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Sample records for active myofascial trigger

  1. Myofascial trigger points: spontaneous electrical activity and its consequences for pain induction and propagation.

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    Ge, Hong-You; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Yue, Shou-Wei

    2011-03-25

    Active myofascial trigger points are one of the major peripheral pain generators for regional and generalized musculoskeletal pain conditions. Myofascial trigger points are also the targets for acupuncture and/or dry needling therapies. Recent evidence in the understanding of the pathophysiology of myofascial trigger points supports The Integrated Hypothesis for the trigger point formation; however unanswered questions remain. Current evidence shows that spontaneous electrical activity at myofascial trigger point originates from the extrafusal motor endplate. The spontaneous electrical activity represents focal muscle fiber contraction and/or muscle cramp potentials depending on trigger point sensitivity. Local pain and tenderness at myofascial trigger points are largely due to nociceptor sensitization with a lesser contribution from non-nociceptor sensitization. Nociceptor and non-nociceptor sensitization at myofascial trigger points may be part of the process of muscle ischemia associated with sustained focal muscle contraction and/or muscle cramps. Referred pain is dependent on the sensitivity of myofascial trigger points. Active myofascial trigger points may play an important role in the transition from localized pain to generalized pain conditions via the enhanced central sensitization, decreased descending inhibition and dysfunctional motor control strategy.

  2. Myofascial trigger points: spontaneous electrical activity and its consequences for pain induction and propagation

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    Fernández-de-las-Peñas César

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Active myofascial trigger points are one of the major peripheral pain generators for regional and generalized musculoskeletal pain conditions. Myofascial trigger points are also the targets for acupuncture and/or dry needling therapies. Recent evidence in the understanding of the pathophysiology of myofascial trigger points supports The Integrated Hypothesis for the trigger point formation; however unanswered questions remain. Current evidence shows that spontaneous electrical activity at myofascial trigger point originates from the extrafusal motor endplate. The spontaneous electrical activity represents focal muscle fiber contraction and/or muscle cramp potentials depending on trigger point sensitivity. Local pain and tenderness at myofascial trigger points are largely due to nociceptor sensitization with a lesser contribution from non-nociceptor sensitization. Nociceptor and non-nociceptor sensitization at myofascial trigger points may be part of the process of muscle ischemia associated with sustained focal muscle contraction and/or muscle cramps. Referred pain is dependent on the sensitivity of myofascial trigger points. Active myofascial trigger points may play an important role in the transition from localized pain to generalized pain conditions via the enhanced central sensitization, decreased descending inhibition and dysfunctional motor control strategy.

  3. Latent myofascial trigger points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Hong-You; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2011-10-01

    A latent myofascial trigger point (MTP) is defined as a focus of hyperirritability in a muscle taut band that is clinically associated with local twitch response and tenderness and/or referred pain upon manual examination. Current evidence suggests that the temporal profile of the spontaneous electrical activity at an MTP is similar to focal muscle fiber contraction and/or muscle cramp potentials, which contribute significantly to the induction of local tenderness and pain and motor dysfunctions. This review highlights the potential mechanisms underlying the sensory-motor dysfunctions associated with latent MTPs and discusses the contribution of central sensitization associated with latent MTPs and the MTP network to the spatial propagation of pain and motor dysfunctions. Treating latent MTPs in patients with musculoskeletal pain may not only decrease pain sensitivity and improve motor functions, but also prevent latent MTPs from transforming into active MTPs, and hence, prevent the development of myofascial pain syndrome.

  4. Comparison between four treatment modalities for active myofascial triggers points

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    Atef Fouda

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study aimed at the painful trigger points (TrPs for the purpose of ablating muscle spasms and restoring normal muscle length to find the most effective treatment for alleviating pain and improving mouth range of motion in patients with myofascial pain dysfunction. Methods: We enrolled 72 patients with pain and reduced mouth opening due to temporomandibular joint dysfunction. Patients assigned to four groups and four treatment modalities used to treat myofascial TrPs pain. We used mean and standard deviation values. The Mann-Whitney U-test was used to compare the two groups. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to study the changes by the time in mean pain scores. The Student's t-test was used to compare maximum mouth opening (MMO groups. Then paired t-test was also used to study the changes of time in an MMO. Results: The results showed that pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF therapy is the most effective treatment modality regarding for pain relief. Both the anesthesia and PEMF groups showed a reduction in mean pain scores throughout all follow-up periods, and a statistically significant increase in mean MMO. Conclusion: The findings suggest that PEMF is the most effective treatment for alleviating pain and improving mouth range of motion in patients with myofascial pain.

  5. Etiology of myofascial trigger points

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bron, C.; Dommerholt, J.D.

    2012-01-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is described as the sensory, motor, and autonomic symptoms caused by myofascial trigger points (TrPs). Knowing the potential causes of TrPs is important to prevent their development and recurrence, but also to inactivate and eliminate existing TrPs. There is general ag

  6. Understanding of myofascial trigger points

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhuang Xiaoqiang; Tan Shusheng; Huang Qiangmin

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the current practice of myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) including current epidemiology,pathology,diagnosis and treatment.Data sources The data analyzed in this review were mainly from relevant articles without restriction on the publication date reported in PubMed,MedSci,Google scholar.The terms "myofasial trigger points" and "myofacial pain syndrome" were used for the literature search.Study selection Original articles with no limitation of research design and critical reviews containing data relevant to myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) and MPS were retrieved,reviewed,analyzed and summarized.Results Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is characterized by painful taut band,referred pain,and local response twitch with a prevalence of 85% to 95% of incidence.Several factors link to the etiology of MTrPs,such as the chronic injury and overload of muscles.Other factors,such as certain nutrient and hormone insufficiency,comorbidities,and muscle imbalance may also maintain the MTrP in an active status and induce recurrent pain.The current pathology is that an extra leakage acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction induces persistent contracture knots,relative to some hypotheses of integration,muscle spindle discharges,spinal segment sensitization,ect.MTrPs can be diagnosed and localized based on a few subjective criteria.Several approaches,including both direct and supplementary treatments,can inactivate MTrPs.Direct treatments are categorized into invasive and conservative.Conclusion This review provides a clear understanding of MTrP pain and introduces the most useful treatment approaches in China.

  7. Reproduction of overall spontaneous pain pattern by manual stimulation of active myofascial trigger points in fibromyalgia patients

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    Ge, Hong-You; Wang, Ying; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César;

    2011-01-01

    It has previously been reported that local and referred pain from active myofascial trigger points (MTPs) in the neck and shoulder region contribute to fibromyalgia (FM) pain and that the pain pattern induced from active MTPs can reproduce parts of the spontaneous clinical FM pain pattern...

  8. Contribution of the local and referred pain from active myofascial trigger points in fibromyalgia syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ge, Hong-You; Nie, Hongling; Madeleine, Pascal;

    2009-01-01

    The generalized hypersensitivity associated with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) may in part be driven by peripheral nociceptive sources. The aim of the study was to investigate whether local and referred pain from active myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) contributes to fibromyalgia pain. FMS patients...... and healthy controls (n=22 each, age- and gender-matched) were recruited. The surface area over the upper trapezius muscle on each side was divided into 13 sub-areas (points) of 1cm in diameter for each point. Pressure pain threshold (PPT) and the local and referred pain pattern induced by manual palpation....... The mid-fiber region of the muscle had the lowest PPT level with the largest number of active MTrPs in FMS and with the largest number of latent MTrPs in controls. The local and referred pain pattern induced from active MTrPs bilaterally in the upper trapezius muscle were similar to the ongoing pain...

  9. Reproduction of overall spontaneous pain pattern by manual stimulation of active myofascial trigger points in fibromyalgia patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ge, Hong-You; Wang, Ying; Fernandez-de-las-Penas, Cesar;

    2011-01-01

    It has previously been reported that local and referred pain from active myofascial trigger points (MTPs) in the neck and shoulder region contribute to fibromyalgia (FM) pain and that the pain pattern induced from active MTPs can reproduce parts of the spontaneous clinical FM pain pattern....... The current study investigated whether the overall spontaneous FM pain pattern can be reproduced by local and referred pain from active MTPs located in different muscles....

  10. Introduction to myofascial trigger points in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Rick

    2014-06-01

    In dogs, muscles make up 44%-57% of total body weight and can serve as source of both pain and dysfunction when myofascial trigger points are present. However, rarely is muscle mentioned as a generator of pain in dogs, and even less mentioned is muscle dysfunction. The veterinary practitioner with interest in pain management, rehabilitation, orthopedics, and sports medicine must be familiar with the characteristics, etiology, and precipitating factors of myofascial trigger points. Additionally, the development of examination and treatment skill is needed to effectively manage myofascial trigger points in dogs.

  11. Contribution of the local and referred pain from active myofascial trigger points in fibromyalgia syndrome.

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    Ge, Hong-You; Nie, Hongling; Madeleine, Pascal; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2009-12-15

    The generalized hypersensitivity associated with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) may in part be driven by peripheral nociceptive sources. The aim of the study was to investigate whether local and referred pain from active myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) contributes to fibromyalgia pain. FMS patients and healthy controls (n=22 each, age- and gender-matched) were recruited. The surface area over the upper trapezius muscle on each side was divided into 13 sub-areas (points) of 1cm in diameter for each point. Pressure pain threshold (PPT) and the local and referred pain pattern induced by manual palpation at 13 points bilaterally in the upper trapezius were recorded. Results showed that PPT levels at all measured points were significantly lower in FMS than controls. Multiple active MTrPs (7.4+/-2.2) were identified bilaterally in the muscle in FMS patients, but no active MTrPs were found in controls. The mid-fiber region of the muscle had the lowest PPT level with the largest number of active MTrPs in FMS and with the largest number of latent MTrPs in controls. The local and referred pain pattern induced from active MTrPs bilaterally in the upper trapezius muscle were similar to the ongoing pain pattern in the neck and shoulder region in FMS. In conclusion, active MTrPs bilaterally in the upper trapezius muscle contribute to the neck and shoulder pain in FMS. Active MTrPs may serve as one of the sources of noxious input leading to the sensitization of spinal and supraspinal pain pathways in FMS.

  12. Assessment of Myofascial Trigger Points Using Ultrasound.

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    Kumbhare, Dinesh A; Elzibak, Alyaa H; Noseworthy, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome is a common musculoskeletal pain disorder characterized by the presence of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs). The diagnosis of myofascial pain syndrome is currently made on clinical grounds. Numerous diagnostic criteria are used to identify myofascial pain syndrome, including the localization of MTrPs. Identifying the presence of MTrPs currently requires the physician to palpate the symptomatic region. Because the interrater reliability of the palpation technique has been found to be poor, numerous groups have been interested in finding objective imaging measures to localize the MTrP. This comprehensive review focuses on summarizing ultrasound imaging techniques that have shown promise in visually localizing the trigger point. The authors' literature search identified three sonographic approaches that have been used in MTrP localization: conventional gray-scale imaging, Doppler imaging, and elastographic ultrasound imaging. This review article explains the basic physics behind the imaging methods and summarizes the characteristics of the MTrP as identified by the ultrasonic techniques.

  13. Therapeutic approaches in treating myofascial trigger points

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    Krstev, Toshe; Nikolovska, Lence; Jovevska, Svetlana; Panova, Gordana

    2016-01-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) has been described as the most common challenge that general physicians, osteopaths, physical and manual therapists face today. Its’s frequency among the patients admitted to chronic pain practices is about 85 % (Han et al. 1997, Skootsky et al. 1989). MPS is characterized by pain originating from the trigger points (TrPs) at muscles and fascia. It is associated with, muscle spasm, tenderness, restricted motion. Although the exact pathology of this phenomenon is...

  14. Characteristics of referred muscle pain to the head from active trigger points in women with myofascial temporomandibular pain and fibromyalgia syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Blanco, Cristina; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; de-la-Llave-Rincón, Ana Isabel; Zarco-Moreno, Pedro; Galán-Del-Río, Fernando; Svensson, Peter

    2012-11-01

    Our aim was to compare the differences in the prevalence and the anatomical localization of referred pain areas of active trigger points (TrPs) between women with myofascial temporomandibular disorder (TMD) or fibromyalgia (FMS). Twenty women (age 46 ± 8 years) with TMD and 20 (age 48 ± 6 years) with FMS were recruited from specialized clinic. Bilateral temporalis, masseter, sternocleidomastoid, upper trapezius, and suboccipital muscles were examined for TrPs. TrPs were identified by palpation and considered active when the pain reproduced familiar pain symptom experienced by the patient. The referred pain areas were drawn on anatomical maps, digitalized and also measured. A new analysis technique based on a center of gravity (COG) method was used to quantitative estimate of the localization of the TrP referred pain areas. Women with FMS exhibited larger areas of usual pain symptoms than women with myofascial TMD (P pain on the frontal and posterior pain maps were located more superior in TMD than in FMS. The number of active TrPs was significantly higher in TMD (mean ± SD 6 ± 1) than in FMS (4 ± 1) (P = 0.002). Women with TMD exhibited more active TrPs in the temporalis and masseter muscles than FMS (P pain areas than those with TMD for sternocleidomastoid and suboccipital muscles (P pain areas were found in TMD, the referred pain was more pronounced in the orofacial region, whereas the referred pain in FMS was more pronounced in the cervical spine. This study showed that the referred pain elicited from active TrPs shared similar patterns as usual pain symptoms in women with TMD or FMS, but that distinct differences in TrP prevalence and location of the referred pain areas could be observed. Differences in location of referred pain areas may help clinicians to determine the most relevant TrPs for each pain syndrome in spite of overlaps in pain areas.

  15. Myofascial trigger points in cluster headache patients: a case series

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    Rico-Villademoros Fernando

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Active myofascial trigger points (MTrPs have been found to contribute to chronic tension-type headache and migraine. The purpose of this case series was to examine if active trigger points (TrPs provoking cluster-type referred pain could be found in cluster headache patients and, if so, to evaluate the effectiveness of active TrPs anaesthetic injections both in the acute and preventive headache's treatment. Twelve patients, 4 experiencing episodic and 8 chronic cluster headache, were studied. TrPs were found in all of them. Abortive infiltrations could be done in 2 episodic and 4 chronic patients, and preemptive infiltrations could be done in 2 episodic and 5 chronic patients, both kind of interventions being successful in 5 (83.3% and in 6 (85.7% of the cases respectively. When combined with prophylactic drug therapy, injections were associated with significant improvement in 7 of the 8 chronic cluster patients. Our data suggest that peripheral sensitization may play a role in cluster headache pathophysiology and that first neuron afferent blockade can be useful in cluster headache management.

  16. An update on botulinum toxin A injections of trigger points for myofascial pain.

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    Zhou, Jon Y; Wang, Dajie

    2014-01-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is a common chronic pain condition that is characterized by distinct "trigger points." Despite current treatments with physical therapy, analgesics, anti-depressants and trigger-point injections, myofascial pain remains a challenging chronic pain condition in clinical practice. Botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) can cause prolonged muscle relaxation through inhibition of acetylcholine release. It may offer some advantages over the current treatments for MPS by providing a longer sustained period of pain relief. Despite numerous clinical trials, the efficacy of BTX-A in alleviating MPS is not well-established due to mixed results from recent clinical trials. Active trigger points are associated with referred pain and greatly impact many aspects of activities of daily living, mood, and health status. This review is designed to analyze the clinical trials regarding the efficacy of BTX-A injection of active trigger points as a treatment for MPS. The literature referenced was obtained via a computer search with Google Scholar, Pubmed, Medline and EMbase. Our search terms included "Botulinum toxin," "myofascial pain," "trigger points," "myofascial trigger points," "chronic pain." Additional references were retrieved from the reference list of the reports found via this search. Studies were considered eligible for inclusion if they were double-blinded, randomized, controlled trials evaluating the efficacy of BTX-A injections into trigger points for pain reduction, and if the trigger point selection in the trial included referred pain and/or local twitch response. Open-label studies, case reports, and other non-randomized studies were excluded. Eight trials were found according to the above criteria and are summarized in Table 1. There are well-designed clinical trials to support the efficacy of trigger-point injections with BTX-A for MPS. However, further clinical trials with considerations of minimizing placebo effect, repeated dosing, adequate

  17. [Differences between myofascial trigger points and tender points].

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    Mense, S

    2011-02-01

    The article describes and compares the characteristics of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) of the myofascial pain syndrome and the tender points (TePs) of the fibromyalgia syndrome. Many statements are hypothetical, because not all aspects of the disorders have been clarified in solid studies. Signs and symptoms of MTrPs: (1) palpable nodule, often located close to the muscle belly, (2) often single, (3) allodynia and hyperalgesia at the MTrP, (4) referral of the MTrP pain, (5) normal pain sensitivity outside the MTrPs, (6) local twitch response, (7) local contracture in biopsy material, (8) peripheral mechanism probable. Signs and symptoms of TePs: (1) no palpable nodule, (2) location often close to the muscle attachments, (3) multiple by definition, (4) allodynia and hyperalgesia also outside the TePs, (5) enhanced pain under psychic stress, (6) unspecific histological changes in biopsy material, (7) central nervous mechanism probable. The multitude of differences speak against a common aetiology and pathophysiology.

  18. Fibromyalgia, myofascial pain, tender points and trigger points: splitting or lumping?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Robert M; Goldenberg, Don L

    2011-06-30

    Myofascial trigger points (MTPs) have long been a contentious issue in relation to fibromyalgia, and poorly defined pain complaints in general. Can MTPs be reproducibly identified? Do MTPs have valid objective findings, such as spontaneous electromyographic activity, muscle microdialysis evidence for an inflammatory milieu or visualization with newer ultrasound techniques? Is fibromyalgia a syndrome of multiple MTPs, or is focal muscle tenderness a manifestation of central sensitization? These issues are discussed with relevance to a recent paper reporting that manual palpation of active MTPs elicits the spontaneous pain experienced by fibromyalgia patients.

  19. [Progress of research on acupuncture at trigger point for myofascial pain syndrome].

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    Ma, Yao; Bu, He; Jia, Ji-rong; Zhang, Xue

    2012-06-01

    To review the literature of acupuncture at trigger point for myofascial pain syndrome from the main selected points (trigger point), the mechanism of Chinese medicine and modern research and its clinical application. The results show that acupuncture at trigger point has significant effect on the myofascial pain syndrome, which could be influenced by the type of needle, manipulation, insertion angle and depth of the needles. However, the involved studies at present are still far from enough and lack of systematic study with multivariate analysis, it is needed to be improved that some problems about the clinical diagnosis and basic research.

  20. Incidence of trapezius myofascial trigger points in patients with the possible carpal tunnel syndrome

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    Azadeh, Hamid; Dehghani, Mohammad; Zarezadeh, Abolghasem

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) often complain of prominent pain in shoulder and arm, also there are patients that have pain in their shoulder and arm which is due to myofascial trigger point (MTP) located in their upper trapezius muscle. Despite the frequency of this observation, few studies have previously sought to establish possible relationship between the CTS and MTP in shoulder area. METHODS: Samples were 160 patients (221 hands) consist of 130 females and 30 males, with suspected diagnosis of CTS, from March 2008 to October 2008. In this study after performing electrodiagnosis searches, another evaluation was performed to find out if there was any sign of myofascial trigger point. The correlation between these two was sought. RESULTS: It was found that all of 36 hands with normal electrodiagnostic findings had myofascial trigger points in their upper trapezius muscle. Out of 185 hands, 130 hands (70%) with electrophysiological evidences of CTS showed myofascial trigger points in their trapezius muscles. Statistical analysis revealed significant (p < 0.001) reverse correlation between the severity of CTS and the presence of MTP. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study imply the significant correlation between occurrence of CTS and MTP. It is suggested that clinicians consider the probability of existence of MTP in patients referred for diagnosis of CTS. PMID:21526092

  1. Treatment of myofascial trigger points in patients with chronic shoulder pain : a randomized, controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bron, Carel; de Gast, Arthur; Dommerholt, Jan; Stegenga, Boudewijn; Wensing, Michel; Oostendorp, Rob A. B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Shoulder pain is a common musculoskeletal problem that is often chronic or recurrent. Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) cause shoulder pain and are prevalent in patients with shoulder pain. However, few studies have focused on MTrP therapy. The aim of this study was to assess the effecti

  2. Incidence of trapezius myofascial trigger points in patients with the possible carpal tunnel syndrome

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    Hamid Azadeh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS often complain of prominent pain in shoulder and arm, also there are patients that have pain in their shoulder and arm which is due to myofascial trigger point (MTP located in their upper trapezius muscle. Despite the frequency of this observation, few studies have previously sought to establish possible relationship between the CTS and MTP in shoulder area. Methods: Samples were 160 patients (221 hands consist of 130 females and 30 males, with suspected diagnosis of CTS, from March 2008 to October 2008. In this study after performing electrodiagnosis searches, another evaluation was performed to find out if there was any sign of myofascial trigger point. The correlation between these two was sought. Results: It was found that all of 36 hands with normal electrodiagnostic findings had myofascial trigger points in their upper trapezius muscle. Out of 185 hands, 130 hands (70% with electrophysiological evidences of CTS showed myofascial trigger points in their trapezius muscles. Statistical analysis revealed significant (p < 0.001 reverse correlation between the severity of CTS and the presence of MTP. Conclusions: The findings of this study imply the significant correlation between occurrence of CTS and MTP. It is suggested that clinicians consider the probability of existence of MTP in patients referred for diagnosis of CTS.

  3. The Ultrasonographic Findings of Trigger Points of Myofascial Pain Syndrome in a Rabbit Model

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    Moon, Kyung Mi; Park, Seog Hee [Catholic University of Korea, Kangnam St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Heon; Kim, Joo Hyun; Kim, Han Kyum [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-03-15

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is a common cause of musculoskeletal pain. Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) have been repeatedly described by numerous authors. However, there have been few studies in which their existence and behavior was supported and their location confirmed. The purpose of this study was to determine whether diagnostic ultrasonography is an objective diagnostic tool which is able to significantly identify or detect the soft tissue changes in the region of clinically identified active MTrPs by using a rabbit experimental model. Ten MPS model rabbits were used in this study. We made an MPS animal model by causing the rabbits to overuse one leg for 3 weeks by cutting the contralateral L4 spinal nerve root. We compared the ultrasonographic findings of the taut band at pre-OP with those at post-OP during the consecutive three week period. To find the taut bands of the muscle, after skin exposure, the muscles were gently rubbed or pinched with the thumb and index finger on the two opposing surfaces of the muscle across the direction of the fibers. Then, the muscle was held in the same way, but with a 5-8 MHz stick probe being used in place of the thumb. After the palpation of various muscles, we selected the hardest and largest myofascial trigger nodule, in order to observe the ultrasonographic and power Doppler findings of the MPS. The size, shape, echogenecity and vascularity of the MTrPs were observed. The analysis of the results of the ultrasonography revealed that all MTrPs have a hyperechoic area. The mean thickness of the hyperechoic lesion in the biceps was 0.96{+-}0.14 cm in the MPS site (at pre-OP?), and 0.49{+-}0.12 cm at post-OP 3weeks (p < 0.01). The hyperechoic lesions in all of the studied biceps femoris of the rabbits were observed by high resolution ultrasonography. No definitively decreased vascularity was observed within the hyperechoic area by power Doppler imaging. Until now, there has been no objective method for the diagnosis of

  4. Uncovering the biochemical milieu of myofascial trigger points using in vivo microdialysis: an application of muscle pain concepts to myofascial pain syndrome.

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    Shah, Jay P; Gilliams, Elizabeth A

    2008-10-01

    This article discusses muscle pain concepts in the context of myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) and summarizes microdialysis studies that have surveyed the biochemical basis of this musculoskeletal pain condition. Though MPS is a common type of non-articular pain, its pathophysiology is only beginning to be understood due to its enormous complexity. MPS is characterized by the presence of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs), which are defined as hyperirritable nodules located within a taut band of skeletal muscle. MTrPs may be active (spontaneously painful and symptomatic) or latent (non-spontaneously painful). Painful MTrPs activate muscle nociceptors that, upon sustained noxious stimulation, initiate motor and sensory changes in the peripheral and central nervous systems. This process is called sensitization. In order to investigate the peripheral factors that influence the sensitization process, a microdialysis technique was developed to quantitatively measure the biochemical milieu of skeletal muscle. Biochemical differences were found between active and latent MTrPs, as well as in comparison with healthy muscle tissue. In this paper we relate the findings of elevated levels of sensitizing substances within painful muscle to the current theoretical framework of muscle pain and MTrP development.

  5. Myofascial Trigger Points Then and Now: A Historical and Scientific Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Jay P; Thaker, Nikki; Heimur, Juliana; Aredo, Jacqueline V; Sikdar, Siddhartha; Gerber, Lynn

    2015-07-01

    The intent of this article is to discuss the evolving role of the myofascial trigger point (MTrP) in myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) from both a historical and scientific perspective. MTrPs are hard, discrete, palpable nodules in a taut band of skeletal muscle that may be spontaneously painful (i.e., active) or painful only on compression (i.e., latent). MPS is a term used to describe a pain condition that can be acute or, more commonly, chronic and involves the muscle and its surrounding connective tissue (e.g. fascia). According to Travell and Simons, MTrPs are central to the syndrome-but are they necessary? Although the clinical study of muscle pain and MTrPs has proliferated over the past two centuries, the scientific literature often seems disjointed and confusing. Unfortunately, much of the terminology, theories, concepts, and diagnostic criteria are inconsistent, incomplete, or controversial. To address these deficiencies, investigators have recently applied clinical, imaging (of skeletal muscle and brain), and biochemical analyses to systematically and objectively study the MTrP and its role in MPS. Data suggest that the soft tissue milieu around the MTrP, neurogenic inflammation, sensitization, and limbic system dysfunction may all play a role in the initiation, amplification, and perpetuation of MPS. The authors chronicle the advances that have led to the current understanding of MTrP pathophysiology and its relationship to MPS, and review the contributions of clinicians and researchers who have influenced and expanded our contemporary level of clinical knowledge and practice.

  6. Prevalence of myofascial trigger points in fibromyalgia: the overlap of two common problems.

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    Ge, Hong-You

    2010-10-01

    With the objective evidence of their existence, myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) contribute to an increasing number of chronic regional and widespread pain conditions. The widespread spontaneous pain pattern in fibromyalgia (FM) is a summation of multiple regional pains due to active MTrPs. A regional pain in FM is from local active MTrPs and/or referred from remote active MTrPs. Positive tender points specified in FM are MTrPs, either active or latent. Manual stimulation of active MTrPs located in the muscles in different body regions completely reproduced overall spontaneous FM pain pattern. Active MTrPs as tonic peripheral nociceptive input contribute tremendously to the initiation and maintenance of central sensitization, to the impairment of descending inhibition, to the increased excitability of motor units, and to the induction of sympathetic hyperactivity observed in FM. The considerable overlap of MTrPs and FM in pain characteristics and pathophysiology suggests that FM pain is largely due to MTrPs.

  7. Interrater Reliability of Palpation of Myofascial Trigger Points in Three Shoulder Muscles

    OpenAIRE

    Bron, Carel; Franssen, Jo; Wensing, Michel; Oostendorp, Rob A.B.

    2007-01-01

    This observational study included both asymptomatic subjects (n=8) and patients with unilateral or bilateral shoulder pain (n=32). Patient diagnoses provided by the referring medical physicians included subacromial impingement, rotator cuff disease, tendonitis, tendinopathy, and chronic subdeltoid-subacromial bursitis. Three raters bilaterally palpated the infraspinatus, the anterior deltoid, and the biceps brachii muscles for clinical characteristics of a total of 12 myofascial trigger point...

  8. Treatment of myofascial trigger points in female patients with chronic tension-type headache - A randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berggreen, S.; Wiik, E.; Lund, Hans

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of myofascial trigger point massage in the muscles of the head, neck and shoulders regarding pain in the treatment of females with chronic tension-type headache. They were randomized into either a treatment group (n = 20) (one session of trigger......: 8.8 (95% CI 0.1117.4), p = 0.047). Furthermore, a significant decrease in the number of trigger points was observed in the treatment group compared with the control group. Myofascial trigger point massage has a beneficial effect on pain in female patients with chronic tension-type headache. © 2012...

  9. Mechanical pain sensitivity of deep tissues in children - possible development of myofascial trigger points in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Ting-I

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is still unclear when latent myofascial trigger points (MTrPs develop during early life. This study is designed to investigate the mechanical pain sensitivity of deep tissues in children in order to see the possible timing of the development of latent MTrPs and attachment trigger points (A-TrPs in school children. Methods Five hundreds and five healthy school children (age 4- 11 years were investigated. A pressure algometer was used to measure the pressure pain threshold (PPT at three different sites in the brachioradialis muscle: the lateral epicondyle at elbow (site A, assumed to be the A-TrP site, the mid-point of the muscle belly (site B, assumed to be the MTrP site, and the muscle-tendon junction as a control site (site C. Results The results showed that, for all children in this study, the mean PPT values was significantly lower (p p Conclusions It is concluded that a child had increased sensitivity at the tendon attachment site and the muscle belly (endplate zone after age of 4 years. Therefore, it is likely that a child may develop an A-Trp and a latent MTrP at the brachioradialis muscle after the age of 4 years. The changes in sensitivity, or the development for these trigger points, may not be related to the activity level of children aged 7-11 years. Further investigation is still required to indentify the exact timing of the initial occurrence of a-Trps and latent MTrPs.

  10. Myofascial syndrome

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    Giancarlo Carli

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Myofascial pain syndrome is common cause one of musculoskeletal pain and it is characterized by trigger points (TP, limited range of motion in joints and local twitch response (LTR during mechanical stimulation of the TP. Trigger point is a hyperirritable spot in skeletal muscle that is associated with a hypersensitive palpable nodule in a taut band. The spot is tender when pressed and can give rise to characteristic referred pain, motor dysfunction and autonomic phenomena. Palpation is reliable diagnostic criterion for locating TP in patients. Treatment is based on anesthetise TP, stretch and spray, local pression and physical activity.

  11. Dry Needling at Myofascial Trigger Spots of Rabbit Skeletal Muscles Modulates the Biochemicals Associated with Pain, Inflammation, and Hypoxia

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    Yueh-Ling Hsieh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose. Dry needling is an effective therapy for the treatment of pain associated with myofascial trigger point (MTrP. However, the biochemical effects of dry needling that are associated with pain, inflammation, and hypoxia are unclear. This study investigated the activities of β-endorphin, substance P, TNF-α, COX-2, HIF-1α, iNOS, and VEGF after different dosages of dry needling at the myofascial trigger spots (MTrSs of a skeletal muscle in rabbit. Materials and Methods. Dry needling was performed either with one dosage (1D or five dosages (5D into the biceps femoris with MTrSs in New Zealand rabbits. Biceps femoris, serum, and dorsal root ganglion (DRG were sampled immediately and 5 d after dry needling for β-endorphin, substance P, TNF-α, COX-2, HIF-1α, iNOS, and VEGF immunoassays. Results. The 1D treatment enhanced the β-endorphin levels in the biceps femoris and serum and reduced substance P in the biceps femoris and DRG. The 5D treatment reversed these effects and was accompanied by increase of TNF-α, COX-2, HIF-1α, iNOS, and VEGF production in the biceps femoris. Moreover, the higher levels of these biochemicals were still maintained 5 d after treatment. Conclusion. Dry needling at the MTrSs modulates various biochemicals associated with pain, inflammation, and hypoxia in a dose-dependent manner.

  12. The predetermined sites of examination for tender points in fibromyalgia syndrome are frequently associated with myofascial trigger points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ge, Hongyou; Wang, Ying; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente;

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this present study is to test the hypotheses that the 18 predetermined sites of examination for tender points (TP sites) in fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) are myofascial trigger points (MTrPs), and that the induced pain from active MTrPs at TP sites may mimic fibromyalgia pain. Each TP site......), but not latent MTrPs (r = -.001, P = .99), was positively correlated with spontaneous pain intensity in FMS. The current study provides first evidence that pain from active MTrPs at TP sites mimics fibromyalgia pain. MTrPs may relate to generalized increased sensitivity in FMS due to central sensitization....... PERSPECTIVE: This article underlies the importance of active MTrPs in FMS patients. Most of the TP sites in FMS are MTrPs. Active MTrPs may serve as a peripheral generator of fibromyalgia pain and inactivation of active MTrPs may thus be an alternative for the treatment of FMS....

  13. The predetermined sites of examination for tender points in fibromyalgia syndrome are frequently associated with myofascial trigger points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ge, Hong You; Wang, Ying; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente;

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this present study is to test the hypotheses that the 18 predetermined sites of examination for tender points (TP sites) in fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) are myofascial trigger points (MTrPs), and that the induced pain from active MTrPs at TP sites may mimic fibromyalgia pain. Each TP site...... was evaluated with manual palpation followed by intramuscular electromyographic (EMG) registration of spontaneous electrical activity to confirm or refute the existence of an MTrP in 30 FMS patients. Overall spontaneous pain intensity and pain pattern were recorded before manual identification of MTrPs. Local...... and referred pain pattern from active MTrPs were drawn following manual palpation at TP sites. RESULTS: Showed that most of the TP sites are MTrPs. Local and referred pain from active MTrPs reproduced partly the overall spontaneous pain pattern. The total number of active MTrPs (r = .78, P

  14. Induction of muscle cramps by nociceptive stimulation of latent myofascial trigger points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Hong-You; Zhang, Yang; Boudreau, Shellie; Yue, Shou-Wei; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this present study is to test the hypothesis that nociceptive stimulation of latent myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) increases the occurrence of local muscle cramps. Nociceptive muscle stimulation was obtained by a bolus injection of glutamate (0.1 ml, 0.5 M) into a latent MTrP and a control point (a non-MTrP) located in the right or left gastrocnemius medialis muscles in 14 healthy subjects. A bolus of isotonic saline (0.9%, 0.1 ml) injection served as a control. The injections were guided by intramuscular electromyography (EMG) showing resting spontaneous electrical activity at a latent MTrP and no such activity at a non-MTrP. Intramuscular and surface EMG activities in the gastrocnemius medialis muscle were recorded pre-, during-, and post-injection for a period of 8 min to monitor the occurrence of muscle cramps, which are characterized by a brief episodic burst of high levels of EMG activity. The results showed that glutamate and isotonic saline injections into the latent MTrPs induced higher peak pain intensity than into the non-MTrPs (both P < 0.05). Glutamate injection induced higher peak pain intensity than isotonic saline injection into either latent MTrPs or non-MTrPs (both P < 0.05). Muscle camps were observed in 92.86% of the subjects following glutamate injection into the latent MTrPs, but not into the non-MTrPs (P < 0.001). No muscle cramps were recorded following isotonic saline injection into either the latent MTrPs or the non-MTrPs. These results suggest that latent MTrPs could be involved in the genesis of muscle cramps. Focal increase in nociceptive sensitivity at MTrPs constitutes one of the mechanisms underlying muscle cramps.

  15. Treatment of myofascial trigger points in patients with chronic shoulder pain: a randomized, controlled trial

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    Stegenga Boudewijn

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shoulder pain is a common musculoskeletal problem that is often chronic or recurrent. Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs cause shoulder pain and are prevalent in patients with shoulder pain. However, few studies have focused on MTrP therapy. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of multimodal treatment of MTrPs in patients with chronic shoulder pain. Methods A single-assessor, blinded, randomized, controlled trial was conducted. The intervention group received comprehensive treatment once weekly consisting of manual compression of the MTrPs, manual stretching of the muscles and intermittent cold application with stretching. Patients were instructed to perform muscle-stretching and relaxation exercises at home and received ergonomic recommendations and advice to assume and maintain good posture. The control group remained on the waiting list for 3 months. The Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH questionnaire score (primary outcome, Visual Analogue Scale for Pain (VAS-P, Global Perceived Effect (GPE scale and the number of muscles with MTrPs were assessed at 6 and 12 weeks in the intervention group and compared with those of a control group. Results Compared with the control group, the intervention group showed significant improvement (P Conclusions The results of this study show that 12-week comprehensive treatment of MTrPs in shoulder muscles reduces the number of muscles with active MTrPs and is effective in reducing symptoms and improving shoulder function in patients with chronic shoulder pain. Trial registration number ISRCTN: ISRCTN75722066

  16. High prevalence of shoulder girdle muscles with myofascial trigger points in patients with shoulder pain

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    Wensing Michel

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shoulder pain is reported to be highly prevalent and tends to be recurrent or persistent despite medical treatment. The pathophysiological mechanisms of shoulder pain are poorly understood. Furthermore, there is little evidence supporting the effectiveness of current treatment protocols. Although myofascial trigger points (MTrPs are rarely mentioned in relation to shoulder pain, they may present an alternative underlying mechanism, which would provide new treatment targets through MTrP inactivation. While previous research has demonstrated that trained physiotherapists can reliably identify MTrPs in patients with shoulder pain, the percentage of patients who actually have MTrPs remains unclear. The aim of this observational study was to assess the prevalence of muscles with MTrPs and the association between MTrPs and the severity of pain and functioning in patients with chronic non-traumatic unilateral shoulder pain. Methods An observational study was conducted. Subjects were recruited from patients participating in a controlled trial studying the effectiveness of physical therapy on patients with unilateral non-traumatic shoulder pain. Sociodemographic and patient-reported symptom scores, including the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH Questionnaire, and Visual Analogue Scales for Pain were compared with other studies. To test for differences in age, gender distribution, and education level between the current study population and the populations from Dutch shoulder studies, the one sample T-test was used. One observer examined all subjects (n = 72 for the presence of MTrPs. Frequency distributions, means, medians, standard deviations, and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for descriptive purposes. The Spearman's rank-order correlation (ρ was used to test for association between variables. Results MTrPs were identified in all subjects. The median number of muscles with MTrPs per subject was 6 (active

  17. Effects of treatment of myofascial trigger points on the pain of fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giamberardino, Maria Adele; Affaitati, Giannapia; Fabrizio, Alessandra; Costantini, Raffaele

    2011-10-01

    Myofascial pain syndromes (MPSs) from trigger points (TrPs) and fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) are common musculoskeletal pain conditions that frequently coexist in the same patients. In recent decades, it has become evident that these entities greatly influence each other's clinical expression. FMS is mainly rooted in the central nervous system, while TrPs have a peripheral origin. However, the nociceptive impulses from TrPs may have significant impact on symptoms of FMS, probably by enhancing the level of central sensitization typical of this condition. Several attempts have been made to assess the effects of treatment of co-occurring TrPs in FMS. We report the outcomes of these studies showing that local extinction of TrPs in patients with fibromyalgia produces significant relief of FMS pain. Though further studies are needed, these findings suggest that assessment and treatment of concurrent TrPs in FMS should be systematically performed before any specific fibromyalgia therapy is undertaken.

  18. Effectiveness of dry needling and injections of myofascial trigger points associated with plantar heel pain: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Cotchett Matthew P; Landorf Karl B; Munteanu Shannon E

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Plantar heel pain (plantar fasciitis) is one of the most common musculoskeletal pathologies of the foot. Plantar heel pain can be managed with dry needling and/or injection of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) however the evidence for its effectiveness is uncertain. Therefore, we aimed to systematically review the current evidence for the effectiveness of dry needling and/or injections of MTrPs associated with plantar heel pain. Methods We searched specific electronic data...

  19. The Effect of Monochromatic Infrared Photo Energy on the Irritability of Myofascial Trigger Spot of Rabbit Skeletal Muscle

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    Ta-Shen Kuan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine whether the vasodilatation effect of monochromatic infrared photo energy (MIRE had the potential for the treatment of myofascial trigger spot (MTrS in rabbits. Design. A randomized-controlled animal study. Subjects. Twelve adult New Zealand rabbits. Methods. For each rabbit, a MTrS (equivalent to a myofascial trigger point in humans in one side of the biceps femoris muscle was randomly selected for MIRE treatment (experimental side, while another MTrS in the other side (control side received a sham treatment. The intervention consisted of a daily 40 minutes treatment, three times per week for 2 weeks. The prevalence of endplate noise (EPN loci in the MTrS was assessed before, immediately after, and one week after the completion of the 2-week treatment. Results. MIRE could suppress the prevalence of EPN in the MTrS. The degree of reduction in EPN prevalence in the MTrS between the experimental side and the control side was significantly different immediately after MIRE treatment, but not significantly different one week after MIRE treatment. Conclusion. Our study suggests that MIRE may be a useful therapeutic option for the management of the myofascial trigger point in humans.

  20. SPECIFIC SEQUENTIAL MYOFASCIAL TRIGGER POINT THERAPY IN THE TREATMENT OF A PATIENT WITH MYOFASCIAL PAIN SYNDROME ASSOCIATED WITH REFLEX SYMPATHETIC DYSTROPHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Chang-Zern

    2000-01-01

    A patient with traumatic rotator cuff tear of the left shoulder developed severe myofascial pain syndrome with reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD) involving the left upper extremity. He was unable to tolerate any type of manual therapy or needle treatment due to severe allodynia in the whole left upper limb. This patient presented for treatment approximately 6 months after the onset of trauma. Treatment consisting of specific myofascial trigger point (MTrP) therapy, beginning with desensitization and gentle massage on the MTrP of the first dorsal interosseous muscle, followed by treatment of MTrPs of the wrist-finger extensors and anterior deltoid muscles was commenced. Allodynia was remarkably reduced and further physical therapy with modalities was administered. After 2 weeks of daily MTrP therapy, he received local steroid injection to the left shoulder and continued MTrP therapy 2-3 times per week. Approximately 2 months after the injection the patient was almost pain free with nearly full range of motion in his left shoulder. The mechanism of MTrPs and their association with RSD is discussed in this paper. PMID:17987165

  1. The use of trigger point "dry" needling under ultrasound guidance for the treatment of myofascial pain (technological innovation and literature review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubnov, Rostyslav V

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the use of trigger point dry needling under ultrasound guidance and myofascial release for the treatment of myofascial pain and to increase the provability of the puncture treatment by visual verification. A review of modern and traditional approaches to myofascial pain treatment is presented in the article. For the first time the trigger point was visualized by ultrasound (US) in this study and ultrasound guided needling therapy of muscles was performed as well. The group of 91 patients, suffered from myofascial pain of different location was included in the study. The patients were treated during last year by patented method (UA patent A 2010 06283). The pain relief effect was registered in 93.3% patients.

  2. Myofascial trigger points:the common cause of clinical tissue pain%肌筋膜疼痛触发点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘琳; 黄强民; 汤莉

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Myofascial trigger points have been widely applied in clinical rehabilitation and tissue pain field in the United States and Europe countries, and they have been recognized as the common cause of clinical musculoskeletal pain, joint function limitation, tissue injuries and muscle fatigue by many physiotherapists abroad. However, in China, many experts stil have some mistaken ideas and limitations to understand the pathological mechanism and to diagnosis and treat myofascial trigger points. OBJECTIVE:From the aspects of the etiology, pathological mechanism, diagnosis and positioning, treatments, to elaborate the method issues and the clinical experience of treatments of myofascial trigger points. METHODS:PubMed, ScienceDirect, EBSCO and CNKI databases were searched by the keywords of “myofascial trigger points, myofascial pain syndrome” in Chinese and English, respectively, in the titles and abstract to retrieve relevant articles published from the time of database construction to August 2014. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:It is concluded that a child has myofascial trigger points in some skeletal muscles after age of 4 years. The main causes of myofascial trigger points include issue trauma, the wrong posture, bone and joint degeneration, nutrition deficiency, mental stress, chronic infection and so on. The pathological mechanism of myofascial trigger points remains unknown, but what has been widely accepted is the integrated trigger point hypothesis introduced by Simons. And how to find and position myofascial trigger points is the key point to treat this disease successfuly. The application of myofascial trigger points techniques is important for the rehabilitation of clinical tissue pain and the occurrence and spread of bone and joint injuries, myofascitis, muscle pain, muscle fatigue and so on.%背景:肌筋膜疼痛触发点技术在欧美国家临床康复和组织疼痛领域已得到广泛性应用,国内相关专家对其病理机制认识,

  3. Myofascial trigger points in intercostal muscles secondary to herpes zoster infection of the intercostal nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S M; Chen, J T; Kuan, T S; Hong, C Z

    1998-03-01

    Chronic pain in the chest wall is a major complication after herpes zoster infection of intercostal nerves. It is usually difficult to control pain of such origin. Two cases are reported of postherpetic neuralgia after herpes zoster infection involving the intercostal nerves. Both patients had shooting, burning, aching, and localized pain in the muscle supplied by the involved intercostal nerves 1 to 3 months after onset. Compression palpation of a tender spot in one of these muscles induced a referred pain that followed the corresponding interspace, usually in the distal anterior direction. Local twitch responses could be elicited during injection of 0.5% or 1% lidocaine into one of these tender spots; the pain in the interspace was consistently eliminated immediately after injection. One patient had complete pain relief after three series of injections. The effect of pain relief for the other patient lasted for 1 to 2 weeks after the initial injection and lasted progressively longer (up to 2 months) after repeated injections. It appears that many of the tender spots formed in intercostal muscles after herpes zoster are myofascial trigger points that respond to injection with referred pain, local twitch responses, and immediate pain relief. PMID:9523788

  4. Remote Subcutaneous Needling to Suppress the Irritability of Myofascial Trigger Spots: An Experimental Study in Rabbits

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    Zhonghua Fu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To obtain electrophysiological effects of Fu’s subcutaneous needling (FSN on needling distance by assessment of endplate noise (EPN recorded from the myofascial trigger spots (MTrSs in rabbit skeletal muscle. Method. Eighteen New Zealand rabbits weighing 2.5–3.0 kg were randomly divided into two groups as follows: proximal needling (PN group and distal needling (DN group. The needling procedure followed the instructions described by the inventor of FSN, including needling insertion and swaying movement. The amplitudes of EPN on the MTrS region of BF muscle were recorded as an index of MTrS irritability. Random sampling of EPN tracings were taken for further analyses before, during, and after FSN treatment. Results. In PN and DN groups, the trends of EPN amplitude alterations were similar at conditions before, during, and after FSN treatment. The degree of reduction in the EPN amplitude in PN group was significantly higher than that in DN group. There were no significant changes in EPN amplitudes in the MTrS of contralateral BF without FSN intervention either in DN or PN group. Conclusion. The irritability of proximal MTrSs could be modulated after ipsilateral FSNs. The placement of FSN may affect the effectiveness of suppression of irritability of MTrSs.

  5. Remote Dose-Dependent Effects of Dry Needling at Distant Myofascial Trigger Spots of Rabbit Skeletal Muscles on Reduction of Substance P Levels of Proximal Muscle and Spinal Cords

    OpenAIRE

    Yueh-Ling Hsieh; Chen-Chia Yang; Szu-Yu Liu; Li-Wei Chou; Chang-Zern Hong

    2014-01-01

    Background. Dry needling at distant myofascial trigger points is an effective pain management in patients with myofascial pain. However, the biochemical effects of remote dry needling are not well understood. This study evaluates the remote effects of dry needling with different dosages on the expressions of substance P (SP) in the proximal muscle, spinal dorsal horns of rabbits. Methods. Male New Zealand rabbits (2.5–3.0 kg) received dry needling at myofascial trigger spots of a gastrocnemiu...

  6. Evaluation of dry needling and 0.5% lidocaine injection therapies in myofascial pain trigger points in masticatory muscles

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    Renato Oliveira Ferreira da Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of trigger points injections using lidocaine 0.5% and dry needling without any kind of home-based rehabilitation program. METHODS: Sixteen patients with myofascial pain and trigger points in masticatory muscles were randomly assigned to two groups and received only one application session. The pressure pain threshold (PPT was recorded before and after the injection: Ten minutes, 24 hours later, 7, 15, 21 and 30 days after the treatment. Visual analogue scale (VAS was used to in all evaluation periods. RESULTS: There were no difference between groups for PPT, but for all groups the PPT during the time significantly increased when compared the before treatment. VAS showed differences between groups and during the time. The 0.5% lidocaine had the lowest VAS values when compared to dry needling, but at 30 days there were no differences among them. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the differences in VAS and considering there were no differences in PPT increases, we concluded that, in this study, both groups were able to disrupt the mechanisms of trigger point and relieve the myofascial pain symptoms.

  7. Myofascial pain syndromes and their evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giamberardino, Maria Adele; Affaitati, Giannapia; Fabrizio, Alessandra; Costantini, Raffaele

    2011-04-01

    This article reviews the available published knowledge about the diagnosis, pathophysiology and treatment of myofascial pain syndromes from trigger points. Furthermore, epidemiologic data and clinical characteristics of these syndromes are described, including a detailed account of sensory changes that occur at both painful and nonpainful sites and their utility for diagnosis and differential diagnosis; the identification/diagnostic criteria available so far are critically reviewed. The key role played by myofascial trigger points as activating factors of pain symptoms in other algogenic conditions--headache, fibromyalgia and visceral disease--is also addressed. Current hypotheses on the pathophysiology of myofascial pain syndromes are presented, including mechanisms of formation and persistence of primary and secondary trigger points as well as mechanisms beyond referred pain and hyperalgesia from trigger points. Conventional and most recent therapeutic options for these syndromes are described, and their validity is discussed on the basis of results from clinical controlled studies.

  8. Chronic whiplash and central sensitization; an evaluation of the role of a myofascial trigger points in pain modulation

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    Freeman Michael D

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective it has been established that chronic neck pain following whiplash is associated with the phenomenon of central sensitization, in which injured and uninjured parts of the body exhibit lowered pain thresholds due to an alteration in central pain processing. it has furthermore been hypothesized that peripheral sources of nociception in the muscles may perpetuate central sensitization in chronic whiplash. the hypothesis explored in the present study was whether myofascial trigger points serve as a modulator of central sensitization in subjects with chronic neck pain. Design controlled case series. Setting outpatient chronic pain clinic. Subjects seventeen patients with chronic and intractable neck pain and 10 healthy controls without complaints of neck pain. Intervention symptomatic subjects received anesthetic infiltration of myofascial trigger points in the upper trapezius muscles and controls received the anesthetic in the thigh. Outcome measures: pre and post injection cervical range of motion, pressure pain thresholds (ppt over the infraspinatus, wrist extensor, and tibialis anterior muscles. sensitivity to light (photophobia and subjects' perception of pain using a visual analog scale (vas were also evaluated before and after injections. only the ppt was evaluated in the asymptomatic controls. Results immediate (within 1 minute alterations in cervical range of motion and pressure pain thresholds were observed following an average of 3.8 injections with 1–2 cc of 1% lidocaine into carefully identified trigger points. cervical range of motion increased by an average of 49% (p = 0.000 in flexion and 44% (p = 0.001 in extension, 47% (p = 0.000 and 28% (p Conclusion the present data suggest that myofascial trigger points serve to perpetuate lowered pain thresholds in uninjured tissues. additionally, it appears that lowered pain thresholds associated with central sensitization can be immediately reversed, even when associated

  9. Dry needling on tendons and myofascial trigger points in post-traumatic stiffness of elbow: a case report

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    Sukumar Shanmugam

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A 42 years old female presented with the complaints of pain and stiffness of right elbow with limited elbow extension, since 8 months, due to fracture of head of the radius. She was receiving conventional physical therapy treatment for pain relief and functional improvement since eight months. The limitation in Elbow extension caused difficulty in carrying household works. Later the patient was treated with dry needling to myofascial trigger points in brachioradiallis, common flexor, and extensor muscles of elbow and upper trapezius of shoulder, dry needling for tendons were added for further muscle relaxation. The interventions were carried out for three sessions, alternatively for one week. Pain (VAS score from 8/10 to 1/10, elbow extension range of motion (from 120-35 to 120-05 and the patient's upper limb functions (Quick DASH score from 63.36 to 13.63 were improved after one week of intervention. This case report results suggest that overall neuro-musculoskeletal function was improved due to dry needle induced myofascial trigger points deactivation and further muscle relaxation caused by tendon needling. This case report may helpful in formulating further treatment tool for better and faster recovery from pain and joint dysfunction in post immobilization pain and stiffness of elbow and other joints. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(6.000: 1529-1532

  10. Myofascial pain syndrome treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg-Stein, Joanne; Iaccarino, Mary Alexis

    2014-05-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is a regional pain disorder caused by taut bands of muscle fibers in skeletal muscles called myofascial trigger points. MPS is a common disorder, often diagnosed and treated by physiatrists. Treatment strategies for MPS include exercises, patient education, and trigger point injection. Pharmacologic interventions are also common, and a variety of analgesics, antiinflammatories, antidepressants, and other medications are used in clinical practice. This review explores the various treatment options for MPS, including those therapies that target myofascial trigger points and common secondary symptoms.

  11. A narrative review of new trends in the diagnosis of myofascial trigger points: diagnostic ultrasound imaging and biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srbely, John Z; Kumbhare, Dinesh; Grosman-Rimon, Liza

    2016-01-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is one of the most common conditions of chronic musculoskeletal pain encountered by primary healthcare practitioners on a daily basis. It is generally accepted amongst the broad profile of healthcare practitioners treating MPS that the presence of discrete, palpable and tender nodules within the muscle, known as myofascial trigger points (MTrP), is necessary to confirm the diagnosis of MPS. Manual palpation is currently the most common technique used to detect MTrP, however, previous research has shown that the reliability of manual palpation for detecting MTrP is poor, and in our opinion unacceptably poor, leading to inconsistent diagnosis of MPS and poor patient outcomes. There are currently no objective accepted diagnostic criteria for the clinical detection of MTrP, nor are there standardized diagnostic criteria for MPS. Two promising areas of research with potential for enhancing the diagnosis of MPS include the use of diagnostic ultrasound and biomarkers. Further research is needed to advance the development of composite diagnostic criteria employing ultrasound imaging, biomarker assessments and physical assessment to enhance the accuracy and objectivity of MTrP detection and diagnosis of chronic MPS disorder. PMID:27713577

  12. Remote Effect of Lower Limb Acupuncture on Latent Myofascial Trigger Point of Upper Trapezius Muscle: A Pilot Study

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    Kai-Hua Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To demonstrate the use of acupuncture in the lower limbs to treat myofascial pain of the upper trapezius muscles via a remote effect. Methods. Five adults with latent myofascial trigger points (MTrPs of bilateral upper trapezius muscles received acupuncture at Weizhong (UB40 and Yanglingquan (GB34 points in the lower limbs. Modified acupuncture was applied at these points on a randomly selected ipsilateral lower limb (experimental side versus sham needling on the contralateral lower limb (control side in each subject. Each subject received two treatments within a one-week interval. To evaluate the remote effect of acupuncture, the range of motion (ROM upon bending the contralateral side of the cervical spine was assessed before and after each treatment. Results. There was significant improvement in cervical ROM after the second treatment (P=0.03 in the experimental group, and the increased ROM on the modified acupuncture side was greater compared to the sham needling side (P=0.036. Conclusions. A remote effect of acupuncture was demonstrated in this pilot study. Using modified acupuncture needling at remote acupuncture points in the ipsilateral lower limb, our treatments released tightness due to latent MTrPs of the upper trapezius muscle.

  13. PENURUNAN NYERI DAN DISABILITAS DENGAN INTEGRATED NEUROMUSCULAR INHIBITION TECHNIQUES (INIT DAN MASSAGE EFFLEURAGE PADA MYOFASCIAL TRIGGER POINT SYNDROME OTOT TRAPESIUS BAGIAN ATAS

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    Veni Fatmawati

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Myofascia Trigger Point Syndrome (MTrPs is trigger point muscle happens in musculoskeletal. Factors which strengthen and trigger the emerge of MTrPs are the muscle contraction which happens continuously, poor body position, wrong body position or movement, poor occupation activity and unsuitable workplace arrangement that affect the unergonomic work behavior. The objective of this reseacrh is to reveal the effectivity of  integrated neuromuscular  inhibition techniques (init and massage efflurage in decreasing pain and disability in myofasial trigger point of upper trapesius muscle. The subjects this research are 34 people which are taken randomly in Puskesmas 2 Kartosuro, Surakarta with 17 samples of each group. Group 1 is integrated neuromuscular inhibition techniques (init and group 2 is massage efflurage. The data used in this research is NDI scale taken before and after therapy. The data collected is processed by using differential test through computer base of SPSS 15.0 version. The data analysis by using paired sample t-test, in group 1 the data resulted before therapy is 48,35±6,68 and the data resulted after therapy is 25,94±5,87 with p = 0,000 (p < 0,05. Whereas in group 2, the  resulted before therapy is 47,53±5,17 and the data resulted before therapy is 28,00±8,91 with p = 0,000 (p < 0,05. To conclude, based on the data resulted in this research, integrated neuromuscular  inhibition techniques (init and massage effleurage are there is no difference decrease pain and disability in myofascial trigger point of upper trapezius muscle.

  14. Chronic pelvic pain syndrome: reduction of medication use after pelvic floor physical therapy with an internal myofascial trigger point wand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Rodney U; Harvey, Richard H; Wise, David; Nevin Smith, J; Nathanson, Brian H; Sawyer, Tim

    2015-03-01

    This study documents the voluntary reduction in medication use in patients with refractory chronic pelvic pain syndrome utilizing a protocol of pelvic floor myofascial trigger point release with an FDA approved internal trigger point wand and paradoxical relaxation therapy. Self-referred patients were enrolled in a 6-day training clinic from October, 2008 to May, 2011 and followed the protocol for 6 months. Medication usage and symptom scores on a 1-10 scale (10 = most severe) were collected at baseline, and 1 and 6 months. All changes in medication use were at the patient's discretion. Changes in medication use were assessed by McNemar's test in both complete case and modified intention to treat (mITT) analyses. 374 out of 396 patients met inclusion criteria; 79.7 % were male, median age of 43 years and median symptom duration of 5 years. In the complete case analysis, the percent of patients using medications at baseline was 63.6 %. After 6 months of treatment the percentage was 40.1 %, a 36.9 % reduction (p < 0.001). In the mITT analysis, there was a 22.7 % overall reduction from baseline (p < 0.001). Medication cessation at 6 months was significantly associated with a reduction in total symptoms (p = 0.03).

  15. The occurrence and inter-rater reliability of myofascial trigger points in the quadratus lumborum and gluteus medius: A prospective study in non-specific low back pain patients and controls in general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.H. Njoo (Khing Hua); E. van der Does (Emiel)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThe presence of a trigger point is essential to the myofascial pain syndrome. This study centres on identifying clearer criteria for the presence of trigger points in the quadratus lumborum and gluteus medius muscle by investigating the occurrence and inter-rater reliability of trigger p

  16. Treatment of myofascial trigger points in common shoulder disorders by physical therapy: A randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN75722066

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franssen Jo LM

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shoulder disorders are a common health problem in western societies. Several treatment protocols have been developed for the clinical management of persons with shoulder pain. However available evidence does not support any protocol as being superior over others. Systematic reviews provide some evidence that certain physical therapy interventions (i.e. supervised exercises and mobilisation are effective in particular shoulder disorders (i.e. rotator cuff disorders, mixed shoulder disorders and adhesive capsulitis, but there is an ongoing need for high quality trials of physical therapy interventions. Usually, physical therapy consists of active exercises intended to strengthen the shoulder muscles as stabilizers of the glenohumeral joint or perform mobilisations to improve restricted mobility of the glenohumeral or adjacent joints (shoulder girdle. It is generally accepted that a-traumatic shoulder problems are the result of impingement of the subacromial structures, such as the bursa or rotator cuff tendons. Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs in shoulder muscles may also lead to a complex of symptoms that are often seen in patients diagnosed with subacromial impingement or rotator cuff tendinopathy. Little is known about the treatment of MTrPs in patients with shoulder disorders. The primary aim of this study is to investigate whether physical therapy modalities to inactivate MTrPs can reduce symptoms and improve shoulder function in daily activities in a population of chronic a-traumatic shoulder patients when compared to a wait-and-see strategy. In addition we investigate the recurrence rate during a one-year-follow-up period. Methods/Design This paper presents the design for a randomized controlled trial to be conducted between September 2007 – September 2008, evaluating the effectiveness of a physical therapy treatment for non-traumatic shoulder complaints. One hundred subjects are included in this study. All subjects

  17. Effect of Latent Myofascial Trigger Points on Strength Measurements of the Upper Trapezius: A Case-Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anshul

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: The purpose of this article was to determine whether strength is altered in the upper trapezius in the presence of latent myofascial trigger points (MTrP). Methods: This study was case controlled and used convenience sampling. The sample recruited was homogeneous with respect to age, sex, height, and body mass. Participants were assessed for the presence of latent MTrP in the upper trapezius and placed into two groups: an experimental group that had latent MTrP in the upper trapezius and a control group that did not. Eighteen women (mean age 21.4 y, SD 1.89; mean height 156.9 cm, SD 4.03; and mean body mass 51.7 kg, SD 5.84) made up the experimental group, and 19 women (mean age 20.3 y, SD 1.86; mean height 158.6 cm, SD 3.14; and mean body mass 53.2 kg, SD 5.17) made up the control group. We obtained strength measurements of the non-dominant arm using a handheld dynamometer and compared them between the two groups. Results: The difference in the strength measurements between the two groups was not statistically significant (p=0.59). Conclusions: The presence of latent MTrPs may not affect the strength of the upper trapezius. PMID:22942517

  18. Myofascial pain syndrome: a treatment review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Mehul J; Saini, Vikramjeet; Saini, Shawnjeet

    2013-06-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is defined as pain that originates from myofascial trigger points in skeletal muscle. It is prevalent in regional musculoskeletal pain syndromes, either alone or in combination with other pain generators. The appropriate evaluation and management of myofascial pain is an important part of musculoskeletal rehabilitation, and regional axial and limb pain syndromes. This article reviews the current hypotheses regarding the treatment modalities for myofascial trigger points and muscle pain. Through a critical evidence-based review of the pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatments, the authors aim to provide clinicians with a more comprehensive knowledge of the interventions for myofascial pain.

  19. Treatment of myofascial pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Mehul J; Bean, Matthew C; Heckman, Thomas W; Jayaseelan, Dhinu; Moats, Nick; Nava, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The objective of this article was to perform a narrative review regarding the treatment of myofascial pain syndrome and to provide clinicians with treatment recommendations. This paper reviews the efficacy of various myofascial pain syndrome treatment modalities, including pharmacological therapy, injection-based therapies and physical therapy interventions. Outcomes evaluated included pain (visual analog scale), pain pressure threshold and range of motion. The evidence found significant benefit with multiple treatments, including diclofenac patch, thiocolchicoside and lidocaine patches. Trigger point injections, ischemic compression therapy, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, spray and stretch, and myofascial release were also efficacious. The authors recommend focusing on treating underlying pathologies, including spinal conditions, postural abnormalities and underlying behavioral issues. To achieve maximum pain reduction and improve function, we recommend physicians approach myofascial pain syndrome with a multimodal plan, which includes a combination of pharmacologic therapies, various physical therapeutic modalities and injection therapies.

  20. Effectiveness of dry needling and injections of myofascial trigger points associated with plantar heel pain: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cotchett Matthew P

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plantar heel pain (plantar fasciitis is one of the most common musculoskeletal pathologies of the foot. Plantar heel pain can be managed with dry needling and/or injection of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs however the evidence for its effectiveness is uncertain. Therefore, we aimed to systematically review the current evidence for the effectiveness of dry needling and/or injections of MTrPs associated with plantar heel pain. Methods We searched specific electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus and AMI in April 2010 to identify randomised and non-randomised trials. We included trials where participants diagnosed with plantar heel pain were treated with dry needling and/or injections (local anaesthetics, steroids, Botulinum toxin A and saline alone or in combination with acupuncture. Outcome measures that focussed on pain and function were extracted from the data. Trials were assessed for quality using the Quality Index tool. Results Three quasi-experimental trials matched the inclusion criteria: two trials found a reduction in pain for the use of trigger point dry needling when combined with acupuncture and the third found a reduction in pain using 1% lidocaine injections when combined with physical therapy. However, the methodological quality of the three trials was poor, with Quality Index scores ranging form 7 to 12 out of a possible score of 27. A meta-analysis was not conducted because substantial heterogeneity was present between trials. Conclusions There is limited evidence for the effectiveness of dry needling and/or injections of MTrPs associated with plantar heel pain. However, the poor quality and heterogeneous nature of the included studies precludes definitive conclusions being made. Importantly, this review highlights the need for future trials to use rigorous randomised controlled methodology with measures such as blinding to reduce bias. We also recommend that such trials adhere to the

  1. 肌筋膜“扳机点”动物模型的构建及针灸干预机制%Myofascial Trigger Points:Construction of Animal Models and Mechanism of Acupuncture Intervention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵开超; 查和萍; 范志勇; 吴世芳; 李珊珊

    2013-01-01

    肌筋膜炎是临床常见病之一,从肌筋膜“扳机点”入手治疗具有较好的疗效。本文分别从中医学和现代医学的角度,进一步深入了解肌筋膜“扳机点”,并对目前肌筋膜“扳机点”动物模型的构建进行阐述,阐明针灸干预肌筋膜“扳机点”的机制,对肌筋膜“扳机点”的进一步研究具有积极的意义。%Myofascitis is one of clinical common diseases ,and myofascial trigger point therapy usually plays a good curative effect .Respectively from the angle of medicine and modern medicine , in order to further under-stand myofascial trigger points , and myofascial trigger point elaborates the construction of animal models , to clarify the mechanism of acupuncture intervention myofascial trigger point .The further study of myofascial trigger points has a positive significance .

  2. Difference in effect between ischemic compression and muscle energy technique on upper trepezius myofascial trigger points: Comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal S Nambi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Myofascial trigger point (MTrP is a hyperirritable point or spot, usually within a taut band of skeletal muscle or in the muscle fascia which is painful on compression and can give rise to characteristic-referred pain and motor dysfunction. Studies suggest that various types of massage forms are available for treating MTrPs. Aims: To find the difference in effect of two forms of massage techniques: Ischemic compression and muscle energy technique (MET on upper trepezius MTrPs. Settings and Design: Quasi experimental design was conducted with convenient sampling method. Materials and Methods: Patients ( n = 30 who fulfil the screening criteria were randomly assigned to Group A ( n = 15 treated with ischemic compression and ultrasound and Group B ( n = 15 treated with MET and ultrasound for 4 weeks and they were assessed at baseline and after 4 weeks. Outcome measures included pain intensity by visual analog scale (VAS and range of motion by universal goniometer. Statistical Analysis Used: Intergroup analysis was done with Mann-Whitney test and intragroup analysis was done with Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results: Statistically, no significant ( P > 0.05 changes in the scores were found in the Groups A and B for VAS, and statistically significant ( P < 0.05 changes in the scores were found in the Groups A and B for Range of Motion (ROM with greater change scores in the Group B compared with Group A. Conclusion: Treatment program consisting of MET with ultrasound may be more effective in reducing pain and improve ROM in patients in upper trepezius MTrPs.

  3. Standardized manual palpation of myofascial trigger points in relation to neck/shoulder pain; the influence of clinical experience on inter-examiner reproducibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myburgh, Corrie; Lauridsen, Henrik Hein; Larsen, Anders H;

    2011-01-01

    A diagnosis of Myofascial Pain Syndrome (MPS) requires palpation for the identification of at least one clinically relevant trigger point (TP). However, few comparable, high quality studies currently exist from which to draw firm conclusions regarding the robustness of TP examination. An inter...... asymptomatic and the remainder suffering from neck/shoulder pain. Examiners received psychomotor skills training and video feedback analysis to improve protocol standardization. Kappa co-efficient calculations indicated good agreement between the experienced pairing (κ = 0.63), moderate agreement between...

  4. Diagnosis of myofascial pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerwin, Robert D

    2014-05-01

    Myofascial pain is one of the most common causes of pain. The diagnosis of myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is made by muscle palpation. The source of the pain in MPS is the myofascial trigger point, a very localized region of tender, contracted muscle that is readily identified by palpation. The trigger point has well-described electrophysiologic properties and is associated with a derangement of the local biochemical milieu of the muscle. A proper diagnosis of MPS includes evaluation of muscle as a cause of pain, and assessment of associated conditions that have an impact on MPS.

  5. Masticatory muscle sleep background electromyographic activity is elevated in myofascial temporomandibular disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raphael, K G; Janal, M N; Sirois, D A; Dubrovsky, B; Wigren, P E; Klausner, J J; Krieger, A C; Lavigne, G J

    2013-12-01

    Despite theoretical speculation and strong clinical belief, recent research using laboratory polysomnographic (PSG) recording has provided new evidence that frequency of sleep bruxism (SB) masseter muscle events, including grinding or clenching of the teeth during sleep, is not increased for women with chronic myofascial temporomandibular disorder (TMD). The current case-control study compares a large sample of women suffering from chronic myofascial TMD (n = 124) with a demographically matched control group without TMD (n = 46) on sleep background electromyography (EMG) during a laboratory PSG study. Background EMG activity was measured as EMG root mean square (RMS) from the right masseter muscle after lights out. Sleep background EMG activity was defined as EMG RMS remaining after activity attributable to SB, other orofacial activity, other oromotor activity and movement artefacts were removed. Results indicated that median background EMG during these non-SB event periods was significantly higher (P myofascial TMD (median = 3·31 μV and mean = 4·98 μV) than for control women (median = 2·83 μV and mean = 3·88 μV) with median activity in 72% of cases exceeding control activity. Moreover, for TMD cases, background EMG was positively associated and SB event-related EMG was negatively associated with pain intensity ratings (0-10 numerical scale) on post-sleep waking. These data provide the foundation for a new focus on small, but persistent, elevations in sleep EMG activity over the course of the night as a mechanism of pain induction or maintenance.

  6. 腰背部肌筋膜疼痛综合征激痛点的剪切波弹性模量研究%Study on the elastic modulus of shear wave for myofascial trigger points of lumber and back myofascial pain syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李真; 吕恒勇; 任泽阳; 梁晓宁; 贾晓霞; 李硕; 牛雅莉; 李迎新; 郭瑞君

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical diagnostic value of elastography in myofascial pain syndrome by measuring the elastic properties of myofascial trigger points.Methods The elastic modulus of 30 myofascial trigger points from 15 female patients with myofascial pain syndrome and 8 normal points from 8 female healthy volunteers were measured by shear wave elastography.The mean,min,max,and standard deviation (SD) of elastic modulus in lesions,surrounding tissue of myofascial trigger point and normal points were recorded and compared,and the correlation between elasticity of myofascial trigger points and age,location were analyzed.Results The mean,min,max,and standard deviation of elastic modulus in lesion area of myofascial trigger point were significantly higher than that in surrounding tissue and normal points (P<0.05).There were no significant differences between lesion area of myofascial trigger point and normal points (P>0.05),and elastic modulus of myofascial trigger points bore no relation to age and location (P>0.05).Conclusions Shear wave elastic modulus can be used to differentiate lesion area and its adjacent area of trigger points and normal points,which will provide a new way to identify myofascial trigger point and new basis for palpation,thus has higher application value in clinical and research prospect.%目的 通过剪切波弹性成像(SWE)技术研究肌筋膜疼痛综合征激痛点的弹性特征,探索弹性超声技术在肌筋膜疼痛综合征临床诊断中的应用价值.方法 对8例女性健康志愿者的8个正常点和15例女性肌筋膜疼痛综合征患者腰背部30个激痛点行弹性超声检查,分别获得正常点、激痛点病灶区及邻近区定量分析取样框(Q-box)内弹性模量的均值(Mean)、最小值(Min)、最大值(Max)及标准差(SD);比较正常点、激痛点病灶区及临近区的弹性模量差异,探索激痛点弹性模量与患者年龄、所在部位的关系.结果 激痛点病灶区弹

  7. Experienced versus Inexperienced Interexaminer Reliability on Location and Classification of Myofascial Trigger Point Palpation to Diagnose Lateral Epicondylalgia: An Observational Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Mora-Relucio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose was to evaluate the interexaminer reliability of experienced and inexperienced examiners on location and classification of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs in two epicondylar muscles and the association between the MTrP found and the diagnosis of lateral epicondylalgia (LE. Fifty-two pianists (some suffered LE voluntarily participated in the study. Three physiotherapists (one inexperienced in myofascial pain examined, located, and marked MTrPs in the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB and extensor digitorum communis (EDC muscles. Forearms were photographed and analyzed to establish the degree of agreement on MTrPs diagnosis. Data showed 81.73% and 77.88% of agreement on MTrP classification and 85.58% and 72.12% on MTrP location between the expert evaluators for ECRB and EDC, respectively. The agreement on MTrP classification between experienced and inexperienced examiners was 54.81% and 51.92% for ECRB and 50.00% and 55.77% for EDC. Also, agreement on MTrP location was 54.81% and 60.58% for ECRB and 48.08% and 48.08% for EDC. A strong association was found between presence of relevant MTrPs, LE diagnosis, and forearm pain when the examiners were experts. The analysis of location and classification of MTrPs in the epicondylar muscles through physical examination by experienced evaluators is reliable, reproducible, and suitable for diagnosing LE.

  8. Experienced versus Inexperienced Interexaminer Reliability on Location and Classification of Myofascial Trigger Point Palpation to Diagnose Lateral Epicondylalgia: An Observational Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Relucio, Raquel; Núñez-Nagy, Susana; Gallego-Izquierdo, Tomás; Rus, Alma; Plaza-Manzano, Gustavo; Romero-Franco, Natalia; Ferragut-Garcías, Alejandro; Pecos-Martín, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The purpose was to evaluate the interexaminer reliability of experienced and inexperienced examiners on location and classification of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) in two epicondylar muscles and the association between the MTrP found and the diagnosis of lateral epicondylalgia (LE). Fifty-two pianists (some suffered LE) voluntarily participated in the study. Three physiotherapists (one inexperienced in myofascial pain) examined, located, and marked MTrPs in the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) and extensor digitorum communis (EDC) muscles. Forearms were photographed and analyzed to establish the degree of agreement on MTrPs diagnosis. Data showed 81.73% and 77.88% of agreement on MTrP classification and 85.58% and 72.12% on MTrP location between the expert evaluators for ECRB and EDC, respectively. The agreement on MTrP classification between experienced and inexperienced examiners was 54.81% and 51.92% for ECRB and 50.00% and 55.77% for EDC. Also, agreement on MTrP location was 54.81% and 60.58% for ECRB and 48.08% and 48.08% for EDC. A strong association was found between presence of relevant MTrPs, LE diagnosis, and forearm pain when the examiners were experts. The analysis of location and classification of MTrPs in the epicondylar muscles through physical examination by experienced evaluators is reliable, reproducible, and suitable for diagnosing LE. PMID:26881005

  9. Change and role of biochemical milieu in the site near to myofascial trigger points%肌筋膜疼痛触发点内理化环境的改变及其作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄丹婧; 吕娇娇; 黄强民; 吴小丽

    2011-01-01

    背景:以往研究对肌筋膜疼痛触发点的研究主要集中在发病特点和临床治疗方面,有关肌筋膜疼痛触发点局部组织的理化环境变化及其作用的研究较少.目的:总结并讨论肌筋膜疼痛触发点局部组织的理化环境变化及各种理化因子在肌筋膜疼痛中的作用.方法:由第一作者用计算机检索中国期刊全文数据库(CNKI:2000/2010)和Medline数据库(2000/2010),检索词分别为"肌筋膜疼痛触发点、致痛因子、神经系统致敏、伤害性感受器"和"myofascial trigger points,algogenic substance,nervous system sensitization,nociceptors".共检索到159篇文章,按纳入和排除标准对文献进行筛选,共纳入30篇文章.从肌筋膜疼痛触发点局部理化环境变化及各种理化因子的作用两方面进行总结,对理化环境在肌筋膜疼痛触发点发病中的重要作用进行介绍.结果与结论:肌筋膜疼痛触发点局部肌肉组织各种理化因子发生显著性变化,表现为各神经血管反应物质增多,炎症递质和致痛因子浓度明显升高.但是国内外对肌筋膜疼痛触发点理化环境变化及其作用的相关研究较少,了解仍不深入.%BACKGROUND: Most previous studies of sites near to myofascial trigger points focus on pathological characteristics and clinical treatments. The biochemical milieu and role in the sites near to myofascial trigger points are poorly understood.OBJECTIVE: To summarize the biochemical milieu in the sites near to myofascial trigger points and the role of various biochemical factors in myofascial pains.METHODS: A computer-based retrieval was performed by the first author using the key words“myofascial trigger points, algogenic substance, nervous system sensitization, nociceptors” in English and Chinese to search papers published between 2000 and 2010 in CNKI and Medline databases. A total of 159 papers were retrieved. According to inclusion and exclusion criteria, 30 papers were incl

  10. Range of motion and cervical myofascial pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, J; Niederer, D; Fleckenstein, J; Vogt, L; Banzer, W

    2016-01-01

    Several studies investigating myofascial pain syndrome include assessments of range of motion (ROM) as a diagnostic criterion. However, the value of ROM in this context has not yet been evaluated in controlled clinical studies. We aimed to examine whether patients with myofascial pain syndrome display alterations of ROM when compared to healthy subjects. Twenty-two individuals (13 females, 9 males; aged 33.4 ± 13.9 yrs) afflicted with active myofascial trigger points in the upper trapezius muscle as well as 22 age and sex matched healthy controls were included. All subjects underwent an examination of maximal active cervical ROM in flexion/extension assessed by means of a 3D ultrasonic movement analysis system (30 Hz; Zebris CMS 70). In the patients group, pressure pain threshold (PPT) of the trigger points was determined using a pressure algometer. Maximum range of motion in the sagittal plane did not differ between individuals with MTrP (125.9 ± 23.2°, 95% CI: 116.2-135.6°) and asymptomatic subjects (128.2 ± 20.4°, 95% CI: 119.7-136.7°; p > .05). In patients, PPT (1.7 ± .6, 95% CI: 1.5-1.9) was not correlated with cervical mobility (r = -.13; p > .05). Based on these pilot data, range of motion in flexion/extension is not a valid criterion for the detection of myofascial trigger points. Additional research incorporating movement amplitudes in other anatomical planes and additional afflicted muscles should be conducted in order to further delineate the relative impact of MTrP on range of motion.

  11. A afferent fibers are involved in the pathology of central changes in the spinal dorsal horn associated with myofascial trigger spots in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fei; Ge, Hong-You; Wang, Yong-Hui; Yue, Shou-Wei

    2015-11-01

    A afferent fibers have been reported to participate in the development of the central sensitization induced by inflammation and injuries. Current evidence suggests that myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) induce central sensitization in the related spinal dorsal horn, and clinical studies indicate that A fibers are associated with pain behavior. Because most of these clinical studies applied behavioral indexes, objective evidence is needed. Additionally, MTrP-related neurons in dorsal root ganglia and the spinal ventral horn have been reported to be smaller than normal, and these neurons were considered to be related to A fibers. To confirm the role of A fibers in MTrP-related central changes in the spinal dorsal horn, we studied central sensitization as well as the size of neurons associated with myofascial trigger spots (MTrSs, equivalent to MTrPs in humans) in the biceps femoris muscle of rats and provided some objective morphological evidence. Cholera toxin B subunit-conjugated horseradish peroxidase was applied to label the MTrS-related neurons, and tetrodotoxin was used to block A fibers specifically. The results showed that in the spinal dorsal horn associated with MTrS, the expression of glutamate receptor (mGluR1α/mGluR5/NMDAR1) increased, while the mean size of MTrS-related neurons was smaller than normal. After blocking A fibers, these changes reversed to some extent. Therefore, we concluded that A fibers participated in the development and maintenance of the central sensitization induced by MTrPs and were related to the mean size of neurons associated with MTrPs in the spinal dorsal horn.

  12. Fascial components of the myofascial pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecco, Antonio; Gesi, Marco; Stecco, Carla; Stern, Robert

    2013-08-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is described as the muscle, sensory, motor, and autonomic nervous system symptoms caused by stimulation of myofascial trigger points (MTP). The participation of fascia in this syndrome has often been neglected. Several manual and physical approaches have been proposed to improve myofascial function after traumatic injuries, but the processes that induce pathological modifications of myofascial tissue after trauma remain unclear. Alterations in collagen fiber composition, in fibroblasts or in extracellular matrix composition have been postulated. We summarize here recent developments in the biology of fascia, and in particular, its associated hyaluronan (HA)-rich matrix that address the issue of MPS.

  13. Remote Dose-Dependent Effects of Dry Needling at Distant Myofascial Trigger Spots of Rabbit Skeletal Muscles on Reduction of Substance P Levels of Proximal Muscle and Spinal Cords

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueh-Ling Hsieh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Dry needling at distant myofascial trigger points is an effective pain management in patients with myofascial pain. However, the biochemical effects of remote dry needling are not well understood. This study evaluates the remote effects of dry needling with different dosages on the expressions of substance P (SP in the proximal muscle, spinal dorsal horns of rabbits. Methods. Male New Zealand rabbits (2.5–3.0 kg received dry needling at myofascial trigger spots of a gastrocnemius (distant muscle in one (1D or five sessions (5D. Bilateral biceps femoris (proximal muscles and superficial laminaes of L5-S2, T2-T5, and C2-C5 were sampled immediately and 5 days after dry needling to determine the levels of SP using immunohistochemistry and western blot. Results. Immediately after dry needling for 1D and 5D, the expressions of SP were significantly decreased in ipsilateral biceps femoris and bilateral spinal superficial laminaes (P<.05. Five days after dry needling, these reduced immunoactivities of SP were found only in animals receiving 5D dry needling (P<.05. Conclusions. This remote effect of dry needling involves the reduction of SP levels in proximal muscle and spinal superficial laminaes, which may be closely associated with the control of myofascial pain.

  14. Eficácia da desativação dos pontos-gatilho miofasciais para o controle do zumbido Efficacy of myofascial trigger point deactivation for tinnitus control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Bezerra Rocha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Dor crônica nas imediações do ouvido pode influenciar o zumbido. OBJETIVO: Investigar a eficácia da desativação de pontos-gatilho miofasciais na melhora do zumbido. MÉTODO: Ensaio clínico randomizado com 71 pacientes com zumbido e síndrome dolorosa miofascial. O Grupo Experimental (n = 37 foi submetido a 10 sessões de desativação dos pontos-gatilho miofasciais e o Grupo Controle (n = 34, a 10 sessões de desativação placebo. RESULTADOS: O tratamento do Grupo Experimental foi eficaz para o controle do zumbido (p Chronic pain in areas surrounding the ear may influence tinnitus. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy of myofascial trigger point deactivation for the relief of tinnitus. METHOD: A double-blind randomized clinical trial enrolled 71 patients with tinnitus and myofascial pain syndrome. The experimental group (n = 37 underwent 10 sessions of myofascial trigger point deactivation and the control group (n = 34, 10 sessions with sham deactivation. RESULTS: Treatment of the experimental group was effective for tinnitus relief (p < 0.001. Pain and tinnitus relieves were associated (p = 0.013, so were the ear with worst tinnitus and the side of the body with more pain (p < 0.001. The presence of temporary tinnitus modulation (increase or decrease upon initial muscle palpation was frequent in both groups, but its temporary decrease was related to the persistent relief at the end of treatment (p = 0.002. CONCLUSION: Besides medical and audiological investigation, patients with tinnitus should also be checked for: 1 presence of myofascial pain surrounding the ear; 2 laterality between both symptoms; 3 initial decrease of tinnitus during muscle palpation. Treating this specific subgroup of tinnitus patients with myofascial trigger point release may provide better results than others described so far.

  15. Two-dimensional ultrasound and ultrasound elastography imaging of trigger points in women with myofascial pain syndrome treated by acupuncture and electroacupuncture: a double-blinded randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Cristina Emöke Erika; Aranha, Maria Fernanda Montans; Gavião, Maria Beatriz Duarte

    2015-04-01

    Chronic pain has been often associated with myofascial pain syndrome (MPS), which is determined by myofascial trigger points (MTrP). New features have been tested for MTrP diagnosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate two-dimensional ultrasonography (2D US) and ultrasound elastography (UE) images and elastograms of upper trapezius MTrP during electroacupuncture (EA) and acupuncture (AC) treatment. 24 women participated, aged between 20 and 40 years (M ± SD = 27.33 ± 5.05) with a body mass index ranging from 18.03 to 27.59 kg/m2 (22.59 ± 3.11), a regular menstrual cycle, at least one active MTrP at both right (RTPz) and left trapezius (LTPz) and local or referred pain for up to six months. Subjects were randomized into EA and AC treatment groups and the control sham AC (SHAM) group. Intensity of pain was assessed by visual analogue scale; MTrP mean area and strain ratio (SR) by 2D US and UE. A significant decrease of intensity in general, RTPz, and LTPz pain was observed in the EA group (p = 0.027; p pain in the AC group (p < 0.001). Decreased MTrP area in RTPz and LTPz were observed in AC (p < 0.001) and EA groups (RTPz, p = 0.003; LTPz, p = 0.005). Post-treatment SR in RTPz and LTPz was lower than pre-treatment in both treatment groups. 2D US and UE effectively characterized MTrP and surrounding tissue, pointing to the possibility of objective confirmation of subjective EA and AC treatment effects.

  16. COMPARISON OF ACTIVE RELEASE TECHNIQUE AND MYOFASCIAL RELEASE TECHNIQUE ON PAIN, GRIP STRENGTH & FUNCTIONAL PERFORMANCE IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC LATERAL EPICONDYLITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parth Trivedi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Purpose: Lateral epicondylitis is the most common lesion of the elbow. Tennis elbow or lateral epicondylitis is defined as a syndrome of pain in the wrist extensor muscles at or near their lateral epicondyle origin or pain directly over the lateral epicondyle. So, the aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of Active Release Technique (ART and Myofascial Release Technique (MFR in the treatment of Chronic Lateral Epicondylitis (CLE. Methodology: The study included thirty-six patients with Chronic Lateral Epicondylitis of age group range between 30 to 45 years. Patients were randomly divided into three groups: Control Group (A, Active Release Technique Group (B and Myofascial Release Technique Group (C. The patients were treated for 4 weeks and three outcome measures: 0-10 NPRS, Hand Dynamometer and PRTEE were taken for assessment and analysis at baseline and after 4th weeks was done. Result: In this study the result showed that Active Release Technique and Myofascial Release Technique were effective in all three outcome measures when compared to Control Group. Myofascial Release Technique was more effective in improving grip strength & reducing pain & disability when compared to Active Release Technique.(p<0.05 Conclusion: Active Release Technique and Myofascial Release Technique are effective in patients with Chronic Lateral Epicondylitis. Myofascial Release Technique demonstrated better outcomes than Active Release Technique in the management of Chronic Lateral Epicondylitis.

  17. Standardized manual palpation of myofascial trigger points in relation to neck/shoulder pain; the influence of clinical experience on inter-examiner reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myburgh, Corrie; Lauridsen, Henrik Hein; Larsen, Anders H; Hartvigsen, Jan

    2011-04-01

    A diagnosis of Myofascial Pain Syndrome (MPS) requires palpation for the identification of at least one clinically relevant trigger point (TP). However, few comparable, high quality studies currently exist from which to draw firm conclusions regarding the robustness of TP examination. An inter-observer agreement study was conducted using two experienced and two inexperienced clinicians. All performed standardized palpation of the upper Trapezius musculature, judging the clinical relevance of TP(s) using clinician global assessment (GA). A random case mix of 81 female participants was examined, 14 asymptomatic and the remainder suffering from neck/shoulder pain. Examiners received psychomotor skills training and video feedback analysis to improve protocol standardization. Kappa co-efficient calculations indicated good agreement between the experienced pairing (κ = 0.63), moderate agreement between the mixed pairings (κ = 0.35 and 0.47) and poor agreement between the inexperienced pairing (κ = 0.22). Inter-observer agreement was not stable with the experienced pairing exhibiting a sharp decline in agreement during the latter portion of the study. Identification of clinically relevant TPs of the upper Trapezius musculature is reproducible when performed by two experienced clinicians, however, a mixed observer pairing can yield acceptable agreement. A protracted period of data collection may be detrimental to inter-observer agreement; more investigation is needed in this regard.

  18. The effect of dry needling on pain, pressure pain threshold and disability in patients with a myofascial trigger point in the upper trapezius muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaeifar, Maryam; Arab, Amir Massoud; Karimi, Noureddin; Nourbakhsh, Mohammad Reza

    2014-04-01

    Dry needling (DN) has been used recently by physical therapists as a therapy of choice for patients with myofascial trigger points (TrP). The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to investigate the effect of DN in the treatment of TrPs in the upper trapezius (UT) muscle. A sample of convenience of 33 patients with TrP in the UT muscle participated in this study. Patients were randomly assigned to a standard (N = 17) or experimental group (N = 16). The treatment protocol for the standard group consisted of trigger point compression technique (TCT) on MTP, while the patients in the experimental group received DN. Pain intensity and pressure pain thresholds were assessed for both groups before and after the treatment sessions. In addition, the Disability of Arm, Hand, and Shoulder (DASH) was administered. Statistical analysis (paired t-test) revealed a significant improvement in pain, PPT and DASH scores after treatment in the experimental (DN) and standard (TCT) group compared with before treatment (P < 0.05). The ANCOVA revealed significant differences between the DN and TCT groups on the post-measurement VAS score (P = 0.01). There was, however, no significant difference between the two groups on the post-measurement score of the PPT (P = 0.08) and DASH (P = 0.34). DN produces an improvement in pain intensity, PPT and DASH and may be prescribed for subjects with TrP in UT muscles especially when pain relief is the goal of the treatment.

  19. Skeletal muscle contractility, self-reported pain and tissue sensitivity in females with neck/shoulder pain and upper Trapezius myofascial trigger points - a randomized intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myburgh, Corrie; Hartvigsen, Jan; Aagaard, Per;

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In relation to Myofascial Triggerpoints (MFTrPs) of the upper Trapezius, this study explored muscle contractility characteristics, the occurrence of post-intervention muscle soreness and the effect of dry needling on muscle contractile characteristics and clinical outcomes...

  20. Effect of Trigger Point of Myofascial Pain for Treatment of Low Back Myofascial Pain Syndrome%肌筋膜疼痛触发点治疗技术治疗腰背肌筋膜疼痛综合征疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙佳佳; 庄小强; 谭树生

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the superiority effect of trigger point of myofascial pain for treatment of low back myofas-cial pain syndrome. Methods: All 500 patients met the diagnostic criteria were randomly divided into treatment group and control group, with 250 cases in each group. The patients of treatment group were treated with trigger point of myofascial pain technology (acupuncture and massage therapy), while the control group were treated with tizanidine, all the patients were treated every other day, for 7 days was a course of treatment. The two groups were compared each other before and 8 courses after treatment. Results: The index of pain, functional status, and induration cords were decreased after treatment in both groups (P<0. 05). There were 100 cases cured (accounting for 40. 00%), 78 cases effective (accounting for 31. 20%), 61 cases improved (accounting for 24. 40%), and 11 cases ineffective (accounting for 4. 40%), with the total efficiency of 95. 60% in the treatment group. While, there were 80 cases cured (accounting for 32. 00%), 92 cases effective (accounting for 36. 80%), 41 cases improved (accounting for 16. 40%), and 37 cases ineffective (accounting for 14. 80%), with the total efficiency of 85. 20% in the control group. The therapeutic effects was significant difference between two groups (P<0. 05). Conclusion: It is effective for using trigger point of myofascial pain for treatment of low back myofascial pain syndrome, and which is superior to tizanidine therapeutic, so it is worthy for further research and extension.%目的:评价利用肌筋膜疼痛触发点治疗腰背肌筋膜疼痛综合征临床疗效的优越性.方法:将500例符合诊断标准的患者随机分为治疗组和对照组,每组250例,治疗组采用肌筋膜疼痛触发点治疗技术(针刺和推拿疗法)进行治疗,对照组采用替扎尼定进行治疗;2组治疗均隔日1次,7d为1个疗程;治疗8个疗程后,进行2组自身治疗前后对照,以及2

  1. Recognizing myofascial pelvic pain in the female patient with chronic pelvic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastore, Elizabeth A; Katzman, Wendy B

    2012-01-01

    Myofascial pelvic pain (MFPP) is a major component of chronic pelvic pain (CPP) and often is not properly identified by health care providers. The hallmark diagnostic indicator of MFPP is myofascial trigger points in the pelvic floor musculature that refer pain to adjacent sites. Effective treatments are available to reduce MFPP, including myofascial trigger point release, biofeedback, and electrical stimulation. An interdisciplinary team is essential for identifying and successfully treating MFPP.

  2. Progress of research on acupuncture at trigger point for myofascial pain syndrome%针刺激痛点治疗肌筋膜疼痛综合征研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马尧; 布赫; 贾纪荣; 张雪

    2012-01-01

    To review the literature of acupuncture at trigger point for myofascial pain syndrome from the main selected points (trigger point), the mechanism of Chinese medicine and modern research and its clinical application. The results show that acupuncture at trigger point has significant effect on the myofascial pain syndrome, which could be influenced by the type of needle, manipulation, insertion angle and depth of the needles. However, the involved studies at present are still far from enough and lack of systematic study with multivariate analysis, it is needed to be improved that some problems about the clinical diagnosis and basic research.%从针刺治疗肌筋膜疼痛综合征的主要选穴(激痛点)、针刺激痛点治疗本痛的中医和现代研究机制及治疗该病时针刺激痛点的临床应用几个方面,对针刺激痛点治疗肌筋膜疼痛综合征的相关文献进行综述.结果表明针刺激痛点在治疗肌筋膜疼痛综合征中具有十分显著的疗效,且针刺激痛点时选择的针具、针刺的手法、角度、深度等各项参数对治疗肌筋膜疼痛综合征临床疗效有重要影响,但目前对此研究非常薄弱,缺乏多因素分析的系统性研究,且在临床诊断及基础性研究等方面有待改进.

  3. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    by Wesley Smith

    2010-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The overall status of the L1 trigger has been excellent and the running efficiency has been high during physics fills. The timing is good to about 1%. The fine-tuning of the time synchronization of muon triggers is ongoing and will be completed after more than 10 nb-1 of data have been recorded. The CSC trigger primitive and RPC trigger timing have been refined. A new configuration for the CSC Track Finder featured modified beam halo cuts and improved ghost cancellation logic. More direct control was provided for the DT opto-receivers. New RPC Cosmic Trigger (RBC/TTU) trigger algorithms were enabled for collision runs. There is further work planned during the next technical stop to investigate a few of the links from the ECAL to the Regional Calorimeter Trigger (RCT). New firmware and a new configuration to handle trigger rate spikes in the ECAL barrel are also being tested. A board newly developed by the tracker group (ReTRI) has been installed and activated to block re...

  4. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith from contributions of C. Leonidopoulos

    2010-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software Since nearly all of the Level-1 (L1) Trigger hardware at Point 5 has been commissioned, activities during the past months focused on the fine-tuning of synchronization, particularly for the ECAL and the CSC systems, on firmware upgrades and on improving trigger operation and monitoring. Periodic resynchronizations or hard resets and a shortened luminosity section interval of 23 seconds were implemented. For the DT sector collectors, an automatic power-off was installed in case of high temperatures, and the monitoring capabilities of the opto-receivers and the mini-crates were enhanced. The DTTF and the CSCTF now have improved memory lookup tables. The HCAL trigger primitive logic implemented a new algorithm providing better stability of the energy measurement in the presence of any phase misalignment. For the Global Calorimeter Trigger, additional Source Cards have been manufactured and tested. Testing of the new tau, missing ET and missing HT algorithms is underw...

  5. Occurrence of myofascial pain in patients with possible carpal tunnel syndrome - a single-blinded study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qerama, Erisela; Kasch, Helge; Fuglsang-Frederiksen, Anders

    2009-01-01

    There exits some similarity between symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and myofascial pain related to trigger points (TPs) in the infraspinatus muscle.......There exits some similarity between symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and myofascial pain related to trigger points (TPs) in the infraspinatus muscle....

  6. Discrepancy between prevalence and perceived effectiveness of treatment methods in myofascial pain syndrome: Results of a cross-sectional, nationwide survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freiberg Florentina

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myofascial pain is a common dysfunction with a lifetime prevalence affecting up to 85% of the general population. Current guidelines for the management of myofascial pain are not available. In this study we investigated how physicians on the basis of prescription behaviour evaluate the effectiveness of treatment options in their management of myofascial pain. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional, nationwide survey with a standardized questionnaire among 332 physicians (79.8% male, 25.6% female, 47.5 ± 9.6 years experienced in treating patients with myofascial pain. Recruitment of physicians took place at three German meetings of pain therapists, rheumatologists and orthopaedists, respectively. Physicians estimated the prevalence of myofascial pain amongst patients in their practices, stated what treatments they used routinely and then rated the perceived treatment effectiveness on a six-point scale (with 1 being excellent. Data are expressed as mean ± standard deviation. Results The estimated overall prevalence of active myofascial trigger points is 46.1 ± 27.4%. Frequently prescribed treatments are analgesics, mainly metamizol/paracetamol (91.6%, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs/coxibs (87.0% or weak opioids (81.8%, and physical therapies, mainly manual therapy (81.1%, TENS (72.9% or acupuncture (60.2%. Overall effectiveness ratings for analgesics (2.9 ± 0.7 and physical therapies were moderate (2.5 ± 0.8. Effectiveness ratings of the various treatment options between specialities were widely variant. 54.3% of all physicians characterized the available treatment options as insufficient. Conclusions Myofascial pain was estimated a prevalent condition. Despite a variety of commonly prescribed treatments, the moderate effectiveness ratings and the frequent characterizations of the available treatments as insufficient suggest an urgent need for clinical research to establish evidence-based guidelines for the

  7. Treatment experience of pulsed radiofrequency under ultrasound guided to the trapezius muscle at myofascial pain syndrome -a case report-.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chung Hoon; Lee, Yoon Woo; Kim, Yong Chan; Moon, Joo Hwa; Choi, Jong Bum

    2012-01-01

    Trigger point injection treatment is an effective and widely applied treatment for myofascial pain syndrome. The trapezius muscle frequently causes myofascial pain in neck area. We herein report a case in which direct pulsed radiofrequency (RF) treatment was applied to the trapezius muscle. We observed that the RF treatment produced continuous pain relief when the effective duration of trigger point injection was temporary in myofascial pain.

  8. [Cervical myofascial pain syndrome. Narrative review of physiotherapeutic treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capó-Juan, M A

    2015-01-01

    Pain is a complex and multifactorial phenomenon that depends on the interaction of biopsychosocial factors. Between 15-25% of adults suffer from chronic pain at some point in their lives. Cervical chronic pain is considered a public health problem affecting 9.6% men and 21.9% women, according to the latest National Health Survey 2011-12. A high percentage of medical consultations due to muscle pain turn out to be myofascial pain syndrome (MPS). Its existence implies the presence of myofascial trigger points which can be latent or active throughout the whole population. The aim of this review is to update knowledge in the various therapies applied by the physiotherapist in the treatment of this syndrome at cervical level. From the review it appears that some of the most used techniques that may be useful in the short or medium term are: ischemic compression and/or trigger point pressure release and dry needling. Furthermore, various combinations of treatment modalities are used to treat this syndrome, taking other aspects into account, such as education.

  9. [Cervical myofascial pain syndrome. Narrative review of physiotherapeutic treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capó-Juan, M A

    2015-01-01

    Pain is a complex and multifactorial phenomenon that depends on the interaction of biopsychosocial factors. Between 15-25% of adults suffer from chronic pain at some point in their lives. Cervical chronic pain is considered a public health problem affecting 9.6% men and 21.9% women, according to the latest National Health Survey 2011-12. A high percentage of medical consultations due to muscle pain turn out to be myofascial pain syndrome (MPS). Its existence implies the presence of myofascial trigger points which can be latent or active throughout the whole population. The aim of this review is to update knowledge in the various therapies applied by the physiotherapist in the treatment of this syndrome at cervical level. From the review it appears that some of the most used techniques that may be useful in the short or medium term are: ischemic compression and/or trigger point pressure release and dry needling. Furthermore, various combinations of treatment modalities are used to treat this syndrome, taking other aspects into account, such as education. PMID:25963463

  10. An evidence-informed review of the current myofascial pain literature--January 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommerholt, Jan; Grieve, Rob; Layton, Michelle; Hooks, Todd

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an up-to-date review of the most recent publications about myofascial pain, trigger points (TrPs) and other related topics. We have added some commentaries where indicated with supporting references. In the Basic Research section, we reviewed the work by Danish researchers about the influence of latent TrPs and a second study of the presence and distribution of both active and latent TrPs in whiplash-associated disorders. The section on Soft Tissue Approaches considered multiple studies and case reports of the efficacy of myofascial release (MFR), classic and deep muscle massage, fascial techniques, and connective tissue massage. Dry needling (DN) is becoming a common approach and we included multiple studies, reviews, and case reports, while the section on Injection Techniques features an article on TrP injections following mastectomy and several articles about the utilization of botulinum toxin. Lastly, we review several articles on modalities and other clinical approaches.

  11. Comparison of dry needling and physiotherapy in treatment of myofascial pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayegani, Seyed Mansoor; Bayat, Masume; Bahrami, Mohammad Hasan; Raeissadat, Seyed Ahmad; Kargozar, Elham

    2014-06-01

    To compare the effects of dry needling and physiotherapy in treatment of myofascial pain syndrome, a randomized controlled trial was performed on 28 patients with myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) of upper trapezius muscle in the Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Center of Shohadaye Tajrish Hospital from April 2009 to April 2010. After matching the age, sex, duration of symptoms, pain severity, and quality of life measures, subjects were randomly assigned into two subgroups of case (dry needling) and control (physiotherapy). One week and 1 month after receiving standard therapeutic modalities, outcomes and intragroup and intergroup changes in pain severity, pressure pain of trigger point (TP), and quality of life measures were evaluated and compared. After 1 month, both the physiotherapy and dry needling groups had decreased resting, night, and activity pain levels (ppain threshold of TP and some scores of quality of life (SF-36) were improved (pmyofascial pain of the upper trapezius muscle.

  12. An evidence-informed review of the current myofascial pain literature--January 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommerholt, Jan; Grieve, Rob; Layton, Michelle; Hooks, Todd

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an up-to-date review of the most recent publications about myofascial pain, trigger points (TrPs) and other related topics. We have added some commentaries where indicated with supporting references. In the Basic Research section, we reviewed the work by Danish researchers about the influence of latent TrPs and a second study of the presence and distribution of both active and latent TrPs in whiplash-associated disorders. The section on Soft Tissue Approaches considered multiple studies and case reports of the efficacy of myofascial release (MFR), classic and deep muscle massage, fascial techniques, and connective tissue massage. Dry needling (DN) is becoming a common approach and we included multiple studies, reviews, and case reports, while the section on Injection Techniques features an article on TrP injections following mastectomy and several articles about the utilization of botulinum toxin. Lastly, we review several articles on modalities and other clinical approaches. PMID:25603753

  13. 平刺和直刺肌筋膜触发点治疗颈型颈椎病疗效比较%Comparison of the Efficacies of Transverse Needling Versus Perpendicular Needling at Myofascial Trigger Points in Treating Cervical Spondylosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王翀敏; 王延武; 楚佳梅; 朱敏

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the efficacies of transverse needling versus perpendicular needling at myofascial trigger points in treating cervical spondylosis and sift out a needling direction for a better improving effect on myofascial pain syndrome such as cervical spondylosis. Method One hundred and six patients with cervical spondylosis were randomly allocated to two groups. The transverse needling group received transverse needling at myofascial trigger points and the perpendicular needling group, perpendicular needling at myofascial trigger points. The symptoms and signs of cervical spondylosis were scored and the VAS score was recorded in the two groups before and after treatment. Result In the two groups, the VAS score had a statistically significant pre-/post-treatment difference (P0.05). In the two groups, the cervical spondylotic symptom and sign score had a statistically significant pre-/post-treatment difference (P<0.05) and decreased after treatment. The cervical spondylotic symptom and sign score was significantly lower in the transverse needling group than in the perpendicular needling group after treatment; there was a statistically significant difference between the two groups (P<0.05). The total efficacy rate was 94.0% in the transverse needling group, which was higher than 79.6% in the perpendicular needling group; there was a statistically significant difference between the two groups (P<0.05). Conclusion Both transverse needling and perpendicular needling can remove myofascial trigger points and treat cervical spondylosis, but transverse needling at myofascial trigger points is superior to perpendicular needling at myofascial trigger points.%目的:比较平刺和直刺肌筋膜触发点治疗颈型颈椎病的疗效差异;并筛选出改善颈型颈椎病等肌筋膜疼痛综合征的更高效的针刺方向。方法将106例颈型颈椎病患者随机分为两组,平刺组采用平刺肌筋膜触发点进行治疗,直刺组采用直刺肌

  14. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The hardware of the trigger components has been mostly finished. The ECAL Endcap Trigger Concentrator Cards (TCC) are in production while Barrel TCC firmware has been upgraded, and the Trigger Primitives can now be stored by the Data Concentrator Card for readout by the DAQ. The Regional Calorimeter Trigger (RCT) system is complete, and the timing is being finalized. All 502 HCAL trigger links to RCT run without error. The HCAL muon trigger timing has been equalized with DT, RPC, CSC and ECAL. The hardware and firmware for the Global Calorimeter Trigger (GCT) jet triggers are being commissioned and data from these triggers is available for readout. The GCT energy sums from rings of trigger towers around the beam pipe beam have been changed to include two rings from both sides. The firmware for Drift Tube Track Finder, Barrel Sorter and Wedge Sorter has been upgraded, and the synchronization of the DT trigger is satisfactory. The CSC local trigger has operated flawlessly u...

  15. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Roberta Arcidiacono

    2013-01-01

    Trigger Studies Group (TSG) The Trigger Studies Group has just concluded its third 2013 workshop, where all POGs presented the improvements to the physics object reconstruction, and all PAGs have shown their plans for Trigger development aimed at the 2015 High Level Trigger (HLT) menu. The Strategy for Trigger Evolution And Monitoring (STEAM) group is responsible for Trigger menu development, path timing, Trigger performance studies coordination, HLT offline DQM as well as HLT release, menu and conditions validation – this last task in collaboration with PdmV (Physics Data and Monte Carlo Validation group). In the last months the group has delivered several HLT rate estimates and comparisons, using the available data and Monte Carlo samples. The studies were presented at the Trigger workshops in September and December, and STEAM has contacted POGs and PAGs to understand the origin of the discrepancies observed between 8 TeV data and Monte Carlo simulations. The most recent results show what the...

  16. Equal Improvement in Men and Women in the Treatment of Urologic Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome Using a Multi-modal Protocol with an Internal Myofascial Trigger Point Wand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Rodney U; Wise, David; Sawyer, Tim; Nathanson, Brian H; Nevin Smith, J

    2016-06-01

    Both men and women require treatment for urologic chronic pelvic pain syndromes (UCPPS), which includes interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome, pelvic floor dysfunction, and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. However, it is unknown if men and women respond differently to a protocol that includes specific physical therapy self-treatment using an internal trigger point wand and training in paradoxical relaxation. We performed a retrospective analysis by gender in a single arm, open label, single center clinical trial designed to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of a protocol for the treatment of UCPPS from October, 2008 to May, 2011. 314 adult men (79.9 %) and 79 (20.1 %) women met inclusion criteria. The median duration of symptoms was 60 months. The protocol required an initial 6-day clinic for training followed by a 6-month self-treatment period. The treatment included self-administered pelvic floor trigger point release with an internal trigger point device for physical therapy along with paradoxical relaxation training. Notable gender differences in prior treatments were observed. Men had a lower median [Interquartile Range] NIH-CPSI score at baseline than women (27 [21, 31] vs. 29 [22, 33], p = 0.04). Using a 1-10 scale with 10 = Most Severe, the median reduction in trigger point sensitivity was 3 units for both men and women after 6 months therapy (p = 0.74). A modified Intention to Treat analysis and a multivariate regression analysis found similar results. We conclude that men and women have similar, significant reductions in trigger point sensitivity with this protocol.

  17. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The trigger synchronization procedures for running with cosmic muons and operating with the LHC were reviewed during the May electronics week. Firmware maintenance issues were also reviewed. Link tests between the new ECAL endcap trigger concentrator cards (TCC48) and the Regional Calorimeter Trigger have been performed. Firmware for the energy sum triggers and an upgraded tau trigger of the Global Calorimeter Triggers has been developed and is under test. The optical fiber receiver boards for the Track-Finder trigger theta links of the DT chambers are now all installed. The RPC trigger is being made more robust by additional chamber and cable shielding and also by firmware upgrades. For the CSC’s the front-end and trigger motherboard firmware have been updated. New RPC patterns and DT/CSC lookup tables taking into account phi asymmetries in the magnetic field configuration are under study. The motherboard for the new pipeline synchronizer of the Global Trigg...

  18. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    2012-01-01

      Level-1 Trigger The Level-1 Trigger group is ready to deploy improvements to the L1 Trigger algorithms for 2012. These include new high-PT patterns for the RPC endcap, an improved CSC PT assignment, a new PT-matching algorithm for the Global Muon Trigger, and new calibrations for ECAL, HCAL, and the Regional Calorimeter Trigger. These should improve the efficiency, rate, and stability of the L1 Trigger. The L1 Trigger group also is migrating the online systems to SLC5. To make the data transfer from the Global Calorimeter Trigger to the Global Trigger more reliable and also to allow checking the data integrity online, a new optical link system has been developed by the GCT and GT groups and successfully tested at the CMS electronics integration facility in building 904. This new system is now undergoing further tests at Point 5 before being deployed for data-taking this year. New L1 trigger menus have recently been studied and proposed by Emmanuelle Perez and the L1 Detector Performance Group...

  19. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    At the March meeting, the CMS trigger group reported on progress in production, tests in the Electronics Integration Center (EIC) in Prevessin 904, progress on trigger installation in the underground counting room at point 5, USC55, the program of trigger pattern tests and vertical slice tests and planning for the Global Runs starting this summer. The trigger group is engaged in the final stages of production testing, systems integration, and software and firmware development. Most systems are delivering final tested electronics to CERN. The installation in USC55 is underway and integration testing is in full swing. A program of orderly connection and checkout with subsystems and central systems has been developed. This program includes a series of vertical subsystem slice tests providing validation of a portion of each subsystem from front-end electronics through the trigger and DAQ to data captured and stored. After full checkout, trigger subsystems will be then operated in the CMS Global Runs. Continuous...

  20. Effect of acupuncture myofascial trigger points in the treatment of cerebral arterial thrombosis spasm%针刺肌筋膜触发点治疗缺血性脑卒中痉挛的效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙佳佳; 庄小强; 谭树生; 言丽燕

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the clinical curative effect of acupuncture myofascial trigger points in the treatment of cerebral arterial thrombosis spasm.Methods 75 patients with cerebral arterial thrombosis spasm in Department of Rehabilitation Medicine,the National Hospital of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region from February 2010 to December 2012 were divided into acupuncture myofascial trigger points group (treatment group,38 cases) and traditional acupuncture group (control group,37 cases) according to random number table with single-blind method.The FuglMeyer motor function score,Barthel index of daily life ability,degree of hemiplegic limb spasm,overall evaluation of spasticity comprehensive efficacy evaluation and clinical nerve function defect score of two groups before treatment and after 1,2 courses of treatment were evaluated.The dates were statistically analyzed by SPSS 17.0 statistics software.Results The Fugl-Meyer motor function score,Barthel index of daily life ability,modified Ashworth scale,clinic spasticity index and nerve function defect score of two groups could be improved obviously.The Fugl-Meyer motor function score,Barthel index of daily life ability,modified Ashworth scale,clinic spasticity index and nerve function defect score after 2 courses of treatment in the treatment group were better than those before treatment,after 1 course of treatment in the treatment group and after 2 courses of treatment in the control group (all P < 0.05).The total effective rate of treatment group (92.11%) was better than that of control group (75.68%) (P < 0.05).Conclusion Acupuncture myofascial trigger points in the treatment of cerebral arterial thrombosis spasm has good clinical curative effect,less side effects and it is worthy of clinical application.%目的 探讨针刺肌筋膜触发点治疗缺血性脑卒中痉挛的临床疗效.方法 选取2010年2月~2012年12月来广西壮族自治区民族医院康复医学科就诊

  1. Efficacy Observation on Acupuncture on Trigger Point of Myofascial Pain Combined with Massage Treating Lumbar Disc Herniation%针刺肌筋膜疼痛触发点联合推拿治疗腰椎间盘突出症疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷迈; 李乾扬

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察针刺肌筋膜疼痛触发点联合推拿治疗腰椎间盘突出症(LDH)的疗效。方法:将60例LDH患者随机分为治疗组(30例)和对照组(30例),治疗组采用针刺肌筋膜疼痛触发点联合推拿治疗,对照组给予常规药物及理疗,比较两组患者JOA、VAS评分改善情况及临床疗效。结果:治疗组总有效率、JOA评分均高于对照组(P<0.01),VAS评分低于对照组(P<0.01)。结论:针刺肌筋膜疼痛触发点联合推拿治疗LDH疗效显著。%Objective:To observe the effects of acupuncture on trigger point of myofascial pain combined with massage treating lumbar disc hernia-tion (LDH). Methods:60 cases of LDH were randomly divided into treatment group (30 cases) and control group (30 cases), treatment group was treated with acupuncture on trigger point of myofascial pain combined with massage, control group with routine medicine and physiotherapy, im-provement of JOA and VAS score and clinical efficacy were compared between the two groups. Results:The total effective rate and JOA score of treatment group were higher than those of control group (P<0.01), VAS score was lower than that of control group (P<0.01). Conclusion:Acupunc-ture on trigger point of myofascial pain combined with massage treating lumbar disc herniation is of distinct efficacy.

  2. 针刺配合干针刺肌筋膜触发点治疗腰椎间盘突出症疗效观察%Efficacy Observation on Acupuncture Combined with Dry Needling Myofascial Trigger Points for Lumbar Disc Herniation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    植剑龙

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the efficacy of acupuncture combined with dry needling myofascial trigger points for lumbar disc herniation. Methods:136 cases of patients were randomly divided into observation group and control group, the observation group used conventional acupunc-ture combined with dry needling myofascial trigger points, the control group only used conventional acupuncture. Results:The total effective rate of observation group was 92.65%, which was higher than 73.53 that of control group (P<0.01). Conclusion:Conventional acupuncture combined with dry needling myofascial trigger points has significant curative effect on lumbar disc herniation.%目的:探讨针刺配合干针刺肌筋膜触发点治疗腰椎间盘突出症的疗效。方法:将136例患者随机分为观察组和对照组,观察组采用常规针刺配合干针刺肌筋膜触发点治疗,对照组单纯采用常规针刺治疗。结果:观察组总有效率为92.65%,高于对照组的73.53%(P<0.01)。结论:常规针刺配合干针刺肌筋膜触发点治疗腰椎间盘突出症疗效显著。

  3. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The production of the trigger hardware is now basically finished, and in time for the turn-on of the LHC. The last boards produced are the Trigger Concentrator Cards for the ECAL Endcaps (TCC-EE). After the recent installation of the four EE Dees, the TCC-EE prototypes were used for their commissioning. Production boards are arriving and are being tested continuously, with the last ones expected in November. The Regional Calorimeter Trigger hardware is fully integrated after installation of the last EE cables. Pattern tests from the HCAL up to the GCT have been performed successfully. The HCAL triggers are fully operational, including the connection of the HCAL-outer and forward-HCAL (HO/HF) technical triggers to the Global Trigger. The HCAL Trigger and Readout (HTR) board firmware has been updated to permit recording of the tower “feature bit” in the data. The Global Calorimeter Trigger hardware is installed, but some firmware developments are still n...

  4. A critical overview of the current myofascial pain literature - March 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommerholt, Jan; Hooks, Todd; Finnegan, Michelle; Grieve, Rob

    2016-04-01

    The worldwide interest in myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) and trigger points (TrPs) is reflected in the increasing number of publications. In this overview of the literature, we included 26 studies, case reports and review articles by authors from 18 different countries. Several research groups are exploring the characteristic of TrPs such as Chen and colleagues, who continued their work on the quantification of the taut bands. Meng and colleagues studied the relationships between TrPs and central sensitization, while Yu and colleagues examined the electrophysiological characteristics that occur as a result of active TrPs. Several researchers used objective measurements to determine clinical outcomes, such as Koppenhaver and colleagues who measured objective changes in the function and nociceptive sensitivity of lumbar multifidus muscle subjects with low back pain. Turo and colleagues quantified muscle tissue changes after dry needling in chronic myofascial pain using elastography. Multiple studies explored various treatment options for TrPs, such as dry needling, injections with lidocaine or granisetron, traditional Thai massage, self-myofascial release, kinesiotaping, and monochromatic infrared photo energy, among others.

  5. A critical overview of the current myofascial pain literature - March 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommerholt, Jan; Hooks, Todd; Finnegan, Michelle; Grieve, Rob

    2016-04-01

    The worldwide interest in myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) and trigger points (TrPs) is reflected in the increasing number of publications. In this overview of the literature, we included 26 studies, case reports and review articles by authors from 18 different countries. Several research groups are exploring the characteristic of TrPs such as Chen and colleagues, who continued their work on the quantification of the taut bands. Meng and colleagues studied the relationships between TrPs and central sensitization, while Yu and colleagues examined the electrophysiological characteristics that occur as a result of active TrPs. Several researchers used objective measurements to determine clinical outcomes, such as Koppenhaver and colleagues who measured objective changes in the function and nociceptive sensitivity of lumbar multifidus muscle subjects with low back pain. Turo and colleagues quantified muscle tissue changes after dry needling in chronic myofascial pain using elastography. Multiple studies explored various treatment options for TrPs, such as dry needling, injections with lidocaine or granisetron, traditional Thai massage, self-myofascial release, kinesiotaping, and monochromatic infrared photo energy, among others. PMID:27210859

  6. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    2010-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The Level-1 Trigger hardware has performed well during both the recent proton-proton and heavy ion running. Efforts were made to improve the visibility and handling of alarms and warnings. The tracker ReTRI boards that prevent fixed frequencies of Level-1 Triggers are now configured through the Trigger Supervisor. The Global Calorimeter Trigger (GCT) team has introduced a buffer cleanup procedure at stops and a reset of the QPLL during configuring to ensure recalibration in case of a switch from the LHC clock to the local clock. A device to test the cables between the Regional Calorimeter Trigger and the GCT has been manufactured. A wrong charge bit was fixed in the CSC Trigger. The ECAL group is improving crystal masking and spike suppression in the trigger primitives. New firmware for the Drift Tube Track Finder (DTTF) sorters was developed to improve fake track tagging and sorting. Zero suppression was implemented in the DT Sector Collector readout. The track finder b...

  7. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    Trigger Hardware The status of the trigger components was presented during the September CMS Week and Annual Review and at the monthly trigger meetings in October and November. Procedures for cold and warm starts (e.g. refreshing of trigger parameters stored in registers) of the trigger subsystems have been studied. Reviews of parts of the Global Calorimeter Trigger (GCT) and the Global Trigger (GT) have taken place in October and November. The CERN group summarized the status of the Trigger Timing and Control (TTC) system. All TTC crates and boards are installed in the underground counting room, USC55. The central clock system will be upgraded in December (after the Global Run at the end of November GREN) to the new RF2TTC LHC machine interface timing module. Migration of subsystem's TTC PCs to SLC4/ XDAQ 3.12 is being prepared. Work is on going to unify the access to Local Timing Control (LTC) and TTC CMS interface module (TTCci) via SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol, a lightweight XML-based messaging ...

  8. New trends in the treatment and management of myofascial pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srbely, John Z

    2010-10-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome presents a significant physical and financial burden to society. In view of the aging demographics, myofascial pain promises to be an even greater challenge to health care in the future. Myofascial trigger points have been identified as important anatomic and physiologic phenomena in the pathophysiology of myofascial pain. While their pathophysiologic mechanisms are still unclear, emerging research suggests that trigger points may be initiated by neurogenic mechanisms secondary to central sensitization, and not necessarily by local injury. A variety of treatments are employed in the management of trigger points, including manual therapy, electrotherapy, exercise, and needle therapy. Therapeutic ultrasound demonstrates significant potential as a safe, cost-effective, and relatively noninvasive therapeutic alternative in the treatment and management of this modern day medical enigma.

  9. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The final parts of the Level-1 trigger hardware are now being put in place. For the ECAL endcaps, more than half of the Trigger Concentrator Cards for the ECAL Endcap (TCC-EE) are now available at CERN, such that one complete endcap can be covered. The Global Trigger now correctly handles ECAL calibration sequences, without being influenced by backpressure. The Regional Calorimeter Trigger (RCT) hardware is complete and working in USC55. Intra-crate tests of all 18 RCT crates and the Global Calorimeter Trigger (GCT) are regularly taking place. Pattern tests have successfully captured data from HCAL through RCT to the GCT Source Cards. HB/HE trigger data are being compared with emulator results to track down the very few remaining hardware problems. The treatment of hot and dead cells, including their recording in the database, has been defined. For the GCT, excellent agreement between the emulator and data has been achieved for jets and HF ET sums. There is still som...

  10. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The trigger system has been constantly in use in cosmic and commissioning data taking periods. During CRAFT running it delivered 300 million muon and calorimeter triggers to CMS. It has performed stably and reliably. During the abort gaps it has also provided laser and other calibration triggers. Timing issues, namely synchronization and latency issues, have been solved. About half of the Trigger Concentrator Cards for the ECAL Endcap (TCC-EE) are installed, and the firmware is being worked on. The production of the other half has started. The HCAL Trigger and Readout (HTR) card firmware has been updated, and new features such as fast parallel zero-suppression have been included. Repairs of drift tube (DT) trigger mini-crates, optical links and receivers of sector collectors are under way and have been completed on YB0. New firmware for the optical receivers of the theta links to the drift tube track finder is being installed. In parallel, tests with new eta track finde...

  11. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    R. Carlin with contributions from D. Acosta

    2012-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Data-taking continues at cruising speed, with high availability of all components of the Level-1 trigger. We have operated the trigger up to a luminosity of 7.6E33, where we approached 100 kHz using the 7E33 prescale column.  Recently, the pause without triggers in case of an automatic "RESYNC" signal (the "settle" and "recover" time) was reduced in order to minimise the overall dead-time. This may become very important when the LHC comes back with higher energy and luminosity after LS1. We are also preparing for data-taking in the proton-lead run in early 2013. The CASTOR detector will make its comeback into CMS and triggering capabilities are being prepared for this. Steps to be taken include improved cooperation with the TOTEM trigger system and using the LHC clock during the injection and ramp phases of LHC. Studies are being finalised that will have a bearing on the Trigger Technical Design Report (TDR), which is to be rea...

  12. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    At the December meeting, the CMS trigger group reported on progress in production, tests in the Electronics Integration Center (EIC) in Prevessin 904, progress on trigger installation in the underground counting room at point 5, USC55, and results from the Magnet Test and Cosmic Challenge (MTCC) phase II. The trigger group is engaged in the final stages of production testing, systems integration, and software and firmware development. Most systems are delivering final tested electronics to CERN. The installation in USC55 is underway and moving towards integration testing. A program of orderly connection and checkout with subsystems and central systems has been developed. This program includes a series of vertical subsystem slice tests providing validation of a portion of each subsystem from front-end electronics through the trigger and DAQ to data captured and stored. This is combined with operations and testing without beam that will continue until startup. The plans for start-up, pilot and early running tri...

  13. Myofascial low back pain treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharan, Deepak; Rajkumar, Joshua Samuel; Mohandoss, Mathankumar; Ranganathan, Rameshkumar

    2014-09-01

    Myofascial pain is a common musculoskeletal problem, with the low back being one of the commonest affected regions. Several treatments have been used for myofascial low back pain through physical therapies, pharmacologic agents, injections, and other such therapies. This review will provide an update based on recently published literature in the field of myofascial low back pain along with a brief description of a sequenced, multidisciplinary treatment protocol called Skilled Hands-on Approach for the Release of myofascia, Articular, Neural and Soft tissue mobilization (SHARANS) protocol. A comprehensive multidisciplinary approach is recommended for the successful management of individuals with myofascial low back pain.

  14. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith, from contributions of D. Acosta

    2012-01-01

      The L1 Trigger group deployed several major improvements this year. Compared to 2011, the single-muon trigger rate has been reduced by a factor of 2 and the η coverage has been restored to 2.4, with high efficiency. During the current technical stop, a higher jet seed threshold will be applied in the Global Calorimeter Trigger in order to significantly reduce the strong pile-up dependence of the HT and multi-jet triggers. The currently deployed L1 menu, with the “6E33” prescales, has a total rate of less than 100 kHz and operates with detector readout dead time of less than 3% for luminosities up to 6.5 × 1033 cm–2s–1. Further prescale sets have been created for 7 and 8 × 1033 cm–2s–1 luminosities. The L1 DPG is evaluating the performance of the Trigger for upcoming conferences and publication. Progress on the Trigger upgrade was reviewed during the May Upgrade Week. We are investigating scenarios for stagin...

  15. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith from contributions of C. Leonidopoulos, I. Mikulec, J. Varela and C. Wulz.

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software Over the past few months, the Level-1 trigger has successfully recorded data with cosmic rays over long continuous stretches as well as LHC splash events, beam halo, and collision events. The L1 trigger hardware, firmware, synchronization, performance and readiness for beam operation were reviewed in October. All L1 trigger hardware is now installed at Point 5, and most of it is completely commissioned. While the barrel ECAL Trigger Concentrator Cards are fully operational, the recently delivered endcap ECAL TCC system is still being commissioned. For most systems there is a sufficient number of spares available, but for a few systems additional reserve modules are needed. It was decided to increase the overall L1 latency by three bunch crossings to increase the safety margin for trigger timing adjustments. In order for CMS to continue data taking during LHC frequency ramps, the clock distribution tree needs to be reset. The procedures for this have been tested. A repl...

  16. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The road map for the final commissioning of the level-1 trigger system has been set. The software for the trigger subsystems is being upgraded to run under CERN Scientific Linux 4 (SLC4). There is also a new release for the Trigger Supervisor (TS 1.4), which implies upgrade work by the subsystems. As reported by the CERN group, a campaign to tidy the Trigger Timing and Control (TTC) racks has begun. The machine interface was upgraded by installing the new RF2TTC module, which receives RF signals from LHC Point 4. Two Beam Synchronous Timing (BST) signals, one for each beam, can now be received in CMS. The machine group will define the exact format of the information content shortly. The margin on the locking range of the CMS QPLL is planned for study for different subsystems in the next Global Runs, using a function generator. The TTC software has been successfully tested on SLC4. Some TTC subsystems have already been upgraded to SLC4. The TTCci Trigger Supervisor ...

  17. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    2011-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software New Forward Scintillating Counters (FSC) for rapidity gap measurements have been installed and integrated into the Trigger recently. For the Global Muon Trigger, tuning of quality criteria has led to improvements in muon trigger efficiencies. Several subsystems have started campaigns to increase spares by recovering boards or producing new ones. The barrel muon sector collector test system has been reactivated, new η track finder boards are in production, and φ track finder boards are under revision. In the CSC track finder, an η asymmetry problem has been corrected. New pT look-up tables have also improved efficiency. RPC patterns were changed from four out of six coincident layers to three out of six in the barrel, which led to a significant increase in efficiency. A new PAC firmware to trigger on heavy stable charged particles allows looking for chamber hit coincidences in two consecutive bunch-crossings. The redesign of the L1 Trigger Emulator...

  18. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    R. Arcidiacono

    2013-01-01

      In 2013 the Trigger Studies Group (TSG) has been restructured in three sub-groups: STEAM, for the development of new HLT menus and monitoring their performance; STORM, for the development of HLT tools, code and actual configurations; and FOG, responsible for the online operations of the High Level Trigger. The Strategy for Trigger Evolution And Monitoring (STEAM) group is responsible for Trigger Menu development, path timing, trigger performance studies coordination, HLT offline DQM as well as HLT release, menu and conditions validation – in collaboration and with the technical support of the PdmV group. Since the end of proton-proton data taking, the group has started preparing for 2015 data taking, with collisions at 13 TeV and 25 ns bunch spacing. The reliability of the extrapolation to higher energy is being evaluated comparing the trigger rates on 7 and 8 TeV Monte Carlo samples with the data taken in the past two years. The effect of 25 ns bunch spacing is being studied on the d...

  19. Effect of yoga on the Myofascial Pain Syndrome of neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharan, D; Manjula, M; Urmi, D; Ajeesh, Ps

    2014-01-01

    Myofascial Pain Syndrome (MPS) refers to pain attributed to muscle and its surrounding fascia, which is associated with "myofascial trigger points" (MTrPs). MTrPs in the trapezius has been proposed as the main cause of temporal and cervicogenic headache and neck pain. Literature shows that the prevalence of various musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) among physiotherapists is high. Yoga has traditionally been used to treat MSDs in various populations. But there is scarcity of literature which explains the effects of yoga on reducing MPS of the neck in terms of various physical parameters and subjective responses. Therefore, a pilot study was done among eight physiotherapists with minimum six months of experience. A structured yoga protocol was designed and implemented for five days in a week for four weeks. The outcome variables were Disability of Arm, Shoulder and Hands (DASH) score, Neck Disability Index (NDI), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), Pressure Pain Threshold (PPT) for Trigger Points, Cervical Range of Motion (CROM) - active & passive, grip and pinch strengths. The variables were compared before and after the intervention. Finally, the result revealed that all the variables (DASH: P<0.00, NDI: P<0.00, VAS: P<0.00, PPT: Left: P<0.00, PPT: Right: P<0.00, Grip strength: left: P<0.00, Grip strength: right: P<0.01, Key pinch: left: P<0.01, Key pinch: right: P<0.01, Palmar pinch: left: P<0.01, Palmar pinch: right: P<0.00, Tip pinch: left: P<0.01, Tip pinch: Right: P<0.01) improved significantly after intervention.

  20. Effect of yoga on the Myofascial Pain Syndrome of neck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Sharan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Myofascial Pain Syndrome (MPS refers to pain attributed to muscle and its surrounding fascia, which is associated with ′′myofascial trigger points′′ (MTrPs. MTrPs in the trapezius has been proposed as the main cause of temporal and cervicogenic headache and neck pain. Literature shows that the prevalence of various musculoskeletal disorders (MSD among physiotherapists is high. Yoga has traditionally been used to treat MSDs in various populations. But there is scarcity of literature which explains the effects of yoga on reducing MPS of the neck in terms of various physical parameters and subjective responses. Therefore, a pilot study was done among eight physiotherapists with minimum six months of experience. A structured yoga protocol was designed and implemented for five days in a week for four weeks. The outcome variables were Disability of Arm, Shoulder and Hands (DASH score, Neck Disability Index (NDI, Visual Analogue Scale (VAS, Pressure Pain Threshold (PPT for Trigger Points, Cervical Range of Motion (CROM - active & passive, grip and pinch strengths. The variables were compared before and after the intervention. Finally, the result revealed that all the variables (DASH: P<0.00, NDI: P<0.00, VAS: P<0.00, PPT: Left: P<0.00, PPT: Right: P<0.00, Grip strength: left: P<0.00, Grip strength: right: P<0.01, Key pinch: left: P<0.01, Key pinch: right: P<0.01, Palmar pinch: left: P<0.01, Palmar pinch: right: P<0.00, Tip pinch: left: P<0.01, Tip pinch: Right: P<0.01 improved significantly after intervention.

  1. Myofacial trigger points in advanced cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideaki Hasuo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Myofascial pain syndrome is started to be recognized as one of important factors of pain in cancer patients. However, no reports on features of myofascial trigger points were found in terminally-ill cancer populations. This time, we encountered 5 patients with myofascial pain syndrome and terminal cancer in whom delirium developed due to increased doses of opioid without a diagnosis of myofascial pain syndrome on initial presentation. The delirium subsided with dose reductions of opioid and treatment of myofascial pain syndrome. The common reason for a delayed diagnosis among the patients included an incomplete palpation of the painful sites, which led to unsuccessful myofascial trigger points identification. The features of myofascial trigger points included single onset in the cancer pain management site with opioid and the contralateral abdominal side muscles of the non-common sites. Withdrawal reflexes associated with cancer pain in the supine position, which are increasingly seen in the terminal cancer patients, were considered to have contributed to this siuation.We consider that careful palpation of the painful site is important, in order to obtain greater knowledge and understanding of the features of myofascial trigger points.

  2. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    2011-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software Overall the L1 trigger hardware has been running very smoothly during the last months of proton running. Modifications for the heavy-ion run have been made where necessary. The maximal design rate of 100 kHz can be sustained without problems. All L1 latencies have been rechecked. The recently installed Forward Scintillating Counters (FSC) are being used in the heavy ion run. The ZDC scintillators have been dismantled, but the calorimeter itself remains. We now send the L1 accept signal and other control signals to TOTEM. Trigger cables from TOTEM to CMS will be installed during the Christmas shutdown, so that the TOTEM data can be fully integrated within the CMS readout. New beam gas triggers have been developed, since the BSC-based trigger is no longer usable at high luminosities. In particular, a special BPTX signal is used after a quiet period with no collisions. There is an ongoing campaign to provide enough spare modules for the different subsystems. For example...

  3. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Alimena

    2013-01-01

    Trigger Strategy Group The Strategy for Trigger Evolution And Monitoring (STEAM) group is responsible for the development of future High-Level Trigger menus, as well as of its DQM and validation, in collaboration and with the technical support of the PdmV group. Taking into account the beam energy and luminosity expected in 2015, a rough estimate of the trigger rates indicates a factor four increase with respect to 2012 conditions. Assuming that a factor two can be tolerated thanks to the increase in offline storage and processing capabilities, a toy menu has been developed using the new OpenHLT workflow to estimate the transverse energy/momentum thresholds that would halve the current trigger rates. The CPU time needed to run the HLT has been compared between data taken with 25 ns and 50 ns bunch spacing, for equivalent pile-up: no significant difference was observed on the global time per event distribution at the only available data point, corresponding to a pile-up of about 10 interactions. Using th...

  4. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    by Wesley Smith

    2011-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software After the winter shutdown minor hardware problems in several subsystems appeared and were corrected. A reassessment of the overall latency has been made. In the TTC system shorter cables between TTCci and TTCex have been installed, which saved one bunch crossing, but which may have required an adjustment of the RPC timing. In order to tackle Pixel out-of-syncs without influencing other subsystems, a special hardware/firmware re-sync protocol has been introduced in the Global Trigger. The link between the Global Calorimeter Trigger and the Global Trigger with the new optical Global Trigger Interface and optical receiver daughterboards has been successfully tested in the Electronics Integration Centre in building 904. New firmware in the GCT now allows a setting to remove the HF towers from energy sums. The HF sleeves have been replaced, which should lead to reduced rates of anomalous signals, which may allow their inclusion after this is validated. For ECAL, improvements i...

  5. Short-term effects of self-massage combined with home exercise on pain, daily activity, and autonomic function in patients with myofascial pain dysfunction syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yuan-Chi; Wang, Tzyy-Jiuan; Chang, Cheng-Chiang; Chen, Liang-Cheng; Chu, Heng-Yi; Lin, Shiou-Ping; Chang, Shin-Tsu

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present was to investigate the short-term effects of a program combining self-massage and home exercise for patients with myofascial pain dysfunction syndrome (MPDS). [Subjects and Methods] In this retrospective study, 63 patients were allocated to the experimental (n = 32) and control (n = 31) groups. Both groups received 6 sessions of treatment with physical modalities over the course of two weeks. The experimental group completed an additional program with a combination of self-massage and home exercise. The outcome measurements included a pain scale, pressure pain threshold (PPT), neck disability index (NDI), patient-specific functional scales (PSFS), and heart rate variability (HRV). The interactions between the groups and over time were analyzed using two-way repeated measures ANOVA. [Results] Only the experimental group demonstrated significant improvements in the pain scale with varying conditions. The PPTs of the trigger points increased significantly in the experimental group, and significant functional improvements in NDI and PSFS were observed in the same group. There were significant increases in high-frequency HRV and high-frequency % in the experimental group. [Conclusion] Treatment with physical modalities plus combination of self-massage and home exercise is more effective than the physical modalities treatment alone.

  6. Tufted angioma and myofascial pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Roberto Souto da; Bressan, Aline Lopes; Nascimento, Lívia Barbosa; Kac, Bernard Kawa; Azulay-Abulafia, Luna

    2011-01-01

    Tufted angioma is a rare acquired vascular tumor. It is characterized by painful purplish macules that may progress to plaques containing angiomatous papules. The condition is benign; however, it often affects extensive areas of the skin, leading to functional disability of the affected limb if painful. The present report describes a case of a tufted angioma associated with myofascial pain syndrome in which the predisposing element was the presence of this tumor since childhood. Pain at the site of the lesion affected muscle use and led to the onset of the associated syndrome. Complete relief from symptoms was achieved by blocking the trigger points of the affected limb with anesthesia.

  7. Modificaciones del umbral de dolor en un punto gatillo miofascial tras técnica de energía muscular Changes in pain threshold in myofascial trigger point after muscle energy technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Zuil Escobar

    2010-10-01

    écnica de energía muscular en el punto gatillo miofascial latente 1 del trapecio superior ha mostrado un aumento inmediato en el umbral de dolor, quien no se mantuvo a las 24horas. Son necesarias investigaciones con una muestra mayor y con sujetos sintomáticos.Aims: Evaluate the changes in pressure pain threshold in latent myofascial trigger points 1 of the upper trapezius after a muscle energy technique application and evaluate intra-tester reliability of an analogue algometer on this point. Material y methods: A total of 35 asymptomatic subjects with latent upper trapezius myofascial trigger point 1 were randomized in two groups: one group was treated with a muscle energy technique (group 1 and the other one (control, group 2 was not treated. Demographic variables, such as gender, age, height and weight, and pressure pain threshold was evaluated. Pressure pain threshold was evaluated using an analogue algometer three times: before the intervention, five minutes post-intervention and 24h post-intervention. For quantitative variables statistical analysis, means, ranges and standard deviations wer used; and for qualitative variables, percentages and frequencies. For inter-tester reliability intra-class correlation coefficient was used. A two-way analysis of variance for repeated measurements was used for pressure pain threshold differences. The statistical analysis was performed using a 95% confidence level. Results: Intra-class correlation coefficient showed values ranging from 0.82-0.92. No significant differences were observed for baseline values. Analysis of variance showed significant effects for time and interaction between time and group. Group 1 showed a significant increase in pressure pain threshold after five minutes intervention, but this disappeared at 24h post intervention. Group 2 showed no significant differences. Conclusions: Inter-tested reliabilty of pressure pain threshold was good. Muscle energy technique in latent upper trapezius trigger point 1 has

  8. Spontaneous Myoelectric Phenomenon and Histopathology of Myofascial Trigger Points in Rats%大鼠肌筋膜疼痛触发点自发肌电现象和病理组织学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩蓓; 黄强民; 谭树生; 庄小强

    2011-01-01

    Objective We attempted to observe the spontaneous myoelectric phenomenon and histopathology of myofascial trigger points. Methods Thirty two male mice were equally divided into control group (A) , and experimental groups B、 C and D. Medial vastus muscle of rat was stroked in combination with eccentric exercise once a week in groups B for 4 weeks, in group C for 8 weeks with 2 weeks rest, and in group D for 8 weeks with 4 weeks rest. The responsive taut band, spontaneous EMG, and local tic of rats were checked. Histology of the trigger points was observed as well. Results Comparing with group A: (1) the positive rate of responsive taut band was 0%, 100% (8/8, P<0.01) , and75% (6/8, P<0.01) ingroupsB, C, andD, respectively: (2) the positive rate of local tic was 37.5% (3/8, P<0.05) , 87.5% (7/8, P<0.01) , and75% (6/8, P<0.01)in groups B, C, and D, respectively: (3) the positive rate of spontaneous EMG was 12.5% (1/8,P>0.05) , 100% (8/8, P<0.01) , and 87.5% (7/8, P<0.01) ingroupsB, C, andD, respectively. The contracture of muscle fiber was found in group C and D, except in group B. Conclusion 1-week striking plus eccentric exercise can cause the development of mynfascial trigger point, but is not enough to induce the myofascial pain syndrome.%目的:观察局部损伤后肌筋膜疼痛触发点动物模型的自发肌电和触发点肌纤维的病理结构改变.方法:32只雄性SD大鼠(7周龄)随机分成4组,每组8只.A组对照组,不进行干预;B、C、D组为实验组,采取打击结合离心运动进行干预,每周1次,不同组采取的干预持续时间不同,B组干预4周,C组干预8周后饲养2周,D组干预8周后饲养4周.实验共12周.分别在不同时间检查大鼠受累肌的紧张带和局部抽搐反应,采用肌电仪观察自发肌电现象,然后解剖取材,检查触发点肌肉组织学改变,并与对照组进行比较.结果:A组各项检查均为阴性.其它3组与A组比较:(1)紧张带:B组

  9. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware The CERN group is working on the TTC system. Seven out of nine sub-detector TTC VME crates with all fibers cabled are installed in USC55. 17 Local Trigger Controller (LTC) boards have been received from production and are in the process of being tested. The RF2TTC module replacing the TTCmi machine interface has been delivered and will replace the TTCci module used to mimic the LHC clock. 11 out of 12 crates housing the barrel ECAL off-detector electronics have been installed in USC55 after commissioning at the Electronics Integration Centre in building 904. The cabling to the Regional Calorimeter Trigger (RCT) is terminated. The Lisbon group has completed the Synchronization and Link mezzanine board (SLB) production. The Palaiseau group has fully tested and installed 33 out of 40 Trigger Concentrator Cards (TCC). The seven remaining boards are being remade. The barrel TCC boards have been tested at the H4 test beam, and good agreement with emulator predictions were found. The cons...

  10. 美洛昔康痛点注射配合肌筋膜牵拉手法治疗肩关节周围炎%Clinical Observation on Trigger Point Injection with Meloxicam Combined with Myofascial Traction for treating Periarthritis of Shoulder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧汉锋; 罗海燕; 魏秋实; 曾伟恒

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To observe the efficacy and safety of trigger point injection with meloxicam combined with myofascial traction for treating periarthritis of shoulder.Methods:All 106 outpatients were randomly divided into treatment group I (meloxicam combined with myofascial traction group),treatment group Ⅱ (myofascial traction group),and control group (routine massage group).Three groups were administrated with manipulation treatment and self-rehabilitation.The patients were performed with routine massage in control group and myofascial traction in treatment group,and plus trigger point injection once a weeks in treatment group Ⅰ.All groups were treated once a day,7 days for a treatment course,every 2 courses with 2 day's interval,and a total of four courses.The efficacy and safety were evaluated according to Constant-Murley score and complications.Results:The efficacy of treatment group Ⅰ (100%) and Ⅱ (93.7%) were higher than control group (70%,P<0.05),and treatment group Ⅰ was higher than treatment group Ⅱ (P<0.05).There was no complication in all groups.Conclusion:Trigger point injection with meloxicam combined with myofascial traction can effectively loosen adhesion of soft tissue in frozen shoulder,relieve pain,improve function of shoulder,and reduce labor intensity of operator.It is easy,safe,and effective for clinical application.%目的:观察美洛昔康痛点注射配合肌筋膜牵拉手法治疗肩关节周围炎的临床效果和安全性.方法:106个门诊病例应用随机分为美洛昔康+肌筋膜牵拉手法组(A组)、肌筋膜牵拉手法组(B组)和常规推拿手法组(C组),3组均进行手法治疗和自主康复训练,C组进行常规推拿手法,A、B组进行肌筋膜牵拉手法,A在手法结束后进行痛点注射;每日1次,7d为1个疗程,每2个疗程间休息2d,痛点注射每周1次,共4个疗程.根据Constant-Murley score来评价疗效,根据并发症来评价安全性.结果:疗效比较,A组(l00

  11. Myofascial pain, fibromyalgia or fibrositis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, J M S

    2004-01-01

    The terms myofascial pain, fibromyalgia and fibrositis are critically examined. They constitute diagnostic labels for non-specific musculoskeletal aches and pains. Analysis of the evidence shows that none of these labels is substantiated by hard physical signs or by laboratory evidence of consistent pathological or biochemical abnormality. What is the objective evidence for disorder(s) of muscle, fascia or fibrous tissues, so clearly indicated by these diagnostic names? Alternative terms such as 'regional pain syndrome' or 'chronic pain syndrome' merely redefine the clinical problem without providing a mechanism or basis for diagnosis. Despite different diagnostic criteria, these conditions, along with chronic fatigue syndrome, have many demographic and clinical similarities, most notably tender trigger points. Indeed, the terms are often used interchangeably. There are few differences in the symptoms, physical findings, laboratory tests, functional status, psychosocial features and psychiatric disorders. This paper seeks not to deny the existence of aches and pains, but to critically examine the utility of these terms. The only claimed physical sign is the presence of tender trigger points over muscles or muscle attachments. Research suggests that tender points are a measure of general distress related to pain complaints but separately associated with fatigue and depression. They are present in some normal subjects and are variable in occurrence in time in the same individual. They reflect no demonstrable pathology. It is therefore argued that none of these commonly used diagnoses represent distinct disease entities. A possible but unproven alternative hypothesis is that such symptoms relate to neural pain with both peripheral and central components, and in some instances psychological or wilful embellishment.

  12. An acute bout of self-myofascial release increases range of motion without a subsequent decrease in muscle activation or force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Graham Z; Penney, Michael D H; Mullaley, Michelle E; Cuconato, Amanda L; Drake, Corey D J; Behm, David G; Button, Duane C

    2013-03-01

    Foam rolling is thought to improve muscular function, performance, overuse, and joint range of motion (ROM); however, there is no empirical evidence demonstrating this. Thus, the objective of the study was to determine the effect of self-myofascial release (SMR) via foam roller application on knee extensor force and activation and knee joint ROM. Eleven healthy male (height 178.9 ± 3.5 cm, mass 86.3 ± 7.4 kg, age 22.3 ± 3.8 years) subjects who were physically active participated. Subjects' quadriceps maximum voluntary contraction force, evoked force and activation, and knee joint ROM were measured before, 2 minutes, and 10 minutes after 2 conditions: (a) 2, 1-minute trials of SMR of the quadriceps via a foam roller and (b) no SMR (Control). A 2-way analysis of variance (condition × time) with repeated measures was performed on all dependent variables recorded in the precondition and postcondition tests. There were no significant differences between conditions for any of the neuromuscular dependent variables. However, after foam rolling, subjects' ROM significantly (p < 0.001) increased by 10° and 8° at 2 and 10 minutes, respectively. There was a significant (p < 0.01) negative correlation between subjects' force and ROM before foam rolling, which no longer existed after foam rolling. In conclusion, an acute bout of SMR of the quadriceps was an effective treatment to acutely enhance knee joint ROM without a concomitant deficit in muscle performance.

  13. Therapeutic Observation of Acupuncture at Myofascial Trigger Points for Cervical Spondylosis of Vertebral Artery Type%针刺肌筋膜触发点治疗椎动脉型颈椎病疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王翀敏; 陈红薇; 王延武; 岳红; 朱敏

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察针刺肌筋膜触发点治疗椎动脉型颈椎病的临床疗效。方法将98例椎动脉型颈椎病患者随机分为治疗组51例和对照组47例。治疗组采用针刺肌筋膜触发点治疗,对照组采用注射消炎镇痛液治疗。比较两组治疗前后旋颈试验阳性率、眩晕评分及头项部疼痛VAS评分。结果两组治疗后VAS评分、旋颈试验阳性率及眩晕评分与同组治疗前比较,差异均具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。治疗组治疗后VAS评分、旋颈试验阳性率及眩晕评分与对照组比较,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。治疗组总有效率为96.1%,对照组为76.6%,两组比较差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论针刺肌筋膜触发点能改善椎动脉型颈椎病患者眩晕及头项部疼痛症状。%Objective To observe the therapeutic efficacy of acupuncture at myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) in treating cervical spondylosis of vertebral artery type. Methods Ninety-eight patients with cervical spondylosis of vertebral artery type were randomized into a treatment group of 51 cases and a control group of 47 cases. The treatment group was intervened by acupuncture at the MTrPs, while the control group was by injection of medical solution for anti-inflammation and analgesia. The positive rate of rotate-cervix test, dizziness score, and visual analogue scale (VAS) of the head and neck pain were compared before and after intervention. Results After intervention, the positive rate, dizziness score, and VAS score were significantly changed in both groups (P<0.05). There were significant differences in comparing the positive rate, dizziness score, and VAS score between the two groups after intervention (P<0.05). The total effective rate was 96.1%in the treatment group versus 76.6%in the control group, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion Acupuncture at the MTrPs can improve the dizziness and head-neck pain in patients with

  14. Current studies on myofascial pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Ta-Shen

    2009-10-01

    Recent studies have clarified the nature of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs). In an MTrP region, multiple hyperirritable loci can be found. The sensory components of the MTrP locus are sensitized nociceptors that are responsible for pain, referred pain, and local twitch responses. The motor components are dysfunctional endplates that are responsible for taut band formation as a result of excessive acetylcholine (ACh) leakage. The concentrations of pain- and inflammation-related substances are increased in the MTrP region. It has been hypothesized that excessive ACh release, sarcomere shortening, and release of sensitizing substances are three essential features that relate to one another in a positive feedback cycle. This MTrP circuit is the connection among spinal sensory (dorsal horn) neurons responsible for the MTrP phenomena. Recent studies suggest that measurement of biochemicals associated with pain and inflammation in the MTrP region, the sonographic study of MTrPs, and the magnetic resonance elastography for taut band image are potential tools for the diagnosis of MTrPs. Many methods have been used to treat myofascial pain, including laser therapy, shockwave therapy, and botulinum toxin type A injection.

  15. Intermuscular force transmission along myofascial chains: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Frieder; Wilke, Jan; Vogt, Lutz; Banzer, Winfried

    2016-06-01

    The present review aims to provide a systematic overview on tensile transmission along myofascial chains based on anatomical dissection studies and in vivo experiments. Evidence for the existence of myofascial chains is growing, and the capability of force transmission via myofascial chains has been hypothesized. However, there is still a lack of evidence concerning the functional significance and capability for force transfer. A systematic literature research was conducted using MEDLINE (Pubmed), ScienceDirect and Google Scholar. Studied myofascial chains encompassed the superficial backline (SBL), the back functional line (BFL) and the front functional line (FFL). Peer-reviewed human dissection studies as well as in vivo experiments reporting intermuscular tension transfer between the constituents of a myofascial chain were included. To assess methodic quality, two independent investigators rated studies by means of validated assessment tools (QUACS and PEDro Scale). The literature research identified 1022 articles. Nine studies (moderate to excellent methodological quality) were included. Concerning the SBL and the BFL, there is moderate evidence for force transfer at all three transitions (based on six studies), and one of two transitions (three studies). One study yields moderate evidence for a slight, but not significant force transfer at one transition in the FFL. The findings of the present study indicate that tension can be transferred between some of the examined adjacent structures. Force transfer might have an impact in overuse conditions as well as on sports performance. However, different methods of force application and measurement hinder the comparability of results. Considering anatomical variations in the degree of continuity and histological differences of the linking structures is crucial for interpretation. Future studies should focus on the in vivo function of myofascial continuity during isolated active or passive tissue tensioning.

  16. Intermuscular force transmission along myofascial chains: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Frieder; Wilke, Jan; Vogt, Lutz; Banzer, Winfried

    2016-06-01

    The present review aims to provide a systematic overview on tensile transmission along myofascial chains based on anatomical dissection studies and in vivo experiments. Evidence for the existence of myofascial chains is growing, and the capability of force transmission via myofascial chains has been hypothesized. However, there is still a lack of evidence concerning the functional significance and capability for force transfer. A systematic literature research was conducted using MEDLINE (Pubmed), ScienceDirect and Google Scholar. Studied myofascial chains encompassed the superficial backline (SBL), the back functional line (BFL) and the front functional line (FFL). Peer-reviewed human dissection studies as well as in vivo experiments reporting intermuscular tension transfer between the constituents of a myofascial chain were included. To assess methodic quality, two independent investigators rated studies by means of validated assessment tools (QUACS and PEDro Scale). The literature research identified 1022 articles. Nine studies (moderate to excellent methodological quality) were included. Concerning the SBL and the BFL, there is moderate evidence for force transfer at all three transitions (based on six studies), and one of two transitions (three studies). One study yields moderate evidence for a slight, but not significant force transfer at one transition in the FFL. The findings of the present study indicate that tension can be transferred between some of the examined adjacent structures. Force transfer might have an impact in overuse conditions as well as on sports performance. However, different methods of force application and measurement hinder the comparability of results. Considering anatomical variations in the degree of continuity and histological differences of the linking structures is crucial for interpretation. Future studies should focus on the in vivo function of myofascial continuity during isolated active or passive tissue tensioning. PMID

  17. Botulinum Toxin for the Treatment of Myofascial Pain Syndromes Involving the Neck and Back: A Review from a Clinical Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    José M. Climent; Ta-Shen Kuan; Pedro Fenollosa; Francisco Martin-del-Rosario

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Botulinum toxin inhibits acetylcholine (ACh) release and probably blocks some nociceptive neurotransmitters. It has been suggested that the development of myofascial trigger points (MTrP) is related to an excess release of ACh to increase the number of sensitized nociceptors. Although the use of botulinum toxin to treat myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) has been investigated in many clinical trials, the results are contradictory. The objective of this paper is to identify sources o...

  18. The Kinesio Taping Method for Myofascial Pain Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Ting Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many people continue suffering from myofascial pain syndrome (MPS defined as a regional pain syndrome characterized by muscle pain caused by myofascial trigger points (MTrPs clinically. Muscle spasm and block of blood circulation can be noticed in the taut bands. In the MTrP region, nociceptors can be sensitized by the peripheral inflammatory factors and contracture of fascia can also be induced. Traditional treatments of MPS include stretching therapy, thermal treatment, electrical stimulation, massage, manipulation, trigger points injection, acupuncture, and medicine. However, the pain syndrome may not be relieved even under multiple therapies. Recently, the Kinesio Taping (KT method is popularly used in sports injuries, postoperative complications, and various pain problems, but little research is focused on MPS with KT method. In this paper, we review the research studies on the application to KT in treating MPS and other related issues. It appears that the KT application can elevate the subcutaneous space and then increase the blood circulation and lymph fluid drainage to reduce the chemical factors around the MTrP region. Therefore, it is suggested that KT method can be used as a regular treatment or added to the previous treatment for myofascial pain.

  19. Efficacy of Trigger Point Biopsy Combined with Injection Therapy in the Upper Trapezius Muscle for Myofascial Pain Syndrome%斜方肌激痛点活检复合注射疗法治疗肌筋膜疼痛综合征的疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭亚秋; 齐峰; 胡启雅; 王姿; 郭静旋; 黄海真; 丁超; 潘新; 张力

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to observe the efficacy of trigger point biopsy combined with injection therapy on the upper trapezius muscle for myofascial pain syndrome (MPS). Sixty patients of MPS were recruited and randomly divided equally into two groups. Group BI groupreceived myofascial trigger point (MTrP) biopsy plus injection therapy and group IT treated with MTrP injection therapy alone. The Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) was measured before the treatment, after the treatment immediately, and the day 7, 14, 21 and 28 after the treatment. The efficacy rate was evaluated up to three months after the treatment. Side effects were also observed during the treatment. The VAS in both groups decreased significantly after treatment (P<0. 05). The VAS in the group BI decreased significantly as compared to that in the group IT at day 14, 21, 28 after treatment (P< 0. 05). The effective rate was significantly higher than that in group IT three months after treatment (P<0. 05). Only one side effect appeared in group BI. Myofascial trigger point biopsy combined with analgesic injection therapy can provide an effective treatment for MPS than injection therapy alone.%观察斜方肌激痛点活检复合注射疗法治疗肌筋膜疼痛综合征(MPS)的疗效是否优于单纯注射治疗。选择MPS患者60例,随机分为激痛点活检复合镇痛液注射治疗组(BI组)和单纯镇痛液注射治疗组(IT组),每组30例。BI组患者行激痛点活检,并于活检处行镇痛液注射疗法;IT组患者仅于激痛点处行镇痛液注射治疗。评定患者治疗前和治疗后即刻、7天、14天、21天及28天疼痛视觉模拟评分(VAS),治疗后3个月的临床有效率以及和治疗有关的不良反应。结果两组治疗后VAS评分与治疗前相比均降低(P<0.05),从治疗后14天起BI组VAS评分低于IT组(P<0.05)。治疗3个月后BI组有效率高于IT组(P<0.05)。BI组出现1例不良反应患者。激痛点活

  20. 肌筋膜疼痛触发点配合经络穴位治疗腰背肌筋膜疼痛综合征的临床研究%Clinical Research of Muscular Fasciae Trigger Point Combined with Meridian Point in the Treatment of Lumbar Back Myofascial Pain Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    农洪升

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To study the clinical research of muscular fasciae trigger point combined with meridian point in the treatment of lumbar back Myofascial Pain Syndrome.Methods:200 cases with lumbar back myofascial pain syndrome were divided into control group and treatment group according to random number table method,100 cases in each group.The control group was treated with muscular fasciae trigger point.The treatment group was given additional meridian point treatment based on the control group.Both the two groups were given eight courses of treatment,each course 15 d.Compare the pain index,scleroma cords index,function index and efficient of two groups before and after the treatment.Results:The pain index,scleroma cords index,function index and efficient of two groups had greatly improved,the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05).The effective rate was 96.0% in treatment group and 82.0% in control group.Compared the efficient of two groups,the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05).Conclusion:Muscular fasciae trigger point combined with meridian point in the treatment of lumbar back Myofascial Pain Syndrome has obvious curative effect and high efficient.%目的:探讨肌筋膜疼痛触发点配合经络穴位治疗腰背肌筋膜疼痛综合征的临床疗效.方法:腰背肌筋膜疼痛综合征患者200例按随机数字表法分为对照组和治疗组,每组各100例.对照组采取肌筋膜疼痛触发点治疗技术进行治疗,治疗组在对照组的基础上配合经络穴位治疗.两组患者均治疗8个疗程,每个疗程15 d.治疗结束后,比较两组患者在治疗前后疼痛指数、硬结条索状物指数、功能状态指数及有效率.结果:两组患者各自在疼痛指数、功能状态指数以及硬结条索状物指数方面,治疗后都较治疗前有较大的改善,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).治疗组有效率为96.0%,对照组有效率为82.0%,两组有效率比

  1. 温和灸激痛点治疗肩背部肌筋膜疼痛综合征:随机对照研究%A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial for Treatment of Shoulder-back Myofascial Pain Syn-drome with Mild Moxibustion at Trigger Points

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王列; 马帅; 赵悦; 曹锐; 王颖; 马铁明

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the efficacy difference between the mild moxibustion and acupuncture stimulation at trigger points in the treatment of shoulder and back myofascial pain syndrome (MPS),so as to provide a reference for clinical treatment of MPS.Methods A total of 60 patients with shoulder and back MPS were equally and randomly divided into mild moxibustion group and acupuncture group.The myofascial trigger points in the shoulder and back regions were stimulated with mild moxibustion for 20- 1 00 min every time or punctured with filiform needles by retaining the needles for 30 min after twirling for a while.The treatment was conducted once daily for 1 0 days.The short-form McGill pain questionnaire (SF-MPQ)including the pain rating index [PRI consisting of 1 5 descriptors (1 1 sensory,4 affective)which are rated on an intensity scale as 0 = none,1 =mild,2=moderate and 3=severe],present pain intensity (PPI)index of the standard MPQ and a visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to assess the patient’s pain severity before and after the treatment.Results Following the treatment,of the two 30 cases of MPS patients in the acupuncture and mild moxibustion groups,1 and 7 were cured,1 1 and 1 7 experienced marked im-provement,1 4 and 5 were effective,4 and 1 was invalid,with the effective rates being 86.7% (26/30)and 96.7%(29/30),re-spectively.The cured plus markedly effective rate of the mild moxibustion group was significantly better than that of the acupunc-ture group(P 0.05).Conclusion Mild moxibustion stimulation of myofascial trigger point is effective in relieving shoulder-back MPS,being comparable to that of acupuncture therapy.%目的::比较温和灸与针刺激痛点治疗肩背部肌筋膜疼痛综合征(MPS)的疗效差异,为肩背部MPS 的治疗提供参考。方法:60例肩背部 MPS 患者随机分为温和灸组和针刺组,每组30例,两组均选取疼痛部位的激痛点进行治疗。温和灸组采用温和

  2. Influencia de la presión sobre la mucosa gingival en la medición algométrica de un punto gatillo miofascial del músculo masetero: Estudio aleatorio, cruzado, controlado The influence of pressure on the gingivae mucosa on the algometry measurement of the masseter´s myofascial trigger point: A Randomized Cross-Over Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. La Touche

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Este trabajo valora mediante una aplicación algométrica si la presión sobre la mucosa gingival de la zona de los molares mandibulares influye sobre el umbral del dolor a la presión (UDP de uno de los puntos gatillo miofasciales (PGMs del músculo masetero. Material y métodos: Se estudiaron un total de 38 pacientes que presentaban dolor orofacial por PGMs a nivel del músculo masetero. Se valoro el UDP por medio de algometría y la percepción de la intensidad del dolor (PID post-medición por medio de la Escala Visual Analógica (EVA. Todos los sujetos del estudio se utilizaron como grupo experimental y control; al grupo experimental se la aplicó una medición donde se evitaba generar presión sobre la mucosa gingival y al control una medición directa sobre PGM. El orden de aplicación de las mediciones se realizó por medio de una distribución aleatoria sistemática. Resultados: Se observaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre el UDP obtenido en el grupo experimental con respecto al control (P 0,05 y tampoco se apreció una correlación entre el UDP y la PID postmedición para el grupo experimental (r = -0,11, P = 0,5 ni para el caso del grupo control. (r = 0,15, P = 0,36. Conclusiones: Los resultados obtenidos demuestran que el evitar la presión sobre la mucosa gingival si influye en el valor de la medición algométrica, ya que aumenta el UDP de el PGM valorado en el músculo masetero. Sin embargo, es necesario realizar más investigaciones que puedan determinar la sensibilidad y la fiabilidad de este protocolo de medición antes de ser extrapolado a la clínica.Objective: Our study sets out to determine if the pressure on the gingivae mucosa of the lower molars influences the pressure pain threshold of one of the masseter's myofascial trigger point. Material and methods: A total of 38 subjects who had orofacial pain were included in the study. The masseter's myofascial trigger point was studied. The

  3. Efficacy of kinesio tape application on pain and muscle strength in patients with myofascial pain syndrome: a placebo-controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Gülcan; Külcü, Duygu Geler; Mesci, Nilgün; Şilte, Ayşe Duygu; Aydog, Ece

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the short- and mid-term effects of Kinesio taping on the trapezius muscle in individuals with myofascial pain syndrome. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-seven patients with active upper trapezius myofascial trigger points were randomly divided to 2 groups: group 1 received Kinesio taping for the upper trapezius muscle, and group 2 received a sham Kinesio taping application. Neck pain (Visual Analog Scale and pressure algometry) and trapezius muscle strength data were collected at baseline, immediately after Kinesio taping application, and at one month follow-up. [Results] The mean changes in Visual Analog Scale scores were significantly different between groups at T2 and T1, with less pain in group 1. The mean changes in algometry scores were significantly different between groups at T3 compared with T2 in favor of group 1. The mean changes in trapezius muscle strength were significantly different between the groups at T2 compared with T1 in favor of group 1. [Conclusion] Patients with myofascial pain syndrome receiving an application of Kinesio taping exhibited statistically significant improvements in pain and upper trapezius muscle strength. PMID:27190430

  4. Efficacy of kinesio tape application on pain and muscle strength in patients with myofascial pain syndrome: a placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Gülcan; Külcü, Duygu Geler; Mesci, Nilgün; Şilte, Ayşe Duygu; Aydog, Ece

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the short- and mid-term effects of Kinesio taping on the trapezius muscle in individuals with myofascial pain syndrome. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-seven patients with active upper trapezius myofascial trigger points were randomly divided to 2 groups: group 1 received Kinesio taping for the upper trapezius muscle, and group 2 received a sham Kinesio taping application. Neck pain (Visual Analog Scale and pressure algometry) and trapezius muscle strength data were collected at baseline, immediately after Kinesio taping application, and at one month follow-up. [Results] The mean changes in Visual Analog Scale scores were significantly different between groups at T2 and T1, with less pain in group 1. The mean changes in algometry scores were significantly different between groups at T3 compared with T2 in favor of group 1. The mean changes in trapezius muscle strength were significantly different between the groups at T2 compared with T1 in favor of group 1. [Conclusion] Patients with myofascial pain syndrome receiving an application of Kinesio taping exhibited statistically significant improvements in pain and upper trapezius muscle strength.

  5. Cinobufagin Modulates Human Innate Immune Responses and Triggers Antibacterial Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shanshan; Spelmink, Laura; Codemo, Mario; Subramanian, Karthik; Pütsep, Katrin; Henriques-Normark, Birgitta; Olliver, Marie

    2016-01-01

    The traditional Chinese medicine Chan-Su is widely used for treatment of cancer and cardiovascular diseases, but also as a remedy for infections such as furunculosis, tonsillitis and acute pharyngitis. The clinical use of Chan-Su suggests that it has anti-infective effects, however, the mechanism of action is incompletely understood. In particular, the effect on the human immune system is poorly defined. Here, we describe previously unrecognized immunomodulatory activities of cinobufagin (CBG), a major bioactive component of Chan-Su. Using human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs), we show that LPS-induced maturation and production of a number of cytokines was potently inhibited by CBG, which also had a pro-apoptotic effect, associated with activation of caspase-3. Interestingly, CBG triggered caspase-1 activation and significantly enhanced IL-1β production in LPS-stimulated cells. Finally, we demonstrate that CBG upregulates gene expression of the antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) hBD-2 and hBD-3 in DCs, and induces secretion of HNP1-3 and hCAP-18/LL-37 from neutrophils, potentiating neutrophil antibacterial activity. Taken together, our data indicate that CBG modulates the inflammatory phenotype of DCs in response to LPS, and triggers an antibacterial innate immune response, thus proposing possible mechanisms for the clinical effects of Chan-Su in anti-infective therapy. PMID:27529866

  6. Myofascial pain: from Virchow's to our days

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Egorov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Myalgia is not a definite nosological entity and fixes the attention of neurologists, rheumatologists, and physicians in other specialties. This is first of all associated with the high incidence of chronic pain syndrome that leads to long-term disability mainly in young and middle-aged persons. One of the most common reasons for seeking advice from a therapist and neurologist is low back pain that may be due to the involvement of three key anatomical players: facet joints (arthrosis treatment should make an emphasis on  hondroprotectors, intervertebral disks (in case of discopathy, clinicians tend to favor nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs – NSAIDs, and a muscular frame. In this case, two thirds of patients with pain syndromes in the trunk and limbs are found to have myofascial dysfunction that is defined as impaired function of one orother muscle, which occurs with its overload and manifests itself as muscle spasm and the presence of painful muscle infiltrations or local muscle hypertonus and trigger points in the tense muscles. Ignoring this fact gives rise to the irrational use of analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs and further to the increase of their doses because the treatment is ineffective. Modern-day therapy for myofascial syndrome is multimodal and encompasses physiotherapic and manual procedures and the use of myorelaxants rather than NSAIDs. To prescribe myorelaxants, it is necessary to understand their mechanisms of action and the effects of different agents in this group.

  7. [Myofascial pain syndrome--fascial muscle pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partanen, Juhani; Ojala, Tuula; Arokoski, Jari P A

    2010-01-01

    Symptoms of myofascial pain syndrome, i.e. fascial muscle pain may occur in several areas of the body, particularly in the neck-shoulder region. The muscle pain symptom in the neck-shoulder region is commonly termed tension neck pain or nonspecific neck pain, but myofascial pain syndrome can also be distinguished into its own diagnosis. This review deals with the clinical picture of myofascial pain syndrome along with pathophysiological hypotheses and treatment options.

  8. Triggering Comet-Like Activity of Main Belt Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighipour, N.; Maindl, T. I.; Schäfer, C.; Speith, R.; Dvorak, R.

    2016-01-01

    Main Belt Comets (MBCs) have attracted a great deal of interest since their identification as a new class of bodies by Hsieh and Jewitt in 2006. Much of this interest is due to the implication that MBC activity is driven by the sublimation of volatile material (presumed to be water-ice) presenting these bodies as probable candidates for the delivery of a significant fraction of Earth's water. Results of the studies of the dynamics of MBCs suggest that these objects might have formed in-situ as the remnants of the break-up of large icy asteroids. Simulations also show that collisions among MBCs and small objects could have played an important role in triggering the cometary activity of these bodies. Such collisions might have exposed sub-surface water-ice which sublimated and created thin atmospheres and tails around MBCs. In order to drive the effort of understanding the nature of the activation of MBCs, we have investigated these collision processes by simulating the impacts in detail using a smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) approach that includes material strength and fracture models. We have carried out simulations for a range of impact velocities and angles, allowing m-sized impactors to erode enough of an MBC's surface to expose volatiles and trigger its activation. Impact velocities were varied between 0.5 km/s and 5.3 km/s, and the projectile radius was chosen to be 1 m. As expected, we observe significantly different crater depths depending on the impact energy, impact angle, and MBC's material strength. Results show that for all values of impact velocity and angle, crater depths are only a few meters, implying that if the activity of MBCs is due to the sublimation of water-ice, ice has to exist in no deeper than a few meters from the surface. We present details of our simulations and discuss the implications of their results.

  9. Myofascial pain syndrome and its suggested role in the pathogenesis and treatment of fibromyalgia syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Helgard P

    2002-08-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome is a chronic muscle pain disorder in one or more muscles or groups of muscles accompanied by local and referred pain, decreased range of motion, weakness, and often autonomic phenomena. Patients are readily recognized by their history of muscle pain and the presence of myofascial trigger points, which are specific areas of hyperirritability in a muscle that cause local and referred pain on palpation. Failure to recognize MPS often leads to over-investigation, unnecessary medical intervention, and iatrogenic harm with serious cost implications. The purpose of this review is to present clinically relevant data regarding myofascial pain syndrome and to discuss its possible role in the pathophysiology and optimal treatment of fibromyalgia syndrome.

  10. Update on the efficacy of extracorporeal shockwave treatment for myofascial pain syndrome and fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramon, Silvia; Gleitz, Markus; Hernandez, Leonor; Romero, Luis David

    2015-12-01

    Chronic muscle pain syndrome is one of the main causes of musculoskeletal pathologies requiring treatment. Many terms have been used in the past to describe painful muscular syndromes in the absence of evident local nociception such as myogelosis, muscle hardening, myalgia, muscular rheumatism, fibrositis or myofascial trigger point with or without referred pain. If it persists over six months or more, it often becomes therapy resistant and frequently results in chronic generalized pain, characterized by a high degree of subjective suffering. Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is defined as a series of sensory, motor, and autonomic symptoms caused by a stiffness of the muscle, caused by hyperirritable nodules in musculoskeletal fibers, known as myofascial trigger points (MTP), and fascial constrictions. Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic condition that involves both central and peripheral sensitization and for which no curative treatment is available at the present time. Fibromyalgia shares some of the features of MPS, such as hyperirritability. Many treatments options have been described for muscle pain syndrome, with differing evidence of efficacy. Extracorporeal Shockwave Treatment (ESWT) offers a new and promising treatment for muscular disorders. We will review the existing bibliography on the evidence of the efficacy of ESWT for MPS, paying particular attention to MTP (Myofascial Trigger Point) and Fibromyalgia (FM).

  11. A critical overview of current myofascial pain literature - March 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommerholt, Jan; Layton, Michelle; Hooks, Todd; Grieve, Rob

    2015-04-01

    The second article in this review series considers multiple recent publications about myofascial pain, trigger points (TrPs) and other related topics. The article is divided into several sections, including a Basic Research section (4 articles), a section on Soft Tissue Approaches (5 articles), a Dry Needling and Acupuncture section (7 articles), an Injection section (2 articles), a section on. Modalities (1 article), Other Clinical Approaches (3 articles) and finally a Reviews section (7 articles). The thirty publications reviewed in this article originated in all corners of the world. PMID:25892390

  12. Myofascial pain syndrome: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Anudeep; Chansoria, Mayank; Tomar, Gaurav; Kumar, Abhyuday

    2015-03-01

    Over the last few decades, advances have been made in the understanding of myofascial pain syndromes (MPSs). In spite of its high prevalence in the society, it is not a commonly established diagnosis. MPS is said to be the great imitator. This article puts some light on the various clinical presentations of the syndrome, on the various tools to reach to a diagnosis for commencing the treatment and on the treatment modalities that have been used so far.

  13. Triggering Comet-Like Activity of Main Belt Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighipour, Nader; Maindl, Thomas I.; Schaefer, Christoph; Speith, Roland; Dvorak, Rudolf

    2016-10-01

    Main-belt comets (MBCs) have attracted a great deal of interest since their identification as activated asteroids by Hsieh and Jewitt in 2006. It has been suggested that the comet-like activity of these objects are due to the sublimation of sub-surface water-ice that has been exposed as a result of their surfaces being impacted by small (e.g, m-sized) bodies. We have examined the viability of this scenario by simulating impacts between m-sized impactors and km-sized targets using a smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) approach. We have carried out simulations for a range of impact velocities and angles, material type and strength, and water content of the target allowing m-sized impactors to erode enough of an MBC's surface to trigger its activation. Results indicate that for the range of impact velocities corresponding to those in the asteroid belt, the depth of an impact crater is slightly larger than 10 m suggesting that if the activation of MBCs is due to the sublimation of sub-surface water-ice, this ice has to exist no deeper than a few meters from the surface. Our simulations point to a clearly notable spread in the aggregated crater depths due to different impact energy, impact angles, and MBC's water contents showing deeper craters due to less overall material strength. Results also show that ice-exposure occurs in the bottom and on the interior surface of impact craters as well as the surface of the target where some of the ejected icy inclusions are re-accreted. Our results, in addition to demonstrating that the impact scenario is indeed a viable mechanism to expose ice and trigger the activity of MBCs, indicate that the activity of the current MBCs is likely due to ice sublimation from multiple impact sites and/or the water contents of these objects (and other asteroids in the outer asteroid belt) is larger than the 5% that is traditionally considered in models of terrestrial planet formation. We present details of our simulations and discuss their

  14. [Myofascial pain syndrome--frequent occurrence and often misdiagnosed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongratz, D E; Späth, M

    1998-09-30

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is a very common localized--sometimes also polytopic--painful musculoskeletal condition associated with trigger points, for which, however, diagnostic criteria established in well-designed studies are still lacking. These two facts form the basis for differentiating between MPS and the fibromyalgia syndrome. The difference between trigger points (MPS) and tender points (fibromyalgia) is of central importance--not merely in a linguistic sense. A knowledge of the signs and symptoms typically associated with a trigger point often obviates the need for time-consuming and expensive technical diagnostic measures. The assumption that many cases of unspecific complaints affecting the musculoskeletal system may be ascribed to MPS makes clear the scope for the saving of costs.

  15. Contributions of myofascial pain in diagnosis and treatment of shoulder pain. A randomized control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaspar-Calvo Elena

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rotator cuff tendinopathy and subacromial impingement syndrome present complex patomechanical situations, frequent difficulties in clinical diagnosis and lack of effectiveness in treatment. Based on clinical experience, we have therefore considered the existence of another pathological entity as the possible origin of pain and dysfunction. The hypothesis of this study is to relate subacromial impingement syndrome (SIS with myofascial pain syndrome (MPS, since myofascial trigger points (MTrPs cause pain, functional limitation, lack of coordination and alterations in quality of movement, even prior to a tendinopathy. MTrPs can coexist with any degenerative subacromial condition. If they are not taken into consideration, they could perpetuate and aggravate the problem, hindering diagnosis and making the applied treatments ineffective. The aims and methods of this study are related with providing evidence of the relationship that may exist between this condition and MPS in the diagnosis and treatment of rotator cuff tendonitis and/or SIS. Method/design A descriptive transversal study will be made to find the correlation between the diagnosis of SIS and rotator cuff tendonitis, positive provocation test responses, the existence of active MTrPs and the results obtained with ultrasonography (US and Magnetic Renonance Imaging (MRI. A randomized double blinded clinical trial will be carried out in experimental conditions: A Protocolized treatment based on active and passive joint repositioning, stabilization exercises, stretching of the periarticular shoulder muscles and postural reeducation. B. The previously described protocolized treatment, with the addition of dry needling applied to active MTrPs with the purpose of isolating the efficacy of dry needling in treatment. Discussion This study aims to provide a new vision of shoulder pain, from the perspective of MPS. This syndrome can, by itself, account for shoulder pain and

  16. Triggering Sublimation-driven Activity of Main Belt Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighipour, N.; Maindl, T. I.; Schäfer, C.; Speith, R.; Dvorak, R.

    2016-10-01

    It has been suggested that the comet-like activity of main belt comets (MBCs) is due to the sublimation of sub-surface water–ice that has been exposed as a result of their surfaces being impacted by meter-sized bodies. We have examined the viability of this scenario by simulating impacts between meter-sized and kilometer-sized objects using a smooth particle hydrodynamics approach. Simulations have been carried out for different values of the impact velocity and impact angle, as well as different target material and water-mass fractions. Results indicate that for the range of impact velocities corresponding to those in the asteroid belt, the depth of an impact crater is slightly larger than 10 m, suggesting that if the activation of MBCs is due to the sublimation of sub-surface water–ice, this ice has to exist no deeper than a few meters from the surface. Results also show that ice exposure occurs in the bottom and on the interior surface of impact craters, as well as on the surface of the target where some of the ejected icy inclusions are re-accreted. While our results demonstrate that the impact scenario is indeed a viable mechanism to expose ice and trigger the activity of MBCs, they also indicate that the activity of the current MBCs is likely due to ice sublimation from multiple impact sites and/or the water contents of these objects (and other asteroids in the outer asteroid belt) is larger than the 5% that is traditionally considered in models of terrestrial planet formation, providing more ice for sublimation. We present the details of our simulations and discuss their results and implications.

  17. Actively triggered 4d cone-beam CT acquisition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fast, Martin F.; Wisotzky, Eric [German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Oelfke, Uwe; Nill, Simeon [Joint Department of Physics, The Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Downs Road, Sutton, Surrey SM2 5PT (United Kingdom)

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: 4d cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans are usually reconstructed by extracting the motion information from the 2d projections or an external surrogate signal, and binning the individual projections into multiple respiratory phases. In this “after-the-fact” binning approach, however, projections are unevenly distributed over respiratory phases resulting in inefficient utilization of imaging dose. To avoid excess dose in certain respiratory phases, and poor image quality due to a lack of projections in others, the authors have developed a novel 4d CBCT acquisition framework which actively triggers 2d projections based on the forward-predicted position of the tumor.Methods: The forward-prediction of the tumor position was independently established using either (i) an electromagnetic (EM) tracking system based on implanted EM-transponders which act as a surrogate for the tumor position, or (ii) an external motion sensor measuring the chest-wall displacement and correlating this external motion to the phase-shifted diaphragm motion derived from the acquired images. In order to avoid EM-induced artifacts in the imaging detector, the authors devised a simple but effective “Faraday” shielding cage. The authors demonstrated the feasibility of their acquisition strategy by scanning an anthropomorphic lung phantom moving on 1d or 2d sinusoidal trajectories.Results: With both tumor position devices, the authors were able to acquire 4d CBCTs free of motion blurring. For scans based on the EM tracking system, reconstruction artifacts stemming from the presence of the EM-array and the EM-transponders were greatly reduced using newly developed correction algorithms. By tuning the imaging frequency independently for each respiratory phase prior to acquisition, it was possible to harmonize the number of projections over respiratory phases. Depending on the breathing period (3.5 or 5 s) and the gantry rotation time (4 or 5 min), between ∼90 and 145

  18. Sunspot Waves and Triggering of Homologous Active Region Jets

    CERN Document Server

    Chandra, Ramesh; Mulay, Sargam; Tripathi, Durgesh

    2014-01-01

    We present and discuss multi-wavelength observations of five homologous recurrent solar jets that occurred in active region NOAA 11133 on 11 December, 2010. These jets were well observed by the Solar Dynamic observatory (SDO) with high spatial and temporal resolution. The speed of the jets ranged between 86 and 267 km/s. A type III radio burst was observed in association with all the five jets. The investigation of the over all evolution of magnetic field in the source regions suggested that the flux was continuously emerging on longer term. However, all the jets but J5 were triggered during a local dip in the magnetic flux, suggesting the launch of the jets during localised submergence of magnetic flux. Additionally, using the PFSS modelling of the photospheric magnetic field, we found that all the jets were ejected in the direction of open field lines. We also traced sunspot oscillations from the sunspot interior to foot-point of jets and found presence of ~ 3 minute oscillations in all the SDO/AIA passband...

  19. DMPD: Triggering the innate antiviral response through IRF-3 activation. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17395583 Triggering the innate antiviral response through IRF-3 activation. Hiscott...g the innate antiviral response through IRF-3 activation. PubmedID 17395583 Title Triggering the innate anti...viral response through IRF-3 activation. Authors Hiscott J. Publication J Biol Ch

  20. The Effect of Dry Needling on Range of Motion of Neck Lateral Flexion in Subjects With Active Trigger Point in Upper Trapezius Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziaeifar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Myofascial trigger point is one of the most common causes of musculoskeletal disorders. Myofascial trigger point in upper trapezius has been reported as a symptom in patients with neck and upper thoracic pain. Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of dry needling compared with ischemic pressure on trigger point in upper trapezius muscle. Materials and Methods 28 subjects with myofascial trigger point in upper trapezius participated in this study. The subjects were randomly assigned to two groups: dry needling (n = 13 and ischemic pressure (n = 15. The neck lateral flexion range of motion was measured before and after treatment in both groups using a standard goniometer. Paired t-test was used to determine any significant difference in range of motion after treatment sessions compared with pre-treatment score in control and experimental group. Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA was calculated to determine the significance of differences between the control and experimental groups in post-test scores, with pre-treatment scores used as covariates in the analysis. Results Statistical analysis (paired t-test revealed significant increase in neck lateral flexion range of motion in contra-lateral side after treatment sessions in control and experimental group compared with pre-treatment score (P < 0.05. However, only dry needling was effective in increase of range of motion in Ipsi-lateral side (P = 0.001. In the ANCOVA, controlling for pre-test scores, no significant difference was found between the two groups in the after treatment sessions (P = 0.06 and (P = 0.15. Conclusions The application of DN produces an improvement in ILF and CLF can be prescribed for subjects with MTP in UT muscles.

  1. A critical overview of the current myofascial pain literature - October 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommerholt, Jan; Grieve, Rob; Hooks, Todd; Layton, Michelle

    2015-10-01

    The number of publications about myofascial pain and trigger points (TrP) seems to increase every year. In the current overview we include 27 articles published in past months. The Basic Review section includes articles about the presence and characteristics of TrPs in various neck and shoulder muscles, the correlation between referred pain from active TrPs and knee osteoarthritis, and an anatomical study exploring whether the location of TrPs may be related to the nerve innervation of muscles. Zuil-Escobar and colleagues from Spain considered the intra-rater reliability of the identification of latent TrPs in several leg muscles and the possible correlation of TrP and the presence of a lower medial longitudinal arch. In the section on manual approaches, contributing author Rob Grieve and colleagues continue their studies of TrPs in the lower extremity muscles, while Méndez-Rebolledo and colleagues studied the impact of cross taping and compression. Dry needling (DN) continues to be a topic of interest. We included twelve papers addressing a wide range of topics, such as the effectiveness and safety of DN, and the impact of DN on proprioception, spasticity, and fibromyalgia. Two papers investigated the utilization of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and laser on TrPs, The final section on other clinical studies and reviews includes 8 papers. The studies originated in thirteen different countries with Spain leading the charts with 7 contributions to the literature, followed by Brazil with four. As we have mentioned in previous editions of this literature overview, many studies suffer from very small sample sizes, which makes it difficult to reach definitive conclusions. Nevertheless, myofascial pain continues to be a topic of interest to researchers and clinicians around the globe. PMID:26592232

  2. Myofascial Pain: Mechanisms to Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricton, James

    2016-08-01

    More than 100 million adults in the United States have chronic pain conditions, costing more than $500 billion annually in medical care and lost productivity. They are the most common reason for seeking health care, for disability and addiction, and the highest driver of health care costs. Myofascial pain is the most common condition causing chronic pain and can be diagnosed through identifying clinical characteristics and muscle palpation. Management is focused on integrating patient training in changing lifestyle risk factors with evidence-based treatment. Understanding the cause, diagnosis, and management of myopain conditions will help prevent the impact of chronic pain.

  3. Ultrasound imaging of embedded shrapnel facilitates diagnosis and management of myofascial pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Hariharan; Cummings, Craig

    2013-06-01

    Trigger points can result from a variety of inciting events including muscle overuse, trauma, mechanical overload, and psychological stress. When the myofascial trigger points occur in cervical musculature, they have been known to cause headaches. Ultrasound imaging is being increasingly used for the diagnosis and interventional management of various painful conditions. A veteran was referred to the pain clinic for management of his severe headache following a gunshot wound to the neck with shrapnel embedded in the neck muscles a few years prior to presentation. He had no other comorbid conditions. Physical examination revealed a taut band in the neck. An ultrasound imaging of the neck over the taut band revealed the deformed shrapnel located within the levator scapulae muscle along with an associated trigger point in the same muscle. Ultrasound guided trigger point injection, followed by physical therapy resolved his symptoms. This is a unique report of embedded shrapnel and coexisting myofascial pain syndrome revealed by ultrasound imaging. The association between shrapnel and myofascial pain syndrome requires further investigation.

  4. Basic principles of renewal of sportsmen with myofascial by a pain syndrome taking into account the psychological aspect of their rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kharchenko G.D.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to examine and learn the fundamentals of the recovery of athletes with myofascial pain syndrome, taking into account the psychological aspect of their rehabilitation. Material: the data analyzed and summarized the scientific and methodological literature; sites on the internet. Results: the analysis of specialized literature on development features myofascial pain syndrome in athletes. Myofascial pain syndrome is widespread in sports practice. It is characterized by muscle spasms and trigger points, palpation of which there is a growing pain. The basic principles of the recovery of athletes with myofascial pain syndrome. The questions of the effectiveness of rehabilitation measures, taking into account the influence of psychological factors on the recovery of athletes. Conclusions: the presented strategy is comprehensive physical rehabilitation. Recommended keeping the basic principles of the recovery of athletes and the psychological aspect of their rehabilitation.

  5. Cellular Mechanisms of Calcium-Mediated Triggered Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhen

    Life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias continue to pose a major health problem. Ventricular fibrillation, which is a complex form of electrical wave turbulence in the lower chambers of the heart, stops the heart from pumping and is the largest cause of natural death in the United States. Atrial fibrillation, a related form of wave turbulence in the upper heart chambers, is in turn the most common arrhythmia diagnosed in clinical practice. Despite extensive research to date, mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmias remain poorly understood. It is well established that both spatial disorder of the refractory period of heart cells and triggered activity (TA) jointly contribute to the initiation and maintenance of arrhythmias. TA broadly refers to the abnormal generation of a single or a sequence of abnormal excitation waves from a small submillimeter region of the heart in the interval of time between two normal waves generated by the heart's natural pacemaker (the sinoatrial node). TA has been widely investigated experimentally and occurs in several pathological conditions where the intracellular concentration of free Ca2+ ions in heart cells becomes elevated. Under such conditions, Ca2+ can be spontaneously released from intracellular stores, thereby driving an electrogenic current that exchanges 3Na+ ions for one Ca2+ ion across the cell membrane. This current in turn depolarizes the membrane of heart cells after a normal excitation. If this calcium-mediated "delayed after depolarization'' (DAD) is sufficiently large, it can generate an action potential. While the arrhythmogenic importance of spontaneous Ca2+ release and DADs is well appreciated, the conditions under which they occur in heart pathologies remain poorly understood. Calcium overload is only one factor among several other factors that can promote DADs, including sympathetic nerve stimulation, different expression levels of membrane ion channels and calcium handling proteins, and different mutations of those

  6. Myofascial Pain Syndrome in Chronic Back Pain Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizar, Abd Jalil

    2011-01-01

    Background Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is a regional musculoskeletal pain disorder that is caused by myofascial trigger points. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of MPS among chronic back pain patients, as well as to identify risk factors and the outcome of this disorder. Methods This was a prospective observational study involving 126 patients who attended the Pain Management Unit for chronic back pain between 1st January 2009 and 31st December 2009. Data examined included demographic features of patients, duration of back pain, muscle(s) involved, primary diagnosis, treatment modality and response to treatment. Results The prevalence of MPS among chronic back pain patients was 63.5% (n = 80). Secondary MPS was more common than primary MPS, making up 81.3% of the total MPS. There was an association between female gender and risk of developing MPS (χ2 = 5.38, P = 0.02, O.R. = 2.4). Occupation, body mass index and duration of back pain were not significantly associated with MPS occurrence. Repeated measures analysis showed significant changes (P pain patients was significantly high, with female gender being a significant risk factor. With proper diagnosis and expert management, MPS has a favourable outcome. PMID:21716607

  7. Probable Mechanisms of Needling Therapies for Myofascial Pain Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Wei Chou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS has been defined as a regional pain syndrome characterized by muscle pain caused by myofascial trigger points (MTrPs clinically. MTrP is defined as the hyperirritable spot in a palpable taut band of skeletal muscle fibers. Appropriate treatment to MTrPs can effectively relieve the clinical pain of MPS. Needling therapies, such as MTrP injection, dry needling, or acupuncture (AcP can effectively eliminate pain immediately. AcP is probably the first reported technique in treating MPS patients with dry needling based on the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM theory. The possible mechanism of AcP analgesia were studied and published in recent decades. The analgesic effect of AcP is hypothesized to be related to immune, hormonal, and nervous systems. Compared to slow-acting hormonal system, nervous system acts in a faster manner. Given these complexities, AcP analgesia cannot be explained by any single mechanism. There are several principles for selection of acupoints based on the TCM principles: “Ah-Shi” point, proximal or remote acupoints on the meridian, and extra-meridian acupoints. Correlations between acupoints and MTrPs are discussed. Some clinical and animal studies of remote AcP for MTrPs and the possible mechanisms of remote effectiveness are reviewed and discussed.

  8. Demographics features, clinical findings and functional status in a group of subjects with cervical myofascial pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Nilay; Karataş, Omer; Ozkaya, Murat; Cakmak, Ayşegül; Berker, Ender

    2008-07-01

    Subjects with myofascial pain of muscles of the neck region may present with various clinical symptoms. The aim of this study was to explore the demographics features, clinical findings and functional status in a group of patients presenting with myofascial pain of the cervical muscles. 94 cervical myofascial pain syndrome patients were recruited from the out-patient clinic. Evaluated of patient short form health survey (SF-36), pain, depression, patient demographics and physical examinations. Outcome measures; SF-36 Health Survey, visual analog scale, Beck Depression Inventory, history, physical examination. A total of 82 patients with a diagnosis of cervical myofascial syndrome were included in the study. All patients were in the young age group 37.4+/-9, and 87.8% were females. 53.1% had trigger points in the trapezius muscle with high percentage of autonomic phenomena like skin reddening, lacrimation, tinnitus and vertigo. 58.5% of the series had suffered from former cervical trauma and 40.2% also had fibromyalgia syndrome and 18.5% had benign Joint hypermobility syndrome. Younger female patients presenting with autonomic phenomena and early onset cervical injury should be examined for cervical myofascial pain syndrome and also for fibromyalgia syndrome since this study demonstrated a high percentage of fibromyalgia syndrome in these patients.

  9. Usefulness of diagnostic ultrasound for detecting myofascial change of the hamstring muscles due to lmmobilization: Experimental study with caged rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Yoon Kyoo; Kim, Joo Hyun; Lee, Chang Hyung; Kim, Jung Ryul; Kim, Han Kyum [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    To evaluate the usefulness of diagnostic ultrasound in the localization of soft tissue changes in the region of clinically suspected myofascial pain syndrome and to investigate the ultrasonographic and pathologic differences of the hamstring muscles between caged and freely mobile rabbits. A total of eight caged rabbits were used in this study. Four rabbits (age; two were 3-4 months, and the other two were 8-9 months) were raised in a small cage (40 X 50 X 30 cm), and the other four rabbits (age; two were 3-4 months while the other two 8-9 months) raised in a yard where they were free to move around. First, clinically identified myofascial trigger point-taut band or nodule was identified followed by diagnostic ultrasound examination of the hamstring and gluteus muscles and injection of Indian ink of the band or nodule. Biopsies were performed to include the hyperechoic regions as well as clinically identified myofascial trigger points, and the obtained specimens were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and masson-trichrome. The analysis of the results of the ultrasound study and pathologic study found correlation between the pathologic identification of myofascial trigger point and diagnostic ultrasound, where palpable nodules of caged animal, older more than younger one should greater extent of increment of echogenicity and degenerative pathologic changes such as fatty changes and appearance of hyaline fibers. Diagnostic ultrasound could be applied to identify or observe soft tissue changes in the regions of clinically identified myofascial trigger points. A pattern has emerged where soft tissue changes were ore likely to be observed in the caged animal where their movements were restricted and prone to fixed position. Further study to investigate the reversibility of pathologic changes of caged animal should be carried out.

  10. A New Algorithm to Detect the Non-Termination of Triggers in Active Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. R.Manicka chezian

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Active Databases are a combination of traditional static databases and active rules, meant to be automated mechanisms to maintain integrity and facilitate in providing database functionalities. Active database systems can react to the occurrence of some predefined events automatically. In many applications, active rules or triggers may interact in complex and sometimes unpredictable ways, thus possibly yielding infinite rule executions by triggering each other indefinitely causing nontermination. The termination of active rules is an unpredictable problem, except when rule languages with very limited number of rules are used. This paper presents new algorithms for detecting termination / non-termination of rule execution using triggering graph and complex triggering graph, and these algorithms do not pose any limitation on the number of rules.

  11. Dynamic triggering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, David P.; Prejean, Stephanie; Schubert, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic stresses propagating as seismic waves from large earthquakes trigger a spectrum of responses at global distances. In addition to locally triggered earthquakes in a variety of tectonic environments, dynamic stresses trigger tectonic (nonvolcanic) tremor in the brittle–plastic transition zone along major plate-boundary faults, activity changes in hydrothermal and volcanic systems, and, in hydrologic domains, changes in spring discharge, water well levels, soil liquefaction, and the eruption of mud volcanoes. Surface waves with periods of 15–200 s are the most effective triggering agents; body-wave trigger is less frequent. Triggering dynamic stresses can be < 1 kPa.

  12. Myofascial force transmission via extramuscular pathways occurs between antagonistic muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijing, Peter A; Baan, Guus C

    2008-01-01

    Most often muscles (as organs) are viewed as independent actuators. To test if this is true for antagonistic muscles, force was measured simultaneously at: (1) the proximal and distal tendons of the extensor digitorum muscle (EDL) to quantify any proximo-distal force differences, as an indicator of myofascial force transmission, (2) at the distal tendons of the whole antagonistic peroneal muscle group (PER) to test if effects of EDL length changes are present and (3) at the proximal end of the tibia to test if myofascially transmitted force is exerted there. EDL length was manipulated either at the proximal or distal tendons. This way equal EDL lengths are attained at two different positions of the muscle with respect to the tibia and antagonistic muscles. Despite its relatively small size, lengthening of the EDL changed forces exerted on the tibia and forces exerted by its antagonistic muscle group. Apart from its extramuscular myofascial connections, EDL has no connections to either the tibia or these antagonistic muscles. Proximal EDL lengthening increased distal muscular forces (active PER DeltaF approximately +1.7%), but decreased tibial forces (passive from 0.3 to 0 N; active DeltaF approximately -5%). Therefore, it is concluded that these antagonistic muscles do not act independently, because of myofascial force transmission between them. Such a decrease in tibial force indicates release of pre-strained connections. Distal EDL lengthening had opposite effects (tripling passive force exerted on tibia; active PER force DeltaF approximately -3.6%). It is concluded that the length and relative position of the EDL is a co-determinant of passive and active force exerted at tendons of nearby antagonistic muscle groups. These results necessitate a new view of the locomotor apparatus, which needs to take into account the high interdependence of muscles and muscle fibres as force generators, as well as proximo-distal force differences and serial and parallel

  13. Botulinum toxin for the treatment of myofascial pain syndromes involving the neck and back: a review from a clinical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climent, José M; Kuan, Ta-Shen; Fenollosa, Pedro; Martin-Del-Rosario, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Botulinum toxin inhibits acetylcholine (ACh) release and probably blocks some nociceptive neurotransmitters. It has been suggested that the development of myofascial trigger points (MTrP) is related to an excess release of ACh to increase the number of sensitized nociceptors. Although the use of botulinum toxin to treat myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) has been investigated in many clinical trials, the results are contradictory. The objective of this paper is to identify sources of variability that could explain these differences in the results. Material and Methods. We performed a content analysis of the clinical trials and systematic reviews of MPS. Results and Discussion. Sources of differences in studies were found in the diagnostic and selection criteria, the muscles injected, the injection technique, the number of trigger points injected, the dosage of botulinum toxin used, treatments for control group, outcome measures, and duration of followup. The contradictory results regarding the efficacy of botulinum toxin A in MPS associated with neck and back pain do not allow this treatment to be recommended or rejected. There is evidence that botulinum toxin could be useful in specific myofascial regions such as piriformis syndrome. It could also be useful in patients with refractory MPS that has not responded to other myofascial injection therapies.

  14. Botulinum Toxin for the Treatment of Myofascial Pain Syndromes Involving the Neck and Back: A Review from a Clinical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Climent

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Botulinum toxin inhibits acetylcholine (ACh release and probably blocks some nociceptive neurotransmitters. It has been suggested that the development of myofascial trigger points (MTrP is related to an excess release of ACh to increase the number of sensitized nociceptors. Although the use of botulinum toxin to treat myofascial pain syndrome (MPS has been investigated in many clinical trials, the results are contradictory. The objective of this paper is to identify sources of variability that could explain these differences in the results. Material and Methods. We performed a content analysis of the clinical trials and systematic reviews of MPS. Results and Discussion. Sources of differences in studies were found in the diagnostic and selection criteria, the muscles injected, the injection technique, the number of trigger points injected, the dosage of botulinum toxin used, treatments for control group, outcome measures, and duration of followup. The contradictory results regarding the efficacy of botulinum toxin A in MPS associated with neck and back pain do not allow this treatment to be recommended or rejected. There is evidence that botulinum toxin could be useful in specific myofascial regions such as piriformis syndrome. It could also be useful in patients with refractory MPS that has not responded to other myofascial injection therapies.

  15. Ultrasonic tissue characterization of the upper trapezius muscle in patients with myofascial pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turo, Diego; Otto, Paul; Shah, Jay P; Heimur, Juliana; Gebreab, Tadesse; Armstrong, Katherine; Gerber, Lynn H; Sikdar, Siddhartha

    2012-01-01

    Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) are palpable, tender nodules in skeletal muscle that produce symptomatic referred pain when palpated. MTrPs are characteristic findings in myofascial pain syndrome (MPS). The role of MTrPs in the pathophysiology of MPS is unknown. Objective characterization and quantitative measurement of the properties of MTrPs can improve their localization and diagnosis, as well as lead to clinical outcome measures. MTrPs associated with soft tissue neck pain are often found in the upper trapezius muscle. We have previously demonstrated that MTrPs can be visualized using ultrasound imaging. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether texture-based image analysis can differentiate structural heterogeneity of symptomatic MTrPs and normal muscle.

  16. Myofascial release of carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucher, B M

    1993-01-01

    Current treatment for carpal tunnel syndrome may be ineffective or associated with complications or recurrence. In the case reported here, a myofascial release by the physician combined with the patient's self-stretch reduced pain and numbness and improved electromyographic results. The manipulative approach releases the transverse carpal ligament,-and "opens" or dilates the canal. The patient stretches the wrist, digits, and thumb, including myofascial components. An aggressive, conservative approach lessens the need for surgery in mild to moderate cases. Studies with magnetic resonance imaging may be helpful to document canal size before and after treatment.

  17. Myofascial Pain Dysfunction Syndrome (MPDS

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    Hamed Mortazavi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Myofascial Pain Dysfunction Syndrome (MPDS is one of the most important causes of the orofacial pain. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate 40 related variables in this regard. Materials and Methods: Thirty nine patients with MPDS were evaluated in this study. Different factors including age, gender, occupation, marital status, sensitivity of masticatory muscles, maximum opening of the mouth, deviation, deflection, involvement of temporomandibular joint, habit, parafunction, malocclusion, neck pain, headache, earache and history of jaw involvement, etc were analyzed in this  evaluation. Results: In our study, 39 patients (32 females and 7 males, 20-40 years old, with the average age of 35 ± 13.32 years were studied. 51% were housewives and 74.4% were married. The most common involvements were Clicking (74.4%, pain in temporomandibular joint (54%, headache (46.2%, earache (41%, neck-pain (35.9%, trouble in the mouth opening (71.8%, malocclusion Class I (74.4%, cross bite and deep bite (25%, clenching (64.1% and involvement of masseter and lateral pterygoid muscle (84%. Conclusion: Since MPDS consists of variable symptoms, it might be very difficult to provide any definite diagnosis and treatment. Therefore the more the specialists extend their knowledge and information about this disorder, the more they will make the best decision in this regard.

  18. TLR2 is a primary receptor for Alzheimer's amyloid beta peptide to trigger neuroinflammatory activation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, S.; Liu, Y.; Hao, W.; Wolf, L.; Kiliaan, A.J.; Penke, B.; Rube, C.E.; Walter, J.; Heneka, M.T.; Hartmann, T.; Menger, M.D.; Fassbender, K.

    2012-01-01

    Microglia activated by extracellularly deposited amyloid beta peptide (Abeta) act as a two-edged sword in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis: on the one hand, they damage neurons by releasing neurotoxic proinflammatory mediators (M1 activation); on the other hand, they protect neurons by triggering an

  19. Triggering Sublimation-Driven Activity of Main Belt Comets

    CERN Document Server

    Haghighipour, Nader; Schaefer, Christoph; Speith, Roland; Dvorak, Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that the comet-like activity of Main Belt Comets are due to the sublimation of sub-surface water-ice that has been exposed as a result of their surfaces being impacted by m-sized bodies. We have examined the viability of this scenario by simulating impacts between m-sized and km-sized objects using a smooth particle hydrodynamics approach. Simulations have been carried out for different values of the impact velocity and impact angle as well as different target material and water-mass fraction. Results indicate that for the range of impact velocities corresponding to those in the asteroid belt, the depth of an impact crater is slightly larger than 10 m suggesting that if the activation of MBCs is due to the sublimation of sub-surface water-ice, this ice has to exist no deeper than a few meters from the surface. Results also show that ice-exposure occurs in the bottom and on the interior surface of impact craters as well as the surface of the target where some of the ejected icy inclusions...

  20. Chronic refractory myofascial pain and denervation supersensitivity as global public health disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, J; Bruyninckx, F; Neuhauser, D V

    2016-01-01

    Chronic pain with a 30.3% global prevalence significantly impacts universal health. Low back pain has a 9.4% prevalence worldwide causing the most widespread disability. Neck pain ranks 4th highest regarding years lived with disability with a 4.9% prevalence worldwide. The principal cause of pain in 85% of patients visiting a tertiary pain clinic has a myofascial origin. The root cause is multifocal neuromuscular ischaemia at myofascial trigger points from muscle tightening and shortening following spondylotic radiculopathy induced partial denervation. Chronic refractory myofascial pain (CRMP) is a neuromusculoskeletal disease needing management innovations. Using electrical twitch-obtaining intramuscular stimulation (eToims), we provide objective evidence of denervation supersensitivity in multiple myotomes as cause, aggravation and maintenance of CRMP. This study underscores our previous findings that eToims is safe and efficacious for long-term use in CRMP. eToims aids potential prevention (pre-rehabilitation), simultaneous diagnosis, treatment (rehabilitation) and prognosis in real time for acute and CRMP management. PMID:26768433

  1. A critical overview of the current myofascial pain literature - January 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommerholt, Jan; Finnegan, Michelle; Grieve, Rob; Hooks, Todd

    2016-01-01

    Reflecting on the past year, the number of publications on myofascial pain continues to increase in a steady rate. The current review includes 30 basic and clinical studies, case reports, reviews, and reports from fifteen different countries about trigger points (TrP), myofascial pain (MP), dry needling (DN) and other related interventions. We are pleased that during 2015 this article made the top 15 of most downloaded articles as many as three times! In general, the quality of published papers is improving as well. Nevertheless, several papers included in this overview, mention the application of "ischemic compression", which is a questionable concept in the context of TrP inactivation. As we have outlined previously, in the current thinking about myofascial pain, TrPs feature significant hypoxia and a lowered pH (Ballyns et al., 2011; Shah and Gilliams, 2008), and attempts to induce more ischemia would be counterproductive. Already in 1999, Simons, Travell and Simons changed the terminology from ischemic compression to TrP compression (Simons et al., 1999) and we recommend that contemporary researchers and clinicians adopt the new terminology and stop using the term "ischemic compression." PMID:26891651

  2. A critical overview of the current myofascial pain literature - January 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommerholt, Jan; Finnegan, Michelle; Grieve, Rob; Hooks, Todd

    2016-01-01

    Reflecting on the past year, the number of publications on myofascial pain continues to increase in a steady rate. The current review includes 30 basic and clinical studies, case reports, reviews, and reports from fifteen different countries about trigger points (TrP), myofascial pain (MP), dry needling (DN) and other related interventions. We are pleased that during 2015 this article made the top 15 of most downloaded articles as many as three times! In general, the quality of published papers is improving as well. Nevertheless, several papers included in this overview, mention the application of "ischemic compression", which is a questionable concept in the context of TrP inactivation. As we have outlined previously, in the current thinking about myofascial pain, TrPs feature significant hypoxia and a lowered pH (Ballyns et al., 2011; Shah and Gilliams, 2008), and attempts to induce more ischemia would be counterproductive. Already in 1999, Simons, Travell and Simons changed the terminology from ischemic compression to TrP compression (Simons et al., 1999) and we recommend that contemporary researchers and clinicians adopt the new terminology and stop using the term "ischemic compression."

  3. Chronic refractory myofascial pain and denervation supersensitivity as global public health disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, J; Bruyninckx, F; Neuhauser, D V

    2016-01-13

    Chronic pain with a 30.3% global prevalence significantly impacts universal health. Low back pain has a 9.4% prevalence worldwide causing the most widespread disability. Neck pain ranks 4th highest regarding years lived with disability with a 4.9% prevalence worldwide. The principal cause of pain in 85% of patients visiting a tertiary pain clinic has a myofascial origin. The root cause is multifocal neuromuscular ischaemia at myofascial trigger points from muscle tightening and shortening following spondylotic radiculopathy induced partial denervation. Chronic refractory myofascial pain (CRMP) is a neuromusculoskeletal disease needing management innovations. Using electrical twitch-obtaining intramuscular stimulation (eToims), we provide objective evidence of denervation supersensitivity in multiple myotomes as cause, aggravation and maintenance of CRMP. This study underscores our previous findings that eToims is safe and efficacious for long-term use in CRMP. eToims aids potential prevention (pre-rehabilitation), simultaneous diagnosis, treatment (rehabilitation) and prognosis in real time for acute and CRMP management.

  4. Activation of protein kinase Ceta triggers cortical granule exocytosis in Xenopus oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundersen, Cameron B; Kohan, Sirus A; Chen, Qian; Iagnemma, Joseph; Umbach, Joy A

    2002-03-15

    Previous work has shown that phorbol esters or diacylglycerol trigger cortical granule exocytosis in Xenopus oocytes. We sought to identify the isoform(s) of protein kinase C (PKC) that mediate(s) this regulated secretory event. Because this process is initiated by lipid activators of PKC but is independent of calcium ions, we focused on the family of novel (calcium-independent) PKCs. Pharmacological investigations using Gö6976 and Gö6983 tended to exclude PKCdelta, epsilon and mu as secretory triggers. Subcellular fractionation and immunoblot data revealed that these oocytes expressed all five members of the novel PKC family, but it was only PKCeta that colocalized with cortical granules. Finally, expression of wild type or constitutively active forms of PKCdelta and eta strongly supported the conclusion that it is PKCeta that initiates cortical granule exocytosis in these cells. These observations represent an important step in identifying the mechanism of secretory triggering in this system. PMID:11884530

  5. DRY NEEDLING AS A PAIN MODULATING MODALITY IN MYOFASCIAL PAIN SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravinder Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Myofascial Pain Syndrome (MPS is a significant health problem affecting as much as 85% of the general population, sometime in their lifetime, while the estimated overall prevalence is 46%. Low back pain is the most common MPS affecting all age groups with no gender discrimination. It can be acute or chronic. It can cause localised, diffuse, radicular or referred type of pains. Dry Needling or intramuscular stimulation is a skilled intervention that uses a thin filiform needle to penetrate the skin and stimulate underlying myofascial trigger points, muscular and connective tissues for the management of neuromusculoskeletal pain and movement impairments in Myofascial Pain Syndrome (MPS. MATERIALS AND METHODS 90 patients (57 male and 33 female who attended the Department of Physio-Occupation Therapy, which is a part of the Department of Orthopaedics, Osmania General Hospital, were randomly chosen after clearance from the Ethical Committee. The study period extended from June 2015 to Jan 2016. They were divided into groups according to their position in Visual Analogue Scale (VAS and their respective scores were noted. Their scores were once again noted after they received the Dry Needling treatment of about 6 sittings. RESULTS Out of the 90 cases, 65 cases showed excellent results (VAS 0-1 after treatment, 18 cases showed good results (VAS 2-3 after treatment, 6 cases showed fair results (VAS 4-5 after treatment, 2 cases showed VAS-6 after treatment. CONCLUSION Dry Needling is a relatively new treatment modality with specific subjective pain modulation efficacy in myofascial pain syndrome, which can help us in alleviating the pain in chronic conditions and acts adjuvant to the specific treatment.

  6. Distinct DNA-based epigenetic switches trigger transcriptional activation of silent genes in human dermal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandian, Ganesh N; Taniguchi, Junichi; Junetha, Syed; Sato, Shinsuke; Han, Le; Saha, Abhijit; AnandhaKumar, Chandran; Bando, Toshikazu; Nagase, Hiroki; Vaijayanthi, Thangavel; Taylor, Rhys D; Sugiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-01-24

    The influential role of the epigenome in orchestrating genome-wide transcriptional activation instigates the demand for the artificial genetic switches with distinct DNA sequence recognition. Recently, we developed a novel class of epigenetically active small molecules called SAHA-PIPs by conjugating selective DNA binding pyrrole-imidazole polyamides (PIPs) with the histone deacetylase inhibitor SAHA. Screening studies revealed that certain SAHA-PIPs trigger targeted transcriptional activation of pluripotency and germ cell genes in mouse and human fibroblasts, respectively. Through microarray studies and functional analysis, here we demonstrate for the first time the remarkable ability of thirty-two different SAHA-PIPs to trigger the transcriptional activation of exclusive clusters of genes and noncoding RNAs. QRT-PCR validated the microarray data, and some SAHA-PIPs activated therapeutically significant genes like KSR2. Based on the aforementioned results, we propose the potential use of SAHA-PIPs as reagents capable of targeted transcriptional activation.

  7. TRIGGERED ACTIVITY AS ARRHYTHMOGENIC MECHANISM AFTER MYOCARDIAL-INFARCTION - CLINICAL AND ELECTROPHYSIOLOGIC STUDY OF ONE CASE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WIESFELD, ACP; CRIJNS, HJGM; VANVELDHUISEN, DJ; VANGILST, WH; LIE, KI

    1992-01-01

    In a woman with an old infarction and sustained ventricular tachycardia, tachycardias were only inducible after short-long RR sequences. After isoprenaline, tachycardias became incessant and all were preceded by short-long RR sequences. This strongly suggests that triggered activity plays a role in

  8. Can myofascial techniques modify immunological parameters?

    OpenAIRE

    Fern??ndez-P??rez, Antonio Manuel; Peralta-Ram??rez, Mar??a Isabel; Moreno-Lorenzo, Carmen; Pilat, Andrzej; Arroyo-Morales, Manuel; Villaverde-Guti??rrez, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The objective was to determine the effect of myofascial techniques on the modulation of immunological variables. Design: Thirty-nine healthy male volunteers were randomly assigned to an experimental or control group. Interventions: The experimental group underwent three manual therapy modalities: suboccipital muscle release, so-called fourth intracranial ventricle compression, and deep cervical fascia release. The control group remained in a resting position for the sa...

  9. Uncovering the triggers for GPCR activation using solid-state NMR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimata, Naoki; Reeves, Philip J.; Smith, Steven O.

    2015-04-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) span cell membranes with seven transmembrane helices and respond to a diverse array of extracellular signals. Crystal structures of GPCRs have provided key insights into the architecture of these receptors and the role of conserved residues. However, the question of how ligand binding induces the conformational changes that are essential for activation remains largely unanswered. Since the extracellular sequences and structures of GPCRs are not conserved between receptor subfamilies, it is likely that the initial molecular triggers for activation vary depending on the specific type of ligand and receptor. In this article, we describe NMR studies on the rhodopsin subfamily of GPCRs and propose a mechanism for how retinal isomerization switches the receptor to the active conformation. These results suggest a general approach for determining the triggers for activation in other GPCR subfamilies using NMR spectroscopy.

  10. A randomized, placebo-controlled double-blinded comparative clinical study of five over-the-counter non-pharmacological topical analgesics for myofascial pain: single session findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avrahami Daniel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To investigate the effects of topical agents for the treatment of Myofascial Pain Syndrome (MPS and Myofascial Trigger Point (MTRP. Methods Subjects with an identifiable trigger point in the trapezius muscle, age 18-80 were recruited for a single-session randomized, placebo-blinded clinical study. Baseline measurements of trapezius muscle pressure pain threshold (PPT: by pressure algometer along with right and left cervical lateral flexion (rangiometer were obtained by a blinded examiner. An assessor blinded to the outcomes assessments applied one of 6 topical formulations which had been placed in identical plastic containers. Five of these topicals were proposed active formulations; the control group was given a non-active formulation (PLA. Five minutes after the application of the formula the outcome measures were re-tested. Data were analyzed with a 5-way ANOVA and Holms-adjusted t-tests with an alpha level of 0.05. Results 120 subjects were entered into the study (63 females; ages 16-82; 20 subjects randomly allocated into each group. The pre- and post-treatment results for pressure threshold did show significant intra-group increases for the Ben-Gay Ultra Strength Muscle Pain Ointment (BG, the Professional Therapy MuscleCare Roll-on (PTMC roll-on and Motion Medicine Cream (MM with an increased threshold of 0.5 kg/cm2 (+/-0.15, 0.72 kg/cm2 (+/-0.17 and 0.47 Kg/cm2 (+/-0.19 respectively. With respect to the inter-group comparisons, PTMC roll-on showed significant increases in pressure threshold compared with Placebo (PLA (p = 0.002 and Icy Hot Extra Strength Cream (IH (p = 0.006. In addition, BG demonstrated significant increases in pressure threshold compared with PLA (p = 0.0003. Conclusions With regards to pressure threshold, PTMC roll-on, BG and MM showed significant increases in pain threshold tolerance after a short-term application on a trigger points located in the trapezius muscle. PTMC roll-on and BG were both

  11. A critical overview of the current myofascial pain literature - July 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommerholt, Jan; Grieve, Rob; Finnegan, Michelle; Hooks, Todd

    2016-07-01

    The overview of the myofascial pain literature includes a wide variety of basic and clinical studies, ranging from assessing muscle activation patterns to the impact of platelet-rich plasma injections. Contributions to the literature once again came from all corners of the world, such as Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Germany, Greece, Iran, Italy, Japan, Korea, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Spain, Taiwan, Turkey, and the USA. A total of 30 papers are included in this overview.

  12. Constraining AGN triggering mechanisms through the clustering analysis of active black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Gatti, M; Bouillot, V; Menci, N; Lamastra, A; Hirschmann, M; Fiore, F

    2015-01-01

    The triggering mechanisms for Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) are still debated. Some of the most popular ones include galaxy interactions (IT) and disk instabilities (DI). Using an advanced semi analytic model (SAM) of galaxy formation, coupled to accurate halo occupation distribution modeling, we investigate the imprint left by each separate triggering process on the clustering strength of AGN at small and large scales. Our main results are as follows: i) DIs, irrespective of their exact implementation in the SAM, tend to fall short in triggering AGN activity in galaxies at the center of halos with $M_h>10^{13.5} h^{-1}M_{\\odot}$. On the contrary, the IT scenario predicts abundance of active, central galaxies that generally agrees well with observations at every halo mass. ii) The relative number of satellite AGN in DIs at intermediate-to-low luminosities is always significantly higher than in IT models, especially in groups and clusters. The low AGN satellite fraction predicted for the IT scenario might sugge...

  13. Augmented supraorbital skin sympathetic nerve activity responses to symptom trigger events in rosacea patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler-Wilson, Kristen; Toma, Kumika; Sammons, Dawn L; Mann, Sarah; Jurovcik, Andrew J; Demidova, Olga; Wilson, Thad E

    2015-09-01

    Facial flushing in rosacea is often induced by trigger events. However, trigger causation mechanisms are currently unclear. This study tested the central hypothesis that rosacea causes sympathetic and axon reflex-mediated alterations resulting in trigger-induced symptomatology. Twenty rosacea patients and age/sex-matched controls participated in one or a combination of symptom triggering stressors. In protocol 1, forehead skin sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA; supraorbital microneurography) was measured during sympathoexcitatory mental (2-min serial subtraction of novel numbers) and physical (2-min isometric handgrip) stress. In protocol 2, forehead skin blood flow (laser-Doppler flowmetry) and transepithelial water loss/sweat rate (capacitance hygrometry) were measured during sympathoexcitatory heat stress (whole body heating by perfusing 50°C water through a tube-lined suit). In protocol 3, cheek, forehead, forearm, and palm skin blood flow were measured during nonpainful local heating to induce axon reflex vasodilation. Heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were recorded via finger photoplethysmography to calculate cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC; flux·100/MAP). Higher patient transepithelial water loss was observed (rosacea 0.20 ± 0.02 vs. control 0.10 ± 0.01 mg·cm(-2)·min(-1), P MAP changes were not different between groups during sympathoexcitatory stressors or local heating. SSNA during early mental (32 ± 9 and 9 ± 4% increase) and physical (25 ± 4 and 5 ± 1% increase, rosacea and controls, respectively) stress was augmented in rosacea (both P < 0.05). Heat stress induced more rapid sweating and cutaneous vasodilation onset in rosacea compared with controls. No axon reflex vasodilation differences were observed between groups. These data indicate that rosacea affects SSNA and that hyperresponsiveness to trigger events appears to have a sympathetic component. PMID:26133800

  14. Constraining AGN triggering mechanisms through the clustering analysis of active black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, M.; Shankar, F.; Bouillot, V.; Menci, N.; Lamastra, A.; Hirschmann, M.; Fiore, F.

    2016-02-01

    The triggering mechanisms for active galactic nuclei (AGN) are still debated. Some of the most popular ones include galaxy interactions (IT) and disc instabilities (DIs). Using an advanced semi-analytic model (SAM) of galaxy formation, coupled to accurate halo occupation distribution modelling, we investigate the imprint left by each separate triggering process on the clustering strength of AGN at small and large scales. Our main results are as follows: (i) DIs, irrespective of their exact implementation in the SAM, tend to fall short in triggering AGN activity in galaxies at the centre of haloes with Mh > 1013.5 h-1 M⊙. On the contrary, the IT scenario predicts abundance of active central galaxies that generally agrees well with observations at every halo mass. (ii) The relative number of satellite AGN in DIs at intermediate-to-low luminosities is always significantly higher than in IT models, especially in groups and clusters. The low AGN satellite fraction predicted for the IT scenario might suggest that different feeding modes could simultaneously contribute to the triggering of satellite AGN. (iii) Both scenarios are quite degenerate in matching large-scale clustering measurements, suggesting that the sole average bias might not be an effective observational constraint. (iv) Our analysis suggests the presence of both a mild luminosity and a more consistent redshift dependence in the AGN clustering, with AGN inhabiting progressively less massive dark matter haloes as the redshift increases. We also discuss the impact of different observational selection cuts in measuring AGN clustering, including possible discrepancies between optical and X-ray surveys.

  15. Magnetic Systems Triggering the M6.6-class Solar Flare in NOAA Active Region 11158

    CERN Document Server

    Toriumi, Shin; Bamba, Yumi; Kusano, Kanya; Imada, Shinsuke; Inoue, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    We report a detailed event analysis on the M6.6-class flare in the active region (AR) NOAA 11158 on 2011 February 13. AR 11158, which consisted of two major emerging bipoles, showed prominent activities including one X- and several M-class flares. In order to investigate the magnetic structures related to the M6.6 event, particularly the formation process of a flare-triggering magnetic region, we analyzed multiple spacecraft observations and numerical results of a flare simulation. We observed that, in the center of this quadrupolar AR, a highly sheared polarity inversion line (PIL) was formed through proper motions of the major magnetic elements, which built a sheared coronal arcade lying over the PIL. The observations lend support to the interpretation that the target flare was triggered by a localized magnetic region that had an intrusive structure, namely a positive polarity penetrating into a negative counterpart. The geometrical relationship between the sheared coronal arcade and the triggering region w...

  16. Lipid profile in patients with fibromyalgia and myofascial pain syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgocmen, S; Ardicoglu, O

    2000-10-01

    In this study serum lipid profile of patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) and myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) were investigated and compared with healthy controls. Thirty women who had FMS and 32 women who had MPS with the characteristic trigger points (TrP), especially on the periscapular region were included in this study. Thirty one age matched healthy women were assigned as a control group. All of the subjects were sedentary healthy housewives. Total cholesterol, triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) levels were not significantly different between the FMS and control groups. On the other hand the MPS group had total cholesterol (198.7 vs 172.9 mg/dL, p=0.003), triglyceride (124.7 vs 87.6 mg/dL, p=0.01), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) (127.5 vs 108.4 mg/dL, p=0.02) and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-c) (24.9 vs 17.3 mg/dL, p=0.008) levels, which were significantly higher than the controls. There was no significant difference between the lipid profiles in the FMS and MPS groups. Tissue compliance, which was measured from trigger points in the MPS group, correlated significantly with total cholesterol and LDL-c levels. In conclusion, a significant difference was found between the lipid levels of patients with MPS and the controls. More extensive investigation of lipid and lipoprotein levels is required to determine whether high lipid levels are the cause or result of MPS.

  17. Rapidly activated epidermal growth factor receptor mediates lipopolysaccharide-triggered migration of microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Wen-Sheng; Liu, Jun-Li; Li, Chun-Yu; Li, Xiao; Xie, Min-Jie; Wang, Wei; Tian, Dai-Shi

    2015-11-01

    Previous reports have suggested that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is involved in microglia activation characterized by cell morphology changes, cytokine production and cell migration; and the biochemical regulation of the microglia migration is a potential therapeutic target following CNS inflammatory damages. However, the role of EGFR in microglia motility after inflammatory stimulation remains unknown. In the present study, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was found to trigger rapid EGFR phosphorylation within 10 min, which was sustained during long-term stimulation in both primary microglial cells and the cultured BV2 microglial cells, furthermore, blocking EGFR phosphorylation by AG1478 significantly attenuated the LPS-induced chemotactic and chemokinetic migration of microglia. In addition, LPS could initiate calcium oscillation in microglia during live-cell recording, however, an intracellular calcium chelator and a selective inhibitor of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, but not an extracellular calcium chelator, remarkably suppressed the LPS-induced EGFR phosphorylation in BV2 microglia cells. As EGFR is not a traditional receptor for LPS, these findings suggest that the rapid phosphorylation of EGFR is attributed to the LPS-triggered intracellular calcium mobilization. By examining the downstream signals of EGFR, we further proved that extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) is essential for EGFR-mediated microglia migration, because ERK inhibition attenuated the chemotactic and chemokinetic migration of microglia that had been induced by either LPS or EGF. Collectively, these results suggest that LPS could trigger the rapid phosphorylation of EGFR and subsequent ERK activation through mobilizing calcium activity, which underlies the microglia migration in an inflammatory condition.

  18. A yeast surface display system for the discovery of ligands that trigger cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, B K; Kieke, M C; Boder, E T; Wittrup, K D; Kranz, D M

    1998-11-01

    Opposing cells often communicate signalling events using multivalent interactions between receptors present on their cell surface. For example, T cells are typically activated when the T cell receptor (TCR) and its associated costimulatory molecules are multivalently engaged by the appropriate ligands present on an antigen presenting cell. In this report, yeast expressing high cell-surface levels of a TCR ligand (a recombinant antibody to the TCR Vbeta domain) were shown to act as 'pseudo' antigen presenting cells and induce T cell activation as monitored by increased levels of CD25 and CD69 and by downregulation of cell surface TCR. Similar levels of T cell activation could occur even when a 30-fold excess of irrelevant yeast was present, suggesting that such a yeast display system, by virtue of its ability to present ligands multivalently, may be used in highly sensitive procedures to identify novel polypeptides that interact multivalently with cell surface receptors and thereby trigger specific cellular responses.

  19. Epimuscular myofascial force transmission between antagonistic and synergistic muscles can explain movement limitation in spastic paresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijing, Peter A.

    2007-01-01

    Details and concepts of intramuscular, extramuscular and intermuscular myofascial force transmission are reviewed. Some new experimental data are added regarding myofascial force transmission between antagonistic muscles across the interosseal membrane of the lower hind limb of the rat. Combined wit

  20. A review of myofascial pain and fibromyalgia--factors that promote their persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerwin, Robert D

    2005-09-01

    Chronic muscle pain (myalgia) is a common problem throughout the world. Seemingly simple, it is actually a difficult problem for the clinician interested in determining the aetiology of the pain, as well as in managing the pain. The two common muscle pain conditions are fibromyalgia and myofascial pain syndrome. Fibromyalgia is a chronic, widespread muscle tenderness syndrome, associated with central sensitisation. It is often accompanied by chronic sleep disturbance and fatigue, visceral pain syndromes like irritable bowel syndrome and interstitial cystitis. Myofascial pain syndrome is an overuse or muscle stress syndrome characterised by the presence of trigger points in muscle. The problem these syndromes pose lies not in making the diagnosis of muscle pain. Rather, it is the need to identify the underlying cause(s) of persistent or chronic muscle pain in order to develop a specific treatment plan. Chronic myalgia may not improve until the underlying precipitating or perpetuating factor(s) are themselves managed. Precipitating or perpetuating causes of chronic myalgia include structural or mechanical causes like scoliosis, localised joint hypomobility, or generalised or local joint laxity; and metabolic factors like depleted tissue iron stores, hypothyroidism or Vitamin D deficiency. Sometimes, correction of an underlying cause of myalgia is all that is needed to resolve the condition.

  1. The effect of cetylated fatty esters and physical therapy on myofascial pain syndrome of the neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharan, Deepak; Jacob, Biju Nirmal; Ajeesh, P S; Bookout, Jack B; Barathur, Raj R

    2011-07-01

    Participants with Myofascial Pain Syndrome (MPS) of the neck were randomly assigned into 2 groups of the double-blinded study: topical cetylated fatty ester complex (CFEC) cream application plus physical therapy (CF-PT; n=37), and placebo cream application plus physical therapy (PL-PT; n=35). There were 3 visits during 4 weeks of treatment. Physical Therapy (PT), given twice/week, included Ischaemic Compression, Deep Pressure Trigger Point Massage and Myofascial Releases. Topical cream [CFEC cream (5.6%) and 1.5% menthol] or placebo cream [1.5% menthol, in a cream base] was applied twice/day. CF-PT provided the fastest and most effective study treatment modality. The addition of CFEC cream to PT resulted in statistically significant improvements, compared to PL-PT, for reduction of pain, neck disability and life quality indicators. Our results indicate that cetylated derivatives of fatty acids can effectively reduce pain and symptoms associated with neck MPS, when combined with physical therapy.

  2. Efficacy and safety of a single botulinum type A toxin complex treatment (Dysport) for the relief of upper back myofascial pain syndrome: results from a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göbel, Hartmut; Heinze, Axel; Reichel, Gerhard; Hefter, Harald; Benecke, Reiner

    2006-11-01

    Botulinum type A toxin (BoNT-A) has antinociceptive and muscle-relaxant properties and may help relieve the symptoms of myofascial pain syndrome. In this study we evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of BoNT-A (Dysport) in patients with myofascial pain syndrome of the upper back. We conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 12-week, multicentre study. Patients with moderate-to-severe myofascial pain syndrome affecting cervical and/or shoulder muscles (10 trigger points, disease duration 6-24 months) were randomized to Dysport or saline. Injections were made into the 10 most tender trigger points (40 units per site). The primary outcome was the proportion of patients with mild or no pain at week 5. Secondary outcomes included changes in pain intensity and the number of pain-free days per week. Tolerability and safety were also assessed. At week 5, significantly more patients in the Dysport group reported mild or no pain (51%), compared with the patients in the placebo group (26%; p=0.002). Compared with placebo, Dysport resulted in a significantly greater change from baseline in pain intensity during weeks 5-8 (ppain between weeks 5 and 12 (p=0.036). Treatment was well tolerated, with most side effects resolving within 8 weeks. In conclusion, in patients with upper back myofascial pain syndrome, injections of 400 Ipsen units of Dysport at 10 individualised trigger points significantly improved pain levels 4-6 weeks after treatment. Injections were well tolerated.

  3. Key physiological parameters dictate triggering of activity-dependent bulk endocytosis in hippocampal synapses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva M Wenzel

    Full Text Available To maintain neurotransmission in central neurons, several mechanisms are employed to retrieve synaptically exocytosed membrane. The two major modes of synaptic vesicle (SV retrieval are clathrin-mediated endocytosis and activity-dependent bulk endocytosis (ADBE. ADBE is the dominant SV retrieval mode during intense stimulation, however the precise physiological conditions that trigger this mode are not resolved. To determine these parameters we manipulated rat hippocampal neurons using a wide spectrum of stimuli by varying both the pattern and duration of stimulation. Using live-cell fluorescence imaging and electron microscopy approaches, we established that stimulation frequency, rather than the stimulation load, was critical in the triggering of ADBE. Thus two hundred action potentials, when delivered at high frequency, were sufficient to induce near maximal bulk formation. Furthermore we observed a strong correlation between SV pool size and ability to perform ADBE. We also identified that inhibitory nerve terminals were more likely to utilize ADBE and had a larger SV recycling pool. Thus ADBE in hippocampal synaptic terminals is tightly coupled to stimulation frequency and is more likely to occur in terminals with large SV pools. These results implicate ADBE as a key modulator of both hippocampal neurotransmission and plasticity.

  4. An interesting case of Lucio phenomenon triggered by activation of hepatitis C infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Mareen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lucio phenomenon (LP or erythema necroticans is a rare type of reaction pattern found in untreated patients with diffuse non-nodular leprosy. It is important to distinguish this from vasculonecrotic erythema nodosum because thalidomide with high-dose steroids is the mainstay of treatment for the latter, whereas LP shows no response to thalidomide. We report a case of a 60-year-old man who presented with purpuric patches, hemorrhagic blisters, and ulcers over extremities of 15 days duration. On cutaneous examination, there were multiple stellate purpuric patches, hemorrhagic bullae, and deep necrotic ulcers, mainly over extremities. Slit-skin smear examination from six sites revealed bacteriological index 6+ with globi, and morphological index 5%. Histopathology revealed diffuse infiltration of bacilli in epidermis, dermis, and endothelial cells along with neutrophilic and lymphocytic infiltrate. Fibrinoid necrosis and thrombosis of blood vessels was also noted. The above clinicohistopathological features helped in making the diagnosis of LP. Concomitantly he was found to be infected with hepatitis C virus. Many triggering factors have been described in literature; however, activation of hepatitis C as a trigger for Lucio phenomenon has not been reported. In addition, IgM and IgG anticardiolipin antibodies were found to be positive. The patient was started on high-dose steroids along with multibacillary antileprosy therapy and improved within 2 weeks.

  5. Análise da atividade eletromiográfica de superfície de pontos gatilhos miofasciais Surface electromyography activity analysis of the miofascial triggers points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Bigongiari

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Os pontos gatilhos miofasciais (PGMs são manifestações comumente encontradas na prática clínica e estão relacionados à alteração de tônus e à síndrome dolorosa miofascial (SDM. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a capacidade da EMG de superfície e detectar alterações da atividade neuromuscular no PGM, em situações de repouso e de contração isométrica voluntária máxima. MÉTODO: Participaram do estudo 56 indivíduos distribuídos em dois grupos: grupo Saudável com 28 indivíduos, que necessariamente não possuíam PGM, e o grupo Dor, constituído de 28 indivíduos que possuíam necessariamente PGM no músculo escolhido. O grupo Dor apresentava indivíduos com PGM latente e ativo, e com e sem fenômenos autonômicos (FA. RESULTADOS: O sinal EMG da porção muscular com PGM mostrou-se significativamente maior quando comparado com a porção muscular sadia do grupo Dor, e do grupo Saudável durante o repouso (26,56 ± 44,54, 5,39 ± 6,29 e 1,56 ± 0,76, respectivamente, p = 0,0001. Os indivíduos com PGM ativo obtiveram maior intensidade do sinal EMG do que aqueles que apresentaram PGM latente (17,85 ± 30,25 versus 3,74 ± 1,52, p = 0,04. Além disso, os indivíduos que apresentaram fenômenos autonômicos tiveram maior intensidade do sinal EMG do que aqueles que não os apresentaram (16,78 ± 28,44 versus 3,51 ± 3,65, na condição de repouso. CONLUSÃO: A EMG de superfície é capaz de mensurar a atividade do PGM, principalmente na condição de repouso.There are examples of common clinical conditions that clinical signals are related to alterations in muscle tone, including myofascial pain syndrome. OBJECTIVE: to discuss the application of surface EMG to detect effect of miofascial trigger point (MTP on neuromuscular activity at rest and maximum voluntary contraction of the trapezoid muscle. METHODS: Fifty-six subjects participated in the study and were divided into two groups: Healthy group (n = 28, with subjects who necessarily did not

  6. The inter-examiner reliability of standardized manual palpation for the identification of clinically relevant myofascial triggerpoints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myburgh, Corrie; Lauridsen, Henrik Hein; Larsen, Anders Holsgaard;

    A clinical diagnosis of Myofascial Pain Syndrome (MPS) requires manual palpation for the identification of at least one clinically relevant trigger point (TP). However, few comparable, high quality studies exist regarding the robustness of TP examination. Our aim was to determine the inter....../absence of clinically relevant TP(s) using clinician global assessment (GA). A random case mix of 81 female participants was examined, 14 being asymptomatic and the remainder suffering from neck/shoulder pain. Examiners received psychomotor training and video analysis feedback provided prior to and during the study...

  7. NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation in THP-1 Target Cells Triggered by Pathogenic Naegleria fowleri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Hyun; Sohn, Hae-Jin; Yoo, Jong-Kyun; Kang, Heekyoung; Seong, Gi-Sang; Chwae, Yong-Joon; Kim, Kyongmin; Park, Sun; Shin, Ho-Joon

    2016-09-01

    Naegleria fowleri, known as the brain-eating amoeba, causes acute primary amoebic meningoencephalitis. During swimming and other recreational water activities, N. fowleri trophozoites penetrate the nasal mucosa and invade the olfactory bulbs, resulting in intense inflammatory reactions in the forebrain tissue. To investigate what kinds of inflammasome molecules are expressed in target cells due to N. fowleri infection, human macrophage cells (THP-1 cells) were cocultured with N. fowleri trophozoites in a noncontact system, and consequently, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) production was estimated. Caspase-1 activation and IL-1β production from THP-1 cells by Western blotting and the culture supernatant by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis were observed at 3 h after cocultivation. In addition, the increased expression of ASC and NLRP3, which make up an inflammasome complex, was also observed at 3 h after cocultivation. To confirm the caspase-1 activation and IL-1β production via the NLRP3 inflammasome in THP-1 cells triggered by N. fowleri trophozoites, THP-1 cells were pretreated with several inhibitors. The inhibition assay showed that CA-074 (a cathepsin B inhibitor), glybenclamide (an NLRP3 molecule inhibitor), and N-benzyloxycarbony-Val-Ala-Asp(O-methyl)-fluoromethylketone (Z-VAD-FMK; a caspase-1 inhibitor) reduced the levels of caspase-1 activation and IL-1β production from THP-1 cells. This study suggests that N. fowleri infection induces the NLRP3 inflammasome, which activates caspase-1 and subsequently produces IL-1β, thus resulting in inflammation.

  8. NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation in THP-1 Target Cells Triggered by Pathogenic Naegleria fowleri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Hyun; Sohn, Hae-Jin; Yoo, Jong-Kyun; Kang, Heekyoung; Seong, Gi-Sang; Chwae, Yong-Joon; Kim, Kyongmin; Park, Sun; Shin, Ho-Joon

    2016-09-01

    Naegleria fowleri, known as the brain-eating amoeba, causes acute primary amoebic meningoencephalitis. During swimming and other recreational water activities, N. fowleri trophozoites penetrate the nasal mucosa and invade the olfactory bulbs, resulting in intense inflammatory reactions in the forebrain tissue. To investigate what kinds of inflammasome molecules are expressed in target cells due to N. fowleri infection, human macrophage cells (THP-1 cells) were cocultured with N. fowleri trophozoites in a noncontact system, and consequently, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) production was estimated. Caspase-1 activation and IL-1β production from THP-1 cells by Western blotting and the culture supernatant by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis were observed at 3 h after cocultivation. In addition, the increased expression of ASC and NLRP3, which make up an inflammasome complex, was also observed at 3 h after cocultivation. To confirm the caspase-1 activation and IL-1β production via the NLRP3 inflammasome in THP-1 cells triggered by N. fowleri trophozoites, THP-1 cells were pretreated with several inhibitors. The inhibition assay showed that CA-074 (a cathepsin B inhibitor), glybenclamide (an NLRP3 molecule inhibitor), and N-benzyloxycarbony-Val-Ala-Asp(O-methyl)-fluoromethylketone (Z-VAD-FMK; a caspase-1 inhibitor) reduced the levels of caspase-1 activation and IL-1β production from THP-1 cells. This study suggests that N. fowleri infection induces the NLRP3 inflammasome, which activates caspase-1 and subsequently produces IL-1β, thus resulting in inflammation. PMID:27297387

  9. A Burkholderia Type VI Effector Deamidates Rho GTPases to Activate the Pyrin Inflammasome and Trigger Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, Daniel F; Xu, Hao; Yang, Jieling; Shi, Xuyan; Gao, Wenqing; Li, Lin; Bisaro, Fabiana; Chen, She; Valvano, Miguel A; Shao, Feng

    2016-05-11

    Burkholderia cenocepacia is an opportunistic pathogen of the cystic fibrosis lung that elicits a strong inflammatory response. B. cenocepacia employs a type VI secretion system (T6SS) to survive in macrophages by disarming Rho-type GTPases, causing actin cytoskeletal defects. Here, we identified TecA, a non-VgrG T6SS effector responsible for actin disruption. TecA and other bacterial homologs bear a cysteine protease-like catalytic triad, which inactivates Rho GTPases by deamidating a conserved asparagine in the GTPase switch-I region. RhoA deamidation induces caspase-1 inflammasome activation, which is mediated by the familial Mediterranean fever disease protein Pyrin. In mouse infection, the deamidase activity of TecA is necessary and sufficient for B. cenocepacia-triggered lung inflammation and also protects mice from lethal B. cenocepacia infection. Therefore, Burkholderia TecA is a T6SS effector that modifies a eukaryotic target through an asparagine deamidase activity, which in turn elicits host cell death and inflammation through activation of the Pyrin inflammasome. PMID:27133449

  10. H(1)-Receptor activation triggers the endogenous nitric oxide signalling system in the rat submandibular gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borda, Enri; Stranieri, Graciela; Sterin-Borda, Leonor

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Histamine is released from mast cells by immunologic and non-immunologic stimuli during salivary gland inflammation, regulating salivary secretion. The receptor-secretory mechanism has not been studied in detail. AIMS: The studies reported were directed toward elucidating signal transduction/second messenger pathways within the rat submandibular gland associated with 2-thiazolylethylamine (ThEA)-induced H(1)-receptor responses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To assess the H(1) receptor subtype expression in the rat submandibular gland, a radioligand binding assay was performed. The study also included inositolphosphates and cyclic GMP accumulation, protein kinase C and nitric oxide synthase activities, and amylase release. RESULTS: The histamine H(1) receptor subtype is expressed on the rat submandibular gland with high-affinity binding sites. The ThEA effect was associated with activation of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C, translocation of protein kinase C, stimulation of nitric oxide synthase activity and increased production of cyclic GMP. ThEA stimulation of nitric oxide synthase and cyclic GMP was blunted by agents able to interfere with calcium movilization, while a protein kinase C inhibitor was able to stimulate ThEA action. On the other hand, ThEA stimulation evoked amylase release via the H1 receptor but was not followed by the L-arginine/nitric oxide pathway activation. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that, apart from the effect of ThEA on amylase release, it also appears to be a vasoactive chemical mediator that triggers vasodilatation, modulating the course of inflammation. PMID:12581497

  11. Surfactin triggers biofilm formation of Bacillus subtilis in melon phylloplane and contributes to the biocontrol activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeriouh, Houda; de Vicente, Antonio; Pérez-García, Alejandro; Romero, Diego

    2014-07-01

    The biocontrol activity of many Bacillus species has been traditionally related to the direct antagonism of pathogens. In previous works, we reported that B. subtilis strain UMAF6614 was an efficient biocontrol agent that produced bacillomycin, fengycin and surfactin lipopeptides. Bacillomycins and fengycins were shown to have antagonistic activity towards fungal and bacterial pathogens of cucurbits; however, the functionality of surfactin remained unclear. In this study, the role of surfactin in the biocontrol activity of this strain was investigated. We observed that a deficiency in surfactin production led to a partial reduction of disease suppression by this biocontrol agent, which coincided with a defect in biofilm formation and the colonization of the melon phylloplane. These effects were due to a dramatic reduction in the production of exopolysaccharide and the TasA protein, which are the two major components of the extracellular matrix. We propose that the biocontrol activity of this strain is the result of the coordinated action of the three families of lipopeptides. B. subtilis UMAF6614 produces surfactin to trigger biofilm formation on melon phylloplane, which ensures the long-term persistence and the adequate secretion of suppressive lipopeptides, bacillomycins and fengycins, which efficiently target pathogens.

  12. Swelling-activated Ca2+ channels trigger Ca2+ signals in Merkel cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Haeberle

    Full Text Available Merkel cell-neurite complexes are highly sensitive touch receptors comprising epidermal Merkel cells and sensory afferents. Based on morphological and molecular studies, Merkel cells are proposed to be mechanosensory cells that signal afferents via neurotransmission; however, functional studies testing this hypothesis in intact skin have produced conflicting results. To test this model in a simplified system, we asked whether purified Merkel cells are directly activated by mechanical stimulation. Cell shape was manipulated with anisotonic solution changes and responses were monitored by Ca2+ imaging with fura-2. We found that hypotonic-induced cell swelling, but not hypertonic solutions, triggered cytoplasmic Ca2+ transients. Several lines of evidence indicate that these signals arise from swelling-activated Ca2+-permeable ion channels. First, transients were reversibly abolished by chelating extracellular Ca2+, demonstrating a requirement for Ca2+ influx across the plasma membrane. Second, Ca2+ transients were initially observed near the plasma membrane in cytoplasmic processes. Third, voltage-activated Ca2+ channel (VACC antagonists reduced transients by half, suggesting that swelling-activated channels depolarize plasma membranes to activate VACCs. Finally, emptying internal Ca2+ stores attenuated transients by 80%, suggesting Ca2+ release from stores augments swelling-activated Ca2+ signals. To identify candidate mechanotransduction channels, we used RT-PCR to amplify ion-channel transcripts whose pharmacological profiles matched those of hypotonic-evoked Ca2+ signals in Merkel cells. We found 11 amplicons, including PKD1, PKD2, and TRPC1, channels previously implicated in mechanotransduction in other cells. Collectively, these results directly demonstrate that Merkel cells are activated by hypotonic-evoked swelling, identify cellular signaling mechanisms that mediate these responses, and support the hypothesis that Merkel cells contribute

  13. A critical overview of the current myofascial pain literature - July 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommerholt, Jan; Hooks, Todd; Grieve, Rob; Layton, Michelle

    2015-07-01

    The current overview includes thirty articles published in the recent past about myofascial pain, trigger points (TrPs) and related topics. In the Basic Research section, several interesting new studies are reviewed addressing the presence of TrPs in patients with low back pain, episodic migraine, or following a meniscectomy. An animal study of the impact of laser fluency opens the door to future studies regarding optimal dosage of low-level laser therapy in the treatment of individuals with TrPs. Six papers focus on TrP dry needling (DN), two on manual therapies, and two on injection therapy. On of the injection papers discusses the occurrence of a cardiac tamponade, which is a very rare potential complication of invasive needling therapies that can easily be avoided with proper needling techniques. Several review studies and other clinical studies conclude this overview. PMID:26118521

  14. Triggering an eruptive flare by emerging flux in a solar active-region complex

    CERN Document Server

    Louis, Rohan E; Ravindra, B; Chintzoglou, Georgios

    2015-01-01

    A flare and fast coronal mass ejection originated between solar active regions NOAA 11514 and 11515 on July 1, 2012 in response to flux emergence in front of the leading sunspot of the trailing region 11515. Analyzing the evolution of the photospheric magnetic flux and the coronal structure, we find that the flux emergence triggered the eruption by interaction with overlying flux in a non-standard way. The new flux neither had the opposite orientation nor a location near the polarity inversion line, which are favorable for strong reconnection with the arcade flux under which it emerged. Moreover, its flux content remained significantly smaller than that of the arcade (approximately 40 %). However, a loop system rooted in the trailing active region ran in part under the arcade between the active regions, passing over the site of flux emergence. The reconnection with the emerging flux, leading to a series of jet emissions into the loop system, caused a strong but confined rise of the loop system. This lifted th...

  15. Retinal orientation and interactions in rhodopsin reveal a two-stage trigger mechanism for activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimata, Naoki; Pope, Andreyah; Eilers, Markus; Opefi, Chikwado A; Ziliox, Martine; Hirshfeld, Amiram; Zaitseva, Ekaterina; Vogel, Reiner; Sheves, Mordechai; Reeves, Philip J; Smith, Steven O

    2016-01-01

    The 11-cis retinal chromophore is tightly packed within the interior of the visual receptor rhodopsin and isomerizes to the all-trans configuration following absorption of light. The mechanism by which this isomerization event drives the outward rotation of transmembrane helix H6, a hallmark of activated G protein-coupled receptors, is not well established. To address this question, we use solid-state NMR and FTIR spectroscopy to define the orientation and interactions of the retinal chromophore in the active metarhodopsin II intermediate. Here we show that isomerization of the 11-cis retinal chromophore generates strong steric interactions between its β-ionone ring and transmembrane helices H5 and H6, while deprotonation of its protonated Schiff's base triggers the rearrangement of the hydrogen-bonding network involving residues on H6 and within the second extracellular loop. We integrate these observations with previous structural and functional studies to propose a two-stage mechanism for rhodopsin activation. PMID:27585742

  16. Low-intensity continuous ultrasound triggers effective bisphosphonate anticancer activity in breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardoski, Sophie; Ngo, Jacqueline; Gineyts, Evelyne; Roux, Jean-Paul; Clézardin, Philippe; Melodelima, David

    2015-11-01

    Ultrasound (US) is a non-ionizing pressure wave that can produce mechanical and thermal effects. Bisphosphonates have demonstrated clinical utility in bone metastases treatment. Preclinical studies suggest that bisphosphonates have anticancer activity. However, bisphosphonates exhibit a high affinity for bone mineral, which reduces their bioavailibity for tumor cells. Ultrasound has been shown to be effective for drug delivery but in interaction with gas bubbles or encapsulated drugs. We examined the effects of a clinically relevant dose of bisphosphonate zoledronate (ZOL) in combination with US. In a bone metastasis model, mice treated with ZOL+US had osteolytic lesions that were 58% smaller than those of ZOL-treated animals as well as a reduced skeletal tumor burden. In a model of primary tumors, ZOL+US treatment reduced by 42% the tumor volume, compared with ZOL-treated animals. Using a fluorescent bisphosphonate, we demonstrated that US forced the release of bisphosphonate from the bone surface, enabling a continuous impregnation of the bone marrow. Additionally, US forced the penetration of ZOL within tumors, as demonstrated by the intratumoral accumulation of unprenylated Rap1A, a surrogate marker of ZOL antitumor activity. Our findings made US a promising modality to trigger bisphosphonate anticancer activity in bone metastases and in primary tumors.

  17. Spike-triggered dendritic calcium transients depend on synaptic activity in the cricket giant interneurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Hiroto; Baba, Yoshichika; Oka, Kotaro

    2002-02-15

    The relationship between electrical activity and spike-induced Ca2+ increases in dendrites was investigated in the identified wind-sensitive giant interneurons in the cricket. We applied a high-speed Ca2+ imaging technique to the giant interneurons, and succeeded in recording the transient Ca2+ increases (Ca2+ transients) induced by a single action potential, which was evoked by presynaptic stimulus to the sensory neurons. The dendritic Ca2+ transients evoked by a pair of action potentials accumulated when spike intervals were shorter than 100 ms. The amplitude of the Ca2+ transients induced by a train of spikes depended on the number of action potentials. When stimulation pulses evoking the same numbers of action potentials were separately applied to the ipsi- or contra-lateral cercal sensory nerves, the dendritic Ca2+ transients induced by these presynaptic stimuli were different in their amplitude. Furthermore, the side of presynaptic stimulation that evoked larger Ca2+ transients depended on the location of the recorded dendritic regions. This result means that the spike-triggered Ca2+ transients in dendrites depend on postsynaptic activity. It is proposed that Ca2+ entry through voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels activated by the action potentials will be enhanced by excitatory synaptic inputs at the dendrites in the cricket giant interneurons.

  18. A critical appraisal of the evidence for botulinum toxin type A in the treatment for cervico-thoracic myofascial pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Mehul J; Shkolnikova, Tatyana; Nava, Andrew; Inwald, Danielle

    2014-02-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is a musculoskeletal condition characterized by regional pain and muscle tenderness associated with the presence of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs). The last decade has seen an exponential increase in the use of botulinum toxin (BTX) to treat MPS. To understand the medical evidence substantiating the role of therapeutic BTX injections and to provide useful information for the medical practitioner, we applied the principles of evidence-based medicine to the treatment for cervico-thoracic MPS. A search was conducted through MEDLINE (PubMed, OVID, MDConsult), EMBASE, SCOPUS and the Cochrane database for the period 1966 to 2012 using the following keywords: myofascial pain, muscle pain, botulinum toxin, trigger points, and injections. A total of 7 trials satisfied our inclusion criteria and were evaluated in this review. Although the majority of studies found negative results, our analysis identified Gobel et al.'s as the highest quality study among these prospectively randomized investigations. This was due to appropriate identification of diagnostic criteria, excellent study design and objective endpoints. The 6 other identified studies had significant failings due to deficiencies in 1 or more major criteria. We conclude that higher quality, rigorously standardized studies are needed to more appropriately investigate this promising treatment modality.

  19. DEFORMATION WAVES AS A TRIGGER MECHANISM OF SEISMIC ACTIVITY IN SEISMIC ZONES OF THE CONTINENTAL LITHOSPHERE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Sherman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Deformation waves as a trigger mechanism of seismic activity and migration of earthquake foci have been under discussion by researchers in seismology and geodynamics for over 50 years. Four sections of this article present available principal data on impacts of wave processes on seismicity and new data. The first section reviews analytical and experimental studies aimed at identification of relationships between wave processes in the lithosphere and seismic activity manifested as space-and-time migration of individual earthquake foci or clusters of earthquakes. It is concluded that with a systematic approach, instead of using a variety of terms to denote waves that trigger seismic process in the lithosphere, it is reasonable to apply the concise definition of ‘deformation waves’, which is most often used in fact.The second section contains a description of deformation waves considered as the trigger mechanism of seismic activity. It is concluded that a variety of methods are applied to identify deformation waves, and such methods are based on various research methods and concepts that naturally differ in sensitivity concerning detection of waves and/or impact of the waves on seismic process. Epicenters of strong earthquakes are grouped into specific linear or arc-shaped systems, which common criterion is the same time interval of the occurrence of events under analysis. On site the systems compose zones with similar time sequences, which correspond to the physical notion of moving waves (Fig. 9. Periods of manifestation of such waves are estimated as millions of years, and a direct consideration of the presence of waves and wave parameters is highly challenging. In the current state-of-the-art, geodynamics and seismology cannot provide any other solution yet.The third section presents a solution considering record of deformation waves in the lithosphere. With account of the fact that all the earthquakes with М≥3.0 are associated with

  20. Astragaloside Ⅱ triggers T cell activation through regulation of CD45 protein tyrosine phosphatase activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-ping WAN; Li-xin GAO; Li-fei HOU; Xiao-qian YANG; Pei-lan HE; Yi-fu YANG; Wei TANG

    2013-01-01

    Aim:To investigate the immunomodulating activity of astragalosides,the active compounds from a traditional tonic herb Astragalus membranaceus Bge,and to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying the actions,focusing on CD45 protein tyrosine phosphatase (CD45 PTPase),which plays a critical role in T lymphocyte activation.Methods:Primary splenocytes and T cells were prepared from mice.CD45 PTPase activity was assessed using a colorimetric assay.Cell proliferation was measured using a [3H]-thymidine incorporation assay.Cytokine proteins and mRNAs were examined with ELISA and RT-PCR,respectively.Activation markers,including CD25 and CD69,were analyzed using flow cytometry.Activation of LCK (Tyr505) was detected using Western blot analysis.Mice were injected with the immunosuppressant cyclophosphamide (CTX,80 mg/kg),and administered astragaloside Ⅱ (50 mg/kg).Results:Astragaloside Ⅰ,Ⅱ,Ⅲ,and Ⅳ concentration-dependently increased the CD45-mediated of pNPP/OMFP hydrolysis with the EC50 values ranged from 3.33 to 10.42 μg/mL.Astragaloside Ⅱ (10 and 30 μg/mL) significantly enhanced the proliferation of primary splenocytes induced by ConA,alloantigen or anti-CD3.Astragaloside Ⅱ (30 μg/mL) significantly increased IL-2 and IFN-y secretion,upregulated the mRNA levels of IFN-y and T-bet in primary splenocytes,and promoted CD25 and CD69 expression on primary CD4+T cells upon TCR stimulation.Furthermore,astragaloside Ⅱ (100 ng/mL) promoted CD45-mediated dephosphorylation of LCK (Tyr505) in primary T cells,which could be blocked by a specific CD45 PTPase inhibitor.In CTX-induced immunosuppressed mice,oral administration of astragaloside Ⅱ restored the proliferation of splenic T cells and the production of IFN-Y and IL-2.However,astragaloside Ⅱ had no apparent effects on B cell proliferation.Conclusion:Astragaloside Ⅱ enhances T cell activation by regulating the activity of CD45 PTPase,which may explain why Astragalus membranaceus Bge is used as a tonic

  1. Myofascial force transmission is increasingly important at lower forces: firing frequency-related length-force characteristics of rat extensor digitorum longus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, H.J.M; Baan, G.C.; Huijing, P.A.

    2006-01-01

    Aim: Effects of submaximal stimulation frequencies on myofascial force transmission were investigated for rat anterior crural muscles with all motor units activated. - Methods: Tibialis anterior and extensor hallucis longus (TAEHL) muscles were kept at constant muscle-tendon complex length, but exte

  2. Changes in diacylglycerol labeling, cell shape, and protein phosphorylation distinguish triggering from activation of human neutrophils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upon activation neutrophils release reactive oxygen intermediates such as superoxide anion (O2-) which are potent mediators of inflammation. Various agents elicit different responses. In contrast, phorbol myristate acetate (PMA, 1.6 μM) acting directly via protein kinase C is a potent stimulus for O2-. The authors compared the kinetics of appearance of various second messengers with the capacity of these ligands to elicit O2- generation. Kinetic analysis showed a two-phase response to membrane ligands; both an early (≥ 15 s) and a late (>15 s) increase in [3H]- and [14C]diacylglycerol (DG) was noted in response to fMLP. In contrast, LTB4 elicited only a rapid early increase in DG. The rise in DG evoked by PMA was late. Moreover, comparison of increases in [3H]DG versus those of [14C]DG at early and late time points suggested that DG was not formed exclusively from the hydrolysis of polyphosphoinositides. Kinetic analysis of protein phosphorylation was compared to the early and late increments of DG labeling. A 47,000 M/sub r/ protein was phosphorylated with kinetics consistent with the production of O2- and DG in response to fMLP and PMA. The temporal pattern of the formation of diacylglycerol and the phosphorylation of proteins describe a dual signal. The data suggest that neutrophils require not only triggering (the rapid generation of a signal) but also activation (the maintenance of a signal) to sustain responses

  3. TLR activation of tumor-associated macrophages from ovarian cancer patients triggers cytolytic activity of NK cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellora, Francesca; Castriconi, Roberta; Dondero, Alessandra; Pessino, Anna; Nencioni, Alessio; Liggieri, Giovanni; Moretta, Lorenzo; Mantovani, Alberto; Moretta, Alessandro; Bottino, Cristina

    2014-06-01

    We analyzed the functional outcome of the interaction between tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and natural killer (NK) cells. TAMs from ascites of ovarian cancer patients displayed an alternatively activated functional phenotype (M2) characterized by a remarkably high frequency and surface density of membrane-bound IL-18. Upon TLR engagement, TAMs acquired a classically activated functional phenotype (M1), released immunostimulatory cytokines (IL-12, soluble IL-18), and efficiently triggered the cytolytic activity of NK cells. TAMs also induced the release of IFN-γ from NK cells, which however was significantly lower compared with that induced by in vitro-polarized M2 cells. Most tumor-associated NK cells displayed a CD56(bright) , CD16(neg) or CD56(bright) , CD16(dim) phenotype, and very poor cytolytic activities, despite an increased expression of the activation marker CD69. They also showed downregulation of DNAM-1, 2B4, and NTB-A activating receptors, and an altered chemokine receptor repertoire. Importantly however, when appropriately stimulated, NK cells from the patients, including those cells isolated from ascites, efficiently killed autologous TAMs that expressed low, "nonprotective" levels of HLA class I molecules. Overall, our data show the existence of a complex tumor microenvironment in which poorly cytolytic/immature NK cells deal with immunosuppressive tumor-educated macrophages.

  4. Clinical observation of medical ozone injection in trigger point on psoas myofascial pain syndrom%医用臭氧疼痛触发点注射治疗腰部肌筋膜疼痛综合征临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建国; 耿葆梁; 闫洪涛; 张雷; 冯建来; 郜时华; 贾春雨

    2010-01-01

    目的 评价医用臭氧疼痛触发点注射治疗腰部肌筋膜疼痛综合征(Myofascial Pain Syndrom,MPS)的效果与安全性.方法 采用前瞻性随机对照的研究方法,将78例患者随机分为两组,臭氧治疗组应用低浓度医用臭氧,常规治疗组应用利多卡因+维生素B6+甲钴胺和地塞米松棕榈酸酯,均行疼痛触发点漫润注射.治疗2周后采用视觉模拟评分(Visual Analogue Scale,VAS)和日本骨科学会下腰痛评估量表(Low Lumbar Pain Scales,LLPS)对照评价两组疗效.结果 治疗前后比较,两组VAS评分分别从6.2±1.7降至1.1±0.8和从5.6±1.2降至2.3±1.1(均P<0.05),LLPS明显改善(均P<0.01);两组比较,臭氧组VAS评分降低幅值显著大于对照组(P<0.05),优良率明显高于对照组(89.74%比71.79%,P<0.05);LLPS改善程度明显优干对照组(均P<0.05);不良反应明显少于对照组.结论 医用臭氧疼痛触发点注射治疗腰部MPS与常规麻醉剂加激素封闭同样有效,优良率更高,安全性较高,未见明显不良反应.

  5. Treatment of fibromyalgia, myofascial pain, and related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg-Stein, Joanne

    2006-05-01

    Chronic muscle pain is a common complaint among patients who seek care for musculoskeletal disorders. A spectrum of clinical presentations exists, ranging from focal or regional complaints that usually represent myofascial pain syndromes to more wide spread pain that may meet criteria for a diagnosis of fibromyalgia. This article addresses the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and clinical management of myofascial pain syndrome and fibromyalgia. These conditions are challenging to treat and require physiatrists to be aware of the wide range of pharmacologic, rehabilitative,and psychosocial interventions that can be helpful.

  6. Estudo comparativo entre toxina botulínica e bupivacaína para infiltração de pontos-gatilho em síndrome miofascial crônica Estudio comparativo entre toxina botulínica y bupivacaína para infiltración de puntos-gatillo en síndrome miofascial crónica Comparative study between botulin toxin and bupivacaine for triggering-points infiltration in chronic myofascial syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Keiichi Unno

    2005-04-01

    dos grupos. Los pacientes del G1 (n = 10 recibieron 25U de toxina botulínica y los del G2 (n = 10, bupivacaína a 0,25%, de un a tres puntos-gatillo, siendo 0,5 mL por punto. Los pacientes fueron evaluados semanalmente, durante 8 semanas. Fueron asociados 35 mg de orfenadrina, y 300 mg de dipirona, a cada 8 horas, los pacientes fueron sometidos a estimulación eléctrica transcutánea, dos veces por semana, durante 1 hora por sesión. La intensidad del dolor fue evaluada a través de la escala numérica verbal y la calidad de la analgesia, por el paciente, en los momentos cero (antes de la inyección, y después de 30 minutos, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 y 8 semanas. Los resultados fueron sometidos al análisis estadístico (Mann-Whitney y Exacto de Fisher. RESULTADOS: Después de 30 minutos de la aplicación y con 1 y 4 semanas, la intensidad del dolor en el G1 fue menor que en el G2. Después de 2, 3, 5, 7 y 8 semanas de la infiltración, no hubo diferencia significativa entre los grupos. La calidad de la analgesia fue considerada mejor por los pacientes del G1 que del G2, excepto después de 2 semanas. CONCLUSIONES: El efecto analgésico fue mejor con toxina botulínica (25U que con bupivacaína a 0,25% para infiltración de puntos-gatillo.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There are controversies about the efficacy of botulin toxin as compared to local anesthetics for triggering-points infiltration. This study aimed at comparing the analgesic effect of botulin toxin and bupivacaine for triggering-points infiltration in chronic myofascial syndrome. METHODS: Participated in this study 20 patients divided in two groups. G1 patients (n = 10 received 25U botulin toxin and G2 patients (n = 10 received 0.25% bupivacaine in one to three triggering-points, being 0.5 mL per point. Patients were weekly evaluated for 8 weeks. Orphenadrine (35 mg and dipirone (300 mg were associated every 8 hours and patients were submitted to transcutaneous electrical stimulation twice a week during 1 hour

  7. Role of Fc Gamma Receptors in Triggering Host Cell Activation and Cytokine Release by Borrelia burgdorferi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talkington, Jeffrey; Nickell, Steven P.

    2001-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the spirochetal bacterium that causes human Lyme disease, encodes numerous lipoproteins which have the capacity to trigger the release of proinflammatory cytokines from a variety of host cell types, and it is generally believed that these cytokines contribute to the disease process in vivo. We previously reported that low-passage-number infectious B. burgdorferi spirochetes express a novel lipidation-independent activity which induces secretion of the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) by the mouse MC/9 mast cell line. Using RNase protection assays, we determined that mast cells exposed in vitro to low-passage-number, but not high-passage-number, B. burgdorferi spirochetes show increased expression of additional mRNAs representing several chemokines, including macrophage-inflammatory protein 1α (MIP-1α), MIP-1β, and TCA3, as well as the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6. Furthermore, mast cell TNF-α secretion can be inhibited by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor wortmannin and also by preincubation with purified mouse immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) and IgG2a, but not mouse IgG3, and by a mouse Fc gamma receptor II and III (FcγRII/III)-specific rat monoclonal antibody, suggesting the likely involvement of host FcγRIII in B. burgdorferi-mediated signaling. A role for passively adsorbed rabbit or bovine IgG or serum components in B. burgdorferi-mediated FcγR signaling was excluded in control experiments. These studies confirm that low-passage-number B. burgdorferi spirochetes express a novel activity which upregulates the expression of a variety of host cell chemokine and cytokine genes, and they also establish a novel antibody-independent role for FcγRs in transduction of activation signals by bacterial products. PMID:11119532

  8. Airway mucus obstruction triggers macrophage activation and matrix metalloproteinase 12-dependent emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojanek, Joanna B; Cobos-Correa, Amanda; Diemer, Stefanie; Kormann, Michael; Schubert, Susanne C; Zhou-Suckow, Zhe; Agrawal, Raman; Duerr, Julia; Wagner, Claudius J; Schatterny, Jolanthe; Hirtz, Stephanie; Sommerburg, Olaf; Hartl, Dominik; Schultz, Carsten; Mall, Marcus A

    2014-11-01

    Whereas cigarette smoking remains the main risk factor for emphysema, recent studies in β-epithelial Na(+) channel-transgenic (βENaC-Tg) mice demonstrated that airway surface dehydration, a key pathophysiological mechanism in cystic fibrosis (CF), caused emphysema in the absence of cigarette smoke exposure. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. The aim of this study was to elucidate mechanisms of emphysema formation triggered by airway surface dehydration. We therefore used expression profiling, genetic and pharmacological inhibition, Foerster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based activity assays, and genetic association studies to identify and validate emphysema candidate genes in βENaC-Tg mice and patients with CF. We identified matrix metalloproteinase 12 (Mmp12) as a highly up-regulated gene in lungs from βENaC-Tg mice, and demonstrate that elevated Mmp12 expression was associated with progressive emphysema formation, which was reduced by genetic deletion and pharmacological inhibition of MMP12 in vivo. By using FRET reporters, we show that MMP12 activity was elevated on the surface of airway macrophages in bronchoalveolar lavage from βENaC-Tg mice and patients with CF. Furthermore, we demonstrate that a functional polymorphism in MMP12 (rs2276109) was associated with severity of lung disease in CF. Our results suggest that MMP12 released by macrophages activated on dehydrated airway surfaces may play an important role in emphysema formation in the absence of cigarette smoke exposure, and may serve as a therapeutic target in CF and potentially other chronic lung diseases associated with airway mucus dehydration and obstruction. PMID:24828142

  9. Trigger finger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digital stenosing tenosynovitis; Trigger digit; Trigger finger release ... JH. Carpal tunnel syndrome, ulnar tunnel syndrome, and stenosing tenosynovitis. In: Canale ST, Beaty JH, eds. Campbell's Operative ...

  10. Acoustically active liposome-nanobubble complexes for enhanced ultrasonic imaging and ultrasound-triggered drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, An T; Wrenn, Steven P

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound is well known as a safe, reliable imaging modality. A historical limitation of ultrasound, however, was its inability to resolve structures at length scales less than nominally 20 µm, which meant that classical ultrasound could not be used in applications such as echocardiography and angiogenesis where one requires the ability to image small blood vessels. The advent of ultrasound contrast agents, or microbubbles, removed this limitation and ushered in a new wave of enhanced ultrasound applications. In recent years, the microbubbles have been designed to achieve yet another application, namely ultrasound-triggered drug delivery. Ultrasound contrast agents are thus tantamount to 'theranostic' vehicles, meaning they can do both therapy (drug delivery) and imaging (diagnostics). The use of ultrasound contrast agents as drug delivery vehicles, however, is perhaps less than ideal when compared to traditional drug delivery vehicles (e.g., polymeric microcapsules and liposomes) which have greater drug carrying capacities. The drawback of the traditional drug delivery vehicles is that they are not naturally acoustically active and cannot be used for imaging. The notion of a theranostic vehicle is sufficiently intriguing that many attempts have been made in recent years to achieve a vehicle that combines the echogenicity of microbubbles with the drug carrying capacity of liposomes. The attempts can be classified into three categories, namely entrapping, tethering, and nesting. Of these, nesting is the newest-and perhaps the most promising.

  11. Action-projection in Japanese conversation: Topic particles wa, mo and tte for triggering categorization activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko eTanaka

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Conversation analytic work has revealed how anticipatory completions and preemptive actions can offer invaluable glimpses into the cognitive, contextual, grammatical and temporal bases of projectability in turn-taking, by virtue of their potential not only as a display of participants’ online prediction of roughly what it might take to complete a turn-in-progress but also to plan the next move. While the predicate-final word order and the incremental transformability of turns in Japanese generally lead to delayed projectability of turn-endings, this may be partially offset by the capacity of certain postpositional particles to trigger and propel prospective action trajectories. This article engages in a case study of the topic particle wa (and related particles mo and tte, by demonstrating how its grammatical affordances, the categorization activities and cognitive processing it can set in motion, coupled with the immediate contextual and temporal-productional features may coalesce to a point of critical mass, thereby enhancing the projectability of the not-yet-produced trajectory of the current turn. The discussion attempts to contribute to recent debates on ways language-specific lexicogrammatical resources are deeply interlinked with the types of opportunities that are provided for social action.

  12. Action-projection in Japanese conversation: topic particles wa, mo, and tte for triggering categorization activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hiroko

    2015-01-01

    Conversation analytic work has revealed how anticipatory completions and preemptive actions can offer invaluable glimpses into the cognitive, contextual, grammatical, and temporal bases of projectability in turn-taking, by virtue of their potential not only as a display of participants' online prediction of roughly what it might take to complete a turn-in-progress but also to plan the next move. While the predicate-final word order and the incremental transformability of turns in Japanese generally lead to delayed projectability of turn-endings, this may be partially offset by the capacity of certain postpositional particles to trigger and propel prospective action trajectories. This article engages in a case study of the topic particle wa (and related particles mo and tte), by demonstrating how its grammatical affordances, the categorization activities, and cognitive processing it can set in motion, coupled with the immediate contextual, and temporal-productional features may coalesce to a point of critical mass, thereby enhancing the projectability of the not-yet-produced trajectory of the current turn. The discussion attempts to contribute to recent debates on ways language-specific lexicogrammatical resources are deeply interlinked with the types of opportunities that are provided for social action. PMID:26379565

  13. eIF2α-Independent Inhibition of TNF-α-Triggered NF-κB Activation by Salubrinal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Shotaro; Chi, Yuan; Gao, Kun; Kono, Koji; Yao, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Salubrinal is a selective inhibitor of cellular complexes that dephosphorylate eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α). In previous reports, salubrinal was shown to have the potential to inhibit the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) by several stimuli. However, the effects of salubrinal on NF-κB signaling are largely unknown. In this study, we investigated whether and how salubrinal affects NF-κB activation induced by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β. We found that salubrinal selectively blocked TNF-α- but not IL-1β-induced activation of NF-κB. This inhibitory effect occurred upstream of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1). Further experiments revealed that salubrinal blocked TNF-α-triggered NF-κB activation independent of its action on eIF2α because knockdown of eIF2α by small interfering RNA (siRNA) did not reverse the inhibitory effect of salubrinal on NF-κB. Moreover, guanabenz, a selective inhibitor of the regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase (PP) 1, also preferentially inhibited TNF-α-triggered activation of NF-κB. These findings raise the possibility that salubrinal may selectively block TNF-α-triggered activation of the NF-κB pathway through inhibition of the PP1 complex. PMID:26328492

  14. Special astronomical configurations, solar activity and deep degassing as a trigger of natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natyaganov, Vladimir; Syvorotkin, Vladimir; Fedorov, Valeriy; Shopin, Sergey

    2016-04-01

    Extraordinary cases of tectonic events (strong earthquakes, volcano eruptions), mine explosions, typhoons, hurricanes, tornado outbreak sequences, ball lightnings, transient luminous events are analyzed in relation with special astronomical configurations, which are specific relative positions of the Sun, Earth, Moon and the closest planets of the Solar System (Venus, Mars and Jupiter) [1]. Usage of special astronomical coordinate systems give evidence not only of correlations but also of hidden causes-and-effect relations between the analyzed phenomena. The geocentric ecliptic latitude system is an example of such astronomical coordinate systems. It gives clear evidence of coherence between strong earthquakes and the maximal Moon declination from the plane of the ecliptic. Extraordinary cases of planet activity from the beginning of XX century till the present time are shown in the years of special astronomical configurations and abrupt increasing of solar activity. According to the empirical scheme of short-term earthquake prediction [3], geomagnetic disturbances are the triggers of earthquakes. Geomagnetic disturbances perform electromagnetic pumping (electromagnetic excitation) of the Earth's interior in the regions of intersections of seismomagnetic meridians with the plate boundaries as a result of electrothermal breakdowns in the heterogeneous medium of tectonic faults. This results in the local intensification of deep degassing [4], decreasing of shear strength of the medium that triggers earthquakes usually after 2 or 3 weeks (±2 days) after the geomagnetic disturbance. Examples of officially registered predictions of Kamchatka earthquakes with M7+ without missing events, including deep-focus earthquakes in the Okhotsk Sea since the year of 2002, are shown. It is discussed correlations and possible cause-and-effect relations between a different phenomena such as - dangerous natural hazardous events such as the record tornado outbreak sequences in the USA

  15. Efficacy of dry needling for treatment of myofascial pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogelman, Yacov; Kent, John

    2015-01-01

    Myofascial pain is a major cause of musculoskeletal regional pain. Myofascial pain, which is a high-prevalence but eminently treatable condition, is almost universally underdiagnosed by physicians and undertreated by physical therapy modalities. Large numbers of patients can be left suffering in chronic pain for years. Dry needling, also referred to as Intramuscular Stimulation, is a method in the arsenal of pain management which has been known for almost 200 years in Western medicine, yet has been almost completely ignored. With the increase in research in this field over the past two decades, there are many high-quality studies that demonstrate dry needling to be an effective and safe method for the treatment of myofascial pain when diagnosed and treated by adequately-trained physicians or physical therapists. This article provides an overview of recent literature regarding the treatment of myofascial pain syndrome, evidence for the efficacy of dry needling as a central component of its management, and a glimpse at developments in recent imaging methods to aid in the treatment of these problems.

  16. INNERVATED RECTUS-ABDOMINIS MYOFASCIAL FLAP FOR DYNAMIC CARDIOMYOPLASTY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WIJNBERG, DS; EBELS, T; ROBINSON, PH

    1994-01-01

    This study examined the rectus abdominis myofascial flap as an innervated nap for dynamic cardiomyoplastic purposes. It is common to use the latissimus dorsi to wrap or patch around or in the heart, but there is a need for more innervated skeletal muscle for a variety of reasons. The rectus abdomini

  17. Low-level laser therapy of myofascial pain syndromes of patients with osteoarthritis of knee and hip joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparyan, Levon V.

    2001-04-01

    The purpose of the given research is the comparison of efficiency of conventional treatment of myofascial pain syndromes of patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of hip and knee joints and therapy with additional application of low level laser therapy (LLLT) under dynamic control of clinical picture, rheovasographic, electromyographic examinations, and parameters of peroxide lipid oxidation. The investigation was made on 143 patients with OA of hip and knee joints. Patients were randomized in 2 groups: basic group included 91 patients, receiving conventional therapy with a course of LLLT, control group included 52 patients, receiving conventional treatment only. Transcutaneous ((lambda) equals 890 nm, output peak power 5 W, frequency 80 - 3000 Hz) and intravenous ((lambda) equals 633 nm, output 2 mW in the vein) laser irradiation were used for LLLT. Studied showed, that clinical efficiency of LLLT in the complex with conventional treatment of myofascial pain syndromes at the patients with OA is connected with attenuation of pain syndrome, normalization of parameters of myofascial syndrome, normalization of the vascular tension and parameters of rheographic curves, as well as with activation of antioxidant protection system.

  18. THE MAGNETIC SYSTEMS TRIGGERING THE M6.6 CLASS SOLAR FLARE IN NOAA ACTIVE REGION 11158

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a detailed event analysis of the M6.6 class flare in the active region (AR) NOAA 11158 on 2011 February 13. AR 11158, which consisted of two major emerging bipoles, showed prominent activity including one X- and several M-class flares. In order to investigate the magnetic structures related to the M6.6 event, particularly the formation process of a flare-triggering magnetic region, we analyzed multiple spacecraft observations and numerical results of a flare simulation. We observed that, in the center of this quadrupolar AR, a highly sheared polarity inversion line (PIL) was formed through proper motions of the major magnetic elements, which built a sheared coronal arcade lying over the PIL. The observations lend support to the interpretation that the target flare was triggered by a localized magnetic region that had an intrusive structure, namely, a positive polarity penetrating into a negative counterpart. The geometrical relationship between the sheared coronal arcade and the triggering region is consistent with the theoretical flare model based on the previous numerical study. We found that the formation of the trigger region was due to the continuous accumulation of small-scale magnetic patches. A few hours before the flare occurred, the series of emerged/advected patches reconnected with a pre-existing field. Finally, the abrupt flare eruption of the M6.6 event started around 17:30 UT. Our analysis suggests that in the process of triggering flare activity, all magnetic systems on multiple scales are included, not only the entire AR evolution but also the fine magnetic elements

  19. Efficacy of pulsed low-intensity electric neuromuscular stimulation in reducing pain and disability in patients with myofascial syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iodice, P; Lessiani, G; Franzone, G; Pezzulo, G

    2016-01-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is characterized by chronic pain in multiple myofascial trigger points and fascial constrictions. In recent years, the scientific literature has recognized the need to include the patient with MPS in a multidimensional rehabilitation project. At the moment, the most widely recognized therapeutic methods for the treatment of myofascial syndrome include the stretch and spray pressure massage. Microcurrent electric neuromuscular stimulation was proposed in pain management for its effects on normalizing bioelectricity of cells and for its sub-sensory application. In this study, we tested the efficacy of low-intensity pulsed electric neuromuscular stimulus (PENS) on pain in patients with MPS of cervical spine muscles. We carried out a prospective-analytic longitudinal study at an outpatient clinic during two weeks. Forty subjects (mean age 42±13 years) were divided into two groups: treatment (TrGr, n=20) and control group (CtrlGr, n=20). Visual-analog scale (VAS) values, concerning the spontaneous and movement-related pain in the cervical-dorsal region at baseline (T0) and at the end of the study (T1), showed a reduction from 7 to 3.81 (p < 0.001) in TrGr. In the CtrlGr, VAS was reduced from 8.2 to 7.2 (n.s.). Moreover, the pressure pain threshold at T0 was 2.1 vs 4.2 at T1 (p < 0.001) in TrG. In the CtrlGR we observed no significant changes. Modulated low-intensity PENS is an innovative therapy permitting to act on the transmission of pain and on the restoration of tissue homeostasis. It seems to affect the transmission of pain through the stimulation of A-beta fibers. The above results show that low-intensity PENS can be considered as an effective treatment to reduce pain and disability in patients with MPS. PMID:27358158

  20. Efficacy of pulsed low-intensity electric neuromuscular stimulation in reducing pain and disability in patients with myofascial syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iodice, P; Lessiani, G; Franzone, G; Pezzulo, G

    2016-01-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is characterized by chronic pain in multiple myofascial trigger points and fascial constrictions. In recent years, the scientific literature has recognized the need to include the patient with MPS in a multidimensional rehabilitation project. At the moment, the most widely recognized therapeutic methods for the treatment of myofascial syndrome include the stretch and spray pressure massage. Microcurrent electric neuromuscular stimulation was proposed in pain management for its effects on normalizing bioelectricity of cells and for its sub-sensory application. In this study, we tested the efficacy of low-intensity pulsed electric neuromuscular stimulus (PENS) on pain in patients with MPS of cervical spine muscles. We carried out a prospective-analytic longitudinal study at an outpatient clinic during two weeks. Forty subjects (mean age 42±13 years) were divided into two groups: treatment (TrGr, n=20) and control group (CtrlGr, n=20). Visual-analog scale (VAS) values, concerning the spontaneous and movement-related pain in the cervical-dorsal region at baseline (T0) and at the end of the study (T1), showed a reduction from 7 to 3.81 (p pain threshold at T0 was 2.1 vs 4.2 at T1 (p pain and on the restoration of tissue homeostasis. It seems to affect the transmission of pain through the stimulation of A-beta fibers. The above results show that low-intensity PENS can be considered as an effective treatment to reduce pain and disability in patients with MPS.

  1. Evaluation of Women with Myofascial Abdominal Syndrome Based on Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Mitidieri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study used semiology based on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM to investigate vital energy (Qi behavior in women with abdominal myofascial pain syndrome (AMPS. Methods: Fifty women diagnosed with chronic pelvic pain (CPP secondary to AMPS were evaluated by using a questionnaire based on the theories of “yin-yang,” “zang-fu”, and “five elements”. We assessed the following aspects of the illness: symptomatology; specific location of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs; onset, cause, duration and frequency of symptoms; and patient and family history. The patients tongues, lips, skin colors, and tones of speech were examined. Patients were questioned on various aspects related to breathing, sweating, sleep quality, emotions, and preferences related to color, food, flavors, and weather or seasons. Thirst, gastrointestinal dysfunction, excreta (feces and urine, menstrual cycle, the five senses, and characteristic pain symptoms related to headache, musculoskeletal pain, abdomen, and chest were also investigated. Results: Patients were between 22 and 56 years old, and most were married (78%, possessed a elementary school (66%, and had one or two children (76%. The mean body mass index and body fat were 26.86 kg/ cm2 (range: 17.7 — 39.0 and 32.4% (range: 10.7 — 45.7, respectively. A large majority of women (96% exhibited alterations in the kidney meridian, and 98% had an altered gallbladder meridian. We observed major changes in the kidney and the gallbladder Qi meridians in 76% and 62% of patients, respectively. Five of the twelve meridians analyzed exhibited Qi patterns similar to pelvic innervation Qi and meridians, indicating that the paths of some of these meridians were directly related to innervation of the pelvic floor and abdominal region. Conclusion: The women in this study showed changes in the behavior of the energy meridians, and the paths of some of the meridians were directly related to innervation of the

  2. Evaluation of Salivary Cortisol and Anxiety Levels in Myofascial Pain Dysfunction Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Nadendla, Lakshmi Kavitha; Meduri, Venkateswarlu; Paramkusam, Geetha; Pachava, Koteswara Rao

    2013-01-01

    Background Myofascial pain dysfunction syndrome (MPDS), otherwise called myofascial pain is one of the most common temporomandibular disorders, which in turn is the most common cause of orofacial pain of non-dental origin. Its etiology is multifactorial and still poorly understood. Psychological factors have been shown to play a role in the etiology. The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between anxiety and salivary cortisol levels in patients with myofascial pain. Methods Twen...

  3. Educational course of deep tissue massage and myofascial release techniques for SAMK physiotherapy students

    OpenAIRE

    Kopacz, Natalia

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the thesis was to create an educational course of Deep Tissue Massage and Myofascial Release Techniques for SAMK physiotherapy students. The theoretical part of the course covers introduction to the notion of Fascia (anatomy, physiology and pathology) together with main principles of Myofascial Release, and familiarizes students with various Myofascial Release methods practised worldwide. The main, practical part of the course is dedicated to learn and develop manual skills in ...

  4. Export of earthquake-triggered landslides in active mountain ranges: insights from 2D morphodynamic modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croissant, Thomas; Lague, Dimitri; Davy, Philippe; Steer, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    In active mountain ranges, large earthquakes (Mw > 5-6) trigger numerous landslides that impact river dynamics. These landslides bring local and sudden sediment piles that will be eroded and transported along the river network causing downstream changes in river geometry, transport capacity and erosion efficiency. The progressive removal of landslide materials has implications for downstream hazards management and also for understanding landscape dynamics at the timescale of the seismic cycle. The export time of landslide-derived sediments after large-magnitude earthquakes has been studied from suspended load measurements but a full understanding of the total process, including the coupling between sediment transfer and channel geometry change, still remains an issue. Note that the transport of small sediment pulses has been studied in the context of river restoration, but the magnitude of sediment pulses generated by landslides may make the problem different. Here, we study the export of large volumes (>106 m3) of sediments with the 2D hydro-morphodynamic model, Eros. This model uses a new hydrodynamic module that resolves a reduced form of the Saint-Venant equations with a particle method. It is coupled with a sediment transport and lateral and vertical erosion model. Eros accounts for the complex retroactions between sediment transport and fluvial geometry, with a stochastic description of the floods experienced by the river. Moreover, it is able to reproduce several features deemed necessary to study the evacuation of large sediment pulses, such as river regime modification (single-thread to multi-thread), river avulsion and aggradation, floods and bank erosion. Using a synthetic and simple topography we first present how granulometry, landslide volume and geometry, channel slope and flood frequency influence 1) the dominance of pulse advection vs. diffusion during its evacuation, 2) the pulse export time and 3) the remaining volume of sediment in the catchment

  5. Detection of changes in SEMG signals with myofascial pain using the pattern-classifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ching-Fen; Huang, Pao-Tieh

    2013-10-01

    Myofascial pain on the upper back (MFPUB) has been a common occupational hazard associated with consistent computer use. Investigations into any sort neuromuscular functional changes due to myofascial pain are rare. This study aims to differentiate the wavelet energy patterns of the surface electromyography signals measured from 30 normal and 26 patient subjects using the K-means clustering process. The results show that the wavelet energy pattern of patient subjects was different to that of normal subject and reveals a sensitivity of 57.69% at a specificity of 76.67% in the identification of myofascial pain. Therefore, this model could provide a reliable feature for clinical diagnosis of myofascial pain.

  6. Efficacy of EMLA cream phonophoresis comparison with ultrasound therapy on myofascial pain syndrome of the trapezius: a single-blind, randomized clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustun, Nilgun; Arslan, Fatma; Mansuroglu, Ayhan; Inanoglu, Deniz; Yagız, Abdullah Erman; Guler, Hayal; Turhanoglu, Ayse Dicle

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate whether eutectic mixture of local anesthetics (EMLA) cream phonophoresis superior to conventional US over the trigger points (TPs) in terms of improvements of pain, range of motion and disability in myofascial pain syndrome (MPS). Fifty patients (42 female, 8 male) diagnosed with MPS were included in the study. Patients were randomly assigned into two treatment groups including phonophoresis (PH) group (n = 25) and ultrasound (US) group (n = 25). PH group received EMLA cream phonophoresis (2.5 % lidocaine, 2.5 % prilocaine); US group received conventional ultrasound therapy over the all active TPs on trapezius muscle for 10 min a day for 15 sessions. Outcome measures were performed before the treatment course and at the end of a 15-session course of treatment. Student T, Mann-Whitney U, chi-square and Wilcoxon tests were used for statistical analysis. At the end of the therapy, there was statistically significant decrease in both PH group and US group in terms of number of trigger point (NTP) (p = 0.001, p = 0.029), pain intensity on movement (p = 0.001 vs. 0.002) and right/left cervical lateral ROMs (p = 0.001/p = 0.001, p = 0.009/p = 0.020) relative to baseline. The NTP decrease in PH group was significantly higher than that in US group (1.84 ± 1.46 vs. 0.72 ± 1.45; p = 0.01). Pain intensity at rest (p = 0.001) and NPDI scores (p = 0.001) were statistically improvement in only PH group. EMLA cream phonophoresis is more effective than conventional ultrasound therapy in terms of pain and associated neck disability, and it seems the complementary treatment option for MPS.

  7. The structure of host galaxies of radio-loud quasars and possible triggering mechanisms for quasar activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanishin, W.; Hintzen, P. (Arizona State Univ., Tempe (USA); NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (USA))

    1989-06-01

    An image modeling program is used to analyze optical imaging data for a sample of radio-loud quasars with redshifts between 0.2 and 0.7. It is found that the host galaxies of these quasars tend to be more compact than normal ellipticals. The cooling flow cluster elliptical galaxies near these host galaxies are studied. It is suggested that these cooling flow galaxies are also compact due to star formation in their central regions. Two populations of quasars are identified. One, in which activity is triggered by galaxy mergers of interactions has predominately spiral galaxies and are radio quiet. The other, in which activity is triggered by star formation bursts induced by cooling flows, has predominately elliptical hosts and may be radio loud. 28 refs.

  8. The structure of host galaxies of radio-loud quasars and possible triggering mechanisms for quasar activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An image modeling program is used to analyze optical imaging data for a sample of radio-loud quasars with redshifts between 0.2 and 0.7. It is found that the host galaxies of these quasars tend to be more compact than normal ellipticals. The cooling flow cluster elliptical galaxies near these host galaxies are studied. It is suggested that these cooling flow galaxies are also compact due to star formation in their central regions. Two populations of quasars are identified. One, in which activity is triggered by galaxy mergers of interactions has predominately spiral galaxies and are radio quiet. The other, in which activity is triggered by star formation bursts induced by cooling flows, has predominately elliptical hosts and may be radio loud. 28 refs

  9. The structure of host galaxies of radio-loud quasars and possible triggering mechanisms for quasar activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanishin, W.; Hintzen, Paul

    1989-01-01

    An image modeling program is used to analyze optical imaging data for a sample of radio-loud quasars with redshifts between 0.2 and 0.7. It is found that the host galaxies of these quasars tend to be more compact than normal ellipticals. The cooling flow cluster elliptical galaxies near these host galaxies are studied. It is suggested that these cooling flow galaxies are also compact due to star formation in their central regions. Two populations of quasars are identified. One, in which activity is triggered by galaxy mergers of interactions has predominately spiral galaxies and are radio quiet. The other, in which activity is triggered by star formation bursts induced by cooling flows, has predominately elliptical hosts and may be radio loud.

  10. Percutaneous soft tissue release for treating chronic recurrent myofascial pain associated with lateral epicondylitis: 6 case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ming-Ta; Chou, Li-Wei; Chen, Hsin-Shui; Kao, Mu-Jung

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this pilot study is to investigate the effectiveness of the percutaneous soft tissue release for the treatment of recurrent myofascial pain in the forearm due to recurrent lateral epicondylitis. Methods. Six patients with chronic recurrent pain in the forearm with myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) due to chronic lateral epicondylitis were treated with percutaneous soft tissue release of Lin's technique. Pain intensity (measured with a numerical pain rating scale), pressure pain threshold (measured with a pressure algometer), and grasping strength (measured with a hand dynamometer) were assessed before, immediately after, and 3 months and 12 months after the treatment. Results. For every individual case, the pain intensity was significantly reduced (P < 0.01) and the pressure pain threshold and the grasping strength were significantly increased (P < 0.01) immediately after the treatment. This significant effectiveness lasts for at least one year. Conclusions. It is suggested that percutaneous soft tissue release can be used for treating chronic recurrent lateral epicondylitis to avoid recurrence, if other treatment, such as oral anti-inflammatory medicine, physical therapy, or local steroid injection, cannot control the recurrent pain.

  11. Percutaneous Soft Tissue Release for Treating Chronic Recurrent Myofascial Pain Associated with Lateral Epicondylitis: 6 Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Ta Lin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this pilot study is to investigate the effectiveness of the percutaneous soft tissue release for the treatment of recurrent myofascial pain in the forearm due to recurrent lateral epicondylitis. Methods. Six patients with chronic recurrent pain in the forearm with myofascial trigger points (MTrPs due to chronic lateral epicondylitis were treated with percutaneous soft tissue release of Lin’s technique. Pain intensity (measured with a numerical pain rating scale, pressure pain threshold (measured with a pressure algometer, and grasping strength (measured with a hand dynamometer were assessed before, immediately after, and 3 months and 12 months after the treatment. Results. For every individual case, the pain intensity was significantly reduced (P<0.01 and the pressure pain threshold and the grasping strength were significantly increased (P<0.01 immediately after the treatment. This significant effectiveness lasts for at least one year. Conclusions. It is suggested that percutaneous soft tissue release can be used for treating chronic recurrent lateral epicondylitis to avoid recurrence, if other treatment, such as oral anti-inflammatory medicine, physical therapy, or local steroid injection, cannot control the recurrent pain.

  12. Synergistic Nanomedicine: Passive, Active, and Ultrasound-Triggered Drug Delivery in Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkhodiry, Mohamed A; Momah, Christian C; Suwaidi, Shaima R; Gadalla, Dina; Martins, Ana M; Vitor, Rute F; Husseini, Ghaleb A

    2016-01-01

    Nanocarriers are heavily researched as drug delivery vehicles capable of sequestering antineoplastic agents and then releasing their contents at the desired location. The feasibility of using such carriers stems from their ability to produce a multimodel delivery system whereby passive, ligand and triggered targeting can be applied in the fight against cancer. Passive targeting capitalizes on the leaky nature of tumor tissue which allows for the extravasation of particles with a size smaller than 0.5 µm into the tumors. Ligand targeting utilizes the concept of receptor-mediated endocytosis and involves the conjugation of ligands onto the surface of nanoparticles, while triggered targeting involves the use of external and internal stimuli to release the carriers contents upon reaching the diseased location. In this review, micelles and liposomes have been considered due to the promising results they have shown in vivo and in vitro and their potential for advancements into clinical trials. Thus, this review focuses on the most recent advancements in the field of micellar and liposomal drug delivery and considers the synergistic effect of passive- and ligand-targeting strategies, and the use of ultrasound in triggering drug release at the tumor site. PMID:27398430

  13. Delayed triggering of radio Active Galactic Nuclei in gas-rich minor mergers in the local Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Shabala, Stanislav; Kaviraj, Sugata; Middelberg, Enno; Turner, Ross; Ting, Yuan-Sen; Allison, James; Davis, Tim

    2016-01-01

    We examine the processes triggering star formation and Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) activity in a sample of 25 low redshift ($z10^7$ K) brightness temperature required for an mJIVE-20 detection allows us to unambiguously identify the radio AGN in our sample. We find three such objects. Our VLBI AGN identifications are classified as Seyferts or LINERs in narrow line optical diagnostic plots; mid-infrared colours of our targets and the comparison of H$\\alpha$ star formation rates with integrated radio luminosity are also consistent with the VLBI identifications. We reconstruct star formation histories in our galaxies using optical and UV photometry, and find that these radio AGN are not triggered promptly in the merger process, consistent with previous findings for non-VLBI samples of radio AGN. This delay can significantly limit the efficiency of feedback by radio AGN triggered in galaxy mergers. We find that radio AGN hosts have lower star formation rates than non-AGN radio-selected galaxies at the same star...

  14. Mechanisms and clinical management of myofascial pain syndrome%肌筋膜疼痛综合征的基础与临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁宏杰; 杜诗斌

    2015-01-01

    肌筋膜疼痛综合征是激痛点引起的疼痛性疾病,其发病率非常高,而治疗相对困难.本文对肌筋膜疼痛综合征的机理、诊断以及治疗作一综述.%Myofascial pain syndrome is a kind of painful disease caused by trigger points.It has extremely high prevalence and is refractory to medical therapy.So the mechanisms,diagnosis and treatment principles are reviewed in this article.

  15. Delayed triggering of radio Active Galactic Nuclei in gas-rich minor mergers in the local Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabala, S. S.; Deller, A.; Kaviraj, S.; Middelberg, E.; Turner, R. J.; Ting, Y. S.; Allison, J. R.; Davis, T. A.

    2016-10-01

    We examine the processes triggering star formation and Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) activity in a sample of 25 low redshift (z 107 K) brightness temperature required for an mJIVE-20 detection allows us to unambiguously identify the radio AGN in our sample. We find three such objects. Our VLBI AGN identifications are classified as Seyferts or LINERs in narrow line optical diagnostic plots; mid-infrared colours of our targets and the comparison of Hα star formation rates with integrated radio luminosity are also consistent with the VLBI identifications. We reconstruct star formation histories in our galaxies using optical and UV photometry, and find that these radio AGN are not triggered promptly in the merger process, consistent with previous findings for non-VLBI samples of radio AGN. This delay can significantly limit the efficiency of feedback by radio AGN triggered in galaxy mergers. We find that radio AGN hosts have lower star formation rates than non-AGN radio-selected galaxies at the same starburst age. Conventional and VLBI radio imaging shows these AGN to be compact on arcsecond scales. Our modeling suggests that the actual sizes of AGN-inflated radio lobes may be much larger than this, but these are too faint to be detected in existing observations. Deep radio imaging is required to map out the true extent of the AGN, and to determine whether the low star formation rates in radio AGN hosts are a result of the special conditions required for radio jet triggering, or the effect of AGN feedback.

  16. Evaluation of treatments for myofascial pain syndrome and fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudin, Nathan J

    2003-12-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) and fibromyalgia (FM) are complex conditions and pose significant challenges to clinicians and patients. This chapter explores available treatments for MPS and FM in the context of pathophysiology, clinical evidence, and experimental support. This information may prove to be helpful in designing individualized treatment for patients with these complex syndromes. New treatments should be critically and carefully evaluated as they appear.

  17. Atypical presentation of macrophagic myofasciitis 10 years post vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Aisling M; Bermingham, Niamh; Harrington, Hugh J; Keohane, Catherine

    2006-12-01

    Macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF) is an uncommon inflammatory disorder of muscle believed to be due to persistence of vaccine-derived aluminium hydroxide at the site of injection. The condition is characterised by diffuse myalgias, arthralgia and fatigue. We describe a patient with histologically confirmed MMF whose presentation was atypical with left chest and upper limb pain beginning more than 10 years post vaccination. Treatment with steroids led to symptomatic improvement. Although rare, clinicians should consider MMF in cases of atypical myalgia.

  18. Atypical presentation of macrophagic myofasciitis 10 years post vaccination.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, Aisling M

    2012-02-03

    Macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF) is an uncommon inflammatory disorder of muscle believed to be due to persistence of vaccine-derived aluminium hydroxide at the site of injection. The condition is characterised by diffuse myalgias, arthralgia and fatigue. We describe a patient with histologically confirmed MMF whose presentation was atypical with left chest and upper limb pain beginning more than 10 years post vaccination. Treatment with steroids led to symptomatic improvement. Although rare, clinicians should consider MMF in cases of atypical myalgia.

  19. Might axial myofascial properties and biomechanical mechanisms be relevant to ankylosing spondylitis and axial spondyloarthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Alfonse T

    2014-01-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis and axial spondyloarthropathy have characteristic age- and sex-specific onset patterns, typical entheseal lesions, and marked heritability, but the integrative mechanisms causing the pathophysiological and structural alterations remain largely undefined. Myofascial tissues are integrated in the body into webs and networks which permit transmission of passive and active tensional forces that provide stabilizing support and help to control movements. Axial myofascial hypertonicity was hypothesized as a potential excessive polymorphic trait which could contribute to chronic biomechanical overloading and exaggerated stresses at entheseal sites. Such a mechanism may help to integrate many of the characteristic host, pathological, and structural features of ankylosing spondylitis and axial spondyloarthritis. Biomechanical stress and strain were recently documented to correlate with peripheral entheseal inflammation and new bone formation in a murine model of spondyloarthritis. Ankylosing spondylitis has traditionally been classified by the modified New York criteria, which require the presence of definite radiographic sacroiliac joint lesions. New classification criteria for axial spondyloarthritis now include patients who do not fulfill the modified New York criteria. The male-to-female sex ratios clearly differed between the two patient categories - 2:1 or 3:1 in ankylosing spondylitis and 1:1 in non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis - and this suggests a spectral concept of disease and, among females, milder structural alterations. Magnetic resonance imaging of active and chronic lesions in ankylosing spondylitis and axial spondyloarthritis reveals complex patterns, usually interpreted as inflammatory reactions, but shows similarities to acute degenerative disc disease, which attributed to edema formation following mechanical stresses and micro-damage. A basic question is whether mechanically induced microinjury and immunologically mediated

  20. Triggering Active Galactic Nuclei in Hierarchical Galaxy Formation: Disk instability vs. Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Menci, N; Fiore, F; Lamastra, A

    2014-01-01

    Using a semi analytic model for galaxy formation we investigate the effects of Black Hole accretion triggered by disk instabilities (DI) in isolated galaxies on the evolution of AGN. Specifically, we took on, developed and expanded the Hopkins & Quataert (2011) model for the mass inflow following disk perturbations, and compare the corresponding evolution of the AGN population with that arising in a scenario where galaxy interactions trigger AGN (IT mode). We extended and developed the DI model by including different disk surface density profiles, to study the maximal contribution of DI to the evolution of the AGN population. We obtained the following results: i) for luminosities corresponding to $M_{1450}\\gtrsim -26$ the DI mode can provide the BH accretion needed to match the observed AGN luminosity functions up to $z \\approx 4.5$; in such a luminosity range and redshift, it can compete with the IT scenario as the main driver of cosmological evolution of AGN; ii) The DI scenario cannot provide the obser...

  1. Comparison the efficacy of phonophoresis and ultrasound therapy in myofascial pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ay, Saime; Doğan, Sebnem Koldaş; Evcik, Deniz; Başer, Ozgün Cakmak

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the effect of phonophoresis, ultrasound and placebo ultrasound therapies in the treatment of myofascial pain syndrome (MPS). This is a randomized, double-blind placebo controlled study. Sixty patients (48 women, 12 men, mean age 37.9 ± 12.2 years) with MPS were included in this study. Patients were allocated into three groups. Group 1(n = 20) was received diclofenac phonophoresis, group 2(n = 20) was received ultrasound and group 3(n = 20) was received placebo ultrasound therapies over trigger points, 10 min a day for 15 session during 3 weeks (1 MHz-1,5 watt/cm²). Additionally, all patients were given neck exercise program including isotonic, isometric and stretching. Patients were assessed by means of pain, range of motion (ROM) of neck, number of trigger points (NTP), algometric measurement and disability. Pain severity was measured by visual analog scale (VAS) and Likert scale. The neck pain disability index (NPDI) was used for assessing disability. Measurements were taken before and after treatment. After treatment, there were statistically significant improvements in pain severity, NTP, pressure pain threshold (PPT), ROM and NPDI scores both in phonophoresis and in ultrasound therapy groups (P pain levels, number of trigger points and NPDI score, pressure pain threshold (P > 0.05), also there were no significant differences in all parameters between group 1 and 2 (P = 0.05). Both diclofenac phonophoresis and ultrasound therapy were effective in the treatment of patients with MPS. Phonophoresis was not found to be superior over ultrasound therapy.

  2. Opioid receptor activation triggering downregulation of cAMP improves effectiveness of anti-cancer drugs in treatment of glioblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Claudia; Hormann, Inis; Roscher, Mareike; Fichtner, Iduna; Alt, Andreas; Hilger, Ralf; Debatin, Klaus-Michael; Miltner, Erich

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma are the most frequent and malignant human brain tumors, having a very poor prognosis. The enhanced radio- and chemoresistance of glioblastoma and the glioblastoma stem cells might be the main reason why conventional therapies fail. The second messenger cyclic AMP (cAMP) controls cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Downregulation of cAMP sensitizes tumor cells for anti-cancer treatment. Opioid receptor agonists triggering opioid receptors can activate inhibitory Gi proteins, which, in turn, block adenylyl cyclase activity reducing cAMP. In this study, we show that downregulation of cAMP by opioid receptor activation improves the effectiveness of anti-cancer drugs in treatment of glioblastoma. The µ-opioid receptor agonist D,L-methadone sensitizes glioblastoma as well as the untreatable glioblastoma stem cells for doxorubicin-induced apoptosis and activation of apoptosis pathways by reversing deficient caspase activation and deficient downregulation of XIAP and Bcl-xL, playing critical roles in glioblastomas’ resistance. Blocking opioid receptors using the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone or increasing intracellular cAMP by 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) strongly reduced opioid receptor agonist-induced sensitization for doxorubicin. In addition, the opioid receptor agonist D,L-methadone increased doxorubicin uptake and decreased doxorubicin efflux, whereas doxorubicin increased opioid receptor expression in glioblastomas. Furthermore, opioid receptor activation using D,L-methadone inhibited tumor growth significantly in vivo. Our findings suggest that opioid receptor activation triggering downregulation of cAMP is a promising strategy to inhibit tumor growth and to improve the effectiveness of anti-cancer drugs in treatment of glioblastoma and in killing glioblastoma stem cells. PMID:24626197

  3. RESCUE OF HIPPO CO-ACTIVATOR YAP1 TRIGGERS DNA DAMAGE-INDUCED APOPTOSIS IN HEMATOLOGICAL CANCERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottini, Francesca; Hideshima, Teru; Xu, Chunxiao; Sattler, Martin; Dori, Martina; Agnelli, Luca; Hacken, Elisa ten; Bertilaccio, Maria Teresa; Antonini, Elena; Neri, Antonino; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Marcatti, Magda; Richardson, Paul G.; Carrasco, Ruben; Kimmelman, Alec C.; Wong, Kwok-Kin; Caligaris-Cappio, Federico; Blandino, Giovanni; Kuehl, W. Michael; Anderson, Kenneth C.; Tonon, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Oncogene–induced DNA damage elicits genomic instability in epithelial cancer cells, but apoptosis is blocked through inactivation of the tumor suppressor p53. In hematological cancers, the relevance of ongoing DNA damage and mechanisms by which apoptosis is suppressed are largely unknown. We found pervasive DNA damage in hematologic malignancies including multiple myeloma, lymphoma and leukemia, which leads to activation of a p53–independent, pro-apoptotic network centered on nuclear relocalization of ABL1 kinase. Although nuclear ABL1 triggers cell death through its interaction with the Hippo pathway co–activator YAP1 in normal cells, we show that low YAP1 levels prevent nuclear ABL1–induced apoptosis in these hematologic malignancies. YAP1 is under the control of a serine–threonine kinase, STK4. Importantly, genetic inactivation of STK4 restores YAP1 levels, triggering cell death in vitro and in vivo. Our data therefore identify a novel synthetic–lethal strategy to selectively target cancer cells presenting with endogenous DNA damage and low YAP1 levels. PMID:24813251

  4. Are luminous radio-loud active galactic nuclei triggered by galaxy interactions?

    CERN Document Server

    Almeida, C Ramos; Tadhunter, C; Pérez-González, P G; Barro, G; Inskip, K J; Morganti, R; Holt, J; Dicken, D

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of a comparison between the optical morphologies of a complete sample of 46 southern 2Jy radio galaxies at intermediate redshifts (0.05triggering of powerful radio galaxies (PRGs). We find that a significant fraction of quiescent ellipticals at low and intermediate redshifts show evidence for disturbed morphologies at relatively high surface brightness levels, which are likely the result of past or on-going galaxy interactions. However, the morphological features detected in the galaxy hosts of the PRGs (e.g. tidal tails, shells, bridges, etc.) are up to 2 magnitudes brighter than those present in their quiescent counterparts. Indeed, if...

  5. Gut microbiota translocation to the pancreatic lymph nodes triggers NOD2 activation and contributes to T1D onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Frederico R C; Françozo, Marcela C S; de Oliveira, Gabriela G; Ignacio, Aline; Castoldi, Angela; Zamboni, Dario S; Ramos, Simone G; Câmara, Niels O; de Zoete, Marcel R; Palm, Noah W; Flavell, Richard A; Silva, João S; Carlos, Daniela

    2016-06-27

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease that is triggered by both genetic and environmental factors, resulting in the destruction of pancreatic β cells. The disruption of the intestinal epithelial barrier and consequent escape of microbial products may be one of these environmental triggers. However, the immune receptors that are activated in this context remain elusive. We show here that during streptozotocin (STZ)-induced T1D, the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing 2 (NOD2), but not NOD1, participates in the pathogenesis of the disease by inducing T helper 1 (Th1) and Th17 cells in the pancreatic LNs (PLNs) and pancreas. Additionally, STZ-injected wild-type (WT) diabetic mice displayed an altered gut microbiota compared with vehicle-injected WT mice, together with the translocation of bacteria to the PLNs. Interestingly, WT mice treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics (Abx) were fully protected from STZ-induced T1D, which correlated with the abrogation of bacterial translocation to the PLNs. Notably, when Abx-treated STZ-injected WT mice received the NOD2 ligand muramyl dipeptide, both hyperglycemia and the proinflammatory immune response were restored. Our results demonstrate that the recognition of bacterial products by NOD2 inside the PLNs contributes to T1D development, establishing a new putative target for intervention during the early stages of the disease. PMID:27325889

  6. Programmed Cell-to-Cell Variability in Ras Activity Triggers Emergent Behaviors during Mammary Epithelial Morphogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S. Liu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Variability in signaling pathway activation between neighboring epithelial cells can arise from local differences in the microenvironment, noisy gene expression, or acquired genetic changes. To investigate the consequences of this cell-to-cell variability in signaling pathway activation on coordinated multicellular processes such as morphogenesis, we use DNA-programmed assembly to construct three-dimensional MCF10A microtissues that are mosaic for low-level expression of activated H-Ras. We find two emergent behaviors in mosaic microtissues: cells with activated H-Ras are basally extruded or lead motile multicellular protrusions that direct the collective motility of their wild-type neighbors. Remarkably, these behaviors are not observed in homogeneous microtissues in which all cells express the activated Ras protein, indicating that heterogeneity in Ras activity, rather than the total amount of Ras activity, is critical for these processes. Our results directly demonstrate that cell-to-cell variability in pathway activation within local populations of epithelial cells can drive emergent behaviors during epithelial morphogenesis.

  7. Effect of occlusal splints for the management of patients with myofascial pain: a randomized, controlled, double-blind study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Fei-yu; WANG Xiao-geng; DONG Jian; ZHANG Jie-fu; L(U) Ya-lin

    2013-01-01

    Background Occlusal splints have been the preferred modalities in the management of myofascial temporomandibular disorders (TMDs),but now controversy exists in reporting whether they are successful for TMDs treatments.The aim of this study was to give objective evidence to the assessment of treatment effect of occlusal splints for myofascial TMDs patients by clinical assessments and surface electromyography (sEMG) measurements of masseter muscles (MM).Methods Thirty-six patients (12 males and 24 females) aged 16-57 (38±11) years participated in the study.All participants diagnosed with myofascial TMD were randomized into two groups (18 of each).Patients in the first group (A) were treated with occlusal splints for 1 month,while patients in the second group (B) were treated with placebo (non-occluding palatal) splints.Clinical assessments were performed at the beginning of the study and 1 month after treatment.sEMG measurements for MM were performed at mandibular postural position (MPP) and maximum intercuspal contacted position (ICP) 1 month after the treatment.The root mean square (RMS) and the median frequency (MF) as linear indices of sEMG data were used to demonstrate muscle activity and muscle fatigue.Data were analyzed by ANOVA and post hoc SNK test.The differences were considered significant at P <0.05.Results It was found that 89% of group A either completely recovered (39%) or clinically improved (50%),while only 22% of group B had a spontaneous improvement.sEMG analysis showed that at MPP,the mean of RMS value of MM in group A was lower than that of group B,which shows statistical differences (P <0.01).At ICP,the RMS value of MM in group A was higher than that of group B,which shows statistical differences (P <0.01).At MPP,MF value of MM in group A was higher than that of group B (P <0.05).At ICP,MF value of MM was lower than that of group B (P <0.01).Conclusions Occlusal splint could eliminate or improve the signs and symptoms of TMD

  8. Mild Alkalization Acutely Triggers the Warburg Effect by Enhancing Hexokinase Activity via Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel Binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Hee; Park, Jin Won; Moon, Seung Hwan; Cho, Young Seok; Choe, Yearn Seong; Lee, Kyung-Han

    2016-01-01

    To fully understand the glycolytic behavior of cancer cells, it is important to recognize how it is linked to pH dynamics. Here, we evaluated the acute effects of mild acidification and alkalization on cancer cell glucose uptake and glycolytic flux and investigated the role of hexokinase (HK). Cancer cells exposed to buffers with graded pH were measured for 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake, lactate production and HK activity. Subcellular localization of HK protein was assessed by western blots and confocal microscopy. The interior of T47D breast cancer cells was mildly alkalized to pH 7.5 by a buffer pH of 7.8, and this was accompanied by rapid increases of FDG uptake and lactate extrusion. This shift toward glycolytic flux led to the prompt recovery of a reversed pH gradient. In contrast, mild acidification rapidly reduced cellular FDG uptake and lactate production. Mild acidification decreased and mild alkalization increased mitochondrial HK translocation and enzyme activity. Cells transfected with specific siRNA against HK-1, HK-2 and voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC)1 displayed significant attenuation of pH-induced changes in FDG uptake. Confocal microscopy showed increased co-localization of HK-1 and HK-2 with VDAC1 by alkaline treatment. In isolated mitochondria, acidic pH increased and alkaline pH decreased release of free HK-1 and HK-2 from the mitochondrial pellet into the supernatant. Furthermore, experiments using purified proteins showed that alkaline pH promoted co-immunoprecipitation of HK with VDAC protein. These findings demonstrate that mild alkalization is sufficient to acutely trigger cancer cell glycolytic flux through enhanced activity of HK by promoting its mitochondrial translocation and VDAC binding. This process might serve as a mechanism through which cancer cells trigger the Warburg effect to maintain a dysregulated pH. PMID:27479079

  9. Activation of raphe nuclei triggers rapid and distinct effects on parallel olfactory bulb output channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Vikrant; Provost, Allison C; Agarwal, Prateek; Murthy, Venkatesh N

    2016-02-01

    The serotonergic raphe nuclei are involved in regulating brain states over timescales of minutes and hours. We examined more rapid effects of raphe activation on two classes of principal neurons in the mouse olfactory bulb, mitral and tufted cells, which send olfactory information to distinct targets. Brief stimulation of the raphe nuclei led to excitation of tufted cells at rest and potentiation of their odor responses. While mitral cells at rest were also excited by raphe activation, their odor responses were bidirectionally modulated, leading to improved pattern separation of odors. In vitro whole-cell recordings revealed that specific optogenetic activation of raphe axons affected bulbar neurons through dual release of serotonin and glutamate. Therefore, the raphe nuclei, in addition to their role in neuromodulation of brain states, are also involved in fast, sub-second top-down modulation similar to cortical feedback. This modulation can selectively and differentially sensitize or decorrelate distinct output channels. PMID:26752161

  10. Curcumin Triggers p16-Dependent Senescence in Active Breast Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts and Suppresses Their Paracrine Procarcinogenic Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti-Fauziah Hendrayani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Activated cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs or myofibroblasts not only facilitate tumor growth and spread but also affect tumor response to therapeutic agents. Therefore, it became clear that efficient therapeutic regimens should also take into account the presence of these supportive cells and inhibit their paracrine effects. To this end, we tested the effect of low concentrations of curcumin, a pharmacologically safe natural product, on patient-derived primary breast CAF cells. We have shown that curcumin treatment upregulates p16INK4A and other tumor suppressor proteins while inactivates the JAK2/STAT3 pathway. This reduced the level of alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA and the migration/invasion abilities of these cells. Furthermore, curcumin suppressed the expression/secretion of stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1, interleukin-6 (IL-6, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2, MMP-9, and transforming growth factor-β, which impeded their paracrine procarcinogenic potential. Intriguingly, these effects were sustained even after curcumin withdrawal and cell splitting. Therefore, using different markers of senescence [senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal activity, Ki-67 and Lamin B1 levels, and bromodeoxyuridine incorporation], we have shown that curcumin markedly suppresses Lamin B1 and triggers DNA damage-independent senescence in proliferating but not quiescent breast stromal fibroblasts. Importantly, this curcumin-related senescence was p16INK4A-dependent and occurred with no associated inflammatory secretory phenotype. These results indicate the possible inactivation of cancer-associated myofibroblasts and present the first indication that curcumin can trigger DNA damage-independent and safe senescence in stromal fibroblasts.

  11. Small molecule activators of SIRT1 replicate signaling pathways triggered by calorie restriction in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavu Siva

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Calorie restriction (CR produces a number of health benefits and ameliorates diseases of aging such as type 2 diabetes. The components of the pathways downstream of CR may provide intervention points for developing therapeutics for treating diseases of aging. The NAD+-dependent protein deacetylase SIRT1 has been implicated as one of the key downstream regulators of CR in yeast, rodents, and humans. Small molecule activators of SIRT1 have been identified that exhibit efficacy in animal models of diseases typically associated with aging including type 2 diabetes. To identify molecular processes induced in the liver of mice treated with two structurally distinct SIRT1 activators, SIRT501 (formulated resveratrol and SRT1720, for three days, we utilized a systems biology approach and applied Causal Network Modeling (CNM on gene expression data to elucidate downstream effects of SIRT1 activation. Results Here we demonstrate that SIRT1 activators recapitulate many of the molecular events downstream of CR in vivo, such as enhancing mitochondrial biogenesis, improving metabolic signaling pathways, and blunting pro-inflammatory pathways in mice fed a high fat, high calorie diet. Conclusion CNM of gene expression data from mice treated with SRT501 or SRT1720 in combination with supporting in vitro and in vivo data demonstrates that SRT501 and SRT1720 produce a signaling profile that mirrors CR, improves glucose and insulin homeostasis, and acts via SIRT1 activation in vivo. Taken together these results are encouraging regarding the use of small molecule activators of SIRT1 for therapeutic intervention into type 2 diabetes, a strategy which is currently being investigated in multiple clinical trials.

  12. Direct monitoring of the strand passage reaction of DNA topoisomerase II triggers checkpoint activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine L Furniss

    Full Text Available By necessity, the ancient activity of type II topoisomerases co-evolved with the double-helical structure of DNA, at least in organisms with circular genomes. In humans, the strand passage reaction of DNA topoisomerase II (Topo II is the target of several major classes of cancer drugs which both poison Topo II and activate cell cycle checkpoint controls. It is important to know the cellular effects of molecules that target Topo II, but the mechanisms of checkpoint activation that respond to Topo II dysfunction are not well understood. Here, we provide evidence that a checkpoint mechanism monitors the strand passage reaction of Topo II. In contrast, cells do not become checkpoint arrested in the presence of the aberrant DNA topologies, such as hyper-catenation, that arise in the absence of Topo II activity. An overall reduction in Topo II activity (i.e. slow strand passage cycles does not activate the checkpoint, but specific defects in the T-segment transit step of the strand passage reaction do induce a cell cycle delay. Furthermore, the cell cycle delay depends on the divergent and catalytically inert C-terminal region of Topo II, indicating that transmission of a checkpoint signal may occur via the C-terminus. Other, well characterized, mitotic checkpoints detect DNA lesions or monitor unattached kinetochores; these defects arise via failures in a variety of cell processes. In contrast, we have described the first example of a distinct category of checkpoint mechanism that monitors the catalytic cycle of a single specific enzyme in order to determine when chromosome segregation can proceed faithfully.

  13. Headaches and myofascial temporomandibular disorders: overlapping entities, separate managements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, P C R; Costa, Y M; Gonçalves, D A; Svensson, P

    2016-09-01

    There are relevant clinical overlaps between some of the painful temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and headache conditions that may hamper the diagnostic process and treatment. A non-systematic search for studies on the relationship between TMD and headaches was carried out in the following databases: PubMed, Cochrane Library and Embase. Important pain mechanisms contributing to the close association and complex relationship between TMD and headache disorders are as follows: processes of peripheral and central sensitisation which take place in similar anatomical areas, the possible impairment of the descending modulatory pain pathways and the processes of referred pain. In addition, the clinical examination does not always provide distinguishing information to differentiate between headaches and TMD. So, considering the pathophysiology and the clinical presentation of some types of headache and myofascial TMD, such overlap can be considered not only a matter of comorbid relationship, but rather a question of disorders where the distinction lines are sometimes hard to identify. These concerns are certainly reflected in the current classification systems of both TMD and headache where the clinical consequences of diagnosis such as headache attributed to or associated with TMD are uncertain. There are several similarities in terms of therapeutic strategies used to manage myofascial TMD and headaches. Considering all these possible levels of interaction, we reinforce the recommendation for multidisciplinary approaches, by a team of oro-facial pain specialists and a neurologist (headache specialist), to attain the most precise differential diagnosis and initiate the best and most efficient treatment. PMID:27191928

  14. Headaches and myofascial temporomandibular disorders: overlapping entities, separate managements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, P C R; Costa, Y M; Gonçalves, D A; Svensson, P

    2016-09-01

    There are relevant clinical overlaps between some of the painful temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and headache conditions that may hamper the diagnostic process and treatment. A non-systematic search for studies on the relationship between TMD and headaches was carried out in the following databases: PubMed, Cochrane Library and Embase. Important pain mechanisms contributing to the close association and complex relationship between TMD and headache disorders are as follows: processes of peripheral and central sensitisation which take place in similar anatomical areas, the possible impairment of the descending modulatory pain pathways and the processes of referred pain. In addition, the clinical examination does not always provide distinguishing information to differentiate between headaches and TMD. So, considering the pathophysiology and the clinical presentation of some types of headache and myofascial TMD, such overlap can be considered not only a matter of comorbid relationship, but rather a question of disorders where the distinction lines are sometimes hard to identify. These concerns are certainly reflected in the current classification systems of both TMD and headache where the clinical consequences of diagnosis such as headache attributed to or associated with TMD are uncertain. There are several similarities in terms of therapeutic strategies used to manage myofascial TMD and headaches. Considering all these possible levels of interaction, we reinforce the recommendation for multidisciplinary approaches, by a team of oro-facial pain specialists and a neurologist (headache specialist), to attain the most precise differential diagnosis and initiate the best and most efficient treatment.

  15. Triggering Klystrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan, Kelton D.; /Purdue U. /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    To determine if klystrons will perform to the specifications of the LCLS (Linac Coherent Light Source) project, a new digital trigger controller is needed for the Klystron/Microwave Department Test Laboratory. The controller needed to be programmed and Windows based user interface software needed to be written to interface with the device over a USB (Universal Serial Bus). Programming the device consisted of writing logic in VHDL (VHSIC (Very High Speed Integrated Circuits) hardware description language), and the Windows interface software was written in C++. Xilinx ISE (Integrated Software Environment) was used to compile the VHDL code and program the device, and Microsoft Visual Studio 2005 was used to compile the C++ based Windows software. The device was programmed in such a way as to easily allow read/write operations to it using a simple addressing model, and Windows software was developed to interface with the device over a USB connection. A method of setting configuration registers in the trigger device is absolutely necessary to the development of a new triggering system, and the method developed will fulfill this need adequately. More work is needed before the new trigger system is ready for use. The configuration registers in the device need to be fully integrated with the logic that will generate the RF signals, and this system will need to be tested extensively to determine if it meets the requirements for low noise trigger outputs.

  16. Activation of the cold-sensing TRPM8 channel triggers UCP1-dependent thermogenesis and prevents obesity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuangtao Ma; Zhenyu Zhu; Li Li; Jian Zhong; Daoyan Liu; Bernd Nilius; Zhiming Zhu; Hao Yu; Zhigang Zhao; Zhidan Luo; Jing Chen; Yinxing Ni; Rongbing Jin; Liqun Ma; Peijian Wang

    2012-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is an energy-expending organ that produces heat.Expansion or activation of BAT prevents obesity and diabetes.Chronic cold exposure enhances thermogenesis in BAT through uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) activation triggered via a β-adrenergic pathway.Here,we report that the cold-sensing transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) is functionally present In mouse BAT.Challenging brown adipocytes with menthol,a TRPM8 agonist,up-regulates UCP1 expression and requires protein kinase A activation.Upon mimicking long-term cold exposure with chronic dietary menthol application,menthol significantly increased the core temperatures and locomotor activity in wild-type mice; these effects were absent in both TRPM8-/- and UCP1-/- mice.Dietary obesity and glucose abnormalities were also prevented by menthol treatment.Our results reveal a previously unrecognized role for TRPM8,suggesting that stimulation of this channel mediates BAT thermogenesis,which could constitute a promising way to treat obesity.

  17. Salt stress response triggers activation of the jasmonate signaling pathway leading to inhibition of cell elongation in Arabidopsis primary root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Camilo E; Acevedo-Acevedo, Orlando; Miranda, Giovanna S; Vergara-Barros, Pablo; Holuigue, Loreto; Figueroa, Carlos R; Figueroa, Pablo M

    2016-07-01

    Salinity is a severe abiotic stress that affects irrigated croplands. Jasmonate (JA) is an essential hormone involved in plant defense against herbivory and in responses to abiotic stress. However, the relationship between the salt stress response and the JA pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana is not well understood at molecular and cellular levels. In this work we investigated the activation of JA signaling by NaCl and its effect on primary root growth. We found that JA-responsive JAZ genes were up-regulated by salt stress in a COI1-dependent manner in the roots. Using a JA-Ile sensor we demonstrated that activation of JA signaling by salt stress occurs in the meristematic zone and stele of the differentiation zone and that this activation was dependent on JAR1 and proteasome functions. Another finding is that the elongation zone (EZ) and its cortical cells were significantly longer in JA-related mutants (AOS, COI1, JAZ3 and MYC2/3/4 genes) compared with wild-type plants under salt stress, revealing the participation of the canonical JA signaling pathway. Noteworthy, osmotic stress - a component of salt stress - inhibited cell elongation in the EZ in a COI1-dependent manner. We propose that salt stress triggers activation of the JA signaling pathway followed by inhibition of cell elongation in the EZ. We have shown that salt-inhibited root growth partially involves the jasmonate signaling pathway in Arabidopsis. PMID:27217545

  18. One-way membrane trafficking of SOS in receptor-triggered Ras activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Sune M; Tu, Hsiung-Lin; Jun, Jesse E; Alvarez, Steven; Triplet, Meredith G; Iwig, Jeffrey S; Yadav, Kamlesh K; Bar-Sagi, Dafna; Roose, Jeroen P; Groves, Jay T

    2016-09-01

    SOS is a key activator of the small GTPase Ras. In cells, SOS-Ras signaling is thought to be initiated predominantly by membrane recruitment of SOS via the adaptor Grb2 and balanced by rapidly reversible Grb2-SOS binding kinetics. However, SOS has multiple protein and lipid interactions that provide linkage to the membrane. In reconstituted-membrane experiments, these Grb2-independent interactions were sufficient to retain human SOS on the membrane for many minutes, during which a single SOS molecule could processively activate thousands of Ras molecules. These observations raised questions concerning how receptors maintain control of SOS in cells and how membrane-recruited SOS is ultimately released. We addressed these questions in quantitative assays of reconstituted SOS-deficient chicken B-cell signaling systems combined with single-molecule measurements in supported membranes. These studies revealed an essentially one-way trafficking process in which membrane-recruited SOS remains trapped on the membrane and continuously activates Ras until being actively removed via endocytosis. PMID:27501536

  19. Inferior Frontal Gyrus Activity Triggers Anterior Insula Response to Emotional Facial Expressions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jabbi, Mbemba; Keysers, Christian

    2008-01-01

    The observation of movies of facial expressions of others has been shown to recruit similar areas involved in experiencing one's own emotions: the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). the anterior insula and adjacent frontal operculum (IFO). The Causal link bet between activity in these 2 regions, associat

  20. Hormone activities and the cell cycle machinery in immunity-triggered growth inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, M U; Gifford, M L; Schäfer, P

    2015-04-01

    Biotic stress and diseases caused by pathogen attack pose threats in crop production and significantly reduce crop yields. Enhancing immunity against pathogens is therefore of outstanding importance in crop breeding. However, this must be balanced, as immune activation inhibits plant growth. This immunity-coupled growth trade-off does not support resistance but is postulated to reflect the reallocation of resources to drive immunity. There is, however, increasing evidence that growth-immunity trade-offs are based on the reconfiguration of hormone pathways, shared by growth and immunity signalling. Studies in roots revealed the role of hormones in orchestrating growth across different cell types, with some hormones showing a defined cell type-specific activity. This is apparently highly relevant for the regulation of the cell cycle machinery and might be part of the growth-immunity cross-talk. Since plants are constantly exposed to Immuno-activating microbes under agricultural conditions, the transition from a growth to an immunity operating mode can significantly reduce crop yield and can conflict our efforts to generate next-generation crops with improved yield under climate change conditions. By focusing on roots, we outline the current knowledge of hormone signalling on the cell cycle machinery to explain growth trade-offs induced by immunity. By referring to abiotic stress studies, we further introduce how root cell type-specific hormone activities might contribute to growth under immunity and discuss the feasibility of uncoupling the growth-immunity cross-talk.

  1. One-way membrane trafficking of SOS in receptor-triggered Ras activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Sune M; Tu, Hsiung-Lin; Jun, Jesse E; Alvarez, Steven; Triplet, Meredith G; Iwig, Jeffrey S; Yadav, Kamlesh K; Bar-Sagi, Dafna; Roose, Jeroen P; Groves, Jay T

    2016-09-01

    SOS is a key activator of the small GTPase Ras. In cells, SOS-Ras signaling is thought to be initiated predominantly by membrane recruitment of SOS via the adaptor Grb2 and balanced by rapidly reversible Grb2-SOS binding kinetics. However, SOS has multiple protein and lipid interactions that provide linkage to the membrane. In reconstituted-membrane experiments, these Grb2-independent interactions were sufficient to retain human SOS on the membrane for many minutes, during which a single SOS molecule could processively activate thousands of Ras molecules. These observations raised questions concerning how receptors maintain control of SOS in cells and how membrane-recruited SOS is ultimately released. We addressed these questions in quantitative assays of reconstituted SOS-deficient chicken B-cell signaling systems combined with single-molecule measurements in supported membranes. These studies revealed an essentially one-way trafficking process in which membrane-recruited SOS remains trapped on the membrane and continuously activates Ras until being actively removed via endocytosis.

  2. Does Cluster Policy Trigger R&D Activity? – Evidence from German Biotech Contests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engel, Dirk; Mitze, Timo; Patuelli, Roberto;

    in research clusters. We apply a Difference-in-Differences estimation technique in a generalized linear model framework, which allows us to control for different initial regional conditions in R&D activity of the biotech sector. Our econometric findings support the view that winners generally outperform non...

  3. Laminin α2-mediated focal adhesion kinase activation triggers Alport glomerular pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duane Delimont

    Full Text Available It has been known for some time that laminins containing α1 and α2 chains, which are normally restricted to the mesangial matrix, accumulate in the glomerular basement membranes (GBM of Alport mice, dogs, and humans. We show that laminins containing the α2 chain, but not those containing the α1 chain activates focal adhesion kinase (FAK on glomerular podocytes in vitro and in vivo. CD151-null mice, which have weakened podocyte adhesion to the GBM rendering these mice more susceptible to biomechanical strain in the glomerulus, also show progressive accumulation of α2 laminins in the GBM, and podocyte FAK activation. Analysis of glomerular mRNA from both models demonstrates significant induction of MMP-9, MMP-10, MMP-12, MMPs linked to GBM destruction in Alport disease models, as well as the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6. SiRNA knockdown of FAK in cultured podocytes significantly reduced expression of MMP-9, MMP-10 and IL-6, but not MMP-12. Treatment of Alport mice with TAE226, a small molecule inhibitor of FAK activation, ameliorated fibrosis and glomerulosclerosis, significantly reduced proteinuria and blood urea nitrogen levels, and partially restored GBM ultrastructure. Glomerular expression of MMP-9, MMP-10 and MMP-12 mRNAs was significantly reduced in TAE226 treated animals. Collectively, this work identifies laminin α2-mediated FAK activation in podocytes as an important early event in Alport glomerular pathogenesis and suggests that FAK inhibitors, if safe formulations can be developed, might be employed as a novel therapeutic approach for treating Alport renal disease in its early stages.

  4. Breathing of heliospheric structures triggered by the solar-cycle activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Scherer

    Full Text Available Solar wind ram pressure variations occuring within the solar activity cycle are communicated to the outer heliosphere as complicated time-variabilities, but repeating its typical form with the activity period of about 11 years. At outer heliospheric regions, the main surviving solar cycle feature is a periodic variation of the solar wind dynamical pressure or momentum flow, as clearly recognized by observations of the VOYAGER-1/2 space probes. This long-periodic variation of the solar wind dynamical pressure is modeled here through application of appropriately time-dependent inner boundary conditions within our multifluid code to describe the solar wind – interstellar medium interaction. As we can show, it takes several solar cycles until the heliospheric structures adapt to an average location about which they carry out a periodic breathing, however, lagged in phase with respect to the solar cycle. The dynamically active heliosphere behaves differently from a static heliosphere and especially shows a historic hysteresis in the sense that the shock structures move out to larger distances than explained by the average ram pressure. Obviously, additional energies are pumped into the heliosheath by means of density and pressure waves which are excited. These waves travel outwards through the interface from the termination shock towards the bow shock. Depending on longitude, the heliospheric sheath region memorizes 2–3 (upwind and up to 6–7 (downwind preceding solar activity cycles, i.e. the cycle-induced waves need corresponding travel times for the passage over the heliosheath. Within our multifluid code we also adequately describe the solar cycle variations in the energy distributions of anomalous and galactic cosmic rays, respectively. According to these results the distribution of these high energetic species cannot be correctly described on the basis of the actually prevailing solar wind conditions.

    Key words. Interplanetary

  5. Activation and interruption of the reproduction of Varroa destructor is triggered by host signals (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Eva; Odemer, Richard; Blum, Thomas; Rosenkranz, Peter

    2013-05-01

    The reproductive cycle of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor is closely linked to the development of the honey bee host larvae. Using a within colony approach we introduced phoretic Varroa females into brood cells of different age in order to analyze the capacity of certain stages of the honey bee larva to either activate or interrupt the reproduction of Varroa females. Only larvae within 18 h (worker) and 36 h (drones), respectively, after cell capping were able to stimulate the mite's oogenesis. Therewith we could specify for the first time the short time window where honey bee larvae provide the signals for the activation of the Varroa reproduction. Stage specific volatiles of the larval cuticle are at least part of these activation signals. This is confirmed by the successful stimulation of presumably non-reproducing mites to oviposition by the application of a larval extract into the sealed brood cells. According to preliminary quantitative GC-MS analysis we suggest certain fatty acid ethyl esters as candidate compounds. If Varroa females that have just started with egg formation are transferred to brood cells containing host larvae of an elder stage two-thirds of these mites stopped their oogenesis. This confirms the presence of an additional signal in the host larvae allowing the reproducing mites to adjust their own reproductive cycle to the ontogenetic development of the host. From an adaptive point of view that sort of a stop signal enables the female mite to save resources for a next reproductive cycle if the own egg development is not sufficiently synchronized with the development of the host. The results presented here offer the opportunity to analyze exactly those host stages that have the capacity to activate or interrupt the Varroa reproduction in order to identify the crucial host signals.

  6. Low-intensity continuous ultrasound triggers effective bisphosphonate anticancer activity in breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Sophie Tardoski; Jacqueline Ngo; Evelyne Gineyts; Jean-Paul Roux; Philippe Clézardin; David Melodelima

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) is a non-ionizing pressure wave that can produce mechanical and thermal effects. Bisphosphonates have demonstrated clinical utility in bone metastases treatment. Preclinical studies suggest that bisphosphonates have anticancer activity. However, bisphosphonates exhibit a high affinity for bone mineral, which reduces their bioavailibity for tumor cells. Ultrasound has been shown to be effective for drug delivery but in interaction with gas bubbles or encapsulated drugs. We exam...

  7. Immune targeting of fibroblast activation protein triggers recognition of multipotent bone marrow stromal cells and cachexia

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Eric; Chinnasamy, Dhanalakshmi; Yu, Zhiya; Morgan, Richard A.; Lee, Chyi-Chia Richard; Restifo, Nicholas P; Rosenberg, Steven A.

    2013-01-01

    Fibroblast activation protein (FAP) is a candidate universal target antigen because it has been reported to be selectively expressed in nearly all solid tumors by a subset of immunosuppressive tumor stromal fibroblasts. We verified that 18/18 human tumors of various histologies contained pronounced stromal elements staining strongly for FAP, and hypothesized that targeting tumor stroma with FAP-reactive T cells would inhibit tumor growth in cancer-bearing hosts. T cells genetically engineered...

  8. The lack of autophagy triggers precocious activation of Notch signaling during Drosophila oogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barth Julia MI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The proper balance of autophagy, a lysosome-mediated degradation process, is indispensable for oogenesis in Drosophila. We recently demonstrated that egg development depends on autophagy in the somatic follicle cells (FC, but not in the germline cells (GCs. However, the lack of autophagy only affects oogenesis when FCs are autophagy-deficient but GCs are wild type, indicating that a dysfunctional signaling between soma and germline may be responsible for the oogenesis defects. Thus, autophagy could play an essential role in modulating signal transduction pathways during egg development. Results Here, we provide further evidence for the necessity of autophagy during oogenesis and demonstrate that autophagy is especially required in subsets of FCs. Generation of autophagy-deficient FCs leads to a wide range of phenotypes that are similar to mutants with defects in the classical cell-cell signaling pathways in the ovary. Interestingly, we observe that loss of autophagy leads to a precocious activation of the Notch pathway in the FCs as monitored by the expression of Cut and Hindsight, two downstream effectors of Notch signaling. Conclusion Our findings point to an unexpected function for autophagy in the modulation of the Notch signaling pathway during Drosophila oogenesis and suggest a function for autophagy in proper receptor activation. Egg development is affected by an imbalance of autophagy between signal sending (germline and signal receiving cell (FC, thus the lack of autophagy in the germline is likely to decrease the amount of active ligand and accordingly compensates for increased signaling in autophagy-defective follicle cells.

  9. Complement activation-related pseudoallergy: a stress reaction in blood triggered by nanomedicines and biologicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szebeni, Janos

    2014-10-01

    Intravenous injection of a variety of nanotechnology enhanced (liposomal, micellar, polymer-conjugated) and protein-based (antibodies, enzymes) drugs can lead to hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs), also known as infusion, or anaphylactoid reactions. The molecular mechanism of mild to severe allergy symptoms may differ from case to case and is mostly not known, however, in many cases a major cause, or contributing factor is activation of the complement (C) system. The clinical relevance of C activation-related HSRs, a non-IgE-mediated pseudoallergy (CARPA), lies in its unpredictability and occasional lethal outcome. Accordingly, there is an unmet medical need to develop laboratory assays and animal models that quantitate CARPA. This review provides basic information on CARPA; a short history, issues of nomenclature, incidence, classification of reactogenic drugs and symptoms, and the mechanisms of C activation via different pathways. It is pointed out that anaphylatoxin-induced mast cell release may not entirely explain the severe reactions; a "second hit" on allergy mediating cells may also contribute. In addressing the increasing requirements for CARPA testing, the review evaluates the available assays and animal models, and proposes a possible algorithm for the screening of reactogenic drugs and hypersensitive patients. Finally, an analogy is proposed between CARPA and the classic stress reaction, suggesting that CARPA represents a "blood stress" reaction, a systemic fight of the body against harmful biological and chemical agents via the anaphylatoxin/mast-cell/circulatory system axis, in analogy to the body's fight of physical and emotional stress via the hypothalamo/pituitary/adrenal axis. In both cases the response to a broad variety of noxious effects are funneled into a uniform pattern of physiological changes. PMID:25124145

  10. Reactive oxygen species that activate c-Abl signaling trigger motoneuron death in non-cell-autonomous models of ALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola eRojas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a fatal neurodegenerative disease in which pathogenesis and death of motor neurons are triggered by non-cell-autonomous mechanisms. We showed earlier that exposing primary rat spinal cord cultures to conditioned media derived from primary mouse astrocytes (ACM that express human SOD1G93A (ACM-hSOD1G93A quickly enhances Nav channel-mediated excitability and calcium influx, generates intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS, and leads to death of motoneurons within days. Here we examined the role of mitochondrial dysfunction and of the activation of c-Abl, a tyrosine kinase that induces apoptosis. We show that ACM-hSOD1G93A, but not ACM-hSOD1WT, increases c-Abl activity in motoneurons, interneurons and glial cells, starting at 60 min; the c-Abl inhibitor STI571 (imatinib prevents this ACM-hSOD1G93A-mediated motoneuron death. Interestingly, similar results were obtained with ACM derived from astrocytes expressing SOD1G86R or TDP43A315T. We further find that co-application of ACM-SOD1G93A with blockers of Nav channels (spermidine, mexiletine, or riluzole or anti-oxidants (Trolox, esculetin, or tiron effectively prevent c-Abl activation and motoneuron death. In addition, ACM-SOD1G93A induces alterations in the morphology of neuronal mitochondria that are related with their membrane depolarization. Finally, we find that blocking the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP with cyclosporine A, or inhibiting mitochondrial calcium uptake with Ru360, reduces ROS production and c-Abl activation. Together, our data point to a sequence of events in which a toxic factor(s released by ALS-expressing astrocytes rapidly induces hyper-excitability, which in turn increases calcium influx and affects mitochondrial structure and physiology. ROS production, mediated at least in part through mitochondrial alterations, trigger c-Abl signaling and lead to motoneuron death.

  11. Evaluation of low-level laser therapy effectiveness on the pain and masticatory performance of patients with myofascial pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moraes Maia, Mila Leite; Ribeiro, Maria Amália Gonzaga; Maia, Luiz Guilherme Martins; Stuginski-Barbosa, Juliana; Costa, Yuri Martins; Porporatti, André Luís; Conti, Paulo César Rodrigues; Bonjardim, Leonardo Rigoldi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on the masticatory performance (MP), pressure pain threshold (PPT), and pain intensity in patients with myofascial pain. Twenty-one subjects, with myofascial pain according to Research Diagnostic Criteria/temporomandibular dysfunction, were divided into laser group (n = 12) and placebo group (n = 9) to receive laser therapy (active or placebo) two times per week for 4 weeks. The measured variables were: (1) MP by analysis of the geometric mean diameter (GMD) of the chewed particles using Optocal test material, (2) PPT by a pressure algometer, and (3) pain intensity by the visual analog scale (VAS). Measurements of MP and PPT were obtained at three time points: baseline, at the end of treatment with low-level laser and 30 days after (follow-up). VAS was measured at the same times as above and weekly throughout the laser therapy. The Friedman test was used at a significance level of 5% for data analysis. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Federal University of Sergipe (CAAE: 0025.0.107.000-10). A reduction in the GMD of crushed particles (p laser group when comparing the baseline and end-of-treatment values. Both groups showed a decrease in pain intensity at the end of treatment. LLLT promoted an improvement in MP and PPT of the masticatory muscles.

  12. Molecular hydrogen inhibits lipopolysaccharide-triggered NLRP3 inflammasome activation in macrophages by targeting the mitochondrial reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jian-Dong; Wu, Xiao-Bo; Jiang, Rui; Hao, Da-Peng; Liu, Yi

    2016-01-01

    The NLRP3 inflammasome, an intracellular multi-protein complex controlling the maturation of cytokine interleukin-1β, plays an important role in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory cascades. Recently, the production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) in macrophages stimulated with LPS has been suggested to act as a trigger during the process of NLRP3 inflammasome activation that can be blocked by some mitochondria-targeted antioxidants. Known as a ROS scavenger, molecular hydrogen (H2) has been shown to possess therapeutic benefit on LPS-induced inflammatory damage in many animal experiments. Due to the unique molecular structure, H2 can easily target the mitochondria, suggesting that H2 is a potential antagonist of mtROS-dependent NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Here we have showed that, in mouse macrophages, H2 exhibited substantial inhibitory activity against LPS-initiated NLRP3 inflammasome activation by scavenging mtROS. Moreover, the elimination of mtROS by H2 resultantly inhibited mtROS-mediated NLRP3 deubiquitination, a non-transcriptional priming signal of NLRP3 in response to the stimulation of LPS. Additionally, the removal of mtROS by H2 reduced the generation of oxidized mitochondrial DNA and consequently decreased its binding to NLRP3, thereby inhibiting the NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Our findings have, for the first time, revealed the novel mechanism underlying the inhibitory effect of molecular hydrogen on LPS-caused NLRP3 inflammasome activation, highlighting the promising application of this new antioxidant in the treatment of LPS-associated inflammatory pathological damage.

  13. Direct visualization of free-volume-triggered activation of β relaxation in colloidal glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yunzhuo; Lu, Xing; Qin, Zuoxiang; Shen, Jun

    2016-07-01

    β relaxation, which is predicted by mode coupling theory and involves the localized motions of particles, initiates in a supercooled liquid and continues into glassy state. It correlates essentially with many fundamental properties of amorphous materials. Despite its importance, the underlying mechanisms leading to the β relaxation have remained elusive. As natural heterogeneity, the original distributed free volume has been supposed to be associated with the activation of β relaxation in amorphous solids. However, there has been no direct experimental proof for this hypothesis. Here we used a colloidal glass to directly observe the β relaxation and free-volume distribution. We found a spatial correlation between the β relaxation and free volume. The large free volume regions were observed to possess a low-energy cost of relaxation-induced strain, indicating that the large free volume region presenting a low-energy barrier for structural relaxation benefits the β relaxation.

  14. Coxsackievirus cloverleaf RNA containing a 5' triphosphate triggers an antiviral response via RIG-I activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Qian; Langereis, Martijn A; Olagnier, David; Chiang, Cindy; van de Winkel, Roel; van Essen, Peter; Zoll, Jan; Hiscott, John; van Kuppeveld, Frank J M

    2014-01-01

    Upon viral infections, pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and stimulate an antiviral state associated with the production of type I interferons (IFNs) and inflammatory markers. Type I IFNs play crucial roles in innate antiviral responses by inducing expression of interferon-stimulated genes and by activating components of the adaptive immune system. Although pegylated IFNs have been used to treat hepatitis B and C virus infections for decades, they exert substantial side effects that limit their use. Current efforts are directed toward the use of PRR agonists as an alternative approach to elicit host antiviral responses in a manner similar to that achieved in a natural infection. RIG-I is a cytosolic PRR that recognizes 5' triphosphate (5'ppp)-containing RNA ligands. Due to its ubiquitous expression profile, induction of the RIG-I pathway provides a promising platform for the development of novel antiviral agents and vaccine adjuvants. In this study, we investigated whether structured RNA elements in the genome of coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), a picornavirus that is recognized by MDA5 during infection, could activate RIG-I when supplied with 5'ppp. We show here that a 5'ppp-containing cloverleaf (CL) RNA structure is a potent RIG-I inducer that elicits an extensive antiviral response that includes induction of classical interferon-stimulated genes, as well as type III IFNs and proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. In addition, we show that prophylactic treatment with CVB3 CL provides protection against various viral infections including dengue virus, vesicular stomatitis virus and enterovirus 71, demonstrating the antiviral efficacy of this RNA ligand. PMID:24759703

  15. Coxsackievirus cloverleaf RNA containing a 5' triphosphate triggers an antiviral response via RIG-I activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Feng

    Full Text Available Upon viral infections, pattern recognition receptors (PRRs recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs and stimulate an antiviral state associated with the production of type I interferons (IFNs and inflammatory markers. Type I IFNs play crucial roles in innate antiviral responses by inducing expression of interferon-stimulated genes and by activating components of the adaptive immune system. Although pegylated IFNs have been used to treat hepatitis B and C virus infections for decades, they exert substantial side effects that limit their use. Current efforts are directed toward the use of PRR agonists as an alternative approach to elicit host antiviral responses in a manner similar to that achieved in a natural infection. RIG-I is a cytosolic PRR that recognizes 5' triphosphate (5'ppp-containing RNA ligands. Due to its ubiquitous expression profile, induction of the RIG-I pathway provides a promising platform for the development of novel antiviral agents and vaccine adjuvants. In this study, we investigated whether structured RNA elements in the genome of coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3, a picornavirus that is recognized by MDA5 during infection, could activate RIG-I when supplied with 5'ppp. We show here that a 5'ppp-containing cloverleaf (CL RNA structure is a potent RIG-I inducer that elicits an extensive antiviral response that includes induction of classical interferon-stimulated genes, as well as type III IFNs and proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. In addition, we show that prophylactic treatment with CVB3 CL provides protection against various viral infections including dengue virus, vesicular stomatitis virus and enterovirus 71, demonstrating the antiviral efficacy of this RNA ligand.

  16. Earthworms strongly modify microbial biomass and activity triggering enzymatic activities during vermicomposting independently of the application rates of pig slurry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied the relationships between earthworm activity, microbial biomass and the activation and dynamics of several enzyme activities. We carried out an experiment in which low and high rates (1.5 and 3 kg respectively) of pig slurry were applied to small scale reactors with and without earthworms. We found that extracellular enzyme activity increased with rate of pig slurry. In both rates of pig slurry applied, the presence of earthworms in young layers stimulated microbial growth which decreased once earthworms left the slurry and the layers aged. This increase was related to the initial activation of the microbial enzymes studied as correlations between microbial biomass and enzymes showed, which indicated an increase of intracellular enzyme activity. In the aged slurry, the pattern of activity of the four enzymes assayed depended on the rate of pig slurry applied. Thus, in low rate reactors, enzymatic activity through layers appeared to be related to microbial biomass, but in high rate reactors the activity of enzymes was more or less continuous. Further, these differences in overall enzyme activity agree with the variation found in extracellular enzyme activity suggesting certain dependence on substrate availability

  17. Earthworms strongly modify microbial biomass and activity triggering enzymatic activities during vermicomposting independently of the application rates of pig slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aira, Manuel E-mail: aira@uvigo.es; Monroy, Fernando; Dominguez, Jorge

    2007-10-15

    We studied the relationships between earthworm activity, microbial biomass and the activation and dynamics of several enzyme activities. We carried out an experiment in which low and high rates (1.5 and 3 kg respectively) of pig slurry were applied to small scale reactors with and without earthworms. We found that extracellular enzyme activity increased with rate of pig slurry. In both rates of pig slurry applied, the presence of earthworms in young layers stimulated microbial growth which decreased once earthworms left the slurry and the layers aged. This increase was related to the initial activation of the microbial enzymes studied as correlations between microbial biomass and enzymes showed, which indicated an increase of intracellular enzyme activity. In the aged slurry, the pattern of activity of the four enzymes assayed depended on the rate of pig slurry applied. Thus, in low rate reactors, enzymatic activity through layers appeared to be related to microbial biomass, but in high rate reactors the activity of enzymes was more or less continuous. Further, these differences in overall enzyme activity agree with the variation found in extracellular enzyme activity suggesting certain dependence on substrate availability.

  18. Evidence for the Use of Ischemic Compression and Dry Needling in the Management of Trigger Points of the Upper Trapezius in Patients with Neck Pain: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagnie, Barbara; Castelein, Birgit; Pollie, Flore; Steelant, Lieselotte; Verhoeyen, Hanne; Cools, Ann

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this review was to describe the effects of ischemic compression and dry needling on trigger points in the upper trapezius muscle in patients with neck pain and compare these two interventions with other therapeutic interventions aiming to inactivate trigger points. Both PubMed and Web of Science were searched for randomized controlled trials using different key word combinations related to myofascial neck pain and therapeutic interventions. Four main outcome parameters were evaluated on short and medium term: pain, range of motion, functionality, and quality-of-life, including depression. Fifteen randomized controlled trials were included in this systematic review. There is moderate evidence for ischemic compression and strong evidence for dry needling to have a positive effect on pain intensity. This pain decrease is greater compared with active range of motion exercises (ischemic compression) and no or placebo intervention (ischemic compression and dry needling) but similar to other therapeutic approaches. There is moderate evidence that both ischemic compression and dry needling increase side-bending range of motion, with similar effects compared with lidocaine injection. There is weak evidence regarding its effects on functionality and quality-of-life. On the basis of this systematic review, ischemic compression and dry needling can both be recommended in the treatment of neck pain patients with trigger points in the upper trapezius muscle. Additional research with high-quality study designs are needed to develop more conclusive evidence. PMID:25768071

  19. Specific interaction with cardiolipin triggers functional activation of Dynamin-Related Protein 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itsasne Bustillo-Zabalbeitia

    Full Text Available Dynamin-Related Protein 1 (Drp1, a large GTPase of the dynamin superfamily, is required for mitochondrial fission in healthy and apoptotic cells. Drp1 activation is a complex process that involves translocation from the cytosol to the mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM and assembly into rings/spirals at the MOM, leading to membrane constriction/division. Similar to dynamins, Drp1 contains GTPase (G, bundle signaling element (BSE and stalk domains. However, instead of the lipid-interacting Pleckstrin Homology (PH domain present in the dynamins, Drp1 contains the so-called B insert or variable domain that has been suggested to play an important role in Drp1 regulation. Different proteins have been implicated in Drp1 recruitment to the MOM, although how MOM-localized Drp1 acquires its fully functional status remains poorly understood. We found that Drp1 can interact with pure lipid bilayers enriched in the mitochondrion-specific phospholipid cardiolipin (CL. Building on our previous study, we now explore the specificity and functional consequences of this interaction. We show that a four lysine module located within the B insert of Drp1 interacts preferentially with CL over other anionic lipids. This interaction dramatically enhances Drp1 oligomerization and assembly-stimulated GTP hydrolysis. Our results add significantly to a growing body of evidence indicating that CL is an important regulator of many essential mitochondrial functions.

  20. Immune targeting of fibroblast activation protein triggers recognition of multipotent bone marrow stromal cells and cachexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnasamy, Dhanalakshmi; Yu, Zhiya; Morgan, Richard A.; Lee, Chyi-Chia Richard; Restifo, Nicholas P.

    2013-01-01

    Fibroblast activation protein (FAP) is a candidate universal target antigen because it has been reported to be selectively expressed in nearly all solid tumors by a subset of immunosuppressive tumor stromal fibroblasts. We verified that 18/18 human tumors of various histologies contained pronounced stromal elements staining strongly for FAP, and hypothesized that targeting tumor stroma with FAP-reactive T cells would inhibit tumor growth in cancer-bearing hosts. T cells genetically engineered with FAP-reactive chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) specifically degranulated and produced effector cytokines upon stimulation with FAP or FAP-expressing cell lines. However, adoptive transfer of FAP-reactive T cells into mice bearing a variety of subcutaneous tumors mediated limited antitumor effects and induced significant cachexia and lethal bone toxicities in two mouse strains. We found that FAP was robustly expressed on PDGFR-α+, Sca-1+ multipotent bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) in mice, as well as on well-characterized, clinical-grade multipotent human BMSCs. Accordingly, both mouse and human multipotent BMSCs were recognized by FAP-reactive T cells. The lethal bone toxicity and cachexia observed after cell-based immunotherapy targeting FAP cautions against its use as a universal target. Moreover, the expression of FAP by multipotent BMSCs may point toward the cellular origins of tumor stromal fibroblasts. PMID:23712432

  1. [Mechanisms of muscle pain : significance of trigger points and tender points].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezinschek, H-P

    2008-12-01

    Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) and myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) belong to the group of chronic non-inflammatory pain syndromes affecting muscles and tendinous insertions. Important criteria in the diagnosis of both diseases are the presence of "tender points" and "trigger points". According to ACR criteria FMS is characterized by the presence of tender points whereas trigger points are typically found in MPS.The main difference is that until now tender points could only be defined in terms of their localization, whereas trigger points can be found upon palpation which may cause a specific referred pain pattern. In addition, analysis of trigger points by microdialysis demonstrated elevated levels of pro-inflammatory substances at these sites. Moreover, local treatment of trigger points either by manipulative therapy or injection appears to be most effective for prompt relief of symptoms.

  2. Nature of extracellular signal that triggers RhoA/ROCK activation for the basal internal anal sphincter tone in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattan, Satish; Singh, Jagmohan; Kumar, Sumit; Phillips, Benjamin

    2015-06-01

    The extracellular signal that triggers activation of rho-associated kinase (RhoA/ROCK), the major molecular determinant of basal internal anal sphincter (IAS) smooth muscle tone, is not known. Using human IAS tissues, we identified the presence of the biosynthetic machineries for angiotensin II (ANG II), thromboxane A2 (TXA2), and prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α). These end products of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) (ANG II) and arachidonic acid (TXA2 and PGF2α) pathways and their effects in human IAS vs. rectal smooth muscle (RSM) were studied. A multipronged approach utilizing immunocytochemistry, Western blot analyses, and force measurements was implemented. Additionally, in a systematic analysis of the effects of respective inhibitors along different steps of biosynthesis and those of antagonists, their end products were evaluated either individually or in combination. To further describe the molecular mechanism for the IAS tone via these pathways, we monitored RhoA/ROCK activation and its signal transduction cascade. Data showed characteristically higher expression of biosynthetic machineries of RAS and AA pathways in the IAS compared with the RSM. Additionally, specific inhibition of the arachidonic acid (AA) pathway caused ~80% decrease in the IAS tone, whereas that of RAS lead to ~20% decrease. Signal transduction studies revealed that the end products of both AA and RAS pathways cause increase in the IAS tone via activation of RhoA/ROCK. Both AA and RAS (via the release of their end products TXA2, PGF2α, and ANG II, respectively), provide extracellular signals which activate RhoA/ROCK for the maintenance of the basal tone in human IAS.

  3. The carboxyl terminus of the Galpha-subunit is the latch for triggered activation of heterotrimeric G proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanoff, Christian; Koppensteiner, Romana; Yang, Qiong; Fuerst, Elisabeth; Ahorn, Horst; Freissmuth, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The receptor-mimetic peptide D2N, derived from the cytoplasmic domain of the D(2) dopamine receptor, activates G protein alpha-subunits (G(i) and G(o)) directly. Using D2N, we tested the current hypotheses on the mechanism of receptor-mediated G protein activation, which differ by the role assigned to the Gbetagamma-subunit: 1) a receptor-prompted movement of Gbetagamma is needed to open up the nucleotide exit pathway ("gear-shift" and "lever-arm" model) or 2) the receptor first engages Gbetagamma and then triggers GDP release by interacting with the carboxyl (C) terminus of Galpha (the "sequential-fit" model). Our results with D2N were compatible with the latter hypothesis. D2N bound to the extreme C terminus of the alpha-subunit and caused a conformational change that was transmitted to the switch regions. Hence, D2N led to a decline in the intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence, increased the guanine nucleotide exchange rate, and modulated the Mg(2+) control of nucleotide binding. A structural alteration in the outer portion of helix alpha5 (substitution of an isoleucine by proline) blunted the stimulatory action of D2N. This confirms that helix alpha5 links the guanine nucleotide binding pocket to the receptor contact site on the G protein. However, neither the alpha-subunit amino terminus (as a lever-arm) nor Gbetagamma was required for D2N-mediated activation; conversely, assembly of the Galphabetagamma heterotrimer stabilized the GDP-bound species and required an increased D2N concentration for activation. We propose that the receptor can engage the C terminus of the alpha-subunit to destabilize nucleotide binding from the "back side" of the nucleotide binding pocket.

  4. The effect of dry needling in the treatment of myofascial pain syndrome: a randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekin, Levent; Akarsu, Selim; Durmuş, Oğuz; Cakar, Engin; Dinçer, Umit; Kıralp, Mehmet Zeki

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that dry needling is more effective than sham dry needling in the treatment of myofascial pain syndrome (MPS). This was a prospective, double-blinded, randomized-controlled study conducted in an outpatient clinic. Thirty-nine subjects with established myofascial trigger points were randomized into two groups: study group (N = 22) and placebo group (N = 17). Dry needling was applied using acupuncture needles, and sham dry needling was applied in the placebo group. The treatment was composed of six sessions which were performed in 4 weeks; the first four sessions were performed twice a week (for 2 weeks) and the last two, once a week (for 2 weeks). The visual analog scale (VAS) and Short Form-36 (SF-36) were used. When compared with the initial values, VAS scores of the dry needling group following the first and sixth sessions were significantly lower (p = 0.000 and p pain and in improving the quality of life of patients with MPS.

  5. Activation of Proinflammatory Responses in Cells of the Airway Mucosa by Particulate Matter: Oxidant- and Non-Oxidant-Mediated Triggering Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Øvrevik

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is considered to play a central role in a diverse range of disease outcomes associated with exposure to various types of inhalable particulates. The initial mechanisms through which particles trigger cellular responses leading to activation of inflammatory responses are crucial to clarify in order to understand what physico-chemical characteristics govern the inflammogenic activity of particulate matter and why some particles are more harmful than others. Recent research suggests that molecular triggering mechanisms involved in activation of proinflammatory genes and onset of inflammatory reactions by particles or soluble particle components can be categorized into direct formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS with subsequent oxidative stress, interaction with the lipid layer of cellular membranes, activation of cell surface receptors, and direct interactions with intracellular molecular targets. The present review focuses on the immediate effects and responses in cells exposed to particles and central down-stream signaling mechanisms involved in regulation of proinflammatory genes, with special emphasis on the role of oxidant and non-oxidant triggering mechanisms. Importantly, ROS act as a central second-messenger in a variety of signaling pathways. Even non-oxidant mediated triggering mechanisms are therefore also likely to activate downstream redox-regulated events.

  6. Intramuscular Hemangioma Mimicking Myofascial Pain Syndrome : A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Miriam; Kang, Yoon Kyoo; Kim, In Jong; Park, Yoon Kun

    2007-01-01

    Intramuscular hemangioma, an infrequent but important cause of musculoskeletal pain, is often difficult to establish the diagnosis clinically. This report describes a case of a 32-yr-old woman who presented with severe left calf pain for 10 yr. Initial conservative treatments consisting of intramuscular electrical stimulation, herb medication, acupuncture, and intramuscular lidocaine injection under the diagnosis of myofascial pain syndrome in other facilities, failed to alleviate the symptoms. On physical examination, there was no motor weakness or sensory change. Conventional radiography of the leg revealed a soft tissue phlebolith. Conventional angiography study showed hemangioma. Intramuscular hemangioma within the soleus muscle was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging. Following surgical excision of the hemangioma, the patient's symptom resolved completely. Intramuscular hemangioma is a rare cause of calf pain and should be considered in the differential diagnosis if a patient with muscle pain, particularly if associated with a soft tissue mass, fails to respond to conservative treatment. PMID:17596677

  7. Fibromyalgia and Myofascial Pain Syndrome-A Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandola, H C; Chakraborty, Arunangshu

    2009-01-01

    Summary Pain and fatigue associated to the musculoskeletal system are among the leading causes of patients to visit their physicians and nearly one-third of such patients suffer from fibromyalgia. Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a chronic debilitating disorder characterized by widespread pain with tenderness in specific areas, leading to fatigue, headache and sleep disorder. Myofascial Pain Syndrome (MPS), is also a localized musculoskeletal pain producing condition whose diagnostic and management criteria differ from FMS but still considered by many only a subtype of FMS. Till date no exact cause has been held responsible for these painful conditions, therefore treatment of these disorders is always a challenge. The therapies are not precise but multimodal including pharmacological and alternative approaches. This article describes the existing knowledge pertaining to these conditions in regard of causative factors diagnosis and management. PMID:20640108

  8. 8,9-Dehydrohispanolone-15,16-lactol diterpene prevents LPS-triggered inflammatory responses by inhibiting endothelial activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-García, Lidia; Través, Paqui G; López-Fontal, Raquel; Herranz, Sandra; Higueras, María Angeles; de Las Heras, Beatriz; Hortelano, Sonsoles; Luque, Alfonso

    2016-07-15

    Endothelial activation contributes to lung inflammatory disorders by inducing leucocyte recruitment to pulmonary parenchyma. Consequently, vascular-targeted therapies constitute promising strategies for the treatment of inflammatory pathologies. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of 8,9-dehydrohispanolone-15,16-lactol diterpene (DT) on lung endothelium during inflammation. Lung endothelial cells pre-treated with DT and activated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) exhibited reduced expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines Cxcl10, Ccl5 and Cxcl1, whereas the anti-inflammatory molecules IL1r2 and IL-10 were induced. Consistent with this result, DT pre-treatment inhibited nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) nuclear translocation, by interfering with IκBα phosphorylation, and consequently NF-κB transcriptional activity in endothelium activated by LPS or TNF-α. Furthermore, DT, probably through p38 signalling, induced transcriptional activation of genes containing activator protein 1 (AP-1)-binding elements. Inhibition of p38 prevented IL1r2 mRNA expression in endothelium incubated with DT alone or in combination with LPS or TNF-α. Accordingly, conditioned medium (CM) from these cells failed to stimulate leucocytes as measured by a reduction in adhesive ability of the leucocyte cell line J774 to fibronectin (FN). Additionally, DT reduced the expression of the endothelial adhesion molecules E-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) after activation. Similarly, expression of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 molecules on the lung endothelial layer of C57/BL6 mice pre-treated with DT and challenged with LPS were unchanged. Finally, inhibition of vascular adhesion molecule expression by DT decreased the interaction of J774 cells with lung endothelial cells in an inflammatory environment. Our findings establish DT as a novel endothelial inhibitor for the treatment of inflammatory

  9. 8,9-Dehydrohispanolone-15,16-lactol diterpene prevents LPS-triggered inflammatory responses by inhibiting endothelial activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-García, Lidia; Través, Paqui G; López-Fontal, Raquel; Herranz, Sandra; Higueras, María Angeles; de Las Heras, Beatriz; Hortelano, Sonsoles; Luque, Alfonso

    2016-07-15

    Endothelial activation contributes to lung inflammatory disorders by inducing leucocyte recruitment to pulmonary parenchyma. Consequently, vascular-targeted therapies constitute promising strategies for the treatment of inflammatory pathologies. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of 8,9-dehydrohispanolone-15,16-lactol diterpene (DT) on lung endothelium during inflammation. Lung endothelial cells pre-treated with DT and activated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) exhibited reduced expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines Cxcl10, Ccl5 and Cxcl1, whereas the anti-inflammatory molecules IL1r2 and IL-10 were induced. Consistent with this result, DT pre-treatment inhibited nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) nuclear translocation, by interfering with IκBα phosphorylation, and consequently NF-κB transcriptional activity in endothelium activated by LPS or TNF-α. Furthermore, DT, probably through p38 signalling, induced transcriptional activation of genes containing activator protein 1 (AP-1)-binding elements. Inhibition of p38 prevented IL1r2 mRNA expression in endothelium incubated with DT alone or in combination with LPS or TNF-α. Accordingly, conditioned medium (CM) from these cells failed to stimulate leucocytes as measured by a reduction in adhesive ability of the leucocyte cell line J774 to fibronectin (FN). Additionally, DT reduced the expression of the endothelial adhesion molecules E-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) after activation. Similarly, expression of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 molecules on the lung endothelial layer of C57/BL6 mice pre-treated with DT and challenged with LPS were unchanged. Finally, inhibition of vascular adhesion molecule expression by DT decreased the interaction of J774 cells with lung endothelial cells in an inflammatory environment. Our findings establish DT as a novel endothelial inhibitor for the treatment of inflammatory

  10. The effects of myofascial release with foam rolling on performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Kellie C; Hatfield, Disa L; Blanpied, Peter; Dorfman, Leah R; Riebe, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade, self-myofascial release has become an increasingly common modality to supplement traditional methods of massage, so a masseuse is not necessary. However, there are limited clinical data demonstrating the efficacy or mechanism of this treatment on athletic performance. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the use of myofascial rollers before athletic tests can enhance performance. Twenty-six (13 men and 13 women) healthy college-aged individuals (21.56 ± 2.04 years, 23.97 ± 3.98 body mass index, 20.57 ± 12.21 percent body fat) were recruited. The study design was a randomized crossover design in which subject performed a series of planking exercises or foam rolling exercises and then performed a series of athletic performance tests (vertical jump height and power, isometric force, and agility). Fatigue, soreness, and exertion were also measured. A 2 × 2 (trial × gender) analysis of variance with repeated measures and appropriate post hoc was used to analyze the data. There were no significant differences between foam rolling and planking for all 4 of the athletic tests. However, there was a significant difference between genders on all the athletic tests (p ≤ 0.001). As expected, there were significant increases from pre to post exercise during both trials for fatigue, soreness, and exertion (p ≤ 0.01). Postexercise fatigue after foam rolling was significantly less than after the subjects performed planking (p ≤ 0.05). The reduced feeling of fatigue may allow participants to extend acute workout time and volume, which can lead to chronic performance enhancements. However, foam rolling had no effect on performance. PMID:23588488

  11. The effects of myofascial release with foam rolling on performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Kellie C; Hatfield, Disa L; Blanpied, Peter; Dorfman, Leah R; Riebe, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade, self-myofascial release has become an increasingly common modality to supplement traditional methods of massage, so a masseuse is not necessary. However, there are limited clinical data demonstrating the efficacy or mechanism of this treatment on athletic performance. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the use of myofascial rollers before athletic tests can enhance performance. Twenty-six (13 men and 13 women) healthy college-aged individuals (21.56 ± 2.04 years, 23.97 ± 3.98 body mass index, 20.57 ± 12.21 percent body fat) were recruited. The study design was a randomized crossover design in which subject performed a series of planking exercises or foam rolling exercises and then performed a series of athletic performance tests (vertical jump height and power, isometric force, and agility). Fatigue, soreness, and exertion were also measured. A 2 × 2 (trial × gender) analysis of variance with repeated measures and appropriate post hoc was used to analyze the data. There were no significant differences between foam rolling and planking for all 4 of the athletic tests. However, there was a significant difference between genders on all the athletic tests (p ≤ 0.001). As expected, there were significant increases from pre to post exercise during both trials for fatigue, soreness, and exertion (p ≤ 0.01). Postexercise fatigue after foam rolling was significantly less than after the subjects performed planking (p ≤ 0.05). The reduced feeling of fatigue may allow participants to extend acute workout time and volume, which can lead to chronic performance enhancements. However, foam rolling had no effect on performance.

  12. Runaway electron generation as possible trigger for enhancement of magnetohydrodynamic plasma activity and fast changes in runaway beam behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pankratov, I. M., E-mail: pankratov@kipt.kharkov.ua, E-mail: rjzhou@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, NSC Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology, Academicheskaya Str. 1, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Zhou, R. J., E-mail: pankratov@kipt.kharkov.ua, E-mail: rjzhou@ipp.ac.cn; Hu, L. Q. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2015-07-15

    Peculiar phenomena were observed during experiments with runaway electrons: rapid changes in the synchrotron spot and its intensity that coincided with stepwise increases in the electron cyclotron emission (ECE) signal (cyclotron radiation of suprathermal electrons). These phenomena were initially observed in TEXTOR (Tokamak Experiment for Technology Oriented Research), where these events only occurred in the current decay phase or in discharges with thin stable runaway beams at a q = 1 drift surface. These rapid changes in the synchrotron spot were interpreted by the TEXTOR team as a fast pitch angle scattering event. Recently, similar rapid changes in the synchrotron spot and its intensity that coincided with stepwise increases in the non-thermal ECE signal were observed in the EAST (Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak) runaway discharge. Runaway electrons were located around the q = 2 rational magnetic surface (ring-like runaway electron beam). During the EAST runaway discharge, stepwise ECE signal increases coincided with enhanced magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) activity. This behavior was peculiar to this shot. In this paper, we show that these non-thermal ECE step-like jumps were related to the abrupt growth of suprathermal electrons induced by bursting electric fields at reconnection events during this MHD plasma activity. Enhancement of the secondary runaway electron generation also occurred simultaneously. Local changes in the current-density gradient appeared because of local enhancement of the runaway electron generation process. These current-density gradient changes are considered to be a possible trigger for enhancement of the MHD plasma activity and the rapid changes in runaway beam behavior.

  13. Runaway electron generation as possible trigger for enhancement of magnetohydrodynamic plasma activity and fast changes in runaway beam behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peculiar phenomena were observed during experiments with runaway electrons: rapid changes in the synchrotron spot and its intensity that coincided with stepwise increases in the electron cyclotron emission (ECE) signal (cyclotron radiation of suprathermal electrons). These phenomena were initially observed in TEXTOR (Tokamak Experiment for Technology Oriented Research), where these events only occurred in the current decay phase or in discharges with thin stable runaway beams at a q = 1 drift surface. These rapid changes in the synchrotron spot were interpreted by the TEXTOR team as a fast pitch angle scattering event. Recently, similar rapid changes in the synchrotron spot and its intensity that coincided with stepwise increases in the non-thermal ECE signal were observed in the EAST (Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak) runaway discharge. Runaway electrons were located around the q = 2 rational magnetic surface (ring-like runaway electron beam). During the EAST runaway discharge, stepwise ECE signal increases coincided with enhanced magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) activity. This behavior was peculiar to this shot. In this paper, we show that these non-thermal ECE step-like jumps were related to the abrupt growth of suprathermal electrons induced by bursting electric fields at reconnection events during this MHD plasma activity. Enhancement of the secondary runaway electron generation also occurred simultaneously. Local changes in the current-density gradient appeared because of local enhancement of the runaway electron generation process. These current-density gradient changes are considered to be a possible trigger for enhancement of the MHD plasma activity and the rapid changes in runaway beam behavior

  14. Label-free ultrasensitive detection of telomerase activity via multiple telomeric hemin/G-quadruplex triggered polyaniline deposition and a DNA tetrahedron-structure regulated signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuanjian; Wei, Min; Liu, Xu; Wei, Wei; Zhao, Hongyu; Zhang, Yuanjian; Liu, Songqin

    2016-01-31

    Label-free detection of telomerase activity was done by using telomeric hemin/G-quadruplex triggered polyaniline deposition, not only on themselves but also on the DNA tetrahedron-structure (DTS). DTS size has a great impact on telomerase accessibility, reactivity and detection sensitivity. The method has been used to evaluate bladder cancer development.

  15. Kaurenoic Acid Possesses Leishmanicidal Activity by Triggering a NLRP12/IL-1β/cNOS/NO Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Milena Menegazzo; Panis, Carolina; da Silva, Suelen Santos; Macri, Juliana Aparecida; Kawakami, Natalia Yoshie; Hayashida, Thiago Hideki; Madeira, Tiago Bervelieri; Acquaro, Vinicius Ricardo; Nixdorf, Suzana Lucy; Pizzatti, Luciana; Ambrósio, Sérgio Ricardo; Cecchini, Rubens; Arakawa, Nilton Syogo; Verri, Waldiceu Aparecido; Costa, Ivete Conchon; Pavanelli, Wander Rogério

    2015-01-01

    Leishmania amazonensis (L. amazonensis) infection can cause severe local and diffuse injuries in humans, a condition clinically known as American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL). Currently, the therapeutic approach for ACL is based on Glucantime, which shows high toxicity and poor effectiveness. Therefore, ACL remains a neglected disease with limited options for treatment. Herein, the in vitro antiprotozoal effect and mechanisms of the diterpene kaurenoic acid [ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid] (KA) against L. amazonensis were investigated. KA exhibited a direct antileishmanial effect on L. amazonensis promastigotes. Importantly, KA also reduced the intracellular number of amastigote forms and percentage of infected peritoneal macrophages of BALB/c mice. Mechanistically, KA treatment reestablished the production of nitric oxide (NO) in a constitutive NO synthase- (cNOS-) dependent manner, subverting the NO-depleting escape mechanism of L. amazonensis. Furthermore, KA induced increased production of IL-1β and expression of the inflammasome-activating component NLRP12. These findings demonstrate the leishmanicidal capability of KA against L. amazonensis in macrophage culture by triggering a NLRP12/IL-1β/cNOS/NO mechanism. PMID:26074677

  16. Kaurenoic Acid Possesses Leishmanicidal Activity by Triggering a NLRP12/IL-1β/cNOS/NO Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Menegazzo Miranda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania amazonensis (L. amazonensis infection can cause severe local and diffuse injuries in humans, a condition clinically known as American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL. Currently, the therapeutic approach for ACL is based on Glucantime, which shows high toxicity and poor effectiveness. Therefore, ACL remains a neglected disease with limited options for treatment. Herein, the in vitro antiprotozoal effect and mechanisms of the diterpene kaurenoic acid [ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid] (KA against L. amazonensis were investigated. KA exhibited a direct antileishmanial effect on L. amazonensis promastigotes. Importantly, KA also reduced the intracellular number of amastigote forms and percentage of infected peritoneal macrophages of BALB/c mice. Mechanistically, KA treatment reestablished the production of nitric oxide (NO in a constitutive NO synthase- (cNOS- dependent manner, subverting the NO-depleting escape mechanism of L. amazonensis. Furthermore, KA induced increased production of IL-1β and expression of the inflammasome-activating component NLRP12. These findings demonstrate the leishmanicidal capability of KA against L. amazonensis in macrophage culture by triggering a NLRP12/IL-1β/cNOS/NO mechanism.

  17. Clioquinol inhibits zinc-triggered caspase activation in the hippocampal CA1 region of a global ischemic gerbil model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Excessive release of chelatable zinc from excitatory synaptic vesicles is involved in the pathogenesis of selective neuronal cell death following transient forebrain ischemia. The present study was designed to examine the neuroprotective effect of a membrane-permeable zinc chelator, clioquinol (CQ, in the CA1 region of the gerbil hippocampus after transient global ischemia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The common carotid arteries were occluded bilaterally, and CQ (10 mg/kg, i.p. was injected into gerbils once a day. The zinc chelating effect of CQ was examined with TSQ fluorescence and autometallography. Neuronal death, the expression levels of caspases and apoptosis inducing factor (AIF were evaluated using TUNEL, in situ hybridization and Western blotting, respectively. We were able to show for the first time that CQ treatment attenuates the ischemia-induced zinc accumulation in the CA1 pyramidal neurons, accompanied by less neuronal loss in the CA1 field of the hippocampus after ischemia. Furthermore, the expression levels of caspase-3, -9, and AIF were significantly decreased in the hippocampus of CQ-treated gerbils. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present study indicates that the neuroprotective effect of CQ is related to downregulation of zinc-triggered caspase activation in the hippocampal CA1 region of gerbils with global ischemia.

  18. Salicylic acid receptors activate jasmonic acid signalling through a non-canonical pathway to promote effector-triggered immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lijing; Sonbol, Fathi-Mohamed; Huot, Bethany; Gu, Yangnan; Withers, John; Mwimba, Musoki; Yao, Jian; He, Sheng Yang; Dong, Xinnian

    2016-01-01

    It is an apparent conundrum how plants evolved effector-triggered immunity (ETI), involving programmed cell death (PCD), as a major defence mechanism against biotrophic pathogens, because ETI-associated PCD could leave them vulnerable to necrotrophic pathogens that thrive on dead host cells. Interestingly, during ETI, the normally antagonistic defence hormones, salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) associated with defence against biotrophs and necrotrophs respectively, both accumulate to high levels. In this study, we made the surprising finding that JA is a positive regulator of RPS2-mediated ETI. Early induction of JA-responsive genes and de novo JA synthesis following SA accumulation is activated through the SA receptors NPR3 and NPR4, instead of the JA receptor COI1. We provide evidence that NPR3 and NPR4 may mediate this effect by promoting degradation of the JA transcriptional repressor JAZs. This unique interplay between SA and JA offers a possible explanation of how plants can mount defence against a biotrophic pathogen without becoming vulnerable to necrotrophic pathogens. PMID:27725643

  19. Angioma em tufo e síndrome dolorosa miofascial Tufted angioma and myofascial pain syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Souto da Silva

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available O Angioma em tufo é considerado um raro tumor vascular cutâneo adquirido. Caracteriza-se por máculas purpúrico-violáceas, dolorosas que podem evoluir para placas com pápulas angiomatosas. Tem natureza benigna, mas o envolvimento extenso é comum, gerando alteração funcional do membro afetado em caso de dor. Os autores relatam um caso de angioma em tufo associado à síndrome dolorosa miofascial, em que o elemento predisponente foi a presença deste tumor desde a infância. A dor local prejudicou a utilização da musculatura e possibilitou o surgimento da síndrome relatada. A realização de bloqueio anestésico de pontos-gatilhos no membro afetado, levou à melhora total dos sintomas.Tufted angioma is a rare acquired vascular tumor. It is characterized by painful purplish macules that may progress to plaques containing angiomatous papules. The condition is benign; however, it often affects extensive areas of the skin, leading to functional disability of the affected limb if painful. The present report describes a case of a tufted angioma associated with myofascial pain syndrome in which the predisposing element was the presence of this tumor since childhood. Pain at the site of the lesion affected muscle use and led to the onset of the associated syndrome. Complete relief from symptoms was achieved by blocking the trigger points of the affected limb with anesthesia.

  20. Pharmacological activation of rapid delayed rectifier potassium current suppresses bradycardia-induced triggered activity in the isolated guinea pig heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rie Schultz; Olesen, Søren-Peter; Grunnet, Morten

    2007-01-01

    Recently, attention has been drawn to compounds that activate the human ether-a-go-go channel potassium channel (hERG), which is responsible for the repolarizing rapid delayed rectifier potassium current (I(Kr)) in the mammalian myocardium. The compound NS3623 [N-(4-bromo-2-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl...

  1. ZnO nanoparticle-induced oxidative stress triggers apoptosis by activating JNK signaling pathway in cultured primary astrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jieting; Deng, Xiaobei; Zhang, Fang; Chen, Deliang; Ding, Wenjun

    2014-03-01

    It has been documented in in vitro studies that zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are capable of inducing oxidative stress, which plays a crucial role in ZnO NP-mediated apoptosis. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of apoptosis in neurocytes induced by ZnO NP exposure was not fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the potential mechanisms of apoptosis provoked by ZnO NPs in cultured primary astrocytes by exploring the molecular signaling pathways triggered after ZnO NP exposure. ZnO NP exposure was found to reduce cell viability in MTT assays, increase lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, stimulate intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and elicit caspase-3 activation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Apoptosis occurred after ZnO NP exposure as evidenced by nuclear condensation and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP) cleavage. A decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) with a concomitant increase in the expression of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio suggested that the mitochondria also mediated the pathway involved in ZnO NP-induced apoptosis. In addition, exposure of the cultured cells to ZnO NPs led to phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK). Moreover, JNK inhibitor (SP600125) significantly reduced ZnO NP-induced cleaved PARP and cleaved caspase-3 expression, but not ERK inhibitor (U0126) or p38 MAPK inhibitor (SB203580), indicating that JNK signaling pathway is involved in ZnO NP-induced apoptosis in primary astrocytes.

  2. A codimension-2 bifurcation controlling endogenous bursting activity and pulse-triggered responses of a neuron model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William H Barnett

    Full Text Available The dynamics of individual neurons are crucial for producing functional activity in neuronal networks. An open question is how temporal characteristics can be controlled in bursting activity and in transient neuronal responses to synaptic input. Bifurcation theory provides a framework to discover generic mechanisms addressing this question. We present a family of mechanisms organized around a global codimension-2 bifurcation. The cornerstone bifurcation is located at the intersection of the border between bursting and spiking and the border between bursting and silence. These borders correspond to the blue sky catastrophe bifurcation and the saddle-node bifurcation on an invariant circle (SNIC curves, respectively. The cornerstone bifurcation satisfies the conditions for both the blue sky catastrophe and SNIC. The burst duration and interburst interval increase as the inverse of the square root of the difference between the corresponding bifurcation parameter and its bifurcation value. For a given set of burst duration and interburst interval, one can find the parameter values supporting these temporal characteristics. The cornerstone bifurcation also determines the responses of silent and spiking neurons. In a silent neuron with parameters close to the SNIC, a pulse of current triggers a single burst. In a spiking neuron with parameters close to the blue sky catastrophe, a pulse of current temporarily silences the neuron. These responses are stereotypical: the durations of the transient intervals-the duration of the burst and the duration of latency to spiking-are governed by the inverse-square-root laws. The mechanisms described here could be used to coordinate neuromuscular control in central pattern generators. As proof of principle, we construct small networks that control metachronal-wave motor pattern exhibited in locomotion. This pattern is determined by the phase relations of bursting neurons in a simple central pattern generator

  3. Burn injury triggered dysfunction in dendritic cell response to TLR9 activation and resulted in skewed T cell functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitao Shen

    Full Text Available Severe trauma such as burn injury is often associated with a systemic inflammatory syndrome characterized by a hyperactive innate immune response and suppressed adaptive immune function. Dendritic cells (DCs, which sense pathogens via their Toll-like receptors (TLRs, play a pivotal role in protecting the host against infections. The effect of burn injury on TLR-mediated DC function is a debated topic and the mechanism controlling the purported immunosuppressive response remains to be elucidated. Here we examined the effects of burn injury on splenic conventional DC (cDC and plasmacytoid DC (pDC responses to TLR9 activation. We demonstrate that, following burn trauma, splenic cDCs' cytokine production profile in response to TLR9 activation became anti-inflammatory dominant, with high production of IL-10 (>50% increase and low production of IL-6, TNF-α and IL-12p70 (∼25-60% reduction. CD4+ T cells activated by these cDCs were defective in producing Th1 and Th17 cytokines. Furthermore, burn injury had a more accentuated effect on pDCs than on cDCs. Following TLR9 activation, pDCs displayed an immature phenotype with an impaired ability to secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-α, IL-6 and TNF-α and to activate T cell proliferation. Moreover, cDCs and pDCs from burn-injured mice had low transcript levels of TLR9 and several key molecules of the TLR signaling pathway. Although hyperactive innate immune response has been associated with severe injury, our data show to the contrary that DCs, as a key player in the innate immune system, had impaired TLR9 reactivity, an anti-inflammatory phenotype, and a dysfunctional T cell-priming ability. We conclude that burn injury induced impairments in DC immunobiology resulting in suppression of adaptive immune response. Targeted DC immunotherapies to promote their ability in triggering T cell immunity may represent a strategy to improve immune defenses against infection following burn injury.

  4. Triggering Artefacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Preben Holst; Robinson, Mike

    1995-01-01

    The paper presents a general critique of the use of conceptual frameworks in design, illustrated by the well known synchronous/asynchronous, co-located/non-co-located framework. It argues that while frameworks are a necessary and inevitable starting point for design, the business of tailoring and...... adapting them to specific situations need not be ad hoc.Triggering artefacts are a way of systematically challenging both designers' preunderstandings and the conservatism of work practice. Experiences from the Great Belt tunnel and bridge project are used to illustrate howtriggering artefacts change...

  5. Myofascial force transmission also occurs between antagonistic muscles located within opposite compartments of the rat lower hind limb

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijkelijkhuizen, Josina M.; Meijer, Hanneke J.M; Baan, Guus C.; Huijing, Peter A.

    2007-01-01

    Force transmission via pathways other than myotendinous ones, is referred to as myofascial force transmission. The present study shows that myofascial force transmission occurs not only between adjacent synergistic muscles or antagonistic muscles in adjacent compartments, but also between most dista

  6. Myofascial force transmission between antagonistic rat lower limb muscles: Effects of single muscle or muscle group lengthening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Hanneke J.M; Rijkelijkhuizen, Josina M.; Huijing, Peter A.

    2007-01-01

    Effects of lengthening of the whole group of anterior crural muscles (tibialis anterior and extensor hallucis longus muscles (TA + EHL) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL)) on myofascial interaction between synergistic EDL and TA + EHL muscles, and on myofascial force transmission between anterior c

  7. Muscle Repositioning: a new verifiable approach to neuro-myofascial release?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolucci, Luiz Fernando

    2008-07-01

    The clinical observation of involuntary motor activity during application of a particular style of myofascial release (Muscle Repositioning-MR) has led to the hypothesis that this technique might evoke neurological reactions. Preliminary EMG recordings presented here show involuntary tonic cervical erector action during MR. Involuntary eye movements were also observed. This article presents these experimental data, along with clinical observations during the application of MR in the treatment of musculoskeletal conditions. The author hypothesizes that MR might constitute a novel manual technique: it produces unique palpatory sensations for the practitioner (e.g., a sense of firmness to the touch and the integration of bodily segments into a single block) that correspond to unique sensory experiences for the client. The article raises the possibility that MR's specific sensory input might activate the central nervous system, thus eliciting neural reactions. These reactions, in turn, might be related to the technique's efficacy. As the EMG objectively measures reactions contemporaneous with subjective palpatory phenomena, MR potentially brings the objective and subjective into congruence. EMG monitoring of touch could serve as an objective criterion in the development of treatment protocols, as well as a feedback tool for teaching. Greater objectivity, precision and reproducibility are all possible outcomes of such an approach. The author believes that MR can be used in various therapeutic settings--either as the principal approach, or as an adjunct to a variety of other approaches.

  8. Scalene myofascial pain syndrome mimicking cervical disc prolapse: a report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Jalil, Nizar; Awang, Mohammad Saufi; Omar, Mahamarowi

    2010-01-01

    Scalene myofascial pain syndrome is a regional pain syndrome wherein pain originates over the neck area and radiates down to the arm. This condition may present as primary or secondary to underlying cervical pathology. Although scalene myofascial pain syndrome is a well known medical entity, it is often misdiagnosed as being some other neck pain associated with radiculopathy, such as cervical disc prolapse, cervical spinal stenosis and thoracic outlet syndrome. Because scalene myofascial pain syndrome mimics cervical radiculopathy, this condition often leads to mismanagement, which can, in turn, result in persistent pain and suffering. In the worst-case scenarios, patients may be subjected to unjustifiable surgical intervention. Because the clinical findings in scalene myofascial pain syndrome are "pathognomonic", clinicians should be aware of ways to recognize this disorder and be able to differentiate it from other conditions that present with neck pain and rediculopathy. We present two cases of unilateral scalene myofascial pain syndrome that significantly impaired the patients' functioning and quality of life. This case report serves to create awareness about the existence of the syndrome and to highlight the potential morbidity due to clinical misdiagnosis.

  9. Vaccines as a trigger for myopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbach, H; Tanay, A

    2009-11-01

    Vaccines are considered to be among the greatest medical discoveries, credited with the virtual eradication of some diseases and the consequent improved survival and quality of life of the at-risk population. With that, vaccines are among the environmental factors implicated as triggers for the development of inflammatory myopathies. The sporadic reports on vaccine-induced inflammatory myopathies include cases of hepatitis B virus, bacillus Calmette-Guérin, tetanus, influenza, smallpox, polio, diphtheria, diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus, combination of diphtheria with scarlet fever and diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus with polio vaccines. However, a significant increase in the incidence of dermatomyositis or polymyositis after any massive vaccination campaign has not been reported in the literature. In study patients with inflammatory myopathies, no recent immunization was recorded in any of the patients. Moreover, after the 1976 mass flu vaccination, no increase in the incidence of inflammatory myopathies was observed. Although rare, macrophagic myofasciitis has been reported following vaccination and is attributed to the aluminium hydroxide used as an adjuvant in some vaccines. Prospective multicenter studies are needed to identify potential environmental factors, including vaccines, as potential triggers for inflammatory myopathies.

  10. Firearm trigger assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, David L.; Watson, Richard W.

    2010-02-16

    A firearm trigger assembly for use with a firearm includes a trigger mounted to a forestock of the firearm so that the trigger is movable between a rest position and a triggering position by a forwardly placed support hand of a user. An elongated trigger member operatively associated with the trigger operates a sear assembly of the firearm when the trigger is moved to the triggering position. An action release assembly operatively associated with the firearm trigger assembly and a movable assembly of the firearm prevents the trigger from being moved to the triggering position when the movable assembly is not in the locked position.

  11. Inactivation of PNKP by mutant ATXN3 triggers apoptosis by activating the DNA damage-response pathway in SCA3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3, also known as Machado-Joseph disease (MJD, is an untreatable autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease, and the most common such inherited ataxia worldwide. The mutation in SCA3 is the expansion of a polymorphic CAG tri-nucleotide repeat sequence in the C-terminal coding region of the ATXN3 gene at chromosomal locus 14q32.1. The mutant ATXN3 protein encoding expanded glutamine (polyQ sequences interacts with multiple proteins in vivo, and is deposited as aggregates in the SCA3 brain. A large body of literature suggests that the loss of function of the native ATNX3-interacting proteins that are deposited in the polyQ aggregates contributes to cellular toxicity, systemic neurodegeneration and the pathogenic mechanism in SCA3. Nonetheless, a significant understanding of the disease etiology of SCA3, the molecular mechanism by which the polyQ expansions in the mutant ATXN3 induce neurodegeneration in SCA3 has remained elusive. In the present study, we show that the essential DNA strand break repair enzyme PNKP (polynucleotide kinase 3'-phosphatase interacts with, and is inactivated by, the mutant ATXN3, resulting in inefficient DNA repair, persistent accumulation of DNA damage/strand breaks, and subsequent chronic activation of the DNA damage-response ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM signaling pathway in SCA3. We report that persistent accumulation of DNA damage/strand breaks and chronic activation of the serine/threonine kinase ATM and the downstream p53 and protein kinase C-δ pro-apoptotic pathways trigger neuronal dysfunction and eventually neuronal death in SCA3. Either PNKP overexpression or pharmacological inhibition of ATM dramatically blocked mutant ATXN3-mediated cell death. Discovery of the mechanism by which mutant ATXN3 induces DNA damage and amplifies the pro-death signaling pathways provides a molecular basis for neurodegeneration due to PNKP inactivation in SCA3, and for the first time offers

  12. Neuro Emotional Technique for the treatment of trigger point sensitivity in chronic neck pain sufferers: A controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollard Henry

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trigger points have been shown to be active in many myofascial pain syndromes. Treatment of trigger point pain and dysfunction may be explained through the mechanisms of central and peripheral paradigms. This study aimed to investigate whether the mind/body treatment of Neuro Emotional Technique (NET could significantly relieve pain sensitivity of trigger points presenting in a cohort of chronic neck pain sufferers. Methods Sixty participants presenting to a private chiropractic clinic with chronic cervical pain as their primary complaint were sequentially allocated into treatment and control groups. Participants in the treatment group received a short course of Neuro Emotional Technique that consists of muscle testing, general semantics and Traditional Chinese Medicine. The control group received a sham NET protocol. Outcome measurements included pain assessment utilizing a visual analog scale and a pressure gauge algometer. Pain sensitivity was measured at four trigger point locations: suboccipital region (S; levator scapulae region (LS; sternocleidomastoid region (SCM and temporomandibular region (TMJ. For each outcome measurement and each trigger point, we calculated the change in measurement between pre- and post- treatment. We then examined the relationships between these measurement changes and six independent variables (i.e. treatment group and the above five additional participant variables using forward stepwise General Linear Model. Results The visual analog scale (0 to 10 had an improvement of 7.6 at S, 7.2 at LS, 7.5 at SCM and 7.1 at the TMJ in the treatment group compared with no improvement of at S, and an improvement of 0.04 at LS, 0.1 at SCM and 0.1 at the TMJ point in the control group, (P Conclusion After a short course of NET treatment, measurements of visual analog scale and pressure algometer recordings of four trigger point locations in a cohort of chronic neck pain sufferers were significantly

  13. Gait changes following myofascial structural integration (Rolfing) observed in 2 children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Alexis B; Price, Karen S; Loi, Elizabeth C; Buysse, Christina A; Jaramillo, Theresa M; Pico, Elaine L; Feldman, Heidi M

    2014-10-01

    Children with spastic cerebral palsy experience difficulty with ambulation. Structural changes in muscle and fascia may play a role in abnormal gait. Myofascial structural integration (Rolfing) is a manual therapy that manipulates muscle and soft tissues to loosen fascia layers, reposition muscles, and facilitate alignment. This study aimed to document (1) gait characteristics of 2 children with cerebral palsy and (2) effects of myofascial structural integration on their gait. Children received 3 months of weekly therapy sessions by an experienced practitioner. Gait parameters were recorded at baseline and after treatment using an electronic walkway. Children with cerebral palsy demonstrated abnormal velocity and cadence, decreased step length and single support times, and increased double support time. After treatment, both children demonstrated improvement for 3 months in cadence and double support time. The objective gait analyses demonstrated temporary improvements after myofascial structural integration in children with spastic cerebral palsy.

  14. Effect of Self-myofascial Release on Reduction of Physical Stress: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kanghoon; Park, Sunghyun; Goo, Bong-Oh; Choi, Seok-Cheol

    2014-11-01

    [Purpose] This study aims to examined the effect of the self-myofascial release induced with a foam roller on the reduction of stress by measuring the serum concentration of cortisol. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were healthy females in their 20s. They were divided into the experimental and control groups. Both groups, each consisting of 12 subjects, were directed to walk for 30 minutes on a treadmill. The control group rested for 30 minutes of rest by lying down, whereas the experimental group was performed a 30 minutes of self-myofascial release program. [Results] Statistically significant levels of cortisol concentration reduction were observed in both the experimental group, which used the foam roller, and the control group. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups. [Conclusion] The Self-myofascial release induced with a foam roller did not affect the reduction of stress.

  15. Myofascial pain and fibromyalgia: two different but overlapping disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2016-05-01

    There is good evidence supporting that people with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) exhibit central sensitization. The role of peripheral nociception is under debate in FMS. It seems that widespread pain experienced in FMS is considered multiple regional pains; therefore, several authors proposed that muscles play a relevant role in FMS. Trigger points (TrPs) have long been a contentious issue in relation to FMS. Preliminary evidence reported that the overall spontaneous pain is reproduced by referred pain from active TrPs, suggesting that FMS pain is largely composed of pain arising, at least partially, from TrPs. Finally, there is preliminary evidence suggesting that management of TrPs is able to modulate the CNS and is effective for reducing pain in FMS, although results are conflicting and future studies are clearly needed.

  16. Wingless-type family member 3A triggers neuronal polarization via cross-activation of the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernis, María E.; Oksdath, Mariana; Dupraz, Sebastián; Nieto Guil, Alvaro; Fernández, Marisa M.; Malchiodi, Emilio L.; Rosso, Silvana B.; Quiroga, Santiago

    2013-01-01

    Initial axonal elongation is essential for neuronal polarization and requires polarized activation of IGF-1 receptors (IGF-1r) and the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3k) pathway. Wingless-type family growth factors (Wnts) have also been implied in the regulation of axonal development. It is not known, however, if Wnts have any participation in the regulation of initial axonal outgrowth and the establishment of neuronal polarity. We used cultured hippocampal neurons and growth cone particles (GCPs) isolated from fetal rat brain to show that stimulation with the wingless family factor 3A (Wnt3a) was sufficient to promote neuronal polarization in the absence of IGF-1 or high insulin. We also show that Wnt3a triggered a strong activation of IGF-1r, PI3k, and Akt in developmental Stage 2 neurons and that the presence of activatable IGF-1r and PI3k activation were necessary for Wnt3a polarizing effects. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) experiments show that Wnt3a did not bind specifically to the IGF-1r. Using crosslinking and immuno-precipitation experiments, we show that stimulation with Wnt3a triggered the formation of a complex including IGF-1r-Wnt3a-Frizzled-7. We conclude that Wnt3a triggers polarization of neurons via cross-activation of the IGF-1r/PI3k pathway upon binding to Fz7. PMID:24298236

  17. [Diagnostics and surgical correction of postoperative myofascial defects of lateral abdominal wall and lumbar region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brekhov, E I; Iurasov, A V; Gribunov, Iu P; Repin, I G; Alekseev, A K; Cherniaeva, N A; Zhitnikov, G V

    2009-01-01

    Myofascial defects of lateral abdominal wall and lumbar region occur chiefly after lumbotomy--the most popular access in urosurgery. Meanwhile lumbotomy remains one of the most traumatic accesses through the lateral abdominal wall. Myofascial defects were diagnosed in 48,9% of operated patients with lumbotomy. Of them true postoperative hernias were found in 35,3%; neuropathic hernias - in 13,6%. Since 2002 the originally developed method of lateral abdominal wall reconstruction had been used for the treatment of such patients. The immediate and long-term results (maximal follow-up period 5 years) showed no hernia recurrence or complications in 26 operated patients.

  18. Headache attributed to temporomandibular disorders and masticatory myofascial pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Kazuhiko; Shinozaki, Takahiro; Okada-Ogawa, Akiko; Matsukawa, Yumiko; Dezawa, Ko; Nakaya, Yuka; Chen, Jui-Yen; Noma, Noboru; Oka, Shunichi; Iwata, Koichi; Imamura, Yoshiki

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the temporal association between temporomandibular disorders (TMD)-related symptoms and headache during TMD treatment for patients who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for headache attributed to TMD (HATMD) specified in the Diagnostic criteria for TMD (DC/TMD) and International classification of headache disorders (ICHD)-3 beta. The study enrolled 34 patients with HATMD induced by masticatory myofascial pain but not by temporomandibular arthralgia. Facial pain intensity, the pressure pain threshold of pericranial muscles, and maximum unassisted opening of the jaw were assessed at an initial examination and before and after physical therapy. The intensity and frequency of headache episodes and tooth contact ratio were also recorded before and after the intervention. Headache intensity and frequency significantly decreased, and these reductions were temporally related to improvements in facial pain intensity, maximum unassisted opening, and pressure pain threshold during TMD treatment. Linear regression analysis showed significant correlations between facial pain intensity and headache intensity and between tooth contact ratio and pressure pain threshold. Among patients who fulfilled the DC/TMD and ICHD-3 beta diagnostic criteria for HATMD, headache improved during TMD treatment, and the improvement was temporally related to amelioration of TMD symptoms. These findings suggest that sensitization in the central and peripheral nervous systems is responsible for HATMD. (J Oral Sci 58, 195-204, 2016). PMID:27349540

  19. Clinical features in patients with long-lasting macrophagic myofasciitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel eRIGOLET

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF is an emerging condition characterized by specific muscle lesions assessing abnormal long-term persistence of aluminium hydroxide within macrophages at the site of previous immunization. Affected patients usually are middle-aged adults, mainly presenting with diffuse arthromyalgias, chronic fatigue, and marked cognitive deficits, not related to pain, fatigue or depression. Clinical features usually correspond to that observed in chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis. Representative features of MMF-associated cognitive dysfunction include dysexecutive syndrome, visual memory impairment and left ear extinction at dichotic listening test. Most patients fulfil criteria for non-amnestic/dysexecutive mild cognitive impairment, even if some cognitive deficits appear unusually severe. Cognitive dysfunction seems stable over time despite marked fluctuations. Evoked potentials may show abnormalities in keeping with central nervous system involvement, with a neurophysiological pattern suggestive of demyelination. Brain perfusion SPECT shows a pattern of diffuse cortical and subcortical abnormalities, with hypoperfusions correlating with cognitive deficiencies. The combination of musculoskeletal pain, chronic fatigue and cognitive disturbance generates chronic disability with possible social exclusion. Classical therapeutic approaches are usually unsatisfactory making patient care difficult.

  20. Headache attributed to temporomandibular disorders and masticatory myofascial pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Kazuhiko; Shinozaki, Takahiro; Okada-Ogawa, Akiko; Matsukawa, Yumiko; Dezawa, Ko; Nakaya, Yuka; Chen, Jui-Yen; Noma, Noboru; Oka, Shunichi; Iwata, Koichi; Imamura, Yoshiki

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the temporal association between temporomandibular disorders (TMD)-related symptoms and headache during TMD treatment for patients who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for headache attributed to TMD (HATMD) specified in the Diagnostic criteria for TMD (DC/TMD) and International classification of headache disorders (ICHD)-3 beta. The study enrolled 34 patients with HATMD induced by masticatory myofascial pain but not by temporomandibular arthralgia. Facial pain intensity, the pressure pain threshold of pericranial muscles, and maximum unassisted opening of the jaw were assessed at an initial examination and before and after physical therapy. The intensity and frequency of headache episodes and tooth contact ratio were also recorded before and after the intervention. Headache intensity and frequency significantly decreased, and these reductions were temporally related to improvements in facial pain intensity, maximum unassisted opening, and pressure pain threshold during TMD treatment. Linear regression analysis showed significant correlations between facial pain intensity and headache intensity and between tooth contact ratio and pressure pain threshold. Among patients who fulfilled the DC/TMD and ICHD-3 beta diagnostic criteria for HATMD, headache improved during TMD treatment, and the improvement was temporally related to amelioration of TMD symptoms. These findings suggest that sensitization in the central and peripheral nervous systems is responsible for HATMD. (J Oral Sci 58, 195-204, 2016).

  1. Impact of Retropubic vs. Transobturator Slings for Urinary Incontinence on Myofascial Structures of the Pelvic Floor, Adductor and Abdominal Muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beilecke, K; Soeder, S; Hufenbach, E; Tunn, R

    2014-01-01

    Suburethral tension-free slings (tapes or bands) are an essential component in the operative treatment of urinary incontinence. In the present contribution the influence of the type of suburethral sling (retropubic vs. transobturator) on the myofascial structures of the abdominal, adductor and pelvic floor muscles is examined. For this purpose, 70 patients were prospectively observed clinically and physiotherapeutically. Significant differences were seen in the improvement of the pelvic floor musculature (strength, endurance, speed) after placement of a suburethral sling, irrespective of whether it was of the retropubic or the transobturator type. Thus, after surgical treatment patients should be encouraged to undertake further pelvic floor exercising or this should be prescribed for them. There were no significant changes in the abdominal and adductor muscles but there were slight increases with regard to pain level, pain on palpation, and trigger points after placement of both types of sling; thus this is not a criterion in the decision as to which type of sling to use. PMID:24741121

  2. Diagnostico clínico de artrosis en la articulación temporomandibular asociado a un síndrome de dolor miofascial: Análisis de un caso Clinical diagnosis of osteoarthrosis in the Temporomandibular Joint Associated with Myofascial Pain Syndrome: Analysis of a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. La Touche

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de una paciente de 70 años que presenta dolor orofacial simétrico y dolor local a nivel de la articulación temporomandibular (ATM derecha. La exploración clínica muestra disminución del rango de movimiento articular, un end feel blando, crepitación a la auscultación, y puntos gatillos miofasciales (PGMs a nivel de la musculatura masticatoria y del cuello. El estudio radiológico confirma artrosis en la ATM y se termina concluyendo que la sintomatología es provocada, principalmente, por el síndrome de dolor miofascial. Se reafirma la importancia de realizar un diagnóstico diferencial preciso para orientar adecuadamente las pautas del tratamiento.A case report of a 70 year-old patient with bilateral orofacial pain and local pain in the right temporomandibular joint (TMJ. The physical examination shows a decrease in the articular range of motion, a soft end feel, crepitation and trigger points activated at the jaw and neck muscles. The image study confirmed TMJ osteoarthrosis and it was concluded that the symptoms were primarily produced by myofascial pain syndrome. A precise differential diagnoses is important in order to orientate the treatment stages.

  3. MHC-compatible bone marrow stromal/stem cells trigger fibrosis by activating host T cells in a scleroderma mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Yoko; Morikawa, Satoru; Okano, Hideyuki; Mabuchi, Yo; Suzuki, Sadafumi; Yaguchi, Tomonori; Sato, Yukio; Mukai, Shin; Yaguchi, Saori; Inaba, Takaaki; Okamoto, Shinichiro; Kawakami, Yutaka; Tsubota, Kazuo; Matsuzaki, Yumi; Shimmura, Shigeto

    2016-01-26

    Fibrosis of organs is observed in systemic autoimmune disease. Using a scleroderma mouse, we show that transplantation of MHC compatible, minor antigen mismatched bone marrow stromal/stem cells (BMSCs) play a role in the pathogenesis of fibrosis. Removal of donor BMSCs rescued mice from disease. Freshly isolated PDGFRα(+) Sca-1(+) BMSCs expressed MHC class II following transplantation and activated host T cells. A decrease in FOXP3(+) CD25(+) Treg population was observed. T cells proliferated and secreted IL-6 when stimulated with mismatched BMSCs in vitro. Donor T cells were not involved in fibrosis because transplanting T cell-deficient RAG2 knock out mice bone marrow still caused disease. Once initially triggered by mismatched BMSCs, the autoimmune phenotype was not donor BMSC dependent as the phenotype was observed after effector T cells were adoptively transferred into naïve syngeneic mice. Our data suggest that minor antigen mismatched BMSCs trigger systemic fibrosis in this autoimmune scleroderma model.

  4. Case report: Myofascial pain syndrome: a double crush-like appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, R. Kevin; Richardson, Daniel L.; Shiel, Robert S.

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Objective To discuss the case of a patient with myofascial pain syndrome that appeared similar to double crush syndrome. Clinical Features This is a case report of a 45-year old female who presents to the private practice clinic with the same signs and symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome, 1 year post-carpaltunnel surgery. The history is consistent with injuries that result in double crush syndrome and thoracic outlet syndrome. The patient history includes a motor vehicle accident (MVA) in 1963 that resulted in a prolonged hospital stay and fracture of a cervical vertebral (C4) body. She fractured the olecranon process of the right elbow during a fall in 1970's. She has smoked approximately 1 pack a day for 20 years. Her job involves long periods of sitting at a keyboard and in a car. All of these portions of the patient history are possible factors in the clinical signs and symptoms of double crush syndrome. Intervention and Outcome Treatment involved chiropractic manipulation and physical therapy modalities for the elimination of pain and returning the patient's full range of motion in the wrist, elbow, shoulder and cervical spine. After range of motion was restored, a home exercise program was initiated. The home exercise program included a return to past sporting activity and active, resistive (Theraciser band) activities for the elbow and cervical spine. Also a reduction in smoking was initiated as part of the patient's treatment plan. Conclusion It is our contention that patients who have electromyographic (EMG) demonstrable carpal tunnel syndrome need a cervical spine workup and a period of conservative care to include skilled manipulation, physical therapy and home exercises before surgery is recommended. PMID:19674598

  5. Estimation of influence of myofascial release techniques on esophageal pressure in patients after total laryngectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marszałek, Sławomir; Zebryk-Stopa, Anna; Kraśny, Jacek; Obrebowski, Andrzej; Golusiński, Wojciech

    2009-08-01

    In patients after total laryngectomy, increased tension in myofascial neck and arm areas might be observed. Via fascial continuity it has an adverse impact on the superior esophageal constrictor forming the "mouth of the oesophagus", which hinders learning of esophageal speech. The aim is to assess the effect of manual myofascial release techniques on esophageal pressure in patients after total laryngectomy. Forty patients (12 F, 28 M), aged 43-75 (mean 56.8 years), 9 months to 13 years (average 3 years) after total laryngectomy, 35 patients (87.5%) after neck lymph node resection, 38 patients (95%) after radiotherapy. Esophageal pressure was assessed using modified Seeman's method. Manual myofascial release techniques were applied within head, neck, arms, upper trunk and upper limb areas. Wilcoxon and Shapiro-Wilk's test was used for the purpose of statistical analysis. Statistically significant decrease of the mean esophageal pressure was observed after the physiotherapy treatment. The average pressure among the examined patients decreased from 37.9 to 26.6 mmHg. The application of myofascial manual techniques decreases esophageal pressure, thus allowing patients to learn esophagus speech at a faster pace.

  6. Time courses of myofascial temporomandibular disorder complaints during a 12-month follow-up period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.K.A. van Selms; F. Lobbezoo; M. Naeije

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate the time courses of myofascial temporomandibular disorder (TMD) pain and mandibular function impairment (MFI), and to identify predictive factors associated with these time courses. METHODS: During a 12-month period following conservative TMD treatment, the time courses of myofa

  7. Pain, Disability and Sleep Quality in Patients With Rotator Cuff Tendinopathy and Concurrent Myofascial Pain

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    Morteza Nakhaei Amroodi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Rotator cuff tendinopathy and concurrent myofascial pain may result in sleep disturbances, poor quality of life, and social dysfunction along with chronic annoying pain and progressive physical disability. Objectives The present study aimed to assess severity of pain, physical disability, and sleep quality in patients with rotator cuff tendinopathy and concurrent myofascial pain. Patients and Methods This case-control study was conducted on 30 consecutive patients with rotator cuff tendinopathy without tear (impingement syndrome and concurrent myofascial pain referred to the shoulder clinic in Shafa-Yahyaian Hospital during year 2014 (January to April. Eighteen gender and age-matched healthy individuals without any history of rotator cuff tendinopathy were included as controls. Along with baseline assessment, for determining the level of arm, shoulder and hand disability, the quick disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand questionnaire was also used. Sleep quality was assessed by the pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI. Results Compared to healthy individuals, the mean shoulder disability score was significantly higher in the patient group (P = 0.001. Also, regarding sleep quality, the mean score was significantly higher in the patient group when compared with healthy subjects (P = 0.002. Conclusions Patients with rotator cuff tendinopathy concurrent with myofascial pain experienced low level of sleep quality along with severe pain and physical disability. In order to improve clinical outcome of these patients, improving physical function and sleep quality in these patients is necessary.

  8. Trigger Finger: Adult and Pediatric Treatment Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giugale, Juan M; Fowler, John R

    2015-10-01

    Trigger fingers are common tendinopathies representing a stenosing flexor tenosynovitis of the fingers. Adult trigger finger can be treated nonsurgically using activity modification, splinting, and/or corticosteroid injections. Surgical treatment options include percutaneous A1 pulley release and open A1 pulley release. Excision of a slip of the flexor digitorum superficialis is reserved for patients with persistent triggering despite A1 release or patients with persistent flexion contracture. Pediatric trigger thumb is treated with open A1 pulley release. Pediatric trigger finger is treated with release of the A1 pulley with excision of a slip or all of the flexor digitorum superficialis if triggering persists. PMID:26410644

  9. The Effect of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy on Myofascial Pain Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jong Hyun; Jung, Yun Jae; Lee, Ju Youn; Choi, Ji Soo; Mun, Jeong Hyeon; Park, Won Yong; Seo, Cheong Hoon

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) on myofascial pain syndrome (MPS). Method Thirty patients with MPS in trapezius muscle were randomly divided into two groups, ESWT group (n=15), and trigger point injections (TPI)+transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) group (n=15). For a total of 3 weeks, ESWT was undertaken with 1,500 pulse each time at one week interval totaling 4,500 pulse, TPI for once a week totaling three times and TENS for five times a week totaling three weeks. Results The changes in pain threshold (lb/cm2) showed the values of 6.86±1.35 before first therapy, 11.43±0.27 after first therapy, and 12.57±0.72 after third therapy, while TPI+TENS group showed the values of 6.20±1.92 before first therapy, 8.80±0.48 after first therapy, and 9.60±2.19 after third therapy, and the changes between the groups were significantly different (p=0.045). The changes in visual analog scale were estimated to be 6.86±0.90 before first therapy, 2.86±0.90 after first therapy, and 1.86±0.69 after third therapy in case of ESWT group, whereas the figures were estimated to be 7.20±1.30 before first therapy, 4.60±0.55 after first therapy, and 2.80±0.84 after third therapy in case of TPI+TENS group, and the changes between the groups were significantly different (p=0.010). The changes in McGill pain questionnaire (p=0.816) and pain rating scale (p=0.644) between the groups were not significantly different. The changes in neck ROM were also not significantly different between the groups (p>0.05). Conclusion The ESWT in patients with MPS in trapezius muscle are as effective as TPI and TENS for the purpose of pain relief and improving cervical range of motion. PMID:23185731

  10. A pilot study of myofascial release therapy compared to Swedish massage in fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liptan, Ginevra; Mist, Scott; Wright, Cheryl; Arzt, Anna; Jones, Kim Dupree

    2013-07-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is characterized by widespread muscle pain and soft tissue tenderness. However, a lack of definitive muscle pathology has made FM both a diagnostic and a treatment puzzle. Much of the evidence for pathology in FM lies in the central nervous system - in particular abnormal amplification of pain signals in the spinal cord - a manifestation of central sensitization. An emerging body of evidence posits that peripheral pain generated from the muscles and fascia may trigger and maintain central sensitization in FM. Since FM patients so frequently seek manual therapy to relieve muscle symptoms, the present study compared two different manual therapy techniques in a parallel study of women with FM. Eight subjects received myofascial release (MFR) while four subjects received Swedish massage, 90 min weekly for four weeks. Overall symptom burden and physical function were assessed by the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire Revised (FIQ-R). A unique challenge for the manual therapist in treating conditions involving central sensitization is to determine if localized pain reduction can be achieved with targeted therapy in the context of ongoing widespread pain. Localized pain improvement was measured by a novel questionnaire developed for this study, the modified Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ). Between-group differences in FIQ-R did not reach statistical significance, but the total change scores on FIQ-R for the MFR group (mean = 10.14, SD = 16.2) trended in the hypothesized and positive direction compared to the Swedish massage group (mean = 0.33, SD = 4.93) yielding a positive Aikin separation test. Although overall modified NMQ scores improved in both groups there were no consistent focal areas of improvement for the Swedish massage group. In contrast, the MFR group reported consistent pain reductions in the neck and upper back regions on the NMQ. These data support the need for larger randomized controlled trials of MFR versus other

  11. A pilot study of myofascial release therapy compared to Swedish massage in fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liptan, Ginevra; Mist, Scott; Wright, Cheryl; Arzt, Anna; Jones, Kim Dupree

    2013-07-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is characterized by widespread muscle pain and soft tissue tenderness. However, a lack of definitive muscle pathology has made FM both a diagnostic and a treatment puzzle. Much of the evidence for pathology in FM lies in the central nervous system - in particular abnormal amplification of pain signals in the spinal cord - a manifestation of central sensitization. An emerging body of evidence posits that peripheral pain generated from the muscles and fascia may trigger and maintain central sensitization in FM. Since FM patients so frequently seek manual therapy to relieve muscle symptoms, the present study compared two different manual therapy techniques in a parallel study of women with FM. Eight subjects received myofascial release (MFR) while four subjects received Swedish massage, 90 min weekly for four weeks. Overall symptom burden and physical function were assessed by the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire Revised (FIQ-R). A unique challenge for the manual therapist in treating conditions involving central sensitization is to determine if localized pain reduction can be achieved with targeted therapy in the context of ongoing widespread pain. Localized pain improvement was measured by a novel questionnaire developed for this study, the modified Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ). Between-group differences in FIQ-R did not reach statistical significance, but the total change scores on FIQ-R for the MFR group (mean = 10.14, SD = 16.2) trended in the hypothesized and positive direction compared to the Swedish massage group (mean = 0.33, SD = 4.93) yielding a positive Aikin separation test. Although overall modified NMQ scores improved in both groups there were no consistent focal areas of improvement for the Swedish massage group. In contrast, the MFR group reported consistent pain reductions in the neck and upper back regions on the NMQ. These data support the need for larger randomized controlled trials of MFR versus other

  12. Shutoff and agonist-triggered internalization of protease-activated receptor 1 can be separated by mutation of putative phosphorylation sites in the cytoplasmic tail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammes, S R; Shapiro, M J; Coughlin, S R

    1999-07-20

    The thrombin receptor PAR1 becomes rapidly phosphorylated upon activation by either thrombin or exogenous SFLLRN agonist peptide. Substitution of alanine for all serine and threonine residues in the receptor's cytoplasmic carboxyl-terminal tail ablated phosphorylation and yielded a receptor defective in both shutoff and agonist-triggered internalization. These observations suggested that activation-dependent phosphorylation of PAR1's cytoplasmic tail is required for both shutoff and agonist-triggered internalization. To identify the phosphorylation site(s) that are necessary for these functions, we generated three mutant receptors in which alanine was substituted for serine and threonine residues in the amino-terminal, middle, and carboxyl-terminal thirds of PAR1's cytoplasmic tail. When stably expressed in fibroblasts, all three mutated receptors were rapidly phosphorylated in response to agonist, while a mutant in which all serines and threonines in the cytoplasmic tail were converted to alanines was not. This result suggests that phosphorylation can occur at multiple sites in PAR1's cytoplasmic tail. Alanine substitutions in the N-terminal and C-terminal portions of the tail had no effect on either receptor shutoff or agonist-triggered internalization. By contrast, alanine substitutions in the "middle" serine cluster between Ser(391) and Ser(406) yielded a receptor with considerably slower shutoff of signaling after thrombin activation than the wild type. Surprisingly, this same mutant was indistinguishable from the wild type in agonist-triggered internalization and degradation. Overexpression of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) and GRK3 "suppressed" the shutoff defect of the S --> A (391-406) mutant, consistent with this defect being due to altered receptor phosphorylation. These results suggest that specific phosphorylation sites are required for rapid receptor shutoff, but phosphorylation at multiple alternative sites is sufficient for agonist-triggered

  13. Increased long-flight activity triggered in beet armyworm by larval feeding on diet containing Cry1Ac protoxin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Fu Jiang

    Full Text Available Evaluating ecological safety and conducting pest risk analysis for transgenic crops are vitally important before their commercial planting. The beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, a long-distance migratory insect pest, is not a direct target of transgenic Cry1Ac-expressing cotton in China, but nevertheless it has recently become an important pest. Migrants leaving their natal field arrive in other appropriate habitat far away in a short time, often followed by larval outbreaks. S. exigua has low susceptibility to Cry1Ac. However, our results from laboratory experiments identified (i sublethal effects of Cry1Ac protoxin on larval development rate, larval and pupal weight, and adult lifetime fecundity, and (ii increased long-flight behavior triggered by Cry1Ac which may contribute to larval outbreaks elsewhere. No significant differences in larval mortality, pupation rate, adult emergence rate, longevity, pre-oviposition period, or oviposition period were observed between controls and larvae fed on artificial diet incorporating a low concentration of Cry1Ac protoxin. The negative sublethal effects on some developmental and reproductive traits and lack of effect on others suggest they do not contribute to the observed severity of S. exigua outbreaks after feeding on Cry1Ac cotton. Interestingly, the percentage of long fliers increased significantly when larvae were reared on diet containing either of two low-dose treatments of Cry1Ac, suggesting a possible increased propensity to disperse long distances triggered by Cry1Ac. We hypothesize that negative effects on development and reproduction caused by Cry1Ac in the diet are offset by increased flight propensity triggered by the poor food conditions, thereby improving the chances of escaping adverse local conditions before oviposition. Increased long-flight propensity in turn may amplify the area damaged by outbreak populations. This phenomenon might be common in other migratory insect pests receiving

  14. Comorbidity of fibromyalgia and cervical myofascial pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakit, Burcu Duyur; Taskin, Suhan; Nacir, Baris; Unlu, Irem; Genc, Hakan; Erdem, Hatice Rana

    2010-04-01

    The aims of this study are to determine the frequency of fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) in patients with chronic cervical myofascial pain (CMP) and to investigate the FMS characteristics in CMP patients. Ninty-three patients with CMP and 30 age-matched healthy women were included in this study. Main outcome measures included visual analog scale (VAS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and pain pressure thresholds. CMP patients were evaluated for the existence of FMS. The severity of FMS was assessed with total myalgic score (TMS) and control point score (CPS). Most common clinical characteristics of FMS were noted. Of the 93 CMP subjects, 22 (23.6%) patients fulfilled the classification criteria for FMS. Number of tender points were higher (p=0.0), while TMS (p=0.0) and CPS (p=0.0) values were lower in comorbid CMP and FMS patients than regional CMP group. There were statistically significant differences between regional CMP patients and comorbid CMP and FMS patients regarding presence of fatigue (p=0.0) and irritable bowel syndrome (p=0.022). There was no statistically significant difference between patient groups regarding VAS values (p>0.05). BDI values of the regional CMP were significantly lower than comorbid CMP and FMS patients (p=0.011). In conclusion, we found that nearly a quarter of CMP patients were comorbid with FMS, and psychological and comorbid symptoms were more prominent in comorbid patients. We thought that, these two syndromes might be overlapping conditions and as a peripheral pain generator or inducer of central sensitisation, MPS might lead to FMS or precipitate and worsen the FMS symptoms.

  15. Injecction of trigger points in the temporal muscles of patients with miofascial syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Sabatke

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The aim was to examine the effect of blocking trigger points in the temporal muscles of patients with masticatory myofascial pain syndrome, fibromyalgia and headache.Method : Seventy patients with one trigger point were randomly divided into 3 groups: injection with saline or anesthetic and non-injected (control.Results : Pain was reduced in 87.71% patients injected with saline and 100% injected with anesthetic. Similar results were obtained for headache frequency. With regard to headache intensity, the injection groups differed from the control group, but not between themselves.Conclusion : Treatment with injection at trigger points decreased facial pain and frequency and intensity of headache. Considering the injected substance there was no difference.

  16. The accurate assessment and physiotherapeutic treatment of rotator cuff myofascial Pain Syndrome: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. B. Barker

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Management  of  patients  with  rotator  cuff  myofascial  pain syndrome varies  and  successful  intervention  is  dependent  on accurate assessment. The aim of this case report is to show the importance of accurate assessment  and  clinical  reasoning  in  the  physiotherapeutic management  of a  patient  suffering  from  ante-cubital  and  anterior shoulder  pain.  The  patient was  referred  for  physiotherapy  after proving refractory  to  treatment  with  non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medication. The physiotherapist diagnosed a rotator cuff myofascial pain syndrome and treatment proceeded on that basis. Treatment consisted of twitch-obtaining dry needling, myofascial release and exercise therapy.  The result was a change in the harryman rotator cuff functional Assessment Scale score from 22/52 to 43/52 over eight treatments. Strength was regained and subjective pain report on the visual rating scale was improved to 1/10. The case study highlights the importance of accurate assessment and consideration of alternative myofascial sources for pain even in circumstances which initially seem trauma related. Precise diagnosis of the cause - in this case rotator cuff myofascial pain syndrome – will result in effective treatment being administered.

  17. Turn-Amplitude Analysis as a Diagnostic Test for Myofascial Syndrome in Patients with Chronic Pelvic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Itza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Myofascial pain syndrome of the pelvic floor (MPSPF is a common disease in the context of chronic pelvic pain (CPP; however, there is currently no gold-standard test to diagnose it.

  18. Triggered Release from Polymer Capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esser-Kahn, Aaron P. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Chemistry; Odom, Susan A. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Chemistry; Sottos, Nancy R. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; White, Scott R. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Aerospace Engineering; Moore, Jeffrey S. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Chemistry

    2011-07-06

    Stimuli-responsive capsules are of interest in drug delivery, fragrance release, food preservation, and self-healing materials. Many methods are used to trigger the release of encapsulated contents. Here we highlight mechanisms for the controlled release of encapsulated cargo that utilize chemical reactions occurring in solid polymeric shell walls. Triggering mechanisms responsible for covalent bond cleavage that result in the release of capsule contents include chemical, biological, light, thermal, magnetic, and electrical stimuli. We present methods for encapsulation and release, triggering methods, and mechanisms and conclude with our opinions on interesting obstacles for chemically induced activation with relevance for controlled release.

  19. Optogenetic activation of intracellular adenosine A2A receptor signaling in the hippocampus is sufficient to trigger CREB phosphorylation and impair memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, P; Rial, D; Canas, P M; Yoo, J-H; Li, W; Zhou, X; Wang, Y; van Westen, G J P; Payen, M-P; Augusto, E; Gonçalves, N; Tomé, A R; Li, Z; Wu, Z; Hou, X; Zhou, Y; IJzerman, A P; PIJzerman, Ad; Boyden, E S; Cunha, R A; Qu, J; Chen, J-F

    2015-11-01

    Human and animal studies have converged to suggest that caffeine consumption prevents memory deficits in aging and Alzheimer's disease through the antagonism of adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs). To test if A2AR activation in the hippocampus is actually sufficient to impair memory function and to begin elucidating the intracellular pathways operated by A2AR, we have developed a chimeric rhodopsin-A2AR protein (optoA2AR), which retains the extracellular and transmembrane domains of rhodopsin (conferring light responsiveness and eliminating adenosine-binding pockets) fused to the intracellular loop of A2AR to confer specific A2AR signaling. The specificity of the optoA2AR signaling was confirmed by light-induced selective enhancement of cAMP and phospho-mitogen-activated protein kinase (p-MAPK) (but not cGMP) levels in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells, which was abolished by a point mutation at the C terminal of A2AR. Supporting its physiological relevance, optoA2AR activation and the A2AR agonist CGS21680 produced similar activation of cAMP and p-MAPK signaling in HEK293 cells, of p-MAPK in the nucleus accumbens and of c-Fos/phosphorylated-CREB (p-CREB) in the hippocampus, and similarly enhanced long-term potentiation in the hippocampus. Remarkably, optoA2AR activation triggered a preferential p-CREB signaling in the hippocampus and impaired spatial memory performance, while optoA2AR activation in the nucleus accumbens triggered MAPK signaling and modulated locomotor activity. This shows that the recruitment of intracellular A2AR signaling in the hippocampus is sufficient to trigger memory dysfunction. Furthermore, the demonstration that the biased A2AR signaling and functions depend on intracellular A2AR loops prompts the possibility of targeting the intracellular A2AR-interacting partners to selectively control different neuropsychiatric behaviors. PMID:25687775

  20. Dolor de origen muscular: dolor miofascial y fibromialgia Muscular pain: myofascial pain syndrome and fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ruiz

    2007-01-01

    estiramiento y relajación junto a la terapia psicológica, ayudarán a disminuir la intensidad de los síntomasMyofascial pain syndromes have a very high prevalence. Two concepts are essential: muscular tension and trigger points. Autonomous and central sensitization components are implicated. Physical examination and a complete clinical history are mandatory. It requires a multidisciplinary treatment, especially with physical therapy. Fibromyalgia is characterized by chronic widespread pain and the presence of tender points. In its origin numerous theories exist, but none is totally accepted. Patients present morning rigidity, chronic fatigue, cephalalgia, sleep disturbances, paresthesia, mood disorders, irritable bowel and joint pain. The diagnosis is based upon the classification criteria of the American College of Rheumatology 1990. The treatment aims to recover functionality and quality of life, at least partially. Tricyclic antidepressants therapy will improve depression and sleep disturbances. The non pharmacological treatment with stretching and relaxation programs alongside psychological therapy will help to reduce the intensity of symptoms

  1. Identifying asthma triggers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Justin C; Ferguson, Berrylin J

    2014-02-01

    Asthma has many triggers including rhinosinusitis; allergy; irritants; medications (aspirin in aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease); and obesity. Paradoxic vocal fold dysfunction mimics asthma and may be present along with asthma. This article reviews each of these triggers, outlining methods of recognizing the trigger and then its management. In many patients more than one trigger may be present. Full appreciation of the complexity of these relationships and targeted therapy to the trigger is needed to best care for the patient with asthma.

  2. Anthropogenic and temporal components in a complex trigger of type 1 diabetes suggest the active participation of antipyretics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veteikis, Darijus

    2016-08-01

    Tremendous efforts in research without a conclusion on the cause of type 1 diabetes allow the presumption that there is still a blind spot in the development of T1D that is not covered by current hypotheses. The review of geographical knowledge suggests that there is a well-expressed anthropogenic element within the complex environmental trigger of T1D. On the other hand, the initiation of T1D's directed autoimmunity is temporally related to the organism's immune response, induced by entero-viruses, most expectedly. Consequently, the searched for anthropogenic environmental factor is a player temporally linked to enteroviral infections. This paper discusses the participation of antipyretic medicines, and especially paracetamol, with a whole century's history of growing sales and popularity, including indirect influence through phenacetin during the first half of the 20th century. As proposed by several independent studies, the use of pharmaceuticals to reduce fever may counteract with the protective features of the immune system and create favourable conditions for a virus to spread within the organism and damage specific tissue. A preliminary comparison of paracetamol sales with the incidence of T1D data in Lithuania and the other countries in the North-eastern Baltic region supports this hypothesis. PMID:27372871

  3. Anthropogenic Triggering of Large Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulargia, Francesco; Bizzarri, Andrea

    2014-08-01

    The physical mechanism of the anthropogenic triggering of large earthquakes on active faults is studied on the basis of experimental phenomenology, i.e., that earthquakes occur on active tectonic faults, that crustal stress values are those measured in situ and, on active faults, comply to the values of the stress drop measured for real earthquakes, that the static friction coefficients are those inferred on faults, and that the effective triggering stresses are those inferred for real earthquakes. Deriving the conditions for earthquake nucleation as a time-dependent solution of the Tresca-Von Mises criterion applied in the framework of poroelasticity yields that active faults can be triggered by fluid overpressures < 0.1 MPa. Comparing this with the deviatoric stresses at the depth of crustal hypocenters, which are of the order of 1-10 MPa, we find that injecting in the subsoil fluids at the pressures typical of oil and gas production and storage may trigger destructive earthquakes on active faults at a few tens of kilometers. Fluid pressure propagates as slow stress waves along geometric paths operating in a drained condition and can advance the natural occurrence of earthquakes by a substantial amount of time. Furthermore, it is illusory to control earthquake triggering by close monitoring of minor ``foreshocks'', since the induction may occur with a delay up to several years.

  4. ESTHER 1.3: integrating in-situ prompts to trigger self-reflection of physical activity in knowledge workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jimenez Garcia, Juan; Romero, Natalia A.; Keyson, David; Havinga, Paul

    2013-01-01

    There are little initiatives supporting knowledge workers in implementing physical activity as part of their work routines. Due to the sedentary nature of their work, knowledge workers have little opportunities to engage in physical activities during the working hours. In addition, physical activity

  5. Unusual fatal petrositis presenting as myofascial pain and dysfunction of the temporal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loretan, Stefan; Duvoisin, Bernard; Scolozzi, Paolo

    2011-05-01

    Petrositis is a rare and severe complication of acute otitis media and mastoiditis. Although the extension of the inflammatory process from the petrous apex to the adjacent Meckel cave can lead to trigeminal pain, an irritation of the trigeminal nerve roots resulting in acute or chronic hyperactivity of masticatory muscles has never been reported. We report here the unusual case of an 86-year-old man who presented with a handicapping myofascial pain and dysfunction syndrome of the right temporal muscle as a heralding manifestation of an unusual form of petrositis. The patient progressively developed a retropharyngeal abscess, a right sphenoid sinusitis, and fatal meningitis. This case demonstrated that (1) myofascial pain and dysfunction syndrome that does not respond to conventional treatments may suggest an unusual etiology and warrant further medical investigations and a detailed medical history and that (2) petrositis can manifest itself with atypical clinical symptoms and radiologic signs.

  6. Is self myofascial release an effective preexercise and recovery strategy? A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Allison N; Best, Thomas M

    2015-01-01

    The use of self myofascial release (SMR) via a foam roller or roller massager is becoming increasingly popular both to aid recovery from exercise and prevent injury. Our objective was to review the literature on SMR and its use for preexercise, recovery, or maintenance. PUBMED, EBSCO (MEDLINE), EMBASE, and CINAHL were searched for variations and synonyms of "self myofascial release" and "foam rolling." Data from nine studies were examined, and overall quality varied based on study protocol, muscle group targeted, and outcomes measured. Despite the heterogeneity of these studies, SMR appears to have a positive effect on range of motion and soreness/fatigue following exercise, but further study is needed to define optimal parameters (timing and duration of use) to aid performance and recovery.

  7. EFFECTS OF NEURAL MOBILIZATION IN POSTERIOR MYOFASCIAL CHAIN FLEXIBILITY IN NORMAL SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuti Sharma

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aims and objectives: The aim of this research is to see the effectiveness of neural mobilization on posterior myofascial chain flexibility. Methodology: Samples of 70 subjects were recruited for the study. Pre mobilization readings for finger floor distance, tibiotarsal angle and finger floor grades were taken for each individual, after whom slump mobilization was given and post mobilization readings were again taken in the same sequence after mobilization. Results: Both finger floor distance and grades were significantly changed, while tibiotarsal angle showed no significant difference. Discussion: Neural mobilization tries to restore the nervous system’s movement and elasticity, rehabilitating its normal functions by relieving the tensions in the muscular chains thereby increasing its flexibility. Conclusion: This study concludes that neural mobilization can improve posterior myofascial chain flexibility.

  8. Superficial temporal myofascial flap application in temporomandibular joint arthroplasty in a cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A Mestrinho

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Case summary A 2-year-old, intact female domestic longhair cat was referred for surgical treatment after diagnosis of closed jaw locking secondarily to right temporomandibular joint ankylosis and left pseudoankylosis. The animal underwent successful surgical management with bilateral excision arthroplasty followed by interposition of a temporal superficial myofascial flap. Immediately after surgery, the full range of lower jaw movement was achieved and normal occlusion was maintained. Ankylosis did not recur in the 1 year postoperative follow-up period. Relevance and novel information A temporal myofascial flap could be considered as interposition material after temporomandibular joint arthroplasty to avoid postoperative re-ankylosis and mandibular drift. The main advantages of this flap are its autogenous origin, and the ability to maintain separation between the two bones, preserve mobility and disrupt new bone formation.

  9. Thermal temporal summation and decay of after-sensations in temporomandibular myofascial pain patients with and without comorbid fibromyalgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janal, Malvin N; Raphael, Karen G; Cook, Dane B; Sirois, David A; Nemelivsky, Lena; Staud, Roland

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Chronic myofascial temporomandibular disorders (TMD) may have multiple etiological and maintenance factors. One potential factor, central pain sensitization, was quantified here as the response to the temporal summation (TS) paradigm, and that response was compared between case and control groups. Objectives As previous research has shown that fibromyalgia (FM) is diagnosed iñ20% of TMD patients, Aim 1 determined whether central sensitization is found preferentially in myofascial TMD cases that have orofacial pain as a regional manifestation of FM. Aim 2 determined if the report of after-sensations (AS) following TS varied depending on whether repeated stimuli were rated as increasingly painful. Methods One hundred sixty-eight women, 43 controls, 100 myofascial TMD-only cases, and 25 myofascial TMD + FM cases, were compared on thermal warmth and pain thresholds, thermal TS, and decay of thermal AS. All cases met Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD; comorbid cases also met the 1990 American College of Rheumatology criteria for FM. Results Pain thresholds and TS were similar in all groups. When TS was achieved (~60%), significantly higher levels of AS were reported in the first poststimulus interval, and AS decayed more slowly over time, in myofascial TMD cases than controls. By contrast, groups showed similar AS decay patterns following steady state or decreasing responses to repetitive stimulation. Conclusion In this case–control study, all myofascial TMD cases were characterized by a similar delay in the decay of AS. Thus, this indicator of central sensitization failed to suggest different pain maintenance factors in myofascial TMD cases with and without FM. PMID:27672341

  10. The Central Trigger Processor (CTP)

    CERN Multimedia

    Franchini, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    The Central Trigger Processor (CTP) receives trigger information from the calorimeter and muon trigger processors, as well as from other sources of trigger. It makes the Level-1 decision (L1A) based on a trigger menu.

  11. Aspirin-triggered lipoxin A4 attenuates LPS-induced pro-inflammatory responses by inhibiting activation of NF-κB and MAPKs in BV-2 microglial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan Shi-Ying; Zhou Jie-Ping; Liu Ren-Gang; Zheng Jin; Li Long-Yan; Wu Yan; Wang Yan-Ping; Shang You; Yao Shang-Long

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Microglial activation plays an important role in neurodegenerative diseases through production of nitric oxide (NO) and several pro-inflammatory cytokines. Lipoxins (LXs) and aspirin-triggered LXs (ATLs) are considered to act as 'braking signals' in inflammation. In the present study, we investigated the effect of aspirin-triggered LXA4 (ATL) on infiammatory responses induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in murine microglial BV-2 cells. Methods BV-2 cells were treated with ...

  12. Alexithymia, anger and psychological distress in patients with myofascial pain: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Castelli, Lorys; De Santis, Federica; Giorgi, Ilaria; Deregibus, Andrea; Tesio, Valentina; Leombruni, Paolo; Granieri, Antonella; Debernardi, Cesare; Torta, Riccardo

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate psychological distress, anger and alexithymia in a group of patients affected by myofascial pain (MP) in the facial region. Methods: 45 MP patients [mean (SD) age: 38.9 (11.6)] and 45 female healthy controls [mean (SD) age: 37.8 (13.7)] were assessed medically and psychologically. The medically evaluation consisted of muscle palpation of the pericranial and cervical muscles. The psychological evaluation included the assessment of depression (B...

  13. Alexithymia, anger and psychological distress in patients with myofascial pain: a case-control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Lorys eCastelli; Federica eDe Santis; Ilaria eDe Giorgi; Andrea eDeregibus; Valentina eTesio; Paolo eLeombruni; Antonella eGranieri; Cesare eDebernardi; Riccardo eTorta

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate psychological distress, anger and alexithymia in a group of patients affected by myofascial pain (MP) in the facial region.Methods: 45 MP patients (mean (SD) age: 38.9 (11.6)) and 45 female healthy controls (mean (SD) age: 37.8 (13.7)) were assessed medically and psychologically. The medically evaluation consisted of muscle palpation of the pericranial and cervical muscles. The psychological evaluation included the assessment of depression (Beck ...

  14. Association of anxiety with intracortical inhibition and descending pain modulation in chronic myofascial pain syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Vidor, Liliane Pinto; Torres, Iraci LS; Medeiros, Liciane Fernandes; Dussán-Sarria, Jairo Alberto; Dall’Agnol, Letizzia; Deitos, Alicia; Brietzke, Aline; Laste, Gabriela; Joanna R Rozisky; Fregni, Felipe; Caumo, Wolnei

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to answer three questions related to chronic myofascial pain syndrome (MPS): 1) Is the motor cortex excitability, as assessed by transcranial magnetic stimulation parameters (TMS), related to state-trait anxiety? 2) Does anxiety modulate corticospinal excitability changes after evoked pain by Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST)? 3) Does the state-trait anxiety predict the response to pain evoked by QST if simultaneously receiving a heterotopic stimulus [Conditional...

  15. Current concepts in MRI of rectus femoris musculotendinous (myotendinous) and myofascial injuries in elite athletes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rectus femoris injuries are extremely common in athletes, particularly in soccer players, rugby player, and sprinters. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays a key role in diagnosis, prognosis, and rehabilitation of these injuries. The current article discusses current concepts in the diagnosis and treatment of rectus femoris injuries in elite athletes, including a discussion of the less well known myofascial injuries and key prognostic factors as seen at MR imaging.

  16. Current concepts in MRI of rectus femoris musculotendinous (myotendinous) and myofascial injuries in elite athletes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassarjian, A., E-mail: Kassarjian@mac.com [Consultant Radiologist, Corades, S. L., Calle Galeon 2, 28220 Majadahonda, Madrid (Spain); Rodrigo, R.M., E-mail: rmrodrigo@resonanciamagneticabilbao.com [Resonancia Magnetica Bilbao, Hospital San Francisco Javier, Gordoniz 12, 40010 Bilbao, Vizcaya, Basque Country (Spain); Santisteban, J.M., E-mail: j.santisteban@athletic-club.net [Medical Services, Athletic Club Bilbao, Basurto Medical Institute, Faculty of Medicine and Odontology, University of the Basque Country, Barrio de Garaioltza 147, 48197 Lezama, Vizcaya, Basque Country (Spain)

    2012-12-15

    Rectus femoris injuries are extremely common in athletes, particularly in soccer players, rugby player, and sprinters. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays a key role in diagnosis, prognosis, and rehabilitation of these injuries. The current article discusses current concepts in the diagnosis and treatment of rectus femoris injuries in elite athletes, including a discussion of the less well known myofascial injuries and key prognostic factors as seen at MR imaging.

  17. Central poststroke pain: somatosensory abnormalities and the presence of associated myofascial pain syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    de Oliveira Rogério Adas; de Andrade Daniel; Machado André Guelman; Teixeira Manoel

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Central post-stroke pain (CPSP) is a neuropathic pain syndrome associated with somatosensory abnormalities due to central nervous system lesion following a cerebrovascular insult. Post-stroke pain (PSP) refers to a broader range of clinical conditions leading to pain after stroke, but not restricted to CPSP, including other types of pain such as myofascial pain syndrome (MPS), painful shoulder, lumbar and dorsal pain, complex regional pain syndrome, and spasticity-related ...

  18. EFFECT OF COGNITIVE BEHAVIOR THERAPY AS COMPARED TO MYOFASCIAL RELEASE TECHNIQUE IN FIBROMYALGIA SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur kusumpreet

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and introduction:Fibromyalgia or fibromyalgic syndrome is a common form of non-articularrheumatism characterized by variety of non-specific symptoms including diffuse widespread musculoskeletalaching associated with fatigue, morning stiffness and sleep disturbances (Bennett, 1997. The current study willcompare the beneficial effects of Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT and Myofascial release (MFR along withconventional treatment. This study tries to find out new effective method for reducing the problemsof pain,anxiety and sleep disturbance in fibromyalgia.Method:24 subjects selected according to the inclusion andexclusion criteria were randomly divided in to three groups: Conventional group, Myofascial releasealong withconventional treatment and Cognitive behavior therapy along with conventional treatment. Pre and post readingsat 0 day, 7thday and 14thday were recorded for Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ, Epworth SleepinessScale (ESS and State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI.Results:After two week protocol it was found that all threetreatment approaches were effective in reducing the problem of pain, anxiety and sleep disturbance to someextent. However on comparing three treatment approaches , CBT is the most effective in reducing theaboveparameters. (p<0.05Conclusion:Cognitive behavior therapy is more effective than Myofascial release tehniquesin reducing fibromyalgia symptoms.

  19. Collectin-11/MASP complex formation triggers activation of the lectin complement pathway--the fifth lectin pathway initiation complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ying Jie; Skjoedt, Mikkel-Ole; Garred, Peter

    2013-01-01

    complement pathway regulator MAP-1. Furthermore, we found that complex formation between recombinant collectin-11 and recombinant MASP-2 on Candida albicans leads to deposition of C4b. Native collectin-11 in serum mediated complement activation and deposition of C4b and C3b, and formation of the terminal...... complement complex on C. albicans. Moreover, spiking collectin-11-depleted serum, which did not mediate complement activation, with recombinant collectin-11 restored the complement activation capability. These results define collectin-11 as the fifth recognition molecule in the lectin complement pathway...

  20. Asthma triggers (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... things make your asthma worse. These are called asthma "triggers". Avoiding them is your first step toward feeling better. The most common asthma triggers are mold, pets, dust, grasses, pollen, cockroaches, odors ...

  1. Interleukin 3 stimulates proliferation and triggers endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecule 1 gene activation of human endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brizzi, M F; Garbarino, G; Rossi, P R; Pagliardi, G L; Arduino, C; Avanzi, G C; Pegoraro, L

    1993-06-01

    Proliferation and functional activation of endothelial cells within a tissue site of inflammation are regulated by humoral factors released by cells, such as T lymphocytes and monocytes, infiltrating the perivascular space. In the present study we investigated the effects of interleukin 3 (IL-3), an activated T lymphocyte-derived cytokine, on cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Proliferative activity, evaluated both by estimation of the fraction of cells in the S phase and by direct cell count demonstrated that IL-3, at the dose of 25 ng/ml, enhances more than threefold both DNA synthesis and cell proliferation above baseline control conditions. Binding studies with radioiodinated ligand demonstrated that HUVEC constitutively express a smaller number of IL-3 binding sites (approximately 99 binding sites per cell, with an apparent Kd of 149 pM). Accordingly, molecular analysis showed the presence of transcripts for both alpha and beta subunits of the IL-3 receptor. Functional activation of endothelial cells was evaluated by the expression of the endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecule 1 (ELAM-1) transcript and by leukocyte adhesion. The ELAM-1 gene transcript was clearly detectable 4 h after IL-3 addition and started to decrease after 12 h. Moreover, IL-3-induced ELAM-1 transcription was followed by enhanced adhesion of neutrophils and CD4+ T cells to HUVEC. The findings that IL-3 can stimulate both proliferation and functional activation of endothelial cells suggest that this cytokine can be involved in sustaining the process of chronic inflammation.

  2. Enhancement of fibrinogen-triggered pro-coagulant activation of monocytes in vitro by matrix metalloproteinase-9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feistritzer Clemens

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interaction of fibrinogen with specific leukocyte integrins of monocytes may link coagulation and inflammation, however, the precise mechanism of fibrinogen leading to the pro-inflammatory and pro-coagulatory response on monocytes is yet unknown. Results Fibrinogen and its digestion fragment D induced pro-coagulant activation of monocytes as assessed in a cellular coagulation assay by reductions in clotting times. Pro-coagulant activation was reversed by blocking antibodies against Mac-1 or LFA-1. Pre-exposure of monocytes to the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB 202190 and the MEK1.2 inhibitor U0126 led to significant increasees in coagulation times whereas blocking JNKII with its inhibitor had no such effect. Blocking NFκB with MG-132 also inhibited pro-coagulant activation of monocytes by fibrinogen. A selective inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-9 increased times to clot formation whereas other matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors did not significantly interfere with fibrinogen-augmented clot formation in this assay. Treatment of monocytes with fibrinogen increased concentrations of matrix metalloproteinase-9 immunoreactivity in their supernatants. Conclusions Fibrinogen induces monocyte pro-coagulant activation in an integrin-, nuclear factor κB-, p38 MAPK-, and MEK1.2-dependent manner. Activation of monocytes by fibrinogen increases metalloproteinase-9 secretion, metalloproteinase-9 itself enhances monocyte coagulation by an autocrine mechanism. Results provide further evidence that mediators of hemostasis have a profound impact on cells of the immune system and are closely related to inflammatory pathways.

  3. The fission yeast git5 gene encodes a Gbeta subunit required for glucose-triggered adenylate cyclase activation.

    OpenAIRE

    Landry, S; Pettit, M T; Apolinario, E; Hoffman, C. S.

    2000-01-01

    Fission yeast adenylate cyclase is activated by the gpa2 Galpha subunit of a heterotrimeric guanine-nucleotide binding protein (G protein). We show that the git5 gene, also required for this activation, encodes a Gbeta subunit. In contrast to another study, we show that git5 is not a negative regulator of the gpa1 Galpha involved in the pheromone response pathway. While 43% identical to mammalian Gbeta's, the git5 protein lacks the amino-terminal coiled-coil found in other Gbeta subunits, yet...

  4. Selenium and Zinc Status in Chronic Myofascial Pain: Serum and Erythrocyte Concentrations and Food Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros-Neto, João Araújo; Souza-Machado, Adelmir; Kraychete, Durval Campos; de Jesus, Rosangela Passos; Cortes, Matheus Lopes; Lima, Michele dos Santos; Freitas, Mariana Carvalho; Santos, Tascya Morganna de Morais; Viana, Gustavo Freitas de Sousa; Menezes-Filho, José Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Nutritional disorders have been reported to be important causal factors that can intensify or cause a painful response in individuals with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Aim To assess the habitual intake of and the serum and erythrocyte levels of selenium and zinc in patients with chronic myofascial pain. Materials and Methods A case-control study of 31 patients with chronic myofascial pain (group I) and 31 subjects without pain (group II). Dietary record in five days for assessing food intake were used. The serum and erythrocyte concentrations of selenium and zinc were analyzed using an atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Pain intensity was assessed using a visual analog scale. Results The group of patients with chronic myofascial pain, compared with the control group, showed a lower erythrocyte concentration of selenium (79.46 ± 19.79 μg/L vs. 90.80 ± 23.12 μg/L; p = 0.041) and zinc (30.56 ± 7.74 μgZn/gHb vs. 38.48 ± 14.86 μgZn/gHb, respectively; p = 0.004). In this study, a compromised food intake of zinc was observed in the majority of the subjects in both groups. The selenium intake was considered to be safe in 80% of the subjects in both groups; however, the likelihood of inadequate intake of this mineral was twice as high in group I (49.5% vs. 24.4%, respectively). In the logistic regression analysis, the erythrocyte concentration of zinc was associated with the presence of pain. In each additional 1 mg of Zn2+ per gram of hemoglobin, a reduction of 12.5% was observed in the risk of the individual having chronic myofascial pain (B = -0.133; adjusted OR = 0.875, 95% CI = 0.803 to 0.954, Wald = 9.187, standard error = 0.044, p = 0.002). Physical inactivity and obesity were noted more commonly in group I compared with the control group. Conclusion In this study, patients with chronic myofascial pain showed lower intracellular stores of zinc and selenium and inadequate food intake of these nutrients. PMID:27755562

  5. Short-Term Effects of Kinesio Taping and Cross Taping Application in the Treatment of Latent Upper Trapezius Trigger Points: A Prospective, Single-Blind, Randomized, Sham-Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Halski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Kinesio taping (KT may be a new treatment in patients with myofascial trigger points (MTrPs. A new method available for taping practitioners is cross taping (CT. The main objective was to determine how CT, KT, and medical adhesive tape (sham group affect the subjective assessment of resting bioelectrical activity and pain of the upper trapezius muscle (UT in patients with MTrPs. 105 volunteers were recruited to participate. The primary outcome was resting bioelectrical activity of UT muscle as assessed by surface electromyography (sEMG in each group and pain intensity on a visual analog scale (VAS. Assessments were collected before and after intervention and after the 24-hours follow-up. No significant differences were observed in bioelectrical activity of UT between pre-, post-, and follow-up results. In three groups patients had significantly lower pain VAS score after the intervention (CT—p<0.001, KT—p<0.001, and sham—p<0.01. The Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA showed no significant differences in almost all measurements between groups. The application of all three types of tapes does not influence the resting bioelectrical activity of UT muscle and may not lead to a reduction in muscle tone in the case of MTrPs.

  6. Short-Term Effects of Kinesio Taping and Cross Taping Application in the Treatment of Latent Upper Trapezius Trigger Points: A Prospective, Single-Blind, Randomized, Sham-Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halski, Tomasz; Ptaszkowski, Kuba; Słupska, Lucyna; Paprocka-Borowicz, Małgorzata; Dymarek, Robert; Taradaj, Jakub; Bidzińska, Gabriela; Marczyński, Daniel; Cynarska, Aleksandra; Rosińczuk, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Kinesio taping (KT) may be a new treatment in patients with myofascial trigger points (MTrPs). A new method available for taping practitioners is cross taping (CT). The main objective was to determine how CT, KT, and medical adhesive tape (sham group) affect the subjective assessment of resting bioelectrical activity and pain of the upper trapezius muscle (UT) in patients with MTrPs. 105 volunteers were recruited to participate. The primary outcome was resting bioelectrical activity of UT muscle as assessed by surface electromyography (sEMG) in each group and pain intensity on a visual analog scale (VAS). Assessments were collected before and after intervention and after the 24-hours follow-up. No significant differences were observed in bioelectrical activity of UT between pre-, post-, and follow-up results. In three groups patients had significantly lower pain VAS score after the intervention (CT—p tapes does not influence the resting bioelectrical activity of UT muscle and may not lead to a reduction in muscle tone in the case of MTrPs. PMID:26491458

  7. Constitutive expression of pathogenesis-related proteins and antioxydant enzyme activities triggers maize resistance towards Fusarium verticillioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschietto, Valentina; Lanubile, Alessandra; Leonardis, Silvana De; Marocco, Adriano; Paciolla, Costantino

    2016-08-01

    Fusarium verticillioides is a fungal pathogen of maize that causes ear rot and contaminates the grains with fumonisin mycotoxins. Breeding for resistance to Fusarium emerged as the most economic and environmentally safe strategy; therefore the discovery of resistant sources and effective molecular markers are a priority. Ears of resistant (CO441 and CO433) and susceptible (CO354 and CO389) maize lines were inoculated with F. verticillioides and the expression of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes (PR1, PR5, PRm3, PRm6) and genes that protect from oxidative stress (peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase) were evaluated in the kernels at 72h post inoculation. In addition, the oxidation level and the enzymatic activity of ascorbate-glutathione cycle, catalase, superoxide dismutase and cytosolic and wall peroxidases were investigated. The uninoculated kernels of the resistant lines showed higher gene expression and enzymatic activities, highlighting the key role of constitutive resistance in limiting pathogen attack. In contrast, the susceptible lines activated defensive genes only after pathogen inoculation, resulting in increased levels of H2O2 and lipid peroxidation, as well as lower enzymatic activities. The constitutive defenses observed in this study from seed could be profitably exploited to develop markers to speed up conventional breeding programs in the selection of resistant genotypes. PMID:27340858

  8. Immunostimulatory Effects Triggered by Enterococcus faecalis CECT7121 Probiotic Strain Involve Activation of Dendritic Cells and Interferon-Gamma Production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías Alejandro Molina

    Full Text Available Probiotics can modulate the immune system, conferring beneficial effects on the host. Understanding how these microorganisms contribute to improve the health status is still a challenge. Previously, we have demonstrated that Enterococcus faecalis CECT7121 implants itself and persists in the murine gastrointestinal tract, and enhances and skews the profile of cytokines towards the Th1 phenotype in several biological models. Given the importance of dendritic cells (DCs in the orchestration of immunity, the aim of this work was to elucidate the influence of E. faecalis CECT7121 on DCs and the outcome of the immune responses. In this work we show that E. faecalis CECT7121 induces a strong dose-dependent activation of DCs and secretion of high levels of IL-12, IL-6, TNFα, and IL-10. This stimulation is dependent on TLR signaling, and skews the activation of T cells towards the production of IFNγ. The influence of this activation in the establishment of Th responses in vivo shows the accumulation of specific IFNγ-producing cells. Our findings indicate that the activation exerted by E. faecalis CECT7121 on DCs and its consequence on the cellular adaptive immune response may have broad therapeutic implications in immunomodulation.

  9. EPCR-dependent PAR2 activation by the blood coagulation initiation complex regulates LPS-triggered interferon responses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hai Po H; Kerschen, Edward J; Hernandez, Irene; Basu, Sreemanti; Zogg, Mark; Botros, Fady; Jia, Shuang; Hessner, Martin J; Griffin, John H; Ruf, Wolfram; Weiler, Hartmut

    2015-04-30

    Infection and inflammation are invariably associated with activation of the blood coagulation mechanism, secondary to the inflammation-induced expression of the coagulation initiator tissue factor (TF) on innate immune cells. By investigating the role of cell-surface receptors for coagulation factors in mouse endotoxemia, we found that the protein C receptor (ProcR; EPCR) was required for the normal in vivo and in vitro induction of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-regulated gene expression. In cultured bone marrow-derived myeloid cells and in monocytic RAW264.7 cells, the LPS-induced expression of functionally active TF, assembly of the ternary TF-VIIa-Xa initiation complex of blood coagulation, and the EPCR-dependent activation of protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) by the ternary TF-VIIa-Xa complex were required for the normal LPS induction of messenger RNAs encoding the TLR3/4 signaling adaptor protein Pellino-1 and the transcription factor interferon regulatory factor 8. In response to in vivo challenge with LPS, mice lacking EPCR or PAR2 failed to fully initiate an interferon-regulated gene expression program that included the Irf8 target genes Lif, Iigp1, Gbp2, Gbp3, and Gbp6. The inflammation-induced expression of TF and crosstalk with EPCR, PAR2, and TLR4 therefore appear necessary for the normal evolution of interferon-regulated host responses.

  10. Priming Endothelial Cells With a Melanoma-Derived Extracellular Matrix Triggers the Activation of αvβ3/VEGFR2 Axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helal-Neto, Edward; Brandão-Costa, Renata M; Saldanha-Gama, Roberta; Ribeiro-Pereira, Cristiane; Midlej, Victor; Benchimol, Marlene; Morandi, Verônica; Barja-Fidalgo, Christina

    2016-11-01

    The unique composition of tumor-produced extracellular matrix (ECM) can be a determining factor in changing the profile of endothelial cells in the tumor microenvironment. As the main receptor for ECM proteins, integrins can activate a series of signaling pathways related to cell adhesion, migration, and differentiation of endothelial cells that interact with ECM proteins. We studied the direct impact of the decellularized ECM produced by a highly metastatic human melanoma cell line (MV3) on the activation of endothelial cells and identified the intracellular signaling pathways associated with cell differentiation. Our data show that compared to the ECM derived from a human melanocyte cell line (NGM-ECM), ECM produced by a melanoma cell line (MV3-ECM) is considerably different in ultrastructural organization and composition and possesses a higher content of tenascin-C and laminin and a lower expression of fibronectin. When cultured directly on MV3-ECM, endothelial cells change morphology and show increased adhesion, migration, proliferation, and tubulogenesis. Interaction of endothelial cells with MV3-ECM induces the activation of integrin signaling, increasing FAK phosphorylation and its association with Src, which activates VEGFR2, potentiating the receptor response to VEGF. The blockage of αvβ3 integrin inhibited the FAK-Src association and VEGFR activation, thus reducing tubulogenesis. Together, our data suggest that the interaction of endothelial cells with the melanoma-ECM triggers integrin-dependent signaling, leading to Src pathway activation that may potentiate VEGFR2 activation and up-regulate angiogenesis. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2464-2473, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27420801

  11. Epileptiform activity triggers long-term plasticity of GABA(B) receptor signalling in the developing rat hippocampus.

    OpenAIRE

    Tosetti, Patrizia; Ferrand, Nadine; Colin-Le Brun, Isabelle; Gaïarsa, Jean-Luc

    2005-01-01

    International audience GABA(B) receptor (GABA(B)R)-mediated presynaptic inhibition regulates neurotransmitter release from synaptic terminals. In the neonatal hippocampus, GABA(B)R activation reduces GABA release and terminates spontaneous network discharges called giant depolarizing potentials (GDPs). Blocking GABA(B)Rs transforms GDPs into longer epileptiform discharges. Thus, GABA(B)R-mediated presynaptic inhibition of GABA release (GABA auto-inhibition) controls both spontaneous networ...

  12. Bcl-2 Knockdown Accelerates T Cell Receptor-Triggered Activation-Induced Cell Death in Jurkat T Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Yun-Jung; Won, Tae Joon; Hyung, Kyeong Eun; Lee, Mi Ji; Moon, Young-hye; Lee, Ik Hee; Go, Byung Sung; Hwang, Kwang Woo

    2014-01-01

    Cell death and survival are tightly controlled through the highly coordinated activation/inhibition of diverse signal transduction pathways to insure normal development and physiology. Imbalance between cell death and survival often leads to autoimmune diseases and cancer. Death receptors sense extracellular signals to induce caspase-mediated apoptosis. Acting upstream of CED-3 family proteases, such as caspase-3, Bcl-2 prevents apoptosis. Using short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs), we suppressed Bcl-...

  13. Deletion of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein triggers Rac2 activity and increased cross-presentation by dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Marisa A P; Keszei, Marton; Oliveira, Mariana; Sunahara, Karen K S; Andersson, John; Dahlberg, Carin I M; Worth, Austen J; Liedén, Agne; Kuo, I-Chun; Wallin, Robert P A; Snapper, Scott B; Eidsmo, Liv; Scheynius, Annika; Karlsson, Mikael C I; Bouma, Gerben; Burns, Siobhan O; Forsell, Mattias N E; Thrasher, Adrian J; Nylén, Susanne; Westerberg, Lisa S

    2016-01-01

    Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the WASp gene. Decreased cellular responses in WASp-deficient cells have been interpreted to mean that WASp directly regulates these responses in WASp-sufficient cells. Here, we identify an exception to this concept and show that WASp-deficient dendritic cells have increased activation of Rac2 that support cross-presentation to CD8(+) T cells. Using two different skin pathology models, WASp-deficient mice show an accumulation of dendritic cells in the skin and increased expansion of IFNγ-producing CD8(+) T cells in the draining lymph node and spleen. Specific deletion of WASp in dendritic cells leads to marked expansion of CD8(+) T cells at the expense of CD4(+) T cells. WASp-deficient dendritic cells induce increased cross-presentation to CD8(+) T cells by activating Rac2 that maintains a near neutral pH of phagosomes. Our data reveals an intricate balance between activation of WASp and Rac2 signalling pathways in dendritic cells. PMID:27425374

  14. Muscle repositioning: combining subjective and objective feedbacks in the teaching and practice of a reflex-based myofascial release technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolucci, Luiz Fernando

    2010-03-17

    Muscle Repositioning (MR) is a new style of myofascial release that elicits involuntary motor reactions detectable by electromyography. This article describes the principal theoretical and practical concepts of MR, and summarizes a workshop presented October 31, 2009, after the Second International Fascia Research Congress, held at Vrije Universitiet, Amsterdam.The manual mechanical input of MR integrates the client's body segments into a block, which is evident as a result of the diagnostic manual oscillations the practitioner imparts to the client's body. Segmental integration is achieved when the client's body responds as a unit to the oscillatory assessment. It appears that manually sustaining the condition of segmental integration evokes involuntary muscle reactions, which reactions might correspond to mechanisms that maintain homeostasis, such as pandiculation. It might be that these reactions are part of the MR mechanism of action and underlie its clinically observed efficacy in the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders.For the practitioner and the client alike, segmental integration provides unique sensations. In teaching MR, these paired sensations can be used as kinesthetic feedback resources, because quality of touch can be guided by the client's reported sensations, which should match the practitioner's sensations. Another form of feedback with respect to quality of touch is the visually discernable degree of segmental integration. Finally, because the involuntary motor activity elicited by the MR touch can be objectively monitored through electromyography and possibly other instrumented measurements, the MR approach might yield objectivity, precision, and reproducibility-features seldom found in manual therapies.

  15. The selenium metabolite methylselenol regulates the expression of ligands that trigger immune activation through the lymphocyte receptor NKG2D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagemann-Jensen, Michael Henrik; Uhlenbrock, Franziska Katharina; Kehlet, Stephanie;

    2014-01-01

    early during malignant transformation, and enables recognition and elimination of tumors by activating the lymphocyte receptor NKG2D. CH3SeH regulated NKG2D ligands both on the transcriptional and the posttranscriptional level: CH3SeH induced the transcription of MICA/B and ULBP2 mRNA, however......, the induction of cell-surface expression was restricted to the ligands MICA/B. Remarkably, our studies showed that CH3SeH inhibited ULBP2 surface transport through inhibition of the autophagic transport pathway. Finally, we identified extracellular calcium as being essential for CH3SeH -regulation of NKG2D...

  16. Emerging concepts in the treatment of myofascial pain: a review of medications, modalities, and needle-based interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annaswamy, Thiru Mandyam; De Luigi, Arthur J; O'Neill, Bryan J; Keole, Nandita; Berbrayer, David

    2011-10-01

    Significant developments and changes in the use of interventions and treatments for the management of myofascial pain syndrome have occurred in the past 10 years. These emerging concepts have changed the approach for clinicians who manage these pain disorders. However, wide variations in practice patterns prevail, and no clear consensus exists regarding when and how to use these interventions; in addition, awareness of the evidence basis behind their use is limited. This review examines the most recent advances in the treatment of myofascial pain syndromes. Specifically, the evidence basis of various emerging interventions is reviewed and recommendations for routine clinical practice and their rationale are provided. The purpose of this review is to provide the clinician with a better understanding of emerging concepts in the interventions used for myofascial pain syndromes.

  17. Effect of Therapeutic Sequence of Hot Pack and Ultrasound on Physiological Response Over Trigger Point of Upper Trapezius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjaboonyanupap

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Musculoskeletal pain is a common problem among athletes. Apart from sport injuries, the myofascial pain syndrome is another important problem that affects performance of the athlete. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of therapeutic sequences of the hot pack in combination with ultrasound on the physiological responses over the latent myofascial trigger point (LMTrP of upper trapezius muscle. Materials and Methods Thirty subjects with a latent myofascial trigger point (LMTrP in both sides of the upper trapezius muscle participated in the study (age 27.33 ± 4.34 years, weight 58.11 ± 7.47 kg, height 161.50 ± 5.82 cm, pressure pain threshold 2.28 ± 0.24 kg/cm2, pain intensity 7.17 ± 2.25 VAS. All subjects received both treatments (hot pack followed by ultrasound: HP + US; and ultrasound followed by hot pack: US + HP by randomization with a 24 to 48-hour interval between sessions. Outcome measures, including the tissue blood flow (TBF, pressure pain threshold (PPT, supra-thermal threshold (STT and visual analog scale (VAS were evaluated at baseline, immediately, after 30 minutes and after 60 minutes. Results The TBF and PPT significantly increased from baseline in both treatment conditions (i.e. HP + US and US + HP, while the HP + US condition showed a trend toward significant difference in VAS and STT in 45°C. Conclusions The application of HP and US treatment induces physiological responses (especially, TBF and PPT on the LMTrP. This finding provides the direction toward the management of MTrPs condition.

  18. Dual Requirement of Cytokine and Activation Receptor Triggering for Cytotoxic Control of Murine Cytomegalovirus by NK Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak-Wittel, Melissa A.; Yang, Liping; Schreiber, Robert D.; Yokoyama, Wayne M.

    2015-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells play a critical role in controlling murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) and can mediate both cytokine production and direct cytotoxicity. The NK cell activation receptor, Ly49H, is responsible for genetic resistance to MCMV in C57BL/6 mice. Recognition of the viral m157 protein by Ly49H is sufficient for effective control of MCMV infection. Additionally, during the host response to infection, distinct immune and non-immune cells elaborate a variety of pleiotropic cytokines which have the potential to impact viral pathogenesis, NK cells, and other immune functions, both directly and indirectly. While the effects of various immune deficiencies have been examined for general antiviral phenotypes, their direct effects on Ly49H-dependent MCMV control are poorly understood. To specifically interrogate Ly49H-dependent functions, herein we employed an in vivo viral competition approach to show Ly49H-dependent MCMV control is specifically mediated through cytotoxicity but not IFNγ production. Whereas m157 induced Ly49H-dependent degranulation, efficient cytotoxicity also required either IL-12 or type I interferon (IFN-I) which acted directly on NK cells to produce granzyme B. These studies demonstrate that both of these distinct NK cell-intrinsic mechanisms are integrated for optimal viral control by NK cells. PMID:26720279

  19. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory- Completing the Human Genome Project and Triggering Nearly $1 Trillion in U.S. Economic Activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Jeffrey S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-07-28

    The success of the Human Genome project is already nearing $1 Trillion dollars of U.S. economic activity. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was a co-leader in one of the biggest biological research effort in history, sequencing the Human Genome Project. This ambitious research effort set out to sequence the approximately 3 billion nucleotides in the human genome, an effort many thought was nearly impossible. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was discovered in 1869, and by 1943 came the discovery that DNA was a molecule that encodes the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of living organisms and many viruses. To make full use of the information, scientists needed to first sequence the billions of nucleotides to begin linking them to genetic traits and illnesses, and eventually more effective treatments. New medical discoveries and improved agriculture productivity were some of the expected benefits. While the potential benefits were vast, the timeline (over a decade) and cost ($3.8 Billion) exceeded what the private sector would normally attempt, especially when this would only be the first phase toward the path to new discoveries and market opportunities. The Department of Energy believed its best research laboratories could meet this Grand Challenge and soon convinced the National Institute of Health to formally propose the Human Genome project to the federal government. The U.S. government accepted the risk and challenge to potentially create new healthcare and food discoveries that could benefit the world and the U.S. Industry.

  20. Stay away from asthma triggers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asthma triggers - stay away from; Asthma triggers - avoiding; Reactive airway disease - triggers; Bronchial asthma - triggers ... to them. Have someone who does not have asthma cut the grass, or wear a facemask if ...

  1. Near-infrared light triggered superior photocatalytic activity from MoS2-NaYF4:Yb(3+)/Er(3+) nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatti, Manjunath; Adusumalli, Venkata N K B; Ganguli, Sagar; Mahalingam, Venkataramanan

    2016-08-01

    A near infrared (NIR) responsive photocatalyst, composed of a narrow band gap semiconductor (i.e. MoS2) and an optical material possessing upconverting ability (i.e. NaYF4:Yb(3+)/Er(3+)) has been successfully prepared via a simple hydrothermal method. The latter has the ability to convert NIR light into visible light while the MoS2 uses the light to degrade organic pollutants. Upon near infrared (NIR) excitation of the MoS2-NaYF4:Yb(3+)/Er(3+) nanocomposites, the energy of the strong green and the red emissions along with the weak violet emissions from the NaYF4:Yb(3+)/Er(3+) nanocrystals (NCs) is transferred to MoS2. This results in enhanced NIR light triggered photocatalytic performance, as verified by studying the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) dye under 980 nm laser excitation. The strong photocatalytic activity of MoS2-NaYF4:Yb(3+)/Er(3+) composites is attributed to the layered nature of the photocatalyst which leads to the efficient separation of photogenerated carriers (electron-hole pairs) and excellent upconversion properties of NaYF4:Yb(3+)/Er(3+) NCs. The study also shows the importance of the composite formation, as the physical mixture leads to only very low photocatalytic activity. Our results can be helpful in the structural design and development of high-performance photocatalysts. PMID:27424735

  2. A Review on Tidal Triggering of Earthquakes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jin; Jiang Haikun

    2012-01-01

    Research of tidal triggering of earthquakes in recent years is systematically reviewed, focusing on the relationship between the phases of the moon and seismic activity, earthquakes triggered by tidal forces and its components, based on the large sample statistics to discuss the tidal triggering of an earthquake. The relationship between the phase of the moon and seismic activity is a preliminary study of tidal triggering of earthquakes, and the modulation ratio is a quantitative description of it. Using the resolution of tidal stress to study seismic activity is a way to reveal the relationship between the tides and earthquakes from the mechanics point of view. Large sample statistics is another way to study the relationship between the tidal and earthquake from the view of statistics. In many statistical methods, Schuster's test is used more widely, which takes many factors into account, such as focal mechanism, tidal stress, and statistical tests to quantitatively analyze the tidal triggering effect on earthquakes.

  3. Direct activation of RIP3/MLKL-dependent necrosis by herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) protein ICP6 triggers host antiviral defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing; Li, Yun; Liu, Shan; Yu, Xiaoliang; Li, Lin; Shi, Cuilin; He, Wenhui; Li, Jun; Xu, Lei; Hu, Zhilin; Yu, Lu; Yang, Zhongxu; Chen, Qin; Ge, Lin; Zhang, Zili; Zhou, Biqi; Jiang, Xuejun; Chen, She; He, Sudan

    2014-01-01

    The receptor-interacting kinase-3 (RIP3) and its downstream substrate mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL) have emerged as the key cellular components in programmed necrotic cell death. Receptors for the cytokines of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family and Toll-like receptors (TLR) 3 and 4 are able to activate RIP3 through receptor-interacting kinase-1 and Toll/IL-1 receptor domain-containing adapter inducing IFN-β, respectively. This form of cell death has been implicated in the host-defense system. However, the molecular mechanisms that drive the activation of RIP3 by a variety of pathogens, other than the above-mentioned receptors, are largely unknown. Here, we report that human herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection triggers RIP3-dependent necrosis. This process requires MLKL but is independent of TNF receptor, TLR3, cylindromatosis, and host RIP homotypic interaction motif-containing protein DNA-dependent activator of IFN regulatory factor. After HSV-1 infection, the viral ribonucleotide reductase large subunit (ICP6) interacts with RIP3. The formation of the ICP6–RIP3 complex requires the RHIM domains of both proteins. An HSV-1 ICP6 deletion mutant failed to cause effective necrosis of HSV-1–infected cells. Furthermore, ectopic expression of ICP6, but not RHIM mutant ICP6, directly activated RIP3/MLKL-mediated necrosis. Mice lacking RIP3 exhibited severely impaired control of HSV-1 replication and pathogenesis. Therefore, this study reveals a previously uncharacterized host antipathogen mechanism. PMID:25316792

  4. Changes in pain and pressure pain sensitivity after manual treatment of active trigger points in patients with unilateral shoulder impingement: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo-Lozano, Amparo; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; Díaz-Rodríguez, Lourdes; González-Iglesias, Javier; Palacios-Ceña, Domingo; Arroyo-Morales, Manuel

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this case series was to investigate changes in pain and pressure pain sensitivity after manual treatment of active trigger points (TrPs) in the shoulder muscles in individuals with unilateral shoulder impingement. Twelve patients (7 men, 5 women, age: 25 ± 9 years) diagnosed with unilateral shoulder impingement attended 4 sessions for 2 weeks (2 sessions/week). They received TrP pressure release and neuromuscular interventions over each active TrP that was found. The outcome measures were pain during arm elevation (visual analogue scale, VAS) and pressure pain thresholds (PPT) over levator scapulae, supraspinatus infraspinatus, pectoralis major, and tibialis anterior muscles. Pain was captured pre-intervention and at a 1-month follow-up, whereas PPT were assessed pre- and post-treatment, and at a 1-month follow-up. Patients experienced a significant (P  1). In addition, patients also experienced a significant increase in PPT immediate after the treatment (P  1).A significant negative association (r(s) = -0.525; P = 0.049) between the increase in PPT over the supraspinatus muscle and the decrease in pain was found: the greater the decrease in pain, the greater the increase in PPT. This case series has shown that manual treatment of active muscle TrPs can help to reduce shoulder pain and pressure sensitivity in shoulder impingement. Current findings suggest that active TrPs in the shoulder musculature may contribute directly to shoulder complaint and sensitization in patients with shoulder impingement syndrome, although future randomized controlled trials are required.

  5. Photo-activated psoralen binds the ErbB2 catalytic kinase domain, blocking ErbB2 signaling and triggering tumor cell apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenle Xia

    Full Text Available Photo-activation of psoralen with UVA irradiation, referred to as PUVA, is used in the treatment of proliferative skin disorders. The anti-proliferative effects of PUVA have been largely attributed to psoralen intercalation of DNA, which upon UV treatment, triggers the formation of interstrand DNA crosslinks (ICL that inhibit transcription and DNA replication. Here, we show that PUVA exerts antitumor effects in models of human breast cancer that overexpress the ErbB2 receptor tyrosine kinase oncogene, through a new mechanism. Independent of ICL formation, the antitumor effects of PUVA in ErbB2+ breast cancer models can instead be mediated through inhibition of ErbB2 activation and signaling. Using a mass spectroscopy-based approach, we show for the first time that photo-activated 8MOP (8-methoxypsoralen interacts with the ErbB2 catalytic autokinase domain. Furthermore, PUVA can reverse therapeutic resistance to lapatinib and other ErbB2 targeted therapies, including resistance mediated via expression of a phosphorylated, truncated form of ErbB2 (p85(ErbB2 that is preferentially expressed in tumor cell nuclei. Current ErbB2 targeted therapies, small molecule kinase inhibitors or antibodies, do not block the phosphorylated, activated state of p85(ErbB2. Here we show that PUVA reduced p85(ErbB2 phosphorylation leading to tumor cell apoptosis. Thus, in addition to its effects on DNA and the formation of ICL, PUVA represents a novel ErbB2 targeted therapy for the treatment of ErbB2+ breast cancers, including those that have developed resistance to other ErbB2 targeted therapies.

  6. Tidal triggering of earthquakes

    OpenAIRE

    Heaton, Thomas H.

    1982-01-01

    Analysis of the tidal stress tensor at the time of moderate to large earthquakes strongly suggests that shallow (< 30 km) larger magnitude oblique-slip and dip-slip earthquakes are triggered by tidal stresses. No corresponding triggering effect is seen for shallow strike-slip earthquakes or for any type of intermediate or deep focus earthquakes which have been studied. Tidal triggering is also discussed from the viewpoint of the ‘dilatancy-diffusion’ model. Specifically, the model as usually ...

  7. Comparing complementary alternative treatment for chronic shoulder pain of myofascial origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ru-Yu; Hsu, Yung-Chi; Wong, Chih-Shung; Lin, Shinn-Long; Li, Tsung-Ying; Cherng, Chen-Hwan; Ko, Shan-Chi; Yeh, Chun-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to compare the short-term outcomes between 2 different treatments for unilateral chronic shoulder pain of myofascial origin, that is, local tender area related meridians (LTARMs) treatment and collateral meridian therapy (CMT), which were performed 6 times over a period of 4 weeks. Seventy patients with unilateral shoulder pain of chronic myofascial origin were enrolled. The patients were randomly assigned to 2 different treatment groups: 1 group received CMT (n = 35) and the other received LTARM (n = 35). Before and after the 2 treatment processes, all patients rated their overall pain intensity on a visual analogue scale (VAS) and a validated 13-question shoulder pain and disability index (SPADI) questionnaire was used to measure shoulder pain and functional impairment after therapy for 4 weeks. After CMT, the pain intensity was reduced after CMT. VAS score is reduced from 5.90 ± 2.07 (a mean of 5.90 and standard deviation of 2.07) to 3.39 ± 1.2. This was verified by the SPADI pain subscale scores (from 0.58 ± 0.193 to 0.33 ± 0.14). The pain-relief effect of CMT was significantly better than that of LTARM (VAS score from 5.78 ± 1.64 to 4.58 ± 1.40; P myofascial origin than the LTARM treatment, where treatment with the former resulted in better functional recovery after 4 weeks than the latter. PMID:27583882

  8. Changes in muscle activity determine progression of clinical symptoms in patients with chronic spine-related muscle pain. A complex clinical and neurophysiological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wytrazek, Marcin; Huber, Juliusz; Lisinski, Przemyslaw

    2011-01-01

    Spine-related muscle pain can affect muscle strength and motor unit activity. This study was undertaken to investigate whether surface electromyographic (sEMG) recordings performed during relaxation and maximal contraction reveal differences in the activity of muscles with or without trigger points (TRPs). We also analyzed the possible coexistence of characteristic spontaneous activity in needle electromyographic (eEMG) recordings with the presence of TRPs. Thirty patients with non-specific cervical and back pain were evaluated using clinical, neuroimaging and electroneurographic examinations. Muscle pain was measured using a visual analog scale (VAS), and strength using Lovett's scale; trigger points were detected by palpation. EMG was used to examine motor unit activity. Trigger points were found mainly in the trapezius muscles in thirteen patients. Their presence was accompanied by increased pain intensity, decreased muscle strength, increased resting sEMG amplitude, and decreased sEMG amplitude during muscle contraction. eEMG revealed characteristic asynchronous discharges in TRPs. The results of EMG examinations point to a complexity of muscle pain that depends on progression of the myofascial syndrome.

  9. Misconceived Retropharyngeal Calcific Tendinitis during Management of Myofascial Neck Pain Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Ji Youn; Lim, Jin Hun; Kim, Yong Seok; Kwon, Young Eun; Yu, Jae Yong; Lee, Jun Hak

    2016-01-01

    Differential diagnosis of posterior neck pain is very challenging based on symptoms and physical examination only. Retropharyngeal calcific tendinitis is a rare and frequently misdiagnosed entity in various causes of neck pain. It results from calcium hydroxyapatite deposition in the longus colli muscle which is characterized by severe neck pain, painful restriction of neck movement, dysphagia, and odynophagia. We herein report a case of a patient with acute retropharyngeal calcific tendinitis, who complained of posterior neck pain, initially diagnosed and treated as a myofascial neck pain syndrome.

  10. Dynamic muscular endurance in primary fibromyalgia compared with chronic myofascial pain syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Søren; Danneskiold-Samsøe, B

    1992-01-01

    investigated. Thirty-six patients with PF were compared with 18 patients with chronic myofascial pain (CMP) syndrome. Subjects were matched according to gender, age, height, weight, peak torque, and contractional work. The DME was defined as the number of repeated knee extensions necessary......The objective of the study was to quantify the voluntary dynamic muscular endurance (DME) in patients with primary fibromyalgia (PF) since easy fatigability of muscles is one of the major symptoms in this syndrome. Consecutive outpatients referred to a rheumatology clinic specializing in PF were...

  11. Self-myofascial release -menetelmällä lisää lihaselastisuutta ja nivelliikkuvuutta

    OpenAIRE

    Kukko, Arttu; Vainio-Hynnilä, Aki

    2014-01-01

    Self-myofascial release (SMR) tarkoittaa lihaskalvojen omatoimista käsittelyä. SMR-harjoittelua voidaan tehdä erilaisten välineiden avulla, kuten pilatesrullalla, tennispallolla tai hieromatikulla. Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena on selvittää fascia-kudoksen merkitystä kehon toiminnassa ja tuottaa uutta tietoa SMR-harjoittelusta ja sen vaikutuksesta rectus femoris- ja hamstring -lihasten sekä IT-jänteen kireyteen sekä kivunkokemuksen muutoksiin SMR-harjoittelua tehtäessä kahdeksan viikon mitta...

  12. AMY trigger system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Yoshihide [National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1989-04-01

    A trigger system of the AMY detector at TRISTAN e{sup +}e{sup -} collider is described briefly. The system uses simple track segment and shower cluster counting scheme to classify events to be triggered. It has been operating successfully since 1987.

  13. Substantial effects of epimuscular myofascial force transmission on muscular mechanics have major implications on spastic muscle and remedial surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yucesoy, Can A.; Huijing, Peter A.

    2007-01-01

    The specific aim of this paper is to review the effects of epimuscular myofascial force transmission on muscular mechanics and present some new results on finite element modeling of non-isolated aponeurotomized muscle in order to discuss the dependency of mechanics of spastic muscle, as well as surg

  14. Extramuscular myofascial force transmission alters substantially the acute effects of surgical aponeurotomy: assessment by finite element modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yucesoy, Can; Koopman, Bart; Grootenboer, Henk; Huijing, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Effects of extramuscular myofascial force transmission on the acute effects of aponeurotomy were studied using finite element modeling and implications of such effects on surgery were discussed. Aponeurotomized EDL muscle of the rat was modeled in two conditions: (1) fully isolated (2) with intact

  15. Research on seismic stress triggering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万永革; 吴忠良; 周公威; 黄静; 秦立新

    2002-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews basic theory of seismic stress triggering. Recent development on seismic stress triggering has been reviewed in the views of seismic static and dynamic stress triggering, application of viscoelastic model in seismic stress triggering, the relation between earthquake triggering and volcanic eruption or explosion, other explanation of earthquake triggering, etc. And some suggestions for further study on seismic stress triggering in near future are given.

  16. A Framework for Understanding the Relationship between Descending Pain Modulation, Motor Corticospinal, and Neuroplasticity Regulation Systems in Chronic Myofascial Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, Leonardo M; Morales-Quezada, Leon; Rozisky, Joanna R; Brietzke, Aline P; Torres, Iraci L S; Deitos, Alicia; Fregni, Felipe; Caumo, Wolnei

    2016-01-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is a leading cause of chronic musculoskeletal pain. However, its neurobiological mechanisms are not entirely elucidated. Given the complex interaction between the networks involved in pain process, our approach, to providing insights into the neural mechanisms of pain, was to investigate the relationship between neurophysiological, neurochemical and clinical outcomes such as corticospinal excitability. Recent evidence has demonstrated that three neural systems are affected in chronic pain: (i) motor corticospinal system; (ii) internal descending pain modulation system; and (iii) the system regulating neuroplasticity. In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to examine the relationship between these three central systems in patients with chronic MPS of whom do/do not respond to the Conditioned Pain Modulation Task (CPM-task). The CPM-task was to immerse her non-dominant hand in cold water (0-1°C) to produce a heterotopic nociceptive stimulus. Corticospinal excitability was the primary outcome; specifically, the motor evoked potential (MEP) and intracortical facilitation (ICF) as assessed by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Secondary outcomes were the cortical excitability parameters [current silent period (CSP) and short intracortical inhibition (SICI)], serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), heat pain threshold (HPT), and the disability related to pain (DRP). We included 33 women, (18-65 years old). The MANCOVA model using Bonferroni's Multiple Comparison Test revealed that non-responders (n = 10) compared to responders (n = 23) presented increased intracortical facilitation (ICF; mean ± SD) 1.43 (0.3) vs. 1.11 (0.12), greater motor-evoked potential amplitude (μV) 1.93 (0.54) vs. 1.40 (0.27), as well a higher serum BDNF (pg/Ml) 32.56 (9.95) vs. 25.59 (10.24), (P < 0.05 for all). Also, non-responders presented a higher level of DRP and decreased HPT (P < 0.05 for all). These findings suggest that the loss of net

  17. A Framework for Understanding the Relationship between Descending Pain Modulation, Motor Corticospinal, and Neuroplasticity Regulation Systems in Chronic Myofascial Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, Leonardo M.; Morales-Quezada, Leon; Rozisky, Joanna R.; Brietzke, Aline P.; Torres, Iraci L. S.; Deitos, Alicia; Fregni, Felipe; Caumo, Wolnei

    2016-01-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is a leading cause of chronic musculoskeletal pain. However, its neurobiological mechanisms are not entirely elucidated. Given the complex interaction between the networks involved in pain process, our approach, to providing insights into the neural mechanisms of pain, was to investigate the relationship between neurophysiological, neurochemical and clinical outcomes such as corticospinal excitability. Recent evidence has demonstrated that three neural systems are affected in chronic pain: (i) motor corticospinal system; (ii) internal descending pain modulation system; and (iii) the system regulating neuroplasticity. In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to examine the relationship between these three central systems in patients with chronic MPS of whom do/do not respond to the Conditioned Pain Modulation Task (CPM-task). The CPM-task was to immerse her non-dominant hand in cold water (0−1°C) to produce a heterotopic nociceptive stimulus. Corticospinal excitability was the primary outcome; specifically, the motor evoked potential (MEP) and intracortical facilitation (ICF) as assessed by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Secondary outcomes were the cortical excitability parameters [current silent period (CSP) and short intracortical inhibition (SICI)], serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), heat pain threshold (HPT), and the disability related to pain (DRP). We included 33 women, (18–65 years old). The MANCOVA model using Bonferroni's Multiple Comparison Test revealed that non-responders (n = 10) compared to responders (n = 23) presented increased intracortical facilitation (ICF; mean ± SD) 1.43 (0.3) vs. 1.11 (0.12), greater motor-evoked potential amplitude (μV) 1.93 (0.54) vs. 1.40 (0.27), as well a higher serum BDNF (pg/Ml) 32.56 (9.95) vs. 25.59 (10.24), (P pain inhibition was associated with an increase in ICF, serum BDNF levels, and DRP. We propose a framework to explain the relationship and potential

  18. A Framework for Understanding the Relationship between Descending Pain Modulation, Motor Corticospinal, and Neuroplasticity Regulation Systems in Chronic Myofascial Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, Leonardo M; Morales-Quezada, Leon; Rozisky, Joanna R; Brietzke, Aline P; Torres, Iraci L S; Deitos, Alicia; Fregni, Felipe; Caumo, Wolnei

    2016-01-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is a leading cause of chronic musculoskeletal pain. However, its neurobiological mechanisms are not entirely elucidated. Given the complex interaction between the networks involved in pain process, our approach, to providing insights into the neural mechanisms of pain, was to investigate the relationship between neurophysiological, neurochemical and clinical outcomes such as corticospinal excitability. Recent evidence has demonstrated that three neural systems are affected in chronic pain: (i) motor corticospinal system; (ii) internal descending pain modulation system; and (iii) the system regulating neuroplasticity. In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to examine the relationship between these three central systems in patients with chronic MPS of whom do/do not respond to the Conditioned Pain Modulation Task (CPM-task). The CPM-task was to immerse her non-dominant hand in cold water (0-1°C) to produce a heterotopic nociceptive stimulus. Corticospinal excitability was the primary outcome; specifically, the motor evoked potential (MEP) and intracortical facilitation (ICF) as assessed by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Secondary outcomes were the cortical excitability parameters [current silent period (CSP) and short intracortical inhibition (SICI)], serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), heat pain threshold (HPT), and the disability related to pain (DRP). We included 33 women, (18-65 years old). The MANCOVA model using Bonferroni's Multiple Comparison Test revealed that non-responders (n = 10) compared to responders (n = 23) presented increased intracortical facilitation (ICF; mean ± SD) 1.43 (0.3) vs. 1.11 (0.12), greater motor-evoked potential amplitude (μV) 1.93 (0.54) vs. 1.40 (0.27), as well a higher serum BDNF (pg/Ml) 32.56 (9.95) vs. 25.59 (10.24), (P pain inhibition was associated with an increase in ICF, serum BDNF levels, and DRP. We propose a framework to explain the relationship and potential

  19. Thermal temporal summation and decay of after-sensations in temporomandibular myofascial pain patients with and without comorbid fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janal MN

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Malvin N Janal,1 Karen G Raphael,2 Dane B Cook,3 David A Sirois,2 Lena Nemelivsky,2 Roland Staud4 1Epidemiology and Health Promotion, 2Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Radiology, and Medicine, NYU College of Dentistry, New York, NY, 3Department of Kinesiology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, 4Department of Medicine, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL, USA Introduction: Chronic myofascial temporomandibular disorders (TMD may have multiple etiological and maintenance factors. One potential factor, central pain sensitization, was quantified here as the response to the temporal summation (TS paradigm, and that response was compared between case and control groups. Objectives: As previous research has shown that fibromyalgia (FM is diagnosed in ~20% of TMD patients, Aim 1 determined whether central sensitization is found preferentially in myofascial TMD cases that have orofacial pain as a regional manifestation of FM. Aim 2 determined if the report of after-sensations (AS following TS varied depending on whether repeated stimuli were rated as increasingly painful. Methods: One hundred sixty-eight women, 43 controls, 100 myofascial TMD-only cases, and 25 myofascial TMD + FM cases, were compared on thermal warmth and pain thresholds, thermal TS, and decay of thermal AS. All cases met Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD; comorbid cases also met the 1990 American College of Rheumatology criteria for FM. Results: Pain thresholds and TS were similar in all groups. When TS was achieved (~60%, significantly higher levels of AS were reported in the first poststimulus interval, and AS decayed more slowly over time, in myofascial TMD cases than controls. By contrast, groups showed similar AS decay patterns following steady state or decreasing responses to repetitive stimulation. Conclusion: In this case–control study, all myofascial TMD cases were characterized by a similar delay in the decay of AS. Thus, this indicator of

  20. LHCb Topological Trigger Reoptimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Ilten, Philip; Khairullin, Egor; Rogozhnikov, Alex; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Williams, Michael

    2015-12-01

    The main b-physics trigger algorithm used by the LHCb experiment is the so- called topological trigger. The topological trigger selects vertices which are a) detached from the primary proton-proton collision and b) compatible with coming from the decay of a b-hadron. In the LHC Run 1, this trigger, which utilized a custom boosted decision tree algorithm, selected a nearly 100% pure sample of b-hadrons with a typical efficiency of 60-70%; its output was used in about 60% of LHCb papers. This talk presents studies carried out to optimize the topological trigger for LHC Run 2. In particular, we have carried out a detailed comparison of various machine learning classifier algorithms, e.g., AdaBoost, MatrixNet and neural networks. The topological trigger algorithm is designed to select all ’interesting” decays of b-hadrons, but cannot be trained on every such decay. Studies have therefore been performed to determine how to optimize the performance of the classification algorithm on decays not used in the training. Methods studied include cascading, ensembling and blending techniques. Furthermore, novel boosting techniques have been implemented that will help reduce systematic uncertainties in Run 2 measurements. We demonstrate that the reoptimized topological trigger is expected to significantly improve on the Run 1 performance for a wide range of b-hadron decays.

  1. The LHCb Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    van Herwijnen, Eric

    2010-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider beauty experiment (LHCb) is a dedicated heavy flavour physics experiment at the LHC. The trigger system employs the finite lifetime and relative large mass of charm and beauty hadrons to distinguish heavy flavour and background from inelastic pp-scattering. The LHCb trigger is a two level system. The first level is implemented in hardware, it reduces the visible interaction rate to a maximum of 1MHz, at which the whole detector can be readout. The second trigger level is a C++ application running on an Event Filter Farm composed of several thousand CPU nodes. The full trigger is operational in the experiment. In this talk, an overview of the LHCb trigger system will be given. We put special emphasis on the experience obtained with the initial data taking at the LHC, and the commissioning and monitoring of the software trigger. The method to obtain the efficiency of the trigger from real data will be described, and first results will be presented.

  2. MUSE three-dimensional spectroscopy and kinematics of the gigahertz peaked spectrum radio galaxy PKS 1934-63: interaction, recently triggered active galactic nucleus and star formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Nathan; Humphrey, Andrew; Lagos, Patricio; Papaderos, Polychronis; Silva, Marckelson; Cardoso, Leandro S. M.; Gomes, Jean Michel

    2016-07-01

    We observe the radio galaxy PKS 1934-63 (at z = 0.1825) using the Multi-Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) on the Very Large Telescope (VLT). The radio source is a gigahertz peaked spectrum source and is compact (0.13 kpc), implying an early stage of evolution (≤104 yr). Our data show an interacting pair of galaxies, with projected separation 9.1 kpc and velocity difference Δ(v) = 216 km s-1. The larger galaxy is a M* ≃ 1011 M⊙ spheroidal with the emission-line spectrum of a high-excitation young radio active galactic nucleus (AGN; e.g. strong [O I]6300 and [O III]5007). Emission-line ratios indicate a large contribution to the line luminosity from high-velocity shocks (≃ 550 km s-1). The companion is a non-AGN disc galaxy, with extended Hα emission from which its star formation rate is estimated as 0.61 M⊙ yr-1. Both galaxies show rotational velocity gradients in Hα and other lines, with the interaction being prograde-prograde. The SE-NW velocity gradient of the AGN host is misaligned from the E-W radio axis, but aligned with a previously discovered central ultraviolet source, and a factor of 2 greater in amplitude in Hα than in other (forbidden) lines (e.g. [O III]5007). This could be produced by a fast rotating (100-150 km s-1) disc with circumnuclear star formation. We also identify a broad component of [O III]5007 emission, blueshifted with a velocity gradient aligned with the radio jets, and associated with outflow. However, the broad component of [O I]6300 is redshifted. In spectral fits, both galaxies have old stellar populations plus ˜0.1 per cent of very young stars, consistent with the galaxies undergoing first perigalacticon, triggering infall and star formation from ˜40 Myr ago followed by the radio outburst.

  3. Modified SCR for optically actuated triggering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple inexpensive, optically actuated triggering device (optical trigger) has been developed for synchronizing pulsed lasers with signal gathering instrumentation. The heart of this device is a commercially available SCR that has been modified for light activated operation. The optical trigger delivers, into a 50-Ω load, a pulse of either 84 V with a 8.3-ns rise time and 3.5-μs width, or 42 V with a 6.2-ns rise time and 7-μs width. The device is sensitive throughout the visible and near-visible spectrum. It has a transit time of only 2.2 ns and less than 1-ns jitter. The performance of this optical trigger is examined in terms of the criteria of an ''ideal'' optical trigger and the effects of circuit and input parameters on output pulse characteristics are discussed

  4. Calo trigger acquisition system

    CERN Multimedia

    Franchini, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Calo trigger acquisition system - Evolution of the acquisition system from a multiple boards system (upper, orange cables) to a single board one (below, light blue cables) where all the channels are collected in a single board.

  5. Topological Trigger Developments

    CERN Multimedia

    Likhomanenko, Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    The main b-physics trigger algorithm used by the LHCb experiment is the so-called topological trigger. The topological trigger selects vertices which are a) detached from the primary proton-proton collision and b) compatible with coming from the decay of a b-hadron. In the LHC Run 1, this trigger utilized a custom boosted decision tree algorithm, selected an almost 100% pure sample of b-hadrons with a typical efficiency of 60-70%, and its output was used in about 60% of LHCb papers. This talk presents studies carried out to optimize the topological trigger for LHC Run 2. In particular, we have carried out a detailed comparison of various machine learning classifier algorithms, e.g., AdaBoost, MatrixNet and uBoost. The topological trigger algorithm is designed to select all "interesting" decays of b-hadrons, but cannot be trained on every such decay. Studies have therefore been performed to determine how to optimize the performance of the classification algorithm on decays not used in the training. These inclu...

  6. The VERITAS Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    Weinstein, A

    2007-01-01

    The VERITAS gamma-ray observatory, situated in southern Arizona, is an array of four 12m diameter imaging Cherenkov telescopes, each with a 499-pixel photomultiplier-tube camera. The instrument is designed to detect astrophysical gamma rays at energies above 100 GeV. At the low end of the VERITAS energy range, fluctuations in the night sky background light and single muons from cosmic-ray showers constitute significant backgrounds. VERITAS employs a three-tier trigger system to reduce the rate of these background events: an initial trigger which acts at the single pixel level, a pattern trigger which acts on the relative timing and pixel level, a pattern trigger which acts on the relative timing and distribution of pixel-level triggers within a single telescope camera, and an array-level trigger which requires simultaneous observation of an air-shower event in multiple telescopes. This final coincidence requirement significantly reduces the rate of background events, particularly those due to single muons. In...

  7. The LHCb Trigger System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, E.; LHCb Collaboration

    2007-08-01

    The LHCb detector has been conceived to study with high precision CP violation and rare decays of b-flavoured hadrons produced at the LHC. The LHCb trigger is of crucial importance in selecting the collisions of interest for b-physics studies. The trigger is based on a two-level system. The first level, Level-0, is implemented in hardware and uses information from the calorimeter, muon and pile-up systems to select events containing particles with relatively large transverse momentum, typically above 1-2 GeV. The Level-0 trigger accepts events at a rate of 1 MHz. All the detector information is then read out and fed into the High Level Trigger. This software trigger runs in the event-filter farm composed of about 1800 CPU nodes. Events are selected at a rate of 2 kHz and sent for mass storage and subsequent offline reconstruction and analysis. The current status and expected performance of the trigger system are described.

  8. LHCb Topological Trigger Reoptimization

    CERN Document Server

    Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Khairullin, Egor; Rogozhnikov, Alex; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Williams, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The main b-physics trigger algorithm used by the LHCb experiment is the so-called topological trigger. The topological trigger selects vertices which are a) detached from the primary proton-proton collision and b) compatible with coming from the decay of a b-hadron. In the LHC Run 1, this trigger, which utilized a custom boosted decision tree algorithm, selected a nearly 100% pure sample of b-hadrons with a typical efficiency of 60-70%; its output was used in about 60% of LHCb papers. This talk presents studies carried out to optimize the topological trigger for LHC Run 2. In particular, we have carried out a detailed comparison of various machine learning classifier algorithms, e.g., AdaBoost, MatrixNet and neural networks. The topological trigger algorithm is designed to select all "interesting" decays of b-hadrons, but cannot be trained on every such decay. Studies have therefore been performed to determine how to optimize the performance of the classification algorithm on decays not used in the training. ...

  9. Dynamic Triggering Stress Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Huizar, H.; Velasco, A. A.

    2008-12-01

    It has been well established that static (permanent) stress changes can trigger nearby earthquakes, within a few fault lengths from the causative event, whereas triggering by dynamic (transient) stresses carried by seismic waves both nearby and at remote distances has not been as well documented nor understood. An analysis of the change in the local stress caused by the passing of surfaces waves is important for the understanding of this phenomenon. In this study, we modeled the change in the stress that the passing of Rayleigh and Loves waves causes on a fault plane of arbitrary orientation, and applied a Coulomb failure criteria to calculate the potential of these stress changes to trigger reverse, normal or strike-slip failure. We preliminarily test these model results with data from dynamically triggering earthquakes in the Australian Bowen Basin. In the Bowen region, the modeling predicts a maximum triggering potential for Rayleigh waves arriving perpendicularly to the strike of the reverse faults present in the region. The modeled potentials agree with our observations, and give us an understanding of the dynamic stress orientation needed to trigger different type of earthquakes.

  10. ATLAS Muon Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Woudstra, MJ; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    CERN’s Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the highest energy proton-proton collider, providing also the highest instantaneous luminosity as a hadron collider. Bunch crossings occurred every 50 ns in 2012 runs. Amongst of which the online event selection system should reduce the event recording rate down to a few 100 Hz, while events are in a harsh condition with many overlapping proton-proton collisions occurring in a same bunch crossing. Muons often provide an important and clear signature of physics processes that are searched for, for instance as in the discovery of Higgs particle in year 2012. The ATLAS experiment deploys a three-levels processing scheme at online. The level-1 muon trigger system gets its input from fast muon trigger detectors. Fast sector logic boards select muon candidates, which are passed via an interface board to the central trigger processor and then to the High Level Trigger (HLT). The muon HLT is purely software based and encompasses a level-2 (L2) trigger followed by an event filte...

  11. The CMS trigger system

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; CMS Collaboration; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Aşılar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Brondolin, Erica; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Flechl, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Knünz, Valentin; König, Axel; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Matsushita, Takashi; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Lauwers, Jasper; Luyckx, Sten; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; De Bruyn, Isabelle; Deroover, Kevin; Heracleous, Natalie; Keaveney, James; Lowette, Steven; Moreels, Lieselotte; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Strom, Derek; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Van Parijs, Isis; Barria, Patrizia; Brun, Hugues; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Fasanella, Giuseppe; Favart, Laurent; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lenzi, Thomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Maerschalk, Thierry; Marinov, Andrey; Perniè, Luca; Randle-conde, Aidan; Reis, Thomas; Seva, Tomislav; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Yonamine, Ryo; Zenoni, Florian; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Beernaert, Kelly; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Crucy, Shannon; Dobur, Didar; Fagot, Alexis; Garcia, Guillaume; Gul, Muhammad; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Poyraz, Deniz; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Sigamani, Michael; Strobbe, Nadja; Tytgat, Michael; Van Driessche, Ward; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bondu, Olivier; Brochet, Sébastien; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; Delaere, Christophe; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Jafari, Abideh; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Mertens, Alexandre; Musich, Marco; Nuttens, Claude; Perrini, Lucia; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Popov, Andrey; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Beliy, Nikita; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Fábio Lúcio; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Hamer, Matthias; Hensel, Carsten; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, Ewerton; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Da Costa, Eliza Melo; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Huertas Guativa, Lina Milena; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ahuja, Sudha; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Souza Santos, Angelo; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Moon, Chang-Seong; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Romero Abad, David; Ruiz Vargas, José Cupertino; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Ahmad, Muhammad; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Cheng, Tongguang; Du, Ran; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Plestina, Roko; Romeo, Francesco; Shaheen, Sarmad Masood; Spiezia, Aniello; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Huaqiao; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Puljak, Ivica; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Micanovic, Sasa; Sudic, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Bodlak, Martin; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; El Sawy, Mai; Elgammal, Sherif; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Calpas, Betty; Kadastik, Mario; Murumaa, Marion; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Veelken, Christian; Eerola, Paula; Pekkanen, Juska; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Talvitie, Joonas; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Favaro, Carlotta; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Machet, Martina; Malcles, Julie; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Zghiche, Amina; Antropov, Iurii; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Cadamuro, Luca; Chapon, Emilien; Charlot, Claude; Dahms, Torsten; Davignon, Olivier; Filipovic, Nicolas; Florent, Alice; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Lisniak, Stanislav; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Miné, Philippe; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Ortona, Giacomo; Paganini, Pascal; Pigard, Philipp; Regnard, Simon; Salerno, Roberto; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Sirois, Yves; Strebler, Thomas; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Aubin, Alexandre; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Buttignol, Michael; Chabert, Eric Christian; Chanon, Nicolas; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Coubez, Xavier; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Goetzmann, Christophe; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Merlin, Jeremie Alexandre; Skovpen, Kirill; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Bernet, Colin; Boudoul, Gaelle; Bouvier, Elvire; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Courbon, Benoit; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fan, Jiawei; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Lagarde, Francois; Laktineh, Imad Baptiste; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Pequegnot, Anne-Laure; Perries, Stephane; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sabes, David; Sgandurra, Louis; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Toriashvili, Tengizi; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heister, Arno; Kiesel, Maximilian Knut; Klein, Katja; Lipinski, Martin; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Preuten, Marius; Raupach, Frank; Schael, Stefan; Schulte, Jan-Frederik; Verlage, Tobias; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Brodski, Michael; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Endres, Matthias; Erdmann, Martin; Erdweg, Sören; Esch, Thomas; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klingebiel, Dennis; Knutzen, Simon; Kreuzer, Peter; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Papacz, Paul; Pook, Tobias; Radziej, Markus; Reithler, Hans; Rieger, Marcel; Scheuch, Florian; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Künsken, Andreas; Lingemann, Joschka; Nehrkorn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Nugent, Ian Michael; Pistone, Claudia; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Asin, Ivan; Bartosik, Nazar; Behnke, Olaf; Behrens, Ulf; Bell, Alan James; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Campbell, Alan; Choudhury, Somnath; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dolinska, Ganna; Dooling, Samantha; Dorland, Tyler; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Flucke, Gero; Gallo, Elisabetta; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Gizhko, Andrii; Gunnellini, Paolo; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Jung, Hannes; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Karacheban, Olena; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kieseler, Jan; Kleinwort, Claus; Korol, Ievgen; Lange, Wolfgang; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lobanov, Artur; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Nayak, Aruna; Ntomari, Eleni; Perrey, Hanno; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Roland, Benoit; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Saxena, Pooja; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schröder, Matthias; Seitz, Claudia; Spannagel, Simon; Trippkewitz, Karim Damun; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Draeger, Arne-Rasmus; Erfle, Joachim; Garutti, Erika; Goebel, Kristin; Gonzalez, Daniel; Görner, Martin; Haller, Johannes; Hoffmann, Malte; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Junkes, Alexandra; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Kovalchuk, Nataliia; Lapsien, Tobias; Lenz, Teresa; Marchesini, Ivan; Marconi, Daniele; Meyer, Mareike; Nowatschin, Dominik; Ott, Jochen; Pantaleo, Felice; Peiffer, Thomas; Perieanu, Adrian; Pietsch, Niklas; Poehlsen, Jennifer; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Scharf, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Schwandt, Joern; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Tholen, Heiner; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Vanhoefer, Annika; Vormwald, Benedikt; Akbiyik, Melike; Barth, Christian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Butz, Erik; Chwalek, Thorsten; Colombo, Fabio; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Fink, Simon; Frensch, Felix; Friese, Raphael; Giffels, Manuel; Gilbert, Andrew; Haitz, Dominik; Hartmann, Frank; Heindl, Stefan Michael; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Kornmayer, Andreas; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Maier, Benedikt; Mildner, Hannes; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Müller, Thomas; Plagge, Michael; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Röcker, Steffen; Roscher, Frank; Sieber, Georg; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weber, Marc; Weiler, Thomas; Wöhrmann, Clemens; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Psallidas, Andreas; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Agapitos, Antonis; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Tziaferi, Eirini; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Loukas, Nikitas; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Strologas, John; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hazi, Andras; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Molnar, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Bartók, Márton; Makovec, Alajos; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Mal, Prolay; Mandal, Koushik; Sahoo, Deepak Kumar; Sahoo, Niladribihari; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Chawla, Ridhi; Gupta, Ruchi; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Kaur, Anterpreet; Kaur, Manjit; Kumar, Ramandeep; Mehta, Ankita; Mittal, Monika; Singh, Jasbir; Walia, Genius; Kumar, Ashok; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Garg, Rocky Bala; Kumar, Ajay; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Nishu, Nishu; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Ramkrishna; Sharma, Varun; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dey, Sourav; Dutta, Suchandra; Jain, Sandhya; Majumdar, Nayana; Modak, Atanu; Mondal, Kuntal; Mukherjee, Swagata; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Roy, Ashim; Roy, Debarati; Roy Chowdhury, Suvankar; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Chudasama, Ruchi; Dutta, Dipanwita; Jha, Vishwajeet; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Dugad, Shashikant; Ganguly, Sanmay; Ghosh, Saranya; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Kole, Gouranga; Kumar, Sanjeev; Mahakud, Bibhuprasad; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mitra, Soureek; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sarkar, Tanmay; Sur, Nairit; Sutar, Bajrang; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Chauhan, Shubhanshu; Dube, Sourabh; Kothekar, Kunal; Sharma, Seema; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Behnamian, Hadi; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Goldouzian, Reza; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Calabria, Cesare; Caputo, Claudio; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; Cristella, Leonardo; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Miniello, Giorgia; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Ranieri, Antonio; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Venditti, Rosamaria; Verwilligen, Piet; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Battilana, Carlo; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Travaglini, Riccardo; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Gonzi, Sandro; Gori, Valentina; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Viliani, Lorenzo; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Primavera, Federica; Calvelli, Valerio; Ferro, Fabrizio; Lo Vetere, Maurizio; Monge, Maria Roberta; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Brianza, Luca; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Gerosa, Raffaele; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Marzocchi, Badder; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; Di Guida, Salvatore; Esposito, Marco; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lanza, Giuseppe; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Sciacca, Crisostomo; Thyssen, Filip; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bellato, Marco; Benato, Lisa; Bisello, Dario; Boletti, Alessio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dall'Osso, Martino; Dosselli, Umberto; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gozzelino, Andrea; Lacaprara, Stefano; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Montecassiano, Fabio; Passaseo, Marina; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pegoraro, Matteo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Vanini, Sara; Ventura, Sandro; Zanetti, Marco; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zucchetta, Alberto; Zumerle, Gianni; Braghieri, Alessandro; Magnani, Alice; Montagna, Paolo; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vai, Ilaria; Vitulo, Paolo; Alunni Solestizi, Luisa; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Donato, Silvio; Fedi, Giacomo; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; D'imperio, Giulia; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Gelli, Simone; Jorda, Clara; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Meridiani, Paolo; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Preiato, Federico; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Traczyk, Piotr; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Costa, Marco; Covarelli, Roberto; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Finco, Linda; Kiani, Bilal; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Monteil, Ennio; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Ravera, Fabio; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Tamponi, Umberto; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; La Licata, Chiara; Marone, Matteo; Schizzi, Andrea; Zanetti, Anna; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Kong, Dae Jung; Lee, Sangeun; Oh, Young Do; Sakharov, Alexandre; Son, Dong-Chul; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Kim, Hyunsoo; Kim, Tae Jeong; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Go, Yeonju; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Kisoo; Lee, Kyong Sei; Lee, Songkyo; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Hyunyong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jason Sang Hun; Park, Inkyu; Ryu, Geonmo; Ryu, Min Sang; Choi, Young-Il; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Donghyun; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Jongseok; Yu, Intae; Dudenas, Vytautas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Vaitkus, Juozas; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Mohamad Idris, Faridah; Wan Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Tajuddin; Yusli, Mohd Nizam; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-De La Cruz, Ivan; Hernandez-Almada, Alberto; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Shoaib, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Byszuk, Adrian; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michal; Pozniak, Krzysztof; Walczak, Marek; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Di Francesco, Agostino; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Leonardo, Nuno; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Nguyen, Federico; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Seixas, Joao; Toldaiev, Oleksii; Vadruccio, Daniele; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Afanasiev, Serguei; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Konoplyanikov, Viktor; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Shulha, Siarhei; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Zarubin, Anatoli; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Karneyeu, Anton; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Pozdnyakov, Ivan; Safronov, Grigory; Spiridonov, Alexander; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Bylinkin, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Baskakov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Kaminskiy, Alexandre; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Miagkov, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Milosevic, Jovan; Rekovic, Vladimir; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Navarro De Martino, Eduardo; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Soares, Mara Senghi; Albajar, Carmen; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Moran, Dermot; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Castiñeiras De Saa, Juan Ramon; De Castro Manzano, Pablo; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Fernandez, Marcos; Garcia-Ferrero, Juan; Gomez, Gervasio; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Trevisani, Nicolò; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Benaglia, Andrea; Bendavid, Joshua; Benhabib, Lamia; Benitez, Jose F; Berruti, Gaia Maria; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Botta, Cristina; Breuker, Horst; Camporesi, Tiziano; Castello, Roberto; Cerminara, Gianluca; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; Daponte, Vincenzo; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Gruttola, Michele; De Guio, Federico; De Roeck, Albert; De Visscher, Simon; Di Marco, Emanuele; Dobson, Marc; Dordevic, Milos; Dorney, Brian; Du Pree, Tristan; Dünser, Marc; Dupont, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Franzoni, Giovanni; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Girone, Maria; Glege, Frank; Guida, Roberto; Gundacker, Stefan; Guthoff, Moritz; Hammer, Josef; Harris, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kirschenmann, Henning; Kortelainen, Matti J; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Krajczar, Krisztian; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Magini, Nicolo; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Martelli, Arabella; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moortgat, Filip; Morovic, Srecko; Mulders, Martijn; Nemallapudi, Mythra Varun; Neugebauer, Hannes; Orfanelli, Styliani; Orsini, Luciano; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuelle; Peruzzi, Marco; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Piparo, Danilo; Racz, Attila; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Ruan, Manqi; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Seidel, Markus; Sharma, Archana; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Steggemann, Jan; Stieger, Benjamin; Stoye, Markus; Takahashi, Yuta; Treille, Daniel; Triossi, Andrea; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Wardle, Nicholas; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Zagoździńska, Agnieszka; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Bachmair, Felix; Bäni, Lukas; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Casal, Bruno; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Eller, Philipp; Grab, Christoph; Heidegger, Constantin; Hits, Dmitry; Hoss, Jan; Kasieczka, Gregor; Lustermann, Werner; Mangano, Boris; Marionneau, Matthieu; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Masciovecchio, Mario; Meister, Daniel; Micheli, Francesco; Musella, Pasquale; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pata, Joosep; Pauss, Felicitas; Perrozzi, Luca; Quittnat, Milena; Rossini, Marco; Starodumov, Andrei; Takahashi, Maiko; Tavolaro, Vittorio Raoul; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Wallny, Rainer; Aarrestad, Thea Klaeboe; Amsler, Claude; Caminada, Lea; Canelli, Maria Florencia; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Cosa, Annapaola; Galloni, Camilla; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hreus, Tomas; Kilminster, Benjamin; Lange, Clemens; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Pinna, Deborah; Robmann, Peter; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Salerno, Daniel; Yang, Yong; Cardaci, Marco; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Doan, Thi Hien; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Konyushikhin, Maxim; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Lin, Willis; Lu, Yun-Ju; Yu, Shin-Shan; Kumar, Arun; Bartek, Rachel; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; Dietz, Charles; Fiori, Francesco; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Petrakou, Eleni; Tsai, Jui-fa; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Asavapibhop, Burin; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Singh, Gurpreet; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Suwonjandee, Narumon; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Demiroglu, Zuhal Seyma; Dozen, Candan; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Guler, Yalcin; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Polatoz, Ayse; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Mehmet; Zorbilmez, Caglar; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Isildak, Bora; Karapinar, Guler; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Yetkin, Elif Asli; Yetkin, Taylan; Cakir, Altan; Cankocak, Kerem; Sen, Sercan; Vardarlı, Fuat Ilkehan; Grynyov, Boris; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Aggleton, Robin; Ball, Fionn; Beck, Lana; Brooke, James John; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Jacob, Jeson; Kreczko, Lukasz; Lucas, Chris; Meng, Zhaoxia; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Poll, Anthony; Sakuma, Tai; Seif El Nasr-storey, Sarah; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Dominic; Smith, Vincent J; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Calligaris, Luigi; Cieri, Davide; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Tomalin, Ian R; Williams, Thomas; Womersley, William John; Worm, Steven; Baber, Mark; Bainbridge, Robert; Buchmuller, Oliver; Bundock, Aaron; Burton, Darren; Casasso, Stefano; Citron, Matthew; Colling, David; Corpe, Louie; Cripps, Nicholas; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; De Wit, Adinda; Della Negra, Michel; Dunne, Patrick; Elwood, Adam; Ferguson, William; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Hall, Geoffrey; Iles, Gregory; Kenzie, Matthew; Lane, Rebecca; Lucas, Robyn; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Malik, Sarah; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Pela, Joao; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Raymond, David Mark; Richards, Alexander; Rose, Andrew; Seez, Christopher; Tapper, Alexander; Uchida, Kirika; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leggat, Duncan; Leslie, Dawn; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Borzou, Ahmad; Call, Kenneth; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Pastika, Nathaniel; Charaf, Otman; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; Arcaro, Daniel; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Fantasia, Cory; Gastler, Daniel; Lawson, Philip; Rankin, Dylan; Richardson, Clint; Rohlf, James; St John, Jason; Sulak, Lawrence; Zou, David; Alimena, Juliette; Berry, Edmund; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Cutts, David; Dhingra, Nitish; Ferapontov, Alexey; Garabedian, Alex; Hakala, John; Heintz, Ulrich; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Mao, Zaixing; Narain, Meenakshi; Piperov, Stefan; Sagir, Sinan; Syarif, Rizki; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Gardner, Michael; Ko, Winston; Lander, Richard; Mulhearn, Michael; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Shalhout, Shalhout; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Stolp, Dustin; Tripathi, Mani; Wilbur, Scott; Yohay, Rachel; Cousins, Robert; Everaerts, Pieter; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Saltzberg, David; Takasugi, Eric; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Burt, Kira; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Hanson, Gail; Heilman, Jesse; Paneva, Mirena Ivova; Jandir, Pawandeep; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Lacroix, Florent; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Malberti, Martina; Olmedo Negrete, Manuel; Shrinivas, Amithabh; Wei, Hua; Wimpenny, Stephen; Yates, Brent; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Derdzinski, Mark; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Klein, Daniel; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Olivito, Dominick; Padhi, Sanjay; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Tadel, Matevz; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Welke, Charles; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Zevi Della Porta, Giovanni; Bradmiller-Feld, John; Campagnari, Claudio; Dishaw, Adam; Dutta, Valentina; Flowers, Kristen; Franco Sevilla, Manuel; Geffert, Paul; George, Christopher; Golf, Frank; Gouskos, Loukas; Gran, Jason; Incandela, Joe; Mccoll, Nickolas; Mullin, Sam Daniel; Richman, Jeffrey; Stuart, David; Suarez, Indara; West, Christopher; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Anderson, Dustin; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Duarte, Javier; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Pena, Cristian; Pierini, Maurizio; Spiropulu, Maria; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Xie, Si; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Andrews, Michael Benjamin; Azzolini, Virginia; Calamba, Aristotle; Carlson, Benjamin; Ferguson, Thomas; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Sun, Menglei; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Jensen, Frank; Johnson, Andrew; Krohn, Michael; Mulholland, Troy; Nauenberg, Uriel; Stenson, Kevin; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Chaves, Jorge; Chu, Jennifer; Dittmer, Susan; Eggert, Nicholas; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Ryd, Anders; Skinnari, Louise; Soffi, Livia; Sun, Werner; Tan, Shao Min; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Tucker, Jordan; Weng, Yao; Wittich, Peter; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Apollinari, Giorgio; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bolla, Gino; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Hare, Daryl; Harris, Robert M; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hirschauer, James; Hu, Zhen; Jayatilaka, Bodhitha; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Jung, Andreas Werner; Klima, Boaz; Kreis, Benjamin; Kwan, Simon; Lammel, Stephan; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Tiehui; Lopes De Sá, Rafael; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena Ingrid; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Merkel, Petra; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Nahn, Steve; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Pedro, Kevin; Prokofyev, Oleg; Rakness, Gregory; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vernieri, Caterina; Verzocchi, Marco; Vidal, Richard; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Whitbeck, Andrew; Yang, Fan; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Carnes, Andrew; Carver, Matthew; Curry, David; Das, Souvik; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Field, Richard D; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Hugon, Justin; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Low, Jia Fu; Ma, Peisen; Matchev, Konstantin; Mei, Hualin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Rank, Douglas; Rossin, Roberto; Shchutska, Lesya; Snowball, Matthew; Sperka, David; Terentyev, Nikolay; Thomas, Laurent; Wang, Jian; Wang, Sean-Jiun; Yelton, John; Hewamanage, Samantha; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Ackert, Andrew; Adams, Jordon Rowe; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Diamond, Brendan; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Khatiwada, Ajeeta; Prosper, Harrison; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Bhopatkar, Vallary; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Noonan, Daniel; Roy, Titas; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Kurt, Pelin; O'Brien, Christine; Sandoval Gonzalez, Irving Daniel; Silkworth, Christopher; Turner, Paul; Varelas, Nikos; Wu, Zhenbin; Zakaria, Mohammed; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Durgut, Süleyman; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Khristenko, Viktor; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Snyder, Christina; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yi, Kai; Anderson, Ian; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Eminizer, Nicholas; Fehling, David; Feng, Lei; Gritsan, Andrei; Maksimovic, Petar; Martin, Christopher; Osherson, Marc; Roskes, Jeffrey; Cocoros, Alice; Sarica, Ulascan; Swartz, Morris; Xiao, Meng; Xin, Yongjie; You, Can; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Bruner, Christopher; Kenny III, Raymond Patrick; Majumder, Devdatta; Malek, Magdalena; Murray, Michael; Sanders, Stephen; Stringer, Robert; Wang, Quan; Ivanov, Andrew; Kaadze, Ketino; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Toda, Sachiko; Lange, David; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Anelli, Christopher; Baden, Drew; Baron, Owen; Belloni, Alberto; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Ferraioli, Charles; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kellogg, Richard G; Kolberg, Ted; Kunkle, Joshua; Lu, Ying; Mignerey, Alice; Shin, Young Ho; Skuja, Andris; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Apyan, Aram; Barbieri, Richard; Baty, Austin; Bierwagen, Katharina; Brandt, Stephanie; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; Demiragli, Zeynep; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Gulhan, Doga; Iiyama, Yutaro; Innocenti, Gian Michele; Klute, Markus; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Lai, Yue Shi; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Mcginn, Christopher; Mironov, Camelia; Narayanan, Siddharth; Niu, Xinmei; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Stephans, George; Sumorok, Konstanty; Varma, Mukund; Velicanu, Dragos; Veverka, Jan; Wang, Jing; Wang, Ta-Wei; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Zhukova, Victoria; Dahmes, Bryan; Evans, Andrew; Finkel, Alexey; Gude, Alexander; Hansen, Peter; Kalafut, Sean; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Lesko, Zachary; Mans, Jeremy; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rusack, Roger; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Acosta, John Gabriel; Oliveros, Sandra; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Fangmeier, Caleb; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kamalieddin, Rami; Keller, Jason; Knowlton, Dan; Kravchenko, Ilya; Meier, Frank; Monroy, Jose; Ratnikov, Fedor; Siado, Joaquin Emilo; Snow, Gregory R; Alyari, Maral; Dolen, James; George, Jimin; Godshalk, Andrew; Harrington, Charles; Iashvili, Ia; Kaisen, Josh; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Roozbahani, Bahareh; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Hortiangtham, Apichart; Massironi, Andrea; Morse, David Michael; Nash, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Teixeira De Lima, Rafael; Trocino, Daniele; Wang, Ren-Jie; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kubik, Andrew; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Stoynev, Stoyan; Sung, Kevin; Trovato, Marco; Velasco, Mayda; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Dev, Nabarun; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Lannon, Kevin; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Meng, Fanbo; Mueller, Charles; Musienko, Yuri; Pearson, Tessa; Planer, Michael; Reinsvold, Allison; Ruchti, Randy; Smith, Geoffrey; Taroni, Silvia; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Antonelli, Louis; Brinson, Jessica; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Flowers, Sean; Hart, Andrew; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Ji, Weifeng; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Liu, Bingxuan; Luo, Wuming; Puigh, Darren; Rodenburg, Marissa; Winer, Brian L; Wulsin, Howard Wells; Driga, Olga; Elmer, Peter; Hardenbrook, Joshua; Hebda, Philip; Koay, Sue Ann; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Palmer, Christopher; Piroué, Pierre; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Zuranski, Andrzej; Malik, Sudhir; Barnes, Virgil E; Benedetti, Daniele; Bortoletto, Daniela; Gutay, Laszlo; Jha, Manoj; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Kurt; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shi, Xin; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Sun, Jian; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Wang, Fuqiang; Xie, Wei; Xu, Lingshan; Parashar, Neeti; Stupak, John; Adair, Antony; Akgun, Bora; Chen, Zhenyu; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Guilbaud, Maxime; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Northup, Michael; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Rorie, Jamal; Tu, Zhoudunming; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Ferbel, Thomas; Galanti, Mario; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Hindrichs, Otto; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Petrillo, Gianluca; Tan, Ping; Verzetti, Mauro; Arora, Sanjay; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Duggan, Daniel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Hughes, Elliot; Kaplan, Steven; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, Raghav; Lath, Amitabh; Nash, Kevin; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Sheffield, David; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Foerster, Mark; Riley, Grant; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; York, Andrew; Bouhali, Othmane; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; De Mattia, Marco; Delgado, Andrea; Dildick, Sven; Eusebi, Ricardo; Gilmore, Jason; Kamon, Teruki; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Mueller, Ryan; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Patel, Rishi; Perloff, Alexx; Rose, Anthony; Safonov, Alexei; Tatarinov, Aysen; Ulmer, Keith; Akchurin, Nural; Cowden, Christopher; Damgov, Jordan; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Faulkner, James; Kunori, Shuichi; Lamichhane, Kamal; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Undleeb, Sonaina; Volobouev, Igor; Appelt, Eric; Delannoy, Andrés G; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Janjam, Ravi; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Mao, Yaxian; Melo, Andrew; Ni, Hong; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Xu, Qiao; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Sun, Xin; Wang, Yanchu; Wolfe, Evan; Wood, John; Xia, Fan; Clarke, Christopher; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Sturdy, Jared; Belknap, Donald; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Duric, Senka; Gomber, Bhawna; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Levine, Aaron; Long, Kenneth; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Perry, Thomas; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Polese, Giovanni; Ruggles, Tyler; Sarangi, Tapas; Savin, Alexander; Sharma, Archana; Smith, Nicholas; Smith, Wesley H; Taylor, Devin; Woods, Nathaniel

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the CMS trigger system and its performance during Run 1 of the LHC. The trigger system consists of two levels designed to select events of potential physics interest from a GHz (MHz) interaction rate of proton-proton (heavy ion) collisions. The first level of the trigger is implemented in hardware, and selects events containing detector signals consistent with an electron, photon, muon, $\\tau$ lepton, jet, or missing transverse energy. A programmable menu of up to 128 object-based algorithms is used to select events for subsequent processing. The trigger thresholds are adjusted to the LHC instantaneous luminosity during data taking in order to restrict the output rate to 100 kHz, the upper limit imposed by the CMS readout electronics. The second level, implemented in software, further refines the purity of the output stream, selecting an average rate of 400 Hz for offline event storage. The objectives, strategy and performance of the trigger system during the LHC Run 1 are described.

  12. The CMS trigger system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khachatryan, Vardan; et al.

    2016-09-08

    This paper describes the CMS trigger system and its performance during Run 1 of the LHC. The trigger system consists of two levels designed to select events of potential physics interest from a GHz (MHz) interaction rate of proton-proton (heavy ion) collisions. The first level of the trigger is implemented in hardware, and selects events containing detector signals consistent with an electron, photon, muon, tau lepton, jet, or missing transverse energy. A programmable menu of up to 128 object-based algorithms is used to select events for subsequent processing. The trigger thresholds are adjusted to the LHC instantaneous luminosity during data taking in order to restrict the output rate to 100 kHz, the upper limit imposed by the CMS readout electronics. The second level, implemented in software, further refines the purity of the output stream, selecting an average rate of 400 Hz for offline event storage. The objectives, strategy and performance of the trigger system during the LHC Run 1 are described.

  13. Aftershock Activity Triggered By the 2014 Earthquake (Mw=6.5), and Its Implications for the Future Seismic Risk in the Marmara Sea, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, O.; Kilic, T.; Turkoglu, M.; Kaplan, M.; Kilicarslan, O.; Özer, Ç.; Gok, E.

    2014-12-01

    We have performed aftershocks analysis triggered by 24.05.2014 (Mw=6.5) Gokceada Island (GI) earthquake where occurred at the W of North Anatolian Fault zone. Mainshock was widely felt in Aegean and Marmara regions of Turkey. Major damage in 228 homes was reported. Other 49 residences suffered moderate or light damage. We have well located 699 events over 1041 by at least 5 stations for one month period after the mainshock. Double difference relocation algorithm allowed us to minimize rms values less than 0.39. Initial results show clear unilateral rupture towards Gallipoli Peninsula at the W of Marmara Sea region. Aftershocks show linearity with an extension of ~110 km length, ~25 km width. Largest aftershock (Mw=5.3) was at the NE end of activation zone. Depths are mainly confined from 5 to 25 km ranges. Two locking depths are detected beneath 8 km in Lemnos Basin and Saros Trough. We also constructed focal mechanisms from regional moment tensor solutions. Digital waveform data obtained from AFAD (Turkey) and HT-AUTH (Greece). Focal mechanisms reflect complex tectonic settings. Nevertheless numerous mechanisms show dominant dextral strike-slip motions aligned NE-SW direction with minor reverse component. State of stress before the mainshock was pure shear regime. But two principal stress axes are observed as oblique for the aftershocks showing ambiguity between compression and shear. It is likely that the mean stress regime has changed after the GI earthquake. If this is so, we may expect that the strike-slip component would slowly increase later in order to recover the conditions existing before. Coulomb stress values rise at the edges of the fault segment due to accumulation of slip. We observed strong spatial correlation between the static stress change after 2014 GI earthquake and the segment that ruptured during the 1912 Murefte-Ganos (Mw=7.4) earthquake. The analysis showed that the areas of positive static stress changes reach to seismic gap in the Marmara

  14. Comparison of triggering systems for neonatal patient triggered ventilation.

    OpenAIRE

    Hird, M F; Greenough, A

    1991-01-01

    The efficacy of two triggering systems was compared during neonatal patient triggered ventilation: the Graseby MR10 respiration monitor and airway pressure changes. Ten preterm infants were studied, median gestational age 33 weeks (range 28-35). Patient triggered ventilation was administered via the SLE ventilator at a series of inflation times (0.24, 0.3, and 0.4 seconds). Comparison was made between the trigger systems of the trigger delay, inflation volume delivered, and proportion of spon...

  15. Sphenopalatine blocks in the treatment of pain in fibromyalgia and myofascial pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzen, V D; Scudds, R

    1997-10-01

    Sphenopalatine blocks have been used to treat pain for more than 80 years. Anecdotal support for sphenopalatine ganglion blocks has been very strong in those who believe in the technique, but the research results have been inconclusive. Therefore, a double blind, placebo-controlled study was performed on 61 patients, 42 with fibromyalgia and 19 with myofascial pain syndrome. Pain was measured using visual analogue scales prior to treatment, during treatment, and 28 days after the treatment. Headaches were evaluated in frequency and location prior to and after treatment. Sphenopalatine ganglion blocks were performed under direct vision using 4% lidocaine and sterile water as a placebo. Analysis of the results showed no statistical differences between the lidocaine and the placebo groups.

  16. Physiotherapy in diagnosis and treatment of the myofascial pain dysfunction syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trott, P H; Goss, A N

    1978-08-01

    Thirty-four patients with the Myofascial Pain Dysfunction (M.P.D.) syndrome of the masticatory system were investigated and treated using physiotherapy techniques. Resisted static contraction of the temporomandibular joints, passive movement tests of the muscles and electromyography indicated that the joint function was abnormal in all cases with minimal muscle involvement. Cervical spine tests indicated that pain referral from the cervical spine was involved in 19 of 34 patients (56%). Physiotherapy treatment armed at restoring a normal painless range of movement to the temporomandibular joint was successful in six of 10 patients (60%). Generalized relaxation therapy with biofeedback was successful in 19 of 24 patients (80%). It was found that with the five of 24 patients (20%) in whom generalized relaxation failed, there were significant psychiatric factors.

  17. Effects of Temperature on Chronic Trapezius Myofascial Pain Syndrome during Dry Needling Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Gao, Qian; Hou, Jingshan; Li, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of temperature on chronic trapezius myofascial pain syndrome during dry needling therapy. Sixty patients were randomized into two groups of dry needling (DN) alone (group A) and DN combined with heat therapy group (group B). Each patient was treated once and the therapeutic effect was assessed by the visual analogue scale (VAS), pressure pain threshold (PPT), and the 36-item short form health survey (SF-36) at seven days, one month, and three months after treatment. Evaluation based on VAS and PPT showed that the pain of patients in groups A and B was significantly (P physical condition of patients in both groups showed significant (P therapy were effective in the treatment of trapezius MPS, and that DN heating therapy had better long-term effects than DN therapy.

  18. Surgical Treatment of Ankylosis of Temporomandibular Joint with Temporalis Myofascial Flap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱志军; 邢树忠; 万林忠; 陶震江; 吴煜农

    2003-01-01

    Objective:To study the effects of temporalis myofascial flap(TMF)transferred to treat the long ankylosis of temporomandibular joint(TMJ).Methods:Seventeen cases with ankylosed condyles received arthroplasly.The degrees of mouth opeing pre-and post-operatium were evaluated,and the spaces of joints in the X-ray films were also measured.The evaluation of the results of the surrgical treatment was based on the TMJ functions.Results:Following up 0.5-3.0 years,in 12 of 17 cases the degree of mouth opening improved up to 27mm.The doctors and the patients were both satisfied with the results.Conclusion:The use of TMF in arthroplasty of temporomandibular joint is a good approach in the treatment of TMJ.

  19. Trigger and decision processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years there have been many attempts in high energy physics to make trigger and decision processes faster and more sophisticated. This became necessary due to a permanent increase of the number of sensitive detector elements in wire chambers and calorimeters, and in fact it was possible because of the fast developments in integrated circuits technique. In this paper the present situation will be reviewed. The discussion will be mainly focussed upon event filtering by pure software methods and - rather hardware related - microprogrammable processors as well as random access memory triggers. (orig.)

  20. ALICE High Level Trigger

    CERN Multimedia

    Alt, T

    2013-01-01

    The ALICE High Level Trigger (HLT) is a computing farm designed and build for the real-time, online processing of the raw data produced by the ALICE detectors. Events are fully reconstructed from the raw data, analyzed and compressed. The analysis summary together with the compressed data and a trigger decision is sent to the DAQ. In addition the reconstruction of the events allows for on-line monitoring of physical observables and this information is provided to the Data Quality Monitor (DQM). The HLT can process event rates of up to 2 kHz for proton-proton and 200 Hz for Pb-Pb central collisions.

  1. Acute effects of self-myofascial release using a foam roller on arterial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Takanobu; Masuhara, Mitsuhiko; Ikuta, Komei

    2014-01-01

    Flexibility is associated with arterial distensibility. Many individuals involved in sport, exercise, and/or fitness perform self-myofascial release (SMR) using a foam roller, which restores muscles, tendons, ligaments, fascia, and/or soft-tissue extensibility. However, the effect of SMR on arterial stiffness and vascular endothelial function using a foam roller is unknown. This study investigates the acute effect of SMR using a foam roller on arterial stiffness and vascular endothelial function. Ten healthy young adults performed SMR and control (CON) trials on separate days in a randomized controlled crossover fashion. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), blood pressure, heart rate, and plasma nitric oxide (NO) concentration were measured before and 30 minutes after both SMR and CON trials. The participants performed SMR of the adductor, hamstrings, quadriceps, iliotibial band, and trapezius. Pressure was self-adjusted during myofascial release by applying body weight to the roller and using the hands and feet to offset weight as required. The roller was placed under the target tissue area, and the body was moved back and forth across the roller. In the CON trial, SMR was not performed. The baPWV significantly decreased (from 1,202 ± 105 to 1,074 ± 110 cm·s-1) and the plasma NO concentration significantly increased (from 20.4 ± 6.9 to 34.4 ± 17.2 μmol·L-1) after SMR using a foam roller (both p < 0.05), but neither significantly differed after CON trials. These results indicate that SMR using a foam roller reduces arterial stiffness and improves vascular endothelial function. PMID:23575360

  2. Circulating biomarkers in acute myofascial pain: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosman-Rimon, Liza; Parkinson, William; Upadhye, Suneel; Clarke, Hance; Katz, Joel; Flannery, John; Peng, Philip; Kumbhare, Dinesh

    2016-09-01

    The aims of the present study were to compare levels of circulating inflammatory biomarkers and growth factors between patients with myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) and healthy control participants, and to assess the relationship among inflammatory markers and growth factors in the two groups.Biomarkers levels were assessed in patients (n = 37) with myofascial pain complaints recruited from the hospital emergency department and non-MPS controls (n = 21), recruited via advertisements in the hospital and community.Blood levels of the cytokines, namely, interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and interleukin-12 (IL-12), and the chemokine, namely, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC), eotaxin, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and macrophage inflammatory proteins-1β (MIP-1β) were significantly higher in patients with MPS than controls. The results of the growth factor analyses revealed significantly higher levels of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in MPS patients versus controls. The pattern of correlation coefficients between cytokines and growth factors differed considerably for MPS patients and controls with far fewer significant positive coefficients observed in the controls. Serum inflammatory and growth factor biomarkers were elevated in MPS patients.Inflammatory biomarkers and growth factor levels may play an important role in the onset and maintenance of MPS and therefore may be useful in the diagnosis and treatment of MPS. Understanding the mechanisms of inflammation in MPS necessitates future research. PMID:27631214

  3. Acute effects of self-myofascial release using a foam roller on arterial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Takanobu; Masuhara, Mitsuhiko; Ikuta, Komei

    2014-01-01

    Flexibility is associated with arterial distensibility. Many individuals involved in sport, exercise, and/or fitness perform self-myofascial release (SMR) using a foam roller, which restores muscles, tendons, ligaments, fascia, and/or soft-tissue extensibility. However, the effect of SMR on arterial stiffness and vascular endothelial function using a foam roller is unknown. This study investigates the acute effect of SMR using a foam roller on arterial stiffness and vascular endothelial function. Ten healthy young adults performed SMR and control (CON) trials on separate days in a randomized controlled crossover fashion. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), blood pressure, heart rate, and plasma nitric oxide (NO) concentration were measured before and 30 minutes after both SMR and CON trials. The participants performed SMR of the adductor, hamstrings, quadriceps, iliotibial band, and trapezius. Pressure was self-adjusted during myofascial release by applying body weight to the roller and using the hands and feet to offset weight as required. The roller was placed under the target tissue area, and the body was moved back and forth across the roller. In the CON trial, SMR was not performed. The baPWV significantly decreased (from 1,202 ± 105 to 1,074 ± 110 cm·s-1) and the plasma NO concentration significantly increased (from 20.4 ± 6.9 to 34.4 ± 17.2 μmol·L-1) after SMR using a foam roller (both p < 0.05), but neither significantly differed after CON trials. These results indicate that SMR using a foam roller reduces arterial stiffness and improves vascular endothelial function.

  4. Circulating biomarkers in acute myofascial pain: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosman-Rimon, Liza; Parkinson, William; Upadhye, Suneel; Clarke, Hance; Katz, Joel; Flannery, John; Peng, Philip; Kumbhare, Dinesh

    2016-09-01

    The aims of the present study were to compare levels of circulating inflammatory biomarkers and growth factors between patients with myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) and healthy control participants, and to assess the relationship among inflammatory markers and growth factors in the two groups.Biomarkers levels were assessed in patients (n = 37) with myofascial pain complaints recruited from the hospital emergency department and non-MPS controls (n = 21), recruited via advertisements in the hospital and community.Blood levels of the cytokines, namely, interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and interleukin-12 (IL-12), and the chemokine, namely, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC), eotaxin, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and macrophage inflammatory proteins-1β (MIP-1β) were significantly higher in patients with MPS than controls. The results of the growth factor analyses revealed significantly higher levels of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in MPS patients versus controls. The pattern of correlation coefficients between cytokines and growth factors differed considerably for MPS patients and controls with far fewer significant positive coefficients observed in the controls. Serum inflammatory and growth factor biomarkers were elevated in MPS patients.Inflammatory biomarkers and growth factor levels may play an important role in the onset and maintenance of MPS and therefore may be useful in the diagnosis and treatment of MPS. Understanding the mechanisms of inflammation in MPS necessitates future research.

  5. Predicting asthma control: the role of psychological triggers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, Thomas; Bobb, Carol; Griffiths, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Asthma triggers have been linked to adverse health outcomes in asthma, but little is known about their association with asthma control. Because trigger avoidance is an integral part of successful asthma management, psychological triggers in particular may be associated with suboptimal asthma control, given the difficulty of controlling them. We examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of perceived asthma triggers with self-report of asthma control impairment, symptoms, and spirometric lung function (forced expiratory volume in the 1st second, [FEV1]) in 179 adult primary care asthma patients. Perceived asthma triggers explained up to 42.5% of the variance in asthma control and symptoms, but not in FEV1 alone. Allergic triggers explained up to 12.1% of the asthma control and symptom variance, three nonallergic trigger types, air pollution/irritants, physical activity, and infection, explained up to 26.2% over and above allergic triggers, and psychological triggers up to 9.5% over and above all other triggers. Psychological triggers alone explained up to 33.9% of the variance and were the only trigger class that was consistently significant in all final multiple regression models predicting control and symptoms. Psychological triggers also predicted lower asthma control 3-6 months later, although controlling for initial asthma control eliminated this association. In free reports of individually relevant triggers, only psychological triggers were associated with suboptimal asthma control. Trigger factors are important predictors of self-reported asthma control and symptoms but not actual lung function. Particular attention should be directed to psychological triggers as indicators of patients' perceptions of suboptimal asthma control.

  6. Fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, and myofascial pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buskila, D

    2001-03-01

    The prevalence of chronic widespread pain in the general population in Israel was comparable with reports from the USA, UK, and Canada. Comorbidity with fibromyalgia (FM) resulted in somatic hyperalgesia in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. One sixth of the subjects with chronic widespread pain in the general population were also found to have a mental disorder. Mechanisms involved in referred pain, temporal summation, muscle hyperalgesia, and muscle pain at rest were attenuated by the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist, ketamine, in FM patients. Delayed corticotropin release, after interleukin-6 administration, in FM was shown to be consistent with a defect in hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone neural function. The basal autonomic state of FM patients was characterized by increased sympathetic and decreased parasympathetic systems tones. The severity of functional impairment as assessed by the Medical Outcome Survey Short Form (SF-36) discriminated between patients with widespread pain alone and FM patients. Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) occurred in about 0.42% of a random community-based sample of 28,673 adults in Chicago, Illinois. A significant clinical overlap between CFS and FM was reported. Cytokine dysregulation was not found to be a singular or dominant factor in the pathogenesis of CFS. A favorable outcome of CFS in children was reported; two thirds recovered and resumed normal activities. No major therapeutic trials in FM and CFS were reported over the past year.

  7. Disambiguating Syntactic Triggers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakas, William Gregory; Fodor, Janet Dean

    2012-01-01

    We present data from an artificial language domain that suggest new contributions to the theory of syntactic triggers. Whether a learning algorithm is capable of matching the achievements of child learners depends in part on how much parametric ambiguity there is in the input. For practical reasons this cannot be established for the domain of all…

  8. Common Asthma Triggers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... air pollution can trigger an asthma attack. This pollution can come from factories, cars, and other sources. Pay attention to air quality forecasts on radio, television, and the Internet and check your newspaper to plan ... levels will be low. Cockroach Allergen Cockroaches and ...

  9. The ALFA Trigger Simulator

    CERN Document Server

    Dziedzic B

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents basic information about ALFA detectors used in the ATLAS experiment, and the structure of currently developed device used to test a new ALFA trigger interface. It discusses the block diagram of the device, principle of its operation, implementation details and future plans for developing the Simulator.

  10. Using of Strain-Sounterstrain method in the physical therapy of patients with myofascial pain syndrome of lumbosacral spine segment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lytovka M.V.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the influence of physiotherapy measures on sacrolumbal myofascial pain syndrome management in combination with Strain-Counterstrain method. Two groups of patients aged 35-55 years old took part in the experiment with 10 people in each group. In the experimental group besides classical methods of physiotherapy Strain-Counterstrain method was used. It proved to be efficient and appropriate for acute pain management during the first days of therapy.

  11. Muscle Repositioning: Combining Subjective and Objective Feedbacks in the Teaching and Practice of a Reflex-Based Myofascial Release Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Bertolucci, Luiz Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Muscle Repositioning (MR) is a new style of myofascial release that elicits involuntary motor reactions detectable by electromyography. This article* describes the principal theoretical and practical concepts of MR, and summarizes a workshop presented October 31, 2009, after the Second International Fascia Research Congress, held at Vrije Universitiet, Amsterdam. The manual mechanical input of MR integrates the client’s body segments into a block, which is evident as a result of the diagnosti...

  12. Intraplate triggered earthquakes: Observations and interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, S.E.; Seeber, L.; Armbruster, J.G.

    2003-01-01

    We present evidence that at least two of the three 1811-1812 New Madrid, central United States, mainshocks and the 1886 Charleston, South Carolina, earthquake triggered earthquakes at regional distances. In addition to previously published evidence for triggered earthquakes in the northern Kentucky/southern Ohio region in 1812, we present evidence suggesting that triggered events might have occurred in the Wabash Valley, to the south of the New Madrid Seismic Zone, and near Charleston, South Carolina. We also discuss evidence that earthquakes might have been triggered in northern Kentucky within seconds of the passage of surface waves from the 23 January 1812 New Madrid mainshock. After the 1886 Charleston earthquake, accounts suggest that triggered events occurred near Moodus, Connecticut, and in southern Indiana. Notwithstanding the uncertainty associated with analysis of historical accounts, there is evidence that at least three out of the four known Mw 7 earthquakes in the central and eastern United States seem to have triggered earthquakes at distances beyond the typically assumed aftershock zone of 1-2 mainshock fault lengths. We explore the possibility that remotely triggered earthquakes might be common in low-strain-rate regions. We suggest that in a low-strain-rate environment, permanent, nonelastic deformation might play a more important role in stress accumulation than it does in interplate crust. Using a simple model incorporating elastic and anelastic strain release, we show that, for realistic parameter values, faults in intraplate crust remain close to their failure stress for a longer part of the earthquake cycle than do faults in high-strain-rate regions. Our results further suggest that remotely triggered earthquakes occur preferentially in regions of recent and/or future seismic activity, which suggests that faults are at a critical stress state in only some areas. Remotely triggered earthquakes may thus serve as beacons that identify regions of

  13. Remotely triggered earthquakes following moderate main shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, S.E.

    2007-01-01

    Since 1992, remotely triggered earthquakes have been identified following large (M > 7) earthquakes in California as well as in other regions. These events, which occur at much greater distances than classic aftershocks, occur predominantly in active geothermal or volcanic regions, leading to theories that the earthquakes are triggered when passing seismic waves cause disruptions in magmatic or other fluid systems. In this paper, I focus on observations of remotely triggered earthquakes following moderate main shocks in diverse tectonic settings. I summarize evidence that remotely triggered earthquakes occur commonly in mid-continent and collisional zones. This evidence is derived from analysis of both historic earthquake sequences and from instrumentally recorded M5-6 earthquakes in eastern Canada. The latter analysis suggests that, while remotely triggered earthquakes do not occur pervasively following moderate earthquakes in eastern North America, a low level of triggering often does occur at distances beyond conventional aftershock zones. The inferred triggered events occur at the distances at which SmS waves are known to significantly increase ground motions. A similar result was found for 28 recent M5.3-7.1 earthquakes in California. In California, seismicity is found to increase on average to a distance of at least 200 km following moderate main shocks. This supports the conclusion that, even at distances of ???100 km, dynamic stress changes control the occurrence of triggered events. There are two explanations that can account for the occurrence of remotely triggered earthquakes in intraplate settings: (1) they occur at local zones of weakness, or (2) they occur in zones of local stress concentration. ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America.

  14. TO COMPARE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF MYOFASCIAL RELEASE TECHNIQUE VERSUS POSITIONAL RELEASE TECHNIQUE WITH LASER IN PATIENTS WITH UNILATERAL TRAPEZITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravish

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Trapezius pain is the classic stress pain and it is the most common musculoskeletal disorder. It is usually caused by placing too much stress or strain over the trapezius muscle. The upper trapezius muscle is designated as postural muscle and it is highly susceptible to overuse. Trapezius muscles help with the function of neck rotation, side bending and extension. Tightness in the muscles can decrease the range of motion of the neck. The decrease in motion can negatively affect the mobility of the cervical joints. Limited range of motion creates an increase in soft tissue tightness, with an ensuing pain-spasm cycle which can be difficult to break. Physiotherapy techniques like myofascial release technique and Positional release therapy has been proposed as an adjunct to conventional therapy to treat trapezitis. Giving myofascial release technique and positional release therapy along with LASER and exercises improves the cervical range of motion and relieves pain and enhances quality of life in the patient with trapezitis. Hence this study is aimed to determine the effect of myofascial release technique and positional release therapy in trapezitis. STUDY DESIGN: Comparative study design SETTING: Out Patient Department of Orthopedics, Kempegowda Institute of Medical Science Hospital and Research Center, Bangalore. Out Patient Department of Physiotherapy, Kempegowda Institute of Physiotherapy, Bangalore.

  15. Reconstruction of the tongue and mouth floor with the myofascial vastus lateralis free flap after cancer ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L; Liu, K; Shao, Z; Shang, Z-J

    2016-08-01

    The current study was undertaken to evaluate a novel approach to tongue and mouth floor reconstruction using the myofascial vastus lateralis free flap (MVLF). The surgical techniques, benefits, complication rate, and the aesthetic and functional results are described. A series of six patients underwent functional tongue reconstruction between July 2013 and November 2014. The myofascial vastus lateralis flap was obtained as follows: the vastus lateralis muscle was exposed, the neurovascular pedicle was identified, and the myofascial flap was raised. Postoperatively, the neotongue appeared plump and was able to maintain palatal contact. Moreover, no obvious decrease in flap volume was observed during the follow-up period. Most patients experienced good tongue mobility. Further use of the MVLF should confirm whether the mucous membrane on the surface of the flap becomes part of the tongue mucosa in the true sense, whether and how well the patients will recover their sense of taste, and the degree to which quality of life is improved after nerve anastomosis. So far, it appears to be a suitable approach to tongue and mouth floor reconstruction.

  16. Reconstruction of Abdominal Wall of a Chronically Infected Postoperative Wound with a Rectus Abdominis Myofascial Splitting Flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Kyu Bae

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background If a chronically infected abdominal wound develops, complications such asperitonitis and an abdominal wall defect could occur. This could prolong the patient’s hospitalstay and increase the possibility of re-operation or another infection as well. For this reason,a solution for infection control is necessary. In this study, surgery using a rectus abdominismuscle myofascial splitting flap was performed on an abdominal wall defect.Methods From 2009 to 2012, 5 patients who underwent surgery due to ovarian rupture,cesarean section, or uterine myoma were chosen. In each case, during the first week afteroperation, the wound showed signs of infection. Surgery was chosen because the wounds didnot resolve with dressing. Debridement was performed along the previous operation woundand dissection of the skin was performed to separate the skin and subcutaneous tissue fromthe attenuated rectus muscle and Scarpa’s fascial layers. Once the anterior rectus sheath andmuscle were adequately mobilized, the fascia and muscle flap were advanced medially sothat the skin defect could be covered for reconstruction.Results Upon 3-week follow-up after a rectus abdominis myofascial splitting flap operation,no major complication occurred. In addition, all of the patients showed satisfaction in termsof function and esthetics at 3 to 6 months post-surgery.Conclusions Using a rectus abdominis myofascial splitting flap has many esthetic andfunctional benefits over previous methods of abdominal defect treatment, and notably, itenabled infection control by reconstruction using muscle.

  17. A statistical analysis on Wenchuan aftershock activity triggered by earth tide%汶川地震余震活动固体潮调制的统计分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李金; 蒋海昆

    2011-01-01

    A statistical analysis on Wenchuan aftershock activity triggered by tidal is systematically studied based on Schuster's test, including earthquakes triggered by tidal force, tidal stress and tidal coulomb failure stress. The results show that a group of strong aftershocks which occur at the end of July to early August in 2008 at the north of the Wenchuan are obviously triggered by earth tide. The same conclusion is drawn by Schuster's smooth test of the tidal force, tidal stress and tidal coulomb failure stress. In addition, Wenchuan aftershock activity is obviously triggered by fortnight tide. In the north, the aftershocks happened more frequently in the first quarter and the last quarter of the moon, and in the south, the aftershocks happened more frequently in the first quarter and the last quarter of the moon and the full moon.%基于Schuster检验对汶川地震余震受固体潮的调制触发情况进行了系统的研究,包括对引潮力、潮汐应力和潮汐库仑破裂应力等触发地震情况的分时段分区段研究.结果表明,汶川北段2008年7月底至8月初的一组强余震受潮汐触发明显,引潮力、潮汐正应力及潮汐库仑破裂应力经Schuster检验平滑后均得到基本一致的结果.此外,汶川余震受半月潮的调制非常明显,北段余震多发生于上、下弦时段,南段地震多发生于上、下弦和望时段.

  18. The second level trigger system of FAST

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez,G; Berdugo, J; Casaus, J; Casella, V; De Laere, D; Deiters, K; Dick, P; Kirkby, J; Malgeri, L; Mañá, C; Marín, J; Pohl, M; Petitjean, C; Sánchez, E; Willmott, C

    2009-01-01

    The Fibre Active Scintillator Target (FAST) experiment is a novel imaging particle detector currently operating in a high-intensity π+ beam at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), Villigen, Switzerland. The detector is designed to perform a high precision measurement of the μ+ lifetime, in order to determine the Fermi constant, Gf, to 1 ppm precision. A dedicated second level (LV2) hardware trigger system has been developed for the experiment. It performs an online analysis of the π/μ decay chain by identifying the stopping position of each beam particle and detecting the subsequent appearance of the muon. The LV2 trigger then records the muon stop pixel and selectively triggers the Time-to-Digital Converters (TDCs) in the vicinity. A detailed description of the trigger system is presented in this paper.

  19. Improved Temporalis Myofascial Transfer Flap for Treatment of Facial Reanimation%改良颞肌筋膜瓣转移术治疗晚期面瘫

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐逸; 王喻; 花卉; 朱舟; 潘邓记

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨改良颞肌筋膜瓣转移术治疗晚期面瘫的疗效。方法:采用颞肌联合颞肌筋膜瓣,动态恢复患侧面部表情肌功能,对19例晚期面瘫患者(手术组)进行手术治疗。同时选取内科非手术治疗面瘫患者22例为对照组。随访6~18月。结果:对照组和手术组治疗后的改良Portmann量表评分分别为(11.2依4.1)分、(15.1依3.3)分,治疗总有效率分别为62.23%、84.17%,手术组疗效优于对照组(<0.05)。结论:改良颞肌筋膜瓣转移术是一种治疗面瘫的良好手术方式,尤其对于内科治疗无效的晚期面瘫患者具有显著疗效。%Objective:To observe the effect of improved temporal muscle fascia flap transfer operation on late facial paralysis. Methods: The temporal muscle and temporalis myofascial flap was used to dynamicly recover ipsilateral facial muscle function; the operation was performed on 19 patients with facial paralysis (operation group). And 22 patients without operation treatment were included as control group. The follow-up time was 6~18 months. Results: After rehabilitation exercise for 6~18 months, the follow-up showed static appearance and dynamic expression of muscle activity was improved obviously. After the treatment, the Portmann scale of the=control group and the operation group were (11.2±4.1) and (15.1±3.3) respectively, and the total effective rate were 62.23% and 84.17% respectively. The effect of operation group was better than that of the control group ( <0.05). Conclusion:Modified temporalis myofascial flap surgery is a good way to treat facial paralysis, especial-ly for patients with internal medicine treatment invalid.

  20. Optically triggered infrared photodetector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramiro, Íñigo; Martí, Antonio; Antolín, Elisa; López, Esther; Datas, Alejandro; Luque, Antonio; Ripalda, José M; González, Yolanda

    2015-01-14

    We demonstrate a new class of semiconductor device: the optically triggered infrared photodetector (OTIP). This photodetector is based on a new physical principle that allows the detection of infrared light to be switched ON and OFF by means of an external light. Our experimental device, fabricated using InAs/AlGaAs quantum-dot technology, demonstrates normal incidence infrared detection in the 2-6 μm range. The detection is optically triggered by a 590 nm light-emitting diode. Furthermore, the detection gain is achieved in our device without an increase of the noise level. The novel characteristics of OTIPs open up new possibilities for third generation infrared imaging systems ( Rogalski, A.; Antoszewski, J.; Faraone, L. J. Appl. Phys. 2009, 105 (9), 091101).

  1. The ARGUS vertex trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fast second level trigger has been developed for the ARGUS experiment which recognizes tracks originating from the interaction region. The processor compares the hits in the ARGUS Micro Vertex Drift Chamber to 245760 masks stored in random access memories. The masks which are fully defined in three dimensions are able to reject tracks originating in the wall of the narrow beampipe of 10.5 mm radius. (orig.)

  2. Trigger and data acquisition

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Nick

    2010-01-01

    The lectures address some of the issues of triggering and data acquisition in large high-energy physics experiments. Emphasis is placed on hadron-collider experiments that present a particularly challenging environment for event selection and data collection. However, the lectures also explain how T/DAQ systems have evolved over the years to meet new challenges. Some examples are given from early experience with LHC T/DAQ systems during the 2008 single-beam operations.

  3. Neural networks for triggering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denby, B. (Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (USA)); Campbell, M. (Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (USA)); Bedeschi, F. (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Pisa (Italy)); Chriss, N.; Bowers, C. (Chicago Univ., IL (USA)); Nesti, F. (Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa (Italy))

    1990-01-01

    Two types of neural network beauty trigger architectures, based on identification of electrons in jets and recognition of secondary vertices, have been simulated in the environment of the Fermilab CDF experiment. The efficiencies for B's and rejection of background obtained are encouraging. If hardware tests are successful, the electron identification architecture will be tested in the 1991 run of CDF. 10 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Patient triggered ventilation using a flow triggered system.

    OpenAIRE

    Hird, M F; Greenough, A

    1991-01-01

    The role of patient triggered ventilation (PTV) for the newborn was assessed using a new patient triggered ventilator, the Draeger Bablylog 8000, which incorporates significant improvements in both ventilator performance and the triggering system. Thirty three infants, median gestational age 30 weeks and postnatal age 2.5 days, were entered into the study to compare blood gases obtained during conventional and patient triggered ventilation. Oxygenation did not improve with PTV in the group ov...

  5. A trigger for beauty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of B-meson experiments, in a fixed-target high-energy proton machine (Tevatron) is discussed. Compared to a B-meson factory experiment, it can produce 105, Banti B's per hour, using 108 protons per second, but it suffers from high background and needs high selectivity to cope with the million times higher interaction rate. To overcome these difficulties a technique called the 'optical trigger for beauty' is proposed, based on the detection of Cherenkov photons produced in a 2 mm thick LiF crystal, through a fast photodetector. Its virtue is that it is opaque to minimum-bias events originating in a small target, but sensitive to the high impact parameter B-meson decay charged particles from a secondary vertex. Calculations and first simulations results give a good efficiency for B-meson detection. A multistep trigger, combining the 'optical trigger' and a tracking detector, allows significant selection and a consequent enrichment of the data sample. Taking into account its fast response (∝ 1 ns), the above considerations can be extended to other hadronic machines, especially those with high-rate environments such as the LHC or SSC. (orig.)

  6. Effect of high-intensity laser therapy in the management of myofascial pain syndrome of the trapezius: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dundar, Umit; Turkmen, Utku; Toktas, Hasan; Solak, Ozlem; Ulasli, Alper Murat

    2015-01-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) of the trapezius muscle is one of the main causes of neck pain. In this randomized, double-blind study, we evaluated the effects of high-intensity laser therapy (HILT) in female patients with chronic MPS of the trapezius muscle. The patients were assigned to two groups. The HILT group was treated with HILT and exercise, and the sham therapy group was treated with placebo HILT and exercise. The patients were assessed for pain, cervical active range of motion, disability, and quality of life. Evaluations were performed before treatment (week 0) and after treatment (weeks 4 and 12). Both groups showed significant improvement in all parameters at weeks 4 and 12. However, in a comparison of the percentage changes in the parameters at weeks 4 and 12 relative to pretreatment values, the HILT group showed greater improvement in pain scores, the neck disability index, and several subparts of the short-form 36 health survey (SF-36) (physical functioning, role limitations due to physical functioning, bodily pain, general health perceptions, social functioning, and role limitations due to emotional problems) than did the sham therapy group. We conclude that HILT is an effective therapeutic method in the treatment of patients with chronic MPS of the trapezius muscle.

  7. AMPLITUDE DISCRIMINATOR HAVING SEPARATE TRIGGERING AND RECOVERY CONTROLS UTILIZING AUTOMATIC TRIGGERING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, R.L.

    1962-01-23

    A transistorized amplitude discriminator circuit is described in which the initial triggering sensitivity and the recovery threshold are separately adjustable in a convenient manner. The discriminator is provided with two independent bias components, one of which is for circuit hysteresis (recovery) and one of which is for trigger threshold level. A switching circuit is provided to remove the second bias component upon activation of the trigger so that the recovery threshold is always at the point where the trailing edge of the input signal pulse goes through zero or other desired value. (AEC)

  8. Triggering of major eruptions recorded by actively forming cumulates%Scientific Reports文章:科学家发现火山爆发的触发因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马瀚青(译); 张树良(校)

    2012-01-01

    2012年10月12日,Scientific Reports发表英国南安普敦大学关于火山喷发机理的研究论文(Triggering of major eruptions recorded by actively forming cumulates)。文章认为,不断积累的岩浆结晶是火山喷发的触发因素。通过对火山碎屑沉积物中的结晶晶核(由岩浆中结晶物质不断积累所形成的岩浆岩)的分析,

  9. Central poststroke pain: somatosensory abnormalities and the presence of associated myofascial pain syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Oliveira Rogério Adas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Central post-stroke pain (CPSP is a neuropathic pain syndrome associated with somatosensory abnormalities due to central nervous system lesion following a cerebrovascular insult. Post-stroke pain (PSP refers to a broader range of clinical conditions leading to pain after stroke, but not restricted to CPSP, including other types of pain such as myofascial pain syndrome (MPS, painful shoulder, lumbar and dorsal pain, complex regional pain syndrome, and spasticity-related pain. Despite its recognition as part of the general PSP diagnostic possibilities, the prevalence of MPS has never been characterized in patients with CPSP patients. We performed a cross-sectional standardized clinical and radiological evaluation of patients with definite CPSP in order to assess the presence of other non-neuropathic pain syndromes, and in particular, the role of myofascial pain syndrome in these patients. Methods CPSP patients underwent a standardized sensory and motor neurological evaluation, and were classified according to stroke mechanism, neurological deficits, presence and profile of MPS. The Visual Analogic Scale (VAS, McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ, and Beck Depression Scale (BDS were filled out by all participants. Results Forty CPSP patients were included. Thirty-six (90.0% had one single ischemic stroke. Pain presented during the first three months after stroke in 75.0%. Median pain intensity was 10 (5 to 10. There was no difference in pain intensity among the different lesion site groups. Neuropathic pain was continuous-ongoing in 34 (85.0% patients and intermittent in the remainder. Burning was the most common descriptor (70%. Main aggravating factors were contact to cold (62.5%. Thermo-sensory abnormalities were universal. MPS was diagnosed in 27 (67.5% patients and was more common in the supratentorial extra-thalamic group (P Conclusions The presence of MPS is not an exception after stroke and may present in association with CPSP

  10. Paroxysmal discharges triggered by hearing spoken language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuzuki, H; Kasuga, I

    1978-04-01

    We examined the modality of EEG activation by various kinds of acoustic stimulation in a middle-aged Japanese female with epilepsy. Paroxysmal discharges were triggered in the right frontal area (F4) by verval stimulation. For the activation of EEG, concentration of attention on the stimulation was essential; therefore paroxysmal discharges were triggered most easily by verbal stimuli when someone spoke to the patient directly. Stronger responses than usual were triggered by specific words, and apparently reflected the interest and concern of the patient. The latency from stimulation to paroxysmal discharges ranged from 230 to 1,300 msec, suggesting that the responses may have been a function of the perception and recognition of acoustic stimuli. "Heard-word epilepsy" or "Angesprochene Epilepsie" is suggested in this case.

  11. Dendrite Injury Triggers DLK-Independent Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle C. Stone

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Axon injury triggers regeneration through activation of a conserved kinase cascade, which includes the dual leucine zipper kinase (DLK. Although dendrites are damaged during stroke, traumatic brain injury, and seizure, it is not known whether mature neurons monitor dendrite injury and initiate regeneration. We probed the response to dendrite damage using model Drosophila neurons. Two larval neuron types regrew dendrites in distinct ways after all dendrites were removed. Dendrite regeneration was also triggered by injury in adults. Next, we tested whether dendrite injury was initiated with the same machinery as axon injury. Surprisingly, DLK, JNK, and fos were dispensable for dendrite regeneration. Moreover, this MAP kinase pathway was not activated by injury to dendrites. Thus, neurons respond to dendrite damage and initiate regeneration without using the conserved DLK cascade that triggers axon regeneration.

  12. Activation of a P2Y4-like purinoceptor triggers an increase in cytosolic [Ca2+] in the red blood cells of the lizard Ameiva ameiva (Squamata, Teiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sartorello R.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of pathophysiological roles for purinoceptors are emerging, some of which have therapeutic potential. Erythrocytes are an important source of purines, which can be released under physiological and physiopathological conditions, acting on purinergic receptors associated with the same cell or with neighboring cells. Few studies have been conducted on lizards, and have been limited to ATP agonist itself. We have previously shown that the red blood cells (RBCs of the lizard Ameiva ameiva store Ca2+ in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER and that the purinergic agonist ATP triggers a rapid and transient increase of [Ca2+]c by mobilization of the cation from internal stores. We also reported the ability of the second messenger IP3 to discharge the ER calcium pool of the ER. Here we characterize the purinoceptor present in the cytoplasmic membrane of the RBCs of the lizard Ameiva ameiva by the selective use of ATP analogues and pyrimidine nucleotides. The nucleotides UTP, UDP, GTP, and ATPgammaS triggered a dose-dependent response, while interestingly 2MeSATP, 2ClATP, alpha, ß-ATP, and ADP failed to do so in a 1- to 200-µm con- centration. The EC50 obtained for the compounds tested was 41.77 µM for UTP, 48.11 µM for GTP, 53.11 µM for UDP, and 30.78 µM for ATPgammaS. The present data indicate that the receptor within the RBCs of Ameiva ameiva is a P2Y4-like receptor due to its pharmacological similarity to the mammalian P2Y4 receptor.

  13. Activation of a P2Y4-like purinoceptor triggers an increase in cytosolic [Ca2+] in the red blood cells of the lizard Ameiva ameiva (Squamata, Teiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartorello, R; Garcia, C R S

    2005-01-01

    An increasing number of pathophysiological roles for purinoceptors are emerging, some of which have therapeutic potential. Erythrocytes are an important source of purines, which can be released under physiological and physiopathological conditions, acting on purinergic receptors associated with the same cell or with neighboring cells. Few studies have been conducted on lizards, and have been limited to ATP agonist itself. We have previously shown that the red blood cells (RBCs) of the lizard Ameiva ameiva store Ca2+ in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and that the purinergic agonist ATP triggers a rapid and transient increase of [Ca2+]c by mobilization of the cation from internal stores. We also reported the ability of the second messenger IP3 to discharge the ER calcium pool of the ER. Here we characterize the purinoceptor present in the cytoplasmic membrane of the RBCs of the lizard Ameiva ameiva by the selective use of ATP analogues and pyrimidine nucleotides. The nucleotides UTP, UDP, GTP, and ATPgammaS triggered a dose-dependent response, while interestingly 2MeSATP, 2ClATP, alpha, ss-ATP, and ADP failed to do so in a 1- to 200-microm con- centration. The EC50 obtained for the compounds tested was 41.77 microM for UTP, 48.11 microM for GTP, 53.11 microM for UDP, and 30.78 microM for ATPgammaS. The present data indicate that the receptor within the RBCs of Ameiva ameiva is a P2Y4-like receptor due to its pharmacological similarity to the mammalian P2Y4 receptor. PMID:15665982

  14. Triggering filamentation using turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Eeltink, D; Marchiando, N; Hermelin, S; Gateau, J; Brunetti, M; Wolf, J P; Kasparian, J

    2016-01-01

    We study the triggering of single filaments due to turbulence in the beam path for a laser of power below the filamenting threshold. Turbulence can act as a switch between the beam not filamenting and producing single filaments. This 'positive' effect of turbulence on the filament probability, combined with our observation of off-axis filaments suggests the underlying mechanism is modulation instability caused by transverse perturbations. We hereby experimentally explore the interaction of modulation instability and turbulence, commonly associated with multiple-filaments, in the single-filament regime.

  15. Advance in Treatment for Myofascial Pain Syndrome (review)%肌筋膜疼痛综合征的治疗进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾成; 王宁华

    2014-01-01

    肌筋膜疼痛综合征的干预和康复手段在过去十余年中有着重大的发展和变化。本文综述最新的肌筋膜疼痛综合征的治疗方法及相关研究证据。%The intervention and rehabilitation for the management of myofascial pain syndrome significantly changed in the past de-cade. This review summarized the most recent advances in the treatment for myofascial pain syndromes.

  16. Chronic myofascial pain: management by low-output helium-neon laser therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waylonis, G W; Wilke, S; O'Toole, D; Waylonis, D A; Waylonis, D B

    1988-12-01

    Therapeutic benefits of low-output helium-neon laser therapy have not been established, but laser therapy has been suggested as an effective means of treating many acute and chronic musculoskeletal pain syndromes. Although not released for general clinical use by the FA, the helium-neon laser has been promoted to physical therapists and athletic trainers as potentially useful for the treatment of pain syndromes. In particular, it has been proposed that it may be more effective than conventional measures such as medication and conventional physical therapy in the treatment of myofascial pain syndromes (fibrositis, fibromyalgia). The citations in the literature include only case reports. Sixty-two patients were treated by using acupuncture points. Two sessions of five treatments were given six weeks apart. A crossover double-blind technique was used in the treatments. The clinical responses were assessed using portions of the McGill Pain Questionnaire. No statistical difference between the treatment and the placebo groups could be determined. PMID:3063230

  17. Management of myofascial pain: low-level laser therapy versus occlusal splints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öz, Selcen; Gökçen-Röhlig, Bilge; Saruhanoglu, Alp; Tuncer, Erman Bülent

    2010-11-01

    The present study was designed to compare the effects of low-level laser with occlusal splints in patients with signs and symptoms of myofascial pain (MP) dysfunction syndrome. A total of 40 (34 women and 6 men, with a mean age of 32.84 [SD, 10.70] years) were selected after the diagnosis of MP according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorder. The patients were randomly divided into 2 groups: study group (n = 20) and control group (n = 20). Low-level laser was applied to patients in the study group 2 times per week, for a total of 10 sessions. Patients in the control group were instructed to wear occlusal splints 24 h/d for 3 months. The functional examination was based on Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorder and pressure pain threshold values were obtained with the aid of an algometer in both groups. Patients' self-report of pain was evaluated with visual analog scale. Comparisons were made within and between the groups before and after treatment. Vertical movements showed statistically significant improvements after the treatments in both groups (P release and mandibular movement improvement in MP.

  18. Craniosacral therapy and myofascial release in entry-level physical therapy curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrett, S L

    1988-04-01

    The purposes of this study were 1) to discover the extent to which craniosacral therapy (CST) and myofascial release (MFR) instruction are included in entry-level physical therapy curricula; 2) to determine the amount of faculty and program director interest in such instruction; and 3) to determine what educational materials, if any, are desired. A one-page questionnaire was distributed to the program directors of 109 accredited entry-level physical therapy programs in the United States. Of the 95 respondents, 1 (1%) included a unit on CST only, 14 (15%) included a unit on MFR only, 14 (15%) included units on both CST and MFR, and 66 (69%) included neither. The highest percentages of programs with CST and MFR units were entry-level masters' degree programs and programs located in the Pacific Coast and Middle Atlantic regions. All of the units were presented within required courses, usually during the second year; most were taught by physical therapists. The greatest amount of instructional time was allotted for CST laboratory sessions (mean = 5.8 hours), and the least amount of time was allotted for MFR lectures (mean = 1.7 hours). The mos frequently cited reason for noninclusion of CST or MFR instruction was inadequate room in the current curricula. The most frequently requested materials were bibliographies and laboratory guides on CST and MFR. Implications of these findings are addressed, and suggestions for further research are given.

  19. Randomized Multicenter Feasibility Trial of Myofascial Physical Therapy for Treatment of Urologic Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzGerald, Mary P; Anderson, Rodney U; Potts, Jeannette; Payne, Christopher K; Peters, Kenneth M; Clemens, J Quentin; Kotarinos, Rhonda; Fraser, Laura; Cosby, Annamarie; Fortman, Carole; Neville, Cynthia; Badillo, Suzanne; Odabachian, Lisa; Sanfield, Anna; O’Dougherty, Betsy; Halle-Podell, Rick; Cen, Liyi; Chuai, Shannon; Landis, J Richard; Kusek, John W; Nyberg, Leroy M

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To determine the feasibility of conducting a randomized clinical trial designed to compare two methods of manual therapy (myofascial physical therapy (MPT) and global therapeutic massage (GTM)) among patients with urologic chronic pelvic pain syndromes. Materials and Methods Our goal was to recruit 48 subjects with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome or interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome at six clinical centers. Eligible patients were randomized to either MPT or GTM and were scheduled to receive up to 10 weekly treatments, each 1 hour in duration. Criteria to assess feasibility included adherence of therapists to prescribed therapeutic protocol as determined by records of treatment, adverse events which occurred during study treatment, and rate of response to therapy as assessed by the Patient Global Response Assessment (GRA). Primary outcome analysis compared response rates between treatment arms using Mantel-Haenszel methods. Results Twenty-three (49%) men and 24 (51%) women were randomized over a six month period. Twenty-four (51%) patients were randomized to GTM, 23 (49%) to MPT; 44 (94%) patients completed the study. Therapist adherence to the treatment protocols was excellent. The GRA response rate of 57% in the MPT group was significantly higher than the rate of 21% in the GTM treatment group (p=0.03). Conclusions The goals to judge feasibility of conducting a full-scale trial of physical therapy methods were met. The preliminary findings of a beneficial effect of MPT warrants further study. PMID:19535099

  20. Effects of Temperature on Chronic Trapezius Myofascial Pain Syndrome during Dry Needling Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of temperature on chronic trapezius myofascial pain syndrome during dry needling therapy. Sixty patients were randomized into two groups of dry needling (DN) alone (group A) and DN combined with heat therapy group (group B). Each patient was treated once and the therapeutic effect was assessed by the visual analogue scale (VAS), pressure pain threshold (PPT), and the 36-item short form health survey (SF-36) at seven days, one month, and three months after treatment. Evaluation based on VAS and PPT showed that the pain of patients in groups A and B was significantly (P pain in group B than group A at one and three months after treatment. The SF-36 evaluation demonstrated that the physical condition of patients in both groups showed significant (P < 0.05) improvement at one month and three months after treatment than before treatment. Our study suggests that both DN and DN heating therapy were effective in the treatment of trapezius MPS, and that DN heating therapy had better long-term effects than DN therapy. PMID:25383083

  1. Craniosacral therapy and myofascial release in entry-level physical therapy curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrett, S L

    1988-04-01

    The purposes of this study were 1) to discover the extent to which craniosacral therapy (CST) and myofascial release (MFR) instruction are included in entry-level physical therapy curricula; 2) to determine the amount of faculty and program director interest in such instruction; and 3) to determine what educational materials, if any, are desired. A one-page questionnaire was distributed to the program directors of 109 accredited entry-level physical therapy programs in the United States. Of the 95 respondents, 1 (1%) included a unit on CST only, 14 (15%) included a unit on MFR only, 14 (15%) included units on both CST and MFR, and 66 (69%) included neither. The highest percentages of programs with CST and MFR units were entry-level masters' degree programs and programs located in the Pacific Coast and Middle Atlantic regions. All of the units were presented within required courses, usually during the second year; most were taught by physical therapists. The greatest amount of instructional time was allotted for CST laboratory sessions (mean = 5.8 hours), and the least amount of time was allotted for MFR lectures (mean = 1.7 hours). The mos frequently cited reason for noninclusion of CST or MFR instruction was inadequate room in the current curricula. The most frequently requested materials were bibliographies and laboratory guides on CST and MFR. Implications of these findings are addressed, and suggestions for further research are given. PMID:3353463

  2. Ear Acupuncture Therapy for Masticatory Myofascial and Temporomandibular Pain: A Controlled Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Luciano Ambrosio; Grossmann, Eduardo; Januzzi, Eduardo; Gonçalves, Rafael Tardin Rosa Ferraz; Mares, Fernando Antonio Guedes; de Paula, Marcos Vinicius Queiroz; Carvalho, Antonio Carlos Pires

    2015-01-01

    Ear acupuncture works by reducing painful sensations with analgesic effect through microsystem therapy and has been demonstrated to be as effective as conventional therapies in the control of facial pain. This clinical trial aimed to evaluate the adjuvant action of auricular acupuncture through an observation of the evolution of temporomandibular and masticatory myofascial symptoms in two groups defined by the therapies elected: auricular acupuncture associated with occlusal splint (study) and the use of the occlusal splint plate alone (control). We have selected 20 patients, who were randomly allocated into two groups of ten individuals. Symptoms were evaluated in five different moments, every seven days. We analyzed the orofacial muscle and joint palpation in order to measure the intensity of the experienced pain. Both groups showed a statistically significant decrease in muscle and joint symptoms (p < 0.05). However, comparisons between the groups showed an expressive and significant reduction of symptomatology in the study group (p < 0.05) already on the first week of therapy. According to the results, to the methodological criteria developed and statistical analysis applied, the conclusion is that auricular acupuncture therapy has synergistic action on conventional occlusal splint treatment. It was demonstrated to be effective in the reduction of symptoms in the short term. PMID:26351510

  3. Ear Acupuncture Therapy for Masticatory Myofascial and Temporomandibular Pain: A Controlled Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Ambrosio Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ear acupuncture works by reducing painful sensations with analgesic effect through microsystem therapy and has been demonstrated to be as effective as conventional therapies in the control of facial pain. This clinical trial aimed to evaluate the adjuvant action of auricular acupuncture through an observation of the evolution of temporomandibular and masticatory myofascial symptoms in two groups defined by the therapies elected: auricular acupuncture associated with occlusal splint (study and the use of the occlusal splint plate alone (control. We have selected 20 patients, who were randomly allocated into two groups of ten individuals. Symptoms were evaluated in five different moments, every seven days. We analyzed the orofacial muscle and joint palpation in order to measure the intensity of the experienced pain. Both groups showed a statistically significant decrease in muscle and joint symptoms (p<0.05. However, comparisons between the groups showed an expressive and significant reduction of symptomatology in the study group (p<0.05 already on the first week of therapy. According to the results, to the methodological criteria developed and statistical analysis applied, the conclusion is that auricular acupuncture therapy has synergistic action on conventional occlusal splint treatment. It was demonstrated to be effective in the reduction of symptoms in the short term.

  4. Effects of Temperature on Chronic Trapezius Myofascial Pain Syndrome during Dry Needling Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of temperature on chronic trapezius myofascial pain syndrome during dry needling therapy. Sixty patients were randomized into two groups of dry needling (DN alone (group A and DN combined with heat therapy group (group B. Each patient was treated once and the therapeutic effect was assessed by the visual analogue scale (VAS, pressure pain threshold (PPT, and the 36-item short form health survey (SF-36 at seven days, one month, and three months after treatment. Evaluation based on VAS and PPT showed that the pain of patients in groups A and B was significantly (P<0.05 relieved at seven days, one month, and three months after treatment Compared to before treatment. There was significantly (P<0.05 less pain in group B than group A at one and three months after treatment. The SF-36 evaluation demonstrated that the physical condition of patients in both groups showed significant (P<0.05 improvement at one month and three months after treatment than before treatment. Our study suggests that both DN and DN heating therapy were effective in the treatment of trapezius MPS, and that DN heating therapy had better long-term effects than DN therapy.

  5. Comparisons of Prediction Models of Myofascial Pain Control after Dry Needling: A Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Ting Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study purposed to validate the use of artificial neural network (ANN models for predicting myofascial pain control after dry needling and to compare the predictive capability of ANNs with that of support vector machine (SVM and multiple linear regression (MLR. Methods. Totally 400 patients who have received dry needling treatments completed the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI at baseline and at 1 year postoperatively. Results. Compared to the MLR and SVM models, the ANN model generally had smaller mean square error (MSE and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE values in the training dataset and testing dataset. Most ANN models had MAPE values ranging from 3.4% to 4.6% and most had high prediction accuracy. The global sensitivity analysis also showed that pretreatment BPI score was the best parameter for predicting pain after dry needling. Conclusion. Compared with the MLR and SVM models, the ANN model in this study was more accurate in predicting patient-reported BPI scores and had higher overall performance indices. Further studies of this model may consider the effect of a more detailed database that includes complications and clinical examination findings as well as more detailed outcome data.

  6. Effects of Temperature on Chronic Trapezius Myofascial Pain Syndrome during Dry Needling Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Gao, Qian; Hou, Jingshan; Li, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of temperature on chronic trapezius myofascial pain syndrome during dry needling therapy. Sixty patients were randomized into two groups of dry needling (DN) alone (group A) and DN combined with heat therapy group (group B). Each patient was treated once and the therapeutic effect was assessed by the visual analogue scale (VAS), pressure pain threshold (PPT), and the 36-item short form health survey (SF-36) at seven days, one month, and three months after treatment. Evaluation based on VAS and PPT showed that the pain of patients in groups A and B was significantly (P < 0.05) relieved at seven days, one month, and three months after treatment Compared to before treatment. There was significantly (P < 0.05) less pain in group B than group A at one and three months after treatment. The SF-36 evaluation demonstrated that the physical condition of patients in both groups showed significant (P < 0.05) improvement at one month and three months after treatment than before treatment. Our study suggests that both DN and DN heating therapy were effective in the treatment of trapezius MPS, and that DN heating therapy had better long-term effects than DN therapy. PMID:25383083

  7. Photo activation of HPPH encapsulated in “Pocket” liposomes triggers multiple drug release and tumor cell killing in mouse breast cancer xenografts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sine J

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Jessica Sine,1,* Cordula Urban,2,* Derek Thayer,1 Heather Charron,2 Niksa Valim,2 Darrell B Tata,3 Rachel Schiff,4 Robert Blumenthal,1 Amit Joshi,2 Anu Puri1 1Membrane Structure and Function Section, Basic Research Laboratory, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute – Frederick, Frederick, MD, USA; 2Department of Radiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA; 3US Food and Drug Administration, CDRH/OSEL/Division of Physics, White Oak Campus, MD, USA; 4Lester and Sue Smith Breast Center, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: We recently reported laser-triggered release of photosensitive compounds from liposomes containing dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC and 1,2 bis(tricosa-10,12-diynoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DC8,9PC. We hypothesized that the permeation of photoactivated compounds occurs through domains of enhanced fluidity in the liposome membrane and have thus called them “Pocket” liposomes. In this study we have encapsulated the red light activatable anticancer photodynamic therapy drug 2-(1-Hexyloxyethyl-2-devinyl pyropheophorbide-a (HPPH (Ex/Em410/670 nm together with calcein (Ex/Em490/517 nm as a marker for drug release in Pocket liposomes. A mole ratio of 7.6:1 lipid:HPPH was found to be optimal, with >80% of HPPH being included in the liposomes. Exposure of liposomes with a cw-diode 660 nm laser (90 mW, 0–5 minutes resulted in calcein release only when HPPH was included in the liposomes. Further analysis of the quenching ratios of liposome-entrapped calcein in the laser treated samples indicated that the laser-triggered release occurred via the graded mechanism. In vitro studies with MDA-MB-231-LM2 breast cancer cell line showed significant cell killing upon treatment of cell-liposome suspensions with the laser. To assess in vivo efficacy, we implanted MDA-MB-231-LM2 cells containing the luciferase gene along the mammary fat pads

  8. The ATLAS trigger - commissioning with cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, J.

    2008-07-01

    The ATLAS detector at CERN's LHC will be exposed to proton-proton collisions from beams crossing at 40 MHz. At the design luminosity there are roughly 23 collisions per bunch crossing. ATLAS has designed a three-level trigger system to select potentially interesting events. The first-level trigger, implemented in custom-built electronics, reduces the incoming rate to less than 100 kHz with a total latency of less than 2.5μs. The next two trigger levels run in software on commercial PC farms. They reduce the output rate to 100-200 Hz. In preparation for collision data-taking which is scheduled to commence in May 2008, several cosmic-ray commissioning runs have been performed. Among the first sub-detectors available for commissioning runs are parts of the barrel muon detector including the RPC detectors that are used in the first-level trigger. Data have been taken with a full slice of the muon trigger and readout chain, from the detectors in one sector of the RPC system, to the second-level trigger algorithms and the data-acquisition system. The system is being prepared to include the inner-tracking detector in the readout and second-level trigger. We will present the status and results of these cosmic-ray based commissioning activities. This work will prove to be invaluable not only during the commissioning phase but also for cosmic-ray data-taking during the normal running for detector performance studies.

  9. Lumbar facet injection for the treatment of chronic piriformis myofascial pain syndrome: 52 case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang JT

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Jen-Ting Huang,1 Han-Yu Chen,2 Chang-Zern Hong,2 Ming-Ta Lin,3 Li-Wei Chou,4,5 Hsin-Shui Chen,6,7 Chien-Tsung Tsai,8 Wen-Dien Chang9  1Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, 2Department of Physical Therapy, Hung-Kuang University, Sha Lu, 3Kuan-Ta Rehabilitation and Pain Clinic, Taichung, Taiwan; 4Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, China Medical University Hospital, 5School of Chinese Medicine, College of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan; 6Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Bei-Gang Hospital, School of Medicine, China Medical University, Yun-Lin, Taiwan; 7School of Medicine, College of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan; 8Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Da-Chien Hospital, Miao-Li City, Taiwan; 9Department of Sports Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan Background and aims: The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of lumbar facet joint injection for piriformis myofascial pain syndrome. Methods: Fifty-two patients with chronic myofascial pain in the piriformis muscle each received a lumbar facet injection into the ipsilateral L5–S1 facet joint region, using the multiple insertion technique. Subjective pain intensity, trunk extension range, and lumbar facet signs were measured before, immediately after, and 2 weeks after injection. Thirty-six patients received follow-up for 6 months. Results: Immediately after the injection, 27 patients (51.9% had complete pain subsidence, 19 patients (36.5% had pain reduction to a tolerable level, and only 6 patients (11.5% had no pain relief to a tolerable level. Mean pain intensity was reduced from 7.4±0.9 to 1.6±2.1 after injection (P<0.01. This effectiveness lasted for 2 weeks in 49 patients (94.2%, and lasted for approximately 6 months in 35 (97.2% of 36 patients. The mean range of motion increased from 13.4±6.8 degrees to 22.1±6.0 degrees immediately

  10. Episodic tremor triggers small earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2011-08-01

    It has been suggested that episodic tremor and slip (ETS), the weak shaking not associated with measurable earthquakes, could trigger nearby earthquakes. However, this had not been confirmed until recently. Vidale et al. monitored seismicity in the 4-month period around a 16-day episode of episodic tremor and slip in March 2010 in the Cascadia region. They observed five small earthquakes within the subducting slab during the ETS episode. They found that the timing and locations of earthquakes near the tremor suggest that the tremor and earthquakes are related. Furthermore, they observed that the rate of earthquakes across the area was several times higher within 2 days of tremor activ