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Sample records for active mutator-like elements

  1. The protist Trichomonas vaginalis harbors multiple lineages of transcriptionally active Mutator-like elements

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    Pereira Gonçalo AG

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For three decades the Mutator system was thought to be exclusive of plants, until the first homolog representatives were characterized in fungi and in early-diverging amoebas earlier in this decade. Results Here, we describe and characterize four families of Mutator-like elements in a new eukaryotic group, the Parabasalids. These Trichomonas vaginalis Mutator- like elements, or TvMULEs, are active in T. vaginalis and patchily distributed among 12 trichomonad species and isolates. Despite their relatively distinctive amino acid composition, the inclusion of the repeats TvMULE1, TvMULE2, TvMULE3 and TvMULE4 into the Mutator superfamily is justified by sequence, structural and phylogenetic analyses. In addition, we identified three new TvMULE-related sequences in the genome sequence of Candida albicans. While TvMULE1 is a member of the MuDR clade, predominantly from plants, the other three TvMULEs, together with the C. albicans elements, represent a new and quite distinct Mutator lineage, which we named TvCaMULEs. The finding of TvMULE1 sequence inserted into other putative repeat suggests the occurrence a novel TE family not yet described. Conclusion These findings expand the taxonomic distribution and the range of functional motif of MULEs among eukaryotes. The characterization of the dynamics of TvMULEs and other transposons in this organism is of particular interest because it is atypical for an asexual species to have such an extreme level of TE activity; this genetic landscape makes an interesting case study for causes and consequences of such activity. Finally, the extreme repetitiveness of the T. vaginalis genome and the remarkable degree of sequence identity within its repeat families highlights this species as an ideal system to characterize new transposable elements.

  2. Identification of a peroxisome proliferator responsive element (PPRE)-like cis-element in mouse plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene promoter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jiegen; Li Xi; Huang Haiyan; Liu Honglei; Liu Deguo; Song Tanjing; Ma Chungu; Ma Duan; Song Houyan; Tang Qiqun

    2006-01-01

    PAI-1 is expressed and secreted by adipose tissue which may mediate the pathogenesis of obesity-associated cardiovascular complications. Evidence is presented in this report that PAI-1 is not expressed by preadipocyte, but significantly induced during 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation and the PAI-1 expression correlates with the induction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ). A peroxisome proliferator responsive element (PPRE)-like cis-element (-206TCCCCCATGCCCT-194) is identified in the mouse PAI-1 gene promoter by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) combined with transient transfection experiments; the PPRE-like cis-element forms a specific DNA-protein complex only with adipocyte nuclear extracts, not with preadipocyte nuclear extracts; the DNA-protein complex can be totally competed away by non-labeled consensus PPRE, and can be supershifted with PPARγ antibody. Mutation of this PPRE-like cis-element can abolish the transactivation of mouse PAI-1 promoter mediated by PPARγ. Specific PPARγ ligand Pioglitazone can significantly induce the PAI-1 expression, and stimulate the secretion of PAI-1 into medium

  3. Molecular characterization and diversity of a novel non-autonomous mutator-like transposon family in brassica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouroz, F.

    2015-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) are capable of mobilizing from one genomic location to other, with changes in their copy numbers. Mutator-like elements (MULEs) are DNA transposons characterized by 9 bp target site duplications (TSDs), with high variability in sequence and length, and include non-conserved terminal inverted repeats (TIRs). We identified and characterized a family of Mutator-like elements designated as Shahroz. The structural and molecular analyses revealed that family had a small number of mostly defective non-autonomous MULEs and has shown limited activity in the evolutionary history of the Brassica A-genome. The Shahroz elements range in size from 2734 to 3160 bp including 76 bp imperfect TIRs and 9 bp variable TSDs. The individual copies have shown high homology (52-99%) in their entire lengths. The study revealed that the elements are less in numbers but active in Brassica rapa genomes and PCR amplification revealed their specificity and amplification in A-genome containing diploid and polyploids Brassica. The phylogenetic analysis of Brassica MULEs with other plant Mutator elements revealed that no correlation exists between Brassica MULEs and other elements suggesting a separate line of evolution. Analyzing the regions flanking the insertions revealed that the insertions have showed a preference for AT rich regions. The detailed study of these insertions revealed that although less in number and small sizes, they have played a role in Brassica genome evolution by their mobilization. (author)

  4. Sequence diversity and copy number variation of Mutator-like transposases in wheat

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    Nobuaki Asakura

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Partial transposase-coding sequences of Mutator-like elements (MULEs were isolated from a wild einkorn wheat, Triticum urartu, by degenerate PCR. The isolated sequences were classified into a MuDR or Class I clade and divided into two distinct subclasses (subclass I and subclass II. The average pair-wise identity between members of both subclasses was 58.8% at the nucleotide sequence level. Sequence diversity of subclass I was larger than that of subclass II. DNA gel blot analysis showed that subclass I was present as low copy number elements in the genomes of all Triticum and Aegilops accessions surveyed, while subclass II was present as high copy number elements. These two subclasses seemed uncapable of recognizing each other for transposition. The number of copies of subclass II elements was much higher in Aegilops with the S, Sl and D genomes and polyploid Triticum species than in diploid Triticum with the A genome, indicating that active transposition occurred in S, Sl and D genomes before polyploidization. DNA gel blot analysis of six species selected from three subfamilies of Poaceae demonstrated that only the tribe Triticeae possessed both subclasses. These results suggest that the differentiation of these two subclasses occurred before or immediately after the establishment of the tribe Triticeae.

  5. Elimination of active tad elements during the sexual phase of the Neurospora crassa life cycle.

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    Anderson, C; Tang, Q; Kinsey, J A

    2001-06-01

    Tad is an active LINE-like retrotransposon isolated from the Adiopodoumé strain of Neurospora crassa. Extensive analysis of other Neurospora strains has revealed no other strain with active Tad, but all strains tested have multiple copies of defective Tad elements. We have examined the ability of Tad to survive during the sexual cycle of Neurospora and find that active Tad is rapidly eliminated. The characteristics of this elimination suggest that the repeat-induced point mutation (RIP) mechanism was responsible. By the use of transformation to switch the mating type of the Adiopodoumé strain we concluded that this strain is not defective in the RIP process. Analysis of defective Tad elements isolated from a variety of strains indicates that the major difference between these elements and active Tad is due to the presence of a large number of G-C to A-T transition mutations. This would be expected if the changes were due primarily to the RIP process. Mapping of a selection of defective Tad elements reveals that they are present on all of the chromosomes; however, many of the elements are not widely shared among strains. This suggests that repeated introduction and elimination of Tad elements has occurred. Mechanisms that might be responsible for this repeated introduction are discussed. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  6. [Active miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements transposon in plants: a review].

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    Hu, Bingjie; Zhou, Mingbing

    2018-02-25

    Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements transposon is a special transposon that could transpose by "cut-paste" mechanism, which is one of characteristics of DNA transposons. Otherwise, the copy number of MITEs is very high, which is one of characteristics of RNA transposons. Many MITE families have been reported, but little about active MITEs. We summarize recent advances in studying active MITEs. Most the MITEs belong to the Tourist-like family, such as mPing, mGing, PhTourist1, Tmi1 and PhTst-3. Additionally, DTstu1 and MITE-39 belong to Stowaway-like family, and AhMITEs1 belongs to Mutator-like family. Moreover, we summarize the structure (terminal inverse repeats and target site duplications), copy number, evolution pattern and transposition characteristics of these active MITEs, to provide the foundation for the identification of other active MITEs and subsequent research on MITE transposition and amplification mechanism.

  7. Toll-like receptors and cancer: MYD88 mutation and inflammation

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    James Q Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs expressed on immune cells are crucial for the early detection of invading pathogens, in initiating early innate immune response and in orchestrating the adaptive immune response. PRRs are activated by specific pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs that are present in pathogenic microbes or nucleic acids of viruses or bacteria. However, inappropriate activation of these PRRs, such as the Toll-like receptors (TLRs, due to genetic lesions or chronic inflammation has been demonstrated to be a major cause of many haematological malignancies. Gain-of-function mutations in the TLR adaptor protein MYD88 found in 39% of the activated B cell type of diffuse large B cell lymphomas (ABC-DLBCL and almost 100% of Waldenström’s macroglobulinemia (WM further highlight the involvement of TLRs in these malignancies. MYD88 mutations result in the chronic activation of TLR signalling pathways, thus the constitutive activation of the transcription factor NFκB to promote cell survival and proliferation. These recent insights into TLR pathway driven malignancies warrant the need for a better understanding of TLRs in cancers and the development of novel anti-cancer therapies targeting TLRs. This review focuses on Toll-like receptors function and signalling in normal or inflammatory conditions, and how mutations can also hijack the TLR signalling pathways to give rise to cancer. Lastly, we discuss how potential therapeutic agents could be used to restore normal responses to TLRs and have long lasting anti-tumour effects.

  8. Bi-directional SIFT predicts a subset of activating mutations.

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    William Lee

    Full Text Available Advancements in sequencing technologies have empowered recent efforts to identify polymorphisms and mutations on a global scale. The large number of variations and mutations found in these projects requires high-throughput tools to identify those that are most likely to have an impact on function. Numerous computational tools exist for predicting which mutations are likely to be functional, but none that specifically attempt to identify mutations that result in hyperactivation or gain-of-function. Here we present a modified version of the SIFT (Sorting Intolerant from Tolerant algorithm that utilizes protein sequence alignments with homologous sequences to identify functional mutations based on evolutionary fitness. We show that this bi-directional SIFT (B-SIFT is capable of identifying experimentally verified activating mutants from multiple datasets. B-SIFT analysis of large-scale cancer genotyping data identified potential activating mutations, some of which we have provided detailed structural evidence to support. B-SIFT could prove to be a valuable tool for efforts in protein engineering as well as in identification of functional mutations in cancer.

  9. Identification of FASTKD2 compound heterozygous mutations as the underlying cause of autosomal recessive MELAS-like syndrome.

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    Yoo, Da Hye; Choi, Young-Chul; Nam, Da Eun; Choi, Sun Seong; Kim, Ji Won; Choi, Byung-Ok; Chung, Ki Wha

    2017-07-01

    Mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) is a condition that affects many parts of the body, particularly the brain and muscles. This study examined a Korean MELAS-like syndrome patient with seizure, stroke-like episode, and optic atrophy. Target sequencing of whole mtDNA and 73 nuclear genes identified compound heterozygous mutations p.R205X and p.L255P in the FASTKD2. Each of his unaffected parents has one of the two mutations, and both mutations were not found in 302 controls. FASTKD2 encodes a FAS-activated serine-threonine (FAST) kinase domain 2 which locates in the mitochondrial inner compartment. A FASTKD2 nonsense mutation was once reported as the cause of a recessive infantile mitochondrial encephalomyopathy. The present case showed relatively mild symptoms with a late onset age, compared to a previous patient with FASTKD2 mutation, implicating an inter-allelic clinical heterogeneity. Because this study is the second report of an autosomal recessive mitochondrial encephalomyopathy patient with a FASTKD2 mutation, it will extend the phenotypic spectrum of the FASTKD2 mutation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Activating HER2 mutations in HER2 gene amplification negative breast cancer.

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    Bose, Ron; Kavuri, Shyam M; Searleman, Adam C; Shen, Wei; Shen, Dong; Koboldt, Daniel C; Monsey, John; Goel, Nicholas; Aronson, Adam B; Li, Shunqiang; Ma, Cynthia X; Ding, Li; Mardis, Elaine R; Ellis, Matthew J

    2013-02-01

    Data from 8 breast cancer genome-sequencing projects identified 25 patients with HER2 somatic mutations in cancers lacking HER2 gene amplification. To determine the phenotype of these mutations, we functionally characterized 13 HER2 mutations using in vitro kinase assays, protein structure analysis, cell culture, and xenograft experiments. Seven of these mutations are activating mutations, including G309A, D769H, D769Y, V777L, P780ins, V842I, and R896C. HER2 in-frame deletion 755-759, which is homologous to EGF receptor (EGFR) exon 19 in-frame deletions, had a neomorphic phenotype with increased phosphorylation of EGFR or HER3. L755S produced lapatinib resistance, but was not an activating mutation in our experimental systems. All of these mutations were sensitive to the irreversible kinase inhibitor, neratinib. These findings show that HER2 somatic mutation is an alternative mechanism to activate HER2 in breast cancer and they validate HER2 somatic mutations as drug targets for breast cancer treatment. We show that the majority of HER2 somatic mutations in breast cancer patients are activating mutations that likely drive tumorigenesis. Several patients had mutations that are resistant to the reversible HER2 inhibitor lapatinib, but are sensitive to the irreversible HER2 inhibitor, neratinib. Our results suggest that patients with HER2 mutation–positive breast cancers could benefit from existing HER2-targeted drugs.

  11. Staphylococcal SCCmec elements encode an active MCM-like helicase and thus may be replicative

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    Mir-Sanchis, Ignacio; Roman, Christina A.; Misiura, Agnieszka; Pigli, Ying Z.; Boyle-Vavra, Susan; Rice , Phoebe A. (UC)

    2016-08-29

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a public-health threat worldwide. Although the mobile genomic island responsible for this phenotype, staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCC), has been thought to be nonreplicative, we predicted DNA-replication-related functions for some of the conserved proteins encoded by SCC. We show that one of these, Cch, is homologous to the self-loading initiator helicases of an unrelated family of genomic islands, that it is an active 3'-to-5' helicase and that the adjacent ORF encodes a single-stranded DNA–binding protein. Our 2.9-Å crystal structure of intact Cch shows that it forms a hexameric ring. Cch, like the archaeal and eukaryotic MCM-family replicative helicases, belongs to the pre–sensor II insert clade of AAA+ ATPases. Additionally, we found that SCC elements are part of a broader family of mobile elements, all of which encode a replication initiator upstream of their recombinases. Replication after excision would enhance the efficiency of horizontal gene transfer.

  12. Reverted glutathione S-transferase-like genes that influence flower color intensity of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) originated from excision of a transposable element.

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    Momose, Masaki; Itoh, Yoshio; Umemoto, Naoyuki; Nakayama, Masayoshi; Ozeki, Yoshihiro

    2013-12-01

    A glutathione S-transferase-like gene, DcGSTF2, is responsible for carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) flower color intensity. Two defective genes, DcGSTF2mu with a nonsense mutation and DcGSTF2-dTac1 containing a transposable element dTac1, have been characterized in detail in this report. dTac1 is an active element that produces reverted functional genes by excision of the element. A pale-pink cultivar 'Daisy' carries both defective genes, whereas a spontaneous deep-colored mutant 'Daisy-VPR' lost the element from DcGSTF2-dTac1. This finding confirmed that dTac1 is active and that the resulting reverted gene, DcGSTF2rev1, missing the element is responsible for this color change. Crosses between the pale-colored cultivar '06-LA' and a deep-colored cultivar 'Spectrum' produced segregating progeny. Only the deep-colored progeny had DcGSTF2rev2 derived from the 'Spectrum' parent, whereas progeny with pale-colored flowers had defective forms from both parents, DcGSTF2mu and DcGSTF2-dTac1. Thus, DcGSTF2rev2 had functional activity and likely originated from excision of dTac1 since there was a footprint sequence at the vacated site of the dTac1 insertion. Characterizing the DcGSTF2 genes in several cultivars revealed that the two functional genes, DcGSTF2rev1 and DcGSTF2rev2, have been used for some time in carnation breeding with the latter in use for more than half a century.

  13. Mutator activity in Schizophyllum commune

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    Shneyour, Y.; Koltin, Y. (Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). Dept. of Microbiology)

    1983-01-01

    A strain with an elevated level of spontaneous mutations and an especially high rate of reversion at a specific locus (pab/sup -/) was identified. The mutator trait is recessive. UV sensitivity and the absence of a UV-specific endonucleolytic activity were associated with the enhancement of the mutation rate in mutator strains. The endonuclease associated with the regulation of the mutation rate also acted on single-stranded DNA. The molecular weight of this enzyme is about 38,000 daltons.

  14. Mutations in ash1 and trx enhance P-element-dependent silencing in Drosophila melanogaster.

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    McCracken, Allen; Locke, John

    2016-08-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster, the mini-w(+) transgene in Pci is normally expressed throughout the adult eye; however, when other P or KP elements are present, a variegated-eye phenotype results, indicating random w(+) silencing during development called P-element-dependent silencing (PDS). Mutant Su(var)205 and Su(var)3-7 alleles act as haplo-suppressors/triplo-enhancers of this variegated phenotype, indicating that these heterochromatic modifiers act dose dependently in PDS. Previously, we recovered a spontaneous mutation of P{lacW}ci(Dplac) called P{lacW}ci(DplacE1) (E1) that variegated in the absence of P elements, presumably due to the insertion of an adjacent gypsy element. From a screen for genetic modifiers of E1 variegation, we describe here the isolation of five mutations in ash1 and three in trx that enhance the E1 variegated phenotype in a dose-dependent and cumulative manner. These mutant alleles enhance PDS at E1, and in E1/P{lacW}ci(Dplac), but suppress position effect variegation (PEV) at In(1)w(m)(4). This opposite action is consistent with a model where ASH1 and TRX mark transcriptionally active chromatin domains. If ASH1 or TRX function is lost or reduced, heterochromatin can spread into these domains creating a sink that diverts heterochromatic proteins from other variegating locations, which then may express a suppressed phenotype.

  15. GBA2 Mutations Cause a Marinesco-Sjögren-Like Syndrome: Genetic and Biochemical Studies.

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    Kristoffer Haugarvoll

    Full Text Available With the advent new sequencing technologies, we now have the tools to understand the phenotypic diversity and the common occurrence of phenocopies. We used these techniques to investigate two Norwegian families with an autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia with cataracts and mental retardation.Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP chip analysis followed by Exome sequencing identified a 2 bp homozygous deletion in GBA2 in both families, c.1528_1529del [p.Met510Valfs*17]. Furthermore, we report the biochemical characterization of GBA2 in these patients. Our studies show that a reduced activity of GBA2 is sufficient to elevate the levels of glucosylceramide to similar levels as seen in Gaucher disease. Furthermore, leucocytes seem to be the proper enzyme source for in vitro analysis of GBA2 activity.We report GBA2 mutations causing a Marinesco-Sjögren-like syndrome in two Norwegian families. One of the families was originally diagnosed with Marinesco-Sjögren syndrome based on an autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia with cataracts and mental retardation. Our findings highlight the phenotypic variability associated with GBA2 mutations, and suggest that patients with Marinesco-Sjögren-like syndromes should be tested for mutations in this gene.

  16. XPD Helicase Structures and Activities: Insights into the Cancer and Aging Phenotypes from XPD Mutations

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    Tainer, John; Fan, Li; Fuss, Jill O.; Cheng, Quen J.; Arvai, Andrew S.; Hammel, Michal; Roberts, Victoria A.; Cooper, Priscilla K.; Tainer, John A.

    2008-06-02

    Mutations in XPD helicase, required for nucleotide excision repair (NER) as part of the transcription/repair complex TFIIH, cause three distinct phenotypes: cancer-prone xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), or aging disorders Cockayne syndrome (CS), and trichothiodystrophy (TTD). To clarify molecular differences underlying these diseases, we determined crystal structures of the XPD catalytic core from Sulfolobus acidocaldarius and measured mutant enzyme activities. Substrate-binding grooves separate adjacent Rad51/RecA-like helicase domains (HD1, HD2) and an arch formed by 4FeS and Arch domains. XP mutations map along the HD1 ATP-binding edge and HD2 DNA-binding channel and impair helicase activity essential for NER. XP/CS mutations both impair helicase activity and likely affect HD2 functional movement. TTD mutants lose or retain helicase activity but map to sites in all four domains expected to cause framework defects impacting TFIIH integrity. These results provide a foundation for understanding disease consequences of mutations in XPD and related 4Fe-4S helicases including FancJ.

  17. XPD Helicase Structures And Activities: Insights Into the Cancer And Aging Phenotypes From XPD Mutations

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    Fan, L.; Fuss, J.O.; Cheng, Q.J.; Arvai, A.S.; Hammel, M.; Roberts, V.A.; Cooper, P.K.; Tainer, J.A.

    2009-05-18

    Mutations in XPD helicase, required for nucleotide excision repair (NER) as part of the transcription/repair complex TFIIH, cause three distinct phenotypes: cancer-prone xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), or aging disorders Cockayne syndrome (CS), and trichothiodystrophy (TTD). To clarify molecular differences underlying these diseases, we determined crystal structures of the XPD catalytic core from Sulfolobus acidocaldarius and measured mutant enzyme activities. Substrate-binding grooves separate adjacent Rad51/RecA-like helicase domains (HD1, HD2) and an arch formed by 4FeS and Arch domains. XP mutations map along the HD1 ATP-binding edge and HD2 DNA-binding channel and impair helicase activity essential for NER. XP/CS mutations both impair helicase activity and likely affect HD2 functional movement. TTD mutants lose or retain helicase activity but map to sites in all four domains expected to cause framework defects impacting TFIIH integrity. These results provide a foundation for understanding disease consequences of mutations in XPD and related 4Fe-4S helicases including FancJ.

  18. Comparative active-site mutation study of human and Caenorhabditis elegans thymidine kinase 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Tine; Uhlin, Ulla; Munch-Petersen, Birgitte

    2012-01-01

    surrounding the substrate base. In CeTK1, some of these mutations led to increased activity with deoxycytidine and deoxyguanosine, two unusual substrates for TK1-like kinases. In HuTK1, mutation of T163 to S resulted in a kinase with a 140-fold lower K(m) for the antiviral nucleoside analogue 3'-azido-3...

  19. A novel mutation in the ELOVL4 gene causes autosomal dominant Stargardt-like macular dystrophy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maugeri, A.; Meire, F.; Hoyng, C.B.; Vink, C.W.; Regemorter, N. van; Karan, G.; Yang, Z.; Cremers, F.P.M.; Zhang, K.

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE: To conduct clinical and genetic studies in a European family with autosomal dominant Stargardt-like macular dystrophy (adSTGD-like MD) and to investigate the functional consequences of a novel ELOVL4 mutation. METHODS: Ophthalmic examination and mutation screening by direct sequencing of

  20. p53 mutations promote proteasomal activity.

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    Oren, Moshe; Kotler, Eran

    2016-07-27

    p53 mutations occur very frequently in human cancer. Besides abrogating the tumour suppressive functions of wild-type p53, many of those mutations also acquire oncogenic gain-of-function activities. Augmentation of proteasome activity is now reported as a common gain-of-function mechanism shared by different p53 mutants, which promotes cancer resistance to proteasome inhibitors.

  1. Identification and functional analysis of a CDE/CHR element in the POLDI promoter

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    SONG NanMeng; ZHU XiaoYu; SHI Lei; AN Jing; WU YanWei; SANG JianLi

    2009-01-01

    Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206, China DNA polymerase delta is encoded by the POLD1 gene, the transcription of which is strictly cell cy-cle-dependent. However, the means by which POLD1 transcription is regulated by the cell cycle mechanism is currently unknown. We discovered a novel element in the POLD1 promoter known as a CDE(cell cycle-dependent element)lCHR(cell cycle gene homology region) element. A series of luci-ferase reporter constructs containing various POLD1 promoter mutations were used to investigate the role of the CDF_JCHR element in POLD1 transcription. When the CDE/CHR element was mutated, the promoter activity was up-regulated, and the cell-cycle related factors E2F1 and p21 stopped regulating the promoter. Furthermore, cell cycle-dependent changes in the promoter activity required the integra-tive CDE/CHR element. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) revealed the presence of at least three types of DNA/protein complexes binding to the CDE/CHR element. Our findings provide strong evidence that the CDE/CHR-like sequence is an active functional element in the POLD1 promoter, which is important for the cell cycle regulation of the POLD1 gene.

  2. The industrial melanism mutation in British peppered moths is a transposable element.

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    Van't Hof, Arjen E; Campagne, Pascal; Rigden, Daniel J; Yung, Carl J; Lingley, Jessica; Quail, Michael A; Hall, Neil; Darby, Alistair C; Saccheri, Ilik J

    2016-06-02

    Discovering the mutational events that fuel adaptation to environmental change remains an important challenge for evolutionary biology. The classroom example of a visible evolutionary response is industrial melanism in the peppered moth (Biston betularia): the replacement, during the Industrial Revolution, of the common pale typica form by a previously unknown black (carbonaria) form, driven by the interaction between bird predation and coal pollution. The carbonaria locus has been coarsely localized to a 200-kilobase region, but the specific identity and nature of the sequence difference controlling the carbonaria-typica polymorphism, and the gene it influences, are unknown. Here we show that the mutation event giving rise to industrial melanism in Britain was the insertion of a large, tandemly repeated, transposable element into the first intron of the gene cortex. Statistical inference based on the distribution of recombined carbonaria haplotypes indicates that this transposition event occurred around 1819, consistent with the historical record. We have begun to dissect the mode of action of the carbonaria transposable element by showing that it increases the abundance of a cortex transcript, the protein product of which plays an important role in cell-cycle regulation, during early wing disc development. Our findings fill a substantial knowledge gap in the iconic example of microevolutionary change, adding a further layer of insight into the mechanism of adaptation in response to natural selection. The discovery that the mutation itself is a transposable element will stimulate further debate about the importance of 'jumping genes' as a source of major phenotypic novelty.

  3. Inherited STING-activating mutation underlies a familial inflammatory syndrome with lupus-like manifestations.

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    Jeremiah, Nadia; Neven, Bénédicte; Gentili, Matteo; Callebaut, Isabelle; Maschalidi, Sophia; Stolzenberg, Marie-Claude; Goudin, Nicolas; Frémond, Marie-Louis; Nitschke, Patrick; Molina, Thierry J; Blanche, Stéphane; Picard, Capucine; Rice, Gillian I; Crow, Yanick J; Manel, Nicolas; Fischer, Alain; Bader-Meunier, Brigitte; Rieux-Laucat, Frédéric

    2014-12-01

    Innate immunity to viral infection involves induction of the type I IFN response; however, dysfunctional regulation of this pathway leads to inappropriate inflammation. Here, we evaluated a nonconsanguineous family of mixed European descent, with 4 members affected by systemic inflammatory and autoimmune conditions, including lupus, with variable clinical expression. We identified a germline dominant gain-of-function mutation in TMEM173, which encodes stimulator of type I IFN gene (STING), in the affected individuals. STING is a key signaling molecule in cytosolic DNA-sensing pathways, and STING activation normally requires dimerization, which is induced by 2'3' cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) produced by the cGAMP synthase in response to cytosolic DNA. Structural modeling supported constitutive activation of the mutant STING protein based on stabilized dimerization. In agreement with the model predictions, we found that the STING mutant spontaneously localizes in the Golgi of patient fibroblasts and is constitutively active in the absence of exogenous 2'3'-cGAMP in vitro. Accordingly, we observed elevated serum IFN activity and a type I IFN signature in peripheral blood from affected family members. These findings highlight the key role of STING in activating both the innate and adaptive immune responses and implicate aberrant STING activation in features of human lupus.

  4. Transposable elements in phytopathogenic Verticillium spp.: insights into genome evolution and inter- and intra-specific diversification

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    Amyotte Stefan G

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Verticillium dahliae (Vd and Verticillium albo-atrum (Va are cosmopolitan soil fungi causing very disruptive vascular diseases on a wide range of crop plants. To date, no sexual stage has been identified in either microorganism suggesting that somatic mutation is a major force in generating genetic diversity. Whole genome comparative analysis of the recently sequenced strains VdLs.17 and VaMs.102 revealed that non-random insertions of transposable elements (TEs have contributed to the generation of four lineage-specific (LS regions in VdLs.17. Results We present here a detailed analysis of Class I retrotransposons and Class II “cut-and-paste” DNA elements detected in the sequenced Verticillium genomes. We report also of their distribution in other Vd and Va isolates from various geographic origins. In VdLs.17, we identified and characterized 56 complete retrotransposons of the Gypsy-, Copia- and LINE-like types, as well as 34 full-length elements of the “cut-and-paste” superfamilies Tc1/mariner, Activator and Mutator. While Copia and Tc1/mariner were present in multiple identical copies, Activator and Mutator sequences were highly divergent. Most elements comprised complete ORFs, had matching ESTs and showed active transcription in response to stress treatment. Noticeably, we found evidences of repeat-induced point mutation (RIP only in some of the Gypsy retroelements. While Copia-, Gypsy- and Tc1/mariner-like transposons were prominent, a large variation in presence of the other types of mobile elements was detected in the other Verticillium spp. strains surveyed. In particular, neither complete nor defective “cut-and-paste” TEs were found in VaMs.102. Conclusions Copia-, Gypsy- and Tc1/mariner-like transposons are the most wide-spread TEs in the phytopathogens V. dahliae and V. albo-atrum. In VdLs.17, we identified several retroelements and “cut-and-paste” transposons still potentially active. Some of these

  5. Mutation Screening of the Krüppel-like Factor 1 Gene in Individuals With Increased Fetal Hemoglobin Referred for Hemoglobinopathy Investigation in South of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Mohammad; Ershadi Oskouei, Sanaz; Shariati, Gholamreza; Babaei, Esmaeil; Galehdari, Hamid; Saberi, Alihossein; Sedaghat, Alireza

    2018-04-01

    Any mutation in the Krüppel-like factor 1 (KLF1) gene may interfere with its proper related function in the erythropoiesis process and lead to alterations in proper activation of its downstream protein through globin switching, which results in an increase in fetal hemoglobin (HbF). This study aimed to investigate whether KLF1 mutation can associate with high level of HbF in individuals with increased fetal hemoglobin referred for screening of hemoglobinopathies in south of Iran. The human KLF1 gene was amplified via the polymerase chain reaction procedure, and sequencing was used to determine any mutation in these patients. Moreover, XmnI polymorphisms in the position of -158 of γ-globin gene promoter were analyzed in all patients by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism. Analysis of sequencing revealed a missense mutation in the KLF1 gene, p.Ser102Pro (c.304T>C), which was detectable in 10 of 23 cases with elevated HbF level. This mutation was only detected in individuals who had a HbF level between 3.1% and 25.6%. Statistical analysis showed that the frequency of C allele is significantly correlated with a high level of HbF (PC) in the KLF1 gene in β-thalassemia patients with increased level of fetal hemoglobin. According to statistical results of p.Ser102Pro mutation and XmnI polymorphism, it has been strongly suggested that both polymorphisms have an association with increased HbF samples. These nucleotide changes alone may not be the only elements raising the level of HbF, and other regulatory and modifying factors also play a role in HbF production.

  6. The FTD-like syndrome causing TREM2 T66M mutation impairs microglia function, brain perfusion, and glucose metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinberger, Gernot; Brendel, Matthias; Mracsko, Eva; Wefers, Benedikt; Groeneweg, Linda; Xiang, Xianyuan; Focke, Carola; Deußing, Maximilian; Suárez-Calvet, Marc; Mazaheri, Fargol; Parhizkar, Samira; Pettkus, Nadine; Wurst, Wolfgang; Feederle, Regina; Bartenstein, Peter; Mueggler, Thomas; Arzberger, Thomas; Knuesel, Irene; Rominger, Axel; Haass, Christian

    2017-07-03

    Genetic variants in the triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) increase the risk for several neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Homozygous TREM2 missense mutations, such as p.T66M, lead to the FTD-like syndrome, but how they cause pathology is unknown. Using CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing, we generated a knock-in mouse model for the disease-associated Trem2 p.T66M mutation. Consistent with a loss-of-function mutation, we observe an intracellular accumulation of immature mutant Trem2 and reduced generation of soluble Trem2 similar to patients with the homozygous p.T66M mutation. Trem2 p.T66M knock-in mice show delayed resolution of inflammation upon in vivo lipopolysaccharide stimulation and cultured macrophages display significantly reduced phagocytic activity. Immunohistochemistry together with in vivo TSPO small animal positron emission tomography (μPET) demonstrates an age-dependent reduction in microglial activity. Surprisingly, perfusion magnetic resonance imaging and FDG-μPET imaging reveal a significant reduction in cerebral blood flow and brain glucose metabolism. Thus, we demonstrate that a TREM2 loss-of-function mutation causes brain-wide metabolic alterations pointing toward a possible function of microglia in regulating brain glucose metabolism. © 2017 The Authors.

  7. Resveratrol stimulates c-Fos gene transcription via activation of ERK1/2 involving multiple genetic elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Gerald; Rössler, Oliver G

    2018-06-05

    The polyphenol resveratrol is found in many plant and fruits and is a constituent of our diet. Resveratrol has been proposed to have chemopreventive and anti-inflammatory activities. On the cellular level, resveratrol activates stimulus-regulated transcription factors. To identify resveratrol-responsive elements within a natural gene promoter, the molecular pathway leading to c-Fos gene expression by resveratrol was dissected. The c-Fos gene encodes a basic region leucine zipper transcription factor and is a prototype of an immediate-early gene that is regulated by a wide range of signaling molecules. We analyzed chromatin-integrated c-Fos promoter-luciferase reporter genes where transcription factor binding sites were destroyed by point mutations or deletion mutagenesis. The results show that mutation of the binding sites for serum response factor (SRF), activator protein-1 (AP-1) and cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) significantly reduced reporter gene transcription following stimulation of the cells with resveratrol. Inactivation of the binding sites for signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) or ternary complex factors did not influence resveratrol-regulated c-Fos promoter activity. Thus, the c-Fos promoter contains three resveratrol-responsive elements, the cAMP response element (CRE), and the binding sites for SRF and AP-1. Moreover, we show that the transcriptional activation potential of the c-Fos protein is increased in resveratrol-stimulated cells, indicating that the biological activity of c-Fos is elevated by resveratrol stimulation. Pharmacological and genetic experiments revealed that the protein kinase ERK1/2 is the signal transducer that connects resveratrol treatment with the c-Fos gene. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Improved somatic mutagenesis in zebrafish using transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finola E Moore

    Full Text Available Zinc Finger Nucleases (ZFNs made by Context-Dependent Assembly (CoDA and Transcription Activator-Like Effector Nucleases (TALENs provide robust and user-friendly technologies for efficiently inactivating genes in zebrafish. These designer nucleases bind to and cleave DNA at particular target sites, inducing error-prone repair that can result in insertion or deletion mutations. Here, we assess the relative efficiencies of these technologies for inducing somatic DNA mutations in mosaic zebrafish. We find that TALENs exhibited a higher success rate for obtaining active nucleases capable of inducing mutations than compared with CoDA ZFNs. For example, all six TALENs tested induced DNA mutations at genomic target sites while only a subset of CoDA ZFNs exhibited detectable rates of mutagenesis. TALENs also exhibited higher mutation rates than CoDA ZFNs that had not been pre-screened using a bacterial two-hybrid assay, with DNA mutation rates ranging from 20%-76.8% compared to 1.1%-3.3%. Furthermore, the broader targeting range of TALENs enabled us to induce mutations at the methionine translation start site, sequences that were not targetable using the CoDA ZFN platform. TALENs exhibited similar toxicity to CoDA ZFNs, with >50% of injected animals surviving to 3 days of life. Taken together, our results suggest that TALEN technology provides a robust alternative to CoDA ZFNs for inducing targeted gene-inactivation in zebrafish, making it a preferred technology for creating targeted knockout mutants in zebrafish.

  9. Functional cooperativity between two TPA responsive elements in undifferentiated F9 embryonic stem cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Okuda, A; Imagawa, M; Sakai, M; Muramatsu, M

    1990-01-01

    We have recently identified an enhancer, termed GPEI, in the 5'-flanking region of the rat glutathione transferase P gene, that is composed of two imperfect TPA (phorbol 12-O-tetradecanoate 13-acetate) responsive elements (TREs). Unlike other TRE-containing enhancers, GPEI exhibits a strong transcriptional enhancing activity in F9 embryonic stem cells. Mutational analyses have revealed that the high activity of GPEI is mediated by two imperfect TREs. Each TRE-like sequence has no activity by ...

  10. Impact of mutations in Toll-like receptor pathway genes on esophageal carcinogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daffolyn Rachael Fels Elliott

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC develops in an inflammatory microenvironment with reduced microbial diversity, but mechanisms for these influences remain poorly characterized. We hypothesized that mutations targeting the Toll-like receptor (TLR pathway could disrupt innate immune signaling and promote a microenvironment that favors tumorigenesis. Through interrogating whole genome sequencing data from 171 EAC patients, we showed that non-synonymous mutations collectively affect the TLR pathway in 25/171 (14.6%, PathScan p = 8.7x10-5 tumors. TLR mutant cases were associated with more proximal tumors and metastatic disease, indicating possible clinical significance of these mutations. Only rare mutations were identified in adjacent Barrett's esophagus samples. We validated our findings in an external EAC dataset with non-synonymous TLR pathway mutations in 33/149 (22.1%, PathScan p = 0.05 tumors, and in other solid tumor types exposed to microbiomes in the COSMIC database (10,318 samples, including uterine endometrioid carcinoma (188/320, 58.8%, cutaneous melanoma (377/988, 38.2%, colorectal adenocarcinoma (402/1519, 26.5%, and stomach adenocarcinoma (151/579, 26.1%. TLR4 was the most frequently mutated gene with eleven mutations in 10/171 (5.8% of EAC tumors. The TLR4 mutants E439G, S570I, F703C and R787H were confirmed to have impaired reactivity to bacterial lipopolysaccharide with marked reductions in signaling by luciferase reporter assays. Overall, our findings show that TLR pathway genes are recurrently mutated in EAC, and TLR4 mutations have decreased responsiveness to bacterial lipopolysaccharide and may play a role in disease pathogenesis in a subset of patients.

  11. Mutations that alter a repeated ACCA element located at the 5' end of the Potato virus X genome affect RNA accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mi-Ri; Kwon, Sun-Jung; Choi, Hong-Soo; Hemenway, Cynthia L; Kim, Kook-Hyung

    2008-08-15

    The repeated ACCA or AC-rich sequence and structural (SL1) elements in the 5' non-translated region (NTR) of the Potato virus X (PVX) RNA play vital roles in the PVX life cycle by controlling translation, RNA replication, movement, and assembly. It has already been shown that the repeated ACCA or AC-rich sequence affect both gRNA and sgRNA accumulation, while not affecting minus-strand RNA accumulation, and are also required for host protein binding. The functional significance of the repeated ACCA sequence elements in the 5' NTR region was investigated by analyzing the effects of deletion and site-directed mutations on PVX replication in Nicotiana benthamiana plants and NT1 protoplasts. Substitution (ACCA into AAAA or UUUU) mutations introduced in the first (nt 10-13) element in the 5' NTR of the PVX RNA significantly affected viral replication, while mutations introduced in the second (nt 17-20) and third (nt 20-23) elements did not. The fourth (nt 29-32) ACCA element weakly affected virus replication, whereas mutations in the fifth (nt 38-41) significantly reduced virus replication due to the structure disruption of SL1 by AAAA and/or UUUU substitutions. Further characterization of the first ACCA element indicated that duplication of ACCA at nt 10-13 (nt 10-17, ACCAACCA) caused severe symptom development as compared to that of wild type, while deletion of the single element (nt 10-13), DeltaACCA) or tripling of this element caused reduced symptom development. Single- and double-nucleotide substitutions introduced into the first ACCA element revealed the importance of CC located at nt positions 11 and 12. Altogether, these results indicate that the first ACCA element is important for PVX replication.

  12. Identification of a nuclear localization signal in the retinitis pigmentosa-mutated RP26 protein, ceramide kinase-like protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, Yuichi; Mitsutake, Susumu; Igarashi, Yasuyuki

    2006-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a genetically heterogeneous disease characterized by degeneration of the retina. A mutation in a new ceramide kinase (CERK) homologous gene, named CERK-like protein (CERKL), was found to cause autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (RP26). Here, we show a point mutation of one of two putative nuclear localization signal (NLS) sequences inhibited the nuclear localization of the protein. Furthermore, the tetra-GFP-tagged NLS, which cannot passively enter the nucleus, was observed not only in the nucleus but also in the nucleolus. Our results provide First evidence of the active nuclear import of CERKL and suggest that the identified NLS might be responsible for nucleolar retention of the protein. As recent studies have shown other RP-related proteins are localized in the nucleus or the nucleolus, our identification of NLS in CERKL suggests that CERKL likely plays important roles for retinal functions in the nucleus and the nucleolus

  13. Deletion mutations of bacteriophage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryo, Yeikou

    1975-01-01

    Resolution of mutation mechanism with structural changes of DNA was discussed through the studies using bacteriophage lambda. One of deletion mutations inductions of phage lambda is the irradiation of ultraviolet ray. It is not clear if the inductions are caused by errors in reparation of ultraviolet-induced damage or by the activation of int gene. Because the effective site of int gene lies within the regions unnecessary for existing, it is considered that int gene is connected to deletion mutations induction. A certain system using prophage complementarity enables to detect deletion mutations at essential hereditary sites and to solve the relations of deletion mutations with other recombination system, DNA reproduction and repairment system. Duplication and multiplication of hereditary elements were discussed. If lambda deletion mutations of the system, which can control recombination, reproduction and repairment of added DNA, are constructed, mutations mechanism with great changes of DNA structure can be solved by phage lambda. (Ichikawa, K.)

  14. 14q12 and severe Rett-like phenotypes: new clinical insights and physical mapping of FOXG1-regulatory elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allou, Lila; Lambert, Laetitia; Amsallem, Daniel; Bieth, Eric; Edery, Patrick; Destrée, Anne; Rivier, François; Amor, David; Thompson, Elizabeth; Nicholl, Julian; Harbord, Michael; Nemos, Christophe; Saunier, Aline; Moustaïne, Aissa; Vigouroux, Adeline; Jonveaux, Philippe; Philippe, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    The Forkhead box G1 (FOXG1) gene has been implicated in severe Rett-like phenotypes. It encodes the Forkhead box protein G1, a winged-helix transcriptional repressor critical for forebrain development. Recently, the core FOXG1 syndrome was defined as postnatal microcephaly, severe mental retardation, absent language, dyskinesia, and dysgenesis of the corpus callosum. We present seven additional patients with a severe Rett-like neurodevelopment disorder associated with de novo FOXG1 point mutations (two cases) or 14q12 deletions (five cases). We expand the mutational spectrum in patients with FOXG1-related encephalopathies and precise the core FOXG1 syndrome phenotype. Dysgenesis of the corpus callosum and dyskinesia are not always present in FOXG1-mutated patients. We believe that the FOXG1 gene should be considered in severely mentally retarded patients (no speech-language) with severe acquired microcephaly (−4 to−6 SD) and few clinical features suggestive of Rett syndrome. Interestingly enough, three 14q12 deletions that do not include the FOXG1 gene are associated with phenotypes very reminiscent to that of FOXG1-mutation-positive patients. We physically mapped a putative long-range FOXG1-regulatory element in a 0.43 Mb DNA segment encompassing the PRKD1 locus. In fibroblast cells, a cis-acting regulatory sequence located more than 0.6 Mb away from FOXG1 acts as a silencer at the transcriptional level. These data are important for clinicians and for molecular biologists involved in the management of patients with severe encephalopathies compatible with a FOXG1-related phenotype. PMID:22739344

  15. HER2 activating mutations are targets for colorectal cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavuri, Shyam M; Jain, Naveen; Galimi, Francesco; Cottino, Francesca; Leto, Simonetta M; Migliardi, Giorgia; Searleman, Adam C; Shen, Wei; Monsey, John; Trusolino, Livio; Jacobs, Samuel A; Bertotti, Andrea; Bose, Ron

    2015-08-01

    The Cancer Genome Atlas project identified HER2 somatic mutations and gene amplification in 7% of patients with colorectal cancer. Introduction of the HER2 mutations S310F, L755S, V777L, V842I, and L866M into colon epithelial cells increased signaling pathways and anchorage-independent cell growth, indicating that they are activating mutations. Introduction of these HER2 activating mutations into colorectal cancer cell lines produced resistance to cetuximab and panitumumab by sustaining MAPK phosphorylation. HER2 mutants are potently inhibited by low nanomolar doses of the irreversible tyrosine kinase inhibitors neratinib and afatinib. HER2 gene sequencing of 48 cetuximab-resistant, quadruple (KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA) wild-type (WT) colorectal cancer patient-derived xenografts (PDX) identified 4 PDXs with HER2 mutations. HER2-targeted therapies were tested on two PDXs. Treatment with a single HER2-targeted drug (trastuzumab, neratinib, or lapatinib) delayed tumor growth, but dual HER2-targeted therapy with trastuzumab plus tyrosine kinase inhibitors produced regression of these HER2-mutated PDXs. HER2 activating mutations cause EGFR antibody resistance in colorectal cell lines, and PDXs with HER2 mutations show durable tumor regression when treated with dual HER2-targeted therapy. These data provide a strong preclinical rationale for clinical trials targeting HER2 activating mutations in metastatic colorectal cancer. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  16. POLG1 mutations and stroke like episodes: a distinct clinical entity rather than an atypical MELAS syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheldi, Antonella; Ronchi, Dario; Bordoni, Andreina; Bordo, Bianca; Lanfranconi, Silvia; Bellotti, Maria Grazia; Corti, Stefania; Lucchini, Valeria; Sciacco, Monica; Moggio, Maurizio; Baron, Pierluigi; Comi, Giacomo Pietro; Colombo, Antonio; Bersano, Anna

    2013-01-15

    POLG1 mutations have been associated with MELAS-like phenotypes. However given several clinical differences it is unknown whether POLG1 mutations are possible causes of MELAS or give raise to a distinct clinical and genetic entity, named POLG1-associated encephalopathy. We describe a 74 years old man carrying POLG1 mutations presenting with strokes, myopathy and ragged red fibers with some atypical aspects for MELAS such as late onset, lack of cerebral calcification and presence of frontal and occipital MRI lesions better consistent with the POLG associated-encephalopathy spectrum. The lack of available data hampers a definite diagnosis in our patient as well as makes it difficult to compare MELAS, which is a clearly defined clinical syndrome, with POLG1-associated encephalopathy, which is so far a purely molecularly defined syndrome with a quite heterogeneous clinical picture. However, the present report contributes to expand the phenotypic spectrum of POLG1 mutations underlining the importance of searching POLG1 mutations in patients with mitochondrial signs and MELAS like phenotypes but negative for common mtDNA mutations.

  17. Defining the Sequence Elements and Candidate Genes for the Coloboma Mutation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Robb

    Full Text Available The chicken coloboma mutation exhibits features similar to human congenital developmental malformations such as ocular coloboma, cleft-palate, dwarfism, and polydactyly. The coloboma-associated region and encoded genes were investigated using advanced genomic, genetic, and gene expression technologies. Initially, the mutation was linked to a 990 kb region encoding 11 genes; the application of the genetic and genomic tools led to a reduction of the linked region to 176 kb and the elimination of 7 genes. Furthermore, bioinformatics analyses of capture array-next generation sequence data identified genetic elements including SNPs, insertions, deletions, gaps, chromosomal rearrangements, and miRNA binding sites within the introgressed causative region relative to the reference genome sequence. Coloboma-specific variants within exons, UTRs, and splice sites were studied for their contribution to the mutant phenotype. Our compiled results suggest three genes for future studies. The three candidate genes, SLC30A5 (a zinc transporter, CENPH (a centromere protein, and CDK7 (a cyclin-dependent kinase, are differentially expressed (compared to normal embryos at stages and in tissues affected by the coloboma mutation. Of these genes, two (SLC30A5 and CENPH are considered high-priority candidate based upon studies in other vertebrate model systems.

  18. Exonization of an Intronic LINE-1 Element Causing Becker Muscular Dystrophy as a Novel Mutational Mechanism in Dystrophin Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Ana; Oliveira, Jorge; Coelho, Teresa; Taipa, Ricardo; Melo-Pires, Manuel; Sousa, Mário; Santos, Rosário

    2017-10-03

    A broad mutational spectrum in the dystrophin ( DMD ) gene, from large deletions/duplications to point mutations, causes Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy (D/BMD). Comprehensive genotyping is particularly relevant considering the mutation-centered therapies for dystrophinopathies. We report the genetic characterization of a patient with disease onset at age 13 years, elevated creatine kinase levels and reduced dystrophin labeling, where multiplex-ligation probe amplification (MLPA) and genomic sequencing failed to detect pathogenic variants. Bioinformatic, transcriptomic (real time PCR, RT-PCR), and genomic approaches (Southern blot, long-range PCR, and single molecule real-time sequencing) were used to characterize the mutation. An aberrant transcript was identified, containing a 103-nucleotide insertion between exons 51 and 52, with no similarity with the DMD gene. This corresponded to the partial exonization of a long interspersed nuclear element (LINE-1), disrupting the open reading frame. Further characterization identified a complete LINE-1 (~6 kb with typical hallmarks) deeply inserted in intron 51. Haplotyping and segregation analysis demonstrated that the mutation had a de novo origin. Besides underscoring the importance of mRNA studies in genetically unsolved cases, this is the first report of a disease-causing fully intronic LINE-1 element in DMD , adding to the diversity of mutational events that give rise to D/BMD.

  19. Exonization of an Intronic LINE-1 Element Causing Becker Muscular Dystrophy as a Novel Mutational Mechanism in Dystrophin Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Ana; Coelho, Teresa; Melo-Pires, Manuel; Sousa, Mário

    2017-01-01

    A broad mutational spectrum in the dystrophin (DMD) gene, from large deletions/duplications to point mutations, causes Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy (D/BMD). Comprehensive genotyping is particularly relevant considering the mutation-centered therapies for dystrophinopathies. We report the genetic characterization of a patient with disease onset at age 13 years, elevated creatine kinase levels and reduced dystrophin labeling, where multiplex-ligation probe amplification (MLPA) and genomic sequencing failed to detect pathogenic variants. Bioinformatic, transcriptomic (real time PCR, RT-PCR), and genomic approaches (Southern blot, long-range PCR, and single molecule real-time sequencing) were used to characterize the mutation. An aberrant transcript was identified, containing a 103-nucleotide insertion between exons 51 and 52, with no similarity with the DMD gene. This corresponded to the partial exonization of a long interspersed nuclear element (LINE-1), disrupting the open reading frame. Further characterization identified a complete LINE-1 (~6 kb with typical hallmarks) deeply inserted in intron 51. Haplotyping and segregation analysis demonstrated that the mutation had a de novo origin. Besides underscoring the importance of mRNA studies in genetically unsolved cases, this is the first report of a disease-causing fully intronic LINE-1 element in DMD, adding to the diversity of mutational events that give rise to D/BMD. PMID:28972564

  20. Studies on elemental analysis of Chinese traditional herbs by neutron activation technique and their mutagenic effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamzah, A.; Beh, C.W.; Abugassa, I.; Sarmani, S.B.; Liow, J.Y.

    2004-01-01

    Chinese herbs are accepted as an alternative medicine for specific treatment of illness. It is important to know the contents of these herbs that might cause gene mutation. Ten most popular herbs used in Malaysia were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. A total of 16 trace and major elements were determined and the concentration of elements varied depending on the origin of the herb. Toxic elements found in the samples were below the levels prescribed by health regulations. The mutagenicity test showed that there was no toxic effect due to the heavy metals present in the herbs. (author)

  1. Mutational studies reveal a complex set of positive and negative control elements within the chicken vitellogenin II promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, S N; Davis, D L; Burch, J B

    1991-05-01

    The endogenous chicken vitellogenin II (VTGII) gene is transcribed exclusively in hepatocytes in response to estrogen. We previously identified two estrogen response elements (EREs) upstream of this gene. We now present an analysis of the VTGII promoter activated by these EREs in response to estrogen. Chimeric VTGII-CAT genes were cotransfected into LMH chicken hepatoma cells along with an estrogen receptor expression vector, and transient CAT expression was assayed after culturing the cells in the absence or presence of estrogen. An analysis of constructs bearing deletions downstream of the more proximal ERE indicated that promoter elements relevant to transcription in LMH cells extend to between -113 and -96. The relative importance of sequences within the VTGII promoter was examined by using 10 contiguous linker scanner mutations spanning the region from -117 to -24. Although most of these mutations compromised VTGII promoter function, one dramatically increased expression in LMH cells and also rendered the VTGII promoter capable of being activated by cis-linked EREs in fibroblasts cotransfected with an estrogen receptor expression vector. Gel retardation and DNase I footprinting assays revealed four factor-binding sites within this promoter. We demonstrate that three of these sites bind C/EBP, SP1, and USF (or related factors), respectively; the fourth site binds a factor that we denote TF-V beta. The biological relevance of these findings is suggested by the fact that three of these binding sites map to sites previously shown to be occupied in vivo in response to estrogen.

  2. Orangutan Alu quiescence reveals possible source element: support for ancient backseat drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker Jerilyn A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sequence analysis of the orangutan genome revealed that recent proliferative activity of Alu elements has been uncharacteristically quiescent in the Pongo (orangutan lineage, compared with all previously studied primate genomes. With relatively few young polymorphic insertions, the genomic landscape of the orangutan seemed like the ideal place to search for a driver, or source element, of Alu retrotransposition. Results Here we report the identification of a nearly pristine insertion possessing all the known putative hallmarks of a retrotranspositionally competent Alu element. It is located in an intronic sequence of the DGKB gene on chromosome 7 and is highly conserved in Hominidae (the great apes, but absent from Hylobatidae (gibbon and siamang. We provide evidence for the evolution of a lineage-specific subfamily of this shared Alu insertion in orangutans and possibly the lineage leading to humans. In the orangutan genome, this insertion contains three orangutan-specific diagnostic mutations which are characteristic of the youngest polymorphic Alu subfamily, AluYe5b5_Pongo. In the Homininae lineage (human, chimpanzee and gorilla, this insertion has acquired three different mutations which are also found in a single human-specific Alu insertion. Conclusions This seemingly stealth-like amplification, ongoing at a very low rate over millions of years of evolution, suggests that this shared insertion may represent an ancient backseat driver of Alu element expansion.

  3. Novel mutations in cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) gene in Indian cases of Rett syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Dhanjit Kumar; Mehta, Bhakti; Menon, Shyla R; Raha, Sarbani; Udani, Vrajesh

    2013-03-01

    Rett syndrome is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder, almost exclusively affecting females and characterized by a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. Both the classic and atypical forms of Rett syndrome are primarily due to mutations in the methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene. Mutations in the X-linked cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) gene have been identified in patients with atypical Rett syndrome, X-linked infantile spasms sharing common features of generally early-onset seizures and mental retardation. CDKL5 is known as serine/threonine protein kinase 9 (STK9) and is mapped to the Xp22 region. It has a conserved serine/threonine kinase domain within its amino terminus and a large C-terminal region. Disease-causing mutations are distributed in both the amino terminal domain and in the large C-terminal domain. We have screened the CDKL5 gene in 44 patients with atypical Rett syndrome who had tested negative for MECP2 gene mutations and have identified 6 sequence variants, out of which three were novel and three known mutations. Two of these novel mutations p.V966I and p.A1011V were missense and p.H589H a silent mutation. Other known mutations identified were p.V999M, p.Q791P and p.T734A. Sequence homology for all the mutations revealed that the two mutations (p.Q791P and p.T734A) were conserved across species. This indicated the importance of these residues in structure and function of the protein. The damaging effects of these mutations were analysed in silico using PolyPhen-2 online software. The PolyPhen-2 scores of p.Q791P and p.T734A were 0.998 and 0.48, revealing that these mutations could be deleterious and might have potential functional effect. All other mutations had a low score suggesting that they might not alter the activity of CDKL5. We have also analysed the position of the mutations in the CDKL5 protein and found that all the mutations were present in the C-terminal domain of the protein. The C-terminal domain is required for

  4. Characterization of two MODY2 mutations with different susceptibility to activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langer, Sara; Platz, Christian; Waterstradt, Rica; Baltrusch, Simone, E-mail: simone.baltrusch@med.uni-rostock.de

    2015-09-04

    Glucokinase plays a key role in glucose sensing in pancreatic beta cells and in liver metabolism. Heterozygous inactivating glucokinase mutations cause the autosomal dominantly inherited MODY2 subtype of maturity-onset diabetes of the young. The goal of this study was to elucidate the pathogenicity of the recently described glucokinase mutants L304P and L315H, located in an alpha-helix and connecting region, respectively, at the outer region of the large domain of glucokinase. Both mutants showed wild-type-like cytosolic localization, but faster protein degradation in insulin-secreting MIN6 cells. However, strongly reduced nuclear/cytoplasmic localization of the mutants was observed in primary hepatocytes suggesting reduced interaction with the liver specific glucokinase regulatory protein. Both mutants displayed a significantly lowered glucokinase activity compared to the wild-type protein. Even though the L315H protein showed the lowest enzymatic activity, this mutant was very sensitive to allosteric activation. The endogenous activator fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase evoked an increase in glucokinase activity for both mutants, but much stronger for L315H compared to L304P. The synthetic activator RO281675 was ineffective against the L304P mutant. Expression of the mutant proteins evoked loss of glucose-induced insulin secretion in MIN6 cells. Administration of RO281675 increased insulin secretion, however, only for the L315H mutant. Thus, a glucokinase activator drug therapy may help MODY2 patients not in general, but seems to be a useful strategy for carriers of the L315H glucokinase mutation. - Highlights: • The GK mutants L304P and L315H display a highly reduced enzymatic activity. • In hepatocytes both mutations lower the nuclear/cytoplasmic localization ratio of GK. • Both mutants inhibit stimulus-secretion coupling in insulin-producing cells. • Activation by fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase and by RO281675 is stronger for L315H. • RO281675 stimulates

  5. Interplay between DMD point mutations and splicing signals in Dystrophinopathy phenotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonàs Juan-Mateu

    Full Text Available DMD nonsense and frameshift mutations lead to severe Duchenne muscular dystrophy while in-frame mutations lead to milder Becker muscular dystrophy. Exceptions are found in 10% of cases and the production of alternatively spliced transcripts is considered a key modifier of disease severity. Several exonic mutations have been shown to induce exon-skipping, while splice site mutations result in exon-skipping or activation of cryptic splice sites. However, factors determining the splicing pathway are still unclear. Point mutations provide valuable information regarding the regulation of pre-mRNA splicing and elements defining exon identity in the DMD gene. Here we provide a comprehensive analysis of 98 point mutations related to clinical phenotype and their effect on muscle mRNA and dystrophin expression. Aberrant splicing was found in 27 mutations due to alteration of splice sites or splicing regulatory elements. Bioinformatics analysis was performed to test the ability of the available algorithms to predict consequences on mRNA and to investigate the major factors that determine the splicing pathway in mutations affecting splicing signals. Our findings suggest that the splicing pathway is highly dependent on the interplay between splice site strength and density of regulatory elements.

  6. Hierarchical modeling of activation mechanisms in the ABL and EGFR kinase domains: thermodynamic and mechanistic catalysts of kinase activation by cancer mutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshuman Dixit

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Structural and functional studies of the ABL and EGFR kinase domains have recently suggested a common mechanism of activation by cancer-causing mutations. However, dynamics and mechanistic aspects of kinase activation by cancer mutations that stimulate conformational transitions and thermodynamic stabilization of the constitutively active kinase form remain elusive. We present a large-scale computational investigation of activation mechanisms in the ABL and EGFR kinase domains by a panel of clinically important cancer mutants ABL-T315I, ABL-L387M, EGFR-T790M, and EGFR-L858R. We have also simulated the activating effect of the gatekeeper mutation on conformational dynamics and allosteric interactions in functional states of the ABL-SH2-SH3 regulatory complexes. A comprehensive analysis was conducted using a hierarchy of computational approaches that included homology modeling, molecular dynamics simulations, protein stability analysis, targeted molecular dynamics, and molecular docking. Collectively, the results of this study have revealed thermodynamic and mechanistic catalysts of kinase activation by major cancer-causing mutations in the ABL and EGFR kinase domains. By using multiple crystallographic states of ABL and EGFR, computer simulations have allowed one to map dynamics of conformational fluctuations and transitions in the normal (wild-type and oncogenic kinase forms. A proposed multi-stage mechanistic model of activation involves a series of cooperative transitions between different conformational states, including assembly of the hydrophobic spine, the formation of the Src-like intermediate structure, and a cooperative breakage and formation of characteristic salt bridges, which signify transition to the active kinase form. We suggest that molecular mechanisms of activation by cancer mutations could mimic the activation process of the normal kinase, yet exploiting conserved structural catalysts to accelerate a conformational transition

  7. Computationally optimized deimmunization libraries yield highly mutated enzymes with low immunogenicity and enhanced activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvat, Regina S; Verma, Deeptak; Parker, Andrew S; Kirsch, Jack R; Brooks, Seth A; Bailey-Kellogg, Chris; Griswold, Karl E

    2017-06-27

    Therapeutic proteins of wide-ranging function hold great promise for treating disease, but immune surveillance of these macromolecules can drive an antidrug immune response that compromises efficacy and even undermines safety. To eliminate widespread T-cell epitopes in any biotherapeutic and thereby mitigate this key source of detrimental immune recognition, we developed a Pareto optimal deimmunization library design algorithm that optimizes protein libraries to account for the simultaneous effects of combinations of mutations on both molecular function and epitope content. Active variants identified by high-throughput screening are thus inherently likely to be deimmunized. Functional screening of an optimized 10-site library (1,536 variants) of P99 β-lactamase (P99βL), a component of ADEPT cancer therapies, revealed that the population possessed high overall fitness, and comprehensive analysis of peptide-MHC II immunoreactivity showed the population possessed lower average immunogenic potential than the wild-type enzyme. Although similar functional screening of an optimized 30-site library (2.15 × 10 9 variants) revealed reduced population-wide fitness, numerous individual variants were found to have activity and stability better than the wild type despite bearing 13 or more deimmunizing mutations per enzyme. The immunogenic potential of one highly active and stable 14-mutation variant was assessed further using ex vivo cellular immunoassays, and the variant was found to silence T-cell activation in seven of the eight blood donors who responded strongly to wild-type P99βL. In summary, our multiobjective library-design process readily identified large and mutually compatible sets of epitope-deleting mutations and produced highly active but aggressively deimmunized constructs in only one round of library screening.

  8. Evolutionary genomics of miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) in Brassica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouroz, Faisal; Noreen, Shumaila; Heslop-Harrison, J S

    2015-12-01

    Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are truncated derivatives of autonomous DNA transposons, and are dispersed abundantly in most eukaryotic genomes. We aimed to characterize various MITEs families in Brassica in terms of their presence, sequence characteristics and evolutionary activity. Dot plot analyses involving comparison of homoeologous bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) sequences allowed identification of 15 novel families of mobile MITEs. Of which, 5 were Stowaway-like with TA Target Site Duplications (TSDs), 4 Tourist-like with TAA/TTA TSDs, 5 Mutator-like with 9-10 bp TSDs and 1 novel MITE (BoXMITE1) flanked by 3 bp TSDs. Our data suggested that there are about 30,000 MITE-related sequences in Brassica rapa and B. oleracea genomes. In situ hybridization showed one abundant family was dispersed in the A-genome, while another was located near 45S rDNA sites. PCR analysis using primers flanking sequences of MITE elements detected MITE insertion polymorphisms between and within the three Brassica (AA, BB, CC) genomes, with many insertions being specific to single genomes and others showing evidence of more recent evolutionary insertions. Our BAC sequence comparison strategy enables identification of evolutionarily active MITEs with no prior knowledge of MITE sequences. The details of MITE families reported in Brassica enable their identification, characterization and annotation. Insertion polymorphisms of MITEs and their transposition activity indicated important mechanism of genome evolution and diversification. MITE families derived from known Mariner, Harbinger and Mutator DNA transposons were discovered, as well as some novel structures. The identification of Brassica MITEs will have broad applications in Brassica genomics, breeding, hybridization and phylogeny through their use as DNA markers.

  9. TED, an autonomous and rare maize transposon of the mutator superfamily with a high gametophytic excision frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yubin; Harris, Linda; Dooner, Hugo K

    2013-09-01

    Mutator (Mu) elements, one of the most diverse superfamilies of DNA transposons, are found in all eukaryotic kingdoms, but are particularly numerous in plants. Most of the present knowledge on the transposition behavior of this superfamily comes from studies of the maize (Zea mays) Mu elements, whose transposition is mediated by the autonomous Mutator-Don Robertson (MuDR) element. Here, we describe the maize element TED (for Transposon Ellen Dempsey), an autonomous cousin that differs significantly from MuDR. Element excision and reinsertion appear to require both proteins encoded by MuDR, but only the single protein encoded by TED. Germinal excisions, rare with MuDR, are common with TED, but arise in one of the mitotic divisions of the gametophyte, rather than at meiosis. Instead, transposition-deficient elements arise at meiosis, suggesting that the double-strand breaks produced by element excision are repaired differently in mitosis and meiosis. Unlike MuDR, TED is a very low-copy transposon whose number and activity do not undergo dramatic changes upon inbreeding or outcrossing. Like MuDR, TED transposes mostly to unlinked sites and can form circular transposition products. Sequences closer to TED than to MuDR were detected only in the grasses, suggesting a rather recent evolutionary split from a common ancestor.

  10. Mutational properties of amino acid residues: implications for evolvability of phosphorylatable residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Creixell, Pau; Schoof, Erwin M.; Tan, Chris Soon Heng

    2012-01-01

    in terms of their mutational activity. Moreover, we highlight the importance of the genetic code and physico-chemical properties of the amino acid residues as likely causes of these inequalities and uncover serine as a mutational hot spot. Finally, we explore the consequences that these different......; it is typically assumed that all amino acid residues are equally likely to mutate or to result from a mutation. Here, by reconstructing ancestral sequences and computing mutational probabilities for all the amino acid residues, we refute this assumption and show extensive inequalities between different residues...... mutational properties have on phosphorylation site evolution, showing that a higher degree of evolvability exists for phosphorylated threonine and, to a lesser extent, serine in comparison with tyrosine residues. As exemplified by the suppression of serine's mutational activity in phosphorylation sites, our...

  11. R and D activities on radiation induced mutation breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapade, A.G.; Asencion, A.B.; Santos, I.S.; Grafia, A.O.; Veluz, AM.S.; Barrida, A.C.; Marbella, L.J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper summarizes the accomplishments, prospects and future plans of mutation breeding for crop improvement at the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI). Mutation induction has become a proven way creating variation within a crop variety and inducing desired attributes that cannot be found in nature or have been lost during evolution. Several improved varieties with desirable traits were successfully developed through induced mutation breeding at our research institute. In rice, mutation breeding has resulted in the development of new varieties: (1) PARC 2, (2) Milagrosa mutant, (3) Bengawan mutant and (4) Azmil mutant. Mutation breeding in leguminous crops has led to the induction of an improved L 114 soybean mutant that is shorter that the original variety but yield about 40% more. Several PAEC mungbean varieties characterized with long pods that are non-shattering were also induced. In asexually propagated crops, an increase in yield and chlorophyll mutants were obtained in sweet potatos. Likewise, chlorophyll mutant which look-like 'ornamental bromeliads' and a mutant with reduced spines have been developed in pineapple Queen variety. At present, we have started a new project in mutation breeding in ornamentals. Tissue culture is being utilized in our mutation breeding program. In the near future, radiation induced mutagenesis coupled with in vitro culture techniques on protoplast culture and somatic hybridization will be integrated into our mutation breeding program to facilitate the production of new crop varieties. (author)

  12. Mutational definition of binding requirements of an hnRNP-like protein in Arabidopsis using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leder, Verena [Molecular Cell Physiology, Faculty of Biology, Bielefeld University (Germany); Biomolecular Photonics, Faculty of Physics, Bielefeld University (Germany); Lummer, Martina [Molecular Cell Physiology, Faculty of Biology, Bielefeld University (Germany); Tegeler, Kathrin [Molecular Cell Physiology, Faculty of Biology, Bielefeld University (Germany); Biomolecular Photonics, Faculty of Physics, Bielefeld University (Germany); Humpert, Fabian [Biomolecular Photonics, Faculty of Physics, Bielefeld University (Germany); Lewinski, Martin [Molecular Cell Physiology, Faculty of Biology, Bielefeld University (Germany); Schüttpelz, Mark [Biomolecular Photonics, Faculty of Physics, Bielefeld University (Germany); Staiger, Dorothee, E-mail: dorothee.staiger@uni-bielefeld.de [Molecular Cell Physiology, Faculty of Biology, Bielefeld University (Germany)

    2014-10-10

    Highlights: • We use FCS to investigate binding site requirements for the hnRNP-like protein AtGRP7. • We identify three nucleotides critical for AtGRP7 binding to its own intron. • Mutation of the conserved R{sup 49} abolishes binding altogether. • The paralogue AtGRP8 binds to an overlapping motif with different sequence requirement. • The glycine-rich stretch of a plant hnRNP-like protein contributes to binding. - Abstract: Arabidopsis thaliana glycine-rich RNA binding protein 7 (AtGRP7) is part of a negative feedback loop through which it regulates alternative splicing and steady-state abundance of its pre-mRNA. Here we use fluorescence correlation spectroscopy to investigate the requirements for AtGRP7 binding to its intron using fluorescently-labelled synthetic oligonucleotides. By systematically introducing point mutations we identify three nucleotides that lead to an increased K{sub d} value when mutated and thus are critical for AtGRP7 binding. Simultaneous mutation of all three residues abrogates binding. The paralogue AtGRP8 binds to an overlapping motif but with a different sequence preference, in line with overlapping but not identical functions of this protein pair. Truncation of the glycine-rich domain reduces the binding affinity of AtGRP7, showing for the first time that the glycine-rich stretch of a plant hnRNP-like protein contributes to binding. Mutation of the conserved R{sup 49} that is crucial for AtGRP7 function in pathogen defence and splicing abolishes binding.

  13. Mutational definition of binding requirements of an hnRNP-like protein in Arabidopsis using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leder, Verena; Lummer, Martina; Tegeler, Kathrin; Humpert, Fabian; Lewinski, Martin; Schüttpelz, Mark; Staiger, Dorothee

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We use FCS to investigate binding site requirements for the hnRNP-like protein AtGRP7. • We identify three nucleotides critical for AtGRP7 binding to its own intron. • Mutation of the conserved R 49 abolishes binding altogether. • The paralogue AtGRP8 binds to an overlapping motif with different sequence requirement. • The glycine-rich stretch of a plant hnRNP-like protein contributes to binding. - Abstract: Arabidopsis thaliana glycine-rich RNA binding protein 7 (AtGRP7) is part of a negative feedback loop through which it regulates alternative splicing and steady-state abundance of its pre-mRNA. Here we use fluorescence correlation spectroscopy to investigate the requirements for AtGRP7 binding to its intron using fluorescently-labelled synthetic oligonucleotides. By systematically introducing point mutations we identify three nucleotides that lead to an increased K d value when mutated and thus are critical for AtGRP7 binding. Simultaneous mutation of all three residues abrogates binding. The paralogue AtGRP8 binds to an overlapping motif but with a different sequence preference, in line with overlapping but not identical functions of this protein pair. Truncation of the glycine-rich domain reduces the binding affinity of AtGRP7, showing for the first time that the glycine-rich stretch of a plant hnRNP-like protein contributes to binding. Mutation of the conserved R 49 that is crucial for AtGRP7 function in pathogen defence and splicing abolishes binding

  14. TED, an Autonomous and Rare Maize Transposon of the Mutator Superfamily with a High Gametophytic Excision Frequency[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yubin; Harris, Linda; Dooner, Hugo K.

    2013-01-01

    Mutator (Mu) elements, one of the most diverse superfamilies of DNA transposons, are found in all eukaryotic kingdoms, but are particularly numerous in plants. Most of the present knowledge on the transposition behavior of this superfamily comes from studies of the maize (Zea mays) Mu elements, whose transposition is mediated by the autonomous Mutator-Don Robertson (MuDR) element. Here, we describe the maize element TED (for Transposon Ellen Dempsey), an autonomous cousin that differs significantly from MuDR. Element excision and reinsertion appear to require both proteins encoded by MuDR, but only the single protein encoded by TED. Germinal excisions, rare with MuDR, are common with TED, but arise in one of the mitotic divisions of the gametophyte, rather than at meiosis. Instead, transposition-deficient elements arise at meiosis, suggesting that the double-strand breaks produced by element excision are repaired differently in mitosis and meiosis. Unlike MuDR, TED is a very low-copy transposon whose number and activity do not undergo dramatic changes upon inbreeding or outcrossing. Like MuDR, TED transposes mostly to unlinked sites and can form circular transposition products. Sequences closer to TED than to MuDR were detected only in the grasses, suggesting a rather recent evolutionary split from a common ancestor. PMID:24038653

  15. Somatic activating ARAF mutations in Langerhans cell histiocytosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelson, David S.; Quispel, Willemijn; Badalian-Very, Gayane; van Halteren, Astrid G. S.; van den Bos, Cor; Bovée, Judith V. M. G.; Tian, Sara Y.; van Hummelen, Paul; Ducar, Matthew; MacConaill, Laura E.; Egeler, R. Maarten; Rollins, Barrett J.

    2014-01-01

    The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway is activated in Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) histiocytes, but only 60% of cases carry somatic activating mutations of BRAF. To identify other genetic causes of ERK pathway activation, we performed whole exome sequencing on

  16. Germline mutation of CBL is associated with moyamoya disease in a child with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia and Noonan syndrome-like disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyakuna, Nobuyuki; Muramatsu, Hideki; Higa, Takeshi; Chinen, Yasutsugu; Wang, Xinan; Kojima, Seiji

    2015-03-01

    Germline mutations in CBL have been identified in patients with Noonan syndrome-like phenotypes, while juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) harbors duplication of a germline CBL, resulting in acquired isodisomy. The association between moyamoya disease and Noonan syndrome carrying a PTPN11 mutation has recently been reported. We present a patient with JMML who developed moyamoya disease and neovascular glaucoma. Our patient exhibited a Noonan syndrome-like phenotype. Genetic analysis revealed acquired isodisomy and a germline heterozygous mutation in CBL. This is a rare case of CBL mutation associated with moyamoya disease. Prolonged RAS pathway signaling may cause disruption of cerebrovascular development. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Retinitis pigmentosa, cutis laxa, and pseudoxanthoma elasticum-like skin manifestations associated with GGCX mutations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kariminejad, Ariana; Bozorgmehr, Bita; Najafi, Abdolhamid; Khoshaeen, Atefeh; Ghalandari, Maryam; Najmabadi, Hossein; Kariminejad, Mohamad H; Vanakker, Olivier M; Hosen, Mohammad J; Malfait, Fransiska; Quaglino, Daniela; Florijn, Ralph J; Bergen, Arthur A B; Hennekam, Raoul C

    Gamma-glutamyl carboxylase (GGCX) mutations have been reported in patients with a pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE)-like phenotype, loose redundant skin, and multiple vitamin K-dependent coagulation factor deficiencies. We report on the clinical findings and molecular results in 13 affected members of

  18. Retinitis pigmentosa, cutis laxa, and pseudoxanthoma elasticum-like skin manifestations associated with GGCX mutations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kariminejad, Ariana; Bozorgmehr, Bita; Najafi, Abdolhamid; Khoshaeen, Atefeh; Ghalandari, Maryam; Najmabadi, Hossein; Kariminejad, Mohamad H.; Vanakker, Olivier M.; Hosen, Mohammad J.; Malfait, Fransiska; Quaglino, Daniela; Florijn, Ralph J.; Bergen, Arthur A. B.; Hennekam, Raoul C.

    2014-01-01

    Gamma-glutamyl carboxylase (GGCX) mutations have been reported in patients with a pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE)-like phenotype, loose redundant skin, and multiple vitamin K-dependent coagulation factor deficiencies. We report on the clinical findings and molecular results in 13 affected members of

  19. Heterozygous Germline Mutations in the CBL Tumor-Suppressor Gene Cause a Noonan Syndrome-like Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Simone; De Luca, Alessandro; Stellacci, Emilia; Rossi, Cesare; Checquolo, Saula; Lepri, Francesca; Caputo, Viviana; Silvano, Marianna; Buscherini, Francesco; Consoli, Federica; Ferrara, Grazia; Digilio, Maria C.; Cavaliere, Maria L.; van Hagen, Johanna M.; Zampino, Giuseppe; van der Burgt, Ineke; Ferrero, Giovanni B.; Mazzanti, Laura; Screpanti, Isabella; Yntema, Helger G.; Nillesen, Willy M.; Savarirayan, Ravi; Zenker, Martin; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Gelb, Bruce D.; Tartaglia, Marco

    2010-01-01

    RAS signaling plays a key role in controlling appropriate cell responses to extracellular stimuli and participates in early and late developmental processes. Although enhanced flow through this pathway has been established as a major contributor to oncogenesis, recent discoveries have revealed that aberrant RAS activation causes a group of clinically related developmental disorders characterized by facial dysmorphism, a wide spectrum of cardiac disease, reduced growth, variable cognitive deficits, ectodermal and musculoskeletal anomalies, and increased risk for certain malignancies. Here, we report that heterozygous germline mutations in CBL, a tumor-suppressor gene that is mutated in myeloid malignancies and encodes a multivalent adaptor protein with E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, can underlie a phenotype with clinical features fitting or partially overlapping Noonan syndrome (NS), the most common condition of this disease family. Independent CBL mutations were identified in two sporadic cases and two families from among 365 unrelated subjects who had NS or suggestive features and were negative for mutations in previously identified disease genes. Phenotypic heterogeneity and variable expressivity were documented. Mutations were missense changes altering evolutionarily conserved residues located in the RING finger domain or the linker connecting this domain to the N-terminal tyrosine kinase binding domain, a known mutational hot spot in myeloid malignancies. Mutations were shown to affect CBL-mediated receptor ubiquitylation and dysregulate signal flow through RAS. These findings document that germline mutations in CBL alter development to cause a clinically variable condition that resembles NS and that possibly predisposes to malignancies. PMID:20619386

  20. Effect of the G375C and G346E achondroplasia mutations on FGFR3 activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan He

    Full Text Available Two mutations in FGFR3, G380R and G375C are known to cause achondroplasia, the most common form of human dwarfism. The G380R mutation accounts for 98% of the achondroplasia cases, and thus has been studied extensively. Here we study the effect of the G375C mutation on the phosphorylation and the cross-linking propensity of full-length FGFR3 in HEK 293 cells, and we compare the results to previously published results for the G380R mutant. We observe identical behavior of the two achondroplasia mutants in these experiments, a finding which supports a direct link between the severity of dwarfism phenotypes and the level and mechanism of FGFR3 over-activation. The mutations do not increase the cross-linking propensity of FGFR3, contrary to previous expectations that the achondroplasia mutations stabilize the FGFR3 dimers. Instead, the phosphorylation efficiency within un-liganded FGFR3 dimers is increased, and this increase is likely the underlying cause for pathogenesis in achondroplasia. We further investigate the G346E mutation, which has been reported to cause achondroplasia in one case. We find that this mutation does not increase FGFR3 phosphorylation and decreases FGFR3 cross-linking propensity, a finding which raises questions whether this mutation is indeed a genetic cause for human dwarfism.

  1. Effect of the G375C and G346E achondroplasia mutations on FGFR3 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lijuan; Serrano, Christopher; Niphadkar, Nitish; Shobnam, Nadia; Hristova, Kalina

    2012-01-01

    Two mutations in FGFR3, G380R and G375C are known to cause achondroplasia, the most common form of human dwarfism. The G380R mutation accounts for 98% of the achondroplasia cases, and thus has been studied extensively. Here we study the effect of the G375C mutation on the phosphorylation and the cross-linking propensity of full-length FGFR3 in HEK 293 cells, and we compare the results to previously published results for the G380R mutant. We observe identical behavior of the two achondroplasia mutants in these experiments, a finding which supports a direct link between the severity of dwarfism phenotypes and the level and mechanism of FGFR3 over-activation. The mutations do not increase the cross-linking propensity of FGFR3, contrary to previous expectations that the achondroplasia mutations stabilize the FGFR3 dimers. Instead, the phosphorylation efficiency within un-liganded FGFR3 dimers is increased, and this increase is likely the underlying cause for pathogenesis in achondroplasia. We further investigate the G346E mutation, which has been reported to cause achondroplasia in one case. We find that this mutation does not increase FGFR3 phosphorylation and decreases FGFR3 cross-linking propensity, a finding which raises questions whether this mutation is indeed a genetic cause for human dwarfism.

  2. Heterozygosity for ARID2 loss-of-function mutations in individuals with a Coffin-Siris syndrome-like phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramswig, Nuria C; Caluseriu, O; Lüdecke, H-J; Bolduc, F V; Noel, N C L; Wieland, T; Surowy, H M; Christen, H-J; Engels, H; Strom, T M; Wieczorek, D

    2017-03-01

    Chromatin remodeling is a complex process shaping the nucleosome landscape, thereby regulating the accessibility of transcription factors to regulatory regions of target genes and ultimately managing gene expression. The SWI/SNF (switch/sucrose nonfermentable) complex remodels the nucleosome landscape in an ATP-dependent manner and is divided into the two major subclasses Brahma-associated factor (BAF) and Polybromo Brahma-associated factor (PBAF) complex. Somatic mutations in subunits of the SWI/SNF complex have been associated with different cancers, while germline mutations have been associated with autism spectrum disorder and the neurodevelopmental disorders Coffin-Siris (CSS) and Nicolaides-Baraitser syndromes (NCBRS). CSS is characterized by intellectual disability (ID), coarsening of the face and hypoplasia or absence of the fifth finger- and/or toenails. So far, variants in five of the SWI/SNF subunit-encoding genes ARID1B, SMARCA4, SMARCB1, ARID1A, and SMARCE1 as well as variants in the transcription factor-encoding gene SOX11 have been identified in CSS-affected individuals. ARID2 is a member of the PBAF subcomplex, which until recently had not been linked to any neurodevelopmental phenotypes. In 2015, mutations in the ARID2 gene were associated with intellectual disability. In this study, we report on two individuals with private de novo ARID2 frameshift mutations. Both individuals present with a CSS-like phenotype including ID, coarsening of facial features, other recognizable facial dysmorphisms and hypoplasia of the fifth toenails. Hence, this study identifies mutations in the ARID2 gene as a novel and rare cause for a CSS-like phenotype and enlarges the list of CSS-like genes.

  3. Transposable elements in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Kathleen H

    2017-07-01

    Transposable elements give rise to interspersed repeats, sequences that comprise most of our genomes. These mobile DNAs have been historically underappreciated - both because they have been presumed to be unimportant, and because their high copy number and variability pose unique technical challenges. Neither impediment now seems steadfast. Interest in the human mobilome has never been greater, and methods enabling its study are maturing at a fast pace. This Review describes the activity of transposable elements in human cancers, particularly long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1). LINE-1 sequences are self-propagating, protein-coding retrotransposons, and their activity results in somatically acquired insertions in cancer genomes. Altered expression of transposable elements and animation of genomic LINE-1 sequences appear to be hallmarks of cancer, and can be responsible for driving mutations in tumorigenesis.

  4. Markov Chain-Like Quantum Biological Modeling of Mutations, Aging, and Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan B. Djordjevic

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that quantum mechanics is relevant in photosynthesis, magnetoreception, enzymatic catalytic reactions, olfactory reception, photoreception, genetics, electron-transfer in proteins, and evolution; to mention few. In our recent paper published in Life, we have derived the operator-sum representation of a biological channel based on codon basekets, and determined the quantum channel model suitable for study of the quantum biological channel capacity. However, this model is essentially memoryless and it is not able to properly model the propagation of mutation errors in time, the process of aging, and evolution of genetic information through generations. To solve for these problems, we propose novel quantum mechanical models to accurately describe the process of creation spontaneous, induced, and adaptive mutations and their propagation in time. Different biological channel models with memory, proposed in this paper, include: (i Markovian classical model, (ii Markovian-like quantum model, and (iii hybrid quantum-classical model. We then apply these models in a study of aging and evolution of quantum biological channel capacity through generations. We also discuss key differences of these models with respect to a multilevel symmetric channel-based Markovian model and a Kimura model-based Markovian process. These models are quite general and applicable to many open problems in biology, not only biological channel capacity, which is the main focus of the paper. We will show that the famous quantum Master equation approach, commonly used to describe different biological processes, is just the first-order approximation of the proposed quantum Markov chain-like model, when the observation interval tends to zero. One of the important implications of this model is that the aging phenotype becomes determined by different underlying transition probabilities in both programmed and random (damage Markov chain-like models of aging, which

  5. HRAS mutations in Costello syndrome: detection of constitutional activating mutations in codon 12 and 13 and loss of wild-type allele in malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estep, Anne L; Tidyman, William E; Teitell, Michael A; Cotter, Philip D; Rauen, Katherine A

    2006-01-01

    Costello syndrome (CS) is a complex developmental disorder involving characteristic craniofacial features, failure to thrive, developmental delay, cardiac and skeletal anomalies, and a predisposition to develop neoplasia. Based on similarities with other cancer syndromes, we previously hypothesized that CS is likely due to activation of signal transduction through the Ras/MAPK pathway [Tartaglia et al., 2003]. In this study, the HRAS coding region was sequenced for mutations in a large, well-characterized cohort of 36 CS patients. Heterogeneous missense point mutations predicting an amino acid substitution were identified in 33/36 (92%) patients. The majority (91%) had a 34G --> A transition in codon 12. Less frequent mutations included 35G --> C (codon 12) and 37G --> T (codon 13). Parental samples did not have an HRAS mutation supporting the hypothesis of de novo heterogeneous mutations. There is phenotypic variability among patients with a 34G --> A transition. The most consistent features included characteristic facies and skin, failure to thrive, developmental delay, musculoskeletal abnormalities, visual impairment, cardiac abnormalities, and generalized hyperpigmentation. The two patients with 35G --> C had cardiac arrhythmias whereas one patient with a 37G --> T transversion had an enlarged aortic root. Of the patients with a clinical diagnosis of CS, neoplasia was the most consistent phenotypic feature for predicating an HRAS mutation. To gain an understanding of the relationship between constitutional HRAS mutations and malignancy, HRAS was sequenced in an advanced biphasic rhabdomyosarcoma/fibrosarcoma from an individual with a 34G --> A mutation. Loss of the wild-type HRAS allele was observed, suggesting tumorigenesis in CS patients is accompanied by additional somatic changes affecting HRAS. Finally, due to phenotypic overlap between CS and cardio-facio-cutaneous (CFC) syndromes, the HRAS coding region was sequenced in a well-characterized CFC cohort

  6. The rem mutations in the ATP-binding groove of the Rad3/XPD helicase lead to Xeroderma pigmentosum-Cockayne syndrome-like phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Moyano, Emilia; Moriel-Carretero, María; Montelone, Beth A; Aguilera, Andrés

    2014-12-01

    The eukaryotic TFIIH complex is involved in Nucleotide Excision Repair and transcription initiation. We analyzed three yeast mutations of the Rad3/XPD helicase of TFIIH known as rem (recombination and mutation phenotypes). We found that, in these mutants, incomplete NER reactions lead to replication fork breaking and the subsequent engagement of the homologous recombination machinery to restore them. Nevertheless, the penetrance varies among mutants, giving rise to a phenotype gradient. Interestingly, the mutations analyzed reside at the ATP-binding groove of Rad3 and in vivo experiments reveal a gain of DNA affinity upon damage of the mutant Rad3 proteins. Since mutations at the ATP-binding groove of XPD in humans are present in the Xeroderma pigmentosum-Cockayne Syndrome (XP-CS), we recreated rem mutations in human cells, and found that these are XP-CS-like. We propose that the balance between the loss of helicase activity and the gain of DNA affinity controls the capacity of TFIIH to open DNA during NER, and its persistence at both DNA lesions and promoters. This conditions NER efficiency and transcription resumption after damage, which in human cells would explain the XP-CS phenotype, opening new perspectives to understand the molecular basis of the role of XPD in human disease.

  7. Pharmacological evidences for DFK167-sensitive presenilin-independent gamma-secretase-like activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevalle, Jean; Ayral, Erwan; Hernandez, Jean-François; Martinez, Jean; Checler, Frédéric

    2009-07-01

    Amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptides production is thought to be a key event in the neurodegenerative process ultimately leading to Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. A bulk of studies concur to propose that the C-terminal moiety of Abeta is released from its precursor beta-amyloid precursor protein by a high molecular weight enzymatic complex referred to as gamma-secretase, that is composed of at least, nicastrin (NCT), Aph-1, Pen-2, and presenilins (PS) 1 or 2. They are thought to harbor the gamma-secretase catalytic activity. However, several lines of evidence suggest that additional gamma-secretase-like activities could potentially contribute to Abeta production. By means of a quenched fluorimetric substrate (JMV2660) mimicking the beta-amyloid precursor protein sequence targeted by gamma-secretase, we first show that as expected, this probe allows monitoring of an activity detectable in several cell systems including the neuronal cell line telencephalon specific murine neurons (TSM1). This activity is reduced by DFK167, N-[N-(3,5-difluorophenacetyl)-L-alanyl]-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester (DAPT), and LY68458, three inhibitors known to functionally interact with PS. Interestingly, JMV2660 but not the unrelated peptide JMV2692, inhibits Abeta production in an in vitrogamma-secretase assay as expected from a putative substrate competitor. This activity is enhanced by PS1 and PS2 mutations known to be responsible for familial forms of AD and reduced by aspartyl mutations inactivating PS or in cells devoid of PS or NCT. However, we clearly establish that residual JMV2660-hydrolysing activity could be recovered in PS- and NCT-deficient fibroblasts and that this activity remained inhibited by DFK167. Overall, our study describes the presence of a proteolytic activity displaying gamma-secretase-like properties but independent of PS and still blocked by DFK167, suggesting that the PS-dependent complex could not be the unique gamma-secretase activity responsible for Abeta

  8. The Charles River "hairless" rat mutation maps to chromosome 1: allelic with fuzzy and a likely orthologue of mouse frizzy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahearn, K; Akkouris, G; Berry, P R; Chrissluis, R R; Crooks, I M; Dull, A K; Grable, S; Jeruzal, J; Lanza, J; Lavoie, C; Maloney, R A; Pitruzzello, M; Sharma, R; Stoklasek, T A; Tweeddale, J; King, T R

    2002-01-01

    Recent evidence has indicated that the recessive mutation affecting hypotrichosis in the Charles River (CR) "hairless" rat does not involve the hairless gene (hr) on rat chromosome 15. To determine if this mutation might be allelic (or orthologous) with any other previously mapped hypotrichosis-generating mutation in mammals, we have produced a panel of backcross rats segregating for the CR hairless rat mutation as well as numerous other markers from throughout the rat genome. Analysis of this panel has located the CR hairless rat's hypotrichosis-generating mutation on chromosome 1, near Myl2, where only the fuzzy mutation in rat (fz) and the frizzy mutation in mouse (fr) have been previously localized. Intercrossing fz/fz and CR hairless rats produced hybrid offspring with abnormal hair, showing that these two rat mutations are allelic. We suggest that the CR hairless rat mutation and fuzzy be renamed frizzy-Charles River (fr(CR)) and frizzy-Harlan (fr(H)), respectively, to reflect their likely orthology with the mouse fr mutation.

  9. An activating mutation of interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) in adult T cell leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherian, Mathew A; Olson, Sydney; Sundaramoorthi, Hemalatha; Cates, Kitra; Cheng, Xiaogang; Harding, John; Martens, Andrew; Challen, Grant A; Tyagi, Manoj; Ratner, Lee; Rauch, Daniel

    2018-03-14

    The human T cell leukemia virus-1 (HTLV-1) oncoprotein Tax drives cell proliferation and resistance to apoptosis early in the pathogenesis of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL). Subsequently, likely as a result of specific immuno-editing, Tax expression is downregulated and functionally replaced by somatic driver mutations of the host genome. Both amplification and point mutations of interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) have been previously detected in ATL, and the K59R mutation is the most common single-nucleotide variation in IRF4 and is found exclusively in ATL. Here high throughput whole-exome sequencing revealed recurrent activating genetic alterations in the T cell receptor, CD28, and NF-kB pathways. Moreover, we found that IRF4, which is transcriptionally activated downstream of these pathways, is frequently mutated in ATL. IRF4 RNA, protein, and IRF4 transcriptional targets are uniformly elevated in HTLV transformed cells and ATL cell lines, and IRF4 was bound to genomic regulatory DNA of many of these transcriptional targets in HTLV-1 transformed cell lines. We further noted that the K59R IRF4 mutant is expressed at higher levels in the nucleus than is wild-type IRF4, and is transcriptionally more active. Expression of both wild-type and the K59R mutant of IRF4 from a constitutive promoter in retrovirally transduced murine bone marrow cells increased the abundance of T lymphocytes but not myeloid cells or B lymphocytes in mice. IRF4 may represent a therapeutic target in ATL since ATL cells select for a mutant of IRF4 with higher nuclear expression and transcriptional activity, and over-expression of IRF4 induces the expansion of T lymphocytes in vivo. Published under license by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Use of human tissue to assess the oncogenic activity of melanoma-associated mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnovsky, Yakov; Adams, Amy E; Robbins, Paul B; Lin, Qun; Khavari, Paul A

    2005-07-01

    Multiple genetic alterations occur in melanoma, a lethal skin malignancy of increasing incidence. These include mutations that activate Ras and two of its effector cascades, Raf and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). Induction of Ras and Raf can be caused by active N-Ras and B-Raf mutants as well as by gene amplification. Activation of PI3K pathway components occurs by PTEN loss and by AKT3 amplification. Melanomas also commonly show impairment of the p16(INK4A)-CDK4-Rb and ARF-HDM2-p53 tumor suppressor pathways. CDKN2A mutations can produce p16(INK4A) and ARF protein loss. Rb bypass can also occur through activating CDK4 mutations as well as by CDK4 amplification. In addition to ARF deletion, p53 pathway disruption can result from dominant negative TP53 mutations. TERT amplification also occurs in melanoma. The extent to which these mutations can induce human melanocytic neoplasia is unknown. Here we characterize pathways sufficient to generate human melanocytic neoplasia and show that genetically altered human tissue facilitates functional analysis of mutations observed in human tumors.

  11. Retinitis Pigmentosa Mutations in Bad Response to Refrigeration 2 (Brr2) Impair ATPase and Helicase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledoux, Sarah; Guthrie, Christine

    2016-06-03

    Brr2 is an RNA-dependent ATPase required to unwind the U4/U6 snRNA duplex during spliceosome assembly. Mutations within the ratchet helix of the Brr2 RNA binding channel result in a form of degenerative human blindness known as retinitis pigmentosa (RP). The biochemical consequences of these mutations on Brr2's RNA binding, helicase, and ATPase activity have not yet been characterized. Therefore, we identified the largest construct of Brr2 that is soluble in vitro, which truncates the first 247 amino acids of the N terminus (Δ247-Brr2), to characterize the effects of the RP mutations on Brr2 activity. The Δ247-Brr2 RP mutants exhibit a gradient of severity of weakened RNA binding, reduced helicase activity, and reduced ATPase activity compared with wild type Δ247-Brr2. The globular C-terminal Jab1/Mpn1-like domain of Prp8 increases the ability of Δ247-Brr2 to bind the U4/U6 snRNA duplex at high pH and increases Δ247-Brr2's RNA-dependent ATPase activity and the extent of RNA unwinding. However, this domain of Prp8 does not differentially affect the Δ247-Brr2 RP mutants compared with the wild type Δ247-Brr2. When stimulated by Prp8, wild type Δ247-Brr2 is able to unwind long stable duplexes in vitro, and even the RP mutants capable of binding RNA with tight affinity are incapable of fully unwinding short duplex RNAs. Our data suggest that the RP mutations within the ratchet helix impair Brr2 translocation through RNA helices. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Ultraviolet B (UVB) induction of the c-fos promoter is mediated by phospho-cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) binding to CRE and c-fos activator protein 1 site (FAP1) cis elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Melissa; Bowden, G Tim

    2002-06-26

    The ultraviolet B (UVB) portion (280-320 nm) of the ultraviolet spectrum has been shown to contribute to the development of non-melanoma skin cancer in humans. Research in the human keratinocyte cell line, HaCaT, revealed that UVB irradiation caused the upregulation of the transcription factor activator protein-1 (AP-1). The AP-1 complex formed in UVB-irradiated HaCaT cells is specifically composed of c-fos and Jun D. c-Fos expression was induced in a manner that correlated with the UVB-induced activation of AP-1. To investigate how c-fos expression is regulated by UVB irradiation, the role of each of four cis elements within the c-fos promoter was evaluated. Clustered point mutations at the sis inducible element (SIE), serum response element (SRE), c-fos AP-1 site (FAP1), or cyclic AMP response elements (CRE) significantly inhibited UVB induction of the c-fos promoter. This indicated that all four cis elements are required for maximum promoter activity. The CRE and FAP1 elements were the two most active cis elements that mediate the UVB transactivation of c-fos. Homodimers of phosphorylated cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) were induced by UVB irradiation to bind to each of these elements. Therefore, CREB may function as an important regulatory protein in the UVB-induced expression of c-fos.

  13. SETBP1 mutations drive leukemic transformation in ASXL1-mutated MDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, D; Kitaura, J; Matsui, H; Hou, H-A; Chou, W-C; Nagamachi, A; Kawabata, K C; Togami, K; Nagase, R; Horikawa, S; Saika, M; Micol, J-B; Hayashi, Y; Harada, Y; Harada, H; Inaba, T; Tien, H-F; Abdel-Wahab, O; Kitamura, T

    2015-04-01

    Mutations in ASXL1 are frequent in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and are associated with adverse survival, yet the molecular pathogenesis of ASXL1 mutations (ASXL1-MT) is not fully understood. Recently, it has been found that deletion of Asxl1 or expression of C-terminal-truncating ASXL1-MTs inhibit myeloid differentiation and induce MDS-like disease in mice. Here, we find that SET-binding protein 1 (SETBP1) mutations (SETBP1-MT) are enriched among ASXL1-mutated MDS patients and associated with increased incidence of leukemic transformation, as well as shorter survival, suggesting that SETBP1-MT play a critical role in leukemic transformation of MDS. We identify that SETBP1-MT inhibit ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of SETBP1, resulting in increased expression. Expression of SETBP1-MT, in turn, inhibited protein phosphatase 2A activity, leading to Akt activation and enhanced expression of posterior Hoxa genes in ASXL1-mutant cells. Biologically, SETBP1-MT augmented ASXL1-MT-induced differentiation block, inhibited apoptosis and enhanced myeloid colony output. SETBP1-MT collaborated with ASXL1-MT in inducing acute myeloid leukemia in vivo. The combination of ASXL1-MT and SETBP1-MT activated a stem cell signature and repressed the tumor growth factor-β signaling pathway, in contrast to the ASXL1-MT-induced MDS model. These data reveal that SETBP1-MT are critical drivers of ASXL1-mutated MDS and identify several deregulated pathways as potential therapeutic targets in high-risk MDS.

  14. Effect of point mutations on Herbaspirillum seropedicae NifA activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquino, B.; Stefanello, A.A.; Oliveira, M.A.S.; Pedrosa, F.O.; Souza, E.M.; Monteiro, R.A.; Chubatsu, L.S.

    2015-01-01

    NifA is the transcriptional activator of the nif genes in Proteobacteria. It is usually regulated by nitrogen and oxygen, allowing biological nitrogen fixation to occur under appropriate conditions. NifA proteins have a typical three-domain structure, including a regulatory N-terminal GAF domain, which is involved in control by fixed nitrogen and not strictly required for activity, a catalytic AAA+ central domain, which catalyzes open complex formation, and a C-terminal domain involved in DNA-binding. In Herbaspirillum seropedicae, a β-proteobacterium capable of colonizing Graminae of agricultural importance, NifA regulation by ammonium involves its N-terminal GAF domain and the signal transduction protein GlnK. When the GAF domain is removed, the protein can still activate nif genes transcription; however, ammonium regulation is lost. In this work, we generated eight constructs resulting in point mutations in H. seropedicae NifA and analyzed their effect on nifH transcription in Escherichia coli and H. seropedicae. Mutations K22V, T160E, M161V, L172R, and A215D resulted in inactive proteins. Mutations Q216I and S220I produced partially active proteins with activity control similar to wild-type NifA. However, mutation G25E, located in the GAF domain, resulted in an active protein that did not require GlnK for activity and was partially sensitive to ammonium. This suggested that G25E may affect the negative interaction between the N-terminal GAF domain and the catalytic central domain under high ammonium concentrations, thus rendering the protein constitutively active, or that G25E could lead to a conformational change comparable with that when GlnK interacts with the GAF domain

  15. Effect of point mutations on Herbaspirillum seropedicae NifA activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Aquino

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available NifA is the transcriptional activator of the nif genes in Proteobacteria. It is usually regulated by nitrogen and oxygen, allowing biological nitrogen fixation to occur under appropriate conditions. NifA proteins have a typical three-domain structure, including a regulatory N-terminal GAF domain, which is involved in control by fixed nitrogen and not strictly required for activity, a catalytic AAA+ central domain, which catalyzes open complex formation, and a C-terminal domain involved in DNA-binding. In Herbaspirillum seropedicae, a β-proteobacterium capable of colonizing Graminae of agricultural importance, NifA regulation by ammonium involves its N-terminal GAF domain and the signal transduction protein GlnK. When the GAF domain is removed, the protein can still activate nif genes transcription; however, ammonium regulation is lost. In this work, we generated eight constructs resulting in point mutations in H. seropedicae NifA and analyzed their effect on nifH transcription in Escherichia coli and H. seropedicae. Mutations K22V, T160E, M161V, L172R, and A215D resulted in inactive proteins. Mutations Q216I and S220I produced partially active proteins with activity control similar to wild-type NifA. However, mutation G25E, located in the GAF domain, resulted in an active protein that did not require GlnK for activity and was partially sensitive to ammonium. This suggested that G25E may affect the negative interaction between the N-terminal GAF domain and the catalytic central domain under high ammonium concentrations, thus rendering the protein constitutively active, or that G25E could lead to a conformational change comparable with that when GlnK interacts with the GAF domain.

  16. Effect of point mutations on Herbaspirillum seropedicae NifA activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, B; Stefanello, A A; Oliveira, M A S; Pedrosa, F O; Souza, E M; Monteiro, R A; Chubatsu, L S

    2015-08-01

    NifA is the transcriptional activator of the nif genes in Proteobacteria. It is usually regulated by nitrogen and oxygen, allowing biological nitrogen fixation to occur under appropriate conditions. NifA proteins have a typical three-domain structure, including a regulatory N-terminal GAF domain, which is involved in control by fixed nitrogen and not strictly required for activity, a catalytic AAA+ central domain, which catalyzes open complex formation, and a C-terminal domain involved in DNA-binding. In Herbaspirillum seropedicae, a β-proteobacterium capable of colonizing Graminae of agricultural importance, NifA regulation by ammonium involves its N-terminal GAF domain and the signal transduction protein GlnK. When the GAF domain is removed, the protein can still activate nif genes transcription; however, ammonium regulation is lost. In this work, we generated eight constructs resulting in point mutations in H. seropedicae NifA and analyzed their effect on nifH transcription in Escherichia coli and H. seropedicae. Mutations K22V, T160E, M161V, L172R, and A215D resulted in inactive proteins. Mutations Q216I and S220I produced partially active proteins with activity control similar to wild-type NifA. However, mutation G25E, located in the GAF domain, resulted in an active protein that did not require GlnK for activity and was partially sensitive to ammonium. This suggested that G25E may affect the negative interaction between the N-terminal GAF domain and the catalytic central domain under high ammonium concentrations, thus rendering the protein constitutively active, or that G25E could lead to a conformational change comparable with that when GlnK interacts with the GAF domain.

  17. Effect of point mutations on Herbaspirillum seropedicae NifA activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, B.; Stefanello, A.A.; Oliveira, M.A.S.; Pedrosa, F.O.; Souza, E.M.; Monteiro, R.A.; Chubatsu, L.S. [Departamento de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2015-07-10

    NifA is the transcriptional activator of the nif genes in Proteobacteria. It is usually regulated by nitrogen and oxygen, allowing biological nitrogen fixation to occur under appropriate conditions. NifA proteins have a typical three-domain structure, including a regulatory N-terminal GAF domain, which is involved in control by fixed nitrogen and not strictly required for activity, a catalytic AAA+ central domain, which catalyzes open complex formation, and a C-terminal domain involved in DNA-binding. In Herbaspirillum seropedicae, a β-proteobacterium capable of colonizing Graminae of agricultural importance, NifA regulation by ammonium involves its N-terminal GAF domain and the signal transduction protein GlnK. When the GAF domain is removed, the protein can still activate nif genes transcription; however, ammonium regulation is lost. In this work, we generated eight constructs resulting in point mutations in H. seropedicae NifA and analyzed their effect on nifH transcription in Escherichia coli and H. seropedicae. Mutations K22V, T160E, M161V, L172R, and A215D resulted in inactive proteins. Mutations Q216I and S220I produced partially active proteins with activity control similar to wild-type NifA. However, mutation G25E, located in the GAF domain, resulted in an active protein that did not require GlnK for activity and was partially sensitive to ammonium. This suggested that G25E may affect the negative interaction between the N-terminal GAF domain and the catalytic central domain under high ammonium concentrations, thus rendering the protein constitutively active, or that G25E could lead to a conformational change comparable with that when GlnK interacts with the GAF domain.

  18. Determination of trace element impurities in aspirin tablets by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskander, F.Y.; Klein, D.E.; Bauer, T.L.

    1986-01-01

    Twenty-five trace and minor elements in five different Egyptian aspirin brands (Aspo, Askin, Aspocid, Aspeol and Rivo) were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. It was concluded that the concentration of As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Fe (except in Aspocid), Mg, Mn, Rb, Se, Sr and Zn in the Egyptian brands is below or within the concentration range reported for these elements in 16 American aspirin and aspirin-like brands. (author)

  19. Maternal genetic mutations as gestational and early life influences in producing psychiatric disease-like phenotypes in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia eGleason

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Risk factors for psychiatric disorders have traditionally been classified as genetic or environmental. Risk (candidate genes, although typically possessing small effects, represent a clear starting point to elucidate downstream cellular/molecular pathways of disease. Environmental effects, especially during development, can also lead to altered behavior and increased risk for disease. An important environmental factor is the mother, demonstrated by the negative effects elicited by maternal gestational stress and altered maternal care. These maternal effects can also have a genetic basis (e.g. maternal genetic variability and mutations. The focus of this review is maternal genotype effects that influence the emotional development of the offspring resulting in life-long psychiatric disease-like phenotypes. We have recently found that genetic inactivation of the serotonin1A receptor (5-HT1AR and the fmr-1 gene (encoding the fragile X mental retardation protein in mouse dams results in psychiatric disease-like phenotypes in their genetically unaffected offspring. 5-HT1AR deficiency in dams results in anxiety and increased stress responsiveness in their offspring. Mice with 5-HT1AR deficient dams display altered development of the hippocampus, which could be linked to their anxiety-like phenotype. Maternal inactivation of fmr-1, like its inactivation in the offspring, results in a hyperactivity-like condition and is associated with receptor alterations in the striatum. These data indicate a high sensitivity of the offspring to maternal mutations and suggest that maternal genotype effects can increase the impact of genetic risk factors in a population by increasing the risk of the genetically normal offspring as well as by enhancing the effects of offspring mutations.

  20. Knockdown resistance (kdr)-like mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel of a malaria vector Anopheles stephensi and PCR assays for their detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Om P; Dykes, Cherry L; Lather, Manila; Agrawal, Om P; Adak, Tridibes

    2011-03-14

    Knockdown resistance (kdr) in insects, resulting from mutation(s) in the voltage-gated sodium channel (vgsc) gene is one of the mechanisms of resistance against DDT and pyrethroid-group of insecticides. The most common mutation(s) associated with knockdown resistance in insects, including anophelines, has been reported to be present at residue Leu1014 in the IIS6 transmembrane segment of the vgsc gene. This study reports the presence of two alternative kdr-like mutations, L1014S and L1014F, at this residue in a major malaria vector Anopheles stephensi and describes new PCR assays for their detection. Part of the vgsc (IIS4-S5 linker-to-IIS6 transmembrane segment) of An. stephensi collected from Alwar (Rajasthan, India) was PCR-amplified from genomic DNA, sequenced and analysed for the presence of deduced amino acid substitution(s). Analysis of DNA sequences revealed the presence of two alternative non-synonymous point mutations at L1014 residue in the IIS6 transmembrane segment of vgsc, i.e., T>C mutation on the second position and A>T mutation on the third position of the codon, leading to Leu (TTA)-to-Ser (TCA) and -Phe (TTT) amino acid substitutions, respectively. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were developed for identification of each of these two point mutations. Genotyping of An. stephensi mosquitoes from Alwar by PCR assays revealed the presence of both mutations, with a high frequency of L1014S. The PCR assays developed for detection of the kdr mutations were specific as confirmed by DNA sequencing of PCR-genotyped samples. Two alternative kdr-like mutations, L1014S and L1014F, were detected in An. stephensi with a high allelic frequency of L1014S. The occurrence of L1014S is being reported for the first time in An. stephensi. Two specific PCR assays were developed for detection of two kdr-like mutations in An. stephensi.

  1. Identification of seven novel mutations including the first two genomic rearrangements in SLC26A3 mutated in congenital chloride diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höglund, P; Sormaala, M; Haila, S; Socha, J; Rajaram, U; Scheurlen, W; Sinaasappel, M; de Jonge, H; Holmberg, C; Yoshikawa, H; Kere, J

    2001-09-01

    Congenital chloride diarrhea (CLD) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by defective intestinal electrolyte absorption, resulting in voluminous osmotic diarrhea with high chloride content. A variety of mutations in the solute carrier family 26, member 3 gene (SLC26A3, previously known as CLD or DRA) are responsible for the disease. Since the identification of the SLC26A3 gene and the determination of its genomic structure, altogether three founder and 17 private mutations have been characterized within miscellaneous ethnic groups. We screened for mutations in seven unrelated families with CLD. The diagnoses were confirmed by fecal chloride measurements. The combined PCR-SSCP and sequencing analyses revealed altogether seven novel mutations including two missense mutations (S206P, D468V), two splicing defects (IVS12-1G>C, IVS13-2delA), one nonsense mutation (Q436X), one insertion/deletion mutation (2104-2105delGGins29-bp), and an intragenic deletion of SLC26A3 exons 7 and 8. Two previously identified mutations were also found. This is the first report of rearrangement mutations in SLC26A3. Molecular features predisposing SLC26A3 for the two rearrangements may include repetitive elements and palindromic-like sequences. The increasingly wide diversity of SLC26A3 mutations suggests that mutations in the SLC26A3 gene may not be rare events. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Impact of kinase activating and inactivating patient mutations on binary PKA interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röck, Ruth; Mayrhofer, Johanna E; Bachmann, Verena; Stefan, Eduard

    2015-01-01

    The second messenger molecule cAMP links extracellular signals to intracellular responses. The main cellular cAMP effector is the compartmentalized protein kinase A (PKA). Upon receptor initiated cAMP-mobilization, PKA regulatory subunits (R) bind cAMP thereby triggering dissociation and activation of bound PKA catalytic subunits (PKAc). Mutations in PKAc or RIa subunits manipulate PKA dynamics and activities which contribute to specific disease patterns. Mutations activating cAMP/PKA signaling contribute to carcinogenesis or hormone excess, while inactivating mutations cause hormone deficiency or resistance. Here we extended the application spectrum of a Protein-fragment Complementation Assay based on the Renilla Luciferase to determine binary protein:protein interactions (PPIs) of the PKA network. We compared time- and dose-dependent influences of cAMP-elevation on mutually exclusive PPIs of PKAc with the phosphotransferase inhibiting RIIb and RIa subunits and the protein kinase inhibitor peptide (PKI). We analyzed PKA dynamics following integration of patient mutations into PKAc and RIa. We observed that oncogenic modifications of PKAc(L206R) and RIa(Δ184-236) as well as rare disease mutations in RIa(R368X) affect complex formation of PKA and its responsiveness to cAMP elevation. With the cell-based PKA PPI reporter platform we precisely quantified the mechanistic details how inhibitory PKA interactions and defined patient mutations contribute to PKA functions.

  3. Increased Ac excision (iae): Arabidopsis thaliana mutations affecting Ac transposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvis, P.; Belzile, F.; Page, T.; Dean, C.

    1997-01-01

    The maize transposable element Ac is highly active in the heterologous hosts tobacco and tomato, but shows very much reduced levels of activity in Arabidopsis. A mutagenesis experiment was undertaken with the aim of identifying Arabidopsis host factors responsible for the observed low levels of Ac activity. Seed from a line carrying a single copy of the Ac element inserted into the streptomycin phosphotransferase (SPT) reporter fusion, and which displayed typically low levels of Ac activity, were mutagenized using gamma rays. Nineteen mutants displaying high levels of somatic Ac activity, as judged by their highly variegated phenotypes, were isolated after screening the M2 generation on streptomycin-containing medium. The mutations fall into two complementation groups, iae1 and iae2, are unlinked to the SPT::Ac locus and segregate in a Mendelian fashion. The iae1 mutation is recessive and the iae2 mutation is semi-dominant. The iae1 and iae2 mutants show 550- and 70-fold increases, respectively, in the average number of Ac excision sectors per cotyledon. The IAE1 locus maps to chromosome 2, whereas the SPT::Ac reporter maps to chromosome 3. A molecular study of Ac activity in the iae1 mutant confirmed the very high levels of Ac excision predicted using the phenotypic assay, but revealed only low levels of Ac re-insertion. Analyses of germinal transposition in the iae1 mutant demonstrated an average germinal excision frequency of 3% and a frequency of independent Ac re-insertions following germinal excision of 22%. The iae mutants represents a possible means of improving the efficiency of Ac/Ds transposon tagging systems in Arabidopsis, and will enable the dissection of host involvement in Ac transposition and the mechanisms employed for controlling transposable element activity

  4. The Splicing Efficiency of Activating HRAS Mutations Can Determine Costello Syndrome Phenotype and Frequency in Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Mette Hartung

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Costello syndrome (CS may be caused by activating mutations in codon 12/13 of the HRAS proto-oncogene. HRAS p.Gly12Val mutations have the highest transforming activity, are very frequent in cancers, but very rare in CS, where they are reported to cause a severe, early lethal, phenotype. We identified an unusual, new germline p.Gly12Val mutation, c.35_36GC>TG, in a 12-year-old boy with attenuated CS. Analysis of his HRAS cDNA showed high levels of exon 2 skipping. Using wild type and mutant HRAS minigenes, we confirmed that c.35_36GC>TG results in exon 2 skipping by simultaneously disrupting the function of a critical Exonic Splicing Enhancer (ESE and creation of an Exonic Splicing Silencer (ESS. We show that this vulnerability of HRAS exon 2 is caused by a weak 3' splice site, which makes exon 2 inclusion dependent on binding of splicing stimulatory proteins, like SRSF2, to the critical ESE. Because the majority of cancer- and CS- causing mutations are located here, they affect splicing differently. Therefore, our results also demonstrate that the phenotype in CS and somatic cancers is not only determined by the different transforming potentials of mutant HRAS proteins, but also by the efficiency of exon 2 inclusion resulting from the different HRAS mutations. Finally, we show that a splice switching oligonucleotide (SSO that blocks access to the critical ESE causes exon 2 skipping and halts proliferation of cancer cells. This unravels a potential for development of new anti-cancer therapies based on SSO-mediated HRAS exon 2 skipping.

  5. Loss of metal ions, disulfide reduction and mutations related to familial ALS promote formation of amyloid-like aggregates from superoxide dismutase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep A Oztug Durer

    Full Text Available Mutations in the gene encoding Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1 are one of the causes of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS. Fibrillar inclusions containing SOD1 and SOD1 inclusions that bind the amyloid-specific dye thioflavin S have been found in neurons of transgenic mice expressing mutant SOD1. Therefore, the formation of amyloid fibrils from human SOD1 was investigated. When agitated at acidic pH in the presence of low concentrations of guanidine or acetonitrile, metalated SOD1 formed fibrillar material which bound both thioflavin T and Congo red and had circular dichroism and infrared spectra characteristic of amyloid. While metalated SOD1 did not form amyloid-like aggregates at neutral pH, either removing metals from SOD1 with its intramolecular disulfide bond intact or reducing the intramolecular disulfide bond of metalated SOD1 was sufficient to promote formation of these aggregates. SOD1 formed amyloid-like aggregates both with and without intermolecular disulfide bonds, depending on the incubation conditions, and a mutant SOD1 lacking free sulfhydryl groups (AS-SOD1 formed amyloid-like aggregates at neutral pH under reducing conditions. ALS mutations enhanced the ability of disulfide-reduced SOD1 to form amyloid-like aggregates, and apo-AS-SOD1 formed amyloid-like aggregates at pH 7 only when an ALS mutation was also present. These results indicate that some mutations related to ALS promote formation of amyloid-like aggregates by facilitating the loss of metals and/or by making the intramolecular disulfide bond more susceptible to reduction, thus allowing the conversion of SOD1 to a form that aggregates to form resembling amyloid. Furthermore, the occurrence of amyloid-like aggregates per se does not depend on forming intermolecular disulfide bonds, and multiple forms of such aggregates can be produced from SOD1.

  6. CDKL5 gene status in female patients with epilepsy and Rett-like features: two new mutations in the catalytic domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maortua, Hiart; Martínez-Bouzas, Cristina; Calvo, María-Teresa; Domingo, Maria-Rosario; Ramos, Feliciano; García-Ribes, Ainhoa; Martínez, María-Jesús; López-Aríztegui, María-Asunción; Puente, Nerea; Rubio, Izaskun; Tejada, María-Isabel

    2012-08-06

    Mutations in the cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 gene (CDKL5) located in the Xp22 region have been shown to cause a subset of atypical Rett syndrome with infantile spasms or early seizures starting in the first postnatal months. We performed mutation screening of CDKL5 in 60 female patients who had been identified as negative for the methyl CpG-binding protein 2 gene (MECP2) mutations, but who had current or past epilepsy, regardless of the age of onset, type, and severity. All the exons in the CDKL5 gene and their neighbouring sequences were examined, and CDKL5 rearrangements were studied by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). Six previously unidentified DNA changes were detected, two of which were disease-causing mutations in the catalytic domain: a frameshift mutation (c.509_510insGT; p.Glu170GlyfsX36) and a complete deletion of exon 10. Both were found in patients with seizures that started in the first month of life. This study demonstrated the importance of CDKL5 mutations as etiological factors in neurodevelopmental disorders, and indicated that a thorough analysis of the CDKL5 gene sequence and its rearrangements should be considered in females with Rett syndrome-like phenotypes, severe encephalopathy and epilepsy with onset before 5 months of age. This study also confirmed the usefulness of MLPA as a diagnostic screening method for use in clinical practice.

  7. CDKL5 gene status in female patients with epilepsy and Rett-like features: two new mutations in the catalytic domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maortua Hiart

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mutations in the cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 gene (CDKL5 located in the Xp22 region have been shown to cause a subset of atypical Rett syndrome with infantile spasms or early seizures starting in the first postnatal months. Methods We performed mutation screening of CDKL5 in 60 female patients who had been identified as negative for the methyl CpG-binding protein 2 gene (MECP2 mutations, but who had current or past epilepsy, regardless of the age of onset, type, and severity. All the exons in the CDKL5 gene and their neighbouring sequences were examined, and CDKL5 rearrangements were studied by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA. Results Six previously unidentified DNA changes were detected, two of which were disease-causing mutations in the catalytic domain: a frameshift mutation (c.509_510insGT; p.Glu170GlyfsX36 and a complete deletion of exon 10. Both were found in patients with seizures that started in the first month of life. Conclusions This study demonstrated the importance of CDKL5 mutations as etiological factors in neurodevelopmental disorders, and indicated that a thorough analysis of the CDKL5 gene sequence and its rearrangements should be considered in females with Rett syndrome-like phenotypes, severe encephalopathy and epilepsy with onset before 5 months of age. This study also confirmed the usefulness of MLPA as a diagnostic screening method for use in clinical practice.

  8. Novel VPS13B Mutations in Three Large Pakistani Cohen Syndrome Families Suggests a Baloch Variant with Autistic-Like Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, Muhammad Arshad; Leblond, Claire S; Saqib, Muhammad Arif Nadeem; Vincent, Akshita K; Ambalavanan, Amirthagowri; Khan, Falak Sher; Ayaz, Muhammad; Shaheen, Naseema; Spiegelman, Dan; Ali, Ghazanfar; Amin-ud-Din, Muhammad; Laurent, Sandra; Mahmood, Huda; Christian, Mehtab; Ali, Nadir; Fennell, Alanna; Nanjiani, Zohair; Egger, Gerald; Caron, Chantal; Waqas, Ahmed; Ayub, Muhammad; Rasheed, Saima; Forgeot d'Arc, Baudouin; Johnson, Amelie; So, Joyce; Brohi, Muhammad Qasim; Mottron, Laurent; Ansar, Muhammad; Vincent, John B; Xiong, Lan

    2015-06-25

    Cohen Syndrome (COH1) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder, principally identified by ocular, neural and muscular deficits. We identified three large consanguineous Pakistani families with intellectual disability and in some cases with autistic traits. Clinical assessments were performed in order to allow comparison of clinical features with other VPS13B mutations. Homozygosity mapping followed by whole exome sequencing and Sanger sequencing strategies were used to identify disease-related mutations. We identified two novel homozygous deletion mutations in VPS13B, firstly a 1 bp deletion, NM_017890.4:c.6879delT; p.Phe2293Leufs*24, and secondly a deletion of exons 37-40, which co-segregate with affected status. In addition to COH1-related traits, autistic features were reported in a number of family members, contrasting with the "friendly" demeanour often associated with COH1. The c.6879delT mutation is present in two families from different regions of the country, but both from the Baloch sub-ethnic group, and with a shared haplotype, indicating a founder effect among the Baloch population. We suspect that the c.6879delT mutation may be a common cause of COH1 and similar phenotypes among the Baloch population. Additionally, most of the individuals with the c.6879delT mutation in these two families also present with autistic like traits, and suggests that this variant may lead to a distinct autistic-like COH1 subgroup.

  9. Mutation of Rv2887, a marR-like gene, confers Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistance to an imidazopyridine-based agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winglee, Kathryn; Lun, Shichun; Pieroni, Marco; Kozikowski, Alan; Bishai, William

    2015-11-01

    Drug resistance is a major problem in Mycobacterium tuberculosis control, and it is critical to identify novel drug targets and new antimycobacterial compounds. We have previously identified an imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine-4-carbonitrile-based agent, MP-III-71, with strong activity against M. tuberculosis. In this study, we evaluated mechanisms of resistance to MP-III-71. We derived three independent M. tuberculosis mutants resistant to MP-III-71 and conducted whole-genome sequencing of these mutants. Loss-of-function mutations in Rv2887 were common to all three MP-III-71-resistant mutants, and we confirmed the role of Rv2887 as a gene required for MP-III-71 susceptibility using complementation. The Rv2887 protein was previously unannotated, but domain and homology analyses suggested it to be a transcriptional regulator in the MarR (multiple antibiotic resistance repressor) family, a group of proteins first identified in Escherichia coli to negatively regulate efflux pumps and other mechanisms of multidrug resistance. We found that two efflux pump inhibitors, verapamil and chlorpromazine, potentiate the action of MP-III-71 and that mutation of Rv2887 abrogates their activity. We also used transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) to identify genes which are differentially expressed in the presence and absence of a functional Rv2887 protein. We found that genes involved in benzoquinone and menaquinone biosynthesis were repressed by functional Rv2887. Thus, inactivating mutations of Rv2887, encoding a putative MarR-like transcriptional regulator, confer resistance to MP-III-71, an effective antimycobacterial compound that shows no cross-resistance to existing antituberculosis drugs. The mechanism of resistance of M. tuberculosis Rv2887 mutants may involve efflux pump upregulation and also drug methylation. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Identification of a growth hormone-responsive STAT5-binding element in the rat insulin 1 gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galsgaard, E D; Gouilleux, F; Groner, B

    1996-01-01

    promoter activity 2-fold, and this stimulation was abolished by introduction of a block mutation in a gamma-interferon-activated sequence (GAS)-like element (GLE) with the sequence 5'-TTCTGGGAA-3' located in the rat insulin 1 enhancer at position -330 to -322. This element, termed Ins-GLE, was able...... transfected with STAT5 and GH receptor cDNAs, it was found that expression of STAT5 was necessary for GH induction of these two DNA-binding complexes. These results suggest that GH stimulates insulin 1 promoter activity by inducing the binding of STAT5 to Ins-GLE.......GH and PRL stimulate both proliferation and insulin production in pancreatic beta-cells as well as in the rat insulinoma cell line RIN-5AH, We report here that human GH increases insulin mRNA levels in RIN-5AH cells via both somatogenic and lactogenic receptors. GH stimulated the rat insulin 1...

  11. Knockout mutations of insulin-like peptide genes enhance sexual receptivity in Drosophila virgin females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kazuki; Sakai, Takaomi

    2016-01-01

    In the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster, females take the initiative to mate successfully because they decide whether to mate or not. However, little is known about the molecular and neuronal mechanisms regulating sexual receptivity in virgin females. Genetic tools available in Drosophila are useful for identifying molecules and neural circuits involved in the regulation of sexual receptivity. We previously demonstrated that insulin-producing cells (IPCs) in the female brain are critical to the regulation of female sexual receptivity. Ablation and inactivation of IPCs enhance female sexual receptivity, suggesting that neurosecretion from IPCs inhibits female sexual receptivity. IPCs produce and release insulin-like peptides (Ilps) that modulate various biological processes such as metabolism, growth, lifespan and behaviors. Here, we report a novel role of the Ilps in sexual behavior in Drosophila virgin females. Compared with wild-type females, females with knockout mutations of Ilps showed a high mating success rate toward wild-type males, whereas wild-type males courted wild-type and Ilp-knockout females to the same extent. Wild-type receptive females retard their movement during male courtship and this reduced female mobility allows males to copulate. Thus, it was anticipated that knockout mutations of Ilps would reduce general locomotion. However, the locomotor activity in Ilp-knockout females was significantly higher than that in wild-type females. Thus, our findings indicate that the high mating success rate in Ilp-knockout females is caused by their enhanced sexual receptivity, but not by improvement of their sex appeal or by general sluggishness.

  12. Genetics Ustilago violacea. XXXIII. Genetic evidence for insertional mutations in the magenta locus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garber, E.D.; Ruddat, M.

    1996-01-01

    Three spontaneous mutants (m-1, m-2, and m-31) with a new sporidial colony color (magenta, m) were found in the stable pink 1.A1 a-1 and 2.A2 a-2 laboratory strains. The m-1 and white (w) mutations were very closely linked (<0.1 cM); the m locus was assumed to be distal from the w locus and in the same chromosome arm. The color mutations formed a map of very closely linked (<1 cM), centromere-linked loci: orange (o)-pumpkin (p)-yellow (y)-centr-wA-wB-m. Crosses between the m-1 and m-2 mutants, between the m-2 mutant and laboratory strains with a different color, and between the m-2 mutant and strains from the herbarium/field collections gave nonsectored and sectored teliospore colonies with a nonparental color. All of the teliospores colonies from cross AV13 involving strains 1.C417* y and 2.C413 p had a nonparental color or different nonparental colors, including magenta. The UV-irradiation of m-1, m-2, and m-31 sporidia gave mostly pink (+) colonies, ranging from 9% to 48%. Occasional nonsectored w and p colonies as well as one bisectored m/+ and one w/+ colony were found. Approximately 103 m-1 sporidia were UV-irradiated, and the following colonies with a nonparental color were found: w (one), p (three), o (one), +f (one), ms (supermagenta) (one), and m/+ (one). Crosses involving the m-2 mutant and the +f, ms, p, w, and y mutants indicated that the +f and ms mutants resulted from an insertional mutation and the others from a genic mutation. Sites of element insertion were (1) most likely in the pericentric regions to give the pink phenotype, (2) less likely in the y and p loci in the same chromosome arm and in the complex w locus, and (3) least likely in the o locus in one arm and m locus in the other arm. These observations were explained by proposing the transcentric transposition of a cryptic or a transactive element in the homologous chromosome with the color mutations during meiosis and to the UV-induced transposition of an element in sporidia

  13. An Activin Receptor IA/Activin-Like Kinase-2 (R206H Mutation in Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Herrera-Esparza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP is an exceptionally rare genetic disease that is characterised by congenital malformations of the great toes and progressive heterotopic ossification (HO in specific anatomical areas. This disease is caused by a mutation in activin receptor IA/activin-like kinase-2 (ACVR1/ALK2. A Mexican family with one member affected by FOP was studied. The patient is a 19-year-old female who first presented with symptoms of FOP at 8 years old; she developed spontaneous and painful swelling of the right scapular area accompanied by functional limitation of movement. Mutation analysis was performed in which genomic DNA as PCR amplified using primers flanking exons 4 and 6, and PCR products were digested with Cac8I and HphI restriction enzymes. The most informative results were obtained with the exon 4 flanking primers and the Cac8I restriction enzyme, which generated a 253 bp product that carries the ACVR1 617G>A mutation, which causes an amino acid substitution of histidine for arginine at position 206 of the glycine-serine (GS domain, and its mutation results in the dysregulation of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP signalling that causes FOP.

  14. Characterization of activating mutations of NOTCH3 in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and anti-leukemic activity of NOTCH3 inhibitory antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernasconi-Elias, P; Hu, T; Jenkins, D; Firestone, B; Gans, S; Kurth, E; Capodieci, P; Deplazes-Lauber, J; Petropoulos, K; Thiel, P; Ponsel, D; Hee Choi, S; LeMotte, P; London, A; Goetcshkes, M; Nolin, E; Jones, M D; Slocum, K; Kluk, M J; Weinstock, D M; Christodoulou, A; Weinberg, O; Jaehrling, J; Ettenberg, S A; Buckler, A; Blacklow, S C; Aster, J C; Fryer, C J

    2016-11-24

    Notch receptors have been implicated as oncogenic drivers in several cancers, the most notable example being NOTCH1 in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). To characterize the role of activated NOTCH3 in cancer, we generated an antibody that detects the neo-epitope created upon gamma-secretase cleavage of NOTCH3 to release its intracellular domain (ICD3), and sequenced the negative regulatory region (NRR) and PEST (proline, glutamate, serine, threonine) domain coding regions of NOTCH3 in a panel of cell lines. We also characterize NOTCH3 tumor-associated mutations that result in activation of signaling and report new inhibitory antibodies. We determined the structural basis for receptor inhibition by obtaining the first co-crystal structure of a NOTCH3 antibody with the NRR protein and defined two distinct epitopes for NRR antibodies. The antibodies exhibit potent anti-leukemic activity in cell lines and tumor xenografts harboring NOTCH3 activating mutations. Screening of primary T-ALL samples reveals that 2 of 40 tumors examined show active NOTCH3 signaling. We also identified evidence of NOTCH3 activation in 12 of 24 patient-derived orthotopic xenograft models, 2 of which exhibit activation of NOTCH3 without activation of NOTCH1. Our studies provide additional insights into NOTCH3 activation and offer a path forward for identification of cancers that are likely to respond to therapy with NOTCH3 selective inhibitory antibodies.

  15. Enhanced susceptibility of a transposable-element-bearing strain of Drosophila melanogaster to somatic eye-color mutations by ethyl nitrosourea, methyl nitrosourea, and X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryo, H.; Kondo, S.; Rasmuson, B.

    1983-01-01

    A strain of Drosophila with the genes z and w + plus a transposable element (TE) is about 3 times more sensitive than a strain without TE toward somatic eye-color mutations after larval exposure to ethyl nitrosourea, methyl nitrosourea and X-rays. The assay system with TE is simple, reliable, and sensitive for detecting somatic mutations induced in vivo by mutagens. (orig.)

  16. An early nodulin-like protein accumulates in the sieve element plasma membrane of Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Junaid A.; Wang, Qi; Sjölund, Richard D.

    2007-01-01

    Membrane proteins within the sieve element-companion cell complex have essential roles in the physiological functioning of the phloem. The monoclonal antibody line RS6, selected from hybridomas raised against sieve elements isolated from California shield leaf (Streptanthus tortuosus; Brassicaceae...... was revealed by reverse transcription-PCR of Arabidopsis leaf RNA using degenerate primers to be an early nodulin (ENOD)-like protein that is encoded by the expressed gene At3g20570. Arabidopsis ENOD-like proteins are encoded by a multigene family composed of several types of structurally related phytocyanins...... from the precursor protein, resulting in a mature peptide of approximately 15 kD that is attached to the sieve element plasma membrane via a carboxy-terminal glycosylphosphatidylinositol membrane anchor. Many of the Arabidopsis ENOD-like proteins accumulate in gametophytic tissues, whereas in both...

  17. Enzyme-activity mutations detected in mice after paternal fractionated irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles, D.J.; Pretsch, W.

    1986-01-01

    (101/E1 X C3H/E1)F 1 -hybrid male mice were exposed in a 24-h fractionation interval to either 3.0 + 3.0-Gy or 5.1 + 5.1-Gy X-irradiation, and mated to untreated Test-stock females. The offspring were examined for mutations at 7 recessive specific loci and for activity alterations of erythrocyte enzymes controlled presumably by 12 loci. No enzyme-activity mutant was found in 3610 F 1 -offspring of the control group. In the experimental groups, no mutant was detected in 533 (3.0 + 3.0 Gy) and 173 (5.1 + 5.1 Gy) offspring from postspermatogonial germ cells treated. After treatment of spermatogonia, 1 mutant in 3388 F 1 -offspring of the 3.0 + 3.0-Gy group, and 5 mutants in 3187 F 1 offspring of the 5.1 + 5.1-Gy group were found. The mutants were all genetically confirmed. The frequency (expressed as mutants/locus/gamete) of enzyme-activity mutations is 2 (5.1 + 5.1-Gy group) to 10 (3.0 + 3.0-Gy group) times lower than the frequency of recessive specific-locus mutations. (Auth.)

  18. Trace element determination in beauty products by k0-instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sneyers, L.; Verheyen, L.; Vermaercke, P.; Bruggeman, M.

    2009-01-01

    A recent study on trace elements in beauty products and cosmetics sold on the Asian market has shown the presence of high levels of U, Th and rare earth elements in so called 'Hormesis cosmetics'. For the purpose of comparison, some more information about trace elements in European cosmetics would be useful. In this paper the results obtained using k 0 -standardised Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (k 0 -INAA) for more than 20 trace elements in 20 different beauty products collected from the European market are presented. We found traces of Ba, As and Sb which is in breach with European legislation. For some of the other elements like Cr and Co further speciation is needed in order to evaluate their presence in beauty products. (author)

  19. A natural mutation-led truncation in one of the two aluminum-activated malate transporter-like genes at the Ma locus is associated with low fruit acidity in apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yang; Dougherty, Laura; Li, Mingjun; Fazio, Gennaro; Cheng, Lailiang; Xu, Kenong

    2012-08-01

    Acidity levels greatly affect the taste and flavor of fruit, and consequently its market value. In mature apple fruit, malic acid is the predominant organic acid. Several studies have confirmed that the major quantitative trait locus Ma largely controls the variation of fruit acidity levels. The Ma locus has recently been defined in a region of 150 kb that contains 44 predicted genes on chromosome 16 in the Golden Delicious genome. In this study, we identified two aluminum-activated malate transporter-like genes, designated Ma1 and Ma2, as strong candidates of Ma by narrowing down the Ma locus to 65-82 kb containing 12-19 predicted genes depending on the haplotypes. The Ma haplotypes were determined by sequencing two bacterial artificial chromosome clones from G.41 (an apple rootstock of genotype Mama) that cover the two distinct haplotypes at the Ma locus. Gene expression profiling in 18 apple germplasm accessions suggested that Ma1 is the major determinant at the Ma locus controlling fruit acidity as Ma1 is expressed at a much higher level than Ma2 and the Ma1 expression is significantly correlated with fruit titratable acidity (R (2) = 0.4543, P = 0.0021). In the coding sequences of low acidity alleles of Ma1 and Ma2, sequence variations at the amino acid level between Golden Delicious and G.41 were not detected. But the alleles for high acidity vary considerably between the two genotypes. The low acidity allele of Ma1, Ma1-1455A, is mainly characterized by a mutation at base 1455 in the open reading frame. The mutation leads to a premature stop codon that truncates the carboxyl terminus of Ma1-1455A by 84 amino acids compared with Ma1-1455G. A survey of 29 apple germplasm accessions using marker CAPS(1455) that targets the SNP(1455) in Ma1 showed that the CAPS(1455A) allele was associated completely with high pH and highly with low titratable acidity, suggesting that the natural mutation-led truncation is most likely responsible for the abolished function of Ma

  20. A novel CLCN5 mutation in a boy with Bartter-like syndrome and partial growth hormone deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanović, Radovan; Draaken, Markus; Toromanović, Alma; Dordević, Maja; Stajić, Natasa; Ludwig, Michael

    2010-11-01

    Dent disease is an X-linked recessive disorder affecting the proximal tubule and is characterized by low-molecular-weight proteinuria (LMWP), hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis/nephrolithiasis with a variable number of features of Fanconi syndrome. It is most often associated with mutations in CLCN5, which encodes the endosomal electrogenic chloride/proton exchanger ClC-5. Renal acidification abnormalities are only rarely seen in Dent disease, whereas the hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis associated with hyperreninemic hyperaldosteronism (Bartter-like syndrome) has been reported in only one patient so far. We report on a 5-year-old boy with Dent disease caused by mutation in CLCN5 gene, c.1073G>A, who presented with hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis and hyperreninemic hyperaldosteronism persisting over the entire follow-up. No mutations were found in NKCC2, ROMK, NCCT, or ClC-Kb genes. In addition, the patient exhibited growth failure associated with partial growth hormone (GH) deficiency. Coexistence of Bartter-like syndrome features with LMWP should prompt a clinician to search for Dent disease. The Bartter syndrome phenotype seen in Dent disease patients may represent a distinct form of Bartter syndrome, the exact mechanism of which has yet to be fully elucidated. Growth delay that persists in spite of appropriate therapy should raise suspicion of other causes, such as GH deficiency.

  1. Learning by statistical cooperation of self-interested neuron-like computing elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barto, A G

    1985-01-01

    Since the usual approaches to cooperative computation in networks of neuron-like computating elements do not assume that network components have any "preferences", they do not make substantive contact with game theoretic concepts, despite their use of some of the same terminology. In the approach presented here, however, each network component, or adaptive element, is a self-interested agent that prefers some inputs over others and "works" toward obtaining the most highly preferred inputs. Here we describe an adaptive element that is robust enough to learn to cooperate with other elements like itself in order to further its self-interests. It is argued that some of the longstanding problems concerning adaptation and learning by networks might be solvable by this form of cooperativity, and computer simulation experiments are described that show how networks of self-interested components that are sufficiently robust can solve rather difficult learning problems. We then place the approach in its proper historical and theoretical perspective through comparison with a number of related algorithms. A secondary aim of this article is to suggest that beyond what is explicitly illustrated here, there is a wealth of ideas from game theory and allied disciplines such as mathematical economics that can be of use in thinking about cooperative computation in both nervous systems and man-made systems.

  2. Identification and characterization of a silencer regulatory element in the 3'-flanking region of the murine CD46 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, M; Tsujimura, A; Begum, N A; Matsumoto, M; Wabiko, H; Toyoshima, K; Seya, T

    2000-01-01

    The murine membrane cofactor protein (CD46) gene is expressed exclusively in testis, in contrast to human CD46, which is expressed ubiquitously. To elucidate the mechanism of differential CD46 gene expression among species, we cloned entire murine CD46 genomic DNA and possible regulatory regions were placed in the flanking region of the luciferase reporter gene. The reporter gene assay revealed a silencing activity not in the promoter, but in the 3'-flanking region of the gene and the silencer-like element was identified within a 0.2-kb region between 0.6 and 0.8 kb downstream of the stop codon. This silencer-like element was highly similar to that of the pig MHC class-I gene. The introduction of a mutation into this putative silencer element of murine CD46 resulted in an abrogation of the silencing effect. Electrophoretic mobility-shift assay indicated the presence of the binding molecule(s) for this silencer sequence in murine cell lines and tissues. A size difference of the protein-silencer-element complex was observed depending upon the solubilizers used for preparation of the nuclear extracts. A mutated silencer sequence failed to interact with the binding molecules. The level of the binding factor was lower in the testicular germ cells compared with other organs. Thus the silencer element and its binding factor may play a role in transcriptional regulation of murine CD46 gene expression. These results imply that the effects of the CD46 silencer element encompass the innate immune and reproductive systems, and in mice may determine the testicular germ-cell-dominant expression of CD46. PMID:11023821

  3. Reduced Mutation Rate and Increased Transformability of Transposon-Free Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1-ISx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Gabriel A; Renda, Brian A; Dasgupta, Aurko; Barrick, Jeffrey E

    2017-09-01

    The genomes of most bacteria contain mobile DNA elements that can contribute to undesirable genetic instability in engineered cells. In particular, transposable insertion sequence (IS) elements can rapidly inactivate genes that are important for a designed function. We deleted all six copies of IS 1236 from the genome of the naturally transformable bacterium Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1. The natural competence of ADP1 made it possible to rapidly repair deleterious point mutations that arose during strain construction. In the resulting ADP1-ISx strain, the rates of mutations inactivating a reporter gene were reduced by 7- to 21-fold. This reduction was higher than expected from the incidence of new IS 1236 insertions found during a 300-day mutation accumulation experiment with wild-type ADP1 that was used to estimate spontaneous mutation rates in the strain. The extra improvement appears to be due in part to eliminating large deletions caused by IS 1236 activity, as the point mutation rate was unchanged in ADP1-ISx. Deletion of an error-prone polymerase ( dinP ) and a DNA damage response regulator ( umuD Ab [the umuD gene of A. baylyi ]) from the ADP1-ISx genome did not further reduce mutation rates. Surprisingly, ADP1-ISx exhibited increased transformability. This improvement may be due to less autolysis and aggregation of the engineered cells than of the wild type. Thus, deleting IS elements from the ADP1 genome led to a greater than expected increase in evolutionary reliability and unexpectedly enhanced other key strain properties, as has been observed for other clean-genome bacterial strains. ADP1-ISx is an improved chassis for metabolic engineering and other applications. IMPORTANCE Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1 has been proposed as a next-generation bacterial host for synthetic biology and genome engineering due to its ability to efficiently take up DNA from its environment during normal growth. We deleted transposable elements that are capable of copying themselves

  4. Mutations that alter a conserved element upstream of the potato virus X triple block and coat protein genes affect subgenomic RNA accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K H; Hemenway, C

    1997-05-26

    The putative subgenomic RNA (sgRNA) promoter regions upstream of the potato virus X (PVX) triple block and coat protein (CP) genes contain sequences common to other potexviruses. The importance of these sequences to PVX sgRNA accumulation was determined by inoculation of Nicotiana tabacum NT1 cell suspension protoplasts with transcripts derived from wild-type and modified PVX cDNA clones. Analyses of RNA accumulation by S1 nuclease digestion and primer extension indicated that a conserved octanucleotide sequence element and the spacing between this element and the start-site for sgRNA synthesis are critical for accumulation of the two major sgRNA species. The impact of mutations on CP sgRNA levels was also reflected in the accumulation of CP. In contrast, genomic minus- and plus-strand RNA accumulation were not significantly affected by mutations in these regions. Studies involving inoculation of tobacco plants with the modified transcripts suggested that the conserved octanucleotide element functions in sgRNA accumulation and some other aspect of the infection process.

  5. Mutations induced by the action of metal ions in Pisum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    von Rosen, G

    1957-01-01

    Simple metal ions may induce both radiomimetic effects and genuine gene mutations of the same type which occurs from ionizing radiation and from treatment with some chemical agencies as e.g., mustard gas. The main material during the experiments has been species of Pisum. The biochemical principle which lies behind these reactions is the complex-forming ability among those reactive bivalent metal elements. The author assumes that interruptions of the chelate formation in the cell synthesis form the real background to the observed activity of the metal ions. The possible role in the evolution of the plant- and animal kingdom and the probable value for plant-breeding of the mutation activity observed are suggested. A new field for mutation experiments may here be opened and the results must hitherto be judged as interesting and promising. 13 references, 7 figures, 4 tables.

  6. De novo activating epidermal growth factor mutations (EGFR) in small-cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, Alesha; Chia, Puey L; Russell, Prudence A; Do, Hongdo; Dobrovic, Alex; Mitchell, Paul; John, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    In Australia, mutations in epidermal growth factor mutations (EGFR) occur in 15% of patients diagnosed with non-small-cell lung cancer and are found with higher frequency in female, non-smokers of Asian ethnicity. Activating mutations in the EGFR gene are rarely described in SCLC. We present two cases of de novo EGFR mutations in patients with SCLC detected in tissue and in plasma cell free DNA, both of whom were of Asian ethnicity and never-smokers. These two cases add to the growing body of evidence suggesting that screening for EGFR mutations in SCLC should be considered in patients with specific clinical features. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  7. Mutations in Cytosine-5 tRNA Methyltransferases Impact Mobile Element Expression and Genome Stability at Specific DNA Repeats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Genenncher

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The maintenance of eukaryotic genome stability is ensured by the interplay of transcriptional as well as post-transcriptional mechanisms that control recombination of repeat regions and the expression and mobility of transposable elements. We report here that mutations in two (cytosine-5 RNA methyltransferases, Dnmt2 and NSun2, impact the accumulation of mobile element-derived sequences and DNA repeat integrity in Drosophila. Loss of Dnmt2 function caused moderate effects under standard conditions, while heat shock exacerbated these effects. In contrast, NSun2 function affected mobile element expression and genome integrity in a heat shock-independent fashion. Reduced tRNA stability in both RCMT mutants indicated that tRNA-dependent processes affected mobile element expression and DNA repeat stability. Importantly, further experiments indicated that complex formation with RNA could also contribute to the impact of RCMT function on gene expression control. These results thus uncover a link between tRNA modification enzymes, the expression of repeat DNA, and genomic integrity.

  8. Molecular dynamics of mesophilic-like mutants of a cold-adapted enzyme: insights into distal effects induced by the mutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Papaleo

    Full Text Available Networks and clusters of intramolecular interactions, as well as their "communication" across the three-dimensional architecture have a prominent role in determining protein stability and function. Special attention has been dedicated to their role in thermal adaptation. In the present contribution, seven previously experimentally characterized mutants of a cold-adapted α-amylase, featuring mesophilic-like behavior, have been investigated by multiple molecular dynamics simulations, essential dynamics and analyses of correlated motions and electrostatic interactions. Our data elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the ability of single and multiple mutations to globally modulate dynamic properties of the cold-adapted α-amylase, including both local and complex unpredictable distal effects. Our investigation also shows, in agreement with the experimental data, that the conversion of the cold-adapted enzyme in a warm-adapted variant cannot be completely achieved by the introduction of few mutations, also providing the rationale behind these effects. Moreover, pivotal residues, which are likely to mediate the effects induced by the mutations, have been identified from our analyses, as well as a group of suitable candidates for protein engineering. In fact, a subset of residues here identified (as an isoleucine, or networks of mesophilic-like salt bridges in the proximity of the catalytic site should be considered, in experimental studies, to get a more efficient modification of the features of the cold-adapted enzyme.

  9. Effects of Mutations on Structure-Function Relationships of Matrix Metalloproteinase-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Warispreet; Fields, Gregg B; Christov, Christo Z; Karabencheva-Christova, Tatyana G

    2016-10-14

    Matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) is one of the most widely studied enzymes involved in collagen degradation. Mutations of specific residues in the MMP-1 hemopexin-like (HPX) domain have been shown to modulate activity of the MMP-1 catalytic (CAT) domain. In order to reveal the structural and conformational effects of such mutations, a molecular dynamics (MD) study was performed of in silico mutated residues in the X-ray crystallographic structure of MMP-1 complexed with a collagen-model triple-helical peptide (THP). The results indicate an important role of the mutated residues in MMP-1 interactions with the THP and communication between the CAT and the HPX domains. Each mutation has a distinct impact on the correlated motions in the MMP-1•THP. An increased collagenase activity corresponded to the appearance of a unique anti-correlated motion and decreased correlated motions, while decreased collagenase activity corresponded both to increased and decreased anti-correlated motions.

  10. Effects of Mutations on Structure–Function Relationships of Matrix Metalloproteinase-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warispreet Singh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1 is one of the most widely studied enzymes involved in collagen degradation. Mutations of specific residues in the MMP-1 hemopexin-like (HPX domain have been shown to modulate activity of the MMP-1 catalytic (CAT domain. In order to reveal the structural and conformational effects of such mutations, a molecular dynamics (MD study was performed of in silico mutated residues in the X-ray crystallographic structure of MMP-1 complexed with a collagen-model triple-helical peptide (THP. The results indicate an important role of the mutated residues in MMP-1 interactions with the THP and communication between the CAT and the HPX domains. Each mutation has a distinct impact on the correlated motions in the MMP-1•THP. An increased collagenase activity corresponded to the appearance of a unique anti-correlated motion and decreased correlated motions, while decreased collagenase activity corresponded both to increased and decreased anti-correlated motions.

  11. Genetic basis of early-onset, MODY-like diabetes in Japan and features of patients without mutations in the major MODY genes: dominance of maternal inheritance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorifuji, Tohru; Higuchi, Shinji; Kawakita, Rie; Hosokawa, Yuki; Aoyama, Takane; Murakami, Akiko; Kawae, Yoshiko; Hatake, Kazue; Nagasaka, Hironori; Tamagawa, Nobuyoshi

    2018-06-21

    Causative mutations cannot be identified in the majority of Asian patients with suspected maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY). To elucidate the genetic basis of Japanese patients with MODY-like diabetes and gain insight into the etiology of patients without mutations in the major MODY genes. 263 Japanese patients with early-onset, nonobese, MODY-like diabetes mellitus referred to Osaka City General Hospital for diagnosis. Mutational analysis of the four major MODY genes (GCK, HNF1A, HNF4A, HNF1B) by Sanger sequencing. Mutation-positive and mutation-negative patients were further analyzed for clinical features. Mutations were identified in 103 (39.2%) patients; 57 mutations in GCK; 29, HNF1A; 7, HNF4A; and 10, HNF1B. Contrary to conventional diagnostic criteria, 18.4% of mutation-positive patients did not have affected parents and 8.2% were in the overweight range (BMI >85 th percentile). HOMA-IR at diagnosis was elevated (>2) in 15 of 66 (22.7%) mutation-positive patients. Compared with mutation-positive patients, mutation-negative patients were significantly older (p = 0.003), and had higher BMI percentile at diagnosis (p = 0.0006). Interestingly, maternal inheritance of diabetes was significantly more common in mutation-negative patients (p = 0.0332) and these patients had significantly higher BMI percentile as compared with mutation-negative patients with paternal inheritance (p = 0.0106). Contrary to the conventional diagnostic criteria, de novo diabetes, overweight, and insulin-resistance are common in Japanese patients with mutation-positive MODY. A significant fraction of mutation-negative patients had features of early-onset type 2 diabetes common in Japanese, and non-Mendelian inheritance needs to be considered for these patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Molecular characterization of a rice mutator-phenotype derived from an incompatible cross-pollination reveals transgenerational mobilization of multiple transposable elements and extensive epigenetic instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Chunming

    2009-05-01

    the 13 genes occurred in the mutator-phenotype and its sefled progenies. Conclusion Transgenerational epigenetic instability in the form of altered cytosine methylation and its associated TE activity occurred in a rice mutator-phenotype produced by pollinating the rice stigma with pollens of O. biennis. Heritably perturbed homeostatic expression-state of genes involved in maintenance of chromatin structure is likely an underlying cause for the alien pollination-induced transgenerational epigenetic/genetic instability, and which occurred apparently without entailing genome merger or genetic introgression.

  13. Screening for germline phosphatase and tensin homolog-mutations in suspected Cowden syndrome and Cowden syndrome-like families among uterine cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    TZORTZATOS, GERASIMOS; ARAVIDIS, CHRISTOS; LINDBLOM, ANNIKA; MINTS, MIRIAM; THAM, EMMA

    2015-01-01

    Cowden syndrome (CS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by multiple hamartomas in the breast, thyroid and endometrium, with a prevalence of 1 per 250,000. Females with CS have a 21–28% lifetime risk of developing uterine cancer. Germline mutations in the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) gene, a tumor suppressor gene, are responsible for 30–80% of CS cases. PTEN is a nine-exon gene, located on chromosome 10q23.3, which encodes the 403 amino acid PTEN protein. It negatively regulates the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin pathway, affecting various cellular processes and signaling pathways. The present study examined whether PTEN mutations are present in CS-like families with uterine cancer (UC). UC patients underwent surgery at Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden (2008–2012). Pedigrees were analyzed and 54 unrelated CS-like families were identified. CS-like families were defined as having at least one occurrence of uterine cancer and one of breast cancer, as well as at least one additional Cowden-associated tumor (uterine, breast, thyroid, colon or kidney cancer) in the same individual or in first-degree relatives. Genomic DNA was amplified using polymerase chain reaction, and DNA sequencing analysis of all nine exons of the PTEN gene was conducted. No germline PTEN mutations or polymorphisms were identified. Germline PTEN mutations are rare in CS-like families with uterine cancer, therefore, genetic screening must be restricted to patients that meet the strict National Comprehensive Cancer Network criteria. Gynecologists must be aware of the CS criteria and identify potential cases of CS in females where uterine cancer is the sentinel cancer. PMID:25789042

  14. Use of nfsB, encoding nitroreductase, as a reporter gene to determine the mutational spectrum of spontaneous mutations in Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunham Stephen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Organisms that are sensitive to nitrofurantoin express a nitroreductase. Since bacterial resistance to this compound results primarily from mutations in the gene encoding nitroreductase, the resulting loss of function of nitroreductase results in a selectable phenotype; resistance to nitrofurantoin. We exploited this direct selection for mutation to study the frequency at which spontaneous mutations arise (transitions and transversions, insertions and deletions. Results A nitroreductase- encoding gene was identified in the N. gonorrhoeae FA1090 genome by using a bioinformatic search with the deduced amino acid sequence derived from the Escherichia coli nitroreductase gene, nfsB. Cell extracts from N. gonorrhoeae were shown to possess nitroreductase activity, and activity was shown to be the result of NfsB. Spontaneous nitrofurantoin-resistant mutants arose at a frequency of ~3 × 10-6 - 8 × 10-8 among the various strains tested. The nfsB sequence was amplified from various nitrofurantoin-resistant mutants, and the nature of the mutations determined. Transition, transversion, insertion and deletion mutations were all readily detectable with this reporter gene. Conclusion We found that nfsB is a useful reporter gene for measuring spontaneous mutation frequencies. Furthermore, we found that mutations were more likely to arise in homopolymeric runs rather than as base substitutions.

  15. Functional cooperativity between two TPA responsive elements in undifferentiated F9 embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, A; Imagawa, M; Sakai, M; Muramatsu, M

    1990-01-01

    We have recently identified an enhancer, termed GPEI, in the 5'-flanking region of the rat glutathione transferase P gene, that is composed of two imperfect TPA (phorbol 12-O-tetradecanoate 13-acetate) responsive elements (TREs). Unlike other TRE-containing enhancers, GPEI exhibits a strong transcriptional enhancing activity in F9 embryonic stem cells. Mutational analyses have revealed that the high activity of GPEI is mediated by two imperfect TREs. Each TRE-like sequence has no activity by itself but acts synergistically to form a strong enhancer which is active even in the very low level of AP-1 activity in F9 cells. Furthermore, we show that synthetic DNAs containing two perfect TREs in certain arrangements have strong transcriptional enhancing activities in F9 cells and the activity is greatly influenced by the relative orientation and the distance of two TREs. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:2323334

  16. The C-terminal extension of human RTEL1, mutated in Hoyeraal-Hreidarsson syndrome, contains harmonin-N-like domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, Guilhem; Revy, Patrick; Schertzer, Michael; Londono-Vallejo, Arturo; Callebaut, Isabelle

    2014-06-01

    Several studies have recently shown that germline mutations in RTEL1, an essential DNA helicase involved in telomere regulation and DNA repair, cause Hoyeraal-Hreidarsson syndrome (HHS), a severe form of dyskeratosis congenita. Using original new softwares, facilitating the delineation of the different domains of the protein and the identification of remote relationships for orphan domains, we outline here that the C-terminal extension of RTEL1, downstream of its catalytic domain and including several HHS-associated mutations, contains a yet unidentified tandem of harmonin-N-like domains, which may serve as a hub for partner interaction. This finding highlights the potential critical role of this region for the function of RTEL1 and gives insights into the impact that the identified mutations would have on the structure and function of these domains. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The SHOX region and its mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capone, L; Iughetti, L; Sabatini, S; Bacciaglia, A; Forabosco, A

    2010-06-01

    The short stature homeobox-containing (SHOX) gene lies in the pseudoautosomal region 1 (PAR1) that comprises 2.6 Mb of the short-arm tips of both the X and Y chromosomes. It is known that its heterozygous mutations cause Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD) (OMIM #127300), while its homozygous mutations cause a severe form of dwarfism known as Langer mesomelic dysplasia (LMD) (OMIM #249700). The analysis of 238 LWD patients between 1998 and 2007 by multiple authors shows a prevalence of deletions (46.4%) compared to point mutations (21.2%). On the whole, deletions and point mutations account for about 67% of LWD patients. SHOX is located within a 1000 kb desert region without genes. The comparative genomic analysis of this region between genomes of different vertebrates has led to the identification of evolutionarily conserved non-coding DNA elements (CNE). Further functional studies have shown that one of these CNE downstream of the SHOX gene is necessary for the expression of SHOX; this is considered to be typical "enhancer" activity. Including the enhancer, the overall mutation of the SHOX region in LWD patients does not hold in 100% of cases. Various authors have demonstrated the existence of other CNE both downstream and upstream of SHOX regions. The resulting conclusion is that it is necessary to reanalyze all LWD/LMD patients without SHOX mutations for the presence of mutations in the 5'- and 3'-flanking SHOX regions.

  18. Identification and applications of the Petunia class II Act1/dTph1 transposable element system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerats, Tom; Zethof, Jan; Vandenbussche, Michiel

    2013-01-01

    Transposable genetic elements are considered to be ubiquitous. Despite this, their mutagenic capacity has been exploited in only a few species. The main plant species are maize, Antirrhinum, and Petunia. Representatives of all three major groups of class II elements, viz., hAT-, CACTA- and Mutator-like elements, have been identified in Petunia. Here we focus on the research "history" of the Petunia two-element Act1-dTph1 system and the development of its application in forward- and reverse-genetics studies.

  19. A novel mutation in the BCHE gene and phenotype identified in a child with low butyrylcholinesterase activity: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rentao; Guo, Yanzhi; Dan, Yunjie; Tan, Wenting; Mao, Qing; Deng, Guohong

    2018-04-10

    Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), an ester hydrolase produced mainly by the liver, hydrolyzes certain short-acting neuromuscular blocking agents, like succinylcholine and mivacurium that are widely used during anesthesia. Patients with BChE deficiency are possibly in danger of postanesthetic apnea. Hereditary BChE deficiency results from the mutations of BCHE gene located on chromosome 3, 3q26.1-q26.2, between nucleotides 165,490,692-165,555,260. This study describes a novel mutation in a child with BChE deficiency. In general, this child appeared healthy and well-developed with a normal appearance. However, the results of Wechsler Intelligence Scale showed that the full-scale intelligence quotient (FIQ) was 53, classified into the group with the minor defect. The BChE activity was 32.0 U/L, considerably lower than the normal lower limit (reference range: 5000-12,000 U/L). Sanger sequencing showed that there were 2 mutations in the exon 2 of BCHE gene of this child. One is a heterozygous mutation rs764588882 (NM_000055.3: c.401_402insA, p.Asn134Lysfs*23). The other one is a heterozygous mutation (NM_000055.3: c.73A > T, p.Lys25Ter) that has never been reported before. The two mutations lead to a premature stop of transcription. Double heterozygous recessive mutations are the cause of BChE deficiency of this boy in this study, including a novel mutation c.73A > T. Intellectual disability is a new phenotype that is probably associated with this mutation.

  20. Contribution of novel ATGL missense mutations to the clinical phenotype of NLSD-M: a strikingly low amount of lipase activity may preserve cardiac function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavian, Daniela; Missaglia, Sara; Redaelli, Chiara; Pennisi, Elena M; Invernici, Gloria; Wessalowski, Ruediger; Maiwald, Robert; Arca, Marcello; Coleman, Rosalind A

    2012-12-15

    The lack of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), a patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing enzyme that hydrolyzes fatty acids from triacylglycerol (TAG) stored in multiple tissues, causes the autosomal recessive disorder neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy (NLSD-M). In two families of Lebanese and Italian origin presenting with NLSD-M, we identified two new missense mutations in highly conserved regions of ATGL (p.Arg221Pro and p.Asn172Lys) and a novel nonsense mutation (p.Trp8X). The Lebanese patients harbor homozygous p.Arg221Pro, whereas the Italian patients are heterozygotes for p.Asn172Lys and the p.Trp8X mutation. The p.Trp8X mutation results in a complete absence of ATGL protein, while the p.Arg221Pro and p.Asn172Lys mutations result in proteins with minimal lipolytic activity. Although these mutations did not affect putative catalytic residues or the lipid droplet (LD)-binding domain of ATGL, cytosolic LDs accumulated in cultured skin fibroblasts from the patients. The missense mutations might destabilize a random coil (p.Asn172Lys) or a helix (p.Arg221Pro) structure within or proximal to the patatin domain of the lipase, thereby interfering with the enzyme activity, while leaving intact the residues required to localize the protein to LDs. Overexpressing wild-type ATGL in one patient's fibroblasts corrected the metabolic defect and effectively reduced the number and area of cellular LDs. Despite the poor lipase activity in vitro, the Lebanese siblings have a mild myopathy and not clinically evident myocardial dysfunction. The patients of Italian origin show a late-onset and slowly progressive skeletal myopathy. These findings suggest that a small amount of correctly localized lipase activity preserves cardiac function in NLSD-M.

  1. Krüppel-like factor 1 mutations and expression of hemoglobins F and A2 in homozygous hemoglobin E syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepakhan, Wanicha; Yamsri, Supawadee; Fucharoen, Goonnapa; Sanchaisuriya, Kanokwan; Fucharoen, Supan

    2015-07-01

    The basis for variability of hemoglobin (Hb) F in homozygous Hb E disease is not well understood. We have examined multiple mutations of the Krüppel-like factor 1 (KLF1) gene; an erythroid specific transcription factor and determined their associations with Hbs F and A2 expression in homozygous Hb E. Four KLF1 mutations including G176AfsX179, T334R, R238H, and -154 (C-T) were screened using specific PCR assays on 461 subjects with homozygous Hb E and 100 normal controls. None of these four mutations were observed in 100 normal controls. Among 461 subjects with homozygous Hb E, 306 had high (≥5 %) and 155 had low (<5 %) Hb F. DNA analysis identified the KLF1 mutations in 35 cases of the former group with high Hb F, including the G176AfsX179 mutation (17/306 = 5.6 %), T334R mutation (9/306 = 2.9 %), -154 (C-T) mutation (7/306 = 2.3 %), and R328H mutation (2/306 = 0.7 %). Only two subjects in the latter group with low Hb F carried the G176AfsX179 and -154 (C-T) mutations. Significant higher Hb A2 level was observed in those of homozygous Hb E with the G176AfsX179 mutation as compared to those without KLF1 mutations. These results indicate that KLF1 is among the genetic factors associated with increased Hbs F and A2, and in combination with other factors could explain the variabilities of these Hb expression in Hb E syndrome.

  2. Functional features of gene expression profiles differentiating gastrointestinal stromal tumours according to KIT mutations and expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrowski, Jerzy; Dobosz, Anna Jerzak Vel; Jarosz, Dorota; Ruka, Wlodzimierz; Wyrwicz, Lucjan S; Polkowski, Marcin; Paziewska, Agnieszka; Skrzypczak, Magdalena; Goryca, Krzysztof; Rubel, Tymon; Kokoszyñska, Katarzyna; Rutkowski, Piotr; Nowecki, Zbigniew I

    2009-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) represent a heterogeneous group of tumours of mesenchymal origin characterized by gain-of-function mutations in KIT or PDGFRA of the type III receptor tyrosine kinase family. Although mutations in either receptor are thought to drive an early oncogenic event through similar pathways, two previous studies reported the mutation-specific gene expression profiles. However, their further conclusions were rather discordant. To clarify the molecular characteristics of differentially expressed genes according to GIST receptor mutations, we combined microarray-based analysis with detailed functional annotations. Total RNA was isolated from 29 frozen gastric GISTs and processed for hybridization on GENECHIP ® HG-U133 Plus 2.0 microarrays (Affymetrix). KIT and PDGFRA were analyzed by sequencing, while related mRNA levels were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. Fifteen and eleven tumours possessed mutations in KIT and PDGFRA, respectively; no mutation was found in three tumours. Gene expression analysis identified no discriminative profiles associated with clinical or pathological parameters, even though expression of hundreds of genes differentiated tumour receptor mutation and expression status. Functional features of genes differentially expressed between the two groups of GISTs suggested alterations in angiogenesis and G-protein-related and calcium signalling. Our study has identified novel molecular elements likely to be involved in receptor-dependent GIST development and allowed confirmation of previously published results. These elements may be potential therapeutic targets and novel markers of KIT mutation status

  3. An upstream activation element exerting differential transcriptional activation on an archaeal promoter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Nan; Xia, Qiu; Chen, Zhengjun

    2009-01-01

    S gene encoding an arabinose binding protein was characterized using an Sulfolobus islandicus reporter gene system. The minimal active araS promoter (P(araS)) was found to be 59 nucleotides long and harboured four promoter elements: an ara-box, an upstream transcription factor B-responsive element (BRE......), a TATA-box and a proximal promoter element, each of which contained important nucleotides that either greatly decreased or completely abolished promoter activity upon mutagenesis. The basal araS promoter was virtually inactive due to intrinsically weak BRE element, and the upstream activating sequence...... (UAS) ara-box activated the basal promoter by recruiting transcription factor B to its BRE. While this UAS ensured a general expression from an inactive or weak basal promoter in the presence of other tested carbon resources, it exhibited a strong arabinose-responsive transcriptional activation. To our...

  4. FLT3 mutations in canine acute lymphocytic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suter, Steven E; Small, George W; Seiser, Eric L; Thomas, Rachael; Breen, Matthew; Richards, Kristy L

    2011-01-01

    FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) is a commonly mutated protein in a variety of human acute leukemias. Mutations leading to constitutively active FLT3, including internal tandem duplications of the juxtamembrane domain (ITD), result in continuous cellular proliferation, resistance to apoptotic cell death, and a poorer prognosis. A better understanding of the molecular consequences of FLT3 activation would allow improved therapeutic strategies in these patients. Canine lymphoproliferative diseases, including lymphoma and acute leukemias, share evolutionarily conserved chromosomal aberrations and exhibit conserved mutations within key oncogenes when compared to their human counterparts. A small percentage of canine acute lymphocytic leukemias (ALL) also exhibit FLT3 ITD mutations. We molecularly characterized FLT3 mutations in two dogs and one cell line, by DNA sequencing, gene expression analysis via quantitative real-time PCR, and sensitivity to the FLT3 inhibitor lestaurtinib via in vitro proliferation assays. FLT 3 and downstream mediators of FLT3 activation were assessed by Western blotting. The canine B-cell leukemia cell line, GL-1, and neoplastic cells from 2/7 dogs diagnosed cytologically with ALL were found to have FLT3 ITD mutations and FLT3 mRNA up-regulation. Lestaurtinib, a small molecule FLT3 inhibitor, significantly inhibited the growth of GL-1 cells, while not affecting the growth of two other canine lymphoid cell lines without the FLT3 mutation. Finally, western blots were used to confirm the conserved downstream mediators of FLT3 activating mutations. These results show that ALL and FLT3 biology is conserved between canine and human patients, supporting the notion that canine ALL, in conjunction with the GL-1 cell line, will be useful in the development of a relevant large animal model to aid in the study of human FLT3 mutant leukemias

  5. SCREEN FOR DOMINANT BEHAVIORAL MUTATIONS CAUSED BY GENOMIC INSERTION OF P-ELEMENT TRANSPOSONS IN DROSOPHILA: AN EXAMINATION OF THE INTEGRATION OF VIRAL VECTOR SEQUENCES

    OpenAIRE

    FOX, LYLE E.; GREEN, DAVID; YAN, ZIYING; ENGELHARDT, JOHN F.; WU, CHUN-FANG

    2007-01-01

    Here we report the development of a high-throughput screen to assess dominant mutation rates caused by P-element transposition within the Drosophila genome that is suitable for assessing the undesirable effects of integrating foreign regulatory sequences (viral cargo) into a host genome. Three different behavioral paradigms were used: sensitivity to mechanical stress, response to heat stress, and ability to fly. The results, from our screen of 35,000 flies, indicate that mutations caused by t...

  6. Novel biallelic mutations in MSH6 and PMS2 genes: gene conversion as a likely cause of PMS2 gene inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auclair, Jessie; Leroux, Dominique; Desseigne, Françoise; Lasset, Christine; Saurin, Jean Christophe; Joly, Marie Odile; Pinson, Stéphane; Xu, Xiao Li; Montmain, Gilles; Ruano, Eric; Navarro, Claudine; Puisieux, Alain; Wang, Qing

    2007-11-01

    Since the first report by our group in 1999, more than 20 unrelated biallelic mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes (MMR) have been identified. In the present report, we describe two novel cases: one carrying compound heterozygous mutations in the MSH6 gene; and the other, compound heterozygous mutations in the PMS2 gene. Interestingly, the inactivation of one PMS2 allele was likely caused by gene conversion. Although gene conversion has been suggested to be a mutation mechanism underlying PMS2 inactivation, this is the first report of its involvement in a pathogenic mutation. The clinical features of biallelic mutation carriers were similar to other previously described patients, with the presence of café-au-lait spots (CALS), early onset of brain tumors, and colorectal neoplasia. Our data provide further evidence of the existence, although rare, of a distinct recessively inherited syndrome on the basis of MMR constitutional inactivation. The identification of this syndrome should be useful for genetic counseling, especially in families with atypical hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer (HNPCC) associated with childhood cancers, and for the clinical surveillance of these mutation carriers. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Trace element assessment of low-alloy and stainless steels with reference to gamma activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goddard, A.J.H.; Macmahon, T.D.; Gamberini, D.; Taylor, J.M.; Duggan, F.

    1984-01-01

    In order to predict the long-lived gamma activities leading to radiation exposure during dismantling operations it is necessary to know the likely trace element content of the reactor vessel and internals. This work has been concerned with measuring the elements Ni, Nb, Mo, Co, Ag, Eu, Sm and Ho in steels, with particular reference to light-water reactors. Various steel samples have been provided by organizations in Europe. Analyses have been carried out principally by neutron activation analysis, but also by atomic absorption (AA), inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and secondary ion microprobe spectrometry (SIMS). Analyses for Ni, Mo and Co were straightforward and results agreed with analyses carried out elsewhere. A variety of techniques were employed for Nb; ICP was the most successful and results were confirmed using SIMS. In the case of Ag only flameless AA yielded results for all samples. The low concentration of rare earth elements required the development of a preliminary ion exchange technique. Low-alloy steels examined had Nb concentrations less than 10 ppm. Ag levels in the vicinity of 1 ppm were found in all steel samples, indicating that Ag may be the most significant element at long cooling times. Rare earth concentrations from this and other work indicate that these elements are unlikely to give gamma activities exceeding those of 60 Co, 59 Ni, sup(108m)Ag and 94 Nb activities. Illustrative gamma activity decay calculations using the Origen code are presented

  8. Analysis of PIK3CA Mutations and Activation Pathways in Triple Negative Breast Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Cossu-Rocca

    Full Text Available Triple Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC accounts for 12-24% of all breast carcinomas, and shows worse prognosis compared to other breast cancer subtypes. Molecular studies demonstrated that TNBCs are a heterogeneous group of tumors with different clinical and pathologic features, prognosis, genetic-molecular alterations and treatment responsivity. The PI3K/AKT is a major pathway involved in the regulation of cell survival and proliferation, and is the most frequently altered pathway in breast cancer, apparently with different biologic impact on specific cancer subtypes. The most common genetic abnormality is represented by PIK3CA gene activating mutations, with an overall frequency of 20-40%. The aims of our study were to investigate PIK3CA gene mutations on a large series of TNBC, to perform a wider analysis on genetic alterations involving PI3K/AKT and BRAF/RAS/MAPK pathways and to correlate the results with clinical-pathologic data.PIK3CA mutation analysis was performed by using cobas® PIK3CA Mutation Test. EGFR, AKT1, BRAF, and KRAS genes were analyzed by sequencing. Immunohistochemistry was carried out to identify PTEN loss and to investigate for PI3K/AKT pathways components.PIK3CA mutations were detected in 23.7% of TNBC, whereas no mutations were identified in EGFR, AKT1, BRAF, and KRAS genes. Moreover, we observed PTEN loss in 11.3% of tumors. Deregulation of PI3K/AKT pathways was revealed by consistent activation of pAKT and p-p44/42 MAPK in all PIK3CA mutated TNBC.Our data shows that PIK3CA mutations and PI3K/AKT pathway activation are common events in TNBC. A deeper investigation on specific TNBC genomic abnormalities might be helpful in order to select patients who would benefit from current targeted therapy strategies.

  9. Analysis of PIK3CA Mutations and Activation Pathways in Triple Negative Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossu-Rocca, Paolo; Orrù, Sandra; Muroni, Maria Rosaria; Sanges, Francesca; Sotgiu, Giovanni; Ena, Sara; Pira, Giovanna; Murgia, Luciano; Manca, Alessandra; Uras, Maria Gabriela; Sarobba, Maria Giuseppina; Urru, Silvana; De Miglio, Maria Rosaria

    2015-01-01

    Triple Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC) accounts for 12-24% of all breast carcinomas, and shows worse prognosis compared to other breast cancer subtypes. Molecular studies demonstrated that TNBCs are a heterogeneous group of tumors with different clinical and pathologic features, prognosis, genetic-molecular alterations and treatment responsivity. The PI3K/AKT is a major pathway involved in the regulation of cell survival and proliferation, and is the most frequently altered pathway in breast cancer, apparently with different biologic impact on specific cancer subtypes. The most common genetic abnormality is represented by PIK3CA gene activating mutations, with an overall frequency of 20-40%. The aims of our study were to investigate PIK3CA gene mutations on a large series of TNBC, to perform a wider analysis on genetic alterations involving PI3K/AKT and BRAF/RAS/MAPK pathways and to correlate the results with clinical-pathologic data. PIK3CA mutation analysis was performed by using cobas® PIK3CA Mutation Test. EGFR, AKT1, BRAF, and KRAS genes were analyzed by sequencing. Immunohistochemistry was carried out to identify PTEN loss and to investigate for PI3K/AKT pathways components. PIK3CA mutations were detected in 23.7% of TNBC, whereas no mutations were identified in EGFR, AKT1, BRAF, and KRAS genes. Moreover, we observed PTEN loss in 11.3% of tumors. Deregulation of PI3K/AKT pathways was revealed by consistent activation of pAKT and p-p44/42 MAPK in all PIK3CA mutated TNBC. Our data shows that PIK3CA mutations and PI3K/AKT pathway activation are common events in TNBC. A deeper investigation on specific TNBC genomic abnormalities might be helpful in order to select patients who would benefit from current targeted therapy strategies.

  10. Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor M3 Mutation Causes Urinary Bladder Disease and a Prune-Belly-like Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Stefanie; Thiele, Holger; Mir, Sevgi; Toliat, Mohammad Reza; Sozeri, Betül; Reutter, Heiko; Draaken, Markus; Ludwig, Michael; Altmüller, Janine; Frommolt, Peter; Stuart, Helen M; Ranjzad, Parisa; Hanley, Neil A; Jennings, Rachel; Newman, William G; Wilcox, Duncan T; Thiel, Uwe; Schlingmann, Karl Peter; Beetz, Rolf; Hoyer, Peter F; Konrad, Martin; Schaefer, Franz; Nürnberg, Peter; Woolf, Adrian S

    2011-11-11

    Urinary bladder malformations associated with bladder outlet obstruction are a frequent cause of progressive renal failure in children. We here describe a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3 (CHRM3) (1q41-q44) homozygous frameshift mutation in familial congenital bladder malformation associated with a prune-belly-like syndrome, defining an isolated gene defect underlying this sometimes devastating disease. CHRM3 encodes the M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, which we show is present in developing renal epithelia and bladder muscle. These observations may imply that M3 has a role beyond its known contribution to detrusor contractions. This Mendelian disease caused by a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mutation strikingly phenocopies Chrm3 null mutant mice. Copyright © 2011 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. PIK3CA activating mutation in colorectal carcinoma: associations with molecular features and survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Rosty

    Full Text Available Mutations in PIK3CA are present in 10 to 15% of colorectal carcinomas. We aimed to examine how PIK3CA mutations relate to other molecular alterations in colorectal carcinoma, to pathologic phenotype and survival. PIK3CA mutation testing was carried out using direct sequencing on 757 incident tumors from the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study. The status of O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT was assessed using both immunohistochemistry and methyLight techniques. Microsatellite instability, CpG island phenotype (CIMP, KRAS and BRAF V600E mutation status, and pathology review features were derived from previous reports. PIK3CA mutation was observed in 105 of 757 (14% of carcinomas, characterized by location in the proximal colon (54% vs. 34%; P<0.001 and an increased frequency of KRAS mutation (48% vs. 25%; P<0.001. High-levels of CIMP were more frequently found in PIK3CA-mutated tumors compared with PIK3CA wild-type tumors (22% vs. 11%; P = 0.004. There was no difference in the prevalence of BRAF V600E mutation between these two tumor groups. PIK3CA-mutated tumors were associated with loss of MGMT expression (35% vs. 20%; P = 0.001 and the presence of tumor mucinous differentiation (54% vs. 32%; P<0.001. In patients with wild-type BRAF tumors, PIK3CA mutation was associated with poor survival (HR 1.51 95% CI 1.04-2.19, P = 0.03. In summary, PIK3CA-mutated colorectal carcinomas are more likely to develop in the proximal colon, to demonstrate high levels of CIMP, KRAS mutation and loss of MGMT expression. PIK3CA mutation also contributes to significantly decreased survival for patients with wild-type BRAF tumors.

  12. Transcriptional activity of transposable elements in coelacanth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forconi, Mariko; Chalopin, Domitille; Barucca, Marco; Biscotti, Maria Assunta; De Moro, Gianluca; Galiana, Delphine; Gerdol, Marco; Pallavicini, Alberto; Canapa, Adriana; Olmo, Ettore; Volff, Jean-Nicolas

    2014-09-01

    The morphological stasis of coelacanths has long suggested a slow evolutionary rate. General genomic stasis might also imply a decrease of transposable elements activity. To evaluate the potential activity of transposable elements (TEs) in "living fossil" species, transcriptomic data of Latimeria chalumnae and its Indonesian congener Latimeria menadoensis were compared through the RNA-sequencing mapping procedures in three different organs (liver, testis, and muscle). The analysis of coelacanth transcriptomes highlights a significant percentage of transcribed TEs in both species. Major contributors are LINE retrotransposons, especially from the CR1 family. Furthermore, some particular elements such as a LF-SINE and a LINE2 sequences seem to be more expressed than other elements. The amount of TEs expressed in testis suggests possible transposition burst in incoming generations. Moreover, significant amount of TEs in liver and muscle transcriptomes were also observed. Analyses of elements displaying marked organ-specific expression gave us the opportunity to highlight exaptation cases, that is, the recruitment of TEs as new cellular genes, but also to identify a new Latimeria-specific family of Short Interspersed Nuclear Elements called CoeG-SINEs. Overall, transcriptome results do not seem to be in line with a slow-evolving genome with poor TE activity. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. A retinoic acid response element that overlaps an estrogen response element mediates multihormonal sensitivity in transcriptional activation of the lactoferrin gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M O; Liu, Y; Zhang, X K

    1995-08-01

    The lactoferrin gene is highly expressed in many different tissues, and its expression is controlled by different regulators. In this report, we have defined a retinoic acid response element (RARE) in the 5'-flanking region of the lactoferrin gene promoter. The lactoferrin-RARE is composed of two AGGTCA-like motifs arranged as a direct repeat with 1-bp spacing (DR-1). A gel retardation assay demonstrated that it bound strongly with retinoid X receptor (RXR) homodimers and RXR-retinoic acid receptor (RAR) heterodimers as well as chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor (COUP-TF) orphan receptor. In CV-1 cells, the lactoferrin-RARE linked with a heterologous thymidine kinase promoter was strongly activated by RXR homodimers in response to 9-cis-retinoic acid (9-cis-RA) but not to all-trans-RA. When the COUP-TF orphan receptor was cotransfected, the 9-cis-RA-induced RXR homodimer activity was strongly repressed. A unique feature of the lactoferrin-RARE is that it has an AGGTCA-like motif in common with an estrogen-responsive element (ERE). The composite RARE/ERE contributes to the functional interaction between retinoid receptors and the estrogen receptor (ER) and their ligands. In CV-1 cells, cotransfection of the retinoid and estrogen receptors led to mutual inhibition of the other's activity, while an RA-dependent inhibition of ER activity was observed in breast cancer cells. Furthermore, the lactoferrin-RARE/ERE showed differential transactivation activity in different cell types. RAs could activate the lactoferrin-RARE/ERE in human leukemia HL-60 cells and U937 cells but not in human breast cancer cells. By gel retardation analyses, we demonstrated that strong binding of the endogenous COUP-TF in breast cancer cells to the composite element contributed to diminished RA response in these cells. Thus, the lactoferrin-RARE/ERE functions as a signaling switch module that mediates multihormonal responsiveness in the regulation of lactoferrin gene

  14. Mutational analysis of amino acid residues involved in catalytic activity of a family 18 chitinase from tulip bulbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzukawa, Keisuke; Yamagami, Takeshi; Ohnuma, Takayuki; Hirakawa, Hideki; Kuhara, Satoru; Aso, Yoichi; Ishiguro, Masatsune

    2003-02-01

    We expressed chitinase-1 (TBC-1) from tulip bulbs (Tulipa bakeri) in E. coli cells and used site-directed mutagenesis to identify amino acid residues essential for catalytic activity. Mutations at Glu-125 and Trp-251 completely abolished enzyme activity, and activity decreased with mutations at Asp-123 and Trp-172 when glycolchitin was the substrate. Activity changed with the mutations of Trp-251 to one of several amino acids with side-chains of little hydrophobicity, suggesting that hydrophobic interaction of Trp-251 is important for the activity. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation analysis with hevamine as the model compound showed that the distance between Asp-123 and Glu-125 was extended by mutation of Trp-251. Kinetic studies of Trp-251-mutated chitinases confirmed these various phenomena. The results suggested that Glu-125 and Trp-251 are essential for enzyme activity and that Trp-251 had a direct role in ligand binding.

  15. Identification of an active ID-like group of SINEs in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass, David H; Jamison, Nicole

    2007-09-01

    The mouse genome consists of five known families of SINEs: B1, B2, B4/RSINE, ID, and MIR. Using RT-PCR we identified a germ-line transcript that demonstrates 92.7% sequence identity to ID (excluding primer sequence), yet a BLAST search identified numerous matches of 100% sequence identity. We analyzed four of these elements for their presence in orthologous genes in strains and subspecies of Mus musculus as well as other species of Mus using a PCR-based assay. All four analyzed elements were identified either only in M. musculus or exclusively in both M. musculus and M. domesticus, indicative of recent integrations. In conjunction with the identification of transcripts, we present an active ID-like group of elements that is not derived from the proposed BC1 master gene of ID elements. A BLAST of the rat genome indicated that these elements were not in the rat. Therefore, this family of SINEs has recently evolved, and since it has thus far been observed mainly in M. musculus, we refer to this family as MMIDL.

  16. Epidermal growth factor receptor activation in glioblastoma through novel missense mutations in the extracellular domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey C Lee

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Protein tyrosine kinases are important regulators of cellular homeostasis with tightly controlled catalytic activity. Mutations in kinase-encoding genes can relieve the autoinhibitory constraints on kinase activity, can promote malignant transformation, and appear to be a major determinant of response to kinase inhibitor therapy. Missense mutations in the EGFR kinase domain, for example, have recently been identified in patients who showed clinical responses to EGFR kinase inhibitor therapy.Encouraged by the promising clinical activity of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR kinase inhibitors in treating glioblastoma in humans, we have sequenced the complete EGFR coding sequence in glioma tumor samples and cell lines. We identified novel missense mutations in the extracellular domain of EGFR in 13.6% (18/132 of glioblastomas and 12.5% (1/8 of glioblastoma cell lines. These EGFR mutations were associated with increased EGFR gene dosage and conferred anchorage-independent growth and tumorigenicity to NIH-3T3 cells. Cells transformed by expression of these EGFR mutants were sensitive to small-molecule EGFR kinase inhibitors.Our results suggest extracellular missense mutations as a novel mechanism for oncogenic EGFR activation and may help identify patients who can benefit from EGFR kinase inhibitors for treatment of glioblastoma.

  17. Restorer-of-Fertility Mutations Recovered in Transposon-Active Lines of S Male-Sterile Maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Gabay-Laughnan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria execute key pathways of central metabolism and serve as cellular sensing and signaling entities, functions that depend upon interactions between mitochondrial and nuclear genetic systems. This is exemplified in cytoplasmic male sterility type S (CMS-S of Zea mays, where novel mitochondrial open reading frames are associated with a pollen collapse phenotype, but nuclear restorer-of-fertility (restorer mutations rescue pollen function. To better understand these genetic interactions, we screened Activator-Dissociation (Ac-Ds, Enhancer/Suppressor-mutator (En/Spm, and Mutator (Mu transposon-active CMS-S stocks to recover new restorer mutants. The frequency of restorer mutations increased in transposon-active stocks compared to transposon-inactive stocks, but most mutants recovered from Ac-Ds and En/Spm stocks were unstable, reverting upon backcrossing to CMS-S inbred lines. However, 10 independent restorer mutations recovered from CMS-S Mu transposon stocks were stable upon backcrossing. Many restorer mutations condition seed-lethal phenotypes that provide a convenient test for allelism. Eight such mutants recovered in this study included one pair of allelic mutations that were also allelic to the previously described rfl2-1 mutant. Targeted analysis of mitochondrial proteins by immunoblot identified two features that consistently distinguished restored CMS-S pollen from comparably staged, normal-cytoplasm, nonmutant pollen: increased abundance of nuclear-encoded alternative oxidase relative to mitochondria-encoded cytochrome oxidase and decreased abundance of mitochondria-encoded ATP synthase subunit 1 compared to nuclear-encoded ATP synthase subunit 2. CMS-S restorer mutants thus revealed a metabolic plasticity in maize pollen, and further study of these mutants will provide new insights into mitochondrial functions that are critical to pollen and seed development.

  18. n-Alkane and clofibrate, a peroxisome proliferator, activate transcription of ALK2 gene encoding cytochrome P450alk2 through distinct cis-acting promoter elements in Candida maltosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kogure, Takahisa; Takagi, Masamichi; Ohta, Akinori

    2005-01-01

    The ALK2 gene, encoding one of the n-alkane-hydroxylating cytochromes P450 in Candida maltosa, is induced by n-alkanes and a peroxisome proliferator, clofibrate. Deletion analysis of this gene's promoter revealed two cis-acting elements-an n-alkane-responsive element (ARE2) and a clofibrate-responsive element (CRE2)-that partly overlap in sequence but have distinct functions. ARE2-mediated activation responded to n-alkanes but not to clofibrate and was repressed by glucose. CRE2-mediated activation responded to polyunsaturated fatty acids and steroid hormones as well as to peroxisome proliferators but not to n-alkanes, and it was not repressed by glucose. Both elements mediated activation by oleic acid. Mutational analysis demonstrated that three CCG sequences in CRE2 were critical to the activation by clofibrate as well as to the in vitro binding of a specific protein to this element. These findings suggest that ALK2 is induced by peroxisome proliferators and steroid hormones through a specific CRE2-mediated regulatory mechanism

  19. Activation of Antibiotic Production in Bacillus spp. by Cumulative Drug Resistance Mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tojo, Shigeo; Tanaka, Yukinori; Ochi, Kozo

    2015-12-01

    Bacillus subtilis strains produce a wide range of antibiotics, including ribosomal and nonribosomal peptide antibiotics, as well as bacilysocin and neotrehalosadiamine. Mutations in B. subtilis strain 168 that conferred resistance to drugs such as streptomycin and rifampin resulted in overproduction of the dipeptide antibiotic bacilysin. Cumulative drug resistance mutations, such as mutations in the mthA and rpsL genes, which confer low- and high-level resistance, respectively, to streptomycin, and mutations in rpoB, which confer resistance to rifampin, resulted in cells that overproduced bacilysin. Transcriptional analysis demonstrated that the enhanced transcription of biosynthesis genes was responsible for the overproduction of bacilysin. This approach was effective also in activating the cryptic genes of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, leading to actual production of antibiotic(s). Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Creation of chimeric human/rabbit APOBEC1 with HIV-1 restriction and DNA mutation activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Terumasa; Ong, Eugene Boon Beng; Watanabe, Nobumoto; Sakaguchi, Nobuo; Maeda, Kazuhiko; Koito, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    APOBEC1 (A1) proteins from lagomorphs and rodents have deaminase-dependent restriction activity against HIV-1, whereas human A1 exerts a negligible effect. To investigate these differences in the restriction of HIV-1 by A1 proteins, a series of chimeric proteins combining rabbit and human A1s was constructed. Homology models of the A1s indicated that their activities derive from functional domains that likely act in tandem through a dimeric interface. The C-terminal region containing the leucine-rich motif and the dimerization domains of rabbit A1 is important for its anti-HIV-1 activity. The A1 chimeras with strong anti-HIV-1 activity were incorporated into virions more efficiently than those without anti-HIV-1 activity, and exhibited potent DNA-mutator activity. Therefore, the C-terminal region of rabbit A1 is involved in both its packaging into the HIV-1 virion and its deamination activity against both viral cDNA and genomic RNA. This study identifies the novel molecular mechanism underlying the target specificity of A1.

  1. Mutation of the regulatory phosphorylation site of tobacco nitrate reductase results in constitutive activation of the enzyme in vivo and nitrite accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillo, Cathrine; Lea, Unni S; Leydecker, Marie-Thérèse; Meyer, Christian

    2003-09-01

    In wild-type Nicotiana plumbaginifolia and other higher plants, nitrate reductase (NR) is rapidly inactivated/activated in response to dark/light transitions. Inactivation of NR is believed to be caused by phosphorylation at a special conserved regulatory Ser residue, Ser 521, and interactions with divalent cations and inhibitory 14-3-3 proteins. A transgenic N. plumbaginifolia line (S(521)) was constructed where the Ser 521 had been changed by site-directed mutagenesis into Asp. This mutation resulted in complete abolishment of inactivation in response to light/dark transitions or other treatments known to inactivate NR. During prolonged darkness, NR in wild-type plants is in the inactivated form, whereas NR in the S(521) line is always in the active form. Differences in degradation rate between NR from S(521) and lines with non-mutated NR were not found. Kinetic constants like Km values for NADH and NO3(-) were not changed, but a slightly different pH profile was observed for mutated NR as opposed to non-mutated NR. Under optimal growth conditions, the phenotype of the S(521) plants was not different from the wild type (WT). However, when plants were irrigated with high nitrate concentration, 150 mM, the transgenic plants accumulated nitrite in darkness, and young leaves showed chlorosis.

  2. Exome sequencing identifies recurrent somatic RAC1 mutations in melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauthammer, Michael; Kong, Yong; Ha, Byung Hak; Evans, Perry; Bacchiocchi, Antonella; McCusker, James P.; Cheng, Elaine; Davis, Matthew J.; Goh, Gerald; Choi, Murim; Ariyan, Stephan; Narayan, Deepak; Dutton-Regester, Ken; Capatana, Ana; Holman, Edna C.; Bosenberg, Marcus; Sznol, Mario; Kluger, Harriet M.; Brash, Douglas E.; Stern, David F.; Materin, Miguel A.; Lo, Roger S.; Mane, Shrikant; Ma, Shuangge; Kidd, Kenneth K.; Hayward, Nicholas K.; Lifton, Richard P.; Schlessinger, Joseph; Boggon, Titus J.; Halaban, Ruth (Yale-MED); (UCLA); (Queens)

    2012-10-11

    We characterized the mutational landscape of melanoma, the form of skin cancer with the highest mortality rate, by sequencing the exomes of 147 melanomas. Sun-exposed melanomas had markedly more ultraviolet (UV)-like C>T somatic mutations compared to sun-shielded acral, mucosal and uveal melanomas. Among the newly identified cancer genes was PPP6C, encoding a serine/threonine phosphatase, which harbored mutations that clustered in the active site in 12% of sun-exposed melanomas, exclusively in tumors with mutations in BRAF or NRAS. Notably, we identified a recurrent UV-signature, an activating mutation in RAC1 in 9.2% of sun-exposed melanomas. This activating mutation, the third most frequent in our cohort of sun-exposed melanoma after those of BRAF and NRAS, changes Pro29 to serine (RAC1{sup P29S}) in the highly conserved switch I domain. Crystal structures, and biochemical and functional studies of RAC1{sup P29S} showed that the alteration releases the conformational restraint conferred by the conserved proline, causes an increased binding of the protein to downstream effectors, and promotes melanocyte proliferation and migration. These findings raise the possibility that pharmacological inhibition of downstream effectors of RAC1 signaling could be of therapeutic benefit.

  3. Molecular analysis of diverse elements mediating VanA glycopeptide resistance in enterococci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palepou, M.F.I.; Adebiyi, A.M.A.; Tremlett, C.H.

    1998-01-01

    Differences were examined among 24 distinct elements mediating VanA-type glycopeptide resistance in enterococci isolated from hospital patients and non-human sources in the UK. The methods used included long-PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (L-PCR RFLP) analysis and DNA hybridization...... characterized by the presence of an IS1216V/IS3-like/orf1 complex and a point mutation in vanX, both of which were absent from the other 23 groups of VanA elements. This finding is consistent with the dissemination of a stable resistance element. We conclude that L-PCR RFLP analysis, combined with DNA...

  4. A Gaijin-like miniature inverted repeat transposable element is mobilized in rice during cell differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hai-Tao

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Miniature inverted repeat transposable element (MITE is one type of transposable element (TE, which is largely found in eukaryotic genomes and involved in a wide variety of biological events. However, only few MITEs were proved to be currently active and their physiological function remains largely unknown. Results We found that the amplicon discrepancy of a gene locus LOC_Os01g0420 in different rice cultivar genomes was resulted from the existence of a member of Gaijin-like MITEs (mGing. This result indicated that mGing transposition was occurred at this gene locus. By using a modified transposon display (TD analysis, the active transpositions of mGing were detected in rice Jiahua No. 1 genome under three conditions: in seedlings germinated from the seeds received a high dose γ-ray irradiation, in plantlets regenerated from anther-derived calli and from scutellum-derived calli, and were confirmed by PCR validation and sequencing. Sequence analysis revealed that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs or short additional DNA sequences at transposition sites post mGing transposition. It suggested that sequence modification was possibly taken place during mGing transposition. Furthermore, cell re-differentiation experiment showed that active transpositions of both mGing and mPing (another well studied MITE were identified only in regenerated plantlets. Conclusions It is for the first time that mGing active transposition was demonstrated under γ-ray irradiation or in cell re-differentiation process in rice. This newly identified active MITE will provide a foundation for further analysis of the roles of MITEs in biological process.

  5. A mutation in Myo15 leads to Usher-like symptoms in LEW/Ztm-ci2 rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Held

    Full Text Available The LEW/Ztm-ci2 rat is an animal model for syndromal deafness that arose from a spontaneous mutation. Homozygous animals show locomotor abnormalities like lateralized circling behavior. Additionally, an impaired vision can be observed in some animals through behavioral studies. Syndromal deafness as well as retinal degeneration are features of the Usher syndrome in humans. In the present study, the mutation was identified as a base substitution (T->C in exon 56 of Myo15, leading to an amino acid exchange from leucine (Leu to proline (Pro within the carboxy-terminal MyTH4 domain in the proteins' tail region. Myo15 mRNA was expressed in the retina as demonstrated for the first time with the help of in-situ hybridization and PCR. To characterize the visual phenotype, rats were examined by scotopic and photopic electroretinography and, additionally, histological analyses of the retinas were conducted. The complete loss of sight was detected along with a severe degeneration of photoreceptor cells. Interestingly, the manifestation of the disease does not solely depend on the mutation, but also on environmental factors. Since the LEW/Ztm-ci2 rat features the entire range of symptoms of the human Usher syndrome we think that this strain is an appropriate model for this disease. Our findings display that mutations in binding domains of myosin XV do not only cause non-syndromic hearing loss but can also lead to syndromic disorders including retinal dysfunction.

  6. Lack of robustness of life extension associated with several single-gene P element mutations in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mockett, Robin J; Nobles, Amber C

    2013-10-01

    The hypothesis tested in this study was that single-gene mutations found previously to extend the life span of Drosophila melanogaster could do so consistently in both long-lived y w and standard w (1118) genetic backgrounds. GAL4 drivers were used to express upstream activation sequence (UAS)-responder transgenes globally or in the nervous system. Transgenes associated with oxidative damage prevention (UAS-hSOD1 and UAS-GCLc) or removal (EP-UAS-Atg8a and UAS-dTOR (FRB) ) failed to increase mean life spans in any expression pattern in either genetic background. Flies containing a UAS-EGFP-bMSRA (C) transgene associated with protein repair were found not to exhibit life extension or detectable enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) activity. The presence of UAS-responder transgenes was confirmed by PCR amplification and sequencing at the 5' and 3' end of each insertion. These results cast doubt on the robustness of life extension in flies carrying single-gene mutations and suggest that the effects of all such mutations should be tested independently in multiple genetic backgrounds and laboratory environments.

  7. PROGRANULIN MUTATIONS AFFECTS BRAIN OSCILLATORY ACTIVITY IN FRONTO-TEMPORAL DEMENTIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Vito Moretti

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: mild cognitive impairment (MCI is a clinical stage indicating a prodromal phase of dementia. This practical concept could be used also for fronto-temporal dementia (FTD. Progranulin (PGRN has been recently recognized as a useful diagnostic biomarker for fronto-temporal lobe degeneration (FTLD due to GRN null mutations. Electroencephalography (EEG is a reliable tool in detecting brain networks changes. The working hypothesis of the present study is that EEG oscillations could detect different modifications among FTLD stages (FTD-MCI versus overt FTD as well as differences between GRN mutation carriers versus non carriers in patients with overt FTD. Methods: EEG in all patients and PGRN dosage in patients with a clear FTD were detected. The cognitive state has been investigated through mini mental state examination (MMSE. Results: MCI-FTD showed a significant lower spectral power in both alpha and theta oscillations as compared to overt FTD. GRN mutations carriers affected by FTLD show an increase in high alpha and decrease in theta oscillations as compared to non-carriers.Conclusion: EEG frequency rhythms are sensible to different stage of FTD and could detect changes in brain oscillatory activity affected by GRN mutations

  8. Patients with Obesity Caused by Melanocortin-4 Receptor Mutations Can Be Treated with a Glucagon-like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iepsen, Eva W; Zhang, Jinyi; Thomsen, Henrik S

    2018-01-01

    Pathogenic mutations in the appetite-regulating melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) represent the most common cause of monogenic obesity with limited treatment options. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) cause weight loss by reducing appetite. We assessed the effect of the GLP-1 RA...... liraglutide 3.0 mg for 16 weeks in 14 obese individuals with pathogenic MC4R mutations (BMI 37.5 ± 6.8) and 28 matched control participants without MC4R mutation (BMI 36.8 ± 4.8). Liraglutide decreased body weight by 6.8 kg ± 1.8 kg in individuals with pathogenic MC4R mutations and by 6.1 kg ± 1.2 kg...... in control participants. Total body fat, waist circumference, and fasting and postprandial glucose concentrations similarly decreased in both groups. Thus, liraglutide induced an equal, clinically significant weight loss of 6% in both groups, indicating that the appetite-reducing effect of liraglutide...

  9. Cis-regulatory somatic mutations and gene-expression alteration in B-cell lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathelier, Anthony; Lefebvre, Calvin; Zhang, Allen W; Arenillas, David J; Ding, Jiarui; Wasserman, Wyeth W; Shah, Sohrab P

    2015-04-23

    With the rapid increase of whole-genome sequencing of human cancers, an important opportunity to analyze and characterize somatic mutations lying within cis-regulatory regions has emerged. A focus on protein-coding regions to identify nonsense or missense mutations disruptive to protein structure and/or function has led to important insights; however, the impact on gene expression of mutations lying within cis-regulatory regions remains under-explored. We analyzed somatic mutations from 84 matched tumor-normal whole genomes from B-cell lymphomas with accompanying gene expression measurements to elucidate the extent to which these cancers are disrupted by cis-regulatory mutations. We characterize mutations overlapping a high quality set of well-annotated transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs), covering a similar portion of the genome as protein-coding exons. Our results indicate that cis-regulatory mutations overlapping predicted TFBSs are enriched in promoter regions of genes involved in apoptosis or growth/proliferation. By integrating gene expression data with mutation data, our computational approach culminates with identification of cis-regulatory mutations most likely to participate in dysregulation of the gene expression program. The impact can be measured along with protein-coding mutations to highlight key mutations disrupting gene expression and pathways in cancer. Our study yields specific genes with disrupted expression triggered by genomic mutations in either the coding or the regulatory space. It implies that mutated regulatory components of the genome contribute substantially to cancer pathways. Our analyses demonstrate that identifying genomically altered cis-regulatory elements coupled with analysis of gene expression data will augment biological interpretation of mutational landscapes of cancers.

  10. Classification of x-ray spectra of 2-3 transitions in the Ne-like and Na-like isoelectronic sequences of the elements from krypton to molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, H.; Hobby, M.G.; Peacock, N.J.; Cowan, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    Plasmas produced by the laser irradiation of solid targets and in a plasma focus device have been employed as sources of x-ray spectra of the elements Kr(Z = 36)-Mo(Z = 42). The Ne-like isoelectronic sequence has been investigated by comparing observed wavelengths with ab initio atomic structure calculations and isoelectronic interpolation. Previous identifications in Ne-like ions have been extended to krypton, rubidium and strontium. The Na-like satellite structure of these elements has also been studied and a detailed classification of these satellites is presented. (author)

  11. Truncating PREX2 mutations activate its GEF activity and alter gene expression regulation in NRAS-mutant melanoma

    KAUST Repository

    Lissanu Deribe, Yonathan

    2016-03-01

    PREX2 (phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-triphosphate-dependent Rac-exchange factor 2) is a PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10) binding protein that is significantly mutated in cutaneous melanoma and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Here, genetic and biochemical analyses were conducted to elucidate the nature and mechanistic basis of PREX2 mutation in melanoma development. By generating an inducible transgenic mouse model we showed an oncogenic role for a truncating PREX2 mutation (PREX2E824*) in vivo in the context of mutant NRAS. Using integrative cross-species gene expression analysis, we identified deregulated cell cycle and cytoskeleton organization as significantly perturbed biological pathways in PREX2 mutant tumors. Mechanistically, truncation of PREX2 activated its Rac1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor activity, abolished binding to PTEN and activated the PI3K (phosphatidyl inositol 3 kinase)/Akt signaling pathway. We further showed that PREX2 truncating mutations or PTEN deletion induces down-regulation of the tumor suppressor and cell cycle regulator CDKN1C (also known as p57KIP2). This down-regulation occurs, at least partially, through DNA hypomethylation of a differentially methylated region in chromosome 11 that is a known regulatory region for expression of the CDKN1C gene. Together, these findings identify PREX2 as a mediator of NRAS-mutant melanoma development that acts through the PI3K/PTEN/Akt pathway to regulate gene expression of a cell cycle regulator.

  12. Truncating PREX2 mutations activate its GEF activity and alter gene expression regulation in NRAS-mutant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissanu Deribe, Yonathan; Shi, Yanxia; Rai, Kunal; Nezi, Luigi; Amin, Samir B; Wu, Chia-Chin; Akdemir, Kadir C; Mahdavi, Mozhdeh; Peng, Qian; Chang, Qing Edward; Hornigold, Kirsti; Arold, Stefan T; Welch, Heidi C E; Garraway, Levi A; Chin, Lynda

    2016-03-01

    PREX2 (phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-triphosphate-dependent Rac-exchange factor 2) is a PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10) binding protein that is significantly mutated in cutaneous melanoma and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Here, genetic and biochemical analyses were conducted to elucidate the nature and mechanistic basis of PREX2 mutation in melanoma development. By generating an inducible transgenic mouse model we showed an oncogenic role for a truncating PREX2 mutation (PREX2(E824)*) in vivo in the context of mutant NRAS. Using integrative cross-species gene expression analysis, we identified deregulated cell cycle and cytoskeleton organization as significantly perturbed biological pathways in PREX2 mutant tumors. Mechanistically, truncation of PREX2 activated its Rac1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor activity, abolished binding to PTEN and activated the PI3K (phosphatidyl inositol 3 kinase)/Akt signaling pathway. We further showed that PREX2 truncating mutations or PTEN deletion induces down-regulation of the tumor suppressor and cell cycle regulator CDKN1C (also known as p57(KIP2)). This down-regulation occurs, at least partially, through DNA hypomethylation of a differentially methylated region in chromosome 11 that is a known regulatory region for expression of the CDKN1C gene. Together, these findings identify PREX2 as a mediator of NRAS-mutant melanoma development that acts through the PI3K/PTEN/Akt pathway to regulate gene expression of a cell cycle regulator.

  13. Truncating PREX2 mutations activate its GEF activity and alter gene expression regulation in NRAS-mutant melanoma

    KAUST Repository

    Lissanu Deribe, Yonathan; Shi, Yanxia; Rai, Kunal; Nezi, Luigi; Amin, Samir B.; Wu, Chia-Chin; Akdemir, Kadir C.; Mahdavi, Mozhdeh; Peng, Qian; Chang, Qing Edward; Hornigold, Kirsti; Arold, Stefan T.; Welch, Heidi C. E.; Garraway, Levi A.; Chin, Lynda

    2016-01-01

    PREX2 (phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-triphosphate-dependent Rac-exchange factor 2) is a PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10) binding protein that is significantly mutated in cutaneous melanoma and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Here, genetic and biochemical analyses were conducted to elucidate the nature and mechanistic basis of PREX2 mutation in melanoma development. By generating an inducible transgenic mouse model we showed an oncogenic role for a truncating PREX2 mutation (PREX2E824*) in vivo in the context of mutant NRAS. Using integrative cross-species gene expression analysis, we identified deregulated cell cycle and cytoskeleton organization as significantly perturbed biological pathways in PREX2 mutant tumors. Mechanistically, truncation of PREX2 activated its Rac1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor activity, abolished binding to PTEN and activated the PI3K (phosphatidyl inositol 3 kinase)/Akt signaling pathway. We further showed that PREX2 truncating mutations or PTEN deletion induces down-regulation of the tumor suppressor and cell cycle regulator CDKN1C (also known as p57KIP2). This down-regulation occurs, at least partially, through DNA hypomethylation of a differentially methylated region in chromosome 11 that is a known regulatory region for expression of the CDKN1C gene. Together, these findings identify PREX2 as a mediator of NRAS-mutant melanoma development that acts through the PI3K/PTEN/Akt pathway to regulate gene expression of a cell cycle regulator.

  14. Mutations at the flavin binding site of ETF:QO yield a MADD-like severe phenotype in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Ema; Henriques, Bárbara J; Rodrigues, João V; Prudêncio, Pedro; Rocha, Hugo; Vilarinho, Laura; Martinho, Rui G; Gomes, Cláudio M

    2012-08-01

    Following a screening on EMS-induced Drosophila mutants defective for formation and morphogenesis of epithelial cells, we have identified three lethal mutants defective for the production of embryonic cuticle. The mutants are allelic to the CG12140 gene, the fly homologue of electron transfer flavoprotein:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETF:QO). In humans, inherited defects in this inner membrane protein account for multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD), a metabolic disease of β-oxidation, with a broad range of clinical phenotypes, varying from embryonic lethal to mild forms. The three mutant alleles carried distinct missense mutations in ETF:QO (G65E, A68V and S104F) and maternal mutant embryos for ETF:QO showed lethal morphogenetic defects and a significant induction of apoptosis following germ-band elongation. This phenotype is accompanied by an embryonic accumulation of short- and medium-chain acylcarnitines (C4, C8 and C12) as well as long-chain acylcarnitines (C14 and C16:1), whose elevation is also found in severe MADD forms in humans under intense metabolic decompensation. In agreement the ETF:QO activity in the mutant embryos is markedly decreased in relation to wild type activity. Amino acid sequence analysis and structural mapping into a molecular model of ETF:QO show that all mutations map at FAD interacting residues, two of which at the nucleotide-binding Rossmann fold. This structural domain is composed by a β-strand connected by a short loop to an α-helix, and its perturbation results in impaired cofactor association via structural destabilisation and consequently enzymatic inactivation. This work thus pinpoints the molecular origins of a severe MADD-like phenotype in the fruit fly and establishes the proof of concept concerning the suitability of this organism as a potential model organism for MADD. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Male Hypogonadism and Germ Cell Loss Caused by a Mutation in Polo-Like Kinase 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Rebecca M.; Weiss, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    The genetic etiologies of male infertility remain largely unknown. To identify genes potentially involved in spermatogenesis and male infertility, we performed genome-wide mutagenesis in mice with N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea and identified a line with dominant hypogonadism and patchy germ cell loss. Genomic mapping and DNA sequence analysis identified a novel heterozygous missense mutation in the kinase domain of Polo-like kinase 4 (Plk4), altering an isoleucine to asparagine at residue 242 (I242N). Genetic complementation studies using a gene trap line with disruption in the Plk4 locus confirmed that the putative Plk4 missense mutation was causative. Plk4 is known to be involved in centriole formation and cell cycle progression. However, a specific role in mammalian spermatogenesis has not been examined. PLK4 was highly expressed in the testes both pre- and postnatally. In the adult, PLK4 expression was first detected in stage VIII pachytene spermatocytes and was present through step 16 elongated spermatids. Because the homozygous Plk4I242N/I242N mutation was embryonic lethal, all analyses were performed using the heterozygous Plk4+/I242N mice. Testis size was reduced by 17%, and histology revealed discrete regions of germ cell loss, leaving only Sertoli cells in these defective tubules. Testis cord formation (embryonic day 13.5) was normal. Testis histology was also normal at postnatal day (P)1, but germ cell loss was detected at P10 and subsequent ages. We conclude that the I242N heterozygous mutation in PLK4 is causative for patchy germ cell loss beginning at P10, suggesting a role for PLK4 during the initiation of spermatogenesis. PMID:21791561

  16. Germline activating MTOR mutation arising through gonadal mosaicism in two brothers with megalencephaly and neurodevelopmental abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroske, Cameron; Rasmussen, Kristen; Shinde, Deepali N; Huether, Robert; Powis, Zoe; Lu, Hsiao-Mei; Baxter, Ruth M; McPherson, Elizabeth; Tang, Sha

    2015-11-05

    In humans, Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (MTOR) encodes a 300 kDa serine/ threonine protein kinase that is ubiquitously expressed, particularly at high levels in brain. MTOR functions as an integrator of multiple cellular processes, and in so doing either directly or indirectly regulates the phosphorylation of at least 800 proteins. While somatic MTOR mutations have been recognized in tumors for many years, and more recently in hemimegalencephaly, germline MTOR mutations have rarely been described. We report the successful application of family-trio Diagnostic Exome Sequencing (DES) to identify the underlying molecular etiology in two brothers with multiple neurological and developmental lesions, and for whom previous testing was non-diagnostic. The affected brothers, who were 6 and 23 years of age at the time of DES, presented symptoms including but not limited to mild Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), megalencephaly, gross motor skill delay, cryptorchidism and bilateral iris coloboma. Importantly, we determined that each affected brother harbored the MTOR missense alteration p.E1799K (c.5395G>A). This exact variant has been previously identified in multiple independent human somatic cancer samples and has been shown to result in increased MTOR activation. Further, recent independent reports describe two unrelated families in whom p.E1799K co-segregated with megalencephaly and intellectual disability (ID); in both cases, p.E1799K was shown to have originated due to germline mosaicism. In the case of the family reported herein, the absence of p.E1799K in genomic DNA extracted from the blood of either parent suggests that this alteration most likely arose due to gonadal mosaicism. Further, the p.E1799K variant exerts its effect by a gain-of-function (GOF), autosomal dominant mechanism. Herein, we describe the use of DES to uncover an activating MTOR missense alteration of gonadal mosaic origin that is likely to be the causative mutation in two brothers who present

  17. Mutation of Chinese hamster cells by near-UV activation of promutagens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnhart, B.J.; Cox, S.H.

    1980-01-01

    A tissue-culture assay for mutagenesis and cytotoxicity incorporating near ultraviolet (NUV) light activation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) has been developed. Cultures of Chinese hamster cells (line CHO) growing in suspension culture were inoculated with benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA) or shale-oil retort-water and exposed to light from a high-pressure mercury lamp fitted with a Corning NUV bandpass filter. This light source both permitted activation of PAH and the shale-oil water and precluded detectable damage to DNA. Neither the PAH nor the NUV alone had any effect on cell survival or mutation frequencies but the chemicals plus NUV were extremely effective in producing mutations to 6-thioguanine resistance (hgprt gene). (orig.)

  18. A novel truncating mutation in FLNA causes periventricular nodular heterotopia, Ehlers-Danlos-like collagenopathy and macrothrombocytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ieda, Daisuke; Hori, Ikumi; Nakamura, Yuji; Ohshita, Hironori; Negishi, Yutaka; Shinohara, Tsutomu; Hattori, Ayako; Kato, Takenori; Inukai, Sachiko; Kitamura, Katsumasa; Kawai, Tomoki; Ohara, Osamu; Kunishima, Shinji; Saitoh, Shinji

    2018-06-01

    Filamin A (FLNA) is located in Xq28, and encodes the actin binding protein, filamin A. A mutation in FLNA is the most common cause of periventricular nodular heterotopia (PVNH), but a clear phenotype-genotype correlation has not been established. Indeed, some patients with a FLNA mutation have recently been shown to additionally have Ehlers-Danlos-like collagenopathy or macrothrombocytopenia. In an attempt to establish a clearer correlation between clinical symptoms and genotype, we have investigated a phenotype that involves thrombocytopenia in a patient with a truncation of the FLNA gene. We present the case of a 4-year-old girl who, at birth, showed a ventral hernia. At 2 months of age, she was diagnosed with patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) and aortic valve regurgitation. At 11 months, she underwent ligation of the PDA. She was also diagnosed with diaphragmatic eventration by a preoperative test. At 19 months, motor developmental delay was noted, and brain MRI revealed bilateral PVNH with mega cisterna magna. Presently, there is no evidence of epilepsy, intellectual disability or motor developmental delay. She has chronic, mild thrombocytopenia, and a platelet count that transiently decreases after viral infection. Dilation of the ascending aorta is progressing gradually. Genetic testing revealed a de novo nonsense heterozygous mutation in FLNA (NM_001456.3: c.1621G > T; p.Glu541Ter). Immunofluorescence staining of a peripheral blood smear showed a lack of filamin A expression in 21.1% of her platelets. These filamin A-negative platelets were slightly larger than her normal platelets. Our data suggests immunofluorescence staining of peripheral blood smears is a convenient diagnostic approach to identify patients with a FLNA mutation, which will facilitate further investigation of the correlation between FLNA mutations and patient phenotype. Copyright © 2018 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. WNT activation by lithium abrogates TP53 mutation associated radiation resistance in medulloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukova, Nataliya; Ramaswamy, Vijay; Remke, Marc; Martin, Dianna C; Castelo-Branco, Pedro; Zhang, Cindy H; Fraser, Michael; Tse, Ken; Poon, Raymond; Shih, David J H; Baskin, Berivan; Ray, Peter N; Bouffet, Eric; Dirks, Peter; von Bueren, Andre O; Pfaff, Elke; Korshunov, Andrey; Jones, David T W; Northcott, Paul A; Kool, Marcel; Pugh, Trevor J; Pomeroy, Scott L; Cho, Yoon-Jae; Pietsch, Torsten; Gessi, Marco; Rutkowski, Stefan; Bognár, Laszlo; Cho, Byung-Kyu; Eberhart, Charles G; Conter, Cecile Faure; Fouladi, Maryam; French, Pim J; Grajkowska, Wieslawa A; Gupta, Nalin; Hauser, Peter; Jabado, Nada; Vasiljevic, Alexandre; Jung, Shin; Kim, Seung-Ki; Klekner, Almos; Kumabe, Toshihiro; Lach, Boleslaw; Leonard, Jeffrey R; Liau, Linda M; Massimi, Luca; Pollack, Ian F; Ra, Young Shin; Rubin, Joshua B; Van Meir, Erwin G; Wang, Kyu-Chang; Weiss, William A; Zitterbart, Karel; Bristow, Robert G; Alman, Benjamin; Hawkins, Cynthia E; Malkin, David; Clifford, Steven C; Pfister, Stefan M; Taylor, Michael D; Tabori, Uri

    2014-12-24

    TP53 mutations confer subgroup specific poor survival for children with medulloblastoma. We hypothesized that WNT activation which is associated with improved survival for such children abrogates TP53 related radioresistance and can be used to sensitize TP53 mutant tumors for radiation. We examined the subgroup-specific role of TP53 mutations in a cohort of 314 patients treated with radiation. TP53 wild-type or mutant human medulloblastoma cell-lines and normal neural stem cells were used to test radioresistance of TP53 mutations and the radiosensitizing effect of WNT activation on tumors and the developing brain. Children with WNT/TP53 mutant medulloblastoma had higher 5-year survival than those with SHH/TP53 mutant tumours (100% and 36.6%±8.7%, respectively (p<0.001)). Introduction of TP53 mutation into medulloblastoma cells induced radioresistance (survival fractions at 2Gy (SF2) of 89%±2% vs. 57.4%±1.8% (p<0.01)). In contrast, β-catenin mutation sensitized TP53 mutant cells to radiation (p<0.05). Lithium, an activator of the WNT pathway, sensitized TP53 mutant medulloblastoma to radiation (SF2 of 43.5%±1.5% in lithium treated cells vs. 56.6±3% (p<0.01)) accompanied by increased number of γH2AX foci. Normal neural stem cells were protected from lithium induced radiation damage (SF2 of 33%±8% for lithium treated cells vs. 27%±3% for untreated controls (p=0.05). Poor survival of patients with TP53 mutant medulloblastoma may be related to radiation resistance. Since constitutive activation of the WNT pathway by lithium sensitizes TP53 mutant medulloblastoma cells and protect normal neural stem cells from radiation, this oral drug may represent an attractive novel therapy for high-risk medulloblastomas.

  20. Functional Trade-Offs in Promiscuous Enzymes Cannot Be Explained by Intrinsic Mutational Robustness of the Native Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Kaltenbach

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The extent to which an emerging new function trades off with the original function is a key characteristic of the dynamics of enzyme evolution. Various cases of laboratory evolution have unveiled a characteristic trend; a large increase in a new, promiscuous activity is often accompanied by only a mild reduction of the native, original activity. A model that associates weak trade-offs with "evolvability" was put forward, which proposed that enzymes possess mutational robustness in the native activity and plasticity in promiscuous activities. This would enable the acquisition of a new function without compromising the original one, reducing the benefit of early gene duplication and therefore the selection pressure thereon. Yet, to date, no experimental study has examined this hypothesis directly. Here, we investigate the causes of weak trade-offs by systematically characterizing adaptive mutations that occurred in two cases of evolutionary transitions in enzyme function: (1 from phosphotriesterase to arylesterase, and (2 from atrazine chlorohydrolase to melamine deaminase. Mutational analyses in various genetic backgrounds revealed that, in contrast to the prevailing model, the native activity is less robust to mutations than the promiscuous activity. For example, in phosphotriesterase, the deleterious effect of individual mutations on the native phosphotriesterase activity is much larger than their positive effect on the promiscuous arylesterase activity. Our observations suggest a revision of the established model: weak trade-offs are not caused by an intrinsic robustness of the native activity and plasticity of the promiscuous activity. We propose that upon strong adaptive pressure for the new activity without selection against the original one, selected mutations will lead to the largest possible increases in the new function, but whether and to what extent they decrease the old function is irrelevant, creating a bias towards initially weak

  1. Enhancer elements upstream of the SHOX gene are active in the developing limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Claudia; Bangs, Fiona; Signolet, Jason; Decker, Eva; Tickle, Cheryll; Rappold, Gudrun

    2010-05-01

    Léri-Weill Dyschondrosteosis (LWD) is a dominant skeletal disorder characterized by short stature and distinct bone anomalies. SHOX gene mutations and deletions of regulatory elements downstream of SHOX resulting in haploinsufficiency have been found in patients with LWD. SHOX encodes a homeodomain transcription factor and is known to be expressed in the developing limb. We have now analyzed the regulatory significance of the region upstream of the SHOX gene. By comparative genomic analyses, we identified several conserved non-coding elements, which subsequently were tested in an in ovo enhancer assay in both chicken limb bud and cornea, where SHOX is also expressed. In this assay, we found three enhancers to be active in the developing chicken limb, but none were functional in the developing cornea. A screening of 60 LWD patients with an intact SHOX coding and downstream region did not yield any deletion of the upstream enhancer region. Thus, we speculate that SHOX upstream deletions occur at a lower frequency because of the structural organization of this genomic region and/or that SHOX upstream deletions may cause a phenotype that differs from the one observed in LWD.

  2. Studies on tender wheatgrass: estimation of elemental content, bioaccessibility of essential elements and antioxidant activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, A.V.R.; Acharya, R.; Nair, A.G.C.; Kulkarni, S.D.; Rajurkar, N.S.

    2008-08-01

    Tender wheatgrass is being consumed by human beings in juice form or as it is due to its antioxidant potential and medicinal value. Systematic studies were carried out to (i) estimate elemental profiles as a function of growth period and conditions, bioaccessibility of different elements and the antioxidant potential of the tender wheatgrass, (ii) determine the optimum growth period for obtaining maximum benefit and (iii) examine the possible correlation between antioxidant potential and mineral content. Wheatgrass was grown in four different conditions namely (i) tap water, (ii) tap water with nutrients, (iii) soil and tap water and (iv) soil with nutrient solution. The studies were carried out on the wheatgrass of 5-20 days old. For comparison with laboratory grown wheatgrass, a set of commercially available wheatgrass tablets and wheat seeds were also studied. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used for concentration determination of elements in the wheatgrass, wheat seeds and wheatgrass tablets. A total of 15 elements like Na, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Br, Fe and Zn were determined in the samples of shoots and roots of tender wheatgrass. A comparison with the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of different essential elements with that in tender wheatgrass revealed that wheatgrass is a good source of minerals for health benefits rather than a food supplement. Bioaccessible fractions of various elements were estimated by a chemical NAA method by subjecting the samples to in vitro gastric and gastro-intestinal digestion followed by NAA. The bioaccessibility concentrations by both the measurements were in the range of 9-60%. It was found that bioaccessibility of the elements studied was the highest from fresh wheatgrass and the lowest from wheat seeds. Accuracy of the NAA method was evaluated by analyzing two biological reference materials, SRM 1573a (Tomato leaves) from NIST, USA and ICHTJ CTA-vtl-2 (Tobacco leaves) from INCT, Poland. The antioxidant

  3. Epilepsy caused by CDKL5 mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrén, Maija; Gaily, Eija; Tengström, Carola; Lähdetie, Jaana; Archer, Hayley; Ala-Mello, Sirpa

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in the cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 gene (CDKL5) have been identified in female patients with early onset epileptic encephalopathy and severe mental retardation with a Rett-like phenotype. Subsequently CDKL5 mutations were shown to be associated with more diverse phenotypes including mild epilepsy and autism without epilepsy. Furthermore, CDKL5 mutations were found in patients with Angelman-like phenotype. The severity of epilepsy associated with CDKL5 mutations was recently shown to correlate with the type of CDKL5 mutations and epilepsy was identified to involve three distinct sequential stages. Here, we describe the phenotype of a severe form of neurodevelopmental disease in a female patient with a de novo nonsense mutation of the CDKL5 gene c.175C > T (p.R59X) affecting the catalytic domain of CDKL5 protein. Mutations in the CDKL5 gene are less common in males and can be associated with a genomic deletion as found in our male patient with a deletion of 0.3 Mb at Xp22.13 including the CDKL5 gene. We review phenotypes associated with CDKL5 mutations and examine putative relationships between the clinical epilepsy phenotype and the type of the mutation in the CDKL5 gene. © 2010 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The first USH2A mutation analysis of Japanese autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa patients: a totally different mutation profile with the lack of frequent mutations found in Caucasian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Hosono, Katsuhiro; Suto, Kimiko; Ishigami, Chie; Arai, Yuuki; Hikoya, Akiko; Hirami, Yasuhiko; Ohtsubo, Masafumi; Ueno, Shinji; Terasaki, Hiroko; Sato, Miho; Nakanishi, Hiroshi; Endo, Shiori; Mizuta, Kunihiro; Mineta, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Mineo; Takahashi, Masayo; Minoshima, Shinsei; Hotta, Yoshihiro

    2014-09-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a highly heterogeneous genetic disease. The USH2A gene, which accounts for approximately 74-90% of Usher syndrome type 2 (USH2) cases, is also one of the major autosomal recessive RP (arRP) causative genes among Caucasian populations. To identify disease-causing USH2A gene mutations in Japanese RP patients, all 73 exons were screened for mutations by direct sequencing. In total, 100 unrelated Japanese RP patients with no systemic manifestations were identified, excluding families with obvious autosomal dominant inheritance. Of these 100 patients, 82 were included in this present study after 18 RP patients with very likely pathogenic EYS (eyes shut homolog) mutations were excluded. The mutation analysis of the USH2A revealed five very likely pathogenic mutations in four patients. A patient had only one very likely pathogenic mutation and the others had two of them. Caucasian frequent mutations p.C759F in arRP and p.E767fs in USH2 were not found. All the four patients exhibited typical clinical features of RP. The observed prevalence of USH2A gene mutations was approximately 4% among Japanese arRP patients, and the profile of the USH2A gene mutations differed largely between Japanese patients and previously reported Caucasian populations.

  5. Oncogenic exon 2 mutations in Mediator subunit MED12 disrupt allosteric activation of cyclin C-CDK8/19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Min Ju; Shen, Hailian; Spaeth, Jason M; Tolvanen, Jaana H; Failor, Courtney; Knudtson, Jennifer F; McLaughlin, Jessica; Halder, Sunil K; Yang, Qiwei; Bulun, Serdar E; Al-Hendy, Ayman; Schenken, Robert S; Aaltonen, Lauri A; Boyer, Thomas G

    2018-03-30

    Somatic mutations in exon 2 of the RNA polymerase II transcriptional Mediator subunit MED12 occur at high frequency in uterine fibroids (UFs) and breast fibroepithelial tumors as well as recurrently, albeit less frequently, in malignant uterine leimyosarcomas, chronic lymphocytic leukemias, and colorectal cancers. Previously, we reported that UF-linked mutations in MED12 disrupt its ability to activate cyclin C (CycC)-dependent kinase 8 (CDK8) in Mediator, implicating impaired Mediator-associated CDK8 activity in the molecular pathogenesis of these clinically significant lesions. Notably, the CDK8 paralog CDK19 is also expressed in myometrium, and both CDK8 and CDK19 assemble into Mediator in a mutually exclusive manner, suggesting that CDK19 activity may also be germane to the pathogenesis of MED12 mutation-induced UFs. However, whether and how UF-linked mutations in MED12 affect CDK19 activation is unknown. Herein, we show that MED12 allosterically activates CDK19 and that UF-linked exon 2 mutations in MED12 disrupt its CDK19 stimulatory activity. Furthermore, we find that within the Mediator kinase module, MED13 directly binds to the MED12 C terminus, thereby suppressing an apparent UF mutation-induced conformational change in MED12 that otherwise disrupts its association with CycC-CDK8/19. Thus, in the presence of MED13, mutant MED12 can bind, but cannot activate, CycC-CDK8/19. These findings indicate that MED12 binding is necessary but not sufficient for CycC-CDK8/19 activation and reveal an additional step in the MED12-dependent activation process, one critically dependent on MED12 residues altered by UF-linked exon 2 mutations. These findings confirm that UF-linked mutations in MED12 disrupt composite Mediator-associated kinase activity and identify CDK8/19 as prospective therapeutic targets in UFs. © 2018 Park et al.

  6. Mutations at Several Loci Cause Increased Expression of Ribonucleotide Reductase in Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, Morgan Anne; Ke, Na

    2012-01-01

    Production of deoxyribonucleotides for DNA synthesis is an essential and tightly regulated process. The class Ia ribonucleotide reductase (RNR), the product of the nrdAB genes, is required for aerobic growth of Escherichia coli. In catalyzing the reduction of ribonucleotides, two of the cysteines of RNR become oxidized, forming a disulfide bond. To regenerate active RNR, the cell uses thioredoxins and glutaredoxins to reduce the disulfide bond. Strains that lack thioredoxins 1 and 2 and glutaredoxin 1 do not grow because RNR remains in its oxidized, inactive form. However, suppressor mutations that lead to RNR overproduction allow glutaredoxin 3 to reduce sufficient RNR for growth of these mutant strains. We previously described suppressor mutations in the dnaA and dnaN genes that had such effects. Here we report the isolation of new mutations that lead to increased levels of RNR. These include mutations that were not known to influence production of RNR previously, such as a mutation in the hda gene and insertions in the nrdAB promoter region of insertion elements IS1 and IS5. Bioinformatic analysis raises the possibility that IS element insertion in this region represents an adaptive mechanism in nrdAB regulation in E. coli and closely related species. We also characterize mutations altering different amino acids in DnaA and DnaN from those isolated before. PMID:22247510

  7. The Effect of Pulsed Streamer-like Discharge in Liquid on Transcriptional Activation of Retrotransposon Genes of a Red Alga, Porphyra Yezoensis

    OpenAIRE

    Ohno, T.; Li, Z.; Lin, X.F.; Zhang, W.B.; Takano, H.; Takio, S.; Namihira, T.; Akiyama, H.; オオノ, ツヨシ; ナミヒラ, タカオ; アキヤマ, ヒデノリ; 大野, 剛史; 浪平, 隆男; 秋山, 秀典

    2007-01-01

    Retrotransposons are mobile genetic elements thataccomplished transposition via an RNA intermediate.These elements can be transcriptionally activated by stressfactors, such as UV light, ozone, pathogens, woundingand drought. A red alga, porphyra yezoensis has recentlybeen recognized as a model plant for fundamental andapplied study in marine biological science. In this paper,pulsed streamer-like discharge in liquid was used as a newstress condition, and the transcription level of a copia-like...

  8. Mutations in the catalytic loop HRD motif alter the activity and function of Drosophila Src64.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor C Strong

    Full Text Available The catalytic loop HRD motif is found in most protein kinases and these amino acids are predicted to perform functions in catalysis, transition to, and stabilization of the active conformation of the kinase domain. We have identified mutations in a Drosophila src gene, src64, that alter the three HRD amino acids. We have analyzed the mutants for both biochemical activity and biological function during development. Mutation of the aspartate to asparagine eliminates biological function in cytoskeletal processes and severely reduces fertility, supporting the amino acid's critical role in enzymatic activity. The arginine to cysteine mutation has little to no effect on kinase activity or cytoskeletal reorganization, suggesting that the HRD arginine may not be critical for coordinating phosphotyrosine in the active conformation. The histidine to leucine mutant retains some kinase activity and biological function, suggesting that this amino acid may have a biochemical function in the active kinase that is independent of its side chain hydrogen bonding interactions in the active site. We also describe the phenotypic effects of other mutations in the SH2 and tyrosine kinase domains of src64, and we compare them to the phenotypic effects of the src64 null allele.

  9. mTORC2 promotes type I insulin-like growth factor receptor and insulin receptor activation through the tyrosine kinase activity of mTOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yancun; Hua, Hui; Li, Minjing; Liu, Shu; Kong, Qingbin; Shao, Ting; Wang, Jiao; Luo, Yuanming; Wang, Qian; Luo, Ting; Jiang, Yangfu

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a core component of raptor-mTOR (mTORC1) and rictor-mTOR (mTORC2) complexes that control diverse cellular processes. Both mTORC1 and mTORC2 regulate several elements downstream of type I insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-IR) and insulin receptor (InsR). However, it is unknown whether and how mTOR regulates IGF-IR and InsR themselves. Here we show that mTOR possesses unexpected tyrosine kinase activity and activates IGF-IR/InsR. Rapamycin induces the tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of IGF-IR/InsR, which is largely dependent on rictor and mTOR. Moreover, mTORC2 promotes ligand-induced activation of IGF-IR/InsR. IGF- and insulin-induced IGF-IR/InsR phosphorylation is significantly compromised in rictor-null cells. Insulin receptor substrate (IRS) directly interacts with SIN1 thereby recruiting mTORC2 to IGF-IR/InsR and promoting rapamycin- or ligand-induced phosphorylation of IGF-IR/InsR. mTOR exhibits tyrosine kinase activity towards the general tyrosine kinase substrate poly(Glu-Tyr) and IGF-IR/InsR. Both recombinant mTOR and immunoprecipitated mTORC2 phosphorylate IGF-IR and InsR on Tyr1131/1136 and Tyr1146/1151, respectively. These effects are independent of the intrinsic kinase activity of IGF-IR/InsR, as determined by assays on kinase-dead IGF-IR/InsR mutants. While both rictor and mTOR immunoprecitates from rictor(+/+) MCF-10A cells exhibit tyrosine kinase activity towards IGF-IR and InsR, mTOR immunoprecipitates from rictor(-/-) MCF-10A cells do not induce IGF-IR and InsR phosphorylation. Phosphorylation-deficient mutation of residue Tyr1131 in IGF-IR or Tyr1146 in InsR abrogates the activation of IGF-IR/InsR by mTOR. Finally, overexpression of rictor promotes IGF-induced cell proliferation. Our work identifies mTOR as a dual-specificity kinase and clarifies how mTORC2 promotes IGF-IR/InsR activation.

  10. Estradiol represses Insulin-like 3 expression and promoter activity in MA-10 Leydig cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lague, Eric; Tremblay, Jacques J.

    2009-01-01

    There are increasing evidence in the literature reporting the detrimental effects of endocrine disruptors on the development and function of the male reproductive system. One example is cryptorchidism, or undescended testis, caused by exposure to excessive estrogens. Estrogens, acting through the estrogen receptor α (ERα), have been shown to repress expression of the gene encoding insulin-like 3 (INSL3), a small peptide produced by testicular Leydig cells that is essential for normal testis descent. The molecular mechanism of estrogen/ER action on Insl3 expression, however, remains poorly understood. Here we report estradiol (E 2 ) represses Insl3 mRNA levels in MA-10 cells, a Leydig cell line model. We also found that E 2 represses the activity of the human and mouse Insl3 promoter in these cells. The E 2 -responsive region of the human INSL3 promoter was located to the proximal INSL3 promoter. This region does not contain a consensus estrogen response element indicating an indirect mechanism of action. In agreement with this, we found that E 2 -responsiveness was lost when two previously characterized binding sites for the nuclear receptors NUR77 and SF1 were mutated. Finally we show that the E 2 repressive effect could be overcome by cotreatment with testosterone, a positive regulator of Insl3 transcription. Collectively our data provide important new insights into the molecular mechanism of estrogen action in Insl3 transcription in Leydig cells

  11. HPV-16 L1 genes with inactivated negative RNA elements induce potent immune responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rollman, Erik; Arnheim, Lisen; Collier, Brian; Oeberg, Daniel; Hall, Haakan; Klingstroem, Jonas; Dillner, Joakim; Pastrana, Diana V.; Buck, Chris B.; Hinkula, Jorma; Wahren, Britta; Schwartz, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    Introduction of point mutations in the 5' end of the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) L1 gene specifically inactivates negative regulatory RNA processing elements. DNA vaccination of C57Bl/6 mice with the mutated L1 gene resulted in improved immunogenicity for both neutralizing antibodies as well as for broad cellular immune responses. Previous reports on the activation of L1 by codon optimization may be explained by inactivation of the regulatory RNA elements. The modified HPV-16 L1 DNA that induced anti-HPV-16 immunity may be seen as a complementary approach to protein subunit immunization against papillomavirus

  12. Mutational profile of GNAQQ209 in human tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Lamba

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Frequent somatic mutations have recently been identified in the ras-like domain of the heterotrimeric G protein alpha-subunit (GNAQ in blue naevi 83%, malignant blue naevi (50% and ocular melanoma of the uvea (46%. The mutations exclusively affect codon 209 and result in GNAQ constitutive activation which, in turn, acts as a dominant oncogene. METHODOLOGY: To assess if the mutations are present in other tumor types we performed a systematic mutational profile of the GNAQ exon 5 in a panel of 922 neoplasms, including glioblastoma, gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST, acute myeloid leukemia (AML, blue naevi, skin melanoma, bladder, breast, colorectal, lung, ovarian, pancreas, and thyroid carcinomas. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We detected the previously reported mutations in 6/13 (46% blue naevi. Changes affecting Q209 were not found in any of the other tumors. Our data indicate that the occurrence of GNAQ mutations display a unique pattern being present in a subset of melanocytic tumors but not in malignancies of glial, epithelial and stromal origin analyzed in this study.

  13. Oculocutaneous albinism type 1: link between mutations, tyrosinase conformational stability, and enzymatic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolinska, Monika B; Kus, Nicole J; Farney, S Katie; Wingfield, Paul T; Brooks, Brian P; Sergeev, Yuri V

    2017-01-01

    Oculocutaneous albinism type 1 (OCA1) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the tyrosinase gene. Two subtypes of OCA1 have been described: severe OCA1A with complete absence of tyrosinase activity and less severe OCA1B with residual tyrosinase activity. Here, we characterize the recombinant human tyrosinase intramelanosomal domain and mutant variants, which mimic genetic changes in both subtypes of OCA1 patients. Proteins were prepared using site-directed mutagenesis, expressed in insect larvae, purified by chromatography, and characterized by enzymatic activities, tryptophan fluorescence, and Gibbs free energy changes. The OCA1A mutants showed very low protein expression and protein yield and are enzymatically inactive. Mutants mimicking OCA1B were biochemically similar to the wild type, but exhibited lower specific activities and protein stabilities. The results are consistent with clinical data, which indicates that OCA1A mutations inactivate tyrosinase and result in severe phenotype, while OCA1B mutations partially inactivate tyrosinase and result in OCA1B albinism. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  14. Heterozygous carriers of a Parkin or PINK1 mutation share a common functional endophenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Nuenen, BF; Siebner, Hartwig; Weiss, MM

    2008-01-01

    inherited Parkinson disease alters the cortical control of sequential finger movements. METHODS: Nonmanifesting individuals carrying a single heterozygous Parkin (n = 13) or PINK1 (n = 9) mutation and 23 healthy controls without these mutations were studied with functional MRI (fMRI). During f...... rostral dorsal premotor cortex in mutation carriers but not in controls. Task-related activation of these premotor areas was similar in carriers of a Parkin or PINK1 mutation. CONCLUSION: Mutations in different genes linked to recessively inherited Parkinson disease are associated with an additional...... recruitment of rostral supplementary motor area and rostral dorsal premotor cortex during a simple motor sequence task. These premotor areas were recruited independently of the underlying genotype. The observed activation most likely reflects a "generic" compensatory mechanism to maintain motor function...

  15. Activating thyrotropin receptor mutations are present in nonadenomatous hyperfunctioning nodules of toxic or autonomous multinodular goiter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonacchera, M; Agretti, P; Chiovato, L; Rosellini, V; Ceccarini, G; Perri, A; Viacava, P; Naccarato, A G; Miccoli, P; Pinchera, A; Vitti, P

    2000-06-01

    Toxic multinodular goiter, a heterogeneous disease producing hyperthyroidism, is frequently found in iodine-deficient areas. The pathogenesis of this common clinical entity is still unclear. The aim of the present study was to search for activating TSH receptor (TSHr) or Gs alpha mutations in areas of toxic or functionally autonomous multinodular goiters that appeared hyperfunctioning at thyroid scintiscan but did not clearly correspond to definite nodules at physical or ultrasonographic examination. Surgical tissue specimens from nine patients were carefully dissected, matching thyroid scintiscan and thyroid ultrasonography, to isolate hyperfunctioning and nonfunctioning areas even if they did not correspond to well-defined nodules. TSHr and Gs alpha mutations were searched for by direct sequencing after PCR amplification of genomic DNA. Only 2 adenomas were identified at microscopic examination, whereas the remaining 18 hyperfunctioning areas corresponded to hyperplastic nodules containing multiple aggregates of micromacrofollicules not surrounded by a capsule. Activating TSHr mutations were detected in 14 of these 20 hyperfunctioning areas, whereas no mutation was identified in nonfunctioning nodules or areas contained in the same gland. No Gs alpha mutation was found. In conclusion, activating TSHr mutations are present in the majority of nonadenomatous hyperfunctioning nodules scattered throughout the gland in patients with toxic or functionally autonomous multinodular goiter.

  16. The impact of KRAS mutations on VEGF-A production and tumour vascular network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueras, Agnès; Arbos, Maria Antonia; Quiles, Maria Teresa; Viñals, Francesc; Germà, Josep Ramón; Capellà, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    The malignant potential of tumour cells may be influenced by the molecular nature of KRAS mutations being codon 13 mutations less aggressive than codon 12 ones. Their metabolic profile is also different, with an increased anaerobic glycolytic metabolism in cells harbouring codon 12 KRAS mutations compared with cells containing codon 13 mutations. We hypothesized that this distinct metabolic behaviour could be associated with different HIF-1α expression and a distinct angiogenic profile. Codon13 KRAS mutation (ASP13) or codon12 KRAS mutation (CYS12) NIH3T3 transfectants were analyzed in vitro and in vivo. Expression of HIF-1α, and VEGF-A was studied at RNA and protein levels. Regulation of VEGF-A promoter activity was assessed by means of luciferase assays using different plasmid constructs. Vascular network was assessed in tumors growing after subcutaneous inoculation. Non parametric statistics were used for analysis of results. Our results show that in normoxic conditions ASP13 transfectants exhibited less HIF-1α protein levels and activity than CYS12. In contrast, codon 13 transfectants exhibited higher VEGF-A mRNA and protein levels and enhanced VEGF-A promoter activity. These differences were due to a differential activation of Sp1/AP2 transcription elements of the VEGF-A promoter associated with increased ERKs signalling in ASP13 transfectants. Subcutaneous CYS12 tumours expressed less VEGF-A and showed a higher microvessel density (MVD) than ASP13 tumours. In contrast, prominent vessels were only observed in the latter. Subtle changes in the molecular nature of KRAS oncogene activating mutations occurring in tumour cells have a major impact on the vascular strategy devised providing with new insights on the role of KRAS mutations on angiogenesis

  17. Activation of Toll-like receptors nucleates assembly of the MyDDosome signaling hub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latty, Sarah Louise; Sakai, Jiro; Hopkins, Lee; Verstak, Brett; Paramo, Teresa; Berglund, Nils A; Cammorota, Eugenia; Cicuta, Pietro; Gay, Nicholas J; Bond, Peter J; Klenerman, David; Bryant, Clare E

    2018-01-24

    Infection and tissue damage induces assembly of supramolecular organizing centres (SMOCs)), such as the Toll-like receptor (TLR) MyDDosome, to co-ordinate inflammatory signaling. SMOC assembly is thought to drive digital all-or-none responses, yet TLR activation by diverse microbes induces anything from mild to severe inflammation. Using single-molecule imaging of TLR4-MyDDosome signaling in living macrophages, we find that MyDDosomes assemble within minutes of TLR4 stimulation. TLR4/MD2 activation leads only to formation of TLR4/MD2 heterotetramers, but not oligomers, suggesting a stoichiometric mismatch between activated receptors and MyDDosomes. The strength of TLR4 signalling depends not only on the number and size of MyDDosomes formed but also how quickly these structures assemble. Activated TLR4, therefore, acts transiently nucleating assembly of MyDDosomes, a process that is uncoupled from receptor activation. These data explain how the oncogenic mutation of MyD88 (L265P) assembles MyDDosomes in the absence of receptor activation to cause constitutive activation of pro-survival NF-κB signalling. © 2018, Latty et al.

  18. Determination of trace elements: Neutron-activation analysis in geochemistry and cosmochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolesov, G.M.

    1994-01-01

    Geochemistry, like cosmochemistry, open-quotes studies chemical elements hor-ellipsis of the crust and hor-ellipsis the Earth hor-ellipsis their history, their distribution hor-ellipsis their genetic hor-ellipsis connectionsclose quotes and is based on data on the abundance and distribution of elements obtained by various analytical methods. Neutron-activation analysis (NAA) plays a particular role in this respect. This is due to its high sensitivity (detection limit as small as 10 -14 g), which makes possible the use of samples of arbitrary mass, and also due to the possibility of obtaining information about composition without destruction of the object, conserving, if required, the unique material under investigation. Of the most interest are the data on the contents for a number of trace elements (at a level of 10 -7 - 10 -4 %), among which are rare-earth elements (REE), U, Th, Zr, Hf, Ta, W, Ga, Ni, Rb, Cs, platinum-group metals, Ag, Au, etc. These elements are considered as indicators of geochemical processes associated with the genesis and evolution of solar system bodies in early and more recent stages of evolution; they are also used to study processes and phenomena at zone boundaries: river-sea, ocean-atmosphere, and so on. The aim of this work is to show the capabilities of NAA in the determination of trace elements

  19. Loss-of-function CARD8 mutation causes NLRP3 inflammasome activation and Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Liming; Kitani, Atsushi; Similuk, Morgan; Oler, Andrew J; Albenberg, Lindsey; Kelsen, Judith; Aktay, Atiye; Quezado, Martha; Yao, Michael; Montgomery-Recht, Kim; Fuss, Ivan J; Strober, Warren

    2018-05-01

    In these studies, we evaluated the contribution of the NLRP3 inflammasome to Crohn's disease (CD) in a kindred containing individuals having a missense mutation in CARD8, a protein known to inhibit this inflammasome. Whole exome sequencing and PCR studies identified the affected individuals as having a V44I mutation in a single allele of the T60 isoform of CARD8. The serum levels of IL-1β in the affected individuals were increased compared with those in healthy controls, and their peripheral monocytes produced increased amounts of IL-1β when stimulated by NLRP3 activators. Immunoblot studies probing the basis of these findings showed that mutated T60 CARD8 failed to downregulate the NLRP3 inflammasome because it did not bind to NLRP3 and inhibit its oligomerization. In addition, these studies showed that mutated T60 CARD8 exerted a dominant-negative effect by its capacity to bind to and form oligomers with unmutated T60 or T48 CARD8 that impeded their binding to NLRP3. Finally, inflammasome activation studies revealed that intact but not mutated CARD8 prevented NLRP3 deubiquitination and serine dephosphorylation. CD due to a CARD8 mutation was not effectively treated by anti-TNF-α, but did respond to IL-1β inhibitors. Thus, patients with anti-TNF-α-resistant CD may respond to this treatment option.

  20. Neurodevelopmental disease-associated de novo mutations and rare sequence variants affect TRIO GDP/GTP exchange factor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katrancha, Sara M; Wu, Yi; Zhu, Minsheng; Eipper, Betty A; Koleske, Anthony J; Mains, Richard E

    2017-12-01

    Bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, autism and intellectual disability are complex neurodevelopmental disorders, debilitating millions of people. Therapeutic progress is limited by poor understanding of underlying molecular pathways. Using a targeted search, we identified an enrichment of de novo mutations in the gene encoding the 330-kDa triple functional domain (TRIO) protein associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. By generating multiple TRIO antibodies, we show that the smaller TRIO9 isoform is the major brain protein product, and its levels decrease after birth. TRIO9 contains two guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) domains with distinct specificities: GEF1 activates both Rac1 and RhoG; GEF2 activates RhoA. To understand the impact of disease-associated de novo mutations and other rare sequence variants on TRIO function, we utilized two FRET-based biosensors: a Rac1 biosensor to study mutations in TRIO (T)GEF1, and a RhoA biosensor to study mutations in TGEF2. We discovered that one autism-associated de novo mutation in TGEF1 (K1431M), at the TGEF1/Rac1 interface, markedly decreased its overall activity toward Rac1. A schizophrenia-associated rare sequence variant in TGEF1 (F1538Intron) was substantially less active, normalized to protein level and expressed poorly. Overall, mutations in TGEF1 decreased GEF1 activity toward Rac1. One bipolar disorder-associated rare variant (M2145T) in TGEF2 impaired inhibition by the TGEF2 pleckstrin-homology domain, resulting in dramatically increased TGEF2 activity. Overall, genetic damage to both TGEF domains altered TRIO catalytic activity, decreasing TGEF1 activity and increasing TGEF2 activity. Importantly, both GEF changes are expected to decrease neurite outgrowth, perhaps consistent with their association with neurodevelopmental disorders. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Identification of cis-acting regulatory elements in the human oxytocin gene promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, S; Zingg, H H

    1991-12-01

    The expression of hormone-inducible genes is determined by the interaction of trans-acting factors with hormone-inducible elements and elements mediating basal and cell-specific expression. We have shown earlier that the gene encoding the hypothalamic nonapeptide oxytocin (OT) is under the control of an estrogen response element (ERE). The present study was aimed at identifying cis-acting elements mediating basal expression of the OT gene. A construct containing sequences -381 to +36 of the human OT gene was linked to a reporter gene and transiently transfected into a series of neuronal and nonneuronal cell lines. Expression of this construct was cell specific: it was highest in the neuroblastoma-derived cell line, Neuro-2a, and lowest in NIH 3T3 and JEG-3 cells. By 5' deletion analysis, we determined that a segment from -49 to +36 was capable of mediating cells-pecific promoter activity. Within this segment, we identified three proximal promoter elements (PPE-1, PPE-2, and PPE-3) that are each required for promoter activity. Most notably, mutation of a conserved purine-rich element (GAGAGA) contained within PPE-2 leads to a 10-fold decrease in promoter strength. Gel mobility shift analysis with three different double-stranded oligonucleotides demonstrated that each proximal promoter element binds distinct nuclear factors. In each case, only the homologous oligonucleotide, but neither of the oligonucleotides corresponding to adjacent elements, was able to act as a competitor. Thus, a different set of factors appears to bind independently to each element. By reinserting the homologous ERE or a heterologous glucocorticoid response element upstream of intact or altered proximal promoter segments we determined that removal or mutation of proximal promoter elements decreases basal expression, but does not abrogate the hormone responsiveness of the promoter. In conclusion, these results indicate that an important component of the transcriptional activity of the OT

  2. The recurrent PPP1CB mutation p.Pro49Arg in an additional Noonan-like syndrome individual: Broadening the clinical phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertola, Débora; Yamamoto, Guilherme; Buscarilli, Michelle; Jorge, Alexander; Passos-Bueno, Maria Rita; Kim, Chong

    2017-03-01

    We report on a 12-year-old Brazilian boy with the p.Pro49Arg mutation in PPP1CB, a novel gene associated with RASopathies. This is the fifth individual described, and the fourth presenting the same variant, suggesting a mutational hotspot. Phenotypically, he also showed the same hair pattern-sparse, thin, and with slow growing-, similar to the typical ectodermal finding observed in Noonan syndrome-like disorder with loose anagen hair. Additionally, he presented craniosynostosis, a rare clinical finding in RASopathies. This report gives further support that this novel RASopathy-PPP1CB-related Noonan syndrome with loose anagen hair-shares great similarity to Noonan syndrome-like disorder with loose anagen hair, and expands the phenotypic spectrum by adding the cranial vault abnormality. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. USP7 Is a Tumor-Specific WNT Activator for APC-Mutated Colorectal Cancer by Mediating β-Catenin Deubiquitination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Novellasdemunt

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The tumor suppressor gene adenomatous polyposis coli (APC is mutated in most colorectal cancers (CRCs, resulting in constitutive Wnt activation. To understand the Wnt-activating mechanism of the APC mutation, we applied CRISPR/Cas9 technology to engineer various APC-truncated isogenic lines. We find that the β-catenin inhibitory domain (CID in APC represents the threshold for pathological levels of Wnt activation and tumor transformation. Mechanistically, CID-deleted APC truncation promotes β-catenin deubiquitination through reverse binding of β-TrCP and USP7 to the destruction complex. USP7 depletion in APC-mutated CRC inhibits Wnt activation by restoring β-catenin ubiquitination, drives differentiation, and suppresses xenograft tumor growth. Finally, the Wnt-activating role of USP7 is specific to APC mutations; thus, it can be used as a tumor-specific therapeutic target for most CRCs.

  4. Neonatal diabetes mellitus: description of two Puerto Rican children with KCNJ11 activating gene mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieves-Rivera, Francisco; González-Pijem, Lilliam

    2011-06-01

    Neonatal diabetes mellitus (NDM) is a rare disorder. A one-month-old boy presented with vomiting, hyperglycemia (968 mg/dl [53.8 mmol/L]), severe acetonemia, and metabolic acidosis (pH 6.95, HCO3-4.2 mmol/L). A second child (three months of age) presented with upper respiratory tract symptoms and a plasma glucose level of 835 mg/dl, without acetonemia or acidosis. Both were hospitalized and managed with intravenous fluids and then discharged on insulin. Genetic testing identified the presence of the de nova V59M and E322K activating mutations in the KCNJ11 gene encoding the sulphonylurea/potassium channel (Kir6.2 subunit) of the insulin beta cell. Both patients were switched to glibenclamide and remain off insulin. To our knowledge, these are the first children in Puerto Rico identified with NDM secondary to a KCNJ11 activating mutation. We conclude that NDM secondary to KCNJ11/Kir6.2 activating mutations, although unusual, should be considered in similar cases since patients with these mutations could come off insulin.

  5. Biomass derived graphene-like activated and non-activated porous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Graphene-like activated and non-activated carbon nanostructures were synthesized from various natural sources like sugar, rice husk and jute. These carbon nanostructures were characterized using SEM, FTIR and Raman spectroscopy, surface area and thermogravimetric analysis. The electrochemical studies of these ...

  6. TBX1 mutation identified by exome sequencing in a Japanese family with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome-like craniofacial features and hypocalcemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsutomu Ogata

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although TBX1 mutations have been identified in patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS-like phenotypes including characteristic craniofacial features, cardiovascular anomalies, hypoparathyroidism, and thymic hypoplasia, the frequency of TBX1 mutations remains rare in deletion-negative patients. Thus, it would be reasonable to perform a comprehensive genetic analysis in deletion-negative patients with 22q11.2DS-like phenotypes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied three subjects with craniofacial features and hypocalcemia (group 1, two subjects with craniofacial features alone (group 2, and three subjects with normal phenotype within a single Japanese family. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis excluded chromosome 22q11.2 deletion, and genomewide array comparative genomic hybridization analysis revealed no copy number change specific to group 1 or groups 1+2. However, exome sequencing identified a heterozygous TBX1 frameshift mutation (c.1253delA, p.Y418fsX459 specific to groups 1+2, as well as six missense variants and two in-frame microdeletions specific to groups 1+2 and two missense variants specific to group 1. The TBX1 mutation resided at exon 9C and was predicted to produce a non-functional truncated protein missing the nuclear localization signal and most of the transactivation domain. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Clinical features in groups 1+2 are well explained by the TBX1 mutation, while the clinical effects of the remaining variants are largely unknown. Thus, the results exemplify the usefulness of exome sequencing in the identification of disease-causing mutations in familial disorders. Furthermore, the results, in conjunction with the previous data, imply that TBX1 isoform C is the biologically essential variant and that TBX1 mutations are associated with a wide phenotypic spectrum, including most of 22q11.2DS phenotypes.

  7. Hotspot mutations in KIT receptor differentially modulate its allosterically coupled conformational dynamics: impact on activation and drug sensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaure Chauvot de Beauchêne

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Receptor tyrosine kinase KIT controls many signal transduction pathways and represents a typical allosterically regulated protein. The mutation-induced deregulation of KIT activity impairs cellular physiological functions and causes serious human diseases. The impact of hotspots mutations (D816H/Y/N/V and V560G/D localized in crucial regulatory segments, the juxtamembrane region (JMR and the activation (A- loop, on KIT internal dynamics was systematically studied by molecular dynamics simulations. The mutational outcomes predicted in silico were correlated with in vitro and in vivo activation rates and drug sensitivities of KIT mutants. The allosteric regulation of KIT in the native and mutated forms is described in terms of communication between the two remote segments, JMR and A-loop. A strong correlation between the communication profile and the structural and dynamical features of KIT in the native and mutated forms was established. Our results provide new insight on the determinants of receptor KIT constitutive activation by mutations and resistance of KIT mutants to inhibitors. Depiction of an intra-molecular component of the communication network constitutes a first step towards an integrated description of vast communication pathways established by KIT in physiopathological contexts.

  8. Comprehensive analysis of the specificity of transcription activator-like effector nucleases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juillerat, Alexandre; Dubois, Gwendoline; Valton, Julien

    2014-01-01

    A key issue when designing and using DNA-targeting nucleases is specificity. Ideally, an optimal DNA-targeting tool has only one recognition site within a genomic sequence. In practice, however, almost all designer nucleases available today can accommodate one to several mutations within...... their target site. The ability to predict the specificity of targeting is thus highly desirable. Here, we describe the first comprehensive experimental study focused on the specificity of the four commonly used repeat variable diresidues (RVDs; NI:A, HD:C, NN:G and NG:T) incorporated in transcription activator......-like effector nucleases (TALEN). The analysis of >15 500 unique TALEN/DNA cleavage profiles allowed us to monitor the specificity gradient of the RVDs along a TALEN/DNA binding array and to present a specificity scoring matrix for RVD/nucleotide association. Furthermore, we report that TALEN can only...

  9. 31P NMR Spectroscopy Revealed Adenylate kinase-like Activity and Phosphotransferase-like Activity from F1-ATPase of Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Won

    2011-01-01

    Adenylate kinase-like activity and phosphotransferase-like activity from F 1 -ATPase of Escherichia coli was revealed by 31 P NMR spectroscopy. Incubation of F 1 -ATPase with ADP in the presence of Mg 2+ shows the appearance of 31 P resonances from AMP and Pi, suggesting generation of AMP and ATP by adenylate kinase-like activity and the subsequent hydrolysis to Pi. Incubation of F1-ATPase with ADP in the presence of methanol shows additional peak from methyl phosphate, suggesting phosphotransferase-like activity of F 1 -ATPase. Both adenylate kinase-like activity and phosphotransferase-like activity has not been reported from F 1 -ATPase of Escherichia coli. 31 P NMR could be a valuable tool for the investigation of phosphorous related enzyme

  10. Transposable elements become active and mobile in the genomes of aging mammalian somatic tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cecco, Marco; Criscione, Steven W; Peterson, Abigail L; Neretti, Nicola; Sedivy, John M; Kreiling, Jill A

    2013-12-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) were discovered by Barbara McClintock in maize and have since been found to be ubiquitous in all living organisms. Transposition is mutagenic and organisms have evolved mechanisms to repress the activity of their endogenous TEs. Transposition in somatic cells is very low, but recent evidence suggests that it may be derepressed in some cases, such as cancer development. We have found that during normal aging several families of retrotransposable elements (RTEs) start being transcribed in mouse tissues. In advanced age the expression culminates in active transposition. These processes are counteracted by calorie restriction (CR), an intervention that slows down aging. Retrotransposition is also activated in age-associated, naturally occurring cancers in the mouse. We suggest that somatic retrotransposition is a hitherto unappreciated aging process. Mobilization of RTEs is likely to be an important contributor to the progressive dysfunction of aging cells.

  11. Active site mutations in yeast protein disulfide isomerase cause dithiothreitol sensitivity and a reduced rate of protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, B; Tachibana, C; Winther, Jakob R.

    1997-01-01

    Aspects of protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) function have been studied in yeast in vivo. PDI contains two thioredoxin-like domains, a and a', each of which contains an active-site CXXC motif. The relative importance of the two domains was analyzed by rendering each one inactive by mutation to SGAS....... Such mutations had no significant effect on growth. The domains however, were not equivalent since the rate of folding of carboxypeptidase Y (CPY) in vivo was reduced by inactivation of the a domain but not the a' domain. To investigate the relevance of PDI redox potential, the G and H positions of each CGHC......-deleted strains overexpressing the yeast PDI homologue EUG1 are viable. Exchanging the wild-type Eug1p C(L/I)HS active site sequences for C(L/I)HC increased the growth rate significantly, however, further highlighting the importance of the oxidizing function for optimal growth....

  12. Recurrent PTPRB and PLCG1 mutations in angiosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behjati, Sam; Tarpey, Patrick S; Sheldon, Helen; Martincorena, Inigo; Van Loo, Peter; Gundem, Gunes; Wedge, David C; Ramakrishna, Manasa; Cooke, Susanna L; Pillay, Nischalan; Vollan, Hans Kristian M; Papaemmanuil, Elli; Koss, Hans; Bunney, Tom D; Hardy, Claire; Joseph, Olivia R; Martin, Sancha; Mudie, Laura; Butler, Adam; Teague, Jon W; Patil, Meena; Steers, Graham; Cao, Yu; Gumbs, Curtis; Ingram, Davis; Lazar, Alexander J; Little, Latasha; Mahadeshwar, Harshad; Protopopov, Alexei; Al Sannaa, Ghadah A; Seth, Sahil; Song, Xingzhi; Tang, Jiabin; Zhang, Jianhua; Ravi, Vinod; Torres, Keila E; Khatri, Bhavisha; Halai, Dina; Roxanis, Ioannis; Baumhoer, Daniel; Tirabosco, Roberto; Amary, M Fernanda; Boshoff, Chris; McDermott, Ultan; Katan, Matilda; Stratton, Michael R; Futreal, P Andrew; Flanagan, Adrienne M; Harris, Adrian; Campbell, Peter J

    2014-04-01

    Angiosarcoma is an aggressive malignancy that arises spontaneously or secondarily to ionizing radiation or chronic lymphoedema. Previous work has identified aberrant angiogenesis, including occasional somatic mutations in angiogenesis signaling genes, as a key driver of angiosarcoma. Here we employed whole-genome, whole-exome and targeted sequencing to study the somatic changes underpinning primary and secondary angiosarcoma. We identified recurrent mutations in two genes, PTPRB and PLCG1, which are intimately linked to angiogenesis. The endothelial phosphatase PTPRB, a negative regulator of vascular growth factor tyrosine kinases, harbored predominantly truncating mutations in 10 of 39 tumors (26%). PLCG1, a signal transducer of tyrosine kinases, encoded a recurrent, likely activating p.Arg707Gln missense variant in 3 of 34 cases (9%). Overall, 15 of 39 tumors (38%) harbored at least one driver mutation in angiogenesis signaling genes. Our findings inform and reinforce current therapeutic efforts to target angiogenesis signaling in angiosarcoma.

  13. Neutron activation analysis of trace elements in foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schelenz, R.; Fischer, E.

    1976-05-01

    A neutron activation method for multielement determination in biological material was developed. The individual steps of the method include radiochemical processing as well as nondestructive techniques. In order to develop a high resolution gamma spectrometric method the indispensable assumptions were the application of Ge(Li)-semiconductor detectors, multi-channel pulse height analyzers and the use of electronic data evaluation with mini-computers for the automatic evaluation of complex gamma spectra. After radiochemical separation (RNAA) 33 elements can be determined in biological materials and by application of nondestructive, purely instrumental techniques (INAA) 25 elements. The time required for the analysis of 33 elements can be determined in biological materials and by application of nondestructive, purely instrumental techniques (INAA) 25 elements. The time required for the analysis of 33 elements is 4 days. The neutron activation method is used routinely for the determination of trace elements in foodstuffs and in the field of nutrition research. (orig.) [de

  14. Novel somatic mutations in large granular lymphocytic leukemia affecting the STAT-pathway and T-cell activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, E I; Rajala, H L M; Eldfors, S; Ellonen, P; Olson, T; Jerez, A; Clemente, M J; Kallioniemi, O; Porkka, K; Heckman, C; Loughran, T P Jr; Maciejewski, J P; Mustjoki, S

    2013-01-01

    T-cell large granular lymphocytic (T-LGL) leukemia is a clonal disease characterized by the expansion of mature CD3+CD8+ cytotoxic T cells. It is often associated with autoimmune disorders and immune-mediated cytopenias. Our recent findings suggest that up to 40% of T-LGL patients harbor mutations in the STAT3 gene, whereas STAT5 mutations are present in 2% of patients. In order to identify putative disease-causing genetic alterations in the remaining T-LGL patients, we performed exome sequencing from three STAT mutation-negative patients and validated the findings in 113 large granular lymphocytic (LGL) leukemia patients. On average, 11 CD8+ LGL leukemia cell-specific high-confidence nonsynonymous somatic mutations were discovered in each patient. Interestingly, all patients had at least one mutation that affects either directly the STAT3-pathway (such as PTPRT) or T-cell activation (BCL11B, SLIT2 and NRP1). In all three patients, the STAT3 pathway was activated when studied by RNA expression or pSTAT3 analysis. Screening of the remaining 113 LGL leukemia patients did not reveal additional patients with same mutations. These novel mutations are potentially biologically relevant and represent rare genetic triggers for T-LGL leukemia, and are associated with similar disease phenotype as observed in patients with mutations in the STAT3 gene

  15. A case of boomerang dysplasia with a novel causative mutation in filamin B: identification of typical imaging findings on ultrasonography and 3D-CT imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsumi, Seiji; Maekawa, Ayako; Obata, Miyuki; Morgan, Timothy; Robertson, Stephen P; Kurachi, Hirohisa

    2012-01-01

    Boomerang dysplasia is a rare lethal osteochondrodysplasia characterized by disorganized mineralization of the skeleton, leading to complete nonossification of some limb bones and vertebral elements, and a boomerang-like aspect to some of the long tubular bones. Like many short-limbed skeletal dysplasias with accompanying thoracic hypoplasia, the potential lethality of the phenotype can be difficult to ascertain prenatally. We report a case of boomerang dysplasia prenatally diagnosed by use of ultrasonography and 3D-CT imaging, and identified a novel mutation in the gene encoding the cytoskeletal protein filamin B (FLNB) postmortem. Findings that aided the radiological diagnosis of this condition in utero included absent ossification of two out of three long bones in each limb and elements of the vertebrae and a boomerang-like shape to the ulnae. The identified mutation is the third described for this disorder and is predicted to lead to amino acid substitution in the actin-binding domain of the filamin B molecule. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Induction of recessive mutations in potato using tissue culture techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enckevort, L.J.G. van; Hoogkamp, T.J.H.; Bergervoet, J.E.M.; Visser, R.G.F.; Jacobsen, E.; Stiekma, W.J.; Pereira, A.

    2001-01-01

    In potato, two different in vitro approaches were used to generate recessive mutants. In the first method, monoploid plant material was irradiated to isolate and identify amylose-free (amf) mutants in potato. For isolating secondary mutants in the amf background new monoploids of the amf type were developed. A few selected amf monoploids showed excellent vigour in vitro, large leave; and microtuber formation. A diploid and a monoploid were tested for in vitro mutation induction and irradiated with 0 to 16 Gy X rays. The optimal dose for survival and mutation induction was between 4 and 8 Gy and plants were regenerated from irradiated leaf explants. In the second approach, mutants were induced by insertion of transposable elements in the diploids. This method was used to mutate R genes for resistance to Phytophthora infestans. Diploid heterozygous Rr plants with the immobilised Ds element, closely linked to one of the R genes, were selected. Mobilisation of Ds using Ac element transposase resulted in the selection of plants with active somatic Ds excision frequency of about 10%. In vitro protoplast isolation and plant regeneration from such plants enabled the selection of regenerants with new independent Ds insertions. Hygromycin selection (Ds excision marker on the T-DNA) during protoplast regeneration increased the frequency of Ds excision regenerants to 56%. A total of 582 hygromycin resistant plants were regenerated and selected in vitro. Preliminary analysis of the regenerants showed re-insertions of Ds in the predicted coding sequences of genes. (author)

  17. Constitutive activation of the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR by mutating Ile691 in the cytoplasmic tail segment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Autosomal dominant non-autoimmune hyperthyroidism (ADNAH is a rare genetic disorder of the endocrine system. Molecular genetic studies in ADNAH have revealed heterozygous germline mutations in the TSHR. To data, mutations leading to an increase in the constitutive activation of the TSHR have been described in the transmembrane segments, exoloops and cytoplasmic loop of TSHR. These mutations result in constitutive activation of the G(αs/cAMP or G(αq/11/inositol phosphate (IP pathways, which stimulate thyroid hormone production and thyroid proliferation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a previous study, we reported a new TSHR mutation located in the C-terminal domain of TSHR, which results in a substitution of the conserved Ile(691 for Phe. In this study, to address the question of whether the I691F mutated receptor could be responsible for G(αs/cAMP or G(αq/11/IP constitutive activity, wild-type and TSHR mutants were expressed in COS-7 cells to determine cAMP constitutive activity and IP formation. Compared to the cell surface with expression of the A623V mutated receptor as positive control, the I691F mutated receptor showed a slight increase of cAMP accumulation. Furthermore, I691F resulted in constitutive activation of the G(αq/11/IP signaling pathway. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that Ile(691 not only contributes to keeping TSHR inactive in the G(αs/cAMP pathways but also in the G(αq/11/IP cascade.

  18. GCM2-Activating Mutations in Familial Isolated Hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Bin; Welch, James M; Sapp, Julie C; Ling, Hua; Li, Yulong; Johnston, Jennifer J; Kebebew, Electron; Biesecker, Leslie G; Simonds, William F; Marx, Stephen J; Agarwal, Sunita K

    2016-11-03

    Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is a common endocrine disease characterized by parathyroid hormone excess and hypercalcemia and caused by hypersecreting parathyroid glands. Familial PHPT occurs in an isolated nonsyndromal form, termed familial isolated hyperparathyroidism (FIHP), or as part of a syndrome, such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 or hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome. The specific genetic or other cause(s) of FIHP are unknown. We performed exome sequencing on germline DNA of eight index-case individuals from eight unrelated kindreds with FIHP. Selected rare variants were assessed for co-segregation in affected family members and screened for in an additional 32 kindreds with FIHP. In eight kindreds with FIHP, we identified three rare missense variants in GCM2, a gene encoding a transcription factor required for parathyroid development. Functional characterization of the GCM2 variants and deletion analyses revealed a small C-terminal conserved inhibitory domain (CCID) in GCM2. Two of the three rare variants were recurrent, located in the GCM2 CCID, and found in seven of the 40 (18%) kindreds with FIHP. These two rare variants acted as gain-of-function mutations that increased the transcriptional activity of GCM2, suggesting that GCM2 is a parathyroid proto-oncogene. Our results demonstrate that germline-activating mutations affecting the CCID of GCM2 can cause FIHP. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Retrotransposon long interspersed nucleotide element-1 (LINE-1) is activated during salamander limb regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Kuo, Dwight; Nathanson, Jason; Satoh, Akira; Pao, Gerald M.; Yeo, Gene W.; Bryant, Susan V.; Voss, S. Randal; Gardiner, David M.; Hunter, Tony

    2012-01-01

    Salamanders possess an extraordinary capacity for tissue and organ regeneration when compared to mammals. In our effort to characterize the unique transcriptional fingerprint emerging during the early phase of salamander limb regeneration, we identified transcriptional activation of some germline-specific genes within the Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) that is indicative of cellular reprogramming of differentiated cells into a germline-like state. In this work, we focus on one of these genes, the long interspersed nucleotide element-1 (LINE-1) retrotransposon, which is usually active in germ cells and silent in most of the somatic tissues in other organisms. LINE-1 was found to be dramatically upregulated during regeneration. In addition, higher genomic LINE-1 content was also detected in the limb regenerate when compared to that before amputation indicating that LINE-1 retrotransposition is indeed active during regeneration. Active LINE-1 retrotransposition has been suggested to have a potentially deleterious impact on genomic integrity. Silencing of activated LINE-1 by small RNAs has been reported to be part of the machinery aiming to maintain genomic integrity. Indeed, we were able to identify putative LINE-1-related piRNAs in the limb blastema. Transposable element-related piRNAs have been identified frequently in the germline in other organisms. Thus, we present here a scenario in which a unique germline-like state is established during axolotl limb regeneration, and the re-activation of LINE-1 may serve as a marker for cellular dedifferentiation in the early-stage of limb regeneration. PMID:22913491

  20. The functional importance of disease-associated mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klein Teri E

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For many years, scientists believed that point mutations in genes are the genetic switches for somatic and inherited diseases such as cystic fibrosis, phenylketonuria and cancer. Some of these mutations likely alter a protein's function in a manner that is deleterious, and they should occur in functionally important regions of the protein products of genes. Here we show that disease-associated mutations occur in regions of genes that are conserved, and can identify likely disease-causing mutations. Results To show this, we have determined conservation patterns for 6185 non-synonymous and heritable disease-associated mutations in 231 genes. We define a parameter, the conservation ratio, as the ratio of average negative entropy of analyzable positions with reported mutations to that of every analyzable position in the gene sequence. We found that 84.0% of the 231 genes have conservation ratios less than one. 139 genes had eleven or more analyzable mutations and 88.0% of those had conservation ratios less than one. Conclusions These results indicate that phylogenetic information is a powerful tool for the study of disease-associated mutations. Our alignments and analysis has been made available as part of the database at http://cancer.stanford.edu/mut-paper/. Within this dataset, each position is annotated with the analysis, so the most likely disease-causing mutations can be identified.

  1. USP7 Is a Tumor-Specific WNT Activator for APC-Mutated Colorectal Cancer by Mediating β-Catenin Deubiquitination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novellasdemunt, Laura; Foglizzo, Valentina; Cuadrado, Laura; Antas, Pedro; Kucharska, Anna; Encheva, Vesela; Snijders, Ambrosius P; Li, Vivian S W

    2017-10-17

    The tumor suppressor gene adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) is mutated in most colorectal cancers (CRCs), resulting in constitutive Wnt activation. To understand the Wnt-activating mechanism of the APC mutation, we applied CRISPR/Cas9 technology to engineer various APC-truncated isogenic lines. We find that the β-catenin inhibitory domain (CID) in APC represents the threshold for pathological levels of Wnt activation and tumor transformation. Mechanistically, CID-deleted APC truncation promotes β-catenin deubiquitination through reverse binding of β-TrCP and USP7 to the destruction complex. USP7 depletion in APC-mutated CRC inhibits Wnt activation by restoring β-catenin ubiquitination, drives differentiation, and suppresses xenograft tumor growth. Finally, the Wnt-activating role of USP7 is specific to APC mutations; thus, it can be used as a tumor-specific therapeutic target for most CRCs. Copyright © 2017 The Francis Crick Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Activated AKT/PKB signaling in C. elegans uncouples temporally distinct outputs of DAF-2/insulin-like signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanselman Keaton B

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, a conserved insulin-like signaling pathway controls larval development, stress resistance and adult lifespan. AGE-1, a homolog of the p110 catalytic subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K comprises the major known effector pathway downstream of the insulin receptor, DAF-2. Phospholipid products of AGE-1/PI3K activate AKT/PKB kinase signaling via PDK-1. AKT/PKB signaling antagonizes nuclear translocation of the DAF-16/FOXO transcription factor. Reduced AGE-1/PI3K signaling permits DAF-16 to direct dauer larval arrest and promote long lifespan in adult animals. In order to study the downstream effectors of AGE-1/PI3K signaling in C. elegans, we conducted a genetic screen for mutations that suppress the constitutive dauer arrest phenotype of age-1(mg109 animals. Results This report describes mutations recovered in a screen for suppressors of the constitutive dauer arrest (daf-C phenotype of age-1(mg109. Two mutations corresponded to alleles of daf-16. Two mutations were gain-of-function alleles in the genes, akt-1 and pdk-1, encoding phosphoinositide-dependent serine/threonine kinases. A fifth mutation, mg227, located on chromosome X, did not correspond to any known dauer genes, suggesting that mg227 may represent a new component of the insulin pathway. Genetic epistasis analysis by RNAi showed that reproductive development in age-1(mg109;akt-1(mg247 animals was dependent on the presence of pdk-1. Similarly, reproductive development in age-1(mg109;pdk-1(mg261 animals was dependent on akt-1. However, reproductive development in age-1(mg109; mg227 animals required only akt-1, and pdk-1 activity was dispensable in this background. Interestingly, while mg227 suppressed dauer arrest in age-1(mg109 animals, it enhanced the long lifespan phenotype. In contrast, akt-1(mg247 and pdk-1(mg261 did not affect lifespan or stress resistance, while both daf-16 alleles fully suppressed these

  3. Activated AKT/PKB signaling in C. elegans uncouples temporally distinct outputs of DAF-2/insulin-like signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gami, Minaxi S; Iser, Wendy B; Hanselman, Keaton B; Wolkow, Catherine A

    2006-10-04

    In the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, a conserved insulin-like signaling pathway controls larval development, stress resistance and adult lifespan. AGE-1, a homolog of the p110 catalytic subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K) comprises the major known effector pathway downstream of the insulin receptor, DAF-2. Phospholipid products of AGE-1/PI3K activate AKT/PKB kinase signaling via PDK-1. AKT/PKB signaling antagonizes nuclear translocation of the DAF-16/FOXO transcription factor. Reduced AGE-1/PI3K signaling permits DAF-16 to direct dauer larval arrest and promote long lifespan in adult animals. In order to study the downstream effectors of AGE-1/PI3K signaling in C. elegans, we conducted a genetic screen for mutations that suppress the constitutive dauer arrest phenotype of age-1(mg109) animals. This report describes mutations recovered in a screen for suppressors of the constitutive dauer arrest (daf-C) phenotype of age-1(mg109). Two mutations corresponded to alleles of daf-16. Two mutations were gain-of-function alleles in the genes, akt-1 and pdk-1, encoding phosphoinositide-dependent serine/threonine kinases. A fifth mutation, mg227, located on chromosome X, did not correspond to any known dauer genes, suggesting that mg227 may represent a new component of the insulin pathway. Genetic epistasis analysis by RNAi showed that reproductive development in age-1(mg109);akt-1(mg247) animals was dependent on the presence of pdk-1. Similarly, reproductive development in age-1(mg109);pdk-1(mg261) animals was dependent on akt-1. However, reproductive development in age-1(mg109); mg227 animals required only akt-1, and pdk-1 activity was dispensable in this background. Interestingly, while mg227 suppressed dauer arrest in age-1(mg109) animals, it enhanced the long lifespan phenotype. In contrast, akt-1(mg247) and pdk-1(mg261) did not affect lifespan or stress resistance, while both daf-16 alleles fully suppressed these phenotypes. A screen for suppressors of PI3K

  4. Ultraviolet-irradiated simian virus 40 activates a mutator function in rat cells under conditions preventing viral DNA replication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornelis, J.; Su, Z.Z.; Dinsart, C.; Rommelaere, J. (Universite libre de Bruxelles, Rhode St Genese (Belgium))

    The UV-irradiated temperature-sensitive early SV40 mutant tsA209 is able to activate at the nonpermissive temperature the expression of mutator and recovery functions in rat cells. Unirradiated SV40 activates these functions only to a low extent. The expression of these mutator and recovery functions in SV40-infected cells was detected using the single-stranded DNA parvovirus H-1 as a probe. Because early SV40 mutants are defective in the initiation of viral DNA synthesis at the nonpermissive temperature, these results suggest that replication of UV-damaged DNA is not a prerequisite for the activation of mutator and recovery functions in mammalian cells. The expression of the mutator function is dose-dependent, i.e., the absolute number of UV-irradiated SV40 virions introduced per cell determines its level. Implications for the interpretation of mutation induction curves in the progeny of UV-irradiated SV40 in permissive host cells are discussed.

  5. Determination of mutually interfering elements in activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, A.M.G.

    1979-01-01

    The determination of the elements present in the groups scandium-zinc, mercury-selenium and arsenic-antimony-bromine represents a classical problem in thermal neutron activation analysis because the gamma-ray peaks of the radioisotopes produced from these elements by activation appear very close in the spectrum. A study is made of the possibility of simultaneous instrumental determination of these elements by means of the spectrum stripping technique, using a 400-channel analyser coupled to a Nal(Tl) detector and a 4096-channel analyser coupled to a Ge(Li) detector. Artificial mixtures of the interfering elements in varying proportions are prepared, so as to reproduce possible real samples, where the elements may be present at several concentrations. Radiochemical separation techniques for the cited elements are studied with the use of tracers. For the separation of scadium and zinc, the technique of extraction chromatography is applied. The separation of mercury and selenium is accomplished by means of ion exchange. The technique of coprecipitation is used to separate bromine from arsenic and antimony followed by ion exchange to isolate these two elements from each other. The precision and the accuracy of the results are discussed. (Author) [pt

  6. Four novel FBN1 mutations: Significance for mutant transcript level and EGF-like domain calcium binding in the pathogenesis of Marfan syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietz, H.C.; McIntosh, I.; Pyeritz, R.E.; Francomano, C.A. (Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)); Sakai, L.Y.; Corson, G.M.; Chalberg, S.C. (Oregon Health Sciences Univ., Portland (United States))

    1993-08-01

    Defects of fibrillin (FBN1), a glycoprotein component of the extracellular microfibril, cause Marfan syndrome. This disorder is characterized by marked inter- and intrafamilial variation in phenotypic severity. To understand the molecular basis for this clinical observation, the authors have screened the fibrillin gene (FBN1) on chromosome 15, including the newly cloned 5[prime] coding sequence, for disease-producing alterations in a panel of patients with a wide range of manifestations and clinical severity. All the missense mutations identified to date, including two novel mutations discussed here, are associated with classic and moderate to severe disease and occur at residues with putative significance for calcium binding to epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like domains. In contrast, two new mutations that create premature signals for termination of translation of mRNA and are associated with reduction in the amount of mutant allele transcript produce a range of phenotypic severity. The patient with the lowest amount of mutant transcript has the mildest disease. These data support a role for altered calcium binding to EGF-like domains in the pathogenesis of Marfan syndrome and suggest a dominant negative mechanism for the pathogenesis of this disorder. 26 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Determination of elemental concentrations in environmental plant samples by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, J.; Chowdhury, D.P.; Verma, R.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2012-01-01

    The intake of leafy vegetables in daily diet is very important to meet our nutritional needs. Vegetables provide the essential elements which are necessary and recommended for human growth. However, due to rapid industrialization and urbanization our environment becomes polluted and this affects the normal growth of agricultural products and composition of environmental species. The elemental concentrations present in the environmental samples are good indicators to assess the toxicological levels due to pollution affects. In the present work we have analysed several vegetable plant samples by instrumental neutron activation analysis to determine the elemental concentrations at major, minor and trace levels. The leafy vegetables like spinach, red leafy vegetable, pui, gourd leaf, lettuce and katoua were chosen as these are extensively consumed by local people in eastern part of India. We have determined 15 elements in the above mentioned vegetable samples and some of these are essential elements and some are toxic elements. It was found that Na and K were present as major elements, Fe and Zn as minor elements and As, Ce, Cr, Co, La, Mo, Rb, Sc, Sm, Sr as trace elements. The concentration level of Cr was found to be higher than that of recommended value certified by WHO and National environment quality control for human consumption. The validation of our analytical results have been performed by the Z-score tests through the determination of concentrations of the elements of interest in certified reference materials. (author)

  8. Multiple cis-acting elements involved in up-regulation of a cytochrome P450 gene conferring resistance to deltamethrin in smal brown planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus (Fallén).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Jian; Sun, Haina; Wang, Jinda; Wu, Min; Wang, Kangxu; Denholm, Ian; Han, Zhaojun

    2016-11-01

    As well as arising from single point mutations in binding sites or detoxifying enzymes, it is likely that insecticide resistance mechanisms are frequently controlled by multiple genetic factors, resulting in resistance being inherited as a quantitative trait. However, empirical evidence for this is still rare. Here we analyse the causes of up-regulation of CYP6FU1, a monoxygenase implicated in resistance to deltamethrin in the rice pest Laodelphax striatellus. The 5'-flanking region of this gene was cloned and sequenced from individuals of a susceptible and a resistant strain. A luminescent reporter assay was used to evaluate different 5'-flanking regions and their fragments for promoter activity. Mutations enhancing promoter activity in various fragments were characterized, singly and in combination, by site mutation recovery. Nucleotide diversity in flanking sequences was greatly reduced in deltamethrin-resistant insects compared to susceptible ones. Phylogenetic sequence analysis found that CYP6FU1 had five different types of 5'-flanking region. All five types were present in a susceptible strain but only a single type showing the highest promoter activity was present in a resistant strain. Four cis-acting elements were identified whose influence on up-regulation was much more pronounced in combination than when present singly. Of these, two were new transcription factor (TF) binding sites produced by mutations, another one was also a new TF binding site alternated from an existing one, and the fourth was a unique transcription start site. These results demonstrate that multiple cis-acting elements are involved in up-regulating CYP6FU1 to generate a resistance phenotype. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Sinbad retrotransposon from the genome of the human blood fluke, Schistosoma mansoni, and the distribution of related Pao-like elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales Maria E

    2005-02-01

    representing transcripts of Sinbad in numerous developmental stages of S. mansoni along with the identical 5'- and 3'-LTR sequences suggests that Sinbad is an active retrotransposon. Conclusion Sinbad is a Pao/BEL type retrotransposon from the genome of S. mansoni. The Pao/BEL group appears to be comprised of at least five discrete subfamilies, which tend to cluster with host species phylogeny. Pao/BEL type elements appear to have colonized only the genomes of the Animalia. The distribution of these elements in the Ecdysozoa, Deuterostomia, and Lophotrochozoa is discontinuous, suggesting horizontal transmission and/or efficient elimination of Pao-like mobile genetic elements from some genomes.

  10. Determination of some elements in Ageratum conyziodes, a tropical medicinal plant, using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dim, L.A.; Funtua, I.I.; Umar, I.M.; Gwozdz, R.

    2004-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis was utilized for the multielemental determination of elements in the roots of Ageratum conyzoides, a tropical medicinal plant that is used locally for the cure of various diseases in Nigeria. The concentrations of Al, Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sc, Sr, V and Zn were analyzed with the 250 kW Triga Reactor at the Atominstitut, Vienna. The essential elements K, Na, Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn and Zn and the non-essential elements Al, Ba, Sr and Rb are present in significant concentrations. Other elements including Co, Cr, Sc and V are present at trace levels. The likely implication of these elements in restoring and maintaining good health is discussed. Quality control on the measurements was carried out by analyzing standard reference materials alongside the samples. (author)

  11. Molecular genetics and epigenetics of CACTA elements

    KAUST Repository

    Fedoroff, Nina V.

    2013-08-21

    The CACTA transposons, so named for a highly conserved motif at element ends, comprise one of the most abundant superfamilies of Class 2 (cut-and-paste) plant transposons. CACTA transposons characteristically include subterminal sequences of several hundred nucleotides containing closely spaced direct and inverted repeats of a short, conserved sequence of 14-15 bp. The Supressor-mutator (Spm) transposon, identified and subjected to detailed genetic analysis by Barbara McClintock, remains the paradigmatic element of the CACTA family. The Spm transposon encodes two proteins required for transposition, the transposase (TnpD) and a regulatory protein (TnpA) that binds to the subterminal repeats. Spm expression is subject to both genetic and epigenetic regulation. The Spm-encoded TnpA serves as an activator of the epigenetically inactivated, methylated Spm, stimulating both transient and heritable activation of the transposon. TnpA also serves as a negative regulator of the demethylated active element promoter and is required, in addition to the TnpD, for transposition. © Springer Science+Business Media, New York 2013.

  12. Mutations and epimutations in the origin of cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltomaeki, Paeivi, E-mail: Paivi.Peltomaki@Helsinki.Fi

    2012-02-15

    Cancer is traditionally viewed as a disease of abnormal cell proliferation controlled by a series of mutations. Mutations typically affect oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes thereby conferring growth advantage. Genomic instability facilitates mutation accumulation. Recent findings demonstrate that activation of oncogenes and inactivation of tumor suppressor genes, as well as genomic instability, can be achieved by epigenetic mechanisms as well. Unlike genetic mutations, epimutations do not change the base sequence of DNA and are potentially reversible. Similar to genetic mutations, epimutations are associated with specific patterns of gene expression that are heritable through cell divisions. Knudson's hypothesis postulates that inactivation of tumor suppressor genes requires two hits, with the first hit occurring either in somatic cells (sporadic cancer) or in the germline (hereditary cancer) and the second one always being somatic. Studies on hereditary and sporadic forms of colorectal carcinoma have made it evident that, apart from genetic mutations, epimutations may serve as either hit or both. Furthermore, recent next-generation sequencing studies show that epigenetic genes, such as those encoding histone modifying enzymes and subunits for chromatin remodeling systems, are themselves frequent targets of somatic mutations in cancer and can act like tumor suppressor genes or oncogenes. This review discusses genetic vs. epigenetic origin of cancer, including cancer susceptibility, in light of recent discoveries. Situations in which mutations and epimutations occur to serve analogous purposes are highlighted.

  13. A p.(Glu809Lys) Mutation in the WFS1 Gene Associated with Wolfram-like Syndrome: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochazkova, Dagmar; Hruba, Zuzana; Konecna, Petra; Skotakova, Jarmila; Fajkusova, Lenka

    2016-12-01

    Wolfram-like syndrome (WFSL) is a rare autosomal dominant disease characterised by congenital progressive hearing loss, diabetes mellitus, and optic atrophy. The patient was a boy with the juvenile form of diabetes mellitus and findings which clinically matched the symptoms of Wolfram syndrome. At the age of 3 1/4 years, diabetes mellitus was diagnosed in this boy who also had severe psychomotor retardation, failure to thrive, a dysmorphic face with Peters anomaly type 3 (i.e. posterior central defect with stromal opacity of the cornea, adhering stripes of the iris, and cataract with corneolenticular adhesion), congenital glaucoma, megalocornea, severe hearing impairment, a one-sided deformity of the auricle with atresia of the bony and soft external auditory canal, non-differentiable eardrum, missing os incus, hypothyreosis, and nephrocalcinosis. Molecular-genetic examinations revealed a de novo mutation p.(Glu809Lys) in the WFS1 gene. No mutations were detected in the biological parents. The mutation p.(Glu809Lys) in the WFS1 gene is associated with WFSL.

  14. Correction of the consequences of mitochondrial 3243A>G mutation in the MT-TL1 gene causing the MELAS syndrome by tRNA import into mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karicheva, Olga Z; Kolesnikova, Olga A; Schirtz, Tom; Vysokikh, Mikhail Y; Mager-Heckel, Anne-Marie; Lombès, Anne; Boucheham, Abdeldjalil; Krasheninnikov, Igor A; Martin, Robert P; Entelis, Nina; Tarassov, Ivan

    2011-10-01

    Mutations in human mitochondrial DNA are often associated with incurable human neuromuscular diseases. Among these mutations, an important number have been identified in tRNA genes, including 29 in the gene MT-TL1 coding for the tRNA(Leu(UUR)). The m.3243A>G mutation was described as the major cause of the MELAS syndrome (mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes). This mutation was reported to reduce tRNA(Leu(UUR)) aminoacylation and modification of its anti-codon wobble position, which results in a defective mitochondrial protein synthesis and reduced activities of respiratory chain complexes. In the present study, we have tested whether the mitochondrial targeting of recombinant tRNAs bearing the identity elements for human mitochondrial leucyl-tRNA synthetase can rescue the phenotype caused by MELAS mutation in human transmitochondrial cybrid cells. We demonstrate that nuclear expression and mitochondrial targeting of specifically designed transgenic tRNAs results in an improvement of mitochondrial translation, increased levels of mitochondrial DNA-encoded respiratory complexes subunits, and significant rescue of respiration. These findings prove the possibility to direct tRNAs with changed aminoacylation specificities into mitochondria, thus extending the potential therapeutic strategy of allotopic expression to address mitochondrial disorders.

  15. Efficient algorithms for probing the RNA mutation landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Waldispühl

    Full Text Available The diversity and importance of the role played by RNAs in the regulation and development of the cell are now well-known and well-documented. This broad range of functions is achieved through specific structures that have been (presumably optimized through evolution. State-of-the-art methods, such as McCaskill's algorithm, use a statistical mechanics framework based on the computation of the partition function over the canonical ensemble of all possible secondary structures on a given sequence. Although secondary structure predictions from thermodynamics-based algorithms are not as accurate as methods employing comparative genomics, the former methods are the only available tools to investigate novel RNAs, such as the many RNAs of unknown function recently reported by the ENCODE consortium. In this paper, we generalize the McCaskill partition function algorithm to sum over the grand canonical ensemble of all secondary structures of all mutants of the given sequence. Specifically, our new program, RNAmutants, simultaneously computes for each integer k the minimum free energy structure MFE(k and the partition function Z(k over all secondary structures of all k-point mutants, even allowing the user to specify certain positions required not to mutate and certain positions required to base-pair or remain unpaired. This technically important extension allows us to study the resilience of an RNA molecule to pointwise mutations. By computing the mutation profile of a sequence, a novel graphical representation of the mutational tendency of nucleotide positions, we analyze the deleterious nature of mutating specific nucleotide positions or groups of positions. We have successfully applied RNAmutants to investigate deleterious mutations (mutations that radically modify the secondary structure in the Hepatitis C virus cis-acting replication element and to evaluate the evolutionary pressure applied on different regions of the HIV trans-activation response

  16. Mutations and Rearrangements in the Genome of Sulfolobus solfataricus P2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Redder, P.; Garrett, R. A.

    2006-01-01

    The genome of Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 carries a larger number of transposable elements than any other sequenced genome from an archaeon or bacterium and, as a consequence, may be particularly susceptible to rearrangement and change. In order to gain more insight into the natures and frequencies...... of different types of mutation and possible rearrangements that can occur in the genome, the pyrEF locus was examined for mutations that were isolated after selection with 5-fluoroorotic acid. About two-thirds of the 130 mutations resulted from insertions of mobile elements, including insertion sequence (IS...... deletions, insertions, and a duplication, were observed, and about one-fifth of the mutations occurred elsewhere in the genome, possibly in an orotate transporter gene. One mutant exhibited a 5-kb genomic rearrangement at the pyrEF locus involving a two-step IS element-dependent reaction, and its boundaries...

  17. Air-Coupled Ultrasonic Receivers with High Electromechanical Coupling PMN-32%PT Strip-Like Piezoelectric Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rymantas J. Kazys

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available For improvement of the efficiency of air-coupled ultrasonic transducers PMN-32%PT piezoelectric crystals which possess very high piezoelectric properties may be used. The electromechanical coupling factor of such crystals for all main vibration modes such as the thickness extension and transverse extension modes is more than 0.9. Operation of ultrasonic transducers with such piezoelectric elements in transmitting and receiving modes is rather different. Therefore, for transmission and reception of ultrasonic signals, separate piezoelectric elements with different dimensions must be used. The objective of this research was development of novel air-coupled ultrasonic receivers with PMN-32%PT strip-like piezoelectric elements vibrating in a transverse-extension mode with electromechanically controlled operation and suitable for applications in ultrasonic arrays. Performance of piezoelectric receivers made of the PMN-32%PT strip-like elements vibrating in this mode may be efficiently controlled by selecting geometry of the electrodes covering side surfaces of the piezoelectric element. It is equivalent to introduction of electromechanical damping which does not require any additional backing element. For this purpose; we have proposed the continuous electrodes to divide into two pairs of electrodes. The one pair is used to pick up the electric signal; another one is exploited for electromechanical damping. Two types of electrodes may be used—rectangular or non-rectangular—with a gap between them directed at some angle, usually 45°. The frequency bandwidth is wider (up to 9 kHz in the case of non-rectangular electrodes. The strip-like acoustic matching element bonded to the tip of the PMN-32%PT crystal may significantly enhance the performance of the ultrasonic receiver. It was proposed to use for this purpose AIREX T10.110 rigid polymer foam, the acoustic impedance of which is close to the optimal value necessary for matching with air. It was

  18. Antibiotic and antiseptic resistance genes are linked on a novel mobile genetic element: Tn6087

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciric, Lena; Mullany, Peter; Roberts, Adam P.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Tn916-like elements are one of the most common types of integrative and conjugative element (ICE). In this study we aimed to determine whether novel accessory genes, i.e. genes whose products are not involved in mobility or regulation, were present on a Tn916-like element (Tn6087) isolated from Streptococcus oralis from the human oral cavity. Methods A minocycline-resistant isolate was analysed using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis on amplicons derived from Tn916 and DNA sequencing to determine whether there were genetic differences in Tn6087 compared with Tn916. Mutational analysis was used to determine whether the novel accessory gene found was responsible for an observed extra phenotype. Results A novel Tn916-like element, Tn6087, is described that encodes both antibiotic and antiseptic resistance. The antiseptic resistance protein is encoded by a novel small multidrug resistance gene, designated qrg, that was shown to encode resistance to cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), also known as cetrimide bromide. Conclusions This is the first Tn916-like element described that confers both antibiotic and antiseptic resistance, suggesting that selection of either antibiotic or antiseptic resistance will also select for the other and further highlights the need for prudent use of both types of compound. PMID:21816764

  19. A three-dimensional model of mammalian tyrosinase active site accounting for loss of function mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweikardt, Thorsten; Olivares, Concepción; Solano, Francisco; Jaenicke, Elmar; García-Borrón, José Carlos; Decker, Heinz

    2007-10-01

    Tyrosinases are the first and rate-limiting enzymes in the synthesis of melanin pigments responsible for colouring hair, skin and eyes. Mutation of tyrosinases often decreases melanin production resulting in albinism, but the effects are not always understood at the molecular level. Homology modelling of mouse tyrosinase based on recently published crystal structures of non-mammalian tyrosinases provides an active site model accounting for loss-of-function mutations. According to the model, the copper-binding histidines are located in a helix bundle comprising four densely packed helices. A loop containing residues M374, S375 and V377 connects the CuA and CuB centres, with the peptide oxygens of M374 and V377 serving as hydrogen acceptors for the NH-groups of the imidazole rings of the copper-binding His367 and His180. Therefore, this loop is essential for the stability of the active site architecture. A double substitution (374)MS(375) --> (374)GG(375) or a single M374G mutation lead to a local perturbation of the protein matrix at the active site affecting the orientation of the H367 side chain, that may be unable to bind CuB reliably, resulting in loss of activity. The model also accounts for loss of function in two naturally occurring albino mutations, S380P and V393F. The hydroxyl group in S380 contributes to the correct orientation of M374, and the substitution of V393 for a bulkier phenylalanine sterically impedes correct side chain packing at the active site. Therefore, our model explains the mechanistic necessity for conservation of not only active site histidines but also adjacent amino acids in tyrosinase.

  20. Rapid identification of HEXA mutations in Tay-Sachs patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraud, Carole; Dussau, Jeanne; Azouguene, Emilie; Feillet, François; Puech, Jean-Philippe; Caillaud, Catherine

    2010-02-19

    Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) is a recessively inherited neurodegenerative disorder due to mutations in the HEXA gene resulting in a beta-hexosaminidase A (Hex A) deficiency. The purpose of this study was to characterize the molecular abnormalities in patients with infantile or later-onset forms of the disease. The complete sequencing of the 14 exons and flanking regions of the HEXA gene was performed with a unique technical condition in 10 unrelated TSD patients. Eleven mutations were identified, including five splice mutations, one insertion, two deletions and three single-base substitutions. Four mutations were novel: two splice mutations (IVS8+5G>A, IVS2+4delAGTA), one missense mutation in exon 6 (c.621T>G (p.D207E)) and one small deletion (c.1211-1212delTG) in exon 11 resulting in a premature stop codon at residue 429. The c.621T>G missense mutation was found in a patient presenting an infantile form. Its putative role in the pathogenesis of TSD is suspected as residue 207 is highly conserved in human, mouse and rat. Moreover, structural modelling predicted changes likely to affect substrate binding and catalytic activity of the enzyme. The time-saving procedure reported here could be useful for the characterization of Tay-Sachs-causing mutations, in particular in non-Ashkenazi patients mainly exhibiting rare mutations. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. KITLG Mutations Cause Familial Progressive Hyper- and Hypopigmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amyere, Mustapha; Vogt, Thomas; Hoo, Joe

    2011-01-01

    by familial café-au-lait spots and skin fold freckling, caused by mutations in SPRED1. We performed a genome-wide linkage analysis in seven families with FPHH, and identified linkage on 12q21.12-q22, which overlaps with the DUH2 locus. We investigated whether KITLG in the locus is mutated in FPHH. We......Familial progressive hyper- and hypopigmentation (FPHH) is thought to be an autosomal dominant disorder with reduced penetrance. Clinical signs consist of progressive diffuse, partly blotchy hyperpigmented lesions, multiple café-au-lait spots, intermingled with scattered hypopigmented......-strand in KITLG, suggesting its important role in the activation of the KITLG receptor c-Kit. In aggregate, mutations in a single gene cause various pigmentation disorders: FPH, FPHH, and likely DUH2. Therefore, KITLG is an important modulator of skin pigmentation.Journal of Investigative Dermatology advance...

  2. Molecular reconstruction of extinct LINE-1 elements and their interaction with nonautonomous elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, Bradley J; Kroutter, Emily N; Derbes, Rebecca S; Belancio, Victoria P; Roy-Engel, Astrid M

    2013-01-01

    Non-long terminal repeat retroelements continue to impact the human genome through cis-activity of long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1 or L1) and trans-mobilization of Alu. Current activity is dominated by modern subfamilies of these elements, leaving behind an evolutionary graveyard of extinct Alu and L1 subfamilies. Because Alu is a nonautonomous element that relies on L1 to retrotranspose, there is the possibility that competition between these elements has driven selection and antagonistic coevolution between Alu and L1. Through analysis of synonymous versus nonsynonymous codon evolution across L1 subfamilies, we find that the C-terminal ORF2 cys domain experienced a dramatic increase in amino acid substitution rate in the transition from L1PA5 to L1PA4 subfamilies. This observation coincides with the previously reported rapid evolution of ORF1 during the same transition period. Ancestral Alu sequences have been previously reconstructed, as their short size and ubiquity have made it relatively easy to retrieve consensus sequences from the human genome. In contrast, creating constructs of extinct L1 copies is a more laborious task. Here, we report our efforts to recreate and evaluate the retrotransposition capabilities of two ancestral L1 elements, L1PA4 and L1PA8 that were active ~18 and ~40 Ma, respectively. Relative to the modern L1PA1 subfamily, we find that both elements are similarly active in a cell culture retrotransposition assay in HeLa, and both are able to efficiently trans-mobilize Alu elements from several subfamilies. Although we observe some variation in Alu subfamily retrotransposition efficiency, any coevolution that may have occurred between LINEs and SINEs is not evident from these data. Population dynamics and stochastic variation in the number of active source elements likely play an important role in individual LINE or SINE subfamily amplification. If coevolution also contributes to changing retrotransposition rates and the progression of

  3. A case report of spontaneous mutation (C33>U) in the iron-responsive element of L-ferritin causing hyperferritinemia-cataract syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cao, Wei

    2010-01-15

    The hereditary hyperferritinemia cataract syndrome (HHCS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by juvenile-onset cataracts and elevated serum ferritin levels. It is caused by mutation in the iron response element (IRE) within the 5\\'UTR of L-ferritin gene. The mutation results in a loss of post-transcriptional negative feedback exerted by the interaction between iron regulatory proteins 1, 2 (IRP1 and IRP2) and IRE, which leads to uncontrolled expression of L-ferritin. In this paper, we describe the molecular pathogenesis of non-hereditary hyperferritinemia cataract syndrome (non-H-HCS) in a patient with typical HHCS ocular lens morphology and high ferritin levels without obvious family history. Initial sequencing of the full-length L-ferritin cloned from genomic DNA demonstrated a mutation (C33>T) in the IRE of the affected patient but not in her unaffected family members. The mutation (C\\/T heterozygote) was also detected in cDNA derived from her blood mononuclear cells. Structure-prediction-modeling indicates that this mutation would significantly alter the secondary structure of the IRE, resulting in a loss of the interaction between IRP and IRE. By using IRP1\\/IRP2-human IgG1 Fc fusion proteins, we established a novel in vitro report system (modified ELISA) to verify impaired IRE\\/IRP binding. Both the C33>U and A40G mutations (the first identified mutation for HHCS) showed a dramatically decreased binding to IRP1\\/IRP2 protein, compared to the normal IRE RNA. Surprisingly, a decrease in L-ferritin mRNA levels was observed in the affected patient compared to controls suggesting a mechanism of transcriptional negative feedback by high intracellular L-ferritin protein levels not described heretofore. Taken together, spontaneous mutation in the IRE of L-ferritin may cause non-H-HCS by the same mechanism as HHCS. In addition, under abnormal circumstances, the protein level of L-ferritin may be principally controlled by post

  4. Frequencies, Laboratory Features, and Granulocyte Activation in Chinese Patients with CALR-Mutated Myeloproliferative Neoplasms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haixiu Guo

    Full Text Available Somatic mutations in the CALR gene have been recently identified as acquired alterations in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs. In this study, we evaluated mutation frequencies, laboratory features, and granulocyte activation in Chinese patients with MPNs. A combination of qualitative allele-specific polymerase chain reaction and Sanger sequencing was used to detect three driver mutations (i.e., CALR, JAK2V617F, and MPL. CALR mutations were identified in 8.4% of cases with essential thrombocythemia (ET and 5.3% of cases with primary myelofibrosis (PMF. Moreover, 25% of polycythemia vera, 29.5% of ET, and 48.1% of PMF were negative for all three mutations (JAK2V617F, MPL, and CALR. Compared with those patients with JAK2V617F mutation, CALR-mutated ET patients displayed unique hematological phenotypes, including higher platelet counts, and lower leukocyte counts and hemoglobin levels. Significant differences were not found between Chinese PMF patients with mutants CALR and JAK2V617F in terms of laboratory features. Interestingly, patients with CALR mutations showed markedly decreased levels of leukocyte alkaline phosphatase (LAP expression, whereas those with JAK2V617F mutation presented with elevated levels. Overall, a lower mutant rate of CALR gene and a higher triple-negative rate were identified in the cohort of Chinese patients with MPNs. This result indicates that an undiscovered mutant gene may have a significant role in these patients. Moreover, these pathological features further imply that the disease biology varies considerably between mutants CALR and JAK2V617F.

  5. Trace elements in coloured opals using neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McOrist, G D; Smallwood, A [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1997-12-31

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a technique particularly suited to analysing opals since it is non-destructive and the silica matrix of opals is not prone to significant activation. It was used to determine the concentration of trace elements in 50 samples of orange, yellow, green, blue and pink opals as well as 18 samples of colourless opals taken from a number of recognised fields in Australia, Peru, Mexico and USA. The results were then evaluated to determine if a relationship existed between trace element content and opal colour. The mean concentration of most of the elements found in orange, yellow and colourless opals were similar with few exceptions. This indicated that, for these samples, colour is not related to the trace elements present. However, the trace element profile of the green, pink and blue opals was found to be significantly different with each colour having a much higher concentration of certain trace elements when compared with all other opals analysed. 7 refs.

  6. Trace elements in coloured opals using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McOrist, G.D.; Smallwood, A.

    1996-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a technique particularly suited to analysing opals since it is non-destructive and the silica matrix of opals is not prone to significant activation. It was used to determine the concentration of trace elements in 50 samples of orange, yellow, green, blue and pink opals as well as 18 samples of colourless opals taken from a number of recognised fields in Australia, Peru, Mexico and USA. The results were then evaluated to determine if a relationship existed between trace element content and opal colour. The mean concentration of most of the elements found in orange, yellow and colourless opals were similar with few exceptions. This indicated that, for these samples, colour is not related to the trace elements present. However, the trace element profile of the green, pink and blue opals was found to be significantly different with each colour having a much higher concentration of certain trace elements when compared with all other opals analysed. 7 refs

  7. Trace elements in coloured opals using neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McOrist, G.D.; Smallwood, A. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a technique particularly suited to analysing opals since it is non-destructive and the silica matrix of opals is not prone to significant activation. It was used to determine the concentration of trace elements in 50 samples of orange, yellow, green, blue and pink opals as well as 18 samples of colourless opals taken from a number of recognised fields in Australia, Peru, Mexico and USA. The results were then evaluated to determine if a relationship existed between trace element content and opal colour. The mean concentration of most of the elements found in orange, yellow and colourless opals were similar with few exceptions. This indicated that, for these samples, colour is not related to the trace elements present. However, the trace element profile of the green, pink and blue opals was found to be significantly different with each colour having a much higher concentration of certain trace elements when compared with all other opals analysed. 7 refs.

  8. A systematic comparison of all mutations in hereditary sensory neuropathy type I (HSAN I) reveals that the G387A mutation is not disease associated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornemann, Thorsten; Penno, Anke; Richard, Stephane; Nicholson, Garth; van Dijk, Fleur S; Rotthier, Annelies; Timmerman, Vincent; von Eckardstein, Arnold

    2009-04-01

    Hereditary sensory neuropathy type 1 (HSAN I) is an autosomal dominant inherited neurodegenerative disorder of the peripheral nervous system associated with mutations in the SPTLC1 subunit of the serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT). Four missense mutations (C133W, C133Y, V144D and G387A) in SPTLC1 were reported to cause HSAN I. SPT catalyses the condensation of Serine and Palmitoyl-CoA, which is the first and rate-limiting step in the de novo synthesis of ceramides. Earlier studies showed that C133W and C133Y mutants have a reduced activity, whereas the impact of the V144D and G387A mutations on the human enzyme was not tested yet. In this paper, we show that none of the HSAN I mutations interferes with SPT complex formation. We demonstrate that also V144D has a reduced SPT activity, however to a lower extent than C133W and C133Y. In contrast, the G387A mutation showed no influence on SPT activity. Furthermore, the growth phenotype of LY-B cells--a SPTLC1 deficient CHO cell line--could be reversed by expressing either the wild-type SPTLC1 or the G387A mutant, but not the C133W mutant. This indicates that the G387A mutation is most likely not directly associated with HSAN I. These findings were genetically confirmed by the identification of a nuclear HSAN family which showed segregation of the G387A variant as a non-synonymous SNP.

  9. Neutron-activation analysis of trace elements in thyroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulyga, S.F.; Petri, H.; Kanash, N.V.; Malenchenko, A.F.

    1999-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis was used for routine measurement of trace elements in thyroids of inhabitants of Belarus as well as in thyroids of people operated for thyroid cancer. The method chosen allowed the analysis of 28 elements, among them essential and toxic ones, with a good accuracy. The results obtained showed significant differences in the elemental composition of thyroid from the different regions. The changes of elemental composition of thyroids of inhabitants of the Gomel region, where goiter is endemic, seem to be identical to those in the tumor tissue. (author)

  10. Haploid rice plants in mutation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, S [Institute of Radiation Breeding, Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Ohmiya, Ibaraki-ken (Japan)

    1970-03-01

    Studies were made on chlorophyll-deficient sectors and diploid-like sectors in haploid rice plants exposed to chronic gamma irradiation, and on germinal mutations in diploid strains derived from the haploid plants. The induction and elimination of somatic mutations in haploid plants and the occurrence of drastic germinal mutations in diploid strains from haploid plants are discussed. (author)

  11. Oncogenic KRAS activates an embryonic stem cell-like program in human colon cancer initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Rolle, Anne-France; Chiu, Thang K; Zeng, Zhaoshi; Shia, Jinru; Weiser, Martin R; Paty, Philip B; Chiu, Vi K

    2016-01-19

    Colorectal cancer is the third most frequently diagnosed cancer worldwide. Prevention of colorectal cancer initiation represents the most effective overall strategy to reduce its associated morbidity and mortality. Activating KRAS mutation (KRASmut) is the most prevalent oncogenic driver in colorectal cancer development, and KRASmut inhibition represents an unmet clinical need. We apply a systems-level approach to study the impact of KRASmut on stem cell signaling during human colon cancer initiation by performing gene set enrichment analysis on gene expression from human colon tissues. We find that KRASmut imposes the embryonic stem cell-like program during human colon cancer initiation from colon adenoma to stage I carcinoma. Expression of miR145, an embryonic SC program inhibitor, promotes cell lineage differentiation marker expression in KRASmut colon cancer cells and significantly suppresses their tumorigenicity. Our data support an in vivo plasticity model of human colon cancer initiation that merges the intrinsic stem cell properties of aberrant colon stem cells with the embryonic stem cell-like program induced by KRASmut to optimize malignant transformation. Inhibition of the embryonic SC-like program in KRASmut colon cancer cells reveals a novel therapeutic strategy to programmatically inhibit KRASmut tumors and prevent colon cancer.

  12. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Activating Mutations in Squamous Histology of Lung Cancer Patients of Southern Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genova Silvia N.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There is only limited data on the prevalence of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR activating mutations in squamous cell carcinomas and adenosquamous carcinomas of the lung in patients of the Southern Bulgarian region and the efficacy of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. AIM: Previous reports for Bulgarian population showed high incidence of EGFR mutations in the squamous cell carcinomas, so we set the goal to investigate their frequency in Southern Bulgaria, after precise immunohistochemical verification of lung cancers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred and thirty-six lung carcinomas were included in this prospective study. All biopsies were initially analysed with p63, TTF1, Napsin A, CK7, CK34βE12, synaptophysin, CK20 and CDX2. Two hundred and twenty-five non-small cell lung carcinomas were studied with real-time PCR technology to assess the status of the EGFR gene. RESULTS: We detected 132 adenocarcinomas (58.7%, 89 squamous cell carcinomas (39.2%, 4 adenosquamous carcinomas (1.8%, 9 large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas (3.8% and 2 metastatic colorectal adenocarcinomas (0.8%. Activating mutations in the EGF receptor had 3 out of 89 squamous cell carcinomas (3.37%. We have established mutations in L858R, deletion in exon 19 and rare mutation in S7681. One out of four adenosquamous carcinomas had a point mutation in the L858R (25%. CONCLUSIONS: The frequency of EGFR mutations we found in lung squamous cell carcinomas in a Southern Bulgarian region is lower than that in European countries. Ethnic diversity in the region does not play role of an independent predictive factor in terms of mutation frequency.

  13. Genotypic and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii: Analysis of ISAba Elements and blaOXA-23-like Genes Including A New Variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas eBahador

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CR-AB causes serious nosocomial infections, especially in ICU wards of hospitals, worldwide. Expression of blaOXA genes is the chief mechanism of conferring carbapenem resistance among CR-AB. Although some blaOXA genes have been studied among CR-AB isolates from Iran, their blaOXA-23-like genes have not been investigated. We used a multiplex-PCR to detect Ambler class A, B, and D carbapenemases of 85 isolates, and determined that 34 harbored blaOXA-23-like genes. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP genotyping, followed by DNA sequencing of blaOXA-23-like amplicons of CR-AB from each AFLP group was used to characterize their blaOXA-23-like genes. We also assessed the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of CR-AB isolates, and tested whether they harbored insertion sequences ISAba1 and ISAba4. Sequence comparison with reference strain A. baumannii (NCTC12156 revealed five types of mutations in blaOXA-23-like genes; including one novel variant and four mutants that were already reported from China and the USA. All of the blaOXA-23-like genes mutations were associated with increased minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs against imipenem. ISAba1 and ISAba4 sequences were detected upstream of blaOXA-23 genes in 19% and 7% of isolates, respectively. The isolation of CR-AB with new blaOXA-23 mutations including some that have been reported from the USA and China highlights CR-AB pervasive distribution, which underscores the importance of concerted national and global efforts to control the spread of CR-AB isolates worldwide.

  14. Extensive evolutionary changes in regulatory element activity during human origins are associated with altered gene expression and positive selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoichiro Shibata

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the molecular basis for phenotypic differences between humans and other primates remains an outstanding challenge. Mutations in non-coding regulatory DNA that alter gene expression have been hypothesized as a key driver of these phenotypic differences. This has been supported by differential gene expression analyses in general, but not by the identification of specific regulatory elements responsible for changes in transcription and phenotype. To identify the genetic source of regulatory differences, we mapped DNaseI hypersensitive (DHS sites, which mark all types of active gene regulatory elements, genome-wide in the same cell type isolated from human, chimpanzee, and macaque. Most DHS sites were conserved among all three species, as expected based on their central role in regulating transcription. However, we found evidence that several hundred DHS sites were gained or lost on the lineages leading to modern human and chimpanzee. Species-specific DHS site gains are enriched near differentially expressed genes, are positively correlated with increased transcription, show evidence of branch-specific positive selection, and overlap with active chromatin marks. Species-specific sequence differences in transcription factor motifs found within these DHS sites are linked with species-specific changes in chromatin accessibility. Together, these indicate that the regulatory elements identified here are genetic contributors to transcriptional and phenotypic differences among primate species.

  15. The association of TP53 mutations with the resistance of colorectal carcinoma to the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor inhibitor picropodophyllin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Quan; Wei, Feng; Lv, Guoyue; Li, Chunsheng; Liu, Tongjun; Hadjipanayis, Costas G; Zhang, Guikai; Hao, Chunhai; Bellail, Anita C

    2013-01-01

    There is growing evidence indicating the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) plays a critical role in the progression of human colorectal carcinomas. IGF-1R is an attractive drug target for the treatment of colon cancer. Picropodophyllin (PPP), of the cyclolignan family, has recently been identified as an IGF-1R inhibitor. The aim of this study is to determine the therapeutic response and mechanism after colorectal carcinoma treatment with PPP. Seven colorectal carcinoma cell lines were treated with PPP. Following treatment, cells were analyzed for growth by a cell viability assay, sub-G1 apoptosis by flow cytometry, caspase cleavage and activation of AKT and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) by western blot analysis. To examine the in vivo therapeutic efficacy of PPP, mice implanted with human colorectal carcinoma xenografts underwent PPP treatment. PPP treatment blocked the phosphorylation of IGF-1R, AKT and ERK and inhibited the growth of TP53 wild-type but not mutated colorectal carcinoma cell lines. The treatment of PPP also induced apoptosis in TP53 wild-type cells as evident by the presence of sub-G1 cells and the cleavage of caspase-9, caspase-3, DNA fragmentation factor-45 (DFF45), poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP). The loss of BAD phosphorylation in the PPP-treated TP53 wild type cells further suggested that the treatment induced apoptosis through the BAD-mediated mitochondrial pathway. In contrast, PPP treatment failed to induce the phosphorylation of AKT and ERK and caspase cleavage in TP53 mutated colorectal carcinoma cell lines. Finally, PPP treatment suppressed the growth of xenografts derived from TP53 wild type but not mutated colorectal carcinoma cells. We report the association of TP53 mutations with the resistance of treatment of colorectal carcinoma cells in culture and in a xenograft mouse model with the IGF-1R inhibitor PPP. TP53 mutations often occur in colorectal

  16. Bovine lactoferrin counteracts Toll-like receptor mediated activation signals in antigen presenting cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Puddu

    Full Text Available Lactoferrin (LF, a key element in mammalian immune system, plays pivotal roles in host defence against infection and excessive inflammation. Its protective effects range from direct antimicrobial activities against a large panel of microbes, including bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites, to antinflammatory and anticancer activities. In this study, we show that monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MD-DCs generated in the presence of bovine LF (bLF fail to undergo activation by up-modulating CD83, co-stimulatory and major histocompatibility complex molecules, and cytokine/chemokine secretion. Moreover, these cells are weak activators of T cell proliferation and retain antigen uptake activity. Consistent with an impaired maturation, bLF-MD-DC primed T lymphocytes exhibit a functional unresponsiveness characterized by reduced expression of CD154 and impaired expression of IFN-γ and IL-2. The observed imunosuppressive effects correlate with an increased expression of molecules with negative regulatory functions (i.e. immunoglobulin-like transcript 3 and programmed death ligand 1, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, and suppressor of cytokine signaling-3. Interestingly, bLF-MD-DCs produce IL-6 and exhibit constitutive signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 activation. Conversely, bLF exposure of already differentiated MD-DCs completely fails to induce IL-6, and partially inhibits Toll-like receptor (TLR agonist-induced activation. Cell-specific differences in bLF internalization likely account for the distinct response elicited by bLF in monocytes versus immature DCs, providing a mechanistic base for its multiple effects. These results indicate that bLF exerts a potent anti-inflammatory activity by skewing monocyte differentiation into DCs with impaired capacity to undergo activation and to promote Th1 responses. Overall, these bLF-mediated effects may represent a strategy to block excessive DC activation upon TLR-induced inflammation, adding

  17. FLT3 mutation incidence and timing of origin in a population case series of pediatric leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Jeffrey

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mutations in FLT3 result in activated tyrosine kinase activity, cell growth stimulation, and a poor prognosis among various subtypes of leukemia. The causes and timing of the mutations are not currently known. We evaluated the prevalence and timing of origin of FLT3 mutations in a population series of childhood leukemia patients from Northern California. Methods We screened and sequenced FLT3 mutations (point mutations and internal tandem duplications, ITDs among 517 childhood leukemia patients, and assessed whether these mutations occurred before or after birth using sensitive "backtracking" methods. Results We determined a mutation prevalence of 9 of 73 acute myeloid leukemias (AMLs, 12% and 9 of 441 acute lymphocytic leukemias (ALLs, 2%. Among AMLs, FLT3 mutations were more common in older patients, and among ALLs, FLT3 mutations were more common in patients with high hyperdiploidy (3.7% than those without this cytogenetic feature (1.4%. Five FLT3 ITDs, one deletion mutation, and 3 point mutations were assessed for their presence in neonatal Guthrie spots using sensitive real-time PCR techniques, and no patients were found to harbor FLT3 mutations at birth. Conclusions FLT3 mutations were not common in our population-based patient series in California, and patients who harbor FLT3 mutations most likely acquire them after they are born.

  18. Mutation Study of Two Thymidine Kinases 

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Tine; Munch-Petersen, Birgitte; Eklund, Hans

    that phosphorylates all the natural deoxyribonucleosides and like insects, C. elegans only contains a single deoxyribonucleoside kinase-like gene. In contrast to the insects, however, the protein encoded by the elegans gene is 46 % identical to human TK1 (HuTK1) and have no homology to the insect kinase. Like HuTK1...... the C. elegans kinase (CeTK1) has thymidine as the preferred substrate, but it also displays activity with deoxyguanosine, though with high Km. A number of point mutations have been introduced in the active site of both the human and elegans TK's in order to change the substrate specificity away from...... not phosphorylate the anticancer analog 1-β-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine (AraC), however. The HuTK1 mutant has been crystallized, and azidothymidine monophosphate has been modelled into the active site....

  19. Spontaneous mutation rates and the rate-doubling dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Borstel, R.C.; Moustaccki, E.; Latarjet, R.

    1978-01-01

    The amount of radiation required to double the frequency of mutations or tumours over the rate of those that occur spontaneously is called the rate-doubling dose. An equivalent concept has been proposed for exposure to other environmental mutagens. The doubling dose concept is predicated on the assumption that all human populations have the same spontaneous mutation rate, and that this spontaneous mutation rate is known. It is now established for prokaryotes and lower eukaryotes that numerous genes control the spontaneous mutation rate, and it is likely that the same is true for human cells as well. Given that the accepted mode of evolution of human populatons is from small, isolated groups of individuals, it seems likely that each population would have a different spontaneous mutation rate. Given that a minimum of twenty genes control or affect the spontaneous mutation rate, and that each of these in turn is susceptible to spontaneously arising or environmentally induced mutations, it seems likely that every individual within a population (except for siblings from identical multiple births) will have a unique spontaneous mutation rate. If each individual in a population does have a different spontaneous mutation rate, the doubling dose concept, in rigorous terms, is fallacious. Therefore, as with other concepts of risk evaluation, the doubling dose concept is subject to criticism. Nevertheless, until we know individual spontaneous mutation rates with precision, and can evaluate risks based on this information, the doubling dose concept has a heuristic value and is needed for practical assessment of risks for defined populations. (author)

  20. High Frequency of Alkaptonuria in Slovakia: Evidence for the Appearance of Multiple Mutations in HGO Involving Different Mutational Hot Spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatková, Andrea; de Bernabé, Daniel Beltrán Valero; Poláková, Helena; Zvarík, Marek; Feráková, Eva; Bošák, Vladimir; Ferák, Vladimír; Kádasi, L'udovít; de Córdoba , Santiago Rodríguez

    2000-01-01

    Alkaptonuria (AKU) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by the deficiency of homogentisate 1,2 dioxygenase (HGO) activity. AKU shows a very low prevalence (1:100,000–250,000) in most ethnic groups. One notable exception is in Slovakia, where the incidence of AKU rises to 1:19,000. This high incidence is difficult to explain by a classical founder effect, because as many as 10 different AKU mutations have been identified in this relatively small country. We have determined the allelic associations of 11 HGO intragenic polymorphisms for 44 AKU chromosomes from 20 Slovak pedigrees. These data were compared to the HGO haplotype data available in our laboratory for >80 AKU chromosomes from different European and non-European countries. The results show that common European AKU chromosomes have had only a marginal contribution to the Slovak AKU gene pool. Six of the ten Slovak AKU mutations, including the prevalent G152fs, G161R, G270R, and P370fs mutations, most likely originated in Slovakia. Data available for 17 Slovak AKU pedigrees indicate that most of the AKU chromosomes have their origins in a single very small region in the Carpathian mountains, in the northwestern part of the country. Since all six Slovak AKU mutations are associated with HGO mutational hot spots, we suggest that an increased mutation rate at the HGO gene is responsible for the clustering of AKU mutations in such a small geographical region. PMID:11017803

  1. Amino-terminal residues of ΔNp63, mutated in ectodermal dysplasia, are required for its transcriptional activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lena, Anna Maria; Duca, Sara; Novelli, Flavia; Melino, Sonia; Annicchiarico-Petruzzelli, Margherita; Melino, Gerry; Candi, Eleonora

    2015-11-13

    p63, a member of the p53 family, is a crucial transcription factor for epithelial development and skin homeostasis. Heterozygous mutations in TP63 gene have been associated with human ectodermal dysplasia disorders. Most of these TP63 mutations are missense mutations causing amino acidic substitutions at p63 DNA binding or SAM domains that reduce or abolish the transcriptional activity of mutants p63. A significant number of mutants, however, resides in part of the p63 protein that apparently do not affect DNA binding and/or transcriptional activity, such as the N-terminal domain. Here, we characterize five p63 mutations at the 5' end of TP63 gene aiming to understand the pathogenesis of the diseases and to uncover the role of ΔNp63α N-terminus residues in determining its transactivation potential. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of missense mutations in sortase A gene on enzyme activity in Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, P L; Yu, L X; Tao, Y; Zhou, Y; Zhi, Q H; Lin, H C

    2016-04-11

    Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) is the major aetiological agent of dental caries, and the transpeptidase Sortase A (SrtA) plays a major role in cariogenicity. The T168G and G470A missense mutations in the srtA gene may be linked to caries susceptibility, as demonstrated in our previous studies. This study aimed to investigate the effects of these missense mutations of the srtA gene on SrtA enzyme activity in S. mutans. The point mutated recombinant S.mutans T168G and G470A sortases were expressed in expression plasmid pET32a. S. mutans UA159 sortase coding gene srtA was used as the template for point mutation. Enzymatic activity was assessed by quantifying increases in the fluorescence intensity generated when a substrate Dabcyl-QALPNTGEE-Edans was cleaved by SrtA. The kinetic constants were calculated based on the curve fit for the Michaelis-Menten equation. SrtA△N40(UA159) and the mutant enzymes, SrtA△N40(D56E) and SrtA△N40(R157H), were expressed and purified. A kinetic analysis showed that the affinity of SrtA△N40(D56E) and SrtA△N40(R157H) remained approximately equal to the affinity of SrtA△N40(UA159), as determined by the Michaelis constant (K m ). However, the catalytic rate constant (k cat ) and catalytic efficiency (k cat /K m ) of SrtA△N40(D56E) were reduced compared with those of SrtA△N40(R157H) and SrtA△N40(UA159), whereas the k cat and k cat /K m values of SrtA△N40(R157H) were slightly lower than those of SrtA△N40(UA159). The findings of this study indicate that the T168G missense mutation of the srtA gene results in a significant reduction in enzymatic activity compared with S. mutans UA159, suggesting that the T168G missense mutation of the srtA gene may be related to low cariogenicity.

  3. Mutational analysis of the major soybean UreF paralogue involved in urease activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    In soybean, mutation at Eu2 or Eu3 eliminates the urease activities of both the embryo-specific and the tissue-ubiquitous (assimilatory) isozymes, encoded by Eu1 and Eu4, respectively. Eu3 encodes UreG, a GTP’ase necessary for proper emplacement of Ni and carbon dioxide in the urease active site. ...

  4. Rhabdovirus-like endogenous viral elements in the genome of Spodoptera frugiperda insect cells are actively transcribed: Implications for adventitious virus detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, Christoph; Jarvis, Donald L

    2016-07-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf) cell lines are used to produce several biologicals for human and veterinary use. Recently, it was discovered that all tested Sf cell lines are persistently infected with Sf-rhabdovirus, a novel rhabdovirus. As part of an effort to search for other adventitious viruses, we searched the Sf cell genome and transcriptome for sequences related to Sf-rhabdovirus. To our surprise, we found intact Sf-rhabdovirus N- and P-like ORFs, and partial Sf-rhabdovirus G- and L-like ORFs. The transcribed and genomic sequences matched, indicating the transcripts were derived from the genomic sequences. These appear to be endogenous viral elements (EVEs), which result from the integration of partial viral genetic material into the host cell genome. It is theoretically impossible for the Sf-rhabdovirus-like EVEs to produce infectious virus particles as 1) they are disseminated across 4 genomic loci, 2) the G and L ORFs are incomplete, and 3) the M ORF is missing. Our finding of transcribed virus-like sequences in Sf cells underscores that MPS-based searches for adventitious viruses in cell substrates used to manufacture biologics should take into account both genomic and transcribed sequences to facilitate the identification of transcribed EVE's, and to avoid false positive detection of replication-competent adventitious viruses. Copyright © 2016 International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Albinism-causing mutations in recombinant human tyrosinase alter intrinsic enzymatic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolinska, Monika B; Kovaleva, Elena; Backlund, Peter; Wingfield, Paul T; Brooks, Brian P; Sergeev, Yuri V

    2014-01-01

    Tyrosinase (TYR) catalyzes the rate-limiting, first step in melanin production and its gene (TYR) is mutated in many cases of oculocutaneous albinism (OCA1), an autosomal recessive cause of childhood blindness. Patients with reduced TYR activity are classified as OCA1B; some OCA1B mutations are temperature-sensitive. Therapeutic research for OCA1 has been hampered, in part, by the absence of purified, active, recombinant wild-type and mutant human enzymes. The intra-melanosomal domain of human tyrosinase (residues 19-469) and two OCA1B related temperature-sensitive mutants, R422Q and R422W were expressed in insect cells and produced in T. ni larvae. The short trans-membrane fragment was deleted to avoid potential protein insolubility, while preserving all other functional features of the enzymes. Purified tyrosinase was obtained with a yield of >1 mg per 10 g of larval biomass. The protein was a monomeric glycoenzyme with maximum enzyme activity at 37°C and neutral pH. The two purified mutants when compared to the wild-type protein were less active and temperature sensitive. These differences are associated with conformational perturbations in secondary structure. The intramelanosomal domains of recombinant wild-type and mutant human tyrosinases are soluble monomeric glycoproteins with activities which mirror their in vivo function. This advance allows for the structure - function analyses of different mutant TYR proteins and correlation with their corresponding human phenotypes; it also provides an important tool to discover drugs that may improve tyrosinase activity and treat OCA1.

  6. Albinism-causing mutations in recombinant human tyrosinase alter intrinsic enzymatic activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika B Dolinska

    Full Text Available Tyrosinase (TYR catalyzes the rate-limiting, first step in melanin production and its gene (TYR is mutated in many cases of oculocutaneous albinism (OCA1, an autosomal recessive cause of childhood blindness. Patients with reduced TYR activity are classified as OCA1B; some OCA1B mutations are temperature-sensitive. Therapeutic research for OCA1 has been hampered, in part, by the absence of purified, active, recombinant wild-type and mutant human enzymes.The intra-melanosomal domain of human tyrosinase (residues 19-469 and two OCA1B related temperature-sensitive mutants, R422Q and R422W were expressed in insect cells and produced in T. ni larvae. The short trans-membrane fragment was deleted to avoid potential protein insolubility, while preserving all other functional features of the enzymes. Purified tyrosinase was obtained with a yield of >1 mg per 10 g of larval biomass. The protein was a monomeric glycoenzyme with maximum enzyme activity at 37°C and neutral pH. The two purified mutants when compared to the wild-type protein were less active and temperature sensitive. These differences are associated with conformational perturbations in secondary structure.The intramelanosomal domains of recombinant wild-type and mutant human tyrosinases are soluble monomeric glycoproteins with activities which mirror their in vivo function. This advance allows for the structure - function analyses of different mutant TYR proteins and correlation with their corresponding human phenotypes; it also provides an important tool to discover drugs that may improve tyrosinase activity and treat OCA1.

  7. Patterns of transposable element expression and insertion in cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan A Clayton

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Human transposable element (TE activity in somatic tissues causes mutations that can contribute to tumorigenesis. Indeed, TE insertion mutations have been implicated in the etiology of a number of different cancer types. Nevertheless, the full extent of somatic TE activity, along with its relationship to tumorigenesis, have yet to be fully explored. Recent developments in bioinformatics software make it possible to analyze TE expression levels and TE insertional activity directly from transcriptome (RNA-seq and whole genome (DNA-seq next-generation sequence data. We applied these new sequence analysis techniques to matched normal and primary tumor patient samples from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA in order to analyze the patterns of TE expression and insertion for three cancer types: breast invasive carcinoma, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, and lung adenocarcinoma. Our analysis focused on the three most abundant families of active human TEs: Alu, SVA and L1. We found evidence for high levels of somatic TE activity for these three families in normal and cancer samples across diverse tissue types. Abundant transcripts for all three TE families were detected in both normal and cancer tissues along with an average of ~80 unique TE insertions per individual patient/tissue. We observed an increase in L1 transcript expression and L1 insertional activity in primary tumor samples for all three cancer types. Tumor-specific TE insertions are enriched for private mutations, consistent with a potentially causal role in tumorigenesis. We used genome feature analysis to investigate two specific cases of putative cancer-causing TE mutations in further detail. An Alu insertion in an upstream enhancer of the CBL tumor suppressor gene is associated with down-regulation of the gene in a single breast cancer patient, and an L1 insertion in the first exon of the BAALC gene also disrupts its expression in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Our results are

  8. Suppression of severe achondroplasia with developmental delay and acanthosis nigricans by the p.Thr651Pro mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manickam, Kandamurugu; Donoghue, Daniel J; Meyer, April N; Snyder, Pamela J; Prior, Thomas W

    2014-01-01

    Severe achondroplasia with developmental delay and acanthosis nigricans (SADDAN) is an extremely rare severe skeletal dysplasia characterized by significant developmental delay, brain structural abnormalities, hearing loss, and acanthosis nigricans. The disorder is the result of a single missense mutation at codon 650 (p.Lys650Met) in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 gene (FGFR3). We describe a child who initially presented with a mild achondroplasia or hypochondroplasia like phenotype. Molecular analysis of the FGFR3 gene showed the common SADDAN mutation and a second novel mutation at codon 651 (p.Thr651Pro). Both mutations were shown to occur on the same allele (cis) and de novo. Transient transfection studies with FGFR3 double mutant constructs show that the p.Thr651Pro mutation causes a dramatic decrease in constitutive receptor kinase activity than that observed by the p.Lys650Met mutation. Our data suggest that the molecular effect by the p.Thr651Pro is to elicit a conformational change that decreases the FGFR3 tyrosine kinase activity, which is constitutively activated by the SADDAN mutation. Due to the inheritance of both a gain-of-function and a loss-of-function mutation, we conclude that a reduction of constitutive activation caused the milder skeletal phenotype. Although the occurrence of double mutations are expected to be rare, the presence of other FGFR3 modifiers may be responsible for some of the clinically discrepant skeletal dysplasia cases. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Matching Element Symbols with State Abbreviations: A Fun Activity for Browsing the Periodic Table of Chemical Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woelk, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    A classroom activity is presented in which students are challenged to find matches between the United States two-letter postal abbreviations for states and chemical element symbols. The activity aims to lessen negative apprehensions students might have when the periodic table of the elements with its more than 100 combinations of letters is first…

  10. De novo mutations in ATP1A3 cause alternating hemiplegia of childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzen, Erin L.; Swoboda, Kathryn J.; Hitomi, Yuki; Gurrieri, Fiorella; Nicole, Sophie; de Vries, Boukje; Tiziano, F. Danilo; Fontaine, Bertrand; Walley, Nicole M.; Heavin, Sinéad; Panagiotakaki, Eleni; Fiori, Stefania; Abiusi, Emanuela; Di Pietro, Lorena; Sweney, Matthew T.; Newcomb, Tara M.; Viollet, Louis; Huff, Chad; Jorde, Lynn B.; Reyna, Sandra P.; Murphy, Kelley J.; Shianna, Kevin V.; Gumbs, Curtis E.; Little, Latasha; Silver, Kenneth; Ptác̆ek, Louis J.; Haan, Joost; Ferrari, Michel D.; Bye, Ann M.; Herkes, Geoffrey K.; Whitelaw, Charlotte M.; Webb, David; Lynch, Bryan J.; Uldall, Peter; King, Mary D.; Scheffer, Ingrid E.; Neri, Giovanni; Arzimanoglou, Alexis; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M.J.M.; Sisodiya, Sanjay M.; Mikati, Mohamad A.; Goldstein, David B.; Nicole, Sophie; Gurrieri, Fiorella; Neri, Giovanni; de Vries, Boukje; Koelewijn, Stephany; Kamphorst, Jessica; Geilenkirchen, Marije; Pelzer, Nadine; Laan, Laura; Haan, Joost; Ferrari, Michel; van den Maagdenberg, Arn; Zucca, Claudio; Bassi, Maria Teresa; Franchini, Filippo; Vavassori, Rosaria; Giannotta, Melania; Gobbi, Giuseppe; Granata, Tiziana; Nardocci, Nardo; De Grandis, Elisa; Veneselli, Edvige; Stagnaro, Michela; Gurrieri, Fiorella; Neri, Giovanni; Vigevano, Federico; Panagiotakaki, Eleni; Oechsler, Claudia; Arzimanoglou, Alexis; Nicole, Sophie; Giannotta, Melania; Gobbi, Giuseppe; Ninan, Miriam; Neville, Brian; Ebinger, Friedrich; Fons, Carmen; Campistol, Jaume; Kemlink, David; Nevsimalova, Sona; Laan, Laura; Peeters-Scholte, Cacha; van den Maagdenberg, Arn; Casaer, Paul; Casari, Giorgio; Sange, Guenter; Spiel, Georg; Boneschi, Filippo Martinelli; Zucca, Claudio; Bassi, Maria Teresa; Schyns, Tsveta; Crawley, Francis; Poncelin, Dominique; Vavassori, Rosaria

    2012-01-01

    Alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC) is a rare, severe neurodevelopmental syndrome characterized by recurrent hemiplegic episodes and distinct neurologic manifestations. AHC is usually a sporadic disorder with unknown etiology. Using exome sequencing of seven patients with AHC, and their unaffected parents, we identified de novo nonsynonymous mutations in ATP1A3 in all seven AHC patients. Subsequent sequence analysis of ATP1A3 in 98 additional patients revealed that 78% of AHC cases have a likely causal ATP1A3 mutation, including one inherited mutation in a familial case of AHC. Remarkably, six ATP1A3 mutations explain the majority of patients, including one observed in 36 patients. Unlike ATP1A3 mutations that cause rapid-onset-dystonia-parkinsonism, AHC-causing mutations revealed consistent reductions in ATPase activity without effects on protein expression. This work identifies de novo ATP1A3 mutations as the primary cause of AHC, and offers insight into disease pathophysiology by expanding the spectrum of phenotypes associated with mutations in this gene. PMID:22842232

  11. Effects of trace elements on urease activity in soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabatabai, M A

    1977-01-01

    Disposal of sewage sludges and effluents on agricultural land is becoming a widespread practice. Most sludge samples disposed on soils contain large quantities of various trace elements. Studies of 20 trace elements commonly found in sludge samples showed that they inhibit the activity of urease in soils and that their order of effectiveness as inhibitors of urease depends on the soil. When the trace elements were compared by using 5 ..mu..mol . g/sup -1/ soil, however, some of them showed the same order of effectiveness as urease inhibitors in the six soils studied i.e., for the monovalent and divalent ions. Ag/sup +/ greater than or equal to Hg/sup 2 +/ > Cu/sup 2 +/ > Cd/sup 2 +/ > Zn/sup 2 +/ > Sn/sup 2 +/ > Mn/sup 2 +/, and generally, Fe/sup 3 +/ > Fe/sup 2 +/ and Cu/sup 2 +/ > Cu/sup +/. Other trace element ions that inhibited urease were Ni/sup 2 +/, Co/sup 2 +/, Pb/sup 2 +/, Ba/sup 2 +/, As/sup 3 +/, B/sup 3 +/, Cr/sup 3 +/, Al/sup 3 +/, V/sup 4 +/, Se/sup 4 +/, and Mo/sup 6 +/. Of the trace element ions studied, only As/sup 5 +/ and W/sup 6 +/ did not inhibit urease activity in soils. Studies on the distribution of urease activity showed that it is concentrated in surface soils and decreases with depth. Urease activity was proportional to organic C distribution in each soil profile and was significantly correlated with organic C in the surface soils studied.

  12. Catalytically Active Guanylyl Cyclase B Requires Endoplasmic Reticulum-mediated Glycosylation, and Mutations That Inhibit This Process Cause Dwarfism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickey, Deborah M; Edmund, Aaron B; Otto, Neil M; Chaffee, Thomas S; Robinson, Jerid W; Potter, Lincoln R

    2016-05-20

    C-type natriuretic peptide activation of guanylyl cyclase B (GC-B), also known as natriuretic peptide receptor B or NPR2, stimulates long bone growth, and missense mutations in GC-B cause dwarfism. Four such mutants (L658F, Y708C, R776W, and G959A) bound (125)I-C-type natriuretic peptide on the surface of cells but failed to synthesize cGMP in membrane GC assays. Immunofluorescence microscopy also indicated that the mutant receptors were on the cell surface. All mutant proteins were dephosphorylated and incompletely glycosylated, but dephosphorylation did not explain the inactivation because the mutations inactivated a "constitutively phosphorylated" enzyme. Tunicamycin inhibition of glycosylation in the endoplasmic reticulum or mutation of the Asn-24 glycosylation site decreased GC activity, but neither inhibition of glycosylation in the Golgi by N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I gene inactivation nor PNGase F deglycosylation of fully processed GC-B reduced GC activity. We conclude that endoplasmic reticulum-mediated glycosylation is required for the formation of an active catalytic, but not ligand-binding domain, and that mutations that inhibit this process cause dwarfism. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. A novel mutation in the X-linked cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) gene associated with a severe Rett phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprovieri, T; Conforti, F L; Fiumara, A; Mazzei, R; Ungaro, C; Citrigno, L; Muglia, M; Arena, A; Quattrone, A

    2009-02-15

    Mutations in the X-linked cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) gene have recently been reported in patients with severe neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by early-onset seizures, infantile spasms, severe psychomotor impairment and very recently, in patients with Rett syndrome (RTT)-like phenotype. Although the involvement of CDKL5 in specific biological pathways and its neurodevelopmental role have not been completely elucidated, the CDKL5 appears to be physiologically related to the MECP2 gene. Here we report on the clinical and CDKL5 molecular investigation in a very unusual RTT case, with severe, early-neurological involvement in which we have shown in a previous report, a novel P388S MECP2 mutation [Conforti et al. (2003); Am J Med Genet A 117A: 184-187]. The patient has had severe psychomotor delay since the first month of life and infantile spasms since age 5 months. Moreover, at age 5 years the patient suddenly presented with renal failure. The severe pattern of symptoms in our patient, similar to a CDKL5 phenotype, prompted us to perform an analysis of the CDKL5, which revealed a novel missense mutation never previously described. The X-inactivation assay was non-informative. In conclusion, this report reinforces the observation that the CDKL5 phenotype overlaps with RTT and that CDKL5 analysis is recommended in patients with a seizure disorder commencing during the first months of life.

  14. α-Helical element at the hormone-binding surface of the insulin receptor functions as a signaling element to activate its tyrosine kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Jonathan; Whittaker, Linda J; Roberts, Charles T; Phillips, Nelson B; Ismail-Beigi, Faramarz; Lawrence, Michael C; Weiss, Michael A

    2012-07-10

    The primary hormone-binding surface of the insulin receptor spans one face of the N-terminal β-helix of the α-subunit (the L1 domain) and an α-helix in its C-terminal segment (αCT). Crystallographic analysis of the free ectodomain has defined a contiguous dimer-related motif in which the αCT α-helix packs against L1 β-strands 2 and 3. To relate structure to function, we exploited expanded genetic-code technology to insert photo-activatable probes at key sites in L1 and αCT. The pattern of αCT-mediated photo-cross-linking within the free and bound receptor is in accord with the crystal structure and prior mutagenesis. Surprisingly, L1 photo-probes in β-strands 2 and 3, predicted to be shielded by αCT, efficiently cross-link to insulin. Furthermore, anomalous mutations were identified on neighboring surfaces of αCT and insulin that impair hormone-dependent activation of the intracellular receptor tyrosine kinase (contained within the transmembrane β-subunit) disproportionately to their effects on insulin binding. Taken together, these results suggest that αCT, in addition to its hormone-recognition role, provides a signaling element in the mechanism of receptor activation.

  15. Recurrent TERT promoter mutations identified in a large-scale study of multiple tumor types are associated with increased TERT expression and telomerase activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dong-Sheng; Wang, Zhaohui; He, Xu-Jun; Diplas, Bill H.; Yang, Rui; Killela, Patrick J.; Liang, Junbo; Meng, Qun; Ye, Zai-Yuan; Wang, Wei; Jiang, Xiao-Ting; Xu, Li; He, Xiang-Lei; Zhao, Zhong-Sheng; Xu, Wen-Juan; Wang, Hui-Ju; Ma, Ying-Yu; Xia, Ying-Jie; Li, Li; Zhang, Ru-Xuan; Jin, Tao; Zhao, Zhong-Kuo; Xu, Ji; Yu, Sheng; Wu, Fang; Wang, Si-Zhen; Jiao, Yu-Chen; Yan, Hai; Tao, Hou-Quan

    2015-01-01

    Background Several somatic mutation hotspots were recently identified in the TERT promoter region in human cancers. Large scale studies of these mutations in multiple tumor types are limited, in particular in Asian populations. This study aimed to: analyze TERT promoter mutations in multiple tumor types in a large Chinese patient cohort, investigate novel tumor types and assess the functional significance of the mutations. Methods TERT promoter mutation status was assessed by Sanger sequencing for 13 different tumor types and 799 tumor tissues from Chinese cancer patients. Thymic epithelial tumors, gastrointestinal leiomyoma, and gastric schwannoma were included, for which the TERT promoter has not been previously sequenced. Functional studies included TERT expression by RT-qPCR, telomerase activity by the TRAP assay, and promoter activity by the luciferase reporter assay. Results TERT promoter mutations were highly frequent in glioblastoma (83.9%), urothelial carcinoma (64.5%), oligodendroglioma (70.0%), medulloblastoma (33.3%), and hepatocellular carcinoma (31.4%). C228T and C250T were the most common mutations. In urothelial carcinoma, several novel rare mutations were identified. TERT promoter mutations were absent in GIST, thymic epithelial tumors, gastrointestinal leiomyoma, gastric schwannoma, cholangiocarcinoma, gastric and pancreatic cancer. TERT promoter mutations highly correlated with upregulated TERT mRNA expression and telomerase activity in adult gliomas. These mutations differentially enhanced the transcriptional activity of the TERT core promoter. Conclusions TERT promoter mutations are frequent in multiple tumor types and have similar distributions in Chinese cancer patients. The functional significance of these mutations reflect the importance to telomere maintenance and hence tumorigenesis, making them potential therapeutic targets. PMID:25843513

  16. Differential Effects of HRAS Mutation on LTP-Like Activity Induced by Different Protocols of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dileone, Michele; Ranieri, Federico; Florio, Lucia; Capone, Fioravante; Musumeci, Gabriella; Leoni, Chiara; Mordillo-Mateos, Laura; Tartaglia, Marco; Zampino, Giuseppe; Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Costello syndrome (CS) is a rare congenital disorder due to a G12S amino acid substitution in HRAS protoncogene. Previous studies have shown that Paired Associative Stimulation (PAS), a repetitive brain stimulation protocol inducing motor cortex plasticity by coupling peripheral nerve stimulation with brain stimulation, leads to an extremely pronounced motor cortex excitability increase in CS patients. Intermittent Theta Burst Stimulation (iTBS) represents a protocol able to induce motor cortex plasticity by trains of stimuli at 50 Hz. In healthy subjects PAS and iTBS produce similar after-effects in motor cortex excitability. Experimental models showed that HRAS-dependent signalling pathways differently affect LTP induced by different patterns of repetitive synaptic stimulation. We aimed to compare iTBS-induced after-effects on motor cortex excitability with those produced by PAS in CS patients and to observe whether HRAS mutation differentially affects two different forms of neuromodulation protocols. We evaluated in vivo after-effects induced by PAS and iTBS applied over the right motor cortex in 4 CS patients and in 21 healthy age-matched controls. Our findings confirmed HRAS-dependent extremely pronounced PAS-induced after-effects and showed for the first time that iTBS induces no change in MEP amplitude in CS patients whereas both protocols lead to an increase of about 50% in controls. CS patients are characterized by an impairment of iTBS-related LTP-like phenomena besides enhanced PAS-induced after-effects, suggesting that HRAS-dependent signalling pathways have a differential influence on PAS- and iTBS-induced plasticity in humans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Cellular hyper-excitability caused by mutations that alter the activation process of voltage-gated sodium channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed-Yassine eAMAROUCH

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav are widely expressed as macro-molecular complexes in both excitable and non-excitable tissues. In excitable tissues, the upstroke of the action potential is the result of the passage of a large and rapid influx of sodium ions through these channels. NaV dysfunction has been associated with an increasingly wide range of neurological, muscular and cardiac disorders. The purpose of this review is to summarize the recently identified sodium channel mutations that are linked to hyper-excitability phenotypes and associated with the alteration of the activation process of voltage gated sodium channels. Indeed, several clinical manifestations that demonstrate an alteration of tissue excitability were recently shown to be strongly associated with the presence of mutations that affect the activation process of the voltage-gated sodium channels. These emerging genotype-phenotype correlations have expanded the clinical spectrum of sodium channelopathies to include disorders which feature a hyper-excitability phenotype that may or may not be associated with a cardiomyopathy. The p.I141V mutation in SCN4A and SCN5A, as well as its homologous p.I136V mutation in SCN9A, are interesting examples of mutations that have been linked to inherited hyperexcitability myotonia, exercise-induced polymorphic ventricular arrhythmias and erythromelalgia, respectively. Regardless of which sodium channel isoform is investigated, the substitution of the isoleucine to valine in the locus 141 induces similar modifications in the biophysical properties of the voltage-gated sodium channels by shifting the voltage-dependence of steady state activation towards more negative potentials.

  18. Growth Hormone Receptor Mutations Related to Individual Dwarfism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Charles; Zhang, Xiquan

    2018-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) promotes body growth by binding with two GH receptors (GHRs) at the cell surface. GHRs interact with Janus kinase, signal transducers, and transcription activators to stimulate metabolic effects and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) synthesis. However, process dysfunctions in the GH–GHR–IGF-1 axis cause animal dwarfism. If, during the GH process, GHR is not successfully recognized and/or bound, or GHR fails to transmit the GH signal to IGF-1, the GH dysfunction occurs. The goal of this review was to focus on the GHR mutations that lead to failures in the GH–GHR–IGF-1 signal transaction process in the dwarf phenotype. Until now, more than 90 GHR mutations relevant to human short stature (Laron syndrome and idiopathic short stature), including deletions, missense, nonsense, frameshift, and splice site mutations, and four GHR defects associated with chicken dwarfism, have been described. Among the 93 identified mutations of human GHR, 68 occur extracellularly, 13 occur in GHR introns, 10 occur intracellularly, and two occur in the transmembrane. These mutations interfere with the interaction between GH and GHRs, GHR dimerization, downstream signaling, and the expression of GHR. These mutations cause aberrant functioning in the GH-GHR-IGF-1 axis, resulting in defects in the number and diameter of muscle fibers as well as bone development. PMID:29748515

  19. Growth Hormone Receptor Mutations Related to Individual Dwarfism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shudai Lin

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone (GH promotes body growth by binding with two GH receptors (GHRs at the cell surface. GHRs interact with Janus kinase, signal transducers, and transcription activators to stimulate metabolic effects and insulin‐like growth factor (IGF synthesis. However, process dysfunctions in the GH–GHR–IGF-1 axis cause animal dwarfism. If, during the GH process, GHR is not successfully recognized and/or bound, or GHR fails to transmit the GH signal to IGF-1, the GH dysfunction occurs. The goal of this review was to focus on the GHR mutations that lead to failures in the GH–GHR–IGF-1 signal transaction process in the dwarf phenotype. Until now, more than 90 GHR mutations relevant to human short stature (Laron syndrome and idiopathic short stature, including deletions, missense, nonsense, frameshift, and splice site mutations, and four GHR defects associated with chicken dwarfism, have been described. Among the 93 identified mutations of human GHR, 68 occur extracellularly, 13 occur in GHR introns, 10 occur intracellularly, and two occur in the transmembrane. These mutations interfere with the interaction between GH and GHRs, GHR dimerization, downstream signaling, and the expression of GHR. These mutations cause aberrant functioning in the GH-GHR-IGF-1 axis, resulting in defects in the number and diameter of muscle fibers as well as bone development.

  20. The WHIM-like CXCR4(S338X) somatic mutation activates AKT and ERK, and promotes resistance to ibrutinib and other agents used in the treatment of Waldenstrom's Macroglobulinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Y; Hunter, Z R; Liu, X; Xu, L; Yang, G; Chen, J; Patterson, C J; Tsakmaklis, N; Kanan, S; Rodig, S; Castillo, J J; Treon, S P

    2015-01-01

    CXCR4(WHIM) somatic mutations are common Waldenstrom's Macroglobulinemia (WM), and are associated with clinical resistance to ibrutinib. We engineered WM cells to express the most common WHIM (Warts, Hypogammaglobulinemia, Infections and Myelokathexis), CXCR(S338X) mutation in WM. Following SDF-1a stimulation, CXCR4(S338X) WM cells exhibited decreased receptor internalization, enhanced and sustained AKT kinase (AKT) and extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) signaling, decreased poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase and caspase 3 cleavage, and decreased Annexin V staining versus CXCR4 wild-type (WT) cells. CXCR4(S338X)-related signaling and survival effects were blocked by the CXCR4 inhibitor AMD3100. SDF-1a-treated CXCR4(S338X) WM cells showed sustained AKT and ERK activation and decreased apoptotic changes versus CXCR4(WT) cells following ibrutinib treatment, findings which were also reversed by AMD3100. AKT or ERK antagonists restored ibrutinib-triggered apoptotic changes in SDF-1a-treated CXCR4(S338X) WM cells demonstrating their role in SDF-1a-mediated ibrutinib resistance. Enhanced bone marrow pAKT staining was also evident in CXCR4(WHIM) versus CXCR4(WT) WM patients, and remained active despite ibrutinib therapy in CXCR4(WHIM) patients. Last, CXCR4(S338X) WM cells showed varying levels of resistance to other WM relevant therapeutics, including bendamustine, fludarabine, bortezomib and idelalisib in the presence of SDF-1a. These studies demonstrate a functional role for CXCR4(WHIM) mutations, and provide a framework for investigation of CXCR4 inhibitors in WM.

  1. SUMOylation Is an Inhibitory Constraint that Regulates the Prion-like Aggregation and Activity of CPEB3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Drisaldi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Protein synthesis is crucial for the maintenance of long-term-memory-related synaptic plasticity. The prion-like cytoplasmic polyadenylation element-binding protein 3 (CPEB3 regulates the translation of several mRNAs important for long-term synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. Here, we provide evidence that the prion-like aggregation and activity of CPEB3 is controlled by SUMOylation. In the basal state, CPEB3 is a repressor and is soluble. Under these circumstances, CPEB3 is SUMOylated in hippocampal neurons both in vitro and in vivo. Following neuronal stimulation, CPEB3 is converted into an active form that promotes the translation of target mRNAs, and this is associated with a decrease of SUMOylation and an increase of aggregation. A chimeric CPEB3 protein fused to SUMO cannot form aggregates and cannot activate the translation of target mRNAs. These findings suggest a model whereby SUMO regulates translation of mRNAs and structural synaptic plasticity by modulating the aggregation of the prion-like protein CPEB3.

  2. Transfer flask for hot active fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, Roger; Moutard, Daniel.

    1980-01-01

    This invention concerns a flask for transporting active fuel elements removed from a nuclear reactor vessel, after only a few days storage and hence cooling, either within a nuclear power station itself or between such a station and a near-by storage area. This containment system is not a flask for conveyance over long and medium distances. Specifically, the invention concerns a transport flask that enables hot fuel elements to be cooled, even in the event of accidents [fr

  3. Structural and functional analysis of an enhancer GPEI having a phorbol 12-O-tetradecanoate 13-acetate responsive element-like sequence found in the rat glutathione transferase P gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, A; Imagawa, M; Maeda, Y; Sakai, M; Muramatsu, M

    1989-10-05

    We have recently identified a typical enhancer, termed GPEI, located about 2.5 kilobases upstream from the transcription initiation site of the rat glutathione transferase P gene. Analyses of 5' and 3' deletion mutants revealed that the cis-acting sequence of GPEI contained the phorbol 12-O-tetradecanoate 13-acetate responsive element (TRE)-like sequence in it. For the maximal activity, however, GPEI required an adjacent upstream sequence of about 19 base pairs in addition to the TRE-like sequence. With the DNA binding gel-shift assay, we could detect protein(s) that specifically binds to the TRE-like sequence of GPEI fragment, which was possibly c-jun.c-fos complex or a similar protein complex. The sequence immediately upstream of the TRE-like sequence did not have any activity by itself, but augmented the latter activity by about 5-fold.

  4. Discovery and prioritization of somatic mutations in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) by whole-exome sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohr, Jens G.; Stojanov, Petar; Lawrence, Michael S.; Auclair, Daniel; Chapuy, Bjoern; Sougnez, Carrie; Cruz-Gordillo, Peter; Knoechel, Birgit; Asmann, Yan W.; Slager, Susan L.; Novak, Anne J.; Dogan, Ahmet; Ansell, Stephen M.; Zou, Lihua; Gould, Joshua; Saksena, Gordon; Stransky, Nicolas; Rangel-Escareño, Claudia; Fernandez-Lopez, Juan Carlos; Hidalgo-Miranda, Alfredo; Melendez-Zajgla, Jorge; Hernández-Lemus, Enrique; Schwarz-Cruz y Celis, Angela; Imaz-Rosshandler, Ivan; Ojesina, Akinyemi I.; Jung, Joonil; Pedamallu, Chandra S.; Lander, Eric S.; Habermann, Thomas M.; Cerhan, James R.; Shipp, Margaret A.; Getz, Gad; Golub, Todd R.

    2012-01-01

    To gain insight into the genomic basis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), we performed massively parallel whole-exome sequencing of 55 primary tumor samples from patients with DLBCL and matched normal tissue. We identified recurrent mutations in genes that are well known to be functionally relevant in DLBCL, including MYD88, CARD11, EZH2, and CREBBP. We also identified somatic mutations in genes for which a functional role in DLBCL has not been previously suspected. These genes include MEF2B, MLL2, BTG1, GNA13, ACTB, P2RY8, PCLO, and TNFRSF14. Further, we show that BCL2 mutations commonly occur in patients with BCL2/IgH rearrangements as a result of somatic hypermutation normally occurring at the IgH locus. The BCL2 point mutations are primarily synonymous, and likely caused by activation-induced cytidine deaminase–mediated somatic hypermutation, as shown by comprehensive analysis of enrichment of mutations in WRCY target motifs. Those nonsynonymous mutations that are observed tend to be found outside of the functionally important BH domains of the protein, suggesting that strong negative selection against BCL2 loss-of-function mutations is at play. Last, by using an algorithm designed to identify likely functionally relevant but infrequent mutations, we identify KRAS, BRAF, and NOTCH1 as likely drivers of DLBCL pathogenesis in some patients. Our data provide an unbiased view of the landscape of mutations in DLBCL, and this in turn may point toward new therapeutic strategies for the disease. PMID:22343534

  5. Abundance, distribution and potential impact of transposable elements in the genome of Mycosphaerella fijiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Mateus F; Silva, José C F; Batista, Aline D; Ribeiro, Lílian E; da Silva, Gilvan F; de Araújo, Elza F; de Queiroz, Marisa V

    2012-12-22

    Mycosphaerella fijiensis is a ascomycete that causes Black Sigatoka in bananas. Recently, the M. fijiensis genome was sequenced. Repetitive sequences are ubiquitous components of fungal genomes. In most genomic analyses, repetitive sequences are associated with transposable elements (TEs). TEs are dispersed repetitive DNA sequences found in a host genome. These elements have the ability to move from one location to another within the genome, and their insertion can cause a wide spectrum of mutations in their hosts. Some of the deleterious effects of TEs may be due to ectopic recombination among TEs of the same family. In addition, some transposons are physically linked to genes and can control their expression. To prevent possible damage caused by the presence of TEs in the genome, some fungi possess TE-silencing mechanisms, such as RIP (Repeat Induced Point mutation). In this study, the abundance, distribution and potential impact of TEs in the genome of M. fijiensis were investigated. A total of 613 LTR-Gypsy and 27 LTR-Copia complete elements of the class I were detected. Among the class II elements, a total of 28 Mariner, five Mutator and one Harbinger complete elements were identified. The results of this study indicate that transposons were and are important ectopic recombination sites. A distribution analysis of a transposable element from each class of the M. fijiensis isolates revealed variable hybridization profiles, indicating the activity of these elements. Several genes encoding proteins involved in important metabolic pathways and with potential correlation to pathogenicity systems were identified upstream and downstream of transposable elements. A comparison of the sequences from different transposon groups suggested the action of the RIP silencing mechanism in the genome of this microorganism. The analysis of TEs in M. fijiensis suggests that TEs play an important role in the evolution of this organism because the activity of these elements, as well

  6. Abundance, distribution and potential impact of transposable elements in the genome of Mycosphaerella fijiensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santana Mateus F

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycosphaerella fijiensis is a ascomycete that causes Black Sigatoka in bananas. Recently, the M. fijiensis genome was sequenced. Repetitive sequences are ubiquitous components of fungal genomes. In most genomic analyses, repetitive sequences are associated with transposable elements (TEs. TEs are dispersed repetitive DNA sequences found in a host genome. These elements have the ability to move from one location to another within the genome, and their insertion can cause a wide spectrum of mutations in their hosts. Some of the deleterious effects of TEs may be due to ectopic recombination among TEs of the same family. In addition, some transposons are physically linked to genes and can control their expression. To prevent possible damage caused by the presence of TEs in the genome, some fungi possess TE-silencing mechanisms, such as RIP (Repeat Induced Point mutation. In this study, the abundance, distribution and potential impact of TEs in the genome of M. fijiensis were investigated. Results A total of 613 LTR-Gypsy and 27 LTR-Copia complete elements of the class I were detected. Among the class II elements, a total of 28 Mariner, five Mutator and one Harbinger complete elements were identified. The results of this study indicate that transposons were and are important ectopic recombination sites. A distribution analysis of a transposable element from each class of the M. fijiensis isolates revealed variable hybridization profiles, indicating the activity of these elements. Several genes encoding proteins involved in important metabolic pathways and with potential correlation to pathogenicity systems were identified upstream and downstream of transposable elements. A comparison of the sequences from different transposon groups suggested the action of the RIP silencing mechanism in the genome of this microorganism. Conclusions The analysis of TEs in M. fijiensis suggests that TEs play an important role in the evolution of

  7. After the activation of heavy elements in the course of experiments: intermediate storage and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrlicher, U.; Beer, H.F.

    2005-01-01

    When materials are foreseen to be activated in the course of experiments, radiation protection must also be considered from the aspect of waste disposal. Materials containing heavy elements still can bear some TBq of activity 10 years after irradiation with neutrons or heavy particles in an accelerator. The potential danger has to be assessed for each storage position in behalf of planning protective measures. For the longest period, however, the material will rest in an interim storage like the BZL in Wuerenlingen, Switzerland, waiting for its final disposal. PSI calculates the maximum personal dose for accidents (plane crash followed by a fire hazard) to assess the potential risk around the BZL. The following speech will deal with items like: personal dose for the inhabitants of communities in the vicinity of the BZL after a possible accident before and after the storage of the activated materials, adherence to the aims of protection (personal dose of less than 100 mSv), possible measures to minimize the potential danger, (orig.)

  8. Structure-Activity Relationship in TLR4 Mutations: Atomistic Molecular Dynamics Simulations and Residue Interaction Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Muhammad Ayaz; Choi, Sangdun

    2017-03-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), a vital innate immune receptor present on cell surfaces, initiates a signaling cascade during danger and bacterial intrusion. TLR4 needs to form a stable hexamer complex, which is necessary to dimerize the cytoplasmic domain. However, D299G and T399I polymorphism may abrogate the stability of the complex, leading to compromised TLR4 signaling. Crystallography provides valuable insights into the structural aspects of the TLR4 ectodomain; however, the dynamic behavior of polymorphic TLR4 is still unclear. Here, we employed molecular dynamics simulations (MDS), as well as principal component and residue network analyses, to decipher the structural aspects and signaling propagation associated with mutations in TLR4. The mutated complexes were less cohesive, displayed local and global variation in the secondary structure, and anomalous decay in rotational correlation function. Principal component analysis indicated that the mutated complexes also exhibited distinct low-frequency motions, which may be correlated to the differential behaviors of these TLR4 variants. Moreover, residue interaction networks (RIN) revealed that the mutated TLR4/myeloid differentiation factor (MD) 2 complex may perpetuate abnormal signaling pathways. Cumulatively, the MDS and RIN analyses elucidated the mutant-specific conformational alterations, which may help in deciphering the mechanism of loss-of-function mutations.

  9. Estimating spontaneous mutation rates at enzyme loci in Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukai, Terumi; Yamazaki, Tsuneyuki; Harada, Ko; Kusakabe, Shin-ichi

    1990-04-01

    Spontaneous mutations were accumulated for 1,620,826 allele-generations on chromosomes that originated from six stem second chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster. Only null-electromorph mutations were detected. Band-electromorph mutations were not found. The average rate of null-electromorph mutations was 2.71 x 10 -5 per locus per generation. The 95% confidence interval (μ n ) was 1.97 x 10 -5 n -5 per locus per generation. The upper 95% confidence limit of the band-electromorph mutation rate (μ B ) was 2.28 x 10 -6 per locus per generation. It appeared that null mutations were induced by movable genetic elements and that the mutation rates were different from chromosome to chromosome. (author)

  10. Potential late-onset Alzheimer's disease-associated mutations in the ADAM10 gene attenuate {alpha}-secretase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minji; Suh, Jaehong; Romano, Donna; Truong, Mimy H; Mullin, Kristina; Hooli, Basavaraj; Norton, David; Tesco, Giuseppina; Elliott, Kathy; Wagner, Steven L; Moir, Robert D; Becker, K David; Tanzi, Rudolph E

    2009-10-15

    ADAM10, a member of a disintegrin and metalloprotease family, is an alpha-secretase capable of anti-amyloidogenic proteolysis of the amyloid precursor protein. Here, we present evidence for genetic association of ADAM10 with Alzheimer's disease (AD) as well as two rare potentially disease-associated non-synonymous mutations, Q170H and R181G, in the ADAM10 prodomain. These mutations were found in 11 of 16 affected individuals (average onset age 69.5 years) from seven late-onset AD families. Each mutation was also found in one unaffected subject implying incomplete penetrance. Functionally, both mutations significantly attenuated alpha-secretase activity of ADAM10 (>70% decrease), and elevated Abeta levels (1.5-3.5-fold) in cell-based studies. In summary, we provide the first evidence of ADAM10 as a candidate AD susceptibility gene, and report two potentially pathogenic mutations with incomplete penetrance for late-onset familial AD.

  11. UVA activation of N-dialkylnitrosamines releasing nitric oxide, producing strand breaks as well as oxidative damages in DNA, and inducing mutations in the Ames test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arimoto-Kobayashi, Sakae; Sano, Kayoko; Machida, Masaki; Kaji, Keiko; Yakushi, Keiko

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the photo-mutagenicity and photo-genotoxicity of N-dialkylnitrosamines and its mechanisms of UVA activation. With simultaneous irradiation of UVA, photo-mutagenicity of seven N-dialkylnitrosamines was observed in Ames bacteria (Salmonella typhimurium TA1535) in the absence of metabolic activation. Mutagenicity of pre-irradiated N-dialkylnitrosamines was also observed with S. typhimurium hisG46, TA100, TA102 and YG7108 in the absence of metabolic activation. UVA-mediated mutation with N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) decreased by adding either the NO or OH radical scavenger. When superhelical DNA was irradiated with N-dialkylnitrosamines, nicked circular DNA appeared. Ten N-dialkylnitrosamines examined produced strand breaks in the treated DNA in the presence of UVA. The level of single-strand breaks in φX174 DNA mediated by N-nitrosomorpholine (NMOR) and UVA decreased by adding either a radical scavenger or superoxide dismutase. When calf thymus DNA was treated with N-dialkylnitrosamines (NDMA, NDEA, NMOR, N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR) and N-nitrosopiperidine (NPIP)) and UVA, the ratio of 8-oxodG/dG in the DNA increased. Action spectra were obtained to determine if nitrosamine acts as a sensitizer of UVA. Both mutation frequency and NO formation were highest at the absorption maximum of nitrosamines, approximately 340 nm. The plots of NO formation and mutation frequency align with the absorption curve of NPYR, NMOR and NDMA. A significant linear correlation between the optical density of N-dialkynitrosamines at 340 nm and NO formation in each irradiated solution was revealed by ANOVA. We would like to propose the hypothesis that the N-nitroso moiety of N-dialkylnitrosamines absorbs UVA photons, UVA-photolysis of N-dialkylnitrosamines brings release of nitric oxide, and subsequent production of alkyl radical cations and active oxygen species follow as secondary events, which cause DNA strand breaks, oxidative and

  12. UVA activation of N-dialkylnitrosamines releasing nitric oxide, producing strand breaks as well as oxidative damages in DNA, and inducing mutations in the Ames test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arimoto-Kobayashi, Sakae [Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, 1-1-1 Tsushima, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Sano, Kayoko; Machida, Masaki; Kaji, Keiko; Yakushi, Keiko [Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, 1-1-1 Tsushima, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan)

    2010-09-10

    We investigated the photo-mutagenicity and photo-genotoxicity of N-dialkylnitrosamines and its mechanisms of UVA activation. With simultaneous irradiation of UVA, photo-mutagenicity of seven N-dialkylnitrosamines was observed in Ames bacteria (Salmonella typhimurium TA1535) in the absence of metabolic activation. Mutagenicity of pre-irradiated N-dialkylnitrosamines was also observed with S. typhimurium hisG46, TA100, TA102 and YG7108 in the absence of metabolic activation. UVA-mediated mutation with N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) decreased by adding either the NO or OH radical scavenger. When superhelical DNA was irradiated with N-dialkylnitrosamines, nicked circular DNA appeared. Ten N-dialkylnitrosamines examined produced strand breaks in the treated DNA in the presence of UVA. The level of single-strand breaks in {phi}X174 DNA mediated by N-nitrosomorpholine (NMOR) and UVA decreased by adding either a radical scavenger or superoxide dismutase. When calf thymus DNA was treated with N-dialkylnitrosamines (NDMA, NDEA, NMOR, N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR) and N-nitrosopiperidine (NPIP)) and UVA, the ratio of 8-oxodG/dG in the DNA increased. Action spectra were obtained to determine if nitrosamine acts as a sensitizer of UVA. Both mutation frequency and NO formation were highest at the absorption maximum of nitrosamines, approximately 340 nm. The plots of NO formation and mutation frequency align with the absorption curve of NPYR, NMOR and NDMA. A significant linear correlation between the optical density of N-dialkynitrosamines at 340 nm and NO formation in each irradiated solution was revealed by ANOVA. We would like to propose the hypothesis that the N-nitroso moiety of N-dialkylnitrosamines absorbs UVA photons, UVA-photolysis of N-dialkylnitrosamines brings release of nitric oxide, and subsequent production of alkyl radical cations and active oxygen species follow as secondary events, which cause DNA strand breaks, oxidative and

  13. Novel C16orf57 mutations in patients with Poikiloderma with Neutropenia: bioinformatic analysis of the protein and predicted effects of all reported mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colombo Elisa A

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poikiloderma with Neutropenia (PN is a rare autosomal recessive genodermatosis caused by C16orf57 mutations. To date 17 mutations have been identified in 31 PN patients. Results We characterize six PN patients expanding the clinical phenotype of the syndrome and the mutational repertoire of the gene. We detect the two novel C16orf57 mutations, c.232C>T and c.265+2T>G, as well as the already reported c.179delC, c.531delA and c.693+1G>T mutations. cDNA analysis evidences the presence of aberrant transcripts, and bioinformatic prediction of C16orf57 protein structure gauges the mutations effects on the folded protein chain. Computational analysis of the C16orf57 protein shows two conserved H-X-S/T-X tetrapeptide motifs marking the active site of a two-fold pseudosymmetric structure recalling the 2H phosphoesterase superfamily. Based on this model C16orf57 is likely a 2H-active site enzyme functioning in RNA processing, as a presumptive RNA ligase. According to bioinformatic prediction, all known C16orf57 mutations, including the novel mutations herein described, impair the protein structure by either removing one or both tetrapeptide motifs or by destroying the symmetry of the native folding. Finally, we analyse the geographical distribution of the recurrent mutations that depicts clusters featuring a founder effect. Conclusions In cohorts of patients clinically affected by genodermatoses with overlapping symptoms, the molecular screening of C16orf57 gene seems the proper way to address the correct diagnosis of PN, enabling the syndrome-specific oncosurveillance. The bioinformatic prediction of the C16orf57 protein structure denotes a very basic enzymatic function consistent with a housekeeping function. Detection of aberrant transcripts, also in cells from PN patients carrying early truncated mutations, suggests they might be translatable. Tissue-specific sensitivity to the lack of functionally correct protein accounts for the

  14. Retention of elemental 131I by activated carbons under accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deuber, H.

    1984-09-01

    Under simulated accident conditions (maximum temperature: 130 0 C) no significant difference was found in the retention of I-131 loaded as elemental iodine, by various fresh and aged commercial activated carbons. In all the cases, the I-131 passing through deep beds of activated carbon was in a non-elemental form. It is concluded that a minimum retention of 99.99% for elemental radioiodine, as required by the RSK guidelines for PWR accident filters, can be equally well achieved with various commercial activated carbons. (orig.) [de

  15. Identifying activating mutations in the EGFR gene: prognostic and therapeutic implications in non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Gabriel Lima; Vattimo, Edoardo Filippo de Queiroz; Castro Junior, Gilberto de

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Promising new therapies have recently emerged from the development of molecular targeted drugs; particularly promising are those blocking the signal transduction machinery of cancer cells. One of the most widely studied cell signaling pathways is that of EGFR, which leads to uncontrolled cell proliferation, increased cell angiogenesis, and greater cell invasiveness. Activating mutations in the EGFR gene (deletions in exon 19 and mutation L858R in exon 21), first described in 2004, have been detected in approximately 10% of all non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients in Western countries and are the most important predictors of a response to EGFR tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs). Studies of the EGFR-TKIs gefitinib, erlotinib, and afatinib, in comparison with platinum-based regimens, as first-line treatments in chemotherapy-naïve patients have shown that the EGFR-TKIs produce gains in progression-free survival and overall response rates, although only in patients whose tumors harbor activating mutations in the EGFR gene. Clinical trials have also shown EGFR-TKIs to be effective as second- and third-line therapies in advanced NSCLC. Here, we review the main aspects of EGFR pathway activation in NSCLC, underscore the importance of correctly identifying activating mutations in the EGFR gene, and discuss the main outcomes of EGFR-TKI treatment in NSCLC.

  16. Identifying activating mutations in the EGFR gene: prognostic and therapeutic implications in non-small cell lung cancer *

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Gabriel Lima; Vattimo, Edoardo Filippo de Queiroz; de Castro, Gilberto

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Promising new therapies have recently emerged from the development of molecular targeted drugs; particularly promising are those blocking the signal transduction machinery of cancer cells. One of the most widely studied cell signaling pathways is that of EGFR, which leads to uncontrolled cell proliferation, increased cell angiogenesis, and greater cell invasiveness. Activating mutations in the EGFR gene (deletions in exon 19 and mutation L858R in exon 21), first described in 2004, have been detected in approximately 10% of all non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients in Western countries and are the most important predictors of a response to EGFR tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs). Studies of the EGFR-TKIs gefitinib, erlotinib, and afatinib, in comparison with platinum-based regimens, as first-line treatments in chemotherapy-naïve patients have shown that the EGFR-TKIs produce gains in progression-free survival and overall response rates, although only in patients whose tumors harbor activating mutations in the EGFR gene. Clinical trials have also shown EGFR-TKIs to be effective as second- and third-line therapies in advanced NSCLC. Here, we review the main aspects of EGFR pathway activation in NSCLC, underscore the importance of correctly identifying activating mutations in the EGFR gene, and discuss the main outcomes of EGFR-TKI treatment in NSCLC. PMID:26398757

  17. Targeted deep sequencing of mucinous ovarian tumors reveals multiple overlapping RAS-pathway activating mutations in borderline and cancerous neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackenzie, Robertson; Kommoss, Stefan; Winterhoff, Boris J.; Kipp, Benjamin R.; Garcia, Joaquin J.; Voss, Jesse; Halling, Kevin; Karnezis, Anthony; Senz, Janine; Yang, Winnie; Prigge, Elena-Sophie; Reuschenbach, Miriam; Doeberitz, Magnus Von Knebel; Gilks, Blake C.; Huntsman, David G.; Bakkum-Gamez, Jamie; McAlpine, Jessica N.; Anglesio, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Mucinous ovarian tumors represent a distinct histotype of epithelial ovarian cancer. The rarest (2-4 % of ovarian carcinomas) of the five major histotypes, their genomic landscape remains poorly described. We undertook hotspot sequencing of 50 genes commonly mutated in human cancer across 69 mucinous ovarian tumors. Our goals were to establish the overall frequency of cancer-hotspot mutations across a large cohort, especially those tumors previously thought to be “RAS-pathway alteration negative”, using highly-sensitive next-generation sequencing as well as further explore a small number of cases with apparent heterogeneity in RAS-pathway activating alterations. Using the Ion Torrent PGM platform, we performed next generation sequencing analysis using the v2 Cancer Hotspot Panel. Regions of disparate ERBB2-amplification status were sequenced independently for two mucinous carcinoma (MC) cases, previously established as showing ERBB2 amplification/overexpression heterogeneity, to assess the hypothesis of subclonal populations containing either KRAS mutation or ERBB2 amplification independently or simultaneously. We detected mutations in KRAS, TP53, CDKN2A, PIK3CA, PTEN, BRAF, FGFR2, STK11, CTNNB1, SRC, SMAD4, GNA11 and ERBB2. KRAS mutations remain the most frequently observed alteration among MC (64.9 %) and mucinous borderline tumors (MBOT) (92.3 %). TP53 mutation occurred more frequently in carcinomas than borderline tumors (56.8 % and 11.5 %, respectively), and combined IHC and mutation data suggest alterations occur in approximately 68 % of MC and as many as 20 % of MBOT. Proven and potential RAS-pathway activating changes were observed in all but one MC. Concurrent ERBB2 amplification and KRAS mutation were observed in a substantial number of cases (7/63 total), as was co-occurrence of KRAS and BRAF mutations (one case). Microdissection of ERBB2-amplified regions of tumors harboring KRAS mutation suggests these alterations are occurring in the same cell

  18. TERT promoter mutation as an early genetic event activating telomerase in follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA) and atypical FTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Na; Liu, Tiantian; Sofiadis, Anastasios; Juhlin, C Christofer; Zedenius, Jan; Höög, Anders; Larsson, Catharina; Xu, Dawei

    2014-10-01

    The telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter mutations C228T and C250T have been found in many malignancies, including in thyroid carcinomas. However, it is unclear how early these mutations occur in thyroid tumorigenesis. The study included primary tumors from 58 patients initially diagnosed with follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA), a benign entity, 18 with atypical FTA (AFTA) having an uncertain malignant potential, and 52 with follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC). Sanger sequencing was used to investigate the mutational status of the TERT promoter. Telomere length and TERT messenger RNA (mRNA) expression were determined using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Telomerase activity was assessed using a Telomerase PCR enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. The C228T mutation was identified in 1 of 58 FTA (2%) and 3 of 18 AFTA (17%) samples. These 4 tumors all expressed TERT mRNA and telomerase activity, whereas the majority of C228T-negative adenomas lacked TERT expression (C228T versus wild-type, P = .008). The C228T mutation was associated with NRAS gene mutations (P = .016). The patient with C228T-mutated FTA later developed a scar recurrence and died of FTC, whereas none of the remaining 57 patients with FTA had recurrence. No recurrence occurred in 3 patients with AFTA who carried C228T during the follow-up period (36-285 months). Nine of the 52 FTCs (17%) exhibited the TERT mutation (8 of 9 C228T and 1 of 9 C250T), and the presence of the mutation was associated with shorter patient survival. TERT promoter mutations may occur as an early genetic event in thyroid follicular tumors that have not developed malignant features on routine histopathological workup. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  19. Structural and dynamic characterization of the C313Y mutation in Myostatin dimeric protein, responsible for the double muscle phenotype in Piedmontese cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia eBongiorno

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the molecular effects of the C313Y mutation, responsible for the double muscle phenotype in Piedmontese cattle, can help understanding the actual mechanism of phenotype determination and paves the route for a better modulation of the positive effects of this economic important phenotype in the beef industry, while minimizing the negative side effects, now inevitably intersected.The structure and dynamic behaviour of the active dimeric form of Myostatin in cattle was analyzed by means of three state-of-the-art Molecular Dynamics simulations, 200-ns long, of wild-type and C313Y mutants. Our results highlight a role for the conserved Arg333 in establishing a network of short and long range interactions between the two monomers in the wild-type protein that is destroyed upon the C313Y mutation even in a single monomer. Furthermore, the native protein shows an asymmetry in residue fluctuation that is absent in the double monomer mutant. Time window analysis on further 200-ns of simulation demonstrates that this is a characteristic behaviour of the protein, likely depended from the long range communications between monomers. The same behaviour, in fact, has already been observed in other mutated dimers. Finally, the mutation does not produce alterations in the secondary structure elements that compose the characteristic TGF-β cystine-knot motif.

  20. Probing Trace-elements in Bitumen by Neutron Activation Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nahar, S.N.; Schmets, A.J.M.; Scarpas, Athanasios

    Trace elements and their concentrations play an important role in both chemical and physical properties of bitumen. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) has been applied to determine the concentration of trace elements in bitumen. This method requires irradiation of the material with

  1. Antihelminth compound niclosamide downregulates Wnt signaling and elicits antitumor responses in tumors with activating APC mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osada, Takuya; Chen, Minyong; Yang, Xiao Yi; Spasojevic, Ivan; Vandeusen, Jeffrey B; Hsu, David; Clary, Bryan M; Clay, Timothy M; Chen, Wei; Morse, Michael A; Lyerly, H Kim

    2011-06-15

    Wnt/β-catenin pathway activation caused by adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) mutations occurs in approximately 80% of sporadic colorectal cancers (CRC). The antihelminth compound niclosamide downregulates components of the Wnt pathway, specifically Dishevelled-2 (Dvl2) expression, resulting in diminished downstream β-catenin signaling. In this study, we determined whether niclosamide could inhibit the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in human CRCs and whether its inhibition might elicit antitumor effects in the presence of APC mutations. We found that niclosamide inhibited Wnt/β-catenin pathway activation, downregulated Dvl2, decreased downstream β-catenin signaling, and exerted antiproliferative effects in human colon cancer cell lines and CRC cells isolated by surgical resection of metastatic disease, regardless of mutations in APC. In contrast, inhibition of NF-κB or mTOR did not exert similar antiproliferative effects in these CRC model systems. In mice implanted with human CRC xenografts, orally administered niclosamide was well tolerated, achieved plasma and tumor levels associated with biologic activity, and led to tumor control. Our findings support clinical explorations to reposition niclosamide for the treatment of CRC.

  2. Helicobacter pylori VacA enhances prostaglandin E2 production through induction of cyclooxygenase 2 expression via a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase/activating transcription factor 2 cascade in AZ-521 cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hisatsune, Junzo; Yamasaki, Eiki; Nakayama, Masaaki

    2007-01-01

    of a COX-2 promoter reporter gene and activated a COX-2 promoter containing mutated NF-kappaB or NF-interleukin-6 sites but not a mutated cis-acting replication element (CRE) site, suggesting direct involvement of the activating transcription factor 2 (ATF-2)/CREB-binding region in VacA-induced COX-2...... to activation of the CRE site in the COX-2 promoter....

  3. An unusual form of spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, with advanced carpal and spinal end-plate ossification mimicking COMP-mutation-like multiple epiphyseal dysplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pazzaglia, Ugo E.; Zarattini, Guido [University of Brescia Medical School, Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Brescia (Italy); Beluffi, Giampiero [Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico S. Matteo, Section of Paediatric Radiology, Department of Radiodiagnosis, Pavia (Italy)

    2008-07-15

    We present a child with irregular ossification of tubular bone epiphyses, short bones, and spine. The radiographic evolution of bones undergoing endochondral ossification was followed from the age of 1 year 9 months to 6 years. The unusual features demonstrated in this child made classification difficult: pseudoachondroplasia was excluded because no mutations of the COMP gene were found. Considering the evolution of the radiographic appearances, the most likely diagnosis would seem to be an unusual form of spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, mimicking some aspects of multiple epiphyseal dysplasia. Endochondral ossification was diffusely altered with a mixture of epiphyseal ossification delay associated with acceleration and early fusion. This case was a unique presentation within the family, suggesting a mutation in the affected child. (orig.)

  4. An unusual form of spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, with advanced carpal and spinal end-plate ossification mimicking COMP-mutation-like multiple epiphyseal dysplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazzaglia, Ugo E.; Zarattini, Guido; Beluffi, Giampiero

    2008-01-01

    We present a child with irregular ossification of tubular bone epiphyses, short bones, and spine. The radiographic evolution of bones undergoing endochondral ossification was followed from the age of 1 year 9 months to 6 years. The unusual features demonstrated in this child made classification difficult: pseudoachondroplasia was excluded because no mutations of the COMP gene were found. Considering the evolution of the radiographic appearances, the most likely diagnosis would seem to be an unusual form of spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, mimicking some aspects of multiple epiphyseal dysplasia. Endochondral ossification was diffusely altered with a mixture of epiphyseal ossification delay associated with acceleration and early fusion. This case was a unique presentation within the family, suggesting a mutation in the affected child. (orig.)

  5. Genetic Correction of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells From a Deaf Patient With MYO7A Mutation Results in Morphologic and Functional Recovery of the Derived Hair Cell-Like Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zi-Hua; Chen, Jia-Rong; Zheng, Jing; Shi, Hao-Song; Ding, Jie; Qian, Xiao-Dan; Zhang, Cui; Chen, Jian-Ling; Wang, Cui-Cui; Li, Liang; Chen, Jun-Zhen; Yin, Shan-Kai; Huang, Tao-Sheng; Chen, Ping; Guan, Min-Xin; Wang, Jin-Fu

    2016-05-01

    The genetic correction of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) induced from somatic cells of patients with sensorineural hearing loss (caused by hereditary factors) is a promising method for its treatment. The correction of gene mutations in iPSCs could restore the normal function of cells and provide a rich source of cells for transplantation. In the present study, iPSCs were generated from a deaf patient with compound heterozygous MYO7A mutations (c.1184G>A and c.4118C>T; P-iPSCs), the asymptomatic father of the patient (MYO7A c.1184G>A mutation; CF-iPSCs), and a normal donor (MYO7A(WT/WT); C-iPSCs). One of MYO7A mutation sites (c.4118C>T) in the P-iPSCs was corrected using CRISPR/Cas9. The corrected iPSCs (CP-iPSCs) retained cell pluripotency and normal karyotypes. Hair cell-like cells induced from CP-iPSCs showed restored organization of stereocilia-like protrusions; moreover, the electrophysiological function of these cells was similar to that of cells induced from C-iPSCs and CF-iPSCs. These results might facilitate the development of iPSC-based gene therapy for genetic disorders. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were generated from a deaf patient with compound heterozygous MYO7A mutations (c.1184G>A and c.4118C>T). One of the MYO7A mutation sites (c.4118C>T) in the iPSCs was corrected using CRISPR/Cas9. The genetic correction of MYO7A mutation resulted in morphologic and functional recovery of hair cell-like cells derived from iPSCs. These findings confirm the hypothesis that MYO7A plays an important role in the assembly of stereocilia into stereociliary bundles. Thus, the present study might provide further insight into the pathogenesis of sensorineural hearing loss and facilitate the development of therapeutic strategies against monogenic disease through the genetic repair of patient-specific iPSCs. ©AlphaMed Press.

  6. The second activating glucokinase mutation (A456V)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christesen, Henrik B T; Jacobsen, Bendt B; Odili, Stella

    2002-01-01

    for mutations in candidate genes revealed a heterozygous glucokinase mutation in exon 10, substituting valine for alanine at codon 456 (A456V) in the proband and his mother. The purified recombinant glutathionyl S-transferase fusion protein of the A456V glucokinase revealed a decreased glucose S(0.5) (the...

  7. Key clinical features to identify girls with CDKL5 mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahi-Buisson, Nadia; Nectoux, Juliette; Rosas-Vargas, Haydeé; Milh, Mathieu; Boddaert, Nathalie; Girard, Benoit; Cances, Claude; Ville, Dorothée; Afenjar, Alexandra; Rio, Marlène; Héron, Delphine; N'guyen Morel, Marie Ange; Arzimanoglou, Alexis; Philippe, Christophe; Jonveaux, Philippe; Chelly, Jamel; Bienvenu, Thierry

    2008-10-01

    Mutations in the human X-linked cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) gene have been shown to cause infantile spasms as well as Rett syndrome (RTT)-like phenotype. To date, less than 25 different mutations have been reported. So far, there are still little data on the key clinical diagnosis criteria and on the natural history of CDKL5-associated encephalopathy. We screened the entire coding region of CDKL5 for mutations in 183 females with encephalopathy with early seizures by denaturing high liquid performance chromatography and direct sequencing, and we identified in 20 unrelated girls, 18 different mutations including 7 novel mutations. These mutations were identified in eight patients with encephalopathy with RTT-like features, five with infantile spasms and seven with encephalopathy with refractory epilepsy. Early epilepsy with normal interictal EEG and severe hypotonia are the key clinical features in identifying patients likely to have CDKL5 mutations. Our study also indicates that these patients clearly exhibit some RTT features such as deceleration of head growth, stereotypies and hand apraxia and that these RTT features become more evident in older and ambulatory patients. However, some RTT signs are clearly absent such as the so called RTT disease profile (period of nearly normal development followed by regression with loss of acquired fine finger skill in early childhood and characteristic intensive eye communication) and the characteristic evolution of the RTT electroencephalogram. Interestingly, in addition to the overall stereotypical symptomatology (age of onset and evolution of the disease) resulting from CDKL5 mutations, atypical forms of CDKL5-related conditions have also been observed. Our data suggest that phenotypic heterogeneity does not correlate with the nature or the position of the mutations or with the pattern of X-chromosome inactivation, but most probably with the functional transcriptional and/or translational consequences of CDKL5

  8. Potential late-onset Alzheimer's disease-associated mutations in the ADAM10 gene attenuate α-secretase activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minji; Suh, Jaehong; Romano, Donna; Truong, Mimy H.; Mullin, Kristina; Hooli, Basavaraj; Norton, David; Tesco, Giuseppina; Elliott, Kathy; Wagner, Steven L.; Moir, Robert D.; Becker, K. David; Tanzi, Rudolph E.

    2009-01-01

    ADAM10, a member of a disintegrin and metalloprotease family, is an α-secretase capable of anti-amyloidogenic proteolysis of the amyloid precursor protein. Here, we present evidence for genetic association of ADAM10 with Alzheimer's disease (AD) as well as two rare potentially disease-associated non-synonymous mutations, Q170H and R181G, in the ADAM10 prodomain. These mutations were found in 11 of 16 affected individuals (average onset age 69.5 years) from seven late-onset AD families. Each mutation was also found in one unaffected subject implying incomplete penetrance. Functionally, both mutations significantly attenuated α-secretase activity of ADAM10 (>70% decrease), and elevated Aβ levels (1.5–3.5-fold) in cell-based studies. In summary, we provide the first evidence of ADAM10 as a candidate AD susceptibility gene, and report two potentially pathogenic mutations with incomplete penetrance for late-onset familial AD. PMID:19608551

  9. A site specific model and analysis of the neutral somatic mutation rate in whole-genome cancer data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertl, Johanna; Guo, Qianyun; Juul, Malene; Besenbacher, Søren; Nielsen, Morten Muhlig; Hornshøj, Henrik; Pedersen, Jakob Skou; Hobolth, Asger

    2018-04-19

    Detailed modelling of the neutral mutational process in cancer cells is crucial for identifying driver mutations and understanding the mutational mechanisms that act during cancer development. The neutral mutational process is very complex: whole-genome analyses have revealed that the mutation rate differs between cancer types, between patients and along the genome depending on the genetic and epigenetic context. Therefore, methods that predict the number of different types of mutations in regions or specific genomic elements must consider local genomic explanatory variables. A major drawback of most methods is the need to average the explanatory variables across the entire region or genomic element. This procedure is particularly problematic if the explanatory variable varies dramatically in the element under consideration. To take into account the fine scale of the explanatory variables, we model the probabilities of different types of mutations for each position in the genome by multinomial logistic regression. We analyse 505 cancer genomes from 14 different cancer types and compare the performance in predicting mutation rate for both regional based models and site-specific models. We show that for 1000 randomly selected genomic positions, the site-specific model predicts the mutation rate much better than regional based models. We use a forward selection procedure to identify the most important explanatory variables. The procedure identifies site-specific conservation (phyloP), replication timing, and expression level as the best predictors for the mutation rate. Finally, our model confirms and quantifies certain well-known mutational signatures. We find that our site-specific multinomial regression model outperforms the regional based models. The possibility of including genomic variables on different scales and patient specific variables makes it a versatile framework for studying different mutational mechanisms. Our model can serve as the neutral null model

  10. New mutations affecting induced mutagenesis in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, C W; Krauss, B R; Christensen, R B

    1985-01-01

    Previously isolated mutations in baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, that impair induced mutagenesis were all identified with the aid of tests that either exclusively or predominantly detect base-pair substitutions. To avoid this bias, we have screened 11 366 potentially mutant clones for UV-induced reversion of the frameshift allele, his4-38, and have identified 10 mutants that give much reduced yields of revertants. Complementation and recombination tests show that 6 of these carry mutations at the previously known REV1, REV1 and REV3 loci, while the remaining 4 define 3 new genes, REV4 (2 mutations), REV5 and REV6. The rev4 mutations are readily suppressed in many genetic backgrounds and, like the rev5 mutation, impart only a limited deficiency for induced mutagenesis: it is likely, therefore that the REV4+ and REV5+ gene functions are only remotely concerned with this process. The rev6 mutants have a more general deficiency, however, as well as marked sensitivity to UV and an increased spontaneous mutation rate, properties that suggest the REV6 gene is directly involved in mutation induction. The REV5 gene is located about 1 cM proximal to CYC1 on chromosome X.

  11. Magnetic alginate microfibers as scaffolding elements for the fabrication of microvascular-like structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tao; Shi, Qing; Huang, Qiang; Wang, Huaping; Xiong, Xiaolu; Hu, Chengzhi; Fukuda, Toshio

    2018-01-15

    Traditional cell-encapsulating scaffolds may elicit adverse host responses and inhomogeneity in cellular distribution. Thus, fabrication techniques for cellular self-assembly with micro-scaffold incorporation have been used recently to generate toroidal cellular modules for the bottom-up construction of vascular-like structures. The micro-scaffolds show advantage in promoting tissue formation. However, owing to the lack of annular cell micro-scaffolds, it remains a challenge to engineer micro-scale toroidal cellular modules (micro-TCMs) to fabricate microvascular-like structures. Here, magnetic alginate microfibers (MAMs) are used as scaffolding elements, where a winding strategy enables them to be formed into micro-rings as annular cell micro-scaffolds. These micro-rings were investigated for NIH/3T3 fibroblast growth as a function of surface chemistry and MAM size. Afterwards, micro-TCMs were successfully fabricated with the formation of NIH/3T3 fibroblasts and extracellular matrix layers on the three-dimensional micro-ring surfaces. Simple non-contact magnetic assembly was used to stack the micro-TCMs along a micro-pillar, after which cell fusion rapidly connected the assembled micro-TCMs into a microvascular-like structure. Endothelial cells or drugs encapsulated in the MAMs could be included in the microvascular-like structures as in vitro cellular models for vascular tissue engineering, or as miniaturization platforms for pharmaceutical drug testing in the future. Magnetic alginate microfibers functioned as scaffolding elements for guiding cell growth in micro-scale toroidal cellular modules (micro-TCMs) and provided a magnetic functionality to the micro-TCMs for non-contact 3D assembly in external magnetic fields. By using the liquid/air interface, the non-contact spatial manipulation of the micro-TCMs in the liquid environment was performed with a cost-effective motorized electromagnetic needle. A new biofabrication paradigm of construct of microvascular-like

  12. Reduction in hepatic drug metabolizing CYP3A4 activities caused by P450 oxidoreductase mutations identified in patients with disordered steroid metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flueck, Christa E.; Mullis, Primus E.; Pandey, Amit V.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), metabolizes 50% of drugs in clinical use and requires NADPH-P450 reductase (POR). → Mutations in human POR cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia from diminished activities of steroid metabolizing P450s. → We are reporting that mutations in POR may reduce CYP3A4 activity. → POR mutants Y181D, A457H, Y459H, V492E and R616X lost 99%, while A287P, C569Y and V608F lost 60-85% CYP3A4 activity. → Reduction of CYP3A4 activity may cause increased risk of drug toxicities/adverse drug reactions in patients with POR mutations. -- Abstract: Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), the major P450 present in human liver metabolizes approximately half the drugs in clinical use and requires electrons supplied from NADPH through NADPH-P450 reductase (POR, CPR). Mutations in human POR cause a rare form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia from diminished activities of steroid metabolizing P450s. In this study we examined the effect of mutations in POR on CYP3A4 activity. We used purified preparations of wild type and mutant human POR and in vitro reconstitution with purified CYP3A4 to perform kinetic studies. We are reporting that mutations in POR identified in patients with disordered steroidogenesis/Antley-Bixler syndrome (ABS) may reduce CYP3A4 activity, potentially affecting drug metabolism in individuals carrying mutant POR alleles. POR mutants Y181D, A457H, Y459H, V492E and R616X had more than 99% loss of CYP3A4 activity, while POR mutations A287P, C569Y and V608F lost 60-85% activity. Loss of CYP3A4 activity may result in increased risk of drug toxicities and adverse drug reactions in patients with POR mutations.

  13. FLT3 mutations in early T-cell precursor ALL characterize a stem cell like leukemia and imply the clinical use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Neumann

    Full Text Available Early T-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ETP-ALL has been identified as high-risk subgroup of acute T-lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL with a high rate of FLT3-mutations in adults. To unravel the underlying pathomechanisms and the clinical course we assessed molecular alterations and clinical characteristics in a large cohort of ETP-ALL (n = 68 in comparison to non-ETP T-ALL adult patients. Interestingly, we found a high rate of FLT3-mutations in ETP-ALL samples (n = 24, 35%. Furthermore, FLT3 mutated ETP-ALL was characterized by a specific immunophenotype (CD2+/CD5-/CD13+/CD33-, a distinct gene expression pattern (aberrant expression of IGFBP7, WT1, GATA3 and mutational status (absence of NOTCH1 mutations and a low frequency, 21%, of clonal TCR rearrangements. The observed low GATA3 expression and high WT1 expression in combination with lack of NOTCH1 mutations and a low rate of TCR rearrangements point to a leukemic transformation at the pluripotent prothymocyte stage in FLT3 mutated ETP-ALL. The clinical outcome in ETP-ALL patients was poor, but encouraging in those patients with allogeneic stem cell transplantation (3-year OS: 74%. To further explore the efficacy of targeted therapies, we demonstrate that T-ALL cell lines transfected with FLT3 expression constructs were particularly sensitive to tyrosine kinase inhibitors. In conclusion, FLT3 mutated ETP-ALL defines a molecular distinct stem cell like leukemic subtype. These data warrant clinical studies with the implementation of FLT3 inhibitors in addition to early allogeneic stem cell transplantation for this high risk subgroup.

  14. Validation of high-resolution DNA melting analysis for mutation scanning of the CDKL5 gene: identification of novel mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Laure; Diebold, Bertrand; Leroux, Céline; Maurey, Hélène; Drouin-Garraud, Valérie; Delahaye, Andre; Dulac, Olivier; Metreau, Julia; Melikishvili, Gia; Toutain, Annick; Rivier, François; Bahi-Buisson, Nadia; Bienvenu, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in the cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 gene (CDKL5) have been predominantly described in epileptic encephalopathies of female, including infantile spasms with Rett-like features. Up to now, detection of mutations in this gene was made by laborious, expensive and/or time consuming methods. Here, we decided to validate high-resolution melting analysis (HRMA) for mutation scanning of the CDKL5 gene. Firstly, using a large DNA bank consisting to 34 samples carrying different mutations and polymorphisms, we validated our analytical conditions to analyse the different exons and flanking intronic sequences of the CDKL5 gene by HRMA. Secondly, we screened CDKL5 by both HRMA and denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (dHPLC) in a cohort of 135 patients with early-onset seizures. Our results showed that point mutations and small insertions and deletions can be reliably detected by HRMA. Compared to dHPLC, HRMA profiles are more discriminated, thereby decreasing unnecessary sequencing. In this study, we identified eleven novel sequence variations including four pathogenic mutations (2.96% prevalence). HRMA appears cost-effective, easy to set up, highly sensitive, non-toxic and rapid for mutation screening, ideally suited for large genes with heterogeneous mutations located along the whole coding sequence, such as the CDKL5 gene. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A rapid NiS bead technique for measurements of picogram concentrations of platinum group elements (PGEs) following neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, A.; Shukla, A.D.

    1999-01-01

    To measure picogram amounts of PGEs in terrestrial and extraterrestrial samples we have modified the NiS fire assay technique in conjunction with neutron activation analysis. Os, Ir and Ru are almost quantitatively concentrated in the NiS bead. The method should be applicable to other elements (Pt, Pd, and Rh) but these could not be analyzed because of the short half life of their daughter isotopes. The results also show that the chalcophhile elements like Ag also can be quantitatively estimated using this method. (author)

  16. Determination of chemical elements in Eucalyptus grandis, manured with Ballad's, by neutrons activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateus, Natalina de Fatima; Madi Filho, Tufic

    2007-01-01

    The biosolid is a mud resulting from the biological treatment of wasted liquids. It is considered as a profitable alternative and important to minimize the environmental impact generated by the sewage thrown in to sanitary lands, in forest cultures like the Eucalyptus grandis. The objective of this work was to detect which chemical elements are present in Eucalyptus grandis samples, fertilized with different quantities of biosolid. The eucalyptuses of Estacao Experimental de Ciencias Florestais of Itatinga were planted in March of 1998 and collected with five years old. The used biosolid was produced by Station of Treatment of Sewer of Barueri - SP, classified as kind B. For the determination of the presence and quantity of chemical elements in the eucalyptus samples, an analysis technique by neutronic activation (NAA) was used followed by gamma rays spectroscopy. The samples were irradiated in the Nuclear Reactor IEA-R1 of IPEN-SP, followed by the measure of induced gamma rays activity, using a Detector HPGe. The presence, mainly of Br, Mn, Na and K, was detected in all analyzed samples. (author)

  17. Mutation, Witten index, and quiver invariant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Heeyeon [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo, N2L 2Y5, Ontario (Canada); Lee, Seung-Joo [Department of Physics, Robeson Hall, Virginia Tech,Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Yi, Piljin [School of Physics, Korea Institute for Advanced Study,Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-20

    We explore Seiberg-like dualities, or mutations, for N=4 quiver quantum mechanics in the context of wall-crossing. In contrast to higher dimensions, the 1d Seiberg-duality must be performed with much care. With fixed Fayet-Iliopoulos constants, at most two nodes can be mutated, one left and the other right, mapping a chamber of a quiver into a chamber of a mutated quiver. We delineate this complex pattern for triangle quivers and show how the Witten indices are preserved under such finely chosen mutations. On the other hand, the quiver invariants, or wall-crossing-safe part of supersymmetric spectra, mutate more straightforwardly, whereby a quiver is mapped to a quiver. The mutation rule that preserves the quiver invariant is different from the usual one, however, which we explore and confirm numerically.

  18. Mutation, Witten index, and quiver invariant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Heeyeon; Lee, Seung-Joo; Yi, Piljin

    2015-01-01

    We explore Seiberg-like dualities, or mutations, for N=4 quiver quantum mechanics in the context of wall-crossing. In contrast to higher dimensions, the 1d Seiberg-duality must be performed with much care. With fixed Fayet-Iliopoulos constants, at most two nodes can be mutated, one left and the other right, mapping a chamber of a quiver into a chamber of a mutated quiver. We delineate this complex pattern for triangle quivers and show how the Witten indices are preserved under such finely chosen mutations. On the other hand, the quiver invariants, or wall-crossing-safe part of supersymmetric spectra, mutate more straightforwardly, whereby a quiver is mapped to a quiver. The mutation rule that preserves the quiver invariant is different from the usual one, however, which we explore and confirm numerically.

  19. Identification of a homozygous PSTPIP1 mutation in a patient with a PAPA-like syndrome responding to canakinumab treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geusau, Alexandra; Mothes-Luksch, Nadine; Nahavandi, Hesam; Pickl, Winfried F; Wise, Carol A; Pourpak, Zahra; Ponweiser, Elisabeth; Eckhart, Leopold; Sunder-Plassmann, Raute

    2013-02-01

    Pyogenic sterile arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum, and acne (PAPA) syndrome (OMIM 604416) is a rare autosomal dominant inherited autoinflammatory syndrome characterized by pyogenic sterile arthritis and less frequently accompanied by pyoderma gangrenosum and acne. It is associated with dominant missense mutations in the proline-serine-threonine phosphatase-interacting protein 1 gene (PSTPIP1) located on chromosome 15. The patient was diagnosed as having features of a PAPA-like syndrome in which cutaneous manifestations, such as pyoderma gangrenosum and acne fulminans, predominated. Sequencing of the PSTPIP1 gene was performed in the patient and his extended family. The patient's DNA analysis revealed a homozygous nucleotide exchange c.773G>C in the PSTPIP1 gene, leading to the substitution of glycine 258 by alanine (p.Gly258Ala), a previously reported heterozygous polymorphism. Heterozygous changes were identified in both of the patient's parents and in 7 other family members, all of whom were asymptomatic. The patient was treated with canakinumab, a human anti-interleukin 1β monoclonal antibody, which led to rapid remission of the symptoms. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of the resolution of dermatological symptoms associated with a PAPA-like syndrome using canakinumab treatment. Further study of the p.Gly258Ala variant is warranted to determine whether this mutation has a role in causing an apparently recessive cutaneous syndrome resembling PAPA syndrome.

  20. Not all predicted CRISPR-Cas systems are equal: isolated cas genes and classes of CRISPR like elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Quan; Ye, Yuzhen

    2017-02-06

    The CRISPR-Cas systems in prokaryotes are RNA-guided immune systems that target and deactivate foreign nucleic acids. A typical CRISPR-Cas system consists of a CRISPR array of repeat and spacer units, and a locus of cas genes. The CRISPR and the cas locus are often located next to each other in the genomes. However, there is no quantitative estimate of the co-location. In addition, ad-hoc studies have shown that some non-CRISPR genomic elements contain repeat-spacer-like structures and are mistaken as CRISPRs. Using available genome sequences, we observed that a significant number of genomes have isolated cas loci and/or CRISPRs. We found that 11%, 22% and 28% of the type I, II and III cas loci are isolated (without CRISPRs in the same genomes at all or with CRISPRs distant in the genomes), respectively. We identified a large number of genomic elements that superficially reassemble CRISPRs but don't contain diverse spacers and have no companion cas genes. We called these elements false-CRISPRs and further classified them into groups, including tandem repeats and Staphylococcus aureus repeat (STAR)-like elements. This is the first systematic study to collect and characterize false-CRISPR elements. We demonstrated that false-CRISPRs could be used to reduce the false annotation of CRISPRs, therefore showing them to be useful for improving the annotation of CRISPR-Cas systems.

  1. Oligomerization and chaperone-like activity of Drosophila melanogaster small heat shock protein DmHsp27 and three arginine mutants in the alpha-crystallin domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutaoufik, Mohamed Taha; Morrow, Geneviève; Maaroufi, Halim; Férard, Céline; Finet, Stéphanie; Tanguay, Robert M

    2017-07-01

    The small Hsp DmHsp27 from Drosophila melanogaster is one of the few small heat shock proteins (sHsps) found within the nucleus. We report that its dimerization is independent of disulfide bond formation and seems to rely on salt bridges. Unlike metazoan sHsps, DmHsp27 forms two populations of oligomers not in equilibrium. Mutations at highly conserved arginine residues in mammalian sHsps have been reported to be associated with protein conformational defects and intracellular aggregation. Independent mutation of three highly conserved arginines (R122, R131, and R135) to glycine in DmHsp27 results in only one population of higher molecular weight form. In vitro, the chaperone-like activity of wild-type DmHsp27 was comparable with that of its two isolated populations and to the single population of the R122G, R131G, and R135G using luciferase as substrate. However, using insulin, the chaperone-like activity of wild-type DmHsp27 was lower than that of R122G and R131G mutants. Altogether, the results characterize wild-type DmHsp27 and its alpha-crystallin domain (ACD) arginine mutants and may give insight into protection mechanism of sHsps.

  2. Identifying activating mutations in the EGFR gene: prognostic and therapeutic implications in non-small cell lung cancer

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    Gabriel Lima Lopes

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractLung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Promising new therapies have recently emerged from the development of molecular targeted drugs; particularly promising are those blocking the signal transduction machinery of cancer cells. One of the most widely studied cell signaling pathways is that of EGFR, which leads to uncontrolled cell proliferation, increased cell angiogenesis, and greater cell invasiveness. Activating mutations in the EGFR gene (deletions in exon 19 and mutation L858R in exon 21, first described in 2004, have been detected in approximately 10% of all non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients in Western countries and are the most important predictors of a response to EGFR tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs. Studies of the EGFR-TKIs gefitinib, erlotinib, and afatinib, in comparison with platinum-based regimens, as first-line treatments in chemotherapy-naïve patients have shown that the EGFR-TKIs produce gains in progression-free survival and overall response rates, although only in patients whose tumors harbor activating mutations in the EGFR gene. Clinical trials have also shown EGFR-TKIs to be effective as second- and third-line therapies in advanced NSCLC. Here, we review the main aspects of EGFR pathway activation in NSCLC, underscore the importance of correctly identifying activating mutations in the EGFR gene, and discuss the main outcomes of EGFR-TKI treatment in NSCLC.

  3. A role for circadian evening elements in cold-regulated gene expression in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, Michael D; Thomashow, Michael F

    2009-10-01

    The plant transcriptome is dramatically altered in response to low temperature. The cis-acting DNA regulatory elements and trans-acting factors that regulate the majority of cold-regulated genes are unknown. Previous bioinformatic analysis has indicated that the promoters of cold-induced genes are enriched in the Evening Element (EE), AAAATATCT, a DNA regulatory element that has a role in circadian-regulated gene expression. Here we tested the role of EE and EE-like (EEL) elements in cold-induced expression of two Arabidopsis genes, CONSTANS-like 1 (COL1; At5g54470) and a gene encoding a 27-kDa protein of unknown function that we designated COLD-REGULATED GENE 27 (COR27; At5g42900). Mutational analysis indicated that the EE/EEL elements were required for cold induction of COL1 and COR27, and that their action was amplified through coupling with ABA response element (ABRE)-like (ABREL) motifs. An artificial promoter consisting solely of four EE motifs interspersed with three ABREL motifs was sufficient to impart cold-induced gene expression. Both COL1 and COR27 were found to be regulated by the circadian clock at warm growth temperatures and cold-induction of COR27 was gated by the clock. These results suggest that cold- and clock-regulated gene expression are integrated through regulatory proteins that bind to EE and EEL elements supported by transcription factors acting at ABREL sequences. Bioinformatic analysis indicated that the coupling of EE and EEL motifs with ABREL motifs is highly enriched in cold-induced genes and thus may constitute a DNA regulatory element pair with a significant role in configuring the low-temperature transcriptome.

  4. In vivo identification of promoter elements and transcription factors mediating activation of hepatic HMG-CoA reductase by T{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boone, Lindsey R.; Niesen, Melissa I. [Department of Molecular Medicine, College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States); Jaroszeski, Mark [Department of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States); Ness, Gene C., E-mail: gness@hsc.usf.edu [Department of Molecular Medicine, College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States)

    2009-07-31

    The promoter elements and transcription factors necessary for triiodothyronine (T{sub 3}) induction of hepatic HMG-CoA reductase (HMGR) were investigated by transfecting rat livers with wild type and mutant HMGR promoter-luciferase constructs using in vivo electroporation. Mutations in the sterol response element (SRE), nuclear factor-y (NF-Y) site, and the newly identified upstream transcription factor-2 (USF-2) site essentially abolished the T{sub 3} response. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis demonstrated that T{sub 3} treatment caused a 4-fold increase in in vivo binding of USF-2 to the HMGR promoter. Co-transfection of the wild type HMGR promoter with siRNAs to USF-2, SREBP-2, or NF-Y nearly abolished the T{sub 3} induction, as measured by promoter activity. These data provide in vivo evidence for functional roles for USF-2, SREBP-2, and NF-Y in mediating the T{sub 3}-induction of hepatic HMGR transcription.

  5. TLR4 mutation reduces microglial activation, increases Aβ deposits and exacerbates cognitive deficits in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

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    Song Min

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amyloid plaques, a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD, are accompanied by activated microglia. The role of activated microglia in the pathogenesis of AD remains controversial: either clearing Aβ deposits by phagocytosis or releasing proinflammatory cytokines and cytotoxic substances. Microglia can be activated via toll-like receptors (TLRs, a class of pattern-recognition receptors in the innate immune system. We previously demonstrated that an AD mouse model homozygous for a loss-of-function mutation of TLR4 had increases in Aβ deposits and buffer-soluble Aβ in the brain as compared with a TLR4 wild-type AD mouse model at 14-16 months of age. However, it is unknown if TLR4 signaling is involved in initiation of Aβ deposition as well as activation and recruitment of microglia at the early stage of AD. Here, we investigated the role of TLR4 signaling and microglial activation in early stages using 5-month-old AD mouse models when Aβ deposits start. Methods Microglial activation and amyloid deposition in the brain were determined by immunohistochemistry in the AD models. Levels of cerebral soluble Aβ were determined by ELISA. mRNA levels of cytokines and chemokines in the brain and Aβ-stimulated monocytes were quantified by real-time PCR. Cognitive functions were assessed by the Morris water maze. Results While no difference was found in cerebral Aβ load between AD mouse models at 5 months with and without TLR4 mutation, microglial activation in a TLR4 mutant AD model (TLR4M Tg was less than that in a TLR4 wild-type AD model (TLR4W Tg. At 9 months, TLR4M Tg mice had increased Aβ deposition and soluble Aβ42 in the brain, which were associated with decrements in cognitive functions and expression levels of IL-1β, CCL3, and CCL4 in the hippocampus compared to TLR4W Tg mice. TLR4 mutation diminished Aβ-induced IL-1β, CCL3, and CCL4 expression in monocytes. Conclusion This is the first demonstration of TLR4

  6. Molecular evaluation of a novel missense mutation & an insertional truncating mutation in SUMF1 gene

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    Udhaya H Kotecha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Multiple suphphatase deficiency (MSD is an autosomal recessive disorder affecting the post translational activation of all enzymes of the sulphatase family. To date, approximately 30 different mutations have been identified in the causative gene, sulfatase modifying factor 1 (SUMF1. We describe here the mutation analysis of a case of MSD. Methods: The proband was a four year old boy with developmental delay followed by neuroregression. He had coarse facies, appendicular hypertonia, truncal ataxia and ichthyosis limited to both lower limbs. Radiographs showed dysostosis multiplex. Clinical suspicion of MSD was confirmed by enzyme analysis of four enzymes of the sulphatase group. Results: The patient was compound heterozygote for a c.451A>G (p.K151E substitution in exon 3 and a single base insertion mutation (c.690_691 InsT in exon 5 in the SUMF1 gene. The bioinformatic analysis of the missense mutation revealed no apparent effect on the overall structure. However, the mutated 151-amino acid residue was found to be adjacent to the substrate binding and the active site residues, thereby affecting the substrate binding and/or catalytic activity, resulting in almost complete loss of enzyme function. Conclusions: The two mutations identified in the present case were novel. This is perhaps the first report of an insertion mutation in SUMF1 causing premature truncation of the protein.

  7. Homology among tet determinants in conjugative elements of streptococci

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.D.; Hazum, S.; Guild, W.R.

    1981-10-01

    A mutation to tetracycline sensitivity in a resistant strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae was shown by several criteria to be due to a point mutation in the conjugative o(cat-tet) element found in the chromosomes of strains derived from BM6001, a clinical strain resistant to tetracycline and chloramphenicol. Strains carrying the mutation were transformed back to tetracycline resistance with the high efficiency of a point marker by donor deoxyribonucleic acids from its ancestral strain and from nine other clinical isolates of pneumococcus and by deoxyribonucleic acids from Group D Streptococcus faecalis and Group B Streptococcus agalactiae strains that also carry conjugative tet elements in their chromosomes. It was not transformed to resistance by tet plasmid deoxyribonucleic acids from either gram-negative or gram-positive species, except for one that carried transposon TN916, the conjugative tet element present in the chromosomes of some S. faecalis strains. The results showed that the tet determinants in conjugative elements of several streptococcal species share a high degree of deoxyribonucleic acid sequence homology and suggested that they differ from other tet genes.

  8. Characterization of carbon ion-induced mutations in Arabidopsis thaliana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shikazono, N.; Suzuki, C.; Kitamura, S.; Watanabe, H.; Tano, S.; Tanaka, A.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Irradiation of Arabidopsis thaliana by carbon ions was carried out to investigate the mutational effect of ion particles in higher plants. The averaged mutation rate of carbon ions was 2.0 X 10 -6 / Gy, which was 18-fold higher than that of electrons. PCR analysis of the carbon ion-induced mutants showed that, out of 28 mutant alleles, 14 had point-like mutations within the gene, while 14 contained large structural alterations. In the case of 12 electron-induced mutants, 9 had point-like mutations within the gene, while 3 contained large structural alterations. These results suggest that carbon ions are more likely to induce large structural alterations compared with electrons. Further sequence analysis revealed that most of the point-like mutations induced by carbon ions were short deletions. In the case of rearrangements, DNA strand breaks were found to be rejoined using, if present, short homologous sequences for both types of radiation. After carbon ion-irradiation, small deletions were frequently observed around the breakpoints, whereas duplications of terminal sequence were found after electron-irradiation. These results suggest that non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway operates after plant cells are exposed to both ion particles and electrons but that different mode of rejoining deals with the broken ends produced by each radiation. From the present results, it seems reasonable to assume that carbon ions could predominantly induce null mutations in Arabidopsis. The fact that the molecular nature of carbon ion-induced mutation was different from that of electrons and that the molecular mechanisms of cells to induce mutations appeared to be also different implicates that ion particle is not only valuable as a new mutagen but also useful as a new tool to study repair mechanisms of certain types of DNA damage

  9. Adaptive Mutations in Influenza A/California/07/2009 Enhance Polymerase Activity and Infectious Virion Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaine, Patrick D.; MacRae, Cara; Kleer, Mariel; Lamoureux, Emily; McAlpine, Sarah; Warhuus, Michelle; Comeau, André M.; Hatchette, Todd

    2018-01-01

    Mice are not natural hosts for influenza A viruses (IAVs), but they are useful models for studying antiviral immune responses and pathogenesis. Serial passage of IAV in mice invariably causes the emergence of adaptive mutations and increased virulence. Here, we report the adaptation of IAV reference strain A/California/07/2009(H1N1) (also known as CA/07) in outbred Swiss Webster mice. Serial passage led to increased virulence and lung titers, and dissemination of the virus to brains. We adapted a deep-sequencing protocol to identify and enumerate adaptive mutations across all genome segments. Among mutations that emerged during mouse-adaptation, we focused on amino acid substitutions in polymerase subunits: polymerase basic-1 (PB1) T156A and F740L and polymerase acidic (PA) E349G. These mutations were evaluated singly and in combination in minigenome replicon assays, which revealed that PA E349G increased polymerase activity. By selectively engineering three PB1 and PA mutations into the parental CA/07 strain, we demonstrated that these mutations in polymerase subunits decreased the production of defective viral genome segments with internal deletions and dramatically increased the release of infectious virions from mouse cells. Together, these findings increase our understanding of the contribution of polymerase subunits to successful host adaptation. PMID:29783694

  10. Identification, characterization and distribution of transposable elements in the flax (Linum usitatissimum L. genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Leonardo Galindo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flax (Linum usitatissimum L. is an important crop for the production of bioproducts derived from its seed and stem fiber. Transposable elements (TEs are widespread in plant genomes and are a key component of their evolution. The availability of a genome assembly of flax (Linum usitatissimum affords new opportunities to explore the diversity of TEs and their relationship to genes and gene expression. Results Four de novo repeat identification algorithms (PILER, RepeatScout, LTR_finder and LTR_STRUC were applied to the flax genome assembly. The resulting library of flax repeats was combined with the RepBase Viridiplantae division and used with RepeatMasker to identify TEs coverage in the genome. LTR retrotransposons were the most abundant TEs (17.2% genome coverage, followed by Long Interspersed Nuclear Element (LINE retrotransposons (2.10% and Mutator DNA transposons (1.99%. Comparison of putative flax TEs to flax transcript databases indicated that TEs are not highly expressed in flax. However, the presence of recent insertions, defined by 100% intra-element LTR similarity, provided evidence for recent TE activity. Spatial analysis showed TE-rich regions, gene-rich regions as well as regions with similar genes and TE density. Monte Carlo simulations for the 71 largest scaffolds (≥ 1 Mb each did not show any regional differences in the frequency of TE overlap with gene coding sequences. However, differences between TE superfamilies were found in their proximity to genes. Genes within TE-rich regions also appeared to have lower transcript expression, based on EST abundance. When LTR elements were compared, Copia showed more diversity, recent insertions and conserved domains than the Gypsy, demonstrating their importance in genome evolution. Conclusions The calculated 23.06% TE coverage of the flax WGS assembly is at the low end of the range of TE coverages reported in other eudicots, although this estimate does not include

  11. Identification, characterization and distribution of transposable elements in the flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Leonardo Galindo; Deyholos, Michael K

    2012-11-21

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is an important crop for the production of bioproducts derived from its seed and stem fiber. Transposable elements (TEs) are widespread in plant genomes and are a key component of their evolution. The availability of a genome assembly of flax (Linum usitatissimum) affords new opportunities to explore the diversity of TEs and their relationship to genes and gene expression. Four de novo repeat identification algorithms (PILER, RepeatScout, LTR_finder and LTR_STRUC) were applied to the flax genome assembly. The resulting library of flax repeats was combined with the RepBase Viridiplantae division and used with RepeatMasker to identify TEs coverage in the genome. LTR retrotransposons were the most abundant TEs (17.2% genome coverage), followed by Long Interspersed Nuclear Element (LINE) retrotransposons (2.10%) and Mutator DNA transposons (1.99%). Comparison of putative flax TEs to flax transcript databases indicated that TEs are not highly expressed in flax. However, the presence of recent insertions, defined by 100% intra-element LTR similarity, provided evidence for recent TE activity. Spatial analysis showed TE-rich regions, gene-rich regions as well as regions with similar genes and TE density. Monte Carlo simulations for the 71 largest scaffolds (≥ 1 Mb each) did not show any regional differences in the frequency of TE overlap with gene coding sequences. However, differences between TE superfamilies were found in their proximity to genes. Genes within TE-rich regions also appeared to have lower transcript expression, based on EST abundance. When LTR elements were compared, Copia showed more diversity, recent insertions and conserved domains than the Gypsy, demonstrating their importance in genome evolution. The calculated 23.06% TE coverage of the flax WGS assembly is at the low end of the range of TE coverages reported in other eudicots, although this estimate does not include TEs likely found in unassembled repetitive regions of

  12. Trace elements in Australian opals using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McOrist, G.D.; Fardy, J.J.

    1994-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis was used to determine the concentration of trace elements in 42 samples of black, grey and white opals taken from a number of recognised Australian field. The results were evaluated to determine if a relationship exited between trace element content and opal colour. (author) 12 refs.; 12 figs.; 3 tabs

  13. Effect of lysine to alanine mutations on the phosphate activation and BPTES inhibition of glutaminase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Charles J; Acheff, Eric; Kennedy, Ryan; Taylor, Lynn; Curthoys, Norman P

    2015-09-01

    The GLS1 gene encodes a mitochondrial glutaminase that is highly expressed in brain, kidney, small intestine and many transformed cells. Recent studies have identified multiple lysine residues in glutaminase that are sites of N-acetylation. Interestingly, these sites are located within either a loop segment that regulates access of glutamine to the active site or the dimer:dimer interface that participates in the phosphate-dependent oligomerization and activation of the enzyme. These two segments also contain the binding sites for bis-2[5-phenylacetamido-1,2,4-thiadiazol-2-yl]ethylsulfide (BPTES), a highly specific and potent uncompetitive inhibitor of this glutaminase. BPTES is also the lead compound for development of novel cancer chemotherapeutic agents. To provide a preliminary assessment of the potential effects of N-acetylation, the corresponding lysine to alanine mutations were constructed in the hGACΔ1 plasmid. The wild type and mutated proteins were purified by Ni(+)-affinity chromatography and their phosphate activation and BPTES inhibition profiles were analyzed. Two of the alanine substitutions in the loop segment (K311A and K328A) and the one in the dimer:dimer interface (K396A) form enzymes that require greater concentrations of phosphate to produce half-maximal activation and exhibit greater sensitivity to BPTES inhibition. By contrast, the K320A mutation results in a glutaminase that exhibits near maximal activity in the absence of phosphate and is not inhibited by BPTES. Thus, lysine N-acetylation may contribute to the acute regulation of glutaminase activity in various tissues and alter the efficacy of BPTES-type inhibitors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Retrotransposition and mutation events yield Rap1 GTPases with differential signalling capacity

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    Penzkofer Tobias

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Retrotransposition of mRNA transcripts gives occasionally rise to functional retrogenes. Through acquiring tempero-spatial expression patterns distinct from their parental genes and/or functional mutations in their coding sequences, such retrogenes may in principle reshape signalling networks. Results Here we present evidence for such a scenario, involving retrogenes of Rap1 belonging to the Ras family of small GTPases. We identified two murine and one human-specific retrogene of Rap1A and Rap1B, which encode proteins that differ by only a few amino acids from their parental Rap1 proteins. Markedly, human hRap1B-retro and mouse mRap1A-retro1 acquired mutations in the 12th and 59th amino acids, respectively, corresponding to residues mutated in constitutively active oncogenic Ras proteins. Statistical and structural analyses support a functional evolution scenario, where Rap1 isoforms of retrogenic origin are functionally distinct from their parental proteins. Indeed, all retrogene-encoded GTPases have an increased GTP/GDP binding ratio in vivo, indicating that their conformations resemble that of active GTP-bound Rap1. We furthermore demonstrate that these three Rap1 isoforms exhibit distinct affinities for the Ras-binding domain of RalGDS. Finally, when tested for their capacity to induce key cellular processes like integrin-mediated cell adhesion or cell spreading, marked differences are seen. Conclusions Together, these data lend strong support for an evolution scenario, where retrotransposition and subsequent mutation events generated species-specific Rap1 isoforms with differential signaling potential. Expression of the constitutively active human Rap1B-retro in cells like those derived from Ramos Burkitt's lymphoma and bone marrow from a patient with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS warrants further investigation into its role in disease development.

  15. Activation of the MAPK pathway is a common event in uveal melanomas although it rarely occurs through mutation of BRAF or RAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuidervaart, W; van Nieuwpoort, F; Stark, M; Dijkman, R; Packer, L; Borgstein, A-M; Pavey, S; van der Velden, P; Out, C; Jager, M J; Hayward, N K; Gruis, N A

    2005-06-06

    In contrast to cutaneous melanoma, there is no evidence that BRAF mutations are involved in the activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in uveal melanoma, although there is increasing evidence that this pathway is activated frequently in the latter tumours. In this study, we performed mutation analysis of the RAS and BRAF genes in a panel of 11 uveal melanoma cell lines and 19 primary uveal melanoma tumours. In addition, Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses were performed on downstream members of the MAPK pathway in order to assess the contribution of each of these components. No mutations were found in any of the three RAS gene family members and only one cell line carried a BRAF mutation (V599E). Despite this, mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase (MEK), ERK and ELK were constitutively activated in all samples. These data suggest that activation of the MAPK pathway is commonly involved in the development of uveal melanoma, but occurs through a mechanism different to that of cutaneous melanoma.

  16. Mutation of I696 and W697 in the TRP box of vanilloid receptor subtype I modulates allosteric channel activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorio-Teruel, Lucia; Valente, Pierluigi; González-Ros, José Manuel; Fernández-Ballester, Gregorio; Ferrer-Montiel, Antonio

    2014-03-01

    The transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor subtype I (TRPV1) channel acts as a polymodal sensory receptor gated by chemical and physical stimuli. Like other TRP channels, TRPV1 contains in its C terminus a short, conserved domain called the TRP box, which is necessary for channel gating. Substitution of two TRP box residues-I696 and W697-with Ala markedly affects TRPV1's response to all activating stimuli, which indicates that these two residues play a crucial role in channel gating. We systematically replaced I696 and W697 with 18 native l-amino acids (excluding cysteine) and evaluated the effect on voltage- and capsaicin-dependent gating. Mutation of I696 decreased channel activation by either voltage or capsaicin; furthermore, gating was only observed with substitution of hydrophobic amino acids. Substitution of W697 with any of the 18 amino acids abolished gating in response to depolarization alone, shifting the threshold to unreachable voltages, but not capsaicin-mediated gating. Moreover, vanilloid-activated responses of W697X mutants showed voltage-dependent gating along with a strong voltage-independent component. Analysis of the data using an allosteric model of activation indicates that mutation of I696 and W697 primarily affects the allosteric coupling constants of the ligand and voltage sensors to the channel pore. Together, our findings substantiate the notion that inter- and/or intrasubunit interactions at the level of the TRP box are critical for efficient coupling of stimulus sensing and gate opening. Perturbation of these interactions markedly reduces the efficacy and potency of the activating stimuli. Furthermore, our results identify these interactions as potential sites for pharmacological intervention.

  17. Somatic mutations in PIK3CA and activation of AKT in intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasms of the pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Kuboki, Yuko; Hatori, Takashi; Yamamoto, Masakazu; Shiratori, Keiko; Kawamura, Shunji; Kobayashi, Makio; Shimizu, Michio; Ban, Shinichi; Koyama, Isamu; Higashi, Morihiro; Shin, Nobuhiro; Ishida, Kazuyuki; Morikawa, Takanori; Motoi, Fuyuhiko; Unno, Michiaki; Kanno, Atsushi; Satoh, Kennichi; Shimosegawa, Tooru; Orikasa, Hideki; Watanabe, Tomoo; Nishimura, Kazuhiko; Harada, Youji; Furukawa, Toru

    2011-12-01

    Intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasm (ITPN) is a recently recognized rare variant of intraductal neoplasms of the pancreas. Molecular aberrations underlying the neoplasm remain unknown. We investigated somatic mutations in PIK3CA, PTEN, AKT1, KRAS, and BRAF. We also investigated aberrant expressions of phosphorylated AKT, phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), tumor protein 53 (TP53), SMAD4, and CTNNB1 in 11 cases of ITPNs and compared these data with those of 50 cases of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN), another distinct variant of pancreatic intraductal neoplasms. Mutations in PIK3CA were found in 3 of 11 ITPNs but not in IPMNs (P = 0.005; Fisher exact test). In contrast, mutations in KRAS were found in none of the ITPNs but were found in 26 of the 50 IPMNs (P = 0.001; Fisher exact test). PIK3CA mutations were associated with strong expression of phosphorylated AKT (P AKT was apparent in most ITPNs but only in a few IPMNs (P SMAD4, and CTNNB1 were not statistically different between these neoplasms. Mutations in PIK3CA and the expression of phosphorylated AKT were not associated with age, sex, tissue invasion, and patients' prognosis in ITPNs. These results indicate that activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway may play a crucial role in ITPNs but not in IPMNs. In contrast, the mutation in KRAS seems to play a major role in IPMNs but not in ITPNs. The activated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway may be a potential target for molecular diagnosis and therapy of ITPNs.

  18. Clinical and biological characteristics of cervical neoplasias with FGFR3 mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiery Jean

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously reported activating mutations of the gene coding for the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3 in invasive cervical carcinoma. To further analyze the role of FGFR3 in cervical tumor progression, we extended our study to screen a total of 75 invasive tumors and 80 cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (40 low-grade and 40 high-grade lesions. Results Using single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP followed by DNA sequencing, we found FGFR3 mutation (S249C in all cases in 5% of invasive cervical carcinomas and no mutation in intraepithelial lesions. These results suggest that, unlike in bladder carcinoma, FGFR3 mutation does not or rarely occur in non invasive lesions. Compared to patients with wildtype FGFR3 tumor, patients with S249C FGFR3 mutated tumors were older (mean age 64 vs. 49.4 years, P = 0.02, and were more likely to be associated with a non-16/18 HPV type in their tumor. Gene expression analysis demonstrated that FGFR3 mutated tumors were associated with higher FGFR3b mRNA expression levels compared to wildtype FGFR3 tumors. Supervised analysis of Affymetrix expression data identified a significant number of genes specifically differentially expressed in tumors with respect to FGFR3 mutation status. Conclusion This study suggest that tumors with FGFR3 mutation appear to have distinctive clinical and biological characteristics that may help in defining a population of patients for FGFR3 mutation screening.

  19. Mutations in galactosemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichardt, J.K.V. [Univ. of Southern California School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    This Letter raises four issues concerning two papers on galactosemia published in the March 1995 of the Journal. First, table 2 in the paper by Elsas et al. incorrectly attributes seven galactose-l-phosphate uridyl transferase (GALT) mutations (S135L, L195P, K285N, N314D, R333W, R333G, and K334R). The table also fails to mention that others have reported the same two findings attributed to {open_quotes}Leslie et al.; Elsas et al. and in press{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}Leslie et al.; Elsas et al.{close_quotes} The first finding on the prevalence of the Q188R galactosemia mutation in the G/G Caucasian population has also been described by Ng et al., and the second finding on the correlation of the N314D GALT mutation with the Duarte variant was reported by Lin et al. Second, Elsas et al. suggest that the E203K and N314D mutations may {open_quotes}produce intra-allelic complementation when in cis{close_quotes}. This speculation is supported by the activity data of individual III-2 but is inconsistent with the activities of three other individuals I-1, II-1, and III-1 of the same pedigree. The GALT activity measured in these three individuals suggests a dominant negative effect of E203K in E203K-N314D chromosomes, since they all have less than normal activity. Thus, the preponderance of the data in this paper is at odds with the authors speculation. It is worth recalling that Lin et al. also identified four N314D GALT mutations on 95 galactosemic chromosomes examined. A similar situation also appears to be the case in proband III-1 (with genotype E203K-N314D/IVSC) in the Elsas et al. paper. 9 refs.

  20. The promoter of the Arabidopsis thaliana plastocyanin gene contains a far upstream enhancer-like element involved in chloroplast-dependent expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorst, O; Kock, P; Lever, A; Weterings, B; Weisbeek, P; Smeekens, S

    1993-12-01

    Plastocyanin is part of the photosynthetic electron transport chain in the chloroplast and is encoded in the nucleus. Expression of the Arabidopsis thaliana plastocyanin gene is organ specific: high mRNA levels are observed in young green parts of the plant. Furthermore, expression is dependent on the presence of light and functional chloroplasts. When grown in the presence of norflurazon under white light conditions, resulting in the photo-oxidative destruction of the chloroplast, plastocyanin mRNA levels are strongly reduced. A -1579 to -9 promoter fragment confers light-regulated and chloroplast-dependent expression to the beta-glucuronidase reporter gene in transgenic tobacco plants. This suggests that regulation takes place at the level of transcription. A plastocyanin promoter deletion series ranging from -1579 to -121 which was also tested in tobacco, revealed the presence of a strong positive regulating element (PRE) in the -1579 to -705 region. Deletion of this part of the promoter resulted in a approximately 100-fold reduction of GUS expression as measured in mature leaves. Surprisingly, this enhancer-like element was capable of stimulating transcription from a position downstream of its reporter. Moreover, it could also activate a truncated CaMV 35S promoter. Deletion of this element coincides with the loss of chloroplast-dependency of reporter gene expression, as judged by norflurazon treatment of transgenic seedlings. So, the activity of the PRE itself might depend on the presence of functional chloroplasts.

  1. A mutation of the fission yeast EB1 overcomes negative regulation by phosphorylation and stabilizes microtubules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iimori, Makoto; Ozaki, Kanako; Chikashige, Yuji; Habu, Toshiyuki; Hiraoka, Yasushi; Maki, Takahisa; Hayashi, Ikuko; Obuse, Chikashi; Matsumoto, Tomohiro

    2012-01-01

    Mal3 is a fission yeast homolog of EB1, a plus-end tracking protein (+ TIP). We have generated a mutation (89R) replacing glutamine with arginine in the calponin homology (CH) domain of Mal3. Analysis of the 89R mutant in vitro has revealed that the mutation confers a higher affinity to microtubules and enhances the intrinsic activity to promote the microtubule-assembly. The mutant Mal3 is no longer a + TIP, but binds strongly the microtubule lattice. Live cell imaging has revealed that while the wild type Mal3 proteins dissociate from the tip of the growing microtubules before the onset of shrinkage, the mutant Mal3 proteins persist on microtubules and reduces a rate of shrinkage after a longer pausing period. Consequently, the mutant Mal3 proteins cause abnormal elongation of microtubules composing the spindle and aster. Mal3 is phosphorylated at a cluster of serine/threonine residues in the linker connecting the CH and EB1-like C-terminal motif domains. The phosphorylation occurs in a microtubule-dependent manner and reduces the affinity of Mal3 to microtubules. We propose that because the 89R mutation is resistant to the effect of phosphorylation, it can associate persistently with microtubules and confers a stronger stability of microtubules likely by reinforcing the cylindrical structure. -- Highlights: ► We characterize a mutation (mal3-89R) in fission yeast homolog of EB1. ► The mutation enhances the activity to assemble microtubules. ► Mal3 is phosphorylated in a microtubule-dependent manner. ► The phosphorylation negatively regulates the Mal3 activity.

  2. A mutation of the fission yeast EB1 overcomes negative regulation by phosphorylation and stabilizes microtubules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iimori, Makoto; Ozaki, Kanako [Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake cho, Sakyo ku, Kyoto, 606-8502 (Japan); Chikashige, Yuji [Kobe Advanced ICT Research Center, National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Kobe, 651-2492 (Japan); Habu, Toshiyuki [Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake cho, Sakyo ku, Kyoto, 606-8502 (Japan); Radiation Biology Center, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Konoe cho, Sakyo ku, Kyoto, 606-8501 (Japan); Hiraoka, Yasushi [Kobe Advanced ICT Research Center, National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Kobe, 651-2492 (Japan); Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences, Osaka University, 1-3 Yamadaoka, Suita, 565-0871 (Japan); Maki, Takahisa; Hayashi, Ikuko [Graduate School of Nanobioscience, Yokohama City University, Tsurumi, Yokohama, 230-0045 (Japan); Obuse, Chikashi [Graduate School of Life Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 001-0021 (Japan); Matsumoto, Tomohiro, E-mail: tmatsumo@house.rbc.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake cho, Sakyo ku, Kyoto, 606-8502 (Japan); Radiation Biology Center, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Konoe cho, Sakyo ku, Kyoto, 606-8501 (Japan)

    2012-02-01

    Mal3 is a fission yeast homolog of EB1, a plus-end tracking protein (+ TIP). We have generated a mutation (89R) replacing glutamine with arginine in the calponin homology (CH) domain of Mal3. Analysis of the 89R mutant in vitro has revealed that the mutation confers a higher affinity to microtubules and enhances the intrinsic activity to promote the microtubule-assembly. The mutant Mal3 is no longer a + TIP, but binds strongly the microtubule lattice. Live cell imaging has revealed that while the wild type Mal3 proteins dissociate from the tip of the growing microtubules before the onset of shrinkage, the mutant Mal3 proteins persist on microtubules and reduces a rate of shrinkage after a longer pausing period. Consequently, the mutant Mal3 proteins cause abnormal elongation of microtubules composing the spindle and aster. Mal3 is phosphorylated at a cluster of serine/threonine residues in the linker connecting the CH and EB1-like C-terminal motif domains. The phosphorylation occurs in a microtubule-dependent manner and reduces the affinity of Mal3 to microtubules. We propose that because the 89R mutation is resistant to the effect of phosphorylation, it can associate persistently with microtubules and confers a stronger stability of microtubules likely by reinforcing the cylindrical structure. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We characterize a mutation (mal3-89R) in fission yeast homolog of EB1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mutation enhances the activity to assemble microtubules. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mal3 is phosphorylated in a microtubule-dependent manner. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The phosphorylation negatively regulates the Mal3 activity.

  3. A Constant Rate of Spontaneous Mutation in DNA-Based Microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, John W.

    1991-08-01

    In terms of evolution and fitness, the most significant spontaneous mutation rate is likely to be that for the entire genome (or its nonfrivolous fraction). Information is now available to calculate this rate for several DNA-based haploid microbes, including bacteriophages with single- or double-stranded DNA, a bacterium, a yeast, and a filamentous fungus. Their genome sizes vary by ≈6500-fold. Their average mutation rates per base pair vary by ≈16,000-fold, whereas their mutation rates per genome vary by only ≈2.5-fold, apparently randomly, around a mean value of 0.0033 per DNA replication. The average mutation rate per base pair is inversely proportional to genome size. Therefore, a nearly invariant microbial mutation rate appears to have evolved. Because this rate is uniform in such diverse organisms, it is likely to be determined by deep general forces, perhaps by a balance between the usually deleterious effects of mutation and the physiological costs of further reducing mutation rates.

  4. Mutation breeding in peas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaranowski, J [Institute of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Academy of Agriculture, Poznan (Poland); Micke, A [Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Isotope and Radiation Applications of Atomic Energy for Food and Agricultural Development, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    1985-02-01

    The pea as an ancient crop plant still today has wide uses and is an import source of food protein. It is also an important object for genetic studies and as such has been widely used in mutation induction experiments. However, in comparison with cereals this ancient crop plant (like several other grain legumes) has gained relatively little from advances in breeding. The review focuses on the prospects of genetic improvement of pea by induced mutations, discusses principles and gives methodological information. (author)

  5. Mutation breeding in peas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaranowski, J.; Micke, A.

    1985-01-01

    The pea as an ancient crop plant still today has wide uses and is an import source of food protein. It is also an important object for genetic studies and as such has been widely used in mutation induction experiments. However, in comparison with cereals this ancient crop plant (like several other grain legumes) has gained relatively little from advances in breeding. The review focuses on the prospects of genetic improvement of pea by induced mutations, discusses principles and gives methodological information. (author)

  6. Association of mutator activity with UV sensitivity in an aphidicolin-resistant mutant of Chinese hamster V79 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, P.K.; Chang, C.; Trosko, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    The spontaneous mutation rates of an ultraviolet light (UV)-sensitive aphidicolin-resistant mutant (aphsup(r)-4-2) and its revertants have been determined by 2 techniques. By using the fluctuation analysis, the mutant and its thymidine (TdR)-prototrophic 'revertant' were found to exhibit elevated spontaneous mutation rates at the 6-thioguanine- and diphtheria-toxin-resistant loci. In contrast, the TdR-auxotrophic 'revertant' did not show this property. Similar results were obtained by the multiple replating technique. From these comparative studies and other previous characterizations, it appears that a single gene mutation is responsible for the following pleiotropic phenotype: slow growth, UV sensitivity, high UV-induced mutability, high frequency of site-specific bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-dependent chromosome breaks and enhanced spontaneous mutation rate. Recent studies indicate that the mutation may be on the gene for DNA polymerase α. The results further indicate that thymidine auxotrophy or imbalance in nucleotide pools is not necessarily associated with the mutator activity in mammalian cells. (orig.)

  7. Radiation-induced mutations in mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehling, U.H.

    1993-01-01

    The aims of the proposed project are to provide a better basis for extrapolation of animal data to man. Genetic endpoint, strain and species comparisons are made, which will provide critical experimental data regarding strategies in extrapolating laboratory animal data to man. Experiments were conducted to systematically compare the spontaneous and radiation-induced mutation rates for recessive specific-locus, dominant cataract and enzyme activity alleles in the mouse as well as a comparison of the mutation rate in the mouse and hamster for dominant cataract and enzyme activity alleles. The comparison of the radiation-dose response for recessive specific-locus and dominant cataract mutations are extended. Selected mutations are characterized at the genetic, biochemical and molecular levels. (R.P.) 5 refs., 3 tabs

  8. Apoptosis-like yeast cell death in response to DNA damage and replication defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burhans, William C.; Weinberger, Martin; Marchetti, Maria A.; Ramachandran, Lakshmi; D' Urso, Gennaro; Huberman, Joel A

    2003-11-27

    In budding (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and fission (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) yeast and other unicellular organisms, DNA damage and other stimuli can induce cell death resembling apoptosis in metazoans, including the activation of a recently discovered caspase-like molecule in budding yeast. Induction of apoptotic-like cell death in yeasts requires homologues of cell cycle checkpoint proteins that are often required for apoptosis in metazoan cells. Here, we summarize these findings and our unpublished results which show that an important component of metazoan apoptosis recently detected in budding yeast - reactive oxygen species (ROS) - can also be detected in fission yeast undergoing an apoptotic-like cell death. ROS were detected in fission and budding yeast cells bearing conditional mutations in genes encoding DNA replication initiation proteins and in fission yeast cells with mutations that deregulate cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). These mutations may cause DNA damage by permitting entry of cells into S phase with a reduced number of replication forks and/or passage through mitosis with incompletely replicated chromosomes. This may be relevant to the frequent requirement for elevated CDK activity in mammalian apoptosis, and to the recent discovery that the initiation protein Cdc6 is destroyed during apoptosis in mammals and in budding yeast cells exposed to lethal levels of DNA damage. Our data indicate that connections between apoptosis-like cell death and DNA replication or CDK activity are complex. Some apoptosis-like pathways require checkpoint proteins, others are inhibited by them, and others are independent of them. This complexity resembles that of apoptotic pathways in mammalian cells, which are frequently deregulated in cancer. The greater genetic tractability of yeasts should help to delineate these complex pathways and their relationships to cancer and to the effects of apoptosis-inducing drugs that inhibit DNA replication.

  9. Apoptosis-like yeast cell death in response to DNA damage and replication defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burhans, William C.; Weinberger, Martin; Marchetti, Maria A.; Ramachandran, Lakshmi; D'Urso, Gennaro; Huberman, Joel A.

    2003-01-01

    In budding (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and fission (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) yeast and other unicellular organisms, DNA damage and other stimuli can induce cell death resembling apoptosis in metazoans, including the activation of a recently discovered caspase-like molecule in budding yeast. Induction of apoptotic-like cell death in yeasts requires homologues of cell cycle checkpoint proteins that are often required for apoptosis in metazoan cells. Here, we summarize these findings and our unpublished results which show that an important component of metazoan apoptosis recently detected in budding yeast - reactive oxygen species (ROS) - can also be detected in fission yeast undergoing an apoptotic-like cell death. ROS were detected in fission and budding yeast cells bearing conditional mutations in genes encoding DNA replication initiation proteins and in fission yeast cells with mutations that deregulate cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). These mutations may cause DNA damage by permitting entry of cells into S phase with a reduced number of replication forks and/or passage through mitosis with incompletely replicated chromosomes. This may be relevant to the frequent requirement for elevated CDK activity in mammalian apoptosis, and to the recent discovery that the initiation protein Cdc6 is destroyed during apoptosis in mammals and in budding yeast cells exposed to lethal levels of DNA damage. Our data indicate that connections between apoptosis-like cell death and DNA replication or CDK activity are complex. Some apoptosis-like pathways require checkpoint proteins, others are inhibited by them, and others are independent of them. This complexity resembles that of apoptotic pathways in mammalian cells, which are frequently deregulated in cancer. The greater genetic tractability of yeasts should help to delineate these complex pathways and their relationships to cancer and to the effects of apoptosis-inducing drugs that inhibit DNA replication

  10. Implications of compound heterozygous insulin receptor mutations in congenital muscle fibre type disproportion myopathy for the receptor kinase activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, H H; Müller, R; Vestergaard, H

    1999-01-01

    We studied insulin receptor kinase activation in two brothers with congenital muscle fibre type disproportion myopathy and compound heterozygous mutations of the insulin receptor gene, their parents, and their unaffected brother. In the father who has a heterozygote Arg1174-->Gln mutation, in sit...

  11. Hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules in toxic multinodular goiter share activating thyrotropin receptor mutations with solitary toxic adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonacchera, M; Chiovato, L; Pinchera, A; Agretti, P; Fiore, E; Cetani, F; Rocchi, R; Viacava, P; Miccoli, P; Vitti, P

    1998-02-01

    Toxic multinodular goiter is a cause of nonautoimmune hyperthyroidism and is believed to differ in its nature and pathogenesis from toxic adenoma. Gain-of-function mutations of the TSH receptor gene have been identified as a cause of toxic adenoma. The pathogenesis at the molecular level of hyperfunctioning nodules in toxic multinodular goiter has yet not been reported. Six patients with a single hot nodule within a multinodular goiter and 11 patients with toxic thyroid adenoma were enrolled in our study. At histology five hyperfunctioning nodules in multinodular goiters showed the features of adenomas, and one was identified as a hyperplastic nodule. The entire exon 10 of the TSH receptor gene was directly sequenced after PCR amplification from genomic DNA obtained from surgical specimens. Functional studies of mutated receptors were performed in COS-7 cells. Five out of 6 (83%) hyperfunctioning nodules within toxic multinodular goiters harbored a TSH receptor mutation. A TSH receptor mutation was also evident in the hyperfunctioning nodule that at histology had the features of noncapsulated hyperplastic nodule. Among toxic adenomas, 8 out of 11 (72%) nodules harbored a TSH receptor mutation. All the mutations were heterozygotic and somatic. Nonfunctioning nodules, whether adenomas or hyperplastic nodules present in association with hyperfunctioning nodules in the same multinodular goiters, had no TSH receptor mutation. All the mutations identified had constitutive activity as assessed by cAMP production after expression in COS-7 cells. Hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules in multinodular goiters recognize the same pathogenetic event (TSH receptor mutation) as toxic adenoma. Other mechanisms are implicated in the growth of nonfunctioning thyroid nodules coexistent in the same gland.

  12. Main and trace element analysis of urinary stones by means of neutron activation and X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buehling, A.; Riotte, H.G.

    1978-01-01

    Metallosis, a tissue reaction to metal implants which is caused by corrosion of the implanted metal caused by body liquids, makes activation analysis interesting as a method to determine trace element distributions in tissue and organs. Osteosynthesis of the eft hind leg was carried out in 30 rabbits. The bone fragments were fixated with V4A steel plates and 3-4 screws each. One xear after implantation a total of 350 samples was taken in contact tissue, muscles, lymphatic tissue, kidneys, liver, lungs, and heart and investigated by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The elements Na, K, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, Se, Rb, Mo, Cs, Ta, and W were quantitatively determinde. Four animals of the same strain hald under the same condition were used as controls. It was found that the alloy components of the V4A steel implants burden the body even at considerable distance. Of particular interest are the findings for lympatic tissue, liver and kidneys, which indicate tendencies of Cr and Ni accumulation. Element correlations showed that the tissues take up the metal ions in nearly constant ratios, with the exception of iron. The concentrations of other essential elements like Zn, Se, Rb, and k are also influenced by the implants. (orig.) [de

  13. A Gly1127Ser mutation in an EGF-like domain of the Fibrillin-I gene is a risk factor for ascending aortic aneurysm and dissection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francke, U.; Berg, M.A.; Tynan, K. [Stanford Univ. Medical Center, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-06-01

    Ascending aortic disease, ranging from mild aortic root enlargement to aneurysm and/or dissection, has been identified in 10 individuals of a kindred, none of whom had classical Marfan syndrome (MFS). Single-strand conformation analysis of the entire fibrillin-1 (FBN1) cDNA of an affected family member revealed a G-to-A transition at nucleotide 3379, predicting a Gly1127Ser substitution. The glycine in this position is highly conserved in EGF-like domains of FBN1 and other proteins. This mutation was present in 9 of 10 affected family members and in 1 young unaffected member but was not found in other unaffected members, in 168 chromsomes from normal controls, and in 188 chromosomes from other individuals with MFS or related phenotypes. FBN1 intragenic marker haplotypes ruled out the possibility that the other allele played a significant role in modulating the phenotype in this family. Pulse-chase studies revealed normal fibrillin synthesis but reduced fibrillin deposition into the extracellular matrix in cultured fibroblasts from a Gly1127Ser carrier. We postulate that the Gly1127Ser FBN1 mutation is responsible for reduced matrix deposition. We suggest that mutations such as this one may disrupt EFG-like domain folding less drastically than do substitutions of cysteine or of other amino acids important for calcium-binding that cause classical MFS. The Gly 1127Ser mutation, therefore, produces a mild form of autosomal dominantly inherited weakness of elastic tissue, which predisposes to ascending aortic aneurysm and dissection later in life. 33 refs., 6 figs.

  14. Crystal Structure of the Extracellular Cholinesterase-Like Domain from Neuroligin-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehnke,J.; Jin, X.; Budreck, E.; Posy, S.; Scheiffele, P.; Hnoig, B.; Shapiro, L.

    2008-01-01

    Neuroligins (NLs) are catalytically inactive members of a family of cholinesterase-like transmembrane proteins that mediate cell adhesion at neuronal synapses. Postsynaptic neuroligins engage in Ca2+-dependent transsynaptic interactions via their extracellular cholinesterase domain with presynaptic neurexins (NRXs). These interactions may be regulated by two short splice insertions (termed A and B) in the NL cholinesterase domain. Here, we present the 3.3- Angstroms crystal structure of the ectodomain from NL2 containing splice insertion A (NL2A). The overall structure of NL2A resembles that of cholinesterases, but several structural features are unique to the NL proteins. First, structural elements surrounding the esterase active-site region differ significantly between active esterases and NL2A. On the opposite surface of the NL2A molecule, the positions of the A and B splice insertions identify a candidate NRX interaction site of the NL protein. Finally, sequence comparisons of NL isoforms allow for mapping the location of residues of previously identified mutations in NL3 and NL4 found in patients with autism spectrum disorders. Overall, the NL2 structure promises to provide a valuable model for dissecting NL isoform- and synapse-specific functions.

  15. Peroxidase-like activity of magnetoferritin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Melníková, V.; Pospíšková, K.; Mitróová, Z.; Kopčanský, P.; Šafařík, Ivo

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 181, 3-4 (2014), s. 295-301 ISSN 0026-3672 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD13021 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : magnetoferritin * magnetic nanoparticles * peroxidase-like activity * hydrogen peroxide * oxidative stress Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.741, year: 2014

  16. Deficiency in Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma Translocation 1: A Novel Cause of IPEX-Like Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbit-Henrion, Fabienne; Jeverica, Anja K; Bègue, Bernadette; Markelj, Gasper; Parlato, Marianna; Avčin, Simona Lucija; Callebaut, Isabelle; Bras, Marc; Parisot, Mélanie; Jazbec, Janez; Homan, Matjaz; Ihan, Alojz; Rieux-Laucat, Frédéric; Stolzenberg, Marie-Claude; Ruemmele, Frank M; Avčin, Tadej; Cerf-Bensussan, Nadine

    2017-03-01

    Early-onset inflammatory bowel diseases can result from a wide spectrum of rare mendelian disorders. Early molecular diagnosis is crucial in defining treatment and in improving life expectancy. Herein we aimed at defining the mechanism of an immunodeficiency-polyendrocrinopathy and enteropathy-X-linked (IPEX)-like disease combined with a severe immunodeficiency in 2 siblings born from distantly related parents. Whole exome sequencing was performed on blood-extracted genomic DNA from the 2 affected children and their parents on the genomic platform of Institut IMAGINE. Candidate gene mutation was identified using the in-house software PolyWeb and confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Protein expression was determined by western blot. Flow cytometry was used to assess consequences of the mutation on lymphocyte phenotype and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation at diagnosis and after treatment by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. We identified a homozygous missense mutation in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation 1 gene (MALT1), which precluded protein expression. In keeping with the known function of MALT1, NF-κB-dependent lymphocyte activation was severely impaired. Moreover, there was a drastic reduction in Forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) regulatory T cells accounting for the IPEX-like phenotype. Following identification of the mutation, both children received hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, which permitted full clinical recovery. Immunological workup at 6 and 12 months after transplantation showed normal NF-κB activation and correction of regulatory T cells frequency. Along with FOXP3, interleukin 2 receptor alpha chain (IL2RA), and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte protein 4 precursor (CTLA-4) mutations, MALT1 deficiency should now be considered as a possible cause of IPEX-like syndrome associated with immunodeficiency that can be cured by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

  17. Cancer gene profiling in non-small cell lung cancers reveals activating mutations in JAK2 and JAK3 with therapeutic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuyu D. Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Next-generation sequencing (NGS of cancer gene panels are widely applied to enable personalized cancer therapy and to identify novel oncogenic mutations. Methods We performed targeted NGS on 932 clinical cases of non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs using the Ion AmpliSeq™ Cancer Hotspot panel v2 assay. Results Actionable mutations were identified in 65% of the cases with available targeted therapeutic options, including 26% of the patients with mutations in National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN guideline genes. Most notably, we discovered JAK2 p.V617F somatic mutation, a hallmark of myeloproliferative neoplasms, in 1% (9/932 of the NSCLCs. Analysis of cancer cell line pharmacogenomic data showed that a high level of JAK2 expression in a panel of NSCLC cell lines is correlated with increased sensitivity to a selective JAK2 inhibitor. Further analysis of TCGA genomic data revealed JAK2 gain or loss due to genetic alterations in NSCLC clinical samples are associated with significantly elevated or reduced PD-L1 expression, suggesting that the activating JAK2 p.V617F mutation could confer sensitivity to both JAK inhibitors and anti-PD1 immunotherapy. We also detected JAK3 germline activating mutations in 6.7% (62/932 of the patients who may benefit from anti-PD1 treatment, in light of recent findings that JAK3 mutations upregulate PD-L1 expression. Conclusion Taken together, this study demonstrated the clinical utility of targeted NGS with a focused hotspot cancer gene panel in NSCLCs and identified activating mutations in JAK2 and JAK3 with clinical implications inferred through integrative analysis of cancer genetic, genomic, and pharmacogenomic data. The potential of JAK2 and JAK3 mutations as response markers for the targeted therapy against JAK kinases or anti-PD1 immunotherapy warrants further investigation.

  18. Ultra-rare mutation in long-range enhancer predisposes to thyroid carcinoma with high penetrance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiling He

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer shows high heritability but causative genes remain largely unknown. According to a common hypothesis the genetic predisposition to thyroid cancer is highly heterogeneous; being in part due to many different rare alleles. Here we used linkage analysis and targeted deep sequencing to detect a novel single-nucleotide mutation in chromosome 4q32 (4q32A>C in a large pedigree displaying non-medullary thyroid carcinoma (NMTC. This mutation is generally ultra-rare; it was not found in 38 NMTC families, in 2676 sporadic NMTC cases or 2470 controls. The mutation is located in a long-range enhancer element whose ability to bind the transcription factors POU2F and YY1 is significantly impaired, with decreased activity in the presence of the C- allele compared with the wild type A-allele. An enhancer RNA (eRNA is transcribed in thyroid tissue from this region and is greatly downregulated in NMTC tumors. We suggest that this is an example of an ultra-rare mutation predisposing to thyroid cancer with high penetrance.

  19. Parkinson-Related LRRK2 Mutation R1628P Enables Cdk5 Phosphorylation of LRRK2 and Upregulates Its Kinase Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Shu

    Full Text Available Recent studies have linked certain single nucleotide polymorphisms in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2 gene with Parkinson's disease (PD. Among the mutations, LRRK2 c.4883G>C (R1628P variant was identified to have a significant association with the risk of PD in ethnic Han-Chinese populations. But the molecular pathological mechanisms of R1628P mutation in PD is still unknown.Unlike other LRRK2 mutants in the Roc-COR-Kinase domain, the R1628P mutation didn't alter the LRRK2 kinase activity and promote neuronal death directly. LRRK2 R1628P mutation increased the binding affinity of LRRK2 with Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5. Interestingly, R1628P mutation turned its adjacent amino acid residue S1627 on LRRK2 protein to a novel phosphorylation site of Cdk5, which could be defined as a typical type II (+ phosphorylation-related single nucleotide polymorphism. Importantly, we showed that the phosphorylation of S1627 by Cdk5 could activate the LRRK2 kinase, and neurons ectopically expressing R1628P displayed a higher sensitivity to 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium, a bioactive metabolite of environmental toxin MPTP, in a Cdk5-dependent manner.Our data indicate that Parkinson-related LRRK2 mutation R1628P leads to Cdk5 phosphorylation of LRRK2 at S1627, which would upregulate the kinase activity of LRRK2 and consequently cause neuronal death.

  20. Hemophilia B with mutations at glycine-48 of factor IX exhibited delayed activation by the factor VIIa-tissue factor complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, P C; Hamaguchi, N; Yu, Y S; Shen, M C; Lin, S W

    2000-10-01

    Gly-48 is in the conserved DGDQC sequence (residues 47-51 of human factor IX) of the first EGF (EGF-1)-like domain of factor IX. The importance of the Gly-48 is manifested by two hemophilia B patients; factor IXTainan and factor IXMalmo27, with Gly-48 replaced by arginine (designated IXG48R) and valine (IXG48V), respectively. Both patients were CRM+ exhibiting mild hemophilic episodes with 25% (former) and 19% (latter) normal clotting activities. We characterize both factor IX variants to show the roles of Gly-48 and the conservation of the DGDQC sequence in factor IX. Purified plasma and recombinant factor IX variants exhibited approximately 26%-27% normal factor IX's clotting activities with G48R or G48V mutation. Both variants depicted normal quenching of the intrinsic fluorescence by increasing concentrations of calcium ions and Tb3+, indicating that arginine and valine substitution for Gly-48 did not perturb the calcium site in the EGF-1 domain. Activation of both mutants by factor XIa appeared normal. The reduced clotting activity of factors IXG48R and IXG48V was attributed to the failure of both mutants to cleavage factor X: in the presence of only phospholipids and calcium ions, both mutants showed a 4 to approximately 7-fold elevation in Km, and by adding factor VIIIa to the system, although factor VIIIa potentiated the activation of factor X by the mutants factor IXaG48R and factor IXaG48V, a 2 to approximately 3-fold decrease in the catalytic function was observed with the mutant factor IXa's, despite that they bound factor VIIIa on the phospholipid vesicles with only slightly reduced affinity when compared to wild-type factor IXa. The apparent Kd for factor VIIIa binding was 0.83 nM for normal factor IXa, 1.74 nM for IXaG48R and 1.4 nM for IXaG48V. Strikingly, when interaction with the factor VIIa-TF complex was examined, both mutations were barely activated by the VIIa-TF complex and they also showed abnormal interaction with VIIa-TF in bovine

  1. Neutron activation analysis of the rare earth elements in Nasu hot springs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Nagao; Takahashi, Naruto.

    1978-01-01

    Eleven rare earth elements (lanthanum, cerium, neodymium, samarium, europium, gadolinium, terbium, holmium, thulium, ytterbium and lutetium) in hot spring waters and sinter deposits in the Nasu area were determined by the neutron activation method. The rare earth elements in hot spring water were preconcentrated in ferric hydroxide precipitate and neutron-irradiated. The rare earth elements were chemically separated into lighter and heavier groups and the activity of each group was measured with a Ge(Li) detector. Distribution of the rare earth elements between the hot spring water and the sinter deposit was also discussed. (auth.)

  2. Computational analysis of a novel mutation in ETFDH gene highlights its long-range effects on the FAD-binding motif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Jan-Gowth

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD is an autosomal recessive disease caused by the defects in the mitochondrial electron transfer system and the metabolism of fatty acids. Recently, mutations in electron transfer flavoprotein dehydrogenase (ETFDH gene, encoding electron transfer flavoprotein:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETF:QO have been reported to be the major causes of riboflavin-responsive MADD. To date, no studies have been performed to explore the functional impact of these mutations or their mechanism of disrupting enzyme activity. Results High resolution melting (HRM analysis and sequencing of the entire ETFDH gene revealed a novel mutation (p.Phe128Ser and the hotspot mutation (p.Ala84Thr from a patient with MADD. According to the predicted 3D structure of ETF:QO, the two mutations are located within the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD binding domain; however, the two residues do not have direct interactions with the FAD ligand. Using molecular dynamics (MD simulations and normal mode analysis (NMA, we found that the p.Ala84Thr and p.Phe128Ser mutations are most likely to alter the protein structure near the FAD binding site as well as disrupt the stability of the FAD binding required for the activation of ETF:QO. Intriguingly, NMA revealed that several reported disease-causing mutations in the ETF:QO protein show highly correlated motions with the FAD-binding site. Conclusions Based on the present findings, we conclude that the changes made to the amino acids in ETF:QO are likely to influence the FAD-binding stability.

  3. A novel dominant D109A CRYAB mutation in a family with myofibrillar myopathy affects αB-crystallin structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub P. Fichna

    2017-06-01

    Molecular modeling in accordance with muscle biopsy microscopic analyses predicted that D109A mutation influence both structure and function of CRYAB due to decreased stability of oligomers leading to aggregate formation. In consequence disrupted sarcomere cytoskeleton organization might lead to muscle pathology. We also suggest that mutated RQDE sequence of CRYAB could impair CRYAB chaperone-like activity and promote aggregation of lens crystallins.

  4. The effect of point mutations on structure and mechanical properties of collagen-like fibril: A molecular dynamics study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marlowe, Ashley E.; Singh, Abhishek; Yingling, Yaroslava G.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding sequence dependent mechanical and structural properties of collagen fibrils is important for the development of artificial biomaterials for medical and nanotechnological applications. Moreover, point mutations are behind many collagen associated diseases, including Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI). We conducted a combination of classical and steered atomistic molecular dynamics simulations to examine the effect of point mutations on structure and mechanical properties of short collagen fibrils which include mutations of glycine to alanine, aspartic acid, cysteine, and serine or mutations of hydroxyproline to arginine, asparagine, glutamine, and lysine. We found that all mutations disrupt structure and reduce strength of the collagen fibrils, which may affect the hierarchical packing of the fibrils. The glycine mutations were more detrimental to mechanical strength of the fibrils (WT > Ala > Ser > Cys > Asp) than that of hydroxyproline (WT > Arg > Gln > Asn > Lys). The clinical outcome for glycine mutations agrees well with the trend in reduction of fibril's tensile strength predicted by our simulations. Overall, our results suggest that the reduction in mechanical properties of collagen fibrils may be used to predict the clinical outcome of mutations. Highlights: ► All mutations disrupt structure and bonding pattern and reduce strength of the collagen fibrils. ► Gly based mutations are worst to mechanical integrity of fibrils than that of Hyp. ► Lys and Arg mutations most dramatically destabilize collagen fibril properties. ► Clinical outcome of mutations may be related to the reduced mechanical properties of fibrils.

  5. DIRS1-like retrotransposons are widely distributed among Decapoda and are particularly present in hydrothermal vent organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnivard Eric

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transposable elements are major constituents of eukaryote genomes and have a great impact on genome structure and stability. Considering their mutational abilities, TEs can contribute to the genetic diversity and evolution of organisms. Knowledge of their distribution among several genomes is an essential condition to study their dynamics and to better understand their role in species evolution. DIRS1-like retrotransposons are a particular group of retrotransposons according to their mode of transposition that implies a tyrosine recombinase. To date, they have been described in a restricted number of species in comparison with the LTR retrotransposons. In this paper, we determine the distribution of DIRS1-like elements among 25 decapod species, 10 of them living in hydrothermal vents that correspond to particularly unstable environments. Results Using PCR approaches, we have identified 15 new DIRS1-like families in 15 diverse decapod species (shrimps, lobsters, crabs and galatheid crabs. Hydrothermal organisms show a particularly great diversity of DIRS1-like elements with 5 families characterized among Alvinocarididae shrimps and 3 in the galatheid crab Munidopsis recta. Phylogenic analyses show that these elements are divergent toward the DIRS1-like families previously described in other crustaceans and arthropods and form a new clade called AlDIRS1. At larger scale, the distribution of DIRS1-like retrotransposons appears more or less patchy depending on the taxa considered. Indeed, a scattered distribution can be observed in the infraorder Brachyura whereas all the species tested in infraorders Caridea and Astacidea harbor some DIRS1-like elements. Conclusion Our results lead to nearly double both the number of DIRS1-like elements described to date, and the number of species known to harbor these ones. In this study, we provide the first degenerate primers designed to look specifically for DIRS1-like retrotransposons. They

  6. Elemental Study in Soybean and Products by Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorapot, Permnamtip; Arporn Busamongkol; Sirinart, Laoharojanaphand

    2009-07-01

    Full text: Elements were analyzed in soybean and products by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), Pseudo-Cyclic Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (PCINAA) and Epithermal Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (EINAA). Elements detected in sample were include Al, Br, Ca, Cl, Cu, Fe, I, K, Mg, Mn Na, Se and Zn. The result showed that the nutritional contents changed after food processing. From experiments (n = 2), it was found that after food processing, the concentration of Cl and Na in soy bean curd increased from 0.0045 and 0.0011% to found 0.91 and 0.39 %, respectively. Other elements did not differ from soybean. Limits of detection for Al, Br, Ca, Cl, Cu, Fe, I, K, Mg, Mn Na, Se and Zn were 0.05, 0.2, 50, 6, 10, 15, 0.05, 30, 40, 5, 5, 0.05 and 1 mg.kg - 1, respectively

  7. Coral-like CeO{sub 2}/NiO nanocomposites with efficient enzyme-mimetic activity for biosensing application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mu, Jianshuai; Zhao, Xin; Li, Jie [College of Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Functional Material Chemistry, Ministry of Education, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Structure and Performance for Functional Molecules, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Yang, En-Cui, E-mail: encui_yang@163.com [College of Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Functional Material Chemistry, Ministry of Education, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Structure and Performance for Functional Molecules, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Zhao, Xiao-Jun, E-mail: xiaojun_zhao15@163.com [College of Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Functional Material Chemistry, Ministry of Education, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Structure and Performance for Functional Molecules, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2017-05-01

    Development of nanomaterials-based enzymatic mimics has gained considerable attention in recent years, because of their low cost, high stability and efficiently catalytic ability. Here, CeO{sub 2} was successfully incorporated into the coral-like NiO nanostructures assembled by nanoflakes with high surface area, forming the coral-like CeO{sub 2}/NiO nanocomposites. The morphology and composition of CeO{sub 2}/NiO nanocomposites were characterized by XRD, SEM, element mapping and XPS. The results of characterization showed that cerium was highly dispersed in the coral-like NiO nanostructures. The peroxidase-like activity of CeO{sub 2}/NiO nanocomposites was investigated, and they exhibited enhanced peroxidase-like activity in comparison to that of pure NiO or CeO{sub 2}. The catalytic activity was dependent on the cerium content, and the optimal content was 2.5%. The enhanced catalytic activity of CeO{sub 2}/NiO nanocomposites arised from their high ability of electron transfer because of cerium incorporation. The catalytic performance of CeO{sub 2}/NiO nanocomposites was evaluated by steady-state kinetic, which showed that the CeO{sub 2}/NiO nanocomposites exhibited higher affinity for the substrates and similar catalytic efficiency compared with natural peroxidase. Based on the efficient peroxidase-like activity, CeO{sub 2}/NiO was used for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} determination. The constructed colorimetric H{sub 2}O{sub 2} sensor had fast response for only 5 min, a wide linear range from 0.05 to 40 mM and a low detection limit with 0.88 μM. The CeO{sub 2}/NiO nanocomposites were expected to have potential applications in clinical diagnosis and biotechnology as enzymatic mimics. - Highlights: • Coral-like CeO{sub 2}/NiO nanocomposites with different Ce content were synthesized. • CeO{sub 2} was highly dispersed in the NiO matrixes with high surface area. • CeO{sub 2}/NiO nanocomposites exhibited efficient peroxidase-like activity. • A colorimetric H{sub 2}O

  8. Rice Bran Feruloylated Oligosaccharides Activate Dendritic Cells via Toll-Like Receptor 2 and 4 Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Chen Lin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the effects of feruloylated oligosaccharides (FOs of rice bran on murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs and the potential pathway through which the effects are mediated. We found that FOs induced phenotypic maturation of DCs, as shown by the increased expression of CD40, CD80/CD86 and MHC-I/II molecules. FOs efficiently induced maturation of DCs generated from C3H/HeN or C57BL/6 mice with normal toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4 or TLR-2 but not DCs from mice with mutated TLR4 or TLR2. The mechanism of action of FOs may be mediated by increased phosphorylation of ERK, p38 and JNK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs and increased NF-kB activity, which are important signaling molecules downstream of TLR-4 and TLR-2. These data suggest that FOs induce DCs maturation through TLR-4 and/or TLR-2 and that FOs might have potential efficacy against tumor or virus infection or represent a candidate-adjuvant approach for application in immunotherapy and vaccination.

  9. The Landscape of Somatic Genetic Alterations in Breast Cancers From ATM Germline Mutation Carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigelt, Britta; Bi, Rui; Kumar, Rahul; Blecua, Pedro; Mandelker, Diana L; Geyer, Felipe C; Pareja, Fresia; James, Paul A; Couch, Fergus J; Eccles, Diana M; Blows, Fiona; Pharoah, Paul; Li, Anqi; Selenica, Pier; Lim, Raymond S; Jayakumaran, Gowtham; Waddell, Nic; Shen, Ronglai; Norton, Larry; Wen, Hannah Y; Powell, Simon N; Riaz, Nadeem; Robson, Mark E; Reis-Filho, Jorge S; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia

    2018-02-28

    Pathogenic germline variants in ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM), a gene that plays a role in DNA damage response and cell cycle checkpoints, confer an increased breast cancer (BC) risk. Here, we investigated the phenotypic characteristics and landscape of somatic genetic alterations in 24 BCs from ATM germline mutation carriers by whole-exome and targeted sequencing. ATM-associated BCs were consistently hormone receptor positive and largely displayed minimal immune infiltrate. Although 79.2% of these tumors exhibited loss of heterozygosity of the ATM wild-type allele, none displayed high activity of mutational signature 3 associated with defective homologous recombination DNA (HRD) repair. No TP53 mutations were found in the ATM-associated BCs. Analysis of an independent data set confirmed that germline ATM variants and TP53 somatic mutations are mutually exclusive. Our findings indicate that ATM-associated BCs often harbor bi-allelic inactivation of ATM, are phenotypically distinct from BRCA1/2-associated BCs, lack HRD-related mutational signatures, and that TP53 and ATM genetic alterations are likely epistatic.

  10. cAMP response element binding protein (CREB activates transcription via two distinct genetic elements of the human glucose-6-phosphatase gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Luisa

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase catalyzes the dephosphorylation of glucose-6-phosphatase to glucose, the final step in the gluconeogenic and glycogenolytic pathways. Expression of the glucose-6-phosphatase gene is induced by glucocorticoids and elevated levels of intracellular cAMP. The effect of cAMP in regulating glucose-6-phosphatase gene transcription was corroborated by the identification of two genetic motifs CRE1 and CRE2 in the human and murine glucose-6-phosphatase gene promoter that resemble cAMP response elements (CRE. Results The cAMP response element is a point of convergence for many extracellular and intracellular signals, including cAMP, calcium, and neurotrophins. The major CRE binding protein CREB, a member of the basic region leucine zipper (bZIP family of transcription factors, requires phosphorylation to become a biologically active transcriptional activator. Since unphosphorylated CREB is transcriptionally silent simple overexpression studies cannot be performed to test the biological role of CRE-like sequences of the glucose-6-phosphatase gene. The use of a constitutively active CREB2/CREB fusion protein allowed us to uncouple the investigation of target genes of CREB from the variety of signaling pathways that lead to an activation of CREB. Here, we show that this constitutively active CREB2/CREB fusion protein strikingly enhanced reporter gene transcription mediated by either CRE1 or CRE2 derived from the glucose-6-phosphatase gene. Likewise, reporter gene transcription was enhanced following expression of the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA in the nucleus of transfected cells. In contrast, activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2, known to compete with CREB for binding to the canonical CRE sequence 5'-TGACGTCA-3', did not transactivate reporter genes containing CRE1, CRE2, or both CREs derived from the glucose-6-phosphatase gene. Conclusions Using a constitutively active CREB2

  11. Comparative analysis of regulatory elements in different germin-like ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was observed that these promoters have important regulatory elements, which are involved in various important functions. These elements have been compared on the basis of location, copy number, and distributed on positive and negative strands. It was also observed that some of these elements are common and ...

  12. Polyalanine expansion and frameshift mutations of the paired-like homeobox gene PHOX2B in congenital central hypoventilation syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiel, Jeanne; Laudier, Béatrice; Attié-Bitach, Tania; Trang, Ha; de Pontual, Loïc; Gener, Blanca; Trochet, Delphine; Etchevers, Heather; Ray, Pierre; Simonneau, Michel; Vekemans, Michel; Munnich, Arnold; Gaultier, Claude; Lyonnet, Stanislas

    2003-04-01

    Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS or Ondine's curse; OMIM 209880) is a life-threatening disorder involving an impaired ventilatory response to hypercarbia and hypoxemia. This core phenotype is associated with lower-penetrance anomalies of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) including Hirschsprung disease and tumors of neural-crest derivatives such as ganglioneuromas and neuroblastomas. In mice, the development of ANS reflex circuits is dependent on the paired-like homeobox gene Phox2b. Thus, we regarded its human ortholog, PHOX2B, as a candidate gene in CCHS. We found heterozygous de novo mutations in PHOX2B in 18 of 29 individuals with CCHS. Most mutations consisted of 5-9 alanine expansions within a 20-residue polyalanine tract probably resulting from non-homologous recombination. We show that PHOX2B is expressed in both the central and the peripheral ANS during human embryonic development. Our data support an essential role of PHOX2B in the normal patterning of the autonomous ventilation system and, more generally, of the ANS in humans.

  13. Identification and characterization of cell-specific enhancer elements for the mouse ETF/Tead2 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanoue, Y; Yasunami, M; Suzuki, K; Ohkubo, H

    2001-12-21

    We have identified and characterized by transient transfection assays the cell-specific 117-bp enhancer sequence in the first intron of the mouse ETF (Embryonic TEA domain-containing factor)/Tead2 gene required for transcriptional activation in ETF/Tead2 gene-expressing cells, such as P19 cells. The 117-bp enhancer contains one GC-rich sequence (5'-GGGGCGGGG-3'), termed the GC box, and two tandemly repeated GA-rich sequences (5'-GGGGGAGGGG-3'), termed the proximal and distal GA elements. Further analyses, including transfection studies and electrophoretic mobility shift assays using a series of deletion and mutation constructs, indicated that Sp1, a putative activator, may be required to predominate over its competition with another unknown putative repressor, termed the GA element-binding factor, for binding to both the GC box, which overlapped with the proximal GA element, and the distal GA element in the 117-bp sequence in order to achieve a full enhancer activity. We also discuss a possible mechanism underlying the cell-specific enhancer activity of the 117-bp sequence.

  14. The effect of point mutations on structure and mechanical properties of collagen-like fibril: A molecular dynamics study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marlowe, Ashley E.; Singh, Abhishek; Yingling, Yaroslava G., E-mail: yara_yingling@ncsu.edu

    2012-12-01

    Understanding sequence dependent mechanical and structural properties of collagen fibrils is important for the development of artificial biomaterials for medical and nanotechnological applications. Moreover, point mutations are behind many collagen associated diseases, including Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI). We conducted a combination of classical and steered atomistic molecular dynamics simulations to examine the effect of point mutations on structure and mechanical properties of short collagen fibrils which include mutations of glycine to alanine, aspartic acid, cysteine, and serine or mutations of hydroxyproline to arginine, asparagine, glutamine, and lysine. We found that all mutations disrupt structure and reduce strength of the collagen fibrils, which may affect the hierarchical packing of the fibrils. The glycine mutations were more detrimental to mechanical strength of the fibrils (WT > Ala > Ser > Cys > Asp) than that of hydroxyproline (WT > Arg > Gln > Asn > Lys). The clinical outcome for glycine mutations agrees well with the trend in reduction of fibril's tensile strength predicted by our simulations. Overall, our results suggest that the reduction in mechanical properties of collagen fibrils may be used to predict the clinical outcome of mutations. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer All mutations disrupt structure and bonding pattern and reduce strength of the collagen fibrils. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gly based mutations are worst to mechanical integrity of fibrils than that of Hyp. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lys and Arg mutations most dramatically destabilize collagen fibril properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Clinical outcome of mutations may be related to the reduced mechanical properties of fibrils.

  15. Specificity determinants for the abscisic acid response element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Aditya Kumar; Lahiri, Ansuman

    2013-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) response elements (ABREs) are a group of cis-acting DNA elements that have been identified from promoter analysis of many ABA-regulated genes in plants. We are interested in understanding the mechanism of binding specificity between ABREs and a class of bZIP transcription factors known as ABRE binding factors (ABFs). In this work, we have modeled the homodimeric structure of the bZIP domain of ABRE binding factor 1 from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtABF1) and studied its interaction with ACGT core motif-containing ABRE sequences. We have also examined the variation in the stability of the protein-DNA complex upon mutating ABRE sequences using the protein design algorithm FoldX. The high throughput free energy calculations successfully predicted the ability of ABF1 to bind to alternative core motifs like GCGT or AAGT and also rationalized the role of the flanking sequences in determining the specificity of the protein-DNA interaction.

  16. The Inherited p53 Mutation in the Brazilian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achatz, Maria Isabel; Zambetti, Gerard P

    2016-12-01

    A common criticism of studying rare diseases is the often-limited relevance of the findings to human health. Here, we review ∼15 years of research into an unusual germline TP53 mutation (p.R337H) that began with its detection in children with adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC), a remarkably rare childhood cancer that is associated with poor prognosis. We have come to learn that the p.R337H mutation exists at a very high frequency in Southern and Southeastern Brazil, occurring in one of 375 individuals within a total population of ∼100 million. Moreover, it has been determined that carriers of this founder mutation display variable tumor susceptibility, ranging from isolated cases of pediatric ACC to Li-Fraumeni or Li-Fraumeni-like (LFL) syndromes, thus representing a significant medical issue for this country. Studying the biochemical and molecular consequences of this mutation on p53 tumor-suppressor activity, as well as the putative additional genetic alterations that cooperate with this mutation, is advancing our understanding of how p53 functions in tumor suppression in general. These studies, which originated with a rare childhood tumor, are providing important information for guiding genetic counselors and physicians in treating their patients and are already providing clinical benefit. Copyright © 2016 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  17. Simultaneous speciation neutron activation analysis for trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatt, A.; Kiceniuk, J.W.; Menendez Sanchez, W.; Bottaro, C.

    2006-01-01

    Among the various forms of neutron activation technique being developed in our laboratory, much emphasis has been placed over the last ten years or so on the development of simultaneous speciation neutron activation analysis (SSNAA). This technique can now be used for the simultaneous determination of various species of a number of elements. Almost all speciation techniques consist of two steps. The first step involves the separation of species from the sample followed by the second step of element-specific detection. A number of characteristic features of NAA, which other techniques normally do not possess, can be advantageously exploited in SSNAA. For example, SSNAA can be used for: (i) multielement speciation with high specificity, (ii) speciation of chemically dissimilar elements such as Cd, Mn and Se, (iii) speciation of elements such as Cl, Br and I which are rather difficult to determine by most other techniques, etc. We have developed SSNAA methods for assaying various arsenic species, namely As(III), As(V), dimethyl arsonic acid (DMA), monomethylarsinic acid (MMA), arsenobetaine (AsB), organically bound arsenic (OBAs), and lipid-soluble arsenic (LSAs) in marine fish samples. We have extended these methods to include simultaneous determination of various species of As, Sb and Se in water. We have also developed SSNAA methods employing biochemical techniques for the simultaneous separation, preconcentration and characterization of metalloproteins and protein-bound trace element species of As, Br, Cd, Cu, Mn, Se, and Zn. We have developed methods for the simultaneous separation and characterization of organohalogen compounds in fish. An overview of the SSNAA methods being developed in our laboratory will be presented. (author)

  18. Trace element analysis of common salt using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usman, K.

    1993-01-01

    Instrumental Fast Neutron Activation Analysis (IFNAA) technique has been used in the qualitative and quantitative determination of the impurity elements in common salt. Samples of the different types of common salt processed in Nigeria and some of those imported into the country were used. The type A711 KAMAN neutron generator and a high-purity Germanium (HpGe) gamma spectrometer available at the Centre for Energy Research and Training, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria has been used. The ORTEC ADCAM 100 Emulation Software (Maestro) was used in the qualitative measurement of the detected elements. The G.R.G Activation Analysis System by G. R. Gilmore, 1987, was used in the quantitative determination of the elements detected by relative method. Aluminium and arsenic were detected and measured

  19. Anti-helminth compound niclosamide downregulates Wnt Signaling and elicits antitumor responses in tumors with activating APC mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osada, Takuya; Chen, Minyong; Yang, Xiao Yi; Spasojevic, Ivan; Vandeusen, Jeffrey B.; Hsu, David; Clary, Bryan M.; Clay, Timothy M.; Chen, Wei; Morse, Michael A.; Lyerly, H. Kim

    2011-01-01

    Wnt/β-catenin pathway activation caused by APC mutations occurs in approximately 80% of sporadic colorectal cancers. The anti-helminth compound niclosamide downregulates components of the Wnt pathway, specifically Dishevelled-2 (Dvl2) expression, resulting in diminished downstream β-catenin signaling. In this study, we determined if niclosamide could inhibit the Wnt/ β-catenin pathway in human colorectal cancers and whether its inhibition might elicit antitumor effects in the presence of APC mutations. We found that niclosamide inhibited Wnt/ β-catenin pathway activation, downregulated Dvl2, decreased downstream β-catenin signaling and exerted anti-proliferative effects in human colon cancer cell lines and colorectal cancer cells isolated by surgical resection of metastatic disease, regardless of mutations in APC. In contrast, inhibition of NF-κB or mTOR did not exert similar anti-proliferative effects in these colorectal cancer model systems. In mice implanted with human colorectal cancer xenografts, orally administered niclosamide was well tolerated, achieved plasma and tumor levels associated with biologic activity and led to tumor control. Our findings support clinical explorations to reposition niclosamide for treatment of colorectal cancer. PMID:21531761

  20. Trace elements in coloured opals using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McOrist, G.D.; Smallwood, A.

    1995-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis was used to determine the concentration of trace elements in 50 samples of orange, yellow, honey, green, blue and pink opals as well as 18 samples of colourless opals taken from a number of recognised fields in Australia, Peru, Mexico and USA. The results were evaluated to determine the relationship between trace elements content and opal colour. (author). 10 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Improved α-Amylase Production by Dephosphorylation Mutation of CreD, an Arrestin-Like Protein Required for Glucose-Induced Endocytosis of Maltose Permease and Carbon Catabolite Derepression in Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Mizuki; Hiramoto, Tetsuya; Tada, Hinako; Shintani, Takahiro; Gomi, Katsuya

    2017-07-01

    Aspergillus oryzae produces copious amount of amylolytic enzymes, and MalP, a major maltose permease, is required for the expression of amylase-encoding genes. The expression of these genes is strongly repressed by carbon catabolite repression (CCR) in the presence of glucose. MalP is transported from the plasma membrane to the vacuole by endocytosis, which requires the homolog of E6-AP carboxyl terminus ubiquitin ligase HulA, an ortholog of yeast Rsp5. In yeast, arrestin-like proteins mediate endocytosis as adaptors of Rsp5 and transporters. In the present study, we examined the involvement of CreD, an arrestin-like protein, in glucose-induced MalP endocytosis and CCR of amylase-encoding genes. Deletion of creD inhibited the glucose-induced endocytosis of MalP, and CreD showed physical interaction with HulA. Phosphorylation of CreD was detected by Western blotting, and two serine residues were determined as the putative phosphorylation sites. However, the phosphorylation state of the serine residues did not regulate MalP endocytosis and its interaction with HulA. Although α-amylase production was significantly repressed by creD deletion, both phosphorylation and dephosphorylation mimics of CreD had a negligible effect on α-amylase activity. Interestingly, dephosphorylation of CreD was required for CCR relief of amylase genes that was triggered by disruption of the deubiquitinating enzyme-encoding gene creB The α-amylase activity of the creB mutant was 1.6-fold higher than that of the wild type, and the dephosphorylation mimic of CreD further improved the α-amylase activity by 2.6-fold. These results indicate that a combination of the dephosphorylation mutation of CreD and creB disruption increased the production of amylolytic enzymes in A. oryzae IMPORTANCE In eukaryotes, glucose induces carbon catabolite repression (CCR) and proteolytic degradation of plasma membrane transporters via endocytosis. Glucose-induced endocytosis of transporters is mediated by

  2. Mutation-related differences in exploratory, spatial and depressive-like behavior in pcd and Lurcher cerebellar mutant mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan eTuma

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The cerebellum is not only essential for motor coordination but is also involved in cognitive and affective processes. These functions of the cerebellum and mechanisms of their disorders in cerebellar injury are not completely understood. There is a wide spectrum of cerebellar mutant mice which are used as models of hereditary cerebellar degenerations. Nevertheless, they differ in pathogenesis of manifestation of the particular mutation and also in the strain background. The aim of this work was to compare spatial navigation, learning and memory in pcd and Lurcher mice, two of the most frequently used cerebellar mutants. The mice were tested in the open field for exploration behavior, in the Morris water maze with visible as well as reversal hidden platform tasks and in the forced swimming test for motivation assessment. Lurcher mice showed different space exploration activity in the open field and a lower tendency to depressive-like behavior in the forced swimming test compared with pcd mice. Severe deficit of spatial navigation was shown in both cerebellar mutants. However, the overall performance of Lurcher mice was better than that of pcd mutants. Lurcher mice showed the ability of visual guidance despite difficulties with the direct swim towards a goal. In the probe trial test, Lurcher mice preferred the visible platform rather than the more recent localization of the hidden goal.

  3. Elemental analysis of combustion products by neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heft, R.E.; Koszykowski, R.F.

    1980-01-01

    This paper gives a brief description of the neutron activation analysis method, which is being used to determine the elemental profile of combustion products from coal-fired power plants, oil shale retorting, and underground coal gasification

  4. Key Clinical Features to Identify Girls with "CDKL5" Mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahi-Buisson, Nadia; Nectoux, Juliette; Rosas-Vargas, Haydee; Milh, Mathieu; Boddaert, Nathalie; Girard, Benoit; Cances, Claude; Ville, Dorothee; Afenjar, Alexandra; Rio, Marlene; Heron, Delphine; Morel, Marie Ange N'Guyen; Arzimanoglou, Alexis; Philippe, Christophe; Jonveaux, Philippe; Chelly, Jamel; Bienvenu, Thierry

    2008-01-01

    Mutations in the human X-linked cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 ("CDKL5") gene have been shown to cause infantile spasms as well as Rett syndrome (RTT)-like phenotype. To date, less than 25 different mutations have been reported. So far, there are still little data on the key clinical diagnosis criteria and on the natural history of…

  5. Cis-regulatory RNA elements that regulate specialized ribosome activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Shifeng; Barna, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence has shown that the ribosome itself can play a highly regulatory role in the specialized translation of specific subpools of mRNAs, in particular at the level of ribosomal proteins (RP). However, the mechanism(s) by which this selection takes place has remained poorly understood. In our recent study, we discovered a combination of unique RNA elements in the 5'UTRs of mRNAs that allows for such control by the ribosome. These mRNAs contain a Translation Inhibitory Element (TIE) that inhibits general cap-dependent translation, and an Internal Ribosome Entry Site (IRES) that relies on a specific RP for activation. The unique combination of an inhibitor of general translation and an activator of specialized translation is key to ribosome-mediated control of gene expression. Here we discuss how these RNA regulatory elements provide a new level of control to protein expression and their implications for gene expression, organismal development and evolution.

  6. Diverse growth hormone receptor gene mutations in Laron syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, M A; Argente, J; Chernausek, S; Gracia, R; Guevara-Aguirre, J; Hopp, M; Pérez-Jurado, L; Rosenbloom, A; Toledo, S P; Francke, U

    1993-01-01

    To better understand the molecular genetic basis and genetic epidemiology of Laron syndrome (growth-hormone insensitivity syndrome), we analyzed the growth-hormone receptor (GHR) genes of seven unrelated affected individuals from the United States, South America, Europe, and Africa. We amplified all nine GHR gene exons and splice junctions from these individuals by PCR and screened the products for mutations by using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). We identified a single GHR gene fragment with abnormal DGGE results for each affected individual, sequenced this fragment, and, in each case, identified a mutation likely to cause Laron syndrome, including two nonsense mutations (R43X and R217X), two splice-junction mutations, (189-1 G to T and 71 + 1 G to A), and two frameshift mutations (46 del TT and 230 del TA or AT). Only one of these mutations, R43X, has been previously reported. Using haplotype analysis, we determined that this mutation, which involves a CpG dinucleotide hot spot, likely arose as a separate event in this case, relative to the two prior reports of R43X. Aside from R43X, the mutations we identified are unique to patients from particular geographic regions. Ten GHR gene mutations have now been described in this disorder. We conclude that Laron syndrome is caused by diverse GHR gene mutations, including deletions, RNA processing defects, translational stop codons, and missense codons. All the identified mutations involve the extracellular domain of the receptor, and most are unique to particular families or geographic areas. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8488849

  7. Genetic and proteomic characterization of rpoB mutations and their effect on nematicidal activity in Photorhabdus luminescens LN2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuehong Qiu

    Full Text Available Rifampin resistant (Rif(R mutants of the insect pathogenic bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens LN2 from entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis indica LN2 were genetically and proteomically characterized. The Rif(R mutants showed typical phase one characters of Photorhabdus bacteria, and insecticidal activity against Galleria mellonella larvae, but surprisingly influenced their nematicidal activity against axenic infective juveniles (IJs of H. bacteriophora H06, an incompatible nematode host. 13 out of 34 Rif(R mutants lost their nematicidal activity against H06 IJs but supported the reproduction of H06 nematodes. 7 nematicidal-producing and 7 non-nematicidal-producing Rif(R mutants were respectively selected for rpoB sequence analysis. rpoB mutations were found in all 14 Rif(R mutants. The rpoB (P564L mutation was found in all 7 mutants which produced nematicidal activity against H06 nematodes, but not in the mutants which supported H06 nematode production. Allelic exchange assays confirmed that the Rif-resistance and the impact on nematicidal activity of LN2 bacteria were conferred by rpoB mutation(s. The non-nematicidal-producing Rif(R mutant was unable to colonize in the intestines of H06 IJs, but able to colonize in the intestines of its indigenous LN2 IJs. Proteomic analysis revealed different protein expression between wild-type strain and Rif(R mutants, or between nematicidal-producing and non nematicidal-producing mutants. At least 7 putative proteins including DsbA, HlpA, RhlE, RplC, NamB (a protein from T3SS, and 2 hypothetical proteins (similar to unknown protein YgdH and YggE of Escherichia coli respectively were probably involved in the nematicidal activity of LN2 bacteria against H06 nematodes. This hypothesis was further confirmed by creating insertion-deletion mutants of three selected corresponding genes (the downregulated rhlE and namB, and upregulated dsbA. These results indicate that the rpoB mutations greatly influence the

  8. Study on the dynamics of halogen elements in the agro-environment and these element`s deficiency, toxicity and environmental hazards by the application of the neutron activation analysis method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuita, Kouichi [National Inst. of Agro-Environmental Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    A neutron activation analysis method is an accurate and highly sensitive method for analyzing halogen elements (iodine, bromine and chlorine) except fluorine. It is unsubstitutable and valuable method especially for iodine (including radioactive {sup 129}I) and bromine which are present at lower levels. Halogen elements have high chemical and physiological activities and move widely in the environment. As a result, deficiency and an excess of halogen elements in plants and animals have occurred and artificial halogen compounds have caused environmental pollution in wide areas. We efficiently utilized the neutron activation analysis method and an activable tracer method to obtain valuable findings which contribute to the clarification of and measures against these actual problems and which are also concerned with the occurrence, distribution and migration of halogen elements in the environment, especially agricultural and forestry ecosystems in space and in time. (author)

  9. Revertant mutation releases confined lethal mutation, opening Pandora's box: a novel genetic pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasushi Ogawa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available When two mutations, one dominant pathogenic and the other "confining" nonsense, coexist in the same allele, theoretically, reversion of the latter may elicit a disease, like the opening of Pandora's box. However, cases of this hypothetical pathogenic mechanism have never been reported. We describe a lethal form of keratitis-ichthyosis-deafness (KID syndrome caused by the reversion of the GJB2 nonsense mutation p.Tyr136X that would otherwise have confined the effect of another dominant lethal mutation, p.Gly45Glu, in the same allele. The patient's mother had the identical misssense mutation which was confined by the nonsense mutation. The biological relationship between the parents and the child was confirmed by genotyping of 15 short tandem repeat loci. Haplotype analysis using 40 SNPs spanning the >39 kbp region surrounding the GJB2 gene and an extended SNP microarray analysis spanning 83,483 SNPs throughout chromosome 13 in the family showed that an allelic recombination event involving the maternal allele carrying the mutations generated the pathogenic allele unique to the patient, although the possibility of coincidental accumulation of spontaneous point mutations cannot be completely excluded. Previous reports and our mutation screening support that p.Gly45Glu is in complete linkage disequilibrium with p.Tyr136X in the Japanese population. Estimated from statisitics in the literature, there may be approximately 11,000 p.Gly45Glu carriers in the Japanese population who have this second-site confining mutation, which acts as natural genetic protection from the lethal disease. The reversion-triggered onset of the disesase shown in this study is a previously unreported genetic pathogenesis based on Mendelian inheritance.

  10. Dietary interventions that reduce mTOR activity rescue autistic-like behavioral deficits in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiangbo; de Theije, Caroline G M; da Silva, Sofia Lopes; Abbring, Suzanne; van der Horst, Hilma; Broersen, Laus M; Willemsen, Linette; Kas, Martien; Garssen, Johan; Kraneveld, Aletta D

    2017-01-01

    Enhanced mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling in the brain has been implicated in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Inhibition of the mTOR pathway improves behavior and neuropathology in mouse models of ASD containing mTOR-associated single gene mutations. The current study demonstrated that the amino acids histidine, lysine, threonine inhibited mTOR signaling and IgE-mediated mast cell activation, while the amino acids leucine, isoleucine, valine had no effect on mTOR signaling in BMMCs. Based on these results, we designed an mTOR-targeting amino acid diet (Active 1 diet) and assessed the effects of dietary interventions with the amino acid diet or a multi-nutrient supplementation diet (Active 2 diet) on autistic-like behavior and mTOR signaling in food allergic mice and in inbred BTBR T+Itpr3tf/J mice. Cow's milk allergic (CMA) or BTBR male mice were fed a Control, Active 1, or Active 2 diet for 7 consecutive weeks. CMA mice showed reduced social interaction and increased self-grooming behavior. Both diets reversed behavioral impairments and inhibited the mTOR activity in the prefrontal cortex and amygdala of CMA mice. In BTBR mice, only Active 1 diet reduced repetitive self-grooming behavior and attenuated the mTOR activity in the prefrontal and somatosensory cortices. The current results suggest that activated mTOR signaling pathway in the brain may be a convergent pathway in the pathogenesis of ASD bridging genetic background and environmental triggers (food allergy) and that mTOR over-activation could serve as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of ASD. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Site-directed mutation of a laccase from Thermus thermophilus: Effect on the activity profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A site-directed mutant R453T of a laccase from Thermus thermophilus HB27 (Tth-laccase was constructed in order to investigate the effect on laccase catalytic properties. The mutated gene was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Nickel-affinity purification was achieved and followed by copper ion incorporation. The mature mutated enzyme was quantitatively equal to the wild type. A photometric assay based on the oxidation of the substrate 2,2-azino-bis-(3- ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate (ABTS was employed in comparison with the wild-type Tth-laccase on catalytic properties. The R453T mutant exhibited improvement in substrate affinity and specific activity at room temperature, whereas those parameters were not significantly influenced when the temperature increased up to 65°C or higher. The mutant had better catalytic activity than that of the wild type at acidic pH. Investigated by circular dichroism spectroscopy, the mutant Tth-laccase displayed similar profiles at low and high temperatures.

  12. Use of Human Tissue to Assess the Oncogenic Activity of Melanoma-Associated Mutations

    OpenAIRE

    Chudnovsky, Yakov; Adams, Amy E.; Robbins, Paul B.; Lin, Qun; Khavari, Paul A.

    2005-01-01

    Multiple genetic alterations occur in melanoma, a lethal skin malignancy of increasing incidence1,2. These include mutations that activate Ras and two of its effector cascades, Raf and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). Ras and Raf induction can occur via active N-Ras and B-Raf mutants as well as by gene amplification3–5. Activation of PI3K pathway components occurs by PTEN loss and by AKT amplification6–8. Melanomas also commonly display impairment of p16INK4A-CDK4-Rb and ARF-HDM2-p53 tumor s...

  13. Novel CREB3L3 Nonsense Mutation in a Family With Dominant Hypertriglyceridemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cefalù, Angelo B; Spina, Rossella; Noto, Davide; Valenti, Vincenza; Ingrassia, Valeria; Giammanco, Antonina; Panno, Maria D; Ganci, Antonina; Barbagallo, Carlo M; Averna, Maurizio R

    2015-12-01

    Cyclic AMP responsive element-binding protein 3-like 3 (CREB3L3) is a novel candidate gene for dominant hypertriglyceridemia. To date, only 4 kindred with dominant hypertriglyceridemia have been found to be carriers of 2 nonsense mutations in CREB3L3 gene (245fs and W46X). We investigated a family in which hypertriglyceridemia displayed an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. The proband was a 49-year-old woman with high plasma triglycerides (≤1300 mg/dL; 14.68 mmol/L). Her father had a history of moderate hypertriglyceridemia, and her 51-year-old brother had triglycerides levels as high as 1600 mg/dL (18.06 mmol/L). To identify the causal mutation in this family, we analyzed the candidate genes of recessive and dominant forms of primary hypertriglyceridemia by direct sequencing. The sequencing of CREB3L3 gene led to the discovery of a novel minute frame shift mutation in exon 3 of CREB3L3 gene, predicted to result in the formation of a truncated protein devoid of function (c.359delG-p.K120fsX20). Heterozygosity for the c.359delG mutation resulted in a severe phenotype occurring later in life in the proband and her brother and a good response to diet and a hypotriglyceridemic treatment. The same mutation was detected in a 13-year-old daughter who to date is normotriglyceridemic. We have identified a novel pathogenic mutation in CREB3L3 gene in a family with dominant hypertriglyceridemia with a variable pattern of penetrance. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Mutations on the DNA binding surface of TBP discriminate between yeast TATA and TATA-less gene transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenova, Ivanka; Warfield, Linda; Hahn, Steven

    2014-08-01

    Most RNA polymerase (Pol) II promoters lack a TATA element, yet nearly all Pol II transcription requires TATA binding protein (TBP). While the TBP-TATA interaction is critical for transcription at TATA-containing promoters, it has been unclear whether TBP sequence-specific DNA contacts are required for transcription at TATA-less genes. Transcription factor IID (TFIID), the TBP-containing coactivator that functions at most TATA-less genes, recognizes short sequence-specific promoter elements in metazoans, but analogous promoter elements have not been identified in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We generated a set of mutations in the yeast TBP DNA binding surface and found that most support growth of yeast. Both in vivo and in vitro, many of these mutations are specifically defective for transcription of two TATA-containing genes with only minor defects in transcription of two TATA-less, TFIID-dependent genes. TBP binds several TATA-less promoters with apparent high affinity, but our results suggest that this binding is not important for transcription activity. Our results are consistent with the model that sequence-specific TBP-DNA contacts are not important at yeast TATA-less genes and suggest that other general transcription factors or coactivator subunits are responsible for recognition of TATA-less promoters. Our results also explain why yeast TBP derivatives defective for TATA binding appear defective in activated transcription. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. An integrative genomic and proteomic analysis of PIK3CA, PTEN and AKT mutations in breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stemke-Hale, Katherine; Gonzalez-Angulo, Ana Maria; Lluch, Ana; Neve, Richard M.; Kuo, Wen-Lin; Davies, Michael; Carey, Mark; Hu, Zhi; Guan, Yinghui; Sahin, Aysegul; Symmans, W. Fraser; Pusztai, Lajos; Nolden, Laura K.; Horlings, Hugo; Berns, Katrien; Hung, Mien-Chie; van de Vijver, Marc J.; Valero, Vicente; Gray, Joe W.; Bernards, Rene; Mills, Gordon B.; Hennessy, Bryan T.

    2008-05-06

    Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway aberrations are common in cancer. By applying mass spectroscopy-based sequencing and reverse phase protein arrays to 547 human breast cancers and 41 cell lines, we determined the subtype specificity and signaling effects of PIK3CA, AKT and PTEN mutations, and the effects of PIK3CA mutations on responsiveness to PI3K inhibition in-vitro and on outcome after adjuvant tamoxifen. PIK3CA mutations were more common in hormone receptor positive (33.8%) and HER2-positive (24.6%) than in basal-like tumors (8.3%). AKT1 (1.4%) and PTEN (2.3%) mutations were restricted to hormone receptor-positive cancers with PTEN protein levels also being significantly lower in hormone receptor-positive cancers. Unlike AKT1 mutations, PIK3CA (39%) and PTEN (20%) mutations were more common in cell lines than tumors, suggesting a selection for these but not AKT1 mutations during adaptation to culture. PIK3CA mutations did not have a significant impact on outcome in 166 hormone receptor-positive breast cancer patients after adjuvant tamoxifen. PIK3CA mutations, in comparison with PTEN loss and AKT1 mutations, were associated with significantly less and indeed inconsistent activation of AKT and of downstream PI3K/AKT signaling in tumors and cell lines, and PTEN loss and PIK3CA mutation were frequently concordant, suggesting different contributions to pathophysiology. PTEN loss but not PIK3CA mutations rendered cells sensitive to growth inhibition by the PI3K inhibitor LY294002. Thus, PI3K pathway aberrations likely play a distinct role in the pathogenesis of different breast cancer subtypes. The specific aberration may have implications for the selection of PI3K-targeted therapies in hormone receptor-positive breast cancer.

  16. Storage and pre-neutron-activation-analysis treatment for trace-element analysis in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blotcky, A.J.; Rack, E.P.

    1985-01-01

    The problems regarding storage and pre-neutron-activation-analysis treatment for the elements aluminum, calcium, vanadium, selenium, copper, iodine, zinc, manganese, and magnesium in a urine matrix are reviewed. The type of collection and storage procedure and pre-neutron activation analysis treatment of urine depend on the specific trace element; that is, its inherent physical and chemical properties. Specifically polyethylene in teflon containers are the most suitable for general determinations. Whether any preservative is added would depend upon the stability of the trace element and its tendency for surface adsorption. Preferably, preservatives should contain no radioactivatable elements for maximum efficacy. Freeze drying or packing urine shipments under dry ice needs to be explored on an individual basis. Each pre- or post-neutron activation analysis treatment is specific and optimized for the trace element analyzed

  17. [From gene to disease; achondroplasia and other skeletal dysplasias due to an activating mutation in the fibroblast growth factor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ravenswaaij-Arts, C.M.A. van; Losekoot, M.

    2001-01-01

    Achondroplasia, the most common and best known skeletal dysplasia, is inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion. Like a number of other skeletal dysplasias, among which hypochondroplasia and thanatophoric dysplasia, achondroplasia is caused by mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3

  18. Neutron activation analysis for uranium and associated elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, W.W.

    1977-01-01

    The samples obtained by the Savannah River Laboratory as part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program are activated in the intense neutron flux from a Savannah River Plant production reactor. A pilot-scale facility was installed at the reactor site to provide analyses of samples through the initial phase of the program and to develop design data for a full-scale facility. Sediments are analyzed by direct activation of 0.5-g samples. However, to analyze ground or surface water samples, mineral elements from 1-liter samples are concentrated on ion exchange resin and then approximately 5-g samples of resin are activated. Uranium concentration is determined by counting neutrons emitted from specific short-lived products of fission induced in 235 U by the primary neutron flux. Repetitive short cycles of irradiation and counting permit detection and determination of <0.1 μg of uranium. Elements associated with uranium are determined by spectral analysis of the gamma ray activities induced by the cyclic and subsequent longer irradiations. The pilot facility consists of four irradiation positions (plus 2 spare positions), a sample loader and unloader, and counting stations with neutron and gamma ray detectors, all interconnected with a pneumatic sample transport system. A computer controls both the transport system and the data acquisition devices. Gamma ray counting data are stored on magnetic tape for further processing by a large central computer. Facility hardware and software are described. Repetitive analyses of standards have shown an accuracy within +-10% for uranium values and within +-25% for associated elements. A quality assurance program has been developed to maintain these levels of reliability

  19. CNS germinomas are characterized by global demethylation, chromosomal instability and mutational activation of the Kit-, Ras/Raf/Erk- and Akt-pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Simone Laura; Waha, Andreas; Steiger, Barbara; Denkhaus, Dorota; Dörner, Evelyn; Calaminus, Gabriele; Leuschner, Ivo; Pietsch, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    CNS germinomas represent a unique germ cell tumor entity characterized by undifferentiated tumor cells and a high response rate to current treatment protocols. Limited information is available on their underlying genomic, epigenetic and biological alterations. We performed a genome-wide analysis of genomic copy number alterations in 49 CNS germinomas by molecular inversion profiling. In addition, CpG dinucleotide methylation was studied by immunohistochemistry for methylated cytosine residues. Mutational analysis was performed by resequencing of candidate genes including KIT and RAS family members. Ras/Erk and Akt pathway activation was analyzed by immunostaining with antibodies against phospho-Erk, phosho-Akt, phospho-mTOR and phospho-S6. All germinomas coexpressed Oct4 and Kit but showed an extensive global DNA demethylation compared to other tumors and normal tissues. Molecular inversion profiling showed predominant genomic instability in all tumors with a high frequency of regional gains and losses including high level gene amplifications. Activating mutations of KIT exons 11, 13, and 17 as well as a case with genomic KIT amplification and activating mutations or amplifications of RAS gene family members including KRAS, NRAS and RRAS2 indicated mutational activation of crucial signaling pathways. Co-activation of Ras/Erk and Akt pathways was present in 83% of germinomas. These data suggest that CNS germinoma cells display a demethylated nuclear DNA similar to primordial germ cells in early development. This finding has a striking coincidence with extensive genomic instability. In addition, mutational activation of Kit-, Ras/Raf/Erk- and Akt- pathways indicate the biological importance of these pathways and their components as potential targets for therapy. PMID:27391150

  20. Transnuclear retrotransposition of the Tad element of Neurospora.

    OpenAIRE

    Kinsey, J A

    1993-01-01

    Tad is a LINE-like DNA element found in Neutrospora crassa. A Neurospora artificial intron based on the first intron of the am (glutamate dehydrogenase) gene was constructed and introduced, in the correct orientation, into a unique Nru I site in open reading frame 1 of an active Tad element, Tad1-1. Transformants containing the Tad element with the artificial intron were placed in forced heterokaryons with strains lacking Tad elements. Tad was shown to transpose between nuclei in these hetero...

  1. Cul3-mediated Nrf2 ubiquitination and antioxidant response element (ARE) activation are dependent on the partial molar volume at position 151 of Keap1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggler, Aimee L; Small, Evan; Hannink, Mark; Mesecar, Andrew D

    2009-07-29

    Nrf2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2) is a transcription factor that activates transcription of a battery of cytoprotective genes by binding to the ARE (antioxidant response element). Nrf2 is repressed by the cysteine-rich Keap1 (kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1) protein, which targets Nrf2 for ubiquitination and subsequent degradation by a Cul3 (cullin 3)-mediated ubiquitination complex. We find that modification of Cys(151) of human Keap1, by mutation to a tryptophan, relieves the repression by Keap1 and allows activation of the ARE by Nrf2. The Keap1 C151W substitution has a decreased affinity for Cul3, and can no longer serve to target Nrf2 for ubiquitination, though it retains its affinity for Nrf2. A series of 12 mutant Keap1 proteins, each containing a different residue at position 151, was constructed to explore the chemistry required for this effect. The series reveals that the extent to which Keap1 loses the ability to target Nrf2 for degradation, and hence the ability to repress ARE activation, correlates well with the partial molar volume of the residue. Other physico-chemical properties do not appear to contribute significantly to the effect. Based on this finding, a structural model is proposed whereby large residues at position 151 cause steric clashes that lead to alteration of the Keap1-Cul3 interaction. This model has significant implications for how electrophiles which modify Cys(151), disrupt the repressive function of Keap1.

  2. Preleukemic and second-hit mutational events in an acute myeloid leukemia patient with a novel germline RUNX1 mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Isaac Ks; Lee, Joanne; Ng, Christopher; Kosmo, Bustamin; Chiu, Lily; Seah, Elaine; Mok, Michelle Meng Huang; Tan, Karen; Osato, Motomi; Chng, Wee-Joo; Yan, Benedict; Tan, Lip Kun

    2018-01-01

    Germline mutations in the RUNX1 transcription factor give rise to a rare autosomal dominant genetic condition classified under the entity: Familial Platelet Disorders with predisposition to Acute Myeloid Leukaemia (FPD/AML). While several studies have identified a myriad of germline RUNX1 mutations implicated in this disorder, second-hit mutational events are necessary for patients with hereditary thrombocytopenia to develop full-blown AML. The molecular picture behind this process remains unclear. We describe a patient of Malay descent with an unreported 7-bp germline RUNX1 frameshift deletion, who developed second-hit mutations that could have brought about the leukaemic transformation from a pre-leukaemic state. These mutations were charted through the course of the treatment and stem cell transplant, showing a clear correlation between her clinical presentation and the mutations present. The patient was a 27-year-old Malay woman who presented with AML on the background of hereditary thrombocytopenia affecting her father and 3 brothers. Initial molecular testing revealed the same novel RUNX1 mutation in all 5 individuals. The patient received standard induction, consolidation chemotherapy, and a haploidentical stem cell transplant from her mother with normal RUNX1 profile. Comprehensive genomic analyses were performed at diagnosis, post-chemotherapy and post-transplant. A total of 8 mutations ( RUNX1 , GATA2 , DNMT3A , BCORL1 , BCOR , 2 PHF6 and CDKN2A ) were identified in the pre-induction sample, of which 5 remained ( RUNX1 , DNMT3A , BCORL1 , BCOR and 1 out of 2 PHF6 ) in the post-treatment sample and none were present post-transplant. In brief, the 3 mutations which were lost along with the leukemic cells at complete morphological remission were most likely acquired leukemic driver mutations that were responsible for the AML transformation from a pre-leukemic germline RUNX1 -mutated state. On the contrary, the 5 mutations that persisted post

  3. Elemental characterization of Tummalapalle uranium mill tailing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patra, A.C.; Sahoo, S.K.; Thakur, V.K.; Dubey, J.S.; Jha, S.K.; Tripathi, R.M.; Sharma, D.B.

    2018-01-01

    Elements are present in environmental matrices at varying concentrations. Their levels may increase due to anthropogenic activities like transportation, industrial activities, agriculture, urbanization and human activities. Trace elements can be classified as potentially toxic (eg. cadmium, arsenic, mercury, lead, nickel), probably essential (eg. cobalt, vanadium) and essential (eg. iron, zinc, copper, selenium, manganese). Due to the expansion of the Indian Nuclear Power Programme, new uranium mining sites are coming up. Mining and milling produce large quantities of low active mill tailings contained in engineered Tailings Ponds. The tailings are amenable for interaction with the geochemical forces and can act as potential sources of contamination. Thus it is necessary to ascertain the concentrations of elements that are present therein. In this paper we aim to characterize the uranium tailings generated from Tummalapalle uranium mining facility in Kadappa district, Andhra Pradesh, India

  4. Nezha, a novel active miniature inverted-repeat transposable element in cyanobacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Fengfeng; Tran Thao; Xu Ying

    2008-01-01

    Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) were first identified in plants and exerted extensive proliferations throughout eukaryotic and archaeal genomes. But very few MITEs have been characterized in bacteria. We identified a novel MITE, called Nezha, in cyanobacteria Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413 and Nostoc sp. PCC 7120. Nezha, like most previously known MITEs in other organisms, is small in size, non-coding, carrying TIR and DR signals, and of potential to form a stable RNA secondary structure, and it tends to insert into A+T-rich regions. Recent transpositions of Nezha were observed in A. variabilis ATCC 29413 and Nostoc sp. PCC 7120, respectively. Nezha might have proliferated recently with aid from the transposase encoded by ISNpu3-like elements. A possible horizontal transfer event of Nezha from cyanobacteria to Polaromonas JS666 is also observed

  5. Elemental analysis of human serum and serum protein fractions by thermal neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woittiez, J.R.W.

    1984-01-01

    Some applications of thermal neutron activation for the determination of elemental contents in human serum and human serum protein fractions are presented. Firstly total serum is dealt with, secondly serum protein fractions obtained by gel filtration are described. A brief review on the role of (trace) elements in human health and disease and a compilation of literature data for elemental contents in human serum, as obtained by neutron activation techniques, are given. The most important sources of statistical and systematic errors are evaluated. Results for the contents of sodium, potassium, magnesium, bromine, iron, copper, zinc, selenium, rubidium, cesium and antimony in serum are given, with emphasis on control of accuracy and precision. The possible relation between selenium in blood and cancer occurrence in humans is discussed. The results of elemental analyses from cancer patients and from a patient receiving a cytostatic treatment are presented. A survey of literature results for the determination of protein-bound elemental contents in serum is presented. Subsequently, results from a study on the behaviour of elements during gel filtration are discussed. Gel-element and protein-element interactions are studied. Finally the protein-bound occurrence of trace elements in human serum is determined by gel filtration and neutron activation analysis. Results for both desalting and fractionation are given, for the elements bromine, copper, manganese, vanadium, selenium, zinc, rubidium, iron and iodine. (Auth.)

  6. Identification of novel FBN1 and TGFBR2 mutations in 65 probands with Marfan syndrome or Marfan-like phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Brian Hon-Yin; Lam, Stephen Tak-Sum; Tong, Tony Ming-For; Li, Susanna Yuk-Han; Lun, Kin-Shing; Chan, Daniel Hon-Chuen; Fok, Susanna Fung-Shan; Or, June Siu-Fong; Smith, David Keith; Yang, Wanling; Lau, Yu-Lung

    2009-07-01

    Marfan syndrome is an autosomal dominant connective tissue disorder, and mutations in the FBN1 and TGFBR2 genes have been identified in probands with MFS and related phenotypes. Using DHPLC and sequencing, we studied the mutation spectrum in 65 probands with Marfan syndrome and related phenotypes. A total of 24 mutations in FBN1 were identified, of which 19 (nine missense, six frameshift, two nonsense and two affecting splice junctions) were novel. In the remaining 41 probands, six were identified to have novel TGFBR2 mutations (one frameshift and five missense mutations). All novel mutations found in this study were confirmed to be absent in 50 unrelated normal individuals of the same ethnic background. In probands who fulfilled the Ghent criteria (n = 16), mutations in FBN1 were found in 81% of cases. None of those with TGFBR2 mutations fulfilled the Ghent criteria. Novel missense mutations of unknown significance were classified according to the latest ACMG guidelines and their likelihood to be causative was evaluated.

  7. Genetic characterization of the inducible SOS-like system of Bacillus subtilis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Love, P.E.; Yasbin, R.E.

    1984-12-01

    The SOS-like system of Bacillus subtilis consists of several coordinately induced phenomena which are expressed after cellular insult such as DNA damage of inhibition of DNA replication. Mutagenesis of the bacterial chromosomes and the development of maintenance of competence also appear to be involved in the SOS-like response in this bacterium. The genetic characterization of the SOS-like system has involved an analysis of (i) the effects of various DNA repair mutations on the expression of inducible phenomena and (ii) the tsi-23 mutation, which renders host strains thermally inducible for each of the SOS-like functions. Bacterial filamentation was unaffected by any of the DNA repair mutations studied. In contrast, the induction of prophage after thermal or UV pretreatment was abolished in strains carrying the recE4, recA1, recB2, or recG13 mutation. The Weigle reactivation of UV-damaged bacteriophage was also inhibited by the recE4, recA1, recB2, or recG13 mutation, whereas levels of Weigle reactivation were lower in strains which carried the uvrA42, polA5, or rec-961 mutation than in the DNA repair-proficient strain. Strains which carried the recE4 mutation were incapable of chromosomal DNA-mediated transformation, and the frequency of this event was decreased in strains carrying recA1, recB2, or tsi-23 mutation. Plasmid DNA transformation efficiency was decreased only in strains carrying the tsi-23 mutation in addition to the recE4, recA1, or recB2 mutation. The results indicate that the SOS-like system of B. subtilis is regulated at different levels by two or more gene products. In this report, the current data regarding the genetic regulation of inducible phenomena are summarized, and a model is proposed to explain the mechanism of SOS-like induction in B. subtillis. 50 references, 3 figures, 6 tables.

  8. The Oenothera plastome mutator: effect of UV irradiation and nitroso-methyl urea on mutation frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sears, B.B.; Sokalski, M.B.

    1991-01-01

    Oenothera plants homozygous for a recessive plastome mutator allele (pm) showed spontaneous mutation frequencies for plastome genes that are 200-fold higher than spontaneous levels. Mutations occurred at high frequencies in plants grown in the field, in a glasshouse, or as leaf tip cultures under fluorescent light, indicating that the plastome mutator activity is UV-independent. However, the chlorotic sectors became visible at an earlier stage of development when seedlings were irradiated, compared to seedlings that were not exposed to UV. These results imply that the rate of sorting-out was increased by the irradiation treatment, possibly due to a decrease in the effective number of multiplication-competent plastids, or a reduction in the extent of cytoplasmic mixing. Nitroso-methyl urea treatment of seeds had a dramatic effect on mutation frequency in both wild-type and plastome mutator samples. When the background mutation rates were low, the combination of the plastome mutator nucleus and the chemical mutagenesis treatment resulted in a synergistic effect, suggesting that the plastome mutator may involve a cpDNA repair pathway. (author)

  9. APOBEC3G inhibits HIV-1 RNA elongation by inactivating the viral trans-activation response element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowarski, Roni; Prabhu, Ponnandy; Kenig, Edan; Smith, Yoav; Britan-Rosich, Elena; Kotler, Moshe

    2014-07-29

    Deamination of cytidine residues in viral DNA is a major mechanism by which APOBEC3G (A3G) inhibits vif-deficient human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication. dC-to-dU transition following RNase-H activity leads to viral cDNA degradation, production of non-functional proteins, formation of undesired stop codons and decreased viral protein synthesis. Here, we demonstrate that A3G provides an additional layer of defense against HIV-1 infection dependent on inhibition of proviral transcription. HIV-1 transcription elongation is regulated by the trans-activation response (TAR) element, a short stem-loop RNA structure required for elongation factors binding. Vif-deficient HIV-1-infected cells accumulate short viral transcripts and produce lower amounts of full-length HIV-1 transcripts due to A3G deamination of the TAR apical loop cytidine, highlighting the requirement for TAR loop integrity in HIV-1 transcription. We further show that free single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) termini are not essential for A3G activity and a gap of CCC motif blocked with juxtaposed DNA or RNA on either or 3'+5' ends is sufficient for A3G deamination. These results identify A3G as an efficient mutator and that deamination of (-)SSDNA results in an early block of HIV-1 transcription. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. K-Ras and β-catenin mutations cooperate with Fgfr3 mutations in mice to promote tumorigenesis in the skin and lung, but not in the bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Ahmad

    2011-07-01

    The human fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3 gene is frequently mutated in superficial urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC. To test the functional significance of FGFR3 activating mutations as a ‘driver’ of UCC, we targeted the expression of mutated Fgfr3 to the murine urothelium using Cre-loxP recombination driven by the uroplakin II promoter. The introduction of the Fgfr3 mutations resulted in no obvious effect on tumorigenesis up to 18 months of age. Furthermore, even when the Fgfr3 mutations were introduced together with K-Ras or β-catenin (Ctnnb1 activating mutations, no urothelial dysplasia or UCC was observed. Interestingly, however, owing to a sporadic ectopic Cre recombinase expression in the skin and lung of these mice, Fgfr3 mutation caused papilloma and promoted lung tumorigenesis in cooperation with K-Ras and β-catenin activation, respectively. These results indicate that activation of FGFR3 can cooperate with other mutations to drive tumorigenesis in a context-dependent manner, and support the hypothesis that activation of FGFR3 signaling contributes to human cancer.

  11. Identification of an estrogen response element in the 3'-flanking region of the murine c-fos protooncogene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyder, S M; Stancel, G M; Nawaz, Z; McDonnell, D P; Loose-Mitchell, D S

    1992-09-05

    We have used transient transfection assays with reporter plasmids expressing chloramphenicol acetyltransferase, linked to regions of mouse c-fos, to identify a specific estrogen response element (ERE) in this protooncogene. This element is located in the untranslated 3'-flanking region of the c-fos gene, 5 kilobases (kb) downstream from the c-fos promoter and 1.5 kb downstream of the poly(A) signal. This element confers estrogen responsiveness to chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporters linked to both the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase promoter and the homologous c-fos promoter. Deletion analysis localized the response element to a 200-base pair fragment which contains the element GGTCACCACAGCC that resembles the consensus ERE sequence GGTCACAGTGACC originally identified in Xenopus vitellogenin A2 gene. A synthetic 36-base pair oligodeoxynucleotide containing this c-fos sequence conferred estrogen inducibility to the thymidine kinase promoter. The corresponding sequence also induced reporter activity when present in the c-fos gene fragment 3 kb from the thymidine kinase promoter. Gel-shift experiments demonstrated that synthetic oligonucleotides containing either the consensus ERE or the c-fos element bind human estrogen receptor obtained from a yeast expression system. However, the mobility of the shifted band is faster for the fos-ERE-complex than the consensus ERE complex suggesting that the three-dimensional structure of the protein-DNA complexes is different or that other factors are differentially involved in the two reactions. When the 5'-GGTCA sequence present in the c-fos ERE is mutated to 5'-TTTCA, transcriptional activation and receptor binding activities are both lost. Mutation of the CAGCC-3' element corresponding to the second half-site of the c-fos sequence also led to the loss of receptor binding activity, suggesting that both half-sites of this element are involved in this function. The estrogen induction mediated by either the c-fos or

  12. Involvement of Multiple Gene-Silencing Pathways in a Paramutation-like Phenomenon in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhimin Zheng

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Paramutation is an epigenetic phenomenon that has been observed in a number of multicellular organisms. The epigenetically silenced state of paramutated alleles is not only meiotically stable but also “infectious” to active homologous alleles. The molecular mechanism of paramutation remains unclear, but components involved in RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM are required. Here, we report a multi-copy pRD29A-LUC transgene in Arabidopsis thaliana that behaves like a paramutation locus. The silent state of LUC is induced by mutations in the DNA glycosylase gene ROS1. The silent alleles of LUC are not only meiotically stable but also able to transform active LUC alleles into silent ones, in the absence of ros1 mutations. Maintaining silencing at the LUC gene requires action of multiple pathways besides RdDM. Our study identified specific factors that are involved in the paramutation-like phenomenon and established a model system for the study of paramutation in Arabidopsis.

  13. Integrator element as a promoter of active learning in engineering teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Paulo C.; Oliveira, Cristina G.

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we present a teaching proposal used in an Introductory Physics course to civil engineering students from Porto's Engineering Institute/Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto (ISEP). The proposal was born from the need to change students' perception and motivation for learning physics. It consists in the use of an integrator element, called the physics elevator project. This integrator element allows us to use, in a single project, all the content taught in the course and uses several active learning strategies. In this paper, we analyse this project as: (i) a clarifying element of the contents covered in the course; (ii) a promoter element of motivation and active participation in class and finally and (iii) a link between the contents covered in the course and the 'real world'. The data were collected by a questionnaire and interviews to students. From the data collected, it seems that the integrator element improves students' motivation towards physics and develops several skills that they consider to be important to their professional future. It also acts as a clarifying element and makes the connection between the physics that is taught and the 'real world'.

  14. A retrospective study to rule out possible association of genetic and non-genetic risk factors with specific brca mutation positive breast cancers is some Pakistani females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, S.; Imran, M.; Hanif, A.; Bilal, M.

    2009-01-01

    breast feeding and activity as well as dietary factors like active or passive smoking seem to have little role in study population. Dietary factors like active or passive smoking were less likely risk factors than dietary deficiency of vitamins, especially in low income group. Anxiety and exposure to traffic pollution were additional risk factors. (author)

  15. KRAS exon 2 mutations influence activity of regorafenib in an SW48-based disease model of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camaj, Peter; Primo, Stefano; Wang, Yan; Heinemann, Volker; Zhao, Yue; Laubender, Ruediger Paul; Stintzing, Sebastian; Giessen-Jung, Clemens; Jung, Andreas; Gamba, Sebastian; Bruns, Christiane Josephine; Modest, Dominik Paul

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the impact of KRAS mutation variants on the activity of regorafenib in SW48 colorectal cancer cells. Activity of regorafenib was evaluated in isogenic SW48 KRAS wild-type (WT) and mutant cells. Subcutaneous xenografts (KRAS WT and G12C mutant variants) in NOD/SCID mice were analyzed to elucidate the effect of regorafenib treatment in vivo. Compared with KRAS WT cells, all mutant variants seemed associated with some degree of resistance to regorafenib-treatment in vitro. In vivo, activation of apoptosis (TUNEL) and reduction of proliferation (Ki67) after treatment with regorafenib were more pronounced in KRAS WT tumors as compared with G12C variants. In SW48 cells, exon 2 mutations of the KRAS gene may influence antitumor effects of regorafenib.

  16. Localization of active, dually phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 in colorectal cancer with or without activating BRAF and KRAS mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Susanne; Bonde, Jesper; Pedersen, Helle

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancers (CRC) often show activating mutations of the KRAS or BRAF genes, which stimulate the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway, thus increasing cell proliferation and inhibiting apoptosis. However, immunohistochemical results on ERK activation in such tumors differ...... detectable increases in phosphorylation of ERK (pERK), we stained biopsies from 36 CRC patients with activating mutations in the BRAF gene (BRAFV600E: BRAF(m)), the KRAS gene (KRAS(m)) or in neither (BRAF/KRAS(n)) with this optimized method. Staining was scored in blind-coded specimens by two observers....... Staining of stromal cells was used as a positive control. BRAF(m) or KRAS(m) tumors did not show higher staining scores than BRAF/KRAS(n) tumors. Although BRAFV600E staining occurred in over 90% of cancer cells in all 9 BRAF(m) tumors, 3 only showed staining for pERK in less than 10% of cancer cell nuclei...

  17. Are There Mutator Polymerases?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Garcia-Diaz

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA polymerases are involved in different cellular events, including genome replication and DNA repair. In the last few years, a large number of novel DNA polymerases have been discovered, and the biochemical analysis of their properties has revealed a long list of intriguing features. Some of these polymerases have a very low fidelity and have been suggested to play mutator roles in different processes, like translesion synthesis or somatic hypermutation. The current view of these processes is reviewed, and the current understanding of DNA polymerases and their role as mutator enzymes is discussed.

  18. Mutation breeding in rice in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaminathan, M S; Siddiq, E A; Singh, C B; Pai, R A [Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi (India)

    1970-03-01

    Mutation research was continued in rice with the following aims; (a) to enhance the frequency and spectrum of mutations in indica and japonica rice varieties; (b) to change the grain quality of the japonica variety, Tainan-3, into the indica type; (c) to improve the grain quality of the indica variety, IR-8; (d) to increase the recombination frequency in japonica-indica hybrids. Both nitrosoguanidine and 5-MeV fast neutrons gave a high mutation frequency. The japonica variety was more sensitive to all mutagens than the indica types. Chemical mutagens had no particular advantage over ionizing radiations with reference to either mutation frequency or spectrum. Mutants with indica type of grain occurred readily in Tainan-3 in all treatments. Such mutants had a larger grain length/width ratio and were more resistant to alkali digestion. Fine grain types with better cooking quality occurred in the M{sub 2} populations of IR-8. These mutants are likely to render this high-yielding variety more popular. A wide range of chlorophyll and viable mutations occurred in IR-8 and Tainan-3. Some of these, like those involving dwarfing and slow senescence, are of economic interest, besides those affecting grain quality. Recombination frequency can be influenced in japonica x indica hybrids through the irradiation of F{sub 1} sporocytes. The precise influence varies with the stage at which the plant is irradiated, the dose given and the loci involved. (author)

  19. Novel ENU-Induced Mutation in Tbx6 Causes Dominant Spondylocostal Dysostosis-Like Vertebral Malformations in the Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Koichiro; Takamatsu, Nobuhiko; Ishikawa, Kumiko; Tsurumi, Toshiko; Tanimoto, Sho; Sakurai, Yukina; Lisse, Thomas S; Lisse, Thomas; Imai, Kenji; Serikawa, Tadao; Mashimo, Tomoji

    2015-01-01

    Congenital vertebral malformations caused by embryonic segmentation defects are relatively common in humans and domestic animals. Although reverse genetics approaches in mice have provided information on the molecular mechanisms of embryonic somite segmentation, hypothesis-driven approaches cannot adequately reflect human dysmorphology within the population. In a N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis project in Kyoto, the Oune mutant rat strain was isolated due to a short and kinked caudal vertebra phenotype. Skeletal staining of heterozygous rats showed partial loss of the cervical vertebrae as well as hemivertebrae and fused vertebral blocks in lumbar and sacral vertebrae. In homozygous embryos, severe displacement of the whole vertebrae was observed. The Oune locus was genetically mapped to rat chromosome 1 using 202 backcross animals and 50 genome-wide microsatellite markers. Subsequently, a miss-sense mutation in the Tbx6 gene was identified in the critical region. Although the mutation is located within the T-box domain near a predicted dimmer-interface, in vitro experiments revealed that the Tbx6 variant retains normal DNA binding ability and translational efficiency. However, the variant has decreased transcriptional activation potential in response to Notch-mediated signaling. Recently, it was reported that a dominant type of familial spondylocostal dysostosis is caused by a stoploss mutation in TBX6. Thus, we propose that partial dysfunction of Tbx6 leads to similar congenital vertebral malformations in both humans and rats. The Oune strain could be a unique animal model for dominant spondylocostal dysostosis and is useful for molecular dissection of the pathology of congenital vertebral malformations in humans.

  20. Novel ENU-Induced Mutation in Tbx6 Causes Dominant Spondylocostal Dysostosis-Like Vertebral Malformations in the Rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichiro Abe

    Full Text Available Congenital vertebral malformations caused by embryonic segmentation defects are relatively common in humans and domestic animals. Although reverse genetics approaches in mice have provided information on the molecular mechanisms of embryonic somite segmentation, hypothesis-driven approaches cannot adequately reflect human dysmorphology within the population. In a N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU mutagenesis project in Kyoto, the Oune mutant rat strain was isolated due to a short and kinked caudal vertebra phenotype. Skeletal staining of heterozygous rats showed partial loss of the cervical vertebrae as well as hemivertebrae and fused vertebral blocks in lumbar and sacral vertebrae. In homozygous embryos, severe displacement of the whole vertebrae was observed. The Oune locus was genetically mapped to rat chromosome 1 using 202 backcross animals and 50 genome-wide microsatellite markers. Subsequently, a miss-sense mutation in the Tbx6 gene was identified in the critical region. Although the mutation is located within the T-box domain near a predicted dimmer-interface, in vitro experiments revealed that the Tbx6 variant retains normal DNA binding ability and translational efficiency. However, the variant has decreased transcriptional activation potential in response to Notch-mediated signaling. Recently, it was reported that a dominant type of familial spondylocostal dysostosis is caused by a stoploss mutation in TBX6. Thus, we propose that partial dysfunction of Tbx6 leads to similar congenital vertebral malformations in both humans and rats. The Oune strain could be a unique animal model for dominant spondylocostal dysostosis and is useful for molecular dissection of the pathology of congenital vertebral malformations in humans.

  1. Autosomal-recessive posterior microphthalmos is caused by mutations in PRSS56, a gene encoding a trypsin-like serine protease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gal, Andreas; Rau, Isabella; El Matri, Leila

    2011-01-01

    heterogeneity of the trait. Using RT-PCR, PRSS56 transcripts were detected in samples derived from the human adult retina, cornea, sclera, and optic nerve. The expression of the mouse ortholog could be first detected in the eye at E17 and was maintained into adulthood. The predicted PRSS56 protein is a 603......Posterior microphthalmos (MCOP) is a rare isolated developmental anomaly of the eye characterized by extreme hyperopia due to short axial length. The population of the Faroe Islands shows a high prevalence of an autosomal-recessive form (arMCOP) of the disease. Based on published linkage data, we...... amino acid long secreted trypsin-like serine peptidase. The c.1066dupC is likely to result in a functional null allele, whereas the two point mutations predict the replacement of evolutionary conserved and functionally important residues. Molecular modeling of the p.Trp309Ser mutant suggests that both...

  2. Hyperthyroidism caused by a germline activating mutation of the thyrotropin receptor gene: difficulties in diagnosis and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertalan, Rita; Sallai, Agnes; Sólyom, János; Lotz, Gábor; Szabó, István; Kovács, Balázs; Szabó, Eva; Patócs, Attila; Rácz, Károly

    2010-03-01

    Germline activating mutations of the thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) gene have been considered as the only known cause of sporadic nonautoimmune hyperthyroidism in the pediatric population. Here we describe the long-term follow-up and evaluation of a patient with sporadic nonautoimmune primary hyperthyroidism who was found to have a de novo germline activating mutation of the TSHR gene. The patient was an infant who presented at the age of 10 months in an unconscious state with exsiccation, wet skin, fever, and tachycardia. Nonautoimmune primary hyperthyroidism was diagnosed, and brain magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography showed also Arnold-Chiari malformation type I. Continuous propylthiouracil treatment resulted in a prolonged clinical cure lasting for 10 years. At the age of 11 years and 5 months the patient underwent subtotal thyroidectomy because of symptoms of trachea compression caused by a progressive multinodular goiter. However, 2 months after surgery, hormonal evaluation indicated recurrent hyperthyroidism and the patient was treated with propylthiouracil during the next 4 years. At the age of 15 years the patient again developed symptoms of trachea compression. Radioiodine treatment resulted in a regression of the recurrent goiter and a permanent cure of hyperthyroidism without relapse during the last 3 years of his follow-up. Sequencing of exon 10 of the TSHR gene showed a de novo heterozygous germline I630L mutation, which has been previously described as activating mutation at somatic level in toxic thyroid nodules. The I630L mutation of the TSHR gene occurs not only at somatic level in toxic thyroid nodules, but also its presence in germline is associated with nonautoimmune primary hyperthyroidism. Our case report demonstrates that in this disorder a continuous growth of the thyroid occurs without any evidence of elevated TSH due to antithyroid drug overdosing. This may justify previous recommendations for early treatment of affected

  3. Novel Tn916-like elements confer aminoglycoside/macrolide co-resistance in clinical isolates of Streptococcus gallolyticus ssp. gallolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambarev, Stanimir; Pecorari, Frédéric; Corvec, Stéphane

    2018-02-09

    Streptococcus gallolyticus ssp. gallolyticus (Sgg) is a commensal bacterium and an opportunistic pathogen. In humans it has been clinically associated with the incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) and epidemiologically recognized as an emerging cause of infective endocarditis (IE). The standard therapy of Sgg includes the administration of a penicillin in combination with an aminoglycoside. Even though penicillin-resistant isolates have still not been reported, epidemiological studies have shown that this microbe is a reservoir of multiple acquired genes, conferring resistance to tetracyclines, aminoglycosides, macrolides and glycopeptides. However, the underlying antibiotic resistance mobilome of Sgg remains poorly understood. To investigate the mobile genetic basis of antibiotic resistance in multiresistant clinical Sgg. Isolate NTS31106099 was recovered from a patient with IE and CRC at Nantes University Hospital, France and studied by Illumina WGS and comparative genomics. Molecular epidemiology of the identified mobile element(s) was performed using antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST), PCR, PFGE and WGS. Mobility was investigated by PCR and filter mating. Two novel conjugative transposons, Tn6263 and Tn6331, confer aminoglycoside/macrolide co-resistance in clinical Sgg. They display classical family Tn916/Tn1545 modular architecture and harbour an aph(3')-III→sat4→ant(6)-Ia→erm(B) multiresistance gene cluster, related to pRE25 of Enterococcus faecium. These and/or closely related elements are highly prevalent among genetically heterogeneous clinical isolates of Sgg. Previously unknown Tn916-like mobile genetic elements conferring aminoglycoside/macrolide co-resistance make Sgg, collectively with other gut Firmicutes such as enterococci and eubacteria, a potential laterally active reservoir of these antibiotic resistance determinants among the mammalian gastrointestinal microbiota. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf

  4. Targeted gene disruption by use of transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) in the water flea Daphnia pulex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiruta, Chizue; Ogino, Yukiko; Sakuma, Tetsushi; Toyota, Kenji; Miyagawa, Shinichi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Iguchi, Taisen

    2014-11-18

    The cosmopolitan microcrustacean Daphnia pulex provides a model system for both human health research and monitoring ecosystem integrity. It is the first crustacean to have its complete genome sequenced, an unprecedented ca. 36% of which has no known homologs with any other species. Moreover, D. pulex is ideally suited for experimental manipulation because of its short reproductive cycle, large numbers of offspring, synchronization of oocyte maturation, and other life history characteristics. However, existing gene manipulation techniques are insufficient to accurately define gene functions. Although our previous investigations developed an RNA interference (RNAi) system in D. pulex, the possible time period of functional analysis was limited because the effectiveness of RNAi is transient. Thus, in this study, we developed a genome editing system for D. pulex by first microinjecting transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) mRNAs into early embryos and then evaluating TALEN activity and mutation phenotypes. We assembled a TALEN construct specific to the Distal-less gene (Dll), which is a homeobox transcription factor essential for distal limb development in invertebrates and vertebrates, and evaluated its activity in vitro by single-strand annealing assay. Then, we injected TALEN mRNAs into eggs within 1 hour post-ovulation. Injected embryos presented with defects in the second antenna and altered appendage development, and indel mutations were detected in Dll loci, indicating that this technique successfully knocked out the target gene. We succeeded, for the first time in D. pulex, in targeted mutagenesis by use of Platinum TALENs. This genome editing technique makes it possible to conduct reverse genetic analysis in D. pulex, making this species an even more appropriate model organism for environmental, evolutionary, and developmental genomics.

  5. Oncogene mutational profile in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang ZC

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Zi-Chen Zhang,1,* Sha Fu,1,* Fang Wang,1 Hai-Yun Wang,1 Yi-Xin Zeng,2 Jian-Yong Shao11Department of Molecular Diagnostics, 2Department of Experimental Research, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center of Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC is a common tumor in Southern China, but the oncogene mutational status of NPC patients has not been clarified. Using time-of-flight mass spectrometry, 238 mutation hotspots in 19 oncogenes were examined in 123 NPC patients. The relationships between mutational status and clinical data were assessed with a χ2 or Fisher's exact test. Survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan–Meier method with the log-rank test. In 123 patients, 21 (17.1% NPC tumors were positive for mutations in eight oncogenes: six patients had PIK3CA mutations (4.9%, five NRAS mutations (4.1%, four KIT mutations (3.3%, two PDGFRA mutations (1.6%, two ABL mutations (1.6%, and one with simultaneous mutations in HRAS, EGFR, and BRAF (1%. Patients with mutations were more likely to relapse or develop metastasis than those with wild-type alleles (P=0.019. No differences or correlations were found in other clinical characteristics or in patient survival. No mutations were detected in oncogenes AKT1, AKT2, CDK, ERBB2, FGFR1, FGFR3, FLT3, JAK2, KRAS, MET, and RET. These results demonstrate an association between NPC and mutations in NRAS, KIT, PIK3CA, PDGFRA, and ABL, which are associated with patient relapse and metastasis. Keywords: NPC, oncogene, mutation

  6. Mutation, somatic mutation and diseases of man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnet, F.M.

    1976-01-01

    The relevance of the intrinsic mutagenesis for the evolution process, genetic diseases and the process of aging is exemplified. The fundamental reaction is the function of the DNA and the DNA-enzymes like the DNA-polymerases in replication, repair, and transcription. These defects are responsible for the mutation frequency and the genetic drift in the evolution process. They cause genetic diseases like Xeroderma pigmentosum which is described here in detail. The accumulation of structural and functional mistakes leads to diseases of old age, for example to autoimmune diseases and immune suppression. There is a proportionality between the duration of life and the frequency of mistakes in the enzymatic repair system. No possibility of prophylaxis or therapy is seen. Methods for prognosis could be developed. (AJ) [de

  7. Determination of trace elements in chewing gum by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietz, M.L.

    1990-01-01

    Six trace elements of nutritional or toxicological interest (Al, Ca, Cl, Mn, Na and Sr) were determined in three different brands of chewing gum by instrumental neutron activation analysis. For the particular brands of gum examined, none of the detected elements was found to be present at a level representing a substantial contribution to the total dietary intake of the element for an American adult. (author) 11 refs.; 3 tabs

  8. p53 gene mutation hotspots in skin cancer and ultraviolet induced mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikehata, Hironobu

    1998-01-01

    Presence of certain hotspots is known in the mutation of p53 gene in skin cancer, which are codons 177, 196, 245, 248, 278 and 282 located in the exon 5-8. In these regions, mutations like C to T and CC to TT are frequent and thereby suggest that they are resulted from pyrimidine-dimers produced by ultraviolet light (UV). In cyclobutane pyrimidine dimerization (CPD), conversion of cytosine to thymine by deamination is suggested to be the primary reaction. Although studies using UVC (254 nm) suggesting that the mutation hotspots are low repair efficiency regions could not completely explain the all hotspots, those using UVB and sunlight (UVB and UVA) revealed that CPD was efficiently produced even in such regions as not explained by studies with UVC alone. Therefore, the latter studies are conceivably reasonable since the skin cancer is induced by natural sunlight. Exon 5-8 DNA is completely methylated and the absorption coefficient of 5-methylcytosine is 5-6 times as large as that of cytosine at wavelength around 290 nm. These indicate the importance of UVB in mutation of mammalian cells possessing the ability to methylate DNA. (K.H.)

  9. A novel NaV1.5 voltage sensor mutation associated with severe atrial and ventricular arrhythmias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Gang; Zhu, Wandi; Kanter, Ronald J; Silva, Jonathan R; Honeywell, Christina; Gow, Robert M; Pitt, Geoffrey S

    2016-03-01

    Inherited autosomal dominant mutations in cardiac sodium channels (NaV1.5) cause various arrhythmias, such as long QT syndrome and Brugada syndrome. Although dozens of mutations throughout the protein have been reported, there are few reported mutations within a voltage sensor S4 transmembrane segment and few that are homozygous. Here we report analysis of a novel lidocaine-sensitive recessive mutation, p.R1309H, in the NaV1.5 DIII/S4 voltage sensor in a patient with a complex arrhythmia syndrome. We expressed the wild type or mutant NaV1.5 heterologously for analysis with the patch-clamp and voltage clamp fluorometry (VCF) techniques. p.R1309H depolarized the voltage-dependence of activation, hyperpolarized the voltage-dependence of inactivation, and slowed recovery from inactivation, thereby reducing the channel availability at physiologic membrane potentials. Additionally, p.R1309H increased the "late" Na(+) current. The location of the mutation in DIIIS4 prompted testing for a gating pore current. We observed an inward current at hyperpolarizing voltages that likely exacerbates the loss-of-function defects at resting membrane potentials. Lidocaine reduced the gating pore current. The p.R1309H homozygous NaV1.5 mutation conferred both gain-of-function and loss-of-function effects on NaV1.5 channel activity. Reduction of a mutation-induced gating pore current by lidocaine suggested a therapeutic mechanism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. alpha-Adducin mutations increase Na/K pump activity in renal cells by affecting constitutive endocytosis: implications for tubular Na reabsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torielli, Lucia; Tivodar, Simona; Montella, Rosa Chiara; Iacone, Roberto; Padoani, Gloria; Tarsini, Paolo; Russo, Ornella; Sarnataro, Daniela; Strazzullo, Pasquale; Ferrari, Patrizia; Bianchi, Giuseppe; Zurzolo, Chiara

    2008-08-01

    Genetic variation in alpha-adducin cytoskeletal protein is implicated in the polymerization and bundling of actin and alteration of the Na/K pump, resulting in abnormal renal sodium transport and hypertension in Milan hypertensive rats and humans. To investigate the molecular involvement of alpha-adducin in controlling Na/K pump activity, wild-type or mutated rat and human alpha-adducin forms were, respectively, transfected into several renal cell lines. Through multiple experimental approaches (microscopy, enzymatic assays, coimmunoprecipitation), we showed that rat and human mutated forms increased Na/K pump activity and the number of pump units; moreover, both variants coimmunoprecipitate with Na/K pump. The increased Na/K pump activity was not due to changes in its basolateral localization, but to an alteration of Na/K pump residential time on the plasma membrane. Indeed, both rat and human mutated variants reduced constitutive Na/K pump endocytosis and similarly affected transferrin receptor trafficking and fluid-phase endocytosis. In fact, alpha-adducin was detected in clathrin-coated vesicles and coimmunoprecipitated with clathrin. These results indicate that adducin, besides its modulatory effects on actin cytoskeleton dynamics, might play a direct role in clathrin-dependent endocytosis. The constitutive reduction of the Na/K pump endocytic rate induced by mutated adducin variants may be relevant in Na-dependent hypertension.

  11. Biased exonization of transposed elements in duplicated genes: A lesson from the TIF-IA gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shomron Noam

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene duplication and exonization of intronic transposed elements are two mechanisms that enhance genomic diversity. We examined whether there is less selection against exonization of transposed elements in duplicated genes than in single-copy genes. Results Genome-wide analysis of exonization of transposed elements revealed a higher rate of exonization within duplicated genes relative to single-copy genes. The gene for TIF-IA, an RNA polymerase I transcription initiation factor, underwent a humanoid-specific triplication, all three copies of the gene are active transcriptionally, although only one copy retains the ability to generate the TIF-IA protein. Prior to TIF-IA triplication, an Alu element was inserted into the first intron. In one of the non-protein coding copies, this Alu is exonized. We identified a single point mutation leading to exonization in one of the gene duplicates. When this mutation was introduced into the TIF-IA coding copy, exonization was activated and the level of the protein-coding mRNA was reduced substantially. A very low level of exonization was detected in normal human cells. However, this exonization was abundant in most leukemia cell lines evaluated, although the genomic sequence is unchanged in these cancerous cells compared to normal cells. Conclusion The definition of the Alu element within the TIF-IA gene as an exon is restricted to certain types of cancers; the element is not exonized in normal human cells. These results further our understanding of the delicate interplay between gene duplication and alternative splicing and of the molecular evolutionary mechanisms leading to genetic innovations. This implies the existence of purifying selection against exonization in single copy genes, with duplicate genes free from such constrains.

  12. Novel FANCI mutations in Fanconi anemia with VACTERL association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Sharon A; Ballew, Bari J; Giri, Neelam; Chandrasekharappa, Settara C; Ameziane, Najim; de Winter, Johan; Alter, Blanche P

    2016-02-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is an inherited bone marrow failure syndrome caused by mutations in DNA repair genes; some of these patients may have features of the VACTERL association. Autosomal recessive mutations in FANCI are a rare cause of FA. We identified FANCI mutations by next generation sequencing in three patients in our FA cohort among several whose mutated gene was unknown. Four of the six mutations are novel and all mutations are likely deleterious to protein function. There are now 16 reported cases of FA due to FANCI of whom 7 have at least 3 features of the VACTERL association (44%). This suggests that the VACTERL association in patients with FA may be seen in patients with FANCI mutations more often than previously recognized. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Mincle suppresses Toll-like receptor 4 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Stephanie H; Mahmood, Syed Kashif; Vahle, Anne-Kristin; Ochi, Atsuo; Batel, Jennifer; Deutsch, Michael; Barilla, Rocky; Seifert, Lena; Pachter, H Leon; Daley, Donnele; Torres-Hernandez, Alejandro; Hundeyin, Mautin; Mani, Vishnu R; Miller, George

    2016-07-01

    Regulation of Toll-like receptor responses is critical for limiting tissue injury and autoimmunity in both sepsis and sterile inflammation. We found that Mincle, a C-type lectin receptor, regulates proinflammatory Toll-like receptor 4 signaling. Specifically, Mincle ligation diminishes Toll-like receptor 4-mediated inflammation, whereas Mincle deletion or knockdown results in marked hyperresponsiveness to lipopolysaccharide in vitro, as well as overwhelming lipopolysaccharide-mediated inflammation in vivo. Mechanistically, Mincle deletion does not up-regulate Toll-like receptor 4 expression or reduce interleukin 10 production after Toll-like receptor 4 ligation; however, Mincle deletion decreases production of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent inhibitory intermediate suppressor of cytokine signaling 1, A20, and ABIN3 and increases expression of the Toll-like receptor 4 coreceptor CD14. Blockade of CD14 mitigates the increased sensitivity of Mincle(-/-) leukocytes to Toll-like receptor 4 ligation. Collectively, we describe a major role for Mincle in suppressing Toll-like receptor 4 responses and implicate its importance in nonmycobacterial models of inflammation. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  14. Transcriptional activation of rat creatine kinase B by 17beta-estradiol in MCF-7 cells involves an estrogen responsive element and GC-rich sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, F; Samudio, I; Safe, S

    2001-01-01

    The rat creatine kinase B (CKB) gene is induced by estrogen in the uterus, and constructs containing rat CKB gene promoter inserts are highly estrogen-responsive in cell culture. Analysis of the upstream -568 to -523 region of the promoter in HeLa cells has identified an imperfect palindromic estrogen response element (ERE) that is required for hormone inducibility. Analysis of the CKB gene promoter in MCF-7 breast cancer cells confirmed that pCKB7 (containing the -568 to -523 promoter insert) was estrogen-responsive in transient transfection studies. However, mutation and deletion analysis of this region of the promoter showed that two GC-rich sites and the concensus ERE were functional cis-elements that bound estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha)/Sp1 and ERalpha proteins, respectively. The role of these elements was confirmed in gel mobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays and transfection studies in MDA-MB-231 and Schneider Drosophila SL-2 cells. These results show that transcriptional activation of CKB by estrogen is dependent, in part, on ERalpha/Sp1 action which is cell context-dependent. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Effects of clinically relevant MPL mutations in the transmembrane domain revealed at the atomic level through computational modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tai-Sung; Kantarjian, Hagop; Ma, Wanlong; Yeh, Chen-Hsiung; Giles, Francis; Albitar, Maher

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in the thrombopoietin receptor (MPL) may activate relevant pathways and lead to chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). The mechanisms of MPL activation remain elusive because of a lack of experimental structures. Modern computational biology techniques were utilized to explore the mechanisms of MPL protein activation due to various mutations. Transmembrane (TM) domain predictions, homology modeling, ab initio protein structure prediction, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were used to build structural dynamic models of wild-type and four clinically observed mutants of MPL. The simulation results suggest that S505 and W515 are important in keeping the TM domain in its correct position within the membrane. Mutations at either of these two positions cause movement of the TM domain, altering the conformation of the nearby intracellular domain in unexpected ways, and may cause the unwanted constitutive activation of MPL's kinase partner, JAK2. Our findings represent the first full-scale molecular dynamics simulations of the wild-type and clinically observed mutants of the MPL protein, a critical element of the MPL-JAK2-STAT signaling pathway. In contrast to usual explanations for the activation mechanism that are based on the relative translational movement between rigid domains of MPL, our results suggest that mutations within the TM region could result in conformational changes including tilt and rotation (azimuthal) angles along the membrane axis. Such changes may significantly alter the conformation of the adjacent and intrinsically flexible intracellular domain. Hence, caution should be exercised when interpreting experimental evidence based on rigid models of cytokine receptors or similar systems.

  16. Stepwise Exposure of Staphylococcus aureus to Pleuromutilins Is Associated with Stepwise Acquisition of Mutations in rplC and Minimally Affects Susceptibility to Retapamulin▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, Daniel R.; Rittenhouse, Stephen F.; McCloskey, Lynn; Holmes, David J.

    2007-01-01

    To assess their effects on susceptibility to retapamulin in Staphylococcus aureus, first-, second-, and third-step mutants with elevated MICs to tiamulin and other investigational pleuromutilin compounds were isolated and characterized through exposure to high drug concentrations. All first- and second-step mutations were in rplC, encoding ribosomal protein L3. Most third-step mutants acquired a third mutation in rplC. While first- and second-step mutations did cause an elevation in tiamulin and retapamulin MICs, a significant decrease in activity was not seen until a third mutation was acquired. All third-step mutants exhibited severe growth defects, and faster-growing variants arose at a high frequency from most isolates. These faster-growing variants were found to be more susceptible to pleuromutilins. In the case of a mutant with three alterations in rplC, the fast-growing variants acquired an additional mutation in rplC. In the case of fast-growing variants of isolates with two mutations in rplC and at least one mutation at an unmapped locus, one of the two rplC mutations reverted to wild type. These data indicate that mutations in rplC that lead to pleuromutilin resistance have a direct, negative effect on fitness. While reduction in activity of retapamulin against S. aureus can be seen through mutations in rplC, it is likely that target-specific resistance to retapamulin will be slow to emerge due to the need for three mutations for a significant effect on activity and the fitness cost of each mutational step. PMID:17404009

  17. A novel CDKL5 mutation in a Japanese patient with atypical Rett syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianto, Antonius; Katayama, Syouichi; Kameshita, Isamu; Inazu, Tetsuya

    2016-08-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a severe X-linked dominant inheritance disorder with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. Mutations in Methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2), Cyclin dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) and Forkhead box G1 (FOXG1) have been associated with classic and/or variant RTT. This study was conducted to identify the responsible gene(s) in atypical RTT patient, and to examine the effect of the mutation on protein function. DNA sequence analysis showed a novel heterozygous mutation in CDKL5 identified as c.530A>G which resulted in an amino acid substitution at position 177, from tyrosine to cysteine. Genotyping analysis indicated that the mutation was not merely a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). We also revealed that patient's blood lymphocytes had random X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) pattern. Further examination by bioinformatics analysis demonstrated the mutation caused damage or deleterious in its protein. In addition, we demonstrated in vitro kinase assay of mutant protein showed impairment of its activity. Taken together, the results suggested the mutant CDKL5 was responsible for the disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Calreticulin Mutations in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noa Lavi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available With the discovery of the JAK2V617F mutation in patients with Philadelphia chromosome-negative (Ph− myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs in 2005, major advances have been made in the diagnosis of MPNs, in understanding of their pathogenesis involving the JAK/STAT pathway, and finally in the development of novel therapies targeting this pathway. Nevertheless, it remains unknown which mutations exist in approximately one-third of patients with non-mutated JAK2 or MPL essential thrombocythemia (ET and primary myelofibrosis (PMF. At the end of 2013, two studies identified recurrent mutations in the gene encoding calreticulin (CALR using whole-exome sequencing. These mutations were revealed in the majority of ET and PMF patients with non-mutated JAK2 or MPL but not in polycythemia vera patients. Somatic 52-bp deletions (type 1 mutations and recurrent 5-bp insertions (type 2 mutations in exon 9 of the CALR gene (the last exon encoding the C-terminal amino acids of the protein calreticulin were detected and found always to generate frameshift mutations. All detected mutant calreticulin proteins shared a novel amino acid sequence at the C-terminal. Mutations in CALR are acquired early in the clonal history of the disease, and they cause activation of JAK/STAT signaling. The CALR mutations are the second most frequent mutations in Ph− MPN patients after the JAK2V617F mutation, and their detection has significantly improved the diagnostic approach for ET and PMF. The characteristics of the CALR mutations as well as their diagnostic, clinical, and pathogenesis implications are discussed in this review.

  19. Mutations that abrogate transactivational activity of the feline leukemia virus long terminal repeat do not affect virus replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abujamra, Ana L.; Faller, Douglas V.; Ghosh, Sajal K.

    2003-01-01

    The U3 region of the LTR of oncogenic Moloney murine leukemia virus (Mo-MuLV) and feline leukemia viruses (FeLV) have been previously reported to activate expression of specific cellular genes in trans, such as MHC class I, collagenase IV, and MCP-1, in an integration-independent manner. It has been suggested that transactivation of these specific cellular genes by leukemia virus U3-LTR may contribute to the multistage process of leukemogenesis. The U3-LTR region, necessary for gene transactivational activity, also contains multiple transcription factor-binding sites that are essential for normal virus replication. To dissect the promoter activity and the gene transactivational activity of the U3-LTR, we conducted mutational analysis of the U3-LTR region of FeLV-A molecular clone 61E. We identified minimal nucleotide substitution mutants on the U3 LTR that did not disturb transcription factor-binding sites but abrogated its ability to transactivate the collagenase gene promoter. To determine if these mutations actually have altered any uncharacterized important transcription factor-binding site, we introduced these U3-LTR mutations into the full-length infectious molecular clone 61E. We demonstrate that the mutant virus was replication competent but could not transactivate cellular gene expression. These results thus suggest that the gene transactivational activity is a distinct property of the LTR and possibly not related to its promoter activity. The cellular gene transactivational activity-deficient mutant FeLV generated in this study may also serve as a valuable reagent for testing the biological significance of LTR-mediated cellular gene activation in the tumorigenesis caused by leukemia viruses

  20. Impact of active smoking on survival of patients with metastatic lung adenocarcinoma harboring an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Bulent; Kodaz, Hilmi; Karabulut, Senem; Cinkaya, Ahmet; Tozkir, Hilmi; Tanriverdi, Ozgur; Cabuk, Devrim; Hacioglu, Muhammed Bekir; Turkmen, Esma; Hacibekiroglu, Ilhan; Uzunoglu, Sernaz; Cicin, Irfan

    2016-11-10

    Lung cancer in smokers and non-smokers demonstrates distinct genetic profiles, and cigarette smoking affects epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) function and causes secondary EGFR tyrosine kinase resistance. We evaluated the effect of active smoking in patients with metastatic lung adenocarcinoma. A total of 132 metastatic lung adenocarcinoma patients, diagnosed between 2008 and 2013, with known EGFR mutation status, were evaluated retrospectively. Among these patients, 40 had an activating EGFR mutation. Patients who continued smoking during the treatment were defined as active smokers. Former smokers and never smokers were together defined as non-smokers. The outcomes of the treatment in relation to the EGFR mutation and smoking status were evaluated. The median follow-up time was 10.5 months. The overall response rate for the first-line therapy was significantly higher among the EGFR-mutant patients (p = 0.01), however, smoking status had no impact on the response rate (p = 0.1). The EGFR-mutant active smokers progressed earlier than the non-smokers (p non-smokers and patients treated with erlotinib was significantly longer (p = 0.02 and p = 0.01, respectively). Smoking status did not affect the OS in EGFR wild type tumors (p = 0.49) but EGFR-mutant non-smokers had a longer OS than the active smokers (p = 0.01).The active smokers treated with erlotinib had poorer survival than the non-smokers (p = 0.03). Multivariate analysis of EGFR-mutant patients showed that erlotinib treatment at any line and non-smoking were independent prognostic factors for the OS (p = 0.04 and p = 0.01, respectively). Smoking during treatment is a negative prognostic factor in metastatic lung adenocarcinoma with an EGFR mutation.

  1. The perturbation of tryptophan fluorescence by phenylalanine to alanine mutations identifies the hydrophobic core in a subset of bacterial Ig-like domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Rajeev; Ptak, Christopher P; Hsieh, Ching-Lin; Oswald, Robert E; Chang, Yung-Fu; Sharma, Yogendra

    2013-07-09

    Many host-parasite interactions are mediated via surface-exposed proteins containing bacterial immunoglobulin-like (Big) domains. Here, we utilize the spectral properties of a conserved Trp to provide evidence that, along with a Phe, these residues are positioned within the hydrophobic core of a subset of Big_2 domains. The mutation of the Phe to Ala decreases Big_2 domain stability and impairs the ability of LigBCen2 to bind to the host protein, fibronectin.

  2. Trace elements in Turkish tobacco determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guelovali, M.C.; Guenduez, G.

    1983-01-01

    The concentration of 20 trace elements in nine brands of Turkish cigarette tobacco and in a brand of pipe tobacco ash has been determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The percent transference of elements into smoke has been estimated from the amounts remaining in the ash. (author)

  3. Transposable element activity, genome regulation and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Jordan, I King

    2018-03-02

    A convergence of novel genome analysis technologies is enabling population genomic studies of human transposable elements (TEs). Population surveys of human genome sequences have uncovered thousands of individual TE insertions that segregate as common genetic variants, i.e. TE polymorphisms. These recent TE insertions provide an important source of naturally occurring human genetic variation. Investigators are beginning to leverage population genomic data sets to execute genome-scale association studies for assessing the phenotypic impact of human TE polymorphisms. For example, the expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analytical paradigm has recently been used to uncover hundreds of associations between human TE insertion variants and gene expression levels. These include population-specific gene regulatory effects as well as coordinated changes to gene regulatory networks. In addition, analyses of linkage disequilibrium patterns with previously characterized genome-wide association study (GWAS) trait variants have uncovered TE insertion polymorphisms that are likely causal variants for a variety of common complex diseases. Gene regulatory mechanisms that underlie specific disease phenotypes have been proposed for a number of these trait associated TE polymorphisms. These new population genomic approaches hold great promise for understanding how ongoing TE activity contributes to functionally relevant genetic variation within and between human populations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Mutational analysis of the HGO gene in Finnish alkaptonuria patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bernabe, D. B.-V.; Peterson, P.; Luopajarvi, K.; Matintalo, P.; Alho, A.; Konttinen, Y.; Krohn, K.; de Cordoba, S. R.; Ranki, A.

    1999-01-01

    Alkaptonuria (AKU), the prototypic inborn error of metabolism, has recently been shown to be caused by loss of function mutations in the homogentisate-1,2-dioxygenase gene (HGO). So far 17 mutations have been characterised in AKU patients of different ethnic origin. We describe three novel mutations (R58fs, R330S, and H371R) and one common AKU mutation (M368V), detected by mutational and polymorphism analysis of the HGO gene in five Finnish AKU pedigrees. The three novel AKU mutations are most likely specific for the Finnish population and have originated recently.


Keywords: alkaptonuria; homogentisate-1,2-dioxygenase; Finland PMID:10594001

  5. A HLA class I cis-regulatory element whose activity can be modulated by hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, B C; Hui, K M

    1994-12-01

    To elucidate the basis of the down-regulation in major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I gene expression and to identify possible DNA-binding regulatory elements that have the potential to interact with class I MHC genes, we have studied the transcriptional regulation of class I HLA genes in human breast carcinoma cells. A 9 base pair (bp) negative cis-regulatory element (NRE) has been identified using band-shift assays employing DNA sequences derived from the 5'-flanking region of HLA class I genes. This 9-bp element, GTCATGGCG, located within exon I of the HLA class I gene, can potently inhibit the expression of a heterologous thymidine kinase (TK) gene promoter and the HLA enhancer element. Furthermore, this regulatory element can exert its suppressive function in either the sense or anti-sense orientation. More interestingly, NRE can suppress dexamethasone-mediated gene activation in the context of the reported glucocorticoid-responsive element (GRE) in MCF-7 cells but has no influence on the estrogen-mediated transcriptional activation of MCF-7 cells in the context of the reported estrogen-responsive element (ERE). Furthermore, the presence of such a regulatory element within the HLA class I gene whose activity can be modulated by hormones correlates well with our observation that the level of HLA class I gene expression can be down-regulated by hormones in human breast carcinoma cells. Such interactions between negative regulatory elements and specific hormone trans-activators are novel and suggest a versatile form of transcriptional control.

  6. Functional Characterization of Adaptive Mutations during the West African Ebola Virus Outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietzel, Erik; Schudt, Gordian; Krähling, Verena; Matrosovich, Mikhail; Becker, Stephan

    2017-01-15

    The Ebola virus (EBOV) outbreak in West Africa started in December 2013, claimed more than 11,000 lives, threatened to destabilize a whole region, and showed how easily health crises can turn into humanitarian disasters. EBOV genomic sequences of the West African outbreak revealed nonsynonymous mutations, which induced considerable public attention, but their role in virus spread and disease remains obscure. In this study, we investigated the functional significance of three nonsynonymous mutations that emerged early during the West African EBOV outbreak. Almost 90% of more than 1,000 EBOV genomes sequenced during the outbreak carried the signature of three mutations: a D759G substitution in the active center of the L polymerase, an A82V substitution in the receptor binding domain of surface glycoprotein GP, and an R111C substitution in the self-assembly domain of RNA-encapsidating nucleoprotein NP. Using a newly developed virus-like particle system and reverse genetics, we found that the mutations have an impact on the functions of the respective viral proteins and on the growth of recombinant EBOVs. The mutation in L increased viral transcription and replication, whereas the mutation in NP decreased viral transcription and replication. The mutation in the receptor binding domain of the glycoprotein GP improved the efficiency of GP-mediated viral entry into target cells. Recombinant EBOVs with combinations of the three mutations showed a growth advantage over the prototype isolate Makona C7 lacking the mutations. This study showed that virus variants with improved fitness emerged early during the West African EBOV outbreak. The dimension of the Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa was unprecedented. Amino acid substitutions in the viral L polymerase, surface glycoprotein GP, and nucleocapsid protein NP emerged, were fixed early in the outbreak, and were found in almost 90% of the sequences. Here we showed that these mutations affected the functional activity of

  7. Transposon display supports transpositional activity of P elements in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . Abstract. Mobilization of two P element subfamilies (canonical and O-type) from Drosophila sturtevanti and D. saltans was evaluated for copy number and transposition activity using the transposon display (TD) technique. Pairwise distances ...

  8. Mody-3: novel HNF1A mutation and the utility of glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 receptor agonist therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docena, Maricor K; Faiman, Charles; Stanley, Christine M; Pantalone, Kevin M

    2014-02-01

    An estimated 1 to 2% of cases of diabetes mellitus have a monogenic basis; however, delayed diagnosis and misdiagnosis as type 1 and 2 diabetes are common. Correctly identifying the molecular basis of an individual's diabetes may significantly alter the management approach to both the patient and his or her relatives. We describe a case of mature onset diabetes of the young (MODY) with sufficient evidence to support the classification of a novel HNF1A (hepatocyte nuclear factor-1-α) mutation as a cause of MODY-3. A 21-year-old Caucasian female presented to our office with a diagnosis of noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) at age 10; glycemia was initially managed with oral antidiabetic (OAD) agents and insulin detemir. The patient reported a strong family history of early-onset NIDDM in both her mother and maternal grandmother, both of whom eventually required insulin therapy to control glycemia. The patient's medical and family history were highly suggestive of maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY), and genetic testing was performed. Genetic screening detected a mutation p. Arg200Trp in the HNF1A gene in the patient, her mother, and maternal grandmother, suggesting a diagnosis of MODY-3. This finding resulted in a change of antidiabetic therapy in all 3 patients, including the addition of once-daily liraglutide therapy, which helped improve their glycemic control. Our case report supports the classification of the p. Arg200Trp mutation as a cause of MODY-3. The findings also suggest that glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist therapy may be of value in managing glycemia in patients with MODY-3.

  9. Thermal decomposition of hydrotalcite-like compounds studied by a novel tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Ramirez, Javier; Abello, Sonia

    2006-01-01

    For the first time, we report on the application of a tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM) as a novel technique to investigate the thermal decomposition of hydrotalcite-like compounds (HTlcs) in air. Experiments were performed in the temperature range of 323-973 K with Mg-Al, Ni-Al, and Co-Al-HTlcs. The TEOM technique measures mass changes based on inertial forces, presenting important advantages over conventional thermogravimetric analyzers, such as the very rapid time response and the well-defined flow pattern. In general terms, excellent agreement between TEOM, TGA, and DTA techniques during HTlc decomposition was obtained. Interestingly, transition temperatures in the TEOM were lower than in TGA and DTA, particularly for removal of interlayer water but also for dehydroxylation of the brucite-like layers and decarbonation. This was attributed to the flow-through operation in the tapered element of the TEOM as compared to the recognized gas stagnancy and bypass in sample crucibles of conventional thermogravimetric analyzers. Our results conclude that the TEOM technique is suitable for temperature-programmed studies. However, due to its operation principle, blank runs are required in contrast to the more automatic operation in commercial thermogravimetric units. Besides, a careful sample loading and packing in the micro-reactor is essential for reproducible results

  10. Active site mutations change the cleavage specificity of neprilysin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis Sexton

    Full Text Available Neprilysin (NEP, a member of the M13 subgroup of the zinc-dependent endopeptidase family is a membrane bound peptidase capable of cleaving a variety of physiological peptides. We have generated a series of neprilysin variants containing mutations at either one of two active site residues, Phe(563 and Ser(546. Among the mutants studied in detail we observed changes in their activity towards leucine(5-enkephalin, insulin B chain, and amyloid β(1-40. For example, NEP(F563I displayed an increase in preference towards cleaving leucine(5-enkephalin relative to insulin B chain, while mutant NEP(S546E was less discriminating than neprilysin. Mutants NEP(F563L and NEP(S546E exhibit different cleavage site preferences than neprilysin with insulin B chain and amyloid ß(1-40 as substrates. These data indicate that it is possible to alter the cleavage site specificity of neprilysin opening the way for the development of substrate specific or substrate exclusive forms of the enzyme with enhanced therapeutic potential.

  11. Mesotrypsin Signature Mutation in a Chymotrypsin C (CTRC) Variant Associated with Chronic Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, András; Ludwig, Maren; Hegyi, Eszter; Szépeová, Renata; Witt, Heiko; Sahin-Tóth, Miklós

    2015-07-10

    Human chymotrypsin C (CTRC) protects against pancreatitis by degrading trypsinogen and thereby curtailing harmful intra-pancreatic trypsinogen activation. Loss-of-function mutations in CTRC increase the risk for chronic pancreatitis. Here we describe functional analysis of eight previously uncharacterized natural CTRC variants tested for potential defects in secretion, proteolytic stability, and catalytic activity. We found that all variants were secreted from transfected cells normally, and none suffered proteolytic degradation by trypsin. Five variants had normal enzymatic activity, whereas variant p.R29Q was catalytically inactive due to loss of activation by trypsin and variant p.S239C exhibited impaired activity possibly caused by disulfide mispairing. Surprisingly, variant p.G214R had increased activity on a small chromogenic peptide substrate but was markedly defective in cleaving bovine β-casein or the natural CTRC substrates human cationic trypsinogen and procarboxypeptidase A1. Mutation p.G214R is analogous to the evolutionary mutation in human mesotrypsin, which rendered this trypsin isoform resistant to proteinaceous inhibitors and conferred its ability to cleave these inhibitors. Similarly to the mesotrypsin phenotype, CTRC variant p.G214R was inhibited poorly by eglin C, ecotin, or a CTRC-specific variant of SGPI-2, and it readily cleaved the reactive-site peptide bonds in eglin C and ecotin. We conclude that CTRC variants p.R29Q, p.G214R, and p.S239C are risk factors for chronic pancreatitis. Furthermore, the mesotrypsin-like CTRC variant highlights how the same natural mutation in homologous pancreatic serine proteases can evolve a new physiological role or lead to pathology, determined by the biological context of protease function. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Determination of toxic elements in tobacco products by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, S.; Chaudhry, M.S.; Qureshi, I.H.

    1979-01-01

    The concentration of 15 elements in various brands of cigarette tobacco and cigarette wrapping paper were determined using instrumental neutron activation analysis. The paper of some of the brands contains higher concentrations of toxic elements than the tobacco. The cigarette filter and the ash were also analyzed to determine the adsorption of toxic elements on the filter and their transference in smoke. The toxic effects of some of the elements have been briefly discussed. (author)

  13. Functional characterization of fidgetin, an AAA-family protein mutated in fidget mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yan; Mahaffey, Connie L.; Berube, Nathalie; Nystuen, Arne; Frankel, Wayne N.

    2005-01-01

    The mouse fidget mutation is an autosomal recessive mutation that renders reduced or absent semicircular canals, microphthalmia, and various skeletal abnormalities to affected mice. We previously identified the defective gene which encodes fidgetin, a new member of the ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities (AAA proteins). Here, we report on the subcellular localization of fidgetin as well as that of two closely related proteins, fidgetin-like 1 and fidgetin-like 2. Epitope-tagging and immunostaining revealed that both fidgetin and fidgetin-like 2 were predominantly localized to the nucleus, whereas fidgetin-like 1 was both nuclear and cytoplasmic. Furthermore, deletion studies identified a putative bipartite nuclear localization signal in the middle portion of the fidgetin protein. Since AAA proteins are known to form functional hetero- or homo-hexamers, we used reciprocal immunoprecipitation to examine the potential interaction among these proteins. We found that fidgetin interacted with itself and this specific interaction was abolished when either the N- or C-terminus of the protein was truncated. Taken together, our results suggest that fidgetin is a nuclear AAA-family protein with the potential to form homo-oligomers, thus representing the first step towards the elucidation of fidgetin's cellular function and the disease mechanism in fidget mutant mice

  14. Regulation of hepatitis B virus ENI enhancer activity by hepatocyte-enriched transcription factor HNF3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M; Hieng, S; Qian, X; Costa, R; Ou, J H

    1994-11-15

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) ENI enhancer can activate the expression of HBV and non-HBV genes in a liver-specific manner. By performing the electrophoretic mobility-shift assays, we demonstrated that the three related, liver-enriched, transcription factors, HNF3 alpha, HNF3 beta, and HNF3 gamma could all bind to the 2c site of HBV ENI enhancer. Mutations introduced in the 2c site to abolish the binding by HNF3 reduced the enhancer activity approximately 15-fold. Moreover, expression of HNF3 antisense sequences to suppress the expression of HNF3 in Huh-7 hepatoma cells led to reduction of the ENI enhancer activity. These results indicate that HNF3 positively regulates the ENI enhancer activity and this regulation is most likely mediated through the 2c site. The requirement of HNF3 for the ENI enhancer activity could explain the liver specificity of this enhancer element.

  15. Episodic weakness due to mitochondrial DNA MT-ATP6/8 mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auré, Karine; Dubourg, Odile; Jardel, Claude; Clarysse, Lucie; Sternberg, Damien; Fournier, Emmanuel; Laforêt, Pascal; Streichenberger, Nathalie; Petiot, Philippe; Gervais-Bernard, Hélène; Vial, Christophe; Bedat-Millet, Anne-Laure; Drouin-Garraud, Valérie; Bouillaud, Frédéric; Vandier, Christophe; Fontaine, Bertrand; Lombès, Anne

    2013-11-19

    To report that homoplasmic deleterious mutations in the mitochondrial DNA MT-ATP6/8 genes may be responsible for acute episodes of limb weakness mimicking periodic paralysis due to channelopathies and dramatically responding to acetazolamide. Mitochondrial DNA sequencing and restriction PCR, oxidative phosphorylation functional assays, reactive oxygen species metabolism, and patch-clamp technique in cultured skin fibroblasts. Occurrence of a typical MELAS (mitochondrial encephalopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes) syndrome in a single member of a large pedigree with episodic weakness associated with a later-onset distal motor neuropathy led to the disclosure of 2 deleterious mitochondrial DNA mutations. The MT-ATP6 m.9185T>C p.Leu220Pro mutation, previously associated with Leigh syndrome, was present in all family members, while the MT-TL1 m.3271T>C mutation, a known cause of MELAS syndrome, was observed in the sole patient with MELAS presentation. Significant defect of complexes V and I as well as oxidative stress were observed in both primary fibroblasts and cybrid cells with 100% m.9185T>C mutation. Permanent plasma membrane depolarization and altered permeability to K(+) in fibroblasts provided a link with the paralysis episodes. Screening of 9 patients, based on their clinical phenotype, identified 4