trigger points, which are specific areas of hyperirritability in a muscle that cause local and referred pain on palpation. Failure to recognize MPS often leads to over-investigation, unnecessary medical intervention, and iatrogenic harm with serious cost implications. The purpose of this review is to present clinically relevant data regarding myofascial pain syndrome and to discuss its possible role in the pathophysiology and optimal treatment of fibromyalgia syndrome.

  1. Update on the efficacy of extracorporeal shockwave treatment for myofascial pain syndrome and fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramon, Silvia; Gleitz, Markus; Hernandez, Leonor; Romero, Luis David

    2015-12-01

    Chronic muscle pain syndrome is one of the main causes of musculoskeletal pathologies requiring treatment. Many terms have been used in the past to describe painful muscular syndromes in the absence of evident local nociception such as myogelosis, muscle hardening, myalgia, muscular rheumatism, fibrositis or myofascial trigger point with or without referred pain. If it persists over six months or more, it often becomes therapy resistant and frequently results in chronic generalized pain, characterized by a high degree of subjective suffering. Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is defined as a series of sensory, motor, and autonomic symptoms caused by a stiffness of the muscle, caused by hyperirritable nodules in musculoskeletal fibers, known as myofascial trigger points (MTP), and fascial constrictions. Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic condition that involves both central and peripheral sensitization and for which no curative treatment is available at the present time. Fibromyalgia shares some of the features of MPS, such as hyperirritability. Many treatments options have been described for muscle pain syndrome, with differing evidence of efficacy. Extracorporeal Shockwave Treatment (ESWT) offers a new and promising treatment for muscular disorders. We will review the existing bibliography on the evidence of the efficacy of ESWT for MPS, paying particular attention to MTP (Myofascial Trigger Point) and Fibromyalgia (FM).

  2. Skeletal muscle pain:the possible development of latent myofascial trigger points in the junction of brachioradialis muscle and tendon of obese people%骨骼肌疼痛:肥胖人群中右手臂肱桡肌肌腱结合处隐性触发点的可能性发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤莉; 黄强民

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Studies have shown that obesity is associated with skeletal muscle pain, but the specific factors have not yet been discovered. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the possible development of latent myofascial trigger points in obese people. METHODS:Fifty-seven obese persons (aged 9-20 years) who participated in the summer camp of weight loss were investigated (for participants younger than 18 years old, written consent was obtained from their parents). Their body fat rate was more than 30%. A pressure algometer was used to measure the pressure pain thresholds at three different sites in the brachioradialis muscle: the lateral epicondyle at elbow (site A, assumed to be the A-TrP site), the mid-point of the muscle bely (site B, assumed to be the MTrP site), and the muscle-tendon junction as a control site (site C). In addition, 19 obese persons were selected randomly. They did the based exercise in badminton and table tennis in the next 2 weeks. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:The results showed that, for al the obese participants in this study, the mean pressure pain threshold was lowest at the site B and highest at thesite C. For different genders, the pressure pain thresholds at the site A were significantly lower in the female than the male. With the increase of body mass index, the pressure pain thresholds at the site B was increased. However, no significant difference in the pressure pain thresholds at these three sites was found before and after exercise. It is concluded that the latent trigger point may appear in the brachioradialis after 9 years old. Women may be more likely to form the attachment trigger point in the tendon. Movement has no effect on the activation and elimination of latent trigger points.%背景:有研究显示肥胖与骨骼肌疼痛存在一定的相关性,但具体因素尚未发现。目的:分析肥胖人群中隐性触发点的可能性发展。  方法:选择暑期减肥夏令营中体脂率均大于30%,年龄在9-20

  3. [Myofascial pain syndrome--frequent occurrence and often misdiagnosed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongratz, D E; Späth, M

    1998-09-30

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is a very common localized--sometimes also polytopic--painful musculoskeletal condition associated with trigger points, for which, however, diagnostic criteria established in well-designed studies are still lacking. These two facts form the basis for differentiating between MPS and the fibromyalgia syndrome. The difference between trigger points (MPS) and tender points (fibromyalgia) is of central importance--not merely in a linguistic sense. A knowledge of the signs and symptoms typically associated with a trigger point often obviates the need for time-consuming and expensive technical diagnostic measures. The assumption that many cases of unspecific complaints affecting the musculoskeletal system may be ascribed to MPS makes clear the scope for the saving of costs.

  4. Contributions of myofascial pain in diagnosis and treatment of shoulder pain. A randomized control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaspar-Calvo Elena

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rotator cuff tendinopathy and subacromial impingement syndrome present complex patomechanical situations, frequent difficulties in clinical diagnosis and lack of effectiveness in treatment. Based on clinical experience, we have therefore considered the existence of another pathological entity as the possible origin of pain and dysfunction. The hypothesis of this study is to relate subacromial impingement syndrome (SIS with myofascial pain syndrome (MPS, since myofascial trigger points (MTrPs cause pain, functional limitation, lack of coordination and alterations in quality of movement, even prior to a tendinopathy. MTrPs can coexist with any degenerative subacromial condition. If they are not taken into consideration, they could perpetuate and aggravate the problem, hindering diagnosis and making the applied treatments ineffective. The aims and methods of this study are related with providing evidence of the relationship that may exist between this condition and MPS in the diagnosis and treatment of rotator cuff tendonitis and/or SIS. Method/design A descriptive transversal study will be made to find the correlation between the diagnosis of SIS and rotator cuff tendonitis, positive provocation test responses, the existence of active MTrPs and the results obtained with ultrasonography (US and Magnetic Renonance Imaging (MRI. A randomized double blinded clinical trial will be carried out in experimental conditions: A Protocolized treatment based on active and passive joint repositioning, stabilization exercises, stretching of the periarticular shoulder muscles and postural reeducation. B. The previously described protocolized treatment, with the addition of dry needling applied to active MTrPs with the purpose of isolating the efficacy of dry needling in treatment. Discussion This study aims to provide a new vision of shoulder pain, from the perspective of MPS. This syndrome can, by itself, account for shoulder pain and

  5. Myofascial Pain: Mechanisms to Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricton, James

    2016-08-01

    More than 100 million adults in the United States have chronic pain conditions, costing more than $500 billion annually in medical care and lost productivity. They are the most common reason for seeking health care, for disability and addiction, and the highest driver of health care costs. Myofascial pain is the most common condition causing chronic pain and can be diagnosed through identifying clinical characteristics and muscle palpation. Management is focused on integrating patient training in changing lifestyle risk factors with evidence-based treatment. Understanding the cause, diagnosis, and management of myopain conditions will help prevent the impact of chronic pain.

  6. Triggering Comet-Like Activity of Main Belt Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighipour, Nader; Maindl, Thomas I.; Schaefer, Christoph; Speith, Roland; Dvorak, Rudolf

    2016-10-01

    Main-belt comets (MBCs) have attracted a great deal of interest since their identification as activated asteroids by Hsieh and Jewitt in 2006. It has been suggested that the comet-like activity of these objects are due to the sublimation of sub-surface water-ice that has been exposed as a result of their surfaces being impacted by small (e.g, m-sized) bodies. We have examined the viability of this scenario by simulating impacts between m-sized impactors and km-sized targets using a smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) approach. We have carried out simulations for a range of impact velocities and angles, material type and strength, and water content of the target allowing m-sized impactors to erode enough of an MBC's surface to trigger its activation. Results indicate that for the range of impact velocities corresponding to those in the asteroid belt, the depth of an impact crater is slightly larger than 10 m suggesting that if the activation of MBCs is due to the sublimation of sub-surface water-ice, this ice has to exist no deeper than a few meters from the surface. Our simulations point to a clearly notable spread in the aggregated crater depths due to different impact energy, impact angles, and MBC's water contents showing deeper craters due to less overall material strength. Results also show that ice-exposure occurs in the bottom and on the interior surface of impact craters as well as the surface of the target where some of the ejected icy inclusions are re-accreted. Our results, in addition to demonstrating that the impact scenario is indeed a viable mechanism to expose ice and trigger the activity of MBCs, indicate that the activity of the current MBCs is likely due to ice sublimation from multiple impact sites and/or the water contents of these objects (and other asteroids in the outer asteroid belt) is larger than the 5% that is traditionally considered in models of terrestrial planet formation. We present details of our simulations and discuss their

  7. Ultrasound imaging of embedded shrapnel facilitates diagnosis and management of myofascial pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Hariharan; Cummings, Craig

    2013-06-01

    Trigger points can result from a variety of inciting events including muscle overuse, trauma, mechanical overload, and psychological stress. When the myofascial trigger points occur in cervical musculature, they have been known to cause headaches. Ultrasound imaging is being increasingly used for the diagnosis and interventional management of various painful conditions. A veteran was referred to the pain clinic for management of his severe headache following a gunshot wound to the neck with shrapnel embedded in the neck muscles a few years prior to presentation. He had no other comorbid conditions. Physical examination revealed a taut band in the neck. An ultrasound imaging of the neck over the taut band revealed the deformed shrapnel located within the levator scapulae muscle along with an associated trigger point in the same muscle. Ultrasound guided trigger point injection, followed by physical therapy resolved his symptoms. This is a unique report of embedded shrapnel and coexisting myofascial pain syndrome revealed by ultrasound imaging. The association between shrapnel and myofascial pain syndrome requires further investigation.

  8. Changes in active site histidine hydrogen bonding trigger cryptochrome activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Abir; Manahan, Craig C; Top, Deniz; Yee, Estella F; Lin, Changfan; Young, Michael W; Thiel, Walter; Crane, Brian R

    2016-09-06

    Cryptochrome (CRY) is the principal light sensor of the insect circadian clock. Photoreduction of the Drosophila CRY (dCRY) flavin cofactor to the anionic semiquinone (ASQ) restructures a C-terminal tail helix (CTT) that otherwise inhibits interactions with targets that include the clock protein Timeless (TIM). All-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations indicate that flavin reduction destabilizes the CTT, which undergoes large-scale conformational changes (the CTT release) on short (25 ns) timescales. The CTT release correlates with the conformation and protonation state of conserved His378, which resides between the CTT and the flavin cofactor. Poisson-Boltzmann calculations indicate that flavin reduction substantially increases the His378 pKa Consistent with coupling between ASQ formation and His378 protonation, dCRY displays reduced photoreduction rates with increasing pH; however, His378Asn/Arg variants show no such pH dependence. Replica-exchange MD simulations also support CTT release mediated by changes in His378 hydrogen bonding and verify other responsive regions of the protein previously identified by proteolytic sensitivity assays. His378 dCRY variants show varying abilities to light-activate TIM and undergo self-degradation in cellular assays. Surprisingly, His378Arg/Lys variants do not degrade in light despite maintaining reactivity toward TIM, thereby implicating different conformational responses in these two functions. Thus, the dCRY photosensory mechanism involves flavin photoreduction coupled to protonation of His378, whose perturbed hydrogen-bonding pattern alters the CTT and surrounding regions.

  9. Basic principles of renewal of sportsmen with myofascial by a pain syndrome taking into account the psychological aspect of their rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kharchenko G.D.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to examine and learn the fundamentals of the recovery of athletes with myofascial pain syndrome, taking into account the psychological aspect of their rehabilitation. Material: the data analyzed and summarized the scientific and methodological literature; sites on the internet. Results: the analysis of specialized literature on development features myofascial pain syndrome in athletes. Myofascial pain syndrome is widespread in sports practice. It is characterized by muscle spasms and trigger points, palpation of which there is a growing pain. The basic principles of the recovery of athletes with myofascial pain syndrome. The questions of the effectiveness of rehabilitation measures, taking into account the influence of psychological factors on the recovery of athletes. Conclusions: the presented strategy is comprehensive physical rehabilitation. Recommended keeping the basic principles of the recovery of athletes and the psychological aspect of their rehabilitation.

  10. Triggering Sublimation-driven Activity of Main Belt Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighipour, N.; Maindl, T. I.; Schäfer, C.; Speith, R.; Dvorak, R.

    2016-10-01

    It has been suggested that the comet-like activity of main belt comets (MBCs) is due to the sublimation of sub-surface water–ice that has been exposed as a result of their surfaces being impacted by meter-sized bodies. We have examined the viability of this scenario by simulating impacts between meter-sized and kilometer-sized objects using a smooth particle hydrodynamics approach. Simulations have been carried out for different values of the impact velocity and impact angle, as well as different target material and water-mass fractions. Results indicate that for the range of impact velocities corresponding to those in the asteroid belt, the depth of an impact crater is slightly larger than 10 m, suggesting that if the activation of MBCs is due to the sublimation of sub-surface water–ice, this ice has to exist no deeper than a few meters from the surface. Results also show that ice exposure occurs in the bottom and on the interior surface of impact craters, as well as on the surface of the target where some of the ejected icy inclusions are re-accreted. While our results demonstrate that the impact scenario is indeed a viable mechanism to expose ice and trigger the activity of MBCs, they also indicate that the activity of the current MBCs is likely due to ice sublimation from multiple impact sites and/or the water contents of these objects (and other asteroids in the outer asteroid belt) is larger than the 5% that is traditionally considered in models of terrestrial planet formation, providing more ice for sublimation. We present the details of our simulations and discuss their results and implications.

  11. Actively triggered 4d cone-beam CT acquisition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fast, Martin F.; Wisotzky, Eric [German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Oelfke, Uwe; Nill, Simeon [Joint Department of Physics, The Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Downs Road, Sutton, Surrey SM2 5PT (United Kingdom)

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: 4d cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans are usually reconstructed by extracting the motion information from the 2d projections or an external surrogate signal, and binning the individual projections into multiple respiratory phases. In this “after-the-fact” binning approach, however, projections are unevenly distributed over respiratory phases resulting in inefficient utilization of imaging dose. To avoid excess dose in certain respiratory phases, and poor image quality due to a lack of projections in others, the authors have developed a novel 4d CBCT acquisition framework which actively triggers 2d projections based on the forward-predicted position of the tumor.Methods: The forward-prediction of the tumor position was independently established using either (i) an electromagnetic (EM) tracking system based on implanted EM-transponders which act as a surrogate for the tumor position, or (ii) an external motion sensor measuring the chest-wall displacement and correlating this external motion to the phase-shifted diaphragm motion derived from the acquired images. In order to avoid EM-induced artifacts in the imaging detector, the authors devised a simple but effective “Faraday” shielding cage. The authors demonstrated the feasibility of their acquisition strategy by scanning an anthropomorphic lung phantom moving on 1d or 2d sinusoidal trajectories.Results: With both tumor position devices, the authors were able to acquire 4d CBCTs free of motion blurring. For scans based on the EM tracking system, reconstruction artifacts stemming from the presence of the EM-array and the EM-transponders were greatly reduced using newly developed correction algorithms. By tuning the imaging frequency independently for each respiratory phase prior to acquisition, it was possible to harmonize the number of projections over respiratory phases. Depending on the breathing period (3.5 or 5 s) and the gantry rotation time (4 or 5 min), between ∼90 and 145

  12. The Effect of Dry Needling on Range of Motion of Neck Lateral Flexion in Subjects With Active Trigger Point in Upper Trapezius Muscle

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    Ziaeifar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Myofascial trigger point is one of the most common causes of musculoskeletal disorders. Myofascial trigger point in upper trapezius has been reported as a symptom in patients with neck and upper thoracic pain. Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of dry needling compared with ischemic pressure on trigger point in upper trapezius muscle. Materials and Methods 28 subjects with myofascial trigger point in upper trapezius participated in this study. The subjects were randomly assigned to two groups: dry needling (n = 13 and ischemic pressure (n = 15. The neck lateral flexion range of motion was measured before and after treatment in both groups using a standard goniometer. Paired t-test was used to determine any significant difference in range of motion after treatment sessions compared with pre-treatment score in control and experimental group. Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA was calculated to determine the significance of differences between the control and experimental groups in post-test scores, with pre-treatment scores used as covariates in the analysis. Results Statistical analysis (paired t-test revealed significant increase in neck lateral flexion range of motion in contra-lateral side after treatment sessions in control and experimental group compared with pre-treatment score (P < 0.05. However, only dry needling was effective in increase of range of motion in Ipsi-lateral side (P = 0.001. In the ANCOVA, controlling for pre-test scores, no significant difference was found between the two groups in the after treatment sessions (P = 0.06 and (P = 0.15. Conclusions The application of DN produces an improvement in ILF and CLF can be prescribed for subjects with MTP in UT muscles.

  13. Myofascial Pain Syndrome in Chronic Back Pain Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizar, Abd Jalil

    2011-01-01

    Background Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is a regional musculoskeletal pain disorder that is caused by myofascial trigger points. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of MPS among chronic back pain patients, as well as to identify risk factors and the outcome of this disorder. Methods This was a prospective observational study involving 126 patients who attended the Pain Management Unit for chronic back pain between 1st January 2009 and 31st December 2009. Data examined included demographic features of patients, duration of back pain, muscle(s) involved, primary diagnosis, treatment modality and response to treatment. Results The prevalence of MPS among chronic back pain patients was 63.5% (n = 80). Secondary MPS was more common than primary MPS, making up 81.3% of the total MPS. There was an association between female gender and risk of developing MPS (χ2 = 5.38, P = 0.02, O.R. = 2.4). Occupation, body mass index and duration of back pain were not significantly associated with MPS occurrence. Repeated measures analysis showed significant changes (P pain patients was significantly high, with female gender being a significant risk factor. With proper diagnosis and expert management, MPS has a favourable outcome. PMID:21716607

  14. Probable Mechanisms of Needling Therapies for Myofascial Pain Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Wei Chou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS has been defined as a regional pain syndrome characterized by muscle pain caused by myofascial trigger points (MTrPs clinically. MTrP is defined as the hyperirritable spot in a palpable taut band of skeletal muscle fibers. Appropriate treatment to MTrPs can effectively relieve the clinical pain of MPS. Needling therapies, such as MTrP injection, dry needling, or acupuncture (AcP can effectively eliminate pain immediately. AcP is probably the first reported technique in treating MPS patients with dry needling based on the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM theory. The possible mechanism of AcP analgesia were studied and published in recent decades. The analgesic effect of AcP is hypothesized to be related to immune, hormonal, and nervous systems. Compared to slow-acting hormonal system, nervous system acts in a faster manner. Given these complexities, AcP analgesia cannot be explained by any single mechanism. There are several principles for selection of acupoints based on the TCM principles: “Ah-Shi” point, proximal or remote acupoints on the meridian, and extra-meridian acupoints. Correlations between acupoints and MTrPs are discussed. Some clinical and animal studies of remote AcP for MTrPs and the possible mechanisms of remote effectiveness are reviewed and discussed.

  15. A role for the body burden of aluminium in vaccine-associated macrophagic myofasciitis and chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, Christopher; Swarbrick, Louise; Gherardi, Rhomain K; Authier, Francois-Jérôme

    2009-02-01

    Macrophagic myofasciitis and chronic fatigue syndrome are severely disabling conditions which may be caused by adverse reactions to aluminium-containing adjuvants in vaccines. While a little is known of disease aetiology both conditions are characterised by an aberrant immune response, have a number of prominent symptoms in common and are coincident in many individuals. Herein, we have described a case of vaccine-associated chronic fatigue syndrome and macrophagic myofasciitis in an individual demonstrating aluminium overload. This is the first report linking the latter with either of these two conditions and the possibility is considered that the coincident aluminium overload contributed significantly to the severity of these conditions in this individual. This case has highlighted potential dangers associated with aluminium-containing adjuvants and we have elucidated a possible mechanism whereby vaccination involving aluminium-containing adjuvants could trigger the cascade of immunological events which are associated with autoimmune conditions including chronic fatigue syndrome and macrophagic myofasciitis.

  16. DMPD: Triggering the innate antiviral response through IRF-3 activation. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17395583 Triggering the innate antiviral response through IRF-3 activation. Hiscott...g the innate antiviral response through IRF-3 activation. PubmedID 17395583 Title Triggering the innate anti...viral response through IRF-3 activation. Authors Hiscott J. Publication J Biol Ch

  17. Demographics features, clinical findings and functional status in a group of subjects with cervical myofascial pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Nilay; Karataş, Omer; Ozkaya, Murat; Cakmak, Ayşegül; Berker, Ender

    2008-07-01

    Subjects with myofascial pain of muscles of the neck region may present with various clinical symptoms. The aim of this study was to explore the demographics features, clinical findings and functional status in a group of patients presenting with myofascial pain of the cervical muscles. 94 cervical myofascial pain syndrome patients were recruited from the out-patient clinic. Evaluated of patient short form health survey (SF-36), pain, depression, patient demographics and physical examinations. Outcome measures; SF-36 Health Survey, visual analog scale, Beck Depression Inventory, history, physical examination. A total of 82 patients with a diagnosis of cervical myofascial syndrome were included in the study. All patients were in the young age group 37.4+/-9, and 87.8% were females. 53.1% had trigger points in the trapezius muscle with high percentage of autonomic phenomena like skin reddening, lacrimation, tinnitus and vertigo. 58.5% of the series had suffered from former cervical trauma and 40.2% also had fibromyalgia syndrome and 18.5% had benign Joint hypermobility syndrome. Younger female patients presenting with autonomic phenomena and early onset cervical injury should be examined for cervical myofascial pain syndrome and also for fibromyalgia syndrome since this study demonstrated a high percentage of fibromyalgia syndrome in these patients.

  18. Usefulness of diagnostic ultrasound for detecting myofascial change of the hamstring muscles due to lmmobilization: Experimental study with caged rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Yoon Kyoo; Kim, Joo Hyun; Lee, Chang Hyung; Kim, Jung Ryul; Kim, Han Kyum [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    To evaluate the usefulness of diagnostic ultrasound in the localization of soft tissue changes in the region of clinically suspected myofascial pain syndrome and to investigate the ultrasonographic and pathologic differences of the hamstring muscles between caged and freely mobile rabbits. A total of eight caged rabbits were used in this study. Four rabbits (age; two were 3-4 months, and the other two were 8-9 months) were raised in a small cage (40 X 50 X 30 cm), and the other four rabbits (age; two were 3-4 months while the other two 8-9 months) raised in a yard where they were free to move around. First, clinically identified myofascial trigger point-taut band or nodule was identified followed by diagnostic ultrasound examination of the hamstring and gluteus muscles and injection of Indian ink of the band or nodule. Biopsies were performed to include the hyperechoic regions as well as clinically identified myofascial trigger points, and the obtained specimens were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and masson-trichrome. The analysis of the results of the ultrasound study and pathologic study found correlation between the pathologic identification of myofascial trigger point and diagnostic ultrasound, where palpable nodules of caged animal, older more than younger one should greater extent of increment of echogenicity and degenerative pathologic changes such as fatty changes and appearance of hyaline fibers. Diagnostic ultrasound could be applied to identify or observe soft tissue changes in the regions of clinically identified myofascial trigger points. A pattern has emerged where soft tissue changes were ore likely to be observed in the caged animal where their movements were restricted and prone to fixed position. Further study to investigate the reversibility of pathologic changes of caged animal should be carried out.

  19. 针刺腹肌肌筋膜触发点治疗原发性痛经的疗效%Efficacy of acupuncture at abdominal myofascial trigger points for the treatment of patients with primary dysmenorrhea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘琳; 黄强民; 刘庆广; 马彦韬; 赵佳敏

    2016-01-01

    Objective To retrospectively observe the efficacy of acupuncture at myofacial trigger points (MTrPs) in abdominal muscles for the treatment of patients with primary dysmenorrhea.Methods Sixtyfive patients with moderate or severe primary dysmenorrhea were treated with acupuncture therapy.The MTrPs in abdominal region were localized and repeatedly acupunctured and injected with 1% lidocaine,combined with auto-stretching exercise of abdominal muscles,0.5-1.0 min/time,3-5 times/d.VAS and effects were evaluated at the menstrual period after every acupuncture,and one year after last acupuncture.Results The effective rate was 63% (41/65 cases),100% (65/65 cases) and 100% (65/65 cases) after the acupuncture 1,2 times and 1 year after the treatment respectively.Conclusion Acupuncture at MTrPs in abdominal region combined with stretching exercise is effective for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea.%目的 回顾性分析针刺腹肌肌筋膜触发点(MTrPs)治疗原发性痛经的效果.方法 选择中、重度原发性痛经患者65例,在腹肌肌筋膜定位MTrPs,并在月经中期对MTrPs进行针刺并注射1%利多卡因治疗,针刺时需引出腹肌局部跳动,反复针刺直至跳动消失.每次针刺结束后指导患者行腹肌牵张锻炼,保持0.5~1.0 min/次·3~5次/d.于每次治疗后的下一次月经期及最后一次治疗的1年后,评估VAS及疗效.当VAS≤3时,结束针刺治疗.结果 第1、2次治疗后及1年后随访有效率分别为63%(41/65例),100%(65/65例)和100%(65/65例).结论 针刺腹肌MTrPs结合腹肌牵张锻炼可有效缓解原发性痛经.

  20. Cellular Mechanisms of Calcium-Mediated Triggered Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhen

    Life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias continue to pose a major health problem. Ventricular fibrillation, which is a complex form of electrical wave turbulence in the lower chambers of the heart, stops the heart from pumping and is the largest cause of natural death in the United States. Atrial fibrillation, a related form of wave turbulence in the upper heart chambers, is in turn the most common arrhythmia diagnosed in clinical practice. Despite extensive research to date, mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmias remain poorly understood. It is well established that both spatial disorder of the refractory period of heart cells and triggered activity (TA) jointly contribute to the initiation and maintenance of arrhythmias. TA broadly refers to the abnormal generation of a single or a sequence of abnormal excitation waves from a small submillimeter region of the heart in the interval of time between two normal waves generated by the heart's natural pacemaker (the sinoatrial node). TA has been widely investigated experimentally and occurs in several pathological conditions where the intracellular concentration of free Ca2+ ions in heart cells becomes elevated. Under such conditions, Ca2+ can be spontaneously released from intracellular stores, thereby driving an electrogenic current that exchanges 3Na+ ions for one Ca2+ ion across the cell membrane. This current in turn depolarizes the membrane of heart cells after a normal excitation. If this calcium-mediated "delayed after depolarization'' (DAD) is sufficiently large, it can generate an action potential. While the arrhythmogenic importance of spontaneous Ca2+ release and DADs is well appreciated, the conditions under which they occur in heart pathologies remain poorly understood. Calcium overload is only one factor among several other factors that can promote DADs, including sympathetic nerve stimulation, different expression levels of membrane ion channels and calcium handling proteins, and different mutations of those

  1. Myofascial force transmission via extramuscular pathways occurs between antagonistic muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijing, Peter A; Baan, Guus C

    2008-01-01

    Most often muscles (as organs) are viewed as independent actuators. To test if this is true for antagonistic muscles, force was measured simultaneously at: (1) the proximal and distal tendons of the extensor digitorum muscle (EDL) to quantify any proximo-distal force differences, as an indicator of myofascial force transmission, (2) at the distal tendons of the whole antagonistic peroneal muscle group (PER) to test if effects of EDL length changes are present and (3) at the proximal end of the tibia to test if myofascially transmitted force is exerted there. EDL length was manipulated either at the proximal or distal tendons. This way equal EDL lengths are attained at two different positions of the muscle with respect to the tibia and antagonistic muscles. Despite its relatively small size, lengthening of the EDL changed forces exerted on the tibia and forces exerted by its antagonistic muscle group. Apart from its extramuscular myofascial connections, EDL has no connections to either the tibia or these antagonistic muscles. Proximal EDL lengthening increased distal muscular forces (active PER DeltaF approximately +1.7%), but decreased tibial forces (passive from 0.3 to 0 N; active DeltaF approximately -5%). Therefore, it is concluded that these antagonistic muscles do not act independently, because of myofascial force transmission between them. Such a decrease in tibial force indicates release of pre-strained connections. Distal EDL lengthening had opposite effects (tripling passive force exerted on tibia; active PER force DeltaF approximately -3.6%). It is concluded that the length and relative position of the EDL is a co-determinant of passive and active force exerted at tendons of nearby antagonistic muscle groups. These results necessitate a new view of the locomotor apparatus, which needs to take into account the high interdependence of muscles and muscle fibres as force generators, as well as proximo-distal force differences and serial and parallel

  2. Myofascial Pain Dysfunction Syndrome (MPDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Mortazavi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Myofascial Pain Dysfunction Syndrome (MPDS is one of the most important causes of the orofacial pain. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate 40 related variables in this regard. Materials and Methods: Thirty nine patients with MPDS were evaluated in this study. Different factors including age, gender, occupation, marital status, sensitivity of masticatory muscles, maximum opening of the mouth, deviation, deflection, involvement of temporomandibular joint, habit, parafunction, malocclusion, neck pain, headache, earache and history of jaw involvement, etc were analyzed in this  evaluation. Results: In our study, 39 patients (32 females and 7 males, 20-40 years old, with the average age of 35 ± 13.32 years were studied. 51% were housewives and 74.4% were married. The most common involvements were Clicking (74.4%, pain in temporomandibular joint (54%, headache (46.2%, earache (41%, neck-pain (35.9%, trouble in the mouth opening (71.8%, malocclusion Class I (74.4%, cross bite and deep bite (25%, clenching (64.1% and involvement of masseter and lateral pterygoid muscle (84%. Conclusion: Since MPDS consists of variable symptoms, it might be very difficult to provide any definite diagnosis and treatment. Therefore the more the specialists extend their knowledge and information about this disorder, the more they will make the best decision in this regard.

  3. Myofascial release of carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucher, B M

    1993-01-01

    Current treatment for carpal tunnel syndrome may be ineffective or associated with complications or recurrence. In the case reported here, a myofascial release by the physician combined with the patient's self-stretch reduced pain and numbness and improved electromyographic results. The manipulative approach releases the transverse carpal ligament,-and "opens" or dilates the canal. The patient stretches the wrist, digits, and thumb, including myofascial components. An aggressive, conservative approach lessens the need for surgery in mild to moderate cases. Studies with magnetic resonance imaging may be helpful to document canal size before and after treatment.

  4. Botulinum toxin for the treatment of myofascial pain syndromes involving the neck and back: a review from a clinical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climent, José M; Kuan, Ta-Shen; Fenollosa, Pedro; Martin-Del-Rosario, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Botulinum toxin inhibits acetylcholine (ACh) release and probably blocks some nociceptive neurotransmitters. It has been suggested that the development of myofascial trigger points (MTrP) is related to an excess release of ACh to increase the number of sensitized nociceptors. Although the use of botulinum toxin to treat myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) has been investigated in many clinical trials, the results are contradictory. The objective of this paper is to identify sources of variability that could explain these differences in the results. Material and Methods. We performed a content analysis of the clinical trials and systematic reviews of MPS. Results and Discussion. Sources of differences in studies were found in the diagnostic and selection criteria, the muscles injected, the injection technique, the number of trigger points injected, the dosage of botulinum toxin used, treatments for control group, outcome measures, and duration of followup. The contradictory results regarding the efficacy of botulinum toxin A in MPS associated with neck and back pain do not allow this treatment to be recommended or rejected. There is evidence that botulinum toxin could be useful in specific myofascial regions such as piriformis syndrome. It could also be useful in patients with refractory MPS that has not responded to other myofascial injection therapies.

  5. Botulinum Toxin for the Treatment of Myofascial Pain Syndromes Involving the Neck and Back: A Review from a Clinical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Climent

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Botulinum toxin inhibits acetylcholine (ACh release and probably blocks some nociceptive neurotransmitters. It has been suggested that the development of myofascial trigger points (MTrP is related to an excess release of ACh to increase the number of sensitized nociceptors. Although the use of botulinum toxin to treat myofascial pain syndrome (MPS has been investigated in many clinical trials, the results are contradictory. The objective of this paper is to identify sources of variability that could explain these differences in the results. Material and Methods. We performed a content analysis of the clinical trials and systematic reviews of MPS. Results and Discussion. Sources of differences in studies were found in the diagnostic and selection criteria, the muscles injected, the injection technique, the number of trigger points injected, the dosage of botulinum toxin used, treatments for control group, outcome measures, and duration of followup. The contradictory results regarding the efficacy of botulinum toxin A in MPS associated with neck and back pain do not allow this treatment to be recommended or rejected. There is evidence that botulinum toxin could be useful in specific myofascial regions such as piriformis syndrome. It could also be useful in patients with refractory MPS that has not responded to other myofascial injection therapies.

  6. Ultrasonic tissue characterization of the upper trapezius muscle in patients with myofascial pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turo, Diego; Otto, Paul; Shah, Jay P; Heimur, Juliana; Gebreab, Tadesse; Armstrong, Katherine; Gerber, Lynn H; Sikdar, Siddhartha

    2012-01-01

    Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) are palpable, tender nodules in skeletal muscle that produce symptomatic referred pain when palpated. MTrPs are characteristic findings in myofascial pain syndrome (MPS). The role of MTrPs in the pathophysiology of MPS is unknown. Objective characterization and quantitative measurement of the properties of MTrPs can improve their localization and diagnosis, as well as lead to clinical outcome measures. MTrPs associated with soft tissue neck pain are often found in the upper trapezius muscle. We have previously demonstrated that MTrPs can be visualized using ultrasound imaging. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether texture-based image analysis can differentiate structural heterogeneity of symptomatic MTrPs and normal muscle.

  7. A Comparative Study Between Acupuncture and Lidocaine Block Treatment for Back of the Neck Myofascial Trigger Point%针刺与利多卡因阻滞治疗颈背部肌筋膜扳机点比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹凤华

    2014-01-01

    目的:比较运用针刺与利多卡因阻滞治疗颈背部肌筋膜扳机点的临床疗效。方法收集菏泽市第二人民医院2013年5-12月MPS患者100例,通过PEMS3.1软件按照1:1的比例获取随机数字,随机将患者分为针刺组和对照组,每组50例。结果针刺组与对照组在治疗前VAS比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),两组治疗后1次以及治疗后3次均较治疗前降低(P0.05)。针刺组与对照组在治疗前NDI比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),两组治疗后1次以及治疗后3次均较治疗前降低(P0.05)。针刺组与对照组在治疗前PPDT与PPTO比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),两组治疗1次后以及治疗3次后PPDT与PPTO均较治疗前降低(P0.05)。结论针刺扳机点可降低VAS和NDI,提高患者的压痛阈和耐痛阈,临床效果明显,且无明显的不良反应,是治疗颈背部MPS的一种有效的可供选择的方法。%Objective To compare the clinical efficacy between acupuncture and lidocaine block for the treatment of back of the neck myofascial trigger point. Methods 100 cases of patients with MPS admitted in Heze Second People's Hospital from May, 2013 to December, 2013 were selected. A random number was obtained by PEMS3.1 software in accordance with the ratio of 1:1, and the patients were randomly divided into acupuncture group and control group with 50 cases in each. Results The difference in pre-treatment VAS between the acupuncture group and the control group was statistically significant (P>0.05), and after 1 time, 3 times of treatment, VAS of both groups were lower than before treatment(P0.05). Before treatment, the difference in NDI between the acupuncture group and the control group was statistically significant(P>0.05), after 1 time and 3 times of treatment, the NDI of both groups were lower than those before treatment (P0.05). Before treatment, the difference in PPDT and PPTO between the acupuncture group and the

  8. Sleep bruxism and myofascial temporomandibular disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raphael, Karen G.; Sirois, David A.; Janal, Malvin N.; Wigren, Pia E.; Dubrovsky, Boris; Nemelivsky, Lena V.; Klausner, Jack J.; Krieger, Ana C.; Lavigne, Gilles J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Many dentists believe that sleep bruxism (SB) is a pathogenic factor in myofascial temporomandibular disorder (TMD), but almost all supportive data rely on patients’ self-reports rather than on direct observation. Methods The authors administered a structured self-report interview to determine whether a large and well-characterized sample of patients with myofascial TMD (124 women) experienced SB more often than did matched control participants (46 women). The authors then used data from a two-night laboratory-based polysomnographic (PSG) study to determine whether the case participants exhibited more SB than the control participants. Results The results of independent sample t tests and χ2 analyses showed that, although self-reported rates of SB were significantly higher in case participants (55.3 percent) than in control participants (15.2 percent), PSG-based measures showed much lower and statistically similar rates of SB in the two groups (9.7 percent and 10.9 percent, respectively). Grinding noises were common in both case participants (59.7 percent) and control participants (78.3 percent). Conclusions Most case participants did not exhibit SB, and the common belief that SB is a sufficient explanation for myofascial TMD should be abandoned. Clinical Implications Although other reasons to consider treating SB may exist, misplaced concern about SB’s sustaining or exacerbating a chronic myofascial TMD condition should not be used to justify SB treatment. PMID:23115152

  9. EFFECTIVENESS OF MUSCLE ENERGY TECHNIQUE ON PAIN AND CERVICAL RANGE OF MOTION IN PATIENTS WITH MYOFASCIAL PAIN IN UPPER TRAPEZIUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Srikanth

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Back ground: Myofascial trigger point (MTPt can be defined as a hyperirritable spot in skeletal muscle that is associated with a hypersensitive palpable nodule in a taut band. MTPt is associated with pain on compression, the pain is typically of a referred type. MTPt symptoms, cause severe discomfort and inability to work. The pain is aggravated with activity or stress. Untreated, chronic cases might lead to symptoms like depression, fatigue and behavioural disturbances. The objective of the study is to examine the effectiveness of MET on pain with VAS and cervical ROM with inch tape method in patients with myofascial pain in upper trapezius. Methods: participants were randomized into intervention group (n =15 and control group (n = 15.The intervention group was given muscle energy technique, ischemic compression and ultrasound. The control group was given only ischemic compression and ultrasound. Ultrasound 1 MHz continuous mode, intensity 1.5W/cm2 for 5 minutes. Home exercises taught to both the groups. This program designed for daily for 1 week. Outcome measures: Pain-VAS, ROM-Inch tape method (cervical lateral flexion. Results: values within the groups were compared by using paired `t` test. According to obtained values, the pre & posttest values of pain and ROM had an significant effect on p-values 0.00 in experimental group. The difference between the pretest and posttest scores of 95% confidence intervals for each outcome variable was reported. Conclusion: After 1 week of intervention protocol, the present study concludes that MET has significant improvement in pain, ROM in intervention group.

  10. Dynamic triggering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, David P.; Prejean, Stephanie; Schubert, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic stresses propagating as seismic waves from large earthquakes trigger a spectrum of responses at global distances. In addition to locally triggered earthquakes in a variety of tectonic environments, dynamic stresses trigger tectonic (nonvolcanic) tremor in the brittle–plastic transition zone along major plate-boundary faults, activity changes in hydrothermal and volcanic systems, and, in hydrologic domains, changes in spring discharge, water well levels, soil liquefaction, and the eruption of mud volcanoes. Surface waves with periods of 15–200 s are the most effective triggering agents; body-wave trigger is less frequent. Triggering dynamic stresses can be < 1 kPa.

  11. A critical overview of the current myofascial pain literature - January 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommerholt, Jan; Finnegan, Michelle; Grieve, Rob; Hooks, Todd

    2016-01-01

    Reflecting on the past year, the number of publications on myofascial pain continues to increase in a steady rate. The current review includes 30 basic and clinical studies, case reports, reviews, and reports from fifteen different countries about trigger points (TrP), myofascial pain (MP), dry needling (DN) and other related interventions. We are pleased that during 2015 this article made the top 15 of most downloaded articles as many as three times! In general, the quality of published papers is improving as well. Nevertheless, several papers included in this overview, mention the application of "ischemic compression", which is a questionable concept in the context of TrP inactivation. As we have outlined previously, in the current thinking about myofascial pain, TrPs feature significant hypoxia and a lowered pH (Ballyns et al., 2011; Shah and Gilliams, 2008), and attempts to induce more ischemia would be counterproductive. Already in 1999, Simons, Travell and Simons changed the terminology from ischemic compression to TrP compression (Simons et al., 1999) and we recommend that contemporary researchers and clinicians adopt the new terminology and stop using the term "ischemic compression."

  12. Chronic refractory myofascial pain and denervation supersensitivity as global public health disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, J; Bruyninckx, F; Neuhauser, D V

    2016-01-13

    Chronic pain with a 30.3% global prevalence significantly impacts universal health. Low back pain has a 9.4% prevalence worldwide causing the most widespread disability. Neck pain ranks 4th highest regarding years lived with disability with a 4.9% prevalence worldwide. The principal cause of pain in 85% of patients visiting a tertiary pain clinic has a myofascial origin. The root cause is multifocal neuromuscular ischaemia at myofascial trigger points from muscle tightening and shortening following spondylotic radiculopathy induced partial denervation. Chronic refractory myofascial pain (CRMP) is a neuromusculoskeletal disease needing management innovations. Using electrical twitch-obtaining intramuscular stimulation (eToims), we provide objective evidence of denervation supersensitivity in multiple myotomes as cause, aggravation and maintenance of CRMP. This study underscores our previous findings that eToims is safe and efficacious for long-term use in CRMP. eToims aids potential prevention (pre-rehabilitation), simultaneous diagnosis, treatment (rehabilitation) and prognosis in real time for acute and CRMP management.

  13. DRY NEEDLING AS A PAIN MODULATING MODALITY IN MYOFASCIAL PAIN SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravinder Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Myofascial Pain Syndrome (MPS is a significant health problem affecting as much as 85% of the general population, sometime in their lifetime, while the estimated overall prevalence is 46%. Low back pain is the most common MPS affecting all age groups with no gender discrimination. It can be acute or chronic. It can cause localised, diffuse, radicular or referred type of pains. Dry Needling or intramuscular stimulation is a skilled intervention that uses a thin filiform needle to penetrate the skin and stimulate underlying myofascial trigger points, muscular and connective tissues for the management of neuromusculoskeletal pain and movement impairments in Myofascial Pain Syndrome (MPS. MATERIALS AND METHODS 90 patients (57 male and 33 female who attended the Department of Physio-Occupation Therapy, which is a part of the Department of Orthopaedics, Osmania General Hospital, were randomly chosen after clearance from the Ethical Committee. The study period extended from June 2015 to Jan 2016. They were divided into groups according to their position in Visual Analogue Scale (VAS and their respective scores were noted. Their scores were once again noted after they received the Dry Needling treatment of about 6 sittings. RESULTS Out of the 90 cases, 65 cases showed excellent results (VAS 0-1 after treatment, 18 cases showed good results (VAS 2-3 after treatment, 6 cases showed fair results (VAS 4-5 after treatment, 2 cases showed VAS-6 after treatment. CONCLUSION Dry Needling is a relatively new treatment modality with specific subjective pain modulation efficacy in myofascial pain syndrome, which can help us in alleviating the pain in chronic conditions and acts adjuvant to the specific treatment.

  14. Acid sphingomyelinase activity triggers microparticle release from glial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Fabio; Perrotta, Cristiana; Novellino, Luisa; Francolini, Maura; Riganti, Loredana; Menna, Elisabetta; Saglietti, Laura; Schuchman, Edward H; Furlan, Roberto; Clementi, Emilio; Matteoli, Michela; Verderio, Claudia

    2009-04-22

    We have earlier shown that microglia, the immune cells of the CNS, release microparticles from cell plasma membrane after ATP stimulation. These vesicles contain and release IL-1beta, a crucial cytokine in CNS inflammatory events. In this study, we show that microparticles are also released by astrocytes and we get insights into the mechanism of their shedding. We show that, on activation of the ATP receptor P2X7, microparticle shedding is associated with rapid activation of acid sphingomyelinase, which moves to plasma membrane outer leaflet. ATP-induced shedding and IL-1beta release are markedly reduced by the inhibition of acid sphingomyelinase, and completely blocked in glial cultures from acid sphingomyelinase knockout mice. We also show that p38 MAPK cascade is relevant for the whole process, as specific kinase inhibitors strongly reduce acid sphingomyelinase activation, microparticle shedding and IL-1beta release. Our results represent the first demonstration that activation of acid sphingomyelinase is necessary and sufficient for microparticle release from glial cells and define key molecular effectors of microparticle formation and IL-1beta release, thus, opening new strategies for the treatment of neuroinflammatory diseases.

  15. Exposure to Leishmania braziliensis triggers neutrophil activation and apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A C Falcão

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neutrophils are the first line of defense against invading pathogens and are rapidly recruited to the sites of Leishmania inoculation. During Leishmania braziliensis infection, depletion of inflammatory cells significantly increases the parasite load whereas co-inoculation of neutrophils plus L. braziliensis had an opposite effect. Moreover, the co-culture of infected macrophages and neutrophils also induced parasite killing leading us to ask how neutrophils alone respond to an L. braziliensis exposure. Herein we focused on understanding the interaction between neutrophils and L. braziliensis, exploring cell activation and apoptotic fate. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Inoculation of serum-opsonized L. braziliensis promastigotes in mice induced neutrophil accumulation in vivo, peaking at 24 h. In vitro, exposure of thyoglycollate-elicited inflammatory or bone marrow neutrophils to L. braziliensis modulated the expression of surface molecules such as CD18 and CD62L, and induced the oxidative burst. Using mCherry-expressing L. braziliensis, we determined that such effects were mainly observed in infected and not in bystander cells. Neutrophil activation following contact with L. braziliensis was also confirmed by the release of TNF-α and neutrophil elastase. Lastly, neutrophils infected with L. braziliensis but not with L. major displayed markers of early apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS: We show that L. braziliensis induces neutrophil recruitment in vivo and that neutrophils exposed to the parasite in vitro respond through activation and release of inflammatory mediators. This outcome may impact on parasite elimination, particularly at the early stages of infection.

  16. TLR2 is a primary receptor for Alzheimer's amyloid beta peptide to trigger neuroinflammatory activation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, S.; Liu, Y.; Hao, W.; Wolf, L.; Kiliaan, A.J.; Penke, B.; Rube, C.E.; Walter, J.; Heneka, M.T.; Hartmann, T.; Menger, M.D.; Fassbender, K.

    2012-01-01

    Microglia activated by extracellularly deposited amyloid beta peptide (Abeta) act as a two-edged sword in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis: on the one hand, they damage neurons by releasing neurotoxic proinflammatory mediators (M1 activation); on the other hand, they protect neurons by triggering an

  17. Trigger values for investigation of hormonal activity in drinking water and its sources using CALUX bioassays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, W.; de Jongh, C.M.; Linden, S.C.; Mennes, W.; Puijker, L.M.; van Leeuwen, C.J.; van Wezel, Annemarie; Schriks, M.; Heringa, M.B.

    2013-01-01

    To screen for hormonal activity in water samples, highly sensitive in vitro CALUX bioassays are available which allow detection of estrogenic (ERα), androgenic (AR), progestagenic (PR), and glucocorticoid (GR) activities. This paper presents trigger values for the ERα, AR, PR, and GR CALUX bioassays

  18. Triggering Sublimation-Driven Activity of Main Belt Comets

    CERN Document Server

    Haghighipour, Nader; Schaefer, Christoph; Speith, Roland; Dvorak, Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that the comet-like activity of Main Belt Comets are due to the sublimation of sub-surface water-ice that has been exposed as a result of their surfaces being impacted by m-sized bodies. We have examined the viability of this scenario by simulating impacts between m-sized and km-sized objects using a smooth particle hydrodynamics approach. Simulations have been carried out for different values of the impact velocity and impact angle as well as different target material and water-mass fraction. Results indicate that for the range of impact velocities corresponding to those in the asteroid belt, the depth of an impact crater is slightly larger than 10 m suggesting that if the activation of MBCs is due to the sublimation of sub-surface water-ice, this ice has to exist no deeper than a few meters from the surface. Results also show that ice-exposure occurs in the bottom and on the interior surface of impact craters as well as the surface of the target where some of the ejected icy inclusions...

  19. Rhinovirus-induced calcium flux triggers NLRP3 and NLRC5 activation in bronchial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantafilou, Kathy; Kar, Satwik; van Kuppeveld, Frank J M; Triantafilou, Martha

    2013-12-01

    Human rhinoviruses have been linked with underlying lung disorders, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, in children and adults. However, the mechanism of virus-induced airway inflammation is poorly understood. In this study, using virus deletion mutants and silencing for nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors (NLRs), we show that the rhinovirus ion channel protein 2B triggers NLRP3 and NLRC5 inflammasome activation and IL-1β secretion in bronchial cells. 2B protein targets the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi and induces Ca(2+) reduction in these organelles, thereby disturbing the intracellular calcium homeostasis. NLRP3 and NLRC5 act in a cooperative manner during the inflammasome assembly by sensing intracellular Ca(2+) fluxes and trigger IL-1β secretion. These results reveal for the first time that human rhinovirus infection in primary bronchial cells triggers inflammasome activation.

  20. A critical overview of the current myofascial pain literature - July 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommerholt, Jan; Grieve, Rob; Finnegan, Michelle; Hooks, Todd

    2016-07-01

    The overview of the myofascial pain literature includes a wide variety of basic and clinical studies, ranging from assessing muscle activation patterns to the impact of platelet-rich plasma injections. Contributions to the literature once again came from all corners of the world, such as Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Germany, Greece, Iran, Italy, Japan, Korea, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Spain, Taiwan, Turkey, and the USA. A total of 30 papers are included in this overview.

  1. Distinct DNA-based epigenetic switches trigger transcriptional activation of silent genes in human dermal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandian, Ganesh N; Taniguchi, Junichi; Junetha, Syed; Sato, Shinsuke; Han, Le; Saha, Abhijit; AnandhaKumar, Chandran; Bando, Toshikazu; Nagase, Hiroki; Vaijayanthi, Thangavel; Taylor, Rhys D; Sugiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-01-24

    The influential role of the epigenome in orchestrating genome-wide transcriptional activation instigates the demand for the artificial genetic switches with distinct DNA sequence recognition. Recently, we developed a novel class of epigenetically active small molecules called SAHA-PIPs by conjugating selective DNA binding pyrrole-imidazole polyamides (PIPs) with the histone deacetylase inhibitor SAHA. Screening studies revealed that certain SAHA-PIPs trigger targeted transcriptional activation of pluripotency and germ cell genes in mouse and human fibroblasts, respectively. Through microarray studies and functional analysis, here we demonstrate for the first time the remarkable ability of thirty-two different SAHA-PIPs to trigger the transcriptional activation of exclusive clusters of genes and noncoding RNAs. QRT-PCR validated the microarray data, and some SAHA-PIPs activated therapeutically significant genes like KSR2. Based on the aforementioned results, we propose the potential use of SAHA-PIPs as reagents capable of targeted transcriptional activation.

  2. A randomized, placebo-controlled double-blinded comparative clinical study of five over-the-counter non-pharmacological topical analgesics for myofascial pain: single session findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avrahami Daniel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To investigate the effects of topical agents for the treatment of Myofascial Pain Syndrome (MPS and Myofascial Trigger Point (MTRP. Methods Subjects with an identifiable trigger point in the trapezius muscle, age 18-80 were recruited for a single-session randomized, placebo-blinded clinical study. Baseline measurements of trapezius muscle pressure pain threshold (PPT: by pressure algometer along with right and left cervical lateral flexion (rangiometer were obtained by a blinded examiner. An assessor blinded to the outcomes assessments applied one of 6 topical formulations which had been placed in identical plastic containers. Five of these topicals were proposed active formulations; the control group was given a non-active formulation (PLA. Five minutes after the application of the formula the outcome measures were re-tested. Data were analyzed with a 5-way ANOVA and Holms-adjusted t-tests with an alpha level of 0.05. Results 120 subjects were entered into the study (63 females; ages 16-82; 20 subjects randomly allocated into each group. The pre- and post-treatment results for pressure threshold did show significant intra-group increases for the Ben-Gay Ultra Strength Muscle Pain Ointment (BG, the Professional Therapy MuscleCare Roll-on (PTMC roll-on and Motion Medicine Cream (MM with an increased threshold of 0.5 kg/cm2 (+/-0.15, 0.72 kg/cm2 (+/-0.17 and 0.47 Kg/cm2 (+/-0.19 respectively. With respect to the inter-group comparisons, PTMC roll-on showed significant increases in pressure threshold compared with Placebo (PLA (p = 0.002 and Icy Hot Extra Strength Cream (IH (p = 0.006. In addition, BG demonstrated significant increases in pressure threshold compared with PLA (p = 0.0003. Conclusions With regards to pressure threshold, PTMC roll-on, BG and MM showed significant increases in pain threshold tolerance after a short-term application on a trigger points located in the trapezius muscle. PTMC roll-on and BG were both

  3. Fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, and myofascial pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buskila, D

    2000-03-01

    Fibromyalgia and widespread pain were common in Gulf War veterans with unexplained illness referred to a rheumatology clinic. Increased tenderness was demonstrated in the postmenstrual phase of the cycle compared with the intermenstrual phase in normally cycling women but not in users of oral contraceptives. Patients with fibromyalgia had high levels of symptoms that have been used to define silicone implant-associated syndrome. Tender points were found to be a common transient finding associated with acute infectious mononucleosis, but fibromyalgia was an unusual long-term outcome. The common association of fibromyalgia with other rheumatic and systemic illnesses was further explored. A preliminary study revealed a possible linkage of fibromyalgia to the HLA region. Patients with fibromyalgia were found to have an impaired ability to activate the hypothalamic pituitary portion of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis as well as the sympathoadrenal system, leading to reduced corticotropin and epinephrine response to hypoglycemia. Much interest has been expressed in the literature on the possible role of autonomic dysfunction in the development or exacerbation of fatigue and other symptoms in chronic fatigue syndrome. Mycoplasma genus and mycoplasma fermentans were detected by polymerase chain reaction in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. It was reported that myofascial temporomandibular disorder does not run in families. No major therapeutic trials in fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, or myofascial pain syndrome were reported over the past year. The effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy and behavior therapy for chronic pain in adults was emphasized. A favorable outcome of fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome in children and adolescents was reported.

  4. TRIGGERED ACTIVITY AS ARRHYTHMOGENIC MECHANISM AFTER MYOCARDIAL-INFARCTION - CLINICAL AND ELECTROPHYSIOLOGIC STUDY OF ONE CASE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WIESFELD, ACP; CRIJNS, HJGM; VANVELDHUISEN, DJ; VANGILST, WH; LIE, KI

    1992-01-01

    In a woman with an old infarction and sustained ventricular tachycardia, tachycardias were only inducible after short-long RR sequences. After isoprenaline, tachycardias became incessant and all were preceded by short-long RR sequences. This strongly suggests that triggered activity plays a role in

  5. Trigger values for investigation of hormonal activity in drinking water and its sources using CALUX bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Walter; de Jongh, Cindy M; van der Linden, Sander C; Mennes, Wim; Puijker, Leo M; van Leeuwen, Cornelis J; van Wezel, Annemarie P; Schriks, Merijn; Heringa, Minne B

    2013-05-01

    To screen for hormonal activity in water samples, highly sensitive in vitro CALUX bioassays are available which allow detection of estrogenic (ERα), androgenic (AR), progestagenic (PR), and glucocorticoid (GR) activities. This paper presents trigger values for the ERα, AR, PR, and GR CALUX bioassays for agonistic hormonal activities in (drinking) water, which define a level above which human health risk cannot be waived a priori and additional examination of specific endocrine activity may be warranted. The trigger values are based on 1) acceptable or tolerable daily intake (ADI/TDI) values of specific compounds, 2) pharmacokinetic factors defining their bioavailability, 3) estimations of the bioavailability of unknown compounds with equivalent hormonal activity, 4) relative endocrine potencies, and 5) physiological, and drinking water allocation factors. As a result, trigger values of 3.8ng 17β-estradiol (E2)-equivalents (eq)/L, 11ng dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-eq/L, 21ng dexamethasone (DEX)-eq/L, and 333ng Org2058-eq/L were derived. Benchmark Quotient (BQ) values were derived by dividing hormonal activity in water samples by the derived trigger using the highest concentrations detected in a recent, limited screening of Dutch water samples, and were in the order of (value) AR (0.41)>ERα (0.13)>GR (0.06)>PR (0.04). The application of trigger values derived in the present study can help to judge measured agonistic hormonal activities in water samples using the CALUX bioassays and help to decide whether further examination of specific endocrine activity followed by a subsequent safety evaluation may be warranted, or whether concentrations of such activity are of low priority with respect to health concerns in the human population. For instance, at one specific drinking water production site ERα and AR (but no GR and PR) activities were detected in drinking water, however, these levels are at least a factor 83 smaller than the respective trigger values, and

  6. Augmented supraorbital skin sympathetic nerve activity responses to symptom trigger events in rosacea patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler-Wilson, Kristen; Toma, Kumika; Sammons, Dawn L; Mann, Sarah; Jurovcik, Andrew J; Demidova, Olga; Wilson, Thad E

    2015-09-01

    Facial flushing in rosacea is often induced by trigger events. However, trigger causation mechanisms are currently unclear. This study tested the central hypothesis that rosacea causes sympathetic and axon reflex-mediated alterations resulting in trigger-induced symptomatology. Twenty rosacea patients and age/sex-matched controls participated in one or a combination of symptom triggering stressors. In protocol 1, forehead skin sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA; supraorbital microneurography) was measured during sympathoexcitatory mental (2-min serial subtraction of novel numbers) and physical (2-min isometric handgrip) stress. In protocol 2, forehead skin blood flow (laser-Doppler flowmetry) and transepithelial water loss/sweat rate (capacitance hygrometry) were measured during sympathoexcitatory heat stress (whole body heating by perfusing 50°C water through a tube-lined suit). In protocol 3, cheek, forehead, forearm, and palm skin blood flow were measured during nonpainful local heating to induce axon reflex vasodilation. Heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were recorded via finger photoplethysmography to calculate cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC; flux·100/MAP). Higher patient transepithelial water loss was observed (rosacea 0.20 ± 0.02 vs. control 0.10 ± 0.01 mg·cm(-2)·min(-1), P rosacea and controls, respectively) stress was augmented in rosacea (both P rosacea compared with controls. No axon reflex vasodilation differences were observed between groups. These data indicate that rosacea affects SSNA and that hyperresponsiveness to trigger events appears to have a sympathetic component.

  7. Lipid profile in patients with fibromyalgia and myofascial pain syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgocmen, S; Ardicoglu, O

    2000-10-01

    In this study serum lipid profile of patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) and myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) were investigated and compared with healthy controls. Thirty women who had FMS and 32 women who had MPS with the characteristic trigger points (TrP), especially on the periscapular region were included in this study. Thirty one age matched healthy women were assigned as a control group. All of the subjects were sedentary healthy housewives. Total cholesterol, triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) levels were not significantly different between the FMS and control groups. On the other hand the MPS group had total cholesterol (198.7 vs 172.9 mg/dL, p=0.003), triglyceride (124.7 vs 87.6 mg/dL, p=0.01), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) (127.5 vs 108.4 mg/dL, p=0.02) and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-c) (24.9 vs 17.3 mg/dL, p=0.008) levels, which were significantly higher than the controls. There was no significant difference between the lipid profiles in the FMS and MPS groups. Tissue compliance, which was measured from trigger points in the MPS group, correlated significantly with total cholesterol and LDL-c levels. In conclusion, a significant difference was found between the lipid levels of patients with MPS and the controls. More extensive investigation of lipid and lipoprotein levels is required to determine whether high lipid levels are the cause or result of MPS.

  8. Microglial CR3 activation triggers long-term synaptic depression in the hippocampus via NADPH oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingfei; Malik, Aqsa; Choi, Hyun B; Ko, Rebecca W Y; Dissing-Olesen, Lasse; MacVicar, Brian A

    2014-04-02

    Complement receptor 3 (CR3) activation in microglia is involved in neuroinflammation-related brain disorders and pruning of neuronal synapses. Hypoxia, often observed together with neuroinflammation in brain trauma, stroke, and neurodegenerative diseases, is thought to exacerbate inflammatory responses and synergistically enhance brain damage. Here we show that when hypoxia and an inflammatory stimulus (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) are combined, they act synergistically to trigger long-term synaptic depression (LTD) that requires microglial CR3, activation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NADPH oxidase), and GluA2-mediated A-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR) internalization. Microglial CR3-triggered LTD is independent of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs), or patterned synaptic activity. This type of LTD may contribute to memory impairments and synaptic disruptions in neuroinflammation-related brain disorders.

  9. Activation of CDK4 Triggers Development of Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingling Jin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is a multiple step process. Here, we show that activation of cdk4 triggers the development of NAFLD. We found that cdk4 protein levels are elevated in mouse models of NAFLD and in patients with fatty livers. This increase leads to C/EBPα phosphorylation on Ser193 and formation of C/EBPα-p300 complexes, resulting in hepatic steatosis, fibrosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. The disruption of this pathway in cdk4-resistant C/EBPα-S193A mice dramatically reduces development of high-fat diet (HFD-mediated NAFLD. In addition, inhibition of cdk4 by flavopiridol or PD-0332991 significantly reduces development of hepatic steatosis, the first step of NAFLD. Thus, this study reveals that activation of cdk4 triggers NAFLD and that inhibitors of cdk4 may be used for the prevention/treatment of NAFLD.

  10. PBL Trigger Design by Medical Students: An Effective Active Learning Strategy Outside the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adiga, Indira Kakkunje; Nayak, Akshatha G.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Problem Based Learning (PBL) is known world over as an effective, active learning strategy with many benefits for the student. Usually, in medical schools, PBL triggers are designed by a well-trained group of faculty from basic and clinical sciences. The challenge was whether this task could be given to students in the first year of their curriculum and be executed by them effectively. Aim To enhance active learning, comprehension and critical thinking with a view to promote horizontal and vertical integration between subjects. Materials and Methods Student volunteers of the first year MBBS course (n=10), who had been exposed to the curriculum for approximately 38 weeks and were familiar with the PBL process were recruited for the study. In addition to a handout on the topic ‘gout’, they were given the freedom to access any resource in the university library to construct the PBL triggers. The PBL triggers were vetted by two faculties. In addition to a focus group discussion with students, students’ and faculty’s responses were collected on a Likert scale. Results Students opined that the exercise helped improve their comprehension (100%), critical thinking abilities (90%) and clinical orientation to the topic (100%). They felt that designing a PBL trigger was a relevant active learning strategy (100%) and would help them answer questions on this topic better in the future (90%). The clinicians who examined the PBL triggers, felt that they were of good quality and that the process was a good tool for vertical integration between basic and clinical sciences. Discussion The results prove that students when given a challenge will rise to the occasion. Unfamiliarity with the nuances of a disease did not prevent them from going the extra mile to achieve their target. By taking part in this exercise, students benefitted in many ways and got a holistic understanding of the topic. Conclusion PBL trigger design can be introduced as an active learning

  11. Malt1 ubiquitination triggers NF-κB signaling upon T-cell activation

    OpenAIRE

    Oeckinghaus, Andrea; Wegener, Elmar; Welteke, Verena; Ferch, Uta; Arslan, Seda Çöl; Ruland, Jürgen; Scheidereit, Claus; Krappmann, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Triggering of antigen receptors on lymphocytes is critical for initiating adaptive immune response against pathogens. T-cell receptor (TCR) engagement induces the formation of the Carma1–Bcl10–Malt1 (CBM) complex that is essential for activation of the IκB kinase (IKK)/NF-κB pathway. However, the molecular mechanisms that link CBM complex formation to IKK activation remain unclear. Here we report that Malt1 is polyubiquitinated upon T-cell activation. Ubiquitin chains on Malt1 provide a docki...

  12. Constraining AGN triggering mechanisms through the clustering analysis of active black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Gatti, M; Bouillot, V; Menci, N; Lamastra, A; Hirschmann, M; Fiore, F

    2015-01-01

    The triggering mechanisms for Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) are still debated. Some of the most popular ones include galaxy interactions (IT) and disk instabilities (DI). Using an advanced semi analytic model (SAM) of galaxy formation, coupled to accurate halo occupation distribution modeling, we investigate the imprint left by each separate triggering process on the clustering strength of AGN at small and large scales. Our main results are as follows: i) DIs, irrespective of their exact implementation in the SAM, tend to fall short in triggering AGN activity in galaxies at the center of halos with $M_h>10^{13.5} h^{-1}M_{\\odot}$. On the contrary, the IT scenario predicts abundance of active, central galaxies that generally agrees well with observations at every halo mass. ii) The relative number of satellite AGN in DIs at intermediate-to-low luminosities is always significantly higher than in IT models, especially in groups and clusters. The low AGN satellite fraction predicted for the IT scenario might sugge...

  13. Epimuscular myofascial force transmission between antagonistic and synergistic muscles can explain movement limitation in spastic paresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijing, Peter A.

    2007-01-01

    Details and concepts of intramuscular, extramuscular and intermuscular myofascial force transmission are reviewed. Some new experimental data are added regarding myofascial force transmission between antagonistic muscles across the interosseal membrane of the lower hind limb of the rat. Combined wit

  14. A review of myofascial pain and fibromyalgia--factors that promote their persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerwin, Robert D

    2005-09-01

    Chronic muscle pain (myalgia) is a common problem throughout the world. Seemingly simple, it is actually a difficult problem for the clinician interested in determining the aetiology of the pain, as well as in managing the pain. The two common muscle pain conditions are fibromyalgia and myofascial pain syndrome. Fibromyalgia is a chronic, widespread muscle tenderness syndrome, associated with central sensitisation. It is often accompanied by chronic sleep disturbance and fatigue, visceral pain syndromes like irritable bowel syndrome and interstitial cystitis. Myofascial pain syndrome is an overuse or muscle stress syndrome characterised by the presence of trigger points in muscle. The problem these syndromes pose lies not in making the diagnosis of muscle pain. Rather, it is the need to identify the underlying cause(s) of persistent or chronic muscle pain in order to develop a specific treatment plan. Chronic myalgia may not improve until the underlying precipitating or perpetuating factor(s) are themselves managed. Precipitating or perpetuating causes of chronic myalgia include structural or mechanical causes like scoliosis, localised joint hypomobility, or generalised or local joint laxity; and metabolic factors like depleted tissue iron stores, hypothyroidism or Vitamin D deficiency. Sometimes, correction of an underlying cause of myalgia is all that is needed to resolve the condition.

  15. The effect of cetylated fatty esters and physical therapy on myofascial pain syndrome of the neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharan, Deepak; Jacob, Biju Nirmal; Ajeesh, P S; Bookout, Jack B; Barathur, Raj R

    2011-07-01

    Participants with Myofascial Pain Syndrome (MPS) of the neck were randomly assigned into 2 groups of the double-blinded study: topical cetylated fatty ester complex (CFEC) cream application plus physical therapy (CF-PT; n=37), and placebo cream application plus physical therapy (PL-PT; n=35). There were 3 visits during 4 weeks of treatment. Physical Therapy (PT), given twice/week, included Ischaemic Compression, Deep Pressure Trigger Point Massage and Myofascial Releases. Topical cream [CFEC cream (5.6%) and 1.5% menthol] or placebo cream [1.5% menthol, in a cream base] was applied twice/day. CF-PT provided the fastest and most effective study treatment modality. The addition of CFEC cream to PT resulted in statistically significant improvements, compared to PL-PT, for reduction of pain, neck disability and life quality indicators. Our results indicate that cetylated derivatives of fatty acids can effectively reduce pain and symptoms associated with neck MPS, when combined with physical therapy.

  16. Efficacy and safety of a single botulinum type A toxin complex treatment (Dysport) for the relief of upper back myofascial pain syndrome: results from a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göbel, Hartmut; Heinze, Axel; Reichel, Gerhard; Hefter, Harald; Benecke, Reiner

    2006-11-01

    Botulinum type A toxin (BoNT-A) has antinociceptive and muscle-relaxant properties and may help relieve the symptoms of myofascial pain syndrome. In this study we evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of BoNT-A (Dysport) in patients with myofascial pain syndrome of the upper back. We conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 12-week, multicentre study. Patients with moderate-to-severe myofascial pain syndrome affecting cervical and/or shoulder muscles (10 trigger points, disease duration 6-24 months) were randomized to Dysport or saline. Injections were made into the 10 most tender trigger points (40 units per site). The primary outcome was the proportion of patients with mild or no pain at week 5. Secondary outcomes included changes in pain intensity and the number of pain-free days per week. Tolerability and safety were also assessed. At week 5, significantly more patients in the Dysport group reported mild or no pain (51%), compared with the patients in the placebo group (26%; p=0.002). Compared with placebo, Dysport resulted in a significantly greater change from baseline in pain intensity during weeks 5-8 (ppain between weeks 5 and 12 (p=0.036). Treatment was well tolerated, with most side effects resolving within 8 weeks. In conclusion, in patients with upper back myofascial pain syndrome, injections of 400 Ipsen units of Dysport at 10 individualised trigger points significantly improved pain levels 4-6 weeks after treatment. Injections were well tolerated.

  17. Nonlinear wake amplification by an active medium in a cylindrical waveguide using a modulated trigger bunch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeev; Toroker; Miron; Voin; Levi; Schchter

    2014-01-01

    Cerenkov wake amplification can be used as an accelerating scheme,in which a trigger bunch of electrons propagating inside a cylindrical waveguide filled with an active medium generates an initial wake field.Due to the multiple reflections inside the waveguide,the wake may be amplified significantly more strongly than when propagating in a boundless medium.Sufficiently far away from the trigger bunch the wake,which travels with the same phase velocity as the bunch,reaches saturation and it can accelerate a second bunch of electrons trailing behind.For a CO2 gas mixture our numerical and analytical calculations indicate that a short saturation length and a high gradient can be achieved with a large waveguide radius filled with a high density of excited atoms and a trigger bunch that travels at a velocity slightly above the Cerenkov velocity.To obtain a stable level of saturated wake that will be suitable for particle acceleration,it is crucial to satisfy the single-mode resonance condition,which requires high accuracy in the waveguide radius and the ratio between the electron phase velocity and the Cerenkov velocity.For single-mode propagation our model indicates that it is feasible to obtain gradients as high as GV m-1 in a waveguide length of cm.

  18. Rapidly activated epidermal growth factor receptor mediates lipopolysaccharide-triggered migration of microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Wen-Sheng; Liu, Jun-Li; Li, Chun-Yu; Li, Xiao; Xie, Min-Jie; Wang, Wei; Tian, Dai-Shi

    2015-11-01

    Previous reports have suggested that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is involved in microglia activation characterized by cell morphology changes, cytokine production and cell migration; and the biochemical regulation of the microglia migration is a potential therapeutic target following CNS inflammatory damages. However, the role of EGFR in microglia motility after inflammatory stimulation remains unknown. In the present study, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was found to trigger rapid EGFR phosphorylation within 10 min, which was sustained during long-term stimulation in both primary microglial cells and the cultured BV2 microglial cells, furthermore, blocking EGFR phosphorylation by AG1478 significantly attenuated the LPS-induced chemotactic and chemokinetic migration of microglia. In addition, LPS could initiate calcium oscillation in microglia during live-cell recording, however, an intracellular calcium chelator and a selective inhibitor of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, but not an extracellular calcium chelator, remarkably suppressed the LPS-induced EGFR phosphorylation in BV2 microglia cells. As EGFR is not a traditional receptor for LPS, these findings suggest that the rapid phosphorylation of EGFR is attributed to the LPS-triggered intracellular calcium mobilization. By examining the downstream signals of EGFR, we further proved that extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) is essential for EGFR-mediated microglia migration, because ERK inhibition attenuated the chemotactic and chemokinetic migration of microglia that had been induced by either LPS or EGF. Collectively, these results suggest that LPS could trigger the rapid phosphorylation of EGFR and subsequent ERK activation through mobilizing calcium activity, which underlies the microglia migration in an inflammatory condition.

  19. A yeast surface display system for the discovery of ligands that trigger cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, B K; Kieke, M C; Boder, E T; Wittrup, K D; Kranz, D M

    1998-11-01

    Opposing cells often communicate signalling events using multivalent interactions between receptors present on their cell surface. For example, T cells are typically activated when the T cell receptor (TCR) and its associated costimulatory molecules are multivalently engaged by the appropriate ligands present on an antigen presenting cell. In this report, yeast expressing high cell-surface levels of a TCR ligand (a recombinant antibody to the TCR Vbeta domain) were shown to act as 'pseudo' antigen presenting cells and induce T cell activation as monitored by increased levels of CD25 and CD69 and by downregulation of cell surface TCR. Similar levels of T cell activation could occur even when a 30-fold excess of irrelevant yeast was present, suggesting that such a yeast display system, by virtue of its ability to present ligands multivalently, may be used in highly sensitive procedures to identify novel polypeptides that interact multivalently with cell surface receptors and thereby trigger specific cellular responses.

  20. Role of Arginine-304 in the Diphosphate-Triggered Active Site Closure Mechanism of Trichodiene Synthase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vedula,L.; Cane, D.; Christianson, D.

    2005-01-01

    The X-ray crystal structures of R304K trichodiene synthase and its complexes with inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) and aza analogues of the bisabolyl carbocation intermediate are reported. The R304K substitution does not cause large changes in the overall structure in comparison with the wild-type enzyme. The complexes with (R)- and (S)-azabisabolenes and PPi bind three Mg2+ ions, and each undergoes a diphosphate-triggered conformational change that caps the active site cavity. This conformational change is only slightly attenuated compared to that of the wild-type enzyme complexed with Mg{sup 2+}{sub 3-}PP{sub i}, in which R304 donates hydrogen bonds to PP{sub i} and D101. In R304K trichodiene synthase, K304 does not engage in any hydrogen bond interactions in the unliganded state and it donates a hydrogen bond to only PP{sub i} in the complex with (R)-azabisabolene; K304 makes no hydrogen bond contacts in its complex with PP{sub i} and (S)-azabisabolene. Thus, although the R304-D101 hydrogen bond interaction stabilizes diphosphate-triggered active site closure, it is not required for Mg{sup 2+}{sub 3-}PP{sub i} binding. Nevertheless, since R304K trichodiene synthase generates aberrant cyclic terpenoids with a 5000-fold reduction in kcat/KM, it is clear that a properly formed R304-D101 hydrogen bond is required in the enzyme-substrate complex to stabilize the proper active site contour, which in turn facilitates cyclization of farnesyl diphosphate for the exclusive formation of trichodiene. Structural analysis of the R304K mutant and comparison with the monoterpene cyclase (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase suggest that the significant loss in activity results from compromised activation of the PP{sub i} leaving group.

  1. Treatment of fibromyalgia, myofascial pain, and related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg-Stein, Joanne

    2006-05-01

    Chronic muscle pain is a common complaint among patients who seek care for musculoskeletal disorders. A spectrum of clinical presentations exists, ranging from focal or regional complaints that usually represent myofascial pain syndromes to more wide spread pain that may meet criteria for a diagnosis of fibromyalgia. This article addresses the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and clinical management of myofascial pain syndrome and fibromyalgia. These conditions are challenging to treat and require physiatrists to be aware of the wide range of pharmacologic, rehabilitative,and psychosocial interventions that can be helpful.

  2. A critical appraisal of the evidence for botulinum toxin type A in the treatment for cervico-thoracic myofascial pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Mehul J; Shkolnikova, Tatyana; Nava, Andrew; Inwald, Danielle

    2014-02-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is a musculoskeletal condition characterized by regional pain and muscle tenderness associated with the presence of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs). The last decade has seen an exponential increase in the use of botulinum toxin (BTX) to treat MPS. To understand the medical evidence substantiating the role of therapeutic BTX injections and to provide useful information for the medical practitioner, we applied the principles of evidence-based medicine to the treatment for cervico-thoracic MPS. A search was conducted through MEDLINE (PubMed, OVID, MDConsult), EMBASE, SCOPUS and the Cochrane database for the period 1966 to 2012 using the following keywords: myofascial pain, muscle pain, botulinum toxin, trigger points, and injections. A total of 7 trials satisfied our inclusion criteria and were evaluated in this review. Although the majority of studies found negative results, our analysis identified Gobel et al.'s as the highest quality study among these prospectively randomized investigations. This was due to appropriate identification of diagnostic criteria, excellent study design and objective endpoints. The 6 other identified studies had significant failings due to deficiencies in 1 or more major criteria. We conclude that higher quality, rigorously standardized studies are needed to more appropriately investigate this promising treatment modality.

  3. Seismicity at Uturuncu Volcano, Bolivia: Volcano-Tectonic Earthquake Swarms Triggered by the 2010 Maule, Chile Earthquake and Non-Triggered Background Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, D. H.; Chartrand, Z. A.; Jay, J.; Pritchard, M. E.; West, M. E.; McNutt, S. R.

    2010-12-01

    We find that the 270 ky dormant Uturuncu Volcano in SW Bolivia exhibits relatively high rates of shallow, volcano-tectonic seismicity that is dominated by swarm-like activity. We also document that the 27 February 2010 Mw 8.8 Maule, Chile earthquake triggered an exceptionally high rate of seismicity in the seconds to days following the main event. Although dormant, Uturuncu is currently being studied due to its large-scale deformation rate of 1-2 cm/yr uplift as revealed by InSAR. As part of the NASA-funded Andivolc project to investigate seismicity of volcanoes in the central Andes, a seismic network of 15 stations (9 Mark Products L22 short period and 6 Guralp CMG40T intermediate period sensors) with an average spacing of about 10 km was installed at Uturuncu from April 2009 to April 2010. Volcano-tectonic earthquakes occur at an average rate of about 3-4 per day, and swarms of 5-60 events within a span of minutes to hours occur a few times per month. Most of these earthquakes are located close to the summit at depths near and above sea level. The largest swarm occurred on 28 September 2009 and consisted of 60 locatable events over a time span of 28 hours. The locations of volcano-tectonic earthquakes at Uturuncu are oriented in a NW-SE trend, which matches the dominant orientation of regional faults and suggests a relationship between the fault system at Uturuncu and the regional tectonics of the area; a NW-SE trending fault beneath Uturuncu may serve to localize stresses that are accumulating over the broad area of uplift. Based on automated locations, the maximum local magnitude of these events is approximately M = 4 and the average magnitude is approximately M = 2. An initial estimate of the b-value is about b = 1.2. The Mw 8.8 Maule earthquake on 27 February 2010 triggered hundreds of local volcano-tectonic events at Uturuncu. High-pass filtering of the long period surface waves reveals that the first triggered events occurred with the onset of the Rayleigh

  4. Study on Stress Triggering During the Activity Process of the Jiashi Strong Earthquake Swarm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Bachu-Jiashi earthquake of Ms6.8 occurred on February 24, 2003, about 20km from the southeast of the 1997 ~ 1998 Jiashi seismic region in Xinjiang, and its aftershocks are rich and strong. Did the 1997 ~ 1998 Jiashi strong earthquake swarm trigger the Bachu-Jiashi Ms6.8earthquake? The Atushi earthquake of Ms6.7 occurred in 1996, and the 1997 ~ 1998 Jiashi strong earthquake swarm occurred about 70km from the Atushi earthquake 10 months later.Did the Atushi earthquake of Ms6.7 encourage the 1997 ~ 1998 Jiashi strong earthquake swarm? There were 9 earthquakes with Ms6.0 from 1996 to 1997 in the Jiashi seismic region,how did they act on each other? To answer the above questions, the article studies the triggering effect of the activity process of the whole Jiashi earthquake swarm from the 1996 Atushi earthquake of Ms6.7, the 1997 ~ 1998 Jiashi strong swarm to the 2003 Bachu-Jiashi earthquake of Ms6.8, and analyzes the seismicity characteristics around the Jiashi region. The results show that the 1996 Atushi earthquake of Ms6.7 encouraged the 1997 ~ 1998 Jiashi strong swarm to some extent, the accumulative Coulomb stress change from the previous M6.0earthquakes of the Jiashi strong swarm had certain triggering effects on the following M6.0 events, and the Coulomb stress change converted from the Jiashi strong swarm strongly encouraged the 2003 Bachu-Jiashi earthquake with Ms6.8.

  5. Myofascial force transmission is increasingly important at lower forces: firing frequency-related length-force characteristics of rat extensor digitorum longus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, H.J.M; Baan, G.C.; Huijing, P.A.

    2006-01-01

    Aim: Effects of submaximal stimulation frequencies on myofascial force transmission were investigated for rat anterior crural muscles with all motor units activated. - Methods: Tibialis anterior and extensor hallucis longus (TAEHL) muscles were kept at constant muscle-tendon complex length, but exte

  6. Análise da atividade eletromiográfica de superfície de pontos gatilhos miofasciais Surface electromyography activity analysis of the miofascial triggers points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Bigongiari

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Os pontos gatilhos miofasciais (PGMs são manifestações comumente encontradas na prática clínica e estão relacionados à alteração de tônus e à síndrome dolorosa miofascial (SDM. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a capacidade da EMG de superfície e detectar alterações da atividade neuromuscular no PGM, em situações de repouso e de contração isométrica voluntária máxima. MÉTODO: Participaram do estudo 56 indivíduos distribuídos em dois grupos: grupo Saudável com 28 indivíduos, que necessariamente não possuíam PGM, e o grupo Dor, constituído de 28 indivíduos que possuíam necessariamente PGM no músculo escolhido. O grupo Dor apresentava indivíduos com PGM latente e ativo, e com e sem fenômenos autonômicos (FA. RESULTADOS: O sinal EMG da porção muscular com PGM mostrou-se significativamente maior quando comparado com a porção muscular sadia do grupo Dor, e do grupo Saudável durante o repouso (26,56 ± 44,54, 5,39 ± 6,29 e 1,56 ± 0,76, respectivamente, p = 0,0001. Os indivíduos com PGM ativo obtiveram maior intensidade do sinal EMG do que aqueles que apresentaram PGM latente (17,85 ± 30,25 versus 3,74 ± 1,52, p = 0,04. Além disso, os indivíduos que apresentaram fenômenos autonômicos tiveram maior intensidade do sinal EMG do que aqueles que não os apresentaram (16,78 ± 28,44 versus 3,51 ± 3,65, na condição de repouso. CONLUSÃO: A EMG de superfície é capaz de mensurar a atividade do PGM, principalmente na condição de repouso.There are examples of common clinical conditions that clinical signals are related to alterations in muscle tone, including myofascial pain syndrome. OBJECTIVE: to discuss the application of surface EMG to detect effect of miofascial trigger point (MTP on neuromuscular activity at rest and maximum voluntary contraction of the trapezoid muscle. METHODS: Fifty-six subjects participated in the study and were divided into two groups: Healthy group (n = 28, with subjects who necessarily did not

  7. Selective activation of parvalbumin- or somatostatin-expressing interneurons triggers epileptic seizurelike activity in mouse medial entorhinal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yekhlef, Latefa; Breschi, Gian Luca; Lagostena, Laura; Russo, Giovanni; Taverna, Stefano

    2015-03-01

    GABAergic interneurons are thought to play a critical role in eliciting interictal spikes (IICs) and triggering ictal discharges in temporal lobe epilepsy, yet the contribution of different interneuronal subtypes to seizure initiation is still largely unknown. Here we took advantage of optogenetic techniques combined with patch-clamp and field recordings to selectively stimulate parvalbumin (PV)- or somatostatin (SOM)-positive interneurons expressing channelrhodopsin-2 (CHR-2) in layers II-III of adult mouse medial entorhinal cortical slices during extracellular perfusion with the proconvulsive compound 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, 100-200 μM). In control conditions, blue laser photostimulation selectively activated action potential firing in either PV or SOM interneurons and, in both cases, caused a robust GABAA-receptor-mediated inhibition in pyramidal cells (PCs). During perfusion with 4-AP, brief photostimuli (300 ms) activating either PV or SOM interneurons induced patterns of epileptiform activity that closely replicated spontaneously occurring IICs and tonic-clonic ictal discharges. Laser-induced synchronous firing in both interneuronal types elicited large compound GABAergic inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) correlating with IICs and preictal spikes. In addition, spontaneous and laser-induced epileptic events were similarly initiated in concurrence with a large increase in extracellular potassium concentration. Finally, interneuron activation was unable to stop or significantly shorten the progression of seizurelike episodes. These results suggest that entorhinal PV and SOM interneurons are nearly equally effective in triggering interictal and ictal discharges that closely resemble human temporal lobe epileptic activity.

  8. What are the implications of rapid global warming for landslide-triggered turbidity current activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clare, Michael; Peter, Talling; James, Hunt

    2014-05-01

    A geologically short-lived (~170kyr) episode of global warming occurred at ~55Ma, termed the Initial Eocene Thermal Maximum (IETM). Global temperatures rose by up to 8oC over only ~10kyr and a massive perturbation of the global carbon cycle occurred; creating a negative carbon isotopic (~-4% δ13C) excursion in sedimentary records. This interval has relevance to study of future climate change and its influence on geohazards including submarine landslides and turbidity currents. We analyse the recurrence frequency of turbidity currents, potentially initiated from large-volume slope failures. The study focuses on two sedimentary intervals that straddle the IETM and we discuss implications for turbidity current triggering. We present the results of statistical analyses (regression, generalised linear model, and proportional hazards model) for extensive turbidite records from an outcrop at Zumaia in NE Spain (N=285; 54.0 to 56.5 Ma) and based on ODP site 1068 on the Iberian Margin (N=1571; 48.2 to 67.6 Ma). The sedimentary sequences provide clear differentiation between hemipelagic and turbiditic mud with only negligible evidence of erosion. We infer dates for turbidites by converting hemipelagic bed thicknesses to time using interval-averaged accumulation rates. Multi-proxy dating techniques provide good age constraint. The background trend for the Zumaia record shows a near-exponential distribution of turbidite recurrence intervals, while the Iberian Margin shows a log-normal response. This is interpreted to be related to regional time-independence (exponential) and the effects of additive processes (log-normal). We discuss how a log-normal response may actually be generated over geological timescales from multiple shorter periods of random turbidite recurrence. The IETM interval shows a dramatic departure from both these background trends, however. This is marked by prolonged hiatuses (0.1 and 0.6 Myr duration) in turbidity current activity in contrast to the

  9. Key physiological parameters dictate triggering of activity-dependent bulk endocytosis in hippocampal synapses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva M Wenzel

    Full Text Available To maintain neurotransmission in central neurons, several mechanisms are employed to retrieve synaptically exocytosed membrane. The two major modes of synaptic vesicle (SV retrieval are clathrin-mediated endocytosis and activity-dependent bulk endocytosis (ADBE. ADBE is the dominant SV retrieval mode during intense stimulation, however the precise physiological conditions that trigger this mode are not resolved. To determine these parameters we manipulated rat hippocampal neurons using a wide spectrum of stimuli by varying both the pattern and duration of stimulation. Using live-cell fluorescence imaging and electron microscopy approaches, we established that stimulation frequency, rather than the stimulation load, was critical in the triggering of ADBE. Thus two hundred action potentials, when delivered at high frequency, were sufficient to induce near maximal bulk formation. Furthermore we observed a strong correlation between SV pool size and ability to perform ADBE. We also identified that inhibitory nerve terminals were more likely to utilize ADBE and had a larger SV recycling pool. Thus ADBE in hippocampal synaptic terminals is tightly coupled to stimulation frequency and is more likely to occur in terminals with large SV pools. These results implicate ADBE as a key modulator of both hippocampal neurotransmission and plasticity.

  10. An interesting case of Lucio phenomenon triggered by activation of hepatitis C infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Mareen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lucio phenomenon (LP or erythema necroticans is a rare type of reaction pattern found in untreated patients with diffuse non-nodular leprosy. It is important to distinguish this from vasculonecrotic erythema nodosum because thalidomide with high-dose steroids is the mainstay of treatment for the latter, whereas LP shows no response to thalidomide. We report a case of a 60-year-old man who presented with purpuric patches, hemorrhagic blisters, and ulcers over extremities of 15 days duration. On cutaneous examination, there were multiple stellate purpuric patches, hemorrhagic bullae, and deep necrotic ulcers, mainly over extremities. Slit-skin smear examination from six sites revealed bacteriological index 6+ with globi, and morphological index 5%. Histopathology revealed diffuse infiltration of bacilli in epidermis, dermis, and endothelial cells along with neutrophilic and lymphocytic infiltrate. Fibrinoid necrosis and thrombosis of blood vessels was also noted. The above clinicohistopathological features helped in making the diagnosis of LP. Concomitantly he was found to be infected with hepatitis C virus. Many triggering factors have been described in literature; however, activation of hepatitis C as a trigger for Lucio phenomenon has not been reported. In addition, IgM and IgG anticardiolipin antibodies were found to be positive. The patient was started on high-dose steroids along with multibacillary antileprosy therapy and improved within 2 weeks.

  11. Clinical observation of medical ozone injection in trigger point on psoas myofascial pain syndrom%医用臭氧疼痛触发点注射治疗腰部肌筋膜疼痛综合征临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建国; 耿葆梁; 闫洪涛; 张雷; 冯建来; 郜时华; 贾春雨

    2010-01-01

    目的 评价医用臭氧疼痛触发点注射治疗腰部肌筋膜疼痛综合征(Myofascial Pain Syndrom,MPS)的效果与安全性.方法 采用前瞻性随机对照的研究方法,将78例患者随机分为两组,臭氧治疗组应用低浓度医用臭氧,常规治疗组应用利多卡因+维生素B6+甲钴胺和地塞米松棕榈酸酯,均行疼痛触发点漫润注射.治疗2周后采用视觉模拟评分(Visual Analogue Scale,VAS)和日本骨科学会下腰痛评估量表(Low Lumbar Pain Scales,LLPS)对照评价两组疗效.结果 治疗前后比较,两组VAS评分分别从6.2±1.7降至1.1±0.8和从5.6±1.2降至2.3±1.1(均P<0.05),LLPS明显改善(均P<0.01);两组比较,臭氧组VAS评分降低幅值显著大于对照组(P<0.05),优良率明显高于对照组(89.74%比71.79%,P<0.05);LLPS改善程度明显优干对照组(均P<0.05);不良反应明显少于对照组.结论 医用臭氧疼痛触发点注射治疗腰部MPS与常规麻醉剂加激素封闭同样有效,优良率更高,安全性较高,未见明显不良反应.

  12. NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation in THP-1 Target Cells Triggered by Pathogenic Naegleria fowleri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Hyun; Sohn, Hae-Jin; Yoo, Jong-Kyun; Kang, Heekyoung; Seong, Gi-Sang; Chwae, Yong-Joon; Kim, Kyongmin; Park, Sun; Shin, Ho-Joon

    2016-09-01

    Naegleria fowleri, known as the brain-eating amoeba, causes acute primary amoebic meningoencephalitis. During swimming and other recreational water activities, N. fowleri trophozoites penetrate the nasal mucosa and invade the olfactory bulbs, resulting in intense inflammatory reactions in the forebrain tissue. To investigate what kinds of inflammasome molecules are expressed in target cells due to N. fowleri infection, human macrophage cells (THP-1 cells) were cocultured with N. fowleri trophozoites in a noncontact system, and consequently, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) production was estimated. Caspase-1 activation and IL-1β production from THP-1 cells by Western blotting and the culture supernatant by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis were observed at 3 h after cocultivation. In addition, the increased expression of ASC and NLRP3, which make up an inflammasome complex, was also observed at 3 h after cocultivation. To confirm the caspase-1 activation and IL-1β production via the NLRP3 inflammasome in THP-1 cells triggered by N. fowleri trophozoites, THP-1 cells were pretreated with several inhibitors. The inhibition assay showed that CA-074 (a cathepsin B inhibitor), glybenclamide (an NLRP3 molecule inhibitor), and N-benzyloxycarbony-Val-Ala-Asp(O-methyl)-fluoromethylketone (Z-VAD-FMK; a caspase-1 inhibitor) reduced the levels of caspase-1 activation and IL-1β production from THP-1 cells. This study suggests that N. fowleri infection induces the NLRP3 inflammasome, which activates caspase-1 and subsequently produces IL-1β, thus resulting in inflammation.

  13. Spermine triggers the activation of caspase-3 in a cell-free model of apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanelli, C; Bonavita, F; Stanic', I; Pignatti, C; Flamigni, F; Guarnieri, C; Caldarera, C M

    1999-05-21

    Polyamines are ubiquitous organic cations required for cell proliferation. However, some evidence suggested that their excessive accumulation can induce apoptosis. We show here that, in a post-nuclear extract from U937 cells, the addition of spermine triggers the death program, represented by cytochrome c exit from mitochondria, the dATP-dependent processing of pro-caspase-3 and the onset of caspase activity. Spermine is more effective than spermidine, whereas putrescine has no effect. Polyamine acetylation abolishes their pro-apoptotic power. These data demonstrate a direct mechanism responsible for polyamine toxicity and also suggest that an excessive elevation of free polyamines could be involved in the transduction of a death signal.

  14. MALT1 Protease Activation Triggers Acute Disruption of Endothelial Barrier Integrity via CYLD Cleavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klei, Linda R; Hu, Dong; Panek, Robert; Alfano, Danielle N; Bridwell, Rachel E; Bailey, Kelly M; Oravecz-Wilson, Katherine I; Concel, Vincent J; Hess, Emily M; Van Beek, Matthew; Delekta, Phillip C; Gu, Shufang; Watkins, Simon C; Ting, Adrian T; Gough, Peter J; Foley, Kevin P; Bertin, John; McAllister-Lucas, Linda M; Lucas, Peter C

    2016-09-27

    Microvascular endothelial cells maintain a tight barrier to prevent passage of plasma and circulating immune cells into the extravascular tissue compartment, yet endothelial cells respond rapidly to vasoactive substances, including thrombin, allowing transient paracellular permeability. This response is a cornerstone of acute inflammation, but the mechanisms responsible are still incompletely understood. Here, we demonstrate that thrombin triggers MALT1 to proteolytically cleave cylindromatosis (CYLD). Fragmentation of CYLD results in microtubule disruption and a cascade of events leading to endothelial cell retraction and an acute permeability response. This finding reveals an unexpected role for the MALT1 protease, which previously has been viewed mostly as a driver of pro-inflammatory NF-κB signaling in lymphocytes. Thus, MALT1 not only promotes immune cell activation but also acutely regulates endothelial cell biology, actions that together facilitate tissue inflammation. Pharmacologic inhibition of MALT1 may therefore have synergistic impact by targeting multiple disparate steps in the overall inflammatory response.

  15. MALT1 Protease Activation Triggers Acute Disruption of Endothelial Barrier Integrity via CYLD Cleavage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda R. Klei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Microvascular endothelial cells maintain a tight barrier to prevent passage of plasma and circulating immune cells into the extravascular tissue compartment, yet endothelial cells respond rapidly to vasoactive substances, including thrombin, allowing transient paracellular permeability. This response is a cornerstone of acute inflammation, but the mechanisms responsible are still incompletely understood. Here, we demonstrate that thrombin triggers MALT1 to proteolytically cleave cylindromatosis (CYLD. Fragmentation of CYLD results in microtubule disruption and a cascade of events leading to endothelial cell retraction and an acute permeability response. This finding reveals an unexpected role for the MALT1 protease, which previously has been viewed mostly as a driver of pro-inflammatory NF-κB signaling in lymphocytes. Thus, MALT1 not only promotes immune cell activation but also acutely regulates endothelial cell biology, actions that together facilitate tissue inflammation. Pharmacologic inhibition of MALT1 may therefore have synergistic impact by targeting multiple disparate steps in the overall inflammatory response.

  16. PLCζ or PAWP: revisiting the putative mammalian sperm factor that triggers egg activation and embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashir, Junaid; Nomikos, Michail; Swann, Karl; Lai, F Anthony

    2015-05-01

    In mammals, egg activation is initiated by multiple cytosolic Ca(2+) transients (Ca(2+) oscillations) that are triggered following delivery of a putative sperm factor from the fertilizing sperm. The identity of this 'sperm factor' thus holds much significance, not only as a vital component in creating a new life, but also for its potential therapeutic and diagnostic value in human infertility. Recent data have emerged suggesting the sperm factor may be a post-acrosomal sheath WW domain-binding protein (PAWP). However, a significant body of research points to a testis-specific phospholipase C zeta (PLCζ) as the sperm factor. Herein, we examine the evidence presented in favour of PAWP in relation to PLCζ and the requisite physiological properties of the mammalian sperm factor.

  17. Infrahyoid myofascial flap for tongue reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windfuhr, Jochen P; Remmert, Stephan

    2006-11-01

    For selected cases, reconstruction of the tongue may be required after tumor removal. This study was undertaken to demonstrate a simplified concept of tongue reconstruction with emphasis on infrahyoid myofascial flaps (IMF). The defects of the tongue were classified in 23 patients according to the extent of tumor growth, functional and surgical aspects. The oral tongue (OT; n = 1), base of tongue (BT; n = 12) or both areas (OT and BT; n = 10) were involved, with (n = 14) or without (n = 9) infiltration of adjacent tissues. Minor defects (extent (1/4) or less) required no reconstructive procedure at any area. Major defect closure (extent (1/2)-3/4) was accomplished with a combination of IMF covered by a radial forearm flap (RFF). A complete reconstruction of the OT was achieved with a combination of a bilateral IMF covered by a RFF. Whenever the complete BT has to be removed, interposition of a vein graft to establish a sufficient arterial blood supply to the remaining OT is mandatory. Moreover, a larynx lift to prevent aspiration is recommendable. Resection of adjacent soft tissues requires a larger RFF (OT; BT) or flaps from the shoulder-back region (BT and OT). Whenever the integrity of the mandible has to be sacrificed, a free fibula graft serves as an excellent tool for reconstruction. IMF serves as a reliable tool for minor or major reconstructive procedures of the tongue. Reliability and versatility of IMF may contribute to a reduced time required for surgery since harvesting is performed in the neck area immediately after neck dissection. Moreover, harvesting of the IMF does not result in an increased postoperative morbidity. Hence, functional restoration can be achieved with a more cost-effective procedure.

  18. Modulation of intracellular calcium waves and triggered activities by mitochondrial ca flux in mouse cardiomyocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenghang Zhao

    Full Text Available Recent studies have suggested that mitochondria may play important roles in the Ca(2+ homeostasis of cardiac myocytes. However, it is still unclear if mitochondrial Ca(2+ flux can regulate the generation of Ca(2+ waves (CaWs and triggered activities in cardiac myocytes. In the present study, intracellular/cytosolic Ca(2+ (Cai (2+ was imaged in Fluo-4-AM loaded mouse ventricular myocytes. Spontaneous sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR Ca(2+ release and CaWs were induced in the presence of high (4 mM external Ca(2+ (Cao (2+. The protonophore carbonyl cyanide p-(trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP reversibly raised basal Cai (2+ levels even after depletion of SR Ca(2+ in the absence of Cao (2+ , suggesting Ca(2+ release from mitochondria. FCCP at 0.01 - 0.1 µM partially depolarized the mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψ m and increased the frequency and amplitude of CaWs in a dose-dependent manner. Simultaneous recording of cell membrane potentials showed the augmentation of delayed afterdepolarization amplitudes and frequencies, and induction of triggered action potentials. The effect of FCCP on CaWs was mimicked by antimycin A (an electron transport chain inhibitor disrupting Δψ m or Ru360 (a mitochondrial Ca(2+ uniporter inhibitor, but not by oligomycin (an ATP synthase inhibitor or iodoacetic acid (a glycolytic inhibitor, excluding the contribution of intracellular ATP levels. The effects of FCCP on CaWs were counteracted by the mitochondrial permeability transition pore blocker cyclosporine A, or the mitochondrial Ca(2+ uniporter activator kaempferol. Our results suggest that mitochondrial Ca(2+ release and uptake exquisitely control the local Ca(2+ level in the micro-domain near SR ryanodine receptors and play an important role in regulation of intracellular CaWs and arrhythmogenesis.

  19. Efficacy of dry needling for treatment of myofascial pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogelman, Yacov; Kent, John

    2015-01-01

    Myofascial pain is a major cause of musculoskeletal regional pain. Myofascial pain, which is a high-prevalence but eminently treatable condition, is almost universally underdiagnosed by physicians and undertreated by physical therapy modalities. Large numbers of patients can be left suffering in chronic pain for years. Dry needling, also referred to as Intramuscular Stimulation, is a method in the arsenal of pain management which has been known for almost 200 years in Western medicine, yet has been almost completely ignored. With the increase in research in this field over the past two decades, there are many high-quality studies that demonstrate dry needling to be an effective and safe method for the treatment of myofascial pain when diagnosed and treated by adequately-trained physicians or physical therapists. This article provides an overview of recent literature regarding the treatment of myofascial pain syndrome, evidence for the efficacy of dry needling as a central component of its management, and a glimpse at developments in recent imaging methods to aid in the treatment of these problems.

  20. INNERVATED RECTUS-ABDOMINIS MYOFASCIAL FLAP FOR DYNAMIC CARDIOMYOPLASTY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WIJNBERG, DS; EBELS, T; ROBINSON, PH

    1994-01-01

    This study examined the rectus abdominis myofascial flap as an innervated nap for dynamic cardiomyoplastic purposes. It is common to use the latissimus dorsi to wrap or patch around or in the heart, but there is a need for more innervated skeletal muscle for a variety of reasons. The rectus abdomini

  1. Surfactin triggers biofilm formation of Bacillus subtilis in melon phylloplane and contributes to the biocontrol activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeriouh, Houda; de Vicente, Antonio; Pérez-García, Alejandro; Romero, Diego

    2014-07-01

    The biocontrol activity of many Bacillus species has been traditionally related to the direct antagonism of pathogens. In previous works, we reported that B. subtilis strain UMAF6614 was an efficient biocontrol agent that produced bacillomycin, fengycin and surfactin lipopeptides. Bacillomycins and fengycins were shown to have antagonistic activity towards fungal and bacterial pathogens of cucurbits; however, the functionality of surfactin remained unclear. In this study, the role of surfactin in the biocontrol activity of this strain was investigated. We observed that a deficiency in surfactin production led to a partial reduction of disease suppression by this biocontrol agent, which coincided with a defect in biofilm formation and the colonization of the melon phylloplane. These effects were due to a dramatic reduction in the production of exopolysaccharide and the TasA protein, which are the two major components of the extracellular matrix. We propose that the biocontrol activity of this strain is the result of the coordinated action of the three families of lipopeptides. B. subtilis UMAF6614 produces surfactin to trigger biofilm formation on melon phylloplane, which ensures the long-term persistence and the adequate secretion of suppressive lipopeptides, bacillomycins and fengycins, which efficiently target pathogens.

  2. Malt1 ubiquitination triggers NF-kappaB signaling upon T-cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeckinghaus, Andrea; Wegener, Elmar; Welteke, Verena; Ferch, Uta; Arslan, Seda Cöl; Ruland, Jürgen; Scheidereit, Claus; Krappmann, Daniel

    2007-11-14

    Triggering of antigen receptors on lymphocytes is critical for initiating adaptive immune response against pathogens. T-cell receptor (TCR) engagement induces the formation of the Carma1-Bcl10-Malt1 (CBM) complex that is essential for activation of the IkappaB kinase (IKK)/NF-kappaB pathway. However, the molecular mechanisms that link CBM complex formation to IKK activation remain unclear. Here we report that Malt1 is polyubiquitinated upon T-cell activation. Ubiquitin chains on Malt1 provide a docking surface for the recruitment of the IKK regulatory subunit NEMO/IKKgamma. TRAF6 associates with Malt1 in response to T-cell activation and can function as an E3 ligase for Malt1 in vitro and in vivo, mediating lysine 63-linked ubiquitination of Malt1. Multiple lysine residues in the C-terminus of Malt1 serve as acceptor sites for the assembly of polyubiquitin chains. Malt1 mutants that lack C-terminal ubiquitin acceptor lysines are impaired in rescuing NF-kappaB signaling and IL-2 production in Malt1-/- T cells. Thus, our data demonstrate that induced Malt1 ubiquitination is critical for the engagement of CBM and IKK complexes, thereby directing TCR signals to the canonical NF-kappaB pathway.

  3. The ratio of metabolically active versus total Mycolata populations triggers foaming in a membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maza-Márquez, P; Vílchez-Vargas, R; Boon, N; González-López, J; Martínez-Toledo, M V; Rodelas, B

    2016-04-01

    The abundance of total and metabolically active populations of Mycolata was evaluated in a full-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) experiencing seasonal foaming, using quantitative PCR (qPCR) and retrotranscribed qPCR (RT-qPCR) targeting the 16S rRNA gene sequence. While the abundance of total Mycolata remained stable (10(10) copies of 16S rRNA genes/L activated sludge) throughout four different experimental phases, significant variations (up to one order of magnitude) were observed when the 16S rRNA was targeted. The highest ratios of metabolically active versus total Mycolata populations were observed in samples of two experimental phases when foaming was experienced in the MBR. Non-metric multidimensional scaling and BIO-ENV analyses demonstrated that this ratio was positively correlated to the concentrations of substrates in the influent water, F/M ratio, and pH, and negatively correlated to temperature and solids retention time. It the first time that the ratio of metabolically active versus total Mycolata is found to be a key parameter triggering foaming in the MBR; thus, we propose it as a candidate predictive tool.

  4. Inhibitors of arachidonate-regulated calcium channel signaling suppress triggered activity induced by the late sodium current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkowicz, Paul; Umeda, Patrick K; Sharifov, Oleg F; White, C Roger; Huang, Jian; Mahtani, Harry; Urthaler, Ferdinand

    2014-02-05

    Disturbances in myocyte calcium homeostasis are hypothesized to be one cause for cardiac arrhythmia. The full development of this hypothesis requires (i) the identification of all sources of arrhythmogenic calcium and (ii) an understanding of the mechanism(s) through which calcium initiates arrhythmia. To these ends we superfused rat left atria with the late sodium current activator type II Anemonia sulcata toxin (ATXII). This toxin prolonged atrial action potentials, induced early afterdepolarization, and provoked triggered activity. The calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) inhibitor KN-93 (N-[2-[[[3-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-propenyl]methylamino]methyl]phenyl]-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-4-methoxybenzenesulphon-amide) suppressed ATXII triggered activity but its inactive congener KN-92 (2-[N-(4-methoxy benzenesulfonyl)]amino-N-(4-chlorocinnamyl)-N-methylbenzylamine) did not. Neither drug affected normal atrial contractility. Calcium entry via L-type channels or calcium leakage from sarcoplasmic reticulum stores are not critical for this type of ectopy as neither verapamil ((RS)-2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-5-{[2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethyl]-(methyl)amino}-2-prop-2-ylpentanenitrile) nor ryanodine affected ATXII triggered activity. By contrast, inhibitors of the voltage independent arachidonate-regulated calcium (ARC) channel and the store-operated calcium channel specifically suppressed ATXII triggered activity without normalizing action potentials or affecting atrial contractility. Inhibitors of cytosolic calcium-dependent phospholipase A2 also suppressed triggered activity suggesting that this lipase, which generates free arachidonate, plays a key role in ATXII ectopy. Thus, increased left atrial late sodium current appears to activate atrial Orai-linked ARC and store operated calcium channels, and these voltage-independent channels may be unexpected sources for the arrhythmogenic calcium that underlies triggered activity.

  5. The effect of gallium arsenide aluminum laser therapy in the management of cervical myofascial pain syndrome: a double blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dundar, U; Evcik, D; Samli, F; Pusak, H; Kavuncu, V

    2007-06-01

    The efficacy of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) seems controversial. A prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled trial was conducted in patients with chronic MPS in the neck to evaluate the effects of low-level 830-nm gallium arsenide aluminum (Ga-As-Al) laser therapy. The study group consisted of 64 MPS patients. The patients were randomly assigned into two groups. In group 1 (n = 32), Ga-As-Al laser treatment was applied over three trigger points bilaterally for 2 min over each point once a day for 15 days during a period of 3 weeks. In group 2 (n = 32), the same treatment protocol was given, but the laser instrument was switched off during applications. All patients in both groups performed daily isometric exercise and stretching exercises for cervical region. Parameters were measured at baseline and after 4 weeks. All patients were evaluated with respect to pain (at rest, movement, and night) and assessed by visual analog scale, measurement of active range of motion using an inclinometer and a goniometer, and the neck disability index. In both groups, statistically significant improvements were detected in all outcome measures compared with baseline (p 0.05). In conclusion, although the laser therapy has no superiority over placebo groups in this study, we cannot exclude the possibility of effectivity with another treatment regimen including different laser wavelengths and dosages (different intensity and density and/or treatment interval).

  6. Low-level laser therapy of myofascial pain syndromes of patients with osteoarthritis of knee and hip joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparyan, Levon V.

    2001-04-01

    The purpose of the given research is the comparison of efficiency of conventional treatment of myofascial pain syndromes of patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of hip and knee joints and therapy with additional application of low level laser therapy (LLLT) under dynamic control of clinical picture, rheovasographic, electromyographic examinations, and parameters of peroxide lipid oxidation. The investigation was made on 143 patients with OA of hip and knee joints. Patients were randomized in 2 groups: basic group included 91 patients, receiving conventional therapy with a course of LLLT, control group included 52 patients, receiving conventional treatment only. Transcutaneous ((lambda) equals 890 nm, output peak power 5 W, frequency 80 - 3000 Hz) and intravenous ((lambda) equals 633 nm, output 2 mW in the vein) laser irradiation were used for LLLT. Studied showed, that clinical efficiency of LLLT in the complex with conventional treatment of myofascial pain syndromes at the patients with OA is connected with attenuation of pain syndrome, normalization of parameters of myofascial syndrome, normalization of the vascular tension and parameters of rheographic curves, as well as with activation of antioxidant protection system.

  7. Dendrogeomorphic reconstruction of lahar activity and triggers: Shiveluch volcano, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaorni, E.; Stoffel, M.; Tutubalina, O.; Chernomorets, S.; Seynova, I.; Sorg, A.

    2017-01-01

    Lahars are highly concentrated, water-saturated volcanic hyperconcentrated flows or debris flows containing pyroclastic material and are a characteristic mass movement process on volcanic slopes. On Kamchatka Peninsula (Russian Federation), lahars are widespread and may affect remote settlements. Historical records of past lahar occurrences are generally sparse and mostly limited to events which damaged infrastructure on the slopes or at the foot of volcanoes. In this study, we present a tree-ring-based reconstruction of spatiotemporal patterns of past lahar activity at Shiveluch volcano. Using increment cores and cross sections from 126 Larix cajanderi trees, we document 34 events covering the period AD 1729-2012. Analyses of the seasonality of damage in trees reveal that 95% of all lahars occurred between October and May and thus point to the predominant role of the sudden melt of the snow cover by volcanic material. These observations suggest that most lahars were likely syn-eruptive and that lahar activity is largely restricted to periods of volcanic activity. By contrast, rainfall events do not seem to play a significant role in lahar triggering.

  8. Spike-triggered dendritic calcium transients depend on synaptic activity in the cricket giant interneurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Hiroto; Baba, Yoshichika; Oka, Kotaro

    2002-02-15

    The relationship between electrical activity and spike-induced Ca2+ increases in dendrites was investigated in the identified wind-sensitive giant interneurons in the cricket. We applied a high-speed Ca2+ imaging technique to the giant interneurons, and succeeded in recording the transient Ca2+ increases (Ca2+ transients) induced by a single action potential, which was evoked by presynaptic stimulus to the sensory neurons. The dendritic Ca2+ transients evoked by a pair of action potentials accumulated when spike intervals were shorter than 100 ms. The amplitude of the Ca2+ transients induced by a train of spikes depended on the number of action potentials. When stimulation pulses evoking the same numbers of action potentials were separately applied to the ipsi- or contra-lateral cercal sensory nerves, the dendritic Ca2+ transients induced by these presynaptic stimuli were different in their amplitude. Furthermore, the side of presynaptic stimulation that evoked larger Ca2+ transients depended on the location of the recorded dendritic regions. This result means that the spike-triggered Ca2+ transients in dendrites depend on postsynaptic activity. It is proposed that Ca2+ entry through voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels activated by the action potentials will be enhanced by excitatory synaptic inputs at the dendrites in the cricket giant interneurons.

  9. A force-activated trip switch triggers rapid dissociation of a colicin from its immunity protein.

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    Oliver E Farrance

    Full Text Available Colicins are protein antibiotics synthesised by Escherichia coli strains to target and kill related bacteria. To prevent host suicide, colicins are inactivated by binding to immunity proteins. Despite their high avidity (K(d ≈ fM, lifetime ≈ 4 days, immunity protein release is a pre-requisite of colicin intoxication, which occurs on a timescale of minutes. Here, by measuring the dynamic force spectrum of the dissociation of the DNase domain of colicin E9 (E9 and immunity protein 9 (Im9 complex using an atomic force microscope we show that application of low forces (<20 pN increases the rate of complex dissociation 10(6-fold, to a timescale (lifetime ≈ 10 ms compatible with intoxication. We term this catastrophic force-triggered increase in off-rate a trip bond. Using mutational analysis, we elucidate the mechanism of this switch in affinity. We show that the N-terminal region of E9, which has sparse contacts with the hydrophobic core, is linked to an allosteric activator region in E9 (residues 21-30 whose remodelling triggers immunity protein release. Diversion of the force transduction pathway by the introduction of appropriately positioned disulfide bridges yields a force resistant complex with a lifetime identical to that measured by ensemble techniques. A trip switch within E9 is ideal for its function as it allows bipartite complex affinity, whereby the stable colicin:immunity protein complex required for host protection can be readily converted to a kinetically unstable complex whose dissociation is necessary for cellular invasion and competitor death. More generally, the observation of two force phenotypes for the E9:Im9 complex demonstrates that force can re-sculpt the underlying energy landscape, providing new opportunities to modulate biological reactions in vivo; this rationalises the commonly observed discrepancy between off-rates measured by dynamic force spectroscopy and ensemble methods.

  10. Evaluation of Women with Myofascial Abdominal Syndrome Based on Traditional Chinese Medicine

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    Andréia Mitidieri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study used semiology based on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM to investigate vital energy (Qi behavior in women with abdominal myofascial pain syndrome (AMPS. Methods: Fifty women diagnosed with chronic pelvic pain (CPP secondary to AMPS were evaluated by using a questionnaire based on the theories of “yin-yang,” “zang-fu”, and “five elements”. We assessed the following aspects of the illness: symptomatology; specific location of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs; onset, cause, duration and frequency of symptoms; and patient and family history. The patients tongues, lips, skin colors, and tones of speech were examined. Patients were questioned on various aspects related to breathing, sweating, sleep quality, emotions, and preferences related to color, food, flavors, and weather or seasons. Thirst, gastrointestinal dysfunction, excreta (feces and urine, menstrual cycle, the five senses, and characteristic pain symptoms related to headache, musculoskeletal pain, abdomen, and chest were also investigated. Results: Patients were between 22 and 56 years old, and most were married (78%, possessed a elementary school (66%, and had one or two children (76%. The mean body mass index and body fat were 26.86 kg/ cm2 (range: 17.7 — 39.0 and 32.4% (range: 10.7 — 45.7, respectively. A large majority of women (96% exhibited alterations in the kidney meridian, and 98% had an altered gallbladder meridian. We observed major changes in the kidney and the gallbladder Qi meridians in 76% and 62% of patients, respectively. Five of the twelve meridians analyzed exhibited Qi patterns similar to pelvic innervation Qi and meridians, indicating that the paths of some of these meridians were directly related to innervation of the pelvic floor and abdominal region. Conclusion: The women in this study showed changes in the behavior of the energy meridians, and the paths of some of the meridians were directly related to innervation of the

  11. DEFORMATION WAVES AS A TRIGGER MECHANISM OF SEISMIC ACTIVITY IN SEISMIC ZONES OF THE CONTINENTAL LITHOSPHERE

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    S. I. Sherman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Deformation waves as a trigger mechanism of seismic activity and migration of earthquake foci have been under discussion by researchers in seismology and geodynamics for over 50 years. Four sections of this article present available principal data on impacts of wave processes on seismicity and new data. The first section reviews analytical and experimental studies aimed at identification of relationships between wave processes in the lithosphere and seismic activity manifested as space-and-time migration of individual earthquake foci or clusters of earthquakes. It is concluded that with a systematic approach, instead of using a variety of terms to denote waves that trigger seismic process in the lithosphere, it is reasonable to apply the concise definition of ‘deformation waves’, which is most often used in fact.The second section contains a description of deformation waves considered as the trigger mechanism of seismic activity. It is concluded that a variety of methods are applied to identify deformation waves, and such methods are based on various research methods and concepts that naturally differ in sensitivity concerning detection of waves and/or impact of the waves on seismic process. Epicenters of strong earthquakes are grouped into specific linear or arc-shaped systems, which common criterion is the same time interval of the occurrence of events under analysis. On site the systems compose zones with similar time sequences, which correspond to the physical notion of moving waves (Fig. 9. Periods of manifestation of such waves are estimated as millions of years, and a direct consideration of the presence of waves and wave parameters is highly challenging. In the current state-of-the-art, geodynamics and seismology cannot provide any other solution yet.The third section presents a solution considering record of deformation waves in the lithosphere. With account of the fact that all the earthquakes with М≥3.0 are associated with

  12. Efficacy of pulsed low-intensity electric neuromuscular stimulation in reducing pain and disability in patients with myofascial syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iodice, P; Lessiani, G; Franzone, G; Pezzulo, G

    2016-01-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is characterized by chronic pain in multiple myofascial trigger points and fascial constrictions. In recent years, the scientific literature has recognized the need to include the patient with MPS in a multidimensional rehabilitation project. At the moment, the most widely recognized therapeutic methods for the treatment of myofascial syndrome include the stretch and spray pressure massage. Microcurrent electric neuromuscular stimulation was proposed in pain management for its effects on normalizing bioelectricity of cells and for its sub-sensory application. In this study, we tested the efficacy of low-intensity pulsed electric neuromuscular stimulus (PENS) on pain in patients with MPS of cervical spine muscles. We carried out a prospective-analytic longitudinal study at an outpatient clinic during two weeks. Forty subjects (mean age 42±13 years) were divided into two groups: treatment (TrGr, n=20) and control group (CtrlGr, n=20). Visual-analog scale (VAS) values, concerning the spontaneous and movement-related pain in the cervical-dorsal region at baseline (T0) and at the end of the study (T1), showed a reduction from 7 to 3.81 (p pain threshold at T0 was 2.1 vs 4.2 at T1 (p pain and on the restoration of tissue homeostasis. It seems to affect the transmission of pain through the stimulation of A-beta fibers. The above results show that low-intensity PENS can be considered as an effective treatment to reduce pain and disability in patients with MPS.

  13. Astragaloside Ⅱ triggers T cell activation through regulation of CD45 protein tyrosine phosphatase activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-ping WAN; Li-xin GAO; Li-fei HOU; Xiao-qian YANG; Pei-lan HE; Yi-fu YANG; Wei TANG

    2013-01-01

    Aim:To investigate the immunomodulating activity of astragalosides,the active compounds from a traditional tonic herb Astragalus membranaceus Bge,and to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying the actions,focusing on CD45 protein tyrosine phosphatase (CD45 PTPase),which plays a critical role in T lymphocyte activation.Methods:Primary splenocytes and T cells were prepared from mice.CD45 PTPase activity was assessed using a colorimetric assay.Cell proliferation was measured using a [3H]-thymidine incorporation assay.Cytokine proteins and mRNAs were examined with ELISA and RT-PCR,respectively.Activation markers,including CD25 and CD69,were analyzed using flow cytometry.Activation of LCK (Tyr505) was detected using Western blot analysis.Mice were injected with the immunosuppressant cyclophosphamide (CTX,80 mg/kg),and administered astragaloside Ⅱ (50 mg/kg).Results:Astragaloside Ⅰ,Ⅱ,Ⅲ,and Ⅳ concentration-dependently increased the CD45-mediated of pNPP/OMFP hydrolysis with the EC50 values ranged from 3.33 to 10.42 μg/mL.Astragaloside Ⅱ (10 and 30 μg/mL) significantly enhanced the proliferation of primary splenocytes induced by ConA,alloantigen or anti-CD3.Astragaloside Ⅱ (30 μg/mL) significantly increased IL-2 and IFN-y secretion,upregulated the mRNA levels of IFN-y and T-bet in primary splenocytes,and promoted CD25 and CD69 expression on primary CD4+T cells upon TCR stimulation.Furthermore,astragaloside Ⅱ (100 ng/mL) promoted CD45-mediated dephosphorylation of LCK (Tyr505) in primary T cells,which could be blocked by a specific CD45 PTPase inhibitor.In CTX-induced immunosuppressed mice,oral administration of astragaloside Ⅱ restored the proliferation of splenic T cells and the production of IFN-Y and IL-2.However,astragaloside Ⅱ had no apparent effects on B cell proliferation.Conclusion:Astragaloside Ⅱ enhances T cell activation by regulating the activity of CD45 PTPase,which may explain why Astragalus membranaceus Bge is used as a tonic

  14. Arabidopsis TTG2 regulates TRY expression through enhancement of activator complex-triggered activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesch, Martina; Dartan, Burcu; Birkenbihl, Rainer; Somssich, Imre E; Hülskamp, Martin

    2014-10-01

    Trichome patterning in Arabidopsis thaliana is regulated by a regulatory feedback loop of the trichome promoting factors TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 (TTG1), GLABRA3 (GL3)/ENHANCER OF GL3 (EGL3), and GL1 and a group of homologous R3MYB proteins that act as their inhibitors. Together, they regulate the temporal and spatial expression of GL2 and TTG2, which are considered to control trichome cell differentiation. In this work, we show that TTG2 is a specific activator of TRY (but not CPC or GL2). The WRKY protein TTG2 binds to W-boxes in a minimal promoter fragment of TRY, and these W-boxes are essential for rescue of the try mutant phenotype. We further show that TTG2 alone is not able to activate TRY expression, but rather drastically enhances the activation by TTG1 and GL3. As TTG2 physically interacts with TTG1 and because TTG2 can associate with GL3 through its interaction with TTG1, we propose that TTG2 enhances the activity of TTG1 and GL3 by forming a protein complex.

  15. Estudo comparativo entre toxina botulínica e bupivacaína para infiltração de pontos-gatilho em síndrome miofascial crônica Estudio comparativo entre toxina botulínica y bupivacaína para infiltración de puntos-gatillo en síndrome miofascial crónica Comparative study between botulin toxin and bupivacaine for triggering-points infiltration in chronic myofascial syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Keiichi Unno

    2005-04-01

    dos grupos. Los pacientes del G1 (n = 10 recibieron 25U de toxina botulínica y los del G2 (n = 10, bupivacaína a 0,25%, de un a tres puntos-gatillo, siendo 0,5 mL por punto. Los pacientes fueron evaluados semanalmente, durante 8 semanas. Fueron asociados 35 mg de orfenadrina, y 300 mg de dipirona, a cada 8 horas, los pacientes fueron sometidos a estimulación eléctrica transcutánea, dos veces por semana, durante 1 hora por sesión. La intensidad del dolor fue evaluada a través de la escala numérica verbal y la calidad de la analgesia, por el paciente, en los momentos cero (antes de la inyección, y después de 30 minutos, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 y 8 semanas. Los resultados fueron sometidos al análisis estadístico (Mann-Whitney y Exacto de Fisher. RESULTADOS: Después de 30 minutos de la aplicación y con 1 y 4 semanas, la intensidad del dolor en el G1 fue menor que en el G2. Después de 2, 3, 5, 7 y 8 semanas de la infiltración, no hubo diferencia significativa entre los grupos. La calidad de la analgesia fue considerada mejor por los pacientes del G1 que del G2, excepto después de 2 semanas. CONCLUSIONES: El efecto analgésico fue mejor con toxina botulínica (25U que con bupivacaína a 0,25% para infiltración de puntos-gatillo.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There are controversies about the efficacy of botulin toxin as compared to local anesthetics for triggering-points infiltration. This study aimed at comparing the analgesic effect of botulin toxin and bupivacaine for triggering-points infiltration in chronic myofascial syndrome. METHODS: Participated in this study 20 patients divided in two groups. G1 patients (n = 10 received 25U botulin toxin and G2 patients (n = 10 received 0.25% bupivacaine in one to three triggering-points, being 0.5 mL per point. Patients were weekly evaluated for 8 weeks. Orphenadrine (35 mg and dipirone (300 mg were associated every 8 hours and patients were submitted to transcutaneous electrical stimulation twice a week during 1 hour

  16. Detection of changes in SEMG signals with myofascial pain using the pattern-classifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ching-Fen; Huang, Pao-Tieh

    2013-10-01

    Myofascial pain on the upper back (MFPUB) has been a common occupational hazard associated with consistent computer use. Investigations into any sort neuromuscular functional changes due to myofascial pain are rare. This study aims to differentiate the wavelet energy patterns of the surface electromyography signals measured from 30 normal and 26 patient subjects using the K-means clustering process. The results show that the wavelet energy pattern of patient subjects was different to that of normal subject and reveals a sensitivity of 57.69% at a specificity of 76.67% in the identification of myofascial pain. Therefore, this model could provide a reliable feature for clinical diagnosis of myofascial pain.

  17. TLR activation of tumor-associated macrophages from ovarian cancer patients triggers cytolytic activity of NK cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellora, Francesca; Castriconi, Roberta; Dondero, Alessandra; Pessino, Anna; Nencioni, Alessio; Liggieri, Giovanni; Moretta, Lorenzo; Mantovani, Alberto; Moretta, Alessandro; Bottino, Cristina

    2014-06-01

    We analyzed the functional outcome of the interaction between tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and natural killer (NK) cells. TAMs from ascites of ovarian cancer patients displayed an alternatively activated functional phenotype (M2) characterized by a remarkably high frequency and surface density of membrane-bound IL-18. Upon TLR engagement, TAMs acquired a classically activated functional phenotype (M1), released immunostimulatory cytokines (IL-12, soluble IL-18), and efficiently triggered the cytolytic activity of NK cells. TAMs also induced the release of IFN-γ from NK cells, which however was significantly lower compared with that induced by in vitro-polarized M2 cells. Most tumor-associated NK cells displayed a CD56(bright) , CD16(neg) or CD56(bright) , CD16(dim) phenotype, and very poor cytolytic activities, despite an increased expression of the activation marker CD69. They also showed downregulation of DNAM-1, 2B4, and NTB-A activating receptors, and an altered chemokine receptor repertoire. Importantly however, when appropriately stimulated, NK cells from the patients, including those cells isolated from ascites, efficiently killed autologous TAMs that expressed low, "nonprotective" levels of HLA class I molecules. Overall, our data show the existence of a complex tumor microenvironment in which poorly cytolytic/immature NK cells deal with immunosuppressive tumor-educated macrophages.

  18. Role of Fc Gamma Receptors in Triggering Host Cell Activation and Cytokine Release by Borrelia burgdorferi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talkington, Jeffrey; Nickell, Steven P.

    2001-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the spirochetal bacterium that causes human Lyme disease, encodes numerous lipoproteins which have the capacity to trigger the release of proinflammatory cytokines from a variety of host cell types, and it is generally believed that these cytokines contribute to the disease process in vivo. We previously reported that low-passage-number infectious B. burgdorferi spirochetes express a novel lipidation-independent activity which induces secretion of the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) by the mouse MC/9 mast cell line. Using RNase protection assays, we determined that mast cells exposed in vitro to low-passage-number, but not high-passage-number, B. burgdorferi spirochetes show increased expression of additional mRNAs representing several chemokines, including macrophage-inflammatory protein 1α (MIP-1α), MIP-1β, and TCA3, as well as the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6. Furthermore, mast cell TNF-α secretion can be inhibited by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor wortmannin and also by preincubation with purified mouse immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) and IgG2a, but not mouse IgG3, and by a mouse Fc gamma receptor II and III (FcγRII/III)-specific rat monoclonal antibody, suggesting the likely involvement of host FcγRIII in B. burgdorferi-mediated signaling. A role for passively adsorbed rabbit or bovine IgG or serum components in B. burgdorferi-mediated FcγR signaling was excluded in control experiments. These studies confirm that low-passage-number B. burgdorferi spirochetes express a novel activity which upregulates the expression of a variety of host cell chemokine and cytokine genes, and they also establish a novel antibody-independent role for FcγRs in transduction of activation signals by bacterial products. PMID:11119532

  19. Wool Keratin 3D Scaffolds with Light-Triggered Antimicrobial Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferroni, Claudia; Sotgiu, Giovanna; Sagnella, Anna; Varchi, Greta; Guerrini, Andrea; Giuri, Demetra; Polo, Eleonora; Orlandi, Viviana Teresa; Marras, Emanuela; Gariboldi, Marzia; Monti, Elena; Aluigi, Annalisa

    2016-09-12

    Photoactivatable keratin sponges were prepared from protein aqueous solutions by the freeze-drying method, followed by photofunctionalization with two different photosensitizers (PS): Azure A (AzA) and 5,10,15,20-tetrakis [4-(2-N,N,N-trimethylethylthio)-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorophenyl]porphyrin tetraiodide salt (TTFAP). The prepared sponges have a porosity between 49% and 80% and a mean pore size in the 37-80 μm range. As compared to AzA, TTFAP interacts more strongly with the sponges as demonstrated by a lower PS release (6% vs 20%), a decreased swelling ratio (1.6 vs 7.4), and a slower biodegradation rate. Nevertheless, AzA-loaded sponges showed the highest photoactivity, as also demonstrated by their higher antibactericidal activity toward both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The obtained results suggest that the antimicrobial photodynamic effect can be finely triggered through a proper selection of the amount and type of photosensitizer, as well as through the irradiation time. Finally, all the prepared sponges support human fibroblast cells growth, while no significant cell viability impairment is observed upon light irradiation.

  20. Action-projection in Japanese conversation: Topic particles wa, mo and tte for triggering categorization activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko eTanaka

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Conversation analytic work has revealed how anticipatory completions and preemptive actions can offer invaluable glimpses into the cognitive, contextual, grammatical and temporal bases of projectability in turn-taking, by virtue of their potential not only as a display of participants’ online prediction of roughly what it might take to complete a turn-in-progress but also to plan the next move. While the predicate-final word order and the incremental transformability of turns in Japanese generally lead to delayed projectability of turn-endings, this may be partially offset by the capacity of certain postpositional particles to trigger and propel prospective action trajectories. This article engages in a case study of the topic particle wa (and related particles mo and tte, by demonstrating how its grammatical affordances, the categorization activities and cognitive processing it can set in motion, coupled with the immediate contextual and temporal-productional features may coalesce to a point of critical mass, thereby enhancing the projectability of the not-yet-produced trajectory of the current turn. The discussion attempts to contribute to recent debates on ways language-specific lexicogrammatical resources are deeply interlinked with the types of opportunities that are provided for social action.

  1. Acoustically active liposome-nanobubble complexes for enhanced ultrasonic imaging and ultrasound-triggered drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, An T; Wrenn, Steven P

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound is well known as a safe, reliable imaging modality. A historical limitation of ultrasound, however, was its inability to resolve structures at length scales less than nominally 20 µm, which meant that classical ultrasound could not be used in applications such as echocardiography and angiogenesis where one requires the ability to image small blood vessels. The advent of ultrasound contrast agents, or microbubbles, removed this limitation and ushered in a new wave of enhanced ultrasound applications. In recent years, the microbubbles have been designed to achieve yet another application, namely ultrasound-triggered drug delivery. Ultrasound contrast agents are thus tantamount to 'theranostic' vehicles, meaning they can do both therapy (drug delivery) and imaging (diagnostics). The use of ultrasound contrast agents as drug delivery vehicles, however, is perhaps less than ideal when compared to traditional drug delivery vehicles (e.g., polymeric microcapsules and liposomes) which have greater drug carrying capacities. The drawback of the traditional drug delivery vehicles is that they are not naturally acoustically active and cannot be used for imaging. The notion of a theranostic vehicle is sufficiently intriguing that many attempts have been made in recent years to achieve a vehicle that combines the echogenicity of microbubbles with the drug carrying capacity of liposomes. The attempts can be classified into three categories, namely entrapping, tethering, and nesting. Of these, nesting is the newest-and perhaps the most promising.

  2. Action-projection in Japanese conversation: topic particles wa, mo, and tte for triggering categorization activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hiroko

    2015-01-01

    Conversation analytic work has revealed how anticipatory completions and preemptive actions can offer invaluable glimpses into the cognitive, contextual, grammatical, and temporal bases of projectability in turn-taking, by virtue of their potential not only as a display of participants' online prediction of roughly what it might take to complete a turn-in-progress but also to plan the next move. While the predicate-final word order and the incremental transformability of turns in Japanese generally lead to delayed projectability of turn-endings, this may be partially offset by the capacity of certain postpositional particles to trigger and propel prospective action trajectories. This article engages in a case study of the topic particle wa (and related particles mo and tte), by demonstrating how its grammatical affordances, the categorization activities, and cognitive processing it can set in motion, coupled with the immediate contextual, and temporal-productional features may coalesce to a point of critical mass, thereby enhancing the projectability of the not-yet-produced trajectory of the current turn. The discussion attempts to contribute to recent debates on ways language-specific lexicogrammatical resources are deeply interlinked with the types of opportunities that are provided for social action.

  3. Sexual activity as a trigger of myocardial infarction. A case-crossover analysis in the Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Programme (SHEEP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, J; Ahlbom, A; Hulting, J

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate sexual activity as a trigger of myocardial infarction and the potential effect modification of physical fitness. DESIGN: A case-crossover study nested in the Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Programme (SHEEP). SETTING: Stockholm County from April 1993 to December 1994...

  4. Efficacy of EMLA cream phonophoresis comparison with ultrasound therapy on myofascial pain syndrome of the trapezius: a single-blind, randomized clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustun, Nilgun; Arslan, Fatma; Mansuroglu, Ayhan; Inanoglu, Deniz; Yagız, Abdullah Erman; Guler, Hayal; Turhanoglu, Ayse Dicle

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate whether eutectic mixture of local anesthetics (EMLA) cream phonophoresis superior to conventional US over the trigger points (TPs) in terms of improvements of pain, range of motion and disability in myofascial pain syndrome (MPS). Fifty patients (42 female, 8 male) diagnosed with MPS were included in the study. Patients were randomly assigned into two treatment groups including phonophoresis (PH) group (n = 25) and ultrasound (US) group (n = 25). PH group received EMLA cream phonophoresis (2.5 % lidocaine, 2.5 % prilocaine); US group received conventional ultrasound therapy over the all active TPs on trapezius muscle for 10 min a day for 15 sessions. Outcome measures were performed before the treatment course and at the end of a 15-session course of treatment. Student T, Mann-Whitney U, chi-square and Wilcoxon tests were used for statistical analysis. At the end of the therapy, there was statistically significant decrease in both PH group and US group in terms of number of trigger point (NTP) (p = 0.001, p = 0.029), pain intensity on movement (p = 0.001 vs. 0.002) and right/left cervical lateral ROMs (p = 0.001/p = 0.001, p = 0.009/p = 0.020) relative to baseline. The NTP decrease in PH group was significantly higher than that in US group (1.84 ± 1.46 vs. 0.72 ± 1.45; p = 0.01). Pain intensity at rest (p = 0.001) and NPDI scores (p = 0.001) were statistically improvement in only PH group. EMLA cream phonophoresis is more effective than conventional ultrasound therapy in terms of pain and associated neck disability, and it seems the complementary treatment option for MPS.

  5. Percutaneous Soft Tissue Release for Treating Chronic Recurrent Myofascial Pain Associated with Lateral Epicondylitis: 6 Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Ta Lin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this pilot study is to investigate the effectiveness of the percutaneous soft tissue release for the treatment of recurrent myofascial pain in the forearm due to recurrent lateral epicondylitis. Methods. Six patients with chronic recurrent pain in the forearm with myofascial trigger points (MTrPs due to chronic lateral epicondylitis were treated with percutaneous soft tissue release of Lin’s technique. Pain intensity (measured with a numerical pain rating scale, pressure pain threshold (measured with a pressure algometer, and grasping strength (measured with a hand dynamometer were assessed before, immediately after, and 3 months and 12 months after the treatment. Results. For every individual case, the pain intensity was significantly reduced (P<0.01 and the pressure pain threshold and the grasping strength were significantly increased (P<0.01 immediately after the treatment. This significant effectiveness lasts for at least one year. Conclusions. It is suggested that percutaneous soft tissue release can be used for treating chronic recurrent lateral epicondylitis to avoid recurrence, if other treatment, such as oral anti-inflammatory medicine, physical therapy, or local steroid injection, cannot control the recurrent pain.

  6. Percutaneous soft tissue release for treating chronic recurrent myofascial pain associated with lateral epicondylitis: 6 case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ming-Ta; Chou, Li-Wei; Chen, Hsin-Shui; Kao, Mu-Jung

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this pilot study is to investigate the effectiveness of the percutaneous soft tissue release for the treatment of recurrent myofascial pain in the forearm due to recurrent lateral epicondylitis. Methods. Six patients with chronic recurrent pain in the forearm with myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) due to chronic lateral epicondylitis were treated with percutaneous soft tissue release of Lin's technique. Pain intensity (measured with a numerical pain rating scale), pressure pain threshold (measured with a pressure algometer), and grasping strength (measured with a hand dynamometer) were assessed before, immediately after, and 3 months and 12 months after the treatment. Results. For every individual case, the pain intensity was significantly reduced (P < 0.01) and the pressure pain threshold and the grasping strength were significantly increased (P < 0.01) immediately after the treatment. This significant effectiveness lasts for at least one year. Conclusions. It is suggested that percutaneous soft tissue release can be used for treating chronic recurrent lateral epicondylitis to avoid recurrence, if other treatment, such as oral anti-inflammatory medicine, physical therapy, or local steroid injection, cannot control the recurrent pain.

  7. Atypical presentation of macrophagic myofasciitis 10 years post vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Aisling M; Bermingham, Niamh; Harrington, Hugh J; Keohane, Catherine

    2006-12-01

    Macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF) is an uncommon inflammatory disorder of muscle believed to be due to persistence of vaccine-derived aluminium hydroxide at the site of injection. The condition is characterised by diffuse myalgias, arthralgia and fatigue. We describe a patient with histologically confirmed MMF whose presentation was atypical with left chest and upper limb pain beginning more than 10 years post vaccination. Treatment with steroids led to symptomatic improvement. Although rare, clinicians should consider MMF in cases of atypical myalgia.

  8. Atypical presentation of macrophagic myofasciitis 10 years post vaccination.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, Aisling M

    2012-02-03

    Macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF) is an uncommon inflammatory disorder of muscle believed to be due to persistence of vaccine-derived aluminium hydroxide at the site of injection. The condition is characterised by diffuse myalgias, arthralgia and fatigue. We describe a patient with histologically confirmed MMF whose presentation was atypical with left chest and upper limb pain beginning more than 10 years post vaccination. Treatment with steroids led to symptomatic improvement. Although rare, clinicians should consider MMF in cases of atypical myalgia.

  9. Evaluation of treatments for myofascial pain syndrome and fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudin, Nathan J

    2003-12-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) and fibromyalgia (FM) are complex conditions and pose significant challenges to clinicians and patients. This chapter explores available treatments for MPS and FM in the context of pathophysiology, clinical evidence, and experimental support. This information may prove to be helpful in designing individualized treatment for patients with these complex syndromes. New treatments should be critically and carefully evaluated as they appear.

  10. Special astronomical configurations, solar activity and deep degassing as a trigger of natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natyaganov, Vladimir; Syvorotkin, Vladimir; Fedorov, Valeriy; Shopin, Sergey

    2016-04-01

    Extraordinary cases of tectonic events (strong earthquakes, volcano eruptions), mine explosions, typhoons, hurricanes, tornado outbreak sequences, ball lightnings, transient luminous events are analyzed in relation with special astronomical configurations, which are specific relative positions of the Sun, Earth, Moon and the closest planets of the Solar System (Venus, Mars and Jupiter) [1]. Usage of special astronomical coordinate systems give evidence not only of correlations but also of hidden causes-and-effect relations between the analyzed phenomena. The geocentric ecliptic latitude system is an example of such astronomical coordinate systems. It gives clear evidence of coherence between strong earthquakes and the maximal Moon declination from the plane of the ecliptic. Extraordinary cases of planet activity from the beginning of XX century till the present time are shown in the years of special astronomical configurations and abrupt increasing of solar activity. According to the empirical scheme of short-term earthquake prediction [3], geomagnetic disturbances are the triggers of earthquakes. Geomagnetic disturbances perform electromagnetic pumping (electromagnetic excitation) of the Earth's interior in the regions of intersections of seismomagnetic meridians with the plate boundaries as a result of electrothermal breakdowns in the heterogeneous medium of tectonic faults. This results in the local intensification of deep degassing [4], decreasing of shear strength of the medium that triggers earthquakes usually after 2 or 3 weeks (±2 days) after the geomagnetic disturbance. Examples of officially registered predictions of Kamchatka earthquakes with M7+ without missing events, including deep-focus earthquakes in the Okhotsk Sea since the year of 2002, are shown. It is discussed correlations and possible cause-and-effect relations between a different phenomena such as - dangerous natural hazardous events such as the record tornado outbreak sequences in the USA

  11. Mechanisms and clinical management of myofascial pain syndrome%肌筋膜疼痛综合征的基础与临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁宏杰; 杜诗斌

    2015-01-01

    肌筋膜疼痛综合征是激痛点引起的疼痛性疾病,其发病率非常高,而治疗相对困难.本文对肌筋膜疼痛综合征的机理、诊断以及治疗作一综述.%Myofascial pain syndrome is a kind of painful disease caused by trigger points.It has extremely high prevalence and is refractory to medical therapy.So the mechanisms,diagnosis and treatment principles are reviewed in this article.

  12. Might axial myofascial properties and biomechanical mechanisms be relevant to ankylosing spondylitis and axial spondyloarthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Alfonse T

    2014-01-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis and axial spondyloarthropathy have characteristic age- and sex-specific onset patterns, typical entheseal lesions, and marked heritability, but the integrative mechanisms causing the pathophysiological and structural alterations remain largely undefined. Myofascial tissues are integrated in the body into webs and networks which permit transmission of passive and active tensional forces that provide stabilizing support and help to control movements. Axial myofascial hypertonicity was hypothesized as a potential excessive polymorphic trait which could contribute to chronic biomechanical overloading and exaggerated stresses at entheseal sites. Such a mechanism may help to integrate many of the characteristic host, pathological, and structural features of ankylosing spondylitis and axial spondyloarthritis. Biomechanical stress and strain were recently documented to correlate with peripheral entheseal inflammation and new bone formation in a murine model of spondyloarthritis. Ankylosing spondylitis has traditionally been classified by the modified New York criteria, which require the presence of definite radiographic sacroiliac joint lesions. New classification criteria for axial spondyloarthritis now include patients who do not fulfill the modified New York criteria. The male-to-female sex ratios clearly differed between the two patient categories - 2:1 or 3:1 in ankylosing spondylitis and 1:1 in non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis - and this suggests a spectral concept of disease and, among females, milder structural alterations. Magnetic resonance imaging of active and chronic lesions in ankylosing spondylitis and axial spondyloarthritis reveals complex patterns, usually interpreted as inflammatory reactions, but shows similarities to acute degenerative disc disease, which attributed to edema formation following mechanical stresses and micro-damage. A basic question is whether mechanically induced microinjury and immunologically mediated

  13. The inter-examiner reliability of standardized manual palpation for the identification of clinically relevant myofascial triggerpoints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myburgh, Corrie; Lauridsen, Henrik Hein; Larsen, Anders Holsgaard

    -observer agreement of TP examination among four examiners and whether reproducibility is influenced by examiner clinical experience. Two experienced and two inexperienced clinicians each performed a standardized palpation of the upper Trapezius musculature. Each observer was asked to judge the presents...... in order to improve protocol standardization. Kappa co-efficients were calculated for all possible examiner pairings. Good agreement was noted between the experienced pairing (κ= 0.63). Moderate levels of agreement were observed among the two mixed pairings (κ=0.35 and 0.47 respectively). However, poor......A clinical diagnosis of Myofascial Pain Syndrome (MPS) requires manual palpation for the identification of at least one clinically relevant trigger point (TP). However, few comparable, high quality studies exist regarding the robustness of TP examination. Our aim was to determine the inter...

  14. Effect of an 8-week practice of externally triggered speech on basal ganglia activity of stuttering and fluent speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyomura, Akira; Fujii, Tetsunoshin; Kuriki, Shinya

    2015-04-01

    The neural mechanisms underlying stuttering are not well understood. It is known that stuttering appears when persons who stutter speak in a self-paced manner, but speech fluency is temporarily increased when they speak in unison with external trigger such as a metronome. This phenomenon is very similar to the behavioral improvement by external pacing in patients with Parkinson's disease. Recent imaging studies have also suggested that the basal ganglia are involved in the etiology of stuttering. In addition, previous studies have shown that the basal ganglia are involved in self-paced movement. Then, the present study focused on the basal ganglia and explored whether long-term speech-practice using external triggers can induce modification of the basal ganglia activity of stuttering speakers. Our study of functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed that stuttering speakers possessed significantly lower activity in the basal ganglia than fluent speakers before practice, especially when their speech was self-paced. After an 8-week speech practice of externally triggered speech using a metronome, the significant difference in activity between the two groups disappeared. The cerebellar vermis of stuttering speakers showed significantly decreased activity during the self-paced speech in the second compared to the first experiment. The speech fluency and naturalness of the stuttering speakers were also improved. These results suggest that stuttering is associated with defective motor control during self-paced speech, and that the basal ganglia and the cerebellum are involved in an improvement of speech fluency of stuttering by the use of external trigger.

  15. Comparison the efficacy of phonophoresis and ultrasound therapy in myofascial pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ay, Saime; Doğan, Sebnem Koldaş; Evcik, Deniz; Başer, Ozgün Cakmak

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the effect of phonophoresis, ultrasound and placebo ultrasound therapies in the treatment of myofascial pain syndrome (MPS). This is a randomized, double-blind placebo controlled study. Sixty patients (48 women, 12 men, mean age 37.9 ± 12.2 years) with MPS were included in this study. Patients were allocated into three groups. Group 1(n = 20) was received diclofenac phonophoresis, group 2(n = 20) was received ultrasound and group 3(n = 20) was received placebo ultrasound therapies over trigger points, 10 min a day for 15 session during 3 weeks (1 MHz-1,5 watt/cm²). Additionally, all patients were given neck exercise program including isotonic, isometric and stretching. Patients were assessed by means of pain, range of motion (ROM) of neck, number of trigger points (NTP), algometric measurement and disability. Pain severity was measured by visual analog scale (VAS) and Likert scale. The neck pain disability index (NPDI) was used for assessing disability. Measurements were taken before and after treatment. After treatment, there were statistically significant improvements in pain severity, NTP, pressure pain threshold (PPT), ROM and NPDI scores both in phonophoresis and in ultrasound therapy groups (P pain levels, number of trigger points and NPDI score, pressure pain threshold (P > 0.05), also there were no significant differences in all parameters between group 1 and 2 (P = 0.05). Both diclofenac phonophoresis and ultrasound therapy were effective in the treatment of patients with MPS. Phonophoresis was not found to be superior over ultrasound therapy.

  16. Delayed effort-induced swelling with myofasciitis and systemic manifestations: A so far unrecognized type of pressure-induced urticaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursztejn, Anne-Claire; Lipsker, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Diseases characterized by recurrent symptoms with prolonged intervals without any clinical manifestations can pose diagnostic difficulties. Some diagnoses will be obvious but other situations can be very challenging. To nosologically delineate a new entity characterized by recurrent flares of induration of the forearms and legs with swelling of the extremities accompanied by intense fatigue and variable other symptoms. Retrospective observational study of patients recorded from 2000 to 2015. All patients included were seen during a consultation at the Dermatology Department of the University Hospital of Strasbourg, France. We retrieved the medical records from patients seen and recorded over the last 16 years having induration of the extremities, the forearm and the legs occurring between 4 and 12 hours after a physical effort accompanied by systemic signs that lasted for a few days. We analyzed in detail the clinical and biological features, evolution, and treatments of these patients. We included 6 males, with a mean age of 47 years; mean age at disease onset was 42. All patients were initially misdiagnosed as having rheumatic disorders. The mean delay before diagnosis was 5 years. The main complaint was painful induration or muscle soreness of the forearms and the legs associated with transient functional impairment and prolonged asthenia for a mean duration of 3.5 days. Induration of the deep soft tissues was very suggestive of myofasciitis. The delay between the triggering physical effort and the swelling was between 6 and 12 hours. Physical effort as triggering factor was never spontaneously mentioned. Two patients had partial response to high dose antihistamines and 2 other patients to the interleukin-1 inhibitor anakinra. One patient responded to hydroxychloroquine. The very stereotypical presentation in those 6 patients suggests that this is a recognizable entity characterized by effort-induced induration of forearms and/or legs, due to deep

  17. Delayed triggering of radio Active Galactic Nuclei in gas-rich minor mergers in the local Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Shabala, Stanislav; Kaviraj, Sugata; Middelberg, Enno; Turner, Ross; Ting, Yuan-Sen; Allison, James; Davis, Tim

    2016-01-01

    We examine the processes triggering star formation and Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) activity in a sample of 25 low redshift ($z10^7$ K) brightness temperature required for an mJIVE-20 detection allows us to unambiguously identify the radio AGN in our sample. We find three such objects. Our VLBI AGN identifications are classified as Seyferts or LINERs in narrow line optical diagnostic plots; mid-infrared colours of our targets and the comparison of H$\\alpha$ star formation rates with integrated radio luminosity are also consistent with the VLBI identifications. We reconstruct star formation histories in our galaxies using optical and UV photometry, and find that these radio AGN are not triggered promptly in the merger process, consistent with previous findings for non-VLBI samples of radio AGN. This delay can significantly limit the efficiency of feedback by radio AGN triggered in galaxy mergers. We find that radio AGN hosts have lower star formation rates than non-AGN radio-selected galaxies at the same star...

  18. Delayed triggering of radio Active Galactic Nuclei in gas-rich minor mergers in the local Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabala, S. S.; Deller, A.; Kaviraj, S.; Middelberg, E.; Turner, R. J.; Ting, Y. S.; Allison, J. R.; Davis, T. A.

    2016-10-01

    We examine the processes triggering star formation and Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) activity in a sample of 25 low redshift (z 107 K) brightness temperature required for an mJIVE-20 detection allows us to unambiguously identify the radio AGN in our sample. We find three such objects. Our VLBI AGN identifications are classified as Seyferts or LINERs in narrow line optical diagnostic plots; mid-infrared colours of our targets and the comparison of Hα star formation rates with integrated radio luminosity are also consistent with the VLBI identifications. We reconstruct star formation histories in our galaxies using optical and UV photometry, and find that these radio AGN are not triggered promptly in the merger process, consistent with previous findings for non-VLBI samples of radio AGN. This delay can significantly limit the efficiency of feedback by radio AGN triggered in galaxy mergers. We find that radio AGN hosts have lower star formation rates than non-AGN radio-selected galaxies at the same starburst age. Conventional and VLBI radio imaging shows these AGN to be compact on arcsecond scales. Our modeling suggests that the actual sizes of AGN-inflated radio lobes may be much larger than this, but these are too faint to be detected in existing observations. Deep radio imaging is required to map out the true extent of the AGN, and to determine whether the low star formation rates in radio AGN hosts are a result of the special conditions required for radio jet triggering, or the effect of AGN feedback.

  19. Delayed triggering of radio active galactic nuclei in gas-rich minor mergers in the local Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabala, S. S.; Deller, A.; Kaviraj, S.; Middelberg, E.; Turner, R. J.; Ting, Y. S.; Allison, J. R.; Davis, T. A.

    2017-02-01

    We examine the processes triggering star formation and active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity in a sample of 25 low-redshift (z 107 K) brightness temperature required for an mJIVE-20 detection allows us to unambiguously identify the radio AGN in our sample. We find three such objects. Our VLBI AGN identifications are classified as Seyferts or low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions (LINERs) in narrow line optical diagnostic plots; mid-infrared colours of our targets and the comparison of Hα star formation rates with integrated radio luminosity are also consistent with the VLBI identifications. We reconstruct star formation histories in our galaxies using optical and UV photometry, and find that these radio AGN are not triggered promptly in the merger process, consistent with previous findings for non-VLBI samples of radio AGN. This delay can significantly limit the efficiency of feedback by radio AGN triggered in galaxy mergers. We find that radio AGN hosts have lower star formation rates than non-AGN radio-selected galaxies at the same starburst age. Conventional and VLBI radio imaging shows these AGN to be compact on arcsecond scales. Our modelling suggests that the actual sizes of AGN-inflated radio lobes may be much larger than this, but these are too faint to be detected in existing observations. Deep radio imaging is required to map out the true extent of the AGN, and to determine whether the low star formation rates in radio AGN hosts are a result of the special conditions required for radio jet triggering, or the effect of AGN feedback.

  20. Effect of occlusal splints for the management of patients with myofascial pain: a randomized, controlled, double-blind study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Fei-yu; WANG Xiao-geng; DONG Jian; ZHANG Jie-fu; L(U) Ya-lin

    2013-01-01

    Background Occlusal splints have been the preferred modalities in the management of myofascial temporomandibular disorders (TMDs),but now controversy exists in reporting whether they are successful for TMDs treatments.The aim of this study was to give objective evidence to the assessment of treatment effect of occlusal splints for myofascial TMDs patients by clinical assessments and surface electromyography (sEMG) measurements of masseter muscles (MM).Methods Thirty-six patients (12 males and 24 females) aged 16-57 (38±11) years participated in the study.All participants diagnosed with myofascial TMD were randomized into two groups (18 of each).Patients in the first group (A) were treated with occlusal splints for 1 month,while patients in the second group (B) were treated with placebo (non-occluding palatal) splints.Clinical assessments were performed at the beginning of the study and 1 month after treatment.sEMG measurements for MM were performed at mandibular postural position (MPP) and maximum intercuspal contacted position (ICP) 1 month after the treatment.The root mean square (RMS) and the median frequency (MF) as linear indices of sEMG data were used to demonstrate muscle activity and muscle fatigue.Data were analyzed by ANOVA and post hoc SNK test.The differences were considered significant at P <0.05.Results It was found that 89% of group A either completely recovered (39%) or clinically improved (50%),while only 22% of group B had a spontaneous improvement.sEMG analysis showed that at MPP,the mean of RMS value of MM in group A was lower than that of group B,which shows statistical differences (P <0.01).At ICP,the RMS value of MM in group A was higher than that of group B,which shows statistical differences (P <0.01).At MPP,MF value of MM in group A was higher than that of group B (P <0.05).At ICP,MF value of MM was lower than that of group B (P <0.01).Conclusions Occlusal splint could eliminate or improve the signs and symptoms of TMD

  1. 损伤性大鼠肌筋膜疼痛触发点的肌电活动和组织形态学特征%Characteristics of electromyographical activities and histomorphology of myofascialgia trigger points in injury models of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵贞妍; 叶刚; 黄强民; 吕娇娇

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To observe the characteristics of electromyographical(EMG) activities and the changes of histomorphology in myofascialgia trigger points on rats' models from injuries. Method; A total of 16 male SD rats (7 weeks old) were randomly divided into control group (group A) and experimental group (group B). Rats model of myofascialgia in group B were established by striking combining with eccentric exercise once per week, for continuous 8 weeks, then were reared normally and took rest for 4 weeks. At the end of the 2th week, all rats in two groups were examined to found the trigger points in palpable taut band, to record the pontaneous potential of EMG as well as local twitch response and to take the sections of musculi vastus medialis. The EMG of trigger points were analysed and the histomorphology of myofibers were observed. All the data were compared between two groups. Result: On an overage two palpable trigger points could be found in musculis vastus medialis of group B rats, but none in group A. There were local twitch responses and high frequency abnormal spontaneous electromyographical activities, in all of the palpable trigger points and a pile of large round or elliptic myofibere in cross sections and alternate thick and thin continuous spindle myofibers in longitudinal sections. Conclusion: Myofascial trigger point was a pile of abnormal contractural myofibers with characteristics of abnor-mal high frequency spontaneous elect romyographica activities and histomorphology changes. Meanwhile, these characteristics demonstrated that rats' modei of myofascialgia trigger points from injuries established by striking nom-bined with eccentric exercise was effective.%目的:观察损伤性大鼠肌筋膜疼痛模型触发点的肌电活动特征和组织形态学改变.方法:16只雄性SD大鼠(7周龄),随机分成对照组(A组)和实验组(B组)两组,实验组采取打击结合离心运动的实验方法对其进行连续8周造模干预.造模结束后,

  2. The myofascial compartments of the foot: a cadaver study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Z X; Kumar, V P

    2008-08-01

    Compartment syndrome of the foot requires urgent surgical treatment. Currently, there is still no agreement on the number and location of the myofascial compartments of the foot. The aim of this cadaver study was to provide an anatomical basis for surgical decompression in the event of compartment syndrome. We found that there were three tough vertical fascial septae that extended from the hindfoot to the midfoot on the plantar aspect of the foot. These septae separated the posterior half of the foot into three compartments. The medial compartment containing the abductor hallucis was surrounded medially by skin and subcutaneous fat and laterally by the medial septum. The intermediate compartment, containing the flexor digitorum brevis and the quadratus plantae more deeply, was surrounded by the medial septum medially, the intermediate septum laterally and the main plantar aponeurosis on its plantar aspect. The lateral compartment containing the abductor digiti minimi was surrounded medially by the intermediate septum, laterally by the lateral septum and on its plantar aspect by the lateral band of the main plantar aponeurosis. No distinct myofascial compartments exist in the forefoot. Based on our findings, in theory, fasciotomy of the hindfoot compartments through a modified medial incision would be sufficient to decompress the foot.

  3. Headaches and myofascial temporomandibular disorders: overlapping entities, separate managements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, P C R; Costa, Y M; Gonçalves, D A; Svensson, P

    2016-09-01

    There are relevant clinical overlaps between some of the painful temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and headache conditions that may hamper the diagnostic process and treatment. A non-systematic search for studies on the relationship between TMD and headaches was carried out in the following databases: PubMed, Cochrane Library and Embase. Important pain mechanisms contributing to the close association and complex relationship between TMD and headache disorders are as follows: processes of peripheral and central sensitisation which take place in similar anatomical areas, the possible impairment of the descending modulatory pain pathways and the processes of referred pain. In addition, the clinical examination does not always provide distinguishing information to differentiate between headaches and TMD. So, considering the pathophysiology and the clinical presentation of some types of headache and myofascial TMD, such overlap can be considered not only a matter of comorbid relationship, but rather a question of disorders where the distinction lines are sometimes hard to identify. These concerns are certainly reflected in the current classification systems of both TMD and headache where the clinical consequences of diagnosis such as headache attributed to or associated with TMD are uncertain. There are several similarities in terms of therapeutic strategies used to manage myofascial TMD and headaches. Considering all these possible levels of interaction, we reinforce the recommendation for multidisciplinary approaches, by a team of oro-facial pain specialists and a neurologist (headache specialist), to attain the most precise differential diagnosis and initiate the best and most efficient treatment.

  4. Control And Configuration Of The ATLAS Trigger And Data Acquisition System During Data Taking Activities

    CERN Document Server

    Bianchi, R M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN relies on a complex and highly distributed Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) system to gather and select particle collision data at unprecedented energy and rates. The control and configuration (CC) system is responsible for all the software required to configure and control the ATLAS data taking. This ranges from high level applications, such as the graphical user interfaces and the desktops used within the ATLAS control room, to low level packages, such as access, process and resource management. Currently the CC system is required to supervise more than 15000 processes running on more than 1500 computers. At these scales, issues such as access, process and resource management, distribution of configuration data and access to them, run control, diagnostic and especially error recovery become predominant to guarantee a high availability of the TDAQ system and minimize the dead time of the experiment. And it is indeed during the data taking activitie...

  5. Opioid receptor activation triggering downregulation of cAMP improves effectiveness of anti-cancer drugs in treatment of glioblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Claudia; Hormann, Inis; Roscher, Mareike; Fichtner, Iduna; Alt, Andreas; Hilger, Ralf; Debatin, Klaus-Michael; Miltner, Erich

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma are the most frequent and malignant human brain tumors, having a very poor prognosis. The enhanced radio- and chemoresistance of glioblastoma and the glioblastoma stem cells might be the main reason why conventional therapies fail. The second messenger cyclic AMP (cAMP) controls cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Downregulation of cAMP sensitizes tumor cells for anti-cancer treatment. Opioid receptor agonists triggering opioid receptors can activate inhibitory Gi proteins, which, in turn, block adenylyl cyclase activity reducing cAMP. In this study, we show that downregulation of cAMP by opioid receptor activation improves the effectiveness of anti-cancer drugs in treatment of glioblastoma. The µ-opioid receptor agonist D,L-methadone sensitizes glioblastoma as well as the untreatable glioblastoma stem cells for doxorubicin-induced apoptosis and activation of apoptosis pathways by reversing deficient caspase activation and deficient downregulation of XIAP and Bcl-xL, playing critical roles in glioblastomas’ resistance. Blocking opioid receptors using the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone or increasing intracellular cAMP by 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) strongly reduced opioid receptor agonist-induced sensitization for doxorubicin. In addition, the opioid receptor agonist D,L-methadone increased doxorubicin uptake and decreased doxorubicin efflux, whereas doxorubicin increased opioid receptor expression in glioblastomas. Furthermore, opioid receptor activation using D,L-methadone inhibited tumor growth significantly in vivo. Our findings suggest that opioid receptor activation triggering downregulation of cAMP is a promising strategy to inhibit tumor growth and to improve the effectiveness of anti-cancer drugs in treatment of glioblastoma and in killing glioblastoma stem cells. PMID:24626197

  6. Mite allergen Der-p2 triggers human B lymphocyte activation and Toll-like receptor-4 induction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaw Ji Tsai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Allergic disease can be characterized as manifestations of an exaggerated inflammatory response to environmental allergens triggers. Mite allergen Der-p2 is one of the major allergens of the house dust mite, which contributes to TLR4 expression and function in B cells in allergic patients. However, the precise mechanisms of Der-p2 on B cells remain obscure. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the effects of Der-p2 on proinflammatory cytokines responses and Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4-related signaling in human B cells activation. We demonstrated that Der-p2 activates pro-inflammatory cytokines, TLR4 and its co-receptor MD2. ERK inhibitor PD98059 significantly enhanced TLR4/MD2 expression in Der-p2-treated B cells. Der-p2 markedly activated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK phosphatase-1 (MKP-1 and decreased p38 phosphorylation in B cells. MKP-1-siRNA downregulated TLR4/MD2 expression in Der-p2-treated B cells. In addition, Der-p2 significantly up-regulated expression of co-stimulatory molecules and increased B cell proliferation. Neutralizing Der-p2 antibody could effectively abrogate the Der-p2-induced B cell proliferation. Der-p2 could also markedly induce NF-κB activation in B cells, which could be counteracted by dexamethasone. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results strongly suggest that Der-p2 is capable of triggering B cell activation and MKP-1-activated p38/MAPK dephosphorylation-regulated TLR4 induction, which subsequently enhances host immune, defense responses and development of effective allergic disease therapeutics in B cells.

  7. Effectiveness comparison between Thai traditional massage and Chinese acupuncture for myofascial back pain in Thai military personnel: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumnerddee, Wipoo

    2009-02-01

    The objective of this randomized comparative study was to provide preliminary data of comparative effectiveness of Thai traditional massage (TTM) and Chinese acupuncture for the treatment of myofascial back pain in young military personnel. Eighteen Thai military personnel, aged ranging from 20-40 years were randomly divided into TTM and acupuncture groups. Each group received 5 sessions of massage or acupuncture during a 10-day period. The Thai version McGill Pain Questionnaire, 100-mm, visual analog scale (VAS) and summation of pain threshold in each trigger point measured by pressure algometer were assessed at day 0, 3, 8 and 10. At the end of treatment protocols, McGill scores decreased significantly in TTM and acupuncture groups (p = 0.024 and 0.002, respectively). VAS also decreased significantly (p = 0.029 and 0.003, respectively). However, the pain pressure threshold increased significantly in the acupuncture group but not in the TTM group (p = 0.006 and 0.08, respectively). When outcomes were compared between the two groups, no significant difference was found in the VAS (p = 0.115) and pain pressure threshold (p = 0.116), whereas the acupuncture group showed significantly lower McGill scores than the TTM group (p = 0.039). In conclusion, five sessions of Thai traditional massage and Chinese acupuncture were effective for the treatment of myofascial back pain in young Thai military personnel. Significant effects in both groups begin after the first session. Acupuncture is more effective than Thai traditional massage when affective aspect is also evaluated.

  8. All-trans retinoic acid-triggered antimicrobial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis is dependent on NPC2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelwright, Matthew; Kim, Elliot W; Inkeles, Megan S; De Leon, Avelino; Pellegrini, Matteo; Krutzik, Stephan R; Liu, Philip T

    2014-03-01

    A role for vitamin A in host defense against Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been suggested through epidemiological and in vitro studies; however, the mechanism is unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that vitamin A-triggered antimicrobial activity against M. tuberculosis requires expression of NPC2. Comparison of monocytes stimulated with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) or 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D3), the biologically active forms of vitamin A and vitamin D, respectively, indicates that ATRA and 1,25D3 induce mechanistically distinct antimicrobial activities. Stimulation of primary human monocytes with ATRA did not result in expression of the antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin, which is required for 1,25D3 antimicrobial activity. In contrast, ATRA triggered a reduction in the total cellular cholesterol concentration, whereas 1,25D3 did not. Blocking ATRA-induced cellular cholesterol reduction inhibits antimicrobial activity as well. Bioinformatic analysis of ATRA- and 1,25D3-induced gene profiles suggests that NPC2 is a key gene in ATRA-induced cholesterol regulation. Knockdown experiments demonstrate that ATRA-mediated decrease in total cellular cholesterol content and increase in lysosomal acidification are both dependent upon expression of NPC2. Expression of NPC2 was lower in caseous tuberculosis granulomas and M. tuberculosis-infected monocytes compared with normal lung and uninfected cells, respectively. Loss of NPC2 expression ablated ATRA-induced antimicrobial activity. Taken together, these results suggest that the vitamin A-mediated antimicrobial mechanism against M. tuberculosis requires NPC2-dependent expression and function, indicating a key role for cellular cholesterol regulation in the innate immune response.

  9. Evaluation of low-level laser therapy effectiveness on the pain and masticatory performance of patients with myofascial pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moraes Maia, Mila Leite; Ribeiro, Maria Amália Gonzaga; Maia, Luiz Guilherme Martins; Stuginski-Barbosa, Juliana; Costa, Yuri Martins; Porporatti, André Luís; Conti, Paulo César Rodrigues; Bonjardim, Leonardo Rigoldi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on the masticatory performance (MP), pressure pain threshold (PPT), and pain intensity in patients with myofascial pain. Twenty-one subjects, with myofascial pain according to Research Diagnostic Criteria/temporomandibular dysfunction, were divided into laser group (n = 12) and placebo group (n = 9) to receive laser therapy (active or placebo) two times per week for 4 weeks. The measured variables were: (1) MP by analysis of the geometric mean diameter (GMD) of the chewed particles using Optocal test material, (2) PPT by a pressure algometer, and (3) pain intensity by the visual analog scale (VAS). Measurements of MP and PPT were obtained at three time points: baseline, at the end of treatment with low-level laser and 30 days after (follow-up). VAS was measured at the same times as above and weekly throughout the laser therapy. The Friedman test was used at a significance level of 5% for data analysis. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Federal University of Sergipe (CAAE: 0025.0.107.000-10). A reduction in the GMD of crushed particles (p laser group when comparing the baseline and end-of-treatment values. Both groups showed a decrease in pain intensity at the end of treatment. LLLT promoted an improvement in MP and PPT of the masticatory muscles.

  10. High prevalence of shoulder girdle muscles with myofascial trigger points in patients with shoulder pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bron, Carel; Dommerholt, J.; Stegenga, Boudewijn; Wensing, M.; Oostendorp, R.A.B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Shoulder pain is reported to be highly prevalent and tends to be recurrent or persistent despite medical treatment. The pathophysiological mechanisms of shoulder pain are poorly understood. Furthermore, there is little evidence supporting the effectiveness of current treatment protocols.

  11. Depleted internal store-activated Ca2+ entry can trigger neurotransmitter release in bovine chromaffin cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powis, D A; Clark, C L; O'Brien, K J

    1996-02-09

    A potential role of the intracellular Ca2+ stores in modulating catecholamine release has been investigated in bovine chromaffin cells maintained in tissue culture. Pharmacological depletion of the stores with a combination of caffeine, histamine and thapsigargin in Ca2+-free media resulted in a significantly greater release of catecholamines on re-exposure to Ca2+-containing media compared with that from non-store depleted cells. The increase in catecholamine release was prevented by intracellular BAPTA indicating that the increase was caused by a rise in Ca2+. Measurement of intracellular free Ca2+ concentration with the fluorescent indicator, fura-2, over the same time-course as the catecholamine release experiments showed that upon restoration of external Ca2+ there was an immediate, substantial and maintained increase in cytosolic Ca2+. It is most probable that the increase in catecholamine release was a consequence of an increase in Ca2+ influx triggered by prior depletion of the internal Ca2+ stores. However, the data suggest that capacitative Ca2+ entry is poorly linked to catecholamine release; although Ca2+ entry on restoration of external Ca2+ was immediate and substantial, the increase in catecholamine release, although quantitatively significant, was slowly realised.

  12. Are luminous radio-loud active galactic nuclei triggered by galaxy interactions?

    CERN Document Server

    Almeida, C Ramos; Tadhunter, C; Pérez-González, P G; Barro, G; Inskip, K J; Morganti, R; Holt, J; Dicken, D

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of a comparison between the optical morphologies of a complete sample of 46 southern 2Jy radio galaxies at intermediate redshifts (0.05triggering of powerful radio galaxies (PRGs). We find that a significant fraction of quiescent ellipticals at low and intermediate redshifts show evidence for disturbed morphologies at relatively high surface brightness levels, which are likely the result of past or on-going galaxy interactions. However, the morphological features detected in the galaxy hosts of the PRGs (e.g. tidal tails, shells, bridges, etc.) are up to 2 magnitudes brighter than those present in their quiescent counterparts. Indeed, if...

  13. Fatiguing stimulation of one skeletal muscle triggers heat shock protein activation in several rat organs: the role of muscle innervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jammes, Yves; Steinberg, Jean Guillaume; By, Youlet; Brerro-Saby, Christelle; Condo, Jocelyne; Olivier, Marine; Guieu, Regis; Delliaux, Stephane

    2012-11-15

    We hypothesised that activation of muscle afferents by fatigue triggers a widespread activation of heat shock proteins (HSPs) in resting muscles and different organs. In anaesthetised rats, HSP25 and HSP70 levels were determined in both tibialis anterior (TA) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles and in the diaphragm, kidney and brain by ELISA, which mostly identifies phosphorylated HSP, and western blotting. One TA muscle was electrically stimulated and tissues were sampled 10 or 60 min after the stimulation had ended. The nerve supply to the stimulated TA or its counterpart in the contralateral limb was left intact or suppressed. In control rats, no muscle stimulation was performed and tissues were sampled at the same time points (10 or 60 min). After TA stimulation, ELISA showed an increased HSP25 content in the contralateral TA, EDL and diaphragm at 10 min but not at 60 min, and HSP70 increased in all sampled tissues at 60 min. Western blotting did not show any changes in HSP25 and HSP70 at 10 min, while at 60 min HSP25 increased in all sampled tissues except the brain and HSP70 was elevated in all tissues. Denervation of the contralateral non-stimulated limb suppressed HSP changes in TA and after denervation of the stimulated TA the widespread activation of HSPs in other organs was absent. Our data suggest that fatigue-induced activation of skeletal muscle afferents triggers an early increase in phosphorylated HSP25 in muscles and a delayed elevation of non-phosphorylated HSP25 and HSP70 in skeletal and respiratory muscles, kidney and brain.

  14. Intramuscular Hemangioma Mimicking Myofascial Pain Syndrome : A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Miriam; Kang, Yoon Kyoo; Kim, In Jong; Park, Yoon Kun

    2007-01-01

    Intramuscular hemangioma, an infrequent but important cause of musculoskeletal pain, is often difficult to establish the diagnosis clinically. This report describes a case of a 32-yr-old woman who presented with severe left calf pain for 10 yr. Initial conservative treatments consisting of intramuscular electrical stimulation, herb medication, acupuncture, and intramuscular lidocaine injection under the diagnosis of myofascial pain syndrome in other facilities, failed to alleviate the symptoms. On physical examination, there was no motor weakness or sensory change. Conventional radiography of the leg revealed a soft tissue phlebolith. Conventional angiography study showed hemangioma. Intramuscular hemangioma within the soleus muscle was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging. Following surgical excision of the hemangioma, the patient's symptom resolved completely. Intramuscular hemangioma is a rare cause of calf pain and should be considered in the differential diagnosis if a patient with muscle pain, particularly if associated with a soft tissue mass, fails to respond to conservative treatment. PMID:17596677

  15. Fibromyalgia and Myofascial Pain Syndrome-A Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandola, H C; Chakraborty, Arunangshu

    2009-01-01

    Summary Pain and fatigue associated to the musculoskeletal system are among the leading causes of patients to visit their physicians and nearly one-third of such patients suffer from fibromyalgia. Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a chronic debilitating disorder characterized by widespread pain with tenderness in specific areas, leading to fatigue, headache and sleep disorder. Myofascial Pain Syndrome (MPS), is also a localized musculoskeletal pain producing condition whose diagnostic and management criteria differ from FMS but still considered by many only a subtype of FMS. Till date no exact cause has been held responsible for these painful conditions, therefore treatment of these disorders is always a challenge. The therapies are not precise but multimodal including pharmacological and alternative approaches. This article describes the existing knowledge pertaining to these conditions in regard of causative factors diagnosis and management. PMID:20640108

  16. Saturated fatty acids activate caspase-4/5 in human monocytes, triggering IL-1β and IL-18 release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillon, Nicolas J; Chan, Kenny L; Zhang, Shitian; Mejdani, Marios; Jacobson, Maya R; Ducos, Alexandre; Bilan, Philip J; Niu, Wenyan; Klip, Amira

    2016-11-01

    Obesity is associated with metabolic tissue infiltration by monocyte-derived macrophages. Saturated fatty acids contribute to proinflammatory gene induction in tissue-embedded immune cells. However, it is unknown how circulating monocytes, the macrophage precursors, react to high-fat environments. In macrophages, saturated fatty acids activate inflammatory pathways and, notably, prime caspase-associated inflammasomes. Inflammasome-activated IL-1β contributes to type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized that 1) human monocytes from obese patients show caspase activation, and 2) fatty acids trigger this response and consequent release of IL-1β/IL-18. Human peripheral blood monocytes were sorted by flow cytometry, and caspase activity was measured with a FLICA dye-based assay. Blood monocytes from obese individuals exhibited elevated caspase activity. To explore the nature and consequence of this activity, human THP1 monocytes were exposed to saturated or unsaturated fatty acids. Caspase activity was revealed by isoform-specific cleavage and enzymatic activity; cytokine expression/release was measured by qPCR and ELISA. Palmitate, but not palmitoleate, increased caspase activity in parallel to the release of IL-1β and IL-18. Palmitate induced eventual monocyte cell death with features of pyroptosis (an inflammation-linked cell death program involving caspase-4/5), scored through LDH release, vital dye influx, cell volume changes, and nuclear morphology. Notably, selective gene silencing or inhibition of caspase-4/5 reduced palmitate-induced release of IL-1β and IL-18. In summary, monocytes from obese individuals present elevated caspase activity. Mechanistically, palmitate activates a pyroptotic program in monocytes through caspase-4/5, causing inflammatory cytokine release, additional to inflammasomes. These caspases represent potential, novel, therapeutic targets to taper obesity-associated inflammation.

  17. Gut microbiota translocation to the pancreatic lymph nodes triggers NOD2 activation and contributes to T1D onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Frederico R.C.; Françozo, Marcela C.S.; de Oliveira, Gabriela G.; Ignacio, Aline; Castoldi, Angela; Zamboni, Dario S.; Ramos, Simone G.; Câmara, Niels O.; de Zoete, Marcel R.; Palm, Noah W.; Flavell, Richard A.; Silva, João S.

    2016-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease that is triggered by both genetic and environmental factors, resulting in the destruction of pancreatic β cells. The disruption of the intestinal epithelial barrier and consequent escape of microbial products may be one of these environmental triggers. However, the immune receptors that are activated in this context remain elusive. We show here that during streptozotocin (STZ)-induced T1D, the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing 2 (NOD2), but not NOD1, participates in the pathogenesis of the disease by inducing T helper 1 (Th1) and Th17 cells in the pancreatic LNs (PLNs) and pancreas. Additionally, STZ-injected wild-type (WT) diabetic mice displayed an altered gut microbiota compared with vehicle-injected WT mice, together with the translocation of bacteria to the PLNs. Interestingly, WT mice treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics (Abx) were fully protected from STZ-induced T1D, which correlated with the abrogation of bacterial translocation to the PLNs. Notably, when Abx-treated STZ-injected WT mice received the NOD2 ligand muramyl dipeptide, both hyperglycemia and the proinflammatory immune response were restored. Our results demonstrate that the recognition of bacterial products by NOD2 inside the PLNs contributes to T1D development, establishing a new putative target for intervention during the early stages of the disease. PMID:27325889

  18. Specifically Formed Corona on Silica Nanoparticles Enhances Transforming Growth Factor β1 Activity in Triggering Lung Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenzhen; Wang, Chunming; Liu, Shang; He, Wei; Wang, Lintao; Gan, JingJing; Huang, Zhen; Wang, Zhenheng; Wei, Haoyang; Zhang, Junfeng; Dong, Lei

    2017-02-28

    A corona is a layer of macromolecules formed on a nanoparticle surface in vivo. It can substantially change the biological identity of nanomaterials and possibly trigger adverse responses from the body tissues. Dissecting the role of the corona in the development of a particular disease may provide profound insights for understanding toxicity of nanomaterials in general. In our present study, we explored the capability of different silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) to induce silicosis in the mouse lung and analyzed the composition of coronas formed on these particles. We found that SiNPs of certain size and surface chemistry could specifically recruit transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) into their corona, which subsequently induces the development of lung fibrosis. Once embedded into the corona on SiNPs, TGF-β1 was remarkably more stable than in its free form, and its fibrosis-triggering activity was significantly prolonged. Our study meaningfully demonstrates that a specific corona component on a certain nanoparticle could initiate a particular pathogenic process in a clinically relevant disease model. Our findings may shed light on the understanding of molecular mechanisms of human health risks correlated with exposure to small-scale substances.

  19. Activated V gamma 9V delta 2 T cells trigger granulocyte functions via MCP-2 release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrati, Chiara; Cimini, Eleonora; Sacchi, Alessandra; Bordoni, Veronica; Gioia, Cristiana; Casetti, Rita; Turchi, Federica; Tripodi, Marco; Martini, Federico

    2009-01-01

    Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells display a broad antimicrobial activity by directly killing infected cells and by inducing an effective adaptive immune response. The activation of Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells by aminobisphosphonate drugs such as zoledronic acid (ZOL) results in a massive release of cytokines and chemokines that may induce a bystander activation of other immune cells. The aim of this work was to evaluate the ability of soluble factors released by ZOL-activated Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells to induce granulocyte activation. We showed that soluble factors released by ZOL-stimulated Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells activate granulocytes by inducing their chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and alpha-defensins release. Proteomic analysis allowed us to identify a number of cytokines and chemokines specifically released by activated Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells. Moreover, MCP-2 depletion by neutralizing Ab revealed a critical role of this chemokine in induction of granulocyte alpha-defensins release. Altogether, these data show a Vgamma9Vdelta2-mediated activation of granulocytes through a bystander mechanism, and confirm the wide ability of Vgamma9Vdelta2 T-lymphocytes in orchestrating the immune response. In conclusion, an immune modulating strategy targeting Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells may represent a key switch to induce an effective and well-coordinated immune response, and can be proposed as a way to strengthen the immune competence during infectious diseases.

  20. Programmed Cell-to-Cell Variability in Ras Activity Triggers Emergent Behaviors during Mammary Epithelial Morphogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S. Liu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Variability in signaling pathway activation between neighboring epithelial cells can arise from local differences in the microenvironment, noisy gene expression, or acquired genetic changes. To investigate the consequences of this cell-to-cell variability in signaling pathway activation on coordinated multicellular processes such as morphogenesis, we use DNA-programmed assembly to construct three-dimensional MCF10A microtissues that are mosaic for low-level expression of activated H-Ras. We find two emergent behaviors in mosaic microtissues: cells with activated H-Ras are basally extruded or lead motile multicellular protrusions that direct the collective motility of their wild-type neighbors. Remarkably, these behaviors are not observed in homogeneous microtissues in which all cells express the activated Ras protein, indicating that heterogeneity in Ras activity, rather than the total amount of Ras activity, is critical for these processes. Our results directly demonstrate that cell-to-cell variability in pathway activation within local populations of epithelial cells can drive emergent behaviors during epithelial morphogenesis.

  1. Nitroreductase-triggered activation of a novel caged fluorescent probe obtained from methylene blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jungeun; McNamara, Louis E; Nael, Manal A; Mahdi, Fakhri; Doerksen, Robert J; Bidwell, Gene L; Hammer, Nathan I; Jo, Seongbong

    2015-08-18

    A near-infrared fluorescent probe based on methylene blue (p-NBMB) was developed for the detection of nitroreductase. Conjugating methylene blue with a p-nitrobenzyl moiety enables it to be activated by nitroreductase-catalyzed 1,6-elimination, resulting in the release of an active methylene blue fluorophore.

  2. The effects of myofascial release with foam rolling on performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Kellie C; Hatfield, Disa L; Blanpied, Peter; Dorfman, Leah R; Riebe, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade, self-myofascial release has become an increasingly common modality to supplement traditional methods of massage, so a masseuse is not necessary. However, there are limited clinical data demonstrating the efficacy or mechanism of this treatment on athletic performance. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the use of myofascial rollers before athletic tests can enhance performance. Twenty-six (13 men and 13 women) healthy college-aged individuals (21.56 ± 2.04 years, 23.97 ± 3.98 body mass index, 20.57 ± 12.21 percent body fat) were recruited. The study design was a randomized crossover design in which subject performed a series of planking exercises or foam rolling exercises and then performed a series of athletic performance tests (vertical jump height and power, isometric force, and agility). Fatigue, soreness, and exertion were also measured. A 2 × 2 (trial × gender) analysis of variance with repeated measures and appropriate post hoc was used to analyze the data. There were no significant differences between foam rolling and planking for all 4 of the athletic tests. However, there was a significant difference between genders on all the athletic tests (p ≤ 0.001). As expected, there were significant increases from pre to post exercise during both trials for fatigue, soreness, and exertion (p ≤ 0.01). Postexercise fatigue after foam rolling was significantly less than after the subjects performed planking (p ≤ 0.05). The reduced feeling of fatigue may allow participants to extend acute workout time and volume, which can lead to chronic performance enhancements. However, foam rolling had no effect on performance.

  3. The effect of dry needling in the treatment of myofascial pain syndrome: a randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekin, Levent; Akarsu, Selim; Durmuş, Oğuz; Cakar, Engin; Dinçer, Umit; Kıralp, Mehmet Zeki

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that dry needling is more effective than sham dry needling in the treatment of myofascial pain syndrome (MPS). This was a prospective, double-blinded, randomized-controlled study conducted in an outpatient clinic. Thirty-nine subjects with established myofascial trigger points were randomized into two groups: study group (N = 22) and placebo group (N = 17). Dry needling was applied using acupuncture needles, and sham dry needling was applied in the placebo group. The treatment was composed of six sessions which were performed in 4 weeks; the first four sessions were performed twice a week (for 2 weeks) and the last two, once a week (for 2 weeks). The visual analog scale (VAS) and Short Form-36 (SF-36) were used. When compared with the initial values, VAS scores of the dry needling group following the first and sixth sessions were significantly lower (p = 0.000 and p pain and in improving the quality of life of patients with MPS.

  4. Zinc-triggered induction of tissue plasminogen activator by brain-derived neurotrophic factor and metalloproteinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ih-Yeon; Sun, Eun-Sun; An, Ji Hak; Im, Hana; Lee, Sun-Ho; Lee, Joo-Yong; Han, Pyung-Lim; Koh, Jae-Young; Kim, Yang-Hee

    2011-09-01

    Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is necessary for hippocampal long-term potentiation. Synaptically released zinc also contributes to long-term potentiation, especially in the hippocampal CA3 region. Using cortical cultures, we examined whether zinc increased the concentration and/or activity of tPA. Two hours after a 10-min exposure to 300 μM zinc, expression of tPA and its substrate, plasminogen, were significantly increased, as was the proteolytic activity of tPA. In contrast, increasing extracellular or intracellular calcium levels did not affect the expression or secretion of tPA. Changing zinc influx or chelating intracellular zinc also failed to alter tPA/plasminogen induction by zinc, indicating that zinc acts extracellularly. Zinc-mediated extracellular activation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) underlies the up-regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tropomyosin receptor kinase (Trk) signaling. Consistent with these findings, co-treatment with a neutralizing antibody against BDNF or specific inhibitors of MMPs or Trk largely reversed tPA/plasminogen induction by zinc. Treatment of cortical cultures with p-aminophenylmercuric acetate, an MMP activator, MMP-2, or BDNF alone induced tPA/plasminogen expression. BDNF mRNA and protein expression was also increased by zinc and mediated by MMPs. Thus, an extracellular zinc-dependent, MMP- and BDNF-mediated synaptic mechanism may regulate the levels and activity of tPA.

  5. Triggering Klystrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan, Kelton D.; /Purdue U. /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    To determine if klystrons will perform to the specifications of the LCLS (Linac Coherent Light Source) project, a new digital trigger controller is needed for the Klystron/Microwave Department Test Laboratory. The controller needed to be programmed and Windows based user interface software needed to be written to interface with the device over a USB (Universal Serial Bus). Programming the device consisted of writing logic in VHDL (VHSIC (Very High Speed Integrated Circuits) hardware description language), and the Windows interface software was written in C++. Xilinx ISE (Integrated Software Environment) was used to compile the VHDL code and program the device, and Microsoft Visual Studio 2005 was used to compile the C++ based Windows software. The device was programmed in such a way as to easily allow read/write operations to it using a simple addressing model, and Windows software was developed to interface with the device over a USB connection. A method of setting configuration registers in the trigger device is absolutely necessary to the development of a new triggering system, and the method developed will fulfill this need adequately. More work is needed before the new trigger system is ready for use. The configuration registers in the device need to be fully integrated with the logic that will generate the RF signals, and this system will need to be tested extensively to determine if it meets the requirements for low noise trigger outputs.

  6. MALT1-ubiquitination triggers non-genomic NF-κB/IKK signaling upon platelet activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Zubair A; Vemana, Hari Priya; Khasawneh, Fadi T

    2015-01-01

    We have recently shown that IKK complex plays an important non-genomic role in platelet function, i.e., regulates SNARE machinery-dependent membrane fusion. In this connection, it is well known that MALT1, whose activity is modulated by proteasome, plays an important role in the regulation of IKK complex. Therefore, the present studies investigated the mechanism by which IKK signaling is regulated in the context of the platelet proteasome. It was found that platelets express a functional proteasome, and form CARMA/MALT1/Bcl10 (CBM) complex when activated. Using a pharmacological inhibitor, the proteasome was found to regulate platelet function (aggregation, integrin activation, secretion, phosphatidylserine exposure and changes in intracellular calcium). It was also found to regulate thrombogenesis and physiologic hemostasis. We also observed, upon platelet activation, that MALT1 is ubiquitinated, and this coincides with the activation of the IKK/NF-κB-signaling pathway. Finally, we observed that the proteasome inhibitor blocks CBM complex formation and the interaction of IKKγ and MALT1; abrogates SNARE formation, and the association of MALT1 with TAK1 and TAB2, which are upstream of the CBM complex. Thus, our data demonstrate that MALT1 ubiquitination is critical for the engagement of CBM and IKK complexes, thereby directing platelet signals to the NF-κB pathway.

  7. MALT1-ubiquitination triggers non-genomic NF-κB/IKK signaling upon platelet activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubair A Karim

    Full Text Available We have recently shown that IKK complex plays an important non-genomic role in platelet function, i.e., regulates SNARE machinery-dependent membrane fusion. In this connection, it is well known that MALT1, whose activity is modulated by proteasome, plays an important role in the regulation of IKK complex. Therefore, the present studies investigated the mechanism by which IKK signaling is regulated in the context of the platelet proteasome. It was found that platelets express a functional proteasome, and form CARMA/MALT1/Bcl10 (CBM complex when activated. Using a pharmacological inhibitor, the proteasome was found to regulate platelet function (aggregation, integrin activation, secretion, phosphatidylserine exposure and changes in intracellular calcium. It was also found to regulate thrombogenesis and physiologic hemostasis. We also observed, upon platelet activation, that MALT1 is ubiquitinated, and this coincides with the activation of the IKK/NF-κB-signaling pathway. Finally, we observed that the proteasome inhibitor blocks CBM complex formation and the interaction of IKKγ and MALT1; abrogates SNARE formation, and the association of MALT1 with TAK1 and TAB2, which are upstream of the CBM complex. Thus, our data demonstrate that MALT1 ubiquitination is critical for the engagement of CBM and IKK complexes, thereby directing platelet signals to the NF-κB pathway.

  8. Angioma em tufo e síndrome dolorosa miofascial Tufted angioma and myofascial pain syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Souto da Silva

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available O Angioma em tufo é considerado um raro tumor vascular cutâneo adquirido. Caracteriza-se por máculas purpúrico-violáceas, dolorosas que podem evoluir para placas com pápulas angiomatosas. Tem natureza benigna, mas o envolvimento extenso é comum, gerando alteração funcional do membro afetado em caso de dor. Os autores relatam um caso de angioma em tufo associado à síndrome dolorosa miofascial, em que o elemento predisponente foi a presença deste tumor desde a infância. A dor local prejudicou a utilização da musculatura e possibilitou o surgimento da síndrome relatada. A realização de bloqueio anestésico de pontos-gatilhos no membro afetado, levou à melhora total dos sintomas.Tufted angioma is a rare acquired vascular tumor. It is characterized by painful purplish macules that may progress to plaques containing angiomatous papules. The condition is benign; however, it often affects extensive areas of the skin, leading to functional disability of the affected limb if painful. The present report describes a case of a tufted angioma associated with myofascial pain syndrome in which the predisposing element was the presence of this tumor since childhood. Pain at the site of the lesion affected muscle use and led to the onset of the associated syndrome. Complete relief from symptoms was achieved by blocking the trigger points of the affected limb with anesthesia.

  9. Direct monitoring of the strand passage reaction of DNA topoisomerase II triggers checkpoint activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine L Furniss

    Full Text Available By necessity, the ancient activity of type II topoisomerases co-evolved with the double-helical structure of DNA, at least in organisms with circular genomes. In humans, the strand passage reaction of DNA topoisomerase II (Topo II is the target of several major classes of cancer drugs which both poison Topo II and activate cell cycle checkpoint controls. It is important to know the cellular effects of molecules that target Topo II, but the mechanisms of checkpoint activation that respond to Topo II dysfunction are not well understood. Here, we provide evidence that a checkpoint mechanism monitors the strand passage reaction of Topo II. In contrast, cells do not become checkpoint arrested in the presence of the aberrant DNA topologies, such as hyper-catenation, that arise in the absence of Topo II activity. An overall reduction in Topo II activity (i.e. slow strand passage cycles does not activate the checkpoint, but specific defects in the T-segment transit step of the strand passage reaction do induce a cell cycle delay. Furthermore, the cell cycle delay depends on the divergent and catalytically inert C-terminal region of Topo II, indicating that transmission of a checkpoint signal may occur via the C-terminus. Other, well characterized, mitotic checkpoints detect DNA lesions or monitor unattached kinetochores; these defects arise via failures in a variety of cell processes. In contrast, we have described the first example of a distinct category of checkpoint mechanism that monitors the catalytic cycle of a single specific enzyme in order to determine when chromosome segregation can proceed faithfully.

  10. Small molecule activators of SIRT1 replicate signaling pathways triggered by calorie restriction in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavu Siva

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Calorie restriction (CR produces a number of health benefits and ameliorates diseases of aging such as type 2 diabetes. The components of the pathways downstream of CR may provide intervention points for developing therapeutics for treating diseases of aging. The NAD+-dependent protein deacetylase SIRT1 has been implicated as one of the key downstream regulators of CR in yeast, rodents, and humans. Small molecule activators of SIRT1 have been identified that exhibit efficacy in animal models of diseases typically associated with aging including type 2 diabetes. To identify molecular processes induced in the liver of mice treated with two structurally distinct SIRT1 activators, SIRT501 (formulated resveratrol and SRT1720, for three days, we utilized a systems biology approach and applied Causal Network Modeling (CNM on gene expression data to elucidate downstream effects of SIRT1 activation. Results Here we demonstrate that SIRT1 activators recapitulate many of the molecular events downstream of CR in vivo, such as enhancing mitochondrial biogenesis, improving metabolic signaling pathways, and blunting pro-inflammatory pathways in mice fed a high fat, high calorie diet. Conclusion CNM of gene expression data from mice treated with SRT501 or SRT1720 in combination with supporting in vitro and in vivo data demonstrates that SRT501 and SRT1720 produce a signaling profile that mirrors CR, improves glucose and insulin homeostasis, and acts via SIRT1 activation in vivo. Taken together these results are encouraging regarding the use of small molecule activators of SIRT1 for therapeutic intervention into type 2 diabetes, a strategy which is currently being investigated in multiple clinical trials.

  11. In Vitro Selection for Small-Molecule-Triggered Strand Displacement and Riboswitch Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Laura; Meyer, Adam J; Ellefson, Jared W; Milligan, John N; Forlin, Michele; Ellington, Andrew D; Mansy, Sheref S

    2015-10-16

    An in vitro selection method for ligand-responsive RNA sensors was developed that exploited strand displacement reactions. The RNA library was based on the thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) riboswitch, and RNA sequences capable of hybridizing to a target duplex DNA in a TPP regulated manner were identified. After three rounds of selection, RNA molecules that mediated a strand exchange reaction upon TPP binding were enriched. The enriched sequences also showed riboswitch activity. Our results demonstrated that small-molecule-responsive nucleic acid sensors can be selected to control the activity of target nucleic acid circuitry.

  12. Curcumin Triggers p16-Dependent Senescence in Active Breast Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts and Suppresses Their Paracrine Procarcinogenic Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti-Fauziah Hendrayani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Activated cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs or myofibroblasts not only facilitate tumor growth and spread but also affect tumor response to therapeutic agents. Therefore, it became clear that efficient therapeutic regimens should also take into account the presence of these supportive cells and inhibit their paracrine effects. To this end, we tested the effect of low concentrations of curcumin, a pharmacologically safe natural product, on patient-derived primary breast CAF cells. We have shown that curcumin treatment upregulates p16INK4A and other tumor suppressor proteins while inactivates the JAK2/STAT3 pathway. This reduced the level of alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA and the migration/invasion abilities of these cells. Furthermore, curcumin suppressed the expression/secretion of stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1, interleukin-6 (IL-6, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2, MMP-9, and transforming growth factor-β, which impeded their paracrine procarcinogenic potential. Intriguingly, these effects were sustained even after curcumin withdrawal and cell splitting. Therefore, using different markers of senescence [senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal activity, Ki-67 and Lamin B1 levels, and bromodeoxyuridine incorporation], we have shown that curcumin markedly suppresses Lamin B1 and triggers DNA damage-independent senescence in proliferating but not quiescent breast stromal fibroblasts. Importantly, this curcumin-related senescence was p16INK4A-dependent and occurred with no associated inflammatory secretory phenotype. These results indicate the possible inactivation of cancer-associated myofibroblasts and present the first indication that curcumin can trigger DNA damage-independent and safe senescence in stromal fibroblasts.

  13. Hormone activities and the cell cycle machinery in immunity-triggered growth inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, M U; Gifford, M L; Schäfer, P

    2015-04-01

    Biotic stress and diseases caused by pathogen attack pose threats in crop production and significantly reduce crop yields. Enhancing immunity against pathogens is therefore of outstanding importance in crop breeding. However, this must be balanced, as immune activation inhibits plant growth. This immunity-coupled growth trade-off does not support resistance but is postulated to reflect the reallocation of resources to drive immunity. There is, however, increasing evidence that growth-immunity trade-offs are based on the reconfiguration of hormone pathways, shared by growth and immunity signalling. Studies in roots revealed the role of hormones in orchestrating growth across different cell types, with some hormones showing a defined cell type-specific activity. This is apparently highly relevant for the regulation of the cell cycle machinery and might be part of the growth-immunity cross-talk. Since plants are constantly exposed to Immuno-activating microbes under agricultural conditions, the transition from a growth to an immunity operating mode can significantly reduce crop yield and can conflict our efforts to generate next-generation crops with improved yield under climate change conditions. By focusing on roots, we outline the current knowledge of hormone signalling on the cell cycle machinery to explain growth trade-offs induced by immunity. By referring to abiotic stress studies, we further introduce how root cell type-specific hormone activities might contribute to growth under immunity and discuss the feasibility of uncoupling the growth-immunity cross-talk.

  14. One-way membrane trafficking of SOS in receptor-triggered Ras activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Sune M; Tu, Hsiung-Lin; Jun, Jesse E; Alvarez, Steven; Triplet, Meredith G; Iwig, Jeffrey S; Yadav, Kamlesh K; Bar-Sagi, Dafna; Roose, Jeroen P; Groves, Jay T

    2016-09-01

    SOS is a key activator of the small GTPase Ras. In cells, SOS-Ras signaling is thought to be initiated predominantly by membrane recruitment of SOS via the adaptor Grb2 and balanced by rapidly reversible Grb2-SOS binding kinetics. However, SOS has multiple protein and lipid interactions that provide linkage to the membrane. In reconstituted-membrane experiments, these Grb2-independent interactions were sufficient to retain human SOS on the membrane for many minutes, during which a single SOS molecule could processively activate thousands of Ras molecules. These observations raised questions concerning how receptors maintain control of SOS in cells and how membrane-recruited SOS is ultimately released. We addressed these questions in quantitative assays of reconstituted SOS-deficient chicken B-cell signaling systems combined with single-molecule measurements in supported membranes. These studies revealed an essentially one-way trafficking process in which membrane-recruited SOS remains trapped on the membrane and continuously activates Ras until being actively removed via endocytosis.

  15. The number of active trigger points is associated with disability and anxiety in tension type headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palacios-Cena, M.; Ambite-Quesada, S.; Ordas-Bandera, C.

    2015-01-01

    receptor was highly expressed in trigeminal ganglion and dorsal rootganglion. MK-0524 significantly (62%, pp-ERK protein level was observed in the TVS after infusion of PG mix in awake rats. Neuronal activation markers, cFOS and EGR-1, were...

  16. Complement activation cascade triggered by PEG-PL engineered nanomedicines and carbon nanotubes: The challenges ahead

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghimi, S.M.; Andersen, Alina Joukainen; Hashemi, S.H.

    2010-01-01

    reactions to certain PEG-PL engineered nanomedicines in both experimental animals and man. These reactions are classified as pseudoallergy and may be associated with cardiopulmonary disturbance and other related symptoms of anaphylaxis. Recent studies suggest that complement activation may be a contributing...

  17. Inferior Frontal Gyrus Activity Triggers Anterior Insula Response to Emotional Facial Expressions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jabbi, Mbemba; Keysers, Christian

    2008-01-01

    The observation of movies of facial expressions of others has been shown to recruit similar areas involved in experiencing one's own emotions: the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). the anterior insula and adjacent frontal operculum (IFO). The Causal link bet between activity in these 2 regions, associat

  18. Phosphate-Activated Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Stabilizes G1 Cyclin To Trigger Cell Cycle Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menoyo, S.; Ricco, N.; Bru, S.; Hernández-Ortega, S.; Escoté, X.; Aldea, M.

    2013-01-01

    G1 cyclins, in association with a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK), are universal activators of the transcriptional G1-S machinery during entry into the cell cycle. Regulation of cyclin degradation is crucial for coordinating progression through the cell cycle, but the mechanisms that modulate cyclin stability to control cell cycle entry are still unknown. Here, we show that a lack of phosphate downregulates Cln3 cyclin and leads to G1 arrest in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The stability of Cln3 protein is diminished in strains with low activity of Pho85, a phosphate-sensing CDK. Cln3 is an in vitro substrate of Pho85, and both proteins interact in vivo. More interestingly, cells that carry a CLN3 allele encoding aspartic acid substitutions at the sites of Pho85 phosphorylation maintain high levels of Cln3 independently of Pho85 activity. Moreover, these cells do not properly arrest in G1 in the absence of phosphate and they die prematurely. Finally, the activity of Pho85 is essential for accumulating Cln3 and for reentering the cell cycle after phosphate refeeding. Taken together, our data indicate that Cln3 is a molecular target of the Pho85 kinase that is required to modulate cell cycle entry in response to environmental changes in nutrient availability. PMID:23339867

  19. Compression on trigger points in the leg muscle increases parasympathetic nervous activity based on heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamoto, Kohichi; Sakai, Shigekazu; Hori, Etsuro; Urakawa, Susumu; Umeno, Katsumi; Ono, Taketoshi; Nishijo, Hisao

    2009-05-01

    Massotherapy, the therapeutic use of massage, is used to treat various chronic pain syndromes. One type of massotherapy, pressure stimulus applied over trigger points (TPs), is reported to have excellent therapeutic effects. Its effect is possibly mediated through changes in the autonomic nervous system although little research has been conducted to assess autonomic activity during TP compression. We have investigated how compression applied over TPs affects the autonomic nervous system. Six healthy young adult females whose daily working routine was carried out predominantly in a standing position were enrolled in the study cohort. After a day's work, the subjects were asked to rest supine, and electrocardiograms (ECGs), instantaneous lung volume (ILV) and systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP, DBP) were measured before and after pressure application over the TPs in those lower limb muscles where the subjects felt muscle fatigue or discomfort. The subjects were also asked to coordinate breathing with the beeping sounds. The therapeutic effects of TP compression were assessed by a subjective fatigue scale. Parasympathetic nervous activity was also assessed by spectral analysis of heart rate (HR) variability. The transfer function from ILV to HR was evaluated using linear analysis. The results indicated that TP compression (1) decreased HR, SBP and DBP, (2) increased parasympathetic activity, (3) increased the gain from ILV to HR, and (4) improved the fatigue scores. These findings suggest that an increase in parasympathetic nervous activity after the TP compression induced a reduction of fatigue. The therapeutic mechanisms of TP compression to enhance parasympathetic nervous system are discussed.

  20. Activation of the cold-sensing TRPM8 channel triggers UCP1-dependent thermogenesis and prevents obesity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuangtao Ma; Zhenyu Zhu; Li Li; Jian Zhong; Daoyan Liu; Bernd Nilius; Zhiming Zhu; Hao Yu; Zhigang Zhao; Zhidan Luo; Jing Chen; Yinxing Ni; Rongbing Jin; Liqun Ma; Peijian Wang

    2012-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is an energy-expending organ that produces heat.Expansion or activation of BAT prevents obesity and diabetes.Chronic cold exposure enhances thermogenesis in BAT through uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) activation triggered via a β-adrenergic pathway.Here,we report that the cold-sensing transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) is functionally present In mouse BAT.Challenging brown adipocytes with menthol,a TRPM8 agonist,up-regulates UCP1 expression and requires protein kinase A activation.Upon mimicking long-term cold exposure with chronic dietary menthol application,menthol significantly increased the core temperatures and locomotor activity in wild-type mice; these effects were absent in both TRPM8-/- and UCP1-/- mice.Dietary obesity and glucose abnormalities were also prevented by menthol treatment.Our results reveal a previously unrecognized role for TRPM8,suggesting that stimulation of this channel mediates BAT thermogenesis,which could constitute a promising way to treat obesity.

  1. Same molecule but different expression: aging and sepsis trigger NLRP3 inflammasome activation, a target of melatonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volt, Huayqui; García, José A; Doerrier, Carolina; Díaz-Casado, María E; Guerra-Librero, Ana; López, Luis C; Escames, Germaine; Tresguerres, Jesús A; Acuña-Castroviejo, Darío

    2016-03-01

    The connection between the innate immune system, clock genes, and mitochondrial bioenergetics was analyzed during aging and sepsis in mouse heart. Our results suggest that the sole NF-κB activation does not explain the inflammatory process underlying aging; the former also triggers the NLRP3 inflammasome that enhances caspase-1-dependent maturation of IL-1β. In this way, aged mice enter into a vicious cycle as IL-1β further activates the NF-κB/NLRP3 inflammasome link. The origin of NF-κB activation was related to the age-dependent Bmal1/Clock/RORα/Rev-Erbα loop disruption, which lowers NAD(+) levels, reducing the SIRT1 deacetylase ability to inactivate NF-κB. Consequently, NF-κB binding to DNA increases, raising the formation of proinflammatory mediators and inducing mitochondrial impairment. The cycle is then closed with the subsequent NLRP3 inflammasome activation. This paired contribution of the innate immune pathways serves as a catalyst to magnify the response to sepsis in aged compared with young mice. Melatonin administration blunted the septic response, reducing inflammation and oxidative stress, and enhancing mitochondrial function at the levels of nonseptic aged mice, but it did not counteract the age-related inflammation. Together, our results suggest that, although with different strengths, chronoinflammaging constitutes the biochemical substrate of aging and sepsis, and identifies the NLRP3 inflammasome as a new molecular target for melatonin, providing a rationale for its use in NLRP3-dependent diseases.

  2. Activation and interruption of the reproduction of Varroa destructor is triggered by host signals (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Eva; Odemer, Richard; Blum, Thomas; Rosenkranz, Peter

    2013-05-01

    The reproductive cycle of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor is closely linked to the development of the honey bee host larvae. Using a within colony approach we introduced phoretic Varroa females into brood cells of different age in order to analyze the capacity of certain stages of the honey bee larva to either activate or interrupt the reproduction of Varroa females. Only larvae within 18 h (worker) and 36 h (drones), respectively, after cell capping were able to stimulate the mite's oogenesis. Therewith we could specify for the first time the short time window where honey bee larvae provide the signals for the activation of the Varroa reproduction. Stage specific volatiles of the larval cuticle are at least part of these activation signals. This is confirmed by the successful stimulation of presumably non-reproducing mites to oviposition by the application of a larval extract into the sealed brood cells. According to preliminary quantitative GC-MS analysis we suggest certain fatty acid ethyl esters as candidate compounds. If Varroa females that have just started with egg formation are transferred to brood cells containing host larvae of an elder stage two-thirds of these mites stopped their oogenesis. This confirms the presence of an additional signal in the host larvae allowing the reproducing mites to adjust their own reproductive cycle to the ontogenetic development of the host. From an adaptive point of view that sort of a stop signal enables the female mite to save resources for a next reproductive cycle if the own egg development is not sufficiently synchronized with the development of the host. The results presented here offer the opportunity to analyze exactly those host stages that have the capacity to activate or interrupt the Varroa reproduction in order to identify the crucial host signals.

  3. Laminin α2-mediated focal adhesion kinase activation triggers Alport glomerular pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delimont, Duane; Dufek, Brianna M; Meehan, Daniel T; Zallocchi, Marisa; Gratton, Michael Anne; Phillips, Grady; Cosgrove, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    It has been known for some time that laminins containing α1 and α2 chains, which are normally restricted to the mesangial matrix, accumulate in the glomerular basement membranes (GBM) of Alport mice, dogs, and humans. We show that laminins containing the α2 chain, but not those containing the α1 chain activates focal adhesion kinase (FAK) on glomerular podocytes in vitro and in vivo. CD151-null mice, which have weakened podocyte adhesion to the GBM rendering these mice more susceptible to biomechanical strain in the glomerulus, also show progressive accumulation of α2 laminins in the GBM, and podocyte FAK activation. Analysis of glomerular mRNA from both models demonstrates significant induction of MMP-9, MMP-10, MMP-12, MMPs linked to GBM destruction in Alport disease models, as well as the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6. SiRNA knockdown of FAK in cultured podocytes significantly reduced expression of MMP-9, MMP-10 and IL-6, but not MMP-12. Treatment of Alport mice with TAE226, a small molecule inhibitor of FAK activation, ameliorated fibrosis and glomerulosclerosis, significantly reduced proteinuria and blood urea nitrogen levels, and partially restored GBM ultrastructure. Glomerular expression of MMP-9, MMP-10 and MMP-12 mRNAs was significantly reduced in TAE226 treated animals. Collectively, this work identifies laminin α2-mediated FAK activation in podocytes as an important early event in Alport glomerular pathogenesis and suggests that FAK inhibitors, if safe formulations can be developed, might be employed as a novel therapeutic approach for treating Alport renal disease in its early stages.

  4. Breathing of heliospheric structures triggered by the solar-cycle activity

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    K. Scherer

    Full Text Available Solar wind ram pressure variations occuring within the solar activity cycle are communicated to the outer heliosphere as complicated time-variabilities, but repeating its typical form with the activity period of about 11 years. At outer heliospheric regions, the main surviving solar cycle feature is a periodic variation of the solar wind dynamical pressure or momentum flow, as clearly recognized by observations of the VOYAGER-1/2 space probes. This long-periodic variation of the solar wind dynamical pressure is modeled here through application of appropriately time-dependent inner boundary conditions within our multifluid code to describe the solar wind – interstellar medium interaction. As we can show, it takes several solar cycles until the heliospheric structures adapt to an average location about which they carry out a periodic breathing, however, lagged in phase with respect to the solar cycle. The dynamically active heliosphere behaves differently from a static heliosphere and especially shows a historic hysteresis in the sense that the shock structures move out to larger distances than explained by the average ram pressure. Obviously, additional energies are pumped into the heliosheath by means of density and pressure waves which are excited. These waves travel outwards through the interface from the termination shock towards the bow shock. Depending on longitude, the heliospheric sheath region memorizes 2–3 (upwind and up to 6–7 (downwind preceding solar activity cycles, i.e. the cycle-induced waves need corresponding travel times for the passage over the heliosheath. Within our multifluid code we also adequately describe the solar cycle variations in the energy distributions of anomalous and galactic cosmic rays, respectively. According to these results the distribution of these high energetic species cannot be correctly described on the basis of the actually prevailing solar wind conditions.

    Key words. Interplanetary

  5. Laminin α2-mediated focal adhesion kinase activation triggers Alport glomerular pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duane Delimont

    Full Text Available It has been known for some time that laminins containing α1 and α2 chains, which are normally restricted to the mesangial matrix, accumulate in the glomerular basement membranes (GBM of Alport mice, dogs, and humans. We show that laminins containing the α2 chain, but not those containing the α1 chain activates focal adhesion kinase (FAK on glomerular podocytes in vitro and in vivo. CD151-null mice, which have weakened podocyte adhesion to the GBM rendering these mice more susceptible to biomechanical strain in the glomerulus, also show progressive accumulation of α2 laminins in the GBM, and podocyte FAK activation. Analysis of glomerular mRNA from both models demonstrates significant induction of MMP-9, MMP-10, MMP-12, MMPs linked to GBM destruction in Alport disease models, as well as the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6. SiRNA knockdown of FAK in cultured podocytes significantly reduced expression of MMP-9, MMP-10 and IL-6, but not MMP-12. Treatment of Alport mice with TAE226, a small molecule inhibitor of FAK activation, ameliorated fibrosis and glomerulosclerosis, significantly reduced proteinuria and blood urea nitrogen levels, and partially restored GBM ultrastructure. Glomerular expression of MMP-9, MMP-10 and MMP-12 mRNAs was significantly reduced in TAE226 treated animals. Collectively, this work identifies laminin α2-mediated FAK activation in podocytes as an important early event in Alport glomerular pathogenesis and suggests that FAK inhibitors, if safe formulations can be developed, might be employed as a novel therapeutic approach for treating Alport renal disease in its early stages.

  6. Helicobacter pylori CagA triggers expression of the bactericidal lectin REG3γ via gastric STAT3 activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Syin Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most of what is known about the Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori cytotoxin, CagA, pertains to a much-vaunted role as a determinant of gastric inflammation and cancer. Little attention has been devoted to potential roles of CagA in the majority of H. pylori infected individuals not showing oncogenic progression, particularly in relation to host tolerance. Regenerating islet-derived (REG3γ encodes a secreted C-type lectin that exerts direct bactericidal activity against Gram-positive bacteria in the intestine. Here, we extend this paradigm of lectin-mediated innate immunity, showing that REG3γ expression is triggered by CagA in the H. pylori-infected stomach. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In human gastric mucosal tissues, REG3γ expression was significantly increased in CagA-positive, compared to CagA-negative H. pylori infected individuals. Using transfected CagA-inducible gastric MKN28 cells, we recapitulated REG3γ induction in vitro, also showing that tyrosine phosphorylated, not unphosphorylated CagA triggers REG3γ transcription. In concert with induced REG3γ, pro-inflammatory signalling downstream of the gp130 cytokine co-receptor via the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT3 and transcription of two cognate ligands, interleukin(IL-11 and IL-6, were significantly increased. Exogenous IL-11, but not IL-6, directly stimulated STAT3 activation and REG3γ transcription. STAT3 siRNA knockdown or IL-11 receptor blockade respectively abrogated or subdued CagA-dependent REG3γ mRNA induction, thus demonstrating a requirement for uncompromised signalling via the IL-11/STAT3 pathway. Inhibition of the gp130-related SHP2-(Ras-ERK pathway did not affect CagA-dependent REG3γ induction, but strengthened STAT3 activation as well as augmenting transcription of mucosal innate immune regulators, IL-6, IL-8 and interferon-response factor (IRF1. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results support a model of CagA-directed REG3

  7. Myofascial force transmission also occurs between antagonistic muscles located within opposite compartments of the rat lower hind limb

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijkelijkhuizen, Josina M.; Meijer, Hanneke J.M; Baan, Guus C.; Huijing, Peter A.

    2007-01-01

    Force transmission via pathways other than myotendinous ones, is referred to as myofascial force transmission. The present study shows that myofascial force transmission occurs not only between adjacent synergistic muscles or antagonistic muscles in adjacent compartments, but also between most dista

  8. Myofascial force transmission between antagonistic rat lower limb muscles: Effects of single muscle or muscle group lengthening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Hanneke J.M; Rijkelijkhuizen, Josina M.; Huijing, Peter A.

    2007-01-01

    Effects of lengthening of the whole group of anterior crural muscles (tibialis anterior and extensor hallucis longus muscles (TA + EHL) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL)) on myofascial interaction between synergistic EDL and TA + EHL muscles, and on myofascial force transmission between anterior c

  9. Muscle Repositioning: a new verifiable approach to neuro-myofascial release?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolucci, Luiz Fernando

    2008-07-01

    The clinical observation of involuntary motor activity during application of a particular style of myofascial release (Muscle Repositioning-MR) has led to the hypothesis that this technique might evoke neurological reactions. Preliminary EMG recordings presented here show involuntary tonic cervical erector action during MR. Involuntary eye movements were also observed. This article presents these experimental data, along with clinical observations during the application of MR in the treatment of musculoskeletal conditions. The author hypothesizes that MR might constitute a novel manual technique: it produces unique palpatory sensations for the practitioner (e.g., a sense of firmness to the touch and the integration of bodily segments into a single block) that correspond to unique sensory experiences for the client. The article raises the possibility that MR's specific sensory input might activate the central nervous system, thus eliciting neural reactions. These reactions, in turn, might be related to the technique's efficacy. As the EMG objectively measures reactions contemporaneous with subjective palpatory phenomena, MR potentially brings the objective and subjective into congruence. EMG monitoring of touch could serve as an objective criterion in the development of treatment protocols, as well as a feedback tool for teaching. Greater objectivity, precision and reproducibility are all possible outcomes of such an approach. The author believes that MR can be used in various therapeutic settings--either as the principal approach, or as an adjunct to a variety of other approaches.

  10. The lack of autophagy triggers precocious activation of Notch signaling during Drosophila oogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barth Julia MI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The proper balance of autophagy, a lysosome-mediated degradation process, is indispensable for oogenesis in Drosophila. We recently demonstrated that egg development depends on autophagy in the somatic follicle cells (FC, but not in the germline cells (GCs. However, the lack of autophagy only affects oogenesis when FCs are autophagy-deficient but GCs are wild type, indicating that a dysfunctional signaling between soma and germline may be responsible for the oogenesis defects. Thus, autophagy could play an essential role in modulating signal transduction pathways during egg development. Results Here, we provide further evidence for the necessity of autophagy during oogenesis and demonstrate that autophagy is especially required in subsets of FCs. Generation of autophagy-deficient FCs leads to a wide range of phenotypes that are similar to mutants with defects in the classical cell-cell signaling pathways in the ovary. Interestingly, we observe that loss of autophagy leads to a precocious activation of the Notch pathway in the FCs as monitored by the expression of Cut and Hindsight, two downstream effectors of Notch signaling. Conclusion Our findings point to an unexpected function for autophagy in the modulation of the Notch signaling pathway during Drosophila oogenesis and suggest a function for autophagy in proper receptor activation. Egg development is affected by an imbalance of autophagy between signal sending (germline and signal receiving cell (FC, thus the lack of autophagy in the germline is likely to decrease the amount of active ligand and accordingly compensates for increased signaling in autophagy-defective follicle cells.

  11. Does Cluster Policy Trigger R&D Activity? – Evidence from German Biotech Contests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engel, Dirk; Mitze, Timo; Patuelli, Roberto

    This paper evaluates the R&D enhancing effects of two large public grant schemes for the German biotechnology industry (BioRegio, BioProfi le). Both grant schemes are organized in the form of contents for cooperation with the goal to foster the performance of innovative firms by their organizatio...... to a mobilization of local actors during the application phase could be detected. Finally, first attempts in estimating the long-term effects of the contests for cooperation approach on the winner regions’ R&D activity in the post-treatment period show ambiguous results....

  12. Immunological Demyelination Triggers Macrophage/Microglial Cells Activation without Inducing Astrogliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Cloutier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The glial scar formed by reactive astrocytes and axon growth inhibitors associated with myelin play important roles in the failure of axonal regeneration following central nervous system (CNS injury. Our laboratory has previously demonstrated that immunological demyelination of the CNS facilitates regeneration of severed axons following spinal cord injury. In the present study, we evaluate whether immunological demyelination is accompanied with astrogliosis. We compared the astrogliosis and macrophage/microglial cell responses 7 days after either immunological demyelination or a stab injury to the dorsal funiculus. Both lesions induced a strong activated macrophage/microglial cells response which was significantly higher within regions of immunological demyelination. However, immunological demyelination regions were not accompanied by astrogliosis compared to stab injury that induced astrogliosis which extended several millimeters above and below the lesions, evidenced by astroglial hypertrophy, formation of a glial scar, and upregulation of intermediate filaments glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP. Moreover, a stab or a hemisection lesion directly within immunological demyelination regions did not induced astrogliosis within the immunological demyelination region. These results suggest that immunological demyelination creates a unique environment in which astrocytes do not form a glial scar and provides a unique model to understand the putative interaction between astrocytes and activated macrophage/microglial cells.

  13. Expression and activity of eIF6 trigger Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma growth in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesce, Elisa; Mutti, Luciano; Murer, Bruno; Grosso, Stefano; Ricciardi, Sara; Brina, Daniela; Biffo, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    eIF6 is an antiassociation factor that regulates the availability of active 80S. Its activation is driven by the RACK1/PKCβ axis, in a mTORc1 independent manner. We previously described that eIF6 haploinsufficiency causes a striking survival in the Eμ-Myc mouse lymphoma model, with lifespans extended up to 18 months. Here we screen for eIF6 expression in human cancers. We show that Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma tumors (MPM) and a MPM cell line (REN cells) contain high levels of hyperphosphorylated eIF6. Enzastaurin is a PKC beta inhibitor used in clinical trials. We prove that Enzastaurin treatment decreases eIF6 phosphorylation rate, but not eIF6 protein stability. The growth of REN, in vivo, and metastasis are reduced by either Enzastaurin treatment or eIF6 shRNA. Molecular analysis reveals that eIF6 manipulation affects the metabolic status of malignant mesothelioma cells. Less glycolysis and less ATP content are evident in REN cells depleted for eIF6 or treated with Enzastaurin (Anti-Warburg effect). We propose that eIF6 is necessary for malignant mesothelioma growth, in vivo, and can be targeted by kinase inhibitors. PMID:26462016

  14. Scalene myofascial pain syndrome mimicking cervical disc prolapse: a report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Jalil, Nizar; Awang, Mohammad Saufi; Omar, Mahamarowi

    2010-01-01

    Scalene myofascial pain syndrome is a regional pain syndrome wherein pain originates over the neck area and radiates down to the arm. This condition may present as primary or secondary to underlying cervical pathology. Although scalene myofascial pain syndrome is a well known medical entity, it is often misdiagnosed as being some other neck pain associated with radiculopathy, such as cervical disc prolapse, cervical spinal stenosis and thoracic outlet syndrome. Because scalene myofascial pain syndrome mimics cervical radiculopathy, this condition often leads to mismanagement, which can, in turn, result in persistent pain and suffering. In the worst-case scenarios, patients may be subjected to unjustifiable surgical intervention. Because the clinical findings in scalene myofascial pain syndrome are "pathognomonic", clinicians should be aware of ways to recognize this disorder and be able to differentiate it from other conditions that present with neck pain and rediculopathy. We present two cases of unilateral scalene myofascial pain syndrome that significantly impaired the patients' functioning and quality of life. This case report serves to create awareness about the existence of the syndrome and to highlight the potential morbidity due to clinical misdiagnosis.

  15. Molecular hydrogen inhibits lipopolysaccharide-triggered NLRP3 inflammasome activation in macrophages by targeting the mitochondrial reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jian-Dong; Wu, Xiao-Bo; Jiang, Rui; Hao, Da-Peng; Liu, Yi

    2016-01-01

    The NLRP3 inflammasome, an intracellular multi-protein complex controlling the maturation of cytokine interleukin-1β, plays an important role in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory cascades. Recently, the production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) in macrophages stimulated with LPS has been suggested to act as a trigger during the process of NLRP3 inflammasome activation that can be blocked by some mitochondria-targeted antioxidants. Known as a ROS scavenger, molecular hydrogen (H2) has been shown to possess therapeutic benefit on LPS-induced inflammatory damage in many animal experiments. Due to the unique molecular structure, H2 can easily target the mitochondria, suggesting that H2 is a potential antagonist of mtROS-dependent NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Here we have showed that, in mouse macrophages, H2 exhibited substantial inhibitory activity against LPS-initiated NLRP3 inflammasome activation by scavenging mtROS. Moreover, the elimination of mtROS by H2 resultantly inhibited mtROS-mediated NLRP3 deubiquitination, a non-transcriptional priming signal of NLRP3 in response to the stimulation of LPS. Additionally, the removal of mtROS by H2 reduced the generation of oxidized mitochondrial DNA and consequently decreased its binding to NLRP3, thereby inhibiting the NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Our findings have, for the first time, revealed the novel mechanism underlying the inhibitory effect of molecular hydrogen on LPS-caused NLRP3 inflammasome activation, highlighting the promising application of this new antioxidant in the treatment of LPS-associated inflammatory pathological damage.

  16. [Mechanisms of muscle pain : significance of trigger points and tender points].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezinschek, H-P

    2008-12-01

    Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) and myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) belong to the group of chronic non-inflammatory pain syndromes affecting muscles and tendinous insertions. Important criteria in the diagnosis of both diseases are the presence of "tender points" and "trigger points". According to ACR criteria FMS is characterized by the presence of tender points whereas trigger points are typically found in MPS.The main difference is that until now tender points could only be defined in terms of their localization, whereas trigger points can be found upon palpation which may cause a specific referred pain pattern. In addition, analysis of trigger points by microdialysis demonstrated elevated levels of pro-inflammatory substances at these sites. Moreover, local treatment of trigger points either by manipulative therapy or injection appears to be most effective for prompt relief of symptoms.

  17. Coxsackievirus cloverleaf RNA containing a 5' triphosphate triggers an antiviral response via RIG-I activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Feng

    Full Text Available Upon viral infections, pattern recognition receptors (PRRs recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs and stimulate an antiviral state associated with the production of type I interferons (IFNs and inflammatory markers. Type I IFNs play crucial roles in innate antiviral responses by inducing expression of interferon-stimulated genes and by activating components of the adaptive immune system. Although pegylated IFNs have been used to treat hepatitis B and C virus infections for decades, they exert substantial side effects that limit their use. Current efforts are directed toward the use of PRR agonists as an alternative approach to elicit host antiviral responses in a manner similar to that achieved in a natural infection. RIG-I is a cytosolic PRR that recognizes 5' triphosphate (5'ppp-containing RNA ligands. Due to its ubiquitous expression profile, induction of the RIG-I pathway provides a promising platform for the development of novel antiviral agents and vaccine adjuvants. In this study, we investigated whether structured RNA elements in the genome of coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3, a picornavirus that is recognized by MDA5 during infection, could activate RIG-I when supplied with 5'ppp. We show here that a 5'ppp-containing cloverleaf (CL RNA structure is a potent RIG-I inducer that elicits an extensive antiviral response that includes induction of classical interferon-stimulated genes, as well as type III IFNs and proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. In addition, we show that prophylactic treatment with CVB3 CL provides protection against various viral infections including dengue virus, vesicular stomatitis virus and enterovirus 71, demonstrating the antiviral efficacy of this RNA ligand.

  18. Specific interaction with cardiolipin triggers functional activation of Dynamin-Related Protein 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itsasne Bustillo-Zabalbeitia

    Full Text Available Dynamin-Related Protein 1 (Drp1, a large GTPase of the dynamin superfamily, is required for mitochondrial fission in healthy and apoptotic cells. Drp1 activation is a complex process that involves translocation from the cytosol to the mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM and assembly into rings/spirals at the MOM, leading to membrane constriction/division. Similar to dynamins, Drp1 contains GTPase (G, bundle signaling element (BSE and stalk domains. However, instead of the lipid-interacting Pleckstrin Homology (PH domain present in the dynamins, Drp1 contains the so-called B insert or variable domain that has been suggested to play an important role in Drp1 regulation. Different proteins have been implicated in Drp1 recruitment to the MOM, although how MOM-localized Drp1 acquires its fully functional status remains poorly understood. We found that Drp1 can interact with pure lipid bilayers enriched in the mitochondrion-specific phospholipid cardiolipin (CL. Building on our previous study, we now explore the specificity and functional consequences of this interaction. We show that a four lysine module located within the B insert of Drp1 interacts preferentially with CL over other anionic lipids. This interaction dramatically enhances Drp1 oligomerization and assembly-stimulated GTP hydrolysis. Our results add significantly to a growing body of evidence indicating that CL is an important regulator of many essential mitochondrial functions.

  19. An underwater superoleophobic surface that can be activated/deactivated via external triggers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunderdale, Gary J; Urata, Chihiro; Hozumi, Atsushi

    2014-11-11

    Poly[(2-dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate] (pDMAEMA) brush surfaces were prepared using a facile aqueous Activators ReGenerated by Electron Transfer Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (ARGET-ATRP) protocol at ambient temperature without any need to purge reaction solutions of oxygen. This produced underwater superoleophobic surfaces, which exhibited high advancing (θA, 164-166°) and receding (θR, 153-165°) contact angles (CAs) and low CA hysteresis (1-11°) with a variety of oils. Both in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry and dynamic CA measurements confirmed that pDMAEMA brush surfaces responded to three different external stimuli (pH, ionic strength, and temperature) by changing their thicknesses, degree of hydration, or their chemical composition. Increasing pH resulted in the largest decrease in hydration, followed by increasing temperature, and increasing ionic strength gave the smallest change in hydration. Coincident with these structural changes, stimulus-responsive dynamic dewetting behavior with various oils was observed. Increasing pH or ionic strength drastically reduced the θR values of oil drops and increased CA hysteresis, resulting in a sticky surface on which oil drops were pinned. No noticeable changes in dynamic oleophobicity were observed with increasing temperature. In addition, when oil drops impacted onto the brush surface instead of being gently placed, surfaces did not exhibit stimulus-responsive dewetting properties, being oleophobic under all conditions.

  20. Enhanced Histone Deacetylase Activity in Malignant Melanoma Provokes RAD51 and FANCD2-Triggered Drug Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumm, Andrea; Barckhausen, Christina; Kücük, Pelin; Tomaszowski, Karl-Heinz; Loquai, Carmen; Fahrer, Jörg; Krämer, Oliver Holger; Kaina, Bernd; Roos, Wynand Paul

    2016-05-15

    DNA-damaging anticancer drugs remain a part of metastatic melanoma therapy. Epigenetic reprogramming caused by increased histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity arising during tumor formation may contribute to resistance of melanomas to the alkylating drugs temozolomide, dacarbazine, and fotemustine. Here, we report on the impact of class I HDACs on the response of malignant melanoma cells treated with alkylating agents. The data show that malignant melanomas in situ contain a high level of HDAC1/2 and malignant melanoma cells overexpress HDAC1/2/3 compared with noncancer cells. Furthermore, pharmacologic inhibition of class I HDACs sensitizes malignant melanoma cells to apoptosis following exposure to alkylating agents, while not affecting primary melanocytes. Inhibition of HDAC1/2/3 caused sensitization of melanoma cells to temozolomide in vitro and in melanoma xenografts in vivo HDAC1/2/3 inhibition resulted in suppression of DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair by homologous recombination because of downregulation of RAD51 and FANCD2. This sensitized cells to the cytotoxic DNA lesion O(6)-methylguanine and caused a synthetic lethal interaction with the PARP-1 inhibitor olaparib. Furthermore, knockdown experiments identified HDAC2 as being responsible for the regulation of RAD51. The influence of class I HDACs on DSB repair by homologous recombination and the possible clinical implication on malignant melanoma therapy with temozolomide and other alkylating drugs suggests a combination approach where class I HDAC inhibitors such as valproic acid or MS-275 (entinostat) appear to counteract HDAC- and RAD51/FANCD2-mediated melanoma cell resistance. Cancer Res; 76(10); 3067-77. ©2016 AACR.

  1. Activation of α7-containing nicotinic receptors on astrocytes triggers AMPA receptor recruitment to glutamatergic synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xulong; Lippi, Giordano; Carlson, David M; Berg, Darwin K

    2013-12-01

    Astrocytes, an abundant form of glia, are known to promote and modulate synaptic signaling between neurons. They also express α7-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7-nAChRs), but the functional relevance of these receptors is unknown. We show here that stimulation of α7-nAChRs on astrocytes releases components that induce hippocampal neurons to acquire more α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors post-synaptically at glutamatergic synapses. The increase is specific in that no change is seen in synaptic NMDA receptor clusters or other markers for glutamatergic synapses, or in markers for GABAergic synapses. Moreover, the increases in AMPA receptors on the neuron surface are accompanied by increases in the frequency of spontaneous miniature synaptic currents mediated by the receptors and increases in the ratio of evoked synaptic currents mediated by AMPA versus NMDA receptors. This suggests that stimulating α7-nAChRs on astrocytes can convert 'silent' glutamatergic synapses to functional status. Astrocyte-derived thrombospondin is necessary but not sufficient for the effect, while tumor necrosis factor-α is sufficient but not necessary. The results identify astrocyte α7-nAChRs as a novel pathway through which nicotinic cholinergic signaling can promote the development of glutamatergic networks, recruiting AMPA receptors to post-synaptic sites and rendering the synapses more functional. We find that activation of nicotinic receptors on astrocytes releases a component that specifically recruits AMPA receptors to glutamatergic synapses. The recruitment appears to occur preferentially at what may be 'silent synapses', that is, synapses that have all the components required for glutamatergic transmission (including NMDA receptors) but lack sufficient AMPA receptors to generate a response. The results are unexpected and open up new possibilities for mechanisms underlying network formation and synaptic plasticity.

  2. Gait changes following myofascial structural integration (Rolfing) observed in 2 children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Alexis B; Price, Karen S; Loi, Elizabeth C; Buysse, Christina A; Jaramillo, Theresa M; Pico, Elaine L; Feldman, Heidi M

    2014-10-01

    Children with spastic cerebral palsy experience difficulty with ambulation. Structural changes in muscle and fascia may play a role in abnormal gait. Myofascial structural integration (Rolfing) is a manual therapy that manipulates muscle and soft tissues to loosen fascia layers, reposition muscles, and facilitate alignment. This study aimed to document (1) gait characteristics of 2 children with cerebral palsy and (2) effects of myofascial structural integration on their gait. Children received 3 months of weekly therapy sessions by an experienced practitioner. Gait parameters were recorded at baseline and after treatment using an electronic walkway. Children with cerebral palsy demonstrated abnormal velocity and cadence, decreased step length and single support times, and increased double support time. After treatment, both children demonstrated improvement for 3 months in cadence and double support time. The objective gait analyses demonstrated temporary improvements after myofascial structural integration in children with spastic cerebral palsy.

  3. Effect of Self-myofascial Release on Reduction of Physical Stress: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kanghoon; Park, Sunghyun; Goo, Bong-Oh; Choi, Seok-Cheol

    2014-11-01

    [Purpose] This study aims to examined the effect of the self-myofascial release induced with a foam roller on the reduction of stress by measuring the serum concentration of cortisol. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were healthy females in their 20s. They were divided into the experimental and control groups. Both groups, each consisting of 12 subjects, were directed to walk for 30 minutes on a treadmill. The control group rested for 30 minutes of rest by lying down, whereas the experimental group was performed a 30 minutes of self-myofascial release program. [Results] Statistically significant levels of cortisol concentration reduction were observed in both the experimental group, which used the foam roller, and the control group. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups. [Conclusion] The Self-myofascial release induced with a foam roller did not affect the reduction of stress.

  4. The carboxyl terminus of the Galpha-subunit is the latch for triggered activation of heterotrimeric G proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanoff, Christian; Koppensteiner, Romana; Yang, Qiong; Fuerst, Elisabeth; Ahorn, Horst; Freissmuth, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The receptor-mimetic peptide D2N, derived from the cytoplasmic domain of the D(2) dopamine receptor, activates G protein alpha-subunits (G(i) and G(o)) directly. Using D2N, we tested the current hypotheses on the mechanism of receptor-mediated G protein activation, which differ by the role assigned to the Gbetagamma-subunit: 1) a receptor-prompted movement of Gbetagamma is needed to open up the nucleotide exit pathway ("gear-shift" and "lever-arm" model) or 2) the receptor first engages Gbetagamma and then triggers GDP release by interacting with the carboxyl (C) terminus of Galpha (the "sequential-fit" model). Our results with D2N were compatible with the latter hypothesis. D2N bound to the extreme C terminus of the alpha-subunit and caused a conformational change that was transmitted to the switch regions. Hence, D2N led to a decline in the intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence, increased the guanine nucleotide exchange rate, and modulated the Mg(2+) control of nucleotide binding. A structural alteration in the outer portion of helix alpha5 (substitution of an isoleucine by proline) blunted the stimulatory action of D2N. This confirms that helix alpha5 links the guanine nucleotide binding pocket to the receptor contact site on the G protein. However, neither the alpha-subunit amino terminus (as a lever-arm) nor Gbetagamma was required for D2N-mediated activation; conversely, assembly of the Galphabetagamma heterotrimer stabilized the GDP-bound species and required an increased D2N concentration for activation. We propose that the receptor can engage the C terminus of the alpha-subunit to destabilize nucleotide binding from the "back side" of the nucleotide binding pocket.

  5. Nature of extracellular signal that triggers RhoA/ROCK activation for the basal internal anal sphincter tone in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattan, Satish; Singh, Jagmohan; Kumar, Sumit; Phillips, Benjamin

    2015-06-01

    The extracellular signal that triggers activation of rho-associated kinase (RhoA/ROCK), the major molecular determinant of basal internal anal sphincter (IAS) smooth muscle tone, is not known. Using human IAS tissues, we identified the presence of the biosynthetic machineries for angiotensin II (ANG II), thromboxane A2 (TXA2), and prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α). These end products of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) (ANG II) and arachidonic acid (TXA2 and PGF2α) pathways and their effects in human IAS vs. rectal smooth muscle (RSM) were studied. A multipronged approach utilizing immunocytochemistry, Western blot analyses, and force measurements was implemented. Additionally, in a systematic analysis of the effects of respective inhibitors along different steps of biosynthesis and those of antagonists, their end products were evaluated either individually or in combination. To further describe the molecular mechanism for the IAS tone via these pathways, we monitored RhoA/ROCK activation and its signal transduction cascade. Data showed characteristically higher expression of biosynthetic machineries of RAS and AA pathways in the IAS compared with the RSM. Additionally, specific inhibition of the arachidonic acid (AA) pathway caused ~80% decrease in the IAS tone, whereas that of RAS lead to ~20% decrease. Signal transduction studies revealed that the end products of both AA and RAS pathways cause increase in the IAS tone via activation of RhoA/ROCK. Both AA and RAS (via the release of their end products TXA2, PGF2α, and ANG II, respectively), provide extracellular signals which activate RhoA/ROCK for the maintenance of the basal tone in human IAS.

  6. Myofascial pain and fibromyalgia: two different but overlapping disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2016-05-01

    There is good evidence supporting that people with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) exhibit central sensitization. The role of peripheral nociception is under debate in FMS. It seems that widespread pain experienced in FMS is considered multiple regional pains; therefore, several authors proposed that muscles play a relevant role in FMS. Trigger points (TrPs) have long been a contentious issue in relation to FMS. Preliminary evidence reported that the overall spontaneous pain is reproduced by referred pain from active TrPs, suggesting that FMS pain is largely composed of pain arising, at least partially, from TrPs. Finally, there is preliminary evidence suggesting that management of TrPs is able to modulate the CNS and is effective for reducing pain in FMS, although results are conflicting and future studies are clearly needed.

  7. Activation of Proinflammatory Responses in Cells of the Airway Mucosa by Particulate Matter: Oxidant- and Non-Oxidant-Mediated Triggering Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Øvrevik

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is considered to play a central role in a diverse range of disease outcomes associated with exposure to various types of inhalable particulates. The initial mechanisms through which particles trigger cellular responses leading to activation of inflammatory responses are crucial to clarify in order to understand what physico-chemical characteristics govern the inflammogenic activity of particulate matter and why some particles are more harmful than others. Recent research suggests that molecular triggering mechanisms involved in activation of proinflammatory genes and onset of inflammatory reactions by particles or soluble particle components can be categorized into direct formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS with subsequent oxidative stress, interaction with the lipid layer of cellular membranes, activation of cell surface receptors, and direct interactions with intracellular molecular targets. The present review focuses on the immediate effects and responses in cells exposed to particles and central down-stream signaling mechanisms involved in regulation of proinflammatory genes, with special emphasis on the role of oxidant and non-oxidant triggering mechanisms. Importantly, ROS act as a central second-messenger in a variety of signaling pathways. Even non-oxidant mediated triggering mechanisms are therefore also likely to activate downstream redox-regulated events.

  8. Clinical features in patients with long-lasting macrophagic myofasciitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel eRIGOLET

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF is an emerging condition characterized by specific muscle lesions assessing abnormal long-term persistence of aluminium hydroxide within macrophages at the site of previous immunization. Affected patients usually are middle-aged adults, mainly presenting with diffuse arthromyalgias, chronic fatigue, and marked cognitive deficits, not related to pain, fatigue or depression. Clinical features usually correspond to that observed in chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis. Representative features of MMF-associated cognitive dysfunction include dysexecutive syndrome, visual memory impairment and left ear extinction at dichotic listening test. Most patients fulfil criteria for non-amnestic/dysexecutive mild cognitive impairment, even if some cognitive deficits appear unusually severe. Cognitive dysfunction seems stable over time despite marked fluctuations. Evoked potentials may show abnormalities in keeping with central nervous system involvement, with a neurophysiological pattern suggestive of demyelination. Brain perfusion SPECT shows a pattern of diffuse cortical and subcortical abnormalities, with hypoperfusions correlating with cognitive deficiencies. The combination of musculoskeletal pain, chronic fatigue and cognitive disturbance generates chronic disability with possible social exclusion. Classical therapeutic approaches are usually unsatisfactory making patient care difficult.

  9. 8,9-Dehydrohispanolone-15,16-lactol diterpene prevents LPS-triggered inflammatory responses by inhibiting endothelial activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-García, Lidia; Través, Paqui G; López-Fontal, Raquel; Herranz, Sandra; Higueras, María Angeles; de Las Heras, Beatriz; Hortelano, Sonsoles; Luque, Alfonso

    2016-07-15

    Endothelial activation contributes to lung inflammatory disorders by inducing leucocyte recruitment to pulmonary parenchyma. Consequently, vascular-targeted therapies constitute promising strategies for the treatment of inflammatory pathologies. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of 8,9-dehydrohispanolone-15,16-lactol diterpene (DT) on lung endothelium during inflammation. Lung endothelial cells pre-treated with DT and activated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) exhibited reduced expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines Cxcl10, Ccl5 and Cxcl1, whereas the anti-inflammatory molecules IL1r2 and IL-10 were induced. Consistent with this result, DT pre-treatment inhibited nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) nuclear translocation, by interfering with IκBα phosphorylation, and consequently NF-κB transcriptional activity in endothelium activated by LPS or TNF-α. Furthermore, DT, probably through p38 signalling, induced transcriptional activation of genes containing activator protein 1 (AP-1)-binding elements. Inhibition of p38 prevented IL1r2 mRNA expression in endothelium incubated with DT alone or in combination with LPS or TNF-α. Accordingly, conditioned medium (CM) from these cells failed to stimulate leucocytes as measured by a reduction in adhesive ability of the leucocyte cell line J774 to fibronectin (FN). Additionally, DT reduced the expression of the endothelial adhesion molecules E-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) after activation. Similarly, expression of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 molecules on the lung endothelial layer of C57/BL6 mice pre-treated with DT and challenged with LPS were unchanged. Finally, inhibition of vascular adhesion molecule expression by DT decreased the interaction of J774 cells with lung endothelial cells in an inflammatory environment. Our findings establish DT as a novel endothelial inhibitor for the treatment of inflammatory

  10. [Diagnostics and surgical correction of postoperative myofascial defects of lateral abdominal wall and lumbar region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brekhov, E I; Iurasov, A V; Gribunov, Iu P; Repin, I G; Alekseev, A K; Cherniaeva, N A; Zhitnikov, G V

    2009-01-01

    Myofascial defects of lateral abdominal wall and lumbar region occur chiefly after lumbotomy--the most popular access in urosurgery. Meanwhile lumbotomy remains one of the most traumatic accesses through the lateral abdominal wall. Myofascial defects were diagnosed in 48,9% of operated patients with lumbotomy. Of them true postoperative hernias were found in 35,3%; neuropathic hernias - in 13,6%. Since 2002 the originally developed method of lateral abdominal wall reconstruction had been used for the treatment of such patients. The immediate and long-term results (maximal follow-up period 5 years) showed no hernia recurrence or complications in 26 operated patients.

  11. Runaway electron generation as possible trigger for enhancement of magnetohydrodynamic plasma activity and fast changes in runaway beam behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pankratov, I. M., E-mail: pankratov@kipt.kharkov.ua, E-mail: rjzhou@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, NSC Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology, Academicheskaya Str. 1, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Zhou, R. J., E-mail: pankratov@kipt.kharkov.ua, E-mail: rjzhou@ipp.ac.cn; Hu, L. Q. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2015-07-15

    Peculiar phenomena were observed during experiments with runaway electrons: rapid changes in the synchrotron spot and its intensity that coincided with stepwise increases in the electron cyclotron emission (ECE) signal (cyclotron radiation of suprathermal electrons). These phenomena were initially observed in TEXTOR (Tokamak Experiment for Technology Oriented Research), where these events only occurred in the current decay phase or in discharges with thin stable runaway beams at a q = 1 drift surface. These rapid changes in the synchrotron spot were interpreted by the TEXTOR team as a fast pitch angle scattering event. Recently, similar rapid changes in the synchrotron spot and its intensity that coincided with stepwise increases in the non-thermal ECE signal were observed in the EAST (Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak) runaway discharge. Runaway electrons were located around the q = 2 rational magnetic surface (ring-like runaway electron beam). During the EAST runaway discharge, stepwise ECE signal increases coincided with enhanced magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) activity. This behavior was peculiar to this shot. In this paper, we show that these non-thermal ECE step-like jumps were related to the abrupt growth of suprathermal electrons induced by bursting electric fields at reconnection events during this MHD plasma activity. Enhancement of the secondary runaway electron generation also occurred simultaneously. Local changes in the current-density gradient appeared because of local enhancement of the runaway electron generation process. These current-density gradient changes are considered to be a possible trigger for enhancement of the MHD plasma activity and the rapid changes in runaway beam behavior.

  12. Melanocortin 4 receptor activation protects against testicular ischemia-reperfusion injury by triggering the cholinergic antiinflammatory pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minutoli, Letteria; Bitto, Alessandra; Squadrito, Francesco; Irrera, Natasha; Rinaldi, Mariagrazia; Nicotina, Piero Antonio; Arena, Salvatore; Magno, Carlo; Marini, Herbert; Spaccapelo, Luca; Ottani, Alessandra; Giuliani, Daniela; Romeo, Carmelo; Guarini, Salvatore; Antonuccio, Pietro; Altavilla, Domenica

    2011-10-01

    Melanocortins (MC) trigger a vagus nerve-mediated cholinergic-antiinflammatory pathway projecting to the testis. We tested whether pharmacological activation of brain MC receptors might protect the testis from the damage induced by ischemia-reperfusion. Adult male rats were subjected to 1-h testicular ischemia, followed by 24-h reperfusion [testicular ischemia-reperfusion (TI/R)]. Before TI/R, groups of animals were subjected to bilateral cervical vagotomy, or pretreated with the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist chlorisondamine or the selective MC(4) receptor antagonist HS024. Immediately after reperfusion, rats were ip treated with saline or the MC analog [Nle(4),D-Phe(7)]α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (NDP-α-MSH) (340 μg/kg). We evaluated testicular IL-6 and TNF-α by Western blot analysis and organ damage by light microscopy. Some experimental groups were prepared for neural efferent activity recording along the vagus nerve starting 30 min after treatment with NDP-α-MSH or saline, and for a 30-min period. Additional groups of TI/R rats were treated for 30 d with saline, NDP-α-MSH, chlorisondamine plus NDP-α-MSH, or HS024 plus NDP-α-MSH to evaluate spermatogenesis, organ damage, and the apoptosis machinery. After a 24-h reperfusion, in TI/R saline-treated rats, there was an increase in IL-6 and TNF-α expression and a marked damage in both testes. NDP-α-MSH inhibited IL-6 and TNF-α expression, decreased histological damage, and increased neural efferent activity. Furthermore, NDP-α-MSH administration for 30 d greatly improved spermatogenesis, reduced organ damage, and inhibited apoptosis. All positive NDP-α-MSH effects were abrogated by vagotomy, chlorisondamine, or HS024. Our data suggest that selective MC(4) receptor agonists might be therapeutic candidates for the management of testicular torsion.

  13. Activation of JNK triggers release of Brd4 from mitotic chromosomes and mediates protection from drug-induced mitotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Akira; Dey, Anup; Tamura, Tomohiko; Ko, Minoru; Ozato, Keiko

    2012-01-01

    Some anti-cancer drugs, including those that alter microtubule dynamics target mitotic cells and induce apoptosis in some cell types. However, such drugs elicit protective responses in other cell types allowing cells to escape from drug-induced mitotic inhibition. Cells with a faulty protective mechanism undergo defective mitosis, leading to genome instability. Brd4 is a double bromodomain protein that remains on chromosomes during mitosis. However, Brd4 is released from mitotic chromosomes when cells are exposed to anti-mitotic drugs including nocodazole. Neither the mechanisms, nor the biological significance of drug-induced Brd4 release has been fully understood. We found that deletion of the internal C-terminal region abolished nocodazole induced Brd4 release from mouse P19 cells. Furthermore, cells expressing truncated Brd4, unable to dissociate from chromosomes were blocked from mitotic progression and failed to complete cell division. We also found that pharmacological and peptide inhibitors of the c-jun-N-terminal kinases (JNK) pathway, but not inhibitors of other MAP kinases, prevented release of Brd4 from chromosomes. The JNK inhibitor that blocked Brd4 release also blocked mitotic progression. Further supporting the role of JNK in Brd4 release, JNK2-/- embryonic fibroblasts were defective in Brd4 release and sustained greater inhibition of cell growth after nocodazole treatment. In sum, activation of JNK pathway triggers release of Brd4 from chromosomes upon nocodazole treatment, which mediates a protective response designed to minimize drug-induced mitotic stress.

  14. Salicylic acid receptors activate jasmonic acid signalling through a non-canonical pathway to promote effector-triggered immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lijing; Sonbol, Fathi-Mohamed; Huot, Bethany; Gu, Yangnan; Withers, John; Mwimba, Musoki; Yao, Jian; He, Sheng Yang; Dong, Xinnian

    2016-01-01

    It is an apparent conundrum how plants evolved effector-triggered immunity (ETI), involving programmed cell death (PCD), as a major defence mechanism against biotrophic pathogens, because ETI-associated PCD could leave them vulnerable to necrotrophic pathogens that thrive on dead host cells. Interestingly, during ETI, the normally antagonistic defence hormones, salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) associated with defence against biotrophs and necrotrophs respectively, both accumulate to high levels. In this study, we made the surprising finding that JA is a positive regulator of RPS2-mediated ETI. Early induction of JA-responsive genes and de novo JA synthesis following SA accumulation is activated through the SA receptors NPR3 and NPR4, instead of the JA receptor COI1. We provide evidence that NPR3 and NPR4 may mediate this effect by promoting degradation of the JA transcriptional repressor JAZs. This unique interplay between SA and JA offers a possible explanation of how plants can mount defence against a biotrophic pathogen without becoming vulnerable to necrotrophic pathogens. PMID:27725643

  15. Clioquinol inhibits zinc-triggered caspase activation in the hippocampal CA1 region of a global ischemic gerbil model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Excessive release of chelatable zinc from excitatory synaptic vesicles is involved in the pathogenesis of selective neuronal cell death following transient forebrain ischemia. The present study was designed to examine the neuroprotective effect of a membrane-permeable zinc chelator, clioquinol (CQ, in the CA1 region of the gerbil hippocampus after transient global ischemia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The common carotid arteries were occluded bilaterally, and CQ (10 mg/kg, i.p. was injected into gerbils once a day. The zinc chelating effect of CQ was examined with TSQ fluorescence and autometallography. Neuronal death, the expression levels of caspases and apoptosis inducing factor (AIF were evaluated using TUNEL, in situ hybridization and Western blotting, respectively. We were able to show for the first time that CQ treatment attenuates the ischemia-induced zinc accumulation in the CA1 pyramidal neurons, accompanied by less neuronal loss in the CA1 field of the hippocampus after ischemia. Furthermore, the expression levels of caspase-3, -9, and AIF were significantly decreased in the hippocampus of CQ-treated gerbils. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present study indicates that the neuroprotective effect of CQ is related to downregulation of zinc-triggered caspase activation in the hippocampal CA1 region of gerbils with global ischemia.

  16. Label-free ultrasensitive detection of telomerase activity via multiple telomeric hemin/G-quadruplex triggered polyaniline deposition and a DNA tetrahedron-structure regulated signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuanjian; Wei, Min; Liu, Xu; Wei, Wei; Zhao, Hongyu; Zhang, Yuanjian; Liu, Songqin

    2016-01-31

    Label-free detection of telomerase activity was done by using telomeric hemin/G-quadruplex triggered polyaniline deposition, not only on themselves but also on the DNA tetrahedron-structure (DTS). DTS size has a great impact on telomerase accessibility, reactivity and detection sensitivity. The method has been used to evaluate bladder cancer development.

  17. Pharmacological activation of rapid delayed rectifier potassium current suppresses bradycardia-induced triggered activity in the isolated guinea pig heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rie Schultz; Olesen, Søren-Peter; Grunnet, Morten

    2007-01-01

    arrhythmias. We present here data that support that NS3623 affects native I(Kr) and report the effects that activating this potassium current have in the intact guinea pig heart. In Langendorff-perfused hearts, the compound showed a concentration-dependent shortening of action potential duration, which...

  18. Arabidopsis TTG2 Regulates TRY Expression through Enhancement of Activator Complex-Triggered Activation[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesch, Martina; Dartan, Burcu; Birkenbihl, Rainer; Somssich, Imre E.; Hülskamp, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Trichome patterning in Arabidopsis thaliana is regulated by a regulatory feedback loop of the trichome promoting factors TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 (TTG1), GLABRA3 (GL3)/ENHANCER OF GL3 (EGL3), and GL1 and a group of homologous R3MYB proteins that act as their inhibitors. Together, they regulate the temporal and spatial expression of GL2 and TTG2, which are considered to control trichome cell differentiation. In this work, we show that TTG2 is a specific activator of TRY (but not CPC or GL2). The WRKY protein TTG2 binds to W-boxes in a minimal promoter fragment of TRY, and these W-boxes are essential for rescue of the try mutant phenotype. We further show that TTG2 alone is not able to activate TRY expression, but rather drastically enhances the activation by TTG1 and GL3. As TTG2 physically interacts with TTG1 and because TTG2 can associate with GL3 through its interaction with TTG1, we propose that TTG2 enhances the activity of TTG1 and GL3 by forming a protein complex. PMID:25304203

  19. Arenobufagin activates p53 to trigger esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell apoptosis in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lv J

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Junhong Lv,1 Shaohuan Lin,1 Panli Peng,2 Changqing Cai,2 Jianming Deng,1 Mingzhi Wang,1 Xuejun Li,1 Rongsheng Lin,3 Yu Lin,4 Ailing Fang,5 Qiling Li5 1Thoracic Surgeons Department, 2Oncology No 2 Department, Guangdong No 2 Provincial People’s Hospital, Guangzhou, 3Department of Oncology, Shunde Longjiang Hospital, Foshan, 4Department of Gastroenterology, Puning Overseas Chinese Hospital, 5Galactophore Department, Puning Maternity and Child Care Hospital, Puning, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC is often diagnosed at late incurable stage and lacks effective treatment strategy. Bufadienolides are cardiotonic steroids isolated from the skin and parotid venom glands of the toad Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor with novel anticancer activity. However, there is little information about the effects and action mechanisms of bufadienolides on ESCC cells. In this study, the in vitro and in vivo anti-ESCC activities of bufadienolides, including bufalin (Bu and arenobufagin (ArBu, were examined and the underlying molecular mechanisms were elucidated. The results showed that ArBu exhibited higher anticancer efficacy than Bu against a panel of five ESCC cells, with IC50 values ranging from 0.8 µM to 3.6 µM. However, ArBu showed lower toxicity toward Het-1A human normal esophageal squamous cells, indicating its great selectivity between cancer and normal cells. Moreover, ArBu effectively induced ESCC cell apoptosis mainly by triggering caspase activation through intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. Treatment of ESCC cells also significantly activated p53 signaling by enhancing its phosphorylation. Interestingly, transfection of cells with p53 small interfering RNA significantly inhibited the ArBu-induced p53 phosphorylation and the overall apoptotic cell death. Furthermore, ArBu also demonstrated novel in vivo anticancer efficacy by inhibiting the tumor growth through activation of p53 pathway. Taken together

  20. Activation of neuronal defense mechanisms in response to pathogenic factors triggering induction of amyloidosis in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltsev, Alexander V; Santockyte, Rasa; Bystryak, Simon; Galzitskaya, Oxana V

    2014-01-01

    We present a new model for etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) which postulates early involvement of specialized neuroprotective mechanisms in the pathology of AD. These neuroprotective mechanisms work in concert to regulate metabolic homeostasis in healthy neuronal cells, but contribute to the distinctive cytopathic phenotype of neuronal degeneration in AD. According to this model, two molecular/genetic hallmarks of AD, amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition and tau hyperphosphorylation, are associated with neuronal mechanisms for dissipating thermal energy associated with high levels of protein synthesis in highly temperature-sensitive neuronal cells. Development of effective methods of AD treatment will require a better understanding of how this neuronal defense system is activated in response to cytopathological triggers in sporadic AD. The cause and effect link between synthesis and processing of amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP) and the AD terminal phenotype of neurofibrillary tangles and neuron loss involve the formation of Aβ peptides that accumulate as oligomers, cannot be controlled by neurons, and are toxic to the surrounding neuronal membranes. We analyze experimental and clinical studies that have investigated the correlation between phosphorylation of some transport proteins and increased synthesis of proteins in neurons. We also review the evidence related to the possibility that protein hyperphosphorylation may be a byproduct of energetic imbalances in AD cells associated with high levels of protein synthesis, and that activation of defense systems, through which energy-rich molecules are eliminated from the site of protein synthesis and are sequestered to the peripheral neuronal areas, may bring about some of the distinctive morphological features of AD.

  1. A codimension-2 bifurcation controlling endogenous bursting activity and pulse-triggered responses of a neuron model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William H Barnett

    Full Text Available The dynamics of individual neurons are crucial for producing functional activity in neuronal networks. An open question is how temporal characteristics can be controlled in bursting activity and in transient neuronal responses to synaptic input. Bifurcation theory provides a framework to discover generic mechanisms addressing this question. We present a family of mechanisms organized around a global codimension-2 bifurcation. The cornerstone bifurcation is located at the intersection of the border between bursting and spiking and the border between bursting and silence. These borders correspond to the blue sky catastrophe bifurcation and the saddle-node bifurcation on an invariant circle (SNIC curves, respectively. The cornerstone bifurcation satisfies the conditions for both the blue sky catastrophe and SNIC. The burst duration and interburst interval increase as the inverse of the square root of the difference between the corresponding bifurcation parameter and its bifurcation value. For a given set of burst duration and interburst interval, one can find the parameter values supporting these temporal characteristics. The cornerstone bifurcation also determines the responses of silent and spiking neurons. In a silent neuron with parameters close to the SNIC, a pulse of current triggers a single burst. In a spiking neuron with parameters close to the blue sky catastrophe, a pulse of current temporarily silences the neuron. These responses are stereotypical: the durations of the transient intervals-the duration of the burst and the duration of latency to spiking-are governed by the inverse-square-root laws. The mechanisms described here could be used to coordinate neuromuscular control in central pattern generators. As proof of principle, we construct small networks that control metachronal-wave motor pattern exhibited in locomotion. This pattern is determined by the phase relations of bursting neurons in a simple central pattern generator

  2. Vaccines as a trigger for myopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbach, H; Tanay, A

    2009-11-01

    Vaccines are considered to be among the greatest medical discoveries, credited with the virtual eradication of some diseases and the consequent improved survival and quality of life of the at-risk population. With that, vaccines are among the environmental factors implicated as triggers for the development of inflammatory myopathies. The sporadic reports on vaccine-induced inflammatory myopathies include cases of hepatitis B virus, bacillus Calmette-Guérin, tetanus, influenza, smallpox, polio, diphtheria, diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus, combination of diphtheria with scarlet fever and diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus with polio vaccines. However, a significant increase in the incidence of dermatomyositis or polymyositis after any massive vaccination campaign has not been reported in the literature. In study patients with inflammatory myopathies, no recent immunization was recorded in any of the patients. Moreover, after the 1976 mass flu vaccination, no increase in the incidence of inflammatory myopathies was observed. Although rare, macrophagic myofasciitis has been reported following vaccination and is attributed to the aluminium hydroxide used as an adjuvant in some vaccines. Prospective multicenter studies are needed to identify potential environmental factors, including vaccines, as potential triggers for inflammatory myopathies.

  3. Reversible conformational change in herpes simplex virus glycoprotein B with fusion-from-without activity is triggered by mildly acidic pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Anthony V

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pre-fusion form of the herpes simplex virus (HSV fusion protein gB undergoes pH-triggered conformational change in vitro and during viral entry (Dollery et al., J. Virol. 84:3759-3766, 2010. The antigenic structure of gB from the fusion-from-without (FFWO strain of HSV-1, ANG path, resembles wild type gB that has undergone pH-triggered changes. Together, changes in the antigenic and oligomeric conformation of gB correlate with fusion activity. We tested whether the pre-fusion form of FFWO gB undergoes altered conformational change in response to low pH. Results A pH of 5.5 - 6.0 altered the conformation of Domains I and V of FFWO gB, which together comprise the functional region containing the hydrophobic fusion loops. The ANG path gB oligomer was altered at a similar pH. All changes were reversible. In wild type HSV lacking the UL45 protein, which has been implicated in gB-mediated fusion, gB still underwent pH-triggered changes. ANG path entry was inactivated by pretreatment of virions with low pH. Conclusion The pre-fusion conformation of gB with enhanced fusion activity undergoes alteration in antigenic structure and oligomeric conformation in response to acidic pH. We propose that endosomal pH triggers conformational change in mutant gB with FFWO activity in a manner similar to wild type. Differences apart from this trigger may account for the increased fusion activity of FFWO gB.

  4. Case report: Myofascial pain syndrome: a double crush-like appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, R. Kevin; Richardson, Daniel L.; Shiel, Robert S.

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Objective To discuss the case of a patient with myofascial pain syndrome that appeared similar to double crush syndrome. Clinical Features This is a case report of a 45-year old female who presents to the private practice clinic with the same signs and symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome, 1 year post-carpaltunnel surgery. The history is consistent with injuries that result in double crush syndrome and thoracic outlet syndrome. The patient history includes a motor vehicle accident (MVA) in 1963 that resulted in a prolonged hospital stay and fracture of a cervical vertebral (C4) body. She fractured the olecranon process of the right elbow during a fall in 1970's. She has smoked approximately 1 pack a day for 20 years. Her job involves long periods of sitting at a keyboard and in a car. All of these portions of the patient history are possible factors in the clinical signs and symptoms of double crush syndrome. Intervention and Outcome Treatment involved chiropractic manipulation and physical therapy modalities for the elimination of pain and returning the patient's full range of motion in the wrist, elbow, shoulder and cervical spine. After range of motion was restored, a home exercise program was initiated. The home exercise program included a return to past sporting activity and active, resistive (Theraciser band) activities for the elbow and cervical spine. Also a reduction in smoking was initiated as part of the patient's treatment plan. Conclusion It is our contention that patients who have electromyographic (EMG) demonstrable carpal tunnel syndrome need a cervical spine workup and a period of conservative care to include skilled manipulation, physical therapy and home exercises before surgery is recommended. PMID:19674598

  5. Hyaluronan within fascia in the etiology of myofascial pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecco, Carla; Stern, R; Porzionato, A; Macchi, V; Masiero, S; Stecco, A; De Caro, R

    2011-12-01

    The layers of loose connective tissue within deep fasciae were studied with particular emphasis on the histochemical distribution of hyaluronan (HA). Samples of deep fascia together with the underlying muscles were taken from neck, abdomen and thigh from three fresh non-embalmed cadavers. Samples were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, Azan-Mallory, Alcian blue and a biotinylated HA-binding protein specific for HA. An ultrasound study was also performed on 22 voluntary subjects to analyze the thickness of these deep fasciae and their sublayers. The deep fascia presented a layer of HA between fascia and the muscle and within the loose connective tissue that divided different fibrous sublayers of the deep fascia. A layer of fibroblast-like cells that stained prominently with Alcian blue stain was observed. It was postulated that these are cells specialized for the biosynthesis of the HA-rich matrix. These cells we have termed "fasciacytes", and may represent a new class of cells not previously recognized. The ultrasound study highlighted a mean thickness of 1.88 mm of the fascia lata, 1.68 mm of the rectus sheath, and 1.73 mm of the sternocleidomastoid fascia. The HA within the deep fascia facilitates the free sliding of two adjacent fibrous fascial layers, thus promoting the normal function associated with the deep fascia. If the HA assumes a more packed conformation, or more generally, if the loose connective tissue inside the fascia alters its density, the behavior of the entire deep fascia and the underlying muscle would be compromised. This, we predict, may be the basis of the common phenomenon known as "myofascial pain."

  6. Comorbidity of fibromyalgia and cervical myofascial pain syndrome.

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    Cakit, Burcu Duyur; Taskin, Suhan; Nacir, Baris; Unlu, Irem; Genc, Hakan; Erdem, Hatice Rana

    2010-04-01

    The aims of this study are to determine the frequency of fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) in patients with chronic cervical myofascial pain (CMP) and to investigate the FMS characteristics in CMP patients. Ninty-three patients with CMP and 30 age-matched healthy women were included in this study. Main outcome measures included visual analog scale (VAS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and pain pressure thresholds. CMP patients were evaluated for the existence of FMS. The severity of FMS was assessed with total myalgic score (TMS) and control point score (CPS). Most common clinical characteristics of FMS were noted. Of the 93 CMP subjects, 22 (23.6%) patients fulfilled the classification criteria for FMS. Number of tender points were higher (p=0.0), while TMS (p=0.0) and CPS (p=0.0) values were lower in comorbid CMP and FMS patients than regional CMP group. There were statistically significant differences between regional CMP patients and comorbid CMP and FMS patients regarding presence of fatigue (p=0.0) and irritable bowel syndrome (p=0.022). There was no statistically significant difference between patient groups regarding VAS values (p>0.05). BDI values of the regional CMP were significantly lower than comorbid CMP and FMS patients (p=0.011). In conclusion, we found that nearly a quarter of CMP patients were comorbid with FMS, and psychological and comorbid symptoms were more prominent in comorbid patients. We thought that, these two syndromes might be overlapping conditions and as a peripheral pain generator or inducer of central sensitisation, MPS might lead to FMS or precipitate and worsen the FMS symptoms.

  7. Time courses of myofascial temporomandibular disorder complaints during a 12-month follow-up period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.K.A. van Selms; F. Lobbezoo; M. Naeije

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate the time courses of myofascial temporomandibular disorder (TMD) pain and mandibular function impairment (MFI), and to identify predictive factors associated with these time courses. METHODS: During a 12-month period following conservative TMD treatment, the time courses of myofa

  8. Pain, Disability and Sleep Quality in Patients With Rotator Cuff Tendinopathy and Concurrent Myofascial Pain

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    Morteza Nakhaei Amroodi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Rotator cuff tendinopathy and concurrent myofascial pain may result in sleep disturbances, poor quality of life, and social dysfunction along with chronic annoying pain and progressive physical disability. Objectives The present study aimed to assess severity of pain, physical disability, and sleep quality in patients with rotator cuff tendinopathy and concurrent myofascial pain. Patients and Methods This case-control study was conducted on 30 consecutive patients with rotator cuff tendinopathy without tear (impingement syndrome and concurrent myofascial pain referred to the shoulder clinic in Shafa-Yahyaian Hospital during year 2014 (January to April. Eighteen gender and age-matched healthy individuals without any history of rotator cuff tendinopathy were included as controls. Along with baseline assessment, for determining the level of arm, shoulder and hand disability, the quick disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand questionnaire was also used. Sleep quality was assessed by the pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI. Results Compared to healthy individuals, the mean shoulder disability score was significantly higher in the patient group (P = 0.001. Also, regarding sleep quality, the mean score was significantly higher in the patient group when compared with healthy subjects (P = 0.002. Conclusions Patients with rotator cuff tendinopathy concurrent with myofascial pain experienced low level of sleep quality along with severe pain and physical disability. In order to improve clinical outcome of these patients, improving physical function and sleep quality in these patients is necessary.

  9. Estimation of influence of myofascial release techniques on esophageal pressure in patients after total laryngectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marszałek, Sławomir; Zebryk-Stopa, Anna; Kraśny, Jacek; Obrebowski, Andrzej; Golusiński, Wojciech

    2009-08-01

    In patients after total laryngectomy, increased tension in myofascial neck and arm areas might be observed. Via fascial continuity it has an adverse impact on the superior esophageal constrictor forming the "mouth of the oesophagus", which hinders learning of esophageal speech. The aim is to assess the effect of manual myofascial release techniques on esophageal pressure in patients after total laryngectomy. Forty patients (12 F, 28 M), aged 43-75 (mean 56.8 years), 9 months to 13 years (average 3 years) after total laryngectomy, 35 patients (87.5%) after neck lymph node resection, 38 patients (95%) after radiotherapy. Esophageal pressure was assessed using modified Seeman's method. Manual myofascial release techniques were applied within head, neck, arms, upper trunk and upper limb areas. Wilcoxon and Shapiro-Wilk's test was used for the purpose of statistical analysis. Statistically significant decrease of the mean esophageal pressure was observed after the physiotherapy treatment. The average pressure among the examined patients decreased from 37.9 to 26.6 mmHg. The application of myofascial manual techniques decreases esophageal pressure, thus allowing patients to learn esophagus speech at a faster pace.

  10. Neuro Emotional Technique for the treatment of trigger point sensitivity in chronic neck pain sufferers: A controlled clinical trial

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    Pollard Henry

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trigger points have been shown to be active in many myofascial pain syndromes. Treatment of trigger point pain and dysfunction may be explained through the mechanisms of central and peripheral paradigms. This study aimed to investigate whether the mind/body treatment of Neuro Emotional Technique (NET could significantly relieve pain sensitivity of trigger points presenting in a cohort of chronic neck pain sufferers. Methods Sixty participants presenting to a private chiropractic clinic with chronic cervical pain as their primary complaint were sequentially allocated into treatment and control groups. Participants in the treatment group received a short course of Neuro Emotional Technique that consists of muscle testing, general semantics and Traditional Chinese Medicine. The control group received a sham NET protocol. Outcome measurements included pain assessment utilizing a visual analog scale and a pressure gauge algometer. Pain sensitivity was measured at four trigger point locations: suboccipital region (S; levator scapulae region (LS; sternocleidomastoid region (SCM and temporomandibular region (TMJ. For each outcome measurement and each trigger point, we calculated the change in measurement between pre- and post- treatment. We then examined the relationships between these measurement changes and six independent variables (i.e. treatment group and the above five additional participant variables using forward stepwise General Linear Model. Results The visual analog scale (0 to 10 had an improvement of 7.6 at S, 7.2 at LS, 7.5 at SCM and 7.1 at the TMJ in the treatment group compared with no improvement of at S, and an improvement of 0.04 at LS, 0.1 at SCM and 0.1 at the TMJ point in the control group, (P Conclusion After a short course of NET treatment, measurements of visual analog scale and pressure algometer recordings of four trigger point locations in a cohort of chronic neck pain sufferers were significantly

  11. The Effect of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy on Myofascial Pain Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jong Hyun; Jung, Yun Jae; Lee, Ju Youn; Choi, Ji Soo; Mun, Jeong Hyeon; Park, Won Yong; Seo, Cheong Hoon

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) on myofascial pain syndrome (MPS). Method Thirty patients with MPS in trapezius muscle were randomly divided into two groups, ESWT group (n=15), and trigger point injections (TPI)+transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) group (n=15). For a total of 3 weeks, ESWT was undertaken with 1,500 pulse each time at one week interval totaling 4,500 pulse, TPI for once a week totaling three times and TENS for five times a week totaling three weeks. Results The changes in pain threshold (lb/cm2) showed the values of 6.86±1.35 before first therapy, 11.43±0.27 after first therapy, and 12.57±0.72 after third therapy, while TPI+TENS group showed the values of 6.20±1.92 before first therapy, 8.80±0.48 after first therapy, and 9.60±2.19 after third therapy, and the changes between the groups were significantly different (p=0.045). The changes in visual analog scale were estimated to be 6.86±0.90 before first therapy, 2.86±0.90 after first therapy, and 1.86±0.69 after third therapy in case of ESWT group, whereas the figures were estimated to be 7.20±1.30 before first therapy, 4.60±0.55 after first therapy, and 2.80±0.84 after third therapy in case of TPI+TENS group, and the changes between the groups were significantly different (p=0.010). The changes in McGill pain questionnaire (p=0.816) and pain rating scale (p=0.644) between the groups were not significantly different. The changes in neck ROM were also not significantly different between the groups (p>0.05). Conclusion The ESWT in patients with MPS in trapezius muscle are as effective as TPI and TENS for the purpose of pain relief and improving cervical range of motion. PMID:23185731

  12. The prognosis of myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) during a fixed orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecco, Simona; Marzo, Giuseppe; Crincoli, Vito; Di Bisceglie, Beatrice; Tetè, Stefano; Festa, Felice

    2012-01-01

    Among treatments in the literature for myofascial pain syndrome (MPS), the most reliable therapies in dentistry are spray and stretch, and, although less frequently used, anesthetic injection. Adult MPS subjects are often treated using fixed orthodontic therapy for resolution of malocclusion. There is no clarity in the literature on the prognosis of MPS during orthodontic therapy. The purpose of this study was to analyze the prognosis of MPS during orthodontic treatment of subjects with malocclusion, initially diagnosed as having MPS. The analysis covered the medical records of 91 young adult Caucasians scheduled for orthodontic treatment for various malocclusions. Thirty-seven of the patients were initially diagnosed as also having MPS (T0). Thirty patients began the orthodontic treatment and were recalled for a re-evaluation of MPS after dental alignment and dental class correction was achieved (T1). A wait-and-see strategy was applied in seven subjects who were included as the control subjects. They received no treatment for MPS. At T1, a statistically significant decrease was observed in the study group in the presence of any clicking or creaking noises from the jaw joint, a significant jaw joint and jaw muscle pain reduction, and a quality of life improvement. Among patients who were depressed at the beginning of treatment, the majority felt better at the follow-up evaluation. On muscular palpation, a statistically significant decrease was found on the visual analogic scale value of the middle fibers of the temporalis muscle, temporalis tendon, clavicular and sternal division of the sternocleidomastoid muscle, masseter muscles, and posterior cervical muscles. The temporalis and the masseter muscles showed a significant decrease in the number of subjects with trigger points (TrPs) in all areas in the study group, after treatment. The digastric and sternocleidomastoid muscles also showed a significant reduction in the number of subjects with TrPs. Subjects with

  13. A pilot study of myofascial release therapy compared to Swedish massage in fibromyalgia.

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    Liptan, Ginevra; Mist, Scott; Wright, Cheryl; Arzt, Anna; Jones, Kim Dupree

    2013-07-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is characterized by widespread muscle pain and soft tissue tenderness. However, a lack of definitive muscle pathology has made FM both a diagnostic and a treatment puzzle. Much of the evidence for pathology in FM lies in the central nervous system - in particular abnormal amplification of pain signals in the spinal cord - a manifestation of central sensitization. An emerging body of evidence posits that peripheral pain generated from the muscles and fascia may trigger and maintain central sensitization in FM. Since FM patients so frequently seek manual therapy to relieve muscle symptoms, the present study compared two different manual therapy techniques in a parallel study of women with FM. Eight subjects received myofascial release (MFR) while four subjects received Swedish massage, 90 min weekly for four weeks. Overall symptom burden and physical function were assessed by the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire Revised (FIQ-R). A unique challenge for the manual therapist in treating conditions involving central sensitization is to determine if localized pain reduction can be achieved with targeted therapy in the context of ongoing widespread pain. Localized pain improvement was measured by a novel questionnaire developed for this study, the modified Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ). Between-group differences in FIQ-R did not reach statistical significance, but the total change scores on FIQ-R for the MFR group (mean = 10.14, SD = 16.2) trended in the hypothesized and positive direction compared to the Swedish massage group (mean = 0.33, SD = 4.93) yielding a positive Aikin separation test. Although overall modified NMQ scores improved in both groups there were no consistent focal areas of improvement for the Swedish massage group. In contrast, the MFR group reported consistent pain reductions in the neck and upper back regions on the NMQ. These data support the need for larger randomized controlled trials of MFR versus other

  14. Diagnostico clínico de artrosis en la articulación temporomandibular asociado a un síndrome de dolor miofascial: Análisis de un caso Clinical diagnosis of osteoarthrosis in the Temporomandibular Joint Associated with Myofascial Pain Syndrome: Analysis of a case report

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    R. La Touche

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de una paciente de 70 años que presenta dolor orofacial simétrico y dolor local a nivel de la articulación temporomandibular (ATM derecha. La exploración clínica muestra disminución del rango de movimiento articular, un end feel blando, crepitación a la auscultación, y puntos gatillos miofasciales (PGMs a nivel de la musculatura masticatoria y del cuello. El estudio radiológico confirma artrosis en la ATM y se termina concluyendo que la sintomatología es provocada, principalmente, por el síndrome de dolor miofascial. Se reafirma la importancia de realizar un diagnóstico diferencial preciso para orientar adecuadamente las pautas del tratamiento.A case report of a 70 year-old patient with bilateral orofacial pain and local pain in the right temporomandibular joint (TMJ. The physical examination shows a decrease in the articular range of motion, a soft end feel, crepitation and trigger points activated at the jaw and neck muscles. The image study confirmed TMJ osteoarthrosis and it was concluded that the symptoms were primarily produced by myofascial pain syndrome. A precise differential diagnoses is important in order to orientate the treatment stages.

  15. Inactivation of PNKP by mutant ATXN3 triggers apoptosis by activating the DNA damage-response pathway in SCA3.

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    Rui Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3, also known as Machado-Joseph disease (MJD, is an untreatable autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease, and the most common such inherited ataxia worldwide. The mutation in SCA3 is the expansion of a polymorphic CAG tri-nucleotide repeat sequence in the C-terminal coding region of the ATXN3 gene at chromosomal locus 14q32.1. The mutant ATXN3 protein encoding expanded glutamine (polyQ sequences interacts with multiple proteins in vivo, and is deposited as aggregates in the SCA3 brain. A large body of literature suggests that the loss of function of the native ATNX3-interacting proteins that are deposited in the polyQ aggregates contributes to cellular toxicity, systemic neurodegeneration and the pathogenic mechanism in SCA3. Nonetheless, a significant understanding of the disease etiology of SCA3, the molecular mechanism by which the polyQ expansions in the mutant ATXN3 induce neurodegeneration in SCA3 has remained elusive. In the present study, we show that the essential DNA strand break repair enzyme PNKP (polynucleotide kinase 3'-phosphatase interacts with, and is inactivated by, the mutant ATXN3, resulting in inefficient DNA repair, persistent accumulation of DNA damage/strand breaks, and subsequent chronic activation of the DNA damage-response ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM signaling pathway in SCA3. We report that persistent accumulation of DNA damage/strand breaks and chronic activation of the serine/threonine kinase ATM and the downstream p53 and protein kinase C-δ pro-apoptotic pathways trigger neuronal dysfunction and eventually neuronal death in SCA3. Either PNKP overexpression or pharmacological inhibition of ATM dramatically blocked mutant ATXN3-mediated cell death. Discovery of the mechanism by which mutant ATXN3 induces DNA damage and amplifies the pro-death signaling pathways provides a molecular basis for neurodegeneration due to PNKP inactivation in SCA3, and for the first time offers

  16. The accurate assessment and physiotherapeutic treatment of rotator cuff myofascial Pain Syndrome: A case report

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    B. B. Barker

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Management  of  patients  with  rotator  cuff  myofascial  pain syndrome varies  and  successful  intervention  is  dependent  on accurate assessment. The aim of this case report is to show the importance of accurate assessment  and  clinical  reasoning  in  the  physiotherapeutic management  of a  patient  suffering  from  ante-cubital  and  anterior shoulder  pain.  The  patient was  referred  for  physiotherapy  after proving refractory  to  treatment  with  non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medication. The physiotherapist diagnosed a rotator cuff myofascial pain syndrome and treatment proceeded on that basis. Treatment consisted of twitch-obtaining dry needling, myofascial release and exercise therapy.  The result was a change in the harryman rotator cuff functional Assessment Scale score from 22/52 to 43/52 over eight treatments. Strength was regained and subjective pain report on the visual rating scale was improved to 1/10. The case study highlights the importance of accurate assessment and consideration of alternative myofascial sources for pain even in circumstances which initially seem trauma related. Precise diagnosis of the cause - in this case rotator cuff myofascial pain syndrome – will result in effective treatment being administered.

  17. Activation of protein kinase C-mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in response to inositol starvation triggers Sir2p-dependent telomeric silencing in yeast.

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    Lee, Sojin; Gaspar, Maria L; Aregullin, Manuel A; Jesch, Stephen A; Henry, Susan A

    2013-09-27

    Depriving wild type yeast of inositol, a soluble precursor for phospholipid, phosphoinositide, and complex sphingolipid synthesis, activates the protein kinase C (PKC)-MAPK signaling pathway, which plays a key role in the activation of NAD(+)-dependent telomeric silencing. We now report that triggering PKC-MAPK signaling by inositol deprivation or by blocking inositol-containing sphingolipid synthesis with aureobasidin A results in increased telomeric silencing regulated by the MAPK, Slt2p, and the NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase, Sir2p. Consistent with the dependence on NAD(+) in Sir2p-regulated silencing, we found that inositol depletion induces the expression of BNA2, which is required for the de novo synthesis of NAD(+). Moreover, telomeric silencing is greatly reduced in bna2Δ and npt1Δ mutants, which are defective in de novo and salvage pathways for NAD(+) synthesis, respectively. Surprisingly, however, omitting nicotinic acid from the growth medium, which reduces cellular NAD(+) levels, leads to increased telomeric silencing in the absence of inositol and/or at high temperature. This increase in telomeric silencing in response to inositol starvation is correlated to chronological life span extension but is Sir2p-independent. We conclude that activation of the PKC-MAPK signaling by interruption of inositol sphingolipid synthesis leads to increased Sir2p-dependent silencing and is dependent upon the de novo and salvage pathways for NAD(+) synthesis but is not correlated with cellular NAD(+) levels.

  18. Turn-Amplitude Analysis as a Diagnostic Test for Myofascial Syndrome in Patients with Chronic Pelvic Pain

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    Fernando Itza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Myofascial pain syndrome of the pelvic floor (MPSPF is a common disease in the context of chronic pelvic pain (CPP; however, there is currently no gold-standard test to diagnose it.

  19. Wingless-type family member 3A triggers neuronal polarization via cross-activation of the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor pathway

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    Maria Eugenia Bernis

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Initial axonal elongation is essential for neuronal polarization and requires polarized activation of IGF-1 receptors (IGF-1r and the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3k pathway. Wingless-type family growth factors (Wnts have also been implied in the regulation of axonal development. It is not known, however, if Wnts have any participation in the regulation of initial axonal outgrowth and the establishment of neuronal polarity. We used cultured hippocampal neurons and growth cone particles (GCPs isolated from fetal rat brain to show that stimulation with the wingless family factor 3A (Wnt3a was sufficient to promote neuronal polarization in the absence of IGF-1 or high insulin. We also show that Wnt3a triggered a strong activation of IGF-1r, PI3k and Akt in developmental Stage 2 neurons and that the presence of activatable IGF-1r and PI3k activation were necessary for Wnt3a polarizing effects. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR experiments show that Wnt3a did not bind specifically to the IGF-1r. Using crosslinking and immuno-precipitation experiments, we show that stimulation with Wnt3a triggered the formation of a complex including IGF-1r-Wnt3a-Frizzled-7. We conclude that Wnt3a triggers polarization of neurons via cross-activation of the IGF-1r/PI3k pathway upon binding to Fz7.

  20. TRPA1 and Sympathetic Activation contribute to increased risk of triggered cardiac arrhythmias in hypertensive rats exposed to diesel exhaust

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    Background -Diesel exhaust (DE), which is emitted from on-and off-road sources, is a complex mixture of toxic gaseous and particulate components that results in adverse cardiovascular effects. Arrhythmias, which are often triggered in the hours and days following exposure, are on...

  1. An Acute Bout of Self-Myofascial Release in the Form of Foam Rolling Improves Performance Testing

    OpenAIRE

    PEACOCK, COREY A.; KREIN, DARREN D.; Silver, Tobin A.; Sanders, Gabriel J; VON CARLOWITZ, KYLE-PATRICK A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent developments in the strength and conditioning field have shown the incorporation of foam rolling self-myofascial release in adjunct with a dynamic warm-up. This is thought to improve overall training performance; however, minimal research exists supporting this theory. Therefore, determining if an acute bout of foam rolling self-myofascial release in addition to a dynamic warm-up could influence performance is of importance. In order to do so, eleven athletically trained male subjects ...

  2. Validity of Self-reported Sleep Bruxism among Myofascial Temporomandibular Disorder Patients and Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raphael, Karen G.; Janal, Malvin N.; Sirois, David A.; Dubrovsky, Boris; Klausner, Jack J.; Krieger, Ana C.; Lavigne, Gilles J.

    2015-01-01

    Sleep bruxism (SB), primarily involving rhythmic grinding of the teeth during sleep, has been advanced as a causal or maintenance factor for a variety of orofacial problems, including temporomandibular disorders (TMD). Since laboratory polysomnographic (PSG) assessment is extremely expensive and time-consuming, most research testing this belief has relied on patient self-report of SB. The current case-control study examined the accuracy of those self-reports relative to laboratory-based PSG assessment of SB in a large sample of women suffering from chronic myofascial TMD (n=124) and a demographically matched control group without TMD (n=46). A clinical research coordinator administered a structured questionnaire to assess self-reported SB. Participants then spent two consecutive nights in a sleep laboratory. Audiovisual and electromyographic data from the second night were scored to assess whether participants met criteria for presence of 2 or more (2+) rhythmic masticatory muscle activity episodes accompanied by grinding sounds, moderate SB, or severe SB, using previously validated research scoring standards. Contingency tables were constructed to assess positive and negative predictive values, sensitivity and specificity, and 95% confidence intervals surrounding the point estimates. Results showed that self-report significantly predicted 2+ grinding sounds during sleep for TMD cases. However, self-reported SB failed to significantly predict presence or absence of either moderate or severe SB as assessed by PSG, for both cases and controls. These data show that self-report of tooth grinding awareness is highly unlikely to be a valid indicator of true SB. Studies relying on self-report to assess SB must be viewed with extreme caution. PMID:26010126

  3. Pain intensity and cervical range of motion in women with myofascial pain treated with acupuncture and electroacupuncture: a double-blinded, randomized clinical trial

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    Maria F. M. Aranha

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acupuncture stimulates points on the body, influencing the perception of myofascial pain or altering physiologic functions. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to evaluate the effect of electroacupuncture (EAC and acupuncture (AC for myofascial pain of the upper trapezius and cervical range of motion, using SHAM acupuncture as control. METHOD: Sixty women presenting at least one trigger point at the upper trapezius and local or referred pain for more than six months were randomized into EAC, AC, and SHAM groups. Eight sessions were scheduled and a follow-up was conducted after 28 days. The Visual Analog Scale assessed the intensity of local and general pain. A fleximeter assessed cervical movements. Data were analyzed using paired t or Wilcoxon's tests, ANOVA or Friedman or Kruskal-Wallis tests and Pearson's correlation (α=0.05. RESULTS: There was reduction in general pain in the EAC and AC groups after eight sessions (P<0.001. A significant decrease in pain intensity occurred for the right trapezius in all groups and for the left trapezius in the EAC and AC groups. Intergroup comparisons showed improvement in general pain in the EAC and AC groups and in local pain intensity in the EAC group (P<0.05, which showed an increase in left rotation (P=0.049. The AC group showed increases in inclination (P=0.005 sustained until follow-up and rotation to the right (P=0.032. CONCLUSION : EAC and AC were effective in reducing the pain intensity compared with SHAM. EAC was better than AC for local pain relief. These treatments can assist in increasing cervical range of motion, albeit subtly.

  4. EGCG Suppresses ERK5 Activation to Reverse Tobacco Smoke-Triggered Gastric Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in BALB/c Mice

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    Ling Lu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoke is an important risk factor of gastric cancer. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition is a crucial pathophysiological process in cancer development. ERK5 regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition may be sensitive to cell types and/or the cellular microenvironment and its role in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition process remain elusive. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG is a promising chemopreventive agent for several types of cancers. In the present study we investigated the regulatory role of ERK5 in tobacco smoke-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in the stomach of mice and the preventive effect of EGCG. Exposure of mice to tobacco smoke for 12 weeks reduced expression of epithelial markers E-cadherin, ZO-1, and CK5, while the expression of mesenchymal markers Snail-1, Vimentin, and N-cadherin were increased. Importantly, we demonstrated that ERK5 modulated tobacco smoke-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition in mice stomach, as evidenced by the findings that tobacco smoke elevated ERK5 activation, and that tobacco smoke-triggered epithelial-mesenchymal transition was reversed by ERK5 inhibition. Treatment of EGCG (100 mg/kg BW effectively attenuated tobacco smoke-triggered activation of ERK5 and epithelial-mesenchymal transition alterations in mice stomach. Collectively, these data suggested that ERK5 was required for tobacco smoke-triggered gastric epithelial-mesenchymal transition and that EGCG suppressed ERK5 activation to reverse tobacco smoke-triggered gastric epithelial-mesenchymal transition in BALB/c mice. These findings provide new insights into the mechanism of tobacco smoke-associated gastric tumorigenesis and the chemoprevention of tobacco smoke-associated gastric cancer.

  5. Injecction of trigger points in the temporal muscles of patients with miofascial syndrome

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    Svetlana Sabatke

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The aim was to examine the effect of blocking trigger points in the temporal muscles of patients with masticatory myofascial pain syndrome, fibromyalgia and headache.Method : Seventy patients with one trigger point were randomly divided into 3 groups: injection with saline or anesthetic and non-injected (control.Results : Pain was reduced in 87.71% patients injected with saline and 100% injected with anesthetic. Similar results were obtained for headache frequency. With regard to headache intensity, the injection groups differed from the control group, but not between themselves.Conclusion : Treatment with injection at trigger points decreased facial pain and frequency and intensity of headache. Considering the injected substance there was no difference.

  6. Dolor de origen muscular: dolor miofascial y fibromialgia Muscular pain: myofascial pain syndrome and fibromyalgia

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    M. Ruiz

    2007-01-01

    estiramiento y relajación junto a la terapia psicológica, ayudarán a disminuir la intensidad de los síntomasMyofascial pain syndromes have a very high prevalence. Two concepts are essential: muscular tension and trigger points. Autonomous and central sensitization components are implicated. Physical examination and a complete clinical history are mandatory. It requires a multidisciplinary treatment, especially with physical therapy. Fibromyalgia is characterized by chronic widespread pain and the presence of tender points. In its origin numerous theories exist, but none is totally accepted. Patients present morning rigidity, chronic fatigue, cephalalgia, sleep disturbances, paresthesia, mood disorders, irritable bowel and joint pain. The diagnosis is based upon the classification criteria of the American College of Rheumatology 1990. The treatment aims to recover functionality and quality of life, at least partially. Tricyclic antidepressants therapy will improve depression and sleep disturbances. The non pharmacological treatment with stretching and relaxation programs alongside psychological therapy will help to reduce the intensity of symptoms

  7. MHC-compatible bone marrow stromal/stem cells trigger fibrosis by activating host T cells in a scleroderma mouse model.

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    Ogawa, Yoko; Morikawa, Satoru; Okano, Hideyuki; Mabuchi, Yo; Suzuki, Sadafumi; Yaguchi, Tomonori; Sato, Yukio; Mukai, Shin; Yaguchi, Saori; Inaba, Takaaki; Okamoto, Shinichiro; Kawakami, Yutaka; Tsubota, Kazuo; Matsuzaki, Yumi; Shimmura, Shigeto

    2016-01-26

    Fibrosis of organs is observed in systemic autoimmune disease. Using a scleroderma mouse, we show that transplantation of MHC compatible, minor antigen mismatched bone marrow stromal/stem cells (BMSCs) play a role in the pathogenesis of fibrosis. Removal of donor BMSCs rescued mice from disease. Freshly isolated PDGFRα(+) Sca-1(+) BMSCs expressed MHC class II following transplantation and activated host T cells. A decrease in FOXP3(+) CD25(+) Treg population was observed. T cells proliferated and secreted IL-6 when stimulated with mismatched BMSCs in vitro. Donor T cells were not involved in fibrosis because transplanting T cell-deficient RAG2 knock out mice bone marrow still caused disease. Once initially triggered by mismatched BMSCs, the autoimmune phenotype was not donor BMSC dependent as the phenotype was observed after effector T cells were adoptively transferred into naïve syngeneic mice. Our data suggest that minor antigen mismatched BMSCs trigger systemic fibrosis in this autoimmune scleroderma model.

  8. Referred pain from trapezius muscle trigger points shares similar characteristics with chronic tension type headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Ge, Hong-You; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Cuadrado, Maria Luz; Pareja, Juan A

    2007-05-01

    Referred pain and pain characteristics evoked from the upper trapezius muscle was investigated in 20 patients with chronic tension-type headache (CTTH) and 20 age- and gender-matched controls. A headache diary was kept for 4 weeks in order to confirm the diagnosis and record the pain history. Both upper trapezius muscles were examined for the presence of myofascial trigger points (TrPs) in a blinded fashion. The local and referred pain intensities, referred pain pattern, and pressure pain threshold (PPT) were recorded. The results show that referred pain was evoked in 85% and 50% on the dominant and non-dominant sides in CTTH patients, much higher than 55% and 25% in controls (P<0.01). Referred pain spread to the posterior-lateral aspect of the neck ipsi-lateral to the stimulated muscle in both patients and controls, with additional referral to the temple in most patients, but none in controls. Nearly half of the CTTH patients (45%) recognized the referred pain as their usual headache sensation, i.e. active TrPs. CTTH patients with active TrPs in the right upper trapezius muscle showed greater headache intensity and frequency, and longer headache duration than those with latent TrPs. CTTH patients with bilateral TrPs reported significantly decreased PPT than those with unilateral TrP (P<0.01). Our results showed that manual exploration of TrPs in the upper trapezius muscle elicited referred pain patterns in both CTTH patients and healthy subjects. In CTTH patients, the evoked referred pain and its sensory characteristics shared similar patterns as their habitual headache pain, consistent with active TrPs. Our results suggest that spatial summation of perceived pain and mechanical pain sensitivity exists in CTTH patients.

  9. Increased long-flight activity triggered in beet armyworm by larval feeding on diet containing Cry1Ac protoxin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Fu Jiang

    Full Text Available Evaluating ecological safety and conducting pest risk analysis for transgenic crops are vitally important before their commercial planting. The beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, a long-distance migratory insect pest, is not a direct target of transgenic Cry1Ac-expressing cotton in China, but nevertheless it has recently become an important pest. Migrants leaving their natal field arrive in other appropriate habitat far away in a short time, often followed by larval outbreaks. S. exigua has low susceptibility to Cry1Ac. However, our results from laboratory experiments identified (i sublethal effects of Cry1Ac protoxin on larval development rate, larval and pupal weight, and adult lifetime fecundity, and (ii increased long-flight behavior triggered by Cry1Ac which may contribute to larval outbreaks elsewhere. No significant differences in larval mortality, pupation rate, adult emergence rate, longevity, pre-oviposition period, or oviposition period were observed between controls and larvae fed on artificial diet incorporating a low concentration of Cry1Ac protoxin. The negative sublethal effects on some developmental and reproductive traits and lack of effect on others suggest they do not contribute to the observed severity of S. exigua outbreaks after feeding on Cry1Ac cotton. Interestingly, the percentage of long fliers increased significantly when larvae were reared on diet containing either of two low-dose treatments of Cry1Ac, suggesting a possible increased propensity to disperse long distances triggered by Cry1Ac. We hypothesize that negative effects on development and reproduction caused by Cry1Ac in the diet are offset by increased flight propensity triggered by the poor food conditions, thereby improving the chances of escaping adverse local conditions before oviposition. Increased long-flight propensity in turn may amplify the area damaged by outbreak populations. This phenomenon might be common in other migratory insect pests receiving

  10. Is self myofascial release an effective preexercise and recovery strategy? A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Allison N; Best, Thomas M

    2015-01-01

    The use of self myofascial release (SMR) via a foam roller or roller massager is becoming increasingly popular both to aid recovery from exercise and prevent injury. Our objective was to review the literature on SMR and its use for preexercise, recovery, or maintenance. PUBMED, EBSCO (MEDLINE), EMBASE, and CINAHL were searched for variations and synonyms of "self myofascial release" and "foam rolling." Data from nine studies were examined, and overall quality varied based on study protocol, muscle group targeted, and outcomes measured. Despite the heterogeneity of these studies, SMR appears to have a positive effect on range of motion and soreness/fatigue following exercise, but further study is needed to define optimal parameters (timing and duration of use) to aid performance and recovery.

  11. Unusual fatal petrositis presenting as myofascial pain and dysfunction of the temporal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loretan, Stefan; Duvoisin, Bernard; Scolozzi, Paolo

    2011-05-01

    Petrositis is a rare and severe complication of acute otitis media and mastoiditis. Although the extension of the inflammatory process from the petrous apex to the adjacent Meckel cave can lead to trigeminal pain, an irritation of the trigeminal nerve roots resulting in acute or chronic hyperactivity of masticatory muscles has never been reported. We report here the unusual case of an 86-year-old man who presented with a handicapping myofascial pain and dysfunction syndrome of the right temporal muscle as a heralding manifestation of an unusual form of petrositis. The patient progressively developed a retropharyngeal abscess, a right sphenoid sinusitis, and fatal meningitis. This case demonstrated that (1) myofascial pain and dysfunction syndrome that does not respond to conventional treatments may suggest an unusual etiology and warrant further medical investigations and a detailed medical history and that (2) petrositis can manifest itself with atypical clinical symptoms and radiologic signs.

  12. EFFECTS OF NEURAL MOBILIZATION IN POSTERIOR MYOFASCIAL CHAIN FLEXIBILITY IN NORMAL SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuti Sharma

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aims and objectives: The aim of this research is to see the effectiveness of neural mobilization on posterior myofascial chain flexibility. Methodology: Samples of 70 subjects were recruited for the study. Pre mobilization readings for finger floor distance, tibiotarsal angle and finger floor grades were taken for each individual, after whom slump mobilization was given and post mobilization readings were again taken in the same sequence after mobilization. Results: Both finger floor distance and grades were significantly changed, while tibiotarsal angle showed no significant difference. Discussion: Neural mobilization tries to restore the nervous system’s movement and elasticity, rehabilitating its normal functions by relieving the tensions in the muscular chains thereby increasing its flexibility. Conclusion: This study concludes that neural mobilization can improve posterior myofascial chain flexibility.

  13. Superficial temporal myofascial flap application in temporomandibular joint arthroplasty in a cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A Mestrinho

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Case summary A 2-year-old, intact female domestic longhair cat was referred for surgical treatment after diagnosis of closed jaw locking secondarily to right temporomandibular joint ankylosis and left pseudoankylosis. The animal underwent successful surgical management with bilateral excision arthroplasty followed by interposition of a temporal superficial myofascial flap. Immediately after surgery, the full range of lower jaw movement was achieved and normal occlusion was maintained. Ankylosis did not recur in the 1 year postoperative follow-up period. Relevance and novel information A temporal myofascial flap could be considered as interposition material after temporomandibular joint arthroplasty to avoid postoperative re-ankylosis and mandibular drift. The main advantages of this flap are its autogenous origin, and the ability to maintain separation between the two bones, preserve mobility and disrupt new bone formation.

  14. Shutoff and agonist-triggered internalization of protease-activated receptor 1 can be separated by mutation of putative phosphorylation sites in the cytoplasmic tail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammes, S R; Shapiro, M J; Coughlin, S R

    1999-07-20

    The thrombin receptor PAR1 becomes rapidly phosphorylated upon activation by either thrombin or exogenous SFLLRN agonist peptide. Substitution of alanine for all serine and threonine residues in the receptor's cytoplasmic carboxyl-terminal tail ablated phosphorylation and yielded a receptor defective in both shutoff and agonist-triggered internalization. These observations suggested that activation-dependent phosphorylation of PAR1's cytoplasmic tail is required for both shutoff and agonist-triggered internalization. To identify the phosphorylation site(s) that are necessary for these functions, we generated three mutant receptors in which alanine was substituted for serine and threonine residues in the amino-terminal, middle, and carboxyl-terminal thirds of PAR1's cytoplasmic tail. When stably expressed in fibroblasts, all three mutated receptors were rapidly phosphorylated in response to agonist, while a mutant in which all serines and threonines in the cytoplasmic tail were converted to alanines was not. This result suggests that phosphorylation can occur at multiple sites in PAR1's cytoplasmic tail. Alanine substitutions in the N-terminal and C-terminal portions of the tail had no effect on either receptor shutoff or agonist-triggered internalization. By contrast, alanine substitutions in the "middle" serine cluster between Ser(391) and Ser(406) yielded a receptor with considerably slower shutoff of signaling after thrombin activation than the wild type. Surprisingly, this same mutant was indistinguishable from the wild type in agonist-triggered internalization and degradation. Overexpression of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) and GRK3 "suppressed" the shutoff defect of the S --> A (391-406) mutant, consistent with this defect being due to altered receptor phosphorylation. These results suggest that specific phosphorylation sites are required for rapid receptor shutoff, but phosphorylation at multiple alternative sites is sufficient for agonist-triggered

  15. ZnO nanoparticle-induced oxidative stress triggers apoptosis by activating JNK signaling pathway in cultured primary astrocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jieting; Deng, Xiaobei; Zhang, Fang; Chen, Deliang; Ding, Wenjun

    2014-01-01

    It has been documented in in vitro studies that zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are capable of inducing oxidative stress, which plays a crucial role in ZnO NP-mediated apoptosis. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of apoptosis in neurocytes induced by ZnO NP exposure was not fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the potential mechanisms of apoptosis provoked by ZnO NPs in cultured primary astrocytes by exploring the molecular signaling pathways triggered after ZnO NP ex...

  16. Thermal temporal summation and decay of after-sensations in temporomandibular myofascial pain patients with and without comorbid fibromyalgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janal, Malvin N; Raphael, Karen G; Cook, Dane B; Sirois, David A; Nemelivsky, Lena; Staud, Roland

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Chronic myofascial temporomandibular disorders (TMD) may have multiple etiological and maintenance factors. One potential factor, central pain sensitization, was quantified here as the response to the temporal summation (TS) paradigm, and that response was compared between case and control groups. Objectives As previous research has shown that fibromyalgia (FM) is diagnosed iñ20% of TMD patients, Aim 1 determined whether central sensitization is found preferentially in myofascial TMD cases that have orofacial pain as a regional manifestation of FM. Aim 2 determined if the report of after-sensations (AS) following TS varied depending on whether repeated stimuli were rated as increasingly painful. Methods One hundred sixty-eight women, 43 controls, 100 myofascial TMD-only cases, and 25 myofascial TMD + FM cases, were compared on thermal warmth and pain thresholds, thermal TS, and decay of thermal AS. All cases met Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD; comorbid cases also met the 1990 American College of Rheumatology criteria for FM. Results Pain thresholds and TS were similar in all groups. When TS was achieved (~60%), significantly higher levels of AS were reported in the first poststimulus interval, and AS decayed more slowly over time, in myofascial TMD cases than controls. By contrast, groups showed similar AS decay patterns following steady state or decreasing responses to repetitive stimulation. Conclusion In this case–control study, all myofascial TMD cases were characterized by a similar delay in the decay of AS. Thus, this indicator of central sensitization failed to suggest different pain maintenance factors in myofascial TMD cases with and without FM. PMID:27672341

  17. Current concepts in MRI of rectus femoris musculotendinous (myotendinous) and myofascial injuries in elite athletes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassarjian, A., E-mail: Kassarjian@mac.com [Consultant Radiologist, Corades, S. L., Calle Galeon 2, 28220 Majadahonda, Madrid (Spain); Rodrigo, R.M., E-mail: rmrodrigo@resonanciamagneticabilbao.com [Resonancia Magnetica Bilbao, Hospital San Francisco Javier, Gordoniz 12, 40010 Bilbao, Vizcaya, Basque Country (Spain); Santisteban, J.M., E-mail: j.santisteban@athletic-club.net [Medical Services, Athletic Club Bilbao, Basurto Medical Institute, Faculty of Medicine and Odontology, University of the Basque Country, Barrio de Garaioltza 147, 48197 Lezama, Vizcaya, Basque Country (Spain)

    2012-12-15

    Rectus femoris injuries are extremely common in athletes, particularly in soccer players, rugby player, and sprinters. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays a key role in diagnosis, prognosis, and rehabilitation of these injuries. The current article discusses current concepts in the diagnosis and treatment of rectus femoris injuries in elite athletes, including a discussion of the less well known myofascial injuries and key prognostic factors as seen at MR imaging.

  18. [Neurovascular infrahyoidal myofascial flap. Anatomic and topographic study of the innervation and blood supply].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remmert, S; Meyer, S; Majocco, A

    1998-06-01

    The neurovascular infrahyoidal myofascial flap: An anatomical and topographical study of the innervation and blood supply. 15 cadavers had bilaterally been examined for the topography of the upper thyroid artery and vein and of the lower cervical ansa, as an axial bundle of vessels and nerves for the infrahyoidal myofascial flap. With the injection of methylene blue the vascular territories of the upper thyroid artery had been demonstrated. The upper thyroid artery and vein could be found in all cases. This artery was deriving in 47% from the external carotid artery, in 30% from the bifurcation and in 23% from the common carotid artery. The vein flowed in 43% into the facial vein and in 37% into the internal jugular vein. In the remaining 20% several segmental veins were found, which flowed into the jugular vein separately. In case of a far caudally situated vascular bundle the radius of rotation can be limited in cranial direction. The voluntary innervation of the muscles of this flap is derived from the lower cervical ansa. The upper radix of the ansa can be found 1 cm in latero-cranial direction of the greater horn of the hyoid bone, where it is separating from the hypoglossal nerve. The upper thyroid artery is supplying the infrahyoidal musculature in the whole extension from the hyoid bone to the sternum. Therefore it is possible to develop a myofascial flap of 3.5 cm x 11.5 cm in size, which is pedicled at an upper vascular and nerval bundle. Depending on the radius of rotation defects of the floor of mouth, of the tongue and of the oro- and hypopharynx can well be covered with this new neurovascular myofascial flap.

  19. EFFECT OF COGNITIVE BEHAVIOR THERAPY AS COMPARED TO MYOFASCIAL RELEASE TECHNIQUE IN FIBROMYALGIA SYNDROME

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur kusumpreet; Armugam Narkeesh; Khurana Sonia

    2013-01-01

    Background and introduction:Fibromyalgia or fibromyalgic syndrome is a common form of non-articularrheumatism characterized by variety of non-specific symptoms including diffuse widespread musculoskeletalaching associated with fatigue, morning stiffness and sleep disturbances (Bennett, 1997). The current study willcompare the beneficial effects of Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) and Myofascial release (MFR) along withconventional treatment. This study tries to find out new effective method f...

  20. EFFECT OF COGNITIVE BEHAVIOR THERAPY AS COMPARED TO MYOFASCIAL RELEASE TECHNIQUE IN FIBROMYALGIA SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur kusumpreet

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and introduction:Fibromyalgia or fibromyalgic syndrome is a common form of non-articularrheumatism characterized by variety of non-specific symptoms including diffuse widespread musculoskeletalaching associated with fatigue, morning stiffness and sleep disturbances (Bennett, 1997. The current study willcompare the beneficial effects of Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT and Myofascial release (MFR along withconventional treatment. This study tries to find out new effective method for reducing the problemsof pain,anxiety and sleep disturbance in fibromyalgia.Method:24 subjects selected according to the inclusion andexclusion criteria were randomly divided in to three groups: Conventional group, Myofascial releasealong withconventional treatment and Cognitive behavior therapy along with conventional treatment. Pre and post readingsat 0 day, 7thday and 14thday were recorded for Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ, Epworth SleepinessScale (ESS and State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI.Results:After two week protocol it was found that all threetreatment approaches were effective in reducing the problem of pain, anxiety and sleep disturbance to someextent. However on comparing three treatment approaches , CBT is the most effective in reducing theaboveparameters. (p<0.05Conclusion:Cognitive behavior therapy is more effective than Myofascial release tehniquesin reducing fibromyalgia symptoms.

  1. Role for the disulfide-bonded region of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp41 in receptor-triggered activation of membrane fusion function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellamy-McIntyre, Anna K. [Macfarlane Burnet Institute for Medical Research and Public Health, Vic. 3004 (Australia); Department of Microbiology, Monash University, Vic. 3168 (Australia); Baer, Severine [Program Infection and Cancer, Abt. F010 and INSERM U701, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg (Germany); Ludlow, Louise [Macfarlane Burnet Institute for Medical Research and Public Health, Vic. 3004 (Australia); Drummer, Heidi E. [Macfarlane Burnet Institute for Medical Research and Public Health, Vic. 3004 (Australia); Department of Microbiology, Monash University, Vic. 3168 (Australia); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The University of Melbourne, Vic. 3010 (Australia); Poumbourios, Pantelis, E-mail: apoumbourios@burnet.edu.au [Macfarlane Burnet Institute for Medical Research and Public Health, Vic. 3004 (Australia); Department of Microbiology, Monash University, Vic. 3168 (Australia)

    2010-04-16

    The conserved disulfide-bonded region (DSR) of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) fusion glycoprotein, gp41, mediates association with the receptor-binding glycoprotein, gp120. Interactions between gp120, CD4 and chemokine receptors activate the fusion activity of gp41. The introduction of W596L and W610F mutations to the DSR of HIV-1{sub QH1549.13} blocked viral entry and hemifusion without affecting gp120-gp41 association. The fusion defect correlated with inhibition of CD4-triggered gp41 pre-hairpin formation, consistent with the DSR mutations having decoupled receptor-induced conformational changes in gp120 from gp41 activation. Our data implicate the DSR in sensing conformational changes in the gp120-gp41 complex that lead to fusion activation.

  2. Triggering DTH and CTL Activity by fd Filamentous Bacteriophages: Role of CD4+ T Cells in Memory Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Del Pozzo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability of fd bacteriophage particles to trigger different arms of the immune system has been previously shown by us with particular emphasis on the ability of phages to raise CTL responses in vitro and in vivo. Here we show that fd virions in the absence of adjuvants are able to evoke a DTH reaction mediated by antigen specific CD8+ T cells. In addition, we analyzed the induction of CTL responses in mice depleted of CD4+ T cells, and we observed that short-term secondary CTL responses were induced in the absence of CD4+ T cells while induction of long-term memory CTLs required the presence of CD4+ T lymphocytes. These results examine the cellular mechanism at the basis of fd efficiency and provide new elements to further validate the use of fd particles for eliciting and monitoring antigen-specific CTLs.

  3. Sensitive electrochemical detection of telomerase activity using spherical nucleic acids gold nanoparticles triggered mimic-hybridization chain reaction enzyme-free dual signal amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Jing; Li, Jing-Jing; Rui, Kai; Gai, Pan-Pan; Zhang, Jian-Rong; Zhu, Jun-Jie

    2015-03-03

    We report an electrochemical sensor for telomerase activity detection based on spherical nucleic acids gold nanoparticles (SNAs AuNPs) triggered mimic-hybridization chain reaction (mimic-HCR) enzyme-free dual signal amplification. In the detection strategy, SNAs AuNPs and two hairpin probes were employed. SNAs AuNPs as the primary amplification element, not only hybridized with the telomeric repeats on the electrode to amplify signal but also initiated the subsequent secondary amplification, mimic-hybridization chain reaction of two hairpin probes. If the cells' extracts were positive for telomerase activity, SNAs AuNPs could be captured on the electrode. The carried initiators could trigger an alternative hybridization reaction of two hairpin probes that yielded nicked double helices. The signal was further amplified enzyme-free by numerous hexaammineruthenium(III) chloride ([Ru(NH3)6](3+), RuHex) inserting into double-helix DNA long chain by electrostatic interaction, each of which could generate an electrochemical signal at appropriate potential. With this method, a detection limit of down to 2 HeLa cells and a dynamic range of 10-10,000 cells were achieved. Telomerase activities of different cell lines were also successfully evaluated.

  4. Selenium and Zinc Status in Chronic Myofascial Pain: Serum and Erythrocyte Concentrations and Food Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros-Neto, João Araújo; Souza-Machado, Adelmir; Kraychete, Durval Campos; de Jesus, Rosangela Passos; Cortes, Matheus Lopes; Lima, Michele dos Santos; Freitas, Mariana Carvalho; Santos, Tascya Morganna de Morais; Viana, Gustavo Freitas de Sousa; Menezes-Filho, José Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Nutritional disorders have been reported to be important causal factors that can intensify or cause a painful response in individuals with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Aim To assess the habitual intake of and the serum and erythrocyte levels of selenium and zinc in patients with chronic myofascial pain. Materials and Methods A case-control study of 31 patients with chronic myofascial pain (group I) and 31 subjects without pain (group II). Dietary record in five days for assessing food intake were used. The serum and erythrocyte concentrations of selenium and zinc were analyzed using an atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Pain intensity was assessed using a visual analog scale. Results The group of patients with chronic myofascial pain, compared with the control group, showed a lower erythrocyte concentration of selenium (79.46 ± 19.79 μg/L vs. 90.80 ± 23.12 μg/L; p = 0.041) and zinc (30.56 ± 7.74 μgZn/gHb vs. 38.48 ± 14.86 μgZn/gHb, respectively; p = 0.004). In this study, a compromised food intake of zinc was observed in the majority of the subjects in both groups. The selenium intake was considered to be safe in 80% of the subjects in both groups; however, the likelihood of inadequate intake of this mineral was twice as high in group I (49.5% vs. 24.4%, respectively). In the logistic regression analysis, the erythrocyte concentration of zinc was associated with the presence of pain. In each additional 1 mg of Zn2+ per gram of hemoglobin, a reduction of 12.5% was observed in the risk of the individual having chronic myofascial pain (B = -0.133; adjusted OR = 0.875, 95% CI = 0.803 to 0.954, Wald = 9.187, standard error = 0.044, p = 0.002). Physical inactivity and obesity were noted more commonly in group I compared with the control group. Conclusion In this study, patients with chronic myofascial pain showed lower intracellular stores of zinc and selenium and inadequate food intake of these nutrients. PMID:27755562

  5. Pseudorabies Virus Triggers Glycoprotein gE-Mediated ERK1/2 Activation and ERK1/2-Dependent Migratory Behavior in T Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setas Pontes, Maria; Devriendt, Bert

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The interaction between viruses and immune cells of the host may lead to modulation of intracellular signaling pathways and to subsequent changes in cellular behavior that are of benefit for either virus or host. ERK1/2 (extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2) signaling represents one of the key cellular signaling axes. Here, using wild-type and gE null virus, recombinant gE, and gE-transfected cells, we show that the gE glycoprotein of the porcine Varicellovirus pseudorabies virus (PRV) triggers ERK1/2 phosphorylation in Jurkat T cells and primary porcine T lymphocytes. PRV-induced ERK1/2 signaling resulted in homotypic T cell aggregation and increased motility of T lymphocytes. Our study reveals a new function of the gE glycoprotein of PRV and suggests that PRV, through activation of ERK1/2 signaling, has a substantial impact on T cell behavior. IMPORTANCE Herpesviruses are known to be highly successful in evading the immune system of their hosts, subverting signaling pathways of the host to their own advantage. The ERK1/2 signaling pathway, being involved in many cellular processes, represents a particularly attractive target for viral manipulation. Glycoprotein E (gE) is an important virulence factor of alphaherpesviruses, involved in viral spread. In this study, we show that gE has the previously uncharacterized ability to trigger ERK1/2 phosphorylation in T lymphocytes. We also show that virus-induced ERK1/2 signaling leads to increased migratory behavior of T cells and that migratory T cells can spread the infection to susceptible cells. In conclusion, our results point to a novel function for gE and suggest that virus-induced ERK1/2 activation may trigger PRV-carrying T lymphocytes to migrate and infect other cells susceptible to PRV replication. PMID:25473050

  6. Identifying asthma triggers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Justin C; Ferguson, Berrylin J

    2014-02-01

    Asthma has many triggers including rhinosinusitis; allergy; irritants; medications (aspirin in aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease); and obesity. Paradoxic vocal fold dysfunction mimics asthma and may be present along with asthma. This article reviews each of these triggers, outlining methods of recognizing the trigger and then its management. In many patients more than one trigger may be present. Full appreciation of the complexity of these relationships and targeted therapy to the trigger is needed to best care for the patient with asthma.

  7. Bacillus cereus AR156 activates PAMP-triggered immunity and induces a systemic acquired resistance through a NPR1-and SA-dependent signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Dongdong; Wang, Xiujuan; Wang, Yanru; Song, Xiaoou; Wang, Jiansheng; Guo, Jianhua; Zhao, Hongwei

    2016-01-01

    Induced resistance responses play a potent role in plant defense system against pathogen attack. Bacillus cereus AR156 is a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) that installs induced systemic resistance (ISR) to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) in Arabidopsis. Here, we show that AR156 leaf infiltration enhances disease resistance in Arabidopsis through the activation of a systemic acquired resistance (SAR). PR1 protein expression and reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst are strongly induced in plants treated with AR156 and inoculated with Pst than that in plants inoculated with Pst only. Moreover, AR156 can trigger SAR in jar1 or ein2 mutants, but not in the NahG transgenic and NPR1 mutant plants. Our results indicate that AR156-induced SAR depends on SA-signaling pathway and NPR1, but not JA and ET. Also, AR156-treated plants are able to rapidly activate MAPK signaling and FRK1 gene expression, which are involved in pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI). Altogether, our results indicate that AR156 can induce SAR by the SA-signaling pathways in an NPR1-dependent manner and involves multiple PTI components.

  8. Muscle repositioning: combining subjective and objective feedbacks in the teaching and practice of a reflex-based myofascial release technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolucci, Luiz Fernando

    2010-03-17

    Muscle Repositioning (MR) is a new style of myofascial release that elicits involuntary motor reactions detectable by electromyography. This article describes the principal theoretical and practical concepts of MR, and summarizes a workshop presented October 31, 2009, after the Second International Fascia Research Congress, held at Vrije Universitiet, Amsterdam.The manual mechanical input of MR integrates the client's body segments into a block, which is evident as a result of the diagnostic manual oscillations the practitioner imparts to the client's body. Segmental integration is achieved when the client's body responds as a unit to the oscillatory assessment. It appears that manually sustaining the condition of segmental integration evokes involuntary muscle reactions, which reactions might correspond to mechanisms that maintain homeostasis, such as pandiculation. It might be that these reactions are part of the MR mechanism of action and underlie its clinically observed efficacy in the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders.For the practitioner and the client alike, segmental integration provides unique sensations. In teaching MR, these paired sensations can be used as kinesthetic feedback resources, because quality of touch can be guided by the client's reported sensations, which should match the practitioner's sensations. Another form of feedback with respect to quality of touch is the visually discernable degree of segmental integration. Finally, because the involuntary motor activity elicited by the MR touch can be objectively monitored through electromyography and possibly other instrumented measurements, the MR approach might yield objectivity, precision, and reproducibility-features seldom found in manual therapies.

  9. Emerging concepts in the treatment of myofascial pain: a review of medications, modalities, and needle-based interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annaswamy, Thiru Mandyam; De Luigi, Arthur J; O'Neill, Bryan J; Keole, Nandita; Berbrayer, David

    2011-10-01

    Significant developments and changes in the use of interventions and treatments for the management of myofascial pain syndrome have occurred in the past 10 years. These emerging concepts have changed the approach for clinicians who manage these pain disorders. However, wide variations in practice patterns prevail, and no clear consensus exists regarding when and how to use these interventions; in addition, awareness of the evidence basis behind their use is limited. This review examines the most recent advances in the treatment of myofascial pain syndromes. Specifically, the evidence basis of various emerging interventions is reviewed and recommendations for routine clinical practice and their rationale are provided. The purpose of this review is to provide the clinician with a better understanding of emerging concepts in the interventions used for myofascial pain syndromes.

  10. The Central Trigger Processor (CTP)

    CERN Multimedia

    Franchini, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    The Central Trigger Processor (CTP) receives trigger information from the calorimeter and muon trigger processors, as well as from other sources of trigger. It makes the Level-1 decision (L1A) based on a trigger menu.

  11. The role of muscles in tension-type headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Lars; Fernández-de-la-Peñas, César

    2011-01-01

    The tenderness of pericranial myofascial tissues and number of myofascial trigger points are considerably increased in patients with tension-type headache (TTH). Mechanisms responsible for the increased myofascial pain sensitivity have been studied extensively. Peripheral activation or sensitizat......The tenderness of pericranial myofascial tissues and number of myofascial trigger points are considerably increased in patients with tension-type headache (TTH). Mechanisms responsible for the increased myofascial pain sensitivity have been studied extensively. Peripheral activation...... to prolonged nociceptive stimuli from pericranial myofascial tissues seem to be responsible for the conversion of episodic to chronic TTH. Treatment directed toward muscular factors include electromyography biofeedback, which has a documented effect in patients with TTH, as well as physiotherapy and muscle...

  12. Short-Term Effects of Kinesio Taping and Cross Taping Application in the Treatment of Latent Upper Trapezius Trigger Points: A Prospective, Single-Blind, Randomized, Sham-Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halski, Tomasz; Ptaszkowski, Kuba; Słupska, Lucyna; Paprocka-Borowicz, Małgorzata; Dymarek, Robert; Taradaj, Jakub; Bidzińska, Gabriela; Marczyński, Daniel; Cynarska, Aleksandra; Rosińczuk, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Kinesio taping (KT) may be a new treatment in patients with myofascial trigger points (MTrPs). A new method available for taping practitioners is cross taping (CT). The main objective was to determine how CT, KT, and medical adhesive tape (sham group) affect the subjective assessment of resting bioelectrical activity and pain of the upper trapezius muscle (UT) in patients with MTrPs. 105 volunteers were recruited to participate. The primary outcome was resting bioelectrical activity of UT muscle as assessed by surface electromyography (sEMG) in each group and pain intensity on a visual analog scale (VAS). Assessments were collected before and after intervention and after the 24-hours follow-up. No significant differences were observed in bioelectrical activity of UT between pre-, post-, and follow-up results. In three groups patients had significantly lower pain VAS score after the intervention (CT—p tapes does not influence the resting bioelectrical activity of UT muscle and may not lead to a reduction in muscle tone in the case of MTrPs. PMID:26491458

  13. Short-Term Effects of Kinesio Taping and Cross Taping Application in the Treatment of Latent Upper Trapezius Trigger Points: A Prospective, Single-Blind, Randomized, Sham-Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Halski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Kinesio taping (KT may be a new treatment in patients with myofascial trigger points (MTrPs. A new method available for taping practitioners is cross taping (CT. The main objective was to determine how CT, KT, and medical adhesive tape (sham group affect the subjective assessment of resting bioelectrical activity and pain of the upper trapezius muscle (UT in patients with MTrPs. 105 volunteers were recruited to participate. The primary outcome was resting bioelectrical activity of UT muscle as assessed by surface electromyography (sEMG in each group and pain intensity on a visual analog scale (VAS. Assessments were collected before and after intervention and after the 24-hours follow-up. No significant differences were observed in bioelectrical activity of UT between pre-, post-, and follow-up results. In three groups patients had significantly lower pain VAS score after the intervention (CT—p<0.001, KT—p<0.001, and sham—p<0.01. The Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA showed no significant differences in almost all measurements between groups. The application of all three types of tapes does not influence the resting bioelectrical activity of UT muscle and may not lead to a reduction in muscle tone in the case of MTrPs.

  14. Collectin-11/MASP complex formation triggers activation of the lectin complement pathway--the fifth lectin pathway initiation complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ying Jie; Skjoedt, Mikkel-Ole; Garred, Peter

    2013-01-01

    complement pathway regulator MAP-1. Furthermore, we found that complex formation between recombinant collectin-11 and recombinant MASP-2 on Candida albicans leads to deposition of C4b. Native collectin-11 in serum mediated complement activation and deposition of C4b and C3b, and formation of the terminal...... complement complex on C. albicans. Moreover, spiking collectin-11-depleted serum, which did not mediate complement activation, with recombinant collectin-11 restored the complement activation capability. These results define collectin-11 as the fifth recognition molecule in the lectin complement pathway...

  15. Comparing complementary alternative treatment for chronic shoulder pain of myofascial origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ru-Yu; Hsu, Yung-Chi; Wong, Chih-Shung; Lin, Shinn-Long; Li, Tsung-Ying; Cherng, Chen-Hwan; Ko, Shan-Chi; Yeh, Chun-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to compare the short-term outcomes between 2 different treatments for unilateral chronic shoulder pain of myofascial origin, that is, local tender area related meridians (LTARMs) treatment and collateral meridian therapy (CMT), which were performed 6 times over a period of 4 weeks. Seventy patients with unilateral shoulder pain of chronic myofascial origin were enrolled. The patients were randomly assigned to 2 different treatment groups: 1 group received CMT (n = 35) and the other received LTARM (n = 35). Before and after the 2 treatment processes, all patients rated their overall pain intensity on a visual analogue scale (VAS) and a validated 13-question shoulder pain and disability index (SPADI) questionnaire was used to measure shoulder pain and functional impairment after therapy for 4 weeks. After CMT, the pain intensity was reduced after CMT. VAS score is reduced from 5.90 ± 2.07 (a mean of 5.90 and standard deviation of 2.07) to 3.39 ± 1.2. This was verified by the SPADI pain subscale scores (from 0.58 ± 0.193 to 0.33 ± 0.14). The pain-relief effect of CMT was significantly better than that of LTARM (VAS score from 5.78 ± 1.64 to 4.58 ± 1.40; P myofascial origin than the LTARM treatment, where treatment with the former resulted in better functional recovery after 4 weeks than the latter. PMID:27583882

  16. Asthma triggers (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... things make your asthma worse. These are called asthma "triggers". Avoiding them is your first step toward feeling better. The most common asthma triggers are mold, pets, dust, grasses, pollen, cockroaches, odors ...

  17. Elite swimmers with and without unilateral shoulder pain: mechanical hyperalgesia and active/latent muscle trigger points in neck-shoulder muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo-Lozano, A; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, C; Calderón-Soto, C; Domingo-Camara, A; Madeleine, P; Arroyo-Morales, M

    2013-02-01

    Our aim was to investigate the presence of mechanical hypersensitivity and active trigger points (TrPs) in the neck-shoulder muscles in elite swimmers with/without unilateral shoulder pain. Seventeen elite swimmers with shoulder pain; 18 swimmers without shoulder pain; and 15 elite athletes matched controls were recruited. Pressure pain thresholds (PPT) were assessed over the levator scapulae, sternocleidomastoid, upper trapezius, infraspinatus, scalene, subscapularis and tibialis anterior muscles. TrPs in the levator scapulae, upper trapezius, infraspinatus, scalene, sternocleidomastoid and subscapularis muscles were also explored. Swimmers with shoulder pain showed significant lower PPT in all muscles compared with controls (Ppain, underlining widespread mechanical hypersensitivity. The mean number of TrPs for elite swimmer with and without shoulder pain was, respectively, 4.7 ± 1 (2.1 ± 1.5 active; 2.6 ± 1.4 latent) and 4.7 ± 1.3 (1.3 ± 1.3 active; 3.4 ± 1.5 latent), whereas healthy athletes only showed latent TrPs (2.4 ± 1.2). Elite swimmers with shoulder pain showed higher number of active TrPs than swimmers without pain, whereas it was the opposite for the number of latent muscle TrP (Pmechanical hypersensitivity suggests that active TrPs play a role in the development of shoulder pain in elite swimmers.

  18. `In crystallo' substrate binding triggers major domain movements and reveals magnesium as a co-activator of Trypanosoma brucei pyruvate kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Wenhe; Morgan, Hugh P; McNae, Iain W; Michels, Paul A M; Fothergill-Gilmore, Linda A; Walkinshaw, Malcolm D

    2013-09-01

    The active site of pyruvate kinase (PYK) is located between the AC core of the enzyme and a mobile lid corresponding to domain B. Many PYK structures have already been determined, but the first `effector-only' structure and the first with PEP (the true natural substrate) are now reported for the enzyme from Trypanosoma brucei. PEP soaked into crystals of the enzyme with bound allosteric activator fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (F26BP) and Mg(2+) triggers a substantial 23° rotation of the B domain `in crystallo', resulting in a partially closed active site. The interplay of side chains with Mg(2+) and PEP may explain the mechanism of the domain movement. Furthermore, it is apparent that when F26BP is present but PEP is absent Mg(2+) occupies a position that is distinct from the two canonical Mg(2+)-binding sites at the active site. This third site is adjacent to the active site and involves the same amino-acid side chains as in canonical site 1 but in altered orientations. Site 3 acts to sequester Mg(2+) in a `priming' position such that the enzyme is maintained in its R-state conformation. In this way, Mg(2+) cooperates with F26BP to ensure that the enzyme is in a conformation that has a high affinity for the substrate.

  19. Misconceived Retropharyngeal Calcific Tendinitis during Management of Myofascial Neck Pain Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Ji Youn; Lim, Jin Hun; Kim, Yong Seok; Kwon, Young Eun; Yu, Jae Yong; Lee, Jun Hak

    2016-01-01

    Differential diagnosis of posterior neck pain is very challenging based on symptoms and physical examination only. Retropharyngeal calcific tendinitis is a rare and frequently misdiagnosed entity in various causes of neck pain. It results from calcium hydroxyapatite deposition in the longus colli muscle which is characterized by severe neck pain, painful restriction of neck movement, dysphagia, and odynophagia. We herein report a case of a patient with acute retropharyngeal calcific tendinitis, who complained of posterior neck pain, initially diagnosed and treated as a myofascial neck pain syndrome.

  20. Exercise, especially combined stretching and strengthening exercise, reduces myofascial pain: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Bergamaschine Mata Diz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Question: Among people with myofascial pain, does exercise reduce the intensity of the pain and disability? Design: Systematic review of randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials. Participants: People with myofascial pain of any duration. Intervention: Exercise versus minimal or no intervention and exercise versus other intervention. Outcome measures: Pain intensity and disability. Results: Eight studies involving 255 participants were included. Pooled estimates from six studies showed statistically significant effects of exercise when compared with minimal or no intervention (support and encouragement or no treatment on pain intensity at short-term follow-up. The weighted mean difference in pain intensity due to exercise was –1.2 points (95% CI –2.3 to –0.1 on a 0 to 10 scale. Pooled estimates from two studies showed a non-significant effect of exercise when compared with other interventions (electrotherapy or dry needling on pain intensity at short-term follow-up. The weighted mean difference in pain intensity due to exercise instead of other therapies was 0.4 points (95% CI –0.3 to 1.1 on a 0 to 10 scale. Individual studies reported no significant effects of exercise on disability compared with minimal intervention (–0.4, 95% CI –1.3 to 0.5 and other interventions (0.0, 95% CI –0.8 to 0.8 at short-term follow-up. Sensitivity analysis suggested that combining stretching and strengthening achieves greater short-term effects on pain intensity compared with minimal or no intervention (–2.3, 95% CI –4.1 to –0.5. Conclusion: Evidence from a limited number of trials indicates that exercise has positive small-to-moderate effects on pain intensity at short-term follow-up in people with myofascial pain. A combination of stretching and strengthening exercises seems to achieve greater effects. These estimates may change with future high-quality studies. [Mata Diz JB, de Souza JRLM, Leopoldino AAO, Oliveira VC (2016 Exercise

  1. Efficacy Of Electroacupuncture For Myofascial Pain In The Upper Trapezius Muscle: A Case Series.

    OpenAIRE

    Aranha,Maria F. M.; ALVES,MARCELO C.; Bérzin, Fausto; Gavião, Maria B. D.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Electroacupunture (EA) includes the passage of an electrical current through the acupuncture needle and is commonly used for pain relief. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the EA treatment effects for myofascial pain in the upper trapezius muscle. METHODS: Twenty women aged ranging from 18 to 40 years (mean=24.95; SD=5.88 years), with a body mass index ranging from 19 to 25 kg/m2 (mean=22.33; SD=0.56 kg/m2), with regular menstrual cycles controlled by oral contraceptive, local or referred pa...

  2. The KLOE trigger system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adinolfi, M.; Aloisio, A.; Ambrosino, F.; Andryakov, A.; Antonelli, A.; Antonelli, M.; Anulli, F.; Bacci, C.; Bankamp, A.; Barbiellini, G.; Bellini, F.; Bencivenni, G.; Bertolucci, S.; Bini, C.; Bloise, C.; Bocci, V.; Bossi, F.; Branchini, P.; Bulychjov, S.A.; Cabibbo, G.; Calcaterra, A.; Caloi, R.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Carboni, G.; Cardini, A.; Casarsa, M.; Cataldi, G.; Ceradini, F.; Cervelli, F.; Cevenini, F.; Chiefari, G.; Ciambrone, P.; Conetti, S.; Conticelli, S.; De Lucia, E.; De Robertis, G.; De Sangro, R.; De Simone, P.; De Zorzi, G.; Dell' Agnello, S.; Denig, E.; Di Domenico, A.; Di Donato, C.; Di Falco, S.; Doria, A.; Drago, E.; Elia, V.; Erriquez, O.; Farilla, A.; Felici, G.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrer, M.L.; Finocchiaro, G.; Forti, C.; Franceschi, A.; Franzini, P.; Gao, M.L.; Gatti, C.; Gauzzi, P.; Giovannella, S.; Golovatyuk, V.; Gorini, E.; Grancagnolo, F.; Grandegger, W.; Graziani, E.; Guarnaccia, P.; Hagel, U. von; Han, H.G.; Han, S.W.; Huang, X.; Incagli, M.; Ingrosso, L.; Jang, Y.Y.; Kim, W.; Kluge, W.; Kulikov, V.; Lacava, F.; Lanfranchi, G.; Lee-Franzini, J.; Lomtadze, F.; Luisi, C.; Mao, C.S.; Martemianov, M.; Matsyuk, M.; Mei, W.; Merola, L.; Messi, R.; Miscetti, S.; Moalem, A.; Moccia, S.; Moulson, M.; Mueller, S.; Murtas, F.; Napolitano, M.; Nedosekin, A.; Panareo, M.; Pacciani, L.; Pages, P.; Palutan, M.; Paoluzi, L.; Pasqualucci, E.; Passalacqua, L.; Passaseo, M.; Passeri, A.; Patera, V.; Petrolo, E.; Petrucci, G.; Picca, D.; Pirozzi, G.; Pistillo, C.; Pollack, M.; Pontecorvo, L.; Primavera, M.; Ruggieri, F.; Santangelo, P.; Santovetti, E.; Saracino, G.; Schamberger, R.D.; Schwick, C.; Sciascia, B. E-mail: barbara.sciascia@romal.infn.it; Sciubba, A.; Scuri, F.; Sfiligoi, I.; Shan, J.; Silano, P.; Spadaro, T.; Spagnolo, S.; Spiriti, E.; Stanescu, C.; Tong, G.L.; Tortora, L.; Valente, E.; Valente, P.; Valeriani, B.; Venanzoni, G.; Veneziano, S.; Wu, Y.; Xie, Y.G.; Zhao, P.P.; Zhou, Y

    2001-04-01

    A double-level trigger system has been developed for the KLOE experiment. Custom electronics asserts a trigger in a 2 {mu}s decision time. The decision is based on the combined information of the electromagnetic calorimeter and the drift chamber. The entire trigger system is continuously monitored, and data flowing from the trigger system have allowed both an efficient online monitoring of the detector and an online luminosity measurement.

  3. Interleukin 3 stimulates proliferation and triggers endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecule 1 gene activation of human endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brizzi, M F; Garbarino, G; Rossi, P R; Pagliardi, G L; Arduino, C; Avanzi, G C; Pegoraro, L

    1993-06-01

    Proliferation and functional activation of endothelial cells within a tissue site of inflammation are regulated by humoral factors released by cells, such as T lymphocytes and monocytes, infiltrating the perivascular space. In the present study we investigated the effects of interleukin 3 (IL-3), an activated T lymphocyte-derived cytokine, on cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Proliferative activity, evaluated both by estimation of the fraction of cells in the S phase and by direct cell count demonstrated that IL-3, at the dose of 25 ng/ml, enhances more than threefold both DNA synthesis and cell proliferation above baseline control conditions. Binding studies with radioiodinated ligand demonstrated that HUVEC constitutively express a smaller number of IL-3 binding sites (approximately 99 binding sites per cell, with an apparent Kd of 149 pM). Accordingly, molecular analysis showed the presence of transcripts for both alpha and beta subunits of the IL-3 receptor. Functional activation of endothelial cells was evaluated by the expression of the endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecule 1 (ELAM-1) transcript and by leukocyte adhesion. The ELAM-1 gene transcript was clearly detectable 4 h after IL-3 addition and started to decrease after 12 h. Moreover, IL-3-induced ELAM-1 transcription was followed by enhanced adhesion of neutrophils and CD4+ T cells to HUVEC. The findings that IL-3 can stimulate both proliferation and functional activation of endothelial cells suggest that this cytokine can be involved in sustaining the process of chronic inflammation.

  4. Transcriptional activation of heat shock protein 90 mediated via a proximal promoter region as trigger of caspofungin resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamoth, Frédéric; Juvvadi, Praveen R; Gehrke, Christopher; Asfaw, Yohannes G; Steinbach, William J

    2014-02-01

    Invasive aspergillosis is a deadly infection for which new antifungal therapies are needed. Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is an essential chaperone in Aspergillus fumigatus representing an attractive antifungal target. Using a thiamine-repressible promoter (pthiA), we showed that genetic repression of Hsp90 significantly reduced virulence in a murine model of invasive aspergillosis. Moreover, substituting the A. fumigatus hsp90 promoter with 2 artificial promoters (potef, pthiA) and the Candida albicans hsp90 promoter resulted in hypersensitivity to caspofungin and abolition of the paradoxical effect (resistance at high caspofungin concentrations). By inducing truncations in the hsp90 promoter, we identified a 100-base pair proximal sequence that triggers a significant increase of hsp90 expression (≥1.5-fold) and is essential for the paradoxical effect. Preventing this increase of hsp90 expression was sufficient to abolish the paradoxical effect and therefore optimize the antifungal activity of caspofungin.

  5. Comparison of therapeutic efficacy between acupuncture and low level laser in the treatment of cervical myofascial pain syndrome: a single blinded randomized clinical trial study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Eslamian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Neck pain is a medical and public problem with a prevalence of 9-18 percent in general population. Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS is a regional pain syndrome that is characterized with muscular tender and triggers points. Laser therapy and acupuncture are two methods applied in the treatment of MPS. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of acupuncture and low level laser in cervical MPS treatment. Material and Methods: In a randomized clinical trial study, during a 15-month period, 60 patients with CMPs, referred to physical medicine and rehabilitation clinic, were divided into three groups Gr1 underwent acupuncture plus drugs, Gr2 laser therapy plus drugs and Gr3 only medication. Pain severity using visual analogue scale (VAS, Range of motion (ROM with goniometry, palpation sensitivity with finger compression and daily function with neck questionnaire were assessed before, immediately after and two months after treatment. The obtained data were analyzed using statistical software SPSS version 16. Results: Sixty patients of CMPs were included in this study. In acupuncture group, 5 male and 15 female (mean age of 38.8±6.36, in laser group, 6 male and 14 female (mean age of 37.7±5.64 and in control group, 8 male and 12 female (mean age of 37.6±5.17 were evaluated. There was significant difference in majority of parameters in two treatment groups compared to control group. But neck ROM in left lateral bending and VAS score, showed better improvement in acupuncture group than the other 2 groups (P<0.001. Nevertheless two months afterwards, no significant difference was detected between laser and acupuncture groups. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that both acupuncture and laser therapy along with exercise and drugs are more effective than routine and only medication treatments in management of CMPs. However, with respect to myofascial pain pathology, acupuncture, at least in short term has more beneficial

  6. Biobehavioral Triggers of Cardiac Arrhythmia during Daily Life: The Role of Emotion, Physical Activity, and Heart Rate Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    titrated were tapered gradually from these medications prior to the study. Other anti-arrhythmics, including procainamide, quinine, and digoxin, were...snow, competitive basketball , etc.) one to three times per year. Participants typically engaged in extreme activity (defined as extreme or peak

  7. EPCR-dependent PAR2 activation by the blood coagulation initiation complex regulates LPS-triggered interferon responses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hai Po H; Kerschen, Edward J; Hernandez, Irene; Basu, Sreemanti; Zogg, Mark; Botros, Fady; Jia, Shuang; Hessner, Martin J; Griffin, John H; Ruf, Wolfram; Weiler, Hartmut

    2015-04-30

    Infection and inflammation are invariably associated with activation of the blood coagulation mechanism, secondary to the inflammation-induced expression of the coagulation initiator tissue factor (TF) on innate immune cells. By investigating the role of cell-surface receptors for coagulation factors in mouse endotoxemia, we found that the protein C receptor (ProcR; EPCR) was required for the normal in vivo and in vitro induction of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-regulated gene expression. In cultured bone marrow-derived myeloid cells and in monocytic RAW264.7 cells, the LPS-induced expression of functionally active TF, assembly of the ternary TF-VIIa-Xa initiation complex of blood coagulation, and the EPCR-dependent activation of protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) by the ternary TF-VIIa-Xa complex were required for the normal LPS induction of messenger RNAs encoding the TLR3/4 signaling adaptor protein Pellino-1 and the transcription factor interferon regulatory factor 8. In response to in vivo challenge with LPS, mice lacking EPCR or PAR2 failed to fully initiate an interferon-regulated gene expression program that included the Irf8 target genes Lif, Iigp1, Gbp2, Gbp3, and Gbp6. The inflammation-induced expression of TF and crosstalk with EPCR, PAR2, and TLR4 therefore appear necessary for the normal evolution of interferon-regulated host responses.

  8. Immunostimulatory Effects Triggered by Enterococcus faecalis CECT7121 Probiotic Strain Involve Activation of Dendritic Cells and Interferon-Gamma Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Matías Alejandro; Díaz, Ailén Magalí; Hesse, Christina; Ginter, Wiebke; Gentilini, María Virginia; Nuñez, Guillermo Gabriel; Canellada, Andrea Mercedes; Sparwasser, Tim; Berod, Luciana; Castro, Marisa Silvia; Manghi, Marcela Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics can modulate the immune system, conferring beneficial effects on the host. Understanding how these microorganisms contribute to improve the health status is still a challenge. Previously, we have demonstrated that Enterococcus faecalis CECT7121 implants itself and persists in the murine gastrointestinal tract, and enhances and skews the profile of cytokines towards the Th1 phenotype in several biological models. Given the importance of dendritic cells (DCs) in the orchestration of immunity, the aim of this work was to elucidate the influence of E. faecalis CECT7121 on DCs and the outcome of the immune responses. In this work we show that E. faecalis CECT7121 induces a strong dose-dependent activation of DCs and secretion of high levels of IL-12, IL-6, TNFα, and IL-10. This stimulation is dependent on TLR signaling, and skews the activation of T cells towards the production of IFNγ. The influence of this activation in the establishment of Th responses in vivo shows the accumulation of specific IFNγ-producing cells. Our findings indicate that the activation exerted by E. faecalis CECT7121 on DCs and its consequence on the cellular adaptive immune response may have broad therapeutic implications in immunomodulation. PMID:25978357

  9. Secondary lymphoid tissue chemokine (CCL21) activates CXCR3 to trigger a Cl- current and chemotaxis in murine microglial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rappert, A; Biber, K; Nolte, C; Lipp, M; Schubel, A; Lu, B; Gerard, NP; Gerard, C; Boddeke, HWGM; Kettenmann, H

    2002-01-01

    Microglial cells represent the major immunocompetent element of the CNS and are activated by any type of brain injury or disease. A candidate for signaling neuronal injury to microglial cells is the CC chemokine ligand CCL21, given that damaged neurons express CCL21. Investigating microglia in acute

  10. Immunostimulatory Effects Triggered by Enterococcus faecalis CECT7121 Probiotic Strain Involve Activation of Dendritic Cells and Interferon-Gamma Production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías Alejandro Molina

    Full Text Available Probiotics can modulate the immune system, conferring beneficial effects on the host. Understanding how these microorganisms contribute to improve the health status is still a challenge. Previously, we have demonstrated that Enterococcus faecalis CECT7121 implants itself and persists in the murine gastrointestinal tract, and enhances and skews the profile of cytokines towards the Th1 phenotype in several biological models. Given the importance of dendritic cells (DCs in the orchestration of immunity, the aim of this work was to elucidate the influence of E. faecalis CECT7121 on DCs and the outcome of the immune responses. In this work we show that E. faecalis CECT7121 induces a strong dose-dependent activation of DCs and secretion of high levels of IL-12, IL-6, TNFα, and IL-10. This stimulation is dependent on TLR signaling, and skews the activation of T cells towards the production of IFNγ. The influence of this activation in the establishment of Th responses in vivo shows the accumulation of specific IFNγ-producing cells. Our findings indicate that the activation exerted by E. faecalis CECT7121 on DCs and its consequence on the cellular adaptive immune response may have broad therapeutic implications in immunomodulation.

  11. Self-sustained motor activity triggered by interlimb reflexes in chronic spinal cord injury, evidence of functional ascending propriospinal pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penelope A McNulty

    Full Text Available The loss or reduction of supraspinal inputs after spinal cord injury provides a unique opportunity to examine the plasticity of neural pathways within the spinal cord. In a series of nine experiments on a patient, quadriplegic due to spinal cord injury, we investigated interlimb reflexes and self-sustained activity in completely paralyzed and paretic muscles due to a disinhibited propriospinal pathway. Electrical stimuli were delivered over the left common peroneal nerve at the fibular head as single stimuli or in trains at 2-100 Hz lasting 1 s. Single stimuli produced a robust interlimb reflex twitch in the contralateral thumb at a mean latency 69 ms, but no activity in other muscles. With stimulus trains the thumb twitch occurred at variable subharmonics of the stimulus rate, and strong self-sustained activity developed in the contralateral wrist extensors, outlasting both the stimuli and the thumb reflex by up to 20 s. Similar behavior was recorded in the ipsilateral wrist extensors and quadriceps femoris of both legs, but not in the contralateral thenar or peroneal muscles. The patient could not terminate the self-sustained activity voluntarily, but it was abolished on the left by attempted contractions of the paralyzed thumb muscles of the right hand. These responses depend on the functional integrity of an ascending propriospinal pathway, and highlight the plasticity of spinal circuitry following spinal cord injury. They emphasize the potential for pathways below the level of injury to generate movement, and the role of self-sustained reflex activity in the sequelae of spinal cord injury.

  12. Effect of Therapeutic Sequence of Hot Pack and Ultrasound on Physiological Response Over Trigger Point of Upper Trapezius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjaboonyanupap

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Musculoskeletal pain is a common problem among athletes. Apart from sport injuries, the myofascial pain syndrome is another important problem that affects performance of the athlete. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of therapeutic sequences of the hot pack in combination with ultrasound on the physiological responses over the latent myofascial trigger point (LMTrP of upper trapezius muscle. Materials and Methods Thirty subjects with a latent myofascial trigger point (LMTrP in both sides of the upper trapezius muscle participated in the study (age 27.33 ± 4.34 years, weight 58.11 ± 7.47 kg, height 161.50 ± 5.82 cm, pressure pain threshold 2.28 ± 0.24 kg/cm2, pain intensity 7.17 ± 2.25 VAS. All subjects received both treatments (hot pack followed by ultrasound: HP + US; and ultrasound followed by hot pack: US + HP by randomization with a 24 to 48-hour interval between sessions. Outcome measures, including the tissue blood flow (TBF, pressure pain threshold (PPT, supra-thermal threshold (STT and visual analog scale (VAS were evaluated at baseline, immediately, after 30 minutes and after 60 minutes. Results The TBF and PPT significantly increased from baseline in both treatment conditions (i.e. HP + US and US + HP, while the HP + US condition showed a trend toward significant difference in VAS and STT in 45°C. Conclusions The application of HP and US treatment induces physiological responses (especially, TBF and PPT on the LMTrP. This finding provides the direction toward the management of MTrPs condition.

  13. Substantial effects of epimuscular myofascial force transmission on muscular mechanics have major implications on spastic muscle and remedial surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yucesoy, Can A.; Huijing, Peter A.

    2007-01-01

    The specific aim of this paper is to review the effects of epimuscular myofascial force transmission on muscular mechanics and present some new results on finite element modeling of non-isolated aponeurotomized muscle in order to discuss the dependency of mechanics of spastic muscle, as well as surg

  14. The effect of abdominal drawing-in exercise and myofascial release on pain, flexibility, and balance of elderly females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Seong Hun; Sim, Yong Hyeon; Kim, Myung Hoon; Bang, Ju Hee; Son, Kyung Hyun; Kim, Jae Woong; Kim, Hyun Jin

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study is designed to compare the effects of abdominal drawing-in exercise and myofascial release on pain, flexibility, and balance of elderly females. [Subjects and Methods] Forty elderly females aged 65 or older who had complained of low back pain for three months or longer were selected as the subjects. They were randomly and equally assigned to either an abdominal drawing-in group or a myofascial release group. The subjects conducted exercise three times per week, 40 minutes each time, for eight weeks. As evaluation tools, visual analogue scale for pain, remodified schober test for flexibility, and upright posture with eye opening on hard platform, upright posture with eye closing on hard platform, upright posture with eye opening on soft platform, upright posture with eye closing on soft platform using tetrax for balance were used. [Results] The abdominal drawing-in exercise group saw significant difference in pain and balance after the exercise compared to before the exercise. The myofascial release group saw significant difference in pain and flexibility after exercise compared to before the exercise. [Conclusion] The above study showed that abdominal drawing-in exercise affected elderly females regarding pain and balance and myofascial release influenced their pain and flexibility. PMID:27821941

  15. Extramuscular myofascial force transmission alters substantially the acute effects of surgical aponeurotomy: assessment by finite element modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yucesoy, Can; Koopman, Bart; Grootenboer, Henk; Huijing, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Effects of extramuscular myofascial force transmission on the acute effects of aponeurotomy were studied using finite element modeling and implications of such effects on surgery were discussed. Aponeurotomized EDL muscle of the rat was modeled in two conditions: (1) fully isolated (2) with intact

  16. Thermal temporal summation and decay of after-sensations in temporomandibular myofascial pain patients with and without comorbid fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janal MN

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Malvin N Janal,1 Karen G Raphael,2 Dane B Cook,3 David A Sirois,2 Lena Nemelivsky,2 Roland Staud4 1Epidemiology and Health Promotion, 2Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Radiology, and Medicine, NYU College of Dentistry, New York, NY, 3Department of Kinesiology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, 4Department of Medicine, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL, USA Introduction: Chronic myofascial temporomandibular disorders (TMD may have multiple etiological and maintenance factors. One potential factor, central pain sensitization, was quantified here as the response to the temporal summation (TS paradigm, and that response was compared between case and control groups. Objectives: As previous research has shown that fibromyalgia (FM is diagnosed in ~20% of TMD patients, Aim 1 determined whether central sensitization is found preferentially in myofascial TMD cases that have orofacial pain as a regional manifestation of FM. Aim 2 determined if the report of after-sensations (AS following TS varied depending on whether repeated stimuli were rated as increasingly painful. Methods: One hundred sixty-eight women, 43 controls, 100 myofascial TMD-only cases, and 25 myofascial TMD + FM cases, were compared on thermal warmth and pain thresholds, thermal TS, and decay of thermal AS. All cases met Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD; comorbid cases also met the 1990 American College of Rheumatology criteria for FM. Results: Pain thresholds and TS were similar in all groups. When TS was achieved (~60%, significantly higher levels of AS were reported in the first poststimulus interval, and AS decayed more slowly over time, in myofascial TMD cases than controls. By contrast, groups showed similar AS decay patterns following steady state or decreasing responses to repetitive stimulation. Conclusion: In this case–control study, all myofascial TMD cases were characterized by a similar delay in the decay of AS. Thus, this indicator of

  17. Interaction of Bacillus thuringiensis Vegetative Insecticidal Protein with Ribosomal S2 Protein Triggers Larvicidal Activity in Spodoptera frugiperda▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Gatikrushna; Sachdev, Bindiya; Sharma, Nathilal; Seth, Rakesh; Bhatnagar, Raj K.

    2010-01-01

    Vegetative insecticidal protein (Vip3A) is synthesized as an extracellular insecticidal toxin by certain strains of Bacillus thuringiensis. Vip3A is active against several lepidopteran pests of crops. Polyphagous pest, Spodoptera frugiperda, and its cell line Sf21 are sensitive for lyses to Vip3A. Screening of cDNA library prepared from Sf21 cells through yeast two-hybrid system with Vip3A as bait identified ribosomal protein S2 as a toxicity-mediating interacting partner protein. The Vip3A-r...

  18. The selenium metabolite methylselenol regulates the expression of ligands that trigger immune activation through the lymphocyte receptor NKG2D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagemann-Jensen, Michael Henrik; Uhlenbrock, Franziska Katharina; Kehlet, Stephanie;

    2014-01-01

    For decades Selenium (Se) research has been focused on the identification of active metabolites, which are crucial for Se chemoprevention of cancer. In this context, the metabolite methylselenol (CH3SeH) is known for its action to selectively kill transformed cells through mechanisms that include...... ligands. A balanced cell-surface expression of NKG2D ligands is considered as an innate barrier against tumor development. Our work therefore indicates that the application of selenium compounds, which are metabolized to CH3SeH, could improve NKG2D-based immune therapy....

  19. A Framework for Understanding the Relationship between Descending Pain Modulation, Motor Corticospinal, and Neuroplasticity Regulation Systems in Chronic Myofascial Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, Leonardo M.; Morales-Quezada, Leon; Rozisky, Joanna R.; Brietzke, Aline P.; Torres, Iraci L. S.; Deitos, Alicia; Fregni, Felipe; Caumo, Wolnei

    2016-01-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is a leading cause of chronic musculoskeletal pain. However, its neurobiological mechanisms are not entirely elucidated. Given the complex interaction between the networks involved in pain process, our approach, to providing insights into the neural mechanisms of pain, was to investigate the relationship between neurophysiological, neurochemical and clinical outcomes such as corticospinal excitability. Recent evidence has demonstrated that three neural systems are affected in chronic pain: (i) motor corticospinal system; (ii) internal descending pain modulation system; and (iii) the system regulating neuroplasticity. In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to examine the relationship between these three central systems in patients with chronic MPS of whom do/do not respond to the Conditioned Pain Modulation Task (CPM-task). The CPM-task was to immerse her non-dominant hand in cold water (0−1°C) to produce a heterotopic nociceptive stimulus. Corticospinal excitability was the primary outcome; specifically, the motor evoked potential (MEP) and intracortical facilitation (ICF) as assessed by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Secondary outcomes were the cortical excitability parameters [current silent period (CSP) and short intracortical inhibition (SICI)], serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), heat pain threshold (HPT), and the disability related to pain (DRP). We included 33 women, (18–65 years old). The MANCOVA model using Bonferroni's Multiple Comparison Test revealed that non-responders (n = 10) compared to responders (n = 23) presented increased intracortical facilitation (ICF; mean ± SD) 1.43 (0.3) vs. 1.11 (0.12), greater motor-evoked potential amplitude (μV) 1.93 (0.54) vs. 1.40 (0.27), as well a higher serum BDNF (pg/Ml) 32.56 (9.95) vs. 25.59 (10.24), (P pain inhibition was associated with an increase in ICF, serum BDNF levels, and DRP. We propose a framework to explain the relationship and potential

  20. A Framework for Understanding the Relationship between Descending Pain Modulation, Motor Corticospinal, and Neuroplasticity Regulation Systems in Chronic Myofascial Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, Leonardo M; Morales-Quezada, Leon; Rozisky, Joanna R; Brietzke, Aline P; Torres, Iraci L S; Deitos, Alicia; Fregni, Felipe; Caumo, Wolnei

    2016-01-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is a leading cause of chronic musculoskeletal pain. However, its neurobiological mechanisms are not entirely elucidated. Given the complex interaction between the networks involved in pain process, our approach, to providing insights into the neural mechanisms of pain, was to investigate the relationship between neurophysiological, neurochemical and clinical outcomes such as corticospinal excitability. Recent evidence has demonstrated that three neural systems are affected in chronic pain: (i) motor corticospinal system; (ii) internal descending pain modulation system; and (iii) the system regulating neuroplasticity. In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to examine the relationship between these three central systems in patients with chronic MPS of whom do/do not respond to the Conditioned Pain Modulation Task (CPM-task). The CPM-task was to immerse her non-dominant hand in cold water (0-1°C) to produce a heterotopic nociceptive stimulus. Corticospinal excitability was the primary outcome; specifically, the motor evoked potential (MEP) and intracortical facilitation (ICF) as assessed by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Secondary outcomes were the cortical excitability parameters [current silent period (CSP) and short intracortical inhibition (SICI)], serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), heat pain threshold (HPT), and the disability related to pain (DRP). We included 33 women, (18-65 years old). The MANCOVA model using Bonferroni's Multiple Comparison Test revealed that non-responders (n = 10) compared to responders (n = 23) presented increased intracortical facilitation (ICF; mean ± SD) 1.43 (0.3) vs. 1.11 (0.12), greater motor-evoked potential amplitude (μV) 1.93 (0.54) vs. 1.40 (0.27), as well a higher serum BDNF (pg/Ml) 32.56 (9.95) vs. 25.59 (10.24), (P pain inhibition was associated with an increase in ICF, serum BDNF levels, and DRP. We propose a framework to explain the relationship and potential

  1. Evaluation of laser therapy and routine treatment modalities in the management of myofascial pain dysfunction syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smriti B Jagdhari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of laser as a monotherapy and in combination with exercise therapy in comparison to only exercise in the treatment of Myofascial Pain Dysfunction Syndrome (MPDS or Temporomandibular Myofascial Pain. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 patients with MPDS were included in the study and were randomly divided into three groups: exercise, laser, and the combination of both (exercise and laser. Results: Significant reduction in pain at rest and pain on movement was observed with all three types of treatment modalities. Pain reduction was more in those patients who received combination of exercise and laser therapy. Similarly, decrease in the muscle tenderness was more when combination of exercise and laser therapy was used. Conclusion: The ideal therapy should be fast, cheap, and have a long-term effect. Laser (Helium Neon as monotherapy or in combination with exercise had shown promising results and can be used as an effective treatment modality for the treatment of MPDS.

  2. Slope stability, triggering factors and threshold conditions. Study of debris flow activity in the Reyðarfjörður fjord, eastern Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margeirsson, Guðbjörn; Sæmundsson, Þorsteinn; Norðdahl, Hreggviður

    2016-04-01

    Precipitation is one of the main triggering factor for debris flow activity in Eastern Iceland, but the amount needed, duration and the rainfall and its intensity to trigger the flow (e.g. the threshold condition) can vary considerably between areas. There are a few factors that have to be taken into account to determine the threshold condition and slope stability between areas, such as the slope angle and aspect, type and thickness of loose material, vegetation cover and gully distribution. Weather factors such as air and soil temperature, wind speed and wind direction is also crucial. The study area is located in the Reyðarfjörður fjord, one of the longest fjords on the east coast of Iceland. It is a 30 km long glacially eroded fjord, cut into the Tertiary bedrock. The bedrock is mostly made up of jointed basaltic lava flows, individual flows can vary in thickness from 2-30 m and usually separated by lithified sedimentary horizons often red in color. The slopes of the fjord are steep up to 900 m high, often consisting of nearly vertical cliffs, 60°-90°, in the upper parts of the slopes. The lower parts are covered with various glaciogenic landforms and consist of sediments and talus material. Several small hanging valleys and numerous small gullies and streams occur along the both sides of the fjord. The debris flow activity in the Reyðafjörður fjord is mostly constrained to the gullies and streams. Some activity has also been observed on the slopes between the gullies, but such activity is usually connected to extreme conditions, during or following heavy rain storms or a rainfall, especially of long duration. The aim of the study is to map the distribution of loose slope sediments in two areas inside the fjord, collect data about the known debris flow history, analyze various weather patterns which have contributed to these debris flows and understand how variables between the slopes react differently to different factors.

  3. Synthesis of a CNT-grafted TiO{sub 2} nanocatalyst and its activity triggered by a DC voltage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuo, C-S [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Chung Cheng University, Chia-Yi 621 (China); Tseng, Y-H [Energy and Environment Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu, 310 (China); Lin, H-Y [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Huang, C-H [Energy and Environment Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu, 310 (China); Shen, C-Y [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Chung Cheng University, Chia-Yi 621 (China); Li, Y-Y [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Chung Cheng University, Chia-Yi 621 (China); Shah, S Ismat [Department of Materials Sciences and Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Huang, C-P [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)

    2007-11-21

    Carbon nanotube (CNT)-grafted TiO{sub 2} (CNT/TiO{sub 2}) was synthesized as an electrically conductive catalyst that exhibits redox ability under electrical excitation besides ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. The CNT/TiO{sub 2} material was synthesized by a two-step process. Ni nanoparticles were photodeposited onto TiO{sub 2} first. The Ni nanoparticles then served as seeds for the growth of CNTs using the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of C{sub 2}H{sub 2}. The CNT/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite exhibits strong oxidation activity toward NO gas molecules via both photocatalysis under UV irradiation and electrocatalysis under a DC voltage of 500 V in dark conditions.

  4. Synthesis of a CNT-grafted TiO(2) nanocatalyst and its activity triggered by a DC voltage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chien-Sheng; Tseng, Yao-Hsuan; Lin, Hong-Ying; Huang, Chia-Hung; Shen, Chih-Yen; Li, Yuan-Yao; Ismat Shah, S; Huang, Chin-Pao

    2007-11-21

    Carbon nanotube (CNT)-grafted TiO(2) (CNT/TiO(2)) was synthesized as an electrically conductive catalyst that exhibits redox ability under electrical excitation besides ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. The CNT/TiO(2) material was synthesized by a two-step process. Ni nanoparticles were photodeposited onto TiO(2) first. The Ni nanoparticles then served as seeds for the growth of CNTs using the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of C(2)H(2). The CNT/TiO(2) nanocomposite exhibits strong oxidation activity toward NO gas molecules via both photocatalysis under UV irradiation and electrocatalysis under a DC voltage of 500 V in dark conditions.

  5. Interaction of Bacillus thuringiensis vegetative insecticidal protein with ribosomal S2 protein triggers larvicidal activity in Spodoptera frugiperda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gatikrushna; Sachdev, Bindiya; Sharma, Nathilal; Seth, Rakesh; Bhatnagar, Raj K

    2010-11-01

    Vegetative insecticidal protein (Vip3A) is synthesized as an extracellular insecticidal toxin by certain strains of Bacillus thuringiensis. Vip3A is active against several lepidopteran pests of crops. Polyphagous pest, Spodoptera frugiperda, and its cell line Sf21 are sensitive for lyses to Vip3A. Screening of cDNA library prepared from Sf21 cells through yeast two-hybrid system with Vip3A as bait identified ribosomal protein S2 as a toxicity-mediating interacting partner protein. The Vip3A-ribosomal-S2 protein interaction was validated by in vitro pulldown assays and by RNA interference-induced knockdown experiments. Knockdown of expression of S2 protein in Sf21 cells resulted in reduced toxicity of the Vip3A protein. These observations were further extended to adult fifth-instar larvae of Spodoptera litura. Knockdown of S2 expression by injecting corresponding double-stranded RNA resulted in reduced mortality of larvae to Vip3A toxin. Intracellular visualization of S2 protein and Vip3A through confocal microscopy revealed their interaction and localization in cytoplasm and surface of Sf21 cells.

  6. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory- Completing the Human Genome Project and Triggering Nearly $1 Trillion in U.S. Economic Activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Jeffrey S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-07-28

    The success of the Human Genome project is already nearing $1 Trillion dollars of U.S. economic activity. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was a co-leader in one of the biggest biological research effort in history, sequencing the Human Genome Project. This ambitious research effort set out to sequence the approximately 3 billion nucleotides in the human genome, an effort many thought was nearly impossible. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was discovered in 1869, and by 1943 came the discovery that DNA was a molecule that encodes the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of living organisms and many viruses. To make full use of the information, scientists needed to first sequence the billions of nucleotides to begin linking them to genetic traits and illnesses, and eventually more effective treatments. New medical discoveries and improved agriculture productivity were some of the expected benefits. While the potential benefits were vast, the timeline (over a decade) and cost ($3.8 Billion) exceeded what the private sector would normally attempt, especially when this would only be the first phase toward the path to new discoveries and market opportunities. The Department of Energy believed its best research laboratories could meet this Grand Challenge and soon convinced the National Institute of Health to formally propose the Human Genome project to the federal government. The U.S. government accepted the risk and challenge to potentially create new healthcare and food discoveries that could benefit the world and the U.S. Industry.

  7. P48—Triggered transmembrane signaling transduction of human monocytes:modilization of calcium ion and activation of protein kinase C(PKC)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANGZL; REHALL

    1995-01-01

    P48 is a cytokine which induces monocyte differentiation and the induction of cytotoxic activity.In this study,the signal transduction events involved in the stimulation of monocytes with the membrane form of P48 (mP48) were investigated.Monocyte stimulation with mP48 was found to involve the mobilization of intracellular calcium(Ca2+) and the activation and translocation of PKC from the cytosol to the membrane.Membane P48 induced a rapid rise of intracellular Ca2+ in a dose dependent maner.Similarly,the stimulation of monocytes with P48 was found to involve the activation and translocation of PKC.The translocation of PKC was rapid(within 0-5min) yet transient with PKC activity returning to control levels by 8 min.The functional role of protein kineses in P48 induced TNF secretion was studied using various kinese inhibitors.The PKC inhibitors,H-7 and sphingosine,were found to inhibit P48 induced TNF secretion with 50% inhibition at 5μM.HA1004,which inhibts cyclic nucleotide-dependent kinase(PKA,Ki 1.2μM),did not inhibit TNF secretion.H-8(PKA inhibitor) was found to be an effective inhibitor of TNF secretion only at high concentrations(30μM).The Calmodulin-dependent kinase inhibitor,W7(Ki 12μM) was found to be effective at concentration above 5μM.These findings suggest that P48-triggered TNF secretion involves transmembrane Ca2+ signaling and the subsequent activation of at least two protein kineses,PKC and CaMK.

  8. Evidence for lahar-triggering mechanisms in complex stratigraphic sequences: the post-twelfth century eruptive activity of Cotopaxi Volcano, Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistolesi, Marco; Cioni, Raffaello; Rosi, Mauro; Cashman, Katharine V.; Rossotti, Andrea; Aguilera, Eduardo

    2013-03-01

    Cotopaxi volcano is situated in the Eastern Cordillera of the Ecuadorian Andes and consists of a symmetric volcanic cone that reaches an altitude of 5,897 m above sea level; it is capped over its upper 1,000 m by a permanent glacier. The volcano has erupted frequently in the past few centuries and, according to the archival records, has produced dozens of lahars by catastrophic snow and ice melting during eruptions. In this work, we present a detailed map and a stratigraphic study of the lahar deposits of the past 800 years in two different topographic settings. A thorough knowledge of the tephrostratigraphy of the explosive activity over the same time period was a first-order pre-requisite for the complete reconstruction and dating of lahar activity and also allowed us to precisely link lahar units to eruptive phases of individual eruptions. Results indicate that, during the thirteenth to seventeenth centuries, high-intensity eruptions (Plinian events or blast-like explosions) produced large debris flows that transported meter-sized boulders. A subsequent period of activity that started in 1742 was characterized by several lahar-generating eruptive episodes that were smaller in scale but with significant variability in size (the 1877 being the smallest and most recent). Analysis of events occurring in the eighteenth century suggests that eruption style affects the volume and energy of the resulting lahars, with different pyroclastic flow types causing different mechanisms of water release from the summit glacier. Lahars produced during this time period were triggered by: (1) dilute pumice and ash-rich radially distributed density currents and (2) column collapse-related radially distributed scoria and lithic-rich pyroclastic-flows. The former produced lahar deposits that are matrix-rich, block-poor, and valley-confined, while the high erosive capacity of the latter produced lahars that are block-rich, highly energetic, and widespread. The youngest (1853 and 1877

  9. Stay away from asthma triggers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asthma triggers - stay away from; Asthma triggers - avoiding; Reactive airway disease - triggers; Bronchial asthma - triggers ... to them. Have someone who does not have asthma cut the grass, or wear a facemask if ...

  10. The fluoroquinolone levofloxacin triggers the transcriptional activation of iron transport genes that contribute to cell death in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrándiz, María-José; de la Campa, Adela G

    2014-01-01

    We studied the transcriptomic response of Streptococcus pneumoniae to levofloxacin (LVX) under conditions inhibiting topoisomerase IV but not gyrase. Although a complex transcriptomic response was observed, the most outstanding result was the upregulation of the genes of the fatDCEB operon, involved in iron (Fe(2+) and Fe(3+)) uptake, which were the only genes varying under every condition tested. Although the inhibition of topoisomerase IV by levofloxacin did not have a detectable effect in the level of global supercoiling, increases in general supercoiling and fatD transcription were observed after topoisomerase I inhibition, while the opposite was observed after gyrase inhibition with novobiocin. Since fatDCEB is located in a topological chromosomal domain downregulated by DNA relaxation, we studied the transcription of a copy of the 422-bp (including the Pfat promoter) region located upstream of fatDCEB fused to the cat reporter inserted into the chromosome 106 kb away from its native position: PfatfatD was upregulated in the presence of LVX in its native location, whereas no change was observed in the Pfatcat construction. Results suggest that topological changes are indeed involved in PfatfatDCE transcription. Upregulation of fatDCEB would lead to an increase of intracellular iron and, in turn, to the activation of the Fenton reaction and the increase of reactive oxygen species. In accordance, we observed an attenuation of levofloxacin lethality in iron-deficient media and in a strain lacking the gene coding for SpxB, the main source of hydrogen peroxide. In addition, we observed an increase of reactive oxygen species that contributed to levofloxacin lethality.

  11. 温度压强耦合并行激发主动拆卸结构的设计方法研究%Research on Design Methods of Active Disassembly Structure Triggered by Temperature-pressure Coupling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志峰; 詹一飞; 李新宇; 成焕波

    2014-01-01

    Active disassembly structures are usually triggered by single physical field .These struc-tures can be triggered automatically in extreme or accidental circumstances ,thus causing the low relia-bility of products .For improving the reliability of active disassembly products ,this paper expounded the triggering mechanism and characteristics of active disassembly structure triggered by temperature-pressure coupling ,and studied the design principles and methods of active disassembly structure triggered by temperature-pressure coupling .The feasibility of these design methods was proved by a case analysis .The results show that the reliability of active disassembly structures triggered by tem-perature-pressure coupling is improved greatly .%目前的主动拆卸结构的拆解一般应用单一物理场激发,在极端环境或意外环境中可能会发生主动拆解,产品可靠性不高,针对此,研究了温度压强耦合并行激发主动拆卸结构的激发原理和特点,提出了温度压强耦合并行激发主动拆卸结构的设计方法,并通过案例分析,验证了该设计方法的可行性。研究结果表明:应用温度压强耦合并行激发的主动拆卸结构作为连接单元的产品,其可靠性大幅度提高。

  12. Escherichia coli α-hemolysin counteracts the anti-virulence innate immune response triggered by the Rho GTPase activating toxin CNF1 during bacteremia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamady Diabate

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The detection of the activities of pathogen-encoded virulence factors by the innate immune system has emerged as a new paradigm of pathogen recognition. Much remains to be determined with regard to the molecular and cellular components contributing to this defense mechanism in mammals and importance during infection. Here, we reveal the central role of the IL-1β signaling axis and Gr1+ cells in controlling the Escherichia coli burden in the blood in response to the sensing of the Rho GTPase-activating toxin CNF1. Consistently, this innate immune response is abrogated in caspase-1/11-impaired mice or following the treatment of infected mice with an IL-1β antagonist. In vitro experiments further revealed the synergistic effects of CNF1 and LPS in promoting the maturation/secretion of IL-1β and establishing the roles of Rac, ASC and caspase-1 in this pathway. Furthermore, we found that the α-hemolysin toxin inhibits IL-1β secretion without affecting the recruitment of Gr1+ cells. Here, we report the first example of anti-virulence-triggered immunity counteracted by a pore-forming toxin during bacteremia.

  13. Changes in muscle activity determine progression of clinical symptoms in patients with chronic spine-related muscle pain. A complex clinical and neurophysiological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wytrazek, Marcin; Huber, Juliusz; Lisinski, Przemyslaw

    2011-01-01

    Spine-related muscle pain can affect muscle strength and motor unit activity. This study was undertaken to investigate whether surface electromyographic (sEMG) recordings performed during relaxation and maximal contraction reveal differences in the activity of muscles with or without trigger points (TRPs). We also analyzed the possible coexistence of characteristic spontaneous activity in needle electromyographic (eEMG) recordings with the presence of TRPs. Thirty patients with non-specific cervical and back pain were evaluated using clinical, neuroimaging and electroneurographic examinations. Muscle pain was measured using a visual analog scale (VAS), and strength using Lovett's scale; trigger points were detected by palpation. EMG was used to examine motor unit activity. Trigger points were found mainly in the trapezius muscles in thirteen patients. Their presence was accompanied by increased pain intensity, decreased muscle strength, increased resting sEMG amplitude, and decreased sEMG amplitude during muscle contraction. eEMG revealed characteristic asynchronous discharges in TRPs. The results of EMG examinations point to a complexity of muscle pain that depends on progression of the myofascial syndrome.

  14. Changes in pain and pressure pain sensitivity after manual treatment of active trigger points in patients with unilateral shoulder impingement: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo-Lozano, Amparo; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; Díaz-Rodríguez, Lourdes; González-Iglesias, Javier; Palacios-Ceña, Domingo; Arroyo-Morales, Manuel

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this case series was to investigate changes in pain and pressure pain sensitivity after manual treatment of active trigger points (TrPs) in the shoulder muscles in individuals with unilateral shoulder impingement. Twelve patients (7 men, 5 women, age: 25 ± 9 years) diagnosed with unilateral shoulder impingement attended 4 sessions for 2 weeks (2 sessions/week). They received TrP pressure release and neuromuscular interventions over each active TrP that was found. The outcome measures were pain during arm elevation (visual analogue scale, VAS) and pressure pain thresholds (PPT) over levator scapulae, supraspinatus infraspinatus, pectoralis major, and tibialis anterior muscles. Pain was captured pre-intervention and at a 1-month follow-up, whereas PPT were assessed pre- and post-treatment, and at a 1-month follow-up. Patients experienced a significant (P  1). In addition, patients also experienced a significant increase in PPT immediate after the treatment (P  1).A significant negative association (r(s) = -0.525; P = 0.049) between the increase in PPT over the supraspinatus muscle and the decrease in pain was found: the greater the decrease in pain, the greater the increase in PPT. This case series has shown that manual treatment of active muscle TrPs can help to reduce shoulder pain and pressure sensitivity in shoulder impingement. Current findings suggest that active TrPs in the shoulder musculature may contribute directly to shoulder complaint and sensitization in patients with shoulder impingement syndrome, although future randomized controlled trials are required.

  15. Photo-activated psoralen binds the ErbB2 catalytic kinase domain, blocking ErbB2 signaling and triggering tumor cell apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenle Xia

    Full Text Available Photo-activation of psoralen with UVA irradiation, referred to as PUVA, is used in the treatment of proliferative skin disorders. The anti-proliferative effects of PUVA have been largely attributed to psoralen intercalation of DNA, which upon UV treatment, triggers the formation of interstrand DNA crosslinks (ICL that inhibit transcription and DNA replication. Here, we show that PUVA exerts antitumor effects in models of human breast cancer that overexpress the ErbB2 receptor tyrosine kinase oncogene, through a new mechanism. Independent of ICL formation, the antitumor effects of PUVA in ErbB2+ breast cancer models can instead be mediated through inhibition of ErbB2 activation and signaling. Using a mass spectroscopy-based approach, we show for the first time that photo-activated 8MOP (8-methoxypsoralen interacts with the ErbB2 catalytic autokinase domain. Furthermore, PUVA can reverse therapeutic resistance to lapatinib and other ErbB2 targeted therapies, including resistance mediated via expression of a phosphorylated, truncated form of ErbB2 (p85(ErbB2 that is preferentially expressed in tumor cell nuclei. Current ErbB2 targeted therapies, small molecule kinase inhibitors or antibodies, do not block the phosphorylated, activated state of p85(ErbB2. Here we show that PUVA reduced p85(ErbB2 phosphorylation leading to tumor cell apoptosis. Thus, in addition to its effects on DNA and the formation of ICL, PUVA represents a novel ErbB2 targeted therapy for the treatment of ErbB2+ breast cancers, including those that have developed resistance to other ErbB2 targeted therapies.

  16. Sunlight-Triggered Nanoparticle Synergy: Teamwork of Reactive Oxygen Species and Nitric Oxide Released from Mesoporous Organosilica with Advanced Antibacterial Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, Julia; Trepka, Bastian; Klinkenberg, Nele; Bronner, Hannah; Schleheck, David; Polarz, Sebastian

    2016-03-09

    Colonization of surfaces by microorganisms is an urging problem. In combination with the increasing antibiotic resistance of pathogenic bacteria, severe infections are reported more frequently in medical settings. Therefore, there is a large demand to explore innovative surface coatings that provide intrinsic and highly effective antibacterial activity. Materials containing silver nanoparticles have been developed in the past for this purpose, but this solution has come into criticism due to various disadvantages like notable toxicity against higher organisms, the high price, and low abundance of silver. Here, we introduce a new, sunlight-mediated organosilica nanoparticle (NP) system based on silver-free antibacterial activity. The simultaneous release of nitric oxide (NO) in combination with singlet oxygen and superoxide radicals (O2(•-)) as reactive oxygen species (ROS) leads to the emergence of highly reactive peroxynitrite molecules with significantly enhanced biocidal activity. This special cooperative effect can only be realized, if the ROS-producing moieties and the functional entities releasing NO are spatially separated from each other. In one type of particle, Rose Bengal as an efficient singlet oxygen ((1)O2) producer was covalently bound to SH functionalities applying thiol-ene click chemistry. "Charging" the second type of particles with NO was realized by quantitatively transferring the thiol groups into S-nitrosothiol functionalities. We probed the oxidation power of ROS-NP alone and in combination with NO-NP using sunlight as a trigger. The high antibacterial efficiency of dual-action nanoparticles was demonstrated using disinfection assays with the pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  17. AMY trigger system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Yoshihide [National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1989-04-01

    A trigger system of the AMY detector at TRISTAN e{sup +}e{sup -} collider is described briefly. The system uses simple track segment and shower cluster counting scheme to classify events to be triggered. It has been operating successfully since 1987.

  18. Effects of Temperature on Chronic Trapezius Myofascial Pain Syndrome during Dry Needling Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Gao, Qian; Hou, Jingshan; Li, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of temperature on chronic trapezius myofascial pain syndrome during dry needling therapy. Sixty patients were randomized into two groups of dry needling (DN) alone (group A) and DN combined with heat therapy group (group B). Each patient was treated once and the therapeutic effect was assessed by the visual analogue scale (VAS), pressure pain threshold (PPT), and the 36-item short form health survey (SF-36) at seven days, one month, and three months after treatment. Evaluation based on VAS and PPT showed that the pain of patients in groups A and B was significantly (P physical condition of patients in both groups showed significant (P therapy were effective in the treatment of trapezius MPS, and that DN heating therapy had better long-term effects than DN therapy.

  19. Temporomandibular joint disfunction syndrome and myofascial pain dysfunction syndrome: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, R A; Garrett, J C

    1984-01-01

    Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunction syndrome and myofascial pain dysfunction (MPD) syndrome have been primarily viewed as dental problems and have only recently received close attention by psychologists. The literature reviewed in the present paper reveals that a substantial portion of the population is affected by these disorders. There is, however, a great deal of confusion that exists in relation to the aetiology and treatment of these syndromes. In an attempt to clarify the current understanding of these disorders, the present review first presents a discussion of the symptoms which comprise each of these syndromes and the proposed physiological mechanisms associated with each symptom. Next, the aetiological theories for each of these syndromes are reviewed and critically evaluated. Treatments which have been derived from the theoretical models are then discussed. Finally, methodological considerations involving classification, assessment and treatment issues are presented and future research needs are outlined.

  20. Physiotherapy in diagnosis and treatment of the myofascial pain dysfunction syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trott, P H; Goss, A N

    1978-08-01

    Thirty-four patients with the Myofascial Pain Dysfunction (M.P.D.) syndrome of the masticatory system were investigated and treated using physiotherapy techniques. Resisted static contraction of the temporomandibular joints, passive movement tests of the muscles and electromyography indicated that the joint function was abnormal in all cases with minimal muscle involvement. Cervical spine tests indicated that pain referral from the cervical spine was involved in 19 of 34 patients (56%). Physiotherapy treatment armed at restoring a normal painless range of movement to the temporomandibular joint was successful in six of 10 patients (60%). Generalized relaxation therapy with biofeedback was successful in 19 of 24 patients (80%). It was found that with the five of 24 patients (20%) in whom generalized relaxation failed, there were significant psychiatric factors.

  1. Sphenopalatine blocks in the treatment of pain in fibromyalgia and myofascial pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzen, V D; Scudds, R

    1997-10-01

    Sphenopalatine blocks have been used to treat pain for more than 80 years. Anecdotal support for sphenopalatine ganglion blocks has been very strong in those who believe in the technique, but the research results have been inconclusive. Therefore, a double blind, placebo-controlled study was performed on 61 patients, 42 with fibromyalgia and 19 with myofascial pain syndrome. Pain was measured using visual analogue scales prior to treatment, during treatment, and 28 days after the treatment. Headaches were evaluated in frequency and location prior to and after treatment. Sphenopalatine ganglion blocks were performed under direct vision using 4% lidocaine and sterile water as a placebo. Analysis of the results showed no statistical differences between the lidocaine and the placebo groups.

  2. Thoracic outlet syndrome--a myofascial variant: Part 3. Structural and postural considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucher, B M; Heath, D M

    1993-03-01

    Thoracic outlet syndrome involves more than just local neurovascular compression. Myofascial release treatments and stretching exercises may be only partially or temporarily successful unless all related components of somatic dysfunction, including craniosacral mechanisms, are addressed. Structural and postural abnormalities in the frontal plane, as with a short leg, and in the sagittal plane, such as lumbopelvic imbalances, as well as neural involvement all contribute to thoracic outlet syndrome symptoms. Once segmental restrictions are treated and symptoms diminish, postural correction and strengthening exercises may be initiated. Osteopathic diagnosis and treatment of the local, regional, and remote structural problems is necessary for optimal treatment of thoracic outlet syndrome and the maintenance of a symptom-free status.

  3. Dynamic muscular endurance in primary fibromyalgia compared with chronic myofascial pain syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Søren; Danneskiold-Samsøe, B

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the study was to quantify the voluntary dynamic muscular endurance (DME) in patients with primary fibromyalgia (PF) since easy fatigability of muscles is one of the major symptoms in this syndrome. Consecutive outpatients referred to a rheumatology clinic specializing in PF were...... investigated. Thirty-six patients with PF were compared with 18 patients with chronic myofascial pain (CMP) syndrome. Subjects were matched according to gender, age, height, weight, peak torque, and contractional work. The DME was defined as the number of repeated knee extensions necessary...... for the contractional work in two successive knee extensions to be equal to or below 70% of the initial value measured with an isokinetic dynamometer. A significantly lower DME was found in the PF group than in the CMP group: 11 (7-13) and 18 (11-25), respectively (median and quartiles), p less than .005. Patients...

  4. Surgical Treatment of Ankylosis of Temporomandibular Joint with Temporalis Myofascial Flap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱志军; 邢树忠; 万林忠; 陶震江; 吴煜农

    2003-01-01

    Objective:To study the effects of temporalis myofascial flap(TMF)transferred to treat the long ankylosis of temporomandibular joint(TMJ).Methods:Seventeen cases with ankylosed condyles received arthroplasly.The degrees of mouth opeing pre-and post-operatium were evaluated,and the spaces of joints in the X-ray films were also measured.The evaluation of the results of the surrgical treatment was based on the TMJ functions.Results:Following up 0.5-3.0 years,in 12 of 17 cases the degree of mouth opening improved up to 27mm.The doctors and the patients were both satisfied with the results.Conclusion:The use of TMF in arthroplasty of temporomandibular joint is a good approach in the treatment of TMJ.

  5. Research on seismic stress triggering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万永革; 吴忠良; 周公威; 黄静; 秦立新

    2002-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews basic theory of seismic stress triggering. Recent development on seismic stress triggering has been reviewed in the views of seismic static and dynamic stress triggering, application of viscoelastic model in seismic stress triggering, the relation between earthquake triggering and volcanic eruption or explosion, other explanation of earthquake triggering, etc. And some suggestions for further study on seismic stress triggering in near future are given.

  6. Up-regulation of Siah1 by ethanol triggers apoptosis in neural crest cells through p38 MAPK-mediated activation of p53 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Fuqiang; Chen, Xiaopan; Liu, Jie; Feng, Wenke; Wu, Xiaoyang; Chen, Shao-Yu

    2017-02-01

    Seven in absentia homolog 1 (Siah1) is one of the E3 ubiquitin ligases and plays a key role in regulating target protein degradation. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that Siah1 mediates ethanol-induced apoptosis in NCCs through p38 MAPK-mediated activation of the p53 signaling pathway. We found that exposure of NCCs to ethanol resulted in the increases in the total protein levels of p53 and the phosphorylation of p53 at serine 15. Ethanol exposure also resulted in a significant increase in the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK. Knock-down of Siah1 dramatically reduced the ethanol-induced increase in the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK. Knock-down of Siah1 by siRNA or down-regulation of p38 MAPK by either siRNA or inhibitor significantly diminished ethanol-induced accumulations of p53 and the phosphorylation of p53. In addition, ethanol exposure resulted in a significant increase in the expression of p53 downstream targets and apoptosis in NCCs, which can be significantly diminished by down-regulation of Siah1 with siRNA. Knock-down of p38 MAPK by siRNA also dramatically reduced the ethanol-induced apoptosis. These results demonstrate that Siah1 plays a crucial role in ethanol-induced apoptosis in NCCs, and that the up-regulation of Siah1 by ethanol can trigger apoptosis through p38 MAPK-mediated activation of the p53 signaling pathway.

  7. Acute effects of self-myofascial release using a foam roller on arterial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Takanobu; Masuhara, Mitsuhiko; Ikuta, Komei

    2014-01-01

    Flexibility is associated with arterial distensibility. Many individuals involved in sport, exercise, and/or fitness perform self-myofascial release (SMR) using a foam roller, which restores muscles, tendons, ligaments, fascia, and/or soft-tissue extensibility. However, the effect of SMR on arterial stiffness and vascular endothelial function using a foam roller is unknown. This study investigates the acute effect of SMR using a foam roller on arterial stiffness and vascular endothelial function. Ten healthy young adults performed SMR and control (CON) trials on separate days in a randomized controlled crossover fashion. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), blood pressure, heart rate, and plasma nitric oxide (NO) concentration were measured before and 30 minutes after both SMR and CON trials. The participants performed SMR of the adductor, hamstrings, quadriceps, iliotibial band, and trapezius. Pressure was self-adjusted during myofascial release by applying body weight to the roller and using the hands and feet to offset weight as required. The roller was placed under the target tissue area, and the body was moved back and forth across the roller. In the CON trial, SMR was not performed. The baPWV significantly decreased (from 1,202 ± 105 to 1,074 ± 110 cm·s-1) and the plasma NO concentration significantly increased (from 20.4 ± 6.9 to 34.4 ± 17.2 μmol·L-1) after SMR using a foam roller (both p < 0.05), but neither significantly differed after CON trials. These results indicate that SMR using a foam roller reduces arterial stiffness and improves vascular endothelial function.

  8. Circulating biomarkers in acute myofascial pain: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosman-Rimon, Liza; Parkinson, William; Upadhye, Suneel; Clarke, Hance; Katz, Joel; Flannery, John; Peng, Philip; Kumbhare, Dinesh

    2016-09-01

    The aims of the present study were to compare levels of circulating inflammatory biomarkers and growth factors between patients with myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) and healthy control participants, and to assess the relationship among inflammatory markers and growth factors in the two groups.Biomarkers levels were assessed in patients (n = 37) with myofascial pain complaints recruited from the hospital emergency department and non-MPS controls (n = 21), recruited via advertisements in the hospital and community.Blood levels of the cytokines, namely, interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and interleukin-12 (IL-12), and the chemokine, namely, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC), eotaxin, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and macrophage inflammatory proteins-1β (MIP-1β) were significantly higher in patients with MPS than controls. The results of the growth factor analyses revealed significantly higher levels of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in MPS patients versus controls. The pattern of correlation coefficients between cytokines and growth factors differed considerably for MPS patients and controls with far fewer significant positive coefficients observed in the controls. Serum inflammatory and growth factor biomarkers were elevated in MPS patients.Inflammatory biomarkers and growth factor levels may play an important role in the onset and maintenance of MPS and therefore may be useful in the diagnosis and treatment of MPS. Understanding the mechanisms of inflammation in MPS necessitates future research.

  9. Fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, and myofascial pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buskila, D

    2001-03-01

    The prevalence of chronic widespread pain in the general population in Israel was comparable with reports from the USA, UK, and Canada. Comorbidity with fibromyalgia (FM) resulted in somatic hyperalgesia in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. One sixth of the subjects with chronic widespread pain in the general population were also found to have a mental disorder. Mechanisms involved in referred pain, temporal summation, muscle hyperalgesia, and muscle pain at rest were attenuated by the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist, ketamine, in FM patients. Delayed corticotropin release, after interleukin-6 administration, in FM was shown to be consistent with a defect in hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone neural function. The basal autonomic state of FM patients was characterized by increased sympathetic and decreased parasympathetic systems tones. The severity of functional impairment as assessed by the Medical Outcome Survey Short Form (SF-36) discriminated between patients with widespread pain alone and FM patients. Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) occurred in about 0.42% of a random community-based sample of 28,673 adults in Chicago, Illinois. A significant clinical overlap between CFS and FM was reported. Cytokine dysregulation was not found to be a singular or dominant factor in the pathogenesis of CFS. A favorable outcome of CFS in children was reported; two thirds recovered and resumed normal activities. No major therapeutic trials in FM and CFS were reported over the past year.

  10. Myofascial Pain Syndrome in the Elderly and Self-Exercise: A Single-Blind, Randomized, Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minhee; Lee, Minyoung; Kim, Yushin; Oh, Sejun; Lee, Dongshin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: This study aimed to demonstrate the effect of self-exercise with a therapeutic inflatable ball (SEIB) in elderly patients with myofascial pain syndrome. Design: Single-blind, randomized, controlled noninferiority trial. Setting: University campus. Participants: Forty elderly patients with myofascial pain syndrome completed the study. They were randomly allocated to SEIB (n = 22; mean age, 70.23 ± 6.11 years) or ultrasound (US) therapy (n = 18; mean age, 67.99 ± 5.64 years). Intervention: SEIB and US therapy (twice weekly for 4 consecutive weeks). Outcome measures: Visual analog scale (VAS), pressure pain threshold (PPT), and cervical lateral flexion (CLF) were measured at baseline and at 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks. Results: The noninferiority test indicated that SEIB was not inferior to US for VAS, PPT, and CLF. Between-group comparisons showed no significant differences in the VAS (F = 2.579; p = 0.117), the PPT (F = 0.245; p = 0.624), and the CLF (F = 2.072; p = 0.159). In within-group comparisons, both groups presented significant differences in VAS (SEIB after 1 week and US after 1 week), PPT (SEIB after 3 weeks and US after 4 weeks), and CLF (SEIB after 4 weeks and US after 4 weeks) compared with baseline values. Conclusions: SEIB for 4 weeks has an effect similar to that of US for desensitizing myofascial pain and increasing joint flexibility. High accessibility and low cost would make SEIB a practical self-treatment method in elderly patients with myofascial pain syndrome. PMID:26910293

  11. Using of Strain-Sounterstrain method in the physical therapy of patients with myofascial pain syndrome of lumbosacral spine segment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lytovka M.V.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the influence of physiotherapy measures on sacrolumbal myofascial pain syndrome management in combination with Strain-Counterstrain method. Two groups of patients aged 35-55 years old took part in the experiment with 10 people in each group. In the experimental group besides classical methods of physiotherapy Strain-Counterstrain method was used. It proved to be efficient and appropriate for acute pain management during the first days of therapy.

  12. Calorimetry triggering in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Igonkina, O; Adragna, P; Aharrouche, M; Alexandre, G; Andrei, V; Anduaga, X; Aracena, I; Backlund, S; Baines, J; Barnett, B M; Bauss, B; Bee, C; Behera, P; Bell, P; Bendel, M; Benslama, K; Berry, T; Bogaerts, A; Bohm, C; Bold, T; Booth, J R A; Bosman, M; Boyd, J; Bracinik, J; Brawn, I, P; Brelier, B; Brooks, W; Brunet, S; Bucci, F; Casadei, D; Casado, P; Cerri, A; Charlton, D G; Childers, J T; Collins, N J; Conde Muino, P; Coura Torres, R; Cranmer, K; Curtis, C J; Czyczula, Z; Dam, M; Damazio, D; Davis, A O; De Santo, A; Degenhardt, J; Delsart, P A; Demers, S; Demirkoz, B; Di Mattia, A; Diaz, M; Djilkibaev, R; Dobson, E; Dova, M, T; Dufour, M A; Eckweiler, S; Ehrenfeld, W; Eifert, T; Eisenhandler, E; Ellis, N; Emeliyanov, D; Enoque Ferreira de Lima, D; Faulkner, P J W; Ferland, J; Flacher, H; Fleckner, J E; Flowerdew, M; Fonseca-Martin, T; Fratina, S; Fhlisch, F; Gadomski, S; Gallacher, M P; Garitaonandia Elejabarrieta, H; Gee, C N P; George, S; Gillman, A R; Goncalo, R; Grabowska-Bold, I; Groll, M; Gringer, C; Hadley, D R; Haller, J; Hamilton, A; Hanke, P; Hauser, R; Hellman, S; Hidvgi, A; Hillier, S J; Hryn'ova, T; Idarraga, J; Johansen, M; Johns, K; Kalinowski, A; Khoriauli, G; Kirk, J; Klous, S; Kluge, E-E; Koeneke, K; Konoplich, R; Konstantinidis, N; Kwee, R; Landon, M; LeCompte, T; Ledroit, F; Lei, X; Lendermann, V; Lilley, J N; Losada, M; Maettig, S; Mahboubi, K; Mahout, G; Maltrana, D; Marino, C; Masik, J; Meier, K; Middleton, R P; Mincer, A; Moa, T; Monticelli, F; Moreno, D; Morris, J D; Mller, F; Navarro, G A; Negri, A; Nemethy, P; Neusiedl, A; Oltmann, B; Olvito, D; Osuna, C; Padilla, C; Panes, B; Parodi, F; Perera, V J O; Perez, E; Perez Reale, V; Petersen, B; Pinzon, G; Potter, C; Prieur, D P F; Prokishin, F; Qian, W; Quinonez, F; Rajagopalan, S; Reinsch, A; Rieke, S; Riu, I; Robertson, S; Rodriguez, D; Rogriquez, Y; Rhr, F; Saavedra, A; Sankey, D P C; Santamarina, C; Santamarina Rios, C; Scannicchio, D; Schiavi, C; Schmitt, K; Schultz-Coulon, H C; Schfer, U; Segura, E; Silverstein, D; Silverstein, S; Sivoklokov, S; Sjlin, J; Staley, R J; Stamen, R; Stelzer, J; Stockton, M C; Straessner, A; Strom, D; Sushkov, S; Sutton, M; Tamsett, M; Tan, C L A; Tapprogge, S; Thomas, J P; Thompson, P D; Torrence, E; Tripiana, M; Urquijo, P; Urrejola, P; Vachon, B; Vercesi, V; Vorwerk, V; Wang, M; Watkins, P M; Watson, A; Weber, P; Weidberg, T; Werner, P; Wessels, M; Wheeler-Ellis, S; Whiteson, D; Wiedenmann, W; Wielers, M; Wildt, M; Winklmeier, F; Wu, X; Xella, S; Zhao, L; Zobernig, H; de Seixas, J M; dos Anjos, A; Asman, B; Özcan, E

    2009-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is preparing for data taking at 14 TeV collision energy. A rich discovery physics program is being prepared in addition to the detailed study of Standard Model processes which will be produced in abundance. The ATLAS multi-level trigger system is designed to accept one event in 2 105 to enable the selection of rare and unusual physics events. The ATLAS calorimeter system is a precise instrument, which includes liquid Argon electro-magnetic and hadronic components as well as a scintillator-tile hadronic calorimeter. All these components are used in the various levels of the trigger system. A wide physics coverage is ensured by inclusively selecting events with candidate electrons, photons, taus, jets or those with large missing transverse energy. The commissioning of the trigger system is being performed with cosmic ray events and by replaying simulated Monte Carlo events through the trigger and data acquisition system.

  13. Calo trigger acquisition system

    CERN Multimedia

    Franchini, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Calo trigger acquisition system - Evolution of the acquisition system from a multiple boards system (upper, orange cables) to a single board one (below, light blue cables) where all the channels are collected in a single board.

  14. Aspartame-Triggered Migraine

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2001-01-01

    Two patients with known aspartame-triggered and rizatriptan-responsive migraine had their headaches worsened following use of an aspartame-containing formulation of rizatriptan (Maxalt-MLT), in a report from Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY.

  15. Ultrafast red light activation of Synechocystis phytochrome Cph1 triggers major structural change to form the Pfr signalling-competent state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyes, Derren J; Khara, Basile; Sakuma, Michiyo; Hardman, Samantha J O; O'Cualain, Ronan; Rigby, Stephen E J; Scrutton, Nigel S

    2012-01-01

    Phytochromes are dimeric photoreceptors that regulate a range of responses in plants and microorganisms through interconversion of red light-absorbing (Pr) and far-red light-absorbing (Pfr) states. Photoconversion between these states is initiated by light-driven isomerization of a bilin cofactor, which triggers protein structural change. The extent of this change, and how light-driven structural changes in the N-terminal photosensory region are transmitted to the C-terminal regulatory domain to initiate the signalling cascade, is unknown. We have used pulsed electron-electron double resonance (PELDOR) spectroscopy to identify multiple structural transitions in a phytochrome from Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 (Cph1) by measuring distances between nitroxide labels introduced into the protein. We show that monomers in the Cph1 dimer are aligned in a parallel 'head-to-head' arrangement and that photoconversion between the Pr and Pfr forms involves conformational change in both the N- and C-terminal domains of the protein. Cryo-trapping and kinetic measurements were used to probe the extent and temporal properties of protein motions for individual steps during photoconversion of Cph1. Formation of the primary photoproduct Lumi-R is not affected by changes in solvent viscosity and dielectric constant. Lumi-R formation occurs at cryogenic temperatures, consistent with their being no major structural reorganization of Cph1 during primary photoproduct formation. All remaining steps in the formation of the Pfr state are affected by solvent viscosity and dielectric constant and occur only at elevated temperatures, implying involvement of a series of long-range solvent-coupled conformational changes in Cph1. We show that signalling is achieved through ultrafast photoisomerization where localized structural change in the GAF domain is transmitted and amplified to cause larger-scale and slower conformational change in the PHY and histidine kinase domains. This hierarchy of

  16. Myofascial pain of the jaw muscles: comparison of short-term effectiveness of botulinum toxin injections and fascial manipulation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarda-Nardini, Luca; Stecco, Antonio; Stecco, Carla; Masiero, Stefano; Manfredini, Daniele

    2012-04-01

    A randomized controlled trial was performed to compare the short-term effectiveness of botulinum toxin injections and physiatric treatment provided by means of Fascial Manipulation techniques in the management of myofascial pain of jaw muscles. Thirty patients with a Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) diagnosis of myofascial pain were randomized to receive either single-session botulinum toxin injections (Group A) or multiple-session Fascial Manipulation (Group B). Maximum pain levels (VAS ratings) and jaw range of motion in millimeters (maximum mouth opening, protrusion, right and left laterotrusion) were assessed at baseline, at the end of treatment, and at a three-month follow-up. Both treatment protocols provided significant improvement over time for pain symptoms. The two treatments seem to be almost equally effective, Fascial Manipulation being slightly superior to reduce subjective pain perception, and botulinum toxin injections being slightly superior to increase jaw range of motion. Differences between the two treatment protocols as to changes in the outcome parameters at the three-months follow-up were not relevant clinically. Findings from the present investigation are in line with literature data supporting the effectiveness of a wide spectrum of conservative treatment approaches to myofascial pain of the jaw muscles. Future studies on larger samples over a longer follow-up span are needed on the way to identify tailored treatment strategies.

  17. TO COMPARE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF MYOFASCIAL RELEASE TECHNIQUE VERSUS POSITIONAL RELEASE TECHNIQUE WITH LASER IN PATIENTS WITH UNILATERAL TRAPEZITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravish

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Trapezius pain is the classic stress pain and it is the most common musculoskeletal disorder. It is usually caused by placing too much stress or strain over the trapezius muscle. The upper trapezius muscle is designated as postural muscle and it is highly susceptible to overuse. Trapezius muscles help with the function of neck rotation, side bending and extension. Tightness in the muscles can decrease the range of motion of the neck. The decrease in motion can negatively affect the mobility of the cervical joints. Limited range of motion creates an increase in soft tissue tightness, with an ensuing pain-spasm cycle which can be difficult to break. Physiotherapy techniques like myofascial release technique and Positional release therapy has been proposed as an adjunct to conventional therapy to treat trapezitis. Giving myofascial release technique and positional release therapy along with LASER and exercises improves the cervical range of motion and relieves pain and enhances quality of life in the patient with trapezitis. Hence this study is aimed to determine the effect of myofascial release technique and positional release therapy in trapezitis. STUDY DESIGN: Comparative study design SETTING: Out Patient Department of Orthopedics, Kempegowda Institute of Medical Science Hospital and Research Center, Bangalore. Out Patient Department of Physiotherapy, Kempegowda Institute of Physiotherapy, Bangalore.

  18. Reconstruction of Abdominal Wall of a Chronically Infected Postoperative Wound with a Rectus Abdominis Myofascial Splitting Flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Kyu Bae

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background If a chronically infected abdominal wound develops, complications such asperitonitis and an abdominal wall defect could occur. This could prolong the patient’s hospitalstay and increase the possibility of re-operation or another infection as well. For this reason,a solution for infection control is necessary. In this study, surgery using a rectus abdominismuscle myofascial splitting flap was performed on an abdominal wall defect.Methods From 2009 to 2012, 5 patients who underwent surgery due to ovarian rupture,cesarean section, or uterine myoma were chosen. In each case, during the first week afteroperation, the wound showed signs of infection. Surgery was chosen because the wounds didnot resolve with dressing. Debridement was performed along the previous operation woundand dissection of the skin was performed to separate the skin and subcutaneous tissue fromthe attenuated rectus muscle and Scarpa’s fascial layers. Once the anterior rectus sheath andmuscle were adequately mobilized, the fascia and muscle flap were advanced medially sothat the skin defect could be covered for reconstruction.Results Upon 3-week follow-up after a rectus abdominis myofascial splitting flap operation,no major complication occurred. In addition, all of the patients showed satisfaction in termsof function and esthetics at 3 to 6 months post-surgery.Conclusions Using a rectus abdominis myofascial splitting flap has many esthetic andfunctional benefits over previous methods of abdominal defect treatment, and notably, itenabled infection control by reconstruction using muscle.

  19. Reconstruction of the tongue and mouth floor with the myofascial vastus lateralis free flap after cancer ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L; Liu, K; Shao, Z; Shang, Z-J

    2016-08-01

    The current study was undertaken to evaluate a novel approach to tongue and mouth floor reconstruction using the myofascial vastus lateralis free flap (MVLF). The surgical techniques, benefits, complication rate, and the aesthetic and functional results are described. A series of six patients underwent functional tongue reconstruction between July 2013 and November 2014. The myofascial vastus lateralis flap was obtained as follows: the vastus lateralis muscle was exposed, the neurovascular pedicle was identified, and the myofascial flap was raised. Postoperatively, the neotongue appeared plump and was able to maintain palatal contact. Moreover, no obvious decrease in flap volume was observed during the follow-up period. Most patients experienced good tongue mobility. Further use of the MVLF should confirm whether the mucous membrane on the surface of the flap becomes part of the tongue mucosa in the true sense, whether and how well the patients will recover their sense of taste, and the degree to which quality of life is improved after nerve anastomosis. So far, it appears to be a suitable approach to tongue and mouth floor reconstruction.

  20. Topological Trigger Developments

    CERN Multimedia

    Likhomanenko, Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    The main b-physics trigger algorithm used by the LHCb experiment is the so-called topological trigger. The topological trigger selects vertices which are a) detached from the primary proton-proton collision and b) compatible with coming from the decay of a b-hadron. In the LHC Run 1, this trigger utilized a custom boosted decision tree algorithm, selected an almost 100% pure sample of b-hadrons with a typical efficiency of 60-70%, and its output was used in about 60% of LHCb papers. This talk presents studies carried out to optimize the topological trigger for LHC Run 2. In particular, we have carried out a detailed comparison of various machine learning classifier algorithms, e.g., AdaBoost, MatrixNet and uBoost. The topological trigger algorithm is designed to select all "interesting" decays of b-hadrons, but cannot be trained on every such decay. Studies have therefore been performed to determine how to optimize the performance of the classification algorithm on decays not used in the training. These inclu...

  1. LHCb Topological Trigger Reoptimization

    CERN Document Server

    Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Khairullin, Egor; Rogozhnikov, Alex; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Williams, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The main b-physics trigger algorithm used by the LHCb experiment is the so-called topological trigger. The topological trigger selects vertices which are a) detached from the primary proton-proton collision and b) compatible with coming from the decay of a b-hadron. In the LHC Run 1, this trigger, which utilized a custom boosted decision tree algorithm, selected a nearly 100% pure sample of b-hadrons with a typical efficiency of 60-70%; its output was used in about 60% of LHCb papers. This talk presents studies carried out to optimize the topological trigger for LHC Run 2. In particular, we have carried out a detailed comparison of various machine learning classifier algorithms, e.g., AdaBoost, MatrixNet and neural networks. The topological trigger algorithm is designed to select all "interesting" decays of b-hadrons, but cannot be trained on every such decay. Studies have therefore been performed to determine how to optimize the performance of the classification algorithm on decays not used in the training. ...

  2. Electromagnetic calorimeter trigger at Belle

    CERN Document Server

    Cheon, B G; Lee, S H; Won, E; Park, I C; Hur, T W; Park, C S; Kim, S K; Kim, H J; Kim, H O; Chu, T H; Usov, Y V; Aulchenko, V M; Kuzmin, A S; Bondar, A E; Shwartz, B A; Eidelman, S; Krokovnyi, P P; Hayashii, H; Sagawa, H; Fukushima, M

    2002-01-01

    The performance of CsI(Tl) electromagnetic calorimeter trigger system in the Belle experiment is described. Two kinds of trigger schemes have been taken into account, namely a total energy trigger and a cluster counting trigger which are complementary to each other. In addition, the system has provided the online/offline luminosity information using the Bhabha event trigger scheme. An upgrade of the trigger is discussed.

  3. Improved Temporalis Myofascial Transfer Flap for Treatment of Facial Reanimation%改良颞肌筋膜瓣转移术治疗晚期面瘫

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐逸; 王喻; 花卉; 朱舟; 潘邓记

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨改良颞肌筋膜瓣转移术治疗晚期面瘫的疗效。方法:采用颞肌联合颞肌筋膜瓣,动态恢复患侧面部表情肌功能,对19例晚期面瘫患者(手术组)进行手术治疗。同时选取内科非手术治疗面瘫患者22例为对照组。随访6~18月。结果:对照组和手术组治疗后的改良Portmann量表评分分别为(11.2依4.1)分、(15.1依3.3)分,治疗总有效率分别为62.23%、84.17%,手术组疗效优于对照组(<0.05)。结论:改良颞肌筋膜瓣转移术是一种治疗面瘫的良好手术方式,尤其对于内科治疗无效的晚期面瘫患者具有显著疗效。%Objective:To observe the effect of improved temporal muscle fascia flap transfer operation on late facial paralysis. Methods: The temporal muscle and temporalis myofascial flap was used to dynamicly recover ipsilateral facial muscle function; the operation was performed on 19 patients with facial paralysis (operation group). And 22 patients without operation treatment were included as control group. The follow-up time was 6~18 months. Results: After rehabilitation exercise for 6~18 months, the follow-up showed static appearance and dynamic expression of muscle activity was improved obviously. After the treatment, the Portmann scale of the=control group and the operation group were (11.2±4.1) and (15.1±3.3) respectively, and the total effective rate were 62.23% and 84.17% respectively. The effect of operation group was better than that of the control group ( <0.05). Conclusion:Modified temporalis myofascial flap surgery is a good way to treat facial paralysis, especial-ly for patients with internal medicine treatment invalid.

  4. Geomorphic features of surface ruptures associated with the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake in and around the downtown of Kumamoto City, and implications on triggered slip along active faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Hideaki; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki; Toda, Shinji; Kumahara, Yasuhiro

    2017-02-01

    The 30-km-long surface ruptures associated with the M w 7.0 ( M j 7.3) earthquake at 01:25 JST on April 16 in Kumamoto Prefecture appeared along the previously mapped 100-km-long active fault called the Futagawa-Hinagu fault zone (FHFZ). The surface ruptures appeared to have extended further west out of the main FHFZ into the Kumamoto Plain. Although InSAR analysis by Geospatial Information Authority of Japan (GSI) indicated coseismic surface deformation in and around the downtown of Kumamoto City, the surface ruptures have not been clearly mapped in the central part of the Kumamoto Plain, and whether there are other active faults other than the Futagawa fault in the Kumamoto Plain remained unclear. We produced topographical stereo images (anaglyph) from 5-m-mesh digital elevation model of GSI, which was generated from light detection and ranging data. We interpreted them and identified that several SW-sloping river terraces formed after the deposition of the pyroclastic flow deposits related to the latest large eruption of the Aso caldera (86.8-87.3 ka) are cut and deformed by several NW-trending flexure scarps down to the southwest. These 5.4-km-long scarps that cut across downtown Kumamoto were identified for the first time, and we name them as the Suizenji fault zone. Surface deformation such as continuous cracks, tilts, and monoclinal folding associated with the main shock of the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake was observed in the field along the fault zone. The amount of vertical deformation ( 0.1 m) along this fault associated with the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake was quite small compared to the empirically calculated coseismic slip (0.5 m) based on the fault length. We thus suggest that the slip on this fault zone was triggered by the Kumamoto earthquake, but the fault zone has potential to generate an earthquake with larger slip that poses a high seismic risk in downtown Kumamoto area.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  5. A species-specific activation of Toll-like receptor signaling in bovine and sheep bronchial epithelial cells triggered by Mycobacterial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yan; Han, Fei; Liang, Jinping; Yang, Jiali; Shi, Juan; Xue, Jing; Yang, Li; Li, Yong; Luo, Meihui; Wang, Yujiong; Wei, Jun; Liu, Xiaoming

    2016-03-01

    Pulmonary tuberculosis caused by a Mycobacterium infection remains a major public health problem in most part of the world, in part owing to the transmission of its pathogens between hosts including human, domestic and wild animals. To date, molecular mechanisms of the pathogenesis of TB are still incompletely understood. In addition to alveolar macrophages, airway epithelial cells have also been recently recognized as main targets for Mycobacteria infections. In an effort to understand the pathogen-host interaction between Mycobacteria and airway epithelial cells in domestic animals, in present study, we investigated the Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling in bovine and sheep airway epithelial cells in response to an infection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis avirulent H37Ra stain or Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine strain, using primary air-liquid interface (ALI) bronchial epithelial culture models. Our results revealed a host and pathogen species-specific TLR-mediated recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), induction and activation of TLR signaling pathways, and substantial induction of inflammatory response in bronchial epithelial cells in response to Mycobacteria infections between these two species. Interestingly, the activation TLR signaling in bovine bronchial epithelial cells induced by Mycobacteria infection was mainly through a myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88)-independent TLR signaling pathway, while both MyD88-dependent and independent TLR signaling cascades could be induced in sheep epithelial cells. Equally noteworthy, a BCG infection was able to induce both MyD88-dependent and independent signaling in sheep and bovine airway epithelial cells, but more robust inflammatory responses were induced in sheep epithelial cells relative to the bovines; whereas an H37Ra infection displayed an ability to mainly trigger a MyD88-independent TLR signaling cascade in these two host species, and induce a more extent expression of

  6. The CMS trigger system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khachatryan, Vardan; et al.

    2016-09-08

    This paper describes the CMS trigger system and its performance during Run 1 of the LHC. The trigger system consists of two levels designed to select events of potential physics interest from a GHz (MHz) interaction rate of proton-proton (heavy ion) collisions. The first level of the trigger is implemented in hardware, and selects events containing detector signals consistent with an electron, photon, muon, tau lepton, jet, or missing transverse energy. A programmable menu of up to 128 object-based algorithms is used to select events for subsequent processing. The trigger thresholds are adjusted to the LHC instantaneous luminosity during data taking in order to restrict the output rate to 100 kHz, the upper limit imposed by the CMS readout electronics. The second level, implemented in software, further refines the purity of the output stream, selecting an average rate of 400 Hz for offline event storage. The objectives, strategy and performance of the trigger system during the LHC Run 1 are described.

  7. The CMS trigger system

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Aşılar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Brondolin, Erica; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Flechl, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Knünz, Valentin; König, Axel; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Matsushita, Takashi; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Lauwers, Jasper; Luyckx, Sten; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; De Bruyn, Isabelle; Deroover, Kevin; Heracleous, Natalie; Keaveney, James; Lowette, Steven; Moreels, Lieselotte; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Strom, Derek; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Van Parijs, Isis; Barria, Patrizia; Brun, Hugues; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Fasanella, Giuseppe; Favart, Laurent; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lenzi, Thomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Maerschalk, Thierry; Marinov, Andrey; Perniè, Luca; Randle-conde, Aidan; Reis, Thomas; Seva, Tomislav; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Yonamine, Ryo; Zenoni, Florian; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Beernaert, Kelly; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Crucy, Shannon; Dobur, Didar; Fagot, Alexis; Garcia, Guillaume; Gul, Muhammad; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Poyraz, Deniz; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Sigamani, Michael; Strobbe, Nadja; Tytgat, Michael; Van Driessche, Ward; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bondu, Olivier; Brochet, Sébastien; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; Delaere, Christophe; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Jafari, Abideh; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Mertens, Alexandre; Musich, Marco; Nuttens, Claude; Perrini, Lucia; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Popov, Andrey; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Beliy, Nikita; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Fábio Lúcio; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Hamer, Matthias; Hensel, Carsten; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, Ewerton; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Huertas Guativa, Lina Milena; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ahuja, Sudha; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Souza Santos, Angelo; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Moon, Chang-Seong; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Romero Abad, David; Ruiz Vargas, José Cupertino; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Ahmad, Muhammad; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Cheng, Tongguang; Du, Ran; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Plestina, Roko; Romeo, Francesco; Shaheen, Sarmad Masood; Spiezia, Aniello; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Huaqiao; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Puljak, Ivica; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Micanovic, Sasa; Sudic, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Bodlak, Martin; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; El Sawy, Mai; Elgammal, Sherif; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Calpas, Betty; Kadastik, Mario; Murumaa, Marion; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Veelken, Christian; Eerola, Paula; Pekkanen, Juska; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Talvitie, Joonas; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Favaro, Carlotta; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Machet, Martina; Malcles, Julie; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Zghiche, Amina; Antropov, Iurii; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Cadamuro, Luca; Chapon, Emilien; Charlot, Claude; Dahms, Torsten; Davignon, Olivier; Filipovic, Nicolas; Florent, Alice; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Lisniak, Stanislav; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Miné, Philippe; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Ortona, Giacomo; Paganini, Pascal; Pigard, Philipp; Regnard, Simon; Salerno, Roberto; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Sirois, Yves; Strebler, Thomas; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Aubin, Alexandre; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Buttignol, Michael; Chabert, Eric Christian; Chanon, Nicolas; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Coubez, Xavier; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Goetzmann, Christophe; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Merlin, Jeremie Alexandre; Skovpen, Kirill; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Bernet, Colin; Boudoul, Gaelle; Bouvier, Elvire; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Courbon, Benoit; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fan, Jiawei; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Lagarde, Francois; Laktineh, Imad Baptiste; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Pequegnot, Anne-Laure; Perries, Stephane; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sabes, David; Sgandurra, Louis; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Toriashvili, Tengizi; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heister, Arno; Kiesel, Maximilian Knut; Klein, Katja; Lipinski, Martin; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Preuten, Marius; Raupach, Frank; Schael, Stefan; Schulte, Jan-Frederik; Verlage, Tobias; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Brodski, Michael; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Endres, Matthias; Erdmann, Martin; Erdweg, Sören; Esch, Thomas; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klingebiel, Dennis; Knutzen, Simon; Kreuzer, Peter; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Papacz, Paul; Pook, Tobias; Radziej, Markus; Reithler, Hans; Rieger, Marcel; Scheuch, Florian; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Künsken, Andreas; Lingemann, Joschka; Nehrkorn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Nugent, Ian Michael; Pistone, Claudia; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Asin, Ivan; Bartosik, Nazar; Behnke, Olaf; Behrens, Ulf; Bell, Alan James; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Campbell, Alan; Choudhury, Somnath; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dolinska, Ganna; Dooling, Samantha; Dorland, Tyler; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Flucke, Gero; Gallo, Elisabetta; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Gizhko, Andrii; Gunnellini, Paolo; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Jung, Hannes; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Karacheban, Olena; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kieseler, Jan; Kleinwort, Claus; Korol, Ievgen; Lange, Wolfgang; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lobanov, Artur; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Nayak, Aruna; Ntomari, Eleni; Perrey, Hanno; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Roland, Benoit; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Saxena, Pooja; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schröder, Matthias; Seitz, Claudia; Spannagel, Simon; Trippkewitz, Karim Damun; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Draeger, Arne-Rasmus; Erfle, Joachim; Garutti, Erika; Goebel, Kristin; Gonzalez, Daniel; Görner, Martin; Haller, Johannes; Hoffmann, Malte; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Junkes, Alexandra; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Kovalchuk, Nataliia; Lapsien, Tobias; Lenz, Teresa; Marchesini, Ivan; Marconi, Daniele; Meyer, Mareike; Nowatschin, Dominik; Ott, Jochen; Pantaleo, Felice; Peiffer, Thomas; Perieanu, Adrian; Pietsch, Niklas; Poehlsen, Jennifer; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Scharf, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Schwandt, Joern; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Tholen, Heiner; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Vanhoefer, Annika; Vormwald, Benedikt; Akbiyik, Melike; Barth, Christian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Butz, Erik; Chwalek, Thorsten; Colombo, Fabio; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Fink, Simon; Frensch, Felix; Friese, Raphael; Giffels, Manuel; Gilbert, Andrew; Haitz, Dominik; Hartmann, Frank; Heindl, Stefan Michael; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Kornmayer, Andreas; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Maier, Benedikt; Mildner, Hannes; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Müller, Thomas; Plagge, Michael; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Röcker, Steffen; Roscher, Frank; Sieber, Georg; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weber, Marc; Weiler, Thomas; Wöhrmann, Clemens; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Psallidas, Andreas; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Agapitos, Antonis; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Tziaferi, Eirini; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Loukas, Nikitas; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Strologas, John; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hazi, Andras; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Molnar, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Bartók, Márton; Makovec, Alajos; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Mal, Prolay; Mandal, Koushik; Sahoo, Deepak Kumar; Sahoo, Niladribihari; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Chawla, Ridhi; Gupta, Ruchi; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Kaur, Anterpreet; Kaur, Manjit; Kumar, Ramandeep; Mehta, Ankita; Mittal, Monika; Singh, Jasbir; Walia, Genius; Kumar, Ashok; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Garg, Rocky Bala; Kumar, Ajay; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Nishu, Nishu; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Ramkrishna; Sharma, Varun; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dey, Sourav; Dutta, Suchandra; Jain, Sandhya; Majumdar, Nayana; Modak, Atanu; Mondal, Kuntal; Mukherjee, Swagata; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Roy, Ashim; Roy, Debarati; Roy Chowdhury, Suvankar; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Chudasama, Ruchi; Dutta, Dipanwita; Jha, Vishwajeet; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Dugad, Shashikant; Ganguly, Sanmay; Ghosh, Saranya; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Kole, Gouranga; Kumar, Sanjeev; Mahakud, Bibhuprasad; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mitra, Soureek; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sarkar, Tanmay; Sur, Nairit; Sutar, Bajrang; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Chauhan, Shubhanshu; Dube, Sourabh; Kothekar, Kunal; Sharma, Seema; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Behnamian, Hadi; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Goldouzian, Reza; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Calabria, Cesare; Caputo, Claudio; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; Cristella, Leonardo; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Miniello, Giorgia; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Ranieri, Antonio; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Venditti, Rosamaria; Verwilligen, Piet; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Battilana, Carlo; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Travaglini, Riccardo; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Gonzi, Sandro; Gori, Valentina; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Viliani, Lorenzo; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Primavera, Federica; Calvelli, Valerio; Ferro, Fabrizio; Lo Vetere, Maurizio; Monge, Maria Roberta; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Brianza, Luca; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Gerosa, Raffaele; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Marzocchi, Badder; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; Di Guida, Salvatore; Esposito, Marco; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lanza, Giuseppe; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, M